Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods [7 ed.] 0072964200, 9780072964202

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Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods [7 ed.]
 0072964200, 9780072964202

Table of contents :
Chp 1: Machines Make It Possible......Page 12
CHp 2: Fundamental Conceptsof Equipment Economics......Page 20
Chp 3: Planning for EarthworkConstruction......Page 42
SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTIES......Page 57
COMPACTION SPECIFICATIONAND CONTROL......Page 62
COMPACTION TESTS......Page 63
SOIL PROCESSING......Page 65
SUMMARY......Page 67
PROBLEMS......Page 68
COMPACTION OF SOIL AND ROCK......Page 69
TYPES OF COMPACTING EQUIPMENT......Page 70
DYNAMIC COMPACTION......Page 76
GENERAL INFORMATION......Page 77
STABILIZING SOILS WITH LIME......Page 78
CEMENT -SOIL STABILIZATION......Page 79
PROBLEMS......Page 81
REQUIRED POWER......Page 82
A VAILABLE POWER......Page 86
USABLE POWER......Page 89
PERFORMANCE CHARTS......Page 91
PROBLEMS......Page 94
INTRODUCTION......Page 97
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICSOF DOZERS......Page 98
BLADES......Page 101
PROJECT EMPLOYMENT......Page 103
DOZER PRODUCTION ESTIMATING......Page 104
DOZER PRODUCTION ESTIMATING FORMAT......Page 107
DETERMINING THE RIPPABILITY OF ROCK......Page 114
DETERMINING THE THICKNESS ANDSTRENGTH OF ROCK LAYERS......Page 115
RIPPER ATTACHMENTS......Page 116
RIPPING PRODUCTION ESTIMATES......Page 117
SUMMARY......Page 118
PROBLEMS......Page 119
PUSher-Loaded Scrapers......Page 123
Self-Loading Scrapers......Page 124
SCRAPER PERFORMANCE CHARTS......Page 126
SCRAPER PRODUCTION ESTIMATINGFORMAT......Page 128
OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS......Page 135
. SCRAPER SAFETY......Page 136
PROBLEMS......Page 137
HYDRAULIC EXCAVATORS......Page 138
HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR ACCIDENTS......Page 139
GENERAL INFORMATION......Page 140
SELECTING A FRONT SHOVEL......Page 141
HEIGHT OF CUT EFFECTON SHOVEL PRODUCTION......Page 142
ANGLE OF SWING EFFECTON SHOVEL PRODUCTION......Page 143
BUCKET RATING FOR HADRAULIC HOES......Page 144
SELECTING A HOE......Page 146
CALCULATING HOE PRODUCTION......Page 147
LOADER BUCKETS/ATTACHMENTS......Page 149
OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS......Page 150
LOADER PRODUCTION RATES......Page 151
CALCULATING WHEEL LOADERPRODUCTION......Page 152
CALCULATING TRACK LOADERPRODUCTION......Page 153
TRENCHING MACHINES......Page 154
TRENCHING MACHINE PRODUCTION......Page 155
BACKHOE-LOADERS......Page 156
SUMMARY......Page 157
PROBLEMS......Page 158
Chp 10: Trucks and Hauling Equipment......Page 160
Chp 11: Finishing Equipment......Page 172
Chp 12: Drilling Rock and Earth......Page 180
Ch p13: Blasting Rock......Page 198
Chp 14: Aggregate Production......Page 215
Chp 15: Asphalt Mix Production and Placement......Page 233
Chp 16: Concrete and Concrete Equipment......Page 253
Chp 17: Cranes......Page 278
Draglines and Clamshells......Page 302
Piles and Pile-DrivingEquipment......Page 312
Air Compressorsand Pumps......Page 331
Chp 21: Planning for BuildingConstruction......Page 349
CLASSIFICATION......Page 363
FORMWORK AND THE PROJECT ENGINEER......Page 364
Lateral Pressure of Concrete on Vertical Forms......Page 365
Formwork: A Layered System......Page 366
Material Cost......Page 367
Labor Cost......Page 370
Wall Forms......Page 371
Specialized Wall Forms......Page 373
HORIZONTAL SYSTEMS......Page 375
Table Forms......Page 376
Tunnel Form Systems......Page 378
SHORING TOWERS.......Page 381
SAFETY......Page 384
SUMMARY......Page 385
REFERENCES......Page 386

