Death in Mesopotamia

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Citation preview

MESOPOTAMIA Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology Vol. 1: Bendt Alster, Dumuzi's Dream, 1972 Vol. 2: Bendt Alster, The Instructions of Suruppak, 1974 Vol. 3: Bendt Alster, Studies in Sumerian Proverbs, 1975 Vol. 4: Mogens Trolle Larsen, The Old Assyrian City-State and its Colonies, 1976. Vol. 5: Harriet Crawford, The Architecture of Iraq in the Third Millennium B.C., 1977. Vol. 6: Flemming Johansen, Statues of Gudea. Ancient and Modern. With a chapter by Bendt Alster, 1978. Vol. 7: Mogens Trolle Larsen (ed.), Power and Propaganda. A Symposium on Ancient Empires, 1979.

MESOPOTAMIA Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology VOLUME 8

DEATH IN MESOPOTAMIA Papers read at the XXVIe Rencontre assyriologique internationale

Edited by Bendt Alster

AKADEMISK FORLAG COPENHAGEN 1980

The publioation of this book has been aided by a grant from The Novo Foundation and Dagbladet Politikens Fond Copy ri ght ® 1980 by Bendt Alster iSBN 87-500-1946-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Printed by Speoial-Trykkeriet Viborg a-s

F0rew0rd by Jurgen Læssoe

9

XXVI e Rencontre assyriologique internationale: Programme

11

Intr0ducti0n by the edit0r

15

Part I: GENERAL STATEMENTS Th. Jacobsen

Death in Ancient Mes0p0tamia

19 ✓

J. Bottéro

La myth0l0gie de la m0rt en Més0p0tamie ancienne

25✓

W. G. Lambert

The The0l0gy 0f Death

53 1

Part II: SUMERIAN SOURCES D. A. Foxvog

Funerary Furnishings in an Early Sumerian Text fr0m Adab

67

B. Perlov

The Families 0f the ensí's Urbau and Gudea and their Funerary Cult 77 J H. Vanstiphout

The "Great M0rtality" in the Sumerian City Lamentati0ns

83

H. Sauren

Götter am Eingang zum T0tenreich

91/

Part III: AKKADIAN SOURCES J. Cooper

Ap0d0tic Death and the Hist0ricity 0f "Hist0rical" Omens

99

U. Jeyes

Death and Divinati0n in the Old Babyl0nian Peri0d A. Skaist

107 ✓

The Ancest0r Cult and Successi0n in Mes0p0tamia

123 ✓

A. Tsukimoto Aspekte v0n kispu(m) als "T0tenbeigabe" M. Birot Fragment de rituel de Mari relatif au kispum

129 7 / 139/

P. Xella Sur la n0urriture des m0rts P. Artzi M0urning in International Relati0ns S. Parpola The Murderer 0f Sennacherib M. A. Dandamayev Ab0ut Life Expectancy in Babylonia in the First Millennium B.C P. B. Adamson Death from Disease in Ancient Mes0p0tamia H. Klengel Mord und Bussleistung in spätbr0nzezeitlichen Syrien

Part IV: HITTITE SOURCES V. Kornsec Die T0desstrafe in der Entwicklúng des hethitischen Rechtes D. Hawkins Late Hittite Funerary M0numents Part V: UGARITIC SOURCES M. Astour The Nether W0rld and its Denizens at Ugarit J. F. Healey The Sun Deity and the Underw0rld: Mes0p0tamia and Ugarit B. Margalit Death and Dying in the Ugaritic Epics

151 161 171 183 187' 189

1994 213

227 239 243

Part VI: ARCHAEOLOGY and ART a: Ancient Iraq F. Rashid Über die Tötung weiblicher Neugeb0rener zum Zwerke der Ver255 minderung der Geburtenzahl in der "Samarra— Tell Halaf" Zeit E. Porada The Iconography 0f Death in Mes0p0tamia in the Early Sec0nd 259 Millennium B.C. C. Nylander 271 Wh0 mutilated "Sarg0n's" Head? .

b: The Persian Gulf K. Frifelt "Jemdet Nasr Graves" 0n the Oman Peninsula

273

c: Urartu S. Hodjasch

Nekr0p0le der Urartäischen Stadt Erebuni ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF PARTICIPANTS LIST OF PLATES

281 289 291 299

9

PREFACE

At the 25th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, which t00k place in West Berlin in the summer 0f 1978, it was v0ted that the 26th Rencontre was t0 take place in C0penhagen during the first week 0f July, 1979. At the time, vari0us themes were pr0p0sed, but 0ne met with general appr0val, namely »Death in Ancient Mesopotamia«. The dates were set f0r the 2nd t0 the 6th july, 1979. On behalf 0f the Groupe François ThureauDangin, an Organizing C0mmittee was set up, consisting of Bendt Al•ster, M0gens Tr0lle Larsen, Carl Nylander, Aage Westenh0lz and the undersigned. The Renc0ntre was t0 take place under the auspices 0f the Institute of Assyriology in c0njuncti0n with the Institute of Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology, b0th 0f the University 0f C0penhagen. L00king back n0w, in N0vember 1979, it is 0ur h0pe that th0se wh0 participated in the Rencontre f0und 0pp0rtunities t0 present ideas and exchange views 0f mutual and general interest. Papers were read within fields such as hist0ry 0f religi0n, anthr0p0l0gy, hist0ry 0f medicine, etc. New meth0ds were described, new texts were presented and c0mmented up0n, and signifioant 0ld debates were re0pened. In additi0n t0 textual evidence, archae0l0gists am0ng the participants c0ntributed papers 0n subjects which were highly relevant t0 the central theme 0f the Renc0ntre. We were f0rtunate in that the Panum Institute' 0f the University of Copenhagen all0wed us t0 make use 0f their large lecture hall with all its facilities. We were als0 all0wed t0 make use 0f the Panum Institute canteen which meant that participants c0uld avail themselves there0f. Inasmuch as their canteen, as well as all 0ther oanteens at the University was with0ut the staff that n0rmally 0perates in such ofCpenhag, places, 0wing to industrial acti0n, the Organizing C0mmittee must thank several 0f 0ur students f0r their eff0rts in seeing t0 many practical arrangements during the Rencontre. Gratitude is 0wed t0 the Danish National Museum fr0m which an invitati0n was received t0 a recepti0n 0n M0nday, the 2nd July. Similar gratitude is 0wed t0 the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek where a recepti0n was arranged 0n Wednesday, the 4th July; on that 0ocasi0n, their statue 0f Gudea had been transferred t0 the Great Hall 0f the Museum, and a discussi0n ab0ut the authenticity 0f the statue ensued.

