Cohors²: The Evidence for and a Short History of the Auxiliary Infantry Units of the Imperial Roman Army 1841710466, 9781841710464

John Spaul continues his up-dating of Conrad Cichorius' articles in Real-encyclopädie der Altertumswissenschaft wit

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Cohors²: The Evidence for and a Short History of the Auxiliary Infantry Units of the Imperial Roman Army
 1841710466, 9781841710464

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The evidence for and a short history of the auxiliary infantry units of the Imperial Roman Army

John Spaul


BAR International Series 841 2000


Introduction Check-list of pre-Diocletianic Cohorts

page 5 page 10

PART ONE: Units from the Western and Northern Provinces Cohortes Ciuium Romanorum Cohortes Provinciae Sardiniae Cohortes Provinciae Lusitaniae Cohortes Provinciae Hispaniae Cohortes Provinciae Galliae Cohortes Provinciae Britanniae Cohortes Provinciae Germaniae Cohortes Provinciae Alpium

page 19 page 49 page 55 page 69 page 139 page 189 page 205 page 257

PART TWO: Units from the Eastern and Southern Provinces and others Cohortes Provinciae Raetiae et N orici Cohortes Provinciae Dalmatiae Cohortes Provinciae Pannoniae Cohortes Provinciae Moesiae et Macedoniae Cohortes Provinciae Senatus Cohortes Provinciae Orientis Cohortes Provinciae Australis Cohortes Aliae et Alienae Summary

page273 page299 page 315 page 339 page 383 page 390 page455 page475 page497

Index Nominorum Index Tribuum Index Deorum Index Originum

page page page page


533 563 569 577

INTRODUCTION This is the second part of a study of the auxiliary units of the Roman Imperial Army. A study of the cavalry units was published in 1994, one hundred years after the fundamental account by Conrad Cichorius. In the fourth volume of the Real-encyclopiidie der Altertumswissenschaft published in 1900, he set down what was then known about the infantry units. In some respects, present day knowledge is much as it was. Commenting on the volume on cavalry units, Professor .Israel Shatzman pointed out (Scripta Classica Jsraelica, 1995) that our knowledge of the cavalry units had increased by four units since 1894. In other respects, there have been some advances brought about by the steady work of excavators and epigraphists and still more by the ancient historians and archaeologists confined to the office or lecture-room and not able to take part in the excitement of finding new material. But any increase in knowledge is due to both.

accura~. Equitate units were envisaged from the start of the period, probably 4 turmae of 30 horsemen in a quingenary unit, but the problem of dividing 380 men (as Hyginus stated) into 6 centuries, or 76 men into· contuberniae of 8 men was insoluble before extensive excavation of forts occupied by known units had been completed. He was afraid that the official papyrus of -cohors I Augusta Praetoria Lusitanorom which Theodore Mommsen had discussed in Ephemeris Epigraphica vii (456-67) would be the only one of its type._ Nowadays it stands with similar documents from cohors7D{Palmyrenorom and cohors I Tungrorom. The ••so-called diplomata militaria" of which nearly eighty examples from the reign of Nero to Commodus bad been found dealing with auxiliaries, provided him with the basis for his discussion of the conditions of service, by which he meant what the soldier earned from his service, namely, the grant of "citizenship for himself, the full legalisation of any matrimonial union ... and civic rights for his wife, children and descendants". He noticed a change in the formula starting in the reign of Antoninus Pius and pointed to the two classes. of veterans indicated by the epikrisis of 148 (Papyruskunde 459). There was uncertainty about the pay of the auxiliary soldier largely because of the lack of evidence, as also about the other rewards for ;;ervice such as grants of land or money. ·

Twelve years after Conrad Cichorius' account of the auxiliary infantry units, G. Leonard Cheesman's study of all the auxiliary units created by the Augustan army reforms appeared. He admitted that his conclusions were largely based upon the epigraphic evidence, using a collection of facts which were liable to revision and he hoped he had not been excessively final in his statements. The lines to follow had been indicated by Theodore Mommsen in 'Die Conscriptions Ordnung der romischen Heeres', and Anton von Domaszewski in 'Die Rangordnung des romischen Heeres' though he often differed from their views. He also expressed his indebtedness to Francis Haverfield, Professor of Roman History at Oxford University, for his constant valuable encouragement and criticism. The study confined itself to the auxiliary regiments. in · the first two centuries, though he began with the evidence for the use of non-citizen units in the army in the Republican period. The size and organisation of the alae and cohortes was the first topic to be examined and discussed. The archaeological evidence from Newstead showed that quingenary cohorts had six centuries while similar evidence from Housesteads showed that milliary cohorts were arranged in ten centuries. This agreed with Hyginus' account. The size of the century was clearly indicated by CIL iii 6627 as 80 men, giving 480 men for the normal infantry cohort and 800 for the milliary unit, though these numbers might be exceeded in practice if the facts given by Josephus in his account of the Jewish war were


ln-the internal organisation of the auxiliary cohort, he distinguished between principales and immunes but while an inscription from Roma seemed to give a graded list of ranks in a turma there was nothing comparable for the ranks in a centuria. The details of promotion within a unit were rare, but be thought that some chance of promotion was necessary for attracting recruits, though there was no evidence that a preliminary qualification was needed for a commission as a centurion. As for the titles of the units, these were varied. Three cohorts only were known to bear a title derived from a personal name, Apuleia, Lepidiana and Flaviana, while -=.inariy.:.cavali'y units used a name derived from an early commander. ·Most of the cohorts were called by the name ~oi_!be. tribe or district from which they were raised, and distinguished from other units of the same __origin bya number. Supplementary titles were granted ·---as- marks of distinction .and rewards for meritorious -service and while the title 'Augusta' seems to have been 5


granted honoris causa, other Imperial names seem to indicate nothing more than the reign in which they were raised, though in the third century secondary titles were derived from the names of reigning emperors. There were also purely descriptive names indicating size, weapons, or the name of the province in which it had served. Conrad Cichorius' explanation of the title veterana, held by five alae and five cohortes, as distinguishing between two cohorts of the same number and ethical origin serving in the same province, was the best offered so far, but he, Cheesman, thought that the title was often retained when the reason was no longer valid. As an example of the "full style" he cited cohors I Breucorom quingenaria Valeria Victrix bis torquata ob virtutem appellata equitata which formed part of the garrison ofRaetia.

