Concise dictionary of modern Japanese history

Citation preview


Compiled by Janet Hunter

University of California Press Berkeley •Los Angeles •London

University o f California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University o f California Press, Ltd. London, England ©1984 by The Regents o f the University o f California Printed in the United States o f America 1 2 3 斗5 6 7 8 9 Library o f Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Hunter, Janet. Concise dictionary o f modem Japanese history. Includes index. 1. Japan — History—1868 — —Dictionaries. I. Title. D S881.9H86 1983 952.03 82-17456 ISBN 0-520-04390-1 (cloth) 0-520-0 斗557-2 (paper)

In memory o f my father


List o f Maps, viii

Preface, ix Guide to Use o f the Dictionary, xiii List o f Abbreviations, xv Concise Dictionary o f Modern Japanese History, i

Appendices, 1. Era Names, 257 2. Emperors Since 1817,257 3. Population o f Japan, 1872—1977, 258 4. Development o f Political Parties in Modern Japan, 259 5. Japanese Cabinets Since the Introduction o f the Cabinet System in 1885,266 Glossary, 325 Japanese-English Index, 333


1. Modem Prefectures, Urban Areas, and Major Cities, xvi 2. Japan and Northeast Asia, 1936,119 3. Major Domains o f Political Importance during the Bakumatsu Period, 229


Historical dictionaries and other similar reference works are widely ac­ cepted and widely used in Japan and are an integral part o f modem Japanese historiography. As a part o f Englishlanguage historiography, however, the historical dictionary, as a general listing o f people, places, and events, is far less used. It is therefore especially important to say something about the aims and limitations o f this Concise Dictionary o f ModernJapa­ nese History. Japanese history is relatively unknown in the West. Linguistic difficulties, the fact that the study o f Japan traditionally has little place within Western historio­ graphy, and the trend toward academic specialization have all contributed to this neglect. Yet the importance o f Japan in our lives today is such as to merit a deeper awareness and understanding. Japanese history deserves to be better known because it is intrinsically o f as much inter­ est as the history o f any other country, because o f its importance for world history in the modern period, and because o f the comparative insights it has to offer. The aim o f this book is to provide a handy source o f information on the individuals, events, and organizations that have played a significant role in Japan5s modern his­ tory. It is aimed primarily at non-Japanese speakers and nonspecialists or students just embarking on the study o f Japanese history, in fact, anyone in search o f further information on a topic they may have come across in their reading. This need is not met by the existing English-language historical dictionaries o f Japan compiled by E. Papinot and Joseph M. Goedertier. Specialists in Japan and others with a good knowledge o f Japanese would



obviously turn to the large number o f perhaps regretfully, resulted in the exclu­ existing Japanese-language historical sion o f items which are o f undoubted dictionaries, many o f which are far larger importance but which are less central to and more comprehensive than the present the main focus o f the work, for example, volume and on a scale that can only be the new religions, o f which the only one attempted with multiple authorship. covered is Soka Gakkai. The aim o f this work is to supply only The time span covered by the entries basic information. It has not been con­ in the dictionary is from 1853 through ceived as an encyclopedic compendium o f 1980. These dates are, however, subject to facts and figures. In accordance with this certain provisos. Although 1853, the year intention, the length o f each entry and o f when the West breached Japan?s national the text as a whole has been kept as brief isolation for the first time in over 200 as possible. To do otherwise would sug­ years, is frequently given as the starting gest a work o f a different scale. Especially date for Japan5s modem history, it is in view o f the curtailments imposed by commonplace that no single year ever length, therefore, the selection o f informa­ marks a total transformation in historical tion for such a volume does present events o f any great significance. Any such enormous problems. A major aim has date is somewhat arbitrary, and in many been to reflect the priorities o f Japanese ways the developmental watershed o f 1868 was much greater than that o f 1853. as well as Western historians; the factual Many o f the dictionary entries, therefore, details o f biographical notes, for example, are based largely on the work o f Japanese refer either in whole or in part to pre-1853 ideas, systems, and individuals where the historians, and it is these very facts that significance o f these without doubt ex­ are in many cases so difficult to obtain if tended into the modern period. one has no knowledge o f Japanese. Con­ Similarly, it is impossible to bring a flicting statements and dates have been reference work satisfactorily up to the checked as far as possible. Purely in terms present, and the post-1945 period has o f factual information, therefore, this been given relatively less coverage than work tries to fill a considerable lacuna in the earlier years, in part reflecting the English-language writings. Japanese historians, however, interpret greater difficulty o f assessing the true significance o f events close to the present. these facts for the Japanese. The Western The intention has been to cover those approach is often very different. Where interpretation o f an event, movement, or items o f major importance in Japan's postwar development— the events that idea is regarded as essential to the under­ standing o f an entry, I have tried to pro­ caught the public eye, the governments, economic developments— but the gaps vide a precis o f available information on are far greater than those in the earlier such topics and to take a balanced view, period. Furthermore, the most recent giving either the “ normally accepted” interpretation or, where two or more facts and figures will be rapidly overtaken, and the reader in search o f up-to-the major, conflicting interpretations exist, minute information about contemporary making the reader aware o f this fact. Japan will turn instead to the latest year­ The focus o f the work, for reasons books and white papers. In other words, both o f length and o f personal interest, is the book is tailored primarily to those on political, diplomatic, and socioeco­ nomic developments. Items o f importance seeking information about historical rather than contemporary developments. in intellectual history have been included The information contained in the only where they are regarded as having a various items has been drawn from a direct and important bearing on such large number o f both English and Japa­ developments. Literary personalities and nese secondary and reference works. events also find no place except where Most important have been the many they are o f prime importance in this Japanese historical dictionaries and refersphere. The need for brevity has also,


ence books. Particularly worth mentioning o f the more concise works are M. Takayanagi and R. Takeuchi, eds., Kakugawa NihonshiJiteriy nth ed. (Tokyo, 1968); Nihon Kingendaishi Jiten Henshu Iinkai, ed., Nihon Kin0endaishiJiten (Tokyo, 1978); Kyoto Daigaku Bungakubu Kokushi Kenkyushitsu, ed., Nihon Kindaishi Jiten (Tokyo, 1958); and Nihon Rekishi Daijiten Henshu Iinkai, ed., Nihonshi Nenpyd (Tokyo, 1976). These works are o f varying quality, and their interpretations are often questionable; nevertheless, they do attempt to give the basic facts (though it is surprising how often they conflict even on these). This information has in some cases been supplemented by infor­ mation from and checked against other reference works and English- and Japa­ nese-language monographs as far as possible. The interpretation and selection o f facts, however, is such as I hope will be o f value and interest particularly to West­ ern readers. The books and articles cited at the end o f most entries are intended to suggest where the reader with no knowledge o f the Japanese language may find more detailed information about that particular item. In some cases where no reference is given, the author has been unable to trace any English-language sources on the subject. The citing o f a source is not necessarily to be regarded as a whole­ hearted recommendation o f it. The En­ glish-language literature on Japan is still sufficiently limited so that it is frequently possible only to cite one or two sources on an item, and these may sometimes be hopelessly outdated or o f dubious value. Only in cases where the English-language literature on a subject is sufficiently large that reasons o f length render citation o f all relevant sources impossible have I provided a selection o f references, taking what I regard as the most valuable, inform­ ative, or representative. These references are cited in alphabetical order, not in order o f value. The references thus cited do not include the fairly considerable number o f general works on the modem period, some o f which are extremely good and should be constantly borne in


mind as a background for the study o f modern Japanese history. It should be added that the range o f subject matter o f this dictionary is so wide that most o f it lies outside the authors own field o f expertise. Comments on entries and bibliography from those with more specialized knowledge will be greatly welcomed. Stylistic conventions are in accordance with the University o f Chicago Press M anual o f Style, 12th ed. (Chicago, 1969). Japanese words have been romanized in accordance with the modified Hepburn system as found in Kenkyusha5s New Japanese-English Dictionary, 4th ed. (To­ kyo, 1974)- This system uses a macron to denote a long vowel (e.g., 6 ), but this has been omitted in the case o f a few very well-known place names such as Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto. Japanese words that are not proper nouns or titles have been italicized, with the exception again o f a small number o f words which have in effect passed into the English language, for example, samurai and Bakufu. Japanese names are given in the normal Japanese manner with family name preceding given name. Japanese characters are in­ cluded in the entry titles, glossary, and index with the aim o f assisting beginners in the use o f Japanese sources. Those with a reasonable level o f proficiency in written Japanese will, as mentioned abbve, natu­ rally be assumed to turn to Japaneselanguage reference works for their infor­ mation. As should be the case with all reference works, the aim o f this book is to help the reader in his or her studies; it is not in­ tended as a substitute for study, and its use is essentially a limited one. I f it assists the reader, and perhaps stimulates him or her to probe further into an important but neglected field, it will have gone a long way toward serving its purpose. A professional fellowship from the Japan Foundation in 1977 enabled me to collect reference works by Japanese histo­ rians, which were o f great use in compiling this volume. I would like to thank in particular the following, who have read



all or parts o f the manuscript: Professor Ian Nish o f the London School o f Eco­ nomics and Political Science; Professor Richard Storry o f St. A ntonis College, Oxford; Dr. Michael Connors, Lesley Connors, Dr. Gordon Daniels, Graham Healey, and Dr. Hamish Ion o f the Center o f Japanese Studies, University o f Shef­ field, all o f whose comments and advice were o f great value. I would also like to

express my gratitude to the members o f Dawson Publishing, which originally commissioned this work, and to the staff o f the University o f California Press, which took over its publication. Finally, I would like to thank Ethel Curley, who typed the manuscript for me, and Rose­ mary Duncan, o f the Geography Depart­ ment, University o f Sheffield, who drew the maps.