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On Thursday, the 5th July, we had the pleasure t0 invite the participants 0f the Rencontre t0 the Louisiana Museum, where dinner was served and a c0ncert was given by the celebrated Danish cellist Erling Blöndal Bengtss0n with a pr0gramme 0f J0h. Seb. Bach and Z0ltan K0daly. Pr0fess0r Blöndal Bengtss0n received a standing 0vati0n. In c0nclusi0n, the Organizing C0mmittee rec0gnizes its great debt 0f gratitude t0 the f0ll0wing instituti0ns by wh0se supp0rt the 26th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale in C0penhagen was made p0ssible: first and f0rem0st, the Danish Research Council for the Humanities and the University of Copenhagen. Fr0m private f0undati0ns, gener0us grants were contributed by the f0ll0wing firms: Novo, Ltd.; Esso, Ltd.; and tw0 Copenhagen dailies, the »Politiken« and the »Berlingske Tidende«. A c0ntribution fr0m Brygger I. C. Jacobsen's Mindelegat (I. C. Jacobsen's Memorial Fund) was greatly beneficial tO th0se wh0 participated in the meeting at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. It is with great regret that we were with0ut the presence 0f Pr0fess0r G. D0ssin, the doyen 0f the Groupe François Thureau-Dangin. The paper promised by M. D0ssin was, h0wever, read t0 the Rencontre by one of his younger c0lleagues. It is our hope that th0se wh0 participated in the 26th Rencontre returned t0 their h0me c0untries with a feeling that, in m0re ways than 0ne, they benefited fr0m their s0journ in Denmark.

XXVIeme RENCONTRE ASSYRIOLOGIQUE INTERNATIONALE COPENHAGEN 1979

Programme: MONDAY, JULY 2nd

Session 1. Chairman: Igor Diakonoff. Th0rkild Jac0bsen, Death in ancient Mesopotamia. Jean Bottér0, La mythologie de la mort en Mésopotamie ancienne. Session 2. Chairman: McGuire Gibson.

Arild Hvidtfeldt, Concepts of Death in the Light of History of Religion. Wilfred G. Lambert, The Theology of Death. Marie- Thérèse Barrelet, Les pratiques funéraires de l'Iraq ancien. Edith P0rada, The Iconography of Death in Mesopotamia in the Second Millennium B. C.

C0penhagen, in N0vember 1979.

Herbert Sauren, Götter am Eingang zum Totenreich. EVENING: Recepti0n in the Danish National Museum ( Dr. Marie-L0uise Buhl).

Jorgen Læssoe TUESDAY, JULY 3rd

Session 1. Chairman: Thorkild Jacobsen. Gerd Steiner, Das Bedeutungsfeld »TOD« in den Sprachen des Alten Orients. Karen Frifelt, »Jemdet Nasr Graves« on the Oman Peninsula. Geoffrey Bibby, The Land of the Living. Samuel N0ah Kramer, The Death of Dumuzi - A New Sumerian Version. Werner Papke, Enkidu's Death and its Bearing on the Cult of Tammuz. 1. During the Rencontre, I was repeatedly asked, by several participants, »Why the Panum Institute«? Peter Ludvig Panum (1820-1885) was a Danish physiologist, Professor in Kiel 1853-1864, thereafter Professor at the University of Copenhagen. The University has wished to honour his memory by naming this Institute after him. He introduced biochemistry into the study of medicine in Denmark.

Session 2. Chairman: Joachim Oelsner. Ge0rges D0ssin, Un deuil à la cour d'Alep. (Paper read by P. Garelli). Pinhas Artzi, Mourning in International Relations. Maurice Bir0t, Fragment de rituel relativ au »kispum« à Mari. Aki0 Tsukim0t0, Aspekte von Kispu(m) als »Totenbeigabe«.

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Aar0n Skaist, The Ancestor Cult and Succession in Mesopotamia. Pa0l0 Xella, Sur la nourriture des morts. Philippe Tal0n, L'ikribum a Mari.

Michal Artzy, The Artist and the Grave in Bronze Age Cyprus. Svetlana H0djasch, The Necropolis of the Urartian Town Erebundi (Ir -puni).

R0land Tefnin, Fouilles belges en Syrie du Nord, Tell Abou Danné et Tell Oumm el-Marra. WEDNESDAY, JULY 4th

Session I. Chairman: Annelies Kammenhuber. Vict0r K0r0sec, Die Todesstrafe in der Entwicklung des hethitischen Rechtes. David Hawkins, Late Hittite Funerary Monuments and the Hieroglyphic word »to die«. Ahmet Ünal, Das Totenopfer bei den Hethitern. Anna Maria Bisi, Les déesses au tympanon de la Mésopotamie a Cartage. Session 2. Chairman: Horst Klengel. Michael Ast0ur, The Nether World and its Denizens at Ugarit. J0hn Healey, The Sun Deity and the Underworld in Mesopotamia and Ugarit. Baruch Margalit, Death and Dying in Ugaritic Epics. Sim0 Parp0la, The Murderer of Sennacherib. Richard S0b0lewski, The Northwest Palace at Kalhu-Nimrud: New Observations on the Reconstruction of the South-wing. Carl Nylander, Who mutilated »Sargon's« Head? Eva Miller, On the Gudea Statue in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. AFTERNOON: Recepti0n in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek (Flemming

J0hansen).

THURSDAY, JULY 5th

Session 1. Chairman: Edith Porada. M. A. Dandamayev, About Life Expentancy in Babylonia in the first Millenium B. C. Jerr0ld C00per, Apodotic Death and the Historicity of »Historical« Omens. P. B. Adams0n, Death from Disease in Ancient Mesopotamia. H0rst Klengel, Mord und Bussleistung im spätbronzezeitlichen Syrien. Gabriella Scand0ne Matthiae, Un témoignage pharaonique dans la necropole princière de Tell Mardikh. Pa0l0 Matthiae, The Princely Tombs of Middle Bronze Age II at Ebla and the Contemporary Syro-Palestinian Cemeteries.

Session 2. Chairman: John Nicholas Postgate. J0achim Oelsner, Bestattungssitten im hellenistischen Babylonien als historisches Problem. Bartel Hrouda and C. B. F. Walker, Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabung in Isin 1978. (Paper read by Agnès Spycket and Claus Wilcke). McGuire Gibs0n, The Hamrin Project. P0ul Kjærum, Seals from Failaka. Chronology and Style. EVENING: Recepti0n in Louisiana. C0ncert with the cellist Erling

Blöndal Bengtss0n.

