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COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN TEACHING A SOUND MOTION PICTURE
by John Edwin-.Dahl;
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in the Department of Education* in the Graduate College of the State University of Iowa August* 1950
ProQuest Number: 10902149
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.
uest ProQuest 10902149 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346
Tv^'-.o o o y
3u ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express hia deep appreciation to Dr* James B* Stroud for his many valuable suggestions in directing the preparation of the script and in the writing of the thesis*
To Mr* Lee Cochran# sincere appreciation for
his help in analyzing the script and in the administering of the production of the film*
To Dr* Ernest Horn# Dr* John E*
BoAdam# Dr* L« A* Van Dyke# and Dr* Albert N* Hieronymus# grateful appreciation of their criticisms and suggestions* The writer is Indebted to the Graduate College and to the Bureau of Visual Instruction for making financially possible the production of the film* Further acknowledgment is given to Mr* Vernon Put nam* Staff Cinematographer* Mr* Stanley Nelson, Sound Tech nician# Mr* Richard C* Setterberg* Barrator, Mr* Jack Robert son and Mr. Robert Lightner, Motion Picture Technicians* Acknowledgments are gratefully made to all persons who appear in the films
Mr* James Curtin* the teacher* and
to the boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades of the University Elementary School, who participated. Additional acknowledgement is made to the
personnel of the Press Citizen of Iowa City for providing facilities for the newspaper plant scenes. To his wife, Wilma Gardner Dahl, the writer^ most gracious thanks, aporeciation and affection*
TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter I
pap© Introduction to the Problem . . . . . . Value of Community Besource Use in Education • • • • • • • • Reasons for Lag in the Use of Community Resources in Teaching • • • • • • • • • • « « Necessity for Teacher Training in the Use of Community Resources • Statement of the Problem * . . . . Reasons for the Choice of a Film for Such Training • » • » • • • Principles Involved • • • • • • • Psychological and Educational Principles • • General Principles • • . * •
1 7 10 15 16 19 19 23
Review of Related Films • * • • • • • • 2 7 Near Home • • • • • • • « • • • • ............ .. Field Trip * . The Junior Citizen . • • • • « • • A United States Community and its Citizens • • • • « • • • • • School in Centreville . . . . . . Justification of isy Film . . . . .
27 29 30 31 32 34
Procedure • • • • • . • • . . . • • • . 3 7 Script Preparation * • • • • • • • 3 7 Treatment Outline . . . . . . . . 42 A Pictorial Sequence Outline • • • 43
Summary of the Film Community Resources in Teaching . . . Appendix A
• • • • . • • • • . . • • • 5 4
The Seriot of the Sound Motion Picture Film Community H e sources in Teaching . . . . iv
• • • • • • • « • • • • • •
Teaching Guide • « • • • • • • • •
The Survey of Community Resources • • • • • • • • • • • 8 2 Bibliography ...................
. ♦ 87
1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Value of Community Hesource Use in Education In using community resources In education, the community can be as large or as limited as the transporta tion facilities, or the budget of a school permits.
resources depend uoon the community, and the use of them will depend uoon the training and resourcefulness of the school staff, and upon the cooperation of the citizens of the community. Each school community Is a rich store-house of instructional materials*--facts* Ideas, social practices, traditions, institutions— that when studied at first hand are oaoable of yielding edu cational returns of prime importance. Making pro vision for frequent and effective contacts on the part of the pupils with this material tends to keen education close to real and concrete experi ences and avoids the dangers of having the schools too exclusively concerned with ”things to be read about in books.” 1 This Is but one of many possible direct quo tations of authorities on the value of community re source use in education.
From the same source we read this:
Many rich educational experiences can result from direct contact v/ith material found in the local community. If the school Is primarily 1. Survey Work-Book for Community Analysis. Alabama Education Association, p. 1.
concerned with the development of the child in the existing society and with the progressive Improve ment of this society, then the community, the tan gible .embodiment of society to the child, assumes a place of prime importance#2 Many authorities in the field of educ tion have felt for some time that restricting instruction of the school ohlld to the textbook or the lecture is a mistake* The concrete experience and actual contact w3th community resources in varied ways has been found of great value# If opportunity exists for substituting direct community contacts for a brief textbook treatment, the wise teacher will choose the former because it offers greater possibility of developing permanent interests and of opening a wide vista of meanings#3 Indiscriminate use of the concrete experience is quite inadvisable#
The use of a community resource is
worthwhile only if It offers a greater contribution to the learning of the students than would otherwise be possible# One educator, In research into the value of the excursion procedure, found "an average of twenty minutes of excursion procedure, employed in a summary technique, re sulted in approximately twice the understanding obtained by the average hour of classroom instruction.” lan for a
community resourc© use program at any time the need is dis covered during any unit of study in class* A United States Community and its Citizens excel lently brings out, on© after another, the resources of a community and their Importance to the citizens of the cootjunity and to the school.
But, as a teaching film on how to
go about the use of these resources, it leaves much to the experience and imagination of the teacher. School in Centrovllle, by covering too many areas failed to center upon definite procedures by which teachers can be trained in the use of the resources of the community* If this film were to be used at a 11 as a teacher training film, only portions of it could be used at any one time, and these would have to be accompanied by verbal instructions in regard to correct teaching procedures* I believe that Community Hesources in Teaching can be a real teacher training film, if properly used*
is Intended for use in teacher training institutions, and for in-service training where the teachers have had insuf ficient experience in the use of community resources*
37 Chapter III PROCEDURE 3orli>t_j>rep arat 1on The first prerequisite to a successful film is a good script.
This is as essential as good photography,
editing, and sound production.
