Comrade Chairman Mengistu in the PDRY (People's Democratic Republic of Yemen)

Visit paid to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen by Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the

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Comrade Chairman Mengistu in the PDRY (People's Democratic Republic of Yemen)

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Visit

paid to the People's Democratic Republic of

Yemen by Comrade Chairman Menglstu Halle-Marlam, Chairman of

the Provisional Military Administrative

Council and the Council of Ministers and Commanderin-Chief of the Revolutionary Army of Socialist Ethio­ pia from November 29 to December 2. 1979

Comrade Chairman Mengistu in the PDRY

Published by the Ministry of Information and National Guidance Addis Ababa, Ethiopia December 1979

sc

F 98-- 944

Sentinels of Peace The signing of a treaty of friendship and co-operation between Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen in December marks a new milestone in long­ standing relationships of amity and mutual understanding between the two neighbouring countries separated only by a narrow stretch of the Red Sea. The treaty was signed following the successful visit paid to the PDRY from November 29 to December 2 by Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council and the Council of Ministers and Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army of Socialist Ethiopia. Relationship between Ethiopia and the People's Demo­ cratic Republic of Yemen have been progressively growing and developing since Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail of the PDRY paid an official visit to this country early in May 1979 at the invitation of Comrade Chairman Menglstu Haile-Mariam. Through these exchanges of visits, Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen have not only been reflecting on ties between the two countries which date back to ancient times, but were also taking the opportunity to take stock of achievements of solidarity between them in the best spirit of proletarian internatinalism. It is a historical fact that the Red Sea had stood as no physical barrier between Ethiopia and Yemen. There were, in fact, instances in history when records of the achieve­ ments of the two countries lying on either side of the Sea were often overlapping. When one considers the fact that in the course of the past 500 years both countries were, at one time or another, successfully resisting Turkish expansionism and European colonialism, it is evident that Ethiopia and the PDRY were being subjected to the same trial and tribulation from which they have recovered with valour and heroism befitting their proud history. Generations of Ethiopians yet to come are bound to remember with gratitude the role that the sons and daugh­ ters of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen played in safeguarding their Revolution and In defending the unity and territorial integrity of their Motherland when the lackeys of international Imperialism and reaction were causing considerable destruction by invading their country. It is in accord with the best spirit of proletarian Interna­

tionalism and the historical ties of friendship between the two countries that the valiant sons and daughters of the PDRY laid down their lives so that Ethiopia may live with­ out its ancient frontiers being violated by marauders from the Horn of Africa in the pay of international imperialism and reaction. There is an ancient saying that a friend in need is a friend in deed. In these circumstances, there is every reason to believe that Ethiopia too would stand on the side of the Revolution of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen to the end of time. Ethiopia's valiant and heroic internationalists are standing ready at any time to repay the debt owed by their country to the PDRY for safeguard­ ing the Revolution on this side of the Red Sea. In this respect, there is no doubt whatsoever that Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are the septinel's of socialism, peace, democracy and justice in the strategic regions occupied by them. In the 20-year treaty of friendship and co-operation, Socialist Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen expressed their determination to continue their active and peaceful efforts to maintain the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean as a zone of peace and to preserve the freedom of navigation in the international waterway. Under the treaty, the two parties will continue their efforts to develop and consolidate relations of peace and co-operation among the littoral countries of the Red Sea. A joint com­ munique issued at the end of Comrade Chairman Mengistu's visit to the PDRY also said Socialist Ethiopia and Democratic Yemen condemned the establishment of a new American fleet in the Indian Ocean which "constitutes a dangerous threat to the security and stability of the states and peoples of the area and a flagrant interference in their internal affairs." Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are promoting the cause of peace and progress in accordance with the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. The two countries have also made agreements to co-operate usefully in economic, scientific and technical fields for the benefit of the prosperity of their peoples. By doing so Ethiopia and the PDRY have proved to be a good example of regional co-operation for the whole world. It is co-operation which is the catalyst of international peace and security.

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Chairman Visits People's Democratic Republic of Yemen

Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the provisional Military Administrative Council and the Council of Ministers and Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army of Socialist Ethiopia, concluded a fourday offcial visit to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on December 2, 1979. At a press conference he gave on his return to Addis Ababa, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam said that the friendship between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and Socialist Ethiopia has reached a very high stage based on their common objective, their historical links and their geogra­ phical proximity. Comrade Chairman Mengistu stressed the strategic and international importance of the Red Sea waterway and particularly its significance to the PDRY and Ethiopia and added that because of this there are many forces which seek to act against the revolutions of the two countries. He said that as a result of his visit to the PDRY, links have been established that enable the two countries to safeguard the security of their peoples as well as the region as a whole. Comrade Chairman Mengistu pointed out that favourable conditions have been created for further co-operation in the fields of agriculture, commerce and technology as well as in all other fields that promote the well-being and prosperity of the two peoples. Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam had arrived in Aden on 29 November on an official visit to the PDRY at the invitation of Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail and the Party and Government of the neighbouring socialist

country. Tumultuous welcome unprecedented in Democratic Yemen was accorded to Chairman Mengistu on his arrival in the PDRY. Comrade Chairman Mengistu and members of the high-level Ethiopian delegation were received at the airport by Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, Premier Ali Nasser, Members of the Politbureau of the Yemeni Socialist Party and other Party and Government officials. A huge banner in Amharic read: "We are proud to welcome our revolu­ tionary leader." Among members of the high-level delegation that accompanied Comrade Chairman Mengistu were Comrade Lt. Col. Berhanu Bayih, member of the Standing Com­ mittee of the PMAC in charge of Foreign Affairs, Comrade Commander Yehualashet Girma, member of the Central Committee of the PMAC, Comrade Captain Mengistu Gemechu, member of the Central Committee of the PMAC and Aide to the Chairman, Comrade Col. Dr. Feleke Gedle Giorgis, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Comrade Brig. Gen. Taye Tilahun, Minister of National Defence. On November 29, Comrade Chairman Mengistu HaileMariam laid a wreath at Martyrs' Monument and visited the Military Museum. At the end of the tour of the Museum, he signed a guest book saying that he was very much moved and impressed by the determined struggle and victory of the Yemeni people. He said that although histo­ rical relations between the peoples of the two countries were age-old, the entire Ethiopian people were aware and indeed admire that because the revolutionary generations 7

ot the two countries stand tor the same just cause. The PDRY leadership demonstrated their firm stand for this same cause by sending their sons to the Ethiopian war front when anti-people and reactionaries raised arms against Ethiopia, the victim of aggression. "We are aware of the pressure applied against the PDRY and its lone stand on account of this. You stood for a cause on the side of the genuine," he wrote down. Early in the evening of the same day, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam was decorated by his host with the Medal of "14th October Revolution" in admiration of the efforts made by him in the course of the consolidation and development of the bilateral relations and international solidarity between the two peoples and governments of Democratic Yemen and Socialist Ethio­ pia and the outstanding role played by him in the growth and development of the Yemeni-Ethiopian relations of co-operation and friendship. Early in the afternoon, the two Heads of State had discussed bilateral relations and the progress of the popular revolutions of their respective countries. The broad exchange of views dealt with ways of further strengthening political relations and collaborations in the economic field. The hour-long talks also reviewed international issues of interest to the region and the struggle for independence and social justice in southern Africa. At a State Banquet given in the evening of 29 November, Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail said the policy of Socialist Ethiopia enjoys the respect and appreciation of the people of Democratic Yemen. He said the policy

8

aims at achieving stability and peace in the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea. "It rejects military and security pacts called for by the imperialist circles and the ruling reaction­ ary cliques," he declared. In reply, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile Mariam said the militant revolutionaries of the PDRY had crossed "many waters" with their Ethiopian comrades and that as partners on the revolutionary path they will cover the distance ahead hand in hand. "As internationalist revolu­ tionaries," he noted "we have exchanged pledges of blood in absolute fraternity and in support of each other's sacred objectives until we attain our revolutionary goals." Comrade Chairman Mengistu pointed out that relations between the two peoples have withstood the test of time and are now "even more firmly bound by our common antiimperialist, anti-feudal and anti-racist stand." He recalled the contributions made by the PDRY combatants to the defence of Ethiopia's unity and territorial integrity and the revolution and said: "Our relationship which has its basis in the history and blood is now more developed and strengthened because the two peoples have one great objective, one internationalist goal and common aspirations, and are moreover determined to pay all sacrifices to ensure that these objectives and aspirations are fulfilled." Paying tribute to Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail as a "great friend" who in the spirit of proletarian international­ ism stood on Ethiopia's side during its darkest hour, the PMAC Chairman said: "Only those who lived through and participated in revolutions know the essence of a revolu-

Hon. Those who regard revolutions as comic drama and prefer to deride them cannot be witnesses to a revolution." On November 30, Comrade Chairman Mengistu HaileMariam inaugurated three major development projects in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. While inaugu­ rating the fish-canning factory at Mukalla, Comrade Chairman Mengistu addressed the workers and Soviet experts. He particularly praised the all-round co-operation between the Soviet Union and the PDRY. Comrade Chair­ man Mengistu conveyed to the workers the fraternal greetings of the Ethiopian broad masses and promised to do everything possible to promote still closer relations between the peoples of the two countries. He also visited the boat-making workshop co-operative at the port. At Seiyun, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam inaugu­ rated the newly completed modern airport and inspected its facilities together with his host Comrade Abdul Fattah. He was welcomed there by a crowd chanting: "Welcome our honoured guest for participation in our Revolution Day Anniversary." Addressing a mass rally on 29 November to celebrate the 12th anniversary of Independence, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam said Socialist Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen underscored their

commitments for each other's revolution. He told the cheering crowd that Socialist Ethiopia is proud of the Yemeni revolutionary struggle and fully supports it. Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam said Ethiopia is forever grateful for the role played by Yemeni interna­ tionalists in defence of her revolution and unity. He lauded the PDRY's policy as well as the constructive and decisive steps taken recently by the two Yemens for unification of their country. In his brief address to the rally, Comrade Abdul Fatah Ismail reiterated the PDRY's commitment for the same just causes for which the Ethiopian revolutionaries are struggling. He said the Yemenis are ready any time to defend what they believe in and to this end they consider militant Ethiopia's struggle and cause as their own. Comrade Abdul Fattah said that the presence in Seiyun of Revolutionary Mengistu and his colleagues for PDRY's Independence Anniversary celebrations was one more testimony to the commitments "we proudly make for the just causes both countries stand for." On December 1. Comrade Chairman Mengistu HaileMariam decorated Yemeni heroes who fulfilled their internationalist duties in Ethiopia and the nearest relatives of those Yemenis who died while fighting alongside Ethio-