The aims and limitations o f this dic­ tionary are set out in the preface; the following notes are intended to assist the reader. The romanization used for Japanese is the modified Hepburn system as used in Kenkyusha5s NewJapanese-English Dic­ tionary, 4th ed. (Tokyo, 1974). Long vowels are indicated by the use o f mac­ rons, e.g., Kyushu, Hokkaido. The roman­ ization used for Chinese is the WadeGiles system. Entries are arranged alphabetically, with their headings in boldface letters. Biographical entries are in the order o f the subject^ family name. Where two or more individuals have the same family name, they are in alphabetical order o f given name, e.g., K ido Koichi precedes K ido Koin. The same alphabetical princi­ ple applies to nonbiographical entries, e.g., Shakai M inshuto precedes Shakai Taishuto. Letters with macrons are treated exactly as those without, except where both exist side by side, when that without precedes that with the macron, e.g., Shakai Minshuto precedes Shakai Minshuto. Japanese names are given throughout in the Japanese order, i.e., family name preceding given name. Where the Japanese character for a given name has more than one possible reading in common use, the alternative forms are given in parentheses in the biographical entry headings, e.g., H ara K ei (Satoshi^Takashi). Alternative family names are also given in this manner, e.g” iieco , Joseph (Hamada Hikoz6). English is used for entry headings wherever a generally accepted or unambig­ uous translation o f a Japanese title or phrase exists. Where appropriate, the


Guide to Use o f the Dictionary

Japanese term or title is given in parenthe­ ses following the English. However, the Japanese phrase given after such an En­ glish entry heading is not necessarily the direct translation o f that heading: differ­ ent phrases are often used in the two languages to refer to the same thing, e.g., Siberian Intervention (Shiberia shuppci). Within the text o f an entry (q.v.) is used to guide the reader to another entry containing related material. Such crossreferencing is not exhaustive; (q.v.) is inserted only where reference to the related material is considered indispensa­ ble to the understanding o f an entry or where an unfamiliar term or concept is referred to. Persons and political parties are generally not cross-referenced. Related material is also indicated by See . . . at the end o f an entry. Some headings are also

cross-references, e.g., Hitotsubashi Keiki. See T okugaw a K e ik i . The brief English-language bibliogra­ phies at the end o f entries are arranged in alphabetical order by author. The information in the text, bibliogra­ phies, and appendices is based on data available up to the end o f 1980. The glossary o f Japanese words and phrases is arranged in alphabetical order. The index o f Japanese characters is ar­ ranged in ascending order o f the number o f strokes in the first character o f an entry. Where more than one entry starts with the same character, the order is based on the number o f strokes in the second character, and so on. Characters with the same number o f strokes are arranged in the order found in Nelson5sJapaneseEnglish Character Dictionary.






British Associationfor Japanese Studies し ontempomryJapan F ar Eastern Quarterly Harvard University East Asian Research Center Papers onJupun Journal o f Asian History Journal o f Asum Studies Journal o f Japanese Studies Japan Quarterly Modern Asian Studies Monuments Nipponica Pacific Historical Review

S 3 I U 3 s f B P V P S ( S S J Y s q - I P (S3JTUU3J 3 J J U J O P O P Y . N w v { .1


A ________________ Abe Isoo 1865—1949 安部磯雄 Native o f Fukuoka Prefecture, Abe studied at Doshisha and became a Christian; after studying in the West, he returned to Japan and became a Unitarian preacher. From 1899 he taught at Tokyo College (later Waseda University). He participated in the early Socialist move­ ment, becoming a member o f the Society for the Study o f Socialism in 1898 and then president o f the Socialist Society in 1900; in 1901 he was one o f the founders o f the Shakai Minshuto. Abe maintained a pacifist stance throughout the RussoJapanese War, and his subsequent publica­ tion o f the journal Smn Kt0en (New Era) with IshiKawa Sanshiro marked his continuing activity as one o f Japan’s leading Christian Socialists. Though withdrawing from Socialist activity after 1910, Abe reemerged in 1924 to become president o f the Japan Fabian Society. As a member o f the Labor Farmer Party in 1926,then chairman o f the Shakai Min­ shuto, and finally as chairman o f the Shakai Taishuto from 1932, he remained a leading figure among right-wing Social­ ists until the war. In 1928 he was elected to the Diet. Abe withdrew from political activity in 1940 but postwar acted as aaviser to the Japan Socialist Party. Powles, C. H. ccAbe Isoo: The Utility Man,55in N. Bamba and J. F. Howes, eds. Pacifism in Japan (Kyoto, 1978). Abe Nobuyuki 1875-1953 阿部信行 Native o f Ishikawa Prefecture, graduating from the Military Academy, Abe rose to


Abolition o f the Domains

the rank o f general before being placed took over the income and debts o f the on the reserve list in 1936. In August 1939 domain. The domains were replaced by he succeeded Hiranuma as prime minister urban districts (fu) and prefectures (ken) and in this post advocated the formation governed by officials sent out from o f a new Chinese government under Wang Tokyo. This system o f units o f local Ching-wei and nonintervention in the administration under the central govern­ war in Europe. Abe5s cabinet failed to ment had already been adopted in lands curb rampant inflation; other measures formerly held by the Tokugawa. In 1873 incurred the hostility o f the Privy Council, real local autonomy was virtually ended by the establishment o f the new Home Foreign Ministry, and Diet. Bereft o f Ministry (q.v.\ and in subsequent reorgan­ army support, the cabinet resigned in izations the domains largely lost their January 1940. Abe subsequently served as identities. special envoy to China and in 1942 joined the House o f Peers. His other official Beasley, W. G. The M eiji Restoration posts included the presidency o f the Imperial Rule Assistance Political Associa­ (London, 1973). tion and from July 1944 the governorship o f Korea. Abolition o f the Han. See A bo litio n Berger, G. M. Parties Out o f Power in o f t h e D o m a in s ; F e u d a l S ystem Japan, 1931—1941 (Princeton, 1977)Iwabuchi, T. (New York, 1949). Daniels, G. ^Nationalist China in the Allied Council: Policies Toward Japan, 19 冬6 —19S2,” Hokkaidd Law Review27, no. 2 (Nov. 1976).

Allied Powers G H Q . See SCAP All Japan General Federation o f Labor. See L a bo r M o v e m e n t

Amakasu Incident. See OSUGISAKAE A ll Japan Industrial Labor Unions Conference. See L abo r M o v em en t

All Japan l^abor Unions Conference. See L abo r M o v em en t

A ll Japan Proletarian Youth League. See Y o u t h O rg a n iza tio n s

Allied Council for Japan (Rengokoku TainichiRijikai) 連合国対日理事今 The allied toreign ministers conference in Moscow in December 1945 established the Allied Council tor Japan, which was to meet in Tokyo. Consisting or represent­ atives from the U.S., U.S.S.R., Nationalist China, and the British Commonwealth and chaired by SCAP {q.v.) or his repre­ sentative, the council was to consult with and advise SCAP over the implementation o f surrender terms and the Occupation and administration o f Japan. From April 1946 two meetings a month were held, and in the early stages o f the Occupation the council played an active part in pro-

Amamiya Silk M ill Dispute (Amamiya Seishisogi) 雨宮製糸争議 In February 1886 the owners o f 73 silk mills in the K6f\i (Yamanashi) area em­ ploying some 斗,500 female workers formed an organization to tighten their joint control over their labor force. The resulting attempt to enforce harsher working conditions provoked over 100 women at the Amamiya mill, one o f the largest in the area, into refusing to work until conditions were improved. The withdrawal o f labor on 1 斗June 1886 is regarded as Japan^ first factory strike. The dispute was ended in two days by the employees granting concessions, and it triggered o ff a succession or similar dis­ putes in the area. But its significance was small and localized; its importance lies in its existence as a nistorical event rather than as the precursor o f a successful and organized labor movement.