The purpose of the script Is
as a guide and a direction pointer to the director of the production. Too close adherence to the script is not recom mended because when the film is in production, ”... there are always changes to be mad©--new ideas and information to be incorporated in the film.
This is a natural situation— it
shows that the oroducer is still thinking and evaluating his bl material.” The script writer utilizes the services and know ledge of the technician and subject specialist since, '‘Film making is a cooperative effort rather than an individual one, in addition it is a blend of the creative and the tech62 nlcal.” film must have unity of organization of con tent, graphic continuity, and direction of the audience^ 61. The ftoerture, vol. IX,no. 1, p. 3. 655• The Aperture, vol. VIII, no. 12, p. 4.
38 63 amotions, and thinking.n Too olose following of the reality whore there is & step by step portrayal including all the movements, sounds, and so forth, would make the film too long and un bearable.
"Such a true adherence to reality would be so 64 limiting that it would have no meaning.” There are many accroaches in the development of a script.
The olan followed in this film is the pattern used
by most production units.
The oatbern followed in develop-
ing this script is the same as used by the Galvin Company. They break down the film into the following stages:
ment Outline, Pictorial Sequence Outline, Shooting Script, and lvia3ter Narration Script. The Treatment Outline clarifies the thinking on what the film is to do.
It t«kes into consideration the in
tended audience, the purpose of the film, and a statement of how the purpose of the film is to be achieved* All the details are not incorporated in the Treat ment Outline.
To do this would involve one in so many
63. Ibid., p. 16 64. Don G. Williams, University Pllm Producers Association journal, vol. 1, no. IV p• 6. The Calvin Company, commercial producers of 16 mm. film.
details that confusion would result.
The Treatment Outlinea
n ...is the way you tell your story— it should never be obvi65 oua; it is secondary to the story you have to tell." (See T*»6&t«ent Outline, p. 42) After the Treatment Outline was thought through and approved by the script writer* technician and subject adviser* the next step was the preparation of a Pictorial Sequence Outline.
The Treatment Outline was then broken
down into groupings of related subject matter which were arranged to approximate the development of the film in pic torial scenes without narration# (See Pictorial Sequence Outline, p. 43) Upon the approval of the Pictorial Sequence Out line , the Shooting Script, which is an accurate detailed blueprint, was written.
The Sequence Outline was broken
down into scenes, showing the camera changes, sets, props* and with the accompanying approximate narration. I would voice a slight opposition to the idea that you can almost disregard narration background and dialogue until the picture is completed, be cause 1 think by doing that you are in effect go ing back to the days of silent movies. You end up by merely describing what is going on when you shoot, and then add narration.66 65. Ibid., p. 11. 66. Ibid., p. 12.
After the Shooting Script was approved, it was then analyzed and broken down into shooting sequence.
arranging of soenes mad© it possible to film everything which the script called for in a certain location, regard less of the continuity of the scenes. All the changes in copy, record of takes, angles, lighting, and notes were written on the shooting script as a guide in editing.
This, then, became the Master Script.
After the scenes all were filmed and processed, a primary selection of material was made from a work-print,
print is a duplicate made from the original camera film. This permits editing without danger of damaging the original camera film. The next step was the rough exit, In which the ma terials selected were arranged according to scenes and spliced together to make a continuous film or work print. This was edited roughly to the script*
The work-print was
then projected for final editing. Upon acceptance of the final editing, a master print of the film to make a first orint.
This master print was then used
This first orint wa3 orojected and
checked with the narration.
Whenever changes were made in
the scenes it necessitated changes and additions in the nar ration.
41 The film was projected through a transparent screen which was placed in front of the narrator and the narration was recorded on a film. film*
This la the original sound track
From the original sound track a work-print was made*
The work-print of the sound track and the final work-print of the picture were orojected in synchronization and tested for final editing.
At this point the final editing was made
on both the work-print of the picture and the sound track. The sound track was re-recorded to add the musical background and sound effects* The original camera picture film was edited to match frame for frame the final form of the picture workprint*
From the original camera film a duplicate negative
This duplicate negative and a negative of the
sound track were combined by printing onto one piece of film. This is called a first answer composite print.
nical corrections, such as changes in printing densities, and so forth, were made at this point.
Release prints will
be made in the same manner as the first answer composite print.
