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Conversion Disorder - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References
 0497002973, 9780497002978, 9781417548101

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ICON Health Publications ICON Group International, Inc. 4370 La Jolla Village Drive, 4th Floor San Diego, CA 92122 USA Copyright ©2004 by ICON Group International, Inc. Copyright ©2004 by ICON Group International, Inc. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 4 5 3 2 1

Publisher, Health Care: Philip Parker, Ph.D. Editor(s): James Parker, M.D., Philip Parker, Ph.D. Publisher's note: The ideas, procedures, and suggestions contained in this book are not intended for the diagnosis or treatment of a health problem. As new medical or scientific information becomes available from academic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies may undergo changes. The authors, editors, and publisher have attempted to make the information in this book up to date and accurate in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of this book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised to always check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dosage and contraindications before prescribing any drug or pharmacological product. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs, herbal remedies, vitamins and supplements, alternative therapies, complementary therapies and medicines, and integrative medical treatments. Cataloging-in-Publication Data Parker, James N., 1961Parker, Philip M., 1960Conversion Disorder: A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References / James N. Parker and Philip M. Parker, editors p. cm. Includes bibliographical references, glossary, and index. ISBN: 0-497-00297-3 1. Conversion Disorder-Popular works. I. Title.


Disclaimer This publication is not intended to be used for the diagnosis or treatment of a health problem. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher, editors, and authors are not engaging in the rendering of medical, psychological, financial, legal, or other professional services. References to any entity, product, service, or source of information that may be contained in this publication should not be considered an endorsement, either direct or implied, by the publisher, editors, or authors. ICON Group International, Inc., the editors, and the authors are not responsible for the content of any Web pages or publications referenced in this publication.

Copyright Notice If a physician wishes to copy limited passages from this book for patient use, this right is automatically granted without written permission from ICON Group International, Inc. (ICON Group). However, all of ICON Group publications have copyrights. With exception to the above, copying our publications in whole or in part, for whatever reason, is a violation of copyright laws and can lead to penalties and fines. Should you want to copy tables, graphs, or other materials, please contact us to request permission (E-mail: [email protected]). ICON Group often grants permission for very limited reproduction of our publications for internal use, press releases, and academic research. Such reproduction requires confirmed permission from ICON Group International, Inc. The disclaimer above must accompany all reproductions, in whole or in part, of this book.


Acknowledgements The collective knowledge generated from academic and applied research summarized in various references has been critical in the creation of this book which is best viewed as a comprehensive compilation and collection of information prepared by various official agencies which produce publications on conversion disorder. Books in this series draw from various agencies and institutions associated with the United States Department of Health and Human Services, and in particular, the Office of the Secretary of Health and Human Services (OS), the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), the Administration on Aging (AOA), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Healthcare Financing Administration (HCFA), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Indian Health Service (IHS), the institutions of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Program Support Center (PSC), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). In addition to these sources, information gathered from the National Library of Medicine, the United States Patent Office, the European Union, and their related organizations has been invaluable in the creation of this book. Some of the work represented was financially supported by the Research and Development Committee at INSEAD. This support is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, special thanks are owed to Tiffany Freeman for her excellent editorial support.


About the Editors James N. Parker, M.D. Dr. James N. Parker received his Bachelor of Science degree in Psychobiology from the University of California, Riverside and his M.D. from the University of California, San Diego. In addition to authoring numerous research publications, he has lectured at various academic institutions. Dr. Parker is the medical editor for health books by ICON Health Publications. Philip M. Parker, Ph.D. Philip M. Parker is the Eli Lilly Chair Professor of Innovation, Business and Society at INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France and Singapore). Dr. Parker has also been Professor at the University of California, San Diego and has taught courses at Harvard University, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, and UCLA. Dr. Parker is the associate editor for ICON Health Publications.


About ICON Health Publications To discover more about ICON Health Publications, simply check with your preferred online booksellers, including Barnes& and which currently carry all of our titles. Or, feel free to contact us directly for bulk purchases or institutional discounts: ICON Group International, Inc. 4370 La Jolla Village Drive, Fourth Floor San Diego, CA 92122 USA Fax: 858-546-4341 Web site:


Table of Contents FORWARD .......................................................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1. STUDIES ON CONVERSION DISORDER ........................................................................... 3 Overview........................................................................................................................................ 3 Federally Funded Research on Conversion Disorder ..................................................................... 3 The National Library of Medicine: PubMed .................................................................................. 3 CHAPTER 2. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AND CONVERSION DISORDER .......................................... 17 Overview...................................................................................................................................... 17 National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.................................................. 17 Additional Web Resources ........................................................................................................... 20 General References ....................................................................................................................... 21 CHAPTER 3. BOOKS ON CONVERSION DISORDER ........................................................................... 23 Overview...................................................................................................................................... 23 Chapters on Conversion Disorder................................................................................................ 23 APPENDIX A. PHYSICIAN RESOURCES ............................................................................................ 27 Overview...................................................................................................................................... 27 NIH Guidelines............................................................................................................................ 27 NIH Databases............................................................................................................................. 29 Other Commercial Databases....................................................................................................... 31 APPENDIX B. PATIENT RESOURCES ................................................................................................. 33 Overview...................................................................................................................................... 33 Patient Guideline Sources............................................................................................................ 33 Finding Associations.................................................................................................................... 35 APPENDIX C. FINDING MEDICAL LIBRARIES .................................................................................. 37 Overview...................................................................................................................................... 37 Preparation................................................................................................................................... 37 Finding a Local Medical Library.................................................................................................. 37 Medical Libraries in the U.S. and Canada ................................................................................... 37 ONLINE GLOSSARIES.................................................................................................................. 43 Online Dictionary Directories ..................................................................................................... 44 CONVERSION DISORDER DICTIONARY.............................................................................. 45 INDEX ................................................................................................................................................ 53


FORWARD In March 2001, the National Institutes of Health issued the following warning: "The number of Web sites offering health-related resources grows every day. Many sites provide valuable information, while others may have information that is unreliable or misleading."1 Furthermore, because of the rapid increase in Internet-based information, many hours can be wasted searching, selecting, and printing. Since only the smallest fraction of information dealing with conversion disorder is indexed in search engines, such as or others, a non-systematic approach to Internet research can be not only time consuming, but also incomplete. This book was created for medical professionals, students, and members of the general public who want to know as much as possible about conversion disorder, using the most advanced research tools available and spending the least amount of time doing so. In addition to offering a structured and comprehensive bibliography, the pages that follow will tell you where and how to find reliable information covering virtually all topics related to conversion disorder, from the essentials to the most advanced areas of research. Public, academic, government, and peer-reviewed research studies are emphasized. Various abstracts are reproduced to give you some of the latest official information available to date on conversion disorder. Abundant guidance is given on how to obtain free-of-charge primary research results via the Internet. While this book focuses on the field of medicine, when some sources provide access to non-medical information relating to conversion disorder, these are noted in the text. E-book and electronic versions of this book are fully interactive with each of the Internet sites mentioned (clicking on a hyperlink automatically opens your browser to the site indicated). If you are using the hard copy version of this book, you can access a cited Web site by typing the provided Web address directly into your Internet browser. You may find it useful to refer to synonyms or related terms when accessing these Internet databases. NOTE: At the time of publication, the Web addresses were functional. However, some links may fail due to URL address changes, which is a common occurrence on the Internet. For readers unfamiliar with the Internet, detailed instructions are offered on how to access electronic resources. For readers unfamiliar with medical terminology, a comprehensive glossary is provided. For readers without access to Internet resources, a directory of medical libraries, that have or can locate references cited here, is given. We hope these resources will prove useful to the widest possible audience seeking information on conversion disorder. The Editors


From the NIH, National Cancer Institute (NCI):


CHAPTER 1. STUDIES ON CONVERSION DISORDER Overview In this chapter, we will show you how to locate peer-reviewed references and studies on conversion disorder.

Federally Funded Research on Conversion Disorder The U.S. Government supports a variety of research studies relating to conversion disorder. These studies are tracked by the Office of Extramural Research at the National Institutes of Health.2 CRISP (Computerized Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) is a searchable database of federally funded biomedical research projects conducted at universities, hospitals, and other institutions. Search the CRISP Web site at You will have the option to perform targeted searches by various criteria, including geography, date, and topics related to conversion disorder. For most of the studies, the agencies reporting into CRISP provide summaries or abstracts. As opposed to clinical trial research using patients, many federally funded studies use animals or simulated models to explore conversion disorder.

The National Library of Medicine: PubMed One of the quickest and most comprehensive ways to find academic studies in both English and other languages is to use PubMed, maintained by the National Library of Medicine.3 2 Healthcare projects are funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services (SAMHSA), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and Office of Assistant Secretary of Health (OASH). 3 PubMed was developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The PubMed database was developed in conjunction with publishers of biomedical literature as a search tool for accessing literature citations and linking to full-text


Conversion Disorder

The advantage of PubMed over previously mentioned sources is that it covers a greater number of domestic and foreign references. It is also free to use. If the publisher has a Web site that offers full text of its journals, PubMed will provide links to that site, as well as to sites offering other related data. User registration, a subscription fee, or some other type of fee may be required to access the full text of articles in some journals. To generate your own bibliography of studies dealing with conversion disorder, simply go to the PubMed Web site at Type “conversion disorder” (or synonyms) into the search box, and click “Go.” The following is the type of output you can expect from PubMed for conversion disorder (hyperlinks lead to article summaries): •

A 9-year-old with conversion disorder, successfully treated with psychoanalysis. Author(s): Milrod B. Source: The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. 2002 June; 83(Pt 3): 623-31. bstract&list_uids=12088560

Addison's disease initially diagnosed as bereavement and conversion disorder. Author(s): Demilio L, Dackis CA, Gold MS, Ehrenkranz JR. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1984 December; 141(12): 1647-8. bstract&list_uids=6507679

Associated features of conversion disorder in Turkish adolescents. Author(s): Ercan ES, Varan A, VeznedaroGlu B. Source: Pediatrics International : Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 2003 April; 45(2): 150-5. bstract&list_uids=12709139

Behavioral management of conversion disorder in children. Author(s): Gooch JL, Wolcott R, Speed J. Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1997 March; 78(3): 264-8. bstract&list_uids=9084347

Behavioral management of conversion disorder: retrospective study. Author(s): Speed J. Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1996 February; 77(2): 147-54. bstract&list_uids=8607738

Behavioral treatment of conversion disorder in adolescence. A case example of Globus Hystericus. Author(s): Donohue B, Thevenin DM, Runyon MK. Source: Behavior Modification. 1997 April; 21(2): 231-51. bstract&list_uids=9086868

journal articles at Web sites of participating publishers. Publishers that participate in PubMed supply NLM with their citations electronically prior to or at the time of publication.



Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult. Author(s): Weinman B, Haydon S, Sapan J. Source: J Ment Defic Res. 1990 December; 34 ( Pt 6): 501-8. bstract&list_uids=2127607

Briquet's syndrome (hysteria) is both a somatoform and a "psychoform" illness: a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory study. Author(s): Wetzel RD, Guze SB, Cloninger CR, Martin RL, Clayton PJ. Source: Psychosomatic Medicine. 1994 November-December; 56(6): 564-9. bstract&list_uids=7871113

Case study: negative reinforcement and behavioral management of conversion disorder. Author(s): Campo JV, Negrini BJ. Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2000 June; 39(6): 787-90. bstract&list_uids=10846314

Cerebral blood flow changes in patients with conversion disorder. Author(s): Yazici KM, Kostakoglu L. Source: Psychiatry Research. 1998 September 28; 83(3): 163-8. bstract&list_uids=9849725

Clinical characteristics of patients with motor disability due to conversion disorder: a prospective control group study. Author(s): Binzer M, Andersen PM, Kullgren G. Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1997 July; 63(1): 83-8. bstract&list_uids=9221972

Clinical features of conversion disorder. Author(s): Grattan-Smith P, Fairley M, Procopis P. Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1988 April; 63(4): 408-14. bstract&list_uids=3365011


Conversion Disorder

Clinical study of the relation of borderline personality disorder to Briquet's syndrome (hysteria), somatization disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance abuse disorders. Author(s): Hudziak JJ, Boffeli TJ, Kreisman JJ, Battaglia MM, Stanger C, Guze SB, Kriesman JJ. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996 December; 153(12): 1598-606. Erratum In: Am J Psychiatry 1997 January; 154(1): 139. Kriesman Jj[corrected to Kreisman Jj]. bstract&list_uids=8942457

Cognitive impairment related to conversion disorder: a two-year follow-up study. Author(s): Liberini P, Faglia L, Salvi F, Grant RP. Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1993 May; 181(5): 325-7. bstract&list_uids=8501450

Conversion disorder (DSM-III 300.11): symptomatology and course in childhood and adolescence. Author(s): Lehmkuhl G, Blanz B, Lehmkuhl U, Braun-Scharm H. Source: Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 1989; 238(3): 155-60. bstract&list_uids=2721533

Conversion disorder after implant of a spinal cord stimulator in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome. Author(s): Parisod E, Murray RF, Cousins MJ. Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2003 January; 96(1): 201-6, Table of Contents. bstract&list_uids=12505953

Conversion disorder after maxillofacial trauma and surgery. Author(s): Blinder D, Rotenberg L, Taicher S. Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 1996 April; 25(2): 116-8. bstract&list_uids=8727582

Conversion disorder and calcium homeostasis. Author(s): Venter EK, Lange G, Kruger C, Meyer BJ. Source: South African Medical Journal. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde. 2002 December; 92(12): 970-1. bstract&list_uids=12561412

Conversion disorder and its subtypes: a need for a reclassification. Author(s): Guz H, Doganay Z, Ozkan A, Colak E, Tomac A, Sarisoy G. Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 57(5): 377-81. bstract&list_uids=14522603



Conversion disorder and multiple chemical sensitivity: a comparative study of psychological defense strategies. Author(s): Henningsson M, Sundbom E. Source: Percept Mot Skills. 2000 December; 91(3 Pt 1): 803-18. bstract&list_uids=11153853

Conversion disorder following termination of pregnancy. Author(s): Tollefson GD, Garvey MJ. Source: The Journal of Family Practice. 1983 January; 16(1): 73-7. bstract&list_uids=6848639

Conversion disorder in an adult incest survivor. Author(s): Hendricks-Matthews M. Source: The Journal of Family Practice. 1991 September; 33(3): 298-300. bstract&list_uids=1880489

Conversion disorder in childhood. Author(s): Kumar S. Source: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2004 February; 97(2): 98. bstract&list_uids=14749416

Conversion disorder in childhood--diagnosed too late, investigated too much? Author(s): Leary PM. Source: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2003 September; 96(9): 436-8. Review. bstract&list_uids=12949198

Conversion disorder in children and adolescents: a 4-year follow-up study. Author(s): Pehlivanturk B, Unal F. Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2002 April; 52(4): 187-91. bstract&list_uids=11943237

Conversion disorder in children and adolescents: clinical features and comorbidity with depressive and anxiety disorders. Author(s): Pehlivanturk B, Unal F. Source: Turk J Pediatr. 2000 April-June; 42(2): 132-7. bstract&list_uids=10936979

Conversion disorder presenting as a head injury. Author(s): Poyner FE, Pritty PE. Source: Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine. 1997 July; 14(4): 263-4. bstract&list_uids=9248922


Conversion Disorder

Conversion disorder presenting as gait disturbance in an adolescent. Author(s): Quane T, Chambers CV, Snyderman D. Source: Archives of Family Medicine. 1995 September; 4(9): 805-7. bstract&list_uids=7647948

Conversion disorder presenting as primary fibromyalgia. Author(s): Macciocchi SN. Source: Psychosomatics. 1993 May-June; 34(3): 267-70. bstract&list_uids=8493310

Conversion disorder presenting in a patient with an implantable morphine pump and an epidural abscess resulting in paraplegia. Author(s): Shell MG, Mitchell HL, Loes MW, Belan AP. Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1997 February; 78(2): 226-9. bstract&list_uids=9041907

Conversion disorder revisited. Author(s): Sharma P, Chaturvedi SK. Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1995 October; 92(4): 301-4. bstract&list_uids=8848956

Conversion disorder revisited: severe parasomnia discovered. Author(s): Bokey K. Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 1993 December; 27(4): 694-8. bstract&list_uids=8135695

Conversion disorder with pseudohallucinations. Author(s): Reisman B, Servis M. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996 June; 153(6): 838. bstract&list_uids=8633703

Conversion disorder with pseudoseizures in adolescence: a stress reaction to unrecognized and untreated learning disabilities. Author(s): Silver LB. Source: J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1982 September; 21(5): 508-12. No Abstract Available. bstract&list_uids=7130563



Conversion disorder. Camouflage for brain lesions in two cases. Author(s): Jones JB, Barklage NE. Source: Archives of Internal Medicine. 1990 June; 150(6): 1343-5. bstract&list_uids=2162157

Conversion disorder: a developmental response to stress in adolescence? Author(s): Hryhorczuk LL. Source: Psychosomatics. 1981 July; 22(7): 636-8. bstract&list_uids=7267953

Conversion disorder: difficulties in diagnosis using DSM-IV/ICD-10. Author(s): Syed EU, Atiq R, Effendi S, Mehmud S. Source: J Pak Med Assoc. 2001 April; 51(4): 143-5. bstract&list_uids=11759495

Corticospinal function in conversion disorder. Author(s): Foong J, Ridding M, Cope H, Marsden CD, Ron MA. Source: The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1997 Spring; 9(2): 302-3. bstract&list_uids=9144115

Deception or misinterpretation in case of a conversion disorder? Author(s): Sevinc A. Source: Lancet. 2003 November 15; 362(9396): 1679-80. bstract&list_uids=14630461

Diagnosis and management of psychogenic stridor caused by a conversion disorder. Author(s): Geist R, Tallett SE. Source: Pediatrics. 1990 August; 86(2): 315-7. bstract&list_uids=2371109

Diagnostic issues for conversion disorder. Author(s): Martin RL. Source: Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1992 August; 43(8): 771-3. No Abstract Available. bstract&list_uids=1427673

Differential diagnosis and treatment of conversion disorder and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Author(s): Wherry JN, McMillan SL, Hutchison HT. Source: Clinical Pediatrics. 1991 October; 30(10): 578-82, 585. bstract&list_uids=1934840


Conversion Disorder

Dissociative disorder, conversion disorder and the use of abreaction in a 22 year old male. Author(s): Chancellor AM. Source: N Z Med J. 1982 June 23; 95(710): 418-9. No Abstract Available. bstract&list_uids=6955663

Dissociative disorders in Turkish inpatients with conversion disorder. Author(s): Tezcan E, Atmaca M, Kuloglu M, Gecici O, Buyukbayram A, Tutkun H. Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2003 July-August; 44(4): 324-30. bstract&list_uids=12923711

Distinguishing conversion disorder from neurologic impairment. Author(s): Parobek VM. Source: The Journal of Neuroscience Nursing : Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses. 1997 April; 29(2): 128-34. Review. bstract&list_uids=9140848