Am ur R iver Society. See KOKURYUKAI

A na-Boru Dispute. See A n ar ch ism

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Anarchism Anarchist ideas were first openly ex­ pounded in Japan by Kotoku Shusui after 1905; he rejected authority and argued that socialism must be achieved through direct action o f organized workers since the Diet would always be the weapon o f the propertied classes. A split within the Socialist movement followed between anarchists and social democrats. The dominant form o f anarchism in Japan was anarcho-syndicalism; adherents aimed at the liberation o f the working class but did not recognize parliamentary activity and the leadership o f political parties, instead wishing to bring down capitalism by direct action o f unions through general strikes, boycotts, and sabotage. They also regarded organized workers at plant level as the basic unit not only o f revolutionary struggle but also o f production and distri­ bution in any new society. After Kotoku5s death in 1911, the anarcho-syndicalist group was led by Osugi Sakae, and his doctrines dominated the labor movement 1921-1922. After the Russian Revolution the popularity o f Bolshevik ideas grew, and by 1922 a conflict between the Bolshe­ viks and anarcho-syndicalists had split the labor and Socialist movements. This was the so-called Ana-Boru dispute. The anarcho-syndicalists still rejected the leadership o f political parties, advocating a loose confederation based on autono­ mous plant unions and direct economic action through strikes to achieve workers’ control over production. The Bolsheviks advocated the building o f strong united labor organizations, obtaining public support, and raising political issues. The split was worsened by the anarchists’ problems in the Soviet Union and the anarchists5use o f offensive tactics in a period o f recession. After the founding o f the Japan Communist Party and the murder o f Osugi in 1923, anarcho-syndi­ calism yielded its dominance o f the labor movement to communism. Government suppression meant the loss o f successive leaders, and with the manifest failure o f anarcho-syndicalism as a revolutionary tactic, as opposed to the obvious success o f Bolshevism, it lost most o f its influence.


In 1926 there occurred a split between anarchists and syndicalists, and they have not reemerged as a united movement. Postwar activities by anarchists have been minimal despite some revival among the Zengakuren {q.v.) from 1958. Notehelfer, F. G. Kotoku Shusui: Portrait o f aJapanese Radical (Cambridge, 1971). Totten, G. O. The Social Democratic Move­ ment in PrewarJapan (New Haven, 1966). Anarcho-Syndicalism. See A n ar ch ism

Anglo-Japanese Alliance (Nichiei Domei) 日英同盟 Some Japanese, notably Ito Hirobumi, wished for a Russian alliance to effect a local compromise over Russo-Japanese relations, and the Germans had pushed for a triple alliance with Britain and Japan, but following negotiations between Hayashi 1 adasu, Japanese envoy in Lon­ don, and Lord Lansdowne an AngloJapanese alliance was concluded, to be effective from 30 January 1902. The terms o f the alliance recognized a common interest in opposing Russian expansion, promising mutual help for the preserva­ tion o f U. K. rights and interests in China, and o f Japan’s interests in China and Korea. I f either signatory power engaged in hostilities with one power in the Far East area, the other would remain neutral, but hostilities with two or more powers would oblige the other signatory power to participate. The treat^s term was five years. The British regarded the alliance as an end to “ Splendid Isolation” and a warning to Russia; the Japanese regarded it as a triumph, putting her on an equal footing with the great powers and ena­ bling her to fight Russia without fear o f Russia’s invoking her alliance with France. In August 1905 the alliance terms were revised and broadened to provide for the defense o f British interests in India and a more precise recognition o f Japan^ he­ gemony in Korea, and its term was ex­


Annexation o f Korea

tended to io years. Improved relations with Russia, deteriorating relations with Germany, and Japan’s annexation o f Korea rendered further revision desirable, and renewal in 1911 also excluded the U. S. from the sphere o f application. Japan invoked the alliance in order to declare war on Germany in 1914. It remained legally in force until the effecting o f the Washington Four-Power Treaty, which replacea it in August 1923. Lowe, P. C. Great Britain andJapan, 1911— 191s (London, 1969). Nish, I. H. Alliance in Decline (London, 1972). _______ The Anglo-Japanese Alliance: The Diplomacy o f Two Island Empires (Lon­ don, 1966). Pooley, A. M. Secret Memoirs o f Count Tadasu Hayashi (London, 1915)Annexation o f Korea. See K o rea , C o lo n yo f

Anpo. See U.S.-Japan S e c u r it y T r eaty

Ansei Purge (Ansei no Taigoku) 安政の大獄 A series o f measures carried out by Ii Naosuke 1858 - 1859 to suppress powerful rivals and opponents inside and outside the Bakufu. Opposition had centered on the twin problems o f the shogunal succes­ sion dispute {q.v.) and conclusion o f the U. S.-Japan Treaty o f Amity and Com­ merce (q.v.). Ii removed from office many o f his main opponents within the Bakufu; he forced daimyo from both fuaai and tozama han into retirement and banned Hitotsubashi Keiki from public life. The purge extended to the court, members o f the antiforeign, pro-emperor movement and others connected with the Hitotsu­ bashi party. Over 100 people were affected and eight executed, including Yoshida Shoin. Beasley, W. G. The M eiji Restoration (Lx>ndon, 1973)-

Ansei Treaties. See U. S.-J apan T reaty of

A m ity a n d C o m m erce

Anti-Bakufu Movement (Tobaku undo) 討幕運動 The downfall o f the Bakufu and restora­ tion o f power to the emperor was in many ways the logical corollary o f sound {q.v.) ideas, and the term anti-Bakufu movement embraces both those who, during the 1860s, aimed at the overthrow o f the Tokugawa regime by force (the [destroy the Bakufu] faction) and those who wished for a peaceful transfer­ ence o f the responsibility for national rule from Bakufu to emperor. From the early 1860s Choshu openly defied the Bakufu, but it was only after the conclusion o f an alliance in 1866 with Satsuma, which had hitherto advocated kobu^attai {q.v.) policies, that successful armed struggle to overthrow the Bakufu became a possibil­ ity. Advocates o f peaceful transition, led by Tosa, achieved the snogun5s resignation late in 1867, but Satsuma and Choshu, and other more hostile to the Bakufu, seized power at court, and their victory in the subsequent hostilities gave them domi­ nance in the new government. Beasley, W. G. The M eiji Restoration (Lon­ don, 1973)Craig, A. Choshu in the M eiji Restoration (Cambridge, Mass., 1961). Harootunian, H. Toward Restoration (Berkeley, 1970)Jansen, M. B. Sakamoto Ryoma and the Metjt Restoration (Princeton, 1961).

Anti-Bolshevism League (Sekka Boshidan) 赤化防止団 Violent right-wing group founded Octo­ ber 1922 by lawyer and Kokuryukai mem­ ber Yonemura Kaicmro. The league aimed at the eradication o f socialism and had branches throughout the country carrying on “ patriotic ’ campaigns and intimidating strikers and leftist organiza­ tions. Its membership never exceeded 2,000, and in 1923 Yonemura stabbed to death a Communist who had attacked the