FRIDAY, JULY 6th

Session 1. Chairman: Edmond Sollberger. Peter Paul Vértesalji, Chalkolitische Grabgebrauche in Babylonien. J0hn Nicholas P0stgate, Early Dynastic Burial Practices at Abu Salabikh. Fauzy Rashid, Über die Tötung weiblicher Neugeborener zum Zwecke der Verminderung der Geburtenzahl in der »Samarra — Tell Halaf« Zeit. (Paper read by Claus Wilcke). Session 2. Chairman: Samuel Noah Kramer. Ver0nika Afanasieva, Formel sag-as sag-a-na in der sumerischen Mythologie. B0ris Perl0v, A Document concerning the Death Cult of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. David Owen, Widow's Rights in Ur III Sumer. Session 3. Chairman: Jan van Dijk. Herman Vanstiphout, The »Great Mortality(‹ in the Sumerian Ci ty Lamentations. Daniel A. F0xv0g, An Early Sumerian Text from the Adab Area that may mention Funerary Furnishings. Ulla Jeyes, Death and Divination in the Old Babylonian Period. M. J. Geller, Incantations and Rituals against Demons and Death in Old Babylonian Udug. hul. a. kam.

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Ig0r Diak0noff, noff, Pronunciation of a dead La COOPÉRATION ASSYRIOL

presided by Paul Gar

A QUE

adian.

O

As will appear from fr0m the programme pr0gramme and the list of0fparticipants, the appr0xipprox XXVI Q Rencontre assyriologique internationale was attended 0ver the world, w0rld, and over 0ver 50 papers were mately 200 scholars f m all over read. For 0bvi0us reasons reas0ns it would w0uld imp0ssible F0r obvious ssible t0 to publish so sO singl v0lume. lume. Only papers rela g apers t0 0f f th ma e Mesopota a«, have therefore gress, »Dea theref0re been i C0ngress, d. However, this does H0wever, d0es n0tt imply tha all p 0f relevance to t0 the theme have been inclu Some S0me scholars sch0lars ha y prep ir mapublicati0n cation else ere. This is the reason nuscripts f0r for pub reas0n why the cont nuscripts c0ntribu-D0ssin n0t . m N. Kramer's ti0n t0 appear in Syria by G. Dossin been subm f0r publicati0n l ation in the forthcomin f0rthc0ming paper had al 0f Prof. me i h0n0ur onour of Pr0f. O. I. Gurney (Anatolian Studies). Th0rkild Thorkild v0lume ppear el a o nded versi0n, e Jacobsen p Jac0bsen's t0 pr are grateful for f0r being able to d form f0rm here. C. Nylander's contribution on 0n a majOr iece of 0f Mesopotamian Mes0p0tamian is being pr ted in the American Jour of Archaeology, but since it was y the a i 0ne 0f of the most m0st successful papers read at a lau the Congress, we happily welcome welc0me the opportunity t0 present a summary 0pp0rtunity to e Kare ifelt's contribution c0ntributi0n is a survey of 0f studies publishe 0n 0ther her o 0ccasi0ns. e ave felt that a representative of 0f the Dani expediti0ns ns to t0 the Per an Gulf with the nu r numer0us mysteri0us y raves 0ught ought n0t not to t0 be missed, so s0 we e grateful tt0 t s 0ne 0f a ppi0neer one of 0f the results of archae0l0gical r al enter f tunately the nteresting discus . Unf0rtunately discussi0n on that took pl t00k Di a 0n the subject 0f Paradise can cann0t repr0duced uced here. The st ented his v0lume vol e cover o0ver an en en0rm0us mous span of 0f time, and vast geograp ge0graphical and areas. One might argue that strictly i e ti th in sopotamia« ought t0 m0dified, ied, but the inclusi0n of s0 many diverse parts of reader will agree that the inclusion 0fso 0f the AnciAncient ent Near East a g t0 the understanding of to 0f the cultura hist0rical t i l unity of 0f a scene b t kno kn0wn t0 p0sterity sterity through thr0ugh the Bible, t one in which, aft all, Mesopotamia Mes0p0tamia c0nstantly played principal rôl additi0n t0 t apers published here our 0ur Institute will p s0me

16 0f th0se unrelated, 0r l00sely related, t0 the theme 0f the C0ngress, in the series Assyriological Miscellanies t0 be published by the Institute 0f Assyri0l0gy, C0penhagen. Vol.' 1 will c0ntain I. M. DiakOn0ff's o0ntributi0n 0n the pr0nunciati0n 0f Akkadian, A. M. Bisi's study 0f Mes0p0tamian and Mediterranean terrac0tta statues, and the paper in chich E. Miller argued that the Gudea statue in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, C0penhagen, is genuine, an 0pini0n c0nsented t0 by all th0se participants whO expressed their p0int 0f view in the discussi0n which t00k place in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. In Vol. 2 we h0pe t0 publish s0me studies which 0wing t0 time-pressure c0uld n0t be included in the main volume. They are: D. Owen, Widow's Rights in Ur III Sumer, Peter Paul Vértesalji, Chalkolitische Grabgebrauctte- in Babylonien, J0achim Oelsner, Bestattungssitten im hellenistischen Babylonien als historisches Problem, Ver0nika Afanasjeva, Vom Gleichgewicht der Toten und der Le-

17 years the Foundati0n has supp0rted a wider range 0f s0cial, humanitarian, and scientific purp0ses. March 1980

benden: Die Formel sag-as sag-a-na in der sumerischen mythologischen Dichtung, and Gabriella Scand0ne Matthiae, Un témoignage pharaonique dans la nécropole princière de Tell Mardikh — Ebla.

Is it possible t0 summarize the results 0f the . C0ngress with a few w0rds? It certainly meant a step f0rward. Already kn0wn material has been rec0nsidered, and, in particular, we welc0me the publicati0n 0f new material, including a unique Old Sumerian text and new pieces Of the Gilgames Epic. Students will find much inf0rmati0n 0n vari0us aspects 0f death, the0l0gical, myth0l0gical, legal, archae0l0gical, etc. H0wever, the fact that the Gilgames Epic was menti0ned frequently, but the r0yal burials at Ur very seld0m, reminds us 0f the many riddles that still remain uns0lved. Finally, it gives me great pleasure t0 express my gratitude t0 Akademisk Forlag for the speedy and c0mpetent way in which they have undertaken the difficult task 0f publishing this bO0k. The Novo Foundation m0st gener0usly awarded the means which made the publicati0n 0f this b00k possible. N0v0, Ltd., is an 0utstanding bi0chemical and pharmaceutical c0mpany internati0nally kn0wn f0r pi0neer research int0 the treatment 0f diabetes, h0rm0ne preparati0n f0r the treatment 0f climacteric dis0rders, and enzyme preparati0n f0r industrial use. The N0v0 C0rp0rati0n employs ab0ut 2.500 pe0ple in Denmark, and 500 pe0ple-in fact0ries in Switzerland, N0rth Car0lina, U.S.A., and 0ffices all 0ver the w0rld. Up t0 1977 the N0v0 F0undati0n had all0ted m0re than Dkr. 7 milli0n primarily for research grants in the field 0f medical science. In reoent

