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Cultural Influences on Architecture
 1522517448, 9781522517443

Table of contents :
Title Page
Copyright Page
Book Series
Dedication
Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Detailed Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1: The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style
Chapter 2: Evolution of Construction Systems
Chapter 3: The Communicative Nature of Space in Organizations
Chapter 4: Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator in Architectural Drawings
Chapter 5: Two Unique Protected Sites with a Modern Heritage in Historical Peninsula in Istanbul
Chapter 6: City of Beats
Chapter 7: “Bridges” and “Gaps” on Maps of Multicultural Cities
Chapter 8: Psychological (and Emotional) Architecture
Chapter 9: The Architect of Organizational Psychology
Chapter 10: The Fundamentals of Social Capital
Compilation of References
About the Contributors
Index

Citation preview

Cultural Influences on Architecture Gülşah Koç Yıldız Technical University, Turkey Marie-Therese Claes Louvain School of Management, Belgium Bryan Christiansen PryMarke, LLC, USA

A volume in the Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) Book Series

Published in the United States of America by IGI Global Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.igi-global.com Copyright © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Koç, Gülşah, 1987- editor. | Claes, Marie-Thérèse, editor. | Christiansen, Bryan, 1960- editor. Title: Cultural influences on architecture / Gülşah Koç, Marie-Thérèse Claes, and Bryan Christiansen, editors. Description: Hershey : Information Science Reference, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016044362| ISBN 9781522517443 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781522517450 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Architecture and society. | Architecture--Human factors. | Sociology, Urban. Classification: LCC NA2543.S6 C78 2017 | DDC 720.1/03--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016044362 This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) (ISSN: Pending; eISSN: pending) British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.

Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) Book Series ISSN: Pending EISSN: pending Mission

Throughout time, technical and artistic cultures have integrated creative expression and innovation into industrial and craft processes. Art, entertainment and the media have provided means for societal self-expression and for economic and technical growth through creative processes. The Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) book series aims to explore current academic research in the field of artistic and design methodologies, applied arts, music, film, television, and news industries, as well as popular culture. Encompassing titles which focus on the latest research surrounding different design areas, services and strategies for communication and social innovation, cultural heritage, digital and print media, journalism, data visualization, gaming, design representation, television and film, as well as both the fine applied and performing arts, the AMEA book series is ideally suited for researchers, students, cultural theorists, and media professionals.

Coverage • • • • • • • • • •

Fabrication and prototyping Design Tools Color Studies Products, Strategies and Services Applied Arts Data Visualization Popular Culture Arts & Design Environmental Design Communication Design

IGI Global is currently accepting manuscripts for publication within this series. To submit a proposal for a volume in this series, please contact our Acquisition Editors at [email protected] or visit: http://www.igi-global.com/publish/.

The Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) Book Series (ISSN Pending) is published by IGI Global, 701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, PA 17033-1240, USA, www.igi-global.com. This series is composed of titles available for purchase individually; each title is edited to be contextually exclusive from any other title within the series. For pricing and ordering information please visit http://www.igi-global.com/book-series/advancesmedia-entertainment-arts/102257. Postmaster: Send all address changes to above address. Copyright © 2017 IGI Global. All rights, including translation in other languages reserved by the publisher. No part of this series may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information and retrieval systems – without written permission from the publisher, except for non commercial, educational use, including classroom teaching purposes. The views expressed in this series are those of the authors, but not necessarily of IGI Global.

Titles in this Series

For a list of additional titles in this series, please visit: www.igi-global.com

Design Innovations for Contemporary Interiors and Civic Art Luciano Crespi (Politecnico di Milano, Scuola del Design, Italy) Information Science Reference • copyright 2017 • 427pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522506669) • US $205.00 (our price) Applying the Actor-Network Theory in Media Studies Markus Spöhrer (University of Konstanz, Germany) and Beate Ochsner (University of Konstanz, Germany) Information Science Reference • copyright 2017 • 315pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522506164) • US $175.00 (our price) Projective Processes and Neuroscience in Art and Design Rachel Zuanon (Anhembi Morumbi University, Brazil) Information Science Reference • copyright 2017 • 290pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522505105) • US $185.00 (our price) Exploring the Benefits of Creativity in Education, Media, and the Arts Nava R. Silton (Marymount Manhattan College, USA) Information Science Reference • copyright 2017 • 458pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522505044) • US $210.00 (our price) Handbook of Research on Visual Computing and Emerging Geometrical Design Tools Giuseppe Amoruso (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Information Science Reference • copyright 2016 • 924pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522500292) • US $450.00 (our price) Creative Technologies for Multidisciplinary Applications Andy M. Connor (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand) and Stefan Marks (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand) Information Science Reference • copyright 2016 • 467pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522500162) • US $205.00 (our price) Global Perspectives on Media Events in Contemporary Society Andrew Fox (University of Huddersfield, UK) Information Science Reference • copyright 2016 • 306pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466699670) • US $165.00 (our price)

701 E. Chocolate Ave., Hershey, PA 17033 Order online at www.igi-global.com or call 717-533-8845 x100 To place a standing order for titles released in this series, contact: [email protected] Mon-Fri 8:00 am - 5:00 pm (est) or fax 24 hours a day 717-533-8661

We dedicate this book to all of our wonderful family members, friends, and colleagues around the world. Without their support this effort would have been far more taxing than it actually was over the past 15 months.

Editorial Advisory Board Fabio Colonnese, Sapienza Universita Di Roma, Italy Shefali Virkar, University of Oxford, United Kingdom Hun Joo Park, KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Korea Kijpokin Kasemsap, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand Harish C. Chandan, Argosy University, USA Wiboon Kittilaksanawong, Saitama University, Japan Federico De Matteis, Sapienza Universita Di Roma, Italy David Starr-Glass, SUNY Empire State College, USA Norhayati Zakaria, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia Ewa Lechman, University of Gdansk, Poland Marinapia Arredi, Sapienza Universita Di Roma, Italy M. Reza Hosseini, Deakin University, Australia Ye-Sho Chen, Louisiana State University, USA Mika Westerlund, Carleton University, Canada Agnieszka Piekarz, Independent Researcher, Poland Alessandra Capanna, Sapienza Universita Di Roma, Italy Emine Özen Eyüce, Bahçeşehir University, Turkey Allen McKenna, STM Group, United Kingdom Andrea Canclini, Politecnico di Torino University, Italy Meltem Vatan, Baçeşehir University, Turkey Laura Carlevaris, Sapienza Universita Di Roma, Italy Hülya Turgut, Özyeğin University, Turkey Heyecan Giritli, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey Rute Eires, Minho University, Portugal Gökhan Toros, Independent Researcher, Turkey Mark Hoistad, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA Gülhan Benli, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey Cheryl Cordeiro, University of Gothenberg, Sweden

Table of Contents

Preface. ............................................................................................................... xiv ;

;

Acknowledgment................................................................................................ xix ;

;

Chapter 1 The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style: Religion as a Mediator. ................................................................................................................ 1 Gülşah Koç, Yıldız Technical University, Turkey Bryan Christiansen, PryMarke LLC, USA ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 2 Evolution of Construction Systems: Cultural Effects On Traditional Structures and Their Reflection On Modern Building Construction.................... 35 Meltem Vatan, Bahçeşehir University, Turkey ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 3 The Communicative Nature of Space in Organizations. ...................................... 58 Virginia W. Kupritz, University of Tennessee, USA ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 4 Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator in Architectural Drawings. ...................... 90 Fabio Colonnese, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 5 Two Unique Protected Sites with a Modern Heritage in Historical Peninsula in Istanbul........................................................................................................... 130 Gülhan Benli, istanbul Medipol University, Turkey Aysun Ferrah Güner, istanbul Medipol University, Turkey ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 6 City of Beats: Analysing Flânerie as a Practice for Living the Physical . Space................................................................................................................... 157 Silvia Torsi, University of Trento, Italy ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 7 “Bridges” and “Gaps” on Maps of Multicultural Cities: The Story of the South Russian Agglomeration............................................................................ 181 Oxana Karnaukhova, Southern Federal University, Russia ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 8 Psychological (and Emotional) Architecture: The Values and Benefits of Nature-Based Architecture – Biophilia. ............................................................. 200 Ben Tran, Alliant International University, USA ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 9 The Architect of Organizational Psychology: The Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural (Corporate and Organizational) Identity...................... 231 Ben Tran, Alliant International University, USA ;

;

;

;

;

Chapter 10 The Fundamentals of Social Capital. ................................................................. 259 Kijpokin Kasemsap, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand ;

;

;

;

;

Compilation of References............................................................................... 293 ;

;

About the Contributors.................................................................................... 345 ;

;

Index. ................................................................................................................. 349 ;

;

Detailed Table of Contents

Preface. ............................................................................................................... xiv ;

;

Acknowledgment................................................................................................ xix ;

;

Chapter 1 The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style: Religion as a Mediator. ................................................................................................................ 1 Gülşah Koç, Yıldız Technical University, Turkey Bryan Christiansen, PryMarke LLC, USA ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

This chapter examines the potential influence of cultural indoctrination (CI) on architectural style worldwide. Based on an encompassing literature review, this chapter focuses on the mediator of religion among the seven factors which are included in the established conceptual framework for CI; namely, Child Development, Cultural Institutionalization, Cultural Intelligence, Social Learning Theory, Religion, Social Capital, and Values Orientation Theory (VOT). The conceptual framework is presented for potential future application in architectural style and practice. ;

Chapter 2 Evolution of Construction Systems: Cultural Effects On Traditional Structures and Their Reflection On Modern Building Construction.................... 35 Meltem Vatan, Bahçeşehir University, Turkey ;

;

;

;

;

This chapter is going to deal with the evolution of structural systems; traditional structural systems, modern structural systems and more than traditional approach to the structural systems. Beyond this, even though this chapter is related with structural systems as an integral part of architectural design, it is also going to explore the link between culture, traditional structural techniques, and influence of culture, cultural beliefs and local materials, natural constraints as local available materials, climate effects and disaster risks as drivers affecting the evolution of structural systems. Structural principles of traditional construction techniques will be analyzed. The link between modern buildings and their structural systems and traditional construction

techniques will be discussed by tracing modern buildings and structural systems in terms of their evolution. The subject matter will be approached in a descriptive manner. The examples given will be used to trace the link between past and present as a way of associating cultural effect with the architectural uniqueness. ;

Chapter 3 The Communicative Nature of Space in Organizations. ...................................... 58 Virginia W. Kupritz, University of Tennessee, USA ;

;

;

;

;

This chapter examines the important role of space in communication. Design scholars have long recognized the importance of context, but few have gone further than to acknowledge that space has a communicative dimension. While design research has investigated certain aspects of communication (especially some of the symbolic properties) in organizations, it has not examined the full spectrum of symbolic and physical properties of space that affect interpersonal, group and organizational communication needs. The physical setting communicates messages through its symbolic properties. Just as importantly, it supports or impedes our ability to use visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues through its physical properties that help convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Design solutions that effectively utilize symbolic and physical properties of space to accommodate interpersonal, group and organizational communication needs support organizational strategies to maximize worker opportunity to perform in today’s workplace. ;

Chapter 4 Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator in Architectural Drawings. ...................... 90 Fabio Colonnese, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy ;

;

;

;

;

In architectural drawings, human figures generally express the scale of design space. Their presence is supposed to be a sign of a particular sensibility toward human scale and needs and over the centuries, figures were capable of playing a number of different cultural roles. From the anthropomorphic attitudes of Renaissance architects to the Functionalists’ diagrams, human figures have illustrated and mediated the cultural development of human environment. Even if architects maliciously used them to convey layered meanings into their architectural renderings, they are an implicit index of different ideas about men and women and express architects’ ideological positions toward society often beyond their intents. This paper analyzes the use of human figures in architectural designs with a particular attention to the twentieth century, to the passage from the mechanical to the digital age, in which the diffusion of cut-and-paste procedure is changing and enhancing their use in the globalized architecture. ;

Chapter 5 Two Unique Protected Sites with a Modern Heritage in Historical Peninsula in Istanbul........................................................................................................... 130 Gülhan Benli, istanbul Medipol University, Turkey Aysun Ferrah Güner, istanbul Medipol University, Turkey ;

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;

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;

Suleymaniye and Zeyrek areas in the Historical Peninsula containing a combination of the architectural works of different religions, different cultures and communities are two districts which were entitled to be included in UNESCO world heritage list from Istanbul in 1985. Traditional architectural texture in Zeyrek and Suleymaniye among some unique districts of Istanbul, which brings neighborhood-centered lifestyle of Ottoman period in the past to the present, basically consists of wooden houses. Diverging process has affected on these two unique residential areas having their own hierarchical and political characteristics by planned development activities in time and it was forced to sacrifice many works belonging to Ottoman period within the borders. Another modern building obtained as a result of the competition in the Republican Period practically undertakes the task of combining these two estranged areas. Characteristics of the said two protected areas, diverging process and modern heritage acting as a buffer shall be examined in this study. ;

Chapter 6 City of Beats: Analysing Flânerie as a Practice for Living the Physical . Space................................................................................................................... 157 Silvia Torsi, University of Trento, Italy ;

;

;

;

;

The flâneur is the urban vagabond in search of experiences and inspirations from serendipitously exploring a city environment. This construct is put beside postmodern stances about the suburban areas built and populated after the Second World War industrialization, along with considerations about ecological psychology, cultural materialism, and sound theory. The main concept is to provide those places with a communication level that would be pleasant to discover while wandering without a destination. Therefore, it is desirable to conceive a meta-design tool able to incorporate creativity, ownership, and conviviality. ;

Chapter 7 “Bridges” and “Gaps” on Maps of Multicultural Cities: The Story of the South Russian Agglomeration............................................................................ 181 Oxana Karnaukhova, Southern Federal University, Russia ;

;

;

;

;

The city is a sum of feasible expressions of social and historical evolution and space identity. The uniqueness of a place is formed not only by contemporary infrastructure, but by the cultural environment deeply anchored in the historical context. The object

of the study is the South Russian agglomeration as a feasible example of ragged edges of multicultural history of the region and constantly challenged collective identity. Multicultural cities in Russia carry a burden of the pre-Soviet and Soviet urban policy, weighed down by complex historical environment. As a result, cities are closed in a coterie: reliance on Soviet and post-Soviet legacy – conservative economic policy –– fragmentary and spontaneous development of the city architecture and infrastructure. The term of splintering urbanism coined by Steven Graham and Simon Marvin is focused on the historical circumstances and socio-cultural environment of urban communities in the South Russian agglomeration, describing symbolic forms of bridges and gaps in the collective urban identity. ;

Chapter 8 Psychological (and Emotional) Architecture: The Values and Benefits of Nature-Based Architecture – Biophilia. ............................................................. 200 Ben Tran, Alliant International University, USA ;

;

;

;

;

Wilson calls biofilia an “innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes” (Wilson, 1984, p. 1), an “innate emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms” (Wilson, 1993, p. 31), or an “inborn affinity human beings have for other forms of life, an affiliation evoked, according to circumstances, by pleasure, or a sense of security, or awe, or even fascination blended with revulsion” (Wilson, 1994, p. 360). The research in this area is indicating that bringing elements of nature into the workplace, whether real or artificial, is beneficial in terms of employee outcomes. Nevertheless, although investigation into the benefits of biophilia for individual well-being is relatively new, there is clearly mounting evidence that biophilic design can have a positive impact, from reducing stress and anxiety, to improving the quality and availability of respite from work and in increasing levels of self-reported well-being. ;

Chapter 9 The Architect of Organizational Psychology: The Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural (Corporate and Organizational) Identity...................... 231 Ben Tran, Alliant International University, USA ;

;

;

;

;

Globalization, used in the architect of the organizational psychology world, often evokes images of a shrinking world, in which accelerating flows of information and travel technology compares time and space in the relationships between world cultures, political economies and the built environment. In the world of organizational psychology, the field of organizational psychology is a byproduct of business (organizational behavior and management), psychology [clinical and industrial and organizational psychology (I/O)], and culture. The one common paramount connection between architecture and organizational psychology in the world of globalization

is (or the corporate/organization) culture. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is the architect of organizational psychology, with an emphasis on culture. Specifically, Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural (corporate and organizational) identity, and how culture influences architecture and business in globalization. ;

Chapter 10 The Fundamentals of Social Capital. ................................................................. 259 Kijpokin Kasemsap, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand ;

;

;

;

;

This chapter explains the overview of social capital (SC); the dimensions of SC; SC, culture, and architecture; SC and economic growth; SC and knowledge management (KM); SC and social networking sites (SNSs); SC and health perspectives; and the significance of SC in the digital age. SC refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. SC involves establishing trust, norm, and network. SC is a quality derived from the structure of an individual’s network relationships in the community, and relates to architectural design, culture, belief, economic growth, and business success. SC provides the relationships through which an entrepreneur receives opportunities to utilize human capital and financial capital in global business. The chapter argues that promoting SC has the potential to improve business performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage in global business. ;

Compilation of References............................................................................... 293 ;

;

About the Contributors.................................................................................... 345 ;

;

Index. ................................................................................................................. 349 ;

;

xiv

Preface

Culture at once drives, and is driven by, the formation of societies as people within that society interact and connect with one another and the environments in which they exist. From these interactions, a notion of culture emerges, manifesting in both tangible and intangible dimensions such as language, religion, values, customs, literature, technology, and art. Each society reflects a different manifestation of culture’s many dimensions as various nuances of that society shape how these dimensions emerge. Does a given society place great value on art? If so, how is “art” defined and how is it valued by the society? The society’s history, geography, political setting, ethnic composition, economics, and family norms are among the countless factors that would ultimately determine how this society valued art. Conversely, and yet at the same time, culture influences how a society’s identity develops and matures. Cultural norms and traditions, for example, play an explicit role in establishing many aspects of a society, including work life, education systems, and governance. One of the areas of society in which the influences of culture are most apparent is in architecture. A society’s culture is not only influential in the formation of architectural products, but it also defines other key aspects of the environments in which people live and interact. This book examines the impact of culture on architecture, from the planning to the production stage of architectural products. Chapter 1 examines the potential influence of cultural indoctrination (CI) on architectural style worldwide. Based on an encompassing literature review, this chapter focuses on the mediator of religion among the seven factors which are included in the established conceptual framework for CI; namely, Child Development, Cultural Institutionalization, Cultural Intelligence, Social Learning Theory, Religion, Social Capital, and Values Orientation Theory (VOT). The conceptual framework is presented for potential future application in architectural style and practice.

xv

Chapter 2 investigates the evolution of construction systems by exploring the cultural effects on traditional structures and their reflection on modern building construction. The history of structural systems in architecture is as old as human history. Even early humans attempted to make a shelter to ensure their safety and to live in more comfortable conditions. The first examples of shelters were simple structures such as caves, tents, and houses constructed from stone or wooden logs, adobe blocks, and so forth where the basic materials were local ones and formation of the shelter was based on cultural traditions. Even though materials used were similar for different geographies and were materials that could be found locally and easily such as natural creations (caves), wood, stone, mud, straw, leaves and so forth, the aesthetic part like ornaments, paintings, colors used, and compositions were quite different, a fact which led to unique architectural creations. Chapter 3 covers the important role of space in communication. Design scholars have long recognized the importance of context, but few have gone further than to acknowledge that space has a communicative dimension. While design research has investigated certain aspects of communication (especially some symbolic properties) in organizations, it has not examined the full spectrum of symbolic and physical properties of space which affect interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs. The physical setting communicates messages through its symbolic properties. Just as importantly, it supports or impedes our ability to use visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues through its physical properties which help convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Design solutions which effectively use symbolic and physical properties of space to accommodate interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs support organizational strategies to maximize worker opportunity to perform in today’s workplace. Chapter 4 inspects the human figure as a cultural mediator in architectural drawings. In architectural drawings, human figures are conventionally used to visually express the use of space and the size of architectural components, but in the context of architecture design their presence can be interpreted in many ways, depending on the design level, the scale of reduction, and the objectives of the representation itself. Their presence in architecture designs is supposed to be a symptom of a particular sensibility toward human scale and needs, but during centuries, they have been playing a number of roles not only according to the kinds of representation but to the different idea about man. Chapter 5 probes two unique protected sites with a modern heritage in the historical peninsula of Istanbul, Turkey. Despite the numerous earthquakes and fires suffered in the past, Istanbul managed to maintain its original architectural identity until the 19th century. However, its urban structure was rapidly changed in the last

xvi

century; thus, it has become a city that is exposed to constant change regarding the avenues, boulevards, and modernist architecture. Deterioration in the organic street pattern formed by wooden houses with bay windows has occurred in Istanbul through the reshaping processes by western norms and urbanism which started in the 1930s. The city attempted to be reshaped under planning incompatible with its multi-layered socio-cultural identity. Within the scope of modernization acts, many architects and urban planners from Europe were invited to Istanbul by the government. In this study, a section of the process of converting the old Istanbul with its strong culture and history into dynamic new Istanbul will be analyzed through the old and new neighborhood textures, how these two have been thrown away from each other during this process, and how efforts are made to compensate this alienation with life complexes that are suitable for the city. Chapter 6 analyzes flânerie as a source for living the physical space. The flâneur is the urban vagabond in search of experiences and inspirations from serendipitously exploring a city environment. This construct is put beside post-modern stances about the suburban areas built and populated after the Second World War industrialization, along with considerations about ecological psychology, cultural materialism, and sound theory. The main concept is to provide those places with a communication level that would be pleasant to discover while wandering without a destination. Therefore, it is desirable to conceive a meta-design tool able to incorporate creativity, ownership, and conviviality. Chapter 7 probes so-called “bridges” and “gaps” on maps of multicultural cities via the South Russian agglomeration. Examining the present striving for a unified living standard, we assume that it leads to unification of the cities throughout the world. At the same time, a rocketing diversity of a society is reflected on the city map in number of symbolic gaps and attempts to build bridges with intention to connect distinct districts. It becomes even more urgent in the context of agglomeration process, which is considered as a result of urbanized economic development. The idea relies on the concept of clustering economies and network effects. The ultimate benefit of agglomeration lies in the city growing and, as a circumstance, economic efficiency, while cities are becoming large. The obvious disadvantage of agglomeration is the gaps dividing the city landscape into different parts poorly interconnected. Chapter 8 scrutinizes the values and benefits of nature-based architecture or biophilia. Biophilia is the deep-seated need of humans to connect with nature. It helps explain why crackling fires and crashing waves captivate us, why a view of nature can enhance our creativity, why shadows and heights instill fascination and fear, and why gardening and strolling through a park have restorative healing ef-

xvii

fects. Biophilia, as a hypothesis, may also help explain why some urban parks and buildings are preferred over others. Research scientists and design practitioners have been working for decades to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environment. Furthermore, as new evidence emerges, the relationships between nature, science, and the built environment are becoming easier to understand traditional wisdom and new opportunities. Chapter 9 delves into the dimensions of cultural identity founded by the Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede and their effects on organizational psychology. In the world of architecture, the field of architecture is of an island with estranged connection with engineering, (material) science, geology, art, and culture. In the world of organizational psychology, the field of organizational psychology is a by-product of business (organizational behavior and management), psychology [clinical and industrial and organizational psychology (I/O)], and culture. The one common paramount connection between architecture and organizational psychology in the world of globalization is culture. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is the examination of organizational psychology with an emphasis on culture: specifically, Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural (corporate and organizational) identity, and how culture influences architecture and business in globalization. Thus, this chapter covers identity and architectural heritage, globalization and architecture, and Hofstede’s dimensions of culture. Chapter 10 rounds out the book via a discussion on the fundamentals of social capital (SC) which has received substantive attention from scholars across a variety of disciplines. SC covers different characteristics such as social networks, social participation, social support, and trust, and is recognized as a combination of social and economic perspectives. SC has the value of social relationships to generate positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society. Its connection with the subject of this book lies in the fact that SC can drive cultural changes which, in turn, can ultimately affect architectural style. We trust this publication effort will spur further research into the connection between culture and architecture on a global basis. As the world continues to evolve rapidly due to the effects of contemporary globalism, architectural style continues to evolve as well as can easily be seen by the rapid changes in city architecture worldwide. This book attempts to assist in that effort by asking the following questions: 1. What can we understand about a society by examining its buildings and physical environment? 2. What can we understand about buildings and environment by examining the society in which they exist?

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Qualified answers to both of these inquiries should contribute to asthetically pleasing and progressive architecture that is suitable to the demands and changes of 21st century civilization. Gülşah Koç Yıldız Technical University, Turkey Marie-Therese Claes Louvain School of Management, Belgium Bryan Christiansen PryMarke, LLC, USA

xix

Acknowledgment

This book effort could not have occurred without the great assistance from the Editorial Board as well as the chapter authors. We would also like to thank the numerous other individuals involved in this work who advised us on a variety of issues behind the scenes. All of their fine work is highly appreciated and all three Editors hope to work with them again in the near future.

1

Chapter 1

The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style: Religion as a Mediator Gülşah Koç Yıldız Technical University, Turkey Bryan Christiansen PryMarke LLC, USA

ABSTRACT This chapter examines the potential influence of cultural indoctrination (CI) on architectural style worldwide. Based on an encompassing literature review, this chapter focuses on the mediator of religion among the seven factors which are included in the established conceptual framework for CI; namely, Child Development, Cultural Institutionalization, Cultural Intelligence, Social Learning Theory, Religion, Social Capital, and Values Orientation Theory (VOT). The conceptual framework is presented for potential future application in architectural style and practice.

INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to explore the potential influence of cultural indoctrination (CI) on architectural style worldwide as there is scant research on CI in general and absolutely none on its connection with architecture (Christiansen & DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch001 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style

Koeman, 2015; Mileto et al., 2015). Therefore, the goal of connecting these two very diverse fields is to contribute to the extant literature on architecture by examining how deeply ingrained cultural habits obtained from birth can affect the style of architecture in ways not previously considered. There are numerous aspects of architecture which are all connected to two fundamental questions (King, 1980): • •

What can we understand about a society by examining its buildings and physical environment? What can we understand about buildings and environment by examining the society in which they exist?

Christiansen (2016) established a conceptual framework for CI that includes the following factors which are fundamental to answering these two questions: Child Development, Cultural Intelligence (CQ), Social Learning Theory, Cultural Institutionalization, Religion, Social Capital, and Values Orientation Theory (VOT). It is from these factors grouped in the conceptual framework in Figure 1 below that we shall explore present and future application in architectural style (Correia, Carlos, & Rocha, 2014). We shall be using the Religion mediator alone as the entry point for this chapter for two reasons: 1) The scope of this chapter would not permit us to examine all the other factors in the framework; 2) Religion pervades human existence and is long considered a critical element in the lives of most people (Chandan, 2014). This chapter is organized in the following manner. The first section provides some further explanation about CI which includes three Propositions related to the CI framework for future research. The second section is a detailed discussion about Figure 1. ­

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The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style

different architectural styles related to religion. The third section covers Future Research Directions followed by the Conclusion. The reader should consider this definition of CI before reading further: Cultural Indoctrination (CI) is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future. The major contribution of this chapter to the extant literature on architecture is to provide a springboard for future research which can have an impact on the field. This work is neither designed nor expected to be an empirical piece with specific solutions or answers. That effort is left to those researchers who will use the conceptual framework for that purpose.

CULTURAL INDOCTRINATION (CI) Cultural origins can permit the prediction of individual behavior under various situations (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 2010; Hofstede, 2001; Hall, 1976). It might be surprising to read that nearly 100 years ago the terms indoctrination and education were considered nearly synonymous (Gatchel, 1972), although there should be little doubt today that this is simply not the case. Indoctrination covers multiple aspects of human existence such as rationality, moral education, religion, freedom, and even intentions (Snook, 1972). The term often carries the negative connotation of “brainwashing” which was first coined by Edward Hunter in 1950 from the Chinese word “hsi nao” or “cleansing of the mind” (Winn, 1983), but this is not the context in which the word “indoctrination” is used in this chapter or framework. In fact, individuals should consider the concept a natural, necessary, and generally positive part of human existence from birth, especially since we are not able to really control our environment and experience until later when much of the (cultural) indoctrination process has already been completed. Obviously, our parents largely define our early understanding of and experience in the world; thus, we are all culturally “indoctrinated” at an early age. The key is when (and if) we realize this fact and eventually either: 1. Break the chains that bind” our thinking and actions; or 2. Retain the status quo with reference to CI.

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An etymological investigation of “indoctrination” shows the following (Gatchel, 1972): 1. The word indoctrination meant in its incipient phase the implanting of doctrines. In the Middle Ages under the autonomous control of the Roman Catholic Church, medieval European education became synonymous with the implanting of Christian doctrine. 2. Although indoctrination originally indicated a liberal concept of implantation, it gradually assumed the connotations of a coercive type of education. 3. Since about the 17th century, increasing expression of and experimentation with concepts of democracy have brought with them considerably different ideas about Education. 4. The present truncated definitions of indoctrination make it inadequate to describe the highly developed processes of democratic education. Another word—enculturation—shows promise of filling this need, but even ‘enculturation’ carries some implications of ‘indoctrination’s’ limitations. One of the essential elements of human activity is culture which has played an important role in social and commercial interaction, and it is from this point that the two words “cultural” and “indoctrination” (CI) are connected. The reader should consider the following Propositions to be considered in future research connected to CI and architectural style: P1: Cultural Indoctrination affects architectural style P2: Cultural Indoctrination is an integral part of architectural style P3: Architectural style has a direct impact on global architecture

ARCHITECTURAL STYLE Defined as the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable, architectural style reinforces CI as the former is present all around us during and beyond our formative years in the form of churches, mosques, schools, and other buildings built over extended periods of time. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, and regional character (Owen, 2014). The various components of CI were introduced in the previous sections. This section investigates the religion mediator of CI from the architectural perspective. In this context, religion has a great influence on the social life of society and forms the architectural products which belong to society. Therefore, before touching on the 4

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Indoctrination-Religion-Architecture relationship, it is first necessary to examine how architecture is formed by religion. Religion is a universal phenomenon which has endured over time due to believing in a visible, invisible, supernatural power, object, or presence which regulates the individuals’ relationship both with each other and surroundings via several sacred practices (Türk Dil Kurumu, 2016). Within this context since early times both for meeting the needs of worship and showing faith, loyalty, and obedience to Gods, mankind has built many temples (e.g., sanctuaries or place of worship) and these structures can be shown among the first architectural products. In addition, religion has had and continues to have an influence on society which regulates the relationships and rules among people. As Rapoport (1969) stated, “…religion forms an essential part of most primitive and preindustrial cultures… and it is so closely linked as to be inseparable from social life and needs”. In this context, architecture is not only formed by social values, religion, and so forth, but also by ambient conditions. Therefore, architectural products are more than physical things to which a society belongs. They are also seen as intangible values to which are attributed many meanings. In this study to understand the influence of religion on architecture, we will examine the titles of Impact of Religion on Domestic Architecture and Impact of Religion on Other Types of Buildings with different examples.

Impact of Religion on Domestic Architecture People need shelter to sustain their lives and protect themselves from environmental factors and threats. In ancient times, caves were used as a shelter and over time several types of structures have built to meet certain requirements. Bektaş (2016) indicates that housing should not be seen as a concrete item which only meets the needs; in addition, they are also places which meet our social, cultural, and emotional needs. “The house is an institution, not just a structure created for a complex set of purposes. Because building a house is a cultural phenomenon, its form and organization are greatly influenced by the cultural milieu to which it belongs. Very early in recorded time the house became more than shelter for primitive man, and ‘function’ was much more than a physical or utilitarian concept. Religious ceremonial has almost always preceded and accompanied its foundation, erection, and occupation” (Rapoport, 1969). In this context, the best examples regarding how religious rules and rituals form or influence architecture can be seen in traditional architectural products. Traditional architecture is one which is often used for residences in a particular period and region. In addition to physical factors such as climate, landforms, soil, water, and

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materials in close environment, culture, lifestyle, economic activities, and religion are the effective factors of house formation (ÇEKÜL Vakfı, 2012). While there are obviously many different factors affecting building form, in this chapter we show how religion affects the formation of traditional domestic architecture using various examples from the Republic of Turkey which has a wide variety of architectural examples due to its location and as host to many civilizations over the past 2,000+ years.

Impact of Religion on Traditional Domestic Architecture in Turkey Turkey acts like a bridge which connects East and West, South and North due to its special location between the Asian, European, and African continents. As a result of its geographic location, the region has many advantages and has hosted many civilizations since the early ages. Present-day Turkey, which is the legacy of the Ottoman Empire, is the scene of many principalities and kingdoms. Settlements in this region date back 11,000-12, 000 years (Atalay, 1992 as cited in Güzel, 2013). Therefore, the residences which comprise these settlements experienced a certain historical development process which formed the current residential types. In this context, socio-cultural, socioeconomic, and environmental factors have had an influence on the formation of residences. As seen in the map below, residences are shaped by physical and social factors of the region to which they belong in Turkey’s geography (Figure 2). In this context, traditional Ottoman domestic architecture is examined within the scope of this chapter. Due to the Ottoman Empire’s embrace of the Islamic faith, residences were formed by Islamic rules during this period. Each religion has its sacred direction to face during prayer. For Jews this direction is towards Jerusalem in Israel, for Christians this direction is towards the East in general, and for Muslims this direction is towards Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Ottoman Empire adhered to Islamic rules which can be seen in traditional Ottoman residential architecture (Armağan, 2011; Türkdoğan, 1992). One particular example is the inclusion in homes of the Qibla located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia which is the direction to which Muslims turn during prayer (Demirel, Tuş, & Gürbüz, 1992). This fact affects daily life routines. For example, the head of beds and graves are always pointed towards the Qibla, but toilets are never oriented in this direction. Therefore, orientation or direction within a religious context has become a required aspect of everyday life as seen in the formation of residences. Examining Turkey by region, we begin with the current-day cities of Diyarbakır, Şanlıurfa, and Mardin which are the best cities representing Southeastern Anatolia’s traditional residential architecture. Despite local differences in the design of these residences, they have

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Figure 2. Residences shaped by factors in Turkey’s geography

major similarities such as flat-roofs, inverted courtyards, and stone construction materials (Güzel, 2013) (Figure 3). In this context, traditional Şanlıurfa houses built 100-150 years ago reflect the life style of society before the Republican regime starting in the early 20th century. Privacy rules in the Islamic faith were considered during the formation of these Figure 3. Similarities in residence design

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residences; therefore, the privacy factor was maintained in every detail in the interior design and the street-district relationship of houses. While the interior of houses are designed as Harem-Selamlık1, regional architecture is isolated from the street and formed around a courtyard. These residences are surrounded by tall courtyard walls and particularly on the ground floor there is no window at the street level. If windows were deemed necessary on this floor, they were placed at a position higher than average human height. To prevent the interior of houses being viewed by neighbors on the first floor, windows are to avoid facing each other which shows the importance of privacy in the design of these houses. The privacy of women is very important due to the social structure of the time. For the privacy, Gezenek Takası 2 is placed generally on the top of the gateway permitting women to see the person at the door without showing their faces (Güzel, 2013) (Figure 4). Similar to Southeastern Anatolia houses, social cultural factors influence house formation of Traditional Safranbolu Houses which are located in Karabük City in the Western Black Sea region. In some of these houses, Harem – Selamlık sections have separate entrances on different streets (Safranbolu Kaymakamlığı, 2016). Another feature is the Gusülhane which is a type of bathroom recessed into the wall. There is no shower handset as water is poured onto the person directly (Gezer, 2013) (Figure 5). Again in this context, the Aegean region shows traditional Greek and Turkish houses with streets exhibiting great differences between them. Besim indicates how culture and customs form the houses of two different nations that live in the same Figure 4. Gezenek Takasi

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Figure 5. Gusülhane

region with the following: “In Greek districts, houses are extraverted and have a small garden but in the Turkish districts, houses are introverted with big gardens, surrounded by high walls” (Besim, 2007). Another example of traditional houses can be seen in the homes of Sephardic Jews in the city of Izmir on the Aegean Sea. These introverted two story houses – called kortijo – are formed around a courtyard and each family has a housing unit. Bathrooms, kitchens, and fixtures are located at the ground floor which permit the residents to live together; privacy is another factor in the formation of these houses (Kiray, 2004).

Urban Areas Islamic rules not only affect the formation of houses but also the formation of dwellings. “With Islam, the privacy factor has become more important in house formation; therefore, this entirely shows itself both at the interior and the streetdistrict relationship of houses. In Ottoman cities, the connection of house and city is provided by streets and roads. These main roads are named tarîk-i âmm while the streets ending with few houses are referred to as tarîk-i hâss. Dead ends were frequently encountered as a property of privacy in Ottoman cities. They are depicted as private streets which open to houses from the main roads. Privacy which starts with dead ends also determines the position of house in the street. Thus, the traditional Ottoman house takes its place in the city with the influence of facade,

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position of land, Qibla, neighborly relations, security, and privacy” (Demirel, Tuş, & Gürbüz, 1992). One of the important factors in these houses is the construction materials. Besides the ambient conditions, using materials such as timber, earth, and lime in residential structures became a part of Islamic philosophy over time. In this context, due to its durability stone is only used in public and charity buildings like religious buildings, schools, madrasahs (medrese), soup kitchens (imaret), inns (han), hamam (Turkish baths), and arcades to remind people that only God is immortal (Ayvazoğlu, 1992).

Impact of Religion on Traditional Domestic Architecture in Different Cultures As seen in the previous section, Islamic rules exert great influence on the formation of houses. Therefore, this section explains the similar effects of different religions on house forms with a few specific examples.

Egypt Religion in daily life is rife in ancient Egypt. People worship for both their lives on Earth and after their death so daily life is almost completely based on worship rituals. Therefore, these requirements have an impact on house forms as well. For example, in the ancient Egyptian city of Tel el Amarna, a temple was found in the garden of the house during its reconstruction. There are different rooms for various needs in this house complex. Guests, women, and the owner of the house stay indifferent rooms. Another similar example can be found in the villas in the city of Deir el Medineh which have the same main units as those found in Tel el Amarna; there is a special room for God Bes (House of God). This room has a sacred part and is also used as a reception room (Roth, 2006).

Iran Mazumdar and Mazumdar (1997) investigated the beliefs of Muslims and Zoroastrians and the formation of their houses. In this context, Islamic privacy is quite important in house formation. Due to the privacy factor, houses are introverted which are formed around a courtyard and surrounded by tall walls. Their neighbors and street relations are also limited. Privacy rules are considered in the interior of houses such as separate spaces for men and women (Harem-Selamlık). However, in Zoroastrianism there are no strict differences or separation between men and women as in Islam. Therefore, men and women can pray together. Fire, water, earth, and air are accepted sacred but among them fire is the most sacred. 10

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Therefore, it is necessary to keep distance from things which make fire impure such as corpses, women during their menstrual period, human waste, and so forth. In Zoroastrianism, collective worship is not always done and except for visiting temples in private days, daily rituals are practiced at home five times each day. Therefore, there is a special room which is enclosed on three sides and its fourth side opens into a courtyard. This special room is for praying rituals and it is referred to as Pesgam-i Mass where a sacred fire (dadgah) burns constantly (Figure 6). This sacred place must be protected from all impure things. Zoroastrianism emphasizes purity and impurity; therefore, women during their monthly period are impure and should avoid praying in religious places. Praying with other people and doing housework is also forbidden. Instead, women stay in a small, separate room outside the house which is accessed by a corridor called Ganza-i Punidun (Figure 7). In this belief, it is also thought that some directions are auspicial and some are not. Thus, the house orientation and formation are also affected by directions. Therefore, the Pesgam-i Mass room and the primary rooms avoid being oriented towards the North which is believed to be inauspicious. Instead, the south is preferred (luck and goodness) (Mazumdar & Mazumdar, 1997). In this context, another example can be found in the formation of Jewish homes in Iran. “In Jewish beliefs, there is a small, special pool called Mikveh and it is connected to another pool called Kashar and finally to the flowing water. According to commands of cleanliness and purity in Judaism, it is necessary for women to bathe in Mikveh after their periods referred to as nida” (Figure 8). Another special aspect of Jewish houses is a special, separate room where women stay during their periods (Memarian, Toghroljerdi, & Kamalipour, 2012). Figure 6. Pesgam-i Mass

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Figure 7. Ganza-i Punidun

Figure 8. Mikveh

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India In Hindu philosophy, cosmic order is very important and structures based on a grid pattern is called Vastuprushamandala. It is believed there is a relationship with this grid and the building on which it is placed. This mandala also represents the internal order of universe and it is applied to houses, temples, towns, and cities. The central part of this diagram (mandala) has very dense energy. Therefore, the energy which surrounds the world is desired in the house. Therefore, this part is left empty and built after all the spatial organizations are completed. Direction is another important aspect in Hindu philosophy. According to Shastra rules, each direction represents a feature. Northeast represents water (Esena) and is defined as a source of power. Southeast represents fire (Agni) which activates energy. Southwest is earth (Niruthi) representing strength and coolness. Northwest is air (Vaayu) which represents movement (Murugan & Natarajan, 2009). According to Mazumdar and Mazumdar (2004), Hindu houses are derived from cultural, religious, and architectural aspects. In this context, houses are also temples. Some religious rituals like praying and meditation are practiced in homes, so houses are sacred places for rituals. As such, traditional Indian houses include special rooms for various rituals. Therefore, the house consists of three major spatial domains: sacred, neutral, and profane spaces. Among these spaces, the most sacred one is the praying area called Pooja which influences the formation of houses. The design of an Indian house is related to the location of this room. In this context, houses are divided into sacred places (pooja) and semi-sacred places which are connected to the pooja such as kitchens and profane places. Pooja rooms are the most sacred in house and they should always be kept clean as there are some sacred objects and household deities. Other places related to sacredness include the kitchen, thresholds, transitional spaces (access areas), and preparatory areas (for rituals) which are connected to the pooja room. Living rooms, guest rooms, front verandas, and bedrooms are neutral places. In addition, non-sacred places are divided into three parts. The bath is a place for cleaning so it is considered a semi-sacred place. Birthing and menstrual rooms for women follow this in descending order. Most profane places include latrines, drains, and garbage areas. In this context, women during their periods are ritually unclean so praying, cooking, and entering the sacred places are forbidden. Instead, women remain in a separate room for three days. Birthing rooms are also profane areas. Post-partum women are highly unclean so they are kept confined in a room for three days and then both mother and baby are given a purification bath and dressed in clean clothing. Sacred and semi-sacred places are located in the deeper parts of the house which have less traffic and are more difficult to access. These places should also be located away from the profane 13

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areas. In this context, in some houses the pooja room is placed upstairs away from other places in the home (Mazumdar & Mazumdar, 2016, 1999).

China The concept and rules of Feng Shui consider the interior design and location of traditional Chinese houses. Feng Shui is based on harmony with humans and nature and according to this philosophy living spaces are a miniature of the universe. Therefore, earth is a reflection of heaven and while squares symbolize the earth, domes symbolize the sky (Malville, 1989 as cited in Xu, 1998). Directions are another important thing in Feng Shui. It is believed that houses located in the right direction bring good luck to its occupants. Therefore, the location of main rooms, entrances, and drainage exits is very important to maximize the good energy of house (Wang, 1968; Wu, 1985; Lee, 1991 as cited in Xu, 1998). In this context, in traditional Beijing courtyard houses the North-South line is very influential on house formation. To allow family prosperity and keep away evil spirits (Qi), these introverted courtyard houses are surrounded by walls. Therefore, there are a few small windows at a position higher than human height located towards the street façade. Additionally, the interior of these houses are more decorative than their exteriors (Xu, 1998). Wen (2010) associates construction materials with religion in a study regarding traditional Chinese homes. Since nature and life are very important in Chinese beliefs, people prefer to use timber in the construction of their house to symbolize life. As stone is inanimate, it is used mostly in graveyards (Wen, 2010). In ancient China, single buildings had a rectangle form and were simply decorated. In addition, the relationship between buildings and open spaces enclosed by them should be considered. In this context, a rectangular pattern called Siheyuan is applied to building plans according to their functions for creating spatial forms. Confucianism had a great influence on the formation of traditional Chinese house in ancient China. In this belief, elements are very important. Among the elements of Ren (Humanity), Yi (Righteousness), Li (Ritual), Zhi (Knowledge), and Xin (Integrity), the most important is Li which influences architectural style (Wen, 2010). Li is seen as a tool to find a harmony between opposite features. This balance is based on categorizing people according to their hierarchic positions and establishing space order at home. Thus, the entire house represents harmony. Confucianism supports the patriarchal family structure so the family is ruled by the older generation. Therefore, house forms also reflect the power of elders over the younger generation. For example, traditional Beijing courtyard houses which are four buildings centered around a courtyard receive different amounts of sunlight. These houses are formed according to the Siheyuan pattern and the location of places are related to individuals.

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In this context, rooms of mater and living room are located in the northern part of the home which receives the most sunlight. Children and less important members stay in rooms located in the eastern and western parts of the home which receive less light than in the northern part of the dwelling. As the southern part of the home receives the least light of the home, the servant’s room and guest room are located here while the backside of the house is reserved for unmarried daughters and female servants (Wen, 2010) (Figure 9).

Japan According to the Shinto faith, the house is a sacred place due to the religious rituals practiced there. Due to the occupants’ life philosophy and Shinto and Zen belief, simplicity of interior is very important in these structures. Therefore, transparency is kept in the foreground in the house interior using sliding screens in rooms thus providing the unity of interior and exterior. The desire to be integrated with nature is the basic factor in the house design, so traditional Japanese houses are extraverted (Dündar, 2011).

Other Cultures Errington’s (1979) study about the Buginese people shows their rituals and practices. In this context, Buginese houses symbolize the Earth and while eating drawing curtains and closing all doors and windows symbolizes the introversion. In this context, the dining room and things related to the holiness of eating are detailed. Figure 9. ­

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The kitchen is very important in this culture, so it is located in the least accessible place of the house. Therefore, it is seen that the eating ceremony and the place connected with it, is effective in the formation of houses (Errington, 1979 as cited in Zeybekoğlu, 2005). Another example can be found in homes in Madagascar which are the most complex compared to the others because homes are located according to location of the stars (Rapoport, 1969). Thus, the house is divided into twelve quarters corresponding to twelve lunar months. Each quarter is used for different purposes and furniture arrangement is a key aspect. For example, the bed is always placed east and faces north while the main part of the home, doors, and windows face west (main direction) (Rapoport, 1969).

Urban Areas In addition to the essign of houses, religion also affects city formation such as the orientation of streets and buildings. In this context, the ancient layout of Chinese cities represents the Chinese cosmos. Similarly, the influence of religion on city layouts can be seen in ancient Indian cities including temples and monasteries. Anoher example is Europe. In the Medieval European countries, the church in the center of the city points out the centralization of churches in urban life. In Soper’s study, the Mormon settlement grid form is preferred by occupants due to the reflection of an ideal cosmic form (Sopher, 1967 as cited in Mazumdar & Mazumdar, 2004). During the Renaissance period, the central plan type was derived from the circle which symbolizes the perfection of God. The circle is the strongest form symbolizing eternity representing the unity and integrity of the universe. The dome in the central part of the buildings is seen as heaven and covers the universe (Miranda, 2004 as cited in Erarslan, 2014). In this context, the square and circle are accepted as ideal forms and used in the layout of churches and cities (Erarslan, 2014).

IMPACT OF RELIGION ON OTHER TYPES OF STRUCTURES As seen in the previous section, religion not only affects residential structures but also influences the formation of other types of structures. Therefore, we will examine in this section the effect of religion on different types of structures.

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Religious Structures Islamic Belief Külliye This complex of buildings was developed during the classical period of the Ottoman Empire from 1437 - 1703. Külliye is derived from an Arabic word – kül – which means whole. In this context, külliye is a complex of social and cultural buildings which are built around a big mosque. Therefore, a külliye complex consists of the medrese (madrasah), tabhane (guest house), Darüşşifa (hospital), imaret (soup kitchen), library, sıbyan mektebi (elementary school), hamam (Turkish bath) and arcade (Sezgin, 1979) (Figure 10). Mosques Among the Islamic religious rituals namaz (prayer) is the most prominent. This worship is either done alone or with a group of people in a special place called a mosque. The word mosque is derived from an Arabic word – cem – which means convening. There are many religious factors at the formation of these buildings. The most important one is the Qibla which shows the direction of Mecca in Saudi Arabia where the Muslims face while they are praying. Therefore, a special niche referred to as a mihrab in the Qibla indicates this direction. Another area identified with mosques is the dome. Besides its functional, technical, and aesthetic purpose, it also has a symbolic meaning. The dome symbolFigure 10. Interier of a mosque

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izes sky and the square plan which the dome sits on symbolizes earth (Berkman, 2016). Therefore, the big dome which is supported by semi domes and covers the central part of mosques is the way of showing the “unity of God (Tevhit)” (Ertuğrul, 2016). Due to tevhit, fire, human, animal, and other figures are forbidden in the interior of mosques so as not to attribute a partner to God. In addition, the interior of mosques is more aesthetically pleasing than their exterior (Figure 10). Tabhane (Guest House) Zaviye rooms are small rooms in mosques where dervishes are separated from mosques and become an independent building adjacent to mosque called tabhane. These buildings allow for the gratis accommodation of poor people and passengers (Sezgin, 1979; Hasol, 2005) (Figure 11 – Number 10). In the Islamic belief helping Figure 11. Imaret

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people is very important and the purpose of constructing these buildings is to help people and show indulgence to them. These kind of structures are mostly constructed as a part of a big mosque. Imaret (Soup Kitchen) An Imaret is a part of the külliye complex which serves poor people, medrese students, and patients in the hospital (darüşşifa). People can eat here free-of-charge (Sezgin, 1979) (Figure 11). As tabhane (guest house), these stuructures are also built to help people according to Islamic code. Muvakkithane The Muvakkithane is a place located next to a big mosque which contains some equipment and clocks to calculate the times for prayer. These buildings are completely identified with the namaz ritual and are necessary to determine namaz (Prayer) times (Hasol, 2005). As cleanliness is very important in Islam and especially before namaz, people must perform an absolution ritual common all over the Muslim world. Therefore, a fountain is generally located in the middle of the courtyard. Furthermore, while praying rituals in mosques women never pray with men in the same location as there is a separate place for women in mosques called kadınlar mahfili (women’s lodge). Muvakkithane places and fountains are related only to the namaz ritual and specialized for this purpose; praying in separate places is due to women’s privacy and for this reason there are separate and special places for women are located in mosques. Tekke (Dervish Lodge) Different from mosques, these places are used for sheltering, praying, and conducting religious ceremonies for dervishes and people who are members. These buildings consist of different units, but only related units will be examined in this chapter. As seen in traditional Ottoman houses, separate places for men and women exist in these structures as well. Additionally, a small room called çile for individual praying, mihmanhane for the accommodation of dervishes and guests (similar to tabhane or guest house), a big place for ceremonies and practices, is called tevhidhane or semahane exist in the tekke structure (Cavlun, 2006).

Christianity Churches The word church is derived from a Greek word – ecclesia – which means meeting, meeting place, and community (Özbay, et al., 2010). In churches, one of the prominent parts is the apse, a semicircle or half polygon part which is covered by a pentetive. This place is similar to mihrab in mosques and is located behind the choir section 19

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(Hasol, 2005). In addition, the altar is another impotant area in churches. It is a table which is used for religious ceremonies with a niche behind or next to altar for keeping sacred objects. Like mosques, churches also face a specific direction which is west in Constantine basilicas which changed its name in the 5th century and then were oriented towards the East (Güç, 2016). Effects of religious authority can be seen in architecture as well in Medieval Europe. In this period, antique Rome’s basilical plan layout was applied to churches so that the lengthways of this basilical form fits all liturgy of Chrsitianity and symbolizes the eternity of God. The transept part which is between the choir section and centrall aises is the reflection of holy cross. The dome or the steepie in the intersection of transept and central aisle symbolizes the desire of reaching God. Religious issues on the stained glass windows are the description of the Bible for illiterate people (Erarslan, 2014). Additionally, it is believed that the rose window in gothic churces is derived from an oculus (the eye of the God) and it is a mandala which represents the desire of integrity and coherence of people. Another characteristic item of Gothic catedral is the Gargoyle, the decoratively carved grotesque figure that conveys water away from the gutter and protects the building from the destruction of water. Supposedly these creatures are believed to keep the devil away from the cathedrals and also represent the existence of evil and warn humans about evil sprits (Erarslan, 2014; Yonuk, 2012; Lydenberg & Cantor, 2011) (Figure 12).

Figure 12. Gargoyles

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Judaism Synagogues Synagogue is derived from a Greek word – synaggoge – which means meeting place (Türkoğlu, 2014). Synagogues do not have a certain form and ambient conditions are effective in the formation of these structures. One of the most important parts of a synagogue is the Aron Hakodeş which is similar to the mihrab in mosques. The Torah is kept here which is oriented towards Jerusalem. This direction is also called mizrah (east) (Güç, 2016). Decorative human figures and statues are forbidden inside synagogues. In Diaspora synagogues, there are small rooms for the accommodation of passengers and poor people. Various religious ceremonies like circumcision and dinner events after the practice occur in synagogues. Besides the main worship place, there is also a small worship place referred to as a midraş in synagogues. Beyond these are places for education, a room for the rabbi, a fountain or a cistern, water closets (restrooms), dining rooms, and meeting rooms which are the other parts of a synagogue complex. Therefore, some synagogues are formed around a courtyard. Men and women pray at separate places as in mosques. The women’s place is usually located in the gallery floor (Türkoğlu, 2014).

Temples Egypt (Khonsu Temple) As mentioned in an earlier section, religious and daily life are intertwined in Egypt. Therefore, the daily lives of Egyptian people consist of religious rituals and practices for God Amon Ra, pharaohs, and other gods. Egyptian temples are not only for praying but also have various functions such as education and administration purposes. For example, the Khonsu Temple consists of a courtyard, an official reception room, and private rooms, so it resembles the main parts of a house (house of God). The Egyptian pharaoh is the son of the God Ra, while priests in the temple are fed and arise in the Amon Ra icon which resemble the rituals that pharaohes do in their own palace (Roth, 2006).

Indian Temples According to ancient Hindu scriptures, the temple is the microcosm of the cosmos and the cosmic order is perceived as integral to the human body, mind and spirit with the human being a microcosm (Hardy, 2007 as cited in Vardia, 2008). Therefore, temples sybolize the inner and outher cosmos. While outer cosmos are astrological elements between the temple and sun, moon, and other planets, inner cosmos are 21

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associated with consciousness (Kak, 2002 as cited in Vardia, 2008). This connection is implemented in temples with a diagram called Vastuprushamandala which is the plan of the cosmos. Therefore, ancient religion or vernacular architecture is based on this geometric form (Figure 13). Vastuprushamandala concept is consist of the combination of three words. Vastu is the physical environment; Prusha is the energy, the strength and cosmic existence and Mandala is a diagram (Rian et al., 2007 as cited in Vardia, 2008). Besides being the basic form of Vastuprushamandala, the square symbolizes Earth and is the ideal form in Hindu philosophy as well. Additionally, this form is also a symbol of eternity and perfection of life and the deceased (Michell, 1988 as cited in Vardia, 2008). In Hindu philosophy, Prusha (human) body is made to suit the square form which is the ideal form (Groover, 1980 as cited in Vardia, 2008). The Mandala is a grid system subdivided into smaller squares and each square unit highlights a God. The outer perimeter of the Mandala is used for astrological Figure 13. Vastuprushamandala

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calculations and the four directions symbolize the meeting of world and universe and movement of the sun. Brahma (creator) is the in the center of the mandala and the other Gods are located in other unit squares in order of importance (Gosai 20022008 as cited in Vardia, 2008) (Figure 14). Temple Layout The Vastuprushamandala is used for the formation of temple layouts to capture cosmic energy. It is believed the center of the mandala generates energy and emits it to the physical world. Additionally, the square form balances the energy which is applied from center to sides and sides to center. Therefore, it is believed that increasing the number of square units will capture more energy and, as a result, more energy will emit to the physical world (Rian et al., 2007 as cited in Vardia, 2008) (Figure 15).

Tombs According to Egypt philosphy, following the death of a pharaoh the individual will go to a place of the gods and pyramids facilitate this process. Therefore, as an expression of eternity, the triangle form is used in the formation of pyramids in which the apex represents the physical point of humans. In this context, Egyptians believe Figure 14. ­

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Figure 15. Temple layout

that if suitable conditions are provided, the deceased can live with their loved ones for eternity. Therefore, in Egypt, tombs are associated with life more than with death (Erarslan, 2014; Roth, 2006).

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS The major limitation of this work is that only the mediator of Religion was covered in connection with the CI framework due to space and other constraints. Another limitation includes the heavy focus on the Republic of Turkey with regards to examples of how CI influences architecture, although Turkey does present a wide variety of architectural styles within its borders due to its unique geographical location and history. Therefore, we believe it would be beneficial to examine other areas of the CI framework with architectural style such as Child Development or Social Capital. In addition, future researchers could explore other regions such as Asia or Latin America to find common ground regarding the link between CI and architectural style to prove or disprove the three Propositions forwarded earlier in this chapter.

CONCLUSION We began this chapter by asking two fundamental questions: 1. What can we understand about a society by examining its buildings and physical environment? 2. What can we understand about buildings and environment by examining the society in which they exist? 24

The Role of Cultural Indoctrination in Architectural Style

Connected to these questions we forwarded three Propositions: P1: Cultural Indoctrination affects architectural style. P2: Cultural Indoctrination is an integral part of architectural style. P3: Architectural style has a direct impact on global architecture. These questions and Propositions can be at least partially analyzed by the general concept of indoctrination by stating it regards imposing certain attitudes or beliefs to individuals to eliminate intellectual autonomy and prevent the using of mental faculties (Biber, 2016; Politika Sözlüğü, 2016). This chapter discussed the relationship between cultural indoctrination and architecture from the religious aspect (or mediator) by showing that forming architecture around certain religious rituals are applied to a society’s norm. Thus, architecture forms to meet a social requirement. As shown in Figure 15 above, cultural indoctrination includes the following components: social capital, social learning, child development, cultural institutionalization, religion, cultural intelligence, and value orientation theory. All of these components have varying effect on architectural forms. We have elected to focus on the religion component in this chapter for two reasons: 1) The scope of this chapter would not permit us to examine all the other factors in the framework; 2) Religion pervades human existence and is long considered a critical element in the lives of most people. Religion has huge influence on the formation of society and within this context the family unit holds great importance in a society. Because the family unit is where education commences, it is a critical element of child development (Erikson, 1993, 1994; Scheck, 2014) and religious education because social values and norms are first imposed on children via their families. As Christiansen and Koeman (2015) state, we are not capable of controlling our environment during childhood and into adolescence when much of the (cultural) indoctrination process has already occurred. Since our parents largely define our early understandıng of and experience in the world, we are all essentially culturally indoctrinated at an early age. Whether or not we transcend our own cultural indoctrination later in life depends on many factors such as education and environment. In this context, the education which starts in family takes shape by society’s social values and norms; thus, individuals grow around a particular culture. In this context, by observing other people in society, it is possible to undertsand social values, norms, and behaviors – otherwise known as social learning theory (Bandura, 1976). The common traits of social norms eventually become a pattern of behavior (Eroğlu, 2015) which, in turn, eventually influences architecture. Religon also exerts an influence on social relationships and social interactions which contribues to the good will, confidence, and solidarity between people – otherwise referred to as 25

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social capital (Halpern, 2005; Lin, 2002; Shaw et al., 2005) which also influences architecture. For example, in Islam helping poor people is very important. Therefore, tabhane (guest houses) and imaret (soup kitchens) structures are built specifically for poor people; in addition, muvakkithane structures for prayer rituals were built. Other types of structures common in other religions such as Judaism aim to create a strong bond between people in the society. Other aspects of cultural indoctrination within the theoretical framework above have an effect on architectural products such as cultural institutionalization (Ferraro, 2011; Drori et al., 2002) which show differences from society to society, but it is beyond the scope of this chapter to elaborate on these other components. Each example provided in this chapter indicates how architecture is formed around certain religious rules and rituals. Therefore, residential and other structures are markedly affected by religion which can be observed even in the formation of residences in different regions which adhere to the same religion. Therefore, we can say religion is more dominant on architecture among other socio-cultural factors. Deffontaines and Ducan state in Zeybekoğlu (2005) that homes are for ritual purposes, so although both animals and humans require a place for protection or storage, only humans need spirituality which is satisfied by dwellings. How this manifests itself depends largely on societal CI as we have attempted to demonstrate in this chapter (Al-Soliman, 1991; Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S., 1994). In this context, religious structures are different from residences. Although the former are based on religious rules, they are not open to change like residences. Even though worship forms are different among religions, they all emphasize the existence and unity of God. Therefore, religious structures show no change over time because in these structures, the main factor is worship for which the rules and rituals have not changed over time. As such, these structures are used for the same function throughout the centuries.