Citation preview

ISBNI3: 978-0-07-110724-2 IsaN10: 0-07-1 10724-X

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WO#:HED 106237

2ND PRim

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List of Abbreviations

:-1

1 )

,1

.,

;~

, ~

,

.~

j .:,; i

~

J

liquid crystal device loose cubic yard

RR

rolling resistance

CPB

Contractors Pump Bureau

If

linear foot

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers

CPMB

Concrete Plant Manufacturers Bureau

LGP

low ground pressure

sec

second

cy

cubic yards

LL

square foot

dB

decibel

MARR

liquid limit minimum attractive rate of return

sf SG

specific gravity

dBA

A-weighted decibels

mph

miles per hour

drilling rate index

ms

millisecond

SG. SG r

specific gravity of explosive

DRI

articulated dump truck

EVW

empty vehicle weight

NAPA

Associated Equipment Distributors, Inc.

Federal Highway Administration

single payment compound amount factor

FOG fpm

fuel, oil, grease feet per minute

NIOSH

National Asphalt Pavement Association National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

SPCAF

FHWA

sqm

square meter

SR

stiffness ratio

feet per second feet

NIST

National Institute of Standards

station

NPW

ft-Ib

foot-pound

NRMCA

fwhp

flywheel horsepower

net present worth National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

sta. sta.-yd

flywheel horsepower hour

NVW

an ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixture

fwhp-hr g

acceleration of gravity

0&0

American National Standards Institute

GA

grade assistance

GC

General Contractor

American Shotcrete Association American Society of Civil Engineers

glcc gph

grams per cubic centimeter

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

gpm

gallons per minute

ASSE

American Society of Safety Engineers

ASTM

ASTM International (formally American Society for Testing and Materials)

AC

i /~

~:3 ~

~ '~

ACPA ADT AED AEM AGC AISC ANFO ANSI ASA ASCE

;oj ~

J ~

,~

~

~~

'"

~ ~

~j

~

AWPA

~~

~

;.

~ ~~

~ -,

bey

.~

-, !.;; :;

American Concrete Pumping Association

Association of Equipment Manufacturers Associated General Contractors of America, The American Institute of Steel Construction

American Wood Preservers' Association bank cubic yards

fps ft

global positioning system

GR GVW

grade resistance gross vehicle weight

hr

hours

Hz

hertz

I.D.

inside diameter

IME

Institute of Makers of Explosives, The

belt or brake horsepower

in.Hg

BV

book value

ISEE

ccy

compacted cubic yards

CECE

Committee on European Construction Equipment cubic feet

cf

gallons per hour

GPS

bhp

.-:

:i

alternating current

AC and AR asphalt grade designations American Concrete Institute ACI

~

~~

rollover protective structure (standards)

LCD

~J

-1.;

revolutions

ROPS

ley

~J.

~,~

kips per square inch pounds per square yard-inch

rev.

Ib~sy-in

Construction Industry Institute

:-1

·1

ksi

CII

.~

,

roHer-compacted concrete

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

'~

.~

reclaimed asphalt pavement

RCC

cubic feet per minute

.,"

.,

RAP

kilopascaJs

cfm

"i

.~

kilonewton

kPa

average annual investment

AAI AASHTO

-",.-; :~

kN

inches of mercury International Society of Explosives Engineers, The

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

kip

1,000Ib

specific gravity of rock

St,.

station-yards relative bulk strength compared,to ANFO= \00

net vehicle weight

sy

square yards

ownership and operating cost

TMPH

ton-miles per hour

O.D.

outside diameter

TNT

trinitroluene or trinitrotoluol

OMC

optimum moisture content

tph

tons per hour

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Act (Administration) Portland Cement Association

TR

TRB

total resistance Transportation Research Board

PCA pef

USCAF

pounds per cubic foot

PC!