Arrival in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

Friendly exchange of views. pians to safeguard the territorial integrity and security of Ethiopia. He told the Yemeni heroes and relatives of the martyrs that the medal of heroism and of participation in battle is no substitute for the great esteem that history has bestowed on them. Through their participation in Ethiopia's Red Theatre, they have assisted Ethiopia in extinguishing the fire that had been kindled by the enemies and as a result peace is flourshing today, the Comrade Chairman said. Comrade Chairman Mengistu said there is a saying that heroes never create war. rather it is war that creates heroes. Those who create war are aggressors, belligerents and reactionaries. Heroes attain honour and grace because they lay down their lives to bring peace to oppressed peo­ ples by extinguishing the fire of war triggered off by antipopular and agressive forces. In reply to Comrade Chairman Mengistu's speech, Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail said the Ethiopian Revolution is presently in a secure position and secure hands having successfully withstood numerous obstacles. He said this was due to the strong will and determined stand of Comrade Chairman Mengistu HaileMariam. In a 20-year treaty of friendship and cooperation signed on 2 December, Socialist Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen expressed their determina­ tion to continue their active and peaceful efforts to 10

maintain the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean as a zone of peace and to preserve the freedom of navigation in the Red Sea. Under the treaty, the two parties will continue their efforts to develop and consolidate relations of peace and co-operation among all the littoral countries of the Red Sea. According to the treaty, the two countries undertook to develop the close relations of friendship and fraternal co-operation existing between Socialist Ethiopia and the People s Democratic Republic of Yemen on the basis of equality and mutual benefit and the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, national independence, territorial integrity and non-interference in each other's internal affairs. A joint communique issued at the end of Comrade Chairman Mengistu's visit to the PDRY said Socialist Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen condemned the establishment of a new American fleet in the Indian Ocean which "constitutes a dangerous threat to the security and stability of the states and peoples of the area and a flagrant interference in their internal affairs. The two sides stressed the importance of main­ taining the Indian Ocean as a zone of peace. In this regard, they strongly condemned the imperialist military presence in the Indian Ocean, particularly, in Diego Garcia and Masira and called for the immediate dismantling of all imperialist military bases in the areas.

Comrade Chairman Mengistu's State Banquet Speech Following is the full text of t h e speech delivered by Comrade Chairman Mengistu HaileMariam a t a State Banquet given in his honour in t h e PDRY: Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Yemeni Socialist Party, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Honourable Ambassadors, Excellencies, Comrades, I would like to avail myself of this opportunity to express our great pleasure in being among the people of the Yemen People's Democratic Republic, whose genuine friendship for the broad masses of Ethiopia has been tested by time and testified to by history. We are pro­ foundly touched by the heart-felt reception which has been accorded us by this great people whose bond of brother­ hood and comradeship with the Ethiopian people has been sealed by blood in the difficult days when the Ethiopian Revolution and unity were seriously challenged. A significant phenomenon which has been revealed during that historic period was the fact that our two peo­ ples who were linked by geography .culture, history, com­ merce and economic co-operation and by other factors, have strengthened their unity today more than ever before attaining the level where the one would sacrifice himself for the well-being of the other. The struggling revolutionaries of the People's Demo­ cratic Republic of Yemen have crossed many a troubled water with us. As partners on the revolutionary path, we are bound to march together hand in hand the long distances ahead. As internationalist revolutionaries, we have exchanged pledges of blood in absolute fraternity and in support of each other's sacred objectives until we attain our revolutionary goals. The history of the relations of the peoples of Demo­ cratic Yemen and Ethiopia is a history of friendship. Having lived togther from time immemorial linked by the bonds of geographic proximity, cultural, commercial and other fields of interaction they never felt strangers in each other's lands. The relations between our two peoples which have withstood the test of time. Are now even more firmly bound by our common anti-imperialist, anti-feudal and anti-racist stand. The historic visit which Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail earlier made in Socialist Ethiopia has strengthened future relations and made more dependable the bridge of friend­ ship between our two peoples. We believe that your visit had afforded you an oppor­ tunity, although limited, to see closely and appraise the revolutionary struggle of the Ethiopian people, for the success of which the valiant sons of your country had given their lives.

We remember with pride the historic contribution which the valiant sons of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen made fighting side by side with the revolutionary armed forces of Ethiopia at the time when we were engaged in a life-and-death struggle for our unity and national existence against the aggression of imperialist and reactionary forces. Our relationship which has its basis in history and blood is now more developed and strengthened because the two peoples have one great objective, one interna­ tionalist goal and common aspirations, and are moreover determined to pay all sacrifices to ensure that these objectives and aspirations fulfilled. It is natural, therefore, that we should feel, ever since our arrival in this country, as if we have only moved from one house into another which is also ours. Dear Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, Our Brothers and Sisters of Democratic Yemen, Comrades, We are pleased to hear the kind words of Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail about the Ethiopian Revolution, because we consider them as pronouncements of history. It is not because norm requires that the triumphant be spoken of well, the words of Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail in praise of the Ethiopian Revolution, of the struggling spirit of the broad masses of Ethiopia have not been spoken because nice words are always reserved for the victorious. We regard his speech tonight as a reaffirmation of his position regarding our revolution, a position which was demonstrated concretely. Our great friend Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail is a leader who, in the spirit of proletarian internationalism, readily stood on our side and closely witnessed the progress of our revolution since its infancy. Only those who lived through and participated in revo­ lutions know the essence of a revolution. Those who regard popular revolutions as comic dramas and prefer to deride them cannot be witnesses to a revolution. Neither do we believe that reactionaries and arrogant elements can bear witness for struggling revolutionaries. Those who can justly testify to our struggles are the supporters of our revolution, who have themselves emerg­ ed valiantly by and from struggle. Since the ideology we follow and the great goal we struggle for can be summed up as "one for all and for one," we are confident that our "one for all and all for one," we are confident that our position of unity will ever grow stronger. 11

Meetings and exchanges of ideas offer opportunities for revolutionaries to ascertain their unity of purpose and to formulate a strategy of struggle. We can see very clearly the situations whereby we can strengthen our unity even more than we have so far displayed to the struggling masses of the world to withstand the forces of imperialism and reaction. We have emerged victorious from our past bitter struggles through the full support of our peoples and the assistance received from socialist and democratic forces of the world. Ethiopia, for whom the world socialist com­ munity struggled and died, realizes that she should in turn struggle for the world-wide socialist movements and national liberation struggles. We realize that we should not only be recipient of international support but also participants in the interna­ tional struggle. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, The machinations of international imperialism and the reactionary forces of the region against our two countries, which are littoral states of the strategic Red Sea, following the uprisings in both countries against exploitative and oppressive systems and their determination to defend the rights and independence of their peoples, are one and the same in content. Situated at the southern tip of the Red Sea and. considered a source of concern by international imperialism and the leading reactionary states of the region who are striving to control the oil routes of the Sea and the regional as well as the geopolitical dimensions of the Indian Ocean, the anti-revolutionary conspiracies which Democratic Yemen faces are immense. The generous supply of NATO arms and petro-dollar to the puppet states of the region, through whom the imperialists conducted their wars by proxy, was aimed at reversing the revolution of Democratic Yemen and ridding this part of the world of Socialism and gain a foothold for imperialism. All of us revolutionaries are proud of the revolutionary courage and determination demonstrated by the broad masses of Democratic Yemen, who, endowed with the correct leadership, were able to withstand and foil the dangerous anti-revolutionary machinations of the region and to continue resolutely with their struggle to accomplish their historic mission. Having been deprived by our revolution of its surveil­ lance post in Ethiopia, which it had used for spying on all movements in the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea and on strategic oil routes as well as for various espionage activities as well as for containing popular movements in this part of the world, the leading imperialist power is now using Diego Garcia for the same purpose. The fact that this leading imperialist power is also permitted in many countries of this region to carry out all sorts of anti-revolutionary and anti-unity manoeuvres clearly shows the dimension of the pressure and bitter struggle that Democratic Yemen faces. 12

The plots and machinations of the anti-people forces to prevent the reunification of Democratic Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic which remain divided by an imper­ ialist made boundary, must also be seen as part and parcel of the mischievous plan of imperialism in this region. From the present situations in Yemen and our own country, it is evident that disruption of the unity of peo­ ples is one of the tactics which imperialism and reaction employ for reversing revolutions and fighting socialism. They know that unity is strength. They realize that unity is the motive force of revolutions. Consequently, in order to reverse our revolutions and attain their antirevolutionary goal, they rise, and indeed have risen, against the unity of our peoples. It is not surprising, therefore, that they took the position they have taken regarding the historic unity of the Yemeni people. In this connection, I would like to express my firm conviction that, the effort which Comrade Presi­ dent Abdul Fattah Ismail has been exerting towards rapproachement and re-unification of the two Yemens will help foil these imperialist conspiracies, and that it will not be long before we rejoice at the sight of a peacefully re-unified Yemen. Comrade President, The bitter struggle that the Ethiopian Revolution waged to rid the country of the twin sources of evil, imperialism and reaction, is well known to Comrade President Abdul Fattah Ismail and to all comrade present here. The last five years of our revolution were a period of both bitter struggle and significant victories for the broad masses of Ethiopia. It is also clear that the road to victory is full of turns and twists. Those five years were a period when Ethiopia needed genuine friends. Indeed they were a period when she indentified her genuine friends. My compatriots have fought several wars throughout the centuries to preserve their independence and territorial integrity and have won for themselves an important chapter in history. The present revolutionary generation, heir to this legacy of heroism, but unlimited by national sentiments and struggle, has arrayed itself on the side of the prole­ tariat and the oppressed peoples of the world, holding high the banner of internationalism to fight the forces of exploi­ tation and oppression at any time and place.