Anti-Japanese Movement (China)


in response to such incidents as Japan5s occupation o f former German concessions in Cmna (1914), the Twenty-One Demands (1915)(ダ.!?.), and the Nishihara Loans (q.v.). After 1918 Chinese students returning en masse from Japan in protest and resentment at the failure o f China5s Storry, R. The Double Patriots (London, calls at the Paris Peace Conference for 1959). cancellation o f the Twenty-One Demands Tanin, O., and E. Yohan. Militarism and and return o f the Shantung Peninsula Fascism in Japan (London, 1934). initiated the so-called May 斗Movement when demonstrations, boycotts, and Anti-Com intern Pact (Nichidokui strikes prevented China’s signing the peace treaty. From the early 1920s Japan Bokyo Kyotei) 日独伊防共協定 shifted toward a policy o f economic Concluded in Berlin between Japan and Germany 25 November 1936. In Japan infiltration, and tariff disputes led to strikes in Japanese-owned plants 1925 there was strong army pressure to con­ clude the pact, and a leading role was 1926. The 1927 shantung Expeditions played by Osnima Hiroshi, Japan5s military {q.v.) marked the revival o f more open Japanese intervention in Chinese affairs, attache in Berlin. The two countries and attempts to organize a nationwide agreed to exchange information concern­ boycott o f Japanese goods inflicted severe ing the Comintern and to take measures to oppose its activities. A secret adaitional economic damage on Japan. The Chinese protocol provided for mutual consultation populace was further inflamed by the Wanpaoshan Incident o f July 1931, when a and the cessation o f activity beneticial to dispute between local Korean and Chinese the U.S.S.R. by one signatory should the farmers in Wanpaoshan, Manchuria, led other open hostilities with Russia. The to anti-Cninese riots in Korea. After the pact was extended in November 1937 to Manchurian Incident {q.v.) Shanghai include Italy. For Japan the pact was a became the center o f an increasingly step away from her international isolation strong nationwide movement o f strikes since the Manchurian Incident (q.v.) and and boycotts, but continuing Japanese toward the 1 ripartite Pact (q.v.) o f 1940. encroachments gradually led the Chinese to try to resist further aggression by Boyd, C. ctThe Role o f Hiroshi Oshima force. Initially the Kuomintang govern­ in the Preparation o f the Antiment gave little strong support to the Comintern Pact,55/ / l i f 11, no. 1 (1977). resistance movement, preferring to fight Ikle, F.W. German-Japanese Relations, its internal battle against the Communists 19^6—1940 (New York, 1956). Ohata, T. uThe Anti-Comintern Pact, before tackling Japan, but it was pressur­ 1935- 1939,55in J. W. Morley, ed., Deter­ ized by increasing Chinese nationalism rent Diplomacy:Japan, Germany, and and worsening Japanese aggression; in the U.S.S.R., 193s-1940 (New York, 1937 a united front to oppose the Japanese 1976). was formed after the kidnapping o f Presseisen, E. L. Germany andJapan: Chiang Kai-shek at Sian. The Chinese Communist Party had been the dominant A Study in Totalitarian Diplomacy, element in the anti-Japanese movement 1933-19 4 1 (The Hague, 1958). in Manchuria since 1935. The united military front against Japan was in princi­ Anti-Japanese Movement (China) ple maintained until 1945. The first boycott o f Japanese goods by the Cmnese was in 1908, but from 191 斗 Chow, T. T. The May Fourth Movement: anti-Japanese feeling expressed in boycotts Intellectual Revolution in Modern and demonstrations gained momentum China (Cambridge, Mass., i960). leagued headquarters, and he was impris­ oned. The group soon afterwards ceased to exist, but there is a postwar organiza­ tion o f the same name. It is also known as the Anti-Red League.


Anti-Japanese Movement (Korea)

Coox, A. D., and H. Conroy eds. Chinn andJapan: Searchfar Balance Since World WarI (Santa Barbara, 1978). Jansen, M. B. China andJapan (Chicago, 1975).

tee o f the Japan Socialist Party and a Diet member 1946 —1949, but he left politics to spend his time as a writer and critic. His works include histories o f the Socialist and labor movements in Japan and transla­ tions into Japanese.

Anti-Japanese Movement (Korea). See

Beckmann, G. M., and G. Okubo. The Japanese Communist Party, 19 2 2 —194s (Stanford, 1969). Colbert, E. The Left Win£f in Japanese Politics (New York, 1952).

K o r e a n In d e p e n d e n c e M o v em en t

Antimonopoly Law. See ZAIBATSU


D isso lu tio n

A rakiSadao 1877—1966 (Baron, 1935) 荒木貞夫 Native o f Tokyo, graduating from the M o v em en t Military Academy, Araki held various army posts including those o f military attache in Russia and section head at the Anti-Red League. See A n t i General Staff. Briefly inspector-general o f B o lsh e v ism L ea g u e military education in 1931, he became war minister the same year, retaining the post until his resignation in 193斗on grounds April 16 Arrests. See JAPAN COMMUNIST o f ill health; he was subsequently ap­ Pa r ty pointed to the Supreme Military Council. As war minister Araki conducted a major army reshuffle, establishing members o f his own personal clique in aominant Arahata Kanson (Katsuzo) positions; he took a strong stand on the 1 8 8 7 - 1 9 8 1 荒畑寒村(勝三) matter o f the military budget and sup­ Native o f Yokohama, Arahata became interested in socialism and in 190斗joined ported the establishment o f an indepen­ the Heiminsha (q.v.). Remaining active in dent Manchurian state. Strongly identified the socialist movement atter the Heimin- with the reform movement among the sha^ demise, he was influenced by Kotoku young officers, he was regarded as one o f the leaders o f the kddo faction {q.v.) and Shusui and turned to anarcho-syndical­ was placed on the reserve list in 1936 after ism; imprisoned after the 1908 Red Flag Incident (q.v.\ he subsequently published the February 26 Rising (q.v.). As minister o f education under Konoe and Hiranuma the journal Kirntai Shiso (Modem 1938-1939 AraKi reinforced the military Thought) with Osugi Sakae. Turning to slant o f education and culture. Iried after Bolshevism in 1922, he sat on the first central committee o f the new Japan Com­ the war as a class “ A” war criminal, he munist Party; he was subsequently impris­ was sentenced to life imprisonment but was released in 1955 due to illness. oned several times for his adherence. He opposed the dissolution o f the party in 192斗and subsequently broke with it Fukuda, I .ccAraki— the Man o f the Crisis,55 because o f his opposition to FukumotoC J1, no. 3, (Dec. 1932). Shillony, B. A. Revolt in Japan: The Toung ism (q.v.\ becoming a leading figure in Officers and the February 26,1936} Inci­ the Rono faction in the debate over dent (Princeton, 1973). Japanese capitalism. He moved away Williston, H. "'General Araki5s Contribu­ from communism toward social democ­ tion to Japanese Militarism and Ultraracy and was arrested late 1937 for united Nationalism in the 1930s,55M.A. thesis, front activities. In 1946 —19斗8 he was a University o f California, 1951. member o f the central executive commit­ Antinuclear Movement. See PEACE

Army Arm y An imperial guard ^oshinpei, later konoehet) for the personal protection o f the emperor and under his command was formed by volunteers from Satsuma, Choshu, and Tosa in 1871, but the basis of Japan’s modem army was established by the introduction o f conscription after 1872. Initially organized for domestic security, members o f the army inherited the prestige formerly accruing to samurai, and the army became an instrument o f national unity. Influenced by French and German models, a separate War Ministry was established in 1872 to be headed by someone o f at least major-general rank. In 1878 a new independent General Staff took over military command matters, leaving military administration to the War Ministry. Major reforms at this time led to the formation o f a professional military establishment in the 1880s, al­ though initial Choshu dominance o f the army was only very slowly eroded. The Meiji constitution placed the army outside Diet and cabinet control by making the emperor supreme commander o f the armed forces and by recognizing the right o f military leaders to appeal directly to the throne. A supreme military council and military advisers were appointed to advise the emperor. Matters such as martial law lay outside the jurisdiction o f the regular courts. In 1898 the Department o f Military Education (Kyoiku Sokanbu) was established. The army controlled various educational establishments includ­ ing preparatory schools, specialist colleges, the War College, and the Military Acad­ emy (1873), whose graduates became the officer elite. It also controlled factories engaged in military production. During time o f war an imperial headquarters (daihon^ei) was established, directly re­ sponsible to the emperor; this happened in 189斗一 1895,190 斗一 1905, and 1937—19斗5. By 1894 the strength o f the army was seven divisions; victories gave it increasing prestige, and by 1907 there were 19, but attempts to expand further contributed to the Taisho Political Crisis (q.v.\ and further expansion came only during the 191 斗一 1918 war. Pressure for disarmament reduced the arm/s strength to 17 divisions


(250,000 men) in 1925, but tanks, artillery, and planes were invested in and considera­ ble rationalization and modernization took place. The army grew from the late 1920s, and in 1945 there were nearly 200 divisions comprising over 5^2 million men. From the start the army played an important role in spreading not only practical skills and knowledge but also nationalist ideology. Under the influence o f Yamagata Aritomo the army developed as a stronghold o f conservative and na­ tionalist values, and after 1900 its political influence increased. In 1900 it was stipu­ lated that the war minister must be a general on the active list, and although this provision was abolished in 1913, it was reintroduced in 1936. At all times the war minister was in a difficult position between army and cabinet. From the 1920s the three most important figures in the army, the war minister, the chief o f staff, and the inspector-general o f military education, consiilted on the appointment o f a war minister, and in effect the army could bring a cabinet down by a refusal to appoint a representative. In conjunction with the so-calledccindependence o f the supreme command” 一 the fact that the command function was potentially free o f political checks applied through the cabinet— this gave the army a base for extending its influence into nonmilitary affairs. Although in the Meiji period there had been strict limitations imposed on the militar/s involvement in politics, the growth o f radicalism among younger officers from the 1920s and the legal inde­ pendence o f the military from civilian authority stimulated it to play an increas­ ingly dominant role in national politics. Tfie civilian authorities had no say in the affairs o f the military. Independent army moves in Manchuria in the early 1930s indicated that civilian governments were unable to dictate foreign policy. Military influence throughout the country was helped by three decades o f inculcation o f conservative and nationalist values through the Imperial Reservists5Associa­ tion {q.v.) and other local organizations, and also by military training for all those above middle-school age, which was introduced in 1925 partly to alleviate