42 Treatment Outline A black and white sound motion picture film, to run approxi mately 18 minutes. Incidental music, with narration through out. To be a pre-service and in-service teacher training film, In the use of community resources In teaching* The film opens with a series of short scenes covering various aspects of a community, beginning with Main Street, its busi nesses, professions and industry, the residential areas, and ending with the school* In each area, students are in the scenes, on their way to school, with these same students appearing in the scenes near or at the school entering the building* Next Is shown a typical classroom, the class studying a unit on communication, as a problem arises* This is the ooint at which the Directory of Community Resources enters the nicture, as the teacher and class turn to it as a reference to places to visit* As the Directory is leafed through, oppor tunity Is given for quick shots of other community resources — the dairy, a city council meeting, the fire station, the waterworks, and an outdoor transformer substation* As the class decides upon a visit to the newspaper, the teacher begins listing on the board the planning committees* A pre-visit is made by teacher and committee* And back in the classroom, students make pre-trip preparations* The students and teacher plan Instructional procedures* The group then makes the trip to the newspaper plant, In specting the plant from editorial room to pressroom* Back again in the classroom begin the follow-up procedures, bul letin board activities, cartooning, further research and study. This leads to interest In other methods of commu nication, and again the Directory of Community Resources is used as a refei*ence to further places to visit* This permits shots showing radio facilities, telephone office, wirephoto apparatus, telegraph office and finally a classroom demon stration on television* As the school doors open, and the students emerge at the end of the school day, it is Indicated by narration, that they have now entered into a new world of learning, as the class room comes into the community*
43 A Pictorial Sequence Outline 1* Titles over a long scene of a community* Background music* As titles end, leaving long scene of community, narration begins* 2* Scene of main street, with two boys, as they pass grocery store, meet a doctor going into his office, pass an inv dustrial building* 3. Scenes of first a poor residential district and then a good and finally the school and surrounding neighbor hood, as students are shown going to school* 4* Scenes of discussion in typical classroom, outline on board on communications* Show teacher turning to Direc tory, turning pages, showing listings* 5. Show successive shots of: dairy farm and activities of milking, (after the listing "Dairy” is shown in Directory) and listing "Civic Departments", followed by shots of: mayor and city council, fire station, waterworks, and outdoor transformer substation* 6* Show listing "Newspaper", and teacher beginning to write on board the planning committees* As students volunteer for ore-visit committee, switch to shots of teacher and those same students making preview at newspaper plant* 7. Baek in classroom, show scenes of teacher at blackboard working on outline of "Newspaper as a Means of Communica tion"* Next show outline on instructional procedure on the board, with views of students reading reference mate rial, bringing, books from library etc* 8* Scenes of group preparing to leave on field trip, leaving the classroom, and school, boarding bus, and starting away* Scenes of bus en route, interior, and then as it pulls up at newspaper plant, and as students enter plant* 9. Scenes of group entering editorial room, at the teletypes questioning guide, at the linotype, at the pressroom as the papers come off the press, and preparing to leave, each student with a copy of the newspaper* 10* back in the classroom, students working on bulletin
board, on blackboard, drawing cartoon, in discussion groups* Scenes of teacher again roferrinr to Directory of Community Resources, opening to "Communication" head ing. 11. Scenes of students visiting: radio facility, telephone office, wirephoto apparatus, telepraoh office, and pro jecting films, and finally, scene of classroom demonstra tion of television* 12* Conclude with scenes of school doors opening, students emerge and go down street, and onto the downtown street* 13*
General view of community, with end title and credit title.
45 Chapter IV SUMMARY OF THE FThM COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN TEACHING The film, Community He source a in Teaching, seeks to show how the community and its resources, and the school and Its functions can o© woven together into one pattern of edu cation, bringing the students into th© community, using its resources as laboratory studies, and inviting the community into the school as lecturers and demonstrators. film, this has to be done by implication#
In a short
However brief the
scene each has an Important point to bring out# Th© film begins with background music as th© titles are shown*
As the music fades, with the last title, a long
shot of a community main street aopears on the screen. narration begins:
"This Is Ourtown.
It,s just like a thou
sand other American communities of its size, where oeool© live, work, worship and play.”
The Implication here is that
every community offers opportunities in the way of community resources. Onto the main street scene walk two boys, stopping as boys will, to watch a man letter1nr signs on a window of a grocery store. tor gets out.
A car enters the scene, parks, and a doc
As he passes the boys on his v/ay to his of
fice, he greets them familiarly*
"Here th© business and
46 professional men serve the people of our community.
are one of our important resources, and play a vital oart in the life of our community*” The boys continue their way down the street, in no apparent hurry to get to school, as a loaded truck passes them and pulls up to a stop in front of an industrial build ing*
’’Another major resource Is our industry, which offers
employment to many of our people*” Thus, in a few brief scenes, main street is shown, with its resources, human and material, suggested*
on their way to school, continue to lead the observer of the film through the community into its residential areas* First are shown homes in a poor residential area, near main street, and then others more modern along shady streets*
The boys near the neighborhood of the school, join
ing other groups of students as the school comes into view* ”Ourtown offers the school a fine laboratory for learning about community resources*
Bach business, profession, agen
cy, trade and industry contributes to the educational pro gram*” Having passed through this potential laboratory of learning, the students enter the school, and the ne>t series of scenes takes place in a typical classroom*
is in progress, and an outline on 0ommunioa11ons is upon the
On© boy In the class rises to ask a question,
and, In answering, the teacher reaches for th© Directory of Community Hesources which he keeps handy on his desk.
though our classroom is organized to guide learning activi ties , even the best techniques of classroom teaching may leave many problems unsolved, and a class visit to inspect oommunity resouroes may provide an answer*" The teacher opens the directory.
Page one is
headed Agencies, oage two, Business Groups. On this page th© scene centers uoon the listing under the main heading of Dairy, and then begins a series of scenes showing th© dairy farm, milking activities and milk being prepared for market. "In the survey of resources all the forces that go to make up the community are drawn together. contribution to learning*
Each offers its own
For instance, the dairy farm is
an important community resource.