Prestressed Concrete Institute

PCSA

Power Crane and Shovel Association

pen

penetration grade measurement unit

PETN

pentaerythrito] tetranitrate

USSFF

uniform series, sinkin£ fund faglOJ

PI

plasticity index

VHN

Vickers hardness ,number

PL

plastic limit

VHNR

Vickers hardness number rock

peak particle velocity

vpm

vibrations per minute

psf

pounds per square foot of pressure

WF

wide flange

psi

pounds per square inch of pressure

XL

extralong

present worth compound amount factor

yd

yard

yr

year

PPV

PWCAF

USCRF

uniform series, compound amount factor uniform series, capital recovery factor

USPWF

uniform series, present worth facti:

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods

Eliezer Shapira, a civil engineer, general contractor, and father of Aviad Shapira. As a father and most loving teacher it was he who sparked Aviad's passion for construction. Over the years, Eliezer and Cliff have also shared adventures at equipment shows In Europe and enjoyed many an interesting construction story. This book is therefore dedicated to Eliezer Shapira-a constructor who has taught both of us an appreciation for meeting the challenges of construction.

Clift Schexnayder Aviad Shapira

McGraw.HiII Series in Civil Engineering CONSULTING EDITORS George Tchobanoglous, University of California, Davis Raymond E. Levitt, Stanford University

Bailey alld Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamental

Davis and Mastell Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science

Banks Introduction to Transportation Engineering

de Nevers Air Pollution Control Engineering

Barrie alld Paulson Professional Construction Management: Including CM, Design-Construct, and General Contracting Benjamin Water Chemistry Bishop Pollution Prevention: Fundamentals and Practice Bockrath Contracts and the Legal Environment for Engineers and Architects Callahan, Quackenbush, and Rowlings Construction Project Scheduling Canter Environmental Impact Assessment Chanlett Environmental Protection Chapra Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists Chapra Surface Water-Quality Modeling Chapra alld Canale Numerical Methods for Engineers Chow, Maidment, and Mays Applied Hydrology Crites al/(I Tc1lObanoglo/ls Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems DaI'is Clnd Cornwell Introduction to Environmental Engineering

Ecken/elder Industrial Water Pollution Control--' Eweis, Ergas, Chang, and Schroeder Bioremediation Principles Finnemore alld Franzini Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications Gaylord and Stallmeyer Design of Steel Structures Griffis and Farr Construction Project Planning Heerwagen Passive and Active Environmental Controls Hinze Construction Contracts LaGrega, Buckingilam, and Evans Hazardous Waste Management Leet alld Bernal Reinforced Concrete Design Leet and Uang Fundamentals of Structural Analysis Linsley, Franzin~ Freyberg, and TchobanoglollS Water Resources and Engineering McGhee Water Supply and Sewage Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater

Nilson Design of Concrete Structures Nowak and Collins Reliability of Stnictures Oberlender Project Management for Engineering and Construction Peavy, Rowe, alld Tchoballoglous Environmental Engineering Pe/lri/oy and Oberlender Estimating Construction Costs Peuri/oy, Scilexnayder, and Shapira Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods Rittmann alld McCarty Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications Rllbin Introduction to Engineering and the Environment Sawyer, McCarty, alld Parkin Chemistry for Environmental Engineering Schexnayder and Mayo Construction Management Fundamentals Streeter Fluid Mechanics Sturm Open Channel Hydraulics TcllOballoglous, Theisell, and Vigil Integrated Solid Waste Management: Engineering Principles and Management Issues Villllakota Steel Structures: Behavior and LRFD

Wentz

Metcalf & Eddy, Illc. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse

Safety, Health, and Environmental Protection

Meyer alld Miller Urban Transportation Planning

Wolf alld Dewitt Elements of Photogrammetry

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods Seventh Edition

Robert. L. Peurifoy, P.E. Late Consulting Engineer Austin, Texas

Clifford J. Schexnayder, P.E., Ph.D. Eminent Scholar Emeritus Del E. Webb School of Construction Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

Aviad Shapira, D.Se. Associate Professor Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Haifa, Israel

!B Higher Education Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco SI. Louis B~ngkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago SeOUl Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

The McGraw-HiII (omponlis

'1lll: "

.II Higher Education

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

CONSTRUCTION PLANNING, EQUIPMENT, AND METHODS, SEVENTH EDmON Published by McGraw-Hili, a business unit of The McGraw-Hili Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright @ 2006, 2002, 1996, 1985, 1979, 1970, 1956 by The McGraw-Hili Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hili Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOCIDOC 0 9 8 7 6