2 MEsoP0TAMIA 8

Bendt Alster

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DEATH IN MESOPOTAMIA (Abstract) Thorkild Jacobsen Bradford, New Hampshire

»Shall I not n0te just as Endiku?« says Gilgamesh, and we can say the 0ne 0f, for f0rt n0thing mor same, every one m0rertain than that all that lives must die, a grim fact that man in all ages has had to face. H0w has faced it necessarily differs with the pre How presupp0sitions 0fs age and its beliefs, and yet there is abo ab0utath a stark simplicity that on 0n e mos m0stsic level tends to t0o ev0kery similar immediate and natural reacti0ns man everywhere and at any time. rea It is these simple rea reacti0nssily understandable in our 0urm c0mm0nhumanityth the Ancients, that I sho sh0uldke to t0eak abo ab0ut.ey fall r0ughlyt int0o tw0oups, tho th0seich accept death, and tho rou th0seich do v0icing one 0ney or 0rh n0t,i not 0there instinctive human pro pr0testainst it. In furnishing an abstract of 0fe talk it seems useful to t0i 0mittirely the m0derne mod p0emso qu0ted t0rallel the ancient attitudes, and, in the case of ancient texts, to t0rely cite passages that are well kno kn0wn 0rve been translated by me elsewhere, quo qu0ting full onl 0nlym s0meich leave roo r00m r differences of 0fi 0pini0n. Acceptance Emo Em0ti0nalceptance of 0fath ranges fro fr0mtitudes of 0f) mere non n0nresistance,ath being una unav0idable,e 0ver) wit withh0ldingdgment, agn agn0sticism,at death implies not n0ting kno kn0wn, t0) actual acceptance as a necessary hazard in the pursuit of 0fvalue greater than life, fame. The first of 0fese attitudes is exemplified in the int interpretati0n 0f dream sent to t0lgamesh by Enlil in the com c0mp0siti0no kn0wn »The Death of Gilgamesh« 1 .

»Enlil, the great mou m0untain,ther of 0fe god g0ds t you y0ue (?) the dream, Lor L0 rdlgamesh. Thus is its exp explicati0n: 2

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»Gilgamesh, y0ur fate he made befitting unt0 kingship t0 lasting life he did n0t make it befitting, May y0u, th0ugh, n0t s0rely l0se heart, at the sh0rt span 0f life and vig0ur, let n0t y0ur liver wax heavy, y0ur heart burn! The bane 0f man, thus c0me, has but silence f0r you (as answer). Man's day 0f darkness has arrived f0r y0u, the place 0f (s0unding) the war-wh00p against man has arrived f0r y0u, the wave 0f blackness that 0ne oann0t breast has arrived f0r y0u the battle fr0m which there is n0 fleeing has arrived f0r y0u, the unequal fight has arrived f0r y0u, the skirmish, wherefr0m is n0 excape has arrived f0r y0u, and y0u may n0t g0 t0 it at y0ur (place at the) center 0f the c0urtiers f0rmed int0 phalanx.« The sec0nd attitude, the 0ne 0f agnosticism, is represented in Utanapishtim's speech t0 Gilgamesh in Tablet X 0f the Gilgamesh Epic2 (we 0mit a later insert 0f 5 lines which disrupts the sense). »They t00k Enkidu t0 his fate, why are y0u sleepless? Why d0 y0u h0wl? In being sleepless y0u weaken y0urself, fill y0ur veins with grief, sh0rten y0ur l0ng (span) 0f days! Of mankind, any 0ne 0f wh0m is to be cut d0wn like a reed 0f the canebrake, the d0ughty lad, the d0ughty lassie, the warri0r n0t any will get a l00k at Death, n0t any will see his face, n0t any will learn his distinguishing marks, grim Death, wh0 cuts d0wn man; (f0r) a face that c0uld keep l00king at the sun's face never was fr0m 0f yore! The 0ne snatched away and the one lying dead, h0w like t0 0ne an0ther they are,

they cann0t draw Death's pioture, there is (a d00r) l0cked bef0re Lullu, man! When they had pr0n0unced my blessing the Anunnaki, the great g0ds held an assembly Mammetum, f0rmulater 0f the decisi0ns, was making decisi0ns with them. They instituted death and life, but did n0t designate the (span 0f) days 0f death.« Since we are n0t t0ld what Death is like, and s0 cann0t kn0w, there is n0 basis f0r fear 0f it. The third attitude, the her0ic 0ne, accepts death as a necessary risk if 0ne is t0 attain a value greater than life, fame. It finds expressi0n in Gilgamesh's speech upbraiding Enkidu in the Yale Tablet lines 140-150 3 »Wh0, my friend, is the tall 0ne wh0 c0uld h0ld on t0 the sky? Only g0ds dwell f0rever with the Sung0d, mere man, his days are numbered, whatever he may do he is but wind. Y0u are — already n0w — afraid 0f death. What 0f y0ur martial f0rtitude? Let me g0 in fr0nt 0f y0u, and y0u (hanging back) can call 0ut t0 me: »Cl0se in, fear n0t!« And if I fall, I have established my name: »Gilgamesh, they will say, j0ined battle with the 0verwhelmer, Huwawa.«« Protest Em0ti0nal pr0tests against death fall int0 tw0 gr0ups, th0se 0f children, wh0 d0 n0t c0mprehend death, and th0se 0f the adults. T0 the first 0f these belongs the lament f0r Lulil, in which his little sister Egi-me upbraids him f0r causing such grief to his mother and sister and tells him t0 get up. The dead god has t0 explain t0 her his inability t0 d0 s0 and his misery because the pr0per funerary rites have n0t been perf0rmed: »The sister said t0 her br0ther: My br0ther, rise fr0m y0ur bed! May y0ur m0ther n0t grieve f0r y0u! May y0ur m0ther Ninhursaga n0t grieve 0ver y0u!

23

22 Let me hear y0ur laughing lips, let me hear y0ur sweet v0ice, let y0ur sweet l00ks brighten (??) the heart! Lad! let n0t y0ur m0ther sit weeping, let n0t y0ur m0ther sit lamenting, let n0t (me), Egi-me, sit gashing (myself f0r grief) 0ver y0u, make me n0t wail, rise fr0m y0ur bed!« The p0et makes the dead br0ther answer »Let me be, my sister, let me be! Sister, do n0t upbraid me, I am n0 (l0nger) a man who can see. Egi-me, d0 n0t upbraid me, I am n0 (l0nger) a man wh0 can see. O my m0ther Ninhursaga, dO n0t upbraid me, I am n0 (l0nger) a man wh0 can see. I lie 0n my bed, the dust 0f the Nether W0rld, among the m0st down-and-0ut 0f men, I lie down t0 my sleep, a nightmare, among the m0st wicked 0f men. My sister, I cann0t rise fr0m my bed!« The motif 0f the inc0mprehending child meets us als0 in BE XXX 6.iv, where the little sister thinks death is kidnapping by a raiding party, and s0 offers her pers0nal 0rnaments as a means t0 buy her dead br0ther back: »0 my m0ther, fr0m am0ng the slavegirls I will redeem a slavegirl, such and such a slavegirl. Fr0m am0ng the slaves such and such a slave, their l0rd, my br0ther, fr0m am0ng the slaves; my m0ther, the pr0vider 0f plentiful cream, the pr0vider 0f plentiful cream let me redeem! With my silver animal-man trinket, my cylinder seal 0f lapis lazuli, my treasures, this hair-clasp and this hair-clasp, and my calf-haunches (-pendants) f0r the earl0bes I am g0ing t0 redeem him! 5 On the adult level there is pity rather than blame, and awareness 0f the finality of death.