At a certain moment our revolution and unity had appeared on the verge of collapse. However, due to the raised political consciousness of our people, better organi­ zation and the arming of the masses as well as the thorough grasp of our revolutionary army of its public and revolutionary obligations, the determination of the broad masses to struggle and the support of all the progressive forces in the spirit of proletarian internationalism, we scored decisive victories. We have been able to bring to their knees the arrogant forces of Mogadisho which invaded us from the East and

South, the anti-unity and reactionary secessionists in the North and the internal class enemies of the people. Having repelled and taught a lesson to the arrogant enemies,we are now engaged enthusiastically in an econo­ mic and cultural development campaign which is an integral part of our class struggle. As our objective in this campaign is to free the broad masses from hunger, illiteracy and backwardness, the working people who are the benefi­ ciaries of this campaign are making a historic contribution to the economic and cultural development. It is believed that such a national economic campaign will help in the revival of the economy in a country where the system of oppression and exploitation had deep roots, where the broad masses had languished under excessive hardships for long and in a society where most of the economic structures have been destroyed by a reactionary war. The result of the campaign launched a year ago by our broad masses has been an encouragement to the struggle awaiting us in the future. Consequently, we have embarked upon the second year of the campaign with more experience and vigor. The broad Ethiopian masses chose the socialist path of development not because it is fashionable or an attrac­ tive lable as some people have done, but with a conviction that it is the only way for the oppressed peoples of the world to prosperity, equality and peace. It is with the belief that revolution is the only and correct path to free­ dom from hunger, ignorance, disease and backwardness. Undergoing a revolution means freeing our broad masses from political, economic and cultural domination and exploi­ tation. We are convinced that this is the appropriate method of fighting the pressures directed against our national economies, through the unfair international economic order whereby the small fish is swallowed by the big fish. Bene­ fitting from the experience and internationalist support of those advanced socialist countries, we are waging a fierce struggle to overcome the prevailing economic and social problems and to lay a foundation for a long-term construc­ tion of socialist economy. We have firm belief that we shall be as successful in this as in the armed struggle we had carried out. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, As I mentioned earlier, our countries have a long histo­ rical and cultural ties and an identical stand in struggle for independence. Similarly, our two revolutions have passed through the same problems and struggles. We are aware of the difficult struggle of the revolution of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen to secure the establishment of a socialist party. We admire the great sacrifices paid courageously by all revolutionaries of Yeme­ ni and especially by Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail for the establishment of the Party. One of the major goals for which the Ethiopian Revolu­ tion had striven in the last five years was the creation

of workers' party. Although the Ethiopian armed forces assumed since the beginning, a vanguard role in the revolution of the Ethiopian people which was aroused by years of oppression and atrocities committed against the people in the absence of a strong ideological guideline and political organization, we have persistently struggled for the formation of a workers' party. During this time, overt and covert attempts were made by imperialist puppets and infiltrators, as well as by some individuals and organizations which seemingly supported the revolution, to seize the power that slipped out of the hand of the feudo-bourgeois system as a short­ cut to the apex of another exploitative system. It has also been revealed to us during this period that our enemies were not only those who speak the language of feudalism but also included those utilizing Marxist idioms. Many have been exposed and left the field of struggle in shame. Arduous as our struggles and efforts to secure a workers' party have been, we are carefully making all the necessary preparations to establish a strong and genuine Party. To this end, a forerunner of the workers' party, a preparatory commission will be established soon. As this commission has the task of selecting genuine MarxistLeninists, not in groups but on the basis of the ideological purity and commitment in the struggle of the prospective members, we have no doubt that the workers' party to be formed will be a strong Marxist organization. Although we are not scared of war, we abhor it. We have a strong desire to live in good neighbourliness, pea­ ceful co-existence and brotherhood. This just stand of ours has been clearly manifested in our foreign policy and we have repeatedly and unequivocally stated it in many inter­ national political fora. We shall not exchange our revolution, unity, soverei­ gnty principles or national honour for temporary benefits. We believe in living peacefully and in a spirit of brother­ hood, equality and mutual respect. Those who find it diffi­ cult to understand or digest our noble objectives and are alert to do us harm are only inviting hardship and disaster for their people but they will never be able to distract us from our chosen path of peace and Socialism. Dear Comrade Abdul Fattah, By spreading its tentacles in the Middle East, the Far East and Latin America, imperialism is mobilizing reaction­ aries and the danger this poses is very clear. In the face of this threat, progressive forces and socialist governments must remain vigilant. Today, internatonal imperialism is strengthening its military bases, its counter-revolutionary and espionage out­ posts in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. It is trying hard to co-ordinate discredited reactionary ruling classes in an attempt to halt and destroy the legitimate struggle of the peoples of the Middle East and Africa for freedom, justice, democracy and Socialism. 13

With the clear understanding of our immediate and long-term aims, we must wage a skillful struggle in all directions to acquaint ourselves with our historical obliga­ tions and to protect and promote our revolution. We must struggles in the Middle East, Africa and the rest of the world so that they will not be diverted from their march, also endeavour to assist the anti-colonial and anti-apartheid The racist regimes of Salisbury and Pretoria, two remote branches of imperialism, are massacring not only members of the Patriotic Front and SWAPO but also the peoples of Zambia, Mozambique and Angola. Patriots of Africa will never knuckle under because of these op­ pressive methods of imperialists and racists and abandon their struggle. Thanks to the persistent struggle of the determined fighters of Zimbabwe and Namibia, we will soon witness their victory over imperialism, reaction and racism. It is a burning issue for all progressives to assist the freedom fighters at this crucial moment of their struggle. The world public has been aware of the assistance rendered by imperialism to the apartheid regime of South Africa to enable it to manufacture nuclear weapons. Giving more time to our enemies would enable them to amass more strength and make our struggle more fierce and our

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sacrifices bitter. It is, therefore, of vital importance for us to examine the current critical situation. Comrade President, We are very close to each other in our internationalist commitment. The socialist camp as a whole has travelled a long distance together. Together we have scored many victories. We see more victories at a distance but not beyond the horizon. With our unity of objective and ideology and our anti-imperialist and anti-reaction stand we are certain to emerge victorious. True, our peoples have scored great victories in tne past but our struggle has not ended. In the light of the current international tension with which we are faced, we must proceed towards closer unity. We must strengthen our relations in the fields of culture, economy, education and technology. Based on this foundation we shall be able to eliminate our age-old enemies of famine, illiteracy, disease and backwardness. Finally I raise my glass to the health of Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail and to all Yemeni comrades; — To the prosperity and unity of our two peoples. — To the strength of our revolution.

Comrade Chairman Mengistu delivers Dinner Address. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail decorates Comrade Chairman Mengistu

Comrade Abdul Fattah's State Banquet Speech Following is the full text of the speech delivered by Comrade Abdul Faitah Ismail at a State Banquet he gave in honour of Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam Today, we do not ony celebrate the anniversary of our people's liberation but also celebrate the accomplishments achieved during the past years and we harness the energies and potentials of our people so that they may continue to march towards the vistas of material and cultural progress under the leadership of their vanguard Party — the Yemeni Socialist Party. Wt Democratic Yemen feel proud of the successes scored by your struggling people who struggle for the realization of a better life and for the building of a van­ guard party guided by the ideas of scientific socialism, the revolutionary implement capable of leading the revolution­ ary process of your country towards its aspired horizons to which the Ethiopian toilers aspire. We, dear Comrade, do not doubt for a single moment that your great revolution will take firm steps forward for the realization of this matter, no matter what the imperial­ ists, the reactionaries and the class enemies within may try to impede the march of your people's revolution. They will not suppress it nor revert the people to the era of ignominy and subservience. Dear Comrade, Before us in Democratic Yemen are posed pressing and strategic tasks — foremost among them being the task of reunifying our Yemeni people, which we struggle for achieving within a progressive national democratic framework. This task occupies a prominent place in the programme and activity of our party. Our government exerts all efforts and rallies all arms for the continuation of the peaceful conditions for the realization of this task and strategic aim of our people. We are confident that we in both parts will proceed toward this noble aim and all struggle potentials will be massed to confront those forces that stand in the face of the unity and aspirations of the Yemeni people. Dear Comrade, The external policy of our party is quite clear, it is a policy which is based upon peaceful coexistence, mutual respect and non-interference in the domestic affairs of any country. Starting from this policy ail strivings and efforts in Democratic Yemen are directed towards the development of our relations with the fraternal states neighbouring us in the Arabian Peninsula and Gulf region. We have placed and still place our view frankly at all conferences and international meetings. We reject the existence of any military pacts or military bases of a dubious nature being planned for by the imperialist and reactionary circles. We also denounce and condemn the threats made from time to time by these circles for inter­ fering in the domestic affairs of the countries of the region. 16