Thracian archers, for instance, numbered I or II, are distributed over eight provinces. That few units from senatorial provinces were recruited, was not due to constitutional principles but to the fact that men from many senatorial provinces were already Roman citizens and so eligible for service in the legions. Noricum for instance, included many enfranchised communities and , supplied two regiments, while neighbouring Raetia with fewer such communities supplied eighteen. The cohortes ciuium Romanorom to which Augustus left money, comprised free-born and freedmen soldiers, as the name Jngenuorum implies, but unenfranchised recruits were accepted even during the pre-Flavian period. The composition of important provincial garrisons as revealed by the diplomas suggested to him that the settled policy of the imperial government from Vespasian to Commodus was to distribute units as widely as possible so as to destroy the possibility of chauvinist actions by regiments with purely local sympathies. Such was not the case and especially not the policy of Augustus. Although armies in frontier provinces contained imported elements, the original policy was to draw the auxiliaries from the nearest recruiting area. But units were imported, even by Augustus, from distant provinces into the disturbed areas after a revolt This, however, did_not mean a standard imperial policy of containing local feeling; units were recruiting locally before and after AD 70 even though their origin was foreign to the locality. No attempt was made to preserve the national character of a unit by obtaining fresh drafts from theareas where they were originally recruited. By the second c~nturJ, local recruiting had become the standard practice. Cohors I Hemesenorum, however, continued to receive fresh drafts from its source area, probably because ·good archers could not be found outside Syria ..

In the general scheme of military organisation he did not find any certain connection between a legion and a group of auxiliaries. Evidence for "the legion and its attendant auxiliaries" was difficult to find. Indeed the description of the battle of Bedriacum suggested that the auxiliaries manoeuvred as a separate group as did the inscriptions of Domitius Tullus and Domitius Lucanus (/LS 990, 991). Evidence from the diplomas was contradictory; the two diplomas issued on 14 August AD 99 for Moesia suggested that the auxiliaries were divided between the two legions, but the five complete diplomas for Pannonia had the same group, which would mean that one legion hadall and the other two legions had none. If each legion had its own auxiliary units, there ought to have been an enormous turnover of auxiliary units in Germania where three of the four legions left the province between AD 70 and AD 105. Finally, on the subject of unit-strength, he tried to cakulate the total number of soldiers in the auxiliary units and arrived at a grand total of 180,000 in AD 69, and 220,000 men in mid-second century. He then turned to the recruitment of the units in which provincial differences were noticeable. The Batavians, for example, were exempt from all burdens except military service. Almost every tribe in the warlike province of Gallia Belgica was represented, while contingents from peaceful Lugdunensis were simply Galli. The armies of the historic city-states of Syria are remembered in the names of the regiments of archers, but confusion was caused by duplication of numbers. Sometimes this was the result of a later levy starting afresh, instead of continuing the series as, for instance, cohors I Flavia Brittonum, cohors I Ulpia Brittonum, cohors I Aelia Brittonum and cohors I Aurelia Brittonum. Sometimes when newly-raised units were drafted into a different province, they were numbered in a different series, which would account for high numbers occurring in provinces where large numbers of one ethnic group were stationed and low numbers for isolated cohorts in other provinces. Seventeen units of

In discussing the tactics of the Roman army, G. Leonard Cheesman pointed out that the first ·century was a period of expansion when legions were quartered in pairs, and auxiliaries were grouped at a few strategic points so that a rapid response could be made to any attack. Haltern and Hofheim were cited as examples of large hiberna, while the defence of the Taunus district needed a chain of forts on the frontier, with larger multi-unit forts behind. The accession of Hadrian led to a new policy of single-unit stone forts at more or less regular intervals. Movements of units ceased almost entirely, and a soldier could be confident that apart from occasional service in a vexillatio, he would spend his twenty-five years within reach of his home. In such circumstances, a small town would grow alongside the fort, as indeed happened at Saalburg, and to a lesser extent at Housesteads, and Chesters. He disapproved of Otto Seeck's suggestion of "licentious soldiery and 6

neglected bastards" which arose from the origo given by recruits to legio III Augusta, half of whom gave their birthplace as castris. The system established by Augustus broke down in the third century under the influence of external pressure. Static garrisons were unable to meet the challenge of fifty years of civil war and barbarian invasions which in fact could only have been countered by increased expenditure on a field army.

equivalents was used in the daily administration of the Roman army. But papyrus seems to have been only available from Egypt, and like wood (on which lists were made and letters written in Britannia and probably elsewhere) it is bio-degradable, so that it is mostly documents on stone or bronze or silver that have survived the intervening period. From some of the papyrus documents which have survived, can be gained an indication of the complexity of the "paper-work". needed, and more can be. predicated on the facts as known. For some of these units, however, the task of listing everything on which their \\fillle appears may seem tedious . and .inessential; for other units, the smallest scrap of evidence is vital for the assessment of their role.

