CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields [1 ed.] 9781315891910, 9781351071017, 9781351087919, 9781351096362, 9781351079464

The objective of this book is to present in a concise manner what is actually known at the present time about biological

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CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields [1 ed.]
 9781315891910, 9781351071017, 9781351087919, 9781351096362, 9781351079464

Table of contents :

Part 1: Dielectric Permittivity And Electrical Conductivity Of Biological Materials 1. Dielectric Properties of Tissues Part 2: Effects of DC And Low Frequency Fields 1. Interaction of DC Electric Fields with Living Matter 2. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency Electric Fields: Rectification, Frequency Sensitivity, Noise and Related Phenomena 3. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electrical Fields: Experimental Work on Biological Effects 4. Biological Effects of Static Magnetic Fields 5. Interaction of ELF Fields and Living Matter Part 3: Effects of Radio Frequency (Including Microwave) Fields 1. Experimental radio and Microwave Dosimetry 2. Computer Methods for Field Intensity Predictions 3.Thermoregulation in the Presence of Microwave Fields 4. Interaction of Nonmodulated Fields with Living Matter 5. Modulated Fields and Window Effects.

Citation preview

CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Editors

Charles Polk, Ph.D. Department of Electrical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island and

Elliot Postow, Ph.D.

Electromagnetic Radiation Program Manager Naval Medical Research and Development Command National Naval Medical Center Bethesda, Maryland

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press, Inc.

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Boca Francis Group, an informa business Raton, Florida

First published 1986 by CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 Reissued 2018 by CRC Press © 1986 by CRC Press, Inc. CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright. com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a notfor-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: CRC handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields. Includes bibliographies and index. 1. Electromagnetism — Physiological effect — Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Polk, Charles. II. Postow, Elliot. III. Title: Handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields. QP82.2.E43C73 1986 574.19’17 85-9629 ISBN 0-8493-3265-6 A Library of Congress record exists under LC control number: 85009629 Publisher’s Note The publisher has gone to great lengths to ensure the quality of this reprint but points out that some imperfections in the original copies may be apparent. Disclaimer The publisher has made every effort to trace copyright holders and welcomes correspondence from those they have been unable to contact. ISBN 13: 978-1-315-89191-0 (hbk) ISBN 13: 978-1-351-07101-7 (ebk) Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

FOREWORD The objective of this book is to present in a concise manner what is actually known at the present time about the biological effects of time invariant, low frequency and radio frequency (including microwave) electric and magnetic fields. In reviewing the vast amount of experimental data which have been obtained in recent years, the authors tried to select those results that are, in their opinion, of major importance and of lasting value. In discussing mechanisms of interaction of electromagnetic fields with living matter they have tried to differentiate between what is clearly established, what is suggested by available evidence without being convincingly proven, and what is conjecture at the present time. No quantitative discussion of the interaction of electric and magnetic fields with living matter, and in fact no reasonable qualitative discussion, is possible without knowledge of the macroscopic electric and magnetic properties of living tissue. Therefore in Part I of the book theoretical and experimental aspects of dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of biological materials are treated in some detail. Description and analysis of the variation of these properties with frequency lead also to a discussion of microscopic level phenomena, although some additional modecular level processes are discussed in subsequent chapters. Part II of the book is then concerned with phenomena that do not involve radiation, while Part III deals with electromagnetic energy which mostly enters living tissue in the form of radiated electromagnetic waves. The introduction is concerned primarily with two topics: (1) fundamental considerations important for evaluating how much of the extremely low frequency (ELF) to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy present in the environment of an organism can reach its interior and (2) the difference between "ionizing radiation" and "nonionizing radiation". Parts I, II, and III of this book are relatively independent of each other, so that they can be consulted directly by the reader whose interest is restricted to a particular, specialized topic. On the other hand the sequence of chapters is such that the book can also be used as a text for a one semester or one year course on biological effects of electromagnetic fields. One of the editors (Charles Polk) has used the manuscript in this manner with a group of graduate students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison drawn from Electrical Engineering, Medical Physics, Medicine, and Biology. Prerequisites for enrollment in the course were a good intermediate level undergraduate course in Electricity and Magnetism and at least an introductory course in Biology. The reader with such background should find this book useful as an introduction to the topics listed in the Table of Contents, as a review of recent research and as a guide to the specialized literature.