We in Democratic Yemen also consider that peace and security in the Middle East will not be obtained except within the expulsion of the Zionist occupation forces from ail of the occupied Arab territories and the cognizance of the rights of the Arab people of Palestine in establishing their independent national state. This requires of the Arab countries more cohesion and massing of Arab ranks and the full implementation of the resolutions of the Baghdad and Tunisia Summits so that they may be able to confront all the expansionist plots and plans. On the other hand this also requires firm and close solidarity with the countries of the socialist com­ munity headed by the Soviet Union — that loyal frl8nd, who has stood and still stands by the side of the Arab peoples in their just struggle against the Zionist occupation forces behind which stands U.S. imperialism. We once again reiterate that our Yemeni people will remain true to the principles of internationalism and Inter­ nationalist solidarity in the struggle against imperialism and its lackeys and will continue to work for supporting the struggles of all peoples in Africa, Asia and Latin America for the liberation of these peoples and their proceeding on the path of social progress and the establishment of democratic regimes in their countries. We will continue to exert efforts in conjunction with all forces of peace and democracy in the world for making profounder world detente, limitation of the arms race as a prelude to complete disarmament so that peace may be firm and perpetual throughout the world. This year was full of our Party's and Government's external activity. Delegations from our country and a number of fraternal and friendly countries exchanged visits resulting in outcomes of great value as regards the stand­ ing of our progressive regime on the external plane. We are very satisfied with the visit we paid to the Soviet Union and the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Co-opera­ tion between Democratic Yemen and the Soviet Union, and between Democratic Yemen and the German Democratic Republic, as well as our accession to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance as an observer member. Similarly, our reception of Comrade Alexei Kosygin, Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, Comrade Honecker, Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and your reception today as the guest of our people is evidence of our principled stand as regards the relations with the forces of progress and socialism. The signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Co-opera­ tion with the Soviet Union in particular has aroused the clamour of the imperialist and rightist reactionary forces. Here we wish to stress that our relations with the Soviet Union and all countries of the socialist community cannot

be shaken on the plane of reality. When we signed this treaty we were starting from a principled and strategic stand in our relations based upon proletarian interna­ tionalism We must state that the treaty is considered to be a model of relations between states irrespective of their size and strength as it aims at friendship and peace between peoples. The policy of Socialist Ethiopia, Dear Comrade, enjoys the respect and appreciation of our people. It is a policy which aims at achieving stability and peace in the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea. It rejects military and security pacts called for by the imperialist circles and the ruling reactionary cliques. We find it appropriate here to state that we in Democratic Yemen will continue to stand with all our strength against the colonial projects for the security of the Gulf and Red Sea. We condemn completely the threats of U.S. imperial­ ism agains the Iranian people.

We affirm that Iran's demand for the handing over of the Shah of Iran to be tried for the crimes committed against the Iranian people as well as the surrendering of the funds plundered by him is a just and legitimate demand. Dear Comrade, Here we state that the relations of friendship and solidarity between our two countries and peoples have become strong to the extent that they cannot be shaken by the plots of the rancorous imperialist and reactionary forces. They will increase in strength and firmness by virtue of the internationalist solidarity for the sake of peace and socialism. We are completely convinced that this visit being paid by you opens up before our two peoples new potentials for continuing their march towards development and the diversification of the spheres of their relations and co-operation in a manner that serves their common inte­ rests and revolutionary causes.

17

Comrade Chairman Mengistu at Mukalla.

Receiving bouquet of flowers.

Comrade Chairman Mengistu on his way to Mukalla.

During a visit to a fish factory.

At a fish factory.

Receiving a gift at a boat-building yard.

Comrade Chairman Mengistu Addresses Mass Rally Following is the full text of the speech delivered by Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam at a mass rally held to celebrate the 12th anniversary of the indepen­ dence of the PDRY: Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail. Our Brothers and Comrades-in-struggle, The Broad Masses of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Comrades, It is a great honour and revolutionary pride for me to convey to you at the outset, the heart-felt and comradely greetings of your comrades-in-struggle, the revolutionary people of Ethiopia whose cup of sacrifices you have shared, for whose cause you have shed your blood and gave the life of your compatriots. I feel profound honour and pleasure to be amongst you and to convey, on behalf of the broad masses, the Provi­ sional Military Administrative Council and the Government of Socialist Ethiopia and on my own behalf, to you, our brothers and comrades-in-struggle, to your revolutionary leader and government, fraternal and revolutionary greet­ ings on this auspicious and historic twelfth anniversary of your independence which came about after arduous strug­ gle and great sacrifices by the people of the Yemen People's Democratic Republic. It is not only we who are present here among you who are sharing your joy today. I would like to assure you that the entire people of Ethiopia whose heart-felt and brotherly greetings I am pleased to transmit once again, are, indeed, rejoicing on this occasion. Our two neighbourly countries, which are set apart by a narrow water parting, have, nonetheless, a unity of spirit which has enabled them to build between themselves a bridge constructed of blood and bones which neither time nor any power can destroy. Being a country of valiant and heroic people who, have for thousands of years preserved their national indepen­ dence and sovereign existence by repelling the aggressors which had invaded her from various directions and in different historical periods, Ethiopia accords due respect to the independence of others. Celebrations of indepen­ dence anniversaries such as that of the People's Demo­ cratic Republic of Yemen kindle in us a special sentiment emanating from our comradely feeling which was formed in the battlefield and has stood the test of fire and struggle. There is no power whatsoever which can undermine this unity. The strong bonds existing between the peoples of Yemen and Ethiopia which have endured the test of time throughout the centuries are firmly based on the bedrock of the common history of struggle and culture of our peo­ ples as well as those of blood. Consequently, our citizens never feel strangers in each other's land but rightly regard It as their second home. It is with great pleasure and 20

fraternal sentiments that I, once again, declare that the strong historic links between our two countries have been put on an even firmer basis and given new objective by the two revolutions. My colleagues and I, therefore, do not feel strangers, during our stay in this country. Indeed, we feel absolutely at home. I would like to assure all of you assembled here today, as well as the entire people of Yemen, this is a genuine reflection of a strong and profound brotherly feeling. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, The Fraternal Revolutionary Masses of Democratic Yemen, Comrades, History has properly recorded and the whole world knows very well that the broad masses of Yemen and Ethiopia are heroic and proud peoples with an ancient civilization and a heritage of exemplary and brilliant strug­ gle. Both peoples have scored decisive victories over their enemies in their bitter struggles against colonialist aggres­ sion and against the oppressions of internal ruling classes. Since this is the anniversary celebration of the day on which the heroic people of Yemen emerged victorious and regained their independence after a protracted struggle against the various forces of evil, I would like to recall briefly some points from that long history of struggle. Leafing back through the pages of history, we will realize that the people of Yemen have, until recently, been valiantly waging determined and bitter struggles against foreign forces of aggression. The long and continous sturggle which they had waged from 1517 until the end of World War I against the subjugation of the Ottoman Turks must be well remembered not only by the oppressed peoples who are fighting for indepedence, justices, equality, peace, democracy and socialism but also by the oppresser and exploiter classes. The struggle which the people of Yemen, who are uncompromising in jealously guarding their independence and unity, waged to successfully expel the Ottoman Turks from their land in 1636 is one of the proud chapters in the history of struggles. Although two hundred and thirty-five years later, the Ottoman Turks returned in 1871, and exerted considerable effort to subdue the Yemen, history testifies that the heroic Yemeni people never yielded. During that period of struggle the people of Yemen, undivided into northern and southern, were one people with one objective. While we cherish this happy memory, we remain fully confident that the Yemeni people will soon re-establish their historic unity. The peoples of Democratic Yemen had been waging two different kinds of struggle since the seizure of Aden

by British colonialism in 1839 and its expansion and control over the surrounding feudal territories of the time. It is a well known fact that, in opposition to the "divide and rule" policy of Britain, the workers of Aden had staged repeated strikes throwing the colonizers into panic. Since the devious nature of colonialists is not amen­ able to the peaceful restoration of independence to the indigenous people, however, the broad masses of Demo­ cratic Yemen resorted to the armed struggle, under the leadership of the National Democratic Liberation Front. Rendering the colonialists helpless and finally expelling them from their country in 1967, the people of Yemen have once again demonstrated their heroism to the world. I would like to point out in this connection that the armed struggle which the people of Democratic Yemen waged for national independence and justice and the September 26 revolution of their brothers in the North are complementary and have since become causes for trepida­ tion for imperialist and reactionary forces. We take pride in this fact because we regard your struggle as our strug­ gle and your victory as our victory. It is evident that, in order to preserve the strategic and political interests which they claim to have in the oil-producing areas of the Gulf and the Arabian Penninsula as well as in the Red Sea, imperialist and reactionary forces have been plotting and creating baseless and arti­ ficial contradictions with a view to perpetuating the division between the peoples of the Yemen who until recently had preserved their unity. Socialist Ethiopia views with great admiration and fully supports the constructive and decisive steps recently taken by the peoples of the Yemen to foil these imperialist machi­ nations. Not only Socialist Ethiopia but also those who struggle for stronger unity are gratified by the agreement concluded between the leaders of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic to reunify their countries and by the measures they have taken so far to translate the agreement into action fully realizing that the perpetuation of their division is desired only by and serves the interests of the imperialist and reactionary forces. Since unification is sought and supported by all Yemenis in the North and the South, we are confident and fervently hope that it will be realized before long. I would also like to point out that the revolutionary struggle which the people of Democratic Yemen have been waging for equality and justice and the victory they have scored have been a source of inspiration and encourage­ ment for the oppressed masses of Ethiopia in the struggles which they have waged at different times after having rid themselves of the feudo-bourgeois order under which they languished for long. The fact that the victory which the Yemeni people have scored with great sacrifices has been a beacon of hope for those who had been, and are still, suffering under similar oppression in our region and in other parts of the world while, at the same time, providing added testimony as to your independence, friendship and courage, should be a cause for revolutionary pride for you, our brothers and sisters.