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Ariyayin (2016, March 01). Süleymaniye Camii. Retrieved from http://www.ariyayin. com/istanbul/suleymaniye-camii Armağan, A. (2011). Klasik Dönemde Osmalılarda Devlet Yönetim Anlayışına Dair Bazı Düşünceler. Akademik Bakış, 139. Ayvazoğlu, B. (1992). İnsan, Ev, Çevre. In E. Erverdi (Ed.), Sosyo-Kültürel Değişme Sürecinde Türk Ailesi (p. 388). Ankara: T.C. Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Yayınları. Bandura, A. (1976). Social Learning Theory. New York: Prentice-Hall. Bektaş, S. (2016, January 25). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4957644/ ANADOLU_EV_M%C4%B0MAR%C4%B0S%C4%B0_Ve_T%C3%9CRK_ EVLER%C4%B0_HAKKINDA_GENEL_B%C4%B0LG%C4%B0: http://ktu. academia.edu/SelmaBektas Berkman, H. (2016, February 20). Süleymaniye’nin Şifresi. Retrieved from http:// www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/225.pdf Besim, D. Y. (2007). Özgün Kentsel Mekanların Okunması ve Belirlenmesi Üzerine Analitik Bir Çalışma: Bodrum Türkkuyusu Örneği. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Biber, N. (2016, February 24). Endoktrinasyon, Beyin Yıkama. Retrieved from http://blog.milliyet.com.tr/endoktrinasyon--beyin-yikama/Blog/?BlogNo=471447 Cavlun, F. (2006). Eyüp’te Ümmü Sinan Tekkesi Restorasyon Projesi. İstanbul: İstanbul teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Chandan, H. C. (2014). The Role of Religion and National Culture in Economic Growth in Emerging Markets. In B. Christiansen & M. Basılgan (Eds.), Economic Behavior, Game Theory, and Technology in Emerging Markets (pp. 250–270). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4745-9.ch014 Christiansen, B. (2016). Cultural Indoctrination in Global Hypercompetition: A Conceptual Framework for International Management. International Journal of Productivity Management and Assessment Technologies, 4(1), 38–49. doi:10.4018/ IJPMAT.2016010104 Christiansen, B., & Koeman, J. (2015). Nationalism, Cultural Indoctrination, and Prosperity in the Digital Age. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-14666-7492-9

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Correia, M., Carlos, G., & Rocha, S. (2014). Vernacular Heritage and Earthen Architecture: Contributions for Sustainable Development. New York: CRC Press. Demirel, Ö., Tuş, M., & Gürbüz, A. (1992). Osmanlı Anadolu Ailesinde Evi, Eşya ve Giyim-Kuşam (XVI-XIX. Yüzyıllar). In E. Erverdi (Ed.), Sosyo-Kültürel Değişme Sürecinde Türk Ailesi Cilt 2 (p. 322). Ankara: T.C. Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Yayınları. Drori, G., Meyer, J., Ramirez, F., & Schofer, E. (2002). Science in the Modern World Polity: Institutionalization and Globalization. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Dündar, M. (2011). A Comparative Study on Conceptual Similarity and Differences Between Traditional Houses of Japan and Turkey. In Intercultural Understanding (pp. 17-23). Eliçalışkan, M. (2016, January 30). Türkiye’nin Konumu. Retrieved from http:// www.cografya.gen.tr/egitim/matcog/turkiye-nin-konumu.htm Erarslan, A. (2014). Mimaride Anlam; Yapıdaki “Sembolik Dil” Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. In Tasarım + Kuram Dergisi (p. 25). Erikson, E. H. (1993). Childhood and Society. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Erikson, E. H. (1994). Identity and the Life Cycle. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Eroğlu, E. (2015). Geçmişten Günümüze Sosyal Normlar. In Akadenik Bakış Dergisi (pp. 299-308). Ertuğrul, A. (2016, February 20). Kubbeler ve Mimarisi. Retrieved from http:// gezgindergi.com/kubbeler-ve-mimarisi/ Evastuconsultant. (2016, March 10). Deities in the Vastu Purusha Mandala. Retrieved from http://www.evastuconsultant.com/deities-in-the-vastu-purusha-mandala/ Gatchel, R. H. (1972). The evolution of the concept. In I. A. Snook (Ed.), Concepts of Indoctrination: Philosophical essays (pp. 7–13). New York: Routledge. Gezer, H. (2013). Geleneksel Safranblu Evlerinin Sürdürülebilirlik Açısından Değerlendirilmesi. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi. Güç, A. (2016, February 23). Kıble. Retrieved from http://www.islamansiklopedisi. info/dia/ayrmetin.php?idno=250365

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Güzel, A. (2013). Coğrafi Özellikleri Bakımından Anadolu Şehirlerindeki Geleneksel Konutlar: ŞanlıUrfa Örneği. Turkish Studies - International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 2013, 569-579. Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books. Halpern, D. (2005). Social Capital. London: Polity. Hasol, D. (2005). Ansiklopedik Mimarlık Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Yapı Yayınları. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. London: Sage Publications. King, A. D. (1980). Buildings and Society: Essays on the social development of the built environment. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Kiray, M. T. (2004). Osmanlı Kentlerinde Sefared Kültürünün Dönüşümünün Mimariye Yansımaları “İzmir Örneği”. İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Lin, N. (2002). Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Lydenberg, M. J., & Cantor, M. L. (2011). Gargoyles of Princeton University. A grotesque Tour of the Campus. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (1994). Societal Values and Architecture: A SocioPhysical Model of the Interrelationships. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 11(1), 66–90. Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (1997). Religious Traditions and Domestic Architecture: A Comparative Analysis of Zoroastrian and Islamic Houses in Iran. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 14(3), 182–199. Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (1999). Women’s Significant Spaces: Religion, Space, and Community. Journal of Environmental Pschology, 19(2), 159-170. Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (2004). Religion and Place Attachment: A Study of Sacred Places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(3), 386. Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (2016, February 08). Of Gods and Homes: Sacred Space in Hindu Houses. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/ docview/207674493/fulltext/6C68F64BFB184802PQ/6?accountid=17384

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Memarian, G., Toghroljerdi, S. H., & Kamalipour, H. (2012). The impact of Religious and Behavioral Pattern on the Order of Vernacular Settlements: A Comparative Case Study. International Journal of Achitectural Engineering & Urban Planning, 22(2), 91-99. Mileto, C., Vegas, F., Garica, L., & Cristini, V. (2015). Vernacular Architecture: Towards a Sustainable Future. New York: CRC Press. Murugan, I., & Natarajan, C. (2009). Reinforcing Traditional Indian Construction with Modern Structures - A Planning. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, October, 633-637. Naim, M. A. (2006). The Home Environment in Saudi Arabia and Gulf States Growth of Identity Crises and Origin of Identity. Universita di Cattolica. Owen, R. (2014). Architectural Styles – A Visual Guide. London: Lawrence King Publishing. Özbay, E., Koç, E., Yapıcı, A., Türkan, A., Baydaş, M., & Hemiş, İ. (2010). Karşılaştırmalı Dinler Tarihi. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları. Politika Sözlüğü. (2016, February 24). Retrieved from http://www.kadimdostlar. com/topic/48580-politika-terimleri-a-z/ Rapoport, A. (1969). House Form and Culture. Eglewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, Inc. Roth, L. M. (2006). Understanding Architecture Its Elements, History and Meaning. Istanbul: Kabalcı Yayınları. Safranbolu Kaymakamlığı, T. C. (2016, February 04). Safranbolu Evleri ve Mimari Özellikleri. Retrieved from safranbolu.gov.tr: http://www.safranbolu.gov.tr/ default_B0.aspx?content=1027 Şanlıurfa’da Ev Mimarisinin Tek Örneği. (2016, February 28). Retrieved from http://www.sanliurfaguncel.com/kultursanat-haberleri-sanliurfada-ev-mimarisinintek-ornegi-76784.html Scheck, S. (2014). The Stages of Psychosocial Development According to Erik H. Erikson. Munich, Germany: GRIN Verlag GmbH. Sezgin, H. (1979). Türk ve İslam Ülkeleri Mimarisine Toplu Bakış. İstanbul: Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi.

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Shaw, J. D., Duffy, M. K., Johnson, J. L., & Lockhart, D. E. (2005). Turnover, Social Capital Losses, and Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(4), 594–606. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2005.17843940 Siheyuan (2016, February 28). Retrieved from http://www.chinaunbound.com/News. aspx?classid=1003&id=156 Şimşek, İ. (2016, January 30). Türkiye’nin Jeopolitik Önemi: Köprü mü, Kanat mı, merkez mi? Retrieved from http://tasam.org/Files/Icerik/File/turkiye_kopru_mu_ kanat_mi_merkez_mi_b4156f55-1433-4a8b-b420-0ec349a42fef.pdf Snook, I. A. (1972). Concepts of Indoctrination: Philosophical essays. New York: Routledge. Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2010). Riding the Waves of Innovation: Harness the Power of Global Culture to Drive Creativity and Growth. New York: McGraw Hill. Türk Dil Kurumu. (2016, January 26). Din. Retrieved from tdk.gov.tr: http:// www.tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_bts&arama=kelime&guid=TDK. GTS.56db5fdc4ddb68.21239448 Türkdoğan, O. (1992). Türk Ailesinin Genel Yapısı. In E. Erverdi (Ed.), SosyoKültürel Değişme Sürecinde Türk Ailesi Cilt 1 (p. 51). Ankara: T.C. Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Yayınları. Türkoğlu, İ. (2014). Yahudi Geleneğinde Sinagog. Toplumsal Tarih Dergisi, 10. Vakfı, Ç. (2012). Anadolu’da Kırsal Mimarlık. Uluslararası Kırsal Yaşam, Kırsal Mimari Sempozyumu (p. 5). Bursa: Bursa Büyük Şehir Belediyesi, Tarihi Kentler Birliği, ÇEKÜL Vakfı. Vakfı, Ç. E. K. Ü. L. (2016, February 20). sinanasaygi.org. Süleymaniye Külliyesi. Retrieved from http://www.sinanasaygi.org/i/kulliye/81.jpg Vardia, S. (2008). Building science of Indian Temple Architecture. Portugal: Minho University. Wen, R. (2010). Architecture and Tradition. Unpublished Master of Architecture Thesis, Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://unitec. researchbank.ac.nz/handle/10652/1523 Winn, D. (1983). The Manipulated Mind: Brainwashing, Conditioning, and Indoctrination. London: Octagon Press.

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Xu, P. (1998). Feng-Shui Models Structured Traditional Beijing Courtyard Houses. Journal of Architecture and planning Researh, 15(4), 271-281. Yonuk, A.A. (2012). Mimarinin Efendisi ve Köleleri: Gargoyle Heykeller. Yedi: Journal of Art, Desing & Science, 2012, 27-37. Yurdakul, K. (2016, February 28). Safranbolu’da Gezerken. Retrieved from http:// blog.radikal.com.tr/seyahat/safranboluda-gezerken-13310 Zeybekoğlu, D. (2005). Edirne Geleneksel Konut Mimarlığını Etkileyen SosyoKültürel Faktörlerin İncelenmesi. Edirne, Turkey: T.C. Trakya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Fakültesi.

ADDITIONAL READING Brunn, O. (2008). An Introduction to Feng Shui. New York: Cambride University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511800931 Eliade, M. (1958). Patterns in Comparative Religion. New York: Sheed and Ward Inc. Eliade, M. (1978). A History of Religious Idea From the Stone Age to the Eleusinian Mysteries. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Eliade, M. (1982). A History of Religious Ideas From Gautama Buddha to the Triumph of Christianity. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press. doi:10.7208/ chicago/9780226027357.001.0001 Eliade, M. (1985). a History of Religious Ideas From Muhammed to the Age of Reforms. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago PRess. Hopkins, O. (2014). Architectural Style A Visual Guide. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. Kilde, J. H. (2008). Sacred Power, Sacre Space An Introduction to Christian Architecture and Worship. New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof: oso/9780195314694.001.0001 Ross, L. (2009). Art and Architecture of the World’s Religions. California: Greenwood Press. Wasserstrom, S. M. (1999). Religion After Religion. Princeton: Princeton University. doi:10.1515/9781400823178

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Wescoat, B. D., & Ousterhout, R. G. (2012). Architecture of the Sacred Space, Ritual, and Experience from Classical Greece to Byzantium. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139017640

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Architectural Style: The process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future. Child Development: The process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future. Cultural Indoctrination: The process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future. Religious Architecture: The process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future. Social Learning Theory: The process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future. Socialization: The process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, and cognitive strategies during the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next with the expectation that such traditions will be continued and not questioned in the future.

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ENDNOTES

1



2

34

Harem is an Arabic word and means forbidden place or something sacred. Harem is women’ place and Selamlık is men’ place in palaces, mansions or houses. Men and women must be in different and separate places. This is not because of customs and traditions, because of religious rules. (Source: http:// www.sevde.de/Fikhi/H/H1/haremlik.htm). Gezenek Takası, is a small wooden cage on the top of the gateway and it is for controlling the person at the door. (Source: (Güzel, 2013)).

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Chapter 2

Evolution of Construction Systems:

Cultural Effects On Traditional Structures and Their Reflection On Modern Building Construction Meltem Vatan Bahçeşehir University, Turkey

ABSTRACT This chapter is going to deal with the evolution of structural systems; traditional structural systems, modern structural systems and more than traditional approach to the structural systems. Beyond this, even though this chapter is related with structural systems as an integral part of architectural design, it is also going to explore the link between culture, traditional structural techniques, and influence of culture, cultural beliefs and local materials, natural constraints as local available materials, climate effects and disaster risks as drivers affecting the evolution of structural systems. Structural principles of traditional construction techniques will be analyzed. The link between modern buildings and their structural systems and traditional construction techniques will be discussed by tracing modern buildings and structural systems in terms of their evolution. The subject matter will be approached in a descriptive manner. The examples given will be used to trace the link between past and present as a way of associating cultural effect with the architectural uniqueness.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch002 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

Evolution of Construction Systems

INTRODUCTION From Caves to Skyscrapers Thirty thousand years ago, people roamed from place to place hunting animals and looking for wild plants to eat. As they were always moving, they did not build houses. They slept under the stars, got wet under the rain, sweated under the sun and cooked their meals over open wood fires. Much later on, the early humans began to put up shelters, tents made of animal skins and tried to protect themselves from the weather. … A few more thousands of years went by and about ten thousand years ago people slowly began to learn a new way of getting food. … Humankind had discovered agriculture. … once they found ways of staying in one place, they started thinking about building shelters that were larger, stronger and more comfortable… (Mario Salvadori, 1990) The history of structural systems in architecture is as old as human history. Even early humans attempted to make a shelter to ensure their safety and to live in more comfortable conditions. The first examples of shelters were simple structures such as caves, tents, and houses constructed from stone or wooden logs, adobe blocks, and so forth where the basic materials were local ones and formation of the shelter was based on cultural traditions. Even though materials used were similar for different geographies and were materials that could be found locally and easily such as natural creations (caves), wood, stone, mud, straw, leaves and so forth, the aesthetic part like ornaments, paintings, colors used, and compositions were quite different, a fact which led to unique architectural creations. At this point, the effect of culture on the architectural and structural formation is obvious; whenever humans are involved, even if identical tools and materials used are the same, differences in process and cultural preferences always create diversity; this is called architectural creativity. There are many distinctive styles of traditional construction techniques around the globe that could be defined as ancestors of modern structural systems. In common, all traditional constructions are based on stone, wood, adobe, brick, mud, and mortar. Traditional constructions and techniques are basically affected by the local conditions which are predetermined and constant such as material properties, geographical position, soil condition, natural exposures and risks such as earthquakes, floods, and climate effects; the way of expression which makes architecture unique is shaped by community traditions and beliefs which constitute the culture itself. Deplazes (2010) states that an expression of architecture is dependent not only on the materials used but also on its constructional composition. The evolution of construction system is influenced by past and present cultural traditions because of the fact that culture itself has a living character by its tangible and intangible aspects. 36

Evolution of Construction Systems

The purpose of this chapter is to explore traditional construction systems and materials used and construction techniques as well in different geographical locations by making comparative discussions about the effect of culture and local traditions on the evolution of construction systems. Both similarities and peculiarities are studied to conceive architectural creative process of construction systems. Basically, traditional materials, traditional construction systems, and their components are addressed. The last section is devoted to raising the question of rethinking / reevaluating / reinterpreting traditional construction systems and using local materials as drivers affecting modern techniques in structural system design and building construction.

NATURAL CONSTRAINTS Since the early days of humanity, the way of understanding structural systems and developing new ones based on this understanding has been to analyze structural vulnerabilities and critical points of the structures in terms of structural safety. Based on this analysis, critical elements are determined and future structures are improved and even new structural systems are developed. This is the nature of the so-called “evolution of construction systems”. Natural constraints that could not be changed, diminished, or neglected have a noticeable impact on the structural systems and could be explained as drivers affecting “evolution of construction systems”. The way of learning, since the early days of humanity, has always been unaided as acquiring knowledge based on experiences, raise of questions and observation of nature and natural events as autodidact ones. Humans, upon observing nature itself and natural events, inherently interpret the circumstances under the effect of the culture to which their community belongs. Although nature and natural events and their impact on the structures are equal, reflection to the building in terms of architectural expression is done in various forms. This chapter intends to deal with natural events and their effects on the “evolution of construction systems” considering availability of local materials, climate conditions, and potential disaster risks as natural constraints which cannot be changed or ignored. Various solutions could be found and naturally emerged as a result of taking into account natural events when cultural diversity is considered.

Available/Local Materials Since ancient times the first materials selected for construction were governed by local availability and had natural origins such as inorganic (e.g., stone) or organic (i.e., biological) based materials (Wright, 2005). Natural sources for deriving these elements were bones, animal skins, wood, straw, ropes and so forth. The combina37

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tion of mud with straw and reeds was used to form the walls and bricks were dried in the sun. The first types of bricks were made based on sun-dried mud and later on from clay by change of technology as burning to 1,000 °C. Availability of wood was based on forest reaches. Although stone was a widely existing material, due to its strength and difficulty of working with, it required more skill to use. Structural parts such as walls, columns, arches, domes, vaults etc. were made from dry stone, and in some cases used together with bricks and mortars (Croci, 2000, p. 3). This fact could be stated as the main reason for using masonry structural system in most of the monumental buildings rather than ordinary ones. Ordinary buildings like houses could be associated mostly with wooden-framed and masonry-infilled structures and adobe structures. Obviously, it is not possible to state that masonry was not used in house building. Due to its material strength in accordance with the geographical location, stone was used in house building as well. In order to use the appropriate construction technique and material and to improve their skills of developing new ones, humans needed to perceive physically and even mentally the behavior of structural materials and to figure out the impact of natural constraints such as local materials, climate effects and natural hazards as disaster risks. Therefore, humans were concerned with the strength of materials, load sustaining capacity, deformation capacity of structural elements, causes of deterioration, and damage. However, the question of materials’ strength never was (and remains) a constant one. Depending on the circumstances, material effectiveness was significant. The most appropriate material selection and the way of using it were related and affected by cultural beliefs and human perception besides local availability.

Climate Effects One of the strongest effects on evolution of structural systems has always been and continues to be the climate condition. People have tried to resist weather conditions and their exposures and to build shelters for this purpose since the beginning of the human history. Due to the fact that early humans believed in living nature, they also tried to understand its whisper and be at peace with it. During this period, the evolution of construction systems was compatible with nature. Selection of a structural system and its material, and construction techniques also have a close relationship with the climate condition of the place where the building is going to be built. Pertinently, since early history humans have developed special architectural characteristics and structural types in accordance with the climate condition such as hot, dry, and humid climates. Massive construction such as masonry made of stone, brick, or adobe was developed for hot and dry climate conditions by few and small wall openings. Massive 38

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construction not only delays heat transfer through the walls but also accumulates it for cool nights which is typical in hot and dry climate conditions (Lechner, 2015, p. 287). In locations such as Dubai or the Persian Gulf where there is no prevailing wind direction, wind towers with many openings were developed. The wind tower has a rectangular geometry divided by the diagonal internal walls which create air wells by facing four different directions. In some cases, there are shutters on the wind towers for keeping out unwanted ventilation. Additionally, some wind towers include porous jugs of water (Lechner, 2015, p. 288). Similar to the previous examples, volcanic tufa cones in Cappadocia – Turkey are special constructions developed to be effective in extremely hot and cold weather conditions (Lechner, 2015, p. 289). The examples provided above could be extended, but this is outside the scope of this chapter.

Disaster Risks Disasters, explained as natural events, have a drastic effect on human history and on cultural traditions. According to Max Frisch, “Only man experiences disasters, to the extent that he survives them. Disasters are unknown in nature…”. Gerard Waldherr explains disasters as “a blunder of systems upheld by mankind, and therefore a failure of both the built and the social infrastructure.”, Mischa Meier’s definition is “events that suddenly and profoundly affect, or are felt to affect, man’s daily life and that have grave effects on the social action of the people concerned …” (Meier et al., 2007, p. 23). In accordance with these definitions, disasters could be considered as key events and turning points of human history and collective memory which create cultural routines both tangible and intangible. Obviously, one part of the cultural routines is building construction tradition. During history and today as well, people improve their skills and knowledge of building construction based on experiences and lessons learned from disasters. When any hazard as a natural event becomes a disaster, it has a dramatic impact on the community and mostly it exceeds the ability of the community to cope with it by its own resources. Therefore, people affected by the disaster, intrinsically try to improve their knowledge, skills and abilities to be prepared for the next one basically by lessons learned from the disaster. In Prometheus Bound this is explained as “I gave them fire … and from it they shall learn many crafts. (Prometheus Bound 254–256)” (Wright, 2005). When building construction is considered, obviously the most effective impact on the structures as a disaster is attributed to earthquakes besides floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions. Although an earthquake is an unpredictable and sudden event, it is possible to be mitigated and it is possible to improve building technologies in terms of earthquake resistant structures as well. Therefore, this study discusses the 39

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effects of earthquakes on the evolution of structural systems in historic perspective. Hazards are natural events which are not possible to extinguish or prevent, the only option is to try to understand their nature and to try to mitigate the change to a disaster. This is exactly what the humankind has done during the history and still does today: understanding of structural behavior through lessons learned. The attempt to understand structural behavior triggers the evolution of structural systems. Each disaster brings out new knowledge and helps to improve the existing level of knowledge and to develop the new technique as well. This is the only way of survival. Because disasters have drastically changed the life of the victims and communities over time, humankind has always been interested in disasters and the way of their occurrence and attempted to prevent or mitigate them throughout history. The way of learning lessons and improving the skills is the “trial and error” process (Sassu, 2015). Each hazard or disaster is an open book of learning. Even thousands of years before the birth of Christ, early humans perceived nature as a living being and tried to be in peace with it so as to live in harmony. Accordingly, to show their gratitude to the nature they offered sacrifices which were part of their life. There are legends explaining the stories of interpretation of disasters in ancient times and facts relatively from recent history: •



Poseidon the God of Earthquakes: In the ancient period of Anatolia the God of the Sea and Storms is also connected to earthquakes as an earthshaker. In that area Poseidon’s name originated as earth shaker and soil absorber God, in Homers he is described as earth shaker Enosikhton. Therefore, in Anatolia there are statues of the rituals of sacrifices suffering natural disasters. (Ünal & Vatan, 2016). Precaution against Natural Events: In ancient times, the widely used tradition was to make sacrifices and to write a cult as precaution against natural events. In the text of a cult it is written, “If you are repairing a demolished house or if you are constructing a new one in another place, you should put the following when constructing its foundations: one mine (measure of Akhas) cleaned copper, four bronze nails, and one small hammer. He (God) will dig the earth in the center of kurakki, and will put the copper in the place dug; he will fasten nails from four corners and hammer. While he (God) is doing this he says, “The copper is well fixed; make this shrine strong like it. Make it strong and well supported on this dark earth.” (Naumann, 1991, p. 66). The tradition of offering sacrifices to the Gods against natural disasters is obviously described in this text. (Ünal & Vatan, 2016).

The conclusion of these facts could be stated as the intention of the humans to develop structural systems and construction techniques inherently based on their 40

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experiences with the nature. For instance, buildings and construction techniques with poor earthquake performance were no longer used whereas well-performing ones were repeated and improved after each disaster. When earthquakes are concerned as natural constraints, the interesting result is that many different cultures, living in different geographical locations with similar earthquake conditions, reached similar construction techniques independently without any communication (Sassu, 2015).

CULTURAL EFFECTS IN EVOLUTION OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS The evolution of construction systems could be linked to the first sheltering needs which were based on the invention of agriculture. The first settlements were erected along water resources due to the requirements regarding farming. For instance, in 5000 BC when the Sahara Desert was a rich savanna with its flora and fauna, there were settlements of agricultural society. They erected their rural areas and small towns. Since 4000 BC, settlements and their organization have changed in terms of governing, politics, finance, and religion. In parallel with these changes, the layout of the settlements and their components flourished as well. The first banks and houses of merchants were erected at this time (Aydon, 2007). All these facts bring to the scene “civilization” by means of presence of culture that spans a large enough territory and survives long enough with its presence in a specific style of urbanization. This point could be the best start for discussing the first types of city formation, which is the starting point of the evolution of construction systems as well. Mesopotamia with the Tigris River and the Euphrates River is accepted as the first geographical location of human civilization. Urbanization and building construction played their role in human history. The city Uruk of Sumerians – then the richest Empire of that time – located in South Mesopotamia along the Euphrates River included 10-kilometer-long city walls and water supply channels (Aydon, 2007). Another important civilization of human history could be stated as Ancient Egypt in terms of cultural effect on the evolution of construction systems. Pharaohs, governors of the Ancient Egypt, declared themselves as Gods and imposed their power on religion and community. This brought about the development of construction technology of Pyramids and their specific structural and spatial organization. The intended use for Pyramids was a cemetery for Pharaohs – the God / immortal one with his endless life – including all the staff necessary to continue to live as a king. This cultural tradition created the biggest stone building in the world: the Keops Pyramid in Giza with its two million stone blocks (Aydon, 2007). The examples above show the influence of culture on building construction and the evolution of 41

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construction systems. It is possible to discuss the role of civilization in cultural creation by means of building construction.

First Shelters The birth of shelters in human history is parallel with the invention of agriculture. When people invented farming, they started living in certain places constantly, and by this, building construction became the main issue for the early humans. Settling brought the idea of constructing larger, taller, stronger buildings (Salvadori, 1990, pp. 2 – 3). Early humans improved their skills of observing the nature itself and the impacts of natural events on the buildings. The first shelters can be listed as caves, tents and simple house buildings made of stone, adobe (mud mixed with straw) and wood. When the number of the single houses located close to each other increased, the first villages appeared (Salvadori, 1990, p. 3). The formation of communities occurred in human history in this manner. When a community comes into existence, it brings some functional requirements such as meeting places and halls and religious buildings. The formation of these buildings is directly related with cultural beliefs, life style, and religion. These characteristics are reflected on the building such as materials used, paintings, ornaments, colors, geometry of the building, and organization of the settlement in terms of functional relation. Research shows that most of the historic structures existing today are religious buildings, military, or defense structures and governmental buildings which were built with better material quality and skill (Croci, 2000, p. 4). Today, even thousands of years later, people still generate settlements by constructing buildings in accordance with the number of users, cultural beliefs of the community, location and the like. Although the scales of the buildings are quite increased, the basic principle is still the same: to ensure that the building will be standing one.

Case Studies Tiger’s Nest: Paro, Bhutan Motivation for constructing a building could always be associated with cultural needs and community beliefs. Tiger’s Nest Temple in Paro - Bhutan can be stated as one of the best distinctive examples of building and construction technology (Figure 1). Construction of the building is directly based on community beliefs and is associated with its own legend and history. The location of the building itself shows the challenge of its construction and the strong effect of pushing the limits for constructing a building in such a place. 42

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Figure 1. Tiger’s Nest Temple in Paro, Bhutan Source: Meltem Vatan.

Tiger’s Nest is an eminent temple located in the Himalayan Buddhist sacred site of Paro Valley cliff and dates from 1692. The structure is devoted to Guru Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche), who brought Buddhism to Bhutan. The legend of the Tiger’s Nest is based on the belief of Guru Padmasambhava’s flight on the back of a tigress from Tibet to its current location on the cliff of Himalayas. This place was consecrated to the belief that the Tiger demon was tamed there. Another legend is based on the belief that a former emperor’s wife willingly became a disciple of Guru Padmasambhava in Tibet. According to the legend, she transformed herself into a tigress and carried the Guru on her back from Tibet to the current location of Tiger’s Nest temple. Meditation and emergence of eight incarnated forms of the Guru caused this place to be considered holy.

Japanese Pagoda Structures Japanese Pagoda structures play an important role in Japanese history, culture, and architecture as religious symbols with their unique structures. The uniqueness is not only the structure itself but also the tradition of its construction as well. Traditional Japanese pagodas are characterized by their slenderness and marvelous wooden workmanship (Figure 2). The vertical effect represents the spiritual value as stretching out to the sky. 43

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Figure 2. Traditional Japanese pagoda, Kyoto

Source: Meltem Vatan.

Wooden Japanese pagodas are originated from the Indian Stupa and multi-storied wooden Chinese buildings with sohrin which is the upper part of the Pagoda structure. The central pillar of the pagoda is the most important part of the structure by its spiritual meaning of being the resting place of Buddha. Spiritually the central pillar could be considered as the whole structure; however, the rest represents the presence of Buddha’s ashes. The mystery and the uniqueness of pagoda structures could be stated by the central pillar standing alone without any support of the other parts of the structure. According to the history of pagodas, this construction type provides earthquake resistance although this theory is not accepted today. During an earthquake, the central pillar and the remaining structure will have different movements and will counteract each other. At present, earthquake resistance is more connected with the material characteristics of wood (Abe & Kawaguchi, 2002). Although pagodas are historic structures, the tradition of their construction is based on reconstruction. The idea is to save the spirit of Buddha which is represented by the central pillar and to 44

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have a certain location for the next reconstruction which is made by specially grown trees for this purpose. The reconstruction is carried out periodically along with the rituals, and the belief is that the spirit of Buddha is living in the new construction (Vatan & Kaptan, 2012).

The Churches of Peace: Poland Protestant Churches Lutherans’ Protestant churches located in Poland could be stated as unique examples of the evolution of structural systems affected by cultural beliefs. The construction history of these churches is related with religious strife and forcing constraints of politics. Due to the fact that the Protestant population in Poland was very small and since physical and political conditions included constraints, the Protestant community developed their skills of construction of wooden framed churches. The construction material for Protestant community was limited only to the wood. They were not permitted to build their churches with different construction materials. The value of Protestant churches started to be undermined later in the 16th century and during the religious strife in the 17th century, Protestant community was forbidden by the city officials from worshipping within the city. Additionally, Protestants were allowed to build only wooden churches and their churches were attacked by arsonists to root them out. Protestants were permitted to build their churches only from wood, loam and straw, and the time allowed for construction was limited to one year (Alvis, 2005, pp. 30 – 33). However, this push led the Protestant community to develop their skills in wooden construction, and at present, the churches from this period are the largest wooden framed religious buildings in the world. Since 2001, the two remaining churches have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Figure 3 shows a church close to the city of Wroclaw.

TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS Traditional construction techniques and structural systems are based on local material availability and the process of using these materials in structural components. Wood, stone, and adobe are the main traditional construction materials. Although the structural materials are the same, traditional buildings show their unique characteristics which testify to their history and the culture to which they belong; local conditions and the environment of their location create diversity of traditional buildings. Obviously, the construction and production processes were affected by diverse cultural factors. The production of construction represents different crafts learned by apprenticeship and oral communication, which directly means that cultural diversity 45

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Figure 3. Protestant church close to Wroclaw city Source: Meltem Vatan.

will create differences in the end product, “the building”, as an entity (Costa et al., 2014). Ali Ihsan Unay defines the structural form of buildings as “the geometrical configuration of the space involved by the structure” and continues, “However, within a similar external geometry, different structural actions could be responded by structure under the same kind of loads” for pointing out the wide variety of effects on structural configuration including culture (Ünay, 2000). The most common traditional construction techniques used all over the world can be listed as wooden framed structures with masonry infill or log constructions, masonry structures including stone, brick and mortar, and adobe and rammed earth structures since ancient times. Of course, the reason is the easy reach, location, and shaping processes and the strength of the material itself. All these different systems are shaped mainly as a result of the organic development through time of vernacular and traditional architecture by experiences of natural exposures such as earthquake resistance. Their seismic performance was one of the main reasons for standing strong or collapsing; those which were earthquake resistant were able to continue their presence and were improved for next generations. In this chapter the traditional construction techniques listed above are discussed in terms of materials used and composition and behavior of structural system. Therefore, traditional structural systems are classified as masonry structures, wooden framed structures and earthen structures. 46

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Masonry Structures Masonry has been used since ancient times in building construction. Geometry of masonry structures and their construction techniques are based on their material characteristic. Masonry structures are mainly composed of stone, brick, adobe and mortar which are brittle, not ductile, the only force capable to be resisted is compression. The main structural components of masonry constructions are walls, columns, arches, domes, vaults, slabs, tie beams, and lintels. Due to its material characteristics, the structural behavior of masonry material under any load condition only permits the shapes of arches, vaults, and domes. Other geometries should be supported by tension elements such as wood or metal tie beams. The first examples of masonry structures were dwellings made of mud and brick which included simple geometrical forms and were supported by wooden tie beams. As time passed, the population increased, and their settlements became more organized, the necessity for larger and more complex buildings arose. In particular, the functional requirement for religious buildings or places for the assembly of community created the need for large scale constructions; as a result, the use of stone and brick / block masonry constructions increased because of limited span capacity of the wood. The most important examples of stone masonry from ancient times are Egyptian Pyramids although they do not have large spaces. The scale of the structure itself is large enough to be worth mentioning. The structural form was created with perfect capacity against environmental exposures (Ünay, 2000). The cultural needs of the Roman period since its beginning to the end of the18th century brought slender components and elements to the structure which was made of fired bricks and masonry blocks (Ünay, 2000). Additionally, the same period of time which overlaps the Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ottoman periods witnessed the development of large domed masonry structures. During that period, religious requirements and need for community meeting places were drivers affecting the development of large domed structures, such as the Pantheon in Rome and Haghia Sophia in Istanbul. During the 16th century during the Ottoman Empire, the great architect Sinan excelled in domed structures in terms of aesthetic view, satisfactory functional requirements, and structural system organization. However, the European part of the world was introduced to Gothic buildings. The idea of Gothic architecture was based on reaching up to the heavens, which was reflected in the building construction. The examples of Gothic architecture were cathedrals, abbeys, churches, and civic structures. Religious cultural effects led to the development of new building techniques such as flying buttresses that made the buildings look slenderer and made their effect lighter, which was one of the religious demands of reaching the heaven.

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Traditional masonry structures do not include only monumental buildings addressed in the paragraphs above but also a great number of civil architectural buildings. Civil architectural buildings are mostly residential examples which include both masonry construction and wooden framed masonry or adobe infilled constructions. Wooden-framed and adobe constructions will be explained in the paragraphs that follow. Although the construction technique is more or less similar, particularly residential buildings include a wide variety of examples around the world with their cultural effects. The colors, ornaments, organization of spaces, and plan configuration vary in accordance with the culture and the natural and environmental constraints where the building is located. One particular example can be seen in the traditional houses in the city of Gaziantep located in Anatolia on the Ancient Silk Road in the southeastern part of Turkey. The peculiarity of traditional Gaziantep houses is in their plan formation based on privacy preferences of the local culture and climate characteristics of the region. Private life is concealed from the public by massive façade walls with few openings covered by screens and fences located on the upper part of the wall, while daily life is arranged around the courtyard. In opposition with the simplicity of the façade wall, the formation of staircases has an important role in traditional Gaziantep houses. Staircases are shown on the façade as an architectural characteristic and are designed in a striking manner (Figure 4) (Vatan & Kuyucu, 2015).

Wooden Framed Structures Throughout history wood has been used as a widespread construction material. Local availability, lightness, easy workability, and aesthetics are the best known characteristics of wood as a construction material. Due to its material characteristics and natural form, it is convenient to be used in framed systems. The spanning capacity of wood in traditional constructions is limited. This is the basic reason for being used mostly in house buildings although there are some monumental examples like mosques and churches. Wooden framed construction is commonly used with masonry, and in some cases masonry is used as an infill material or as the material of ground floor where the upper floors continue with the wooden frame. Depending on the construction technique, wooden structures can be listed as log construction, wooden laced construction and wooden framed constructions (Doğangün et al., 2006). Even though the construction techniques include similarities and the structural behavior is the same, the way of expression of traditional wooden structures differ around the globe. The most common traditional construction techniques can be addressed to Bahareque in El Salvador, Quincha in Peru, Taquezal in Nicaragua, Pontelarisma in Greece, Pombalino and Tabique in Portugal, Taq or Dhajji dewari 48

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Figure 4. Traditional house in Gaziantep Source: Feyza Kuyucu.

in Kashmir, Hatil, Hımıs, Bağdadi in Turkey (Figure 5). These constructions are mostly composed of adobe, rammed earth, and cob, wooden frames with or without masonry infill (stone, brick, adobe) and stone masonry structural systems (Costa et al., 2014). The main load bearing elements of the wooden frame are vertical posts, diagonal braces, and horizontal linking elements. Diagonal bracing is not used in the cases where vertical posts are close to each other (40 – 60 centimeters) (Bal & Vatan, 2009). The system depends on the location where it is used. The main idea of using wooden frame construction is its behavior under earthquake load conditions which is endurance against earthquakes. The evolution of this construction system during history was always based on earthquake resistance. Wooden frame with masonry infill construction adapts to the earthquake shakes by absorbing the energy; wood49

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Figure 5. Wooden frame – masonry infill building, Düzce, Turkey Source: Gülten Gülay.

en frame resists the tensile and flexural forces and masonry infill resists the compression forces by providing confinement to the slender wooden elements. Therefore, structural behavior of wooden framed – masonry infilled construction is based on the tension capacity of wood and the compression capacity of masonry. Another different type of wooden frame construction is using wood as an infill material. The construction is composed of vertical and diagonal main structural members infilled by wood. In this type of construction technique, short rough wooden elements were used as an infill, and they were lightly nailed to vertical studs or horizontal connection elements (Vatan, 2014). The examples of this construction types are bagdadi buildings in Turkey which are mostly located in the Marmara region (Figure 6).

Earthen Structures Earth and clay are ones of the oldest construction materials. In terms of the material used, adobe and rammed earth structures are earthen constructions. On the other hand, in terms of structural behavior, adobe and rammed earth structures are masonry structural systems. The main material of adobe and rammed earth (Figure 7) constructions are clay, sand, water, straw, and organic fibers. The type of the clay is one of the main factors that affects definition of material property, strength, and 50

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Figure 6. Prinpiko Palace, Istanbul Source: Meltem Vatan.

construction technique. The most common way of using earth in building construction is adobe. It could be prepared as sun dried blocks or compressed mixture in the form – work as rammed earth. Earth material has no resistance to water and due to this fact, foundations and plinth level are constructed mostly by stone. On the stone level, wooden tie is placed and then the earthen part is constructed. This construction technique is developed based on the experiences. Earthen structures are maintained by annual plastering and general repair works. Since ancient times, earth has been used as a construction material all over the world. It is possible to say that almost every country has heritage examples of earthen buildings. Earth was used basically where wood and stone were not available enough. It is known that Assyrians constructed adobe buildings 6,000 years ago in Mesopotamia, and Egypt still has standing adobe buildings dating from 3,000 years ago (Türkçü, 2015). The early examples from thousands of years ago could be addressed to Tibet, India, China, Peru, Egypt, Iran, Syria, and Turkey and so on where the first civilizations were established. When the subject is to explore the cultural effect of the construction system, it could be linked to human history in terms of invention of agriculture and transformation of life style itself from nomadic to permanent settlement. At that point, earth and clay came into play as a construction material for the first shelters / homes. Blondet et all state that there are constructions in Peru dating 51

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Figure 7. Rammed earth construction: Bhutan Source: Meltem Vatan.

back to 900 BC in the Casma and Rimac coastal valleys with conical and rectangular adobe blocks (Blondet et al., 2002). Earth is most used as a mixture of soil and organic fibers as straw. Fibers are used for tension while earth is used only for compression. Because of the material characteristics of earth and clay such as their plasticity (pasty mixture) when it is mixed with water, mud emerges and gains strength when it becomes dry. Earth could be stated as the counterpart of wood where forests are not rich (Wright, 2005). The earth and clay materials are easy to obtain and the mud mixture is easy to work on, and due to these facts, earthen structures have had a place in history since ancient times.

SAVE THE PAST, PROTECT THE FUTURE The phenomenon of the evolution of construction systems could be described as a living subject. Throughout history, construction systems evolved in parallel with human history, transition from nomadic life to the settled one, requirements of the growing populations for shelter, dependency on the local material availability, cultural and social traditions, and skills to construct a building and so forth in terms of response to their environment. Continuous evolution of the construction techniques 52

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which has drastically increased acceleration by the technical and technological developments in recent decades includes the knowledge and experiences inherited from early humans as the ancestors and passes it down to descendants for the future. This could be described as “the reflection of traditional construction techniques and structures on modern buildings”. The development of modern construction techniques and new materials always have a relation with the traditional ones. The main reason for this fact is experiences already gained and lessons learned. Particularly when the subject is construction systems, there is coherent relation with the natural exposures and capacity to resist. In this sense, experiences which have a dominant role can be gained over a period of time by being practiced many times until a resistant construction technique is reached. The requirements for the structures and their construction techniques do not change over the years; the forces acting on the buildings are the same and the minimum performance requirements are the same as well. The expectations were stated by Vitruvius (Costa et al., 2014) thousands of years ago: “environmental comfort, aesthetic comfort, and durability through robustness”. Reflection of the traditional construction techniques and structural systems to the modern construction techniques tended to be explained through some selected examples in the paragraphs below.

Earthquake Resistance The modern seismic codes and earthquake resistant building design regulations require lightness of weight, ductility, prevention of resonance effect, vertical and horizontal continuity, and avoidance of structural weaknesses. The concept is to absorb as much energy of the earthquake as possible with minimum damage to the building. Research on the historic structures even from the ancient times show that all these aspects and concerns were included in the historic constructions. One of the particularities for the earthquake resistant building design today as the new technology is construction approach of the relation between soil and building (foundation of construction) and another one is development of seismic isolation systems. Natural exposures and seismic actions have always affected buildings through history and will continue to do so in the future. The main purpose of earthquake resistant constructions is to isolate the building and soil movement to prevent the interaction between the two and their deformations.

Soil - Building Relation (Foundations) The archeological excavations in Cerablus – Anatolia show that wherever the soil is rigid, there is a thin layer of gravel under the 5-meter thick adobe block defense 53

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wall. On the contrary, wherever the soil is soft, on the hill the house building is found which includes the foundation built in a hole four meters deep and 1.80 meters wide (Naumann, 1991, p. 66). The main aim of these construction techniques is the prevention of resonance of the building during earthquake shakes. Resonance is the increased shake of the building even if the load is damped. Prevention of resonance can be reached by separation of building movement and soil movement. Resonance could cause severe damage and even total collapse of the building. According to the modern seismic resistant building design approach, avoidance of the resonance might be reached by preventing the connection of rigid soil and rigid building like masonry or reinforced concrete buildings and by preventing the construction of elastic structures with long building periods like wooden framed structures on soft soils.

Base Isolation Systems The archeological excavations in Boğazköy – Anatolia revealed foundation holes with oval concave shapes where the wall is placed (Naumann, 1991 p. 66). This could be stated as the ancestor of friction pendulum seismic isolation system. The archeological excavations in Alacahöyük – Anatolia revealed a foundation of the building dating from the Chalcolithic Era where there is 10 centimeters of three adobe layers along the whole building. On this part there is a stone layer of 6.5 centimeters width which is slightly inclined outward (Naumann, 1991, p. 66). The main aim of this construction technique is again to reduce the effect of seismic loads on the building. Seismic isolation systems have become significant in reducing the risk of damage in building construction technology to improve the earthquake performance of the buildings. The main aim of the seismic isolation is to reduce the effect of soil movement on the building by isolating superstructure from its foundation in order to prevent severe damage and transmission of shakes of the earth to the building (Kravchuk et al., 2008).

Steel and Timber Frame Structural Systems Large number of examples of modern buildings includes steel and timber frame structural systems. When the technological development of these structural systems is examined, the relationship between traditional wooden framed structures and modern steel and timber frames can obviously be seen. Particularly the bracing elements that are used for earthquake resistance are similar to the diagonal members of traditional wooden frames. During history even early humans have seen that lateral load condition like the earthquake requires triangulated geometry.

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Lightweight Concrete Slabs One of the important principles for earthquake resistant building design and reduction of earthquake load effect on the buildings is decreasing of the building weight. The earliest examples from history, particularly monumental buildings, were made of masonry and the building weight was quite high. Many studies and examples of the historic monuments show that this fact was known since ancient times and reduction of the building weight was desired even thousands of years ago. The tendency was to prepare some holes in the structural elements where the stress accumulation is considerably less, for reducing the building weight. Based on this knowledge today lightweight concrete slab systems are developed. The idea is to reduce the weight of the slab and to construct the building with thinner slabs. This technology ensures the reduction of self-weight, large span capacity and well earthquake performance.

Organic - Inorganic Fibers for Reinforced Concrete Due to its material characteristics, concrete is a brittle material which does not possess tension capacity; it has only compression endurance. Based on this fact reinforced concrete was developed and for tension iron and later on steel elements were used. Conventionally, in accordance with the moment diagram of structural members, position of the reinforcing bars was specified and the reinforcement was made of continuous bar element. The new technological development of construction systems brought out the use of fibers as reinforcement in concrete. In order to increase the energy absorption and tensile strength of the concrete, small and randomly distributed pieces of fibers are used instead of reinforcing bars as reinforcing elements. The idea of using these small pieces goes back to adobe mud mixture which includes organic fibers as straw. The given examples of the new technologies do not cover new developments of the whole construction systems which is major topic of further research. The intention is to give the key aspect of providing a link from the past to the present, and convey it into the future by highlighting the importance of studying traditional technologies and taking lessons from them in systematic and methodical research.

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REFERENCES Alvis, R. E. (2005). Religion and the Rise of Nationalism – A Profile of an East Central European City. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. Blondet, M., Torrealva, D., & García, G. V. (2002, April 19-2). Adobe in Peru: Tradıtıon, Research and Future. Paper presented at the meeting of Modern Earth Building 2002 International Conference and Fair, Berlin. Churches of Peace. (2016). Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Churches_of_Peace Costa, A., Guedes, J. M., & Varum, H. (Eds.), (2014). Structural Rehabilitation of Old Buildings - Building Pathology and Rehabilitation. New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39686-1 Cyril, A. (2007). The Story of Man: An Introduction to 1200 Years of Human History. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press. Deplazes, A. (Ed.). (2010). Constructing Architecture: Materials, Processes, Structures, A Hand Book (2nd ed.). Berlin, Boston: Birkhauser. Doğangün, A., Tuluk, Ö. İ., Livaoğlu, R., & Ramazan, A. (2006). Traditional Wooden Buildings and Their Damages during Earthquakes in Turkey. Engineering Failure Analysis, 13(6), 981–996. doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2005.04.011 Engin, B. I., & Vatan, M. (2009, June 25-27). Earthquake Resistance of Traditional Houses in Turkey: Timber-Frame Infilled Structures. Paper presented at themeeting of International Symposium on Timber Structures from Antiquity to the Present, Istanbul, Turkey (pp. 125-136). Giorgio, C. (2000). The Conservation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage. Southampton, UK: WIT Press. Gül, Ü. Z., & Vatan, M. (2016, March 2-4). Lessons Learned for Sustainable Protection: Relationship Between Cultural Heritage and Natural Disasters. Natural Disasters and Disasters Management SymposiumDAAYS’16, Karabuk, Turkey. Ihsan, U. A. (2000). Structural Wisdom of Architectural Heritage. New York: UNESCO World Heritage.

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Kravchuk, N., Colquhoun, R., & Porbaha, A. (2008). Development of a Friction Pendulum Bearing Base Isolation System for Earthquake Engineering Education. Proceedings of the 2008 American Society for Engineering Education Pacific Southwest Annual Conference, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA. Lechner, N. (2015). Heating, Cooling, Lighting – Sustainable Design Methods for Architects. New York: Wiley. Mario, S. (1990). The Art of Construction: Projects and Principles for Beginning Engineers and Architects. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. Masaru, A., & Mamoru, K. (2002, November). Structural Mechanism and Morphology of Timber Towers in Japan. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering. Meier, H. R., Petzet, M., & Will, T. (Eds.). (2007). Heritage at Risk, Special Edition. Cultural Heritage and Natural Disasters, Risk Preparedness and the Limits of Prevention, Dresden, Germany. Naumann, R. (1991). Eski Anadolu Mimarlığı. Istanbul, Turkey: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınnları. (in Turkish) Paro Taktsang. (2016). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paro_Taktsang Sassu, M. (2015). Vernacular Housing Construction. Pisa, Italy: University of Pisa. Türkçü Çetin. (2015). Yapım (in Turkish). İstanbul, Turkey. Vatan, M. (2014). Protection of Traditional Vernacular Heritage Buildings: Recommendations for the Local People. Paper presented at the meeting of Cultural HELP 2014, Cultural Heritage and Loss Prevention, Porto, Portugal (pp. 191 – 201). Vatan, M., & Kuyucu Feyza. (2015, March 25-27). Formation of Staircases in Traditional Gaziantep Houses. Paper presented at the meeting of iaSU Archi-Cultural Interactions through the Silkroad, Istanbul, Turkey. Vatan, M., & Kubilay, K. (2012). Kültür Mirasının Mimari Strüktürde Tezahürü, Korumada Farklı Bir Yaklaşım: Japon Pagodaları. Journal Mimar, 43. Wright, G. R. H. (2005). Ancient Building Technology(Vol. 2. Materials). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishing.

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The Communicative Nature of Space in Organizations Virginia W. Kupritz University of Tennessee, USA

ABSTRACT This chapter examines the important role of space in communication. Design scholars have long recognized the importance of context, but few have gone further than to acknowledge that space has a communicative dimension. While design research has investigated certain aspects of communication (especially some of the symbolic properties) in organizations, it has not examined the full spectrum of symbolic and physical properties of space that affect interpersonal, group and organizational communication needs. The physical setting communicates messages through its symbolic properties. Just as importantly, it supports or impedes our ability to use visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues through its physical properties that help convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Design solutions that effectively utilize symbolic and physical properties of space to accommodate interpersonal, group and organizational communication needs support organizational strategies to maximize worker opportunity to perform in today’s workplace.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch003 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

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INTRODUCTION I’m not sure if the horse is long or freshly dead, but either way I feel obliged to share a story from this past weekend that I think encapsulates just why so many NCA members were up in arms about the choice to hold the conference at Disney World … Communication is as much as anything about the ethical choices we make about the arrangement of our physical space (must I cite? Harvey, Innis, whatever) … The ethics apparent in the spaces of Walt Disney are utterly antithetical to communication and community, not just disconnecting visitors from the outside world, but from each other…Because my friend chose to stay at the … hotel instead of the … and because I didn’t want to give The Mouse another $15 just to park my car...I wasn’t able to talk to him. (Morris, 2012) What does physical space have to do with communication? Just about everything— space is not just a circumstance, but an influential component of the communication process itself. Long recognized for their contributions to the field of communication, the seminal works of political economists David Harvey and Harold Innis stressed the important dimensions of time and space in communication (Comor, 2001; Janelle & Gillespie, 2004). Harvey was one of the first theorists to link our experiences of globalization to time and space. He coined the term “time-space compression” to explain the way the acceleration of economic activities leads to the destruction of spatial barriers and distances (Harvey, 1990). Just as importantly, Innis applied the dimensions of time and space to various media, to explain the nature and development of a society. Innis believed that a stable society depends on an appreciation of a proper balance between the concepts of time and space, and argued that throughout history, efforts by particular groups to assert power typically have involved efforts to control temporal and spatial conditions (including physical) of day-to-day life (Innis, 1982). The emphasis that these renowned scholars place on the important role of space in communication mirrors the underlying theme of this chapter. For Morris (2012), the physical setting (space) of Florida’s Disney World did not symbolically connect communication with community at the National Communication Association (NCA) conference, nor did it physically support his ability to talk to his friend due to the spatial conditions. Anthropologist Edward Hall, author of proxemics and cultural contexting patterns that are widely studied by design scholars and students, is a founding leader of the environment and behavior (EB) field who pinpointed the systemic nature of communication and physical space, “Nothing occurs, real or imagined, without a spatial context, because space is one of the principal organizing systems for living organisms” (1971, p. 24). Barker (1968), another pioneer in EB research, coined the term “synomorphy” to signify that physical space and human 59

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behavior cannot be separated. Clearly, “Wherever you go, there you are—and it matters … We shape not only buildings but also the land, the waters, the air, and other life forms—and they shape us” (Gifford, 2014, p. 541). Design scholars have long recognized the importance of context, but few have gone further than to acknowledge that space has a communicative dimension. While design research has investigated certain aspects of communication (especially some of the symbolic properties), it has not examined the full spectrum of symbolic and physical properties of space that affect interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs in the workplace. Indeed, the research is rare to nonexistent (Kupritz & Hillsman, 2011). This oversight may be indicative of the design disciplines that do not teach their students, as a rule, about the effect of design on communication, any more than the communication disciplines teach their students about this important topic (Kupritz, 2012a). Design professionals need to be mindful of how design impacts organizational communication outcomes. The physical setting communicates messages through its symbolic properties that convey intended (or unintended) meaning. Just as importantly, it supports or impedes our ability to use visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues through its physical properties, which help convey and interpret messages in social interaction. The objectives of this chapter are to clarify how the physical setting affects communication in organizations through its symbolic and physical properties, and to stress the relevancy of architecture in generating successful organizational communication outcomes in today’s workplace that is geographically dispersed and culturally diverse. We are always imbedded in a space, and that space affects the behavior of communicators in social interaction.

BACKGROUND IMPORTANCE John Dewey (1934) so eloquently stated, “Life goes on in an environment not merely in it but because of it, through interaction with it” (p. 13). Our relationship with architecture is intimate, fundamental, and all-pervasive. Integral to this relationship is our reliance on architecture to help shape and sustain how we communicate. Physical space is a communication medium that symbolizes cultural meaning encoded in its design. As an inseparable part of organizational context, it is also an enabler of social interaction (Vlăduțescu, 2014). Physical space is not merely a medium (pathway) with communication richness and social presence attributes; it is an influential component of the communication process because it directly affects our awareness and understanding of messages and our ability to convey and interpret them in social interaction. Simply put, space can “support, constrain, symbolize, 60

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Figure 1. Mountain challenge climbing tower, TN, USA Source: Kupritz collage image.

and confer meaning upon various aspects of social relationships” (Sundstrom, Bell, Busby, & Asmus, 1996, p. 491) in communication. The concept of communication richness is based upon the classic media richness theory (MRT), which proposes that intraorganizational communication can be ordered on a continuum from leanest to richest media, where lean media, such as numeric documents, lack a personal focus and are not able to transmit nonverbal cues, or to provide immediate feedback that rich media, such as face-to-face, are able to accomplish (Daft & Lengel, 1984; Trevino, Daft, & Lengel, 1987). Building upon Karl Weick’s (1979) tenet that a key function of managing an organization is to reduce uncertainty and equivocality in communication, Daft and Lengel (1984) and Daft and Weick (1984) theorized that richer forms of communication are preferable in uncertain and equivocal situations, whereas leaner forms of communication are more appropriate for more certain and unequivocal situations. MRT has been expanded over the years to include electronic communication. 61

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The concept of social presence originates in classic social presence theory (SPT), which defines it as the degree to which a medium conveys the psychological perception that other people are physically present. SPT suggests that media capable of providing a greater sense of intimacy and immediacy will be perceived as having a greater degree of social presence (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976). That is, some media (e.g., video-conferencing or telephone) have greater social presence than other media (e.g., e-mail), and the use of media higher in social presence should be used for social tasks, such as building relationships (Robert & Dennis, 2005). Short et al. (1976) drew upon Argyle and Dean’s (1965) and Wiener and Mehrabian’s (1968) notions of intimacy and immediacy, respectively, to link social presence to nonverbal signals, including visual (e.g., facial expression, direction of gaze, posture, dress, physical appearance, eye contact), auditory (e.g., voice volume, inflection), tactile/haptic (e.g., touching, shaking hands), and olfactory (e.g., smells, body odor) cues. As a rule, these nonverbal cues relate to specific communication functions, such as mutual attention, channel control, feedback, illustrations, emblems, and interpersonal attitudes (Fulk & Collins-Jarvis, 2001). More than any other communication medium, the physical setting provides additional opportunities for awareness of visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues to convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Depending upon how design professionals choose to address the communicative nature of space, the physical setting also constrains our ability to convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Architecture that accommodates interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs in the workplace supports organizational strategies to maximize worker opportunity to perform. Such strategies are important because effective communication is considered a leading contributor to strong financial performance in organizations (Hynes, 2016). For example, Towers Watson, a global company that provides global capital and management consulting services, conducted research examining the effect of communication on a company’s bottom line for 651 organizations from a broad range of industries and regions, over a ten-year period. Study findings determined that companies that communicated effectively were 3.5 times more likely to significantly outperform their industry peers than those companies that did not communicate effectively (Towers Watson, Inc., 2014). Organizations are challenged today to provide work environments that allow individuals and work groups to remain private enough while enhancing their ability to communicate with one another, especially in the drive to establish high-performance teams. While research is only beginning to examine how space can augment communication effectiveness and efficiency, there is little doubt that the physical and symbolic structure of space can affect proximity, ease, and availability of social exchange (Kupritz & Hillsman, 2011). Even slight architectural accommodations 62

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and flexibility at the level of furniture, components, and configurations may have profound effects on organizational communication outcomes (Brand, 2014).

CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION The concept of culture and its relationship with communication is based upon the premise that groups learn and share a pattern of core values and beliefs that create meaning for the group, which the group symbolically expresses and interprets. This concept applies to any cultural group, be it a national/societal culture, an organizational culture, or a subculture (Schein, 2015). Anthropologists emphasized early on that cultural meaning is socially constructed and provides rules of behavior. Rules shared by most members of the group lead to behavior patterns characteristic of the overall group (e.g., norms and customs of adaptation, spatial behavior, cultural contexting, decision-making guided by core values and beliefs, and use of language) (Harding & Livesay, 1984). Interpreting the behavior of others based upon the behavior patterns of one’s own cultural group is a common occurrence that can lead to cultural misunderstanding (Brislin, Cushler, Cherrie, & Yong, 1986; Gudykunst & Mody, 2002; Kupritz, 2007a). For example, Hall’s (1976) widely cited research on cultural contexting patterns (a type of behavior pattern) determined that cultures operate on a continuum of high to low, where higher-context cultures (e.g., Japanese and Thai) rely more on implicit messages conveyed in a setting and may be misunderstood by lower-context cultures (e.g., German and American) that rely more on explicit messages conveyed in a setting. Culture evolves and creates meaning for its group through the core process of communication, which is the way information is delivered, shared, and interpreted through verbal and nonverbal messages (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2014). Information that conveys meaning is a message, intended or unintended. Verbal messages are communicated through the spoken word, whereas nonverbal messages are communicated through signs (e.g., any motion, gesture, image, sound, pattern, or event) and symbols (e.g., a person’s ethnic attire, space/place, action, word, or object) (Burgoon, Guerrero, & Floyd, 2016). Nonverbal communication represents about two-thirds of all communication (Hogan & Stubbs, 2003). This representation speaks to the importance of signs and symbols in conveying and interpreting messages. As a reification of material culture, symbolic properties of space integrate organizational systems of meaning that allow people to make sense of their organizations (Rafaeli & Pratt, 2013). Other signs and symbols of nonverbal messages include body language and paralanguage. For example, eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, timing in spoken exchange, touching, personal space, appearance, and silence represent ways that body language communicates a nonverbal message. Paralanguage 63

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also communicates nonverbal messages through voice qualifiers (volume, pitch, and intonation or melody of speech), as well through vocalization (nonword sounds and fillers such as “uhuh,” “uh,” sucking breath in, and clicking the tongue) (Duncan & Fiske, 2015). Physical properties of space support or impede our ability to convey and interpret visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues inherent in body language and paralanguage (Kupritz & Hillsman, 2011). Interactional and transactional models of communication conceptualize communication as the process of how information is conveyed and interpreted in social interaction through verbal and nonverbal messages. Both the source (sender) and receiver send and receive messages simultaneously as a two-way process through a channel or medium (e.g., face-to-face). The channel provides the pathway by which messages flow between the source and receiver. Psychological, physiological, semantic (slang or jargon), and physical issues (e.g., loud acoustics in the environment) can negatively affect how messages are conveyed and interpreted. A person’s field of experience (e.g., cultural background, personal, and professional experiences) can also impede communication. Such issues can create interference that changes the meaning of an intended message (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2014; West & Turner, 2010). For example, certain attitudes can make communication difficult psychologically, such as anger that can cause us to lose focus on the message. Physiological conditions, such as deafness or blindness, can impede effective communication and interfere with a message being clearly and accurately understood. Different interpretations of the meaning of certain words, including the mispronunciation of a word, misunderstood slang, or a lack of specificity, can create semantic problems in message understanding. Poor acoustics in an environment can constrain the conveyance and interpretation of a message as well. Also, misinterpretation of a message can occur when the cultural background and personal and professional experiences differ between the sender and receiver (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2014; Martin & Natayama, 2015). While interactional and transactional models focus on issues that interfere with the communication process, symbolic and physical properties of space can not only impede this process; they can provide opportunities to support communication needs and social interaction. The models typically limit their conceptualizations of space to one architectural element (e.g., the acoustical property of building design); however, the recognition by communication scholars that acoustics can affect the communication process is noteworthy. This beginning awareness that an architectural element can affect communication outcomes opens the door to start a conversation about the important role of architecture in the communication process. A comprehensive understanding of how symbolic and physical properties of space affect messages in communication is needed. Indeed, the conveyance and interpretation of messages in 64

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social interaction does not occur in an interpersonal vacuum, void of context. While organizational structure encompasses more than the physical setting (Fairhurst & Putnam, 2004; Farrell & Geist-Martin, 2005), space is a part of an organization’s context that the study of organizational structure should not overlook. Disregarding it can have significant implications for communication outcomes (Pepper, 2008).

SYMBOLIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPACE Symbolic and physical properties of space are part of organizational context. Literature examining the “person-environment” fit describes organizational context as encompassing both subjective and objective aspects of the work environment (Clitheroe, Stokols, & Zmuidzinas 1998; Huang, Robertson, & Chang, 2004). Certain aspects of context are subjective (e.g., interpersonal and group dynamics, social norms, perceptions of environmental stimuli in the built environment with their inherent meanings, as well as the cognitive decoding of environmental symbols). Other aspects of context are objective in nature (e.g., organizational structure, technology, and the actual built environment that we are in and in which we move) (Margulis, 2003; Scott, 2014; Sundstrom, De Meuse, & Futrell, 1990). Environment and behavior researchers commonly refer to the physical setting (space) within an organization’s context as the built or physical environment (Bechtel, 1997). The built environment in an organization consists of architectural elements that encompass the architectural layout and landscaping, building materials and finishes, their placement (e.g., window location, rooms/corridors/open areas), furniture and equipment, and associated ambient conditions—sound, light, temperature, airflow and air quality. The particular way that these architectural elements are designed and configured determines the unique architecture of a space, with its own symbolic and physical properties that work in tandem—not alone—in affecting our ability to communicate. Symbolic properties of space are the symbolic attributes of architectural elements. As environmental symbols, they communicate messages that convey the intended (or unintended) meaning of a space. For example, signage that is color coded with a specific graphic design may be designed to symbolically communicate an intended direction in a particular building space. Physical properties of space are the functional attributes of architectural elements, including the adequacy of the architectural layout, performance, strength, and durability of building materials (e.g., flooring, ceiling, wall, and roof structures), flexibility of fixed and semi-fixed design features, aesthetic quality, ergonomic and comfort levels, adequacy of the acoustical design (how loud the space is), consistency of lighting quality, and consistency of temperature, airflow, and air quality. These physical properties affect our ability to use verbal and nonverbal cues that help convey and interpret mean65

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ing in social interaction (Kupritz & Hillsman, 2011). This chapter addresses how symbolic and physical properties of the built environment in organizations support or impede communication needs and social interaction, as influential components of the communication process itself.

Symbolic Properties of Space A company’s workplace design is a highly visible communication medium. Scott (1999) argued that the built environment in particular is the “only communicative medium wholly necessary. It expresses ideas to the mind while sheltering the body. Good buildings do so more than any other medium” (p. 1). The built environment symbolically represents organizational culture as a visible, physical manifestation and indicator of organizational life (Rafaeli & Pratt, 2013). It communicates intended (or unintended) meaning to users of the environment through its symbolic properties (Melhuish, 2006; Rose, 2011; Sonesson, 2010). In this way, space is a medium that provides architectural communication. Bandura’s (1977) classic social learning theory emphasizes that people learn through association. In turn, people associate environmental symbols as cues for interpreting the environment. These cues reflect cultural practices, roles, rules, and mores. The way we identify and interpret mnemonic (i.e., implicit) cues is very much a matter of prior cultural learning (Schein, 2015). The user of the environment interprets the cues. If the user does not decode (i.e., share or understand) the code, then the environment fails to communicate its intended meaning. Built environments that do not communicate their intended meaning can be perceived as disorienting and stressful (Rapoport, 2013). Environmental symbols are integral to organizational life—they are not simply by-products of an organization, but rather elements that affect the active construction of user sense making, knowledge, and behavior in organizations (Rafaeli & Pratt, 2013). Such symbols can be designed to accomplish specific communication objectives in organizations (Aiello, 2008), including communicating directions in wayfinding, an emphasis or downplay of status, three-dimensional branding, and core values.

Communicating Directions in Wayfinding Environmental symbols may be used to communicate directions to users in determining and following a route (path) between an origin and a destination. Route-learning and route-following strategies help create cognitive maps that internally represent perceived environmental features or objects, and the spatial relationships among them (Golledge, 1999; Lukas, Mittelstaedt, Olaru, Sachser, Seibold, & Huckauf, 2014). Peponis, Zimring, and Choi (1990) introduced the wayfinding notion of a “search structure,” in which characteristics of spatial layouts combine with naviga66

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Figure 2. Piano and violin building, China; symbolic properties of space communicate the intended (or unintended) meaning of a space. This building, although built for music lovers, actually serves as a showroom for exhibiting the urban plans for the district of Shannan in Huainan City, China.

tion rules to determine exploration patterns. Route orientation and navigation are intentional, motivated, and directed activities (Golledge, 1999). The main objective of wayfinding design is to communicate essential information to users that provides directions on how to effectively navigate their environment (Gharaveis, Kalantari, Kazemzadeh, & Marahemi, 2016; Gifford, 2014). The cultural diversity of today’s workforce adds another level of complexity in communicating essential information, because environmental symbols can be culturally specific, and may not be recognized by all users (Heft, 2013). The graphic layout, color coding, and placement of a building’s signage are environmental symbols that can help communicate directions in wayfinding. Simulating a virtual reality environment, Hidayetoglu, Yildirim, and Akalin (2012) determined that indoor environments painted in cool hues (colors) with strong intensities facilitated spatial orientation, and indoor environments painted in warm hues with strong intensities facilitated spatial memory. Audible PA systems and elevator chimes, along with the tactile property of raised letters in signage and change in the texture 67

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of floor coverings are other environmental symbols that can help communicate directions in wayfinding. Even a building’s piped-in smells are environmental symbols that can help communicate directions in wayfinding, by reinforcing the user’s cognitive map through olfactory cues communicated by the environment (see, for example, Frankenstein, Brüssow, Ruzzoli, & Hölcher, 2012). The spatial layout itself can also communicate directions in wayfinding. For example, Hölscher, Meilinger, Vrachliotis, Brösamle, and Knauff (2006) investigated floor configuration for wayfinding in a complex, multilevel building. Study findings revealed that people most often headed for the floor on which the location was to be found, rather than heading for the best-known parts of the building or toward the horizontal location of the place sought. Design professionals should seek creative wayfinding solutions that effectively communicate essential information to users who have a range of emotional and physical needs, abilities, and knowledge levels. Such solutions should accommodate the decline of wayfinding ability experienced in normal aging (Davis & Therrien, 2012), gender differences (Sevinç & Bozkurt, 2015), intellectual and cognitive disabilities (Gharaveis, Kalantari, Kazemzadeh, & Marahemi, 2016), persons with poor memories, and those who become easily confused (Zeisel, 2013). Users can become anxious and stressed when they are disoriented and not able to recognize their immediate surroundings. Wayfinding, especially in emergency evacuations, is stressful even in the best of circumstances, where distinct design features effectively communicate the exit route to users (Salmi, 2005).

Communicating an Emphasis or Downplay of Status Environmental symbols may be designed to communicate an emphasis or downplay of status to support impression management (Lillqvist & Louhiala-Salminen, 2014). Organizations strive to establish and maintain impressions that are congruent with the perceptions they want to convey to their stakeholders (e.g., customers, suppliers, investors, and employees who have a vested interest in their company’s performance, in addition to stock appreciation) (Merkl-Davies & Brennan, 2011). Office design provides a “particularly salient stage on which we act as well as a stage that is extremely likely to create impressions and influence social interactions” (Ornstein, 1989, p. 413). In this way, the built environment contributes to the impressions that clients and organizational members have about a person’s status within an organization (Murand, 2010). For example, the design and configuration of office size and location, partition or wall height, window availability, as well as the quality of office furnishings, interior finishes, and décor, are environmental symbols that serve as clear reminders of the role people appear to play at work (e.g., supervisor, subordinate, and colleague). 68

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Organizations have assumed for some time that open-plan layouts and cubicle workspaces with reduced gross square footage per person and desk sharing communicate positive messages about a company’s openness and unpretentiousness to clients and organizational members, whereas private offices with floor-to-ceiling walls are supposed to send messages about formality, restriction, and distance (Ornstein, 1989). But this assumption focuses on the ability of architecture to create impressions in the minds of viewers, not on the accuracy of those impressions. That is, architectural space, as it is designed and used, does not necessarily reflect an organization’s legitimacy claims of openness and unpretentiousness. While space efficiency and the reduction in overall space-use costs continue to be primary financial motives (GSA, 2012), many organizations today also want to downplay status in the workplace (especially corporate offices) to promote the notion of an “open” organization, and counter negative connotations of elitism. More holistic productivity metrics (Sharp, 2013), however, tell a different story about the long-term profitability of these design initiatives, which is echoed by Church (2015): The main “pro” is that they’re cheaper [open-plans]. They don’t foster collaboration because they make people more irritable and aggressive. Nor are they “egalitarian” because the invasive, violating degree of visibility to which the worker is subjected actually increases status-related anxiety and steepens disparities in power. Open-plan isn’t as oppressive to the CEO, who can leave that environment without explaining himself… (p. 1) Organizations should not translate the merits of an open organization into a call for physical openness, without carefully considering how the open-plan actually affects communication effectiveness and privacy for individual and group work (Kupritz, 2011; Brill, Weideman, & BOSTI Associates, 2001; Kim & de Dear, 2013).

Communicating Brand through 3-D Branding Environmental symbols may also be designed to communicate a company’s brand through architectural elements that reinforce and communicate brand identity, whether intentional or not (Miller, 2007; Kapferer, 2012). The combination of architecture, interiors, lighting, graphics, and landscaping used to communicate a company’s brand is called three-dimensional (3-D) branding. Organizations use brand identity as an impression-management strategy to convey a consistent and repeatable message to their stakeholders (Boundless Management, 2016). Marketing tools play a significant role in reinforcing brand identity, but they cannot be expected to shoulder the entire load. An organization’s physical space is a major corporate asset that is too visible to leave out of brand building. The key challenge 69

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is to extend perceptions about the organization’s brand to every point of contact with stakeholders. Achieving this contact with stakeholders entails weaving brand building throughout the entire organization, incorporating it into business strategy, product design, customer service, and the physical space of the organization (Kapferer, 2012; Vallaster & Lindgreen, 2013). The design of a workplace should reinforce brand identity to stakeholders through a unified design message. Stakeholders bring certain expectations—what they see, hear, touch, and smell inside and outside the building—that either reinforce or alter their perceptions of the company’s brand (Kupritz, 2012b). An organization can talk and write about its brand, but no words can illustrate the impression created by a quick glance around a company’s building. This means developing design solutions throughout the space that collectively result in a 3-D expression of what the company’s brand is all about. For example, if a company’s brand is about innovation, the company should do a world-class job of showcasing innovative design solutions throughout the building for stakeholders to experience as they enter and meander through the company’s space.

Communicating Core Values Environmental symbols may communicate core values as powerful reinforcers of office norms. These symbols, however, may not consistently represent core values. For example, an organization may proclaim that it has an open-door policy as an espoused value, where the doors to management offices are physically left open to symbolize open communication between employees and management. The core value of this organization, however, is for management decisions to be made privately without employee involvement; frank and honest employee communication with management triggers retribution (Kupritz & Hillsman, 2011). In other words, the users of an environment can identify what they see, hear, touch, and smell, but they “cannot reconstruct from that alone what those things mean in the given [cultural] group, or whether they even reflect important underlying assumptions” (Schein, 2004; p. 26-27). This is why artifacts can be “easy to identify but very difficult to decipher” (Schein, 2004, p. 26). The diversity of today’s workforce has created additional challenges for organizations to create environmental symbols that communicate their intended meaning to an increasingly dispersed and culturally diverse workforce. Sean-Delaney Leadership Consulting Group, Inc. (1998) astutely pinpoints the complexity of this diversity: Merging two corporate cultures from the same country with the same language and traditions is challenge enough. That challenge can be compounded when differing country cultures and norms are added to the equation. What might be seen 70

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as healthy assertive “bias for action” in one society may be seen as rude, offensive and inappropriate behavior in another. These issues must be dealt with because more and more cross-border acquisitions are taking place. (p. 7) While the creating and embedding of cultural values and beliefs into an organizational culture is both a teaching and a learning process, workers also bring with them the deeper societal values and beliefs from which they come (Kupritz, 2000). That is, user experience of environments most fully responds to the societal (national) culture; it reflects the deeper values and assumptions held by the larger culture (Dupuis, 2014; Gelfand, Erez, & Aycan, 2007; Karahanna, Evaristo, & Srite, 2005). Design professionals should pay close attention to potential cultural misunderstandings that these deeper societal values and beliefs can create in user interpretation of environmental symbols. Symbols with universal design appeal are needed to accommodate the many national cultures and occupational subcultures that can exist in an organizational culture, especially with more and more global teams and cross-functional teams operating in the workplace today (Schein, 2015).

Physical Properties of Space The ability of physical space to influence behavior was the focus of Gibson’s (1979, 1982) affordance theory. Affordances are physical properties of space as they are used and experienced, not as they are interpreted (Gibson, 1979). Affordances are not just physical properties, but properties with functional attributes. These functional attributes can facilitate social interaction, or they can impede it. For example, office spaces with adequate acoustical control over noise and distractions can facilitate social interaction, whereas other office spaces with inadequate acoustical control over noise and distractions can impede social interaction. Functional attributes include not only the adequacy of the architectural layout (e.g., open-plan), but also the performance, strength, and durability of building materials (e.g., flooring, ceiling, wall, and roof structures), flexibility of fixed and semi-fixed design features, aesthetic quality, ergonomic and comfort levels, adequacy of the acoustical design (how loud the space is), consistency of lighting quality, and consistency of the temperature, airflow, and air quality. Our ability to convey and interpret messages in the workplace through visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues is physically supported or impeded by how well a space is designed and configured (Kupritz & Hillsman, 2011). This communicative process should not be interpreted as environmental determinism, which has long been discredited. Indeed, the built environment does not “predict” behavior, as proclaimed by the British planner Maurice Broady (1966). Rather, the built environment affects behavior by providing opportunities that can facilitate 71

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or impede behavior; it also acts as a catalyst for releasing latent behavior (Gans, 1968). Applied to work environments, how well a space is designed and configured contributes to organizational structure in two major ways: it affects the quantity and quality of work processes, including social interaction; and it acts as a catalyst for organizational outcomes (for example, absenteeism and turnover). Environment and behavior research has consistently documented that physical properties of the built environment enable and impede work processes (Brill, et. al, 2001; De Croon, Sluiter, Kuijer, & Frings-Dresen, 2005; Gifford, 2014; Kim & de Dear, 2013; Vischer, 2008). The behavior of communicators in social interaction is included in this research as an integral part of work processes. The following discussion addresses how the broad range of physical properties affects our ability to use visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues in social interaction. All of these physical properties play a role in facilitating or impeding social interaction.

Physical Properties Affecting Visual Cues The particular gaze, level of eye contact, and positioning of body posture used to communicate may be enhanced or constrained by how well the architectural layout and design accommodate side-by-side work in social interaction, provide space for such factors as impromptu communication and workspace comfort. The classic environment and behavior research of Mehrabian (1976) determined that the amount of intimacy and immediacy occurring in social interaction also depends upon the line of vision and positioning of fixed and semi-fixed design features, such as the angle of furniture and accessories, and raised floor areas. The range of flexibility offered by the built environment may also affect visual cues used to communicate. People not only position themselves around a fixed feature of design to change their line of vision for social interaction (or isolation); they also manipulate the physical feature itself, if flexibility allows. The early work of Sundstrom (1985) illustrated how workers use seating arrangements to manipulate their personal space and nonverbal behavior in social interaction: “Partners in conversation seek an optimal psychological distance, which is adjusted through interpersonal proximity, eye contact, and other behaviors” (p. 184). Visual cues may be enhanced or constrained by spatial proximity and lighting as well. For example, employees trained to work in teams may not communicate effectively when placed back into individual cubicles located away from each other, with no collaborative work areas available to support team interaction. Indeed, Braeger, Bauman, Heerwagen, and Rulan (2000) determined that the social interaction of teams was influenced by the teams’ proximity to individual workspaces, along with design features (particularly furniture and equipment) and the acoustics. In addition to adequate spatial proximity, the Kupritz (2005) study, examining workplace privacy and collaboration in a manufacturing company, revealed 72

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that adequate lighting for primary and secondary work surfaces and conversational areas enhanced the awareness of visual cues used in social interaction. Engineers/ technical professionals and managers especially stressed the need for adequate lighting and controls to support collaborative work. Their common responses included: “Lighting in a team environment”; “Task lighting is important as well, could make or break it [collaborative group work]”; “Environmental controls—lights” (p. 25). Design professionals should also consider locating workspaces near outdoor views and using daylighting as much as possible to combat mental fatigue and job stress, in determining spatial proximity and lighting design. The natural environment communicates biophilic information (organisms, species, habitats, and objects in natural surroundings that evoke positive emotions for attention restoration) (Bjørnstad, Patil, & Raanaas, 2015), including temporary relief from mental fatigue (Berto, Baroni, Zainaghi, & Betella, 2010), stress reduction (Grinde & Patil, 2009), and improved performance on cognitive tasks (Berman, Jonides, & Kaplan, 2008; Kaplan, 2001).

Figure 3. The particular gaze, level of eye contact, and positioning of body posture used to communicate may be enhanced or constrained by how well the architectural layout and design accommodate side-by-side work in social interaction, provide space for impromptu communication, workspace comfort, etc.

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Physical Properties Affecting Auditory Cues HHow well the acoustics are designed and controlled in work organizations may enhance or constrain attempts to convey and interpret a message spoken at a certain volume and inflection. Unfortunately, unwanted office noise continues to be a major problem (Oseland & Hodsman, 2015) that affects worker ability to convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Acoustician Julian Treasure (2012) identified sound and acoustics in office design as possibly the two most pressing issues in architecture today. Perham, Banbury, and Jones (2007) determined that in many cases, acoustics have not received the attention that most other architectural systems have, even though excessively reverberant environments have created communication difficulties in interpersonal and group interaction and worker ability to concentrate. Attention to sound and acoustics in office design is more important than ever, as organizations (especially corporations) move to house workers in cubicles even smaller than the 1990s, as well as in free-flowing, open-plan spaces where cubicles have been dismantled (GSA, 2012). Many of the spaces are constructed in such a way that workers may face foot-traffic aisles or they are located near them, which can create acoustical distractions and interruptions. Workers may have impromptu conversational areas located near their workspace (e.g., mail areas, water fountains, Figure 4. Attempting to convey and interpret a message spoken at a certain volume and inflection may be enhanced or constrained by how well the acoustics are designed and controlled.

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restrooms, and noisy office equipment), and they may experience coworkers using speakerphones, all of which make it more difficult to hear someone speaking (Bailey, 2012). Additionally, improperly located sound-reflective light fixtures in workspaces act as mirrors for high frequency sound, and further increase conversational noise levels. Design professionals should address both the quantified effects of sound and the subjective experience of sound (Oseland & Hodsman, 2015) in workplace design. Resolving the noise problem in open-plan offices is further compounded by the reality that many times collaborative areas (e.g., conference rooms, larger individual workspaces that accommodate meetings, and just-in-time spaces for impromptu meetings) do not exist, or are unavailable when needed for social interaction (Braeger, et al., 2000). In addition, workers do not have time to continually relocate to more private spaces, or they remain at their workstation in spite of distractions to have immediate access to needed reference materials and supplies (Kupritz, 2007b). Alternative work arrangements, such as on-site work with increased local mobility, telework, desk sharing through hoteling (reservation-based unassigned seating) and hot desking (reservationless unassigned seating) leverage mobility in today’s emerging workplace. The question is whether these work modes are adequate enough to counter the communication constraints and noise and visual distractions experienced by workers on-site. Open-plan offices, assumed to increase communication, have often had the opposite effect because of privacy problems with noise and visual distractions created by distraction-porous designs. That is, people tend to communicate less when they cannot physically control social interaction. Indeed, “Linking open-plan layouts to facilitation of communication between co-workers… organisational [sic] efficiency and productivity has scant empirical evidence supporting it” (Kim & de Dear, 2013, p. 25). Originally marketed as a way to increase communication in the Bürolandschaft office landscaping movement of the 1960s, the open plan—modified today to be more free-flowing—has largely returned. But the empirical evidence has not changed. For the most part, the open plan does not increase communication; neither does it sufficiently support individual and group privacy needs (Kupritz, 2011; Brill et al., 2001; Kaarlela-Tuomaala, Helenius, Keskinen, & Hongisto, 2009; Kim & de Dear, 2013).

Physical Properties Affecting Tactile/Haptic Cues Research examining tactile awareness in communication has largely focused on the act of touching (e.g., handshakes, a pat on the shoulder, and “high fives”) (Knapp & Hall, 2007). The research has not examined the effect of the physical setting on this type of physical exchange; however, environment and behavior research is beginning to document that heating/ventilation/air-conditioning (HVAC) systems 75

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provide a stimulant condition for tactile awareness that may enhance or constrain social interaction (Baron, 2013). For example, the Kupritz (2005) study examining workplace privacy and collaboration in a manufacturing company determined that poorly designed HVAC systems, with fluctuating temperatures and air blowing directly onto people, impeded social interaction. Workers across job types gave these common descriptions of HVAC problems that were impeding collaborative work: People are more collaborative when they are comfortable [with temperature], which may vary. Right below air conditioning ducts can be annoying—blowing right on us, then it kicks off. The inconsistency of temperature—I’m tired of falling or seeing people fall asleep at the table. (p. 26)

Physical Properties Affecting Olfactory Cues Our sense of smell in social interaction may be enhanced or constrained by how efficiently indoor air contaminants are diffused or eliminated through HVAC systems, and how well dirt, dust, gas, and odor emissions from furniture and equipment, floor Figure 5. Heating/ventilation/air-conditioning (HVAC) systems provide a stimulant condition for tactile awareness that may enhance or constrain social interaction. Source: Baron, 2013.

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and wall finishes, and janitorial cleaning are managed (Schneider, 1999). HVAC systems are used to diffuse aromas in buildings to communicate olfactory branding for companies; increase product marketing for bakery, coffee, tobacco, popcorn, and nut shops (Bosmans, 2006; Zidansek, 2014); reduce stress (Dalton & Jaen, 2010); and increase cognitive performance (Zoladz, Raudenbush, & Lilley, 2004). To date, research has identified over 6,000 different olfactory substances, up to 400 of which are generally found in indoor air (Von Kempski, 2002). Kupritz (2007b) urged organizations to provide HVAC systems that control/eliminate food smells originating from dining and break areas, so that office workers are not distracted during individual and collaborative work. Workers, however, do not always experience odors in exactly the same way. For example, cultures may vary in their olfactory awareness and interpretation of body odor to communicate (Knapp & Hall, 2007). Further, air flow and air quality in HVAC systems can negatively impact environmental smells and intensify unwanted body odor in higher temperature settings. A growing body of evidence suggests that pleasant fragrances may positively affect certain behaviors in social interaction (see the classic review by Baron & Thomley, 1994). For example, Zoladz, Raudenbush, and Lilley (2004) determined Figure 6. The nose knows; a growing body of evidences suggests that pleasant fragrances may positively affect certain behaviors in social interaction.

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that administering peppermint and cinnamon odors, through the nose or orally, increased attentional processes, virtual recognition, and working memory. Shimizu, a major Japanese architectural firm, has developed computerized techniques for diffusing through air conditioning ducts aromas whose objective is to enhance work processes (including social interaction), and to reduce stress among office workers (Jandt, 2006). Research has also examined the potential benefit of using computers to release odors locally through “whiffers” (Harel, Carmel, & Lancet, 2003) or head-mounted gear (Cater, 1994) in computer-mediated interaction. Once released, odors may be further dispersed through HVAC systems.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Research examining the full spectrum of symbolic and physical properties of space that affect interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs in the workplace is rare to nonexistent. More research is needed in this area to inform architectural practice, and ultimately to inform organizational policy about the ways architecture should be utilized to enhance organizational communication. While research is only beginning to examine how space can augment communication effectiveness and efficiency, there is little doubt that proximity, ease, and availability of social exchange can be affected by the symbolic and physical properties of space. Organizations should closely weigh the long-term profitability costs to organizational communication outcomes as part of their decision-making in eliminating underutilized workspace. The return on investment of reduced corporate real estate costs through space reduction may not be as profitable as the long-term benefits of providing occupant workspaces that are consistently available during peak operation times for interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs—even if this means a percentage of workspaces stands empty at other times of the day. To reiterate, even slight architectural accommodations and flexibility at the level of furniture, components, and configurations may have profound effects on organizational communication outcomes (Brand, 2014). Architecture that allows individuals and work groups to remain private enough, while enhancing their ability to communicate with one another, plays an integral role in generating successful organizational communication outcomes. Such strategies are important because effective communication is considered to be a leading contributor to strong financial performance in organizations (Dozier, Grunig, & Grunig, 2013; Henderson, 2008; Hynes, 2016; Yates, 2006).

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CONCLUSION Few decisions made by today’s organizations are as highly visible, as expensive, and as long-lasting as the decisions made about physical facilities and their properties (O’Mara, 1999). The emerging workplace is a geographically dispersed and culturally diverse place, where team work continues to grow in importance, computer work is taking precedence over paperwork, and increased local mobility is standard practice rather than the exception (GSA, 2012). Design solutions that effectively utilize symbolic and physical properties of space to accommodate interpersonal, group, and organizational communication needs in today’s emerging workplace support organizational strategies to maximize worker opportunity to perform. The built environment communicates messages through its symbolic properties that convey intended (or unintended) meaning. Integral to organizational life, symbolic properties affect the active construction of user sense making, knowledge, and behavior in organizations (Rafaeli & Pratt, 2013). Just as importantly, the built environment supports or impedes our ability to use visual, auditory, tactile/haptic, and olfactory cues through its physical properties that help convey and interpret messages in social interaction. Simply put, we are always embedded in a space, and that space affects the behavior of communicators in social interaction.

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Melhuish, C. (2005). Towards a phenomenology of the concrete mega structure space and perception at the Brunswick Centre, London. Journal of Material Culture, 10(1), 15–29. doi:10.1177/1359183505050092 Merkl-Davies, D. M., & Brennan, N. M. (2011). A conceptual framework of impression management: New insights from psychology, sociology and critical perspectives. Accounting and Business Review, 41(5), 415–437. doi:10.1080/000 14788.2011.574222 Morris, D. Z. (2012, November 19). Announcements, queries, and discussions. Retrieved from http://lists1.cac.psu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind1211&L=CRTNET& T=0&H=1&P=8731 Murand, D. A. (2010). The social psychology of status leveling in organizational contexts. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 18(1), 76–104. doi:10.1108/19348831011033221 O’Mara, M. A. (1999). Strategy and place: Managing corporate real estate and facilities for competitive advantage. New York: Free Press. Ornstein, S. (1989). New directions: Impression management through office design. In R. A. Giacalone & P. Rosenfeld (Eds.), Impression management in the organization (pp. 411–426). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations. Oseland, N., & Hodsman, P. (2015). Planning for psychoacoustics: A psychological approach to resolving office noise distraction: Research report. Workplace Unlimited. Retrieved from http://www.ecophon.com/globalassets/media/pdf-and-documents/ uk/ecophon-planning-for-psychoacoustics.pdf Peponis, J., Zimring, C., & Choi, Y. K. (1990). Finding the building in wayfinding. Environment and Behavior, 22(5), 555–590. doi:10.1177/0013916590225001 Pepper, G. L. (2008). The physical organization as equivocal message. Journal of Applied Communication, 36(3), 318–338. doi:10.1080/00909880802104882 Perham, N., Banbury, S., & Jones, D. M. (2007). Do realistic reverberation levels reduce auditory distraction? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(7), 839–847. doi:10.1002/acp.1300 Rafaeli, A., & Pratt, M. G. (2013). Artifacts and organizations: More than the tip of the cultural iceburg. In A. Rafaeli & M. G. Pratt (Eds.), Artifacts and Organizations: Beyond Mere Symbols (pp. 1–8). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Rapoport, A. (2013). Human aspects of urban form. Towards a man-environment approach to urban form and design. New York: Pergamon Press. 86

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Towers Watson, Inc. (2014). 2013–2014 change and communication ROI: The 10th anniversary report. How the fundamentals have evolved and the best adapt. Retrieved from https://www.towerswatson.com/en-US/Insights/IC-Types/Survey-ResearchResults/ 2013/12/2013-2014-change-and-communication-roi-study Treasure, J. (2012). Building in sound: Biamp systems white paper. Retrieved from ht tps://67aa6fee3b112cf7b085a4daa72d047cd5cf1107a27466ad39b3.r75.cf1.rackcdn. com/Biamp_Whitepaper_Building_in_Sound.pdf Trevino, L. K., Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1987). Understanding managers’ media choices: A symbolic interactionist perspective. In J. Fulk & C. Steinfield (Eds.), Organizations and Communication Technology (pp. 71–94). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Vallaster, C., & Lindgreen, A. (2013). The role of social interactions in building internal corporate brands: Implications for sustainability. Journal of World Business, 48(3), 297–310. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2012.07.014 Vischer, J. C. (2008). Towards an environmental psychology of workspace: How people are affected by environments at work. Architectural Science Review, 51(2), 97–108. doi:10.3763/asre.2008.5114 Vlăduțescu, S. (2014). Communication Environment: Context/Situation/Framework, Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, 6(1), 193-204. Von Kempski, D. (2002). The use olfactory stimulants to improve indoor air quality. Journal of the Human-Environmental System, 5(2), 61–68. doi:10.1618/jhes.5.61 Weick, K. (1979). Social psychology of organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. West, R., & Turner, L. H. (2010). Introducing communication theory. Analysis and application (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Wiener, M., & Mehrabian, A. (1965). Language within language: Immediacy and a channel in verbal communication. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Yates, K. (2006). Internal communication effectiveness enhances bottom-line results. Journal of Organizational Excellence, 25(3), 71–79. doi:10.1002/joe.20102 Zidansek, M. (2014). What scents can do for a brand: Exploration of brand-scent boundary conditions [Dissertation]. Washington State University. Ziesel, J. (2013). Improving person-centered care through effective design. Generations (San Francisco, Calif.), 3, 45–52.

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Zoladz, P., Raudenbush, B., & Lilley, S. (2004). Cinnamon perks performance. Paper presented at the28th Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences, Sarasota, Florida.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Affordances: Physical properties of space as they are used and experienced, not as they are interpreted. Built Environment: Architectural elements that encompass the architectural layout and landscaping, building materials and finishes and their placement (e.g., window location), rooms/corridors/open areas, furniture and equipment, and associated ambient conditions (sound, light, temperature, airflow and air quality) in an organization. Communication: The way in which knowledge is delivered, shared, and interpreted. Communication Medium: A channel that provides the pathway by which messages flow between the source and receiver. Culture: A group that learns and shares a pattern of core values that creates meaning for the group, which is symbolically expressed and interpreted by the group. Environmental Symbols: Symbols in the environment that represent or suggest an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material entity. Interactional and Transactional Models of Communication: Models that conceptualize communication as the process of how messages are conveyed and interpreted in social interaction through verbal and nonverbal cues. Messages are sent and received simultaneously by both the source (sender) and receiver as a two way process through a channel or medium (e.g., face-to-face). Messages: Information that conveys meaning (intended or unintended) through the spoken word, signs (any motion, gesture, image, sound, pattern, or event), and symbols (a person, space/place, action, word, or object). Physical Properties of Space: Functional attributes of architectural elements that include the adequacy of the architectural layout, performance, strength, and durability of building materials (e.g., flooring, ceiling, wall, and roof structures), flexibility of fixed and semi-fixed design features, aesthetic quality, ergonomic and comfort level, adequacy of the acoustical design (how loud the space is), amount of artificial lighting and daylighting, and consistency of the temperature, airflow, and air quality. Symbolic Properties of Space: Symbolic attributes of architectural elements that communicate the intended (or unintended) meaning of a space.

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Chapter 4

Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator in Architectural Drawings Fabio Colonnese Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

ABSTRACT In architectural drawings, human figures generally express the scale of design space. Their presence is supposed to be a sign of a particular sensibility toward human scale and needs and over the centuries, figures were capable of playing a number of different cultural roles. From the anthropomorphic attitudes of Renaissance architects to the Functionalists’ diagrams, human figures have illustrated and mediated the cultural development of human environment. Even if architects maliciously used them to convey layered meanings into their architectural renderings, they are an implicit index of different ideas about men and women and express architects’ ideological positions toward society often beyond their intents. This paper analyzes the use of human figures in architectural designs with a particular attention to the twentieth century, to the passage from the mechanical to the digital age, in which the diffusion of cut-and-paste procedure is changing and enhancing their use in the globalized architecture.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch004 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator in Architectural Drawings

INTRODUCTION1 According to Quinan (1993), who had been informed by the Taliesin Fellow Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, … sometime during 1958, Wright prepared a series of large-scale perspective drawings to demonstrate to the board of trustees of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum how the ramps and walls of the museum would accommodate paintings of various sizes. In one, ‘The Masterpiece’, a small girl leans on the interior parapet wall and looks down into the rotunda space. Moments before meeting with the trustees, Wright took out his pencil and deftly added the yo-yo that hangs from the girl’s hand, saying to his apprentices, ‘Boys, we must never lose sight of our sense of humor.’ Indeed, Wright would need a sense of humor to see this project through. (Quinan, 1993, p. 466) Thus, the yo-yo dangling from a bored child’s hand would be a small ironic touch to the draftsman’s work. But it is not so easy. On December 29, 2012, in the Save Wright chat, the sense of this particular figure was deeply discussed related to the adults admiring a large abstract picture, properly ‘The Masterpiece’. According to JimM: Wright is showing a child bored with the ‘masterpiece’, while the adults solemnly and dutifully ponder its (in)significance”, as “looking into the rotunda was more rewarding than viewing the silly art. (“Guggenheim,” 2012) Some hours later, Peterm interpreted, … the girl with the yo-yo as a reminder of the democratic nature of this particular museum … If Wright were really critiquing the art that the adults are contemplating, why would he make it his own brand of art? (“Guggenheim,” 2012) Later, SDR questioned why, … the art shown in the Wright illustration (none of it in his hand?) seems a cross between Kandinsky and Wright’s own sort of abstraction, published in the previous decades? … Would he have been (secretly) delighted by the work of the early Suprematists and Constructivists, and (later) Klee, Arp, etc.? (“Guggenheim,” 2012) This little story is an exquisite example of not only the numerous possibilities of interpreting a human figure with regard of space and details, but also of the 91

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unpredictable cultural role of visual accessories, human figures in particular, in adding layered and subtle meanings to architectural drawings. A careful use of human figures in architectural representations has remote origins. For example, in the representation of villas, gardens, and rural estates from the sixteenth and eighteenth century, which were so strategic to establish the social prestige of their owners and commitments, human figures use to play an important role in conveying the viewers’ perception of space and direct their gaze to specific features. “In certain images, the property owner appears in the foreground positioned on an elevated vantage point that may or may not have existed in reality (…), frequently accompanied by people or artifacts that underscore their elite status” also through their clothing, “postures and gestures codified in theatre, etiquette manuals, and treatise on the visual arts” (Harris & Hays, 2008, pp. 29-30). In architectural drawings, human figures are conventionally used to visually express the use of space and the size of architectural components, but in the context of architecture design, their presence can be interpreted in many ways, depending on the design level, the scale of reduction, and the objectives of the representation itself. Their presence in architecture designs is supposed to be a symptom of a particular sensibility toward human scale and needs, but during centuries, they have been playing a number of roles not only according to the kinds of representation but to the different idea about man. The second part of this chapter describes the relationship between human body and architectural body from Early Modern to Modern Age up to Ernst Neufert’s design of an ideal man for the Modern(ist) world. Over these five centuries, architects produced not only both anthropomorphic and anthropometric architecture, but also attributed different roles to human figure in architectural drawings. Finally, their latent design and communicative potential was understood by the 20th century architects as described by the third part of this chapter. Some of them expanded Neufert’s ideal man (and more rarely woman) in order to study human body movements to optimize design space mainly according to Taylorism deterministic criteria. Others attempted to combine ergonomics, diagrams, numeric proportions, popular media, cinema, and early comic strips to introduce narrative and fictive dimensions in the design communication. The growing influence of photography and cinema enhanced such a fictive role of human figures, favoring a creative human body’s return to the architectural drawings. Some architects used sophisticated references to history and arts to remind artistic potentials of architecture and tied it back to its forgotten historic roots while others, inspired by early photograph artists and vanguards’ collages, enriched their drawings with photo-collage cut-outs, often translating their architectural drawings in seducing photo-montages. Today this practice is diffusing due to software for digital photo-retouching and human figures in renderings seem to have become as fundamental as top-models 92

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for a fashion magazine cover. Digital photomontage favors the use of specific figures as a sort of visual testimonials of projects in order not only to bind a design to a specific place and time but also to give the architectural firm a recognizable mark. These aspects are described by the fifth chapter, together with some effects of industrialization and automatization of architectural design and drawing related to the homogenization produced by the digital communication of architecture as well as the last two decades of globalized architecture.

Anthropomorhism, Anthropometry, and Human Figures in Architecture Architectural drawing, as it is known today, began in late 14th century and was always linked with the study of human body and figure. Renaissance artists were architects and engineers as well as painters and sculptors and for a long time architecture was thoroughly intertwined with images of human body as it was the focus of artists’ enquiries, formerly as an expression of a divine order and lately as a wonderful mechanical device. Terminology demonstrates the osmotic relationship between anatomical and architectural speculations: head, body, arm, wing – and later circulation, backbone, skeleton, etc. – are terms borrowed by architects from the anatomical field to commonly identify parts and functions of the building and indirectly attribute it a scientific connotation (Forty, 2000). Conversely, in the title of Andrea Vasalio’s De humani corporis fabrica (1543), Rykwert (1989, p. 45) noticed an “extraordinary and unregistered mutation occurred in the use of the word fabrica … and, with an unavoidable analogy, a shift in the way of considering a building and the role of our bodies inside it”. In antiquities and classical sources such as Vitruvio’s book, Renaissance artists found the confirmation of a long-lasting bound between human body and architectural body. They adopted it not only as a direct quotation of the body in form of decorations, reliefs, statues and other references (Payne, 2002) but as a part of a wider cosmologic scenario of proportional relationships between man and universe (Vesely, 2002). Man had always been a “measure” in artistic practice but with remarkable differences. While Villard de Honnecourt’s idealized figures demonstrate that during the 14th century the proportional canon was yet preceding the perception and representation, studies by Piero della Francesca, Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht Dürer suggested the possibility of extracting a universal proportional system from effective body in order to size and mathematically relate every single part of a building to human body. The conception of the temple (Longhi, 2013) and the proportions of architectural orders resulting from a stylization of caryatides constitute the most evident examples of this deep relationship. In the earlier Renaissance treatises, human 93

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body often appears overlapped with architectural orders, as well as human heads are inserted in capitals. Francesco di Giorgio emphasized that properly designed buildings must demonstrate the divine order enshrined in the human body. By drawing a human figure on a church façade, he established a possible set of proportions and claimed an implicit analogy between divine body and human building (Lowic, 1983), while yet at the beginning of the 17th century, Teofilo Gallaccini drew a male profile to indicate the defender’s grazing gaze in his fortress design (Payne, 2012). Anatomical and physiognomic studies fed a long tradition of anthropomorphic architecture by suggesting the opportunity to attribute a specific gender and character to a building through a careful variation in proportion, form and decorative patterns such as Doric order for “male” building and Ionic order for “female” buildings. A single part of the human body could be used to size architectural frames as well as the character of a building might be influenced by altering the size of the moldings to the appropriate human profile, as in a famous J.F. Blondel’s drawing (Hill & Kohane, 2015). Anthropomorphic and anthropometric analogies between human body and distributive and structural schemes of buildings advise potential fields of relationships. “At one level, it is urged that the layout of the building match the body part for part. Vasari, for example, in his recommendations for the design of an ideal palace, compares the façade with the face, the central door with the mouth, the symmetrically placed windows with eyes, the courtyard with the body, staircases with the legs and arms” (Steadman, 1979, p. 17). The symbolism the human body may convey constitutes another level of this relationship. For instance, by overlapping an embracing figure onto the bird’s eye view of his oval “Tetrastilo Vaticano,” Gian Lorenzo Bernini intended to underline the symbolic meaning activated by the anthropomorphic suggestion provided by the architectural configuration. In addition, human figuration in architecture can only reflect the concept of man of the time and culture in which it is produced. “Conceptions of the body of modern architects have their roots in the post-Galilean view, which conceives of the physical body as a machine and as a subject of mechanical laws” (Imrie, 2003, p. 47). This process has remote origins. It was certainly fueled by Leonardo’s anatomical studies (Kemp, 2004) as well as René Descartes’ definition of body as an “earthen machine”. Alberto Pérez-Gómez (1983) individuated a key moment of the anthropomorphic crisis in the innovative proportional criteria adopted by the formerly medic Claude Perrault in his French translation of the text of Vitruvius (Ia ed. 1674, II ed. 1684). “Perrault gave back the ancient architects the exercise of freedom” (Moneo, 2005, p. 25) and the architectural orders revealed to be just an arbitrary creation of man. As a consequence, Étienne-Louis B oullée’s figures, which maliciously oversize his monumental structures, declare also the autonomy between human and architectural body. 94

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The introduction of the meter in the Napoleonic era caused the complete abandonment of the idea of man as the measure of all things (Zöllner, 2014). Pierre-Marie Letarouilly, who also adopted the metric system in the surveys published in Édifices de Rome moderne (1840-55), was aware of how “the transition from the use of anthropomorphic measures, among them variable but always closely related to the ethnic characteristics of the people who had used them, to the use of a conventional but abstract measure unit, wiped out the direct relationship that metrically seized architecture to men who had imagined and took advantage of it” (Morozzo Della Rocca, 1981, p. 41). In the midst of this gradual abandonment of the human body as a reference, a number of philosophical and scientific studies aimed at identifying the secrets of l’homme machine as defined by Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1747), as well as analyzing costs and efficiency in the terms of the labor as studied by Coriolis and Coulomb. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the human body was reduced to a series of physical parameters and performances useful to optimize production lines and urban spaces. One example is Hermann Maertens’ study on the perception of urban spaces. Grounded on the measuring unit of the evaluation of the vision established by the physiologist Hermann Helmholtz, Maertens defined Der Optische-Maassstab (1877) as a proportion system which translates formal relationships of built environment into geometric formulas. Maertens’ complex system is summarized by a triad of visual angles that can be used to determine the size of rooms, streets, squares, and even letters on an advertising signal in function of the physiology of human vision (Colonnese & Carpiceci, in-press): 18° is the angle in which an artifact appears fused with its surroundings in an overall image; under a viewing angle of 27°, it appears in its integrity and completeness; over 45° the eye instead plunges into the details. This kind of enquiry, which indirectly suggested a way to give a scientific body to the architectural design process, was joined by studies that were more intuitive but also more informative and accessible, such as the famous Der Städtebau by which Camillo Sitte (1889) aspired to ground urban planning back on bodily sensations and vision in motion. In the earlier decades of the 20th century, the industrial organization planned by Ford and Taylor contributed to uniform environments and subjects, to homologate man as a mere productive factor, and to develop the aesthetics of the machine in painting, theatre, and other visual arts. This idea favored hybrid experiments between body and machine, like Futurism idea of “mechanic animal” evoked by Prampolini and Marinetti (1925), the “expressive movement” and Meyerhold’s theatrical application of biomechanics (Law & Gordon, 1996), or folkloristic episodes such as the Hotel Astor’s Beaux Arts Ball in 1931, with celebrated architects wearing costumes representing their own skyscrapers.

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In 1928, Bauhaus teacher Oskar Schlemmer discussed standard measurement, proportion theory, Dürer’s measurements, and the Golden Ratio. “From this, the laws of movement developed, mechanics and kinetics of the body, within itself as well as in space, in natural space as well as in cultural space (building). The latter naturally carries particular weight: the relationship of man with dwelling, its furnishing the objects” (Wingler, 1978, p.523). Ideas from Schlemmer and others influenced Ernst Neufert, a young Bauhaus student. He started to collect data about the men’s use of space like Maerten’s Maassstab on which he grounded the visual perception’s chapter of his celebrated manual. While Bauhaus masters were designing a whole new world of structures and objects, especially around the Existenzminimum concept in a socialist vision in which men are all equals, Neufert possibly thought it was time to design the new man, too. Thus, he started to define human body for architectural scopes. Since the first edition, Neufert (1936) grounded his Monatshefte fur Baukunst und Stadtebau on an anthropomorphic conception of architecture largely based on both the analyses by Adolf Zeising and Ernst Mössel on Dürer’s theories and the golden section. His book was to demonstrate that “by using standardized numbers [an architect] would stand in the great tradition of the ancients” (Neufert, 1943) but soon it showed influences by Nazist ideas about race, “the ‘industrialization of warfare’ and the ensuing subordination of all spheres of German society to the demands of war” (Domansky, 1996, p. 435). As noted by Zöllner (2014), in his 1943 Bauordnungslehre, Neufert increased the height of the shoulders of his ideal man from 143 to 150 centimeters to better fit the 125 centimeter module of the canonic “system measurement” which matched both the industrial standard brick and the 250 centimeter module used as a general construction standard, especially by the Luftwasse. He radically transformed the look of his ideal man, changing from a classic Greek face with black curly hair to a more Nordic one with blonde smooth hair. He finally added anti-Semitic undertones and ideological elements in “symbolic relation to the Fascist articulation of body ideals” (Prigge, 1999) that caused macabre similitude between his ideas on order and standardization and the words that Albert Speer and Joseph Goebbels used in their speeches in the same year (Zöllner, 2014). This example testifies the way a cultural environment can orient the representation on man in the architectural context, even beyond the designer’s intents. Beyond the cultural distortions that affected his Fourties’ releases, Neufert’s work marked a fundamental transition toward a different generation of manuals, such as Alexander Klein’s research on Existenzminimum. While the classical manual was “a collection of paradigms and stylistic rules, post-rationalist manual offers a systematic classification of the building types, related functions, distribution schemes, and dimensions and characteristics of en96

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gaged devices” based on man and human measure. Yet “this attempt of systematic classification of elements (…) can be interpreted as a process of reification that is conflicting with the referring to human measure and the causes that favored manuals” (Rossari, 1975, p. 39).

Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator In a presentation drawing, a figure of a man or a woman has a natural attitude to serve as an optical reference to measure the space, as well as to orient the way readers perceive it. It is not alone in this function because trees, furnishings, vehicles, and other accessories may collaborate to the optical measurement of design space. This attitude seems inversely proportional to its graphic definition and detail, as the more the figure is detailed, the more it suggests an additional fictive role in the drawing and may engage reader’s body, especially when it is rendered in the same manner as the architecture. Often human figures are used to provide the readers with a sort of “instructions to use” the design space or some of its components, to indicate routes, stations, and panoramic points or to enhance some visual effects. In this role, a human figure may be reduced to a single hand pointing to a direction or pulling some lever, as well to a single head or eye in which a direction or a triangular field of view is associated. The use of human figure in architectural renderings has been studied and classified by the 20th century manuals of architecture drawing, which take in account both the architectural form and the role of the other elements that contribute to compose the final image. Beyond other architectural accessories, such as “water, skies, clouds, people, and vehicles”, Arthur Leighton Guptill (1922, p. 156) considered the human figure as “the most difficult of all the architectural accessories” for its role in an architectural setting. In his book, Drawing and Sketching in Pencil, addressed to professional illustrator of architectural designs, he reminds us that “the figures should be correct in size, as they give scale to the architecture itself, and should be arranged in a natural disposition, so grouped that they aid, rather than injure, the unity and balance of the composition … There should be a pleasing variety, too, in their selection, using figures of men, women and children if many people are shown. Choose the number and type that are appropriate to the location of the building” (Guptill, 1922). Thus, railroad stations should be crowded with people with luggage and railroad porters, office buildings should show businessmen and stenographers, a summer hotel should be frequented by people dressed for bathing and other sports, and so on. Most of his recommendations about the opportunity to contextualize human figures perfectly match Otto Wagner’s superlative renderings, perhaps the top of architectural drawing production at the beginning of the 20th century. Wagner (1988) 97

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Figure 1. A. L. Guptill, illustrating certain principles regarding the representation of figures as accessories to architecture Source: Guptill, 1922, p.160.

had used fashioned figures both for “things that have their source in modern views correspond perfectly to our appearance” (p. 77) and as a visual key to convey his idea of Baukunst against the architecture of past styles. As homage to the social role of the new infrastructure, his designs for the Wien StadtBahn (1894-1900) are often enriched with ordinary people as well as workmen carrying heavy sacks or cleaning the streets, while his parallel designs for villas and public buildings are instead crowded with refined ladies, elegant gentlemen and uniformed officials. However, Guptill warned his readers against the risk of using “the unnatural people often found in the conventional ‘fashion drawings’… Be especially careful not to have the figures too straight and stiff; this is a very common fault. Use care also not to make foreground figures so large or important that they dwarf the architecture or lead the eye from it” (Guptill, 1922, p. 162). 98

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Guptill conceived human figures in renderings as an accessory useful to construct a sort of living visual frame to enhance the architectural design while modern architects gradually learned how to develop their narrative potential as a complement able to construct also a cultural frame the design could be dealt with. The human body is not a simple accessory but a fundamental ingredient of the architectural concept and process of design development and representation. As noted by Marco Frescari (1987), “in the contemporary architectural drawing the presence of the human figure, to give scale, is absolutely indispensable” while formerly “the scale relation between drawing and building itself was mediated by a design method in which the human figure was incorporated into the elements of architecture by simile and metaphor” (p. 123). Although it is quite difficult to approach at figures drawn by different authors in different times for different aims, they are primarily a function of two fundamental elements: the scale of reduction and the finality of the drawing like any architecture drawing. In design sketches, the modern architect has commonly reduced human figure to a quick amoeboid contour defined by a continuous line. Such a figure is “neutered and neutral, that is, without sex, gender, race, or physical difference. It is residual and subordinate to the mind, or that realm of existence that is characterized by what the body is not, such as self, thought, and reason” (Imrie, 2003, p. 47). Such a figure is habitually introduced when an architect needs an iconic verify of either external or internal spaces to get aware of the actual size. However, figures are often impulsively drawn to virtually explore and discover further uses and articulations of a room, like in many of Alvaro Siza’s pen sketches, which seem to perfectly express the speed of a mind guided by imagination. The quickly drafted figures often running or flying like angels work as an avatar through which the architect mentally explore the design space, frequently switching from director to actor. In the scale drafting, human figures are virtually requested to perform spaces and furnishing. They are generally larger than those drafted in sketches and enriched with anatomical details and facial expressions. Sometimes they can evoke either parents or clients’ figures in the design space, as Carlo Scarpa’s figures are often supposed to be2 (Frascari, 1989; Lanzarini, 2009), sometimes they follow unpredictable structural or formal analogies between them and architecture, such as in Santiago Calatrava’s drawings. Even if human figure may not be essential in architectural drawings, it generally produces beneficial effects on perception of design. Design spaces can look more satisfying and meaningful for the reader if human body’s interactions are anticipated and exhibited in the drawings. This is evident in the traditional pictorial and photo-realistic renderings that usually illustrate projects to commitments

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and public. Sometimes it is essential to illustrate the spatial properties of unusual or revolutionary designs. In many pencil drawings of the innovative structures of Claude Parent (1970), human figures are rough but vital to visualize potentialities of what he called la function oblique. Only figures succeed in suggesting physical and tactile attraction of the inclined planes: they help the readers to understand the consequences of vivre à l’oblique to figure out the potential use of those unconventional spaces as well as to feel that their body cannot be indifferent as walking or standing on those surfaces.

Body Talk The exhibition organized in 1932 by Philip Johnson and Russell Hitchcock for MOMA attributed to the Modern Movement the title of International Style, presenting it as the shared and established translation of a universal, progressive, optimistic, consistent discipline – resulting in the effects of another well-established global, or industrial revolution – at precise expressive precepts. The Modern Movement stared at the architectural canon of the industrialized countries and dictated the terms of a negotiation with the genius loci and local traditions, putting aside any inevitable vernacular reaction. “‘Modernity’ was defined in two ways: first diachronically, in relation to the ‘traditional’, pre-industrial forms of the ‘pre-modern’ past; second, synchronically, in relation to the other ‘traditional’ preindustrial parts” (King, 1996, p. 63) of non-Western world, where enquires on vernacular studies started and diffused after the Second World War. In this sort of industrial way to architecture, human figure was often obliterated from architecture drawings properly for its attitude to recall a specific place and time. Industrial design required scientific illustrations to connote its products with a scientific aura. Thus, even a wooden mannequin – an artist’s jointed model, like the one Charlotte Perriand used for a photomontage of her chaise-longue design in 1929 – was to be preferred to a real person. Waiting for the new ideal man to be invented, as intuited by Neufert, modern architects considered human figures as a despicable accident distracting from the essence of the architectural concept. Most of the projects elaborated for the numerous expositions and fairies of late Twenties show axonometric and perspectival views with no human figure. Excluding plans, photographs of building and models, in the Prima Esposizione Italiana di Architettura Razionale in Rome, 1928 there were at least 135 drawings of elevations, perspective or axonometric views but there were figures only in 16 of them (Cennamo, 1973). Many of those young architects thought of drawing more as a demonstration of an idea than a representation of a place.

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Le Corbusier and the Man with an Upraised Arm Le Corbusier’s eclectic and contradictory production offers a unique synthesis between modernism and vernacular as well as the different roles of human figures in architecture drawing. His early architectural production show a number of original figures engaged in daily activities that are quite out of the ordinary. In the views for an Artist’s House (1922), a painter is working on a canvas in his atelier, while his torpedo car is waiting parked under the staircase, at the pilotis level. In the sketch of Geneve Wenner Project (1929), a boxer is training with a punching-ball, observed by an elegant lady that is hanging a carpet on the handrail of the upper catwalk. “The lodging is there to receive and welcome the human animal, and the worker is sufficiently cultivated to know how to make a healthy use of [his] hours of liberty” (Le Corbusier, 1986, p. 275). Le Corbusier’s figures were possibly influenced by drawings by either Otto Wagner or Carl Larsson (Lucan & Stender, 1988, p. 212) as well as some illustrated and comic books read during his childhood, such as Rudolph Toepffer’s Voyages en Zig-Zag (Von Moos, 2002). This might appear as a clear admission of vernacular elements into his modernistic vision, but it is basically a key to communicate it to a wider public. By deliberately adopting the language of new popular media, Le Corbusier attributed an innovative narrative role to figures in architecture designs to demonstrate les modes d’emploi and the wide functional range of his spaces and visually engage his middle-class potential clients, as testified by the famous comic-strip letters to Madame Meyer (Atta da Silva, 2002). At the same time, smaller-than-real furnishings, objects, and figures collaborate with subtle perspective deformation to make a room look larger than designed as well as to produce pseudo-panoramic views according to the cinematic modality of his promenade architecturale (Colonnese, 2011). Their bodily presence, shadows, and interaction with furnishing and objects testify their direct relationship with design space and time. Compared to them, the black shadows drafted by Mies van de Rohe – but also by Paul Rudolph and others – in many of his American perspective views, show the same consistence of the architecture: they seem to belong to a different world and their only function is to enhance geometric purity of buildings (Espuelas, 1999). The “Modulor-man” has quite a different role and consequence in Le Corbusier’s work. “The Modulor is a measuring tool based on the human body and mathematics. The height of a man with an upraised arm may be divided into segments at the points determining his position in space, his feet, his solar plexus, his head, his fingertips. These three intervals produce a series of the Golden Section” (Le Corbusier, 1954, p. 155). From its fully publishing and explaining in early Fifties, human figures in Le Corbusier’s drawings have been acquiring the additional sense of revealing of spaces that are proportioned on human body. Not only human figures 101

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Figure 2. A selection of human figures redrawn after Le Corbusier’s drawings and works; in the middle: the relief Modulor-man impressed in the concrete wall of Marseille Unitè d’Habitation and the one stamped in the Olivetti Buildings sections Source: F. Colonnese.

made their way back on buildings’ façade, impressed onto the concrete surfaces of the Unitè d’Habitation, but Modulor itself can be judged as an attempt to get the architectural process focused back on human body, stating its ontological role. But what type of man is this? After a long geometric experimentation, the Modulor-man height, which was initially determined at 1.75 meters, was changed to 1.828 meters (six foot) for its ability to solve a larger number of designing problems, to work on both metric and inches systems but also because “in English detective novels, the good-looking men, such as the policemen, are always six feet tall” (Le Corbusier, 1954, p. 56). Of course, even this sort of ironic statement had the role of attributing a picturesque and popular quality to his theories. Despite the considerations expressed by Robin Evans (1995) or the application limits identified by Ostwald (2001), the Modulor had a huge success. Le Corbusier’s body-centered mathematical harmony consti102

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tuted the primary source for Sigfried Giedion’s rediscovery of body in architecture (Georgiadis, 1993) and found unpredictable allies in books like Rudolf Wittkower’s Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. As assessed by Banham (1955), “its exposition of a body of theory in which function and form were significantly linked by the objective laws governing the Cosmos (as Alberti and Palladio understood them) suddenly offered a way out of the doldrums of routine functionalist abdications” (p. 358). Modulor-inspired systems also diffused the postwar years. For example, Jörn Utzon based his Utzolor system on a 19 centimeter module to facilitate the design of furniture and interiors (Weston, 2000), while the Swedish Aulis Blomsted developed Canon 60, a complex system of pre-harmonized measures based on Pythagorean ratios and consonances of Western music (Pallasmaa, 1996). The Modulor gradually became a sort of trademark logo. Since its publication, architects from Georges Candilis to Mario Botta have been adopting the small amoeboid men with an upraised arm in their drawings to express the proportional and philosophical source of their designs and declare their association to Le Corbusier’s legacy. For example, in the Sydney Opera House Competition entries (1957), Jörn Utzon added an unrequested sketch “in single line work, portraying the podium and shell roofs as a civic space populated with figures, some of which had outstretched arms recalling the stance of Corbu’s Modulor man” (Harper, 2015). Consequences of Le Corbusier’s visual models can be easily found in the works of elusive and heterogeneous Team X, in which architects faithful to modernist orthodoxy coexisted with regionalist architects looking for participated design process. The drawings for an Expérimental Habitat in Koweit, Morocco (1952) by Candilis, Josic and Woods demonstrate not only the successful acquisition of Le Corbusier’s graphic vocabulary – the Modulor Man, sectioned corridors in perspective and so on – but also frequent exceptions to the general projective rule. Plans and sections are no more a mere projective representation but playful symbolic maps on which human figures and graphs indicate functions and routes according to the idea of envision and enhance community’s human relationships. The diffuse humanism of Team X members, which is evident in many drawings by architects such as Aldo Van Eyck, Giancarlo De Carlo and Herman Hertzeberger, can be appreciated in Gio Ponti’s plans for Villa Planchart in Caracas (1953-60). Long shaped arrows indicate the main routes in the house while a number of centers are signed by human figures drafted as lying on the floor. They are opening doors, walking, eating or looking at internal and external points, transforming the architectural plan in a sort of ambiguous and ludic map, half-way between an abstract landscape and a board game. Few years later (and five hundred after Francesco di Giorgio), Ponti inscribed the plan for Daniel Koo’s villa in California (1969) in the

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head of man, whose Greek profile recall that of an ancient artist, perhaps to finally take back architecture and human figure to their common ontological origins.

