Crop Physiology Case Histories for Major Crops [1 ed.] 0128191945, 9780128191941

Crop Physiology: Case Histories of Major Crops updates the physiology of broad-acre crops with a focus on the genetic, e

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Crop Physiology Case Histories for Major Crops [1 ed.]
 0128191945, 9780128191941

Table of contents :
Chapter-1---Maize
Maize
Introduction
Global trends
Main production areas
Maize in rotations: Suitability of previous and consequences for following crops
Multiple cropping
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Main phenological events
Genotypic and environmental drivers of maize development
Temperature
Photoperiod
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Canopy size and light interception
Radiation-use efficiency and its response to environmental factors
Crop growth rate and growth duration in response to management practices
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Environmental patterns of water supply and demand
Root expansion and senescence, root size, architecture, and functionality
Crop water use and canopy conductance as related to canopy architecture, stomatal conductance, and canopy-atmos ...
Water use efficiency
Management practices under water deficits
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nutrient absorption, assimilation, accumulation, and remobilisation
Effects of nutrients on crop development, growth, and grain yield
Nutrients diagnosis and fertilisation requirements
Nitrogen
Supply–demand balance
Soil determinations
Plant determinations
Simulation models
Remote sensing
Other nutrients
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Potassium
Zinc
Interaction with agronomic practices
Grain yield and quality
Kernel number
Kernel weight
Biomass partitioning
Grain quality
Kernel hardness
High-oil maize and acidic specialties
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-2---Rice
Rice
Introduction
Global significance of rice
Rice ecosystem classification with emphasis on water availability
Crop management
Crop establishment
Water-saving methods
Mechanisation
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Germination and seedling emergence
Importance of seedbed in direct seeded rice
Lodging in broadcasted rice
Deep planting
Phenological development
Drivers of phenological development
Global warming effect
Crop establishment methods
Crop ripening and maturity
Shoot development and growth
Rood development and growth
Shallow root system
Deep roots
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Crop growth analysis with radiation interception
Radiation use efficiency as reflection of leaf photosynthesis rate
Radiation use efficiency as related to canopy structure
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Water balance in lowlands
Water requirement and water use efficiency
Effect of crop establishment methods
Effect of water-saving methods
Other factors
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Plant N uptake and the fate of N in the field
Nitrogen uptake and plant N concentration
Nitrogen losses from the field
Nitrogen use efficiency under favourable conditions
Timing of fertiliser application affecting NUE
Site-specific N management
Controlled-release N fertiliser
Genotypic variation
Interaction between nitrogen and water
Phosphorus
Localised P application
Interaction between P and water
Genotypic variation
Potassium
Micronutrients
Yield and quality
Sink–source relations
Determination of sink size
Panicle number
Spikelet number
Grain set
Potential grain size
Application of yield component expression
Transport system and sucrose conversion
Assimilate supply to fill grains
Genotypic variation in sink–source limitation to yield
Varieties with increased sink size had higher yields
Advantages of hybrids, particularly japonica-indica hybrids
Other factors affecting genotypic variation in grain yield
Response to abiotic factors
Water deficit
Types of drought and genotype × management options
Adaptive traits
Effect of increased CO 2 concentration
Crop growth
Grain yield and quality
Submergence
High temperature
Reproductive growth
Grain yield
Importance of night-time temperature
Genotypic variation
Future global warming effect
Low temperature
Salinity
Crop management for yield and quality
Crop establishment
Comparison of direct seeding and transplanting
Yield
Weeds
Ratooning
Perennial rice
Water-saving technologies
Alternate wetting and drying irrigation
Aerobic rice
Mechanisation
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Adaptation mechanisms to reduced water input in irrigated system
Dry direct seeding
AWD
Aerobic rice
Adaptation mechanisms for drought avoidance in rainfed lowland rice
Adaptation mechanism for mechanised rice farming
Direct seeding, particularly drill planting
Combine harvesting
Factors determining grain set
Enhancing yield potential
Head rice yield
Acknowledgement
References
Chapter-3---Wheat
Wheat
Introduction
Wheat origin, production, and yield
Trends in production, area, and yield
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Yield determination
Yield components
Grain number determination
Determination of potential grain weight
Crop phenology
Generation, appearance, and growth of organs
Initiation of leaves, spikelets, and florets
Appearance of leaves and tillering and growth of stems, spikes, and grains