Dividing "hysteria": a preliminary investigation of conversion disorder and psychalgia. Author(s): Bishop ER Jr, Torch EM. Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1979 June; 167(6): 348-56. bstract&list_uids=448337

DSM-III-R conversion disorder and the unconscious. Author(s): Good MI. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1988 September; 145(9): 1177. bstract&list_uids=3414864

Emergency department presentation of patients with conversion disorder. Author(s): Dula DJ, DeNaples L. Source: Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 1995 February; 2(2): 120-3. bstract&list_uids=7621217

Factitious illness v conversion disorder. Author(s): Young LD, Harsch HH. Source: Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association. 1983 June 24; 249(24): 3304-5. bstract&list_uids=6854863



Genetics of Briquet's syndrome and somatization disorder. A review of family, adoption, and twin studies. Author(s): Guze SB. Source: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists. 1993 December; 5(4): 225-30. Review. bstract&list_uids=8312979

Guillain-Barre misdiagnosed as conversion disorder. Author(s): Edelsohn G. Source: Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1982 September; 33(9): 766-7. No Abstract Available. bstract&list_uids=7129394

Hoarseness after cardiac operations: vocal cord paralysis or a conversion disorder? Author(s): Tovar EA. Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1996 October; 62(4): 1237. bstract&list_uids=8823130

Hyperemesis gravidarum as conversion disorder. Author(s): el-Mallakh RS, Liebowitz NR, Hale MS. Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1990 October; 178(10): 655-9. bstract&list_uids=2230751

Hysterical conversion disorder in a young girl at moderate altitude. Author(s): Dumont L, Lysakowski C, Mardirosoff C. Source: Wilderness Environ Med. 2002 Spring; 13(1): 51-2. No Abstract Available. bstract&list_uids=11929064

Illness behavior in the acute phase of motor disability in neurological disease and in conversion disorder: a comparative study. Author(s): Binzer M, Eisemann M, Kullgren G. Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1998 June; 44(6): 657-66. bstract&list_uids=9678747

Inpatient treatment of conversion disorder: a clinical investigation of outcome. Author(s): Krull F, Schifferdecker M. Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 1990; 53(1-4): 161-5. bstract&list_uids=2290893


Conversion Disorder

Is conversion disorder biologically related with depression?: a DST study. Author(s): Tunca Z, Fidaner H, Cimilli C, Kaya N, Biber B, Yesil S, Ozerdem A. Source: Biological Psychiatry. 1996 February 1; 39(3): 216-9. bstract&list_uids=8837984

Lower extremity paralysis after operative laparoscopy from conversion disorder. A case report. Author(s): Berhane L, Kurman R, Smith S. Source: J Reprod Med. 1998 September; 43(9): 831-5. bstract&list_uids=9777625

Management of conversion disorder. Author(s): Silver FW. Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists. 1996 March-April; 75(2): 134-40. bstract&list_uids=8630194

Metaphor and meaning in conversion disorder: a brief active therapy. Author(s): Viederman M. Source: Psychosomatic Medicine. 1995 July-August; 57(4): 403-9. bstract&list_uids=7480571

Misdiagnosis of conversion disorder. Author(s): Stone J, Zeidler M, Sharpe M. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 February; 160(2): 391; Author Reply 391-2. bstract&list_uids=12562606

Motor conversion disorder. A prospective 2- to 5-year follow-up study. Author(s): Binzer M, Kullgren G. Source: Psychosomatics. 1998 November-December; 39(6): 519-27. bstract&list_uids=9819952

Myeloneuropathy from whipped cream bulbs presenting as conversion disorder. Author(s): Brett A. Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 1997 February; 31(1): 131-2. bstract&list_uids=9088497



Organic syndromes diagnosed as conversion disorder: identification and frequency in a study of 85 patients. Author(s): Moene FC, Landberg EH, Hoogduin KA, Spinhoven P, Hertzberger LI, Kleyweg RP, Weeda J. Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2000 July; 49(1): 7-12. bstract&list_uids=11053598

Outcome in conversion disorder: a follow up study. Author(s): Couprie W, Wijdicks EF, Rooijmans HG, van Gijn J. Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1995 June; 58(6): 750-2. bstract&list_uids=7608683

Palilalia as a conversion disorder. Author(s): Al-Samarrai SH, Kramer E, Newmark T. Source: Psychosomatics. 2001 May-June; 42(3): 277-9. bstract&list_uids=11351121

Pediatric management problem: conversion disorder. Author(s): Mead JD. Source: Pediatric Nursing. 1985 January-February; 11(1): 57-9. bstract&list_uids=3844720

Polysymptomatic conversion disorder in childhood and adolescence in Japan. Early manifestation or incomplete form of somatization disorder? Author(s): Murase S, Sugiyama T, Ishii T, Wakako R, Ohta T. Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2000 May-June; 69(3): 132-6. bstract&list_uids=10773777

Pseudodystrophy. A conversion disorder mimicking reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Author(s): Driessens M, Blockx P, Geuens G, Dijs H, Verheyen G, Stassijns G. Source: Acta Orthop Belg. 2002 October; 68(4): 330-6. bstract&list_uids=12415933

Reevaluation of serum cortisol in conversion disorder with seizure (pseudoseizure) Author(s): Tunca Z, Ergene U, Fidaner H, Cimilli C, Ozerdem A, Alkin T, Aslan BU. Source: Psychosomatics. 2000 March-April; 41(2): 152-3. bstract&list_uids=10749955


Conversion Disorder

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy in a 12-year-old twin with comorbid conversion disorder in both twins. Author(s): Jaworowski S, Allen RC, Finkelstein E. Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 1998 December; 34(6): 581-3. bstract&list_uids=9928655

Reversible cognitive impairment related to conversion disorder. Author(s): Mace CJ. Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1994 March; 182(3): 186-7. bstract&list_uids=8113780

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with conversion disorder in Eastern Turkey. Author(s): Kuloglu M, Atmaca M, Tezcan E, Gecici O, Bulut S. Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2003 February; 38(2): 88-93. bstract&list_uids=12563551

Somatic therapy for conversion disorder. Author(s): Lazarus A. Source: Psychosomatics. 1990 Summer; 31(3): 357-8. bstract&list_uids=2388991

Suspected conversion disorder: foreseeable risks and avoidable errors. Author(s): Glick TH, Workman TP, Gaufberg SV. Source: Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2000 November; 7(11): 1272-7. bstract&list_uids=11073477

Ten-year prognosis of conversion disorder. Author(s): Mace CJ, Trimble MR. Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry; the Journal of Mental Science. 1996 September; 169(3): 282-8. bstract&list_uids=8879713

Tetanus, pseudotetanus, or conversion disorder: a diagnostic dilemma? Author(s): Barnes V, Ware MR. Source: Southern Medical Journal. 1993 May; 86(5): 591-2. bstract&list_uids=8488415



The "on-off" syndrome presenting as a conversion disorder. Author(s): Ross DR, Coffey CE, Walker JI. Source: Psychosomatics. 1981 September; 22(9): 812, 817, 821. bstract&list_uids=7313061

The differentiation of vomiting/weight loss as a conversion disorder from anorexia nervosa. Author(s): Garfinkel PE, Kaplan AS, Garner DM, Darby PL. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1983 August; 140(8): 1019-22. bstract&list_uids=6869584

The misdiagnosis of conversion disorder in a psychiatric emergency service. Author(s): Fishbain DA, Goldberg M. Source: General Hospital Psychiatry. 1991 May; 13(3): 177-81. bstract&list_uids=1855657

The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder. Author(s): Roelofs K, Naring GW, Moene FC, Hoogduin CA. Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2000 July; 49(1): 21-5. bstract&list_uids=11053600

The use of contingent reinforcement in the treatment of a conversion disorder: a multiple baseline study. Author(s): Mizes JS. Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 1985 December; 16(4): 341-5. bstract&list_uids=4086655

The validity of broadly defined hysteria and DSM-III conversion disorder: outcome, family history, and mortality. Author(s): Coryell W, House D. Source: The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1984 June; 45(6): 252-6. bstract&list_uids=6725217

Treatment outcome for children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Author(s): Turgay A. Source: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 1990 October; 35(7): 585-9. bstract&list_uids=2268836


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Unusual presentation of a child with conversion disorder. Author(s): al Jeshi A, Saleh F, al Shawaf N. Source: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 1998 February; 43(1): 83. bstract&list_uids=9494752

Visual conversion disorder: a case analysis of the influence of visual information. Author(s): Bryant RA, McConkey KM. Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1989 August; 98(3): 326-9. bstract&list_uids=2768670

What is wrong in conversion disorder? Author(s): Ovsiew F. Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 2003 May; 74(5): 557. bstract&list_uids=12700288


CHAPTER 2. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AND CONVERSION DISORDER Overview In this chapter, we will begin by introducing you to official information sources on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) relating to conversion disorder. At the conclusion of this chapter, we will provide additional sources.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the National Institutes of Health ( has created a link to the National Library of Medicine’s databases to facilitate research for articles that specifically relate to conversion disorder and complementary medicine. To search the database, go to the following Web site: Select “CAM on PubMed.” Enter “conversion disorder” (or synonyms) into the search box. Click “Go.” The following references provide information on particular aspects of complementary and alternative medicine that are related to conversion disorder: •

“Conversion reactions” in adolescents: a biofeedback-based operant approach. Author(s): Klonoff EA, Moore DJ. Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 1986 September; 17(3): 179-84. bstract&list_uids=3760226

“El duende” and other incubi. Suggestive interactions between culture, the devil, and the brain. Author(s): Leon CA. Source: Archives of General Psychiatry. 1975 February; 32(2): 155-62. bstract&list_uids=1115564