ISBN-13: 978·0-07-296420-2 ISBN-IO: 0-07-296420-0 Publisher: Suzanne Jeans Senior Sponsoring Editor: Bill Stenquist Developmental Editor: Kate Scheinman Executive Marketing Manager: Michael Weitz Senior Project Manager: Vicki Krug Senior Production Supervisor: Sherry L Kane: Associate Media Technology Producer: ChristilUl Nelson Senior Coordinator of Freelance Design: Michelle D. Whitaker Cover Designer: Rokusek Design (USE) Cover Image: Constructing the east span of the Bay Bridge in Oakland. California; photo by Clifford J. Schexnayder Lead Photo Research Coordinator: Carrie K. Burger Compositor: Lachina Publishing Services Typeface: 10.5/12 Times Roman Printer: R. R. Donnelley Crawfordsville. 1N Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Peurifoy, R. L. (Robert Leroy). 1902-1995 Construction planning, equipment, and methods I Robert L. Peurifoy, Clifford 1. Schexnayder, Aviad Shapira. - 7th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-07-296420-0 I. Building. I. Schexnayder, Cliff J. II. Shapica, Aviad. Ill. Title. TH145.P45 2006 624-dc22 www.mhhe.com

2005041690 CIP

R. L. Peurifoy (1902-1995), after serving as principal specialist in engineering education for the U.S. Office of Education during World War n, began teaching construction engineering at Texas A&M University in 1946. In the years that followed, Peurifoy led the transformation of the study of construction engineering into an academic discipline. In 1984 the Peurifoy Construction Research Award was instituted by the American Society of Civil Engineers upon recommendation of the Construction Research Council. This award was instituted to honor R. 1. Peurifoy' s exceptional leadership in construction education and research. The award recipients since the last edition of the book are: 2001 M. Dan Morris 2003 Jimmie W. Hinze, University of Florida 2004 David B. Ashley, University of California Merced 2005 Abraham Warszawski, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology

Dr. Schexnayder is a registered professional engineer in six states, as well as a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He served as chairman of the ASCE's Construction Division and on the task committee, which fonned the ASCE Construction Institute. From 1997 to 2003 he served as chairman of the Transportation Research Board's Construction Section.

Aviad Shapira is an Associate Professor of Construction Engineering and Management in the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. He received his B.Sc., M.Sc., and D.Sc. degrees in Civil Engineering from the Technion. After completing his degrees, he spent one year as a post-doctoral fellow at the University ofTIlinois at Urbana-Champaign under a grant from the U.S. Air Force Civil Engineering Support. Agency. In the 1990s he spent a year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque as the AGC Visiting Professor. . Dr.· Shapira accrued his practical experience as a project Clifford J. Schexnayder is an Eminent Scholar Emeritus at the Del E. Webb School of Construction, Arizona State Uni" engineer, project manager, and Chief Engineer in a general versity. He received his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering (Con- contracting fmn prior to pursuing an academic career. Durstruction Engineering and Management) from Purdue Uni- ing that period, he was in charge of the construction engiversity, and a Master's and Bachelor's in Civil Engineering neering for industrial, commercial, and public projects in from Georgia Institute of Technology. A construction engi- Israel. His teaching, research, and consulting interests have neer with over 35 years of practical experience, Dr. Schex- taken him to construction projects around the world. nayder has worked with major heavylhighway construction He has taught construction equipment and formwork contractors as field engineer, estimator, and corporate Chief design in Israel and the United States since 1985, and Engineer. authored or co-authored the only texts addressing these subAs Chief Engineer he was the qualifying party for the jects in Israel. His research has focused on formwork design company's Contractor's License and had direct line respon- and construction equipment for building construction. That sibility for the coordination and supervision of both the esti- work has covered equipment selection, operation, managemating and construction of projects. He provided manage- ment, productivity, economics, and safety. He co-developed ment, administrative, and technical direction to the an innovative crane-mounted video camera that serves as an company's operations and represented the company in proj- operator aid. This camera system has been used on most of the high-rise building projects built in Israel since 1998 and ect meetings and negotiations. Additionally, he served with the U.S. Army Corps of on several projects in Europe. Dr. Shapira is a member of the American Society of Engineers on active duty and in the reserves, retiring as a Colonel. His last assignment was as Executive Director, Civil Engineers and the American Concrete Institute. He has Directorate of Military Programs, Office of the Chief of been an active member of ACI Committee 347 Formwork Engineers, Washington, D.C. for Concrete since 1997, and has also served on several He has taught construction equipment at Arizona State ASCE and TRB construction equipment committees. AddiUniversity, Louisiana Tech University, Purdue. Technion- tionally, he is the Vice-Chair of Technical Committee 120 Israel Institute of Technology, Universidad de Piura (Peru), of the Standard Institution of Israel, which wrote the new the U.S. Air Force Academy, Universidad Tecnica Particuar Israeli formwork standard. first published in 1995 and de Loja (Equador), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State revised in 1998. University, and the U.S. Army Engineer School. v