Postcards from the Edge Coming from engineering and film editing around 1919, photomontage was charged with artistic connotations through collage practice by Cubist and Dadaist artists and became a technique a part from traditional art practice. David Evans (1996) has defined it a “technique by which a composite photographic image is formed by combining images from separate photographic sources”. Similar to collage, photomontage techniques involve unexpected materials and “make possible an archaeological density of the imaginary and a non-linear narrative through the juxtaposition of fragmented images derived from conflicting sources” (Pallasmaa, 2012, 50-51). Since 1909, Mies van De Rohe had been experimenting photomontage for his Monument to Bismark in form of rendered perspective views pasted onto pictures of the site to achieve realistic visual simulations, up to his celebrated tower designs for Berlin (1921). In the same years, El Lizzitsky and Moholy-Nagy were investigating potentialities of photo-collage that is the insertion of photographic cut-outs in traditional architectural drawings. In a 1924 architecture competition, Cornelis Van Eesteren invited Theo Van Doesburg to collaborate once again – it is their last partnership – to design color for a shopping gallery with a cafe-restaurant on the Laan van Meerdervoort, Den Haag. Although Berlage and the other jurors ignored Van Eesteren and Van Doesburg’s proposal marked by the motto Simultanéité (Straten, 1993, p. 149), they developed an original perspective rendering with a human figure – systematically absent in almost all De Stijl production – cut out of a newspaper and pasted on the drawing. The contrast between the drawn lines, the colorful painted areas and the blackand-white photographic picture is disturbing and destabilizes the academic canons of architectural representation. The figure produces a tension between the optical values of the human body and the tactile values of drawn environment. Like an opera aperta, the apparent shifting of time and place involves the reader to interpret and connote the scene. Moreover, the photographic cut-out does not describe an ordinary person, but the Greek sovereign Costantino, at the time exiled in Sicily. This means that, in addition to performing the usual role of optical reference for design space, this figure had been properly chosen to transmit extra-architectural meanings, indirectly claiming a wider revaluation of layered potentials of architectural representations. This photo-collage belongs to the particular category that Jennifer Shield (2014, p. 63) has defined “collage-drawing” in which “pasted paper or photographic mate-

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rials in conjunction with additional media such as charcoal or pencil”. It probably resulted from the suggestions received during the 1922 Dada-Constructivist Congress in Weimar. It seems to offer a point of balance between two different leading conceptions: “where the Expressionists had theorized pure artistic means – pure color, line, and plane – as preconditions for art, the Dadaists accepted found objects as their raw materials and spoke if a new materiality in the concrete manifestations of metropolitan experience” (Mertins, 2001, p. 113). By the mid-1930s, the Milanese architect Piero Bottoni, who had directly known Van Eesteren and other masters of European Rationalism, was habitually using photomontage and collages-drawing for elevations and perspective views. He often glued photographed figures directly on traditional graphite or ink drawings, suggesting direct relations with the perturbing effects of European avant-garde collages. In the 1937 competition for Piazza del Duomo in Milan, the insertion of the designed facade in a photograph of the existing square is almost obscured by the photographed group of four persons pasted in the foreground, in which Bottoni himself can be recognized, in a sort of early architectural cameo. Photographic figures and vehicles appear in the graphite renderings drawn in the second stage of the competition for Via Roma district in Bologna (1937), when Bottoni’s group is asked to merge the other winners under the supervision of Marcello Piacentini, the main mediator between the architectural movements and the institutional politics (Consonni, Meneghetti, & Tonon, 1990). Designed buildings are rendered as masses with chiaroscuro and shadows but without windows or doors, looking like theatrical ambiguous scene “in which the same mystical fascist could be identified – even beyond the intentions of the designers” (Consonni, 2003). This theatric interpretation is confirmed also by the presence of an attractive Marlene Dietrich in fur who supports the top-down perspective of rationalist buildings through the large theater window simply made of a black cardboard passe-partout. The photographic figure of the German star, which is apparently justifiable in a perspective view from the new theater, on the one hand seems to advice a glimpse of German modernist city, on the other it evokes her dissent to the Nazi initiatives up to her application for American citizenship in March 1937, which was granted in 1939. Bottoni’s choice probably not only constituted a subtle outburst to a social situation to become increasingly oppressive – he was communist and his mother was to be persecuted by the effects of racial laws – but also as an attempt to associate values of spectacle and new social models to architecture. In 1952, entry for the Golden Lane bombed neighborhood in London, Alison and Peter Smithson seem full aware of the narrative potential of such a communicative technique. First of all, they used photomontage and transparency to show their design on a picture of the existing ruined buildings. Then they pasted photographic cut-outs to present events in the design spaces and to convey specific meanings. 105

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Figure 3. P. Bottoni and partners, Competition for Piazza del Duomo in Milan, 1937-38, Photomontage perspective view with the architect Source: Archivio Piero Bottoni, DAStU, Politecnico di Milano, op.155, s.18.

Gerard Philipe, a famous French actor, is placed in front of their photomontage, to remind his performance in Claude Autant-Lara’s Le Diable au corps (1947), in which a young man seduces an older woman belonging to a higher social class. Peter Ustinov “pasted” in the view of the “street in the air” was chosen not only for his unusually cosmopolite origins but possibly for the BBC radio comedy In All Directions in which he was starring with Peter Jones as themselves in a London car journey forever trying to locate a road called Copthorne Avenue. Most of all, Marylin Monroe and the baseball star Jo di Maggio, who were at that moment pursuing a romance, were pasted in the foreground: as reminded by Crow (1996), Di Maggio’s sport performances and his “Italian background made him a pure symbol of classless glamour and success” (p. 42).

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Figure 4. P. Bottoni and partners, urban design for via Roma in Bologna, second solution, 1937-38, perspective view from the theater

Source: Archivio Piero Bottoni, DAStU, Politecnico di Milano, op. 153.2, Album nero, 15.

The Smithsons conceived their project as a critic to socioeconomic divisions (Malka, 2014). Searching for a new relationship between old and new against the modernist’s idea of freestanding buildings, they considered the “as found” concept, in which “the art is in the picking up, turning over and putting with…” (Heuvel, 2002) and is expressed not only through the architecture form and circulation, but also through the drawing organization. As Hight (2014, p. 232) noted, “the perspectival lines of the building become lines of connection that resembles those of a network diagram. These lines of connection implicitly break through the plane of representation to the world of the viewer… The point of view of the observer of these drawings… could be realigned with any one of the collaged figures” which play a complementary role, of course. As testimonials of an age of social integration to come, all these photographic figures not only follow the “as found” concept but also share a new inclusive social vision and contribute to convey an idea of search for a new collectiveness between 107

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classes. In general, these examples demonstrate that the use of photographic figures in collage-drawings has the potential effect of relating the picture to other places and times and including extra-architectural narratives useful to convey artistic, political, and social meanings.

Art, History, and Representation In the context of a general revaluation of the rhetorical statute of architecture – which “does not reflect only a social reality but has its own proper reality, which is its formal quality” (Reichlin & Steinmann, 1977, p. 103) – at the end of the 1960s, architectural drawing acquired value as a form of expression in itself, not strictly finalized to the construction. This tendenza, which possibly resulted from Russian “paper architects” (Cook, 2008, p. 81), was alimented by exhibitions such as the XV Triennale di Milano by Aldo Rossi. This favored the uprising of an innovative circuit of Art Galleries in Europe and USA, involving very different phenomena from Peter Eisenman’s Cardboard Houses to Austrian visionary architects, from the archeological explorations by Massimo Scolari to Krier brothers’ architectural capricci. James Stirling, who also participated to Team X meetings from 1955 to 1962, is probably best known for his silent and lifeless isometric views. Due to his talented and caustic collaborator Leon Krier, he is one of the few architects to be the main actor of some his own drawings, as can be seen in the views for Olivetti Headquarters in Milton Keynes (1971). While the idea of industrial (re-)production is ironically remarked by the three employers with briefcase walking in the gallery, in the hall rendering Krier drew himself as a statue and his boss sitting on his beloved Thomas Hope’s chair, ambiguously hanging on the black line framing the view in another famous perspective. Even after Krier had left the firm, Stirling’s figure appeared on his designs to tell a story, such as the designs of the Cornell Performing Art Center College at Ithaca (1982), walking through perspective section and views with the drawings rolled up under his arm. It is no more a strategy to educate people to a new way of seeing and living, like in Le Corbusier’s sketches, but a sensorial strategy to orient the observer through visual models he was learning from cinema (Stirling, 1992). The views for the 1988 project for Lingotto in Turin are conceived as a way to relate the project to the historical origins of the means of transportation. In a view from a train’s window, his presence is only evoked by a glass of wine and a lit cigarette on the small table, while in a rare photo-collage, he looks smiling pasted on the linear bird’s eye view, standing proud inside a hot-air balloon’s basket flying over the old factory of Italian vehicles. Elsewhere, the figures were chosen to root the designs in different places and time, like in Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Lugano (1987), 108

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Figure 5. James Stirling and partner, British Olivetti Headquarters, Milton Keynes, interior perspective, 1970-74 Source: James Stirling and Michael Wilford Fonds, Canadian Center of Architecture, Montreal.

in which De Chirico’s faceless figures haunt the closed rooms, while renaissance artists and their young apprentices wander around the lake, in a sort of out-of-time Arcadian garden dotted with sculptures and ruins. Stirling is only one of the many architects who occasionally quote visual materials from works of art to connect their projects to art and history. Oswald Mathias Ungers often placed his architecture under the “benevolent gaze of Monsieur Magritte” (Guibert, 1987, p. 110). He was quite obsessed by his Surrealist visions and figures, as the Self-Portrait With Magritte Shadow (1988) testifies. He had his human silhouettes mounted on the walls, floor, and ceiling of his 1976 exhibition called City Metaphors, to transform the corridor into the representation of a city street. The perspective views for Wallraff-Richartz Museum competition in Cologne (1975) quote explicitly the bowler-topped man of Renè Magritte’s The Masterpiece, or The Mysteries of The Horizon (1955) with the three heads in the frames of the perspective views drawn according to three subsequent points. This strategy not only associate a general artistic value to design but also reminds its symbolic value almost saying “Ceci n’est pas une architecture!” Richard Meier’s approach to art and history values is different. His design for a Museum of Ethnography in Frankfurt resulted from a particular attention to historical 109

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site of Villa Metzler and its old trees, which was directly expressed in architectural renderings through accessories. The trees are represented through enlarged photocopies from some of Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s engravings while human figures, showing elegant old-fashioned robes, are copies after the figures that Otto Wagner had drawn in front of an automobile exhibition seventies years before (Huse, 1985, p. 15). Thus, beyond the collection and the ruins placed in the garden, Meier used the same figures that Wagner used for the cosmopolitan images of Vienna to cast his modernistic building in a historical atmosphere, suspended between past and future: between the past of the first idealistic modernism and the future of a rehistoricized and rationalistic post-modern architecture. It is quite interesting that in 1970, James Stirling and his draughtsman Krier, had already copied the same figures from Wagner’s rendering for the gallery view of the Derby Civic Center, possibly

Figure 6. A comparison between figures drawn by Otto Wagner, 1912 and 1913; James Stirling, 1970; and Richard Meier, 1980 Source: F. Colonnese, 2016.

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inaugurating an innovative figurative way to visual historical citations to be largely imitated and surely celebrating Wagner as one of their beloved graphical reference. However, Meier adopted the same association of old-fashioned figures and Schinkel’s trees in other museum competitions, such as the High Museum of Modern Art in Atlanta, Georgia (1980-83), not only to demonstrate the public vocation of the building but also as a recognizable mark of the architectural firm. The suggestions of the Schinkel’s trees as well as the trees cut by Leon Krier in many of his drawings can be found also in the work of the Italian architect Giancarlo Rosa.3 His 1970s projects “share the quest for a rigorous constructed space. This idea refers to the architecture painted by Giotto, which finds itself almost without pause by the perspective space of the Renaissance, through the Age of Enlightenment, up to Le Corbusier” (Cornoldi, 1977, p. 51). In addition to the space frames, flooring grids, and even the cables of Wright brothers’ biplane flying over Forlì, in the projects often designed with Cornoldi and Sajeva, Giancarlo Rosa often charged human figures to underline the strategic link between the mathematical organization of perspectival space and a rigorous architectural construction. While the bare isometrics are charged of presenting the geometric properties of projects, perspective views show the visual effects of them, but not just this. Through the mediation of the linear drawing Figures taken The Flagellation by Piero della Francesca in the Rieti house for elderly (1975), Mantegna’s Christ in Limbo watching from a hill over Foggia, but also the Dioscuri painted by Carrà seem to share the design space with ordinary figures intent to walk and look at the buildings. Sometimes the view of the designed building is projected into an anachronistic frame borrowed from a painting, like the project for Poggio Picenze (1989) inserted into Salvator Rosa’s The Bridge (1640); sometimes figures from a painting are placed into a view together with a piece of their habitat. For example, in the view of a multipurpose building in Grottammare, a portion after Giotto’s Nativity in Greccio from Assisi Stories of S. Francesco appears in the right corner. The vision of the presbytery from the back resembles an emblem of the archetypal architectural relationship between inside and outside. In particular, the vision of the back structure of the wooden crucifix, which is inclined towards the believers, evokes the relationship between spatial epiphany and rigorous construction, typical of the stage design, and reveals the representational value of the design. Even the motto of the project, “And now Giotto has the cry,” has a layered meaning. As a citation from Dante’s Purgatory, in which Cimabue highlights the success of Giotto’s paintings, it contributes not only to remind the moment of an historical leap forward in the visual art practice but even a polemical incitement to a different approach to architecture and urban space.

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Figure 7. A. Cornoldi, G. Rosa, A. Sajeva, multipurpose building, Grottammare, 1976, perspective view

Source: G. Rosa, 2016.

Human Figures in the Globalized Project From the second half of the 20th century, architectural production has been following a path of global and globalist development, indirectly making the dream of a universal architecture. This is due to the post-colonial revolution, the resulting creation of both transnational social spaces (Sorkin, 1992; Marcuse-Kempen, 2000) and qualitatively new forms of cosmopolitanism (Beck, 1999; Vertovec-Cohen, 2002) and, above all, electronics revolution with the crucial changes of the technological support and the global reach of the non-paper mass media and material infrastructure (McChesney, 1997; Castells, 2000). In the same decades, industrialization process profoundly altered architecture and its representation practice. For centuries drafting board, fixed paper, parallel rule, compasses, and set square had been the only interfaces between the architects and their drawing, assisting them in the design development. These organa, as Vitruvius defined tools as extensions of the hand, or perfecting instruments, as defined by Umberto Eco (2003), were first integrated by mechanized procedures and then gradually replaced by machines. The former tools for assisted or mechanized architectural drafting, such as photocopy techniques for cut-and-paste procedures, plastic templates, pantographs such as Keuffel & Esser Leroy Lettering Set, and Letraset and Rotring dry transfers, affected especially the representation of accessories in the final drawings. 112

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Le Corbusier himself designed his own stamp to quickly reproduce human figures to be recognizable as part of the Modulor-system (even with their arm down) as shown, for example, in the sections for Olivetti buildings in Ivrea (Bodei, 2014). The drawers in the Studio Valle offices, where the author started as a draftsman in the early 1990s, were full of dry transfer sheets with letters, signals, people, cars, and trees. Some of them had been customized with elements sketched by chief architect Tommaso Valle to both reduce working time and impress an identifiable mark on the final panels. However, in the larger and eye-catching perspective views, human figures were still hand-copied after magazines and photographs on the lucid paper sheets. Decades after the first introduction of a graphic interface with a computer in 1963 and the development of computer-aided drafting programs, in the middle of the 1990s, the diffusion of computer and software for aided design and drafting has gradually changed the practice of architectural of drawing as well as the production of every human product. Some architects admit that without the help of CAD (Computer-Aided Design), they could not have realized their most famous projects.

Figure 8. Tools for assisted or mechanized drafting: a comparison between Terada Mokei’s paper template for 1:100 figures, Vibo’s dry transfer for 1:50 figures, and Alvin’s plastic template for various scale female figures

Source: F. Colonnese, 2016.

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Frank Gehry’s difficulties and frustrations for the visual control and realization of the Vitra Museum near Basel witness the need for a different instrument to manage the whole process as lately structured through an integrated use of reverse modeling, early BIM and Katia, a specific software elaborated for advanced structural design (Friedmann, 1999). The opening of many borders, the development of telecommunications infrastructure, and the reduction of travel and communications costs have encouraged the spread and circulation of ideas and people, leading to the formation of multi-cultural studies evolving. At the same time the worldwide deployment of the equipment Computer-assisted design and drafting, digital dematerialization of architectural representation, innovative modeling and prototyping procedures and, more generally, the organization of work (Tombesi, 2001) favored outsourcing opportunities (Dave, Tombesi, Gardiner, & Scriver, 2006) and promoted a new international organization of labor (Chung, Inaba, Koolhaas, & Leong, 2001). These changes are having a considerable impact on the project and its image as a cultural product. The current practice bases on on-line shared libraries of predrafted CAD blocks to photographic complements ready to be pasted on views while modeling and animation software offer the option to collocate solid accessories in the tridimensional space of a digital model and to render them together with the architectural structures.

Human Touch in Globalized Project In the practice of adding human figures, some difference concerning the topic must be underlined. For example, the presence of human figures is critical to landscape designs where an observer may have problems in discerning size and distances from vegetation and natural morphology. In this context, it can be used to envision “invisible” effects, like the red-to-blue figures created by Philippe Rahm architects to visualize the body climatic variations in the Taichung Jade MeteoPark designed (Rahm, 2011). On the contrary, the presence of human figures is negligible in the representation of interior space, where the dimensional scale can be alternatively explained by the presence of furniture and furnishings. Similarly, a certain type of “traditional architecture” still manages to express the human scale by size and proportion of details and openings. For example, in the famous diatribe against the Le Corbusier’s fenêtre-en-longueur (Fanelli & Gargiani, 1990), Auguste Perret claimed that vertical windows result from an anthropological projection of the human body on the facade of the buildings. The situation changes when architecture is generated according to either parametric criteria or sculptural logic (Migayrou, 1996; Brüderlin, 2004; Allen & McQuade, 2011), aiming at mimicking natural phenomena or, conversely, abstract geometric 114

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compositions. According to their nature, such architectures must conceal constructive and modular aspects to sublimate their apparent form into either earthen morphological variations or monumental objects, refusing any direct correlation with the human body but to state their out-of-scale presence. Thus, although to place a man in a drawing is still a deliberate act showing the wish to set a relationship between the design space and its future users, this practice bases no longer on the idea of human measure. Contemporary architects’ figures seem to “have lost any ontological dimension; they are simply a form of communication oriented to the common man and to the technician, or a formal representation to other architects of the possible problems of scale and dimension” (Frascari, 1987). They have probably enhanced their capacity of localizing a design. Filling the rendering with figures with specific robes and postures constitutes the only strategy to contextualize and frame an iconic “fallen-on-earth” architecture into a precise time and place (Falcón Meraz, 2015). What about figures’ cultural role? Much of the architects’ speculation on political and social role of figures in architecture designs was mainly a consequence of the work and time taken by drawing them by hand. As noted by Trieb (2008, p. 20), the practice of drawing from life fed architects’ attitude to instill life in their renderings mostly by drawing people first as individuals and then forming groups, often creating unwritten plots to justify their positions and developing their acts. Today, it is easier and faster to fill a rendering with figures pasted directly on final renderings by means of post-production software as Adobe Photoshop. Of course, this may have disagreeable outcomes when figures’ size does not accord with perspectival structure and conflict with the depth illusion. As confessed by designer Noor Makkiya (2016), “the copy paste method we use makes it easier for us to fill architecture renderings with a desultory crowd of figures”. Even when accurate in term of proportions and details, Treub finds Photoshop depictions of human beings terrible but quite symptomatic of designers’ conception of people: people are generally excluded from design process; they are added after the project is finished just the way the figures are superimposed upon the rendered space. In this mechanic and unaware collage practice, Treub (2008) finds the index of a more general disaffection of men towards men. Possibly “the machine is destined to become more human over time. The danger is just the reverse: that human will become more machine-like, the insertion of figures floating uncomfortably above the ground or awkwardly attached to its surface, illustrates this reduction of sensitivity and understanding of life” (p. 20).

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M+T: Collages and Cameos Now that architectural renderings can be hardly distinguished from photographic pictures, the cultural potential of human figures seems to be dramatically neglected. At the same time, this condition is stimulating the development of new ways to express architectural values to a wider target as well as by a sophisticated narrative use of human figures in architectural drawings, such as the one proposed by the Spanish architect duo of Luis Moreno Mansilla and Emilio Tuñón (M+T). M+T’s digital collages generally are pictures composed exclusively of geometric fields – only occasionally colored with saturated hues – and black-and-white photographic figures. Images are devoid of lines and depth, with a rough perspectival structure which is often contradicted by the position and shape of accessories. In the aspirations of M+T, buildings should hardly be seen but rather reduced to a frame for the view, which suggests to turn the gaze to the surroundings (Molins, 2007). Their buildings are designed to offer a weak and changing architectural presence, thanks to the light and shade, or the rotation of the façade panels or to LEDs changing color, up to virtually disappear, as the Archaeological Museum in Zamora, whose “fifth façade”, the roof, has the task of regulating and representing the content. The idea of montage and collage, the medium developed in the machine-era, inform both the ambiguous photomontages and the design process. For example, in the Sarriguren housing project (1998), the residential units quote directly buildings by Le Corbusier, Kazujo Sejima, and themselves among others. In a perspective collage arranged for the competition entry, in which buildings are quite ironically described as “occupation units”, the presence of photographic figures of Mulder and Skelly, the renowned investigators of alien mysteries from X-Files TV serial, give the buildings the sense of alien spaceships landed in the countryside along the highway. Human figures are central in M+T’s collages. As ideally cut-and-pasted figures from black-and-white pictures, their mission is only apparently to enhance the depth effect and suggest the size of design space. They are chosen with no consistency with the view in terms of robes and actions and are often pasted with no care for the perspective structure, color or shades. But among them some stars can be easily recognized, such as Joseph Beuys virtually walking toward the observer. The photographic figure of the German artist appears in most of their collage-like renderings as well as on the wall of their Madrid atelier (Mansilla & Tuñón, 2003, p. 100). Mansilla and Tuñón adopted him as a sort of guardian angel, “the model of an attitude in front of the creative act, for his ambition to expand the concept of art and recover lost capacities – emotional, political, religious, even ‘healing’ – that bind man to nature. Through the figure of Beuys, M+T invoke his desire to cancel the boundary between art and life, an ambition that Beuys has always defended starting from 116

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the ‘social sculpture’, art as an everyday experience, potentially open to everyone” (Molins, 2007, pp. 12-13). Possibly their leading interest in museum architecture, testified by more than fifteen projects in fifteen years (Mansilla & Tuñón, 2011), has alimented this interest for Beuys as well as other masters pasted in the views, such as Le Corbusier standing and watching around or Alvaro Siza sketching with his biro pen on a wall. M+T’s figures seem to play different roles according to the category of people seeing their pictures. To ordinary people, they express size, uses, and routes through design space. To colleagues, they are like putative mentors to play a cameo in the scenes both as an homage and to offer cultural keys to interpret their architectural proposals. To jurors, they constitute an opportunity to make competition entries more recognizable. Finally, to M+T together with some other anonymous figures, they represent a sort of reassuring and protective family, a friendly heterogeneous circus – or Circo, like the title of M+T’s architectural fanzine – constantly moving from a design to another. Figure 9. Mansilla+Tuñón, Civic Center, Sabadell, 2002, perspective photomontage; Public Library, Jerez, 2001, perspective photomontage (with L. Diaz-Mauriño) Source: Images courtesy of Mansilla+Tuñón © Mansilla + Tuñón Arquitectos.

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Mir_Architettura or Six Characters in Search of an Author The mir_architettura firm, founded in Rome in 2007 by architects Giusi Bellapadrona and Andrea Dolci, offers another approach to human figures in architectural design. Its work is mainly oriented to architectural competitions and over the years has developed a design method as inclusive as difficult to be rationalized. During a first brainstorming on the competition topics, the members of the group list a number of “cultural references” they associate impulsively to it. Rather than specific project references or precedents, these are “cultural raw materials” such as articles, essays, novels, films, videos, theater or art performances, intended not to suggest possible solutions but rather to expand the number or weight of questions. During this first phase, while diving into this sort of amniotic fluid that stimulates the succession of thoughts and images even very distant from the practical questions involved in building program, mir_architettura invariably create a folder titled “Characters” to collect images of human figures, animals or objects in which architects stumble and feel affinities to the search in progress. In the second phase, the architects conceive the formal definition of the building, where at least a small part of the literary and visual stimuli collected are translated into both design data useful to architectural formal definition and figures for final drawings. The addition of human and animal figures therefore represent a “ploy to transfer at least a part of all the suggestions gathered in the first phase and become part the cultural background reference is the project that the authors onto a sheet of paper that will be seen for a few seconds by the members of the jury”4. Despite often disregarding the perspectival structure of the views, the figures are something more than an accessory added at the very last moment, when the project is completely developed. As a narrative complement able to “tell something more than what can be represented with the architectural design”, they also accompany the project, helping to weave a web of figurative references that link the architectural form and functional program to an implicit and submerged text consisting of the residues from the initial cultural brainstorming. In the project for three squares in Cesena, the presence of the Malatesta Library is highlighted in the competition entries both with its architectural volume and by the presence of some celebrities. The square is haunted by not only writers like Calvino or DeLillo, or cinematic interpreters of Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 but authors who have linked their names to the idea of the library itself, as Umberto Eco and Jorge Luis Borges. Moreover, the design itself is patiently constructed sewing together suggestions coming from the cultural references, like the motto “an infinite perfectly measured” and the grid of columns-books inspired by Borges’ The Library of Babel short novel.

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Figure 10. mir_architettura, un infinito esattamente misurato: 3 squares, Cesena, 2011, perspective photomontages with Jorge Louis Borges and other characters Source: Images courtesy of mir_architettura © mir_architettura.

The figures thus weave a text that is parallel to the architectural representations and is able to decode, intensify and complete their sense. The quality of their monochrome renderings, which is also determined by the textures cut-and-pasted from movies and paintings, like the sky borrowed from Ippolito Caffi’s depicted landscapes, is a key to suggest the viewers something “more than meets the eye”. Together with the apparent weirdness of figures and objects, this tactile aspiration of the architecture representation is the key to engage viewers and parasite their imagery to let them connote the drawings with their own multisensory memories. It is important to remember that mir_architettura is not directly interested in the so-called “paper architecture”, which is the production of architectural images for mere iconographic enquires. On the contrary, Bellapadrona and Dolci construct pictures that are closely linked to a specific place, time and design, and respond to specific demands even if through visionary and controversial proposals. 119

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CONCLUSION An architecture design is developed through a number of visual and plastic tools in which the presence of human figures can have different roles according to the scale of reduction, the purpose of the single representation. An architecture rendering is generally conceived to offer a prefiguration of a future architectural environment able to respond to a number of functional and aesthetical requisites. It is formed by combining the rendered view of the designed building with accessories such as the site’s surroundings, vegetation, vehicles, human and animal figures, which are fundamental to express an amount of layered meanings with a single picture in a short time. The presence of human figures in these architectural designs can testify ontological, figurative, or cultural intents, as well a combination of the three of them. In the first case, from Francesco di Giorgio to Gio Ponti’s drawings human figure generally demonstrates the way an architecture bases on specific proportional system, analogical system, or even anthropomorphism. Human presence in this kind of drawings can be explicit or implicit. Every perspective with a 160cm-high point of view implicitly conveys human presence inside the drawing by recalling a daily experience. In the same way, Renaissance architecture were based on human body and his presence was implicitly included in every design. Thus, presence or absence of figures would be an index of specific architectural concepts and production criteria. In fact, architecture based on mechanical procedures and industrial standardized modules is often represented through objective unmanned orthogonal projections. As paradoxically noted by Frascari (1987, p. 123), “the abstracting of architectural representation in the modern movement is required by the alienation of human corporality from the business of building”. In the second case, human figure generally suggests the size of buildings; illustrates the instruction to use design space; works as a visual reference to let the reader explore mentally its rooms; may even suggest extra-visual effects, like instability in Parent’s sketches or body heat in Rahm’s renderings. The presence of human figures in architectural drawings has the main consequence to give observers an optic reference to understand size and scale of architecture, but it also contributes to root the design to a specific place. On the contrary, the absence of figures can dissimulate size and scale of architecture, enhancing the idea behind the perceivable form and potentially transforming a view into a diagram. In the third case, human figure adds cultural layers to a mere representation of an architecture. By varying quantity and quality, human figures may have a fundamental role both in the reception of the architecture proposal and in the arrangement of a reference context, which is visual and cultural at the same time. “Ways of representing and figuring the body are also ways of embodying self-knowledge 120

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and worldly knowledge, rationally marking out the parameters of that knowledge” (Rolling, 2010, p. 332). Human figure is useful to contextualize the design but can also activate a fictive game of references or just the appearance of a hidden plot to engage the observer’s mind and senses. Figures’ actions and behaviors within design buildings can demonstrate the outstanding opportunities offered by innovative architectural concepts, as Le Corbusier’s, as well as comfort clients in search for traditional solutions. In the context of the general graphical approach to rendering, figures drawn with an informal line borrowed from comic-strips can give a complex and expansive design the aspect of a harmless and playful proposal in order to favor its acceptation by the clients. Similar visual strategies can have positive consequences in architectural competitions. The use of human figures dressed with old-fashioned robes allow architects to visually connect a contemporary building with the site’s history and iconography, as Meier did, or with project’s topic, as Stirling did. Similarly, the use of figures copied from paintings, as Ungers and Rosa did, can enrich the rendering with meanings borrowed from specific artists or works, recall the importance of the artistic roots of architecture in an epoch of industrial prefabrication and even explicitly state the figurative and theatrical role of architectural drawings. By adopting recognizable figures, architects try deliberately to associate social and political meanings from the real world to their representation of design space, as Bottoni did. This is evident in the early photomontages and photo-collages in which a photographic figure pasted on a traditional ink or graphite rendering can have disconcerting effects on the members of a jury, as discovered by Van Eesteren and Van Doesburg. This technique is used not only to visually recall the experiences of Modernistic vanguards but the social utopic world they were working for, too, or a critical version of it, like Smithsons did. By engaging the connotative action of observers, still today it offers a wide sematic potential to contemporary architect looking for a subversive renegotiation between human beings and their environment, as experimented by M+T and mir_architettura, even with ontological intents. Today, human figures often work as a mediator to integrate either anonymous or iconic architectures into local contexts but in many architectural contests, the recognizability of an entry’s author can declare its exclusion from the competition. This is discouraging firms like M+T from using recognizable human figures and accessories and favoring the use of anonymous visual elements and the production of “generic” renderings. Major architectural firms often prefer to outsource the architectural visualization to creative studios such as Norwegian MIR or Squint/Opera. For their extraordinary photography-like quality, their renderings could be defined “realistic” but their cultural content is quite different. They generally envision a naively utopic future, 121

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in which human figures look happy and healthy and there is no place for beggars, emigrants or simply the decent workers of Otto Wagner’s drawings; disabled people are admitted, but only for Health Care centers designs, of course. Even if their cinema-oriented visual quality could challenge major arts works, they are commercial products whose central goal is to convey positive values to the architectural proposal by a visual fiction. Added to the general formal eclecticism allowed by the Computer Aided Design, this practice has the strange consequence that the visual cinema-oriented style of these creative studios is today more recognizable than the designers themselves. On the contrary, smaller architecture firms still adopt “crafty” procedures to produce their architecture images and build their visual identity in the global market. In the overwhelming diffusion of designs that seem to saturate every research line, architects need to distinguish their production through an updated and recognizable visual portfolio to be gradually enhanced design after design. Therefore, even if a rendering is conceived for a specific occasion, its role in constructing the visual firm’s identity is always considered and human figures offer a good opportunity in this way. For being an immediate reference to a specific idea of men and women, environment, and way of living, they seem to play the role that a picture of a model or a TV star plays on the cover of a fashion magazine. As seducing mediators of the architects themselves, they are silently yelling, “Watch me! I’m your designer!”

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Treib, M. (2008). Drawing/thinking: Confronting an electronic age. London: Routledge. Vesely, D. (2002). The Architectonics of Embodiment. In G. Dodds & R. Tavernor (Eds.), Body and Building. Essays on the changing relation (pp. 28–43). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wagner, O. (1988). Modern Architecture: A Guidebook for His Students to This Field of Art. Introduction and translation by H.F. Mallgrave. Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center. Wingler, H. M. (1978). Bauhaus. Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, Chicago. Cambridge, London: The MIT Press. Zöllner, F. (2014). Anthropomorphism: From Vitruvius to Neufert, from Human Measurement to the Module of Fascism. In K. Wagner & J. Cepl (Eds.), Images of the Body in Architecture: Anthropology and Built Space (pp. 47–75). Tübingen, Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Anthropometry: From the Greek anthropos, “human,” and metron, “measure”, is the set of statistical data describing body dimensions used to optimize spaces and furniture. Anthropomorphism: From the Greek anthropos, “human” and morphe, “form”, is the interpretation of building volumes or surfaces in terms of human characteristics. Collage-Drawing: A photo-collage picture formed by pasting parts from photographic sources onto a traditional drawing. Human Figure: From linear silhouette to three-dimensional figure used in architectural representations like parallel projections, perspective views and models. Human Measure: The set of physical and mental qualities linked to man in terms of perception, movement, and social capabilities, which is used to evaluate the experience of architecture. Cut-and-Paste: The physical procedure used in artistic and manuscript editing to create a layout or a collage as well as to transfer data in a digital operation on a computer. Photo-Collage: A composite picture formed by combining parts from separate photographic, graphic or textual sources. Photomontage: A composite but uniform photographic picture formed by combining parts from separate photographic sources. 128

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Rendering Accessories: The set of environmental elements, like surroundings, people, vehicles, trees, used to contextualize an architectural design and manifest both formal and functional possibilities.

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This chapter is partially based on a precedent paper entitled “Man as Measure. Human figure in modern architectural drawings”, which the author presented at the Conference Intercad2012: Architecture and Humanism, Vienna University of Technology, 17-18 October 2012, and is published in International Scientific Journal. Architecture and Engineering, 1(2), 2012. The author wishes to thank Orietta Lanzarini for sharing her doubts about this diffused opinion. The description of the role of human figures in the architectural design practice results from an interview the author has had with Arch. G. Rosa and P. Rosa on March 4th, 2016. This and the following quotations as well as the description of the architectural design practice inside mir_architettura result from an interview that the author had with Arch. G. Bellapadrona and A. Dolci on September 11th, 2015. Their architectural works can be seen at: http://www.mirarchitettura.net/; http:// divisare.com/authors/2144625538-mir_architettura

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Two Unique Protected Sites with a Modern Heritage in Historical Peninsula in Istanbul Gülhan Benli istanbul Medipol University, Turkey Aysun Ferrah Güner istanbul Medipol University, Turkey

ABSTRACT Suleymaniye and Zeyrek areas in the Historical Peninsula containing a combination of the architectural works of different religions, different cultures and communities are two districts which were entitled to be included in UNESCO world heritage list from Istanbul in 1985. Traditional architectural texture in Zeyrek and Suleymaniye among some unique districts of Istanbul, which brings neighborhood-centered lifestyle of Ottoman period in the past to the present, basically consists of wooden houses. Diverging process has affected on these two unique residential areas having their own hierarchical and political characteristics by planned development activities in time and it was forced to sacrifice many works belonging to Ottoman period within the borders. Another modern building obtained as a result of the competition in the Republican Period practically undertakes the task of combining these two estranged areas. Characteristics of the said two protected areas, diverging process and modern heritage acting as a buffer shall be examined in this study.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch005 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

Two Unique Protected Sites with a Modern Heritage in Historical Peninsula in Istanbul

INTRODUCTION Despite the numerous earthquakes and fires suffered in the past, Istanbul managed to maintain its original architectural identity until the 19th century. However, its urban structure was changed in the last century rapidly; thus, it has become a city that is exposed to constant change regarding the avenues, boulevards, and modernist architecture. Deterioration in the organic street pattern formed by wooden houses with bay windows has occurred in Istanbul through the reshaping processes by western norms and urbanism which started in the 1930s. The city attempted to be reshaped under planning incompatible with its multi-layered socio-cultural identity. Within the scope of modernization acts, many architects and urban planners from Europe were invited to Istanbul by the government. In this study, a section of the process of converting the old Istanbul with its strong culture and history into dynamic new Istanbul will be analyzed through the old and new neighborhood textures, how these two have been thrown away from each other during this process, and how efforts are made to compensate this alienation with life complexes that are suitable for the city.

BACKGROUND Consisting of 1,117 shop units, Istanbul Drapers Bazaar (IMC) is a market place located between Suleymaniye and Zeyrek districts within the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul. A competition was organised in 1958 to make a development plan for the region, and the first and second phases of the project winning the grand prize were completed in 1967 and 1968, respectively. There are a total of 2,300 business firms with 10,000 people working in the bazaar, which is considered as one of the major works of the period, with social units, restaurants and other service units. There are some artifacts such as famous ceramics and wall paintings of modern artists of the period in the IMC which is recognized as one of the examples of the first shopping centres in the city of modernised Istanbul. Symbolizing the modernization period, the IMC building has recently been confronted with the issue of either demolition or re-functioning. Located between two protected areas, the existence of the IMC building integrated with current urban texture and the sustainability of its natural architectural identity will be discussed under the theme of Architectural Documents in this book.

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TWO UNIQUE PROTECTED SITES IN THE HISTORICAL PENINSULA Importance of the Study The Historical Peninsula is the name given to the area surrounded by the Bosphorus Strait and the Marmara Sea, the place where the city was established and developed. As a result of the archeological excavations carried out for the Marmaray Metro construction in Yenikapı district which is located in the Historical Peninsula, it was understood that the Historical Peninsula has a history of 8,500 years and has the feature of being one of the most important centres of the Roman Empire. Being the capital of the Byzantine Empire for 1,058 years and also of the Ottoman Empire for 469 years, the area has the feature of hosting many important historical structures belonging to these civilizations (Freely & Çakmak, 2009). Dozens of ancient palaces, mosques, churches, fountains and obelisks, wood, and masonry houses from the Roman Empire, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods are all the symbols of the Historical Peninsula.

Zeyrek Mosque (Pantokrator Monastery) and the Surrounding Area as One of the World Heritage Sites in Istanbul Having several cisterns and a high retaining wall reaching up to 15 meters and being located on the fourth hill of the city in the Fatih district, the Zeyrek Area was established on various platforms and terracing which survived from the Byzantine period to the present time. The Zeyrek Mosque and its surroundings were declared a protected area in 1979 by the Turkish Ministry of Culture. Under the “Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage” of UNESCO signed by Turkey in 1983, “Zeyrek Mosque and the Surrounding Protected Area”, along with three other protected areas in Istanbul (Suleymaniye Mosque and the Surrounding Protected Area, Sultanahmet Archaeological Park, and Istanbul Land Walls) were placed on the World Heritage List in 1985 by definition of “Historic Areas of Istanbul” with serial number of 356” as seen in Figure 1. A total of 271 buildings located in Zeyrek were placed on the registered masterpieces list by the Turkish Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection Board during those years. The Zeyrek Mosque and Surroundings World Heritage Site consists of approximately 10.30 hectares, and it is known that more than 50% of the area consists of residential areas (IMM, 2011). Mosques, shrines, and tombs located in this area come into prominence as the major usages besides residential and associated functions.

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Figure 1. Zeyrek (number 3) and Suleymaniye (number 2) in the Historical Peninsula Source: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2006.

The Geographical Position, Location, and Importance in Historical Process of the Zeyrek Area The district between the walls surrounding the city during the period of Emperor Constantine (324-337) had the feature of being a “sacred place” in the city with monasteries of all sizes built within the Havariyyun Church and the surroundings where the tombs of the emperors were placed such as the Agiou Apostolou, a basilica built in 550 (Eyice, 1986). It is understood that a large part of the monastery, which was inititated by Queen Irene who was the wife of Emperor Ioannes Komnenos (1118-1143) in the 12th century, was completed before 1136 by following the construction regulations called “Typikon” (Eyice, 1986).

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Based on these sources, it is also understood that a hospital and some rooms allocated for priests were available around the monastery churches (Mathews, 1976). Before 1136, a second small church was built in the north of the large main abbey as well as an additional funerary chapel in between the two. Thus, the same area was one of the most important points of the city all the time during the mid- and late-Byzantine period though the Pantokrator Abbey started to be built at the beginning of the 12th century and consists of a combination of three chapels (Eyice, 1986). Pantokrator Abbey is the second largest ancient church still standing after the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul and a small section of the southern part is currently used as a mosque. Another major abbey in Zeyrek is the Pantepoptes Monastery converted into a mosque known as Old Imaret Mosque. Other buildings belonging to this monastery outside the mosque have not been able to survive to the present day. Among the cultural assets in the area, particularly the Zeyrek Mosque which gave its name to the area, has great importance. Among other monumental buildings, Zembilli Ali Efendi Ottoman Elementary-Primary School, Barbaros Hayrettin Pasa Turkish Bath, Bicakci Alaaddin Mosque, Seyh Suleyman Mosque, Haydar Pasa Madrasah, Divitdar Mehmet Efendi Mosque, Kasap Demirhun Mosque, and Haliliye Madrasah are also located in the Zeyrek area (Çelik, 1976). It is considered that some ruins related to the monasteries, churches or cisterns could be existing under many Ottoman monuments in the area (Wiener, 1977).

Socio-Economic and Cultural Structure of Zeyrek During the reconstruction process after the conquest of Istanbul by the Ottoman Empire, Fatih Sultan Mehmet wanted the Byzantine people who moved away to return to the country and demanded that those who stayed in the country not to leave their places. Houses in the area were allocated to some Turkish, Armenian, Greek, and Jewish families coming from Anatolia and Rumelia. Subsequent to the takeover of Istanbul by the Ottoman regime, as a result of the Turkish-Islamic settlement structure settlements around religious buildings were introduced to the whole city. Thus, the city was organised through large residential centres formed by large and small size Islamic-Ottoman social complexes located on the easily-noticeable large hills, and religious buildings to strengthen the connection between them and the neighbourhoods. The social structure of the district showed no major change until the 19th century. Decisions made regarding the allocation of Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea coasts to commerce and industry in the Master Plan of Istanbul, prepared by Professor Henri Prost from the Paris City Planning Institute in 1936, came into force

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in 1939 and caused the former residents of the district to leave the area. When some of the houses were evacuated, the district turned into an area where migrants from Turkey’s less developed provinces settled or which was used for the purpose of storage. Today, some factors related to the area such as uneducated or unskilled labour force and absence of adequate socio-cultural opportunities for women, children and young people make the area an unfavourable district in which to live.

Architectural Urban Texture of Zeyrek Wooden and attached type traditional housing texture has always maintained its neighbourhood characteristic. Street patterns and architectural identity of the area was largely determined by the topography. Curved, steep, and narrow streets caused by differences in elevation are the typical examples to extant original Ottoman settlements. Housing texture usually consists of 2-3 story wooden attached houses less than 100 square meters. The common living room is located towards the street. Almost all the houses have small gardens in the back. Bay windows that facilitate particular movement to the street are available in front of most Zeyrek houses (Figure 2). Figure 2. Zeyrek district with wooden houses with bay windows Source: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2006.

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As well as attached houses, four-fronted mansions with one front forming the boundary line to street are available (IMM, 2011). Zeyrek was frequently exposed to great fires in the past due to the wooden texture of housing. Although the traditional texture disappeared in recent years due to some significant factors such as fires, preventative zoning arrangements, road widening work, and growing multistorey concrete structures, it is observed that traditional street pattern and architectural characteristics of the World Heritage Site of the Zeyrek Mosque and the surroundings have reached today to a large extent.

Planning Decisions Regarding the Zeyrek Area While the housing texture of the Zeyrek district was destroyed in time due to various reasons such as fires and lack of maintenance, it is known that the users of the district changed in the 1950s when Istanbul was exposed to a massive flow of migration. Fast-spreading tower block-construction process in particular between 1960-1975 caused some trouble in the Zeyrek Area. Although new settlements were limited in 1980, a reduction in the number of wooden houses occurred after the area was taken under protection (IMM, 2006). Projects for the protection of civilian cultural heritage carrying value as the examples of traditional Ottoman wooden architecture have been prepared, and restoration activities have been conducted in the area since the early 2000s. These studies are carried out by public establishments such as Governorship of Istanbul, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, First Regional Directorate of Foundations of Istanbul, and Fatih Municipality as well as by private property owners. Dominant usage foreseen for Zeyrek Mosque (Pantokrator Monastery) and the Surrounding Protected Area in the Reconstruction Plan for Protection of Fatih District Urban Protected Area in 1/5000 Scale is concentrated on the medium density (500 persons/ha) residential areas. Overall in the area the creation of social and cultural facilities as well as parks and recreation areas to support the use of the housing are recommended (IMM, 2006).

Suleymaniye Mosque and the Surrounding Area as One of the World Heritage Sites in Istanbul Suleymaniye Mosque and the Surrounding World Heritage Site are located on the slopes of the third hill of Istanbul overlooking the Golden Horn in the north of the Historic Peninsula. The area is named by the Suleymaniye Social Complex located within the boundaries. The district shows the typical neighbourhood characteristics of the Ottoman Period settlement with traditional Turkish houses and the streets protecting their organic forms. The architectural identity of the area is formed by the wooden houses developed around Suleymaniye Complex just like the Zeyrek 136

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Area (Benli, 2015). It is seen that units to meet civil and social needs of the residents such as mosques, hazire (burial area reserved for special people especially in mosques), imaret (houses for the poor), bazaar, Ottoman elementary-primary schools, madrasahs, darussifa (hospitals), and libraries are available among the building groups forming the neighbourhood in the area (Kuban, 2010). Suleymaniye Mosque and the Surroundings World Heritage Site were declared protected areas in 1977 by the Turkish Ministry of Culture (Figure 1). In 1995, Suleymaniye district was identified as an urban and historical protected area under decision of Istanbul No 1 Cultural and Natural Heritage Conservation Council dated December 7, 1995, and Law No. 6848, along with the declaration of protected area of all Historical Peninsula (IMM, 2011). A total of 525 wooden houses, which are under protection in the district of Suleymaniye Mosque and the Surroundings World Heritage Site, as one of the four heritage areas included in the World Heritage List by definition of ‘‘Istanbul’s Historic Areas’’ as well as Suleymaniye Social Complex built by master architect Sinan by an order of Suleyman The Magnificent are available in the area.

The Geographical Position, Location, and Importance in the Historical Process of the Suleymaniye Area The Suleymaniye Area, located on the slopes between the north elevations of the Historical Peninsula and the Golden Horn and developed around the Suleymaniye Social Complex as an ulema district with the characteristics of a religious centre, is an area of dense wooden building structure as an example of civil architecture (Eyice, 2006). The area contains the Suleymaniye Social Complex (1551-1557) and the Sehzadebasi Social Complex (1543-1548) built by Sinan the Architect as well as the Vefa Church Mosque (MollaGurani Mosque), the Kalenderhane Mosque and such like monumental works. It is known that the Kalenderhane Mosque, which is considered to be dedicated to Theotokos Kyriotissa, was constructed in the EastRoman era and transformed into a mosque during the Ottoman Empire era in the 18th century (Krautheimer & Curcic 1986). The Vefa Church Mosque, which is considered to be dedicated to Saint Theodoros, was constructed in the form of the Eastern Orthodox Church belonging to Komnenos and Palaiologos periods of the Byzantine architecture. It was used as a mosque following the conquest of Istanbul. The Valens Aqueduct (Bozdoğan Kemeri), which was completed by the Roman Emperor Valens at the end of the 4th century, is also located in this area. Furthermore, several education buildings which had very important roles in the country’s history such as Istanbul University, Vefa High School, and Atif Efendi Library as well as the health buildings such as Hifzissihha Institute and Esnaf Hospital, and Istanbul Drapers Bazaar (IMC,) the largest and most important trade 137

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Figure 3. Suleymaniye Mosque surrounded by wooden houses and madrasahs with domes Source: Postcards archive in Atatürk Library, 2016.

building of the Republic Period, are the important buildings among the most valuable ones of the area (Eyice, 1986; Kuban, 2010). Streets which have a traditional pattern with the attached civil architecture examples in the Zeyrek District such as Kirazli Mescit, Yogurtcu Street, and Ayranci Street can also be seen today (Goodwin, 1971) (Figure 3).

Socio-Economic and Cultural Structure of Suleymaniye Structures giving the name and features to the district include madrasahs along with the Suleymaniye Social Complex, Darulhadis, Darussifa (hospital), Darulkurra, imaret (houses for the poor), Turkish baths, caravanserais, tabhane, hazire (a burial area reserved for special people especially in mosques), shrine, and Ottoman bazaar. Suleymaniye became one of Istanbul’s most important regions in the 16th century as the residential area for notable governors of the palace, religious scholars, and rich merchants as well as for various functions. In addition, urban texture formed 138

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in this area from the beginning of the 16th century until the beginning of the 19th century included large craftsman workshops, factories, workplaces, and commerce houses around the Suleymaniye Complex. Copper engraving works known as “Suleymaniye Work” are conducted especially in the shops of the social complex on the Mimar Sinan Street and around. Towards the Mercan, the shopping and commercial centre of the part outside the World Heritage Site and at the Haliç, activities of several developing manufacturing units particularly coppersmiths, moulders, wood lathers, mouthpiece makers and shepherd’s felt cloak makers have survived until today (Kuban, 2010). Educational and scientific functions of the district through various buildings and faculties of Istanbul University located in the area still continue today. Despite being a developing area in terms of its residential and commercial functions in the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul earlier, Suleymaniye was later transformed into an area mainly hosting trade, manufacturing and storage fields as well as housing, car parks and educational institutions. The formation of new commercial and storage functions not compatible with the existing architectural and socio-cultural identity of the region, related changes in the social structure and sense of belonging problems of the people migrating to the area after the 1960s has led to social, economic, and cultural corruptions in the whole area. Along with the problems related to cultural protection, expected quality in the restoration and protection processes of historical buildings could not be attained.

Architectural Urban Texture of Suleymaniye The majority of conventional housing of Suleymaniye has been constructed using frame construction techniques to be two/three-storied. The parcels in the area are of long and thin form. When the plan schemes of the housing settled on these narrow parcels are examined, it is seen that the rooms and anterooms as common place between the rooms have been built. Anterooms are the most important factors in the housing construction layout, and they were used as the centre of the connection between rooms (Benli, 2015). Rooms were used to meet specific functions on their own in the structure. Each room accommodates living, eating, working, resting and suchlike actions. The formation of the room is composed of a combination of the space components necessary for these actions. Despite the housing with the corner anterooms, inner anterooms are seen as the layout type in the area, mostly the central anteroom layout type was applied (Benli, 2015). Entrance into the attached houses, which are usually constructed in the same way as those in the Zeyrek area, is mostly realised on the side of the street front. Houses with a back or side gardens with high walls are the important elements

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brought on the streets. In this manner the streets are kept away from a monotonous layout and they are activated by the duty cycle. Bay windows situated in front of the houses in Suleymaniye have also had a direct impact on the street silhouette. Bay windows built for eliminating the distortions caused by the unevenness of the land on the ground floor and for creating proper spaces on the top floor not only dynamised the street with their aesthetic values but also gave the street a rhythmic appearance (Vatan & Benli, 2014) (Figures 3 and 4). As well as controlling the effects of the wind and sun on the house, providing light and shadow effects in fronts, protecting the house from the natural impacts acting as eaves on the entrance, bay windows are an important element that complement a building, allow people to expand their outlook and gain dominance over the landscape.

Planning Decisions Regarding the Suleymaniye Area Similar to the Zeyrek Area, mainly fires and the arrangements made with the aim of preventing fires, road widening works, efforts to create new squares and new Figure 4. The timber residential characteristic in Suleymaniye district Source: Taken by the photographer Kargopulo in the 19th century, Atatürk Library.

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public spaces caused the loss of the original street texture from place to place. The Suleymaniye Mosque and Surroundings World Heritage Site preserved their traditional structure as urban texture until the 1950s. Although some examples of civil architecture with the streets keeping their traditional characteristics are still present today, Suleymaniye has been exposed to fires frequently just like other old districts of Istanbul with wooden structure. It could also be said the original texture has been corrupted slightly especially after the opening of the Ataturk Boulevard and the construction of the blocks of the IMC (Vatan & Benli, 2014). The bazaar that was built in order to bring together drapers and cloth traders in and around Sultanhamam was activated in the late 1960s. Buildings used as housing in the area were minimised in time; mostly, single population who arrived as internal migrants and because of the proximity of district to the university, students moved into the remaining houses. Increasingly turning into a poorer district during the last century, Suleymaniye is still trying to maintain its vitality with education, health, and related functions. In the Suleymaniye area the creation of social and cultural facilities as well as parks and recreation areas to support the use of the housing are projected by a Reconstruction Master Plan for Protection on a 1/5000 scale (IMM, 2006). Density range of 600 - 400 people/hectare is projected by maintaining the current situation in the residential areas. It is stated that the trading types that do not require storage activities and the functions such as retail, service units, commercial buildings, production-marketing-merchandising units can take place in the area. Maintaining the original structure and function of IMC, it can be provided with the new usages of culture-tourism purposes. Madrasah buildings around the Suleymaniye Mosque are defined as cultural facilities in the Plan as seen in Figure 5. These areas can be used to serve as cultural centres, libraries, museums, exhibition centers, conference facilities, and nursing homes. In the plan, it is indicated that the function of the Istanbul University Botanical Garden, which is one of the largest green areas of the site, will be kept and no addition to the existing buildings will be made.

Opening of Ataturk Boulevard as the Urban Development Concept Turkey underwent a restructurion period after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 at the end of Ottoman Empire era. This period in Istanbul started with the official invitation of French Urbanist Henri Prost by the Turkish government for the preparation of city’s master plans in 1933. Paris Region Chief Urbanist Professor Henri Prost from Paris City Planning Institute began his works to make plans for Istanbul in 1936, which were to be finished until 1951. Professor Prost first worked on the solutions for protection and evaluation of historic silhouette 141

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Figure 5. Suleymaniye district & Atatürk Boulevard Source: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2006.

and historical monuments of Istanbul within their environments (Aydemir, 2008). Although Prost’s idea was to modernize Istanbul without damaging its natural and historical integrity, provide transportation, and reveal the architectural values, his certain decisions related to transport axes could be read clearly when the master plan decision solutions were evaluated (Figure 6). Prost prepared partial plans that could be described in parts rather than prepare a strategic plan for the whole city in those years. One of those partial plans was prepared on the Historical Peninsula. The plan for Istanbul Prost prepared related to opening new squares, boulevards, and wide avenues. Prost categorised the city in the context of functionality in his plan, and he put the transport axes at the centre of urban development. He determined the centre as the new commercial, industrial, and residential area to be developed around the transport axes. However, leading Turkish and foreign architects of the period expressed that this plan was made to assimilate Istanbul to Paris, and that, in particular, the existing architectural identity and character of the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul was not considered at all. The construction of the boulevard which is a boundary point between Suleymaniye and Zeyrek was started in 1941 under Prost’s Master Plan. The area where the 142

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Figure 6. Prost’s plan Source: Megaron, 2008.

Byzantine and Ottoman civilizations were situated one after the other experienced a functional change through the modern planning principles of that period. Split of the existing texture into two parts meant split of the neighbourhoods feeding each other. The area where Ataturk Boulevard was built was known as a region with an original identity with examples from the Byzantine and Ottoman architecture. Integrated individual examples described the centuries of the urban texture of old Istanbul including many mosques, schools, fountains, wooden houses with narrow streets in the area such as Valens Aqueduct (Bozdoğan Kemeri), a work from the Roman Period, Zeyrek Cistern, Zeyrek Pantockator Monastery Church from the Byzantine Period, Gazanfer Aga Madrasah, Seb Sefa Hatun Mosque, and Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque from the Ottoman period. The features of the city did not go through very significant change after the conquest of Istanbul. Distinguished with their spiritual identities, the Suleymaniye and Zeyrek Areas maintained their functional identities in terms of socio-cultural and religious aspects in the Ottoman period just like in the Byzantine period. However, this identity changed negatively with the plans made during the period of the Turk143

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ish Republic. As can be seen in Suleymaniye and Zeyrek examples, by damaging the organic structure of the districts, the boulevard which is shown as a symbol of modernization, and these two unique settlement textures were separated by a sharp line (Figure 7). These districts located on both sides of the boulevard were negatively affected because of the transport network and commercial functions assigned to the boulevard. Shops and business centres opened on both sides of the boulevard led to a reduction in family life in these districts. While the area where the boulevard was constructed was mainly a residential area, it was turned into a commercial and industrial-based transit area after the opening of the boulevard. Many historical buildings including the Oruc Gazi Mosque, Firuz Aga Mosque, Sekbanbasi Ibrahim Aga Mosque, Hoca Teberruk Mosque, Papazoglu Mosque, Voynuk Sucaeddin Mosque, Ebul Fazl Mahmud Efendi Mosque, Payzen Yusuf Pasha Tomb, Ibrahim Pasha Bath, Azebler Mosque and the Bath, Kirk Cesme Water, Burmali Mosque Elementary School, Revani Celebi Mosque, Suleyman Subasi Kara Celebizade Mosque were demolished on the line of the boulevard (Kuban 2010). Another issue that should be discussed is to name the boulevard after the founder of the Turkish Republic in order to extenuate this sharp reconstruction process. Ataturk Boulevard is an example of the intervention of the city’s natural development in a planned manner and the destruction of the existing urban texture. Today, Figure 7. Atatürk Boulevard between Zeyrek and Suleymaniye Source: Güzelleşen İstanbul, 1944.

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the most striking building on the boulevard is the IMC with its original body and lively architectural structure.

Istanbul Drapers Bazaar (IMC) Competition Process Local Zoning Plan Wholesaler drapers and cloth traders concentrated on Sultanhamam, which is close to the Golden Horn coasts of the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul and tried to find a new market place by establishing a cooperative in 1950. A decision was made on the expropriation of the area between Suleymaniye and Zeyrek which began to be destroyed for delivering to the cooperative by the Istanbul Governor of the period. Although there are hundreds of organically formed and small parcels remaining from the Ottoman neighbourhood texture in the area, the expropriation process was largely accomplished following a nearly five-year-long study in 1959. However, when it was noticed there was no development plan of the area prior to these years, “Local Zoning Plan Competition” was organised at the end of 1958 (Figure 8).

Figure 8. Istanbul Drapers Bazaar (IMC)

Source: Journal of Architecture, 2003.

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The purpose of the urbanism competition organized on August 27, 1958 was to clarify the expropriation boundaries of the area and zoning status before the architectural competition and to determine the relationship of the project to be performed in one of Istanbul’s liveliest historic centres, with similar structures such as Suleymaniye Mosque and Bozdogan Arch. Despite not being written in the competition regulations, one of the data verbally notified to the participants of the competition was a suggestion put forward by Adnan Menderes, the Prime Minister of the period: Menderes wanted to open another avenue perpendicular to Ataturk Boulevard, from Unkapani towards the Suleymaniye Social Complex, seventy meters wide. Although this data was used in competition projects, it was not put into practice (Hepguler, 2001). That this data was not applied extremely accurate, because if this idea had been implemented Suleymaniye, which is one of Istanbul’s oldest neighbourhoods, would have almost entirely vanished with its civil and religious structures. The jury gave the first prize, among fourteen projects sent to the competition, to the joint project of Master Architect Cihat Findikoglu, Master Architect Kamil Bayur, Master Architect Tarik Aka, Master Architect Niyazi Duranay, and Master Architect Ozdemir Akverdi (Kizilkayak, 2001). Italian Professor Luigi Piccinato, the head of the Planning Department of the Municipality, suggested some additions to the winning project in order to strengthen the relationship of the structure with the Suleymaniye Social Complex. Being developed by the contribution of Prof. Piccinato, the municipal urban planning consultant, this project was transformed into a Local Zoning Plan later.