The work of the dairyman.,
and the processing of milk, are activities which must be seen to be understood and appreciated,
ftf&ny of our commu
nity resources are so much a part of every school child*s life that it is essential that he understand them.
his place in the community, he should learn hov; the city is governed and protected and how it Is served by its various utilities." As the scenes of th© dairy fad© out, the Directory is again shown, with a page being turned to a section
40 headed Clvlo Departments*
This leads to scenes showing the
mayor and city oouno.il in council meeting, a fire station, th© waterworks, and a man working on an outdoor transformer substation* (The purpose of these scenes is, of course, to further show the for*oe3 of the community which are drawn to gether in the survey of community resources, the forces which oan coooorate in a community resource use program in the school*
The scenes of the listings in the Directory
should bo of helo to inexperienced teachers, showing how, after a survey is made, the resources can be organized and listed for quick reference*) As the teacher finds th© listing Newspaper, under the heading of Communications* the class decides upon a trip to the local newspaper :>lant*
They then begin organ! zing
into committees for the planning of the trip*
tees are written on the board, as the students volunteer for the various jobs*
*'By taking on active part in the organiz
ing of the trip, the students learn how to ^lan*
In organizing and planning for any activity is on importart learning experience.
In serving on committees, students
share with their teacher the responsibility for the succri« of the trio*” As th© teacher writes the names of two students
under th© committee heeded Pre-visit. the scene shifts to
the pre-visit Itself* in the newspaper plant* showing th© teacher and students conferring with the editor.
Is made "...in order to arrange the trip so a3 to provide the b©3t learning experience." Again in the classroom* the teacher and class are shown planning the instructional procedure.
On the black
board is the outline on The Newspaper aa a Weans of Comnmni cation.
"Students must understand the purpose of the trip*
and setting up the objectives is the responsibility of the teacher."
(I find there are those who object to that last
statement* but I continue to believe that at that age level* the class still needs the direction of the teacher v/hen it comes to the purposes and objectives of any learning pro cedure.) "Instructional planning prepares the students for careful and selective observation during the trip* and an intelligent appraisal of their experiences afterward." Several scenes show the classroom with groups of students working* reading reference material, bringing in books from the library and so forth.
"Things to look for
may be discovered through library reference work, study of special topics* and the promotion of individual projects. All of these prepare the students for active participation."
50 (It may seem that too many scenes are spent on this seeming ly uninteresting activity, but it is important as a train ing film to bring out that pre-trip planning and preparation are absolutely necessary if the trip is to be worth the time soent upon It*) Final preparations are made, collecting notebooks, pencils and so forth— even to th© habitual procrastinator who has to return to grab his pencil and dash after the others as they are ready to leave in the bus.
It is sug
gested here that, "The immediate purpose of the trip is to enrich the class work in the communications unit.
course, a valuable secondary objective is to promote in the students a vital feeling of participation in the life of the community.
If careful planning is done in the classroom,
then travel time can be spent in general observation*" Since the pre-visit has prepared the guide at the plant to "emphasise those points which will meet the puroose of the trio", the7)T can begin at once to inspect th© plant* They go from the editorial room, where they observe newswriting activity, to the teletypes, watching a news Item come In.
The students, who are encouraged to ask questions,
are shown listening to the guide*s answers.
It is suggested
that although questions should not interfere with the guide *s explanations, many questions can be answered while moving
51 from one location to another.
They enter the composing
room, and gather around a linotype. taking notes in his notebook.
One student is shown
They go to the press room,
and some lag behind to observe something else.
rounds up the stragglers, since ”it is often necessary to direct the attention of the students to subjects determined in advance by th© class.”
The grouo then prepares to leave
the plant, each with a copy of the paper which has just come off the press.
”A well organized trip, with a clear cut
purpose, provides the students a learning experience they are unable to obtain any other way.” Back in the classroom, we find discussion again under way.
Students are seen working on various projects—
a bulletin board, a cartoon, an outline on th© blackboard. “Carefully planned follow-up procedures are essential if the fullest benefit of the trip is to be realized.
details and ideas acquired during the trip can be presented on the bulletin board.
Organization of these Ideas will
point up the purooses for having taken the trip.
also Introduce new problems, leading students to undertake projects growing out of individual interest.” As further scenes show students continuing followup projects, the teacher evaluates the trip: the predetermined purposes?
Did It fulfill
To what extent were the stu
dents stimulated to discover new problems for further study?
And did they enter upon new activities and projects? Class discussion arrives at the point where a com mon interest In various other areas of communication is dis covered*
The Directory of Community resources is again con
sulted for information regarding other types of communication available for study in the community*
Comm 5ttoes are formed
to investigate and reoort their findings* Now begins a montage of the following: grouo of students visiting a radio facility, a group visiting a tele phone office, students examining wirephoto apparatus, stu dents visiting a telegraph office and a group preparing to project lb nan* films*
Back in the classroom, students are
shown watching a demonstration and explanation of a tele vision principle. Thus, th© one visit to inspect a community resource has led to numerous others, and to the bringing into the school a resource speaker.
The one visit has led to enliv
ened work in many directions, greatly enriching the unit of study. In conclusion, th© school doors are shown opening as the students emerge at the end of th© school day.
go out into the community again, and on to the downtown street, where the film picked them up In the opening scenes. *’When teachers Introduce a community resource use program,
53 the students enter* into a new world of learning* ronment takes on new meaning*
The classroom has come into
the community#” And, with a general view of the community as the music comes up again, the film ends#
APPENDIX A The Sorlpt of the Sound Motion Picture Film C g ^ ty R e so w c e sin T e a o h t^
COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN TEACHING SCENE
1. Main title COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN TEACHING
2. Credit titles A State University of Iowa Production Iowa City Dissolve to
3. Credit title Written by John E. Dahl FO;PI
4. Long shot of community main street
5# MC two boyswalking down
0 u town, just like a thou-
the street. They stoo to
sand other American communi-
watch a man lettering signs
ties of its size, where
on a window of a grocery
people live, work, worship
6. ML Gar enters scene, parks
We have our main street,
at curb; doctor gets out,
with the usual variety of
carrying doctor*s bag.
retail stores and service
Boys, (sc. 5) pass; they
7* MG Follow doctor as he
Here the business and pro
crosses sidewalk, enters
fesslonal men and women
doorway with doctor’s sign
serve the people of our com
They are aware of
Its needs and know its re sources*
8. ML Scene of building under construction*
sheet metal men working*
9* ML Scenes of Industry
The tradesmen play an Important part in the life of the community.