Contents

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

Preface xii

1 Machines Make It Possible

CHAPTER

1

The History of Construction Equipment Being Competitive 8 The Construction Industry 9 Safety 10 The Contracting Environment 11 Planning Equipment Utilization 12 .... Summary 14 ,Problems 14 ., References 15 Website Resources 15

pianning 60 Graphical Presentation of Earthwork 64 Earthwork Quantities 67 Mass Diagram. 75 Using the Mass Diagram 77 Pricing Earthwork Operations 84 Summary 86 Problems 86 References 89 Website Resources 89 CHAPTER

2 Fundamental Concepts of.Equipment Economics

4

Soil and Rock

CH,APTER

17

I~eortant Questions 17 Eql!ipment Records 18 Rent Paid for the Use of Money 19 Cost of Capital 25 Evaluating Investment Alternatives 26 EI~'ments of Ownership Cost 28 Elements of Operating Cost 34 Cost for Bidding 39 Replacement Decisions 47 Rent and Lease Considerations 48 Summary 52 Problems 53 References 58 Website Resources 58

The

3

Planning for Earthwork Construction 60

90

Introduction 90 Glossary of Terms 91 Soil and Rock Properties 91 COMPACTION SPECIFICATION AND CONTROL 101

Introduction 101 Compaction Tests 102 Soil Processing 106 Summary III Problems 112 References JJ3 Website Resources 114 CHAPTER

5

Compaction and Stabilization Equipment 115 Compaction of Soil and Rock 115 Glossary ofTerms 116 Types of Compacting Equipment 116 Roller Production Estimating 128

vi

Dynamic Compaction 129 SOIL STA!lILIZATION 131 General Information 131 Stabilizing Soils with Lime 133 Cement-Soil Stabilization 134 Summary 138 Problems 138 References 139 Website Resources 139 CHAPTER

6

Machine Equipment Power Requirements 140 General Information 140 Required Power 141 Available Power 148 Usable Power 155 Performance Charts 158 Summary 165 Problems 165 References 169 Website Resources 169

Ripper Attachments 209 Ripper Production Estimates 211 Summary 213 Problems 214 References 220 Website Resources 220 CHAPTER

Dozers

7

222 General Information 222 Scraper Types 223 Scraper Operation 228 Scraper Performance Charts 229 Scraper Production Cycle 232 Scraper Production Estimating Format 233 Operational Considerations 247 Scraper Safety 249 Summary 250 Problems 250 References 252 Website Resources 252

9

Excavators

171

Introduction 171 Performance Characteristics of Dozers 172 PUSHING MATERIAL

178

General Information 178 Blades 178 Project Employment 182

Dozer Production Estimating 185 Dozer Production Estimating Format 191 Dozer Safety 195 LAND CLEARING

8

Scrapers

CHAPTER CHAPTER

196

Land-Clearing Operations 196 Types of Equipment Used 196 Land-Clearing Production Estimating J99 RIPPING ROCK 204 Rippers 204 Determining the Rippability of Rock 205 Determining the Thickness and Strength of Rock Layers 207

vii

253g~

Hydraulic Excavators 253 Hydraulic Excavator Accidents 255 FRONT SHOVELS 257 General Information 257 .' Selecting a Front Shovel 258 Calculating Shovel Production 260 Height of Cut Effect on Shovel Production 261 Angle of Swing Effect on Shovel Production 262 HOES 264 General Information 264 • Bucket Rating for Hydraulic Hoes 267 Selecting a Hoe 268 Calculating Hoe Production 271 LOADERS 274 General Information 274 Loader Buckets/Attachments 275 Operating Specifications 277 Loader Production Rates 279