He completed his "essay" with two lists of units from the period AD 117-161. In the first list, Appendix I, all · regiments named on a diploma or on an inscription were noted under the province in which they served. In Appendix II, each unit appeared under the province from which it was raised and divided into units raised ·.~ I have assumed that a unit's name was not inflexible but • • a question of usage. The official name of a unit would before and after AD 69. .·. be wed on-a-diploma,-0r-Joyalty-altar,-0r-0n a building It was Leonard Cheesman's "essay'' which stimulated inscription, but it may change with time and is subject Eric Birley to study the Roman army, and with his to abbreviation, often harsh, and to mis-spellings by ala Tauriana, encouragement a number of students have continued to ·· stone-carvers or engravers; for ~ce, explore the complexities of the topic. Hubert Devijver -ala Ga/forum Tauriana, a/a I Gallofim Tauriana, ala I Flavia Ga/forum Tauriana, a/a Tauriana Torquata, a/a in his Prosopographia Militiae Equestrium quae faerunt ab Augusto ad Gallienum often referred to Tau Tor and a/a Tauriana Torquata · Victrix ciuium comments from E.B. Margaret Roxan dedicated the Romanorum all refer to the same unit, and not to seven different units. So I have taken cohors I Aelia first volume of Roman Military Diplomas to Eric Birley and the third to Eric Birley and Herbert Nesselhauf. Brittonuin, cohors I Flavia Britonum, cohors 1 Aurelia Valerie Maxfield's Roman Military Decorations, Roy Brittonum to refer to cohors I Brittonum Vlpia TorDavies's Service in the Roman Army, David Breeze and quota. Most units have a formal and an informal name. Brian Dobson's Hadrian 's Wall, Brian Dobson's Die An informal version of the name is frequently used on Primipilaris and his revision of Domaszewski's Die personal inscriptions. The units themselves are quinRangordnung and the work of his sons, Anthony and genary unless shown to be milliary, and peditate unless Robin, of John C. Mann, Michael G. Jarrett, and others, to be equitate. The ethnic title used reflects the all owe their existence to his influence and enthusiasm. original recruiting ground of the unit, and while the title This was not confined to the Roman army, but of his Augusta indicates at least imperial approval, the title work on coarse pottery and Samian, others can bear Flavia indicates that they were raised or upgraded by witness. My own response to him has been delayed but -v espasian -or his sons.· Siii:iilarly,1.Jlpia shows the unit is nonetheless heartfelt. c,-was raised by Trajan, Aelia raised or upgraded by Hadrian or Antoninus Pius, Aurelia by Marcus Aurelius This study is confined to the auxiliary infantry units or Commodus, and Septimia, by Severns. Units, or parts of units using a name in the genitive case were grouped in cohortes. Under the typical name of a unit, but not necessarily the only one which it used, can be commanded at the time by a man of that name, but the found the bulk, at least, of the evidence for the unit's adjectival form implies they were previously name and the personnel who served in it. The proposal . commanded by him. Other parts of the title may to print a corpus of military inscriptions has many indicate weapons, equipment, previous service areas, but veterana normally shows a senior position in the merits but consideration of space prev~nts the printing of the complete text of every inscription. The essential provincial army, while nova indicates a refonnation. information about name and personnel is given as it occurs in the text except that it is reproduced in the A man having two or three names, a voting tribe and a nominative. The evidence then, can vary from one or father's name or some of these is a Roman citizen, but a two references (one tile and one diploma) to thirty eight peregrine has one name and uses his father's name to stones, or if papyri are included, sixty-four documents. ---distinguish himself from others with the same name. A name for his origo while a peregrine In terms of the present day, sixty-four documents is not · · • citizen many; some may complain that far from marching on ---narrieiaprovince or.tribe, and a gaul prefers to give his their stomachs (as the Dulce of Marlborough claimed in -~_trjbe-ofdvitas_.Dediili::z{form another ·group who are the eighteenth century) modem armies cannot move ~id b~ receive no_J)riyil~g~~-~_

~ ·.,~


SOURCES Speidel, Michael P., (1976): "Citizen cohorts in the Roman Imperial Army", Transactions of the American Philological Association, 106, 339-48 = Mavors I, 91-100 Lorincz, Barnabas, (1990): Pannonia regeszeti kezikonyve, Budapest, 79 COMMENT Slobodan Dusanic (reported in AE 1968, 420) claimed was inclined to think it was only one unit, commanded in Dalmatia in the first century by a prefect, and by a that cohors I Campanorum voluntariorum was stationed at Slankamen = Acumincum on the evidence tribune in Pannonia Inferior in the second. of a stamped tile, but the details of the inscriptiopn were not given. It might be the stamp recorded by Barnabas Lorincz accepted that the unit arrived under Szilahji, and listed under cohors V Cal/aecorum Trajan and was stationed at Malata and at Slankamen. Lucensium (see page 87). In his contribution to Festschrift for H Lieb, Michael Michael Speidel listed twelve documents, on none of Speidel (reported in AE 1995, 1425) suggested that L. which is this unit ever named as Campestris, even if it Allidius had been recruited from Pontus, and that was one unit and not a conflation of two, namely, a Roman names were often given to new recruits in cohors Campana in Dalmatia commanded by a prefect, rotation from a list of Roman nomina. and a cohors I Campanorum voluntariorum c. R. in Pannonia Inferior coommanded by a tribune which Clearly the unit was stationed in Pannonia in midappears to be the standard nomenclature for the second but the absence of diploma evidence suggests commander of a cohors voluntariorum. As no second that it was stationed in Dalmatia either at N arona or at century evidence from Dalmatia or first century Salona or at both in the first and early second centuries; evidence from Pannonia Inferior had been recovered he it may have been disbanded in the early third century. NOTES 1. The status of Julius Cerealis is missing but the dedicator of an altar to Castor and Pollux is more likely to be a Roman and an officer than a ranker-soldier. 2. The unknown veteran centurion who was buried at Narona, had previously served in the Fourteenth Legion, and had been decorated with torq. armil. phal. and with a promotion. As an ex-legionary, he was a Roman citiz.enwho had been born at Ariminium, as indicated on the stone.

3. This inscription led G. Leonard Cheesman to suggest

(p.69 n.6) that the regiment was originally a unit of Campanians andhe thought that Cichorius wrongly identified I Campanorum in Dalmatia wirh / Campestrisin Pannonia. 4. Cloelius was descnbed as custos Traguri. Herman Dessau identified Traguri as a town in Dalmatia and implied that the soldier was a stationarius.



COHORS I CIVIVM ROMANORVM INGENVORVM equitatapia fidelis - ---~ ____ _ NAME as recorded ona- CMVM ICIVIV--ICR


- CILxvi 158 CILxvi 62 . CILxvi 80

80 8-IX-116 134

6/11 Gennania 4/17 Genn. Super. 4/15 Genn. Super

.altar or votive tablet 1

-IC.Rao COH I Cl- ROMANOR-M COHORSICR COHICREQPF building inscription COH I CIV ROMANOR dedicatory stone COHORS I CMVM ROMANOR stamped tile or brick CICR COH I CIV RICOH IC R

[Mars pro salute ] [Nimphes et A-ollo] [Hercules Saxanus] [-.-.-. Dolich-]