Another ma.’or resource is our industry, which offers employment to many of our people*
10* ML Scene of Industry
11. Establish view of poor
..some of whom live in
residential dlstriot near
homos near main street.••
12. Establish view of several nice homes in a block.
...and others in more modern homes along shady streets.
Grouo of boys with books walking down street.
leaves one of the houses and joins them.
13. Establish view of school
Ourtown offers the school
and surrounding neighbor
a fine laboratory for learn
hood, with students moving
ing about community resources.
14. MC Group of students ap proaching school.
Each business, profession, agency, trade and industry contributes to the educa tional oropram.
15. MC /Another group of stu dents entering school door. POsPI
16* MO Classroom from back of room.
Although our classroom is organized to guide learning activities*••
board and outline on com munications*
17* lKC Class from front Boy rises to ask question*
•••even the best techniques of classroom teaching may leave many problems unsolved*
18* MC Boy as he speaks
19* MO Teacher, as she answers* She reaches Tor directory*
There are times when a class visit into the commu nity may orovide a real life solution to some of these problems*
20. MC Teacher, over-shoulder as she opens directory*
21* CU Title page of directory
A directory of community resources can be a useful reference for places to visit*
*22. Extreme GII Page 1, or
In the survey of resources
directory, headed by
all the forces that go to
make uo the community are drawn together.
(Page is turned to heading "Buslne ss Group s” )
And each offers its own contribution to learning.
Center on listing ‘’Dairy” F 0:FI
23. ML Dairy Farm.
For Instance, the dairy farm is an Import nt commu nity resource.
24* M Interior of dairy barn,
The work of the dairyman..
showing modern milking activities.
25. MC Preparation of milk for
...and the processing of milk, are activities which
must be seen to be under stood and appreciated. FO:FI
26* Extreme CU of directory*
Many of our community re
Page turns to section
sources are so much a part
headed “Civic Departments^
of every school child*s life that it 5s essential that he understand them*
27. MG Mayor and City Council in council meeting*
To take his place in the community, he should learn how the city is governed and protected*••
28* ML Fire station SC
29* ML Waterworks
..•and how it is served by Its various utilities.
30. MO Man working on outdoor transformer substation. FOsFI
31. Extreme CU directory page.
Our social study class is
61 Fag©a turn to listing
now studying communications
and has discovered a need
on listing "Newspaper"•
32* luC Classroom from over 10 *che r •s shoulder»
closes directory, turns
for more information*
The teacher and class have decided on a trip to the local newspaper plant*
33* MC Teacher and blackboard
By taking an active part
in organizing the trip, the
takes up chalk, begins to
students learn how to plan*
write names under headings
Practice in organizing
from class side.
already on board*
and planning for any activ
PLA NNIlv'G- 0 G kih ITTKF.S
ity is an Important learn
bequest permission from: Newspaper office
Princ ipal1s off ice
Transportation Previsit Teacher turns toward class to see shov: of hands, then turns back and s ids two names under first heading.
34* ML Teacher at blackboard
In serving on committees,
from rear of classroom.
students share with their
Two students volunteer,
teacher the responsibility
and teacher writes their
for the success of the trip*
Teacher begins to read over committees and names* FO:FI
36* MG Front of newspaper
They obtain permission
office, teacher and stu
from the principal and from
dent committee entering*
the newspaper office, and make a previsit to the plant•••
36* fciC Group entering editor’s office*
..♦in order to arrange the trip so as to provide the best learning experience*
37* UO Editor
38. CU Student
39* Reestablish as Sc. 36, and
group loaves office*
40. MC Group entering the edi torial room with editor*
During the previsits, the committee observes '.points of interest...
41. MC Reverse of Sc. 40, group starts to move
...in order to help the class olan for the trip*
toward composing room*
42* Grouo enters composing room, discuss one of the points of interest. F0:FI
43. &L Classroom, teacher and
Students must understand
class planning instruc
puroose of the trip, and
setting up the objectives
at blackboard, working on
is the responsibility of
outline on 11The Newspaper
as a Means of Corranunication.”
44. MC Teacher at blackboard
working on outline, part
prepares the students for
of class visible*
careful and selective ob servation during the trip, and an intelligent a praisal of their experience afterward*
45* CU Blackboard outline of instructional procedure*
46* MC Keestablish classroom,
Things to look for may be
several groups of students
discovered through library
reading reference material,
reference work, study of
bringing in books from
special topics and promo
tion of indivjdual projects. All of these oreoar© the students for active participati on*
47* MC Group preparing to leave on field trip*
Final preparation for the trip includes determining materials to be taken, re view of safety precautions,
65 and setting up standards of behavior* 48. CU Students getting note books, ready to leave#
49# ML Group leaving classroom# One boy rushes back to desk, picks up pencil, dashes out#
50# ML Group emerging from school door#
Boy in So#
parents, of course, should b© given the necessary in
49 again late in joining
formation, and their written
51* MC Class boarding bus*
And naturally the trio should be taken during the school day, if oossible*
52# ML Bus starting away#
The immediate purpose of the trip is to enrich the class work in the communi cations unit*
t>5* ML bus traveling by*
...a valuable secoxidary objective is to promote in the atudents a vital feel ing of participation In the life of the community.