IMC Competition Project and Implementation Stage On February 19, 1960, an architectural competition upon invitation was organized by the cooperative in order to find the best solution and make a project befitting a historic area such as Suleymaniye and suitable to the field in gigantic size. Together with the Competition Specification, the structure program required to be complied with and the data obtained by the local zoning plan were given to the participant architects. Competitors were asked to produce projects with a construction area of 160,000 square meters, including more than 1,100 shops, restaurants, kiosks, post offices, police stations, barber shops, pharmacies, stores, and both indoor and outdoor parking areas (Isikkaya, 2013). Out of 12 projects participating in the competition, the SITE Architecture, which consisted of a group of master architects DoganTekeli, Sami Sisa and Metin Hepguler, won (Tekeli, Sisa, & Hepguler, 1965). In this challenging design process, DoganTekeli, Sami Sisa and Metin Hepguler worked together to determine the correct direction of the blocks in order to establish a strong bonding between the surrounding historical structures and the bazaar, and to resolve pedestrian circulation and vehicle traffic. They placed the blocks without 146

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disturbing the appearances of the Sehzade complex, the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church), the Bozdogan Arch, the Sebsafa Mosque and first and foremost, of the Suleymaniye Mosque complex. They designed landscape terraces in the bazaar from where these historical structures can be seen. It is observed that they also took advantage of the rich architectural history of Istanbul when making these designs. They developed their design by closely examining Istanbul’s commercial history which forms the traditional houses of the Suleymaniye neighbourhood behind IMC, covered bazaars, inns and Grand Bazaar. This great feature construction took seven years. Some tombstones were encountered during earthworks of the project area. As a result, the municipality required some changes in the projects. These requirements were added to the project by the architects of IMC and put into practice. At the present time, the tombs in front of the third block of IMC have been rescued. After examining the tombstones, it was understood that one of the tombstones belonged to Hizir Bey, who was the teacher of Fatih Sultan Mehmet and considered to be the first mayor of Istanbul, and the other one belonged to Katip Celebi, who made his mark in the17th century with his works Cihannuma and Kesfu’z Zunun (Figure 9).

Figure 9. The tombs in front of the 3rd block of IMC, at the present time Source: Gulhan Benli’s archive, 2016.

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The Main Principles in the Project The most important feature of the design of IMC, which is a modern trial of TurkishIslamic bazaar tradition, is its being “environment-friendly”, which is valid and well-accepted even today. The land which is inclined towards the Golden Horn from the Bozdoğan Arch is an area of 45,000 square meters and the front area which has a narrow form is 800 meters in length (Doğan & Emdem, 2003). In this project, the shops are placed at an angle with Ataturk Boulevard, with a view of the Suleymaniye Mosque Complex through courtyards, and the project also allows sufficient area for the pedestrians to walk comfortably (Figure 10). Courtyards where the shops are positioned are lined by being connected with the internal pedestrian paths along the Boulevard with different spatial effects. Embedded positioning of the building in the land and ventilation process by opening the rear service path to the courtyards were settled in the most dynamic way in the project. Utilizing the slope extending the entire length of the land, entrance halls to all floors without stairs were provided. Referring to the historical features of the area, a certain standard and dynamism are observed in the construction through small Figure 10. Istanbul Drapers Bazaar nearby Atatürk Boulevard Source: Journal of Architecture, 2003.

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bay windows, balconies, and retreats on the upper floors. It has been possible to reflect the respect for the Suleymaniye Social Complex with low rise structure preferred in the construction like the current silhouette from the Ataturk Boulevard (Figure 11). Adaptability to the environment and durability as well as cost and ease of application were taken into consideration in the selection of the materials for exterior masonry of the building. It is seen that the use of numerous and different materials was avoided. Although travertine coating was applied on some of the walls, horizontal bearing, balcony parapets, and some walls were left as exposed concrete (Figure 12). Special effort has been made to exhibit the examples of Turkish plastic arts belonging to the period and integrate them with the building architecture for this large complex. Representing a specific period architecturally, the bazaar was also decorated with exquisite works of plastic arts. Some of these works are as follows: ceramic panels by Fureya Koral and Sadi Diren, three mosaic panels by Eren and Bedri Rahmi Eyuboglu, mosaic panel by Nedim Gunsur, natural stone relief by Ali Teoman Germaner, fountain plastic by Yavuz Gorey and the Statue of Birds by Kuzgun Acar. While the first part of the bazaar was completed in 1967, the second part was completed in 1968 (Tekeli, Sisa, & Hepgüler, 1965).

The IMC Building from 1967 to Present Suleyman Demirel, the Prime Minister of the period, performed the opening of the bazaar with the largest usage area after Grand Bazaar in Istanbul on April 22, 1967. Being unoccupied in the first years, the IMC building began to be filled by the settlement of velvet drapers in one of its blocks after 1970. After 1985, the bazaar became more crowded as another block was filled by importers of sewing machines for which the quota on customs was alleviated. It then became a favourable bazaar by business lines such as music, drapery, velvet-making, and curtain-making, and Figure 11. The silhouette of Istanbul Drapers Bazaar with Suleymaniye Mosque Source: Tekeli, Sisa &Hepgüler, 1965.

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Figure 12. Sketches for the courtyard of the IMC building Source: Tekeli, Sisa & Hepgüler, 1965.

it still has the feature of being the largest bazaar of Istanbul. From the 1990s, by the opening of large-scale shopping centres in Istanbul and the rapid proliferation of such structures after the 2000s, artisans at IMC were negatively affected. In 2005, when IMC Management applied to the municipality to make a parking lot in a vacant land next to the bazaar they owned, they saw a suspended change in the zoning plan. The area where IMC was located was shown as “prestige housing zone” in 1/1000 scale zoning plan and 1/5000 scale master plan which was approved on September 22, 2005. IMC Management objected to the suspended plan and appealed to the court for the continuation of execution. However, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality wanted to demolish the six blocks of the IMC and make “fifty prestige houses and a bazaar with characteristics of Ottoman bazaar” instead. In other words, the expropriation of the bazaar which consisted of thousands of shops was brought to agenda. The demolition of Turkey’s largest bazaar constructed at that time which was recognized as an example of contemporary architecture after 1950 and the construction of “fifty prestige” houses instead was planned. Regarding the demolition of the bazaar and the construction of prestige houses, journalists, architects, academics, and non-governmental organizations sided with the IMC. They formed a view on the preservation of the bazaar. Even Nevzat Er, Eminonu Mayor of the period, expressed that the decision of demolition was wrong. However, as the Metropolitan Municipality abode by their decision, the decision was moved to the State Council. On November 13, 2008, the State Council, which also rejected the municipality’s appeal, stated that the demolition of the bazaar “integrated with its original architectural identity, awarded the Republic Period Structures and the cultural heritages

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of different periods” and “the construction of villas instead” was inappropriate for the principles of urbanism, planning principles and public interest. Since its construction, the damage of time and artisans on the structure have increased. Due to the use of careless signs and showcase expansions, the IMC’s original facade covered with terra-cotta bricks has completely vanished. Small bay window modules, by means of which the architects made references to classic architectural elements of the traditional Ottoman houses and which have been modernized, have become imperceptible as they were embedded in the shops. Similarly, the fountain structure which is located in the public domain in traditional Ottoman architecture has been transformed into buffets in time and has lost its original function.

Interaction of the IMC Building with the Environment in which It Is Located The architecture of the IMC building, unlike the structure typology of Ottoman bazaar which forms the backbone of the Ottoman bazaar culture, caravanserai, covered bazaar, inn and the Grand Bazaar, presents the commercial spatial traditions of its own period with a modern interpretation. Likewise, as a product of the biggest artisan organization in its own era, it stands in front of us today. At the same time, it also has close relations with the magnificent Suleymaniye Social Complex located in the silhouette behind it and does not suppress it with its architecture. The IMC building which establishes an open, accessible and permeable relationship with the city, with the statement of the designer team, is in position as the base of the Suleymaniye Social Complex (Tekeli, 2001). In their design, the SITE Architecture group, the winner of the competition, aimed to produce a project which is coherent to the historical and structural character of the area, providing the visual connections of IMC with the mosque from any point, by arrangement of the courtyards opening to the Suleymaniye Mosque on the hill. It has a non-monotonic variable fiction with permeable and moving horizontal lines, trying to bring together the existing 16th-17th century urban texture scale and the boulevard which is the product of the urban development plans of the 1950s. Indoor and outdoor courtyards, located in and between the structure blocks of the bazaar, draw attention as elements that enable the urban circulation. The location of the shops appear as organizations having a particular axial arrangement. Considering Turkey’s conditions at the time it was built, the completion of a large group of structures of this scale in six years shows that the limited possibilities in materials, technology, and labour were used at maximum efficiency. In the 1960s in Turkey, under the influence of artists and also some politicians, a regulation about placing artworks in state structures was issued. In this regard, carrying the original works

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from the Turkish Plastic Arts, of the IMC structure as well, emerges as a difference that it brought to the bazaar structures of its own time.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS The Zeyrek Area where many historical buildings such as mosques, madrasahs, and wooden mansions from the Ottoman period as well as Pantokrator Abbey from 12th century are located, and the Suleymaniye area hosting the Suleymaniye Social Complex, a world-renowned artifact of Sinan the Architect, along with the neighbourhoods with wooden houses are both included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO because they have numerous examples of life, technology, and architecture belonging to history of the civilizations who lived in the area. Although the historic areas of Istanbul are under legal protection by national legislation, there is no specific planning legislation to protect World Heritage Sites. Therefore, there is a need for conducting several particular works to determine the management of the areas with commercial-residential-tourism potentials, urban restructuring strategy and existing traffic and transportation plan of the Historical Peninsula to protect the universal values of both areas on top and detail scale for the near future (Vatan & Benli, 2014). In these works, the principles for the protection of both areas and for the restoration to be carried out in the area with the rehabilitation principles should be determined, the duties of the responsible authorities should be explained clearly, training for the users of the area should be provided, protection and awareness consciousness should be increased and risk management plans should be prepared.

CONCLUSION Within the scope of architectural heritages to be protected, the subject of evaluation of the modern architecture products in Turkey is being discussed in a process that began in the 2000s within a limited frame consisting of specialists. While the approaches in theory and practice are changing, the definition of cultural assets to be protected differs in terms of scale and content. Turkey has problems with legal, professional, and social perception preventing documentation and protection of the modern architectural structures. The DOCOMOMO-Turkey Working Group, founded in 2002 to work in the field of documentation and protection of the modern architecture produced in the twentieth century, are working for many structures to be certified as “cultural assets”. Considering that most of the applications for the modern architecture products to be 152

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certified are rejected, it is obvious that the current legal definitions are restrictive for the protection of 20th century architecture, are able to provide protection only for certain structures, and therefore need to be updated in the legal framework. The criterion for the protection of structures that were built after 1900 is not defined. Therefore, the definition of periodic and qualitative values of the 20th century architecture and determination of the criterion for protection, by organizations such as DOCOMOMO-Turkey and academic institutions, are of great importance. In the development of the social consciousness for the protection of the 20th century architectural heritage in Turkey, establishing connections with organizations working on modern architectural examples, sharing international documents and samples, holding meetings and publishing studies on the subject are needed. Hence, also the products of the 20th century architecture deemed worthy for protection should carry a universal architectural identity as a reflection of the culture to which it belongs and must provide a quality as original and stylistic as the traces of the previous periods, to the city. Cities, not of their individual identities, are formed of multiple identities formed by the combination of historical layers, and they create a sense of belonging to that city in memory of the citizens. The example of Ataturk Boulevard is just one of the modern urban planning examples carried out throughout Istanbul between 1940-1965. It was clearly understood that sacrificing all surrounding Ottoman artifacts for opening a boulevard in a linear direction in contrast to the organic-structure Ottoman urban fabric does not make other parts of the city meaningful and valuable. Blocks of the Istanbul Drapers Bazaar, opened in 1967, could be regarded as a kind of transition structure trying to combine and integrate Suleymaniye region with the boulevard without blocking the silhouette of unique Suleymaniye Mosque behind (Figure 13). They are among Figure 13. A small part of Istanbul Drapers Bazaar nearby Atatürk Boulevard Source: IMM, 2006.

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the modern buildings of the 20th century to be protected when viewed from this aspect. It must be an essential principle of the modern protectionism understanding to transfer contemporary architectural works as one of the most outstanding examples of the period which won the competition to the next generations as heritage. In this context, the IMC building, which is the modern architectural heritage of the 20th century, must be protected and kept alive as it forms a part of the memory of our city.

REFERENCES Aydemir, I. (2008). İki Fransız Mimarı Henri Prost ve August Perret’nin İstanbul ile İlgili Çalışmaları. Journal of Yıldız Technical University Architecture Faculty. MEGARON, 3(1), 104–111. Benli, G. (2015). Continuity of Typology and Components of Traditional Housing in Suleymaniye, as the First Inhabited Region in Istanbul[İstanbul’un İlk İskan Bölgelerinden; Suleymaniye’deki Geleneksel Konut Tipolojisi ve Bileşenlerinin Sürekliliği]. Proceedings of Sustainable Integrated Design; Creative and Innovative Approaches; Green Age III (pp. 351–360). İstanbul, Turkey: Mimar Sinan University Press. Çelik, G. (1976). A Guide to Istanbul. Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Library OCLC. Doğan, H., & Emdem, C. (2003). İstanbul Manifaturacılar Çarşısı, XXI Dergisi. V (11), Istanbul, Turkey: 74-77. Eyice, S. (1986). İstanbul’un Camiye Çevrilen Kiliseleri. Istanbul, Turkey: TAÇ. Eyice, S. (2006). Tarih Boyunca İstanbul. Istanbul, Turkey: Etkileşim Press. Freely, J., & Çakmak, A. S. (2009). Byzantine Monuments of Istanbul. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Goodwin, G. (1971). A History of Ottoman Architecture. London, England: Thames & Hudson. Hepgüler, M. (2001). Tanıkların Gözünden İMÇ, İmeceden İMÇ’ye. Istanbul, Turkey: İmç Press. Historical Areas of Istanbul. (2016). Retrieved from whc.unesco.org/en/list/356 Işıkkaya, D. (2013). Türkiye’de Özgün bir Kentsel ve Mimari Yarışma Deneyim: İMÇ Blokları. Yarışmalar ve Mimarlık Sempozyumu. Istanbul, Turkey: Scala Press. Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM). (2006). Thereport of Master Plan of Eminönü-Fatih Historic Peninsula in 1/5000 scale. Istanbul, Turkey. 154

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Kızılkayak, G. (2001). Dünden Bugüne İMÇ, Umut Dolu Günler, İmeceden İMÇ’ye (pp. 55–62). Istanbul, Turkey: İmç Press. Krautheimer, R., & Curcic, S. (1986). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (4th ed.). Hong Kong: Yale University Press. Kuban, D. (2010). Ottoman Architecture. London, England: Antique Collectors’ Club. Mathews, T. F. (1976). The Byzantine Churches of Istanbul: A photographic Survey. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. Municipality, I. M. (2011). IMM. Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. Tekeli, D. (2001). Tanıkların Gözünden İMÇ. İmeceden İMÇ’ye. Istanbul, Turkey: İmç Press. Tekeli, D., Sisa, S., & Hepgüler, M. (1965). İstanbul Manifaturacılar Çarşısı. Mimarlık Dergisi. İstanbul, Turkey: Mimarlar Odası Press. Vatan, M., & Benli, G. (2014). Suleymaniye Neighborhood: Change of the Physical and Social Phase of the District throughout its History. Proceedings of Re-Thinking Residential Environments, Environment and Design 2014 International Congress (pp. 358-368). İstanbul, Turkey: Bahçeşehir University Press. Wiener, G. M. (1977). Bildlexikonzur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion, Konstantinupolis, Istanbulbis zum Beginn d. 17. Jh. Germany: Deutsches Archaogisches Institut.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Bay Window: A window with a flat front and angle sides. Draper Bazaar: A kind of market building with consecutive shop units specialized in particular goods. Historical Peninsula: An area surrounded by the Byzantine city walls, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which has harbored many civilizations throughout its thousands of years of history. Madrasah: An educational institution under the provision of the Ottoman Empire. Organic Street Pattern: A pattern formed by wooden houses with bay windows especially seen in sites under the provision of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Artifacts: Famous ceramics and wall paintings of artists of the period in Istanbul.

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Protected Sites: Special sites with cultural and natural heritage that are both irreplaceable sources of life which have been grouped as natural, archaeological, urban, historical and mixed, and inspiration that makes the concept of World Heritage exceptional is its universal application.

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Chapter 6

City of Beats:

Analysing Flânerie as a Practice for Living the Physical Space Silvia Torsi University of Trento, Italy

ABSTRACT The flâneur is the urban vagabond in search of experiences and inspirations from serendipitously exploring a city environment. This construct is put beside post-modern stances about the suburban areas built and populated after the Second World War industrialization, along with considerations about ecological psychology, cultural materialism, and sound theory. The main concept is to provide those places with a communication level that would be pleasant to discover while wandering without a destination. Therefore, it is desirable to conceive a meta-design tool able to incorporate creativity, ownership, and conviviality.

INTRODUCTION This chapter intends to refer to the field of urban informatics (Foth, 2011) and lays at the intersection of urbanistics, anthropology, and social sciences in order to inform Global Positioning System (GPS) such as Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for the design of novel design concepts related to urban strolling. It is first important to question time and space as fixed categories. This is a distortion of the modern way of life brought by industrialization and rational segmenting of the urban settings according to the work requirements of the large cities. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch006 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

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Figure 1. The post-modern flâneur

Accordingly, here the concept of flânerie is explored as an important dimension coming from many fields but here focused on research in architecture (e.g., Careri & Colafranceschi, 2002) and ICT, in particular the area of psychology called Spatial Reasoning (e.g., Montello & Freundschuh, 2005). Time and space provide both structure and contents for living. We perceive time flowing and movement across space as a constituent part of our reasoning (Torsi, 2013). The feeling of time and space dynamically, continuously, and cyclically relates to our consciousness, previous knowledge, memory, and delayed intentions (Damasio, 2010). It is the self that negotiates across those dimensions by weighting, comparing, modeling, and expanding them. The anthropological paradigm of Cultural Materialism (e.g., Price, 1982) describes how and when material conditions mutate as they offer novel chances for cognition, culture, and societal challenges. This is the case of ICT, especially when incorporated into Social Media (Sui & Goodchild, 2011). What do those recent material changes bring in terms of ways to experience the environment? It is possible to start from ecologies of artifacts, densities of tools and representations around an individual, or his relationships (e.g., Jung et al., 2008). We can interpret these in terms of ecological niches (Gibson, 2014): self-contained communities related by artifacts and representations, immersed in a context. How can ICT enhance the experience of place and time? How can the chances for self-disclosure, networking, and collective identities be increased? How can we find novel ways in which to incorporate visual art, narratives, music, or digital media into the culture of a community? How can we relate urban strolling to the identity of a neighborhood? 158

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The main topic of this chapter is the artistic, sociological and psychological figure of the flâneur (e.g., Careri & Colafranceschi, 2002; Nuvolati, 2013) the concept of the urban vagabond in search of experiences and inspirations from serendipitously exploring a city environment. In addition, the suburban areas built and populated after the Second World War industrialization (Harvey, 1990) are a parallel matter of concern. The main concept is to provide those places with a communication method that would be pleasant to discover while wandering without a destination (Venturi et al., 1972). By means of the theoretical framework built around flânerie as an architectural practice, it is possible to conceive a meta-design tool (Giaccardi, 2003) able to relate creativity, ownership, and conviviality between neighborhoods and the casual walkers (Tuan, 1979). There are several examples in Human-Computer Interaction, Participatory Design and User Experience projects on neighborhoods addressing the design space of those other spaces (Foucalt & Miskowiec, 1986). The starting point here is to describe and analyse flânerie as an aesthetic practice. The design concept is a system able to interact with the soundscape of a physical space by means of geo-tagged sounds posted by the inhabitants. The aim of this chapter is to make an analysis of the features of physical space, especially focusing on places for conviviality, neighborhoods, and third places (Oldenburg, 1989). Can we consider neighborhoods as laboratories for growing playful attitudes, artistic practices (e.g., narratives, jokes, rhymes, songs, music, dancing, writing, painting) to be created collectively? How can we provide mixed material/virtual means for building mementos (Petrelli et al., 2008) in the physical spaces? How is it possible to enhance the experience of walking across a neighborhood?

THE FLÂNEUR One of the earliest contributions on flânerie was Walter Benjamin’s work. The 20th century Marxist philosopher theorized the figure of the flâneur, while at the same addressing Edgar Allan Poe and Charles Baudelaire as describing this way of being in the world as an aesthetic and existential stance. The street becomes a dwelling for the flâneur; he is as much at home among the façades of houses as a citizen is in his four walls. To him the shiny, enameled sign of business are at least as good a wall ornament as an oil painting is to a bourgeois in his salon. (Benjamin, 1997 p. 37) Baudelaire explored the dimension of flânerie, fusing the eye of the artist with the exploration of his city in search of adventure, mystery, spell, decay, and humanity. With his 1879 Paris Spleen collection of brief proses, he traces the coordinates for 159

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flânerie in terms of mood, attitude, perceptual cues, adjectives, and colours. Poe’s flânerie is instead more related to the narrative tools of estrangement, physiognomical descriptions and the observation spirit of the stroller, always focused on what the other walkers overlook and taking casual paths instead of following a direction. The name of the American novelist is related to the concept of flânerie mostly for his 1840 seminal novel The Man in the Crowd in which describes the protagonist’s immersion in a busy neightborhood as he wanders in search of a mysterious man who attracted his attention, and where running after a stranger represents the vain search for one’s self. The rich descriptions of the different weird street characters and the anxious wandering across the street in search of the unknown make this novel a seminal work for the construct of flânerie. Other crucial contributions were then given by Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Rainer Maria Rilke, Oswald Splenger, Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck, Elizabeth Wilson, Chris Jenks, Richard Sennett and many others, making the flâneur an angular figure connecting bohemian attitudes with nineteenth century symbolism, and early 20th century avant-garde with late post-modern stances for the interpretation of contemporaneity. More recently, Keith Tester and Gianpaolo Nuvolati provided flânerie as a methodological framework and an architectural practice of inquiry for exploring the urban settlements. Flânerie challenges rationality and utopias of the realm of physical spaces, made up by overlayering past events like ancient Roman invasions, or industrial revolution, or mid-twentieth century peripheries for industry workers (Rossi, 1982). In this sense, the flâneur takes the streets as an unfolding and open text comprised of infinite possibilities. He looks for the beauty, the ugliness, the poetical, and the unexpected in order to find inspiration and make a personal sense of the physical spaces. By means of flânerie, he questions the self and experiments his own psychological regression (De Certau, 1984). Therefore, time unfolds across spatial patterns. This post-modern, heterotopic (Focault & Miskowiec, 1986) practice is extremely contingent, real and generative. In addition, wandering can be read across semiotics, while approaching flânerie as a text, and the outside as a continuous source of semantic drift (Eco, 1992). The feeling of being-into-the-world, or thrown, in a Heideggerian perspective, provides the exact feelings of bewildering, phenomenological perception and psychological confusion, which in sum bring the flâneur in front of his unconsciousness (Careri & Colafranceschi, 2002). This is one of the consequences of taking flânerie as a methodological tool for triggering creativity and a device to inhabit the neighborhoods of individual and collective experiences. Walking as a practice has also important models in ecological psychology where Gibson (2014) describes this activity as a continuous, reverberating, dialectical relationship between the individual, his integument, his feelings and 160

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perceptions, in which the human is feedbacking and feedfowarding stimuli from the environment while in the act of moving through the physical space. Anthropology also described walking in its evolutionary dimensions, having its origins from nomadic practices of hunting. Time and space in modern times are questioned categories due to their current disruptive potential of implosion (Harvey, 1990). The flâneur plays and reinvents them by searching the pleasure of discovering the unknown. As homo ludens, he produces his own time and space by means of his motor and perceptive capabilities within unfolding time-space emergent itineraries. Multiplicity, fragmentation, inconsistencies, voids, contradictions, and negative places are spread throughout casual wandering (Lynch, 1970). In addition, space is very often far from neutral. For example, teenagers and local artists paint the physical spaces they inhabit to mark their ownership of physical space (Ley & Cybriwsky, 1974) and also as a reaction against the culture of work-leisure/shopping spatiotemporal paths and the tourism of idealised cities and standardized itineraries (Burrel, 2012). Graffiti art is one of the earliest forms of reaction that developed against the unconsidered expansion of neighborhoods. The passage of the flâneur is an invisible line among others’ spatiotemporal categories, like routines, appropriate time for actvities, moving between working and family life, and spaces for socialization and community time (De Certau, 1984). The flâneur gathers those invisible lines for a personal collection of spatiotemporal dimensions. His own space and time perception casually relies on whatever comes out from his walks (Careri & Colafranceschi, 2002). His activity is an existential and artistic inquiry on the post-modern deconstruction/construction of space and time across the lives of a city. Heterotopias follow across his path, each taking a place in the flâneur’s postmodern text. This stance is realised by the serendipitous being in search for lively space into which to actualise the dismantlement, the multiplicity, the creative chaos of spaces witnessing at the same time history, personal lives, tastes, and contingencies. Space and time therefore disentangle from external, modern impositions of Fordist modern routines. And the body becomes the main instrument for measure them, especially with ecological, moving, cyclical and always different processes of knowledge (Ingold, 2009). This vision can be correctly read in terms of urban informatics. ICT and GPS provide non-linear and personalised ways to explore serendipitous itineraries. Presently the most expressive means have been regained from the collectivity and move further from the original figures of the artist or of the designer to be available for everybody. Instagram, Pinterest, Blogs, You Tube, 3D printers, or Twitter are examples of democratization of the respective arts: pictures, design, writing, videos, crafting, and journalism (Kietzmann et al., 2012). Providing tools for supporting the experience of flânerie can be a possible way to enrich the ex161

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pressive means through 2.0 web and GPS. GPS itself transforms the physical space that becomes liquid and interactive, prone to be used for semantic drift, linguistic games, or playful practices, both in a synchronous (e.g., flash mobs, Brejzek, 2010) or asynchronous (e.g., narratives) ways. It is possible to analyse some of the main restrictions industrialization has brought, with the unconsidered building of low income residential areas lacking of the main resources that can bring the feeling of place and community, identity, and ownership. Accordingly, it is reasonable to say that the intents of the Smart Cities programs, or of Transformation Design, can bring their main keywords by picking up the negative consequences of industrialization. Fordism is a cultural paradigm, and consequently provides perceptual arrays, spatiotemporal paths, routines, and definitions of good and bad. ICT and GPS ought to overcome some of the worst distortions of this lifestyle through novel technological means and material conditions. Many post-modern theorists have already analysed the culture of Fordism and its alienating features (e.g., Burrel, 2012), to the extent of stating that we have never been modern, in terms of wellbeing, personal realization, or quality of life. In this theoretical context, it is possible to focus on the properties of ICT and GPS to realise the tenets of post-modern philosophers. The disruptive potential of those authors can have its realization in ICT. Etherogeneities, identities, creativity, gender, freedom, quality time, human-scale cities and neighborhoods are just few buzzwords that can be considered as opportunities to be actualised by ICT for improving wellbeing, conviviality and living. In addition, the specific philosophical figure of the flâneur can be contextualised into a theoretical apparatus coming from post-modern stances and critical design (Dunne & Raby, 2001; Dunne, 2008). In fact, psychogeography (e.g., Wood, 2010) can be set up by means of a heraldic (Venturi et al., 1972), Hertzian space collectively composed of playful self-expression, humorous voyeurism, and generative music. This would stand for a small opening between public and intimate space, in order to populate the neighborhoods with its inhabitants. It would be easily accessible to the flâneur with just a smartphone, in the form of music loops, audio recordings, poems or narratives as he walks.

BACKGROUND The main source of inspiration for this chapter is the novel City of Glass of Paul Auster in which the psychological and existential drift of the main character is narrated. He eventually becomes a tramp and walks across the city all day long. He decides to trace images by taking different itineraries. Therefore, his paths can identify pictures when seen from a map. The second source of inspiration was the 1996 multimedia product of Peter Gabriel’s Eve (1996). In particular, Eve provided 162

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a visual paradigm to create one’s own sound loop by assembling train wagons, each corresponding to a single unitary piece. The train was composed of chosen wagons, thus creating a personalized composition. This resulted in a very simple interaction paradigm for creating music. Below, relevant theoretical work will be introduced and contextualized in terms of relevance for the design concept for which this contribution is made.

The Condition of Postmodernity The analysis of Harvey (1990) focuses of modern acceleration and annihilation of space across time, but also its monetization, the neglecting of physical spaces (e.g., the agglomerates in the periphery), the standardization of daily life routines, the daily spatiotemporal paths between the places for living, working, leisure, tourism. What follows is post-modernism, the admission of the existence of multiple layers, realms, values, lifestyles. The author leaves the reader at the door of the new millennium. Harvey challenges the idea of a single and objective sense of time and space, in favour of what we can measure across the diversity of human perceptions and conceptions. Space and time can express the role of human practices in their construction. Neither time nor space can be assigned objective meanings independently of material processes. Material practices and processes, in which social life is reproduced, create the awareness of space and time as like the heideggerian fishtank experience, which is diverse across cultures, social layers and geography. The question here is what has changed with ICT and GPS technologies and how the designer can imprint or suggest possible vectors for the technologies to support the time-space dimensions. ICT happily espoused with post modernism in its letting individuals bring power and valuing differences, communication and freedom.

Space and Place Yi-Fu Tuan focuses on the unitary substance of experience, made up from senses’ perceptions, feelings, and thoughts. Experience is an important category for design and it has been bringing operational definitions in HCI (e.g., Wright et al., 2008). Tuan moves across space and time while stating the effectiveness of considering them a joint dimension in humans’ experience. He advocates the need to overcome their division which is a forced necessity of modern lifestyles. Time and space always occur together, and often it happens that one gives the rhythm for the other. For example, walking paths allow the unfolding of time in its linear or recurring dimensions, while landmarks are aggregates of past time (heritage). Places (and in particular third places) allow the stretching of the present time, by means of conviviality, and leisure. The feeling of a place can provide a layering of positive 163

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remembering and feelings of identity and belonging. The formation of Genius Loci is a natural consequence from the people creating a nucleus in the spatio-temporal paths. For the development of this issue, positive and virtuous exchanges must occur such as like trust, dialogues, creativity, playfulness, and reciprocal knowledge. Music takes the specific role of suggesting, directing or subverting those spatio-temporal threads. Relatedness and dialogical reasoning are also implied in the conversation the individuals engage in with the physical places, especially when being guided by diachronic traces of the past passages of people.

The Las Vegas Strip We wish to take as an important source of creative inspiration the analysis of Venturi et al. (1972) of the Las Vegas strip. Wedding chapels, sauna baths, gasoline stations, casinos, hotels, drugstores and their coloured lightings contribute to the peculiar aesthetic of this place: Miami Moroccan, Arte Moderne Hollywood Orgasm, Organic Behind, Yamasaki Bernini cum Roman Orgiastic, Niemeyer Moorish, Moorish Tudor (Arabian Nights), Bauhaus Hawaiian (Page 80). The main idea is that a path as a collective creation can grow from bottom up and plurality against the modernist utopia of rational planning for ideal lifestyles; this is what is referred to as heterotopia. The Las Vegas strip provides an aesthetic experience, along with drift and feelings of bewilderment. Heterotopia is an important concept and along with Dadaist compositions remands to the multiplicity rising from human activity where the beauty is in the casual the superimpositions and the layering of signs. Figure 2. The Las Vegas strip

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Dadaists and post moderns attack modernism, rationality with their alienating feelings, attitudes and appearance by advocating real life’s lively chaos, having its own aesthetics. Collective and emergent artworks often have those qualities, and can therefore be addressed to those theorizations.

The Image of the City Lynch (1960) provides an important methodological apparatus. It can be a tool for facing the post-modern need for the cities to be redesigned, for recovering them from alienation, compression of time into space, and unconsidered urbanization. His method is analytical, providing tools for making layering maps that make the city emerge into several contiguous dimensions. The image of the city is the result of an intense analysis of the dimensions in the city like: its being situated as a human artefact across time and space, its aesthetic functionalities, its symbolic traits, to be appropriated from the researcher as an active (creative) sense making the (walking) agent, by means of his perception, feelings, and past memories. What we look for is not a definitive order, but an open order, able to a continuous further development… The environmental image is the result between the observer and his environment. The environment suggests distinctions and relations. The observer, while adapting and focusing on his intents, selects, organises, and attributes meanings to what he perceives. Therefore the growing image anchors, limits and exalts what is seen, while being challenged by the observer’s perceptual system, which is continuously filtered from his interaction. (p. 28) Basically, the method Lynch introduced provides a set of tools for creating images that can be superimposed for letting patterns emerge and a qualitative study across the inhabitants by presenting them the obtained maps across the dimensions of symbology, function, paths, emotions, personal landmarks, and feelings related to inhabiting that place. This analytical tool can provide the framework for setting up the conditions, for making meta-design in order to allow people to build together a composition that can characterize a neighborhood. Therefore, the latter can take the shape of its inhabitants, their moods, their attitude, their stories, and their sounds.

The Dimensions Several dimensions will be considered from different angles in order to analyse and describe how they have been reified in the past, from which new possibilities arise, and their implications for collective and individual prosperity and wellbeing. They occur together and dialogue with individual consciousness, being felt as a unitary 165

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whole. (1) Time, felt with a train of thoughts from the flow of the present (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996), the working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 2000), autobiographical memory (e.g., Rubin, 1986) and prospective memory (Brandimonte et al., 2014), but also the selective oblivion of past events (e.g., Augé, 2004; Bannon, 2006). Time perception is highly sensitive to the changes of material conditions, starting from the 19th century modernism with its segmenting and measuring lives, to the present with its innovation, in particular with the spreading of smartphones’ use (Torsi, 2013a). In this sense, it is possible to say that ICT provides the actualization of a postmodern perception of time. (2) Space. Duourish (2006) demonstrates that the perception of physical space across the story of humankind is related to the technologies available. Rossi (1982), Tuan (1979) and Lynch (1960) provide rich descriptions of how geographical and urban space can be analysed and partitioned across architecture, history, and culture. The physical space, when providing the needed resources for survival is named by Gibson (2014) ecological niche. (3) The people and the communities who make up the neighborhoods are another dimension. Neighborhoods encompass spatial locations where people live, the places for conviviality (e.g., cafes, arcades, squares etc.; Oldenburg, 1989). Places are specific for each sub-community; they foster identity, ownership, and relationships. People, communities and sub-communities have increased their role in the individual’s life across social media, locative tools, inexpensive texting, voice messages, and phone calls. This provides novel implications related to Social Capital (Rheingold, 2007). Encountering people, speaking with them, aggregating, relaxing, creating events, gathering people around practices, creating collective media can take novel shapes. (4) Activities are fundamental nodes for the individuals’ cognition and consciousness (e.g. Shön, 1983). Community activities cover a wide range, such as making something collectively, and bringing together people’s different skills, or having a sequence of different people’s actions. There are many theories that explore making sense as a cognitive/semiotic activity of building novel sense. This brings us closer to what has been called unlimited semiosis (Eco, 1992), and it is one of the most amazing aspects of culture growing inside a community. Usually, the results (reifications) of joint activities represent the identity of a community. Art is a primary vehicle for incorporating skills, such as cognitive, social, cultural practices, beliefs, values, identities, issues, tensions, or questions. Some artifacts inhabiting neighborhoods include such things as flyers, posters, graffiti, painted political or humorous phrases, adhesives, or chalks drawings. Novel tools can include QR codes, digital mementos (Petrelli et al., 2008), digital graffiti (McGookin et al., 2012), or location based narratives (e.g., Dow et al., 2005). Here there is a vast design space that is still far from being fully deployed. (5) Emotions, are proven to have their ground in sensuous feelings and the coupling with the environment (Damasio, 2006). These in turn contribute to shape (6) the 166

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self, individual consciousness and reflexivity developing and evolution (Damasio, 2010; Shön, 1983). One important value to pursue is the heideggerian dasein, which means being immersed in the world. Dasein makes the point of the fact that we are a part of, and we cannot detach from, the environment. We are immersed in what we struggle to interpret. Those dimensions represent the building block of the argumentation and each of them bring a facet contributing to enrich and complete the model presented. They will be converged across the theories described and will take meaning from the design concepts emerged from this study. Following the physical space and the study of sounds will be described further, bing the core of the design concept here proposed.

Physical Space and Cultural Assets In the field of User Experience, Paul Dourish (2006) provides some fundamental clues about the physical space that are meant to provide design guidelines from subverting some of the grounded presuppositions of the common conceptions of space and places (Brewer et al., 2008a, 2008b). The persistence of physical spaces is obtained by filling them with meaning through Gestaltic dynamics of creating continuity (Paay & Kjeldskov, 2007). Human perception of space and of ways to make sense of it is given in the same time and produces mental representations, which are embedded in the socio-technical systems (Dourish, 2006). Geographical, mathematical and computational structures come in the second order, as higher psychological processes, prone to model the space in order to master it. The thick layer of sociality involved in the perception of the environment is particularly expressed from the dimension of places, which bring with them emotional, identity, belonging, or sacral feelings (Tuan, 1979). It is not possible to access space as disentangled from ones’ cultural constraints. Here the crucial role of the flâneur is particularly evident. The flâneur, with his unpurposeful, enstranging and serendipitous wandering, creates novel spatiotemporal practices, builds connections, and gathers insights across the different cultural systems he crosses from an external perspective. Novel patterns become evident and perceptual relationships produce new experiences of places and spaces. The Post-Modern stances about negative spaces (Careri & Colafranceschi, 2002), modernist agglomerates of buildings (Harvey, 1990), alienating spatiotemporal patterns with the need for heterotopic practices, can be considered the precursor of what ICT and GPS technologies that materialised in the past decades. Indeed, Information Sciences, Global Positioning Systems, and Web 2.0 provide unprecedented ways to access to, make sense of and interact with spaces, places, and people. This in turn provides the infrastructural layers for realising the tenets of the advocated ontology of the 80s’ post-modernist cultural streams. The layer of 167

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information surrounding the inhabited spaces has been recognized early by some research institutes so as to create transdisciplinary departments that are focusing on the potential of this computational space enriching the physical locations. Urban Informatics (Foth et al., 2011) brings together architects, geographers, designers and computer scientists around an umbrella of activities, while starting from sociological and territorial analysis of human behaviors at a large scale, but also measuring the individuals’ shifts in cognitive activities, perception of space, use of infrastructures, along with issues of socialization, networking, communities, and relationship. All these approaches embrace physical space in new perspectives; at present, geography is having novel definitions in its field of research, means of production, objects of analysis, infrastructural classification and tracing of the connections among the entities taking part in geographical relevant events (Torrens, 2010). There are emerging and consolidated approaches to augment the physical space. Location Based Social Networks have become part of the daily life for many (Kjeldskov et al., 2013), in particular with reference to texts (e.g., Berry and Goodwin, 2013) local clues (e.g., Dearman et al., 2011), virtual graffiti (McGooking et al., 2012), and Web 2.0 social media (e.g., Kietzmann, 2011). GPS-ICT can allow words like psychogeography, cultural capital and production against consumption to be rediscovered under the light of hybrid spaces and augmenting collaborating technologies. The augmented spaces can enhance the mitic dimension in some physical spaces, this had been called from Tuan topophylia (1979), which is the affective relation existing between people and places. Authors like Lyotard, Auge’, De Certau, Harvey, Baudrillard become more actual than ever (Berry & Goodwin, 2013). There is a massive use of QR codes for linking the physical with the digital. Mostly they concern advertising. Using them for user research purposes reveals their capacity to hold the building of narratives, personal contributes, and communication. Linking this tools with web 2.0 settlements provide diachronic communication patterns that enrich the physical spaces and provide immediately a sense of place, community and playful attitude toward discovery (Seeburger, 2014).

The Sound Ecology In User Experience there are numerous and robust research experiences into using auditorial displays (e.g., McGregor et al., 2002; Garzonis et al., 2009; McGee-Lennon et al., 2011). Less explored is the use of sounds for peripheral awareness purposes (e.g., Bakker et al., 2015). The qualities of acoustical cues are here explored not into instrumental ways, but instead focusing more on the emotions they bring rather than the knowledge they provide. The acoustical dimension is here more focusing on sharing and creativity than the acoustic qualities in their metaphorical func168

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tions. For example, Acoustic Ecology is a discipline born in the last century that analyses and deconstructs the soundscapes of physical places (Wrightson, 2000). Its researchers divide the acoustic partition of the environment into biophony (the sounds of the biological sources from microscopic to megafauna), geophony, the sounds of non-living elements of nature, and human noise. There are dozens of insightful observations coming from this discipline, starting from the differences occurring in the soundscapes between day and night, the observation that human language and music grew from the anthropomization of animal species by imitation or the spatiotemporal harmonies into which the biological sounds tend to create partitions by according each to others (Krause, 2008). Diving into soundscapes theory there is very much to sort out for the project. Interesting is the definition between hi-fi settlements (the natural sounds’ partition) and lo-fi (the composition of sounds brought by industries, cars or appliances). The former provides wellbeing, introspection and positive feelings; the latter restricts the human listening sphere to the extent that one cannot even hear their own voice (Wrightson, 2000). According to the texts of this discipline, industrialization brought an aesthetical shift towards appreciating the puzzling, vibrant and frantic sound environment of the inner cities, while depreciating neighborhoods and peripheries as boring. For acoustic ecology the opposite is true. Admittedly, the broader partition of peripheries and residential area tend to incentivize introspection, self-knowledge and access to one’s unconscious. Those feelings are discouraged in the Fordist paradigm as bringing anxiety and discomfort (Harvey, 1990). More in depth on sound effects description, samples can be arranged and managed by an expert musician: echo, flânger, phaser, chorus, equalization, filtering, overdrive, pitch shift, time stretching, resonators, synthetiser, modulation, compression, and reverse echo are defied and analysed as expressive means.

The Design Concept There is a great amount of possible design spaces for using ICT, GPS, Web 2.0, mixed reality and embodiment for the category of timespace and in general converging the senses across a unitary experience. Avantgardes like dada, surrealists, lettrists, situationists and land artists can challenge our implicit assumptions (Careri & Colafranceschi, 2002) in order to enhance wandering, serendipity, flânerie, nomadism, drift, exploration of negative spaces and aimed at actualise the artistic vision of the homo ludens, disentangled from the current hedonistic approach of social computing and against the consummation the physical spaces. Instead, the design concept here described would intend to provide an ICT tool for living and experiencing the physical space along with diachronically relating in a dialogue with the people living in it. 169

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The design concept here described is based on a GPS infrastructure in which the inhabitants of a neighborhood can append music loops, sounds, rhymes or brief text. In turn this enriched map can represent an accoustically-augmented layer upon the physical space and be experienced from a mobile application that allows listening to those sound by casually walking across the streets of that neighborhood. In this way, casual walkers, flâneurs, strollers, tourists or strangers can cross the streets of a neighborhood and listen to the traces left by the people living there in the shape of a sound composition that is always different according to the path taken. The main design concept is to provide the experience of collaboratively making music that the listener is able to orient by means of his walking behavior. Music loops can be assigned to city blocks or streets, in such a way that the pedestrian can compose the music of their own paths while walking across the city. The system would compute the walking of the user by composing the effects of fade in and fade out among the block/loops in the same manner auditory icons (Enyi, 2013) such as a few seconds of recording of a vocalist intonation can signal landmarks (May et al., 2013), or street objects like manholes, traffic lights, zebra crossing, hydrants, monuments, public buildings. Hence, there would be a nice dialogue between harmony (e.g., music loops creating soundscapes) and melody (e.g., objects or landmarks marked by auditory icons) (Scaringella et al., 2006; Raimbault & Dubois, 2005; Enyi, 2013). Additionally, as seen in Figure 3, another Figure 3. Digital jewelry speakers

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concept is appended to this one similar to a collar with speakers incorporated in order to listen to the sound loops without being isolated from the real soundscape of the place explored. This would meet safety as well as experience requirements. The main idea is to create the conditions to actualize the constructs of psychogeography and third places. It is possible to provide similar experiences starting from geo-tagged music loops composed by the local population. As with the stylistic, emerging architectures and signs of Las Vegas which provide continuity to the experience of driving across the strip, in the same way meta-design could provide the creative supports for a location-based composition based on the individuals’ posting of musical loops over the physical space. This hertzian space would be therefore filled with music to be experienced while walking, crossing, or just wandering. An individual can attach musical loops to the side of a block and provide collectively to the soundscape of their neighborhood. The design objective is then to create a relationship between asynchronous and synchronous experiences of sociality, creating the conditions for building a collective memory, set up personalized time space patterns, create the possibility for these to be shared, mediated, and compared across the citizens. Individual biographies take up time through the movements in the environment. The daily time of the individual unfolds across space. Its representations (codes, signs, spatial discourses, utopian plans, imaginary landscapes, and even material constructs such as symbolic spaces, particularly built environments, paintings, museums, and the like) can provide new meanings, combinations or possibilities for spatial practices. Then, wandering becomes a space of enunciation, the spatialization across time of rebellion, statement, artistic practice, or a, search for identity. Serendipitous walking means to experiment novel productions of space-time experiences. This seed of post-modernism then sparkles across the new conditions brought by social media and provides design guidelines. There can be several approaches to do this such as taking inspiration from 19th century avant-gardes. Many creative processes are at stake, like resemantization, deconstucting, collaging, humorous combinations, or self-biography. This ought to be explored under the light of GPS and social media Web 2.0 technologies. In this sense, those material conditions reflect an historical shift toward a sort of post-modern-enlightment, providing technologies for the people to pursue their happiness, and at the same time freeing creativity, individuality, multiplicity and connectedness. It would also be possible to provide probes in terms of self-biography, heritage, culture and identity. People could go outside their houses, meet, and create/share traces, as living appointments, creating music and media and texts, and changing the role of spatiality in their culture:

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… the active production of spaces with special qualities becomes an important stake in spatial competition between localities, cities, regions and nations. In this context we can better situate the striving for cities to forge a distinctive image and to create an atmosphere of place and tradition that will act as a lure to both capital and people of the right sort. (Harvey, 1990) There are many connections between space and social identities: they shape superimposed spatial images, and everyone occupies a space of individuation (a body, a room, a home, a community, a nation). Additionally, the way in which we individuate ourselves shapes our identity. This artistic, intimate, introspective approach is relatively unexplored in GPS-ICT and offers diverse following pathways for crossing this dimension with HCI design approaches. For example, criticality (Dunne & Raby, 2001), transformation (Sangiorgi, 2011), presence (Zahorik & Jenison, 1998), felt-life (McCarthy & Wright (2005), embodiment (Dourish, 2006), Urban Informatics (Williams et al., 2009; Foth et al., 2011), affect (Sengers et al., 2008) and enchantment (McCarthy et al., 2006). The objective is to finalise both the chunks of theory crossing into possible directions for GPS Web 2.0 design and implementation.

USER EXPERIENCE METHODS From a methodological perspective of user studies and user involvement, peripatetic stance can be crossed with co-design in a walker-mode set of participatory practices. Careri et al. (2002) and Nuvolati (2013) describe flânerie as a practice of discovering. These authors underscore the main qualities of wandering across the space as a lively organism, and the related feelings of estrangement, fear, or anxiety. Space and time novel relationships emerge from this practice. Playful attitude, digging for mystery, the seeking of the absurd, the obnoxious, and the ugly reconnect flânerie to its ancestors: the dadaists, the lettrists and the situationists. Basically the flâneur seeks for the physical space to resonate in its own integument in order for dynamics of appropriation to take place through place analyses, spatiotemporal paths, and novel recombinations of the elements in a place. Therefore, flânerie in Careri et al. (2002) has an important frame into empathic processes and participation. However, Nuvolati offers several analytical tools for modelling the places from the perspective of the wandering dweller, immersed into the physical space with his senses undetached from the object of analysis. Some classical texts of urban planning describe how to perform geographical analysis (Lynch, 1960; Rossi, 1982; Venturi et al., 1972). Those authors provide tools for interpreting the physical space intended as an artefact with specific values, functions, 172

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and stratifications that are independent from architectural or aesthetic intents. All of them provide cartographic tools to analyse the urban settlements as living organisms gradually built to support the individuals’ lifestyles and routines across generations. More in depth on places are Tuan (1979) and Oldenburg (1988) in which the spatio-temporal paths tend to converge and to provide the inhabitants of positive feelings like ownership, identity, attachment, and belonging. Here the output is a qualitative work based on individuals and collective interviews. Speculatively, homes’ ethnographies, like detailed from Beyer and Holtzblatt (1997), Baillie and Benyon (2008), and Blythe et al. (2002) are a crucial node into the design process. The inside part of the physical space in the neighborhoods is the other side. In order to grow positive feelings around places, one of the primary sources can be the domestic environment. There is the need to create bridges between intimacy of a house and the streets where the other people walk through. Therefore, activities, sounds, dialogues, and noises in the houses can be catalogued and ranked while seeking to gather interesting sounds to loop into the system. In this frame of privacy, intimacy, domestic environment, design probes like in Mattelmaki (2006) and Wallace (2007) assume a fundamental role. There is the need to have a deep understanding of the emotional aspects related to family life, sentiments, time spent together, wellbeing, and routines related to family life. In the same way, we should be aware of the alternation between the inside and the outside. The main concept of the design phase is to provide heraldic communication bridges between the privacy of the houses and the liberty of the outside streets. In this phase of the project, dimensions like aesthetics of interaction, felt-life, hedonics, and poetical intent play their main role for emerging and being incorporated in the prototypes. Probes should provide the openness and the depth of the following concept design phase insights.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The chapter is inspired by flânerie as an artistic practice with an invitation to be lost in the geography of an urban or suburban space. Motivations can be numerous such as the aesthetic appreciation of landmarks, architectural over-layerings from history, psycho-geographical cues, or negative spaces. Flânerie is a possible way for reappropriation of the public spaces, a travel through ones’ own unconsciousness, a practice of sensing by the act of walking, a moving hermeneutic in which the path is the co-created text between the physical space and the individual. This artistic, intimate, introspective approach is relatively unexplored in GPS-ICT and offers diverse following pathways for crossing this dimension with HCI design approaches like criticality (Dunne & Raby, 2001), transformation (Sangiorgi, 2011), 173

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presence (Zahorik & Jenison, 1998), traces (Blair, 2009), felt-life (McCarthy and Wright, 2005), embodiment (Dourish, 2004), Urban Informatics (Williams et al., 2009; Foth et al., 2011), affect (Sengers et al., 2008) and enchantment (McCarthy et al., 2006) that can be crossed with the artistic avant gardes of flânerie already listed. This chapter is about residential neighborhoods where there exists a lack of sense of place, genus loci, and third places. Many fondamental post-modernist philosophers have largely criticized the Fordist cultural settings, and the way they shape knowledge, routines, and lifestyles. ICT and GPS technologies are at present realizing their issues of democratization and multiplicity.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The research leading to these results has received partially funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n. 600854 Smart Society: hybrid and diversity-aware collective adaptive systems: where people meet machines to build smarter societieshttp://www.smartsociety-project.eu/.

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Chapter 7

“Bridges” and “Gaps” on Maps of Multicultural Cities: The Story of the South Russian Agglomeration Oxana Karnaukhova Southern Federal University, Russia

ABSTRACT The city is a sum of feasible expressions of social and historical evolution and space identity. The uniqueness of a place is formed not only by contemporary infrastructure, but by the cultural environment deeply anchored in the historical context. The object of the study is the South Russian agglomeration as a feasible example of ragged edges of multicultural history of the region and constantly challenged collective identity. Multicultural cities in Russia carry a burden of the pre-Soviet and Soviet urban policy, weighed down by complex historical environment. As a result, cities are closed in a coterie: reliance on Soviet and post-Soviet legacy – conservative economic policy –– fragmentary and spontaneous development of the city architecture and infrastructure. The term of splintering urbanism coined by Steven Graham and Simon Marvin is focused on the historical circumstances and socio-cultural environment of urban communities in the South Russian agglomeration, describing symbolic forms of bridges and gaps in the collective urban identity.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch007 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

“Bridges” and “Gaps” on Maps of Multicultural Cities

INTRODUCTION Examining the present striving for a unified living standard, we assume that it leads to unification of the cities throughout the world. At the same time, a rocketing diversity of a society is reflected on the city map in number of symbolic gaps and attempts to build bridges with intention to connect distinct districts. It becomes even more urgent in the context of agglomeration process, which is considered as a result of urbanized economic development. The idea relies on the concept of clustering economies and network effects. The ultimate benefit of agglomeration lies in the city growing and, as a circumstance, economic efficiency, while cities are becoming large. The obvious disadvantage of agglomeration is the gaps dividing the city landscape into different parts poorly interconnected. One of the well-known instruments to sew the city gaps is infrastructure which is considered today far beyond its technical components. Infrastructure is a reflection of our social and cultural identity, collective memory, and ties. It is equally important which are formal and informal rules for infrastructure functioning. Traditionally, such rules are considered to be systems requiring public regulation, so they add cohesion to an urban territory, often in the name of ‘public interest’. Infrastructure seems not identical to something systemic or structuring. It is something that mediates life through patterning social and cultural norms. Usually the failure of infrastructure occurs in troubled spaces, such as states in war or devastation. But it is not the principle. Sometimes historical-institutional environment heavily influences urbanism dynamics. In conjunction of infrastructure and historical burden urbanism performs a complex socio-technical process, as it is mentioned by Graham and Marvin (2001). The complexity is presented through fluid interplay of identities, commodities flows, and labour movement mediated by networks of different kinds from bus-routes to mobile communications. This process reveals cities as a stage place for globalization with demands for constant innovativeness, economic efficiency, and identity elasticity. Therefore, cities are centres of capital exchange and goods circulation, articulation of identity, and human movement. The constant stream of urbanization is constituted through a number of energetic landscapes and streets which are not separated from each other, but instead interconnected. In case of gaps physical or imagined in any of “scapes” the fabrics of the city are breached. As the chaotic city images are being stretched over the identity framework, its exploration in the context of multicultural agglomeration looks extremely relevant. How are city multiple identities made and re-made, imagined and narrated, expressed and projected? How do they flourish within the dynamic interactions of the axes of centre-periphery, old and new? As old-styled multicultural cities are becoming new capital accumulators, the challenges of maintaining state-driven 182

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collective identities going in parallel with cultural fragmentation and the need for investment-attractiveness enlargement turn them into urban prolonged narration. This transformation appears even more complex in the cities of Eastern Europe and Russia. In the last decades, during the period of Soviet sociopolitical and cultural deconstruction, the redefinition of post-Soviet urban space reflects the need to refresh, consolidate or establish specific new “old” pre-Soviet identities. Flooded with imported globalized loco-places, not dealing with the legacy of memories of the past, trying to accept or reject the European bonds in racing towards ‘economically efficient style of life’, these cities adopt diverse approaches in the aim to look like and differ at the same time. As research on city identities becomes more abundant, this chapter aims at adopting a holistic inter-disciplinary approach in focusing on transitional processes affecting urban space of Southern Russia in its historical, cultural, and economic interplay. Therefore, the initial idea of the chapter derives from the fact that vast technological and material connections are necessary to sustain the demands of the contemporary society in Southern Russia for increasing exchange, mobility, and transactions across distance in an agglomeration. Simultaneously, contemporary networking infrastructure is heavily influenced by historical memories symbolically represented as “bridges” and “gaps” on the city map. These push-pull trends together with unwelcome institutional environment disintegrate the common agglomeration space and decrease effectiveness of networking socio-economic measures.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Although the topic of urban infrastructure was of little interest for researchers and professionals in urbanism, one of the remarkable publications was “The Image of the City” by Lynch (1960). The idea came from structuring environment as a human mental capacity, so the mental map of a city is produced through symbolic classification and extraction of information relevant for human existence. Lynch connected imageability of a city as an integrated physical setting with three domains: identity, structure, and meaning. The ease of recognizing the patterns and meanings underlining the environment influences urban planning. In other words, a city composition is connected with a place. A clear and structured image of the city settles balanced relations between city and resident. Thus visual characteristics became vitally important by the 1980s. Sloterdijk (1998, 1999, 2004) refuses the exclusively temporal register in urban studies, reinterpreting Western urbanization as a spatial project from what he describes as micro-sphere (bubble) to the exploration of world (globe) and plurality of mezzo-sphere (foam). The analogy of foam is used to describe the interrelations between individuals in 183

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which each is co-isolated in the context of the modern city. Our behaviour dictated by habits as humans, in co-production with the framing of our urban location and mobility, determines the arrangement of a network of isolated, bubble-like cells (see Frichot, 2009; Klauser, 2010). Changes arrived in the 1980s when it became more vivid to search for understanding how cities function and how to accelerate their development. As Foucault (1984) highlighted, the organization of a city is equally conceived with a collective infrastructure. Therefore, collectivity is an underline of a city space. Later, the analysis of the city infrastructure came to the concept of division between physical and social network as was done by Herman and Ausubel (1988). They emphasized a symbolic character of the social infrastructure. Symbolic forms and functions sharpen our understanding of the similarities and differences among regions, groups, and cultures (Herman & Ausubel, 1988). In fact, such a close attention to a space inhabited by humans meant what we consider the ‘spatial turn’. In the beginning of the 1990s, the essentialist approach had been removed by relativism. Urbanism was defined through the process and flows. Fluidity and networking have become the core characteristics of the modern urban space (Dupuy, 1991; Kostof, 1992; Beaverstock, 2002). And Thrift (2009) and Pile (2000) mentioned social and cultural pillows in space and spatiality representation, as well as being quasi-material, productions. Another trend in urban development is diversification and attention to a dispersal character of the urban space construction. It could be traced through enclavization by streets. As it was mentioned by Graham and Marvin (2001), streets act as entry points to ‘gated’ or ‘master planned’ communities. They coined the notion of the networked infrastructure – transportation, telecommunications, energy, water, and streets. At their core, infrastructure networks are assumed to be integrators of multilayered urban spaces. They bind cities, regions and sociality into functioning geographical and political entities. Urban space described as the development of the city space is possible only in combination with the following components – innovation, social cohesion, sustainability, and connectivity (Barrionuevo, 2012). While innovation and sustainability sound for economic efficiency, social cohesion and connectivity deal with evolving citizens and institutional support of the future city. It means the success story of a city depends at least in half on how inhabitants and city guests perceive a city space – holistically or splittingly. It provides the idea of the principal connectivity between spatial research and contemporary economic vision. Taking seriously the symbolic and constructed nature of spatiality as a whole and urban space specifically as shaped through economic processes forces us to reconsider core principles in many of the socio-economic paradigms that still accompany the world of agglomerations in its various manifestations. Particularly, the question of agglomeration economics has grown from the fact of infrastructure 184

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costs and benefits coming when firms and structures are located nearby and within the same network. This connectivity was demonstrated in the World Development Report of 2009 in which the ‘development problems’ of the so-called “Third World” was stated as possible to solve by connecting it better to the rest of the world through the skipping of space (World Bank, 2008). Neoeconomists suggest the core factor of agglomeration economies existence is the strong relationship between population density and high wages (Glaeser, 2010). They use the logic of the spatial equilibrium, meaning that since people can move freely within a nation, they must be indifferent between different locales. In theory this process looks smooth. It literary means the importance of historical ties for modern urbanization process and agglomerations growth. The question arises when these historical ties could not be considered as direct and ethnically and culturally unified.