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A case of bilateral ptosis with unsteady gait: suggestibility and culture in conversion disorder. Author(s): Al-Sharbati MM, Viernes N, Al-Hussaini A, Zaidan ZA, Chand P, Al-Adawi S. Source: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 2001; 31(2): 225-32. bstract&list_uids=11760865

A randomised controlled clinical trial on the additional effect of hypnosis in a comprehensive treatment programme for in-patients with conversion disorder of the motor type. Author(s): Moene FC, Spinhoven P, Hoogduin KA, van Dyck R. Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2002 March-April; 71(2): 66-76. bstract&list_uids=11844942

A randomized controlled clinical trial of a hypnosis-based treatment for patients with conversion disorder, motor type. Author(s): Moene FC, Spinhoven P, Hoogduin KA, van Dyck R. Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2003 January; 51(1): 29-50. bstract&list_uids=12825917

Cancer, psychosomatic illness, and hysteria. Author(s): Meares A. Source: Lancet. 1981 November 7; 2(8254): 1037-8. bstract&list_uids=6118489

Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder. Author(s): Roelofs K, Keijsers GP, Hoogduin KA, Naring GW, Moene FC. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002 November; 159(11): 1908-13. bstract&list_uids=12411227

Conversion disorder presenting as multiple sclerosis. Author(s): Russo MB, Brooks FR, Fontenot J, Dopler BM, Neely ET, Halliday AW. Source: Military Medicine. 1998 October; 163(10): 709-10. bstract&list_uids=9795550

Conversion disorder: a case report of treatment with the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanastic healing ceremony. Author(s): Razali SM. Source: European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists. 1999 December; 14(8): 470-2. bstract&list_uids=10683634

Alternative Medicine 19

Conversion disorders: an overview. Author(s): Ford CV, Folks DG. Source: Psychosomatics. 1985 May; 26(5): 371-4, 380-3. bstract&list_uids=2581282

Emergency room management of conversion disorders. Author(s): Swartz MS, McCracken J. Source: Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1986 August; 37(8): 828-32. bstract&list_uids=3733015

Functional electric stimulation in the reversal of conversion disorder paralysis. Author(s): Khalil TM, Abdel-Moty E, Asfour SS, Fishbain DA, Rosomoff RS, Rosomoff HL. Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1988 July; 69(7): 545-7. bstract&list_uids=3260476

Hypnosis and conversion disorders. Author(s): Van Dyck R, Hoogduin K. Source: American Journal of Psychotherapy. 1989 October; 43(4): 480-93. Review. bstract&list_uids=2694843

Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder. Author(s): Roelofs K, Hoogduin KA, Keijsers GP, Naring GW, Moene FC, Sandijck P. Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2002 May; 111(2): 390-5. bstract&list_uids=12003460

Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders. Author(s): Foong J, Lucas PA, Ron MA. Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1997 September; 43(3): 317-21. bstract&list_uids=9304557

Lorazepam in the treatment of acute conversion disorder. Author(s): Stevens CB. Source: Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1990 November; 41(11): 1255-7. No Abstract Available. bstract&list_uids=2249809

Reversal of Urinary tract diversion after recovery from hysterical conversion reaction. Author(s): Frentz GD, Wilcox ME, Epstein AW. Source: Southern Medical Journal. 1981 September; 74(9): 1158-9. bstract&list_uids=7280770


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The creative use of unexpected responses in the hypnotherapy of patients with conversion disorders. Author(s): Moene FC, Hoogduin KA. Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1999 July; 47(3): 209-26. Review. bstract&list_uids=10616255

The misdiagnosis of conversion disorder in a psychiatric emergency service. Author(s): Rosenbaum M, McCarty T. Source: General Hospital Psychiatry. 1992 March; 14(2): 145-8. bstract&list_uids=1592252

The voluntary control of motor imagery. Imagined movements in individuals with feigned motor impairment and conversion disorder. Author(s): Maruff P, Velakoulis D. Source: Neuropsychologia. 2000; 38(9): 1251-60. bstract&list_uids=10865101

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the reversal of motor conversion disorder. Author(s): Schonfeldt-Lecuona C, Connemann BJ, Spitzer M, Herwig U. Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2003 September-October; 72(5): 286-8. bstract&list_uids=12920333

Treating adolescent conversion disorders: are hypnotic techniques reusable? Author(s): Bloom PB. Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2001 July; 49(3): 243-56. bstract&list_uids=11430158

Treatment of conversion disorder in an African American Christian woman: cultural and social considerations. Author(s): Schwartz AC, Calhoun AW, Eschbach CL, Seelig BJ. Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001 September; 158(9): 1385-91. bstract&list_uids=11532721

Additional Web Resources A number of additional Web sites offer encyclopedic information covering CAM and related topics. The following is a representative sample: •

Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc.:


Chinese Medicine:®:

Alternative Medicine 21

Family Village:




Open Directory Project:



The following is a specific Web list relating to conversion disorder; please note that any particular subject below may indicate either a therapeutic use, or a contraindication (potential danger), and does not reflect an official recommendation: •

General Overview Hypochondriasis Source: Integrative Medicine Communications;

General References A good place to find general background information on CAM is the National Library of Medicine. It has prepared within the MEDLINEplus system an information topic page dedicated to complementary and alternative medicine. To access this page, go to the MEDLINEplus site at This Web site provides a general overview of various topics and can lead to a number of general sources.


CHAPTER 3. BOOKS ON CONVERSION DISORDER Overview This chapter provides bibliographic book references relating to conversion disorder. In addition to online booksellers such as and, excellent sources for book titles on conversion disorder include the Combined Health Information Database and the National Library of Medicine. Your local medical library also may have these titles available for loan.

Chapters on Conversion Disorder In order to find chapters that specifically relate to conversion disorder, an excellent source of abstracts is the Combined Health Information Database. You will need to limit your search to book chapters and conversion disorder using the “Detailed Search” option. Go to the following hyperlink: To find book chapters, use the drop boxes at the bottom of the search page where “You may refine your search by.” Select the dates and language you prefer, and the format option “Book Chapter.” Type “conversion disorder” (or synonyms) into the “For these words:” box. The following is a typical result when searching for book chapters on conversion disorder: •

Neuropsychobiological Interferences with Vocal Ability Source: in Thurman, L. and Welch, G., eds. Bodymind and Voice: Foundations of Voice Education, Volumes 1-3. 2nd ed. Collegeville, MN: VoiceCare Network. 2000. p. 586-597. Contact: Available from National Center for Voice and Speech (NCVS). Book Sales, 334 Speech and Hearing Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Website: PRICE: $75.00 plus shipping and handling. ISBN: 0874141230. Summary: This chapter on neuropsychobiological interferences with vocal ability is from a multi-volume text that brings a biopsychosocial approach to the study of the voice. The authors use the phrase 'bodyminds' to describe the interrelationship of perception, memory, learning, behavior, and health, as they combine to affect all environmental interactions, adaptations, and learning. The books are written for teachers, voice professionals, people who use their voices on an avocational basis, and interested members of the general public. This chapter emphasizes that the


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neuromusculoskeletal processes of the respiratory system, the larynx, and the vocal tract articulators are very responsive to emotional distress. A kind of binding or holding occurs that, at best, produces inefficient voice use; at worst, considerable dysphonia or aphonia can occur. These voice changes can result from such severe psychosocial distresses as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and other intense or prolonged distressful life experiences. Skillfully tapping into the verbal and nonverbal communication capabilities of human beings, certainly including vocal capabilities, can be use as one entry into psychotherapeutic treatment of people who are experiencing such life challenges. Topics include neuropsychobiological stress reaction and its consequences, voice disorders, stress related to surgery, the effects of stress on vocalization, performance anxiety, stress inoculation and stress busters, general psychogenic voice disorders (conversion disorder, globus symptom, self image bound disorders, mutational falsetto, psychological orientation), and drugs that can produce a chemical dependency. 144 references.




APPENDIX A. PHYSICIAN RESOURCES Overview In this chapter, we focus on databases and Internet-based guidelines and information resources created or written for a professional audience.

NIH Guidelines Commonly referred to as “clinical” or “professional” guidelines, the National Institutes of Health publish physician guidelines for the most common diseases. Publications are available at the following by relevant Institute4: •

Office of the Director (OD); guidelines consolidated across agencies available at

National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS); fact sheets available at

National Library of Medicine (NLM); extensive encyclopedia (A.D.A.M., Inc.) with guidelines:

National Cancer Institute (NCI); guidelines available at

National Eye Institute (NEI); guidelines available at

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); guidelines available at

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI); research available at

National Institute on Aging (NIA); guidelines available at


These publications are typically written by one or more of the various NIH Institutes.