Although imperialism and its reactionary surrogates were engaged in repeated conspiracies to render ineffec­ tive the independence of the Yemeni people which was achieved with great sacrifices in order to establish their sophisticated method of exploitation in the country, the Yemeni people have succeeded in turning them back in disgrace. We have no doubt that these anti-people elements will be foiled with no less disgrace in their future attempts in this country. In addition to imposing political and economic sanc­ tions on Democratic Yemen, by co-ordinating the reaction­ ary forces of the region, imperialists had tried by force of arms to control the country. The resolute struggle of the people of Yemen which succeeded in foiling that imperialist strategy will always be remembered in the annals of history. That the revolution of the people of Yemen, which stood alone in the region until the Ethiopipan revolution erupted, maintained the correct path it had chosen and gained strength and momentum, despite the pressures and aggressions of imperialism, reactionary forces of the region and internal counter-revolutionaries, is worthy of admiration and a further proof of the determination of the people of Yemen. The struggle of the people of Democratic Yemen was not only against subversive foreign forces but also against internal reactionaries who were opposed to the spread of the socialist ideology and the formation of the vanguard socialist party in order to re-institute the exploitative capitalist system. Having emerged victorious over external and internal conspiracies, however, Democratic Yemen is now an added strength and an example for the world-wide revolutionary struggle. As such, it has become a prime target of interna­ tional imperialism and reactionary forces. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, The Broad Masses of Democratic Yemen, We know that, wherever a genuine revolution succeeds and gains strength, international imperialism resorts to pressures and other desperate methods in a futile atempt to prolong its life. As the struggle for the emancipation of the oppressed masses, for freedom, equality, justice, democracy and socialism scores victory after victory, the forces of destruction also exert every effort to restore the system characterized by oppression, exploitation, poverty and ignorance. Uninterrupted struggle has always existed and continues to exist between these two contra­ dictory forces. The futile anti-revolutionary and anti-people attempts of imperialism and international reaction which are aimed at halting the progress of history are bound to fail. To speed-up the process.it is necessary that progressive forces strengthen their unity and co-operation and co-ordinate their strategies. The united might of the oppressed will always triumph, and we must repeatedly demonstrate this undeniable truth to our enemies. It is with great pride and revolutionary spirit that I recall in this connection the co-operation between Demo21

cratic Yemen and Revolutionary Ethiopia which has set a worthy example for the peoples of the world. It is clear to all that the revolution of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is the first genuine revolution in the entire region of Africa and the Middle East. It also ranks first in the region for implementing the principles of proletarian internationalism. While the active implementation of the principle of proletarian internationalism has won for the PDRY the respect and admiration of all the progressive and peaceloving peoples, it has also provided a lesson which im­ perialism and the forces of reaction will do well to remember the degree to which the philosophy of MarxismLeninism is being embraced by the oppressed peoples of the world. It should be borne in mind that the revolution of the people of the PDRY demonstrated the unity of the International socialist struggle by performing this interna­ tionalist duty even before the establishment of the van­ guard party. We have no doubt that the broad masses of Demo­ cratic Yemen will continue to play greater roles in the international socialist struggle under the leadership of the recently formed proletarian vanguard party which embraces all the sons and daughters of Yemen renowned throughout the world for their revolutionary tact, exper­ ience, courage and determination. I would like to express once more my admiration and respect to the revolutionary hero Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, for his great contributions in the political, as well as in the armed struggle to free the people of Democratic Yemen from the oppressive British colonial rule and for the significant contributions he subsequently made in leading the country towards the path of socialism. In addition to waging armed struggle for the freedom of his country and people, Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail made invaluable contribution in the political field by providing wise and determined leadership to crush all foreign inva­ ders, as well as internal reactionaries and subversives and to enable the PDRY acquire today the leadership of a strong proletarian party. I am confident that, under the leadership of the Yemeni Socialist Party and Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, the people of Yemen will yet attain a higher level of prosperity. It is with profound feeling that we recall that the valiant sons of this country are the first among those who, in the spirit of proletarian internationalism, came to the aid of revolutionary Ethiopia when, having overthrown the oppressive feudo-bourgeois system under which it lan­ guished for ages, Ethiopia was encircled and threatened from all sides by enemies from within and without. At a time when Ethiopia was under serious pressure from the remnants of the defunct order and other counter­ revolutionary groups internaly, and from the open aggres­ sion of reactionary and arrogant expansionist forces of the region, which was coordinated by international imperialism externally, the PDRY, with its revolutionary torch held high, was the sole and steadfast friend we had in the region across the Red Sea. 22

Disregarding the threats and provocation of the imperialists and the reactionary forces of the region and the possible dangers this might pose to it, the people of the Democratic Republic of Yemen have sided with our young revolution and joined our ranks in defence of our revolution and our unity. Thus, the people of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen have, once again, proved to the world their sincerity, courage, determination, and their resolute readiness to pay the necessary sacrifices for a just cause, thereby gaining the admiration of the progressive and peace-loving peoples of the world. This sisterly neighbouring country has indeed demon­ strated its true friendship and genuine assistance in our darkest hour. Considering our revolution as their own, its brave children joined our ranks and shed their blood alongside us. This is a heroic act the memory of which will be forever cherished not only by this generation but also by succeeding revolutionary generations of Ethiopians. We pay tribute to your heroic sons who fought alongside our Revolutionary Army sharing the same fox-holes, and who shed their precious blood and fell for our revolution and unity. The broad masses of Ethiopia will forever remember with revolutionary admiration the great sacrifices paid by the internationalist heroes of the Democratic Republic of Yemen who gave their lives for our cause and acquitted themselves honourably of their internationalist duty. The contribution made by them and by other heroic fighters, who, like them, crossed the seas to rush to our aid, was not in vain. It enabled us to score a glorious victory which should be a cause for revolutionary pride to all of us. On this historic occasion and in this historic square, I am particularly happy to convey to you the profound gratitude of the Ethiopian people which is indebted to you for the sacrifices you made and the glorious victory scored. As a peace-loving country, Ethiopia will neither give away what is its own nor desires to take what belongs to others. It has always repelled arrogant expansionists. It will continue to do the same in the future as well. Having foiled all the conspiracies directed against it, Ethiopia has now embarked upon a campaign for economic and cultural development which is decisive for the cons­ truction of socialism. This is a new chapter of struggle for revolutionary Ethiopia. Confident that this long-term struggle will ultima­ tely achieve its objectives, the broad masses of Ethiopia have arisen with a gun in one hand and a plough in the other under the motto "We will drape Ethiopia with a green carpet" and "We will bring under control not only reaction­ aries but also nature". Having demolished the production relations of the feudo-bourgeois order, they are presently engaged in the construction of a socialist economy at an accelerated rate. We are fully confident that we shall emerge victorious. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, Comrades, Revolutionary Ethiopia is an integral part of the world socialist movement and revolutionary process. I would like, therefore, to assure you on this occasion that It will

intensify its participation in, and contribute its due share to the decisive world-wide struggle. To the extent that her resources allow, Ethiopia will continue giving political and material assistance to the on-going struggles for liberation and justice in South and North-West Africa, in the Middle-East and other regions. Just as the socialist countries and other progressive forces, having understood the genuine and popular nature of the Ethiopian Revolution, promptly stood alongside her when Revolutionary Ethiopia was faced with enormous difficulties, I would like to reaffirm to you, Comrades, that Ethiopia is ready at all times to fulfil her interna­ tionalist obligation whenever she is called upon. In particular, I would like to assure you that as the Revolutionary Comrades of the PDRY have shed their blood for the success of the revolution and the protection of the territorial integrity of Ethiopia, so too, your Ethio­ pian brothers will not hesitate to contribute to the strug­ gle for strengthening your revolution and preserving your independence. The lesson we have drawn from our bitter struggle and which should not be forgotten is the fact that mutual support is the main guarantee for the progress, strength and success of our two sister revolutions. The Ethiopian people firmly believe in this and have taken a firm stand on it. Similarly, it should be our common and firm belief that the Yemeni and Ethiopian Revolutions should be examples and sources of support for the struggles of the oppressed peoples of the world. The Ethiopian people is fully aware and firmly convinced that proletarian interna­ tionalism is a historic duty of all socialists. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail,

Comrades, This historic day provides an occasion for the peoples of Yemen and Ethiopia to renew their solemn pledge to unity of struggle. These peoples, who have, through bitter struggle and great sacrifices of life and blood achieved victories and are today enjoying the clean air of free­ dom, should create between themselves a unity, stronger than steel, and together protect their victories. In this effort, the two countries should feel encouraged and strong because the land of the Great Lenin, the vanguard of socilalist countries, the Soviet Union, as well as the whole socialist community, are at their side. This being so, the revolutions of our two countries will soon ensure the death of imperialism in this part of the world. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, Comrades, This is not only the day on which the peoples of Yemen and Ethiopia rededicate themselves to their unity of struggle, but also an occasion for Ethiopia to solemnly pledge to repay the debt which she owes to you. We have no doubt that our unity and friendship which is cemented by the blood and bone of your heroes will continue to flourish. We reaffirm our readiness to make any sacri­ fices, at any time and place, for the well-being, develop­ ment and prosperity of the people of Yemen. — Long live the Friendship between the peoples of — Democratic Yemen and Ethiopia! — Long live Proletarian Internationalism! — Victory belongs to the struggling peoples! — We shall triumph!

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Ethio-VDRY Treaty of Friendship & Co-operation „ • •= full tpxt of the treaty of friendship and co-operation signed between Fol owing is full t conclusion of the visit of Comrade Chairman Mengistu S S . S , D . ™ = . . « = «.pub«. . < Y — • ARTICLE

"The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and Socialist Ethiopia, "Proceeding from the close fraternal and historical ties that exist between their two peoples and countries, their shared experience and their common destiny, "Convinced that the further strengthening of the friendship and co-operation between Socialist Ethiopia and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is in th interest of the peoples of the two countries and se^es the development of peaceful relations between states and the consolidation of peace and international co-operation, "Reaffirming their commitment to protect and promote the economic and social achievements of their peoples. "Inspired by the consistent struggle against imperial­ ism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, expansionism, apartheid and racism in ail their forms and manifestations, "Being guided by their commitment to render support to the peoples fighting for freedom, indepedence and social

"The high contracting parties shall develop, strengthen and expand their economic, scientific and technical co­ operation and trade relations thereby advancing the inte­ rests of the two peoples and countries. They shall develop and deepen the co-operation between them In the fields of industry, agriculture, communications, training and in other economic fields.

ARTICLE

achievements of the two peoples.