Phenological phases and scales
Environmental factors affecting wheat development
Temperature per se
Vernalisation
Photoperiod
Genotypic differences and main genetic factors
Capture and efficiency in the use of resources
Capture and use efficiency of radiation
Dynamics of radiation interception
Radiation use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Crop evapotranspiration
Water use efficiency
Harvest index
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nutrient absorption, assimilation, accumulation, and mobilisation
Nutrient uptake efficiency
Effects of nutrients on wheat growth
Nutrient uptake and partitioning
Crop nutrient demand
Yield responsiveness to management and breeding
Yield responsiveness to management and breeding
How management practices affect yield
Sowing date, density, and arrangement
Fertilisation and irrigation
Management of other constrains
Impact of wheat breeding on grain yield and next steps
Perspectives of wheat under climate change
Quality
Grain quality traits
Grain proteins, nutrients, fibre, and healthy traits
Grain nutrients, fibre, and healthy traits
Sensitivity of grain quality traits to environmental stresses
Grain quality and crop management
Nitrogen and other nutrient fertilisers
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-4---Barley
Barley
Introduction
Global trends in harvested area and yield
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Differentiation of vegetative and reproductive organs
Dynamics of initiation and appearance of vegetative and reproductive organs
Leaf and spikelet initiation into the apex
Leaf emergence
Tillering
Genotypic and environmental drivers of barley development
Temperature
Vernalisation
Photoperiod
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Canopy size and radiation interception
Radiation-use efficiency (RUE)
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Environmental characterisation of water stress
Root architecture and functionality
Scaling from leaf to canopy: From stomatal conductance to water use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Soil nitrogen acquisition
Efficiency in the use of nitrogen and its partitioning to the grains
Critical nitrogen dilution curve
Relationship between grain yield and grain protein concentration
Requirement of other nutrients
Grain yield and quality
Grain number and the critical period
Grain filling
Barley uses and grain quality
Environmental factors altering quality
Genetic factors determining malting and brewery quality
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-5---Sorghum
Sorghum
Introduction
Agronomic context
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Crop phenology
Adaptation to environmental conditions
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Increasing access to water
Restricting preanthesis water use through canopy architecture
Restricting preanthesis water use through transpiration rates
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen uptake and dynamics
N dynamics preanthesis
N dynamics postanthesis
Molecular analysis of soil microbes involved in the N cycle
Phosphorus
Yield and quality
Grain number and size
Grain quality
Sorghum grain compositional quality
End-use defines the value of different elements of compositional quality
Crop stresses and effects on grain yield determination
Water stress
Temperature stress
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Challenges and opportunities
Research priorities
References
Chapter-6---Oat
Oat
Introduction
Production and nutrition
Agronomic roles of oat in farming systems
Soil and environment for oat production
Annual or multiple cropping system
Oat in crop rotation
Oat as a cover crop
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Phenology and critical growth stages
Genotypic differences
Environmental effect
Manipulation of plant development
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Canopy architecture and interception of radiation
Early growth of leaf area
Crop ideotype and canopy architecture
Radiation use efficiency
Duration of leaf photosynthesis
Variations in radiation use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Oat water use and adaptation to water stress
Agronomic options to improve crop water use
Water use efficiency
Water use efficiency in water-limited environment
Agronomic options to improve transpiration efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Capture of nitrogen
Management to improve nitrogen use efficiency
Phosphorus
Grain yield and quality
Grain yield and yield components
Interactions between genotype, environment, and management on grain yield
Agronomic options to improve harvest index
Grain quality
Forage quality
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-7---Quinoa
Quinoa
Introduction
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Seed germination and conservation
Phasic development
Developmental scales
Temperature responses
Photoperiod responses
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Radiation capture
Radiation use efficiency
Source activity during grain filling under high-yield conditions
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Climate patterns
Managing water use (ETc)
Managing the proportion of water used by transpiration (T/ET)
Transpiration efficiency (TE)
Response of harvest index to water