A lament f0r Dumuzi by his sister Geshtinanna 6 is f0cussed 0n pity f0r a life cut short in early youth bef0re it could achieve fulfillment in marriage and parenth00d, while l0ve and deep tenderness rather than actual pity informs a lament by his wife Inanna in the lament called »The wild Bull who has lain down«. 7

Refusal to accept the fact 0f parting with a l0ved 0ne, f0ll0wing him into death, dying from grief, is a m0tif in the lament f0r Damu, a Dumuzi figure, by his m0ther: »If it is required, O lad, let me walk with you the road of no return«.8 Still an0ther f0rm which the refusal to be parted may take is reluctance t0 relinquish the physical remains 0f the departed, the c0rpse, which b0th is, and is not, him. That seems t0 be what made Lulil's m0ther delay perf0rming his funerary rites9 and it is m0vingly depicted in the Gilgamesh Epic when Gilgamesh h0lds 0n t0 Enkidu's c0rpse and will n0t let it be buried. 19 Last 0f all there is the attitude 0f utter inner destructi0n at the death 0f 0ne wh0 meant everything. It is pOignantly represented in the lament called »The Mother in the Desert«, 11 which may suitably c0nclude this attempt at reaching back t0ward an understanding Of the Ancients, n0t just as fell0w mortals, but as fell0w humans.

1. Chiera, SEM 24 25 28 lines 33-46. See Kramer, BASOR No. 94 (1944) text A p. 6-9, cf. ANET p.50-52. We restore [u 6 me-eb-dug4 urs] -gim búru(!?)-da-bi assuming that -e(me-contracted from mu-e-) can se rv e as 2p. causative infix as well as -re-. CF. AS 16 p. 93 note 16. A form corresponding to Akkadian usabrîka seems indicated. In Line 35 and 36 we read mu-túm (older orthography for mu-un-túm) and nu-mu-untúm »he made befitting« and »he did not make befitting« (In Akkadian usâlikiul usâlik). Line 36. We read nam-[gud x(LAGAB)-da] z[i] -[s]ag4 - [gâ]1 nam-ti-[la]-ke4 (var. -ka) sag4 hul nam-ba-ba-e. The phrase sag 4 ...ba-ba, literally »to detract from the heart« presumably uses »heart« in the sense of »courage«, so: »to lose heart«. hul is adverbial »badly«, »grieviously«. Line 38. As noted by Poebel, GSG # 692 the genitive following a nomen agentis denotes a prepositional relationship, so »the one doing (ak) harm (níg-gig) unto (.ak) mankind«. We read the remainder of the line as ne-en rd-a si-ra-dug 4 considering si-radug4 sandhi for si (e)-ra-dug 4 from si...dug4: suharruru). In line 34 gig of SEM 28 is apparently dittography from the line above. Line 41. We read tàl : tanügâtu. Line 42. gaba nu-ru-gú. Line 43. ka-re i.e. kar.ed. Line 46. We restore [sa]g 4 -tiru-ka-kesda-zu i.e. sag tiru-kakesda (.ak).zu(.e) »at your center of the courtiers formed into phalanx«. 2. See the paper by W. G. Lambert elsewhere in this volume. Line 6. We restore [mi-na-a tJa-ad-da-li-ip mi-na-a ta-[s"aJg -gum. Line 7. We follow Lambert, who restores [ina dia-la-pi tu-un-na-h[a ra?-man?-ka?J Line 9. We read to-kâr-r[a].

25

24 Line 10. Tentatively we read [i]h-ha-si-s[u](!?)-[m]a(?) sùm-sú. Line 12. First word perhaps uRI-snc]. Line 15. We read sim-t[a-su i-lam-mad] Line 16. ha-si-is(!?). Lines 27-28. We would read CT 36.30 as [e]-dil (!?) ul- ik-ru-ba. Line 32. We are delighted to find that independently both Professor Lambert and we understand this line in the same way. 3. Clay and Jastrow, An Old Babylonian Version of the Gilgamesh Epic. YOS Res. IV/3 (New Haven, 1920) p1. iii. 140-150. We restore sa-p[i-is sa-ma-mi] in view of Köcher, MIO 1 (Berlin, 1953) 57-107 rev. ív.38. 4. Thureau-Dangin, »La Passion du Dieu Lillu« RA 19 p. 184-185. Line 21. ne-ri-ib-lá (with neKalu, H. C. TpyxTaxona, K. JI. OraHecaH, 3pe6yHH, MOCKBa, 1979. 2. A. A. MapTHpocsin, A. O. MHa1 aKanaH. YpapTCKHiI KonyM6apHil Hop-Apewa. HayK ApMaucKoü CCP.« EpeBaH, 1958, Ns 10, cTp. 63. -»I43BeCTH AKaAeMH 3. A. A. MapTHpoCAH. ApMeHHA 3nOXH 3HeOJ1HTa. - 4 » HCTOpua ApMSWCKOro Hapona«, 1, EpeBaH, 1971. 3. B. XaH3ajsiH. KyilbTypa ApMBHCKOro Hapoj(a B HI TbICHLIeJ1CTHH AO H. 3. EpeBaH, 1967. 4. A. A. MapTHpocsiH. ApMeHHS1 B 3noxy 6poH3bl H paHHero >Kene3a. EpeBaH, 1964; A. A. MapTHpocsiH. O ApeBHeM noceneHHH H MorHJYbHHKe 6J1H3 JIeHHHaKana. - »KpaTKHe C00611keHHa HHCTHTyTa HCTOpHH MaTepHawbHO6 KyJrbTypbl«. BbinycK 55. MOCKBa, 1954. 5. C.I. I[eBSKaH. JIopH-'bepgcKn% MOrHnúHHK. - »CoseTCKasI apxeonorHa«, MOCKBa,