Hisp. Ep. 2, 513 . AE 1978, 555 CIL xiii 7706 CIL xiii 7411

Banda (nr. Orense) Burgbrohl 2 - · Brohl Grosskrotzenburg



40 BRGK, no.159

[D.M.dative] .,,)JQlogna:.~_·:..~

0 , ••


CIL xi 709


AE 1900, 214

[3 types] Kesselstadt, Grosskrotzenburg, Arnsburg, ........ alburg,-Ems,et.Anbach CIL xiii 12426-30 dedicatory stone . _. .. .. _.. _ .. __ ____ .. CILvi 3520 COH PRIMA EQVITATA CIVAE ROMAN IN GERM INFERIOR Roma -· CILv 3936 COH IC R INGENVOR Verona 3 COH I M CMVM R [Maximianus] bna AE 1956, 124 COH CIVIVM ROM. [Mestrius] Rimini CILxi 392 funerary tablet or stone [dative] Aime (Savoy) CHOI CR AE 1955, 113 [dative] Nunes CILxii 3177 COHORS - - - V - - - INGENVORVM fragment CO- - -MVM ROMANO- -N RAETIA 4 CILix 5362 Finno


PERSONNEL Tribuni lgnotus, praef., Finno [PME"Fti-S]~oma · L. Flavius T.f. Quir. Secularis, praef., c. 105· T.Visulanius Crescens, trib. roil., [PME V 120) Bolcigna Fl. Antio--n-, d. -.-sarea, -r-., [PME F 40] Grosskrotzenburg M. Valerius Maxirnianus, Poetoviensis, trib. PMEV23] bna T. Mestrius C.f. An. Severns, trib. [Pl\.ffiM 50] Rimini .,-_-·..:..: =.. :.-,·.:.Bandac·~-----..c:_~.:..... _ Q. Lu-didius Macrinus, principales. C. Mucius Clemens (centurio) Aime (Savoy) M. Junius Flavus, centurio Burgbrohl Verona ______ _ C. Ligurius C.f.Vol. Asper, centurio • L. Attius L.f.Vol. Lucanus, signifer, centuri-, tnbumis5 Nunes caligatus 6 -. Com. Titi f. Porn. Flavus Aime (Savoy) _

CILix 5362 CILvi3520 CILxi 709 CIL xiii 7411 AE 1956, 124 CILxi 392 Hisp. Ep. 2, 513

AE 1955, 113 ·AE 1978, 555 CIL v 3936 CIL xii 3177

AE 1955, 113


= ILS 2731 SOURCES "---

Saddington, Denis (1982): AD79), 141


TheDevelopment of theRomartAuxiliaryJoiciisjri}iriCaiiiirio Vesp°asian (49BC_________ ---------~--·-···-------------~,

-- .


. --------


. --·-·-


- --

··- _;_'


,, ,f· ' ''.• t:

COMMENT were erected at the birthplaces of the two members. In Cohors I /ngenuorum is named as such on two ( or the first and second centuries it was stationed ID maybe three) stones, none of them very informative. It Germania; mostly in Superior, but for a time in Inferior, seems likely that that name was an alternative to cohors and in the third century it seems to have been in Raetia. J Ciuium Romanorum which was commonly used in its It is unfortunate that the fragment from Firmo is not province of service. more revealing. In Gennania Superior it seems to have been engaged in construction in the middle of the The unit was equitate and decorated for loyalty during province and on the Taunus line, in particular building Domitian's reign. It recruited Roman citizens from at Seligenstadt. outside Italia if the tombstones from Aitne and N'nnes

NOTES 1. The stone is inscribed to Mars for the welfare of Julia Augusta mater castrorum et Aug. which indicates an early third centwy date. The editor suggested that it was erected by an optio, but it would seem more likely that the dedicator was the commander. The dedication to Mars and the Dowager Empress suggests that she had something to do with his military appointment which would be feasible if he was an equestrian, rather than a mere soldier. His name would appear to be Q. Lu-didius Macrinus. The appearance of oo might refer to the presence of a second quingenary cohort in a temporary junction. 2. Burgbrohl or Bad Tonnistein near Koblenz is a thennal source where CIL xiii 7691 was also found. 3. Since this sign appears to be an AM ligatured, it was assigned to cohors I Hamiorum milliaria in Syria, for the existence of which it would be the only evidence. The ligature might be the result of a badly engraved IN rather than a misguided attempt to regularise the situation caused by the title of tribune, nonnally used for the command of a milliary unit· though usual for units of citirens.


4. The· fragment, CJL ix 5362, seems most likely to refer to a unit in this series either cohors I, orcohors II, as none of the others appear to have used CIVJVM ROMANORVM in full in their inscriptions. Erected in the home town of the prefect who went on to serve in legio VJFerrata in Syria Pa/aestina, · it seems to be a third century inscription naming his militia prima as being in Raetia As cohors 11CR was in Gennania Inferior in the second century and elsewhere in the third, it has been added to this unit. S. CJL xii 3177 from Nunes, appears to be the tombstone . (dative) of a man promoted through the ranks to command a cohors lngenuorum while CIL xii 3178 is a thanksgiving for freedom by a freedman of L. Attius who was primipilaris. The draughtsman of CJL xii 3177 may have misunderstood the deceased's career or endeavoured to add prestige for his client. 6. Denis Saddington suggests that as an obvious ·citizen of an early date, he might be one of those mentioned in Augustus' will as deserving a donative.


COHORS I FLAVIA CIVIVM ROMANORVM equitata NAME as recorded on a diploma CILxvi 35 I FLAVIA CIVIVM ROMANORVM 1/17 Syria 8-XI-88 CILxvi 87 IFLCR 22-XI-139 5/12 Syria Palae. RMD 173 IFLAVIAECR 6/12 Syria Palae. 7-III-160 altar or votive tablet l:IIEIPA A' cl>AAOYIAL IGR.i lo44 [Isis] Alexandria dedicatory stone CILxiv 171 COH I ITALICA CIVIVM ROMANORVM VOLVNTARIORVM [Nasennius] Ostia IGRiv964 - - - - - - - - - - - ITAJ\.IKH {Flavianus] Chios1 AE 1974,226 COH IIT AL ~} VOLVNT CR IN CAPPAD [Priscus] Roma AE 1925, 44 COH I FLAVIA C REQVITATA [Sci:undus] Cherchel AE 1933,270 l:IIEIPA IIII1IKR P.QMAION TIOAITON [Pius] -Bergama funerary stone or tablet __ AE 1941, 142 COH [IC R] ITALIC3 [D.M.?; dative] Yalova~ sarcophagus 4 AE 1985,415 CHOR PRIMA FLAVIA [Calusius] Valenza Po literary text ... ot TElTw..oL.. Cappadocia . · Arrian, EKTal;~.3 xporETax8rov OEautrov ot TTJi; mtEtpr1i;t11i;lTOA.tK11c; m:t;oLmxvrrovoE rrreta8roIloulxEp; oo-nc; Kat TTJIIlli --- --- -COH I ASTVRVM · [dative] _Virunum _ COHIAST COHIA[dative] Seckau ---• ,---" [fragment, dative ?J _'"Meiselberg (= Virunum)-CHORT J ASTVRVM [D.M. nominativeJ __:_Qld_Buda1__(Pann.Sup.)_____ _ COHJASTOR CORI ASTVRVM [-.M., dative] = Conzium 2 (Noricum) : COH -ASTVRVM [D. M., dative] Mainhardt fragment _ [?] Salona --ASTVR