... , I

Contents

viii

Contents

Calculating Wheel Loader Production 281 Calculating Track Loader Production 282 Loader Safety 284 SI'ECIALTVExCAVATORS

284

Trenching Machines 284 Selecting Equipment for Excavating Trenches 287 Trenching Machine Production 287 Trench Safety 288 Backhoe-Loader~, 289 Holland Loaders 290 Vac Excavators 290 Summary 291 Problems 292 References 294 Website Resources 295 CHAPTER

Trucks and Hauling Equipment 296 Trucks 296 Rigid-Frame Rear-Dump Trucks 298 Articulated Rear-Dump Trucks 298 Tractors with Bottom-Dump Trailers 300 Capacities of Trucks and Hauling Equipment 301 Truck Size Affects Productivity 303 Calculating Truck Production 305 Production Issues 309 Tires 310 Truck Performance Calculations 312 Truck Safety 317 Summary 317 ,Problems 318 References 319 Website Resources 319 CHAPTER

111

Finishing Equipment Introduction

:\20 GRADERS 320 General Information 320 Grader Operations 324

CHAPTER

320

CHAPTER

407

337

409

General Information 409 Jaw Crushers 410 Gyratory Crushers 415 Roll Crushers 419 Impact Crushers 424 Special Aggregate Processing Units 425 Feeders 426 Surge Piles 427 Crushing Equipment Selection 428 SEPARATION INTO PARTICLE SIZE RANGES

372

Blasting 372 Glossary of Blasting Terms 374 Commercial Explosives 375 Primers and Boosters 379 Initiating Systems 380 Rock Fragmentation 382 Blast Design 383 Powder Factor 395

CHAPTER

OTHER AGGREGATE PROCESSING ISSUES

Log Washers 437 Segregation 438 Safety 438 Summary 439 Problems 439 References 441 Website Resources CHAPTER

Introduction 483 431

442

Asphalt Mix Production and Placement 443 Introduction 443 Glossary of Asphalt Terms 444 Structure of Asphalt Pavements 446 Flexible Pavements 447 Asphalt Concrete 453

454

437

CONCRETE MIXTURES.

485

Proportioning Concrete Mixtures 485 Fresh Concrete 485 Batching Concrete Materials 486 MIXING CONCRETE

15

ASPHALT PLANTS

16

Concrete and Concrete Equipment 483

Scalping Crushed Stone 431 Screening Aggregate 432

13

Blasting Rock

SweeperlBroom 466 Haul Trucks 466 Asphalt Distributors 467 Asphalt Pavers 468 Compaction Equipment 474 Safety 479 Summary 479 Problems 480 References 481 Website Resources 482

14

PARTICLE SIZE REDUCTION

465

PAVING EQUIPMENT

Introduction 407

Introduction 337 Glossary of Drilling Terms 338 Drill Bits 341 Rock Drills 342 Drilling Methods and Production 346 Estimating Drilling Production 350 GPS and Computer Monitoring Systems 358 Drilling Soil 359 Removal of Cuttings 361 Trenchless Technology 362 Safety 367 Summary 368 Problems 368 References 370 Website Resources 371 CHAPTER

General Information 454 Batch Plants 455 Drum Mix Plants 460 Dust Collectors 462 Asphalt Storage and Heating 463 Reclaiming and Recycling 464

397

Aggregate Production

12

Drilling Rock and Earth

10

Trench Rock 397 Breakage Control Techniques Vibration 400 Safety 401 Summary 403 Problems 403 References 405 Website Resources 406

Time Estimates 328 Fine Grading Production 329 Grader Safety 329 GRADALLS 330 General Information 330 Safety 332 TRIMMERS 332 General Information 332 Operation 332 Production 334 Summary 334 Problems 334 References 335 Website Resources 336

ix

490

Concrete Mixing Techniques 490 Ready-Mixed Concrete 496 Central-Mixed Concrete 500 PLACING CONCRETE 502 Buckets 502 Manual or Motor-Propelled Buggies 504 Chutes and Drop Pipes 504 Belt Conveyors 504 Concrete Pumps 505 CONSOLIDATING AND FINISHING

Consolidating Concrete 514 Finishing and Curing Concrete CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