1974, . ■ 2, CTp. 180 194. -

6. E. A. JIanawm. PacKOHKH KypraHOB B CoBeTCxoìi ApMeHHH. EpeBaH 1931; A. O. MHanaKaHBH. PacKOnxH KypraHOB Ha no6epe>Kbe o3epa CeBaH. - »CoBeTcKaa apxeoJlorH5l«, MocKBa, 1957, Ns 2. 7. B. B. IIHOTpOBCKHFI. ApXeOJ1OrHsi 3aKaBKa3b53. JIeHHHrpaA, 1949. CTp. 56. 8. B. A. Ky(pTHH. YpaTCKH% KOJIyM6apHii y nOAOWBbi ApapaTa H Kypo-ApaKCKHH 3HeOJ1HT. -» BeCTHHK FOCyAapCTBCHHOrO My3eB Fpy3HH«, TOM. XIII. T6HJIHCH, 1944. 9. B. B. I1HOTposcKHfI. KapMHp BJlyp, Jlen4HrpaA, 1970, N2 79. A. A. MapTHpocaH. AprHWTHXHHHJ1H, EpeBaH, 1974,pHc. 85. 10. 14. M. Jiocena. PacKOnKH I1HTa9eJIH ypapTcKoro ropoAa I4pnynH. - »KpaTKHe coo6uteHHB HHCTHTyTa HCTOpHH MaTepHaJIbHOIl KyJlbTyplt« BbIHyCK 58, MOCKBa, 1955. -

11. A. A. MapTHpocaII ApMeHHB B 3noxy 6poH3bl H paHHero >Kene3a. EpeBaH, 1964, Ta6Jl. XXIV, pnc. 4. 12. B. B. IIHOTpOBCKH4t, KapMHp-Bnyp, JIeHHHrpan, 1970, Ns 59. 13. 14. M. JIoceBa. HexoTopble ypapTcKHe toseJlHpHble H3AefIHB e H3o6paxceHHeM pHTyaJibHbIX CHU( (K BOnpOCy o6 HKOHOrpa(kHH 60ra XaiinH H 60rHHH Apy6aHH) - » RpeBHHN MHp« . MOCKBa, 1962.

289

288 14. C. 14. XOJpKaw. OrrHcKH ypapTCKHX nenaTe41 Ha KepaMHKe H3 3pe6yHH. »14CTOpHA H 4MIJ1OJ1OrHA )i peBHero BocTOKa«, XI rogHnHai Hayvnaa ceccHA JIeHHHrpanCKoro OTJJCJIeHHA 14HCTHTyTa BocTOKOBegeHHA AKageMHH HayK CCCP. KpaTKHe coo6H(eHHA, MocKBa, 1976, cTp, 66, N2 162. 15. A. A. MapTnpocan- ApMeHHA a 3noxy 6poH3b1 H pannero kcene3a, EpesaH, 1964, Ta6n. XXV, XXVI, XXVII. 16. B. B. IIHOTpOBCKH6. KapMHp-Bnyp III, EpeBaH, 1955, pnc. 26. 17. B. B. IIHoTpoBcKnïl. KapnHp-Bnyp II, EpesaH, 1952, cTp. 4I. 18. A. P. HCaenAH. OXOTHH9bH c1lenbl 6poH30BbIX nOACOB ApMeHHH — »I4cT0pHK004nonorn ecKHN acypHan«, EpesaH, 1966, M 2, cTp. 239-248, pHc. I. C. EcaSH. I4CKyCCTBO rpaBHPOBKH npeBHat ApMeHHH HO H306panceHHAM Ha 6pon3oBb1X noacax II -I TbIC. J{O H.3. II Me)KJIyHapogHHN cHMHO3nyM 110 apMAHCKOMy HCKyCCTBy. EpeBaH, 1978. 19. B. B. IIHOTpOBCKHN. BaHCKOe HaPCTBO (YpapTy). MOCKBa, 1959, plie. 85, 86. B. B. IIHOTp0BCKHï1. I4cKyccTBO YpapTy. Jlennnrpap, 1962, pnc.42,43. 20. K. JI. OraneciH. Pocnncn 3pe6yHH. EpeBaH. 1973.

ABBREVIATIONS

Common abbreviationS are listed in:

The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Universi ty of Chicago (=CAD) (Chicag0 1956 ff.). W0lfram von S0den, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch (=AHw) (Wiesbaden 1965 ff.). Rykle Borger, Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur (=HKI) I and II (Berlin 1967 and 1975).

9 MEsoP0TAMIA 8

291

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

Patrick Butler Adamson Knaresborough

Elke Baumgarte Catholic University of Nijmegen

Veronika Afanasieva Statt. Eremitage Leningrad

Andrea Becker Berlin-West

Bendt Alster The University of Copenhagen Pierre Amiet Louvre Paris Paola d'Amore Rome Marianne Andersen Copenhagen Alfonso Archi The University of Rome Pinhas Artzi Bar-Ilan University Ramat-Gan Michal Artzy The University of Copenhagen Michael C. Astour The Southern Illionois University Edwardsville Wolfgang Balzer München Marie-Thérèse Barrelet Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Paris

Herman Behrens Freiburg Geoffrey Bibby Moesgârd Museum Aarhus Maurice Birot Paris Anna Maria Bisi The University of Urbino Inger Bortolotti Copenhagen Jean Bottéro L'école Pratique des hautes études Paris Evert Bruins The University of Amsterdam Marie-Louise Buhl The National Museum Copenhagen Guy Bunnens Bruxelles Peter Calmayer The University of Munich Theresa Howard Carter The University of Pennsylvania

292

293

Serena Maria Cecchini Rome

B. Engel West Germany

Margaret W. Green Freie Universität Berlin

Herman Hunger The University of Vienna

Louis Chabot Frennes

Robert Englund Munich

Marie-Christine de Graeve Leuven

Arild Hvidtfeldt The University of Copenhagen

M. Ciantelli West Germany

G. McEwan West Germany

Sarah Groll Hebrew University Jerusalem

Karen Hbjgaard Copenhagen

G. Coobow West Germany

Joanna Firbank The School of Oriental and African Studies London

John Curtis. The British Museum London Jerrold Cooper The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore M. A. Dandamayev Institut Vostokovedeniya Leningrad igor Diakonoff Institut Narogov Azii Leningrad Pouran Diba Paris Jan van Dijk The Pontifical Biblical Institute Rome Seyare Eichler Irschenhausen Jesper Lidern The University of Copenhagen Ramadan Elkott Torsbol Hildegard ElIermeier Angerstern bei Göttingen Maria de J. Ellis The University of Pennsylvania

Daniel A. Foxvog The University of California Berkeley Karen Frifelt Moesgârd Museum Aarhus Denyse Homès-Fredericq Royal Museums of Art and History Brussels Iris Furlong London Hanne Gaiter The University of Graz Paul Garelli Université de Paris Panthéon -Sorbonne Paris Henri Gazelles Paris