CILxvi20 CILxvi 28 CILxvi 36 CILxvi52 CILxvi 62 CILxvi 80 40BRGK 135 40BRGK 134 AE 1956, 71 40BRGK 136 40BRGK 1_39 27BRGK 108 1895, 36


AE 1975, 408 · CIL viii 20736 CILxi6337 CIL xiii 7036 CILiii 5539 · • CIL iii 3539 CIL vi 3588 CILiii4839 CIL iii 5330 CIL iii 11508 CILiii 10507 CIL iii 11708 CIL xiii 6538 CIL iii 14705

PERSONNEL Praefecti C. lul. Artemo, praef.. C. Iul. Artemo, praef., ignotus, curat. pro praef ., -. Valerius----, praef., M. Mevius Capriolus, praef., - Julius Festus, -aef., Q. Gargilius Martialis, --aef., Ti. Claudius Zeno Ulpianus v.e., trib., Diodotus? (cw-a agens) principales L. Naevius L.f. Proulus, (centurio),

CIL xiii 12418 CIL xiii 12419 CIL xiii 12420

[PME I 26] Mainhardt [PME I 26) Mainhardt [PMEI 139] Aquileia • [PME V 2) Noricum · 106 [PME M 53] Mainhardt [PME I 60b] Aquileia c.a.'110 c.a.250 · -p>ME-cr4r-.Aumale-=[PME C 194] ··Pesaro _;;::;.·--:;::-,_;.--_.._~--JMIIL8tuiuwbuianrdu...t ~-;....-~-----40

40 BRGK 135 40 BRGK 134 - AE 1895, 36 CIL xvi 52 AE 1956, 71 AE 1975, 408 CIL viii 20736 ·cIL xi 6337 BRGK 136

[vix 2S;st. 5] -Neuhaus-(Noricum) ------~-- -- - CII,, iii 5539 ----- -----·---~---·---- .. -


- _:..::-~'72 ::._c_;_-:-;:;.::...c~:,,~,~~=-'.,:C.-~C:.:~;:-::-:_.::_::_-~ ---~







The career of this unit appears to be straightforward. for his campaign in Scotland'. Brought to Britannia at Stationed in Gennania in the first .century, it spent a the start of the third century, its first station is unknown short period in Noricum at the start of the :.secorid -.-but in the fourth century it was at Greatchesters though century but then returned to Gennania Superior llild . __ of this period have yet been found. settled at Mainhardt until needed by Septimius Severus · NOTES appears to have been an officer of chor Ill Lusit. who was later aedil. desig. presumably on his retirement at Aquileia Whether a centurion or a sub-prefect of coh Ill Lusitanorum he could have been seconded to a temporarypost in charge of

1. CIL iii 10507 from Buda is an inscription for the fumily vault of M. Aur. Titus (aged 70) his wife, (aged 50) and their sons.Hence it is no indication of the station of the unit 2. Conziwn is on the road between Celje (in Noricum)and Ptuj (in Pannonia), but whether it was in Noricum or Pannonia is uncertain though it was probably in Noricwn. 3. The man whose votive tablet records this status or !1IJ]k,

coh. I Asturum. 4. Denis Saddington suggests AD 69 as the most suitable .year for him to die at Rome.

COHORS II ASTVRVM equitata pia fidelis NAME as recorded on a



7/11 9/11 24/37 16/21 16/27 10/15

altar or votive tablet [Herclens] VEXELATIO COHORTES II ASTVR [Herclis Saxonus] COH II ASTVRVM P.F.D2 building inscription [rampart?] COHIIAST [rampart?] --IASTV-[horreum conlabsum] COH II ASTVRM stamped tiles or brick COH II ASTVRV -ORTIS II HASTR COHIIAST dedicatory stone [C.Iulius Karus] COH II ASTYRVM EQ [Baienus Blassianus] COHIIAST COH ITERVM II ASTVRVM [Munatius] funerarytablet or stone COH II ASTVRVM [dative] COH II ASTORVM [D.M. dative3] [D.M., nominative] CHO II ASTIRVM COH II4 ASTV PROV BRITT INFER [D.M.S. dative] leaden sealing C II I AS// (PALM BRANCH) S OCT graffiti on SamianDrag. 27 [CH]OAST


Germania Britannia Britannia Britannia Britannia Germ. Infer.


20-VIII-127 20-VIII-12i

Llanio Llanio Greatcbesters

CILxvi 158 CIL xvi 51 CILxvi 69 CILxvi70 ZPE 117 Chiron 27, 336 CIL xiii 7693 CIL xiii 7705

Brohl Brohl


RIB 407 RIB 408 RIB 1738 RIB 2467.1+2. CIL iii 10674a CIL iii 10674b

Great Chesters Batina Batina Cyrene Trieste LaMentana

AE 1951, 88 CILv539 CILxiv 3955 . CILvi 1850 AE 1974,455 CIL xi 1437 CIL viii 18131

Roma Koln Pisa Lambese Bainbridge

RIB 2411.97 AE 1995 994b


PERSONNEL Praefecti C. Saturius Fab. Secunduspraef. Asculum5 [vix. 19; PME S 11] Pisa [PMEM30] Mataro L. Marcius Gal. Optatus, praefectus Asturiae6 C. Iulius K.arus,ex prov. Narbo. praef., [PME I 75] Cyrene Q. Baienus P.f.Pup. Blassianus, p~t, [PMEB 14] Trieste Gn. Munatius M.fPal. Aurelius Bassus, praef., [PME M 72] . La Mentana Val. Martia---, 7 leg.--, curam agens Greatchesters T. Statilius Messalinianus, praef., {PMES 68] Roma P. Furius Rusticus, praef., [vix. ann 40; PME F 98] Lambese immunis Brohl Gemellus, imaginif. caligatus Koln Flavius Tullio, mi! Caersws Boud[us]


80 VM-:-105 -17-VII-122


CILxi 1437 CILii 4616 A:f?,1951,88 CILv539 CILxiv 3955 RIB 1738 CILvi 1850 CIL viii 18131 CIL xiii 7705 AE t974,455

AE 1995, 994b


CIL ii 4616 = ILS 6948 CIL xi 1437 = AE 1980, 302

CONCORDANCE CIL vi 1850 == JLS 1885 CIL:xvi 51 =RIB 24012

CIL viii 2766 + 18131 = ILS 2762 CIL xvi 70 = RIB 2401.6

SOURCES Holder, Paul A, (1982): The Roman Army in Britain, 112 Jarret, Michael G.,(l ~~4): ''Non-legionary troops in Roman Britain", Britannia XXV, 53.