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National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA); guidelines available at

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); guidelines available at

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS); fact sheets and guidelines available at

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); guidelines available at

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD); fact sheets and guidelines at

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR); guidelines available at

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK); guidelines available at

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA); guidelines available at

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); environmental health information available at

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); guidelines available at

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS); neurological disorder information pages available at

National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR); publications on selected illnesses at

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; general information at

Center for Information Technology (CIT); referrals to other agencies based on keyword searches available at

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM); health information available at

National Center for Research Resources (NCRR); various information directories available at

Office of Rare Diseases; various fact sheets available at

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; various fact sheets on infectious diseases available at

Physician Resources


NIH Databases In addition to the various Institutes of Health that publish professional guidelines, the NIH has designed a number of databases for professionals.5 Physician-oriented resources provide a wide variety of information related to the biomedical and health sciences, both past and present. The format of these resources varies. Searchable databases, bibliographic citations, full-text articles (when available), archival collections, and images are all available. The following are referenced by the National Library of Medicine:6 •

Bioethics: Access to published literature on the ethical, legal, and public policy issues surrounding healthcare and biomedical research. This information is provided in conjunction with the Kennedy Institute of Ethics located at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.:

HIV/AIDS Resources: Describes various links and databases dedicated to HIV/AIDS research:

NLM Online Exhibitions: Describes “Exhibitions in the History of Medicine”: Additional resources for historical scholarship in medicine:

Biotechnology Information: Access to public databases. The National Center for Biotechnology Information conducts research in computational biology, develops software tools for analyzing genome data, and disseminates biomedical information for the better understanding of molecular processes affecting human health and disease:

Population Information: The National Library of Medicine provides access to worldwide coverage of population, family planning, and related health issues, including family planning technology and programs, fertility, and population law and policy:

Cancer Information: Access to cancer-oriented databases:

Profiles in Science: Offering the archival collections of prominent twentieth-century biomedical scientists to the public through modern digital technology:

Chemical Information: Provides links to various chemical databases and references:

Clinical Alerts: Reports the release of findings from the NIH-funded clinical trials where such release could significantly affect morbidity and mortality:

Space Life Sciences: Provides links and information to space-based research (including NASA):

MEDLINE: Bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the healthcare system, and the pre-clinical sciences:


Remember, for the general public, the National Library of Medicine recommends the databases referenced in MEDLINEplus ( or 6 See


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Toxicology and Environmental Health Information (TOXNET): Databases covering toxicology and environmental health:

Visible Human Interface: Anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of normal male and female human bodies:

The NLM Gateway7 The NLM (National Library of Medicine) Gateway is a Web-based system that lets users search simultaneously in multiple retrieval systems at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It allows users of NLM services to initiate searches from one Web interface, providing one-stop searching for many of NLM’s information resources or databases.8 To use the NLM Gateway, simply go to the search site at Type “conversion disorder” (or synonyms) into the search box and click “Search.” The results will be presented in a tabular form, indicating the number of references in each database category. Results Summary Category Journal Articles Books / Periodicals / Audio Visual Consumer Health Meeting Abstracts Other Collections Total

Items Found 3384 17 693 0 187 4281

HSTAT9 HSTAT is a free, Web-based resource that provides access to full-text documents used in healthcare decision-making.10 These documents include clinical practice guidelines, quickreference guides for clinicians, consumer health brochures, evidence reports and technology assessments from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), as well as AHRQ’s Put Prevention Into Practice.11 Simply search by “conversion disorder” (or synonyms) at the following Web site:


Adapted from NLM:


The NLM Gateway is currently being developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications (LHNCBC) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 9 Adapted from HSTAT: 10 11


Other important documents in HSTAT include: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference Reports and Technology Assessment Reports; the HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service (ATIS) resource documents; the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (SAMHSA/CSAT) Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIP) and Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (SAMHSA/CSAP) Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS); the Public Health Service (PHS) Preventive Services Task Force's Guide to Clinical Preventive Services; the independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community Services’ Guide to Community Preventive Services; and the Health Technology Advisory Committee (HTAC) of the Minnesota Health Care Commission (MHCC) health technology evaluations.

Physician Resources


Coffee Break: Tutorials for Biologists12 Coffee Break is a general healthcare site that takes a scientific view of the news and covers recent breakthroughs in biology that may one day assist physicians in developing treatments. Here you will find a collection of short reports on recent biological discoveries. Each report incorporates interactive tutorials that demonstrate how bioinformatics tools are used as a part of the research process. Currently, all Coffee Breaks are written by NCBI staff.13 Each report is about 400 words and is usually based on a discovery reported in one or more articles from recently published, peer-reviewed literature.14 This site has new articles every few weeks, so it can be considered an online magazine of sorts. It is intended for general background information. You can access the Coffee Break Web site at the following hyperlink:

Other Commercial Databases In addition to resources maintained by official agencies, other databases exist that are commercial ventures addressing medical professionals. Here are some examples that may interest you: •

CliniWeb International: Index and table of contents to selected clinical information on the Internet; see

Medical World Search: Searches full text from thousands of selected medical sites on the Internet; see

12 Adapted 13


The figure that accompanies each article is frequently supplied by an expert external to NCBI, in which case the source of the figure is cited. The result is an interactive tutorial that tells a biological story. 14 After a brief introduction that sets the work described into a broader context, the report focuses on how a molecular understanding can provide explanations of observed biology and lead to therapies for diseases. Each vignette is accompanied by a figure and hypertext links that lead to a series of pages that interactively show how NCBI tools and resources are used in the research process.


APPENDIX B. PATIENT RESOURCES Overview Official agencies, as well as federally funded institutions supported by national grants, frequently publish a variety of guidelines written with the patient in mind. These are typically called “Fact Sheets” or “Guidelines.” They can take the form of a brochure, information kit, pamphlet, or flyer. Often they are only a few pages in length. Since new guidelines on conversion disorder can appear at any moment and be published by a number of sources, the best approach to finding guidelines is to systematically scan the Internetbased services that post them.

Patient Guideline Sources The remainder of this chapter directs you to sources which either publish or can help you find additional guidelines on topics related to conversion disorder. Due to space limitations, these sources are listed in a concise manner. Do not hesitate to consult the following sources by either using the Internet hyperlink provided, or, in cases where the contact information is provided, contacting the publisher or author directly. The National Institutes of Health The NIH gateway to patients is located at From this site, you can search across various sources and institutes, a number of which are summarized below. Topic Pages: MEDLINEplus The National Library of Medicine has created a vast and patient-oriented healthcare information portal called MEDLINEplus. Within this Internet-based system are “health topic pages” which list links to available materials relevant to conversion disorder. To access this system, log on to From there you can either search using the alphabetical index or browse by broad topic areas. Recently, MEDLINEplus listed the following when searched for “conversion disorder”:


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Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity ml Bipolar Disorder Child Mental Health Ear Infections Hearing Disorders and Deafness Hearing Problems in Children Mental Health Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Panic Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Speech and Communication Disorders Tourette Syndrome You may also choose to use the search utility provided by MEDLINEplus at the following Web address: Simply type a keyword into the search box and click “Search.” This utility is similar to the NIH search utility, with the exception that it only includes materials that are linked within the MEDLINEplus system (mostly patient-oriented information). It also has the disadvantage of generating unstructured results. We recommend, therefore, that you use this method only if you have a very targeted search. The NIH Search Utility The NIH search utility allows you to search for documents on over 100 selected Web sites that comprise the NIH-WEB-SPACE. Each of these servers is “crawled” and indexed on an ongoing basis. Your search will produce a list of various documents, all of which will relate in some way to conversion disorder. The drawbacks of this approach are that the information is not organized by theme and that the references are often a mix of information for professionals and patients. Nevertheless, a large number of the listed Web sites provide useful background information. We can only recommend this route, therefore, for relatively rare or specific disorders, or when using highly targeted searches. To use the NIH search utility, visit the following Web page:

Patient Resources


Additional Web Sources A number of Web sites are available to the public that often link to government sites. These can also point you in the direction of essential information. The following is a representative sample: •


Family Village:


Med Help International:

Open Directory Project:


Finding Associations There are several Internet directories that provide lists of medical associations with information on or resources relating to conversion disorder. By consulting all of associations listed in this chapter, you will have nearly exhausted all sources for patient associations concerned with conversion disorder. The National Health Information Center (NHIC) The National Health Information Center (NHIC) offers a free referral service to help people find organizations that provide information about conversion disorder. For more information, see the NHIC’s Web site at or contact an information specialist by calling 1-800-336-4797. Directory of Health Organizations The Directory of Health Organizations, provided by the National Library of Medicine Specialized Information Services, is a comprehensive source of information on associations. The Directory of Health Organizations database can be accessed via the Internet at It is composed of two parts: DIRLINE and Health Hotlines. The DIRLINE database comprises some 10,000 records of organizations, research centers, and government institutes and associations that primarily focus on health and biomedicine. To access DIRLINE directly, go to the following Web site: Simply type in “conversion disorder” (or a synonym), and you will receive information on all relevant organizations listed in the database. Health Hotlines directs you to toll-free numbers to over 300 organizations. You can access this database directly at On this page, you are given


Conversion Disorder

the option to search by keyword or by browsing the subject list. When you have received your search results, click on the name of the organization for its description and contact information. The Combined Health Information Database Another comprehensive source of information on healthcare associations is the Combined Health Information Database. Using the “Detailed Search” option, you will need to limit your search to “Organizations” and “conversion disorder”. Type the following hyperlink into your Web browser: To find associations, use the drop boxes at the bottom of the search page where “You may refine your search by.” For publication date, select “All Years.” Then, select your preferred language and the format option “Organization Resource Sheet.” Type “conversion disorder” (or synonyms) into the “For these words:” box. You should check back periodically with this database since it is updated every three months. The National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. The National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. has prepared a Web site that provides, at no charge, lists of associations organized by health topic. You can access this database at the following Web site: Type “conversion disorder” (or a synonym) into the search box, and click “Submit Query.”


APPENDIX C. FINDING MEDICAL LIBRARIES Overview In this Appendix, we show you how to quickly find a medical library in your area.

Preparation Your local public library and medical libraries have interlibrary loan programs with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), one of the largest medical collections in the world. According to the NLM, most of the literature in the general and historical collections of the National Library of Medicine is available on interlibrary loan to any library. If you would like to access NLM medical literature, then visit a library in your area that can request the publications for you.15

Finding a Local Medical Library The quickest method to locate medical libraries is to use the Internet-based directory published by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM). This network includes 4626 members and affiliates that provide many services to librarians, health professionals, and the public. To find a library in your area, simply visit or call 1-800-338-7657.