Slipform Paving

519

519

ADDITIONAL ApPLICATIONS AND CONSIDERA nONS

523

514 517

Contents

x

Roller-Compacted Concrete 523 Shotcreting 524 Fly Ash 525 Placing Concrete in Cold Weather 526 Placing Concrete in Hot Weather 527 SAFETY

527

Pumping Concrete 527 Summary 528 Problems 528 References 530 Website Resources 53] CHAPTER

17

Cranes 533 Major Crane Types 533 MOBIL CRANES

535

Contents

CHAPTER

18

Draglines and Clamshells 580 Introduction 580 DRAGLINES 581 General Information 581 Description of a Dragline 582 Dragline Production 585 Calculating Dragline Production 588 Factors Affecting Dragline Production 589 CLAMSHELL EXCAVATORS 593 General Information 593 Clamshell Buckets 594 Production Rates for Clamshells 595 Safety 597 Summary 598 Problems 598 References 599 Website Resources 599 \

Crawler Cranes 535 Telescoping-Boom Truck-Mounted Cranes 538 Lattice-Boom Truck-Mounted Cranes 539 Rough-Terrain Cranes 540 CHAPTER 19 All-Terrain Cranes 541 Piles and, Pile-Driving Modified Cranes for Heavy Lifting 542 Equipment 600 Crane Booms 544 Introduction 600 "'i; Lifting Capacities of Cranes 544 Glossary of Terms 600 _ Rated Loads for Lattice- and TelescopicPILE TYPES 602 Boom Cranes 545 Classifications of Piles 602 Working Ranges of Cranes 548 Timber Piles 603 TOWER CRANES 550 . Concrete Piles 604 Classification 550 Steel Piles 610 Operation 554 Composite Piles 611 Tower Crane Selection 562 Sheet Piles 612 Rated Loads for Tower Cranes 563 DRIVING PILES 618 RIGGING 567 The Resistance of Piles to Penetration 618 Rigging Basics 567 Site Investigation and Test Pile Program 618 Slings 570 Pile Hammers 620 SAFETY 572 Supporting and Positioning Piles Crane Accidents 572 during Driving 630 Safely Plans and Programs 574 Jetting Piles 632 Zones of Responsibility 575 Spudding and Preaugering 633 Summary 576 Hammer Selection 633 Problems 577 Pile-Driving Safety 636 References 578 Summary 637 Website Resources 578

Problems 638 Re:1ierences 638 Website Resources 638 CHAPTER

20

Air Compressors !-lnd Pumps 639 Support Equipment 639 COMPRESSED AIR 640 Introduction 640 Glossary of Gas Law Terms 641 Gas Laws 642 Glossary of Air Compressor Terms 644 Air Compressors 644 Compressed-Air Distribution System 646 Diversity Factor 652 Safety 653 EQUIPMENT FOR PUMPING WATER 655 Introduction 655 Glossary of Pumping Terms 656 Classification of Pumps 657 Centrifugal Pumps 658 Loss of Head Due to Friction in Pipe 664 Rubber Hose 665 Selecting a Pump 665 WeJlpoint Systems 668 Deep Wells 670 Summary 670 Problems 671 References 674 Website Resources 674

Lighting 697 Dust 698 Vibration 698 Summary 699 Problems 700 References 701 Website Resources 702

22

CHAPTER

Forming Systems

APPENDIX

21

CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION NUISANCES

B

Selected English-to-SI Conversio Factors 753

Planning for Building Construction 675 Introduction 675 Site Layout 677 Lifting and Support Equipment 683 Delivery of Structural Components 686 Steel Erection 688 Tilt-Up Construction 689 Construction Noise 692 Noise Mitigation 694

A

Alphabetical List of Units with Their SI Names and Conversion Factors 751 APPENDIX

CHAPTER

703

Classification 703 Formwork and the Project Engineer 705 Formwork Design 707 Formwork Economics 711 Vertical Systems 718 Horizontal Systems 721· Combined Vertical and it9rizontal Systems 733:;" Shoring Towers 738 Safety 745 Summary 747 Problems 748 References 749 Website Resources

APPENDIX

C

Selected U.S. Customary (Englis Unit Equivalents 754 APPENDIX

692

D

Selected Metric Unit Equivalents 755 Index

756

C ,

,'