Asahi Shinbun

military unemployment due to disarma­ ment. Despite internal dissent, after 1936 the army achieved considerable control o f foreign and domestic policymaking, and its authority was not challenged until the closing stages o f the war. The army and those institutions connected with it were disbanded by the Occupation authorities, and military forces were disallowed under the 1947 constitution. The Self-Defense Force (q.v.) has since been established. Crowley, J. B. “ From Closed Door to Empire: The Formation o f the Meiji Military Establishment,55 in B. S. Silberman and H. Harootunian, eds., ModernJapcmese Leadership (Tucson, 1966). _______tcJapan5s Military Foreign Poli­ cies,55in J. W. Morley, cd.^Japan}s Foreign Policy, 1868-1941: A Research Guide (New York, 1974)Hackett, R. F. uThe Military: Japan,5, in R. E. Ward and D. Rustow, eds., Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey (Princeton, 1964). _______TcimagataAritomo in the Rise of Modern Japan, 1838-1922 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971). Presseisen, E. L. Before Agression (Tucson, 1965). Smethurst, R. J. A Social Basisfor Prewar Japanese Militarism (Berkeley, 1974).

his interests. An almost reckless innovator, much o f his financial support came from Yasuda Zenjiro. By his death Asano had built up a huge business empire founded on cement, metals, and shipping interests. Alter 1918 the business was controlled by a family partnership and known as one o f the smaller zaibatsu, but unlike most zaibatsu builders Asano5s attempts at banking were unsuccessful, and much o f the funding continued to be done through the Yasuda group. After a decline in the 1920s the concern revived after the Man­ churian Incident and at its peak controlled (directly or indirectly) 87 companies with capital o f ¥500 million. Postwar connec­ tions between the various companies were dissolved, but many o f them remain influential. Hirschmeier, J. The Origins o fEntrepre­ neurship in M eijiJapan (Cambridge, Mass., 196 斗).

Asano Zaibatsu. See A san o S o ichiro

Ashida H itoshi 1887-1959 芦田均 Native o f Kyoto, Asmda graduated from Tokyo Imperial University and entered the Foreign Ministry but resigned after the Manchurian Incident over policy disagreements. He then entered the Diet as a Seiyukai member. Despite his opposi­ Asahi Shinbun. See NEWSPAPERS tion to militarist policies, Ashida was elected nine times subsequently, including once in 19斗2 as a non-governmentsored candidate. He also lectured at Asano S6icmro 18斗8 —1930 University and was president o f the 浅野総一郎 Japan 7 vmes 1933 —1940- In 1945 he A samurai from Toyama region, in 1871 became minister o f welfare. He subse­ Asano went to Tokyo after failing in quently helped Hatoyama to form the business at home. Possessing no capital, Japan Liberal Party but in March 1947 he enffaged in the sale o f coke and nrewood.fledevelopedcontactswithShibu- participated in the founding o f the Democratic Party, o f which he became sawa Eiichi, and with his help rented and president in May. Advocating moderate later purchased (1884) the governmentpolicies, he cooperated with the Socialist owned, loss-making Fukagawa Cement Party and in June 1947 became foreign Works. Renamed Asano Cement, the minister and deputy prime minister business prospered with the assistance o f government orders, and from there Asano, under Katayama. In March 19斗8 he succeeded Katayama as prime minister, known as the “ Cement King,” diversified


heading a coalition cabinet o f Democratic Party, Socialist Party, and Kokumin Kyodoto (National Cooperative Party) members. Ashida promoted the import o f foreign capital to aid economic recovery and vigorously opposed communism. On the orders o f SCAP he removed the right o f strike and collective bargaining from public and government unions. However, Ashida5s cooperation with the Socialists alienated the conservative wing o f his own party; the Socialists also became divided, and the cabinet resigned in October 1948 over accusations o f corrup­ tion among cabinet members in connec­ tion with the Showa Electrical Company. Ashida himselfwas acquitted in 1958. He remained active in politics during the early 1950s but spent much o f his time writing on diplomatic history, notably a history o f World War II. Colbert, E. S. The Left Wing in Japanese Politics (New York, 1952). Quigley, H. S., and J. E. Turner The New Japan (Minneapolis, 1956). Yamaura, K .uPrime Minister Hitoshi Ashida: Portrayal,55 C J17, nos. 1 - 3 (Jan.-Mar. 1948). Ashio Copper Mine 足/名銅山 In Tochigi Prefecture. Owned by the Bakufu in the Tokugawa period, in 1877 the mine was taken over by Furukawa Ichibei and subsequently became the focal enterprise o f his mmrng empire. Furukawa undertook mechanization and management reforms, and by the later Meiji period the mine was producing over 40% o f Japan5s total copper produc­ tion; a large proportion was exported. From the 1880s the mine was notorious as a source o f pollution. Effluent in the Watarase and Tone rivers killed fish, massive deforestation led to widespread flooding with polluted waters, and the livelihood o f many was threatened. A petition movement for the mine to be closed was led in the Diet by Tanaka Shoz5 from 1891, but it had little effect, and pollution worsened. Renewed protest


from 1897 led to mass demonstrations in Tokyo, on occasion bringing clashes with police, and the pollution became a national issue. The government directed the mine to enforce the antipollution measures agreed in 1897, but results were slow. In December 1901 Tanaka made a direct appeal to the throne. The protest move­ ment subsequently declined although the Copper Pollution Law, winch was passed, proved inadequate. Due to the pollution problem and to fierce labor disputes in the late Meiji and Taisho periods, the mine5s production declined, and copper ceased to be mined at Ashio in 1973. Notehelfer, F. G. “ Japan’s First Pollution Incident,5,7 7 n〇- 2 (Spring 1975). Strong, K. Ox Against the Storm (Tenterden, Kent, 1977)_______ tcTanaka Shozo: Meiji Hero and Pioneer Against Pollution,” / 印aw Society o f London Bulletin 67 (June 1972). A soH isashi 1891 —1940 麻生久 A farmers son from Oita Prefecture, Aso read law at Tokyo University, where he became interested in socialism. After graduating, he became a reporter, but in 1919 he joined the Yuaikai (q.v.) as head o f its mining section and founded a national organization for miners. He participated in the Shinjinkai {q.v.). He was subse­ quently among the leaders o f the Sodomei and active in the proletarian party move­ ment where he was among the leadership o f moderate parties such as the Nihon Ronoto (Japan Labor Farmer Party) o f 1926, the Nihon laishuto (Japan Masses5 Party), and the Miakai 1 aishuto. He was elected to the Diet in 1936. From the early 1930s he began to support alignment with reformist elements and the army to oppose the existing political parties and to move toward support o f the war. This made him willing to cooperate with Konoe in forming a single, national renovationist party, and he was actively participating in the New Structure Movement (q.v.) at the time o f his death.


Atom ic B o m b ______________________

Wray, W. D. tcAso Hisashi and the Search for Renovation in the 1930s,55H P J5 (1970).

Automobile Industry. See CAR In d u st r y

Ayukawa Yoshisuke. See N issan Atomic Bomb. See H ir o sh im a ;

Z aibatsu

N a gasak i

B_____________ BabaTatsui 1850 —1888 馬場辰猪 Member o f a Tosa samurai family, in 1866 —1870 Baba studied at Keio and in 1870 —1878 in England, where he concen­ trated on law. During this stay he wrote a Japanese grammar (Nihon^ro Bunten\ organized an association o f Japanese students, and advocated treaty revision, writing 1 he Treaty BetweenJapan and England and The English in Japan. After his return he became active in the popular rights movement. He became vicepresident o f the Jiyuto in 1881 but resigned in 1882 over Itagaki’s trip abroad. He wrote in the Kyoson Zassm (Live and Let Live), the Jiyu Shinbun, and the Choya Shinbun. He was interested in legal education, founding the Meiji Gijuku, and started a legal advice bureau. In 1885 he was detained for six months on an explosives charge and on acquittal in June 1886 went to America, where he died in Philadelphia. Soviak, E. uAn Early Meiji Intellectual in Politics: Baba Tatsui and the Jiyuto,5 in S. Silberman and H. D. Harootunian, eds., ModernJapanese Leadership (Tucson, 1966).