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
N uptake and partitioning
Nitrogen dilution curve and other allometric relationships
N uptake efficiency
Nitrogen utilisation efficiency
Yield vs protein concentration and interactions with other grain composition traits
Yield and quality
Critical periods of yield determination
Dry matter and numeric yield components
Grain weight
Reproductive partitioning and limitations to grain yield
Other stresses and interactions between stresses
Grain quality
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-8---Soybean
Soybean
Introduction
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Capture of water
Water use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of nitrogen
Dry matter and nitrogen partitioning
Other nutrients
Yield and quality
Yield potential and yield gaps
Seed quality
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter-9---Field-pea
Field pea
Introduction
Origin and agronomy
Pests and diseases
Insect pests
Fungal and bacterial disease
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Seed and plant characteristics
Phenology
Phenological progression
Photoperiod and temperature
Effect of extreme temperature and water stress
Critical period
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Radiation interception
Radiation use efficiency
Capture and efficiency of use of water
Environmental and temporal patterns of water supply and demand
Capture of water
Water use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Critical nitrogen concentration and residual soil nitrogen
Other nutrients
Yield and quality
Grain number and weight
Plant population density
Grain number and grain weight
Biomass and harvest index
Yield and quality trade-offs
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter-10---Chickpea
Chickpea
Introduction and agronomic context
Origin and ecology
The role of chickpea in farming systems
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Environmental patterns of water supply and demand
Canopy traits
Root traits
Water use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Other nutrients
Salinity
Yield and quality
Yield and its components
Seed quality
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-11---Peanut
Peanut
Introduction
Area, production, and yield
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Sowing to emergence
Emergence to flowering
Flowering to maturity
Temperature
Water
Interactions between temperature and water, and between temperature and photoperiod
Combining sowing date and genotype to match growing environment
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Transpiration
Transpiration efficiency
Harvest index
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
N fixation
Response to soil mineral N
Calcium
Phosphorus
Zinc
Grain yield and quality
Grain yield
Ideotype breeding
Seed quality
Utilisation
Health benefits and concerns
Seed maturity
Blanchability
Oleic to linoleic acid ratio (hi-oleic)
Trade-offs between yield and quality traits
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter-12---Common-bean
Common bean
Introduction
Climatic zones
Major growing regions
Role in farming systems
Implications of climate change
Crop structure, morphology and development
Morphological variation
Taxonomy and gene pools
Phenological development
Vegetative development
Reproductive development
Determinancy and growth habit
Critical stages of crop development
Strategies for adaptation to climate change
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Canopy architecture
Photosynthesis at the leaf and canopy scale
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Above-ground mechanisms
Below-ground mechanisms
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Yield and quality
Yield and related traits
Nutritional quality
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter-13---Lentil
Lentil
Introduction
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Crop structure: height and branching
Phenological development
Sowing to emergence
Emergence to flowering
Flowering to maturity
Development and adaptation to stress
Elevated temperature
Water stress
Salinity
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Leaf area index and extinction coefficient
Radiation use efficiency
Lodging
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Patterns of water supply and demand
Root system
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Micronutrients
Yield and quality
Reproductive development
Yield components
Seed quality and composition
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-14---Lupin
Lupin
Introduction
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Crop development
Branching patterns
Use of restricted branching in lupin breeding
Dwarfism
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Capture and efficiency of use of water
Capture and efficiency of use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Yield and quality
Yield
Yield components
Pod wall
Grain protein
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Acknowledgement
References
Chapter-15---Faba-bean
Faba bean
Introduction
Origin of the crop
Cropping environment and production
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Crop structure
Canopy
Roots
Flowers and fruits
Flowering types
Vegetative and reproductive responses
Temperature