ARTICLE

"Desirous of achieving a permanent and just peace in the Middle East, "Reaffirming their adherence to the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter, in particular, the principles of respect for sovereignty, national indepen­ dence, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, "Have resolved to conclude a treaty of friendship and

4

"The high contracting parties shall promote co-opera­ tion between them in the fields of science, culture, arts, literature, education, health, press, radio, cinema, televi­ sion, tourism and sports for the purpose of a more profound mutual understanding of the life. work, experience and

progress, "Reaffirming their resolve to maintain the area of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea as zone of peace,

3

5

"The high contracting parties agree to conclude agree­ ments relating to trade on the basis of the principles of most-favoured nation treatment.

ARTICLE

6

"The high contracting parties shall co-operate in the military fields in the interest of ensuring their defence capability.

co-operation. ARTICLE

7

ARTICLE I

"The high contracting parties undertake to develop the the close relations of friendship and fraternal co-operation existing between Socialist Ethiopia and the People s Demo­ cratic Republic of Yemen on the basis of equality and mutual benefit and the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, national independence, territorial integrity, and non-interference in each other's internal affairs.

"The high contracting parties shall co-operate to strengthen the unity of the Non-aligned Movement and the implementation of its principles to consolidate detente international peace, friendship and co-opera lon rnong peoples and to support the struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism. expansionism, apartheid anu racism in all their forms and manifestations. "Socialist Ethiopia respects the peace-loving foreign

ARTICLE

2

"The high contracting parties shall closely co-operate to protect the social and economic achievements of their two peoples and respect for sovereignty over their national resources.

policy pursued by the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, which is based on the principles of International solidarity and peaceful co-existence and aimed at consoli dating Arab solidarity against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, expansionism and racism in all their forms and manifestations. 25

"The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen respects the peace-loving foreign poplicy pursued by Socialist Ethiopia consonant with the purposes and principles of the charter of Organization of African Unity which constitutes an important factor in the development of international co-operation and peaceful co-existance.

ARTICLE

"The high contracting and peaceful efforts to Indian Ocean as zone of dom of navigation in the

8

parties shall continue their active maintain the Red Sea and the peace and to preserve the free­ Red Sea.

ARTICLE

9

"The high contracting parties shall continue their efforts to develop and consolidate relations of peace and co-operation among all the littoral countries of the Red Sea.

ARTICLE

10

"The high contracting parties shall consult each other on important international questions directly involving the interests of the two countries.

ARTICLE

11

"The high contracting parties will continue their active efforts in order to achieve a just and permanent peace in the Middle East.

ARTICLE

12

"The high contracting parties shall continue to exert their efforts to safeguard international peace and security, deepen the process of detente and make positive contri­ butions to the solidarity and growth of the Non-aligned Movement. They shall actively contribute to the cause of general and complete disarmament, including nuclear disarmament under effective international control, the elimination of all forms of hegemonism and expansionism in international relations and the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means, without prejudice to the legitimate rights of states to defend themselves, indivi­ dual ly or collectively, against aggression in accordance with the charter of the United Nations.

ARTICLE

13

"The high contracting parties shall continue their con­ stant struggle against imperialism, for the complete elimi­ nation of colonialism and neo-colonialism, apartheid and racism in all their forms and the full implementation of the 26

United Nations declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.

ARTICLE

14

"The high contracting parties will continue their efforts for the establishment of the new international economic order based on the principles of equality, justice, demo­ cracy and sovereignty over national resources.

ARTICLE

15

"Each of the high contracting parties declares that it shall not enter into any alliance or paprticipate in any alignment of states or in actions or measures directed against the other high contracting party.

ARTICLE

16

"The high contracting parties declare that the pro­ visions of the present treaty are not inconsistent with their commitment under international treaties in force and undertake not to enter into any international agreements incompatible with this treaty. ARTICLE

17

"Any question that may arise between the high con­ tracting parties with regard to the interpretation or applica­ tion of any provision in this treaty shall be resolved bilaterally in a spirit of friendship, mutual respect and un­ derstanding.

ARTICLE

18

"The present treaty shall remain in force for twenty years after its entry into force. "Unless either high contracting party declares, six months prior to the expiration of the said period, its desire to terminate the treaty, it shall remain in force for the successive periods of five years until one of the contracting parties gives, six months prior to the expiration of the current five years period, a written notice of its intention to terminate it.

ARTICLE

19

"This treaty shall be subject to ratification in accor­ dance with the respective consititutional procedures of the high contracting parties and shall enter into force on the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification, which shall take place at Addis Ababa. "This treaty is made in two copies, each in the Amharic, Arabic, and English languages, all the texts being equally authentic." Done in Aden on December 2, 1979.

Comrade Chairman Mengistu decorates soldiers who fought In defence of Ethiopian Revolution.

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Ethiopia, PDRY Issue Joint Communique Following is the full text of the communique issued at the end of the official visit paid to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen by Comrade Chairman Mengistu HaileMariam "At the invitation of Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Yemeni Socialist Party and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council of the PDRY, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council, the Council of Ministers and Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army of Socialist Ethiopia, paid an official visit to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen from 29 November to 2 December 1979. "Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam and the accompanying delegation have been given a warm official and popular reception symbolizing the deep feeling of friendship and solidarity between the peoples and governments of the two fraternal countries and their strong historical ties and common destiny. "During the visit, Comrade Chairman Mengistu laid a wreath at the memorial Monument of Martyrs in expres­ sion of respect and admiration for the sacrifies paid by the people of Yemen for their national independence. He visited historical sites and economic projects where he was briefed on the ancient civilization of the Yemeni people, its heroic struggle against colonialists and the significant achievements by the workers of the PDRY in all fields. In an atmosphere characterised by warm revolutionary comradeship and full mutual understanding, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam and Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail held official discussions on bilateral relations and current international problems. There was identity of views on all the issues discussed. The talks were attended on the Ethiopian side by:1. Comrade Lt. Col. Berhanu Bayih, member of the Standing Committee of the Provisional Military Adminis­ trative Council (PMAC) in charge of foreign affairs, 2. Comrade Commander Yehualashet Girma, member of the Central Committee of the PMAC. 3. Comrade Captain Mengistu Gemechu, member of the Central Committee of the PMAC and Aide to the Chairman, 4. Comrade Col. Dr. Feleke Gedle-Giorgis, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 5. Comrade Brig. General Taye Tilahun, Minister of National Defence, 6. Comrade Wolle Chekol, Minister of Foreign Trade, 7. Comrade Major Teruneh Habte-Selassie, member of PMAC, 8. Comrade Lt. Negusse Wolde, member of PMAC, 28

9. Comrade Ambassador Samuel Teferra, Ethiopian Ambasador to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and 10. Comrade Berhanu Dinka, Head of African and Middle East Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On the side of the PDRY by: 1. H.E. Comrade AM Nasser Mohammed, member of the Polit-Bureau and Vice Chairman of the Presidium of Supreme People's Council and Prime Minister. 2. Comrade Mohammed Saleh Mutie, Secretary of Foreign Relations of the C.C. 3. Comrade Salem Saleh Mohammed, Candidate of the Polit-Bureau and Minister of Foreign Affairs. 4. Comrade AM Ahmed Nasser Antar, Candidate of the Polit-Bureau and Minister of Defence. 5. Comrade Ahmed Salem Obied Member of the C.C. and Deputy Minister of Defence. 6. Comrade Sulaiman Nasser Mohammed, Member of the C.C. 7. Comrade A!i Ahmed Assalami, Member of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council. 8. Comrade Ahmed Abdulla Fadhli, Minister of Trade and Supplies. 9. Comrade Mohammed Abdulla A! Batani, the Am­ bassador of PDRY in Socialist Ethiopia. 10. Comrade Mohammed Saad AM, Director of African Dept. in the Foreign Affairs. During the visit a treaty of friendship and co-operation was concluded. In addition a six-year programme for the further strengthening of the economic, scientific and technical co-operation and trade relations was also signed. Comrade Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council, the Council of Ministers and Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army of Socialist Ethiopia paid tribute to the people of the PDRY, under the leadership of the Yemeni Socialist Party, for their important achievements in the political, economic and social fields. He expressed the support of Socialist Ethiopia for the PDRY in its struggle to accomplish the task of its National Democratic Revolution and the imple­ mentation of the goals of the Yemen Revolution and in its struggle against imperialist and reactionary plots aimed at depriving the Yemeni people of the national achievements and obstructing their independent social development. He also expressed support for the peaceful efforts of the PDRY for re-unification and the results so far achieved

by the leaders of the two sectors of Yemen, particularly, the Kuwait and Sanaa declarations. Comrade Chairman Mengistu praised the foreign policy of the PDRY which actively contributes to the strengthening of Arab solidarity against imperialism, colonialism, neo­ colonialism, expansionism and racism in all their froms and manifestation, as well as its active role in the Non-aligned Movement which contributes to the strengthening of inter­ national peace and security. After briefing the Yemeni side on the progress of the Ethiopian revolutionn in general, and its present stage of development in particular, Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam expressed the sincere gratitude of the Ethiopian people and government to the people, government and party of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen for the internationalist support and assistance they have rendered to the Ethiopian revolution during the most critical period. Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail, Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Yemeni Socialist Party and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council of the PDRY expressed his great admiration for the people and government of Socialist Ethiopia, for their vigilance and dedication to safeguard, strengthen and advance their revolution despite numerous conspiracies of imperialism and the forces of reaction. Praising the wise and dynamic leadership of Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam and the heroic sacrifices paid by the broad masses of Ethiopia to protect their independence, territorial integrity and the unity of their country, Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismael assured his Ethiopian counter-part that the Yemeni Socialist Party, the government and people of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen fully support the struggle of the Ethiopian people against imperialism, colo­ nialism and expansionism. The two sides expressed satisfaction at the excellent relations existing between their two fraternal states which are bound by common struggle against imperialism, colo­ nialism, neo-colonialism, expansionism, apartheid and ra­ cism in all their forms and manifestations and in ad­ vancing peace, justice and genuine socio-economic pro­ gress. They reaffirmed their determination to develop further their relations and co-operation in the poli­ tical, economic, scientific and technical fields for the mutual benefit of their two fraternal peoples and in the interest of their common struggle. To that end, they observed that the treaty concluded between them will contribute to the achievement of this goal. Condemning the overt and covert interference of imperialist and reactionary powers in the domestic affairs of African and Arab states and their attempts to subvert genuine libetration movements and the struggles of op­ pressed peoples to free themselves from the bondages of imperialism and oppressive political structures, the two leaders reaffirmed that every state and people has the sovereign prerogative to choose any social and political system which it deems appropriate for its development and progress. Furthermore, the two sides condemned the sinister activities of imperialism and reaction in the Red Sea region