COMMENT .only possible ·but probable that the unit engaged in quanying while stationed at Brohl may have been given . the extra names for its support of Domitian before it was transferred to Britannia towards the end of the first century. It was stationed at first in Wales probably at Caersws and later near the gold-mine of Dolaucothi, where its experience in quanying would -be most useful, and then at Llanio which it built in · stone. __ ,Michael Jarrett accepted Margaret Roxan's suggestion _____ --· - ,------· of two series of cohortes Asturum as the simplest and __::_ The evidence of the diplomas shows that with the most satisfactory solution to the problems posed by the virtual completion ofHadrian's WaJI, it was possible to records. He felt the most recent diploma evidence return the unit in AD 127 to Gennania Inferior where it tended to reinforce this answer to the commdrum was probably stationed near Koln. Some time later, which a single regiment would pose. possibly under Septimius Sevenis, 1tmoved to Great · Chesters where in AD 225 under Valerius Martialis, a Paul Holder did not apparently consider this legionary centurion, it rebuilt the granary. It may have possibility. moved to Bainbridge soon after when it was replaced at Greatchesters by cohors 1 Astunmi, though a leaden In contrast, Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas noted that the sealing from there is hardly evidence of more than a unit was loyal to Domitian in AD 89, and was - ·communication. transferred to Britannia towards the end of the first ~- -- century. --A- :fourth century cohors JI Asturum recorded in · Aegyptus probably has no connection with this unit. There seems no need to postulate two series. It is nor- -·- For Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (73-4, 138-9, 146), the altars to Hercules, patron of quanymen, suggested that the unit was engaged in working the quarries of. Brohl in the first century. He thought that it was transferred to Britannia by Trajan and stationed first at Llanio, in the gold-mining region of Wales. In the third century, it was stationed at Greatchesters where it repaired the granary.

NOTES 1. It may seem impossible for one unit to appear on two 4. For some time the numeral II wasrsad as P. Britannia was diplomas of the same date for two different provinces; the divided probably in AD 197 by Septimius Severus. explanation may be that the unit was moving from one to the _--- 5. To become a prefect of infantryat nineteen is unusual;but his·father, L. Saturius Picens, was a primipilaris and the boy other or that it was divided between the two. 2. This is the only inscription of this unit on which the titles himseif was an augur and patron of the colony of Asculani, pia fide/is Domitiana appear: either they were soon dropped, . al!ltough v~-: ·..qng. But Asculum is mi the east coast of or this is a misreading of PED. Conrad Cichorius thought it · is 'on the west The probability is that referred to a cohors JIii Astunnn pfDom at Andemech .. ET · · Secundus had tieen given his commission and his posting and VEXILS COH EIVSDEM on the dedication indicates that the was on his way to take up his post in Germania or Britannia under-officer dedicated this on behalf of himself and the flagwhen he died. bearers of the same unit. 6. Since Marcius Optatus' next post was trib. 'rv1l. legionis 3. A banquet scene dated by Gez.aAlfoldy to the period AD secundae Augustae, it seems reasonable :to suppose that the 80-100 decorates this inscription; but this seems too early for post of praejectua- Asturiae.meant command of a cohort in a tombstone using mid-second century formulae. _ ·-~!}gustan times.--·- •

0i1y,~:, '

COHORS III ASTVRVM pia fidelis equitata civium Romanorum NAME as recorded on a diploma 4/4 IIIASTVRCR 8/1 O [III]ASTVR C R 7/9 III AST CR 4/5 [III AST] CR 4/4 III AST 7/9 III AST 6/11 [III ASTVRVM] 7/11 IIIASTVRVM 7/11 [III AS]TVR P F 1 CR 7/11 [III ASTV]R dedicatory stone [Postumus] DlEIP A TPITH EN MAYPETANIA · [Allianus] COH III ASTVR EQ CR funerary tablet or stone [nominative H.S.-.] --ASTVRV- Tingitana Tingitana Tingitana Tingitana

14-X-109 116 18-XI-122 124 l 7-VIII-129

Teos Amelia Thamusida

PERSONNEL Praefecti Iloux---II0crtouE1tai,xo~, [PME P 129] Teos Sex. Ticiasenus Sex.f. Sex.nep. Sex.pron. Clu. Allianus, praef., [PME T 17] Amelia caligati · · ··


M. Sen-- Victo-, FaventLatiurus, ?


[vix.? stip. 16] Tbamusida Thamusida

131 153ZPE 157 158 165?

CILxvi CILxvi CILxvi CILxvi CILxvi RMD 117, CILxvi CILxvi RMD

162 165 169 171 173 157 14 181 182 186

IGR iv,1566 CIL xi 4371 IAM2,253

· IGR. iv 1566 CILxi 4371 IAM2,253 •JAM2, 253

CONCORDANCE IGR iv, 1566 = Ph. Le Bas - W. H. Waddington Voyage archeologique en Grece et en Asie Mineure, J.wjs, 18471AM 2, 253 = AE 1~34; 45 1876, III, 104 SOURCES Roxan., Margaret, (1973): "The Auxilia of Mauretania", Latomus 32, 847-8 Rebuffat, Rene, (1986): "L'implantation militaire romaine en Mauretanie Tingitane", L 'Africa Romana 4, 69 COMMENT .. The only evidence for the equitate nature of this unit, Although mentioned so often on diplomas, the_unit has as Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (126) pointed out, is on left few traces of its stations in Tingitana. Thamusida the honorific inscription to Ticiasenus Allianus. is usually reckoned to be a cavalry station, but there may have been only an infantry vexillation there for Margaret Roxan thought that as there was no earlier internal purposes though Rene Rebuffat St1ggestedthat ·it garrisoned the town. record of this unit in another province, it was probably raised in Spain and sent straight to on the occupation of that province. NOTES