Bakufu-H an System. See TOKUGAWA B a k u fu

Bakuhan System. See TOKUGAWA Ba k u f u

BanchokaL See IMPERIAL RAYON Sca n d a l

Banking Exchange companies had existed in the Tokugawa period, and in the early Meiji period many quasi-banks and exchange companies carried on small-scale banking and related activities. The word bank (^inkd) was used first in 1876 by Mitsui and subsequently by other private banking institutions. In 1872 the government, with the aim o f setting up an American-style banking system and also assisting the samurai class, passed regulations to en­ courage the establishment o f currency­ issuing national banks, but only after the regulations were modified in 1876 did national banks develop on any scale; they remained highly dependent on govern­ ment funds. Under Matsukata Masayosni, banking policy shifted toward adoption o f an English model. The Bank o f Japan was established in 1882, and eventually all note issue was centralized. Under the 1890 Banking Regulations all other banks ultimately became ordinary banks. Na­ tional banks had disappeared by 1899- In addition, the government established special banks to promote specific aims, such as the Yokohama Specie Bank (started business 1880) to finance foreign trade and the Japan Hypothec Bank (1896) for long-term investment in indus­ try and agriculture. Overall banks were important in funding productive activity, especially in industry, because little capital was raised elsewhere, but the degree o f their contribution to economic develop­ ment remains a matter o f controversy. Banks played a crucial role in zaibatsu

Boissonade, Gustave Emile

development and some grew to a great size, but there remained many small banks vulnerable in times o f financial panic. After the 1927 financial crisis (q.v.) the government passed the Bank Law to control banking activities; its provisions included a prohibition on banks with under ¥ 1 million capital. Special banks were abolished by the Occupation authorities, but otherwise banks were little affected by the reforms. They continue to play an extremely in­ fluential role in funding economic activity o f all kinds (relatively little capital is raised on the open market) and in forging links between various enterprises. Some bank specialization in function has also recurred. Patrick^ H. “ Japan 1868-1914,’’ in R. Cameron, ed., Banking in the Early Stages o fIndustridization (New York, 1967). Pressnell,L. S., ed. Money and Banking in Japan (London, 1973). Yamamura, K. posals. In 1890 Hayashi was elected to the Diet for the Jiyuto and became communica­ tions minister in 1898. In 1900 he partici­ pated in the founding o f the Seiyukai and was minister o f agriculture and commerce 1900 - 1901 but iater resigned trom his position among the partes leadership. He left the political world in 1908 and lived in retirement in Kochi.

Fukuda, I. uHayasni, the Strong Silent Minister,,5 C J 3, no. 1 (June 1934).

Hayashi Tadasu 1850 —1913 (Baron, 1895;Viscount, 1902; Count, 1907) 林 董 A samurai from Sakura み《 » (now Chiba

Heco, Joseph (Hamada Hikozo) 1837 -1897 浜 田 彦 造 Hamada Hikozo, a native o f Harima (now Hyogo Prefecture), was shipwrecked in 1850 on a voyage from Hyogo to Edo, rescued by an American ship, and taken


Heimin Shinbui

to the U.S. Educated there under the name o f Joseph H eco he took American citizenship and in 1859 returned to Japan as interpreter for the U.S. consulate in Yokohama, in which role he contributed to the developm ent o f American-Japanese relations. From 1863 H eco w as engaged in private business, and in 186 斗一 1866 he participated in the publication o f the first Japanese-language newspaper, the Kaigai Shinbun (Overseas New spaper). In 1872 — 187斗 he worked in the Finance M inistry but subsequently returned to private business, devoting his efforts to the expansion o t loreign trade.

Chikamori, W.Joseph Heco (Tokyo, 1963). Heco, J. (ed. J. Murdoch) The Narrative of aJapanese, 2 vols. (Yokohama, 1895). Heimin Shinbun. See HEIMINSHA

H e im in s h a 平 民 社 A S o c ia list g r o u p fo rm e d N o v e m b e r 1903 b y Sa k a i T o s h ih ik o an d K o t o k u S h u su i a fte r th e ir b reak w ith th e Torozu Choho (q.v.) o v e r w a r w ith R u s s ia . T h e y w e re jo in e d b y Ish ik a w a S a n sh iro an d N is h ik a w a k o j i r 6 , an d fro m e a rly 1904 the g r o u p c o n stitu te d the m ain stream o f the Jap an e se S o c ia list m o v e m e n t. T h e g r o u p 5s m ain a c tiv ity w a s th e p u b lic a tio n o f the w e e k ly Heimin Shinbun ( C o m m o n e r s P ap er), w h ic h a d v o c a te d so cialism , co m m o n e rism (hciminshu^i), an d pacifism b ased o n lib e rty , e q u ality, an d h u m a n ity b u t w h ic h , n e v erth eless, e m b ra c e d a d iv e rsity o f id e o lo g ic a l p o sitio n s. T h e H e im in sh a also ca rrie d o n p ro p a g a n d a an d b o o k p u b lish in g activities, a c tin g in ge n e ral as a S o c ia list fo cu s. In Ja n u a ry 1905 p u b lic a tio n o f th e Heimin Smnbun ceased fo llo w in g g o v e rn m e n t o p p re s s io n an d fin an cial p ro b le m s. Its w o r k w a s ca rrie d o n in th e w e e k ly Chokugen (P la in S p e a k in g ), b u t th is w a s b a n n e d in S e p te m ­ b er 1905. T h e H e im in sh a it s e lf w a s sp lit b e tw e e n C h ristia n an d n o n -C h ris tia n S o cialists an d d isb a n d e d in O c to b e r. In Ja n u a ry 1907 a re u n io n o f th e tw o S o c ia list w in g s re su lted in the p u b lic a tio n o f the d a ily Heimin Shinbun, w h ic h b riefly acted

as the organ o f the Japan Socialist Party but the reunion was short-lived, and the paper was bannea in April. K u b lin , H . ccT h e Ja p a n e se So cia lists and th e R u sso -Ja p a n e se Journal o f Modern History 22.^ no. 4 (D e c . 1950). N o te h e lfe r, F. G . Kotoku Shusui—Portrait o faJapanese Radical (C a m b rid g e ,


Hepburn^ James C urtis 1815 —1911 H e p b u r n w a s an A m e ric a n P resb y te ria n m is s io n a ry and d o c to r w h o h ad w o rk e d in C h in a an d a rriv ed in Ja p a n in O c to b e r 1859. H e w o rk e d in th e K a n a g a w a -Y o k o ­ h am a area u n til 1892, w h e n he re tu rn ed to A m e rica . A s w e ll as his m is s io n a ry w o r k , H e p b u r n p ro v id e d free treatm en t fo r h u g e n u m b ers o f p atien ts an d also ta u g h t E n g lis h an d m ath em atics. H e stu d ied the Ja p a n e se la n g u a g e an d in 1867 c o m p le te d the first Ja p a n e s e -E n g lish d ic tio n a ry , s h o rtly fo llo w e d b y an E n g lis h -Ja p a n e se o n e. T h e system o f ro m a n iz a tio n he d e v e lo p e d is n am ed a fte r h im an d is th e m o st w id e ly u sed to d a y . H e p b u r n su b se ­ q u e n tly tran slated m a n y C h ristia n texts in to Jap an ese. H e w a s also c lo se ly in v o lv e d w ith th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f E n g lis h and g irls’ e d u c atio n . G riffis , W. E .

Hepburn o fJapan (P h ila d e l­

p h ia, 1913). H e p b u r n , J. C . (ed. M . T a k a y a ).


(T o k y o , 1955).

Heusken, Henry 1832—1861 A native o f Amsterdam, Heusken emi­ grated to the U .S. in 1853 in August 1856 arrived at Shimoda as Townsend Harris’s secretary and interpreter. He subsequently learned Japanese. Apart from assisting Harris, he also acted as translator for the treaty negotiations conducted by Britain in 1858 and by Prussia in 1861. In i860 Heusken became first secretary o f the U.S. Legation in Edo, but while returning from the Prussian Lega­ tion one night in January 1861, he was assassinated by antiforeign samurai. His murder brought resentment at attacks on

H igh Treason Incident fo re ig n e rs to a h ead. M a n y fo re ig n e rs w ith d r e w to Y o k o h am a, b u t H a rr is e v e n ­ tu a lly reach ed an a g re em e n t w ith the B a k u fli, an d c o m p e n s a tio n w a s p aid .