Medical Libraries in the U.S. and Canada In addition to the NN/LM, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) lists a number of libraries with reference facilities that are open to the public. The following is the NLM’s list and includes hyperlinks to each library’s Web site. These Web pages can provide information on hours of operation and other restrictions. The list below is a small sample of


Adapted from the NLM:


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libraries recommended by the National Library of Medicine (sorted alphabetically by name of the U.S. state or Canadian province where the library is located)16: •

Alabama: Health InfoNet of Jefferson County (Jefferson County Library Cooperative, Lister Hill Library of the Health Sciences),

Alabama: Richard M. Scrushy Library (American Sports Medicine Institute)

Arizona: Samaritan Regional Medical Center: The Learning Center (Samaritan Health System, Phoenix, Arizona),

California: Kris Kelly Health Information Center (St. Joseph Health System, Humboldt),

California: Community Health Library of Los Gatos,

California: Consumer Health Program and Services (CHIPS) (County of Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles County Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Library) - Carson, CA,

California: Gateway Health Library (Sutter Gould Medical Foundation)

California: Health Library (Stanford University Medical Center),

California: Patient Education Resource Center - Health Information and Resources (University of California, San Francisco),

California: Redwood Health Library (Petaluma Health Care District),

California: Los Gatos PlaneTree Health Library,

California: Sutter Resource Library (Sutter Hospitals Foundation, Sacramento),

California: Health Sciences Libraries (University of California, Davis),

California: ValleyCare Health Library & Ryan Comer Cancer Resource Center (ValleyCare Health System, Pleasanton),

California: Washington Community Health Resource Library (Fremont),

Colorado: William V. Gervasini Memorial Library (Exempla Healthcare),

Connecticut: Hartford Hospital Health Science Libraries (Hartford Hospital),

Connecticut: Healthnet: Connecticut Consumer Health Information Center (University of Connecticut Health Center, Lyman Maynard Stowe Library),


Abstracted from

Finding Medical Libraries


Connecticut: Waterbury Hospital Health Center Library (Waterbury Hospital, Waterbury),

Delaware: Consumer Health Library (Christiana Care Health System, Eugene du Pont Preventive Medicine & Rehabilitation Institute, Wilmington),

Delaware: Lewis B. Flinn Library (Delaware Academy of Medicine, Wilmington),

Georgia: Family Resource Library (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta),

Georgia: Health Resource Center (Medical Center of Central Georgia, Macon),

Hawaii: Hawaii Medical Library: Consumer Health Information Service (Hawaii Medical Library, Honolulu),

Idaho: DeArmond Consumer Health Library (Kootenai Medical Center, Coeur d’Alene),

Illinois: Health Learning Center of Northwestern Memorial Hospital (Chicago),

Illinois: Medical Library (OSF Saint Francis Medical Center, Peoria),

Kentucky: Medical Library - Services for Patients, Families, Students & the Public (Central Baptist Hospital, Lexington),

Kentucky: University of Kentucky - Health Information Library (Chandler Medical Center, Lexington),

Louisiana: Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation Library (Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans),

Louisiana: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Medical LibraryShreveport,

Maine: Franklin Memorial Hospital Medical Library (Franklin Memorial Hospital, Farmington),

Maine: Gerrish-True Health Sciences Library (Central Maine Medical Center, Lewiston),

Maine: Hadley Parrot Health Science Library (Eastern Maine Healthcare, Bangor),

Maine: Maine Medical Center Library (Maine Medical Center, Portland),

Maine: Parkview Hospital (Brunswick),

Maine: Southern Maine Medical Center Health Sciences Library (Southern Maine Medical Center, Biddeford),

Maine: Stephens Memorial Hospital’s Health Information Library (Western Maine Health, Norway),


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Manitoba, Canada: Consumer & Patient Health Information Service (University of Manitoba Libraries),

Manitoba, Canada: J.W. Crane Memorial Library (Deer Lodge Centre, Winnipeg),

Maryland: Health Information Center at the Wheaton Regional Library (Montgomery County, Dept. of Public Libraries, Wheaton Regional Library),

Massachusetts: Baystate Medical Center Library (Baystate Health System),

Massachusetts: Boston University Medical Center Alumni Medical Library (Boston University Medical Center),

Massachusetts: Lowell General Hospital Health Sciences Library (Lowell General Hospital, Lowell),

Massachusetts: Paul E. Woodard Health Sciences Library (New England Baptist Hospital, Boston),

Massachusetts: St. Luke’s Hospital Health Sciences Library (St. Luke’s Hospital, Southcoast Health System, New Bedford),

Massachusetts: Treadwell Library Consumer Health Reference Center (Massachusetts General Hospital),

Massachusetts: UMass HealthNet (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester),

Michigan: Botsford General Hospital Library - Consumer Health (Botsford General Hospital, Library & Internet Services),

Michigan: Helen DeRoy Medical Library (Providence Hospital and Medical Centers),

Michigan: Marquette General Hospital - Consumer Health Library (Marquette General Hospital, Health Information Center),

Michigan: Patient Education Resouce Center - University of Michigan Cancer Center (University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor),

Michigan: Sladen Library & Center for Health Information Resources - Consumer Health Information (Detroit),

Montana: Center for Health Information (St. Patrick Hospital and Health Sciences Center, Missoula)

National: Consumer Health Library Directory (Medical Library Association, Consumer and Patient Health Information Section),

National: National Network of Libraries of Medicine (National Library of Medicine) provides library services for health professionals in the United States who do not have access to a medical library,

National: NN/LM List of Libraries Serving the Public (National Network of Libraries of Medicine),

Finding Medical Libraries


Nevada: Health Science Library, West Charleston Library (Las Vegas-Clark County Library District, Las Vegas),

New Hampshire: Dartmouth Biomedical Libraries (Dartmouth College Library, Hanover),

New Jersey: Consumer Health Library (Rahway Hospital, Rahway),

New Jersey: Dr. Walter Phillips Health Sciences Library (Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood),

New Jersey: Meland Foundation (Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood),

New York: Choices in Health Information (New York Public Library) - NLM Consumer Pilot Project participant,

New York: Health Information Center (Upstate Medical University, State University of New York, Syracuse),

New York: Health Sciences Library (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park),

New York: ViaHealth Medical Library (Rochester General Hospital),

Ohio: Consumer Health Library (Akron General Medical Center, Medical & Consumer Health Library),

Oklahoma: The Health Information Center at Saint Francis Hospital (Saint Francis Health System, Tulsa),

Oregon: Planetree Health Resource Center (Mid-Columbia Medical Center, The Dalles),

Pennsylvania: Community Health Information Library (Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey),

Pennsylvania: Community Health Resource Library (Geisinger Medical Center, Danville),

Pennsylvania: HealthInfo Library (Moses Taylor Hospital, Scranton),

Pennsylvania: Hopwood Library (University of Pittsburgh, Health Sciences Library System, Pittsburgh),

Pennsylvania: Koop Community Health Information Center (College of Physicians of Philadelphia),

Pennsylvania: Learning Resources Center - Medical Library (Susquehanna Health System, Williamsport),

Pennsylvania: Medical Library (UPMC Health System, Pittsburgh),

Quebec, Canada: Medical Library (Montreal General Hospital),


Conversion Disorder

South Dakota: Rapid City Regional Hospital Medical Library (Rapid City Regional Hospital),

Texas: Houston HealthWays (Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library),

Washington: Community Health Library (Kittitas Valley Community Hospital),

Washington: Southwest Washington Medical Center Library (Southwest Washington Medical Center, Vancouver),


ONLINE GLOSSARIES The Internet provides access to a number of free-to-use medical dictionaries. The National Library of Medicine has compiled the following list of online dictionaries: •

ADAM Medical Encyclopedia (A.D.A.M., Inc.), comprehensive medical reference: Medical Dictionary (MedicineNet, Inc.):

Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary (Inteli-Health, Inc.):

Multilingual Glossary of Technical and Popular Medical Terms in Eight European Languages (European Commission) - Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish:

On-line Medical Dictionary (CancerWEB):

Rare Diseases Terms (Office of Rare Diseases):

Technology Glossary (National Library of Medicine) - Health Care Technology:

Beyond these, MEDLINEplus contains a very patient-friendly encyclopedia covering every aspect of medicine (licensed from A.D.A.M., Inc.). The ADAM Medical Encyclopedia can be accessed at ADAM is also available on commercial Web sites such as ( and Web MD ( The NIH suggests the following Web sites in the ADAM Medical Encyclopedia when searching for information on conversion disorder: •

Basic Guidelines for Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder Web site:

Signs & Symptoms for Conversion Disorder Amnesia Web site: Anxiety Web site: Blindness Web site: Deafness Web site:


Conversion Disorder

Fainting Web site: Inability to speak Web site: Loss of sensation Web site: Muscle wasting Web site: Paralysis Web site: Wasting Web site: Weight loss Web site: •

Background Topics for Conversion Disorder Physical examination Web site: Proximal Web site:

Online Dictionary Directories The following are additional online directories compiled by the National Library of Medicine, including a number of specialized medical dictionaries: •

Medical Dictionaries: Medical & Biological (World Health Organization):

MEL-Michigan Electronic Library List of Online Health and Medical Dictionaries (Michigan Electronic Library):

Patient Education: Glossaries (DMOZ Open Directory Project):

Web of Online Dictionaries (Bucknell University):