54* Interior of bua
If careful planning is done in the classroom, then travel time can be spent in general observation.
55* CU Students in bus*
56* nee stub'll sh ous under way.
57* MC Bua aa it pulls uo to
Then, on arrival, the
curb in front of the
group will be ready to con
centrate on the things to
opens and students begin
58. MC Croup talking to guide
Having be n briefed by the previsit group, the guide is
outaide plant door. They
prepared to emphasise those
begin to enter plant#
points which will meet the purpose of the visit.
59# MO Group entering editor ial room#
60# MO Newswrlting activity, group observing. 61, CU Teacher as she addres ses question to guide*
Occasional tactful ques tions by the teacher can further direct the guide’s explanations* (Bring in teacher’s voice
62# CU Guide as he responds*
63. MC. Group as they start toward teletypes*
64* ML Group gathering around teletypes*
lationship between editor ial room arid teletypes#
o5. MC Group watching tele types in operation as guide 3peaka*
66. CU Teletypes In operation as news item comes in* 67* MC Group as student ques tions guide*
68* CU Guide as he answers student *s qua s13on•
Students are encouraged to ask questions,...
...f or such quo at ions heIp the guide dlscover their special interests.
69* CU Reaction shot of stu dent.
However, questions should not interfere with the guide*s explanations.
70. ML Reestablish group*
Many questions can be
Guide continues explanation
answered while moving from
as they begin to move to-
one location to another.
vmrd, and start through, doorway to composing room#
71# IriL Group entering compos ing room and beginning to gather around linotype.
72. MG Group, with guide ex plaining linotype.
73* GU Student writing in notebook.
Time should be allowed for note-taking or sketch ing.
74. ML Reestablish group as
guide concludes speaking and begins to lead way toward pressroom.
75. ML Students gathering around press.
stop to observe something el3e, nearby.
76* MC Teacher rounds up
Often it is necessary to
stragglers, brings them
direct the attention of the
into group at uue press*
students to smbiects deter mined in advance by th© cl.a 38.
70 .77. I.IC Uuide explains pr«ss to group.
78# 01/ Papers coming out of press#
79# MI. iieea tabiish group as
k v^ell organized trip with
they turn from press to
a clear cut purpose provides
ward doorway in preparation
the students a learning ex
perience they are unable to
has a copy of the paper#
obtain in any other way.
Teacher pauses to thank guide. POsFI
80# ML Classroom* teacher lead ing discussion.
Carefully planned followup oroceduras are essential if the fullest benefit of the trio is to be realized.
81. MC Students working on
Important deta51s and
bulle tin boar , put ting on
ideas acquired during the
oictures, linotype slugs*
trio can be presented on the bulletin board.
cooy of paper* cue.
71 62* CTI Bulletin board*
83* MG Students working on
Organization of these
blackboard outline of
ideas will point up the
newspaper plant organisa
purposes for having taken
84* IvlC Student sorting out pictures.
Show a scrap
They can also introduce new problems, leading stu dents to undertake projects growing out of individual interest*
85* CU Scrapbook open and student pasting in pic tures*
86* ML Reestablish classroom, with several groups of students at work*
is discussing project with one group.
The teaoher should evalu ate the trio: Did it fulfill the pre detern:‘nc?d piiroor e s? To \vhrv' extent were the students stimulated to dis cover new nroblcms for fur ther study?
72 87* LiC To&chor and group of
And did they enter upon new activities and projects?
88* ML Class In general dis cussion*
The class finds through discussion, that many hatfe a common interest in various other areas of communication*
89* J/:C Teacher takes up direc tory, opens it*
The directory of community resources is consulted again for information regarding other types of communication which are available*
90* CU Directory opened to "Communications** heading, as teacher refers to it*
91* ML Teacher, with directory
Committees are formed to
in hand, starts v/riting
Investigate snd renort their
committee headings on
findings to the class*
73 9£. Group of sclents visiting
radio fsicility* Start of montage.
93. Group of students visiting telephone office.
Background music contin ues.
94. Group of students examining wirephoto a p aratus•
95.Group of students visiting tolegraoh office.
96. Group of students prepar
ing to project 16 wm. films.
97. ML. Students in classroom
A resource use nrograa
can bring the community into
and explanation of tele
bers of civic, professional*
business* or other grouos will act as speakers or con sultants.
98. MG Lemonstrator draws figure on board to clarify a television principle. FOjPI
99* ML School door?? opening# Students emerge.
is ovex* for the day.
v/hen teachers introduce a community resource use pro gram, the students enter into a new world of learn ing. Music in, softly.
100. MC Group of students go ing down street, backs to
Their environment takes on now meaning.
101. liC Students on downtown street.
102. CU Two students on down town street.
103. IS Oomfnuiiity, general view.
The classroom has come Into the community.
104. "Kind title. PO-sPI
106. Credit title.
APPENDIX B Teaching Guide
77 Appendix B Teaching: Guide Introduction The film Community hesources in Teaching does not propose to be sufficient In Itself*
It seeks to show how
the community and Its resources* and the school and Its functions can be woven together Into a pattern of education# bringing the students into the community, using its resources as laboratory studies# and inviting the community into the school as lecturers or demonstrators* Motion pictures cannot bring out every detail, concept, fact# etc*
If this were demanded of a picture,
much tlxne and film would be required for a ore sent at ion of the simplest ideas.