Photoperiod
Vernalisation
Hardening
Quantifying phenological development
A phenological scale
Phenological indices for simulation of faba bean development
Sowing–emergence–first flower–last flower–physiological maturity
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Canopy development
Radiation capture
Photosynthesis: Leaf to canopy
Growth rates and RUE
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Crop water balance
Adaptation to water shortage
Phenology
Stomatal responses
Canopy responses
Root systems
Options for future progress
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Mineral nutrients
N 2 fixation mechanism and rates
Soil acidification and root–root interactions in intercropping
N uptake, storage, and mobilisation
Yield and quality
Crop yield
Yield progress
Benchmarking yield and yield gaps
Yield components
Grain size
Indeterminate, determinate, and semideterminate cultivars
Nutritional issues and grain quality
Role of faba bean in cropping system productivity
Biotic stresses
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Maintaining yield gain
Optimal cultivar design
Intercropping
Coordination of faba bean research
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter-16---Sunflower
Sunflower
Introduction
The role of sunflower crop in farming systems
Sunflower-based cropping systems
Implications of climate change for sunflower cropping
Sunflower crop physiology research since the 1980s
Crop structure, morphology and development
Growth stages and phenophases
Drivers of crop phenology and development
Manipulation of crop development to match critical periods and environments
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Potential and stress-limited canopy growth
Natural and stress-limited canopy senescence
Potential and stress-limited canopy architecture and radiation interception
Potential and stress-limited crop radiation-use efficiency
Other stresses
Cold
Salinity
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Water management in sunflower
Root expansion and senescence, root size, architecture and functionality
Canopy conductance as related with stomatal conductance, canopy architecture and canopy–atmosphere coupling
Root–shoot ratio and root–shoot integration
Water use and water-use efficiency at crop level
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
N requirement and uptake
Efficiencies: Uptake per unit N in soil, biomass per unit N uptake and N harvest index
Diagnostic tools: critical N dilution curves, N nutrition index and remote sensing
Other nutrients: K, P and B
Yield
Frameworks of yield elaboration
Allocation of dry matter
Biomass partitioning
Harvest index
Components of grain yield
Grain number
Grain weight
Interactions between grain number and grain weight
Grain and oil quality
Physiology of oil accumulation
Fatty acids biosynthesis
Oil accumulation dynamics
Relationship between oil and protein concentrations
Factors affecting oil concentration effects on oil concentration
Genotypic variation of oil concentration
Effect of intercepted solar radiation on oil concentration
Effect of temperature on oil concentration
Effect of water availability, nitrogen and plant density on oil concentration
Sunflower oil quality
Fatty acid composition
Tocopherols and phytosterols
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-17---Canola
Canola
Introduction
Origin, development and uses
Global production systems
Winter canola sown in autumn
Spring canola sown in spring
Spring canola sown in autumn
Canola cropping systems
Rotated monocrops
Intercropping
Agronomic implications of predicted climate change
Crop structure, morphology and development
Phenological stages
Temperature
Vernalisation
Photoperiod
Impact of development on yield potential and adaptive management
Green bud visible stage
Critical period
Seed filling period
Matching sowing date with varietal phenology in diverse environments
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Radiation capture
Canopy management
Lodging
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Sulphur and phosphorus
Yield and quality
Allocation of dry matter
Yield components
Seed number
Seed size
Seed quality—Oil and protein
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-18---Potato
Potato
Introduction
Potato production systems
Climate change
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Drivers of potato development
Temperature
Tuber yield response to temperature
Photoperiod
Light quality
Hormones
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Radiation capture
Radiation-use efficiency
Radiation interception and RUE in intercrops
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Critical nutrient dilution curves
Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition indexes
Nitrogen-use efficiency
Nitrogen uptake efficiency
Nitrogen utilisation efficiency
Phosphorus-use efficiency
Phosphorus uptake efficiency
Phosphorus utilisation efficiency
Harvest index
Roots traits for nutrient uptake
Yield and quality
Yield
Quality
Conclusion: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-19---Cassava
Cassava
Introduction
Origin of the crop
Production environment
Cassava production
Role in the rural economy
Cassava in cropping systems
Crop structure, morphology and development
Crop structure
Stem cuttings
Flower induction and branching