R. The Capital o fthe Tycoon (Lon­ don, 1863). Heusken, H. (tr. and ed. J. C. van der Corput and R. A. Wilson). Japan Journalj 18SS—1861 (New Brunswick, N .J., 1964). A lc o c k ,

Hibiya Riots ( H ib iy a y a k iu c h ijik e n ) 日比谷焼打事件

As part o f the nationwide resentment at the terms o f the Portsmouth Treaty (q.v.\ on 5 September 1905 a mass protest meet­ ing in contravention o f a police ban was held in Hibiya Parle, Tokyo. The vast crowd clashed with police, and after the meeting mobs attacked and burned the offices o f the Kokumin Shinbun (a progo vemment paper), the home ministers residence and other official buildings, churches, police stations, trams, and huge numbers o f police boxes. The meetings organizers were unable to control the violence, which continued the next day. The army was called out, and late on September 6 martial law was declared in the Tokyo area. Many magazines and newspapers were suspended. By late on September 7 the rioting had ended. In all 17 people were recorded killed, about 500 wounded; 2,000 were arrested, o f whom 308 were charged; most o f the 87 found guilty were unskilled workers, and those who had organized the meeting were released. The movement calling for the peace terms to be revoked and the cabinet censured spread throughout the country. Although the treaty was ratified by the emperor on October 14, martial law was retained until November 29. Okamoto, 5. ih e Japanese Oligarchy and the Russo-Japanese War (New York, 1970).

Higashikuni Naruhiko

1887 一 (Prince) 東久通稳 彦 A member o f the imperial family, Higashi-


kuni made his career in the army. In August 1945 he headed an unprecedented “ imperiaT cabinet; it was hoped that having an imperial prince as prime minis­ ter would enable the emperors authority to be utilized to suppress opposition to peace within the army and avoid general confusion. Higashikuni was considered a suitable canaidate as he was relatively liberal and despite his army career was reputed to oppose militarism. The Higashikuni cabinet signed the surrender instrument and initiated the disbanding o f the army and such other matters relat­ ing to the surrender and peace, but it was forced by SCAP (q.v.) to resign in October on the grounds that its members included war criminals, it was reluctant to release political prisoners and abolish the Peace Preservation Law {q.v.\ and it would not have implemented the changes desired by SCAP. Higashikuni was under a purge order until 1952. He severed his connection with the imperial family in 1947, and his subsequent activities included the found­ ing o f a new religion.

High Treason Incident ( t a ig y a k u jik e n ) 大 逆 事 件 D u r in g M a y -Ju n e 1910 several h u n d re d S o c ia lists a n d an arch ists th r o u g h o u t Ja p a n w e re in te rro g a te d b y the po lice. O f th ese 26 w e re e v e n tu a lly c h a rg e d w ith p lo ttin g to assassin ate th e e m p e ro r. In th e secret trial D e c e m b e r 1910—Ja n u a ry 1911 m o s t o f the d e fen d an ts d e n ie d the existen ce o f su ch a p lo t, a n d it w a s a rg u e d in d efen se th a t th e K a ts u ra g o v e r n m e n t s s u p p re ssio n o f so cialism w a s it s e lf re sp o n ­ sible fo r the g r o w th o f an y e x tre m ist p lo ts th at m ig h t exist. K o t o k u S h u su i, w h o w a s a m o n g th o se arrested , testih ed to his w it h d r a w ^ fro m a n y p o ssib le co n sp ira cy . D e s p ite th is, 24 o f th o se c h a rg e d w e re sen ten ced to d eath an d t w o to im p riso n ­ m en t. T w e lv e o f the d e a th sen ten ces w e re c o m m u te d to life im p riso n m e n t, b u t the o th e r 12, in c lu d in g K o to k u , K a n n o S u g a ko, an d M o ric h ik a u n p e i, w e re e x e cu te d o n 2 斗Ja n u a ry 1911. T h e trial w a s a m a jo r b lo w to the w h o le le ft-w in g m o v e m e n t an d in itia te d th e so -called “ w in te r p e rio d ”


H in in ____________________________

or socialism, which lasted until attcr World War I. Notehelfer, F. G. Kotoku Shiisui, Portrait o f a Japanese Raatcal (Cambridge, 1971). Plotkin, I. L. MA Question o f Treason: The Great Treason Conspiracy o f 1911,MPh.D. diss., University o f Michi­ gan, 1974.

Yasko, R. "'Hiranuma Kuchiro and Con­ servative Politics in Prewar Japan/5 Ph.D. diss., University o f Cnicago, 1973. _______ "Hiranuma Kuchiro and the N ew Structure Movement, 1940 — 1941,?, Asian Forum 5, no. 2 (Apr.— June 1973). Hiratsuka Raicho 1886 - 1971

Hinin. See B u r a k u E mancipation M o vem ent

Hiranuma Kuchiro 1867 —1952 (Baron, 1 9 2 6 ) 平 沼 駿 一 郎 Native o f Okayama, Hiranuma graduated in law from Tokyo Imperial University and rose to become head o f the Supreme Court and a leading figure o f the legal world. He was minister o f justice 1923 — 1924 and in 192斗 became a member o f the House o f Peers and Privy Council. He was vice-president o f the Privy Council 1925 —1936 and president 1936 —1939. This was a time when the Privy Council was vocal in national afrairs and conflicted with the government over such matters as the London Naval Conference (q.v.). Hiranuma’s position in the Privy Council and his presidency o f the nationalist Kokuhonsha (ダ.p.) 192斗一 1936 made him a leading figure among right-wing politi­ cians. In January 1939 he succeeded Konoe as prime minister and, despite his previous conflicts with the Diet, declared ms inten­ tion o f working with the political parties and not instituting a new ruling structure. During Hiranuma’s premiership Japan’s rift with America and Britain widened, and the conclusion o f the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact caused negotiations over the conclusion o f a military alliance with Germany to be broken off. The cabinet resigned in August 1939. After acting as home minister and minister o f state 1940 —1941, Hiranuma was briefly again president o f the Privy Council in 1945. He was subsequently sentenced to lire imprisonment as a class44A55war criminal and died in prison.


Hiratsuka, whose real given name was Haruko, came from Tokyo ana in 1906 graduated from Japan Women5s Univer­ sity. In 1911 she founded the women's organization, the Seitosha and in its publication, (Bluestocking), wrote widely on the history and position o f women, especially in relation to litera­ ture. In 1913 she went to live with the painter Okumura Hiroshi, which led to a break with her family. Poverty and harass­ ment led her to hand over the manage­ ment o f Seito to Ito Noe in 1915. In 1919 Hiratsuka was one o f the founders o f the New Women's Association (Shin Fujin Kydkai\ which campaigned for an exten­ sion o f women5s rights, higher education, and welfare. The repeal o f clause 5 o f the Peace Police Law (q.v.\ which forbade political activity by women, was eventually achieved, but the association then dis­ banded. Hiratsuka retired from the main­ stream o f the women's movement until the 1930s, when she again became openly involved, being especially interested in the promotion o f consumer unions. After the war she remained active and was until her death influential as a leader and symbol not only o f the women's movement but also o f the peace movement, both in Japan and internationally. Andrew, N. uThe Seitosha: An Early Japanese Women’s Organization, 1911 - 1916,55H P J 6 (1972).

Hirohito. See SHOWA E m p e r o r

Berger, G. M. Parties Out o f Power in Japan, H iroseSaihei 1828 —1914 広 瀬 宰 平 1931—1941 (Princeton, 1977)Native o f Shiga, at the age o f 11 Hirose

H iro taK o k i

started work at the Sumitomo famil^s Besshi Copper Mine near Osaka and eventually became its manager in 1865. His introduction o f new techniques and other reforms helped it to survive the difficult period o f the Restoration and to prosper, and from there Hirose worked to extend Sumitomo interests into other fields. He initially benefited from govern­ ment contacts, but these played little part after the 1870s. By his retirement in 1894 he had built up the foundations o f the Sumitomo zfubatsu {q.v.). Hirose also possessed extensive personal business interests in such fields as shipping and was a leading figure in the Osaka business world.