In films many of the concepts, appreci
ations, attitudes and understandings must be obtained by implication*
The film weaves a pattern*
If the pattern is
such that it fits Into the teaching plans of the teacher, then she will begin working into it or taking from it those asoects which will provide a b< sis for developing the de sired outcomes* Purposes of the Film To indicate the value of community resource use in teaching*
To Imply that no community is so small that It does not have resources valuable to the education of its children* To emphasize that these resources must be surveyed, evaluated, organized, and made available to each member of the teaching staff* To
indicate that a teacher,in utilizing a commu
nity resource, must first feel a need for it, make a careful selection, formulate plans for its use, and provide time for culminating activities# Points to Look for 1*
What community resourcesare shown in the film?
How does a class olan touse the resources of a community?
3* What procedure is followed in taking a field trip? 4* What principles are suggested in the planning for and making use of a community resource? 5# What instructional procedure is followed? 6. What suggestions are made in regard to class observation during the trip? 7# What were the follow-up activities of the class? Suggested questions 1* Why use the community resource? 2* What resources, other than those shown in the film, are available in an average community?
79 3* Why is a directory of community resources use ful in a resource use program? 4. What part do the students t^ke In the planning? 5. Why is a pre-visit taken? 6* Why is administrative sanction necessary? 7, Why inform the parents of the purpose and ask their permission to allow the children to participate? 8* What are the outcomes of good instructional planning? 9# How do the students prepare themselves for active participation? 10. What other preparation is made by the students? 11. Do you agree that travel time can be used for general observation? State reasons. 12. Do you agree that the objectives should be set up by the teacher? State reasons. 13. How was the guide prepared? 14. What pupil activity is suggested during the trip? 15. Why have carefully planned follow-uo procedures? 16. What results can be obtained from follow-up activities? 17. How can a field trip be evaluated? 18. How can community resources be brought into the school? 19. What principles of learning are evident in com munity resource use? 20. Is it true that community resource use brings the school Into closer relationship with the community? State reasons*
80 Possible Follow-up Projects 1. Study current literature on community resources. 2. Study methods of conduct ini? a community re source survey. 3. Make a community survey. 4. Prepare a Community hesource directory. 5. Study the literature on the field trip. 6. Write an instructional procedure for using some particular community resource. 7. Organize and take a field trip.
APPENDIX 0 The Survey of Community Resources
82 Appendix 0 ^ ^ gSurvegsso£sC ^ ^ m n ^ y R e 80 ^ c © a If education ia to prepare students for actual living in the world outside the schoolroom, then part of the students1 education should take place In that world, and parts of that world, and the people In it, should be brought Into the schoolroom*
This can be done by incorporating com
munity resource use into the school program, on all grade levels, and in all subject areas*
”...the community and
school hold common responsibilities for the education of 67 their children*” But, the resource use program is dependent upon the discovery of resources in the community, the knowledge of what Is available, when it is available, and how it should be used to beat advantage.
”The discovery and use of
community resources are necessary if the elementary school 68 is to function as a social agent.” This is, of course, true of all grade levels.
i 3 true that large cities have greater opportunities in 67, Adeli nW K. Howl and, and All co V.''"'Meyers, "Nat'jonajr~felem-' entary Principal, Twenty-fourth Yearbook, vol. a a V, no. 1, p . 34. 68. John E. Brewton, National Elementary Principal, Twentyfourth Yearbook, vol'. x W , no." I, p." 14*
83 community resources*
Yet every community offers opportuni-
ties for concrete experiences that will enable a teacher to bring the classroom instruction into closer relationship with real living# ••*in any community there are re sources--in cul tural opportunities, local history, traditional customs of one sort or another, leading institu tions, socio-economic characteristics, and impor tant oitizens— with which the classroom procedure may be enlivened if the teacher knows where to look for them, and how bo relate them to the children*s lives*69 Upon that if the teacher knows where to look for them is the stumbling block in many schools#
And it could
so very easily be removed by a survey of community resources* Such a survey can be made by any one individual teacher*
if the school is united in its interest in such a program, the survey will become a cooperative one, including faculty, administration, pupils, and citizens of the community*
actual work of the survey may be conducted in various ways# A committee comnosed of representatives from all areas of the curriculum can be th© nucleus, with suggestions and assistance from all the school personnel*
Service clubs in
the community will prove only too eager to assist, and will be valuable in contacting the wide variety of agencies, industries, organizations, and resources both human and
69* Gordon Yir* Blackwell, American Council on Education* p* 7.
84 Material which any community possesses* Collecting data on what resources are available in the community will prove comparatively easy, once interest is aroused in it*
But a mass of such data is not enough to
begin a community resource use program*
"After a community
survey. •*the next problem is to examine these materials to determine those which can and should be used effectively for 70 instructional purposes*" Each resource should be carefully evaluated as to its suitability*
Any olaoe to visit, should make a definite
contribution to the school program* is not sufficient*
That it is interesting
It must have something to offer educa
tion* Then, those which pass this test should be organ ized Into practical form for quick reference when need for concrete experience is felt by teacher or student*
Moines, community resources were set u;> in eleven areas: government, health, interoultural relations, practical and fine arts, public welfare, recx*eation, religion, safety, businesa, consumer education, and industry*
In the Des
Moines study they felt that education and home membership overlapped all the other areas*
70. The Social Studies Currioulum, Fourteenth Yearbook, pTt e s t :------------------------------------------
was taken up In their vocational survey* However the resources are organized* they should be recorded In some form which will make them easily acces sible to each member of the teaching staff*
w •..make these 71 resources generally known to the teaching staff*n In the script, Community Hesources in Teaching* this organized list was called The Directory of Community Resources* facts as:
Under each listing were added such important address, phone number, whom to contact, best time
to visit, speaker available, a nd so forth*
were listed together, making possible a choice for the first visit, and possible further visits to one or more of the related resources* A teacher, experienced in the use of community resources will find it helpful to plan available resources into her course of study.