2. J.M.Roldan Hervas reported the of this name by Ph. Le Bas - W.H.Waddington as Publius Statilius Postumus,

I.The appearance of the decoration P(ia) F(idelis) on the diploma for AD 158 (CIL xvi 182) might be an engraver's mistake since there is no sign of involvement with Domitian.

which Hubert Devijverseemed reluctantto accept.: __


COHORS V ASTVRVM NAME_astecordedona bronze votive tablet COHORS V ASTVRVM POENINO funerary tablet or stone CHO V ASTVRVM

_ -

·1Jgnotus] Mt. St. Bernard

CILv6874 CIL xiii 8098

[nominative] Bonn

PERSONNEL Praefectus . [P.ME121] Mt. St. Bernard C. Julius Antullus, Praefectus, immunis Pintaius Pedilici f., Astur Transmontanus, signifer, [vix,30; st.7) l3onn

CILv6874 CIL xiii 8098

COMMENT would have Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (74-5) suggested that.it_ 'J'he unit, about which so ·little is kno~ was stationed at Bonn but was disbanded as a result of - used the St.Bernard pass on its to or from its the Batavian revolt. Had it served longer in Germania, - station in Germania: •Piritaius called hiinself an Astur he thought more traces would have been found. Transmonianus, .suggesting that he was one of the early _..and.:..that-the ...unit began its service in ___ ___recruits, Hubert Devijver foUowed Geza Alfoldy in supposing . ·· ·· Germania The · bronze tablet with which Julius that the unit was stationed in Germania, but the Antullus fulfilled his vow was broken when it was inscription CIL v 6874 raises the possibility_that the found on the summit of Mount St.Bernard; it suggests unit was stationed in the St. Bernard pass. that mountaineering was not a pastime invented in the nineteenth century. _ · ·· · · ·


COHORS VI --ASTVRV~1_______ _ NAME as recorded on a dedicatory stone




CIL ii 2637

PERSONNEL Praefectus .. L. Pompeius Quir. Faventinus, praef., [PME P 57) Astorgac.a. 70


-~SOURCES Roldan Hervas, Juan Manuel (1974): Hispaniayel ejercito Romano, Salamanca, 75 : · · COMMENT Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas suggested that it served in only known commander was a Spaniard, as might be Germania as H. Nesselhauf (CIL xvi 158) suggested it · expected. Possibly it was a very short-lived unit raised might be the eleventh cohort on the diploma of AD 80. from the sixth levy of Asturians stationed in Hispania until it was disbanded or possibly renamed cohors VI Unlike its companion the Fifth Asturians, the Sixth has=:7/ispanoruin~-Alternatively, the-carving hides an otherleft no trace of its whereabouts nor of its members. Its .... wsie unrecorded fourth cohort.

COHORS l ASTVRVM ET CALLAECORVM NAME as recorded on a dip]oma 60 CILxvi4 1n IJlyricum IASTVRETCALLAECOR ?/? Noricum · 54/68 · AE 1995, 1217 [I AST]VRVM [ET CALLAECOR] Recipient ? 99? CIL xvi 167 [COHORS I ASTVRVM ET CALLAECORV]M 14-X-109 . CIL xvi 162 1/4 Tingitana I AS[TVRVM ET CALLAECORVM] . 14-X-109 RMD 84 [I ASTVRVM ET CALL]AECORVM 1/4 Tingitana 116 CIL xvi 165 2/10 Tingitana [I AST ET CA]LLAECOR 18-XI-122 CIL xvi 169 5/9 Tingitana I ASTVR ET CALL 124 CIL xvi 171 I ASTVR ET CALLAE l/5 Tingitana 131 RMD 157 2/9 Tingitana [I AST ET CALLAE]COR 152/3 ZPE 117,p.254 4/11 Tingitana [I] AST ET CALLAECCR 1 156-7CIL xvi 181 5/11 Tingitana IASTVR (ET]CALLAEC 1 157-8 CIL xvi 182 5/11 Tingitana [I AST] ET CALLAECCR 5/11 Tingitana 159 RMD53 I AST ET CALLAEC 162-70 RMD 186 5/11 Tingitana [I AST]VR ET CALLAEC a]tar or votive tab]et · CIL ii2 7/58 [Si1vanus] Los Villares COH I ASTVRV- -T CALL [Genius loci] Ain Schkour 1AM2,821 COH ASTVR ET CALL [Deus Frugifer] Ain Schkour IAM2, 820 COH AST ET CALL bui]ding inscription [- et porticu-] VolubiJis IAM2,498 X/XII-57 COH ASTVRVM ET CAL-ORVM dedicatory stone COHOR ASTVRVM ET CALLAECORVM .Efes CIL iii 6065 2 CILvi 3654 --- - ---- -- CALLAEC IN MA VR Roma COHORS ASTVR CALLAECIAE ET MAVRETAN TINGIT [Dentonianus] Tarragona CILii4211 funerary tablet or stone CIL xiii 703 7 COHORS AESTVRERV ET CALLAECORV [nominative] Mainz fragment [COH I AST] ET [CALL] Ain Schkour IAM2, 827 . PERSONNEL Praefecti [C.Iu]l. Neon2, praef., [PME F 62] . IAM2, 821 C. Vibius Salutaris, praef., [PME V I 06] Efes L. Domitius M.f.Serg. Dentonianus, tribun.milit, [PME D 20] Tarragona P. Valerius Priscus, praef., [PME V 28] Roma Nammius Matemus, praef., [PME N 4] Volubilis [Nammius M]atemus, praef., [PME N 4] Tingitana G. lulius Longinus, praef4., • [PME I 78] Ain Schkour Aemi[lius -------], [praef]., [PME A 70b] Ain Schkour principal is Runcanius Victor, optio Los Villares caligatus Ogrigenus Pintil. f., [vix. 29;st. 9] Mainz CONCORDANCE 1AM 2,430 = AE 1916, 91 1AM 2,820 = AE 1956, 208 1AM 2,821 = AE 1966, 605 = CIL viii 21820 = ILS 9175 CIL vi 3654 = AE 1974, 226