Production of nodal units
Leaves
Stomates
Tuber formation and growth
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in use of radiation
Canopy expansion and senescence
Interception of solar radiation
Leaf photosynthesis
Canopy photosynthesis
Growth and respiration
Crop growth rate
Radiation-use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in use of water
Soil and crop water balance
Root systems and water uptake
Canopy responses to water shortage
Stomatal control of crop water status
Crop conductance and atmospheric coupling
Capacitance
Transpiration- and water-use efficiencies
Response of cassava to timing and duration of water shortage
Capture and efficiency in use of nutrients
Cassava growth in response to soil fertility
Accumulation and cycling of nutrients
Extraction of nutrients in harvest
Detection and remedy of nutrient deficiencies
Further issues with key macro-nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Nutrient use efficiency in biomass production
Yield and quality
Yield formation in cassava
Optimal design for high yield and stability
Yield progress
Potential yield and yield-gap analysis
Rainfed water-limited potential yield according to edapho-climatic zone
A regional yield-gap analysis from Brazil
Closing the yield gap in Africa
Nutrient management for sustainable yield
Macro-nutrients for maintenance of yield
Comparative nutrient extraction by cassava and alternative crops
Intercrops, alley crops, and green manures
Yield and production prospects under climate change
Measured responses of cassava to climate change
Some predicted responses of cassava to climate change
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
A two-part future
Reduced production costs and greater labour productivity
Super high-yielding cultivars for favourable areas
High-yielding cultivars for drought-prone areas
General considerations for field research
Conceptualising knowledge
Closing comment
References
Chapter-20---Sugar-beet
Sugar beet
Introduction
Commodity sugar
History
The crop
Breeding—G × E effect
Seed production
Cultivation and management
Winter beet cultivation
Growers’ management—G × E × M effect
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Emergence
Bolting
Leaf and canopy formation
Storage root development
Cambium ring formation
Sugar storage
Assimilate partitioning
Limitations: Regulation of partitioning
Implications of a sink limitation for breeding and management
Genotype by environment interactions
Temperature stress
Manipulation of crop development as an adaptation to climate change
Early sowing
Winter beet cultivation in temperate climates
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Effect of drought stress
Genetic variation for drought tolerance
Causes of yield reduction under drought
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
Nitrogen
Physiological processes
N management
Potassium and sodium
Physiological processes
K and Na management
Boron
Physiological processes
B management
Yield and quality
Yield and quality traits
Impact on quality
Sugar beet yield types
Improvements through breeding
Sugar beet storage
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
Author contributions
References
Chapter-21---Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Introduction
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Germination
Tillering
Stalk elongation
Flowering and seed formation
Agronomy
Genotype effects
Maturation
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Components of GLAI
Extinction coefficient
Dynamics of FIPAR
Agronomic management
Radiation use efficiency
Atmospheric CO2 concentration
Solar radiation and temperature
Water status
Nitrogen status
Reduced growth phenomenon
Prospects for yield improvement through breeding for improved radiation capture and efficiency of use
Improved radiation capture
Improved RUE
Phenotyping for FI and RUE
Capture and efficiency in the use of water
Water uptake
Potential water uptake
Water limited water uptake
Transpiration efficiency
Increasing water uptake and WUE agronomically
Crop improvement for increased WUE
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
External N use efficiency (NUEe)
Agronomic aspects of NUEe
Internal N use efficiency (NUEi)
Prospects for increasing NUEi
Photosynthetic NUE
Leaf [N]
Yield and quality
Whole plant biomass partitioning
Internode sucrose accumulation
Agronomic management to maximise sucrose yields
Breeding for high sucrose yields
Climate change impacts on yield
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Chapter-22---Cotton
Cotton
Introduction
Crop structure, morphology, and development
Developmental phases
Stand establishment
Canopy development
Flowering and boll development
Crop maturity
General considerations
Growth and resources
Capture and efficiency in the use of radiation
Canopy radiation interception
Photosynthesis
Radiation use efficiency
Challenges and opportunities with climate change
Water use efficiency
Capture and efficiency in the use of nutrients
N uptake
Intrinsic nitrogen use efficiency
Yield and quality
Genotype
Production environment
Water
Nutrients
Temperature
Concluding remarks: Challenges and opportunities
References
Index
Index
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
I
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
W
Y

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