Flemming H4jlund Katarzyna Grosz The University of Copenhagen Marie Louise Hammer The University of Copenhagen John Harvey Teddington County John David Hawkins The School of Oriental and African Studies London John Healey University College Cardiff Michael Helter Haifa Joseph Henninger Anthropos Institut St. Augustin Bo Hermansen The University of Copenhagen Marianne Hirche The University of Copenhagen

Markham Geller University College London

Hans Hirsoh The University of Vienna

McGuire Gibson The Oriental Institute Chicago

Svetlana Hodjasch The Puskin State Museum of Art Moscow

Koichiro Goto Kanagawa

P. Y. Hoskisson Zürich

Hojbjerg

Richard Haase Leonberg G. Haayer The Netherlands Jytte Israel The University of Copenhagen Thorkild Jacobsen Bradford, New Hamshire Ulla Jeyes Edgware, Middlesex Flemming Johansen Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Copenhagen Mirjam Gelfer-Jorgensen Copenhagen Annelies Kammenhuber The University of Munich Norbert Karg Munich Jurgen Karisen The University of Copenhagen M. Müller-Karpe West Germany Niels Kastfelt Copenhagen

295

294 Mogens Trolle Larsen The University of Copenhagen

Harriet Martin Birmingham

Hélène Morèau-Neret Paris

Steen Larsen Danmarks Laererh0jskole

Emilia Masson Paris

Nikolaj Winther-Nielsen The University of Copenhagen

Ulla Larsen The University of Copenhagen

Gabriella Scandone Matthiae The University of Rome

M. Lebeau Belgium

Paolo Matthiae The University of Rome

Carl Nylander The University of Copenhagen and the Swedish Institute of Archaeology Rome

W. Leemans Arnheim

Werner Mayer Rome

Hanne Leimand The University of Copenhagen

Stefania Mazzoni

Rome

Joachim Oelsner Friedrich-Schiller Universität Jena

Niels Peter Lemche The University of Aarhus

James Mellaart The University of London

Evelyn Oldenburg The University of Copenhagen

Klaudia Limper Köln

Dominic Miles London

Hannes Olivier Tübingen

Edward Lipinski Université catholique de Louvain

Martha A. Morrison Brandeis University

David I. Owen Cornell University New York

V. Liventhal Copenhagen

Bodil Mortensen The University of Copenhagen

Eivind Lorenzen Copenhagen

Mette Mortensen The University of Copenhagen

Josef de Kuyper The State University of Gent

Gudrun Lüer Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

Ann Murray London

Raphael van Laere Hassel-Kermt

JOrgen Læss0e The University of Copenhagen

Saime Isil Muslubas Arkeoloji Müzeleri Istanbul

W. G. Lambert The University of Birmingham

Ursula Magen Frankfúrt am Main

Eva M011er The University of Copenhagen

Emanuel Laroche L'ecole pratique des hautes études Paris

Barbara Mallowan Wallingford

Khaled Nashef The University of Tübingen

Baruch Margalit The University of Haifa

Trine Neble The University of Copenhagen

Horst Klengel Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR Berlin Poul Kjærum Moesgârd Museum Aarhus Aase Kofoed Copenhagen Geza Komoróczy Eötvös Loränd University Budapest Victor Korosec Slovenian Academy Ljubljana Samuel Noah Kramer Philadelphia F. R. Kraus The State University of Leiden Theo H. H. Krispijn The state University of Leiden Amélie Kuhrt The University College London

inge Larsen The University of Copenhagen

Brithe Fraser NOrgaard Aylesbury-Buckinghamshire

Simo Parpola The University of Helsinki Olof Pedersén The University of Copenhagen Boris Perlov The Punkin State Museum of Art Moscow Elisabeth Petersen The University of Copenhagen Herbert Petschow The University of Munich Werner Papke Tägerwilen Switzerland Frances Pinnock Rome

297

296 Jean de Savignac Bruxelles

Françoise Talton Neuilly-sur-Seine

Margit Warburg The University of Copenhagen

Niels M. Saxtorph The University of Copenhagen

Philippe Talon Bruxelles

Peter Vértesalji Berlin

Hans-Siegfried Sohuster Köln

Birgit Tauber Copenhagen

Joan Westenholz Copenhagen

Erik Poulsen The University of Copenhagen

Jeseph Seux Brunoy

Roland Tefnin Bruxelles

Aage Westenholz The University of Copenhagen

C. Qualls U.S.A.

Irmtraut Seybold The University of Graz

R. Testa Italy

Daphne White London

Jette Lund-Rasmussen Copenhagen

Ake Sjöberg The University of Pennsylvania

Marie-Louise Thomsen The University of Copenhagen

Alvo von Wickede The University of Munich

Leif Egon Rasmussen Copenhagen

Aaron Skaist The Department of Hebrew and Semitic Languages Ramat-Gan •

Henrik Thrane The University og of Odense

Claus Wilcke The University of Munich

Ingolf Thuesen The University of Copenhagen

Anatol Winter The University of Copenhagen

Franz Josep Tritsch Oxford

Marianna Vogelzang Groningen

Madeleine Trokay Liège

Konrad Volk Freiburg

Akio Tsukimoto The University of Tübingen

Gerlind Wild-Wülker Bonn

Ahmet Ünal DTC Fakültesi Hititoloji Kürsüsü Sihhiye-Ankara

Paolo Xella Università degli studi di Roma

Edith Porada Columbia University New York J. N. Postgate The British Archaeological Expedition to Iraq Cambridge

K. Reiter West Germany Johannes Renger The University of Berlin Dessa Rittig Munich Johan de Roos Amsterdam Lissie von Rosen Malmö W. Römer The Catholic University of Nijmegen Irene Danneskiold-SamsOe Copenhagen Erik Sand The University of Copenhagen Herbert Sauren Université Catholique de Louvain

Richard Sobolewski The University of Munich E. Sollberger The British Museum Agnès Spycket Louvre Pa ris S. Springer Denmark Diana Stein London Gerd Steiner Philipps-Universität Marburg/Lahn Dorfft Symington West Byfleet/Surrey Gabriella Frantz Szabö The University of Munich JOrgen Podemann Sorensen The University of Copenhagen

Herman Vanstiphout Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Jan Zahle The University of Copenhagen

299

• LIST OF PLATES

Pl. I: See B. Perlov, pp. 77-81 0bv. Pl. I a I2 b 38, obv. Pl. I b I2 b 38, right edge Pl. I c I2 b 38, rev. Pl. I d I2 b 38, left edge