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH Although there are a number of scholarly works regarding the issue of co-influence of infrastructure and historical and cultural circumstances of urbanization, research still lacks analysis on the specifics of local city development and its role for the agglomeration perspective. Thus, the chapter’s methodology is consistent with systemic and logical analysis of scientific economic and social literature and retrospective analysis of the local urban space while applying the method of theoretical modelling. Following ideas of Lynch and Thrift, the city image (and further, capacity to be managed and grow) is dependent on perception of the city by residents. Symbolic categorization allows for the creation of an image of what constitutes the living environment. Therefore, a community creates a city image based on latently existing consensus of perception and notions. Lynch (1968) focused on the components of a city which composed its structure, namely: path, edge, district, node, and landmark. They are the basic symbols to frame the city mental environment and model the mental map, although recognizing and associating the components could be different from city to city. That is why the imageability of cities also differs. Five components diversify the physical environment both geographically and functionally. That is why they will be justifiable for those who experience them and feel appropriate for symbolic structuring. The most feasible signs marking the city fabrics are edges (symbolic “gaps” between city districts) and paths (or “bridges” linking different parts of the city). In certain cases, these marks are located in historical memories about the city past and remain alive in collective perception. Such marks retain boundaries and prevent the urban surface from being networked. This process is becoming complicated while the city grows towards agglomeration.

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The chapter considers agglomeration as the economic and geographical notion of urbanisation and a method of development management that includes the cultural aspect. From this perspective, agglomeration is viewed as a form of agreement between institutional channels of urban management, civic organizations, and ethnic and cultural patterns of communication. It is emphasized that agglomeration is the means of communication network, and a system of agreement on the points of common interest. Another important remark is that contemporary urban infrastructure does not mean technological links and communication system, but has cultural and anthropological features which fix the unity of socio-cultural and subjective space. In the context of multicultural agglomeration these features include the following: 1. Intentionality: A person defines his/her existence and identity within the foam bubble of the city. 2. Instrumentality: Every person seeks his/her ways of activities but within the frames of local community. 3. Intersubjectivity: A person has already been correlated with the definite social and ethnic city group even in the case of deliberate distancing. The case for analysis is chosen from the list of Russian cities, namely Rostovon-Don. This idea came from the fact that the case of Southern Russian agglomeration, constitutive of Rostov-on-Don, is a relevant illustration of the “naturally” created multicultural urban spaces with an active role of ethnic communities in the regional social, cultural and economic life. At the same time, the case of Rostov agglomeration demonstrates the delayed awareness and development of the urban infrastructure outside purely technological links, and attempts closure activities of communities into the local space and institutional snares supporting entrepreneurship. The chapter describes the history of the Rostov-on-Don through the lenses of the city maps of 1768, 1811, 1902, 1931, and the contemporary agglomeration map. It will help to demonstrate the consequent steps in the city development as well as the role of ethnic and cultural ties in creating city routes and symbolic splitting of the urban space.

THE SOUTH RUSSIAN AGGLOMERATION: THE STORY OF TOWNS DIVIDED Formatting the Rostov region as one of the largest agglomerations, Russia has a significant impact on the dynamics of the main demographic processes in this area. The Rostov agglomeration is the largest metropolitan area of the Rostov region

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with the pronounced monocentric features. According to experts, nearly the entire European economic space of Russia is accumulated around two cities, St. Petersburg and Rostov, because of their unique geographical location, level of economic development, and administrative resources which are considered the most preferred for chances of integration into the world economy. The South Russian agglomeration is based on the historical ground of two cities: Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don. Long before the creation of the city, the first Russian Emperor Peter I wanted to create a place on the future of the city fortress to protect the southern borders of the Russian Empire from the Turkish and Crimean Tatar raids. During the Azov campaigns of 1695-1696, the convenient location to establish a fortress was found in the Don estuary. Therefore, the waterfront became a vivid edge as well as a feasible path connecting the fortress and business parts of the town. The Decree of Elizabeth founded a customs settlement on December 15, 1749 in the lower reaches of the Don River. It was proclaimed “for the collection of tariffs and domestic duties from goods imported from the Turkish area and export of Russian goods the Customs is to be established, where Don Cossacks can conduct their trade with visiting Greeks, Turks, and Armenians” (Il’in, 2006). Finally, the customs settlement was built near a ruined ancient Greek fortress, thus heralding in the history of the multicultural city. In 1756, the International “Russian and Constantinople Sells Company” was founded, so Temernitskiy Port became the only Russian port in the South of Russia where trade was conducted with countries of the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean seas. In April 6, 1761 by the decree of Catherine II, the fortress was finished and named after the Orthodox saint Dimitri of Rostov. The fortress was created in the form of a 9-beam star with a 3.5 kilometer circle located between the current Chekhov Lane, Gorky Street, and Stanislavsky Street. The fortress had two forshtadts which were located along the bank of the Don River. The entrance into the fortress was possible only through the St. George and Archangel Gates, as well as from the Don River. The fortress had a large garrison armed with 238 guns and for over half a century was used as a rear base for Russian troops. Up to the current day the remains of internal streets in the fortress are guessed in the modern central streets. The map of 1768 has clearly demonstrated two different settlements bordering each other but existing in parallel – the fortress with population mostly of Russian ethnic origin and the former customs settlement nearby with diverse population in the religious and ethnic composition. Interestingly, while the fortress had the so-called “centre-running” planning with the symbolic centre more or less clearly visualized, streets of the former customs territory had a “regular” combination of the streets quarters strictly crossing each other. This landscape existed until the beginning of the 20th century when the old walls were 187

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Figure 1. ­

finally torn down. This composition of the city created obstacles for networking and creation infrastructure by constructed image of fortified closed place and openminded business centre. In 1779, Catherine II settled with the Crimean Armenians. They founded the settlement to the east of the fortress called Nor Nakhijevan. Five villages were created close to the fortress: Chaltyr, Topchy (Crimea), Metz Sala (Large Sala), Pocr-Sala (Sala Small), and Nesvita (Nesvetay). Therefore, a large settlement was formed near the former Russian fortress without the status of city. On August 29, 1797, the fortress and Nakhichevan became parts of the larger Rostov district in Novorossiysk province with the centre in the city of Taganrog. Since the fortress had already lost its military importance by the Decree of Alexander I on August 17, 1807, it obtained the status of county town. In 1811, the town received its coat of arms on which the fortress tower was depicted, symbolizing the city’s heroic past. After eliminating the danger from the Ottoman Empire and because of the southern trade routes development, Rostov-on-Don became a center of foreign trade. The project map of 1811 by the regular structure of the streets demonstrated the priority of the economic and civil order over the military power. In 1838, the name of the nearby town of Nakhichevan was changed to Nakhichevan-on-Don to distinguish it from the same city in the South Caucasus region. With the growing economic significance of Rostov the city’s population increased. Ac188

“Bridges” and “Gaps” on Maps of Multicultural Cities

Figure 2. ­

cording to official statistics at the time, the city had about 3,000 inhabitants in 1809 growing to 8,138 by 1833 and 13,200 by 1856 (Pheldblum, 1998). In fact, the population was larger. Official statistics do not consider newly arrived people. It is known that in the early 1850s the city’s resident population of just over 11,000 inhabitants grew to 15,000 during the summer as people arrived for work. According to their social stratification composition, the resident population of the city was not uniform. In 1850, a total of 10,960 inhabitants of Rostov were burghers and traders comprised of 6,419. A significant group of residents were merchants and members of their families with a total of 1,065 individuals (Kabuzan, 1963). Despite increasing urban population and economic growth, by 1844 only two streets directed down to the river had been covered with bricks. Infrastructure was not among the core interests in urban planning and management until the second half of 19th century. Answering the demands of manufacturers and traders, the first water aqueduct was developed in 1865 and the first city phones appeared in 1886. In 1887, a horse-drawn railway began operating on the

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main streets and in 1902 a tram line was opened. In 1896, Rostov was equipped with electric lighting. On the map of 1902, one can see only remains of the old fortress near the river embankment with narrow streets barely usable to meet the demands of the economically growing city. Most maps depicted spaces of two cities (Rostov and Nachichevan) separately from each other. Moreover, while cities were located quite close to each other, they were separated in the consciousness of settlers in that time. The symbolic border between two spaces lies along the street was referred to as the Nakhichevan division. By 1914, a total of 17 foreign consulates were opened in the city, and by its 100th anniversary the number of inhabitants had grown to 15,000 ultimately rising to 110,000 by the 20th century. The basic economic sphere in Rostov was represented by trade thus being referred to as the merchant city. Nonetheless, the real unification of the city occurred only in 1919 when Nakhichevan and Rostov officially were united in the common infrastructural system (Rostov-gorod, 2016). The map of 1931 demonstrated a “patchwork” style in civic construction, answering the need to at least artificially fill in the gap between two spaces separated not only by the history but also by cultural background.

Figure 3. ­

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Figure 4. ­

Despite the need to network different and ethnically diverse districts of Rostov City, until the new millennium management and logistics were divided between the municipalities, so the topic of infrastructure regularly appeared in the agenda but without any feasible institutional support. The complex task to build a sustainable infrastructure and network was increased by 2000 due to the ambitious aim of developing the first South Russian agglomeration. The gaps persisted in common memories of residents and were presented in symbolic forms of the “Nakhichevan division” via a centre-running versus regular paths system which was transferred to agglomeration planning. As presented below, the urgent problem of connecting clusters by sustainable and diverse networking channels important for human communication remains absent from the regional administration agenda.

POTENTIAL AND GAPS IN THE SOUTH RUSSIAN AGGLOMERATION Rostov City positions itself as the centre of South Russia because of its long-standing history as the industrial, trade, and cultural centre of the region. It is emphasized that the core factors influencing the urban progress are structural networks; namely, 191

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Table 1. Rostov agglomeration The Name of Center Azov

Population (Person)

Destination from the Border of Rostov-on-Don (km)

83,210

6.25

Aksai

36,030

0

Bataisk

102,226

0.592

Novocherkassk

176,542

23.4

Novoshakhtinsk

113,916

44

Rostov-on-Don

1,050,000

Starocherkassk

0 39.6

Taganrog

257,611

34

Chaltyr’

14,711

3.61

Source: Administration of Rostov City Database.

the Southern military district, the North-Caucasus railway junction, and so forth. Although the City of Rostov is considered one of the most multicultural (meaning multi-ethnic) cities in Russia, alarmingly it is not mentioned in the official presentation of the city (Rostov-gorod, 2016). The emphasis is made on the economic prospect of agglomeration. Indeed, the Rostov agglomeration is a part of the South-Western intraregional district comprising approximately 40% of its territory. It assumes sixth place in Russia among interregional centers of socio-economic development, consisting of 1.8 million people (see Table 1). The inter-municipal pivot is the Don River. The composition of the Rostov agglomeration includes five towns: Rostov, Bataisk, Azov, Taganrog, Novocherkassk, and seven municipal districts: Neklinovsky, Rodionovo-Nesvetaevsky, Myasnikovsky, Azov, Kagalnitsky, Aksay, and Oktyabrsky. Their territories accumulate 43 rural settlements, 540 villages and one city (Aksay). According to the international evaluation criteria, the main feature of cities and other settlements, which can be attributed to any agglomeration, is one and half transport accessibility to the “city-core”. On the basis of the private socio-economic characteristics, as well as road infrastructure, it is possible to identify the boundaries of the following second level of the Rostov agglomeration: 1. Western Direction: Taganrog; 2. South-East: Azov, Kagalnik with Port Cato (assuming now under construction in the five-kilometre proximity to the settlement gambling city of Azov-City will be also included into the Rostov agglomeration); 3. South: Bataysk and the village Samarskoe; 192

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Figure 5. ­

4. South-West: Till the village Kagalnitskaya; 5. North: Aksai, Novocherkassk. In this direction, the Rostov agglomeration smoothly comes to borders of the settlement Persianovsky with its natural resort area. The resident population of the South-Western district is calculated as 2,158,600 people, or 50.4% of the Rostov region population. About 90% is concentrated in the city of Rostov-on-Don and its suburbs. The total number of the South-West District in the urban/rural proportion is following: the urban population represents 79.5% of the total while the rural population is comprised of 20.5% of the total. Most of the resident population belongs to the city of Rostov-on-Don (1,051,600 people). Among the municipal districts of the South-Western part of the Rostov agglomeration, the largest resident population belongs to the Azov district (88,000 people) (Rostov-Dom, 2009). In recent years, in the vicinity of the metropolis was an intensive process of urbanization of rural areas. But “more growth” in many ways is not seriously considered as the first level of agglomeration and overgrown city. The following are given as the main arguments: 1. Any city, especially a large city, is a complex organism having a number of components. Its structure must answer the demands urban and equally suburban area. This aspect is absent within the official borders of Rostov City due to 193

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shortage of land resources and metropolis “suffocation”. This problem is seen as solved when the Rostov suburbs will appear in the Rostov agglomeration. 2. As was occurring in previous years, construction of a number of peripheral areas in the metropolis are spontaneously flown beyond city limits, and as a result Rostov has already blended with some of the neighbouring municipalities (Aksay, Shchepkin). 3. Rostov, Aksay, Bataisk and a number of other smaller nearby settlements have joint business interests, thus resulting in intensive intercity transport flows, common infrastructure, and so forth. Additionally, the ambitious representatives of the regional government proclaim the idea of the mostly natural evolutionary way from Rostov the City to Rostov a superstar – the largest in Russia after the Moscow and St. Petersburg metropolises. At the same time, the question of unification of Rostov and the more remote municipalities of Azov and Novocherkassk is seen doubtful. Local and regional authorities often hit the other extreme by discussing the natural course of the merger of Rostov and nearby neighbours and are often very reluctant to deny the prospects for city unification. At the same time, the localities of Rostov, Bataisk and Aksay are often viewed as a single socio-economic organism. However, the scheme of territorial planning of the Rostov agglomeration refers to the appropriateness of the policy of containment splicing settlements. The ‘Bataisk’ project is planned to become the largest logistics centre, supported by one of the largest railway junctions, a number of major routes of federal importance, an important railway junction in the neighbourhood of the industrial area Zarechnaya, and the rapidly developing universal port of Rostov. In the future, it is expected to strengthen the logistic function of the satellite city project by implementation of the Rostov airport transfer with simultaneous modernization of the existing international airport. In the future, the existing scheme and constructed transport infrastructure must be logged into a single complex: the so-called “Southern hub” which will become the largest transportation hub in the South Russia. Thus, it is possible that over time the historical image of Rostov as a merchant city will go to Bataisk. Less attention has been paid to another satellite town of the metropolis, Aksay, as being the administrative centre of the rural area, slowly merges with the metropolis. Chaltyr village is seen as a dynamic centre of an agricultural area, and adjacent to the metropolis. Working in the Rostov agglomeration industrial complex is viewed as a single economic organism. It is assumed a partial redistribution of the various economic functions between neighbouring cities with Rostov, the metropolis itself would remain an obstacle to the real integration.

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In the coming years Taganrog will be transformed into a steel-city (a total of 70% of current products are goods from the Taganrog Steel Plant). Another major employer is the automobile plant TagAz where the increase in production volume and expansion of the number of produced cars is expected. Furthermore, Taganrog manufactures ships, aircraft, and other vehicles. In the future the construction of an engine plan is planned. The basis of the industrial complex of Novocherkassk is a power generation and electric locomotive plant. At present, the reconstruction and modernization of two core enterprises continues – the Novocherkassk hydroelectric station and the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant. Over the years, the increase in traffic volumes is observed in the regions of Russia. At the same time, a total of 67% of shipped products are processed in the city. Azov industry consists of a number of small enterprises, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as utilities. In addition, being located in the neighbourhood of the city industrial zone the company “PepsiCo” attracts anchor investors. It is expected the developed road infrastructure will partially inhibit the process of urbanization of a number of rural settlements. For a number of years in the Rostov agglomeration, growing industry outstripped agriculture. Accordingly, it is possible to predict the further pursuit of villagers to work in industry. However, it is not necessary to change the place of residence by improving transport accessibility. At the same time, a developed road network triggers the process of Rostov suburbanization, and some of the current city residents may wish to move to neighbouring rural settlements but work in enterprises of the metropolis. The total population of the Rostov agglomeration in 2025 is expected to increase to 2,159,000 people. The main factor will be the migration process due to the intensive development of the industry. Fewer roles are played by slightly increasing fertility and reduced mortality. Therefore, the population density is not sufficient enough to build a sustainable network for those who are capable to create an innovative milieu. Engagement of ethnically diverse residents appears to be a natural way to construct community at the local level and to sew the fabrics of the city forming links between communities which usually work against social, ethnic, and geographical barriers. However, the Strategic Plan of the Development of Rostov-on-Don through 2025, admitted by the local government, was delayed from the point of national and global logic. An example includes the system of indicators regarding harmonization of interethnic relations as an important criterion of the effective strategy realization, thus meaning that recognition of the problems in communities is late by 20 years. Nonetheless, the Strategic Plan includes the following: •

Elaboration and realization of the municipal Programme “Rostov is the territory of intercultural dialogue and tolerance”. 195

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Maintenance and development of intercultural dialogue and high level ethnic and confessional tolerance among overall population.

The Strategic Plan demonstrates the previously noticed federal tendency to implement “the result management system”, which means determination and control of the gained quantity criteria. Therefore, the local authorities and communities appeared to see themselves in the well-known hierarchy of Russian national – federal districts – federative subjects – municipal authorities. In fact, it means inertial movement in the mainstream development with a well-balanced, non-innovative criterion. Finally, a gap between the willingness to create a unified networked agglomeration and symbolic localizing strategies in decision-making process makes infrastructural progress visibly weak.

CONCLUSION The two-side nature of forming multicultural city space demonstrates interrelations of the city infrastructure (e.g., streets and districts) and ethnic and cultural history. Such co-existence becomes defining while a new conglomeration appears in the face of administrative and economic demands. This situation definitely influences identification and social roles of residents and their perception of multicultural city. The process is the most visible in the city discussions around the future of the agglomeration. The goal of Rostov-on-Don is the provision of a sustainable, well-balanced development of the greater city socio-territorial community and the increase of quality and level of life of citizens on the base of modernization of economic and settling environment. It is correlated with the mission of Rostov-on-Don as the main contact center in South of Russia, cluster of a wide range of activities – innovative, technological, educational, logistical, cultural – in the “Center-periphery” system and the capital of the South of Russia. This ambitious plan to keep the title of the southern capital does not really help to communicate effectively at the regional and local level. The city brand as “business-communicator of the South of Russia and the cultural capital of the multinational region” falters at the existing symbolic gaps in the city structure. The main issues that have not yet been resolved and needed to clarify for successful urbanization are the following: 1. Now being built satellite towns of Rostov are in the territory of two cities: the metropolis and other existing satellites: Bataisk, Aksay district (which is subject to their district centre - Aqsa simultaneously is another satellite of 196

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2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

Rostov). It is assumed that a part of the territory within the new satellites will obey the megapolis administration, another part - the administration of the neighbouring municipality, on lands they are partially settle down. There is reason to fear that Rostov, Aksay, Bataisk turn into some Siamese twins, obeying three different administrations. And this raises the question of the need to join them in a single city. According to the current legislation, this can happen only in case of conduct of the referendum and the mutual consent of inhabitants of the settlements. Today in Russia there is no legislation stipulating formations management. Some of the major projects of Rostov agglomeration remain a big question. For example, there is no final clarity as to where to relocate the Rostov airport with simultaneous modernization of the second Rostov railway hub. Sintering project collides with the approved strategic plan of Rostov until 2025. In particular, the city planned to enlarge through the development of existing space rather than to expand into neighbouring territories which will be actively pursued in the framework of the agglomeration project – albeit in a veiled form. There is a possibility that the Rostov agglomeration will be developed to the detriment of other areas of the region. The intensive development of the industry necessitates migration.

The case of the Rostov agglomeration as an example of the East European urbanism carries the combination of twofold images expressed in pre-Soviet memories and Soviet urban planning. The post-Soviet agglomeration is characterised by the delayed development of clusters, attempts to closure activities of communities into the local political space. Therefore, the Rostov agglomeration has not traversed the threshold and did not involve ethnocultural communities in the formation of the “common good” conception.

REFERENCES Barrionuevo, J. M., Berrone, P., & Ricart, J. E. (2012). Smart Cities, Sustainable Progress. Opportunities for urban development. IESE Insight, 14(14), 50–57. doi:10.15581/002.ART-2152 Beaverstock, J. (2002). Splintering urbanism: Networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition. Regional Studies, 36. Dupuy, G. (1991). L’urbanisme des réseaux, théories et méthodes. Paris: Armand Colin. 197

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Foucault, M. (1984). Of Other Spaces, Heterotopias. Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité, 5, 46–49. Frichot, H. (2009). Foaming Relations: The Ethico-Aesthetics of Relationality. In T. Meade, L. Diaz, & S. Hagan (Eds.), Occupations: Negotiations with Constructed Space (pp. 1–11). Brighton, UK: University of Brighton. Glaeser, E. L. (2010). Agglomeration Economics. Chicago: The Chicago University Press. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226297927.001.0001 Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering Urbanism. London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203452202 Herman, R., & Ausubel, J. H. (1988). Cities and their Vital Systems. Infrastructure: Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Il’in, A. (2006). The History of the City of Rostov-on-Don. Rostov-on-Don: Academia. [Istoria goroda Rostova-na-Donu] (in Russian) Iveson, K. (2007). Pubic and the City. London: Blackwell Publishing. doi:10.1002/9780470761748 Iveson, K. (2014). Policing the City. In M. Davidson & D. Martin (Eds.), Urban Politics: Critical Approaches. London: Sage Publications. Kabuzan, V. (1963). Demography of Russia in 18- the first half 19th century. Moscow: Academy of Sciences Press. [Kabuzan, V. Narodonacelenie Rossii v 18- pervoi polovine 19go veka] (in Russian) Klauser, F. R. (2010). Splintering Spheres of Security: Peter Sloterdijk and the Contemporary Fortress City. Environment and Planning. D, Society & Space, 28(April), 326–340. doi:10.1068/d14608 Kostof, S. (1992). The City Assembled: Elements of Urban Form through History. Boston: Little Brown. Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Boston: The MIT Press. Pheldblum, B. (1998). Russian Revision Lists: A History[Pheldblum, B. Russkie Revizskie Skazki, Avotaynu, V. XIV (3)] [in Russian]. Avotaynu: the Journal, XIV(3), 59–61. Pile, S., /& Thrift, N. (2000). City A-Z: Urban Fragments. London: Routledge. Rostov-Dom. (2009). Rostov-Dom Internet Database (in Russian). Retrieved from http://rostov-dom.info/2009/10/aglomeraciya-rostovskaya/ 198

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Rostov-gorod. (2016). Administration of the Rostov City Database (in Russian). Retrieved from http://www.rostov-gorod.ru/ourcity/aboutrostov/istorii-sudby-lichnosti/ Sloterdijk, P. (1998). Bubbles: Spheres Volume I: Microspherology, translation by Wieland Hoban, Los Angeles, Semiotext(e), 2011 (originally published in German as: Sloterdijk, P. Sphären I – Blasen, Mikrosphärologie, 1998. (Spheres I). Sloterdijk, P. (1999). Globes: Spheres Volume II: Macrospherology, translation by Wieland Hoban, Los Angeles, Semiotext(e), 2014 (originally published in German as: Sloterdijk, P. Sphären II – Globen, Makrosphärologie, 1999. (Spheres II). Sloterdik, P. (2004). Foams: Spheres Volume III: Plural Spherology, translation by Wieland Hoban, Los Angeles, Semiotext(e), 2016 (originally published in German as: Sloterdijk, P. Sphären III – Schäume, Plurale Sphärologie, 2004. (Spheres III). Strategic Plan of the Development of Rostov-on-Don through 2025. (2010). Rostov Local Administration. Retrieved from http://www.rostov-gorod.ru/ Thrift, N. (2009). Cityescapes. In T. Beyes, S. Krempl, & A. Deuflhard (Eds.), Art and Urban Space (pp. 268–289). Verlag Niggli. World Bank. (2008). World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

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Psychological (and Emotional) Architecture: The Values and Benefits of Nature-Based Architecture – Biophilia Ben Tran Alliant International University, USA

ABSTRACT Wilson calls biofilia an “innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes” (Wilson, 1984, p. 1), an “innate emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms” (Wilson, 1993, p. 31), or an “inborn affinity human beings have for other forms of life, an affiliation evoked, according to circumstances, by pleasure, or a sense of security, or awe, or even fascination blended with revulsion” (Wilson, 1994, p. 360). The research in this area is indicating that bringing elements of nature into the workplace, whether real or artificial, is beneficial in terms of employee outcomes. Nevertheless, although investigation into the benefits of biophilia for individual well-being is relatively new, there is clearly mounting evidence that biophilic design can have a positive impact, from reducing stress and anxiety, to improving the quality and availability of respite from work and in increasing levels of self-reported well-being.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch008 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

Psychological (and Emotional) Architecture

INTRODUCTION Natural objects, shapes, and processes, according to Joye (2007a), have often acted as a source of inspiration throughout the history of architecture. Perhaps the most obvious example of this inspiration is ornament, which often contains representations that are closely similar to, or reminiscent of, the animal and plant world. Besides such literal imitations, some architects, notably Antoni Gaudí i Cornet, drew lessons from the structural forces governing natural structures, resulting in efficient and economically built architecture (Sweeney & Sert, 1960). Recently, there seems to be a renewed interest in the relationship between nature and architecture (Feuerstein, 2002). More specifically, such architecture makes use of digital design software which allows one to easily recreate the curvy shapes and geometry that are characteristic of natural entities (Lynn, 1999); namely, biophilia. Biophilia is the deep-seated need of humans to connect with nature. It helps explain why crackling fires and crashing waves captivate us, why a view of nature can enhance our creativity, why shadows and heights instill fascination and fear, and why gardening and strolling through a park have restorative healing effects (Ryan, Browning, Clancy, Andrews, & Kallianpurkar, 2014). Biophilia, as a hypothesis, may also help explain why some urban parks and buildings are preferred over others. Research scientists and design practitioners have been working for decades to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environment. Furthermore, as new evidence emerges, the relationships between nature, science, and the built environment are becoming easier to understand traditional wisdom and new opportunities. The design patterns have been developed from empirical evidence and interdisciplinary analysis of more than 500 peer-reviewed articles and books (Ryan et al., 2014). The patterns have a wide range of applications for both interior and exterior environments, and are meant to be flexible and adaptive, allowing for project-appropriate implementation. From a designer’s perspective, biophilic design patterns have the potential to re-position the environmental conversation to give the individual’s needs equal consideration alongside conventional parameters for building performance that have historically excluded health and well-being. Therefore, this chapter affirms the importance of natural form as a perennial source of inspiration for architecture. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is on the psychological (and emotional) architecture, with an emphasis on biophilia (or the nature-based) and the values and benefits of biophilia. In fact, the main conclusion of this article is that, nature-based forms and organizations in architecture are valuable for human emotional and cognitive functioning in the workplace. This chapter serves several purposes. First, it is one of many other chapters in this book related and interrelated to topics of architecture, biophilia, and psychol201

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ogy. Second, this chapter challenges and encourages researchers and practitioners to critically question and analyze the situation at hand to prepare for and address the situation in the future from an interdisciplinary paradigm, balancing strengths and weaknesses among disciplines. Third, this chapter introduces the claim that the existence of a correlation and causation of biophilic architecture may have on the psychological and emotional functionality of the workplace, which in turn may be hard to understand by someone who is not familiar with this topic or interdisciplinary topics. This claim, while it may not necessarily be innovative, is the same claim that architects have been hypothesizing, but often lacks and continues to lack empirical research data to support the claim (Green, 2012); hence, the development of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED. Fourth, this chapter highlights the weaknesses inherited within the topic itself, there exist a lack of interdisciplinary partnership between the fields of architecture (lacks the strength in research and research methods to yield valid empirical data) and psychology [lacks the interest in researching the practice of biophilia and its correlation and causation in the workplace (often leaving the responsibility up to industrial and organizational psychology and environmental psychology)]. However, there exists a miscommunication, and sometime a lack of communication between, the fields of architecture and psychology (both industrial, organizational, and environmental psychology). This lack of interdisciplinary and communication partnership often resulted in the claim that: 1. There is no relationship between architecture and psychology. 2. The relationship is disjointed. 3. The relationship is confusing.

EDWARD OSBORNE (E. O.) WILSON AND BIOPHILIA Jana Krčmářová’s (2009) study shows a parallel with American ecologist Edward Osborne Wilson (commonly known as E.O. Wilson). Wilson’s concept of biophilia and the thoughts and development of the environmental movement in the United States. In the 1980s, Wilson came forth with the idea that human perception of, thought about, and behavior towards nature are in many cases guided by irrational psychological mechanisms, which in the past were adaptive. According to Krčmářová (2009), Wilson claims that human relationships to other species, or the value that we attribute to them, are still today influenced by the history of ecological relationships with them over the course of evolution of humans. Thus, Wilson came forth with

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an interesting view on environmental ethics, or the value, which human assign to other species, ecosystems or generally to natural phenomena (Krčmářová, 2009). According to Krčmářová (2009), Wilson considers these values or assumptions for their acceptance to be a certain extent innate and selected upon. Wilson further claims that humans are equipped with brains and minds which presume contact with nature and only with this contact can humans develop normally. With the loss of direct contact with other species or life in general, psychic deprivation and degradation of the human mind occur. Wilson not only calls for recognizing the necessity for human contact with other species, but also for acknowledging the psychological and ethical heritage, which humans have acquired in the course of co-evolution with other parts of the biosphere.

Concept of Biophilia Wilson calls biofilia an “innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes” (Wilson, 1984, p. 1), an “innate emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms” (Wilson, 1993, p. 31), or an “inborn affinity human beings have for other forms of life, an affiliation evoked, according to circumstances, by pleasure, or a sense of security, or awe, or even fascination blended with revulsion” (Wilson, 1994, p. 360). In other words, in the biophilia hypothesis, Wilson concentrates on the fact that the creation of the human cognition “pattern” during the process of evolution was not contributed to by only the abiotic, and/or social environment, but also by the biotic. Furthermore, in the first listed definition from the book Biophilia (Wilson, 1984), it is claimed that the human mind is generally focused on “life and lifelike processes”. Thus, biophilia can be understood as “inborn affiliation with the rest of life”. Defined like that it has its place within the evolutionary theory of the biosphere (Lovelock, 1972; Lovelock & Margulis, 1974). However, according to the other two definitions, the concept of biophilia can be understood to be “inborn focus on other life forms”, that is a complex of cognitive evolutionary modifications of the human mind which directs learning relationships to natural phenomena. It developed under prehistoric sociocultural and natural conditions. This is how evolutionary psychologists or human ethologists, anthropologists and sociologists understand biophilia. It is a complex, or set, of instincts (Wilson, 2002, p. 137), which sometime in the evolutionary past of humankind favored the individual at some level of natural selection. The original cognitive rules of understanding and dealing with nature have not disappeared, even in today’s world of artificial artifacts, in which we can find natural stimuli. Biophilia, as a complex of weak rules of learning, influences our thinking about nature, the landscape and even about art, myths, and environmental ethics. The deeply ingrained cognitive rules have, in Western society manifested themselves, for 203

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example, in the popularity of zoos, preferential housing on hills with views of water or in phobias (Wilson, 1984, p. 32). Many of them are fundamentally connected to avoiding danger, or motivation for exploring, and exploiting the environment. In traditional societies, these biophilic tendencies are functional, as humans are there to use their environment directly. In Western civilization with humans’ technical capabilities, these tendencies however overload nature, for they are not correctly reflected in culture, and thus, they are not even functional. Many of today’s rules for treating nature/other species are the result of a long history of intimate contact with nature, and the short period of mechanization of our environment, which have reduced this contact and at the same time, greatly changed the way we view the value of other species (Wilson, 1975a).

History of Biophilia According to Preheim (2001), it is estimated that humans share the planet with between ten and one hundred million other species (Wilson, 1993). Surprisingly, humans have given names to approximately 1.4 million species, only a fraction of the total (Wilson, 1993). Humans have, however, brought about the extinction of an estimated 10% of the species that existed before humanity arrived on the planet, and it is predicted that another 20% will be lost in the next thirty years (Wilson, 1993, p. 36). One scholar has noted that “[t]he extinction event now taking place rivals the five great extinctions that have occurred in the earth’s geologic history, only this time it is humans, not asteroids, that are the cause” (Preheim, 2001, p. 1053). Humanity has begun to recognize this catastrophe and, in some cases, has taken action. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) is one immediate, and potentially powerful response to the extinction of species in the United States (Preheim, 2001). Unfortunately, the failure of the judiciary to interpret the ESA more expansively has limited the Act’s ability to preserve species (Preheim, 2001). This failure is reflected in the court’s inability to properly account for humanity’s intrinsic connection with nature when determining what constitutes “harm” under the ESA. The inherent connection that humanity maintains with nature, christened “biophilia” by the Harvard biologist Edward Wilson, provides the impetus for an argument that courts should rethink the way in which they have interpreted the ESA. Simply stated, the intrinsic affiliation with nature that exists within the human species calls for an expansion interpretation of the ESA. This expansion would result in a definition of harm that recognizes that species must be protected from the potential, albeit conceivably uncertain, harm that habitat destruction can effect. This Note argues that biophilia provides the foundation for judicial expansion of the definition of “harm” under the ESA (Preheim, 2001).

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According to Preheim (2001), the first section contains an overview of biophilia. The doctrine of biophilia intricately demonstrates humanity’s connection with the natural world and this connection is a key element of the ESA. The first section also contains an extensive discussion of the recognition afforded biophilia by other disciplines. This recognition is indisputable. The judiciary, by failing to incorporate this theory into the legal decision-making process, is an isolated outpost detached from the realities of the scientific community. The second section provides a detailed discussion of relevant case law under the Act. The ESA provides that no one shall “harm a species that has been listed as endangered or threatened. Much of this section focuses on what constitutes “harm: to a species as defined by the ESA, the Department of the Interior, and courts. The Supreme Court’s decision in Babbitt vs. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon is perhaps the most important case in this area of law, and, consequently, this section contains an extensive discussion of Sweet Home. The Sweet Home court failed re recognize biophilia and, in so doing, permitted an overly narrow definition of “take” under the ESA. Had the Court recognized the intrinsic connection between humanity and nature, it would have concluded that “harm” to a species can occur in a myriad of ways far short of “significant habitat modification or degradation that actually kills or injuries wildlife” (Preheim, 2001, p. 1055). The third section, according to Preheim (2001), provides a synopsis of the history of the ESA, including an examination of the legislative history and underlying purposes of the Act. When enacting the ESA, Congress recognized humanity’s connection with the nature as a primary purpose for protecting species. While the theory of biophilia was not developed until well after the enactment of the ESA, the belief that humans have an intrinsic connection with the natural world was certainly an extensive part of the dialogue that occurred within Congress prior to passage of the Act. The fourth section finally provides an overview of the limits of biophilia and discusses the new endangered species paradigm that will invariably result from the adoption of biophilia. The very purpose of the ESA provides courts with the latitude they need to introduce biophilia into the legal world, yet, an unconstrained ESA is certainly not the end goal of the biophilia paradigm. Rather, the recognition of biophilia creates a definition of “harm” that includes potential future harm to species, and also incorporate anthropogenic harm into the decision-making process. This definition also precludes a balancing approach to endangered species protection, based largely on the central purpose of the ESA, and also precludes nonenvironmental interests from satisfying standing under the Act. The ESA recognizes that species are vitally important, both for biocentric as well as anthropocentric reasons. Biophilia provides a compelling anthropocentric reason for protecting species that should be incorporated by the judiciary. The end result of this incor-

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poration includes not simply increased protection of endangered species, but also an enduring enrichment to humanity (Preheim, 2001).

BIOPHILIA OF ARCHITECTURE: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE Humans’ mental processes, according to Salingaros (2006, 2008), enable human to interact with and adapt to our environment. Humans’ instinctively crave physical and biological connection to the world. The human perceptual mechanisms through which these processes work establish our relationship and response to both architecture and the built environment. The basis for this interaction is human nature itself: the end result of the evolution of our neural system in response to external stimuli such as the informational fields present in the natural environment. Hence, humans, seeking shelter from the elements, are compelled to construct buildings and cities. Historically, the form of those structures arose from within the material logic of their immediate surroundings, and from the spatial ordering processes of their minds through necessity. Utilizing what was at hand to give structure to existence, people instinctively constructed places that provided the constituent information, form, and meaning that their sense of wellbeing required. Design decisions occurred as a natural extension of the neurological processes that make human alive and human. Not consciously aware of the nature of these processes, according to Salingaros (2006, 2008), humankind simply built its buildings and cities in this manner without question for millennia. Over the course of time, however, the relationship to the physical began to assume a greater complexity through applied meaning: local mythology, symbolisms, and social structures. As the process-of-building was usurped by the process-of-design, architecture as a tectonic expression of innate human ideas about form, space, and surface became more difficult to grasp. Human’s relationship to the physical world was further complicated with 20th-century advances in technology and industrialization. This is clearly evident in the practice of architecture today. Following several centuries of refinement and addition to the traditional vocabulary of architecture, the design process, once the exclusive domain of the Master Builder, has taken root in a different soil altogether. As architecture shifted from the domain of craft into the intellectual property of the University, the study of architecture began to align itself with other academic disciplines, although incompletely. While architecture mimicked the academic realm of philosophy, it reinvented itself as a new discipline detached from its own evolution. Over time, architects ef-

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fectively disconnected themselves from their history, which was henceforth treated more like archaeology: as interesting, but irrelevant to present-day design concerns (Salingaros, 2006, 2008). In the years that followed, architectural design, and the study of design methodologies, were all but served from those processes that had served for millennia to render the built environment as something intrinsically human. Hence, according to MacKerron and Mourato (2013), there are at least three reasons for thinking that experiences of natural environments will be positively related to health, wellbeing and happiness. First, there appears to be direct pathways by which such experiences affect the nervous systems, bringing about stress reduction and restoration of attention. The existence of such pathways—biophilia—has plausible evolutionary explanations: an innate human emotional affiliation to nature and living organisms in general is proposed as an adaption to our history (Wilson, 1993). Affinities with more specific habitats, including savanna and forest, have similarly been postulated on the basis that these habitats would have provided our hominin ancestors with the greatest reproductive success (Falk & Balling, 2010; Han, 2007). Second, natural environments may be lower in environmental bads that have significant negative impacts on physical and mental wellbeing, which in turn could affect happiness. Adverse health effects of noise and air pollution are well documented. Chronic traffic noise exposure in urban environments can cause severe sleep disturbance, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and raised stress levels, leading to high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and possibly immune systems and birth defects (Day, 2007; Gouveia & Maisonet, 2005; Passchier-Vermeer & Passchier, 2000; Welsch, 2006). Third, natural environments might increase happiness by facilitating and encouraging—for practical cultural and/or psychological exercise, recreation and social interaction (Barton & Pretty, 2010a; Morris, 2003). Researchers have pursued both observational and experimental evidence on the links between physical or mental wellbeing and the natural environment. Observational studies have related averaged wellbeing measures to aggregate environmental characteristics between geographical regions (Engelbrecht, 2009; Mitchell & Popham, 2007, 2008; Vemuri & Costanza, 2006). Researchers have also compared individuals’ SWB reports or medical records with the proximity of their homes in natural environments, or with alternative indicators of local environmental quality (Brereton, Clinch, & Ferreira, 2008; de Vries, Verheij, Groenewegen, & Spreeuwenberg, 2003; Kaplan, 2001; Maas, Verheij, de Varies, Spreeuwenberg, Schellevis, Groenewegen, 2009; Rehdanz & Maddison, 2008). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies have investigated physiological and psychological effects of exposure to images of different environment types (Berto, 2005; White, Smith, Humphryes, Pahl, Snelling, & Depledge, 2010) or to short-term interventions bringing subjects into contact with nature (Barton & Pretty, 2010b; Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis, & Gärling, 2003; 207

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Ryan, Weinstein, Bernstein, Brown, Mistretta, & Gagné, 2010). Researchers have also related health outcomes to frequency of healthcare-seeking behavior to views of nature in controlled institutional settings (Moore, 1981; Ulrich, 1984).

PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF NATUREBASED ARCHITECTURE Different psychological subfields study the human relation with nature. For example, according to Joye (2007a), evolutionary psychologists argue for the existence of cognitive modules that are specialized in conceptual and perceptual knowledge about natural entities. Such cognitive devices are claimed to have evolved to handle the survival-related challenges and opportunities that were present in the natural settings in which human ancestors lived (Mitchen, 1996; Pinker, 1994). Scott Atran (1995) argues how cross-cultural similarities in human folkbiologies support the existence of such a system. In particular, Western and non-Western individuals seem to classify nature in similar ways and consistently ascribe essences to the taxonomic types of folkbiologies. Atran’s (1995) view is consistent with literature on category-specific deficits, in which people are reported to have deficient perceptual and conceptual knowledge about the category of living things. One of the interpretations of the causes of such deficits is that, under evolutionary pressures, specific neural areas have become specialized in information about living entities (Caramazza & Shelton, 1998). Perhaps the psychological field that has most profoundly studied the human (affective) psychological relation with natural entities is environmental psychology. This research area draws on numerous empirical studies and is, therefore, less speculative than the just-mentioned modularity thesis. One of the central issues of environmental psychology is how different types of settings can trigger different affective states in individuals. Two important proposals have been advanced with regard to the specific process underlying these emotional states. In the preference matrix, developed by Stephen and Rachel Kaplan, the occurrence of such states is to a large extent the result of cognitively assessing whether a certain informational features are present in a setting (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). This contrasts with a central tenet of Roger Ulrich’s (1983) psychoevolutionary framework. According to Kaplan and Kaplan (1989), affective responses toward environmental settings are not mediated by cognition but stem from a rapid, automatic, and unconscious process by which environments are immediately liked or disliked. These fast affective reactions are claimed to be rooted in human evolutionary history and are essentially adaptive: they motivated the organism to quickly undertake actions that contributed to its well-being and survival. Hence, according to the psy208

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choevolutionary framework, survival chances further increased if these emotional reactions had an inherited component: no precious time and energy had to be spent learning what kinds of environments were either beneficial or harmful (S. Kaplan, 1987, 1988; Ulrich, 1983). With regard to the neutral origin of these affective states, some researchers attribute an important role to subcortical areas, especially the amygdala. This is because these structures are also involved in modulating stressrelated hormones, it provides an explanation of why certain types of settings have a different influence on autonomic stress responses (Joye, 2007a; Parsons, 1991).

Aesthetic Preference and Structural Landscape Features The literature states that, in regards to character of the settings or elements that can trigger such immediate affective states, these reactions can be provoked by some typical structural landscape features. Although coming from a different research field, geographer Jay Appleton was one of the first to propose a model addressing this issue (Appleton, 1975). According to Appleton’s prospect-refuge theory, human beings’ preference for landscapes correlates with two environmental qualities: prospect and refuge. The notion of prospect refers to settings or landscape elements that facilitate obtaining information about the environment. A typical example, according to Joye (2007a), is a hill which aids to visually access and inspect the surrounding area. Furthermore, refuge points to settings that can provide shelter and protection. Ulrich’s psychoevolutionary framework lists some other visual cues that are associated with immediate positive affective reactions: complexity, gross structural properties, depth properties, ground surface and texture, absence of threats, and deflected vista (Ulrich, 1983). The predictors in Rachel and Stephen Kaplan’s preference matrix overlap to a certain extent with the variable listed by Ulrich. The Kaplan’s model (R. Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; S. Kaplan, 1987, 1988) describes two types of postures toward the environment.

The Aesthetic Appeal of Natural Contents In addition to the previous structural landscape features, the field of environmental psychology also studies the natural contents that contribute to the aesthetic qualities of settings; namely, calm water features and vegetative elements. The explanatory framework, again, is essentially evolutionary. These elements are liked because they contributed to the survival and reproduction of early humans. Flowers, for example, signaled the presence of food sources and were cues for future foraging sites. They also helped in differentiating between different vegetation types, because plants that are not blooming often look quite similar (Orians & Heerwagen, 1992). Trees protected against sun and rain and offered early humans prospects on the surround209

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ing landscape and retreats from predators (Appleton, 1975; Orians & Heerwagen, 1992; Summit & Simmer, 1999). These benefits can explain why vegetative elements and settings containing vegetation still cause aesthetic or liking reactions. Different empirical studies, according to Joye (2007a), show that individuals consistently prefer natural, vegetated landscapes over urban settings without vegetation. When urban environments are mutually compared, highest preference is associated with urban settings containing some vegetation, especially trees, or a water feature (Smardon, 1988; Thayer & Atwood, 1978; Ulrich, 1986). Such phytophilia is also clear from the observation that non-natural environments often contain actual vegetative elements or decorative references to natural contents (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1989; Heerwagen & Orians, 1986). Although empirical research on preferential reactions toward flowers is scare, some studies shout that these elements are indeed associated with positive aesthetic reactions (Haviland-Jones, Rosario Wilson, & McGuire, 2005; Todorova, Asakawa, & Aikoh, 2004).

Naturalness and Stress Reduction Besides causing liking responses, natural elements are also found to contribute to the restoration of human individuals. Two major interpretations of restorative responses have been proposed. The first, attention restoration theory (ART), was developed by the Kaplans (R. Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Essentially, ART interprets restoration as the recovery of directed attention or the ability to focus. This capacity is deployed during tasks that require profound concentration, such as proofreading or studying. Natural settings have been found to be ideally suited to restore or rest directed attention (Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis, & Gärling, 2003; Hartig, Mang, & Evans, 1991). The second major interpretation of restoration is a part of Ulrich’s psychoevolutionary framework. In this view, restoration applies to a much broader context than attentional capacities (Parsons, 1991; Ulrich, 1993; Ulrich, Simons, Losito, Fiorito, Miles, & Zelson, 1991). More specifically, Ulrich understands restoration as stress reduction, and stress can occur when directed attention is not fatigued. Within Ulrich’s model, restorative responses are explained by the fact that early humans were often confronted with threatening and demanding situations. When the treat has vanished, the individual is in need of restoration from the stress that has been caused. The benefits of such restorative responses are “a shift toward a more positively toned emotional state, mitigation of deleterious effects of physiological mobilization, and the recharging of energy expended in the physiological arousal and behavior (Ulrich, 1993, p. 99). These restorative responses typically occurred in natural unthreatening settings. 210

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THE VALUES AND BENEFITS OF NATUREBASED ARCHITECTURE Although there is solid empirical evidence that humans hold positive affiliations with a specific set of landscapes and natural elements, this does not preclude that some natural features or occurrences also cause more negative and even aversive in humans (Mineka & Öhman, 2002; Van den Berg & ter Heijne, 2005). Another issue is that the experimental outcomes are sometimes difficult to integrate into a coherent, overreaching conceptual framework. Other issues are that differences in nature appreciation are often left in the dark in these discussions (Van den Berg, 2004), and it is still a matter of debate on which sense the genetic component of these (positive affiliations should be understood (Cummins & Cummins, 1999). Nonetheless, whatever the outcome of these matters, the general picture emerging from the previous concise review is that humans are partly hardwired to emotional affiliation with certain classes of natural objects. Some researchers have argued about the affective relations with natural elements and landscapes in terms of biophilia (Kellert & Wilson, 1993; Wilson, 1984). Although the theoretical merits of this term have been questioned (Joye, 2007b), in the reminder of this report the notions biophilic and biophilia will nevertheless be used as synthetic concepts. The occurrence of biophilic responding stands in sharp contrast with the observation that there is increasingly less contact with nature in Western technologically oriented societies. Wolff, Medin, and Pankratz (1999) found that such an evolution has nontrivial effects on cultural expressions of nature. In particular, they made a historical study of the word use in dictionaries and found that, from the 20th century onward, the use of (folk)biological terms devolved, and their application lost precision. In contrast, several nonbiological terms evolved during this period. Apart from being associated with an impoverishing conceptual framework for natural objects, it is also plausible that reduced contact with nature can be accompanied by a reduced knowledge of the rich variety of forms characteristic of natural entities. A probable artistic or creative consequence is that the formal curriculum of artists and architects becomes narrower. The reason is that natural form can be considered as a creative or compositional grammar, which can be used for creating artwork, or, as Kellert states, “The aesthetics of nature can function as a kind of monumental design model” (Kellert, 1997, p. 36). The loss of this monumental design model has its architectural counterpart in modern urban settings, which are increasingly governed by Euclidean geometry and stripped of ornament, patterning, detailing, and color. By encouraging architects to integrate natural forms and patterns in their work, they are motivated to study nature’s shapes and compositional rules, and this can enrich their creative curriculum.

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Integrating Structural Landscape Features in Architecture Doubts regarding structural landscape features being meaningfully applied to the built environment were raised, for this is a more difficult issue than applying welldefined natural contents to architecture, because the former features are of a more abstract nature. Furthermore, only very few researchers have addressed this issue and proposed clear guidelines on how to successfully integrate these qualities in architectural settings. First, turn to the type of setting that contains an ideal mix of these structural landscape features, namely the savanna. As evident strategy to imitate savannas is to integrate photographs or projections of savannas in (interior) spaces. Second, more architectural method consists of mimicking key structural features of savannas. Another structural feature that positively correlates with landscape selection is mystery. Some claim this property can be conveyed by specific design elements: “When appearing around concerns, attached to walls, and hung from ceilings, interesting objects, architectural details or motifs, graphics, video displays and artifacts can create a little mystery and surprise in the workplace” (Hase & Heerwagen, 2000, p. 30). However, the most straightforward way to apply mystery to an architectural setting is by deflected vista. This can be realized by letting the architectural trail bend away, which can lead to curiosity of what might lie beyond the bend, thereby encouraging explorative behavior. Another mode of mystery is called “enticement”. Essentially, this notion refers to the situation is which a person is in the dark, from where it can see a partially visible and enlightened area or setting. Such enlightened regions draw attention and trigger explorative behavior. Although mysterious settings can be aesthetically appealing, too much irregularity or surprise can have the result that the layout of the building becomes confusing and nontransparent, ultimately leading to orientation and way-finding problems. Legibility can be enhanced by integrating signalizations and distinctive markings, by offering views on the outside, and by making the building shape more regular (Evans & McCoy, 1998).

Imitating Natural Contents in Architecture: Biomimicry Imitating natural contents in architecture can be achieved by providing views on the outside environment, by integrating vegetation in built settings, by hanging nature pictures on the wall, by nature-orientated screensavers, and so forth. These interventions are what Keller (2005) called indirect experiences of nature, and they come quite close to the design interventions from the field of evidence-based design (Ulrich, Zimring, Quan, Joseph, & Choudhary, 2004; Van den Berg & Van Winsum-Westra, 2006). It is this sense that the modern built environment sometimes imports some of the icons of habitability that are typical of ancestral habitats. The result is that 212

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even architecture that is characterized by non-natural forms can be consistent with the current argument. An alternative to literal imitations is to create architectural designs based on schematic imitations of natural elements. These would no longer be copies but artistic interpretations that still contain some global visual similarities with regard to the original natural object. One of the central claims of the current study is that such constructions will be accompanied by affective states that are similar to those evoked by real natural contents. Orians and Heerwagen (1992, p. 572) expressed it as follows: “An evolutionary-ecological approach to aesthetics suggests that the incorporation of trees and tree forms, actual or symbolic, into the built environment should have a strong positive impact on people… We predict that the presence of these ‘symbolic trees’ is associated with positive response to built environments.” Further reasons why architectural imitations of nature could trigger biophilic responses are more empirical in nature. First, it can be pointed out that research on environmental preferences often uses simulations of nature. The results that are obtained with these stimuli are close to the responses associated with real nature, which suggests that realness does not play a decisive role. Second, symbolic representations of nature have been used throughout the history of art of aesthetic enhancements, which suggests that these can trigger biophilic responses. Third, research indicates that preferences for natural settings can be statistically predicted by underlying geometric characteristics, which lends plausibility to the claim that geometric abstractions from nature can cause the associated affective effects (Hägerhäll, Purcell, & Taylor, 2004).

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EMOTIONAL VALUES AND BENEFITS OF NATURE-BASED ARCHITECTURE: MENTAL HEALTH The biophilia hypothesis was originally referred to (Wilson, 1984) as an innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes, meaning that individuals gain the most satisfaction from processes that mimic the nature of life on many levels, be they cognitive or emotional. Since then, the biophilia hypothesis has been applied to many areas of life, including mental health (White & Heerwagen, 1998). This is largely due to refinements in the theory by people like Wilson (1993) where Wilson stated that biophilia was complex set of learned behaviors and processes based on our connection to nature. These learnings are split into biophilia which are positive learning and approach behaviors and biophilia which are negative learning with avoid behaviors (Ulrich, 1993). Wilson claims the opposite of writers like Fisher (2003) who believe our connection to nature is replaced by technology, but argues

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that our biophilic feelings atrophy and are integrated into our cultural systems as exemplified by zoos and nature based attractions. In terms of one’s emotions and the reactions of others in a consistent manner (Struening, Perlick, Link, Hellman, Herman, & Sirey, 2001), in contemporary society is clear, biophilic, and biophobic tendencies are a marker of culture (Wilson, 1993) and if one takes the assumptions made by various commentators (Foucault, 1964; Horwitz, 2002; Rind & Yuill, 2012) that mental health is a product of its culture, the connection is even clearer. The problems of mental health are shown to be increasing the world over (Desjarlais, Eisenberg, Good, & Kleinman, 1995), while biophilia as a hypothesis can answer this to a degree, it provides many other answers, namely to do with the origin of many of these conditions that we are experiencing. Fears and phobias are a cornerstone of mental health (Agras, Sylvester, & Oliveau, 1969) forming the root of many more severe mental health problems (Horwitz, 2002) and altering the way we go about our lives (Kessler, 2003). Biophilia has two main implications for mental health, the first of these being treatments of both biophobia based conditions, but also of other mental health issues (Ulrich, Simon, Losito, Fiorito, Miles, & Zelson, 1991). There are a number of writers who claim the effectiveness of biophilic elements in treatment (Melson & Fine, 2010) such as plants added to setting or animal integration, often at the same time. For this particular application of the biophilia hypothesis, there is an effort to make evidence empirical with well documented studies occurring as opposed to anecdotal evidence (Melson & Fine, 2010). A primary example of this is Melson’s 2001 study into dearousal of stress and anxiety patients, his study used therapeutic interviews combined with playing with or watching animals. Melson found that the animal influences allowed for the levels of stress of anxiety to decreases in the individuals, while also allowing them to learn positive nurturing techniques to apply to themselves as calming mechanisms (Melson, 2001), and suggested that this is at least in part to do with our affiliation to positive animal influences in our biophilic past. Other researchers have confirmed the dearousal concept even before Melson. Golletz (1995) showed that biophilia helped to induce relaxation through a passive positivity from natural stimuli, in this case being pictures and sound effects pitted against verbal relaxation or silent resting. The nature stimuli used by Golletz (1995) allowed or a measurable reduction in anger and anxiety through self-reporting methods, showing a perceived difference in natural to human based stimuli, at the very least. With this in mind, Gullone (2000) points out that biophilia allows as to consider out mental health in a more complex way and as such think of more cures, but it has wider implications for the mount of pathologies that are now open to diagnosis (Gullone, 2000), which leads us to the second implication of biophilia on mental health.

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As shown above, our environment can greatly influence our mental health, and when considered in the context of our environmental crisis, the implications are dire. It is argued that climate change itself effects our mental health in two distinct ways (Berry, Bowen, & Kjellstrom, 2010), firstly, is physical changes, through changes to the amount of sunlight we get effecting serotonin and other mood regulators (Lambert, Reid, Kaye, Jennings, & Esler, 2002) and lifestyle alternations correlating with increased stress (Norgaard, 2006). Secondly, these changes begin to weaken our sense of community (Berry, Bowen, & Kjellstrom, 2010), with the argument being made that our physical environment and its effects on us are symbiotic with our social environment (Spaargarden & Mil, 1992). In terms of the biophilic implications of this, Maller, Townsend, Pryor, Brown, and St. Leger (2006) suggest that this can be used in a collaborative effort of developers, health and social services as a way of honing our biophilic nature, through more open and greener spaces, into a more positive mental health structure, lest as Wilson (1993) fears, we lose the biophilic part of our mind through lack of stimuli in our everyday lives and lose the part of us he termed our spirit.

FUTURE RESEARCH In habitat theory, savannas are claimed to be the settings in which early humans spent a substantial part of their evolutionary history, and these seem to display an ideal mix of the previously discussed structural landscape features and natural contents (Van den Berg, 2004). This type of biome can be broadly described as low to intermediately complex settings, having a relatively even and grassy ground surface dotted with scattered trees or tree groups. Savannas contains a high degree of biomass and meat, and these are relatively easily accessible for terrestrial beings. Furthermore, the openness of savannas facilitates detecting predators and game and is conducive of movement and a nomadic lifestyle (Orians, 1980; Orians & Heerwagen, 1992). The aesthetic preference for savanna-type landscapes has been the subject of a few empirical studies. Balling and Falk (1982) found that young individuals preferred savannas over other biomes without ever being exposed to the former type of landscape. The researchers hypothesize these findings could well indicate an innate (aesthetic) preference for savannas [Synek & Grammer, 1998 (Coss, 2003, for contrasting findings)]. Consistent with the savanna hypothesis, research indicates that people tend to prefer tree shapes characteristic of high-quality savanna: These typically have a low trunk, a broad canopy, and a moderate canopy layering (Orians & Heerwagen, 1992; Sommer & Summit, 1995). Inquiries into the evolution of artists’ work (John Constable) show an increase of conspicuous savanna features over time (Heerwagen & Orians, 1993). 215

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Furthermore, studies indicate that when artificial changes are made to plants and trees, these increasingly come to resemble savanna-type vegetation (Heerwagen & Orians, 1993). Finally, areas that are created for recreational or aesthetic purposes often resemble savannas (Orians, 1980). Within the field of landscape aesthetics, the savanna hypothesis is often taken for granted and has remained mostly undisputed. Nevertheless, Joye (2007a) find it troubling that almost no attention is paid to discussions in the field of paleoanthropology. For example, Wilson (1993) argues how humans’ references for nature, savannas in particular, are remnants of paleohominid and early Homo evolution in this type of biome, a view shared by many in the field of habitat theory and landscape aesthetics. In this view, Potts (1998) sketches a more complex view that is supported by scientific environmental analyses. Based on evidence during the evolution of early hominids, there was quite some variation in the environments that were inhabited, ranging from forests to savannas to open-canopy woodlands. Nonetheless, it could be countered that the true value of the savanna hypothesis does not have any bearing on the finding that humans adapt to and display positive affective affiliations with natural environments. As Kahn (1999, p. 39) points out, “The evolutionary account can hold, but the savanna hypothesis needs to give way to a broader account of genetic predispositions to inhabited landscapes”. Furthermore, when it comes to architecture and biophilia, almost no attention is paid to discussions in the field of psychology, specifically environmental psychology, sense and perception in psychology, and health psychology as an interdisciplinary field of study and research.

CONCLUSION The great management theorist, Abraham Maslow (Maslow & Mintz, 1956), was examining the aesthetics of the workplace, and their impact, as long ago as the 1950s. Maslow’s studies found that the quality of office design influenced office workers, with aesthetically pleasing spaces having a positive impact on energy levels and well-beings (Grant, Christianson, & Price, 2007; Tran, 2015). Furthermore, research shows that the presence of natural elements indoors can evoke the same benefits as the outdoor environment (Ryan, Weinstein, Bernstein, Warren-Brown, Mistretta, & Gagné, 2010), supporting the case for biophilic office design. Furthermore, across Europe, research has shown that the simple presence of natural elements in the work environment can act as a buffer against the negative impact of job stress and positively impact general well-being (Velarde, Fry, & Tveit, 2007). Hence, in the work environment, the benefits of nature have also been recognized, with research in Norway, finding that natural elements within an office space, such as plants, can 216

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prevent fatigue when completing tasks that demand high concentration or attention (Raanaas, Horgen-Evensen, Rich, Sjostrom, & Patil, 2011). Similarly, Cooper and Browning (2015) found that across countries, the presence of natural elements was consistently associated with higher reported levels of happiness at work, in comparison to work environments void of nature. In addition, employees working in offices with both internal and external green spaces along with plenty of natural light reported higher levels of well-being, in comparison to those working in environments without these natural features. Cooper and Browning’s (2015) study reported levels of well-being and productivity that were 13% and 8% higher, respectively, for those EMEA office workers in environments containing natural elements. However, despite the benefits that natural light and space can provide, it was found that 30% of workers do not work in environments that provide these sense of light and space. Findings such as this should urge organizations and designers can be built or modified to provide light and space and in turn increase levels of well-being and productivity within the workforce. The work environment is already an established part of the expected psychological contract between employer and employee and has even become a differentiator for employer brands. Consider the biggest firms in the technology sector—Facebook, Apple, Google—these are all at the vanguard of providing great working environments, of which many are linked to nature through biophilic design and the campus layout of the main offices. With this backdrop of increased awareness amongst employees about leading companies’ approach to designing work environments, it is possible to envisage biophilic design as a crucial component in “the war for talent”—how companies attract and retain the most skilled, productive workforces with great competition. Although Cooper and Browning (2015) found over three quarters (77%) of respondents reporting that the design of an office would not affect their decision to work for that company, it is likely that as the awareness of the positive impact of good design grows, Cooper and Browning (2015) will see a decrease in this figure and more people holding a greater expectation of office design that is stimulating and provokes positive feelings. This is because humans need to be connected to nature can be satisfied through biophilic design in two ways: either a direct or a symbolic connection to nature. Direct connections are sought through natural elements being incorporated into the workplace. But if these are not available individuals can have symbolic connections with nature that differ in that they are mimicries of the natural environment. When design mimics the patterns, forms and textures of nature, this can provide these symbolic connections. The importance of nature contact in the workplace is evident, yet, if organizations are not equipped to provide this contact directly, then it seems that symbolic connections are the ideal and necessary substitute. The findings of Cooper and Browning’s (2015) study have identified a common deficiency of nature 217

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in the workplace. Of the 3,600 EMEA office workers investigated in this research study, 42% reported having no natural light, 55% reported no natural elements being present, and 7% said they had no view of the outdoor world. Ultimately, the research in this area indicates that bringing elements of nature into the workplace, whether real or artificial, is beneficial in terms of employee outcomes. Nevertheless, although investigation into the benefits of biophilia for individual well-being is relatively new, there is clearly mounting evidence that biophilic design can have a positive impact, from reducing stress and anxiety, to improving the quality and availability of respite from work and in increasing levels of self-reported well-being. There are clear links between these findings and areas of organizational psychology which merit biophilia as a consideration within organizations’ wider well-being strategies. Hence, when it comes to the well-beings (the psychological and emotions) of humans due to architectural design, when it comes to architecture and biophilia, architects must consider the field of psychology, specifically environmental psychology, sense and perception in psychology, and health psychology as an interdisciplinary field of study and research., when designing to increase the values and benefits of nature-based architecture—biophilia.