which are aimed at the political, economic and military control of the region and at encouraging wars. In particular, the two sides condemned the imperialist and reactionary manoauvres under the cover of the so-called Red Sea secur­ ity and gulf security which constitue interference in the internal affairs of the states of the region. They called upon all states to strictly observe the principles of sove­ reignty and non-interference in the domestic affairs of states and to respect the status of the Red Sea as a zone of peace. The two sides exchanged views on imperialist conspi­ racies aimed at dividing African and the middle eastern countries with a view to perpetuating neo-colonialist inte­ rests to the detriment of the peoples of these regions. Strongly condemning these imperialist designs, both sides expressed confidence that African and Arab countries will be ever vigilant against these vicious plots and will con­ tinue to strengthen their unity on the basis of the cardinal principles and objectives of the Non-aligned Movement and the charter of the United Nations. In reviewing the current situation in the region, the two sides hailed the struggle of the people of Oman and reiterated their support for the struggle of the people of Oman to liquidate foreign imperialist presence in their country and for genuine independence and democracy. The two sides praised the successes and gains achieved by the peoples of Africa in their struggle against the remnants of colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid and racism as well as against imperialist domination. They reaffirmed their full solidarity with the struggle of the African peoples and condemned all imperialist plots aimed at obstructing the aspirations of the African peoples towards genuine freedom, democracy and independent social progress. In this connection, both leaders condemned any arran­ gement on Zimbabwe that favours the present puppet and racist regime and ignores the ligitimate demands of the Patriotic Front. Reaffirming their full support for the armed struggle being waged by the Patriotic Front, both sides called upon the international community to increase, in conformity with the resolutions of the sixteenth assembly of Heads of State and governments of the Organization of African Unity and the declaration of the Havana summit of the non-aligned countries, as well as the relevant resolu­ tions of the United Nations, material, moral and political support to the Patriotic Front, the sole ligitimate represen­ tative of the people of Zimbabwe. Concerning Namibia, the two sides reaffirmed their support for the people of Namibia under the leadership of SWAPO, their sole legitimate representative. Expressing total support for the United Nations plan for the transfer of power in Namibia, as adopted by the Security Council both sides called upon the Security Council to fully imple­ ment the plan without further delay. They also solemnly declared that Walvis Bay is an integral part of Namibia. Both sides strongly condemned the manoeuvres of the racist regime of South Africa and its imperialist allies to distort the meaning and intent of the U.N. plan with a view to creating a puppet regime in Namibia. In this regard, they called upon the oil producing countries, in particular, 29

and the international community, in general, to impose a strict oil embargo on the racist regime of South Africa. Concerning the situation in South Africa, the two sides reaffirmed their unswerving commitment to eradicate the system of apartheid wihch has been promoted further in the area by the fascist racists in Pretoria. To this end, they reaffirmed their total support for the national liberation movement of South Africa and called upon the collaborators of the racist regime to sever all their trade, investment, financial, technological and military links with the Pretoria regime. They also urged the oil producing countries to give their full support to all the resolutions and decisions of the international community pertaining to oil embargo on South Africa. Both sides condemned the constant brazen aggressions committed against Zambia, Mozambique, Angola and Bot­ swana by the racist regimes of Pretoria and Salisbury with the collusion of their imperialist allies. The two leaders urged the international community to extend, pursuant to the decisions of the sixteenth OAU summit, the sixth summit of the Non-aligned countries and the thirty-fourth session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, financial and material assistance to the frontline countries to enable them strengthen their respective defense against these arrogant aggressions. With regard to the Middle East, the two sides express­ ed concern at the prevailing explosive situation and reaffirmed their conviction that any agreement which does not recognize the ligetimate rights of the Palestinian people or excludes their full participation in any negotia­ tions through their sole ligimate representative, the PLO, could neither be meaningful nor enduring and would only contribute to the further deterioration of the situation in the area. In this connection, the two sides condemned the imperialist manoeuvres as manifested by the so-called "Camp David Agreements" and the capitulatory EgyptianIsrael treaty. They demanded the immediate and uncondi­ tional withdrawal of Israel from all the Arab territories which it has occupied since 1967. The two sides reaffirmed their convinction that a just and lasting peace in the Middle East can be realized only on the basis of recognition of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people to self-dermination and the establishment of their independent state and the full participation of the PLO, as their sole legitimate representative, in all negotiations concerning the Middle East problem. The two sides reiterated their support to the Arab peoples and states in their struggle to liberate their occup­ ied territories. They highly valued the role of the states of the socialist community in supporting the struggle of the Palestinian and other Arab peoples. The two sides stressed the importance of maintaining the Indian Ocean as a zone of peace. In this regard, they strongly condemned the imperialist military presence in the Indian Ocean, particularly, in Diego Garcia and Masira and called for the immediate dismantling of all Imperialist military bases in the area. They also condemned the establishment of a new American fleet in the Indian Ocean which constitutes a dangerous threat to the security and stability of the states and peoples of the area and a flagrant interference in their internal affairs. 30

Recalling the historic sixth summit conference of the Non-aligned countries which was recently held in Havana, the two sides reaffirmed the importance of the Non-aligned Movement as a positive and important factor in interna­ tional relations. They recognized the need for the fullest co-operation among all the member countries in the imple­ mentation of the declaration and the decisions of the conference. To that end, the two sides pledged to co-ordi­ nate their policies and to make joint efforts as necessary. The two sides expressed concern over the tense situation in South-East Asia. They hailed the patriotic strug­ gle of the Vietnamese people and the peaceful efforts of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for the stability of that region and reaffirmed their solidarity with the Vietnamese people. They also hailed the struggle by the peoples of the People's Republic of Kampuchea and the Lao Democratic Republic to consolidate their independece, reconstruct their countries and defend their national sovereignty. They reaffirmed their support to the Revolutionary People's Council as the sole legitimate representative of the people of Kampuchea. The two sides reaffirmed their solidarity with the people of Afghanistan, under the leadership of the Revolu­ tionary People's Party, in their struggle for independent social development and against foreign interference as well as counter-revolutionary forces. The two sides energetically denounced the recent sabre-rattling by United States imperialism against the Republic of Cuba under fabricated pretexts. While strongly condemning the provocative measures announced by the United States government, the two sides expressed their full support to and militant solidarity with the people and government of the Republic of Cuba in their determined resistance against the machinations and provocations of American imperialism. The two sides welcomed the victories of the peoples of Nicaragua and Grenada and expressed their solidarity with the people of Chile in their struggle against the fascist dictatorial Pinochet regime. They also reaffirmed their support for the people of Puerto Rico in their struggle for national independence. The two sides reaffirmed their conviction that, in contemporary international relations, detente is an essen­ tial component for the maintenance of international peace and security, as well as the promotion of genuine disarma­ ment and socio-economic development. They urged its application in the relations among all states. They also called for the exertion of maximum efforts for progress towards genuine nuclear disarmament. In this context, they welcomed th SALT II agreements signed between the USSR and the USA and called for their speedy implementation. The two sides warmly welcomed the unilateral reduc­ tion from eastern Europe of 20,000 troops and 1,000 tanks which was recently announced by the government of the USSR. The two sides called on the NATO alliance to reciprocate this salutary development by taking similar measures. In their review of the international economic situation the two sides noted with deep concern the deplorable state

in which the economies of the developing countries are found. They emphasized the need for the urgent establisment of an equitable and just new international economic order. Maintaining

that

the

Havana

declaration

indicates

correct approachments in the right direction, the two sides pledged that they will make every effort towards its imple­ mentation and urged all other countries to extend their full co-operation to the same end. The two sides expressed deep satisfaction at the results of the present visit and reiterated their conviction that the visit and the agreements signed will positively contribute to the further development and strengthening

of the relations of friendship solidarity and fruitful co-ope ration between the two brotherly peoples and countries Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council, the Council of Ministers and Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army of Socialist Ethiopia, expressed his heart-felt gratitude for the warm fraternal welcome and generous hospitality accorded to him and his delegation by Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail the Yemeni Socialist Party the people and the government of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen during his state visit and extended an invitation to Comrade Abdul Fattah Ismail to visit Socialist Ethiopia. The invitation was gladly accepted and the date of the visit will be fixed through appropriate channels.

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Southern Yemen: The Road to Progress The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY), with a population under 1.7 million, is 286,720 Square Kilometres. Many thousand years ago South Arabia had been the seat of such widely-known ancient civilizations as the Sabaean and Himyarites. The PDRY is a young state that celebrated the 12th anniversary of its independence last November. For four years the insurgent people of Southern Yemen led by the National Liberation Front waged an armed struggle against foreign oppressors and their local puppets. The struggle was a difficult one but the courage and heroism of the people of Yemen, enjoying the support and solidarity of all progressive world forces, ensured their victory. On November 30, 1967, a new state—the People's Republic of Southern Yemen—came into being. In 1970 it was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. After independence, the left wing of the National Liberation Front demanded the introduction of radical socio-economic changes, primarily, an agrarian reform, the nationalization of the property of foreign companies, the establishment of a state sector, democratization of public life, rejection of nationalist policy and transition to posi­ tions of scientific socialism, and the establishment of friendship and co-operation with socialist countries. At the 4th Congress of the National Liberation Front (March 1968) the progressive scored a majority in the NLF general leadership. The reactionary-minded military attempted a coup during which most of the progressive were arrested. However, the following disturbances throughout the country and mass demonstrations by rank-and-file NLF servicemen demanding their relase, forced the reactionaries to fall back. The growing influence of the progressive trends in the NLF and among the people enabled its representatives to achieve leadership in the National Liberation Front on June 22, 1969, and assume power in the country. This act became known as the "movement for normalizing the course of the revolution" and set Democratic Yemen on a socialist-oriented road of development. Nationalization of the property of foreign and several local companies (insurance, trade and freight companies, local and foreign banks, companies dealing with dockyard services and distribution of oil products) and the establish­ ing of the state sector, welcomed by the people at large, were among the major changes introduced by the new leadership. The new situation advanced new tasks. From colonial­ ism the PDRY inherited an extremely backward economy and a chronic balance-of-payments deficit. Most commodi­ ties and foodstuffs had to be imported. However, the new republic has gradually begun to make headway. By 1979 the volume of its industrial output is expected to go up by 15.2 million dinars, with the state sector accounting for more than 90 percent of the total produce. It is making good progress along planned lines.