CONVERSION DISORDER DICTIONARY The definitions below are derived from official public sources, including the National Institutes of Health [NIH] and the European Union [EU]. Abreaction: A process in psychotherapy in which the patient is "desensitized" to emotionally painful, often forgotten (repressed) memories by recalling and reacting to them in the "safety" of the treatment setting. [NIH] Abscess: A localized, circumscribed collection of pus. [NIH] Adolescence: The period of life beginning with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and terminating with the cessation of somatic growth. The years usually referred to as adolescence lie between 13 and 18 years of age. [NIH] Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It secretes mineralocorticoids, androgens, and glucocorticoids. [NIH] Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task. [NIH] Alkaline: Having the reactions of an alkali. [EU] Alkaloid: A member of a large group of chemicals that are made by plants and have nitrogen in them. Some alkaloids have been shown to work against cancer. [NIH] Alternative medicine: Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used instead of standard treatments. Alternative medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations; the drinking of special teas; and practices such as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH] Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation. [NIH] Analgesic: An agent that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness. [EU] Anatomical: Pertaining to anatomy, or to the structure of the organism. [EU] Anorexia: Lack or loss of appetite for food. Appetite is psychologic, dependent on memory and associations. Anorexia can be brought about by unattractive food, surroundings, or company. [NIH] Anorexia Nervosa: The chief symptoms are inability to eat, weight loss, and amenorrhea. [NIH]

Anxiety: Persistent feeling of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster. [NIH] Anxiety Disorders: Disorders in which anxiety (persistent feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness) is the predominant disturbance. [NIH] Aphonia: Complete loss of phonation due to organic disease of the larynx or to nonorganic (i.e., psychogenic) causes. [NIH] Autoimmune disease: A condition in which the body recognizes its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them. [NIH] Base: In chemistry, the nonacid part of a salt; a substance that combines with acids to form salts; a substance that dissociates to give hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions; a substance whose molecule or ion can combine with a proton (hydrogen ion); a substance capable of donating a pair of electrons (to an acid) for the formation of a coordinate covalent bond. [EU] Bilateral: Affecting both the right and left side of body. [NIH]


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Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., genetic engineering) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include transfection and cloning technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction. [NIH] Bladder: The organ that stores urine. [NIH] Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of blood coagulation factors that results in an insoluble fibrin clot. [NIH] Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the brain, which is composed of the intracranial components of the central nervous system. This includes (but is not limited to) the cerebral cortex; intracranial white matter; basal ganglia; thalamus; hypothalamus; brain stem; and cerebellum. [NIH] Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. [NIH] Cardiac: Having to do with the heart. [NIH] Case report: A detailed report of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports also contain some demographic information about the patient (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin). [NIH] Cell: The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells. [NIH] Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. [NIH] Chronic: A disease or condition that persists or progresses over a long period of time. [NIH] Clinical study: A research study in which patients receive treatment in a clinic or other medical facility. Reports of clinical studies can contain results for single patients (case reports) or many patients (case series or clinical trials). [NIH] Clinical trial: A research study that tests how well new medical treatments or other interventions work in people. Each study is designed to test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. [NIH] Cloning: The production of a number of genetically identical individuals; in genetic engineering, a process for the efficient replication of a great number of identical DNA molecules. [NIH] Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival. [NIH] Complement: A term originally used to refer to the heat-labile factor in serum that causes immune cytolysis, the lysis of antibody-coated cells, and now referring to the entire functionally related system comprising at least 20 distinct serum proteins that is the effector not only of immune cytolysis but also of other biologic functions. Complement activation occurs by two different sequences, the classic and alternative pathways. The proteins of the

Dictionary 47

classic pathway are termed 'components of complement' and are designated by the symbols C1 through C9. C1 is a calcium-dependent complex of three distinct proteins C1q, C1r and C1s. The proteins of the alternative pathway (collectively referred to as the properdin system) and complement regulatory proteins are known by semisystematic or trivial names. Fragments resulting from proteolytic cleavage of complement proteins are designated with lower-case letter suffixes, e.g., C3a. Inactivated fragments may be designated with the suffix 'i', e.g. C3bi. Activated components or complexes with biological activity are designated by a bar over the symbol e.g. C1 or C4b,2a. The classic pathway is activated by the binding of C1 to classic pathway activators, primarily antigen-antibody complexes containing IgM, IgG1, IgG3; C1q binds to a single IgM molecule or two adjacent IgG molecules. The alternative pathway can be activated by IgA immune complexes and also by nonimmunologic materials including bacterial endotoxins, microbial polysaccharides, and cell walls. Activation of the classic pathway triggers an enzymatic cascade involving C1, C4, C2 and C3; activation of the alternative pathway triggers a cascade involving C3 and factors B, D and P. Both result in the cleavage of C5 and the formation of the membrane attack complex. Complement activation also results in the formation of many biologically active complement fragments that act as anaphylatoxins, opsonins, or chemotactic factors. [EU] Complementary and alternative medicine: CAM. Forms of treatment that are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. These practices are not considered standard medical approaches. CAM includes dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH] Complementary medicine: Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used to enhance or complement the standard treatments. Complementary medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations; the drinking of special teas; and practices such as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH] Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories applicable to molecular biology and areas of computer-based techniques for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets. [NIH] Contraindications: Any factor or sign that it is unwise to pursue a certain kind of action or treatment, e. g. giving a general anesthetic to a person with pneumonia. [NIH] Control group: In a clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied. This group is compared to the group that receives the new treatment, to see if the new treatment works. [NIH] Controlled clinical trial: A clinical study that includes a comparison (control) group. The comparison group receives a placebo, another treatment, or no treatment at all. [NIH] Coordination: Muscular or motor regulation or the harmonious cooperation of muscles or groups of muscles, in a complex action or series of actions. [NIH] Cortisol: A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex as part of the body's response to stress. [NIH] Diagnostic procedure: A method used to identify a disease. [NIH] Direct: 1. Straight; in a straight line. 2. Performed immediately and without the intervention of subsidiary means. [EU] Dysphonia: Difficulty or pain in speaking; impairment of the voice. [NIH] Dystrophy: Any disorder arising from defective or faulty nutrition, especially the muscular


Conversion Disorder

dystrophies. [EU] Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health. [NIH]

Enzymatic: Phase where enzyme cuts the precursor protein. [NIH] Epidural: The space between the wall of the spinal canal and the covering of the spinal cord. An epidural injection is given into this space. [NIH] Extremity: A limb; an arm or leg (membrum); sometimes applied specifically to a hand or foot. [EU] Family Planning: Programs or services designed to assist the family in controlling reproduction by either improving or diminishing fertility. [NIH] Fat: Total lipids including phospholipids. [NIH] Free Association: Spontaneous verbalization of whatever comes to mind. [NIH] Gait: Manner or style of walking. [NIH] Gas: Air that comes from normal breakdown of food. The gases are passed out of the body through the rectum (flatus) or the mouth (burp). [NIH] Gas exchange: Primary function of the lungs; transfer of oxygen from inhaled air into the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs. [NIH] Gene: The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein. [NIH]

Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of healthrelated institutions and organizations. [NIH] Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable. [NIH] Hormone: A substance in the body that regulates certain organs. Hormones such as gastrin help in breaking down food. Some hormones come from cells in the stomach and small intestine. [NIH] Hypnotherapy: Sleeping-cure. [NIH] Hypnotic: A drug that acts to induce sleep. [EU] Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice. [NIH] Impairment: In the context of health experience, an impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function. [NIH] Incest: Sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry. [NIH] Innervation: 1. The distribution or supply of nerves to a part. 2. The supply of nervous energy or of nerve stimulus sent to a part. [EU] Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment. [NIH] Insulator: Material covering the metal conductor of the lead. It is usually polyurethane or silicone. [NIH] Involuntary: Reaction occurring without intention or volition. [NIH]

Dictionary 49

Kb: A measure of the length of DNA fragments, 1 Kb = 1000 base pairs. The largest DNA fragments are up to 50 kilobases long. [NIH] Laparoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the abdomen's interior by means of a laparoscope. [NIH] Larynx: An irregularly shaped, musculocartilaginous tubular structure, lined with mucous membrane, located at the top of the trachea and below the root of the tongue and the hyoid bone. It is the essential sphincter guarding the entrance into the trachea and functioning secondarily as the organ of voice. [NIH] Lipid: Fat. [NIH] Localized: Cancer which has not metastasized yet. [NIH] Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses. [NIH] MEDLINE: An online database of MEDLARS, the computerized bibliographic Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System of the National Library of Medicine. [NIH] Membrane: A very thin layer of tissue that covers a surface. [NIH] Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. [NIH] Mental: Pertaining to the mind; psychic. 2. (L. mentum chin) pertaining to the chin. [EU] Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms. [NIH] Molecular: Of, pertaining to, or composed of molecules : a very small mass of matter. [EU] Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. [NIH] Multiple sclerosis: A disorder of the central nervous system marked by weakness, numbness, a loss of muscle coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is thought to be an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system destroys myelin. Myelin is a substance that contains both protein and fat (lipid) and serves as a nerve insulator and helps in the transmission of nerve signals. [NIH] Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. [NIH] Myelin: The fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. [NIH] Narcotic: 1. Pertaining to or producing narcosis. 2. An agent that produces insensibility or stupor, applied especially to the opioids, i.e. to any natural or synthetic drug that has morphine-like actions. [EU] Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and ganglia. [NIH] Neurologic: Having to do with nerves or the nervous system. [NIH] Neuromuscular: Pertaining to muscles and nerves. [EU] Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language. [NIH] Opiate: A remedy containing or derived from opium; also any drug that induces sleep. [EU] Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few morphine, codeine, and papaverine - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic. [NIH]


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Paralysis: Loss of ability to move all or part of the body. [NIH] Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with spinal cord diseases, although brain diseases; peripheral nervous system diseases; neuromuscular diseases; and muscular diseases may also cause bilateral leg weakness. [NIH] Perception: The ability quickly and accurately to recognize similarities and differences among presented objects, whether these be pairs of words, pairs of number series, or multiple sets of these or other symbols such as geometric figures. [NIH] Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors. [NIH] Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves. [NIH] Pharmacologic: Pertaining to pharmacology or to the properties and reactions of drugs. [EU] Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of vocal cords vibrating in an expiratory blast of air. [NIH] Phosphorus: A non-metallic element that is found in the blood, muscles, nevers, bones, and teeth, and is a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; the primary energy source for the body's cells.) [NIH] Pitch: The subjective awareness of the frequency or spectral distribution of a sound. [NIH] Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs. [NIH] Practice Guidelines: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for the health care practitioner to assist him in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery. [NIH] Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated protein C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. [NIH] Proteins: Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape and function of the protein. [NIH] Psychiatric: Pertaining to or within the purview of psychiatry. [EU] Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. [NIH] Psychic: Pertaining to the psyche or to the mind; mental. [EU] Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996). [NIH] Psychogenic: Produced or caused by psychic or mental factors rather than organic factors.