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Evans, G. W., & McCoy, J. M. (1998). When buildings don’t work: The role of architecture in human health. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18(1), 85–94. doi:10.1006/jevp.1998.0089 Falk, J. H., & Balling, J. D. (2010). Evolutionary influence on human landscape preference. Environment and Behavior, 42(4), 479–493. doi:10.1177/0013916509341244 Feuerstein, G. (2002). Biomorphic architecture: Human and animal forms in architecture. Stuttgart, Germany: Axel Menges. Foucault, M. (1964). Madness and civilization: A history of insanity in the age of reason. New York: Vintage. Golletz, D. V. (1995). Use of nature stimuli in relaxation therapy for anxiety and anger [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Gouveia, N. C., & Maisonet, M. (2005). Health effects of air pollution: An overview. In Air quality guidelines. Global Update 2005 (pp. 87-103). World Health Organization. Europe: Copenhagen. Grant, A. M., Christianson, M. K., & Price, R. H. (2007). Happiness, health, or relationship? Managerial practices and employees well-being tradeoffs. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(3), 51–63. doi:10.5465/AMP.2007.26421238 Green, J. (2012). Biophilic building design held back by lack of data. Retrieved from http://dirt.asla.org/2012/05/23/biophilic-building-design-held-back-by-lack-of-data/ Gullone, E. (2000). The biophilia hypothesis and life in the 21st century: Increasing mental health or increasing pathology? Journal of Happiness Studies, 1(3), 293–322. doi:10.1023/A:1010043827986 Hägerhäll, C. M., Ourcell, T., & Taylor, R. (2004). Fractal dimension of landscape silhouette outlines as a predictor of landscape preference. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(2), 247–255. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2003.12.004 Han, K. (2007). Responses to six major terrestrial biomes in terms of scenic beauty, preference, and restorativeness. Environment and Behavior, 39(4), 529–556. doi:10.1177/0013916506292016 Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, L. D., Davis, D. S., & Gärling, T. (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 39(4), 109–123. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00109-3 Hartig, T., Mang, M., & Evans, G. W. (1991). Restorative effects of natural environment experiences. Environment and Behavior, 23(1), 3–26. doi:10.1177/0013916591231001 220

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Hase, B., & Heerwagen, J. H. (2000). Phylogenetic design: A new approach for workplace environments. Journal for Quality and Participation, 23(5), 27–31. Haviland-Jones, J., Rosario, H. H., Wilson, P., & McGuire, T. R. (2005). An environmental approach to positive emotion: Flowers. Evolutionary Psychology, 3(1), 104–132. doi:10.1177/147470490500300109 Heerwagen, J. H., & Orians, G. H. (1986). Adaptions to windowlessness: A study of the use of visual décor in windowed and windowless offices. Environment and Behavior, 18(5), 623–639. doi:10.1177/0013916586185003 Heerwagen, J. H., & Orians, G. H. (1993). Humans, habitats, and aesthetics. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 138–172). Washington, DC: Island Press. Horwitz, A. V. (2002). Creating mental illness. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Joye, Y. (2007a). Architectural lessons from environmental psychology: The case of biophilic architecture. Review of General Psychology, 11(4), 305–328. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.11.4.305 Joye, Y. (2007b). A tentative arguments for the inclusion of nature-based forms in architecture. [doctoral dissertation]. Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Kahn, P. H. Jr. (1999). The human relationship with nature: Development and culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kaplan, R. (2001). The nature of the view from home. Environment and Behavior, 33(4), 507–542. doi:10.1177/00139160121973115 Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Kaplan, S. (1987). Aesthetics, affect and cognition. Environment and Behavior, 19(1), 3–32. doi:10.1177/0013916587191001 Kaplan, S. (1988). Perception and landscape: Conceptions and misconceptions. In J. Nasar (Ed.), Environmental aesthetics: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 45–55). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/ CBO9780511571213.006 Kellert, S. (1997). Kinship to mastery: Biophilia in human evolution and development. Washington, DC: Island Press.

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Kellert, S. (2005). Building for life: Understanding and designing the human-nature connection. Washington, DC: Island Press. Kellert, S., & Wilson, E. O. (1993). The biophilia hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. Kessler, R. R. (2003). The impairments caused by social phobia in general population: Implications for intervention. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 108(417), 19–27. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.108.s417.2.x PMID:12950433 Krčmářová, J. (2009). E.O. Wilson’s concept of biophilia and the environmental movement in the USA. Klaudyán: Internet Journal of Historical Geography and Environmental History, 6(1/2), 4–17. Lambert, G., Reid, C., Kaye, D., Jennings, G., & Esler, M. (2002). Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain. Lancet, 360(9348), 1840–1842. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11737-5 PMID:12480364 Love, J. E. (1972). Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 6(8), 579–580. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5 Love, J. E., & Margulis, L. (1974). Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: The Gaia hypothesis. Tellus, 26(1/2), 2–10. Lynn, G. (1999). Animate form. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., de Vries, S., Spreeuwenberg, P., Schellevis, F. G., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2009). Morbidity is related to a green living environment. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63(12), 967–973. doi:10.1136/ jech.2008.079038 PMID:19833605 MacKerron, G., & Mourato, S. (2013). Happiness is greater in natural environments. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 992–1000. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.03.010 Maller, C., Townsendm, M., Pryor, A., Brown, P., & St. Leger, L. (2006). Healthy nature healthy people: Contact with nature an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promotion International, 21(1), 45–54. doi:10.1093/ heapro/dai032 PMID:16373379 Maslow, A. H., & Mintz, N. L. (1956). Effects of esthetic surroundings: I. Initial effects of three esthetic conditions upon perceiving “energy” and “well-being” in faces. The Journal of Psychology, 41(2), 247–354. doi:10.1080/00223980.1956.9713000

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Melson, G. F. (2001). Why the wild things are: Animals in the lives of children. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Melson, G. F., & Fine, A. H. (2010). Animals in the life of children. In A. Fine (Ed.), Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines (2nd ed., pp. 207-226). London: Academic Press. Mineka, S., & Öhman, A. (2002). Phobias and preparedness: The selective, automatic, and encapsulated nature of fear. Biological Psychiatry, 52(10), 927–937. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01669-4 PMID:12437934 Mitchell, R., & Popham, F. (2007). Greenspace, urbanity and health: Relationships in England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(8), 681–683. doi:10.1136/jech.2006.053553 PMID:17630365 Mitchell, R., & Popham, F. (2008). Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: An observational population study. Lancet, 372(9650), 1655–1660. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61689-X PMID:18994663 Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind. London: Thames & Hudson. Moore, E. O. (1981). A prison environment’s effect on health care service demands. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11(1), 17–34. doi:10.2190/KM50-WH2K-K2D1DM69 Morris, N. (2003). Health, well-being and open space: Literature review. OPENspace. Retrieved from http://www.openspace.eca.ed.ac.uk/pdf/healthwellbeing.pdf Norgaard, K. (2006). People want to protect themselves a little bit: Emotions, denial and social movement nonparticipation. Sociological Inquiry, 76(3), 372–396. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.2006.00160.x Orians, G. H. (1980). Habitat selection: General theory and applications to human behaviour. In J. S. Lockard (Ed.), The evolution of human social behavior (pp. 49–77). New York: Elsevier. Orians, G. H., & Heerwagen, J. H. (1992). Evolved responses to landscapes. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 555–579). New York: Oxford University Press. Parsons, R. (1991). The potential influences of environmental perception on human health. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11(1), 1–23. doi:10.1016/S02724944(05)80002-7

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Passchier-Vermeer, W., & Passchier, W. F. (2000). Noise exposure and public health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(1), 123–131. doi:10.1289/ehp.00108s1123 PMID:10698728 Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. The new science of language and mind. London: Penguin Press. Potts, R. B. (1998). Environmental hypotheses of hominin evolution. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107(27), 93–136. doi:10.1002/(SICI)10968644(1998)107:27+3.0.CO;2-X PMID:9881524 Preheim, L. M. (2001). Biophilia, the endangered species act, and a new endangered species paradigm. William and Mary Law Review, 42(3), 1053–1076. Rehdanz, K., & Maddison, D. (2008). Local environmental quality and lifesatisfaction in Germany. Ecological Economics, 64(4), 787–797. doi:10.1016/j. ecolecon.2007.04.016 Rind, B., & Yuill, R. (2012). Hebephilia as mental disorder? A historical, crosscultural, sociological, cross-species, non-clinical empirical, and evolutionary review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(4), 797–829. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9982-y PMID:22739816 Ryan, C. O., Browning, W. D., Clancy, J., Andrews, S. L., & Kallianpurkar, N. B. (2014). Biophilic design patterns: Emerging nature-based parameters for health and well-being in the built environment. International Journal of Architectural Research, 8(2), 62–76. Ryan, R. M., Weinstein, N., Bernstein, J., Brown, K. W., Mistretta, L., & Gagné, M. (2010). Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(2), 159–168. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.10.009 Salingaros, N. A. (2006). Neuroscience, the natural environmental, and building design. Presented at theBringing Buildings to Life Conference, Yale University, New Haven, CT. Salingaros, N. A. (2008). Neuroscience, the natural environmental, and building design. In S. R. Kellert, J. Heerwagen, & M. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic design: The theory, science and practice of bringing buildings to life (pp. 59–83). New York: John Wiley. Smardon, R. C. (1988). Perception and aesthetics of the urban environment: Review of the role of vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 15(1/2), 85–106. doi:10.1016/0169-2046(88)90018-7

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Sommer, R., & Summit, J. (1995). An exploratory study of preferred tree form. Environment and Behavior, 27(4), 540–557. doi:10.1177/0013916595274005 Spaargarden, G., & Mol, A. P. J. (1992). Sociology, environment and modernity: Ecological modernization as a theory of social change. Society & Natural Resources, 5(4), 323–344. doi:10.1080/08941929209380797 Struening, E. L., Perlick, D. A., Link, B., Hellman, F., Herman, D., & Sirey, J. (2001). Stigma as a barrier to recovery: The extent to which caregivers believe most people devale consumers and their families. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 52(12), 1633–1638. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.12.1633 PMID:11726755 Summit, J., & Sommer, R. (1999). Further studies of preferred tree shapes. Environment and Behavior, 31(4), 550–576. doi:10.1177/00139169921972236 Sweeney, J. J., & Sert, J. L. (1960). Antoni Gaudí. London: The Architectural Press. Synek, E., & Grammer, K. (1998). Evolutionary aesthetics: Visual complexity and the development of human landscape preferences. Vienna: University of Vienna. Thayer, R. L. Jr, & Atwood, B. G. (1978). Plants, complexity, and pleasure in urban and suburban environments. Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 3(2), 67–76. doi:10.1007/BF01135604 Todorova, A., Asakawa, S., & Aikoh, T. (2004). Preferences for and attitudes towards street flowers and trees in Sapporo, Japan. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69(4), 403–416. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.11.001 Tran, B. (2015). The practice of positive psychology: Utilizing videogames as selftherapy, self-management, and self-improvements. In D. Villani, P. Cipresso, A. Gaggioli, & G. Riva (Eds.), Integrating technology in positive psychology practice. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. Ulrich, R. S. (1983). Aesthetic and affective response to natural environment. In I. Altman & J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Human behavior and the environment (Vol. 6, pp. 85–125). New York: Plenum Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-3539-9_4 Ulrich, R. S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science, 224(4647), 420–422. doi:10.1126/science.6143402 PMID:6143402 Ulrich, R. S. (1986). Effects of hospital environments on patient well-being. University of Trondheim.

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Ulrich, R. S. (1993). Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 73–137). Washington, DC: Island Press. Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11(3), 201–230. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80184-7 Ulrich, R. S., Zimring, C., Quan, X., Joseph, A., & Choudhary, R. (2004). The role of the physical environment in the hospital of the 21st century: A once-on-alifetime opportunity. Retrieved from https://www.healthdesign.org/sites/default/files/ Role%20Physical%20Environ%20in%20the%2021st%20Century%20Hospital_0.pdf Van den Berg, A. E. (2004). The charm of the savanna: Inquiry into landscape preferences[De charme van de savanne: Onderzoek naar landschapsvoordkeuren]. Topos. Van den Berg, A. E., & Ter Heijne, M. (2005). Fear versus fascination: Emotional responses to natural threats. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25(3), 261–272. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.004 Van den Berg, A. E., & Van Winsum-Westra, M. (2006). Designing with green for health: Guidelines for the application of green in “healing environments” [Ontwerpen met groen voor gezondheid: Richlijnen voor de toepassing van groen in ‘healing environments’]. (Report 1371, reeks belevingsonderzoek nr. 15). Wageningen, Germany: Alterra. Velarde, M. D., Fry, G., & Tveit, M. (2007). Health effects of viewing landscapes— Landscape types in environmental psychology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6(4), 199–212. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2007.07.001 Vemuri, A. W., & Costanza, R. (2006). The role of human, social, built, and natural capital in explaining life satisfaction at the country level: Toward a national well-being index (NWI). Ecological Economics, 58(1), 119–133. doi:10.1016/j. ecolecon.2005.02.008 Welsch, H. (2006). Environmental and happiness: Valuation of air pollution using life satisfaction data. Ecological Economics, 58(4), 801–813. doi:10.1016/j. ecolecon.2005.09.006 White, M., Smith, A., Humphryes, K., Pahl, S., Snelling, D., & Depledge, M. (2010). Blue space: The importance of water for preference, affect, and restorativeness ratings of natural and built scenes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 482–493. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.04.004 226

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White, R., & Heerwagen, J. (1998). Nature and mental health: Biophilia and biophobia. In A. Lundberg (Ed.), The environmental and mental health: A guide for clinicians (pp. 175–192). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Wilson, E. O. (1975, October 12). Human decency is animal. New York Times Magazine, 38-50. Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, E. O. (1993). Biophilia and the conservation ethics. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 31–41). Washington, DC: Island Press. Wilson, E. O. (1994). Naturalist (p. 380). Washington, DC: Shearwater Book. Wilson, E. O. (2002). The future of life (p. 256). New York: Alfed A. Knopf.

ADDITIONAL READING Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., & Angel, S. (1977). A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Brownell, B., Swackhamer, M., Satterfield, B., & Weinstock, M. (2015). Hypernatural: Architecture’s new relationship with nature. Princeton Architectural Press. Crouch, D. P., & Johnson, J. G. (2001). Traditions in architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Deming, M. E., & Swaffield, S. (2011). Landscape architectural research: Inquiry, strategy, design. New York: Wiley. Groat, L. N., & Wang, D. (2013). Architectural research methods (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Guenther, R., & Vittori, G. (2013). Sustainable healthcare architecture (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Jabi, W., Johnson, B., & Woodbury, R. (2013). Parametric design for architecture. New York: Laurence King Publishing. Kellert, S. R. (2014). Birthright: People and nature in the modern world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. (2008). Biophilic design: The theory, science, and sractice of bringing buildings to life. New York: Wiley. Leach, N. (1999). The anaesthetics of architecture (58818th ed.). Boston: The MIT Press. Marcus, C. C., & Sachs, N. A. (2013). Therapeutic landscapes: An evidence-based approach to designing healing gardens and restorative outdoor spaces. New York: Wiley. Marley, C. (2015). Biophilia. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Mazzoleni, I. (2013). Architecture follows nature-biomimetic principles for innovative design. CRC Press Series in Biomimetics. Pawlyn, M. (2011). Biomimicry in architecture (Reprint ed.). London: RIBA Publishing. Rapoport, A. (2005). Culture, architecture, and design. Locke Science Publishing Company, Inc. Schumacher, P. (2011). The autopoiesis of architecture: A new framework for architecture. New York: Wiley. Steele, J. (2005). Ecological architecture: A critical history. London: Thames & Hudson. Van Der Ryn, S. (2005). Design for life: The architecture of Sim Van der Ryn. Gibbs Smith. Wasserman, B., Sullivan, P., & Palermo, G. (2000). Ethics and the practice of architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Weinstock, M. (2010). The architecture of emergence: The evolution of form in nature and civilization. New York: Wiley. Weinstock, M. (2013). System city: Infrastructure and the space of flows. New York: Academy Press. Zeisel, J., & Eberhard, J. P. (2006). Inquiry by design: Environment/behavior/neuroscience in architecture, interiors, landscape, and planning. New York: W.W. Norton.

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Aesthetic Preference: Aesthetic judgements arrived at by people on the basis of a number of factors. Judgments of aesthetic value clearly rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. Aesthetics examines what makes something beautiful, sublime, disgusting, fun, cute, silly, entertaining, pretentious, discordant, harmonious, boring, humorous, or tragic. Architecture: Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Biophilia: An innate human emotional affiliation to nature and living organisms in general is proposed as an adaption to our history. Edward Osborne Wilson: Wilson is the founding father of the concept of biophilia and the thoughts and development of the environmental movement in the United States. In the 1980s Wilson came forth with the idea that human perception of, thought about and behavior towards nature are in many cases guided by irrational psychological mechanisms, which in the past were adaptive. Evidence-Based Architecture (Design or EBD): A field of study emphasizing credible evidence to influence design. This approach has become popular in healthcare to improve patient and staff well-being, patient healing, stress reduction and safety. Evidence-based design is a relatively new field, borrowing terminology and ideas from disciplines such as environmental psychology, architecture, neuroscience and behavioral economics. Folkbiologies (Folk Biology or Folkbiology): The cognitive study of how people classify and reason about the organic world. Imitating Natural Contents in Architecture (Biomimicry): Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems. Integrating Structural Landscape (or Landscape engineering): Landscape engineering is the application of mathematics and science to shape land and waterscapes. It can also be described as green engineering, but the design professionals best known for landscape engineering are landscape architects. Landscape engineering is the interdisciplinary application of engineering and other applied sciences to the design and creation of anthropogenic landscapes. Landscape Aesthetics (Landscape Architecture): The design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporat-

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ing aspects of botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial design, soil sciences, environmental psychology, geography, and ecology. Mental Health: Mental health refers to how we feel, think, behave and manage our psychological lives. Psychoevolutionary Framework [or Evolutionary Psychology (EP)]: A theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations. Structural Landscape: Work involved in the construction of external landscape features, and non-habitable structures including the following: 1. Retaining walls of any material that do not form part of a habitable building, 2. Fencing irrespective of the construction material, driveways, paths and other paving of any material, 3. Cabanas, pergolas, decks and non-habitable shelters, 4. Ornamental ponds, water features and other structural ornamentation.

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The Architect of Organizational Psychology:

The Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural (Corporate and Organizational) Identity Ben Tran Alliant International University, USA

ABSTRACT Globalization, used in the architect of the organizational psychology world, often evokes images of a shrinking world, in which accelerating flows of information and travel technology compares time and space in the relationships between world cultures, political economies and the built environment. In the world of organizational psychology, the field of organizational psychology is a byproduct of business (organizational behavior and management), psychology [clinical and industrial and organizational psychology (I/O)], and culture. The one common paramount connection between architecture and organizational psychology in the world of globalization is (or the corporate/organization) culture. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is the architect of organizational psychology, with an emphasis on culture. Specifically, Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural (corporate and organizational) identity, and how culture influences architecture and business in globalization.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch009 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

The Architect of Organizational Psychology

INTRODUCTION Globalization, used in the architectural world, is a disputed term packed with a rich and intricate array of interpretive possibilities that, once released, raise important questions about architecture, its institutions and its outcomes. Globalization, used in the corporate world, has been associated with flows of capital, labor, products, and ideas that have crossed, challenged, and blurred established national and international boundaries. Globalization, used in the architect of the organizational psychology world, often evokes images of a shrinking world, in which accelerating flows of information and travel technology compares time and space in the relationships between world cultures, political economies and the built environment. Today the idea of the global city, once characterized by nodes of high-rise towers associated with nexuses of capital flows vying for command and control of the world economy, is being reconsidered. With the advances in electronic media and telecommunications, people can live simultaneously in both bounded urban public environments as well as highly constructed personal virtual environments. Such virtual connections permit national formations to be maintained across international boundaries, as individuals construct virtual neighborhoods that sustain a life of what theorist Benedict Anderson refers to as long-distance nationalism (Walker, 2001). In the world of architecture, the field of architecture is of an island, with estranged connection with engineering, (material) science, geology, art, and culture. In the world of organizational psychology, the field of organizational psychology is a byproduct of business (organizational behavior and management), psychology [clinical and industrial and organizational psychology (I/O)], and culture. The one common paramount connection between architecture and organizational psychology in the world of globalization is (or the corporate/organization) culture. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is the architect of organizational psychology, with an emphasis on culture. Specifically, Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural (corporate and organizational) identity, and how culture influences architecture and business in globalization. Thus, this chapter will cover: 1. Identity and architectural heritage. 2. Globalization and architecture. 3. Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of culture.

IDENTITY AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE The term identity is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary (Crowther, 1995) as the state of being very like or the same as something or somebody, or the state of 232

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being closely involved with a part of something. The core meaning of any national identity is a sense of sameness over time and space. Presently it seems that everyone claims a right to identity— architecture for academic and organizations for business. Nations demands identity as if it were a necessity of life itself, a sacred objective, because it brings power by sustaining certain subjective positions and social boundaries (Saliya, 1986). Identity is a huge part of who we are, and identity is the end result of many factors combine to shape identity such as genetic, social, cultural factors, and the build environment. Architecture can be best defined as the art and science of integrating the physical environment within a socio space-time organization. It can also be seen as a gesture and its insertion within any context should be aesthetically relevant (Vale, 1997). Aesthetics, a Greek word meaning perceptions and feelings, are the feelings that this integration process and their arrangements prompt us to have. This argument raises the question of the morality of architecture: that is considering architectural heritage in modern designs. Heritage can be understood as a pure human instinct that comes from the knowledge and benefiting ways that nature revealed though trails and experiences. Heritage sites are considered as our tangible and intangible identity and collective memory. It is sustained by remembering and what is remembered and what is remembered is defined by the assumed identity. Architectural heritage is important and worth preserving because it is the storehouse of memories, a link with the past, and because of its universal aesthetic and historic value. In Archibald’s (2004) words: “memory is a dynamic process of using the past to define and redefine who we are, what we believe, what we like and dislike, and the values we hold dear”. Therefore, the loss of heritage as storehouse of memories will lead to a loss of memory and then a loss of identity, because, as Gillis states, identity is “something that can be lost as well as found” (Gillis, 1994). However, Loewenberg (1996) argues for adopting psychoanalysis in historic studies in order to recognize and utilize the pattern of feelings, attitudes, and behaviors that shape history. This argument is derived from the fact that “history is not the collective memory of mankind, rather, it is the reformation and reinterpretation of that memory by each historian according to his time, social circumstance, method, and subjective past” (Loewenberg, 1996). Living in or close to historic sites, especially World Heritage sites, requires emphasizing the influence of the physical environment on identity and self-perception. In this process, the place-identity theory has provided important contributions to the field of architecture (Hauge, 2007). It proposes a new integrative model of place in both built and natural environments. The influence place has on identity is seen as a result of the interaction between people and their physical environment: people affect places and places influence how people see themselves. Relph (1976) argues

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that “there is for virtually everyone a deep association with and consciousness of the places… this association seems to constitute a virtual source of both individual and cultural identity and security, a point of departure from which we orient ourselves in the world”. The physical features and settings of the place, together with activities and functions carried out in it, are acknowledged by Relph (1976) as a source of identity of place, for places are an integral part of human experience. For Relph (1976), the essential quality of place was its power to order and to focus human intentions, experience, and behavior spatially. It is related to the place where people grew up, taking into account the emotional connections between human beings and their environment, in other words, their sense of place. When attachment to places develops, we start to identify ourselves with these places. Elkadi (2006) identified the term identity as stemming from the cultural dialogue between users of the place and their surrounding built environment. The places in which people have lived influence their environmental preference and affect the kind of environment they may prefer to live. Hence, the discussion of architectural heritage is now considered a popular phenomenon (Abel, 2000; Taylor, 1986). As Aylin Orbaşlı (2000) highlights, “The interaction of human beings with the past and the present, with buildings, spaces and one another produces an urban dynamism and creates a spirit of place”. Society passes on identity with a place from one generation to another, leaving a legacy in the physical environment. From this phenomenon, the present generation can gain an awareness of the cultural and environmental values of the past on which to build for the oncoming generations (Çelik, 2003). They must realize that maintaining their architectural heritage means maintaining the continuity of a culture. Architecture, as mentioned above, is a very distinct tool for shaping identity (Abel, 2000; Çelik, 2003). Architectural heritage can be the shadow behind today’s production. A nation’s architectural heritage is an important part of its identity. Its components are architecture, identity, and history (Lahoud, 2008). Architecture can generate the past, prefigure the future, and articulate the present. This is how one can bridge the gap between the past and the present. The integration will lead to the creation of new buildings which are faithful to the inspiration provided by the inherited cultural heritage. Contemporary architecture in this context is understood as a reference to all significant planned and designed interventions in the historic built environment, including open spaces, new constructions, additions to or extensions of historic buildings and sites, and conversions. The central challenge of contemporary architecture is to respond to developmental dynamics in order to facilitate socioeconomic changes and growth on the one hand, while simultaneously respecting the inherited built environment on the other (Rababe’h, 2010).

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GLOBALIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE Cities and regions are facing great challenges as a consequence of globalization. The term globalization was coined in the latter half of the 20th century, but the term and its concepts did not permeate popular consciousness until the latter half of the 1980s (Chris, 2006, p. 42). Serving as a buzzword of the decade, the phenomenon of globalization has attracted more significant global attention than perhaps any other issue in recent memory, yet the term is used in so many different contexts, by so many different people, for so many different purposes. Giddens defined globalization as “the intensification of worldwide social relations that link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (Oncu & Weyland, 1997, pp. 1-2). In the sequence, globalization is considered a discourse of knowledge that elevates awareness of the links between various scales of life. The Encyclopedia Britannica defines globalization as the process by which the experience of everyday life is becoming standardized around that world (Adam, 2008). It is also a contested discourse exhibiting many variants, some of which are clearly more influential than others. The tension between anti-global and pro-global forces has long existed, with two opposing forces affecting architectural globalization. One force seeks to safeguard and promulgate established indigenous architectural traditions, forms, decorative motifs, and technologies. It advocates historical continuity, cultural diversity, and preservation of identity, all symbolized by a particular architectural vocabulary, just as spoken languages and local dialects impart identity. The other force promotes invention and dissemination of new forms using new technologies and materials in response to changing functional needs and sensibilities. It places a premium on systemization, flexibility, and interchangeability (Lewis, 2002). For some, globalization entails the Westernization of the world. Some see globalization as generating increasing homogeneity, while others see it producing diversity and heterogeneity through increased hydridization. Global change represents a new class of problems that severely challenges our ability to achieve sustainable development. These problems are fundamentally nonlinear in causation and discontinuous in both their spatial structure and temporal behavior. Acting in the present age involves understanding the matrix of global and local forces, of domination and resistance, and of a condition of rapid change and great transformation brought about by the global restructuring of capital and multidimensional effects of trends and new technologies.

Trends In an ongoing dialogue, according to Eldemery (2009) between architects and society, architects consider globalization a distinguishing trend of the present moment, 235

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whereas theorists see it either as a necessary and positive vehicle of progress and diversity or as a force of inspired homogenization and destruction. Architecture addresses our meta-physical, philosophical, and cultural identities within a material context. It challenges us to look at history and, therefore, at architecture in a new way (El-Husseiny, 2004). Architectural history is filled with movements opposing cultural and aesthetic diversity while sanctioning particularly philosophies of architecture for national and international distribution. Pro-global design sponsors include governments using architecture for symbolism, companies employing architecture for corporate purposes and product identification, and zealous, sometimes self-righteous, architects preaching their own theories. In the early 20th century, many architects argued stridently that the modern age demanded new architecture in response to new industry, technologies, mobility, and social and political orders. Thus born the International Style, epitomized by German architects Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, and others (Eldemery, 2009). Today, pressure to globalize architecture primarily springs from two sources: the culture of commerce and the culture of design. The global culture of commerce is driven by changing consumer expectations, market opportunities, and business agendas (Oncu & Weyland, 1997). Their architectural manifestations include iconic, sky-scraping banking towers, chains of standardized hotels, franchise restaurants, and shopping malls full of all-too-familiar name-brand stores. The global culture of design is supported by architects who study what other architects are creating, no matter where. With skilled photographs in slick magazines and professional journals, trend-conscious designers can scan and span the global, sharing high-style concepts rendered in stylish materials. Glass, aluminum, stainless steel, copper, titanium, and natural stone are readily available, and if they cannot be acquired locally, they can be imported.

Technology It is certainly arguable that during the past decades the world has been undergoing the most significant period of technological innovation and global restricting since the first decades of the 20th century. Cities have always been centers of civilization and vitality that, through the years, have led to human progress through material and scientific advances. Globalization is now an unstoppable historical process led by technological change and involving the dissemination of science and new technologies. Rapid urbanization has only been made possible by the introduction of modern technology as a part of the development process. Furthermore, in one of the oldest treatises on architecture, Vitruvius proposed three essential requirements for all good architecture: firmitas, utilitas, and venustas (Morgan, 1914). In order to guide the quality of a building, one should consider the technical means, the 236

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practical and functional aspects of the building, and the aesthetic results. According to Schoon (1992), Auguste G. Perret also defined architecture as “a living art that faithfully expresses and visualizes its time through the manifestation of contemporary construction techniques” (Schoon, 1992, p. 10). Complex construction and advanced building design require mastering the skills of structures and construction technology, and as Michelle Addington (2006, p. 64) mentions, “technology is often considered the handmaiden of design and, as such, is meant to be subordinate: design is the why and the what, whereas technology is the how-to”. New technologies are changing the nature of work—with its multidimensional effects—by creating new forms of leisure, including the hyper-reality of cyberspace, new virtual realities, and new modes of information and entertainment. Dramatic change and innovation have been part of modernity for centuries, as has technological development and expansion. A new global culture is emerging as a result of computer and communications technologies. Transitional forms of architecture are traversing national boundaries and becoming part of a new world culture. The new wave of technologies in electronics, robotics, telecommunications, new materials, and biotechnology has given rise to a new technology paradigm that accentuates the role of the world cities (Lo & Yeung, 1998). Thus, the adoption of appropriate technologies is a natural and unforced consequence of appropriate architecture. Together, they offer valid forms and images to take the place of models offered by industrialized nations, and as Shahin Vassigh (2004, p. 112) mentions, “the practice of architecture is a delicate balance of art and science—a creative endeavor which also requires that the architect master a broad array of technical skills, including engineering”.

Place Identity Within the last few years, globalization has become a catch phrase in architecture associated with a loss of place identity (Eldemery, 2009). There seems to be a general consensus that identity plays a significant role for the continuity of humanity’s culture, otherwise, humanity will be cut off from one’s past. Place identity is attracting increasing interest from both architects and planners, as well as in social-science research. The phrase place identity conveys many different dimensions such as physical size, tangible versus symbolic, and known and experienced versus unknown and not experienced. Place also includes that which influences the meaning occupants give to it through personal, social, and cultural processes (Altman & Low, 1992; Burd, 2008). Hence, place can be described in terms of many multidimensional physical and psychological environmental attributes. Individuals’ psychological sense of place identity can be understood in many ways: as an experience, a convergence of cognitions, how residents feel towards 237

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their town, or an assessment of the extent to which they agree with the sentiment “this is not the place for me”. Place identity is sometimes described as an implicit psychological structure, and it is also considered a cognitive structure that contributes to global self-categorization, and social-identity processes. It emerges from involvement between people and place and it is described as the individual’s incorporation into the larger concept of self. Harold Proshansky (1978, p. 152) stated that “there is no physical setting that is not also a social, cultural, and psychological setting”. According to Eldemery (2009), Proshansky coined the term place identity to denote the dimensions of self that define an individual’s personal identity to physical environment (Proshansky, 1978). Proshansky latter attached the concept of place identity to belongingness. Identity, or more precisely, place identity as discussed by Proshansky, refers to conscious ties between the community and its residents as these develop over time. Hummon (1986, p. 34) reinforces the view by defining place identity as “an interpretation of the self that uses place—a significant, symbolic locale—as a sign or locus of identity.” Hummon considers places environmental contexts with real consequences for people and lays a great deal of stress on ties between the place and the people. Proshansky, Fabian, and Kamminoff extended identity theory to the area of environmental psychology and proposed that place identity is a “physical world socialization of the self” (Proshansky et al., 1983, p. 62)—commonly known as biophilia (Tran, In Progress). When defining the concept of identity, Rapoport recognizes the complexity of identity formation, and his method of establishing the desired functional, and symbolic connections between an environment and people, privileges ethnicity above all other identity-constructing factors. This occurs because of Rapoport use of the culture-core concept to attempt to drive key features of tradition that need to be supported (Rapoport & Hardie, 1991). The analysis following from the use of this concept assumes that identity comes from using available cultural resources from a spectrum of cultural presentations extending from traditional to modern (Mthethwa, 2002). Place identity is also defined precisely as a set of cognitions about physical settings. The concept of place identity underpins the collective sense of cultural identification with a particular building and its design features. This concept considers the debate around decisions with regard to buildings and the sources of architectural elements used in the design project or building. It implies that there are essential natural characteristics that identify a place and that, in effect, these are latent and without structure but can be released by a sensitive design solution. Under this criteria, a locally appropriate building or proposed project is determined by a general consensus on the building and/or proposed project with incorporation of an acceptable architectural language drawn from vernacular design aspects, including site, vernacular architectural forms, materials, and symbolism. It also considers 238

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the setting of buildings and the sources of architectural elements used in the design project of building. Under this, a locally appropriate building to proposed project could be determined by a general political consensus on the proposed project with incorporation of an acceptable architectural language drawn from the national vernacular language, such that materials substance, shape, texture, and color, together determining the essence of place, where place is seen as a product of physical attributes—biophilia (Tran, In Progress).

Environments for Inhabitation The primary products of architecture are cultural artifacts we call buildings. They are intentional compositions of forms and spaces organized as structures that provide environments for humans (and other animals) to inhabit. Hence, it is worth noting that architects design many other cultural artifacts besides buildings: drawings and paintings, models, books, cutlery, cloth patterns, and the like. When they do, they are not producing architecture: rather, they are employing architectural methods to produce other cultural artifacts. By definition, architecture refers to the design of inhabitable environments. Thus, buildings are intentional compositions because they are designed by people for the purpose of inhabitation. Although for us they are a given, buildings are not required for human habitation: there are many nondesigned (non-intentional) inhabitable environments in the world, uncomfortable as they may be. Nevertheless, the central role that architecture — and by extension, culture — plays in our self-identity as a species consists of two components: forms and spaces (Arango, 2011). Forms are the physical component of buildings. They are the tangible elements that make up a building, such as its brick walls, stained glass windows, wooden columns, copper roof, stone paved paths, garden layout, and so forth. Forms can contain other forms: for example, a wall can contain a window. While they are discreet elements, they are comprised of building materials such as bricks, sand, and glass that can be considered discreet forms in and of themselves. Spaces are the voids between a building’s forms. They are defined by and hey also define the relationship between these forms. Spaces are not “real” in the same sense that forms are: they are only experienced in time by the person inhabiting the building. Spaces do not exist independently of this individual experience. This leads us to an important consideration we tend to easily overlook: architects are, by definition, in the business of designing for experience. Most interestingly, forms and spaces cannot exist independently of each other. They are inextricable parts of a whole: they are the yin and the yang of architecture.

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Culture and Politics in Building Architecture Architects cannot help but be cognizant of the fact that their interventions on the environment will have a cultural impact that extends far beyond providing cover from the elements (Brand, 1994). Some architects even focus on these cultural functions as the primary force that informs and animates their work. This is because architecture is an area of practice with a long history, all architectural artifacts also exist in constant dialog — self-conscious or not — with their precedents. For example, the design of the Capitol building in Washington, D.C. can only be appreciated in full if the viewer knows the classical language and forms of Roman and Greek architecture. Without such knowledge, while one can certainly experience the building itself, much of its cultural meaning is absent from its design (Arango, 2011).

Environments for Understanding While information architecture shares many traits with building architecture (Arango, Hinton, & Resmini, 2011) there is however one crucial difference: the objective of IA is not the production of environments for inhabitation, but for understanding. Just like architecture enables environments for inhabitation by the organization forms and spaces, information architecture enables environments for understanding by the organization of nodes and links (Arango, 2011). According to Arango (2011): 1. Nodes Are Discreet Units of Meaning: They consist of content elements — texts, images, videos, and the like — that jointly communicate a concept or idea. A node can be as simple as a single word, and can be infinitely complex. A web page is a node, but so are the sentences, images, and visual elements that comprise it. One of the information architect’s critical responsibilities is defining a node’s boundaries so that it conveys meaning optimally. 2. Links Are Much Like Spaces: Links define and are defined by the relationships between two or more nodes (Lynch, 1960; Passini, 1984). There are many types of such relationships. For those of us reared on the web, the most obvious example is the hyperlink, in which a node refers to a second node in such a way that clicking on the node causes the user’s display to load and present the second node. There are many linking approaches that can be used to establish relationships between nodes. Some obvious ones: a. Sequential: One node follows another in sequence. For example, multiple words can be strung together to form sentences, which can in turn be strung together to form paragraphs, sections, chapters, and entire treatises,

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b. Spatial: The relationship between two or more nodes is defined by their geometric position relative to each other. For example, the content of two images can be compared by placing them side by side, c. Hierarchical: One node contains another. The most obvious example is a website’s navigation sitemap. It is also worth noting that pages themselves are collections of nodes. Pages are thus hierarchical containers, and d. Conceptual: One node triggers conceptual associations with a second node in the user’s mind, even though the second node is not itself present. This linking strategy is dependent on the user having previous knowledge of the second node (Arango, 2011).

CONCEPT OF BIOPHILIA Wilson calls biofilia an “innate tendency to focus on life an lifelike processes” (Wilson, 1984, p. 1), an “innate emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms” (Wilson, 1993, p. 31), or an “inborn affinity human beings have for other forms of life, an affiliation evoked, according to circumstances, by pleasure, or a sense of security, or awe, or even fascination blended with revulsion” (Wilson, 1994, p. 360). In other words, in the biophilia hypothesis, Wilson concentrates on the fact that the creation of the human cognition “pattern” during the process of evolution was not contributed to by only the abiotic, and/or social environment, but also the biotic. Furthermore, in the first listed definition from the book Biophilia (Wilson, 1984), it is claimed that the human mind is generally focused on “life and lifelike processes”. Thus, biophilia can be understood as “inborn affiliation with the rest of life”. Defined like it has its place within the evolutionary theory of the biosphere (Lovelock & Margulis, 1973; Vernadsky, 1945). However, according to the other two definitions, the concept of biophilia can be understood to be “inborn focus on other life forms”, that is a complex of cognitive evolutionary modifications of the human mind, which directs learning relationships to natural phenomena. It developed under prehistoric sociocultural and natural conditions. This is how evolutionary psychologists or human ethologists, anthropologists and sociologists understand biophilia. It is a complex, or set, of instincts (Wilson, 2002, p. 137), which sometime in the evolutionary past of humankind favored the individual at some level of natural selection. The original cognitive rules of understanding and dealing with nature have not disappeared, even in today’s world of artificial artifacts, in which we can only difficulty find natural stimuli. Biophilia, as a complex of weak rules of learning, influences our thinking about nature, the landscape and even about art, myths, and environmental ethics. The deeply ingrained cognitive rules have, in Western society 241

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manifested themselves, for example, in the popularity of zoos, preferential housing on hills with views of water or in phobias (Wilson, 1984, p. 32). Many of them are fundamentally connected to avoiding danger, or motivation for exploring, and exploiting the environment. In traditional societies, these biophilic tendencies are functional, as humans are there to use their environment directly. In Western civilization with humans’ technical capabilities, these tendencies however overload nature, for they are not correctly reflected in culture, and thus, they are not even functional. Many of today’s rules for treating nature/other species are the result of a long history of intimate contact with nature, and the short period of mechanization of our environment, which have reduced this contact and at the same time, greatly changed the way we view the value of other species (Wilson, 1975).

GEERT HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE Geert Hofstede is a Dutch researcher who is seen as a significant informant and researcher in intercultural studies. Hofstede’s book, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010), is considered an important cornerstone in the research field. A great number of business studies have taken Hofstede’s theory as a framework and many other cross-cultural training programs are based on his data. In comparison with Hall’s theory, Hofstede’s theory is more significant on two grounds: 1. First, it departs from verbal/nonverbal communication, which is largely related to the outward expressions of the Tree Model, and hence, easier to change. Focusing on the second layer, Hofstede draws a framework of values, deep assumptions, and guiding morality that are difficult to see and very slow to change, and 2. Hofstede conducted systematic research on these values and projected them on a 100-point scale of measurement. While with Hall’s theory one can only have observation and conclude that this culture is likely to be more Monochronic than the other culture, Hofstede’s theory, permits a look at a wide range of cultures with a comparative perspective and attach a number to it. Furthermore, it must be noted that Hofstede does not deal with cocultures, because Hofstede’s data mostly points at values of a dominant culture within a nation. On the Tree Model, Hofstede does not discuss the fundamental concerns, and only points out the typical outward expression of these values without warning that the non-typical elements are constantly present (Hofstede, 2011). 242

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The Hofstede model (Hofstede, 2001; Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005), according to Tran (2014) and Shaiq, Khalid, Akram, and Ali (2011), distinguishes cultures according to five dimensions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Power distance, Individualism/collectivism, Masculinity/femininity, Uncertainty avoidance, and Long-term/short-term orientation (Hofstede, 2011). Hofstede defined these four dimensions as follows (Tran, 2014):

1. Power Distance: Power Distance is “the degree of inequality among people that the populace of country considers as normal” (Harzing & Hofstede, 1996, p. 304). Power is a fundamental concern because human group everywhere are organized into a hierarchy. Decision makers are present in groups of any size and ethnicity. The value attached to power is called Power Distance, defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of the society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally (Hofstede, 2011). a. The Typical Outward Expression of Power Distance in Society: At the top level of the Tree Model, language appears to be the most obvious outward expression of Power and Power Distance. While English has only two pronouns you and I, some societies, especially China, Japan, and Vietnam, have more than a dozen ways of social role indication, dictating how people address each other (Yamada, 1997). In China and Vietnam, it is sometimes impossible to talk appropriately if two persons do not know the age of each other, and cannot establish a ranking relationship for communication. b. The Origin of Power Distance: Most of the high Power Distance countries are at lower latitudes and most of the low Power Distance countries are at higher latitudes. At lower latitudes, agricultural societies are prevalent and survival and population growth in these climates demands a relatively limited intervention of man with nature: everything grows. In this situation the major threat to a society is the competition between human groups for the same territory and resources. The better chance for survival exists for those societies that have organized themselves hierarchically and are dependent on one central authority who keeps order and balance. At higher latitudes, nature is less abundant. There is more of a need for human intervention with nature in order to carve out an existence. There are stronger forces supporting the creation of industry next to agriculture. 243

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Nature, rather than other humans, is the first enemy to be resisted. Societies in which people have learned to fend for themselves without being too dependent on more powerful other have a better chance of survival under these circumstances than societies which educate their children towards dependence. 2. Individual-Collectivism: Individual-Collectivism describes “Whether one’s identity is defined by personal choices and achievement o by the character of the collective groups to which one is more or less permanently attached” (Smith & Bond, 1993, p. 38). While Hofstede does not give a generic name to this universal value like what Hofstede did with the previous value of Power Distance, but for the purpose of this chapter, the term Group Attachment, by Phuong Mai Nguyen, Cees Terlouw, and Albert Pilot (2006) will be adapted. a. The Typical Outward expression of Group Attachment in Society: The first characteristic of Group Attachment is the perception of harmony. Although this notion is universally important in all societies, the emphasis placed on it differs along the scale of individualistic-average-collectivistic. Harmony is attached with much more significance on the collectivistic end, showcasing a strong Group Attachment and willingness to maintain order and stability, therefore, direct confrontation is considered rude and undesirable. In this sense, Hall’s High Context strongly correlates with collectivism, since indirect communication also aims at maintaining harmony and avoiding direct confrontation. The second characteristic of Group Attachment is a universal notion called face, understood as public dignity of a person or a group. The desire for face goes hand in hand with the desire for harmony, since losing face leads to shame and confrontation, and thus, losing harmony. The third characteristic of Group Attachment is how interdependence is perceived in each society. Although this is a universal virtue and nobody can survive without relying on a network of reciprocal support, individuals can be expected to reach different levels of interdependence. The fourth characteristic of Group Attachment is trust. Naturally, trust is universal, and it can be further distinguished as affect-based trust and cognition-based trust. The former is more associated with collectivism and the latter is more associated with individualism. b. The Origin of Group Attachment: Many factors support the guesswork: climate, population, and wealth. The latitude was the first predictor of power distance and it also plays a role in predicting the score on this value dimension. Inter-group conflicts in lower latitudes promote group dedication and attachment for survival. Countries with moderate and cold climates in higher latitudes tend to show more individualist traits

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where people’s survival depends more on personal initiative. Population growth is also strongly related to collectivism. 3. Masculinity-Femininity: Masculinity-Femininity is “the degree to which values like achievement, assertiveness, performance, success, and competition, which in nearly all societies are associated with the role of men, prevail over values like the quality of life, maintaining warm personal relationships, services, care for the weak, and solidarity, which in nearly all societies are more associated with the role of women (Cummings & Worley, 1994, p. 304). In our modern days, the role of men and women are largely overlapped. Men are increasingly working in occupations which traditionally are more popular with women and vice versa. That is to say Gender is never too far from our universal concern, and we associate different traits of gender as masculine or feminine. One must not mistake this value for Gender Role, which is the outward expression in the Tree Model, indicating how a man or a woman is expected to do. Therefore, Nguyen changed the original term used by Hofstede (Masculinity-Femininity) for Gender Association. a. The Typical Outward Expression of Gender Association in Society: The outward expression of this value can be seen in two categories: gender role and social activities. Firstly, when it comes to gender roles, femininity associated societies have feminine traits prevailing among both men and women, with male roles tending to overlap with female roles: Both men and women are expected to be modest and caring, such that more men are doing traditionally female professions such as nursing and secretarial jobs, and more women are taking traditionally male profession such as police and soldiers. In masculinity associated societies, women tend to split into two groups: i. They stick to traditional female jobs and behavior, and ii. They break the barrier and spreading to fields that are traditionally male dominated. Secondly, when it comes to social activities, each society can be associated with more feminine or masculine virtues. b. The Origin of Masculinity-Femininity: No strong correlations have been found with outside factors which could explain why some countries have dominant masculinity. Feminine cultures are somewhat more likely in colder climates, suggesting that an equal partnership between men and women improves the chances of survival and population growth in these harsh climates. 4. Uncertainty Avoidance: Uncertainty Avoidance is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations. Structured situations are those in which there are clear rules as to how one should behave, and planning and stability counter uncertainty. Trying to predict and avoid harm is 245

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universal and part of basic human instinct. Fear is the result of both strongly innate feeling and social learning. 5. Long-Term/Short-Term Orientation: Long-term orientation is when one is focused on the future. One is willing to delay short-term material or social success or even shot-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If one has this cultural perspective, the individual values persistence, perseverance, saving and being able to adapt. Short-term orientation is when one is focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. If one has a short-term orientation, the individual values tradition, the current social hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. One cares more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment. Human societies have always been organized within space and time. The former is related to the relationship between human and nature, a value dimension within the framework of Trompenaars. The latter focuses on how we perceive and vision our life activities across the time spectrum. Time Orientation is a universal value that relates to how we see the influence of the past, the presence, and the future in our life: How far we plan ahead, how quick we expect our result and our reward, how important is saving and spending, and like. At the collective level, time spectrum exerts different degree of influence in different societies, creating two orientations on this value dimension: short-term and long-term Time Orientation. In a nutshell, a focus on the past and the present would lead more towards short-term Time Orientation, and a focus on the future will lead more towards long-term Time Orientation. This value dimension is inspired by Confucianism, a philosophy of life originated in ancient China. It focuses on virtues with incredibly strong emphasis on acquiring skills and education, working hard, not spending more than necessary, being patient and persevering, and being well prepared for the future. These fundamental virtues play as cornerstones of life in all the societies under the influence of Confucianism: China, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan. Not surprisingly, these are also the countries with a tendency of learning towards long-term Time Orientation. In the index table, the higher the score, the more important future exerts a significant influence in people’s life (Hofstede, 2011). Cultural models define patterns of basic problems which have consequences for the functioning of groups and individuals (Tran, 2014): 1) relation to authority; 2) the conception of self and ego identity; and 3) primary dilemmas of conflict and dealing with them (Inkeles, 1997; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961). These basic problems can be recognized in the Hofstede model (Hofstede, 2001; Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005), and have been found in other studies such as those by Trompenaars (1993), Schwartz (1994), Schwarts and Bilsky (1987), and also the GLOBAL study (House & Associates, 2004). Culture impacts the behavior of corporate and 246

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organizational identity. According to Fletcher and Fang (2006), this is the case with buying at both the consumer level as well as the industrial level, and although the impact of culture may differ to a degree between these two levels, generally there will be cultural differences in how buyer in different environments behavior or act. It is for this reason that western derived models of buyers need to be modified when doing business in developing countries. Different tastes, customers and habits are likely to result in different preferences. Cultural models on conducting business, especially effective cultural models on business and marketing, are essentially a lesson in rhetoric. Since the study of rhetoric has been around for many years, there are a number of different definitions for the word, and the three traditional ways and one architectural cultural way, in which culture conducts business create an artistic proof for an argumentative message are with the usage of ethos, pathos, logos, and feng shui [風 水 (through the correlation and causation of biophilia)]: 1. Ethos: Ethos is the appeal of a message’s meanings, and is also an attempt to gain the audience’s support for the message argument through portraying the cultural methodology of conducting businesses resulting in the type of corporate and organizational identity the audience would be likely listen to and believe. 2. Pathos: Pathos is the appeal to the audience’s emotions. Pathos is easiest of the four types of appeals to explain but the most difficult to use effectively in practice. 3. Logos: Logos is the appeal to reasons. It is probably the most involved appeal to explain and the most straightforward to apply, which is what businesses have all been taught all their professional lives in terms of making arguments: arguments should make logical sense. The appeal to the reason is exactly that: businesses illustrate why the position taken is logical in light of the evidence. In so doing, corporate and organizational identity are formed, branded, and continuously marketed through the Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural identity, resulting in the architecture of organizational psychology (Tran, 2014). 4. Feng Shui (Biophilia): Feng Shui is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment. It is closely linked to Daoism. The term feng shui literally translates as wind-water in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the passage of the now-lost Classic of Burial recorded in Guo Pu’s commentary (Pu, 2009): Feng shui is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as physiognomy. The feng shui practice discusses architecture in metaphoric terms of invisible forces that bind the universe, earth, biophilia, and humanity together, known as qi. Historically, feng shui was widely used to orient buildings—often spiritually 247

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significant structures such as tombs, but also dwellings and other structures through biophilia—in an auspicious manner. In so doing, corporate and organizational identity are formed, branded, and continuously marketed through the Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural identity, commonly known as the architecture of organizational psychology.

FUTURE RESEARCH Biophilia refers to the positive influence of nature on all living things due to the healing aspects of vibrant nature. Biophilia is more well-known in architecture and the architectural field. Feng shui is the Chinese art of the placement of buildings and the organization of interior spaces and furniture to create a smooth flow of chi, to energize environments and to create harmony, health and prosperity in the lives and work of the users of the spaces. Feng shui has been around for some two thousand years and variations, such as Vastu, are used in many Asian countries. Buildings that possess feng shui elements and biophilic features have been found to foster higher levels of human health, well-being and productivity. These design strategies allow natural design elements and shapes to improve flow throughout the floor-plan and interior space. It has been found that in order for people to truly connect to buildings, a balance of natural elements and shapes must be present, including natural light, air, minerals, plants, animals, color, natural shapes, materials, and other organic elements. Known to encourage and improve health and well-being, these integrated natural design disciplines, are simply a superior way to design our spaces in which we live and work. While the fields of environmental psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology are not naïve about the concept and practice of biophilia, is not exactly well-known, researched, or practiced in the field and subfields of psychology. Hence, biophilia would no doubt yield educational and practical results through the interdisciplinary partnership among architecture, environmental psychology, and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology.

CONCLUSION While biophilia is an influential concept in ecopsychology and a practical methodology, there are arguments that it should be “taken with a pinch of salt” (Bone, 2009). The argument that Bone (2009) forwards is that biphilia can be interpreted as biologically determinist, and as such it is on conflict with what we know of our social environment (Newton, 2007), the best example being behaviorism and its 248

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theories of conditioning (Bandura, 1965). Freudian theory is often criticized for similar reasons, and as the two share a focus on the unconscious (Rosak, 1995), some criticisms can ring true for both. It is argued that this kind of determinism attempts to precede and set limits on the effects of culture on the psyche (DeCecco & Elia, 1993), whereas there is a wealth of psychology indicating that cultural and social factors are hugely influential (van der Veer, 1996). It can be argued that many aspects of both biophilia and biophobia are learned, through theories like Banduras (1965) imitation of behavior model. This expands into a cultural argument, as shown by Noe and Snow (1990), through different cultures (Hispanic & Non-Hispanic) experiencing a different level of sensitivity for the ecological concerns and natural environments, implying a cultural effect on this variable. While these criticisms of biophilia are relevant, the field has taken some steps to address them, for example, Kahn (1997) notes that cultural issues do play a role in the way we express biophilia, with it being more acceptable in some cultures compared to others. Hence, there are three major flaws with biophilic, and other evolutionary based explanations of behavior, identified by Schlinger (1996, pp. 72-73), and these are validity and reliability, poor use and understanding of statistics and loose interpretations of data. By this Schlinger identifies that much of the data in biophilic research is difficult to replicate as the conclusions come to be researchers are hard to verify due to its overall lack of empirical research. Schlinger (1996) continues by arguing the problem with evolutionary basis for behavioral and emotional development is partly of evidence supporting these arguments due to this flaw. This is compounded by the work of geneticist Futuyama (1979), who states that the field of genetics provides no means for “investigating the inheritance of an invariant trait”, which in this case is biophilia. Futuyama argues that making these kinds of claims is pointless as they are unstable (1979), but does put forward the idea of instead of being a universal trait, traits like biophilia could be canalized in different cultures instead. This is supported by research such as that of Dobzhansky, Ayala, Stebbins, and Valentine (1977), who found that instead of behavioral rigidity in reacting to natural stimuli, which is implied by biophilia, there is a degree of plasticity, with people reacting differently to stimuli, and sometimes not at all, showing a variance in responses, that would support a canalized theory of biophilia. The crux of this set of arguments against biophilia is that correlational data does not imply causation (Neale & Liebert, 1973) and we do not understand the reactions, for example, in animal assisted therapy to draw conclusive evidence in favor of biophilia (Melson & Fine, 2010). However, based on practice, biophilia (in relations to feng shui), through practice, has demonstrated that correlation does indeed imply causation. As such corporate and organizational identity continue to

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form, brand, and continuously marketed through the Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural identity, commonly known as the architecture of organizational psychology. For example, the MGM Grand Las Vegas is a hotel casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, USA. The MGM Grand is the third largest hotel in the world by number of rooms and the largest hotel resort complex in the United States, ahead of The Venetian. When it opened in 1993, the MGM Grand was the largest hotel in the world. Originally, the main entrance on the Strip was inside the mouth of a giant lion, a play on a cartoon-like version of MGM’s logo, Leo the Lion, but this entrance feature was changed to a more traditional entrance. The change, was rumored by the Asian culture, based on feng shui, where guests entering the hotel through the lion’s opened mouth, symbolizes that all guests are preys and that the MGM is the predator. All who enters will lose to the house when gambling. Hence, in 1998, a large bronze statue of Leo was added above the entrance to keep with the MGM Lion theme, while not scaring away guests. The statue weighs 50 tons, and at 45 feet (14 m) tall, on a 25-foot pedestal, is the largest bronze statue in the U.S. (MGM Grant Fact Sheet, 2016). Hence, based on practice, biophilia (in relations to feng shui), through practice, has demonstrated that correlation does indeed imply causation. As such corporate and organizational identity continues to form, brand, and continuously marketed through the Geert Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural identity, commonly known as the architecture of organizational psychology.

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Loewenberg, P. (1996). Decoding the past: The psychohistorical approach. London, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Lovelock, J. E., & Margulis, L. (1973). Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: The Gaia hypothesis. Tellus, 26, 1–10. Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Boston: The MIT Press. Morgan, M. (1914). Vitruvius: The ten books on architecture (pp. 13–15). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mthethwa, M. (2002). Towards a regional identity. Journal of Open House International, 127(3), 54–64. Neale, J. M., & Liebert, R. (1973). Science and behavior: An introduction to methods of research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Newton, T. (2007). Nature and sociology. Oxford, UK: Routledge. Nguyen, P. M., Terlouw, C., & Pilot, A. (2006). Culturally appropriate pedagogy: The case of group learning in a Confucian heritage culture context. Intercultural Education, 17(1), 1–19. doi:10.1080/14675980500502172 Noe, F., & Snow, R. (1990). Hispanic cultural influence on environmental concern. The Journal of Environmental Education, 21(2), 27–34. doi:10.1080/00958964.1 990.9941928 Oncu, A., & Weyland, P. (1997). Space, culture, and power: New identities in globalizing cities (pp. 1–2). London, New Jersey: Zed Books. Orbaşlı, A. (2000). Tourists in historic towns: Urban conservation and management. London: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.4324/9780203479001 Passini, R. (1984). Wayfinding in architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Proshansky, H. M. (1978). The city and self-identity. Journal of Environment and Behavior, 10(2), 147–169. doi:10.1177/0013916578102002 Proshansky, H. M., Fabian, A. K., & Kamminoff, R. (1983). Place-identity: Physical world socialization of the self. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3(1), 57–83. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(83)80021-8 Pu, G. (2009). he zangshu, or book of burial (translated by Stephen L. Field). Retrieved from http://fengshuigate.com/zangshu.html

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Rababe’h, S. (2010). Nabataean architectural identity and its impact on contemporary architecture in Jordan. Engineering and Science, 37(1), 27–53. Rapoport, A., & Hardie, G. (1991). Cultural change analysis: Core concepts of housing for the Tswan. In A. Tipple & K. Willis (Eds.), Housing the poor in the developing world (pp. 35–61). London, New York: Routledge. Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. London: Pion. Roszak, T. (1995). Where psyche meets Gaia. In T. Roszak, M. E. Gomes, & A. D. Kanner (Eds.), Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind (pp. 1–17). San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. Saliya, Y. (1986). Notes on the architectural identity in the cultural context. MIMAR: Architecture in Development, 19, 32–33. Schlinger, H. (1996). How the human got its spots: A critical analysis of the just so story of evolutionary psychology. Behavior and Social Issues, 1(4), 68–76. Schoon, I. (1992). Creative achievement in architecture: A psychological study. Leiden University: DSWO Press. Schwarts, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a universal psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(3), 550–562. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.53.3.550 Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kaqitcibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, methods, and applications: Cross-cultural research and methodology (Vol. 18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Shaiq, H. M. A., Khalid, H. M. S., Akram, A., & Ali, B. (2011). Why not everybody loves Hofstede? What are the alternative approaches to study of culture? European Journal of Business and Management, 3(6), 101–111. Smith, P. B., & Bond, M. H. (1993). Social psychology across cultures: Analysis and perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Taylor, B. (1986). Perspectives and limits on regionalism and architectural identity. MIMAR: Architecture in Development, 19, 19–22.