THE EDITORS Dr. Charles Polk is Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Rhode Island. He was chairman of the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Rhode Island from 1959 to 1979 and during leaves, Visiting Professor at Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. (1968/1969) and the University of Wisconsin/Madison (1983/1984). From 1975 to 1977 he was Head of Electrical Sciences and Analysis and Acting Director of the Engineering Division of the National Science Foundation in Washington, D.C. A native of Vienna, Austria, Dr. Polk has studied at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) and is a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis (B.S.E.E.) and the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia (M.S., Physics; Ph.D., Electrical Engineering). He worked on electrical devices, antennas, and radio propagation at R.C.A. in Camden and Princeton, N.J. and was a contributor to several books and an author of papers on electromagnetic wave propagation, antennas, electromagnetic noise of natural origin, and interaction of electromagnetic fields with ions in living systems. He was elected Fellow by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers "for contributions to understanding earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, and for leadership in engineering education". He is also a member of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, the American Geophysical Union, the American Society for Engineering Education, the New York Academy of Sciences, and A A AS. Dr. Elliot Postow is Associate Scientific Director and Electromagnetic Radiation Program Manager at the Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Md. From 1972 to 1978 he was Assistant Director of the Electromagnetic Radiation Project Office at the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. He was a Scientific Officer with the Office of Naval Research from 1968 to 1972. Dr. Postow is a graduate of City College in New York (B.S. in physics) and Michigan State University (Ph.D. in biophysics). He was Editor of Bioelectromagnetics from 1980 to 1984. Along with Shiro Takashima he edited "The Interaction of Acoustical and Electromagnetic Fields with Biological Systems" (volume 86 in Progress in Clinical and Biological Research published by Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York). In 1984 he was co-organizer of a symposium in Florence, Italy on the Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Biological Systems that was sponsored by the International Union of Radio Sciences (URSI). He is President of the Bioelectromagnetics Society form 1985 to 1986.

CONTRIBUTORS Eleanor R. Adair Associate Fellow John B. Pierce Foundation and Senior Research Associate in Psychology Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Frank S. Barnes Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Kenneth R. Foster Associate Professor Department of Bioengineering University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Richard B. Frankel Senior Research Scientist F. Bitter National Magnet Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts

Charles Polk Professor Department of Electrical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island Elliot Postow Electromagnetic Radiation Program Manager Naval Medical Research and Development Command National Naval Medical Center Bethesda, Maryland

Herman P. Schwan Alfred Filler Moore Professor Emeritus Department of Bioengineering University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Maria A. Stuchly Research Scientist Radiation Protection Bureau Health and Welfare Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

James C. Lin Professor and Head Department of Bioengineering University of Illinois Chicago, Illinois

Stanislaw S. Stuchly Professor of Electrical Engineering Department Electrical Engineering University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Sol M. Michaelson Professor Department of Radiation Biology and Biophysics University of Rochester Rochester, New York

Mays L. Swicord Center for Devices and Radiological Health Food and Drug Administration Rockville, Maryland

Morton W. Miller Associate Professor Radiation Biology and Biophysics Department University of Rochester Rochester, New York

T. S. Tenforde Senior Scientist Biology and Medicine Division Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory University of California Berkeley, California

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Charles Polk PART I — DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS Dielectric Properties of Tissues Kenneth R. Foster and Herman P. Schwan PART II — EFFECTS OF DC AND LOW FREQUENCY FIELDS Chapter 1 Interaction of DC Electric Fields with Living Matter Frank S. Barnes Chapter 2 Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency Electric Fields: Rectification, Frequency Sensitivity, Noise, and Related Phenomena Frank S. Barnes

1

27

99

121

Chapter 3 Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electrical Fields: Experimental Work on Biological Effects 139 Morton W. Miller Chapter 4 Biological Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Richard B. Frankel

169

Chapter 5 Interaction of ELF Magnetic Fields with Living Matter T. S. Tenforde

197

PART III — EFFECTS OF RADIO FREQUENCY (INCLUDING MICROWAVE) FIELDS Chapter 1 Experimental Radio and Microwave Dosimetry 229 Maria A. Stuchly and Stanislaw S. Stuchly Chapter 2 Computer Methods for Field Intensity Predictions James C. Lin

273

Chapter 3 Thermoregulation in the Presence of Microwave Fields Eleanor R. Adair

315

Chapter 4 Interaction of Nonmodulated Fields with Living Matter Sol M. Michaelson

339

Chapter 5 Modulated Fields and "Window" Effects Elliot Postow and Mays L. Swicord

425

APPENDIXES Important Constants and Frequently Used Units of Measurement

463

Safety Standards

465

Index

483

1 INTRODUCTION Charles Polk TABLE OF CONTENTS I.

Near Fields and Radiation Fields

2

II.

Penetration of DC and Low Frequency Electric Fields into Tissue

5

III.

DC and Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

7

IV.

RF Fields

9

V.

lonization, Ionizing Radiation, Chemical Bonds, and Excitation

18

Acknowledgments

22

References

22

2

CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

I. NEAR FIELDS AND RADIATION FIELDS In recent years it has become, unfortunately, a fairly common practice, particularly in nontechnical literature, to refer to the entire subject of interaction of electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields with organic matter as biological effects of nonionizing radiation, although fields that do not vary with time and — for most practical purposes — slowly time-varying fields do not involve radiation at all. The terminology had its origin in an effort to differentiate between relatively low energy microwave radiation and high energy radiation, such as UV and X-rays, capable of imparting enough energy to a molecule or atom to disrupt its structure by removing one or more electrons. However, when applied to direct current (DC) or extremely low frequency (ELF) the terminology "nonionizing radiation" is inappropriate and misleading. A structure is capable of efficiently radiating electromagentic waves only when its dimensions are significant in comparison with the wavelength X. But in free space X = c/f, where c = velocity of light in vacuum (3 • 10X m/sec) and f = frequency in hertz (c/sec); therefore the wavelength at the power distribution frequency of 60 Hz, e.g., is 5000 km, guaranteeing that most available man-made structures are much smaller than one wavelength. The poor radiation efficiency of electrically small structures (i.e., structures whose largest linear dimension L