H irotaK o k i 1878-.1948 広 田 弘 毅 Native o f Fukuoka, from his youth Hirota had connections with the Genyosha (q.v.). Graduating from Tokyo Imperial University, he joined the Foreign Ministry and served as envoy to Holland 1927— 1930 and to the Soviet Union 1930 —1932. During his term o f office as foreign minis­ ter 1933 —1936 Hirota attempted to im­ prove Japan5s position on the continent although simultaneously advocating improvement in Sino-Japanese relations. Appointed prime minister in 1936 after the February 26 rising {q.v.\ he presided over a cabinet o f “ national unity"’ noted for its strong connections with the tosei faction (q.v^) o f the army. The cabinet promoted an aggressive foreign policy, Hirschmeicr, J. The O rpins o f Entrepre­ planning for a Japanese advance into neurship in AietjiJapan (Cambridge, Southeast Asia and concluding the AntiMass., 1964). Comintern Pact (q.v.). At home its legisla­ tion against subversive writing and thought, its promotion o f deficit ship­ building and re implementation o f the system whereby the service ministers were officers on the active list reinforced H koshim a 広 岛 The city o f Hiroshima lies on the northern war preparedness and army influence. esigned January 1937 Hirota's cabinet resigned 1 side o f the Inland Sea in western Honshu due to open conflict between the army and during the Tokugawa period was the and the political parties, but Hirota served castle town o f the domain o f the tozama Asano family. It grew after the Restoration as foreign minister 1937 —1938. The failure o f his initial attempts to localize the con­ m d by 1945 had a registered population flict with China eventually led to a Japa­ o f something over 300,000. In the eariy nese refusal to deal with the Nationalist morning o f 6 August 1945 the city was government. subsequently with­ devastated by the first atomic bomb to be drew from the forefront o f political affairs dropped. Some 100,000 people were but remained until *945 a highly influential estimated ultimately to have died from figure. In 1945 he attempted unsuccessfully the effects o f the bomb, and the city to secure Soviet mediation for peace in center was completely destroyed. Since discussions with MaldL, the Soviet envoy 1945 the city has been rcbuiit and is now a in Tokyo. Postwar Hirota was tried as a prosperous snipping, fismng, and manu­ classccA55war criminal and was the only facturing center with a population o f civilian to receive the dcarh sentence; this ncariy 8«0,000 as o f late 1979. Designated sentence was the subject o f considcrabie a city o f international peace and civiliza­ controversy as many conskierecl that he tion, the city has become a symbol and had been powerkss in the face o f the focus for tlie antinuclear movement, and military. its Peace Park and Museum arc major attractions. Baba, T. ^Hirota's cHenovatk>n, Plans,5* Fcis, W.Jtipan Subdued: The Atmnk Eemh Cy 5, no. 2 (Sept. 19^6). and the End o f the War in the Pacific Farnsworth, L “ Hirota K6ki: The Diplo­ (Princeton, macy o f Expansionism,” in R. D. Hcrsey, J. Hiroshima (New York, 1946). Bi«ms and E. M. Bennett, eds., D ipbLifton, R. J. Death in Life: Survivors of mmts in Crisis: United States-ChtnfscHiroshima (New York, 1967). Jmpanese Bxlmtwns, 1941 (Santa


Hitachi Com pany

conditions meant that many other destina­ tions were more attractive to potential immigrants. Huge amounts o f money were invested in the islands development, (T o k y o , 1977)and attempts to sell o ff the board5s inter­ ests led to the Hokkaido colonization Hitachi Company. See NISSAN ZAIBATSU assets scandal (q.v.) o f 1881. In 1882 the board was abolished, and Hokkaido ceased to have colonial status. From 1886 a Hokkaido Bureau directly under the Hitotsubashi Keiki (Yoshinobu). See cabinet had administrative powers over T o k u g a w a K e i k i ( Yo s h i n o b u ) the whole island to unify policy, but even after that there were administrative changes which did not always work in the best interests o f the island. Autonomy Hochi Shinbun. See NEWSPAPERS was granted to Hokkaido far later than other areas o f Japan, and the frontier conditions persistea into the Taisho H o k k a id 6 北 海 道 period in the more remote northern areas The northernmost o f the four main Japa­ o f the island, although they had disap­ nese islands, Hokkaido was known as Ezo peared by the 1930s. From 1901 a series o f in the Tokugawa period. The indigenous long-term development plans successfully population was the Ainu {q.v.\ but some established cold climate wet rice agricul­ Japanese did live there during this time. ture, dairy farming, coal mining, fishing, The Bakufu took an interest in Hokkaido and forestry. Development was helped by from the early 19th century, with the aim emphasis on communications, facilitating o f checking Russia5s southward expansion. the exploitation o f resources, and a net­ In July 1869 the Hokkaido Colonization work o f commercial centers appeared. Board (kaitakushi) was established by the The Hokkaido Development Bank was new government with the aim o f develop­ founded in 1900 to assist funding. By the ing Hokkaido for political and military 1930s its natural resources had made reasons. In 1871 —1876 the board was also Hokkaido o f crucial importance to the responsible for Sakhalin and from 1876 Japanese economy. The island escaped for the Kuriles. Under the leadership o f serious destruction in the war, and m 19斗8 Kuroda Kiyotaka through the 1870s the was integrated into the national regional board5s activities were concentrated on autonomy system. In 1951 the Hokkaido the development o f natural resources Development Office was established to (coal, minerals, timber, and fishing), supervise the development o f the island Western-style farming, and railways. An as a whole. Postwar development plans American agriculturist, Horace Capron, have emphasized industrial expansion, was engaged as special adviser and the but targets have only been partially Sapporo Agricultural (college (later fulfilled, and the primary sector remains Hokkaido University) established. The o f vital importance to the islands econ­ board also aimed to increase the island’s omy. The population o f the island in 1979 productive population by encouraging was some 5み million, and that o f the immigration. Despite such ofhcial encour­ capital, Sapporo, approaching 1ゾ2million. agement immigration was initially slow, and in 1874 the tondenhei system was A n th o n y , D . F. ctT h e A d m in is tr a tio n o f instituted, whereby ex-samurai could fuse H o k k a id o U n d e r K u r o d a K iy o ta k a , militia and tarming activities. This contin­ 1870-1882,55 P h .D . d iss., Yale U n iv e r ­ ued into the 20th century. Immigration did subsequently increase, much o f it sity, 1951. H a rr is o n , J. A.Japan^s Northern Frontier from northern Japan, but agricultural (G a in e sv ille , F la ., 1953)settlement lagged behind that in the Jones, F. C. Hokkaido (London, 1958). towns. The harsh climatic and natural

B a rb a ra , 19 74 ). S h iro y a m a , S. (tr. J.

Bester) War Criminal: The Life and Death ofH irotaKdki

H otta Masayoshi

Hokkaido Colonization Assets Scandal (H okkaido kaitakushi kanyubutsu haraisage jiken) 北海道開拓使官有物払下事件

In 1869—1881 the Hokkaido Colonization Board (厶成か级 灸财 /;り invested some ¥ 14 million in the development o f Hokkaido, and m 1881 the board’s head, Kuroda Kiyotaka, gained imperial approval for the sale o f the assets, now valued at ¥ 30 million, to a group o f Osaka businessmen with strong Satsuma and Choshu connec­ tions and led by Godai Tomoatsu. The price was ¥ 387,082 payable over 30 years at no interest. The news o f the sale leaked out in July and increased agitation from the popular rights movement, leading to widespread criticism o f hanbatsu politics (q.v.) and Apolitical merchants,5 (seisho) (q.v.) from outside the government. Witnin the government opposition to the sale was led by Okuma Snigenobu. The sale o f the assets was eventually canceled, but the scandal contributed to the 1881 political crisis {q.v.) and the resignation o f Okuma. Akita, G. The foundations o f Constitutional

Government in ModernJapan, 1868— 1900 (Cam bridge, M ass., 1967). Fraser, A. tcThe Expulsion o f Okuma from the Government in i SSi ^ JA S 26, no. 2 (Feb. 1967). H arrison, J. A. Japanys Northern Frontier (Gainesville, Fla., 1953)

Home M inistry (Naimush6) 内 務 省 The Home Ministry was established in 1873 with the aim o f political integration but also acted as a major center o f innova­ tion during the 1870s. Under its first head, Okubo Toshimichi, it had jurisdiction over domestic administration, communi­ cations, law and order, civil engineering works, and much o f the economic devel­ opment in agriculture, light industry, and commerce. Despite subsequent changes which reduced its jurisdiction, the home minister retained until the Pacinc War a highly influential position witnin the government due to his control o f police, law and order legislation, freedom o f speech and assembly, mass movements, organization o f elections, and virtually


every other aspect o f the life o f the people. The ministry was disbanded in 19斗7 as part o f the dismantling o f the ctmilitaristic” state. Brown, S. D. c