Development along the road of socialist orientation is inconceivable without the vigorous participation of the people. Trade unions, the Democratic Yemen Youth League, Student's League, people's defence committees, people's militia, Women's League and other mass organizations are rapidly developing. In October 1975 was formed the National Front (NF), a united political organization. The NF devotes considerable attention to the establishment of the principles of demo­ cratic centralism and greater inner-party democray and stronger party discipline. Its organizations, now founded mainly along production lines, have been set up in most enterprises and play an important role in state institutions and mass organizations. The growth of the NF's leading role and prestige is obvious. The theory of scientific socialism is studied extensively within its ranks. The changes that have come in the last decade to the village of Southern Yemen are truly astonishing. Not long ago it had been in the throes of feudal exploitation and archaic economic forms. Back-breaking work from morning to night on another man's land gave the peasant sometimes only 10-15 per cent of the crop yield. And even though nearly 80 percent of the population was engaged in agri­ culture it could not provide the country with even half of its food requirements. The bulk of the population suffered from a chronic shortage of drinking water. Even though the 1968 agrarian reform limited the size of land property and envisaged the creation of a land fund through expropriating land surpluses, it was carried out within the framework of bourgeois-democratic transforma­ tions. Moreover, the old state apparatus, whose interests were linked with feudal ownership, sabotaged the imple­ mentation of the reform. Following the victory of the movement of June 22, 1969, the new government began to prepare a more pro­ gressive land reform which was adopted in 1970. Maximum land holdings were brought down to 20 feddans (8.4 hecta­ res) of irrigated or 40 feddans (16.8 hectares) of bogharic land. Poor and landless peasants received from 3 to 5 feddans of irrigated or from 6 to 10 feddans of bogharic land. At the same time—and this was the main distinction of the new agrarian law from the previous reform—co-ope­ ratives and state farms were to be set up. By November 1973, large-scale feudal landownership was largely abolish­ ed. Nearly half of the country's ploughland was distributed among 25,778 land-starved and landless peasant families. When the 5th Congress of the National Liberation Front was held in March 1972, 21 agricultural production co-opera­ tives and 24 state farms were already functioning in the countryside. Reactionary Arab forces spare no efforts to draw the PDRY into the military-political bloc of the countries of the Red Sea basin mapped out for the near future. Aden, however, holds the correct view that the defence of Yemen's territory is the affair of its own people. The PDRY 33

has confirmed its firm stand on the inadmissibility of all foreign military presence in any of the countries of the region. It is well aware that the schemes of the Arab reaction are closely linked with those of US imperialism, which are set on extending the network of military bases in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf area. The PDRY leaders constantly stress their solidarity with all pro­ gressive and democratic forces in the region. Broad co-operation embracing numerous spheres of the national economy began with the signing of the USSR-PDRY agreements in February 1969. They were followed by other mutual documents which have considerably expanded Soviet economic, technological and cultural assistance to Democratic Yemen. Deliveries of Soviet plant and machines are steadily growing.

The bulk of Soviet aid is channelled into agriculture and the fishing industry, the Republic's major economic branches. The building of irrigation systems is coupled with mechanization of agricultural work and the establishing of model state farms. The Republic has built up an up-to-date fishing fleet based on Soviet fishing vessels and fish-detecting installa­ tions. A 10-year programme has been developed for the fishing industry with the aid of Soviet specialists. Soviet geologists are contributing to the speediest prospecting for the Republic's mineral wealth, a factor that will boost its economy.

PDRY Paper Comments on Historic Visit Comrade Chairman Mengistu Haile-Mariam's historic visit to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) from November 29 to December 2 was the subject of lengthy comments by that country's mass media. Commenting on the visit under the title "Democratic Yemen and Socialist Ethiopia" the October daily newspaper said in its November 30 issue that the people of the PDRY hold Socialist Ethiopia in very high esteem not only because of Ethiopia's geographical proximity to Democratic Yemen but also because new Ethiopia is much closer to the PDRY politically and ideologically than to any other country in the Red Sea region. The two fraternal countries, the paper went on, follow the same progressive political line based on the principles of scientific socialism. They are diametrically opposed to reaction, imperialism and Zionism. To be brief and less ambiguous, Socialist Ethiopia and Democratic Yemen are in the same boat and as such they have to swim or go down together. Long years of bitter revolutionary struggle against the former imperial dictatorial rule in Ethiopia and against the colonial sultanic regime in the PDRY demonstrated beyond any shadow of doubt that the peoples of the two countries strongly rejected all forms of despotism and oppression. The eruption of the ongoing popular revolution in Ethiopia and the achieving of independence by the PDRY had greatly contributed towards consolidating friendly ties between the two countries, October stated. The paper said that as a result of joint efforts made by the two countries over the past few years, close working ties continued to grow and develop between the Yemeni Socialist Party of the PDRY and the Provisional Military Administrative Council of Socialist Ethiopia Consequently Democratic Yemen stood alongside the Ethio­ pian Revolution when the radical movement was faced with imperialist-motivated aggression. Yemeni internation­ alists fought alongside their Ethiopian brothers and so the

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already warm ties between the two countries were further cemented with blood. There is no doubt that this great act of bravery on the part of the PDRY internationalists will be remembered forever by members of succeeding generations, the paper noted. The paper pointed out that during the past few years the two countries exchanged high-level visits, including a friendly visit to Ethiopia last May by Comrade Abdul-Fattah Ismail, Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Yemeni Socialist Party and Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Higher Council of the PDRY. Comrade AbdulFattah's visit was preceded by an earlier tour of Ethiopia at the beginning of this year by Comrade Ali Nasser Mohamed, Member of the Politbureau of the Central Com­ mittee of the Yemeni Socialist Party, Vice Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Higher Council and Prime Minister. These high-level visits to Ethiopia by the two leaders of the PDRY had greatly contributed towards further strengthening the already warm bonds of friendship between the two countries. In the same way previous visits to the PDRY by a number of Ethiopian delegations contri­ buted towards the strenthening of friendly ties between the two fraternal nations. The paper said the people of the PDRY greatly appre­ ciate the achievements of the ongoing Ethiopian popular Revolution and the sweeping victories it had scored over expansionist powers and separatist elements thus ensuring the unity and territorial integrity of the motherland. The paper stated the masses of the PDRY renew their determination to stand, whenever necessary, alongside the Ethiopian masses in their struggle against reactionary imperialist machinations. The people of Democratic Yemen are well aware of the urgent need to form a common front to face the threat posed by international imperialism to progressive forces in Democratic Yemen. Socialist Ethiopia, Afghanistan and Iran. October also expressed the whole-

hearted wish of the people of the PDRY for the success of the current National Revolutionary Development Cam­ paign. The paper referred to the great sacrifices made by the Democratic Yemen and Socialist Ethiopia with the aim of foiling imperialist plots against progressive forces in the area. The paper added that by forming a united front strongly opposed to international imperialism and Zionism, the two fraternal countries sought to provide the world revolutionary movement with added momentum. As Com­ rade Abdul-Fattah once remarked Socialist Ethiopia and Democratic Yemen are the two shining stars of the African continent and the Arab homeland respectively and despite enemy efforts to extinguish them the two stars will con­ tinue to shine brightly forever. October re-affirmed the determination of Democratic Yemen, under the leadership of the Yemeni Socialist Party, to give necessary support and assistance to progressive organizations and liberation movements throughout the world. The paper expressed admiration for the great strug­ gle waged by the Ethiopian masses with the aim of foiling imperialist machinations throughout the African continent in general and the Horn of Africa in particular. The newspaper hailed Comrade Chairman Mengistu's official and friendly visit to Democratic Yemen as a great historic event which will mark the beginning of a new era in relations between the two fraternal countries. The paper pointed out that the visit of the Leader of the Ethiopian Revolution to the PDRY took place at a very important

time. The historic event took place against the background of renewed efforts by the forces of imperialism and reac­ tion to undermine the peace initiatives of progressive and national forces throughout the Arab homeland and the rest of the world. The paper expressed confidence that the meeting between the leaderships of the two countries during Chairman Mengistu's PDRY visit would prove of great importance in bringing the two countries closer together than ever before. The paper also pointed out that the two countries hold similar views on problems currently facing African and Arab countries. The paper said that Socialist Ethiopia and Democratic Yemen fully support the establish­ ment of good-neighbourly relations among nations of the Horn of Africa. The two countries also maintain identical views on arrangements governing the use by members of the world community of international waterways and straits. The paper said the two countries are strongly opposed to the establishment of imperialist military bases, the provocative movements by imperialist armies and also to the capitulative Camp David Agreement between Egpyt and Israel. During his tour of various parts of Democratic Yemen Comrade Chairman Mengistu and Ethiopian officials accom­ panying him were able not only to attend celebrations marking the 12th anniversary of the PDRY's independence but also to see for themselves the great achievements scored by the masses of the country. These gains can rightly be considered as revolutionary achievements of the Ethiopian people and other progressive nations of the world, October concluded.

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