Dictionary 51


Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals. [NIH] Psychosomatic: Pertaining to the mind-body relationship; having bodily symptoms of psychic, emotional, or mental origin; called also psychophysiologic. [EU] Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication. [NIH] Ptosis: 1. Prolapse of an organ or part. 2. Drooping of the upper eyelid from paralysis of the third nerve or from sympathetic innervation. [EU] Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions. [NIH] Pulmonary: Relating to the lungs. [NIH] Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas per minute inspired or expired measured in liters per minute. [NIH] Randomized: Describes an experiment or clinical trial in which animal or human subjects are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments. [NIH] Refer: To send or direct for treatment, aid, information, de decision. [NIH] Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord. [NIH] Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about. [NIH] Retrospective: Looking back at events that have already taken place. [NIH] Retrospective study: A study that looks backward in time, usually using medical records and interviews with patients who already have or had a disease. [NIH] Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve. [NIH] Screening: Checking for disease when there are no symptoms. [NIH] Serum: The clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins have been removed. [NIH] Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one sex from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the ovaries and testes and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction. [NIH] Shock: The general bodily disturbance following a severe injury; an emotional or moral upset occasioned by some disturbing or unexpected experience; disruption of the circulation, which can upset all body functions: sometimes referred to as circulatory shock. [NIH]

Smooth muscle: Muscle that performs automatic tasks, such as constricting blood vessels. [NIH]

Somatic: 1. Pertaining to or characteristic of the soma or body. 2. Pertaining to the body wall in contrast to the viscera. [EU] Specialist: In medicine, one who concentrates on 1 special branch of medical science. [NIH] Sphincter: A ringlike band of muscle fibres that constricts a passage or closes a natural orifice; called also musculus sphincter. [EU]


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Spinal cord: The main trunk or bundle of nerves running down the spine through holes in the spinal bone (the vertebrae) from the brain to the level of the lower back. [NIH] Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature spinal cord damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord. [NIH] Steroid: A group name for lipids that contain a hydrogenated cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring system. Some of the substances included in this group are progesterone, adrenocortical hormones, the gonadal hormones, cardiac aglycones, bile acids, sterols (such as cholesterol), toad poisons, saponins, and some of the carcinogenic hydrocarbons. [EU] Stimulus: That which can elicit or evoke action (response) in a muscle, nerve, gland or other excitable issue, or cause an augmenting action upon any function or metabolic process. [NIH] Stress: Forcibly exerted influence; pressure. Any condition or situation that causes strain or tension. Stress may be either physical or psychologic, or both. [NIH] Stridor: The loud, harsh, vibrating sound produced by partial obstruction of the larynx or trachea. [NIH] Symptomatology: 1. That branch of medicine with treats of symptoms; the systematic discussion of symptoms. 2. The combined symptoms of a disease. [EU] Toxic: Having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances usually cause unwanted side effects. [NIH] Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and pharmacologic action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations. [NIH] Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi. [NIH] Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA into cells, usually eukaryotic. It is analogous to bacterial transformation. [NIH] Trauma: Any injury, wound, or shock, must frequently physical or structural shock, producing a disturbance. [NIH] Unconscious: Experience which was once conscious, but was subsequently rejected, as the "personal unconscious". [NIH] Vertebrae: A bony unit of the segmented spinal column. [NIH] Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals. [NIH] Vocal cord: The vocal folds of the larynx. [NIH] Voice Disorders: Disorders of voice pitch, loudness, or quality. Dysphonia refers to impaired utterance of sounds by the vocal folds. [NIH]


INDEX A Abreaction, 10, 45 Abscess, 8, 45 Adolescence, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 45 Adrenal Cortex, 45, 47 Algorithms, 45, 46 Alkaline, 45, 46 Alkaloid, 45, 49 Alternative medicine, 45 Amenorrhea, 45 Analgesic, 45, 49 Anatomical, 45, 48, 51 Anorexia, 15, 45 Anorexia Nervosa, 15, 45 Anxiety, 7, 24, 43, 45 Anxiety Disorders, 7, 45 Aphonia, 24, 45 Autoimmune disease, 45, 49 B Base, 45, 49 Bilateral, 18, 45, 50 Biotechnology, 3, 29, 46 Bladder, 46, 49 Blood Coagulation, 46 Brain Diseases, 46, 50 C Calcium, 6, 46, 47 Cardiac, 11, 46, 52 Case report, 12, 18, 46 Cell, 46, 47 Central Nervous System, 46, 49 Chronic, 46, 48 Clinical study, 6, 46, 47 Clinical trial, 3, 29, 46, 47, 51 Cloning, 46 Comorbidity, 7, 46 Complement, 46, 47 Complementary and alternative medicine, 17, 21, 47 Complementary medicine, 17, 47 Computational Biology, 29, 47 Contraindications, ii, 47 Control group, 5, 47 Controlled clinical trial, 18, 47 Coordination, 47, 49 Cortisol, 13, 47 D Diagnostic procedure, 47

Direct, iii, 47, 51 Dysphonia, 24, 47, 52 Dystrophy, 13, 14, 47 E Environmental Health, 28, 30, 48 Enzymatic, 46, 47, 48 Epidural, 8, 48 Extremity, 12, 48 F Family Planning, 29, 48 Fat, 48, 49 Free Association, 48, 50 G Gait, 8, 18, 48 Gas, 48, 51 Gas exchange, 48, 51 Gene, 46, 48 Governing Board, 48, 50 H Homeostasis, 6, 48 Hormone, 47, 48 Hypnotherapy, 20, 48 Hypnotic, 19, 20, 48 Hysteria, 5, 6, 10, 15, 18, 48 I Impairment, 6, 10, 14, 20, 47, 48 Incest, 7, 48 Innervation, 48, 51 Inpatients, 10, 48 Insulator, 48, 49 Involuntary, 48, 51 K Kb, 28, 49 L Laparoscopy, 12, 49 Larynx, 24, 45, 49, 52 Lipid, 49 Localized, 45, 49 M Medical Records, 49, 51 MEDLINE, 29, 49 Membrane, 47, 49 Memory, 23, 45, 49 Mental, iv, 3, 6, 10, 11, 14, 28, 30, 34, 49, 50, 51 Mental Processes, 49, 50, 51 Molecular, 29, 31, 46, 47, 49 Morphine, 8, 49


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Multiple sclerosis, 18, 49 Muscular Diseases, 49, 50 Myelin, 49 N Narcotic, 49 Nervous System, 46, 49, 50 Neurologic, 10, 49 Neuromuscular, 49, 50 Nonverbal Communication, 24, 49, 51 O Opiate, 49 Opium, 49 P Paralysis, 11, 12, 19, 44, 50, 51 Paraplegia, 8, 50 Perception, 23, 50 Peripheral Nervous System, 50 Peripheral Nervous System Diseases, 50 Pharmacologic, 50, 52 Phonation, 45, 50 Phosphorus, 46, 50 Pitch, 50, 52 Pneumonia, 47, 50 Practice Guidelines, 30, 50 Protein S, 46, 50 Proteins, 46, 50, 51 Psychiatric, 14, 15, 20, 50 Psychiatry, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 50 Psychic, 49, 50, 51 Psychoanalysis, 4, 50 Psychogenic, 9, 24, 45, 50 Psychology, 16, 19, 50, 51 Psychosomatic, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 51 Psychotherapy, 11, 13, 18, 19, 20, 45, 51 Ptosis, 18, 51 Public Policy, 29, 51 Pulmonary, 51

Pulmonary Ventilation, 51 R Randomized, 18, 51 Refer, 1, 46, 51 Reflex, 13, 14, 51 Respiratory System, 24, 51 Retrospective, 4, 51 Retrospective study, 4, 51 S Sclerosis, 49, 51 Screening, 46, 51 Serum, 13, 46, 51 Sex Characteristics, 45, 51 Shock, 51, 52 Smooth muscle, 49, 51 Somatic, 14, 45, 48, 50, 51 Specialist, 35, 51 Sphincter, 49, 51 Spinal cord, 6, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 Spinal Cord Diseases, 50, 52 Steroid, 47, 52 Stimulus, 48, 51, 52 Stress, 8, 9, 24, 34, 47, 52 Stridor, 9, 52 Symptomatology, 6, 52 T Toxic, iv, 52 Toxicology, 30, 52 Trachea, 49, 52 Transfection, 46, 52 Trauma, 6, 52 U Unconscious, 10, 52 V Vertebrae, 52 Veterinary Medicine, 29, 52 Vocal cord, 11, 50, 52 Voice Disorders, 24, 52



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