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Tran, B. (2014). Ethos, pathos, and logos of doing business abroad: Geert Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture on transcultural marketing for incremental & radical innovation. In B. Christiansen, S. Yildiz, & E. Yildiz (Eds.), Transcultural marketing for incremental & radical innovation (pp. 255–280). Hersey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4749-7.ch012 Trompenaars, F. (1993). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business. London: Nicholas Brealey. Vale, L. (1997). Architecture, power, and national identity. New Haven: Yale University Press. van de Veer, R. (1996). The concept of culture in Vygotsky’s thinking. Culture and Psychology, 2(3), 247–263. doi:10.1177/1354067X9600200302 Vassigh, S. (2004). A digital pedagogy for learning structures. Journal of Architectural Design, 74(1), 112–116. Vernadsky, V. I. (1945). The biosphere and the noosphere. American Scientist, 33, 1–12. Walker, K. (2001). Architectures of globalization. Places: Dispatch, 14(2), 70–73. Wilson, E. O. (1975, October 12). Human decency is animal. New York Times Magazine, 38-50. Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, E. O. (1993). Biophilia and the conservation ethics. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 31–41). Washington, DC: Island Press. Wilson, E. O. (1994). Naturalist (p. 380). Washington, DC: Shearwater Book. Wilson, E. O. (2002). The future of life (p. 256). New York: Alfed A. Knopf.

ADDITIONAL READING Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., & Angel, S. (1977). A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Brownell, B., Swackhamer, M., Satterfield, B., & Weinstock, M. (2015). Hypernatural: Architecture’s new relationship with nature. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press.

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Crouch, D. P., & Johnson, J. G. (2001). Traditions in architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Deming, M. E., & Swaffield, S. (2011). Landscape architectural research: Inquiry, strategy, design. New York: Wiley. Groat, L. N., & Wang, D. (2013). Architectural research methods (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Guenther, R., & Vittori, G. (2013). Sustainable healthcare architecture (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Jabi, W., Johnson, B., & Woodbury, R. (2013). Parametric design for architecture. London: Laurence King Publishing. Kellert, S. R. (2014). Birthright: People and nature in the modern world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. (2008). Biophilic design: The theory, science, and practice of bringing buildings to life. New York: Wiley. Leach, N. (1999). The anaesthetics of architecture (58818th ed.). Boston: The MIT Press. Marcus, C. C., & Sachs, N. A. (2013). Therapeutic landscapes: An evidence-based approach to designing healing gardens and restorative outdoor spaces. New York: Wiley. Marley, C. (2015). Biophilia. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Mazzoleni, I. (2013). Architecture follows nature-biomimetic principles for innovative design. CRC Press Series in Biomimetics. Pawlyn, M. (Reprint Edition) (2011). Biomimicry in architecture. London: RIBA Publishing. Rapoport, A. (2005). Culture, architecture, and design. Chicago: Locke Science Publishing Company, Inc. Schumacher, P. (2011). The autopoiesis of architecture: A new framework for architecture. New York: Wiley. Steele, J. (2005). Ecological architecture: A critical history. London: Thames & Hudson. Van Der Ryn, S. (2005). Design for life: The architecture of Sim Van der Ryn. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith. 256

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Wasserman, B., Sullivan, P., & Palermo, G. (2000). Ethics and the practice of architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Weinstock, M. (2010). The architecture of emergence: The evolution of form in nature and civilization. New York: Wiley. Weinstock, M. (2013). System city: Infrastructure and the space of flows. Academy Press. Zeisel, J., & Eberhard, J. P. (2006). Inquiry by design: Environment/behavior/neuroscience in architecture, interiors, landscape, and planning. New York: W. W. Norton.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Architecture: Can be best defined as the art and science of integrating the physical environment within a socio space-time organization. Biophilia: An innate human emotional affiliation to nature and living organisms in general is proposed as an adaption to our history. Biosphere: The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed as the zone of life on Earth, a closed system, and largely self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Ecopsychology: Ecopsychology studies the relationship between human beings and the natural world through ecological and psychological principles. The field seeks to develop and understand ways of expanding the emotional connection between individuals and the natural world, thereby assisting individuals with developing sustainable lifestyles and remedying alienation from nature. Theodore Roszak is credited with coining the term in his 1992 book The Voice of the Earth. Roszak later expanded the idea in the 1995 anthology Ecopsychology with co-editors Mary Gomes and Allen Kanner. Environmental Psychology: Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. Feng Shui: A Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment.

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Geert Hofstede: The founding father of the five cultural dimensions: 1. power distance, 2. individualism/collectivism, 3. masculinity/femininity, 4. uncertainty avoidance, and 5. long-term/short-term orientation. Globalization: Defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations that link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”. Globalization (in Architecture): In the architect of the organizational psychology world, often evokes images of a shrinking world, in which accelerating flows of information and travel technology compares time and space in the relationships between world cultures, political economies and the built environment. Globalization (in Corporations): Associated with flows of capital, labor, products, and ideas that have crossed, challenged, and blurred established national and international boundaries. Identity: The state of being very like or the same as something or somebody, or the state of being closely involved with a part of something. Individuals’ Psychological Sense of Place Identity: Can be understood in many ways: as an experience, a convergence of cognitions, how residents feel towards their town, or an assessment of the extent to which they agree with the sentiment “this is not the place for me”. Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology: Industrial and Organizational Psychology [also known as I–O Psychology, Occupational Psychology, Work Psychology, Work and Organization (W/O) Psychology, Industrial, Work and Organizational (IWO) Psychology, and Business Psychology] is the scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their workplace. Place: Can be described in terms of many multidimensional physical and psychological environmental attributes. Place Identity: Conveys many different dimensions such as physical size, tangible versus symbolic, and known and experienced versus unknown and not experienced.

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Chapter 10

The Fundamentals of Social Capital Kijpokin Kasemsap Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand

ABSTRACT This chapter explains the overview of social capital (SC); the dimensions of SC; SC, culture, and architecture; SC and economic growth; SC and knowledge management (KM); SC and social networking sites (SNSs); SC and health perspectives; and the significance of SC in the digital age. SC refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. SC involves establishing trust, norm, and network. SC is a quality derived from the structure of an individual’s network relationships in the community, and relates to architectural design, culture, belief, economic growth, and business success. SC provides the relationships through which an entrepreneur receives opportunities to utilize human capital and financial capital in global business. The chapter argues that promoting SC has the potential to improve business performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage in global business.

INTRODUCTION Social capital (SC) has received substantive attention from scholars across a variety of disciplines (Villalonga-Olives & Kawachi, 2015). SC covers different characteristics, such as social networks, social participation, social support, and trust (Nyqvist, Pape, Pellfolk, Forsman, & Wahlbeck, 2014). SC is recognized as a combination DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1744-3.ch010 Copyright ©2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

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of social and economic perspectives (Andrews, 2010). SC has the value of social relationships to generate the positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society (Ayios, Jeurissen, Manning, & Spence, 2014). SC arises in the daily relationships of individuals with their friends and acquaintances (Chung, Nam, & Koo, 2016). Relationship of SC with population happiness, health, income, economic growth, and human development has been researched by several scholars (Ram, 2013). Leader effectiveness involves building SC that benefits individuals in the organization, thus extending the social networks of subordinates to facilitate career advancement (Kasemsap, 2016a). SC is the whole set of shared norms, values, attitudes, and beliefs that promote cooperation among individuals within the community and that has proved to be a key factor in explaining development processes (Gómez-Limón, Vera-Toscano, & Garrido-Fernández, 2014). SC can be conceptualized as an individual resource residing in relationships between individuals or as a collective resource produced through interactions in the larger social structures (e.g., civic engagement) (Zhang & Kaufman, 2015). SC has been utilized in organizational research to explain a broad range of management phenomena, such as career success (Seibert, Kraimer, & Liden, 2001), knowledge sharing (Maurer, Bartsch, & Ebers, 2011), and entrepreneurship (Khoury, Junkunc, & Deeds, 2013). This chapter aims to bridge the gap in the literature on the thorough literature consolidation of SC. The extensive literature of SC provides a contribution to practitioners and researchers by describing the issues and trends of SC in order to maximize the business impact of SC in global business.

BACKGROUND The concept of SC was originally developed to describe the relational resources in the community of social organizations (Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998). The concept of SC was later introduced into the research area related to information and KM (Li, Guo, Chen, & Luo, 2015). The concept of SC is common to the social sciences (Bjørnskov & Sønderskov, 2013) and community psychology (Neal, 2015). According to Putnam (2000), two types of SC are most recognized: bridging and bonding. Oztok et al. (2015) stated that bridging SC refers to the relationships with people from various communities, cultures, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Bridging SC provides a foundation for collective action (Pigg & Crank, 2004). Bonding SC refers to the strong ties of attachment between relatively homogeneous individuals (Oztok et al., 2015). Barnes-Mauthe et al. (2015) indicated that social networks and the patterns of relationships between individuals and groups are tied to the notion of SC. Bridging 260

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SC, as manifested in general trust and inclusive social networks, tends to positively affect the villages’ development performance (Xia, 2014). Bonding SC, as manifested in particular trust and exclusive social networks, tends to negatively affect the villages’ development performance (Xia, 2014). Individuals with similar backgrounds establish the higher levels of bonding SC (Lesser & Prusak, 2000), which leads them to maintain the peer relationships (Tseng & Kuo, 2010). SC is considered as the ability to secure benefits through membership in networks and other social structures (Ravanera & Rajulton, 2010). SC is referred to as prestige, reputation, and renown, and is the supported term in which the different forms of economic capital are perceived and recognized as legitimate (Bourdieu, 1985). Adler and Kwon (2002) stated that internal relations are correlated with bonding SC and external relations are correlated with bridging SC. Without bridging SC, individuals will be sheltered from newness and alternative viewpoints and opportunities; without bonding SC, individuals are widely connected but unsupported (Steinkuehler & Williams, 2006).

IMPORTANT PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIAL CAPITAL This section emphasizes the overview of SC; the dimensions of SC; SC, culture, and architecture; SC and economic growth; SC and KM; SC and SNSs; SC and health perspectives; and the significance of SC in the digital age.

Overview of Social Capital (SC) SC is defined as the resources that are embedded in individual’s social ties (Neves, 2013). SC is viewed as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks (Villalonga-Olives & Kawachi, 2015). SC is considered as the benefits (e.g., informational and support-based resources) obtained through the social relationships in which one is embedded (Reer & Kramer, 2014). Bourdieu (1985) defined SC as the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to the possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintances. The concept of SC helps explain the relations between companies (Dolfsma, van der Eijk, & Jolink, 2009). SC is described as the resources accumulated through relationships among people (Okoli & Oh, 2007). Oztok et al. (2015) indicated that SC has been employed by many sociologists to study connections within and between social networks. Fukuyama (2001) viewed SC as the mechanism by with collaborations among individuals are promoted. SC is defined as the useful resources embedded in a social structure that are mobilized in purposive action (Lin, 2001). 261

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SC is the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). SC includes all factors that promote social relations and social cohesion (Groot, van den Brink, & van Praag, 2007). SC facilitates cooperation and provision of mutual support within or between groups (Barr & Russell, 2006). Kawachi (2006) stated there are two distinct concepts of SC: social cohesion and social network. Social cohesion tends to emphasize SC as a group attribute (Kawachi, 2006). Social network describes SC in terms of the organizational resources that are embedded within the individual’s social networks (Lin, 1999). Vera-Toscano et al. (2013) stated that SC is the bond that links various societies together. SC is established through aggregated individual investment for social activities, such as involvement in a neighborhood association (Yamamura, 2011). Social networks are typically constructed based on explicit and well-defined relationships among individuals (Smith, Giraud-Carrier, & Purser, 2009). SC based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, and trust, whereas SC based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of help (Cheung & Chan, 2010). SC may significantly influence the environmentally responsible behavior connected with the implementation of an environmental policy (Jones, 2010). Social networks, high institutional trust, social trust, and a tendency to comply with regulations are the important social characteristics which facilitate the application of SC initiatives in higher education institutions (Kasemsap, 2014a). Social trust and confidence in institutions are highly associated with the increased participation in local associations and pattern of reciprocity among inhabitants (Kassahun, 2015). Social trust is positively associated with happiness (Bjørnskov, 2008). SC is socially generated through the internal efforts of community groups (Krishna, 2007). Investments in SC generate monetary returns (e.g., increased income) and psychic returns (e.g., increased subjective well-being) (Klein, 2013). Social capital theory evaluates the career benefits that accrue to individuals from the stock of relationships they possess (Kumra & Vinnicombe, 2010). Nonprofits serve as the places for the reproduction of SC (Schnurbein, 2014). Nonprofit organizations and their leaders must promote SC to recruit corporate board members, raise philanthropic support, develop strategic partnerships, enhance community relations, and create a shared strategic vision (King, 2004). It is necessary to focus on how computer and Internet utilization can enhance SC (Warschauer, 2003). Information and communication technology (ICT) can contribute to bonding SC through access to other forms of communication to build on local connectedness (Warburton, Cowan, & Bathgate, 2013). Trust is at the essence of SC (Coleman, 1990) and can be evaluated through SC (Migheli, 2012). The literature distinguishes three facets of trust (i.e., interpersonal trust, institutional trust, and trustworthiness of the individuals themselves) (Lillbacka, 262

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2006). Interpersonal trust refers to the expectation that other individuals benevolently act and prefers cooperation if it is in the interest of collective benefits (Kunioka & Woller, 1999). Institutional trust refers to the individual’s trust in governmental institutions, such as the legal system, parliament, and police (Evers & Gesthuizen, 2011). Trustworthiness and interpersonal trust are practically interrelated (Orlowski & Wicker, 2015). Trustful people are expected not to knowingly harm others or selfishly behave themselves (Delhey & Newton, 2005).

Dimensions of Social Capital SC is constituted by many elements, but it is recognized via three dimensions: the structural, relational, and cognitive perspectives (Wang & Chiang, 2009). SC dimensions (i.e., the structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions) contribute to the creation of intellectual capital (Demartini, 2015). Various dimensions of SC both at the individual and area-level are positively associated with subjective life satisfaction (Han, Kim, & Lee, 2013). Structural SC refers to the overall pattern of connections between actors and includes facets such as network configuration, density, connectivity, and hierarchy (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). Structural SC can be explained as density, stability, ties, or the connectivity network configuration (Coleman, 1988). SC has become the important concept for studying civic relationships (Lichterman, 2006). Structural SC reflects the quantity of SC and is characterized by the behavioral manifestations of associational links between individuals or civic engagement (Yu, Sessions, Fu, & Wall, 2015). Examples of structural SC include the degree of centrality of a participating unit in the network (McLure-Wasko & Faraj, 2005), network configuration (Inkpen & Tsang, 2005), and social interaction ties (Chiu et al., 2006). Social interactions create social networks, promote confidence, influence the formation of values, support the norms, and generate the community (Poder, 2011). There is a positive relationship between structural SC and firm performance (Batjargal, 2003). Structural SC can be regarded as a nongovernmental social safety net that can compensate for the endowment-related disadvantages of individuals (Spilker, Schaffer, & Bernauer, 2012). Relational SC refers to the normative conditions of trust, obligation, expectation, and identity that guide actors’ network relations (Lee, 2009). Relational SC represents the assets created through relationships and includes facets, such as trust, norms, obligations, and expectations (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). Relational SC relates to the type of personal relationships that develop through a history of interactions (Granovtetter, 1992). Examples of relational SC in the existing research include trust (Yang & Farn, 2009), norms (Chiu et al., 2006), and commitment (McLure-Wasko

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& Faraj, 2005). Cognitive SC refers to the resources providing the shared representations, interpretations, and systems of meaning among parties (Li et al., 2015). Cognitive SC are the significant resources that provide the shared visions, interpretations, systems of meaning, values, and other cultural elements (Macke & Dilly, 2010). Cognitive SC is regarded as the quality of SC as it reflects the subjective attitudes, such as trust in others and norms of reciprocity (Harpham, Grant, & Thomas, 2002). Nieminen et al. (2010) indicated that trust and reciprocity contribute to the improved self-rated health and psychological well-being. The major facets of cognitive SC include shared language, codes, and shared narratives (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). Examples of cognitive SC include shared goals and shared culture (Inkpen & Tsang, 2005), shared language (Chiu et al., 2006), and shared vision (Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998).

Social Capital, Culture, and Architecture In a city where violence is as deeply rooted, thoughtful design has the most potential to succeed when accompanied by social and institutional underpinnings toward establishing SC in the community. Hearing local residents speak about their experience with participatory design, observing architects help at-risk youth envision safer streets, and learning how multidisciplinary teams of professionals build neighborhood consensus. Cities that are built for people foster informal interactions, chance encounters, and SC. The effective way to solve this problem is to shift a city from being car-oriented to being pedestrian- and cyclist-oriented because chance encounters with people only happen when an individual is outside of the car. One example is Times Square, located in New York City, which used to be overwhelmingly dedicated to cars with very little space for pedestrians. Today, Times Square has turned into a people space where people walk, sit on benches, and hang out. The pace and face of Times Square has completely changed and has improved SC in congested areas. Some cities in China are experiencing radical urbanization as more people move from the country to the city as the economy has shifted from agriculture to manufacturing. To cope with the Chinese culture and population perspectives and to compete with the rest of the world, China has responded by building housing in the huge glass and steel high-rise buildings on the fringes of the city. To handle the resulting commuting from these high-rise buildings to the center of town for work, China keeps building freeways. Meanwhile, the human scale is completely lost. One of the problems with high-rise buildings is that people on the upper floors will not immediately go outside as much because going outside is not as easy as stepping out the front door. This issue leads to the isolation and less interaction with people in

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the public domain concerning SC concerns. When high-rise buildings are the only response to housing, isolation becomes prevalent and SC is destroyed. Normally, high-rise buildings are not built to the scale of people, they are built to another scale all together. Therefore, when walking by huge high-rise buildings, people get lost in their own community regarding modern architecture. Cultural influences are dramatically changing as cultures are no longer dependent on local resources to formulate the individuals’ behaviors and are linked across the vast geographic distances by modern communication media (Kasemsap, 2015). Cities that are comprised of mixed-use nodes, such as having a commercial corridor within reasonable walking or biking distance to neighborhoods, significantly encourage chance encounters among people and improve SC. People who live in large residential areas, on the other hand, that have to get into their car to get to the grocery store, rarely have chance encounters with others. Inner Portland, located in Oregon, USA, is made up of many neighborhoods within walking or biking distance to commercial corridors. This proximity encourages people to be on the streets, to establish cohesion, and to develop SC in their own community. In many American suburbs, the car is the only viable way to get around, which essentially destroys the possibility of SC. Another cultural factor of the American suburbs is the single family home with a focus on the backyard. The backyard of the suburban home replaces public life with a private one. Having an extensive backyard with a pool and even a small playground inhibits families from going to the park or public spaces to be outside. When people live in denser settings where not everyone has a personal yard, public parks, and spaces become people’s family room and this encourages a public life concerning SC.

Social Capital and Economic Growth The study of the implications of SC on economic growth has received major attention over the last two decades (Forte, Peiro-Palomino, & Tortosa-Ausina, 2015). For decades, economists have focused on the factors that enhance economic growth and development (Neira, Vázquez, & Portela, 2009). The concept of SC is widely perceived as a promising tool for explaining the differences in economic development between countries and regions (Działek, 2014). The World Bank, through its funding of development projects, affects the institutional environments for the accumulation of SC (Fox & Gershman, 2000). SC makes a measurable contribution to economic development and overall well-being, particularly in developing countries (Killerby & Wallis, 2002). SC is viewed as a norm in the economics and political science literature (Jha & Cox, 2015). Measuring SC as a multidimensional construct provides the meaningful

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insights into the determinants of SC (Owen & Videras, 2009). Countries with both high levels of SC and economic development exhibit higher quality of government as measured by government effectiveness, rule of law, impartiality, professionalism, and a governmental quality index (Doh, 2014). SC greater in the high and mixed socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods and much weaker in the low SES neighborhoods (Kitchen, Williams, & Simone, 2012). SC contributes to the increased likelihood of employment and to the higher SES positions (Nakhaie & Kazemipur, 2013). SC contributes to economic development (Knack & Keefer, 1997) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Peiro-Palomino & Tortosa-Ausina, 2015). SC plays an economic role in labor markets (Knight & Yueh, 2008). SC, recognized as norms of reciprocity and associational life, is supposed to provide a bottom-up approach to poverty alleviation (Das, 2004). Since SC improves the benefits of investment in physical and human capital (Putnam, 1993), it is important to the economy. The theory of physical and human capital is utilized in both management and economics to discuss the firm behavior (Junwei, Haiyan, & Lijun, 2007). The monetary values of SC vary across the different levels of well-being (Orlowski & Wicker, 2015). Portela et al. (2013) stated that SC at the aggregate level positively correlates with individual well-being, thus pointing to an environmental effect of SC. SC-related trust is correlated with economic growth (Zak & Knack, 2001), since trust reduces transaction costs toward gaining the improved market efficiency (Fukuyama, 1995). SC has positive implications for the performance of organizations, and can stimulate the economic growth at the society level (Forte et al., 2015). Economic transactions in economies with a lower stock of SC are characterized by strong regulations and bureaucratic procurements that establish costs and reduce their efficiency (Whiteley, 2000). SC can be a substitute for legal contracts in poorer economies, and can promote the effective transactions in the richer economies (Fukuyama, 1995). This may occur as a result of the increase in information flows and the reduction of information asymmetries between agents in negotiations (Dearmon & Grier, 2009), toward leading to an increase in productivity levels in the global economy (Dettori, Marrocu, & Paci, 2012). There is a positive relationship between SC and physical capital investment (Dearmon & Grier, 2011). SC can be transmitted through better education (Bjørnskov & Méon, 2013). SC is recognized as the foundation of innovation (Zheng, 2010). Rass et al. (2013) indicated that the implementation of open innovation instruments effectively strengthens an organization’s SC, which is, in turn, positively related to firm performance. Trust, the most common pattern of SC, is essential for trade (Guiso, Sapienza, & Zingales, 2009). Bjørnskov (2012) found the significant links between trust and better governance.

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Social Capital and Knowledge Management SC has a positive impact on knowledge transfer in multinational corporations (Gooderham, Minbaeva, & Pedersen, 2011). There is a significant effect of knowledge leadership on knowledge sharing through the mediating role of SC (Zhang & Cheng, 2015). Many scholars have employed social capital theory as the theoretical foundation for investigating various topics, such as knowledge contribution in electronic networks (McLure-Wasko & Faraj, 2005), motivations for knowledge sharing in virtual communities (Chang & Chuang, 2011), employees’ tacit knowledge sharing (Yang & Farn, 2009), the usage of communication technologies (Lin, 2011), knowledge integration in organizations (Robert, Dennis, & Ahuja, 2008), information diffusion through e-mails (Huang & Lin, 2009), and the transfer of knowledge between social network members (He, Qiao, & Wei, 2009). There is a growing body of literature on SC and its relationship to Knowledge Management (KM)-related educational practices (Dika & Singh, 2002). Oztok et al. (2015) indicated that social interactions in the KM-related learning communities play an important role in online education. SC encourages the technological innovation and facilitates knowledge diffusion (Miguélez, Moreno, & Artís, 2011) as well as being positively related to agents’ participation in the credit market (Guiso, Sapienza, & Zingales, 2004). The stronger relationships via social networks effectively provide the major conditions for knowledge exchange (Chiu, Hsu, & Wang, 2006) by allowing information to flow throughout the existing social contacts (Fetter, Berlanga, & Sloep, 2010). Bonding SC enhances the acquisition of knowledge and promotes learning in a learning community (Daniel, Schwier, & McCalla, 2003).

Social Capital and Social Networking Sites With the growing utilization of social networking sites (SNSs), studies on the relationships between SC and SNS are underway (Valenzuela, Park, & Kee, 2009). A great amount of attention has been paid to the relationship between the production of SC and online community usage (Zhang & Kaufman, 2015). Social media improves SC which moderates the relationship between social media use and social movement participation (Hwang & Kim, 2015). SNS technology can facilitate the improved organizational productivity by enhancing the communication and collaboration of employees which aids knowledge transfer and consequently makes organizations more effective (Kasemsap, 2016a). Social media enables the creation of knowledge value chain to customize information and delivery for the technological business growth (Kasemsap, 2014b). Social media can promote SC in modern business. SC derived from participating in online social networks has a positive impact on social status and sociability (Pinho & Soares, 2015). Online communities provide 267

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the access to the bridging SC by gathering the heterogeneous populations around the shared contexts (Kobayashi, 2010). Social support is linked to SC (Nolan, Hendricks, & Towell, 2015). Online social groups have demonstrated potential in facilitating social support and establishing SC for those marginalized from the mainstream society for either health or social reasons (Gowen, Deschaine, Gruttadara, & Markey, 2012). Individuals’ SC is impacted by the specific forms of Internet activity (Lee & Lee, 2010). There are the positive relationships between intensity of Facebook use and students’ life satisfaction, social trust, civic engagement, and political participation (Valenzuela et al., 2009). SC has become a key concept in studying the effects of emerging media, including SNSs (Ellison et al., 2007), online news (Gil de Zuniga, Jung, & Valenzuela, 2012), and online communities (Shen & Cage, 2015). The development and management of SC has become of importance for competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Hitt et al., 2002). The application of SNS is found to interact with the measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it provides the greater benefits for users experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction by evaluating bonding and bridging related to SC (Ellison et al., 2007). SNSs allow users to actively contribute their tourism experiences by providing the easy way of sharing information and helping unknown people toward establishing the improved relationships, which indirectly demonstrates the altruistic behavior (i.e., general altruism) (Ma & Chan, 2014). SC and altruism are the significant factors for seniors in SNSs (Kim, Lee, & Bonn, 2016).

Social Capital and Health Perspectives The importance of SC for health perspectives has been recognized in the literature (Verhaeghe & Tampubolon, 2012). SC (e.g., networks, trust, and organizational memberships) has a significant effect on self-reported health (Kim, 2014). Many researchers have studied the interrelations among health perspectives, income gaps, and SC (Subramanian & Kawachi, 2004). The deterioration of SC caused by a widening income gap has a negative impact on health perspectives (Veenstra, 2002). SC is related to health outcomes, such as mental health (Scheffler, Brown, & Rice, 2007), obesity and diabetes (Holtgrave & Crosby, 2006), and cancer (Beaudoin & Tao, 2007). SC acts as a protective factor, promotes mental health, and reduces socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among schoolchildren (Barry, 2009). Mental health is shaped by social contexts (Ferguson, 2006). SC has been recognized as a way of establishing the community participation in the interest of health improvement (Kirkby-Geddes, King, & Bravington, 2013). Chen et al. (2015) indicated that investment in SC effectively increases individual’s SC, thus bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. Rostila 268

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(2011) indicated that social resources can reduce both physical and psychological health problems by serving as a physiological triggering mechanism, strengthening people’s immune system to fight disease and buffer stress. SC plays an important role in later life (Forsman, Nyqvist, & Wahlbeck, 2011). SC affects the health of older adults more strongly than younger individuals (Muckenhuber, Stronegger, & Freidl, 2012). The level of SC exerts a positive effect on elderly individuals’ use of medical care indirectly, via its positive effect on the level of trust in doctors (Lim, Lee, & Hwang, 2011).

Significance of Social Capital in the Digital Age Over the past two decades, scholars and managers have recognized the influence of SC on firm performance (Santarelli & Tran, 2013). SC is an important perspective for multinational firms (Hitt, Lee, & Yucel, 2002). Firms operating in global markets rarely have adequate resources to compete effectively in global markets; they access the needed resources through formal and informal relationships with other firms. SC enables firms to secure the valuable resources (Acquaah, 2007), learn from others (Johnson, Schnatterly, & Hill, 2013), gain legitimacy (Khoury et al., 2013), hold power (Burt, 1992), and reap the benefits of coordination (Uzzi, 1997). Both functional and dysfunctional roles for SC arise with regard to the contribution of intergenerational strategy involvement to family firms’ innovation pursuits (de Clercq & Belausteguigoitia, 2015). SC has played an increasingly important role in regional development (Pan & He, 2010). Global SC is important for both global well-being and sustainable globalization (Illingworth, 2012). Organizations that embed the practices of human capital and competency across a range of human resource management activities effectively create and develop a boundary spanning culture connecting with various organizational disciplines in the global knowledge economy (Kasemsap, 2016b). SC and human capital significantly influence the level of intended export (Evald, Klyver, & Christensen, 2011). SC and neighborhood renewal are the key concepts emphasizing policies aimed at establishing the capacities of communities to respond to the problems facing them (Healy, Haynes, & Hampshire, 2007). Active participation in SC networks effectively stimulates return on investment (ROI) in human capital (O’Brien, Zong, & Dickinson, 2011). Managers can prioritize stakeholder relationships based upon how these stakeholder ties affect SC (Marin, Mitchell, & Lee, 2015). SC is recognized as the resources that are produced by social relationships, social networks, and their value for both individuals and groups (Putnam, 2000). SC improves a collaborative group’s ability to collaborate, manage risk, innovate, and adapt to change in modern business (Wagner & Fernandez-Gimenez, 2009). SC is 269

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significant in encouraging a physically active lifestyle (Leyden, 2003). Inaba et al. (2015) stated that SC has been defined as a factor in life satisfaction and happiness. SC is a better predictor of quality of life at work and job satisfaction than the characteristics of the worker, the company or organization, and the work environment (Requena, 2003). The main drivers of the effects of SC on happiness appear to be the informal social interaction and general social trust, as well as institutional trust (Rodríguez-Pose & von Berlepsch, 2014). Prior research shows the role of SC in acquiring resources (Yang, Ryan, & Zhang, 2014) and in promoting entrepreneurship (Zhao, Ritchie, & Echtner, 2011). SC facilitates entrepreneurship only when supportive cultural capital is in place (Light & Dana, 2013). The concept of SC has become a frequently utilized concept in everyday conversations, scientific research, and policy making (Kwon & Adler, 2014). SC has become an important concept in government policy making and academic perspectives (Edwards, 2004). The improvement of leaders’ human capital only occurs through their development of SC (Leitch, McMullan, & Harrison, 2013). The perspective of SC has gained momentum in hospitality research, with a growing number of hospitality scholars to account for innovation (Nieves, Quintana, & Osorio, 2014), intangible resource acquisition (Hsu, Liu, & Huang, 2014), and organizational performance (Kim, Lee, Paek, & Lee, 2013). Regarding tourism, some studies have applied the multidimensional approaches of social capital theory to senior migration (Casado-Díaz, Casado-Díaz, & Casado-Díaz, 2014) and the airline industry (Casanueva, Gallego, & Sancho, 2013). SC has a positive effect on hotel performance through knowledge-sharing processes (Kim et al., 2013). Structural SC is the main driver of financial performance during off-peak periods for tourism industry (Sainaghi & Baggio, 2014). SC has been shown to positively influence government performance (Jottier & Heyndels, 2012). Yang and Taylor (2013) indicated that SC formation is one way that the profession of public relations contributes to society. SC involves both the social structure and outcomes generated by the organizational structure (Shen, Monge, & Williams, 2014). Guiso et al. (2004) recognized SC as the levels of mutual trust and altruistic tendency in a society. The high SC of the managers of firms in high SC regions means that the managers of these firms are more likely to be altruistic (Jha & Cox, 2015). SC matters for young people, especially for immigrant and minority youth (Hébert, Sun, & Kowch, 2004). SC is associated with greater support systems for immigrants (Janjuha-Jivraj, 2003), lower corruption (La Porta, Lopez-De-Silanes, Shleifer, & Vishny, 1997), and lower property crime (Buonanno, Montolio, & Vanin, 2009). SC is distributed in a manner that enlarges advantage and disadvantage originating from the differences in educational attainment, immigrant status, gender, and occupational status (Bonoli & Turtschi, 2015). Resources, such as those found in 270

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ethnic networks and bonds, will only be SC if they are valuable in pursuing social advantage (Anthias, 2007). Ethnic diversity has detrimental effects on SC (Savelkoul, Gesthuizen, & Scheepers, 2011). Ethnic diversity is positively related to the frequency of personal contacts with out-group members living in the neighborhood (Sluiter, Tolsma, & Scheepers, 2015).

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS The classification of the extensive literature in the domains of SC will provide the potential opportunities for future research. SC involves establishing trust, norm, and network. Human capital consists of individuals’ health, knowledge, skills, and motivation, toward promoting entrepreneurial success, business growth, and economic development. The labor market provides a method by which employers find the labor they need, while millions of individuals offer their labor services in different jobs. Labor productivity is a measure of worker output used in both business and the economy as a whole. An increase in the productivity of labor regarding improved human capital and effective SC gained in modern organizations makes using labor more cost-efficient than using capital equipment. The relationships among SC, human capital, and labor productivity in the labor market will be the beneficial topic for future research directions.

CONCLUSION This chapter highlighted the overview of SC; the dimensions of SC; SC, culture, and architecture; SC and economic growth; SC and KM; SC and SNSs; SC and health perspectives; and the significance of SC in the digital age. SC refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. SC is a collective societal connection and understanding that enables individuals or groups to build trust and to work together. Shared values and connections facilitate cooperation within a network, thus leading to trust creation and healthy working relationships. SC is the value that results from trust and connections that have been carefully cultivated between individuals in networks at any level. SC can promote the improved performance of diverse groups, the growth of entrepreneurial firms, superior managerial performance, enhanced supply chain relations, the value derived from strategic alliances, and the evolution of communities. SC can help increase the economic growth, organizational performance, and KM via the effective social networks by utilizing SNSs in the digital age. Creating new ties and strengthening old ones can build SC. These connections can increase 271

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opportunities by linking people more strongly to their community or to the larger societal resources. Developing network ties can strengthen bonds that link groups and help bridge divisions between them. Communication and outreach is the major approach to generating SC, which creates a capacity for collaboration among individuals and groups within a network. A focus on SC allows a company to understand the dynamics of a situation and create effective frameworks for managing it. SC provides the relationships through which an entrepreneur receives opportunities to utilize human capital and financial capital in global business. SC can improve project effectiveness and sustainability by building the community’s capacity to work together to address their common needs, fostering greater inclusion and cohesion, as well as increasing transparency and accountability. SC is a quality derived from the structure of an individual’s network relationships in the community, and relates to architectural design, culture, belief, economic growth, and business success. Promoting SC has the potential to improve business performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage in global business.

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Poder, T. G. (2011). What is really social capital? A critical review. The American Sociologist, 42(4), 341–367. doi:10.1007/s12108-011-9136-z Portela, M., Neira, I., & Salinas-Jiménez, M. M. (2013). Social capital and subjective wellbeing in Europe: A new approach on social capital. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 493–511. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0158-x Putnam, R. D. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. The American Prospect, 13, 35–42. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster. doi:10.1145/358916.361990 Ram, R. (2013). Social capital and income inequality in the United States. Atlantic Economic Journal, 41(1), 89–91. doi:10.1007/s11293-012-9342-2 Rass, M., Dumbach, M., Danzinger, F., Bullinger, A. C., & Moeslein, K. M. (2013). Open innovation and firm performance: The mediating role of social capital. Creativity and Innovation Management, 22(2), 177–194. doi:10.1111/caim.12028 Ravanera, Z. R., & Rajulton, F. (2010). Measuring social capital and its differentials by family structures. Social Indicators Research, 95(1), 63–89. doi:10.1007/ s11205-009-9450-9 Reer, F., & Kramer, N. C. (2014). Underlying factor of social capital acquisition in the context of online-gaming: Comparing World of Warcraft and Counter-Strike. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 179–189. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.057 Requena, F. (2003). Social capital, satisfaction and quality of life in the workplace. Social Indicators Research, 61(3), 331–360. doi:10.1023/A:1021923520951 Robert, L. P. Jr, Dennis, A. R., & Ahuja, M. K. (2008). Social capital and knowledge integration in digitally enabled teams. Information Systems Research, 19(3), 314–334. doi:10.1287/isre.1080.0177 Rodríguez-Pose, A., & von Berlepsch, V. (2014). Social capital and individual happiness in Europe. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(2), 357–386. doi:10.1007/ s10902-013-9426-y Rostila, M. (2011). A resource-based theory of social capital for health research: Can it help us bridge the individual and collective facets of the concept. Social Theory & Health, 9(2), 109–129. doi:10.1057/sth.2011.4

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Sainaghi, R., & Baggio, R. (2014). Structural social capital and hotel performance: Is there a link? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 37, 99–110. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.11.004 Santarelli, E., & Tran, H. (2013). The interplay of human and social capital in shaping entrepreneurial performance: The case of Vietnam. Small Business Economics, 40(2), 435–458. doi:10.1007/s11187-012-9427-y Savelkoul, M., Gesthuizen, M., & Scheepers, P. (2011). Explaining relationships between ethnic diversity and informal social capital across European countries and regions: Tests of constrict, conflict and contact theory. Social Science Research, 40(4), 1091–1107. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.03.003 Scheffler, R. M., Brown, T. T., & Rice, J. K. (2007). The role of social capital in reducing non-specific psychological distress: The importance of controlling for omitted variables. Social Science & Medicine, 65(4), 842–854. doi:10.1016/j. socscimed.2007.03.042 Schnurbein, G. V. (2014). Managing organizational social capital through value configurations. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 24(3), 357–376. doi:10.1002/ nml.21096 Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219–237. doi:10.2307/3069452 Shen, C., & Cage, C. (2015). Exodus to the real world? Assessing the impact of offline meetups on community participation and social capital. New Media & Society, 17(3), 394–414. doi:10.1177/1461444813504275 Shen, C., Monge, P., & Williams, D. (2014). Virtual brokerage and closure: Network structure and social capital in a massively multiplayer online game. Communication Research, 41(4), 459–480. doi:10.1177/0093650212455197 Sluiter, R., Tolsma, J., & Scheepers, P. (2015). At which geographic scale does ethnic diversity affect intra-neighborhood social capital? Social Science Research, 54, 80–95. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.06.015 Smith, M., Giraud-Carrier, C., & Purser, N. (2009). Implicit affinity networks and social capital. Information Technology & Management, 10(2), 123–134. doi:10.1007/ s10799-009-0057-2 Spilker, G., Schaffer, L. M., & Bernauer, T. (2012). Does social capital increase public support for economic globalisation? European Journal of Political Research, 51(6), 756–784. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2012.02058.x

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Steinkuehler, C. A., & Williams, D. (2006). Where everybody knows your (screen) name: Online games as “third places”. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(4), 885–909. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00300.x Subramanian, S. V., & Kawachi, I. (2004). Income inequality and health: What have we learned so far? Epidemiologic Reviews, 26(1), 78–91. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxh003 Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464–476. doi:10.2307/257085 Tseng, F. C., & Kuo, F. Y. (2010). The way we share and learn: An exploratory study of the self-regulatory mechanisms in the professional online learning community. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 1043–1053. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.005 Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1), 35–67. doi:10.2307/2393808 Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. F. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site?: Facebook use and college students’ life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 875–901. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01474.x Veenstra, G. (2002). Social capital and health (plus wealth, income inequality and regional health governance). Social Science & Medicine, 54(6), 849–868. doi:10.1016/ S0277-9536(01)00049-1 Vera-Toscano, E., Garrido-Fernández, F. E., Gómez-Limón, J. A., & Cañadas-Reche, J. L. (2013). Are theories about social capital empirically supported? Evidence from the farming sector. Social Indicators Research, 114(3), 1331–1359. doi:10.1007/ s11205-012-0205-7 Verhaeghe, P. P., & Tampubolon, G. (2012). Individual social capital, neighborhood deprivation, and self-rated health in England. Social Science & Medicine, 75(2), 349–357. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.057 Villalonga-Olives, E., & Kawachi, I. (2015). The measurement of bridging social capital in population health research. Health & Place, 36, 47–56. doi:10.1016/j. healthplace.2015.09.002 Wagner, C. L., & Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E. (2009). Effects of community-based collaborative group characteristics on social capital. Environmental Management, 44(4), 632–645. doi:10.1007/s00267-009-9347-z

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Wang, J. C., & Chiang, M. J. (2009). Social interaction and continuance intention in online auctions: A social capital perspective. Decision Support Systems, 47(4), 466–476. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2009.04.013 Warburton, J., Cowan, S., & Bathgate, T. (2013). Building social capital among rural, older Australians through information and communication technologies: A review article. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 32(1), 8–14. doi:10.1111/j.17416612.2012.00634.x Warschauer, M. (2003). Social capital and access. Universal Access in the Information Society, 2(4), 315–330. doi:10.1007/s10209-002-0040-8 Whiteley, P. (2000). Economic growth and social capital. Political Studies, 48(3), 443–466. doi:10.1111/1467-9248.00269 Xia, M. (2014). Social capital and socioeconomic development in rural China. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(4), 563–581. doi:10.1007/ s40647-014-0044-9 Yamamura, E. (2011). How do neighbors influence investment in social capital? Homeownership and length of residence. International Advances in Economic Research, 17(4), 451–464. doi:10.1007/s11294-011-9318-z Yang, A., & Taylor, M. (2013). The relationship between the professionalization of public relations, societal social capital, and democracy: Evidence from across-national study. Public Relations Review, 39(4), 257–270. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.08.002 Yang, J., Ryan, C., & Zhang, L. (2014). External entrepreneurs/investors and guanxi: Hostels in a tourism area, Xinjiang, China. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(6), 833–854. doi:10.1108/IJCHM-01-2013-0049 Yang, S. C., & Farn, C. K. (2009). Social capital, behavioural control, and tacit knowledge sharing: A multi-informant design. International Journal of Information Management, 29(3), 210–218. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2008.09.002 Yu, G., Sessions, J. G., Fu, Y., & Wall, M. (2015). A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health. Social Science & Medicine, 142, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.08.004 Zak, P. J., & Knack, S. (2001). Trust and growth. The Economic Journal, 111(470), 295–321. doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00609 Zhang, F., & Kaufman, D. (2015). The impacts of social interactions in MMORPGs on older adults’ social capital. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 495–503. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.05.034 288

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Zhang, L., & Cheng, J. (2015). Effect of knowledge leadership on knowledge sharing in engineering project design teams: The role of social capital. Project Management Journal, 46(5), 111–124. doi:10.1002/pmj.21525 Zheng, W. (2010). A social capital perspective of innovation from individuals to nations: Where is empirical literature directing us? International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(2), 151–183. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.2008.00247.x

ADDITIONAL READING Archer, L., Dawson, E., DeWitt, J., Seakins, A., & Wong, B. (2015). “Science capital”: A conceptual, methodological, and empirical argument for extending bourdieusian notions of capital beyond the arts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52(7), 922–948. doi:10.1002/tea.21227 Attanasio, O., Polania-Reyes, S., & Pellerano, L. (2015). Building social capital: Conditional cash transfers and cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 118, 22–39. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2015.04.004 Bae, J. (2015). The impact of social capital on men’s mental health from the perspective of social support theory. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 24(1), 65–77. doi:10.1111/ijjs.12034 Chang, Y. P., & Zhu, D. H. (2012). The role of perceived social capital and flow experience in building users’ continuance intention to social networking sites in China. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 995–1001. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.01.001 Chollet, B., Géraudel, M., & Mothe, C. (2014). Generating business referrals for SMEs: The contingent value of CEOs’ social capital. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(1), 79–101. doi:10.1111/jsbm.12034 Collins, E., & Freeman, J. (2013). Do problematic and non-problematic video game players differ in extraversion, trait empathy, social capital and prosocial tendencies? Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1933–1940. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.03.002 Colombo, M. G., Franzoni, C., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2015). Internal social capital and the attraction of early contributions in crowdfunding. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(1), 75–100. doi:10.1111/etap.12118 Dodd, M. D., Brummette, J., & Hazleton, V. (2015). A social capital approach: An examination of Putnam’s civic engagement and public relations roles. Public Relations Review, 41(4), 472–479. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.05.001 289

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Du, J., Guariglia, A., & Newman, A. (2015). Do social capital building strategies influence the financing behavior of Chinese private small and medium-sized enterprises? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(3), 601–631. doi:10.1111/ etap.12051 Estrin, S., Mickiewicz, T., & Stephan, U. (2013). Entrepreneurship, social capital, and institutions: Social and commercial entrepreneurship across nations. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(3), 479–504. doi:10.1111/etap.12019 Foley, D., & O’Connor, A. J. (2013). Social capital and the networking practices of indigenous entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(2), 276–296. doi:10.1111/jsbm.12017 Gedajlovic, E., Honig, B., Moore, C. B., Payne, G. T., & Wright, M. (2013). Social capital and entrepreneurship: A schema and research agenda. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(3), 455–478. doi:10.1111/etap.12042 Gu, Q., Wang, G. G., & Wang, L. (2013). Social capital and innovation in R&D teams: The mediating roles of psychological safety and learning from mistakes. R & D Management, 43(2), 89–102. doi:10.1111/radm.12002 Kikuchi, M., & Coleman, C. L. (2012). Explicating and measuring social relationships in social capital research. Communication Theory, 22(2), 187–203. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2012.01401.x Kreiser, P. M., Patel, P. C., & Fiet, J. O. (2013). The influence of changes in social capital on firm-founding activities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(3), 539–568. doi:10.1111/etap.12039 Lee, D. Y. (2013). The role of attachment style in building social capital from a social networking site: The interplay of anxiety and avoidance. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1499–1509. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.012 Levien, M. (2015). Social capital as obstacle to development: Brokering land, norms, and trust in rural India. World Development, 74, 77–92. doi:10.1016/j. worlddev.2015.04.012 Li, Y., Wang, X., Westlund, H., & Liu, Y. (2015). Physical capital, human capital, and social capital: The changing roles in China’s economic growth. Growth and Change, 46(1), 133–149. doi:10.1111/grow.12084 Lin, J. H. (2015). The role of attachment style in Facebook use and social capital: Evidence from university students and a national sample. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(3), 173–180. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0341

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Oztok, M. (2013). Tacit knowledge in online learning: Community, identity, and social capital. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(1), 21–36. doi:10.1080/1 475939X.2012.720414 Reiche, B. S. (2012). Knowledge benefits of social capital upon repatriation: A longitudinal study of international assignees. Journal of Management Studies, 49(6), 1052–1077. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2012.01050.x Shrestha, M. K. (2013). Internal versus external social capital and the success of community initiatives: A case of self-organizing collaborative governance in Nepal. Public Administration Review, 73(1), 154–164. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2012.02622.x Song, L., & Chang, T. Y. (2012). Do resources of network members help in help seeking? Social capital and health information search. Social Networks, 34(4), 658–669. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2012.08.002 Tenzin, G., Otsuka, K., & Natsuda, K. (2015). Can social capital reduce poverty? A study of rural households in Eastern Bhutan. Asian Economic Journal, 29(3), 243–264. doi:10.1111/asej.12057 Whipple, J. M., Wiedmer, R., & Boyer, K. K. (2015). A dyadic investigation of collaborative competence, social capital, and performance in buyer-supplier relationships. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 51(2), 3–21. doi:10.1111/jscm.12071 Yee, J. (2015). Social capital in Korea: Relational capital, trust, and transparency. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 24(1), 30–47. doi:10.1111/ijjs.12035 Zimmermann, A., & Ravishankar, M. N. (2014). Knowledge transfer in IT offshoring relationships: The roles of social capital, efficacy and outcome expectations. Information Systems Journal, 24(2), 167–202. doi:10.1111/isj.12027

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Architecture: The overall design of a building, structure, or system that unifies its components or elements into a coherent and functional combination. Attitude: The tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, object, and situation. Behavior: The response of an individual or group to an action, environment, person, and stimulus. Knowledge Management: The strategies and processes designed to identify, capture, structure, value, leverage, and share an organization’s intellectual assets to enhance its performance and competitiveness. 291

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Norm: The accepted standard or the way of doing things that most people agree with. Participation: The consultation in decision making, goal setting, profit sharing, and teamwork. Reciprocity: The exchange of equal advantages and privileges. Social Capital: The stock of community’s goodwill and trust acquired by an organization over the years, through its understanding and addressing of the concerns and priorities of people. Social Networking Site: The website designed to help people communicate and share information with a group.

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About the Contributors

Gulsah Koc is earning her Master’s degree in Architecture from Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, Turkey. Bryan Christiansen has progressively held the positions of President, CEO, and then Chairman in PryMarke, LLC, a Michigan, USA-based Business Analytics and Management Consultancy since 2004. Bryan has also been an Adjunct Business Professor at Capella University, DeVry University, and Ellis University (formerly Ellis College of New York Institute of Technology) in the USA, and a Senior Business Lecturer at Gumushane University in Turkey. Born in Washington, DC and raised in Asia, Bryan is fluent in Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, and Turkish, and has traveled to 40 countries during his 28-year business career involving Global 1000 firms. Bryan holds a Bachelor’s degree in Marketing from the University of the State of New York and an MBA degree from Capella University. Bryan will complete his Doctor of Business Administration degree (DBA) from Middlesex University in London, England in 2020. *** Gülhan Benli has recieved her doctorate on surveying and restoration at Yildiz Technical University in 2007. She produced so many surveying projects and urban design projects in historical sites overall in Turkey as a member of Bimtaş, İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality during 2005-2012. She has many other implementations on restoration of the historical buildings and many other researches on techniques of surveying and also academic researches. She has been worked as a vice dean and associate Professor at İstanbul Aydın University between 2012-2014. She is now an associate Professor at School of Fine Arts Design and Architecture in İstanbul Medipol University, giving lectures on preserving in historical sites and cultural heritage.

About the Contributors

Fabio Colonnese is an architect, a draftsman and Ph.D. in Drawing and Survey of Architectural Heritage at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, where he also taught geometry, survey and drawing at courses of architecture, engineering and landscape architecture. He studied the figure of labyrinth and its multiple relationships with architecture, city, and landscape in his published PhD dissertation Labyrinth as a representation of a route (Rome 2003). The following book Il Labirinto e le lrinto e (The Labyrinth and the Architect, 2006) represents a pondered synthesis of this long enquire. While attending his post-doc fellowship in Digital Survey and Representation of City in Rome, his interests expanded to digital reconstruction of literary architectures as well as to as to relation between representation and experience of architecture, whose partial results can be read in his second book Movimento Percorso Rappresentazione (Movement Route Representation, 2012). He took part to major survey campaigns, such as Castel Sant’Angelo in Roma, Royal Palace of Caserta and is currently engaged with Cappadocian Rupestrian Monasteries. Aysun Ferrah Güner was born in Istanbul, in 1969, Aysun Ferrah Güner studied Architecture at the Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture and upon graduation in 1991, she began the practice in Istanbul as architect. She worked on various projects as architect, specialist, senior project specialist, project coordinator and project manager in the private sector. At the same time, she continued to work academically and received her master degree on “a study into the factors influencing the rehabilitation cost” in 1995 and Phd degree on “implementing total quality management in construction industry and evaluating the implementations in Turkey” in 2004 in the field of construction management at the Istanbul Technical University. She is Assistant Professor of Architecture at Istanbul Medipol University, School of Fine Arts, Design and Architecture. Her research fields are project management, design management and coordination, product development, total quality management in construction industry. Oxana Karnaukhova’s background includes degrees in Humanities – History, Psychology and Cultural Studies with an experience in interdisciplinary research in Intercultural Communications. The achievements in this field are proven through a number of projects, held in Russia and abroad, as well as in the publication list. When majoring in History, she concentrated on the problems of ethnic groups, power structures and state relationships. She was especially interested in psychology of intercultural communication, which became the focus of my graduate studies. Also, she has completed PhD program (Rostov State University, Russia), specializing in the field of Theory and History of Culture. The research projects have involved a

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About the Contributors

combination of these subjects. The significant projects “Communicative strategies in multicultural regions” (Carnegie Fellowship Program, 2005-2006) and “Multiculturalism as the paradigm of the postcolonial development (the comparative analysis of the British and Russian models)” (Oxford Colleges Hospitality Scheme, 2006) were devoted to the problems of multiculturalism as cultural practice and social ideology and its transformations through time and regions. Kijpokin Kasemsap received his BEng degree in Mechanical Engineering from King Mongkut’s University of Technology, Thonburi, his MBA degree from Ramkhamhaeng University, and his DBA degree in Human Resource Management from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. He is a Special Lecturer in the Faculty of Management Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, based in Bangkok, Thailand. He is a Member of the International Association of Engineers (IAENG), the International Association of Engineers and Scientists (IAEST), the International Economics Development and Research Center (IEDRC), the International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT), the International Foundation for Research and Development (IFRD), and the International Innovative Scientific and Research Organization (IISRO). He also serves on the International Advisory Committee (IAC) for International Association of Academicians and Researchers (INAAR). He has had numerous original research articles in top international journals, conference proceedings, and books on the topics of business management, human resource management, and knowledge management, published internationally. Virginia Kupritz received her Ph.D. from Virginia Tech, College of Architecture. She is the Associate Director for Communication Studies and a Full Professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. Her multidisciplinary research, administrative experience and teaching span 20+ years in colleges of architecture, business and communication. This includes co-founding the first architectural program for females in Saudi Arabia. Dr. Kupritz is nationally recognized in the scientific community and in industry as a leading expert in workplace privacy. Dr. Kupritzri research has appeared in top tiered journals such as the Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, Journal of Business Communication, and Human Resource Development Quarterly. Dr. Kupritz’s research focuses on workplace privacy, computer-mediated communication for the multi-generational workforce, architectural communication, ethnographic methods, and intercultural communication.

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About the Contributors

Silvia Torsi has a full degree in Communication Science and a Ph.D. in Cogntive Science. She has research experience in Italy, US and UK. Her main interests are in Human-Computer Interaction and Service Design. Her main theoretical drives are Cultural-Historical Psychology, Ecological Psychology, Distributed Cognition and Experience Design. Ben Tran received his Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D) in Organizational Consulting/Organizational Psychology from California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University in San Francisco, California, United States of America. Dr. Tran’s research interests include domestic and expatriate recruitment, selection, retention, evaluation, & training, CSR, business and organizational ethics, organizational/international organizational behavior, knowledge management, and minorities in multinational corporations. Dr. Tran has presented articles on topics of business and management ethics, expatriate, and gender and minorities in multinational corporations at the Academy of Management, Society for the Advancement of Management, and International Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism. Dr. Tran has also published articles and book chapters with the Social Responsibility Journal, Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, Financial Management Institute of Canada, and IGI Global. Dr. Tran can be reach at [email protected] Meltem Vatan was born in August 29, 1978 Varna – Bulgaria and lives in Istanbul since 1998. She is an architect with extensive experience on structural systems, cultural heritage and disaster risks that has led her to a number of site works, projects, academic papers and grants as well. Currently, Vatan is Assist. Prof. and Vice Dean at Bahcesehir University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Istanbul. Vatan received her Bachelor of Architecture at Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul and completed her Masters and PhD in Structures and had worked until 2011 in the same academic institution. She is the author of several academic papers on traditional structural systems and cultural heritage risks. Vatan is an expert member of ICOMOS, ICOMOS ICORP (risk scientific committee), ICOMOS ISCARSAH (historic structures scientific committee) and Vice Director of ICORP Turkey. In addition to working on academic field, she enjoys writing poems, exploring nature and taking photos. You can reach her at [email protected]

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Index

A Adobe 36, 38, 42, 45-56, 115 aesthetic 17, 36, 47, 53, 65, 71, 89, 140, 159, 164-165, 173, 175-176, 200, 209-210, 213, 215-216, 225, 229, 233, 236-237 Aesthetic Preference 200, 209, 215, 229 Agglomeration 181-187, 191-198 Anatolia 6, 8, 40, 48, 53-54, 134 Anthropometry 93, 128 Anthropomorphism 120, 128 Architectural Heritage 56, 130, 153-154, 232-234 Architectural Style 1-2, 4, 14, 24-25, 32-33 Architecture Design 90, 92, 120 Architecture Drawing 97, 99, 101 Architecture Rendering 120

B Bay Window 151, 155 Biomimicry 200, 212, 228-229, 256 Biophilia 83, 200-207, 211, 213-214, 216, 218, 220-222, 224, 226-229, 231, 238-239, 241, 247-252, 255-257 Biosphere 203, 222, 241, 253, 255, 257 Built Environment 26, 29, 65-66, 68, 7172, 79, 89, 95, 201, 206-207, 212-213, 224, 231-232, 234, 258, 281 Byzantine Period 130, 132, 143

C Child Development 1-2, 24-25, 33 Collage-Drawing 104, 128

Communication Medium 60, 62, 66, 89 Construction Systems 35, 37-38, 41-42, 52-53, 55 Cultural Indoctrination 1, 3-4, 25-27, 33, 279 Cut-and-Paste 90, 112, 128

D Draper Bazaar 155

E Earthquake 39, 41, 44, 46, 49, 53-57 ecological psychology 79, 157, 160 Ecopsychology 248, 254, 257 Edward Osborne Wilson 202, 229 Environmental Psychology 29, 80-84, 88, 202, 208-209, 216, 218-221, 223-226, 229-230, 238, 248, 253, 257 Environmental Symbols 65-71, 89 Evidence-Based Architecture (EBD) 229 Evolutionary Psychology (EP) 221, 223, 230, 254

F Feng Shui 14, 32, 231, 247-250, 257 flânerie 157-158, 160-161, 169, 172-174, 178 Flâneur 157-162, 167, 172 folkbiology(ies) 208, 229

G Geert Hofstede 231-232, 242, 247-248, 250, 255, 258

Index

globalization in architecture 258 in corporations 258 Global Positioning 157, 167

H Historical Peninsula 130-133, 137, 139, 142, 145, 152, 155 Human Figure 90-92, 94, 97, 99-100, 104, 120-123, 127-129 Human Measure 90, 97, 115, 128

I Imageability 183, 185 Imitating Natural Contents in Architecture 212, 229 Individuals’ Psychological Sense of Place Identity 237, 258 Industrial and Organizational (I 248, 258 institutionalization 1-2, 25-26, 28 Integrating Structural Landscape 212, 229 Interactional and Transactional Models of Communication 64, 89

K Knowledge Management 259, 267, 277, 291

L Landscape Aesthetics 216, 229 Landscape Architecture 124, 229 Landscape engineering 229

M Masonry 35, 38, 46-50, 54-55, 132, 149 Mental Health 213-215, 218-220, 227, 230, 268, 273, 276-277, 289 Modulor 101-103, 125-126

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N natural exposures 36, 46, 53 nomadic 51-52, 161, 215 Norm 25, 259, 265, 271, 292

O Organic Street Pattern 131, 155 Ottoman Artifacts 153, 155 Ottoman Period 130, 136, 143, 152

P Photo-Collage 92, 104, 108, 128 Photomontage 93, 100, 104-106, 117, 123, 128 Physical Properties of Space 58, 60, 64-65, 71, 78-79, 89 physical space 59-60, 69-71, 80, 157, 159, 161-162, 166-173 Place Identity 237-238, 252, 258 post-modernism 157, 163, 171 Protected Sites 130, 132, 156 Psychoevolutionary Framework 208-209, 230

R Reciprocity 262, 264, 266, 292 Religious Architecture 33 Rendering Accessories 129

S Social Capital 1-2, 24, 26, 29, 31, 166, 259, 261-265, 267-270, 272-292 Socialization 1, 33, 161, 168, 238, 253 Social Learning Theory 1-2, 25, 27, 33, 66, 79 Social Networking Site 290, 292 soundscapes 169-170, 178 spatiotemporal paths 161-163, 172

Index

Splitted Cities 181 Structural Landscape 209, 212, 215, 229230 symbolic gaps 182, 196 Symbolic Properties of Space 63, 65-67, 89

U

T

W

third places 157, 159, 163, 171, 174, 287 traditional construction 35-37, 45-46, 48, 53 Traditional Structural Systems 35, 46

Wooden Frame 48-50

Urban Identity 181 urban informatics 157, 161, 168, 172, 174, 176, 179 Urban Policy 181

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