They may not always fit in when
the time arrives, but the suggestion will be there, if needed* To keep the list actively usable, it must be con stantly revised and re-evaluated*
*1•• .evaluate from time to 72 time the suggested list of community contacts*1' Those which prove ineffective should be dropped from the list, and ■71. Ibid.* p» 251. 72. Ibid*, p. 251*
86 as others are discovered, or added to the community, they should be added to th© list of community resources* Now, with an organized and evaluated list of commu nity resources available to each member of the teaching staff, even the inexperienced teacher can begin a community resouroe use program*
She will need this warning, however,
not to expect miracles of a trip into the community*
should be made only after careful evaluation of what the place to be visited can contribute toward the objectives of the unit of work being studied by the class*
pre-trip planning, securing all information possible before hand, setting up purposes for taking the trip, and organiz ing the trip Itself to bring out these purposes, will achieve a successful use of a community resource* should not be dropped there*
But the matter
Follow-up activities are quite
as important as th© pre-trip preparation*
And., often, these
activities will lead to the Directory for related resources for possible further trips, or for those which can be brought Into the classroom*
87 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books 1. Aldrioh, Julian C., "Th© Teacher Explores th. C., July, 1947, Chapter XII. 12. Handel, I. L., “Sohool Excursions’1, An Encyclopedia of Education, MacMillan Company, New York, Vol. Tl, 1919* 13. Miles, John R., and Spain, Charles R., ’’Audio-Visual Aids in the Armed Services”, American Counc11 on Education, Washington, D. C., 1947, Chapter iV. 14. Olsen, Edward 0. , ’’Acquainting the Teacher With the Com munity” , TJtlll gat Ion of Community Resources in the Social Studies, National Council for the S'bcTal* Hturilea, NinthYearSooTi, Vol. 9, 1938, pp. 36-48. 15. Olsen, Edward G., School and Community, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 19l&l 16. Price, R* H., ”A Study of the Value of the Field Trios”, The National Elementary Principal, Thirteenth Yearbook, HoT b T "3une; .. ........................ 17. The SOolal ..Studies Curriculum. Fourteenth Yearbook. Department oiv Superintendence of the N.E.A,, Washington, D. C., 193b, Chapter XX. 16. Stroud, James B., Psychology in Education, Longmans, Green and Co., Inc,, New York, 1946. 19. Survey Work-Book for Community Analysis, Alabama Educa tion Association, Montgomery, Alabama, Reprint, 1939. 20. The World Book Encyclopaedia, Field Enterprises, Inc., Chicago, Vol., 3, 12, 1 9 , \950. Serials and Pamphlets 21. The Aperture, Vol. VIII, No. 12, The Calvin Comoany, Ifansas City, Missouri, 1948, pp. 3-17, 22. The Aperture, Vol. IX, No. 1, The Calvin Company, Kansas City, Missouri, 1949, pp. 3-5.
69 23* Bye, Edgar C., ’’Direct Experience Through the Field Studies” , National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 31:87-93, May',’ 194*7, 24. Carpenter, C. R,, ”A Challenge for Research” , Educational Screen, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, March, 1948, pp. 119-121. 25. Heidgerken, Lorretta E,, R. N., ”An Experimental Study to Measure the Contribution of Motion Pictures and SlideFilras to Learning Certain Units in the Course Introduc tion to Nursing Art” , Experimental Education, Vol. XVII, Sept. 1948-June, 1949,"p p . -------26. Kindred, L. W., and Stephenson, 0. W., ”The Techniques of the Field Trio”, Social Education, 5:21-5, Jan.1941. 27. MeClenahan, Bessie Averne, ’’Nature of a Coraraunity”, How to Know and How to Use Your Community, The Deoartmen¥ of H e r a e n E a r y School""Principals ot the N . E. A., 1941-42, pp. 13-17. 28. ’’The Motion Picture in Education”, American Council on Education Studies, Series II, Vol. 1, No. I , A p r i l 1, 1937, pp. 1-24. 29. Vander Meer, Abram, ’’The Instruct ion al Values of Sound Motion Pictures in Higher Education”, School and Society, Vol. LVI, The Science press, Lancaster, Pa., November 14, 1942, 56:469-471. 30. Williams, Don Q., ’‘Production Problems: Scrlot”, Univer sity Film Producers Association Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Ifatch, 1949, pp. lb-14. Manuscripts 31. Curtis, Dwight, K., ’’The Contribution of the Excursion to Understanding”, Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, The State University of Iowa, 1942.
90 Films 32. Near Home* A British Information. Services Film, produced B y B a’ aTc F i1ms « 33* Field Trip, Produced by the Virginia Department of Educa tion and‘Norfolk County Schools. 34. The Junior Citizen. Contemporary Films, Produced by Al vin and barley Gordon# 35• A United States Community and its Citizens. United World Films, Inc*, Preduced by Louis" de hoohomont Association, Inc • 36* School in Oentreyllle* Southern Educational Film Produc tion Service of Athens, Georgia*