139-I50 Pl. II: See M. Birot, pp. 139-

0bv. Pl. II: Mari 12803, obv. Pl. III-IX a: See D. Hawkins, pp. 213-225

n0.. Pl. III a Tudhaliyas IV (Yazihkaya, no. 0fient c0lossusseum of A Oriental Antiquities, Pl. III b Zincirli colo Istanbul). 0fure. The obve 0bverse fr0ms of f Maras colossus, fragment from Pl. III c sw0rd-belt. 0ftstaff, tassel and swor sh0wsces of (here) show inscripti 0n,AS left side, reverse and right side bear the insc Antiqui0fient 4, of Ha1paruntiyas II (Museum of A Oriental Anti ties,anbul). 0f'al (fro (fr0mgrabungen in Pl. III d Statue of Panammu II of S Sendschirli, I (Berlin, 1893), fig. 16.) L0ngl of0flpS fr0mg 0fs G0ds,m Pr0cessi0nG Pl. IV a Carchemish, Proc An. St. 22 (1972), facing p. 108). reconstructi0n, (f0ro ture (for (fr0mgrabungen in Sendschirli, IV Pl. IV b Zincirli, seated queen (fro (Berlin, 1911), Taf. LIV). 0f Trustec0urtesyt (ph0t0graph,r Carchemish, grave stele (pho Pl. IV c es of the British Museum).

301

300 Maras funerary stele (ph0t0graph, c0urtesy 0f P. E. Peo0rella). Maras funerary stele (ph0t0graph, c0urtesy 0f P. E. Pec0Vb rella). Funerary stele 0f Si'-gabbari 0f Nerab (fr0m Clerm0nt-GanVc neau, Album d'Antiquités orientales (Paris, 1897), pl. II). Sarc0phagus 0f Ahiram, detail (fr0m P. M0ntet, Byblos et Vd l'Egypte (Atlas; Paris, 1929). VI a Tell Halaf, funerary stele 0f man and wife (fr0m Tell Halaf III (Berlin, 1955), Taf. 146). VI b Maras, funerary stele 0f man and wife (ph0t0graph, c0urtesy , of Hirmer Ph0t0archiv München). VII a Maras, funerary stele of Tarhuntiwasatis (Museum 0f Ancient Oriental Antiquities, Istanbul). VII b Detail 0f preceding, sh0wing inscripti0n. VII c MARAS 2, c0py 0f inscripti0n. VIII a Sheizar, funerary stele 0f Kupapiyas (see Florilegium Anatolicum (Mélanges ... Lar0che; Paris, 1979), 148-149). VIII b Kululu, funerary stele 0f Panunis (Kayseri Museum), c0llated. IX a Meharde, funerary stele 0f Taitas, husband 0f Kupapiyas (0bverse) (Alepp0 Museum).

Pl. V a Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl. Pl.

Pl. IX b - XIII: See E. Porada, pp. 259-270

Pl. IX b Fragment 0f a marble lid 0f a b0x fr0m Ashur, Berlin Staatliche Museen, V0rderasiatisches Museum. M0st recently published in PKG 14, 1975, pl. 255a. Pl. IX c Clay plaque sh0wing a pris0ner, Nati0nal Museum, C0penhagen, N0. 8925. Published R. Opificius, Das altbabylonische Terracottarelief, pl. 16, N0. 567. C0urtesy Marie-L0uise Buhl, Nati0nal Museum, C0penhagen. Pl. X a-b Stele AO 2776 in the L0uvre, Paris. M0st recently published in PKG 14, 1975, pl. 182 a, b. COurtesy Pierre Amiet. Pl. XI a Cylinder seal, hematite, height 26,5 mm, diameter 14 mm. Private C0llecti0n. Pl. XI b Cylinder Seal, Pierp0nt M0rgan Library, New Y0rk, published Corpus I, N0. 387. Pl. XI c Cylinder seal dedicated f0r the life 0f Abisare 0f Larsa, Iraq Museum. Published A. Parr0t, Glyptique mésopotamienne; fouilles de Lagash ... et de Larsa ... Paris, 1954, N0. 260.

PI. XI d Cylinder seal, Pierp0nt M0rgan Library. Published Corpus I, N0. 395. Pl. XI e Cylinder seal, Pierp0nt M0rgan Library. Published Corpus I, N0. 380. Pl. XII a Cylinder seal, Pierp0nt M0rgan Library. Published Corpus I, N0. 386. Pl. XII b Cylinder seal, Ashm0lean Museum Oxf0rd. Published Buchanan, Catalogue ... Ashmolean Museum, N0. 532. C0urtesy P. R. S. M00rey, Ashm0lean Museum. Pl. XII c Fragmentary clay plaque fr0m Nippur, University Museum, Philadelphia. Published D. E. McC0wn, R. C. Haines, D. P. Hansen, Nippur, pl. 142:8. C0urtesy Oriental Institute, Univ. 0f Chicag0. Pl. XIII a Terracotta relief 0f winged, bird-f00ted g0ddess, f0rmerly Coleville Collecti0n. Published H. Frankf0rt, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, Penguin B00ks, Harmondsw0rth, 4th ed. 1969, pl. 56. Pl. XIII b Clay plaque fr0m Tell ed-Der sh0wing a nude, crOuching man with ribs pr0minently marked resting his head in his hands with his elb0ws set 0n his knees. Published in L. de Meyer, Tell ed-Der II, Leuven 1978, pl. 27:1. The plaque was brought t0 my attenti0n by Melissa S. Meighan. C0urtesy L. de Meyer. Pl. XIII c Figure 0f an emaciated man, Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohi0. Published E. Porada, "An Emaciated Male Figure..." Studies ... A. Leo Oppenheim, figs. 1-4. C0urtesy Cincinnati Art Museum.

P. XIV: See C. Nylander, pp. 271-272 Pl. XV - XVI: See K. Frifelt, pp. 273-279

P l . XV a Beads fr0m Oman Jemdet Nasr graves: th0se in the "necklace" are of b0ne, ca. 0,5 cm acr0ss, and pierced thr0ugh tw0 opp0site c0rners, bel0w a few blue-green glazed frit beads, two shell beads (Engina mendicaria) and 0ne 0f carnelian. Pl. XV b Beads from the Sharab temple 0f Agrab (After: P. Del0ugaz and S. Ll0yd: Presargonic Temples in the Diyala Region. 1942, fig. 198).

302 Pl. XVI a Hundreds 0f stone graves, containing Jemdet Nasr-like pottery, are scattered along the main tracks 0f the Oman peninsula; m0st of them are 1-2 m high with a diameter 0f 5-7 m, but they may be considerably larger, like the gr0up in the backgr0und. Buraimi oasis. Pl. XVI b The Oman Jemdet Nasr graves devel0ped int0 larger and better mas0ned structures like these from a gr0up at a m0untain pass in the Wadi Jizzi.

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Plate VI

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Plate VIII

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Plate X Plate XI

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Plate XII

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Plate XIV

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Plate XVI