Ain Schkciur CIL iii 6065~ CILii42Il cir, vi 3654 • 1AM2,430 . CILxvi 167 IAM2, 820 · IAM2, 827. CIL ii2 7/58 CIL xiii 7037

CIL ii 4211 = ILS 6936 CIL ii27/58 = Hisp.J!p. 4, 470· ·

SOURCES Van de Weerd, H, & S.J. de Laet, S.J., Hommages aJoseph Bidez et aFranz Cumont, 347-5 Roxan, Margaret, (1973): "The Auxi/iaofMauretania Tingitana", Latomus 32, 838-52 Saddington, Denis (1982): The Development of the Roman Auxiliary forces (49BC-AD79); 73,246 Rebuffat, Rene, (1986): "L'implantation militaire romaine en Tingitane", L 'Africa Romana, 4, 31-78 Lorincz, Barnabas, (1990): Pannonia regeszeti kezikonyve, 77-8 COMMENT considered that the relationship was not clear between .·•· · the unnumbered unit in Africa and the numbered unit in Illyricuni He did; however, accept that the for the unit to have served in Pannonia. unnumbered cohort at Volubilis was identical with the cohort numbered I at Ain Schkour, four km. away. Hubert Nesselhauf, however, called attention ( CIL xvi 4) to the fact that all the units named on the diploma If one unit only is involved rather than two, the conflict for Illyria in AD 60 went on to serve in Pannonia, with may be resolved by suggesting that the unit was raised · in North-West Spain from both main tribes in that area. one apparent exception, cohors I · Asturum et . and sent to Germania whence it was transferred by Ca/laecorum. Claudius to Tingitana. _Here its principal duty was to Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (65-6, 94, 124-6) did not -- guard and patrol the city of Volubilis from· its camp find the idea of a single cohort serving in Gennania;•--·· some 4 .kms. north Ain Schkour. What it Illyricum and Tingitana, in way satisfactory. He responsible for building in Volubilis is unknown preferred two units, one serving in Illyricum in AD 60 except that it had a porch or arcade or covered walk; and Gennania, the other in Tingitana in AD 57. He the· findspots of four pieces, reused in walls also pointed out the corrupt tenninology in the career suggest that it a market-place. · The commander, . ofDomitius Dentonianus. whose name is part missing, was possibly Julius Neon 2 who also dedicated an altar at its pennanent fort .. But both Margaret Roxan· and Rene Rebuffat stated that the First Cohort of Asturians and_Callaecians was The unit should have remained there, but it is named one of the first units to .be stationed in Mauretania on a diploma for Illyricum three years after it had been Tingitana, probably being part of the original active in Volubilis. Was the whole unit involved ? The diploma doe_s not·indicat.e a vexillation, but po~sibly occupation force. . __ --- . •·the practice of specifying a vexillation customary in the Barnabas Lorincz claimed, on the basis of CIL xvi 4, Antonine period, was not established in the Neronian. that this unit was stationed in Pannonia not later than In the absence of any other evidence for another cohort the reign of Nero, and suggested that later on, probably .. :with the same name, •it is preferable to assume that the under Vespasian, it was added to the Norican .army,~----cohort or a vexillation was recruiting in Illyricum. using as evidence the tombstones of cohors I Asturum Hubert Nesselhatif s observation is both accurate and . to which Geza Alfoldy had drawn attention. relevant It did not go to Pannonia since it was already committed to Tingitana. It returned to, or ~ reunited Although the number I is clearly seen oil the diploma at, and remained at Ain Schkour until replaced in the Third Century by cohors •/III ·rungrorum milliaria. for lllyricum, the unit was at work in Tingitana in AD 57, as Denis Saddington pointed out. He, however, Where it ~ent then is not revealed as· yet.

H. Van de Weert and S. J. de Laet produced a study of the unit (omitting° CIL xvi 4) and showed that it served in Germany and Tingitana, so that it was impossible





NOTES 1. Although the letters C Rare clear in the photograph of the stone the space is adequate for either or for [C]l(audius) JAM 2, 809, it seems probable that the engraver meant to as Hennann Dessau suggested (/LS 9175). engrave an O making the name CALLAECOR. This may 3. And many others, AE 1899, 641; CII..i_ii 14193,14194 = applyalsototheearlierdiplomareportedinZPE 117. . /LS 7193, CIL iii 14195, all from Efes, where he funded a 2. Louis Chatelain referred to him as [Ae)l(ius) Neon (Le series of religious festival_saccording to Guy Rogers, The Maroc des Romains 1944, p. 120) or as [F]l(avius) Neon~:- _Sacrealdentityo/Epheius, 1993. InscriptionsLatines du Maroc, no. 43), but even this wouid 4. According to Hubert Devijver (ZPE 43) Julius Longinus be unusual before the Second Centwy, while Jui. Neon would -~~.becametrib. coh. I Aelia Sag. co at Klostemeuberg. be a well-understood abbreviation in mid-first Century. On








NAME as recorded on a diploma 9/13 Pannonia II ASTVRVM ET CALLAECOR II ASTVRVM ET CALLAECORVM 9/15 Pannonia 8/10 Pann. Infer. II ASTVRVM ET CALLAECOR 9/13 Pann. Infer. II AST ET CALL 9/13 Pann. Infer. II AST Recipient Pann. Infer. [COH II ASTVR E]T [CALLAEC] II ASTVRVM ET CALLAECORVM 9/13 Pann. Infer. Recipient Pann.-. -- ---- ET CALLAECOR II NERVIOR ET CALLAECOR 7/13 Pann. Infer. 7/13 Pann. Infer. II NERVIOR ET CAHAEC [II ASTVR ET CALLAE]COR ?/? Pann. Infer. II AST ET CALL 7/13 Pann. Infer. II AST ET-7/13 Pann. Infer. 3/13- Pann. Infer. II AST ET CALL 5/10 Pann. Infer. II ASTVR ET CALLAEC stampedtile or brick Batina COHIIAST 1 Surduk COH II AST ET CALL Szony COH II AST ET CALL

13-Vl-80 5-IX-85 2-VII-110 19-V-135 7-VIIl-143 141/144 VINII-145 145 9-X-148 9-X-148 151/160 8-11-157 8-11-157 27-XII-159 5-V-167

CILxvi26 CIL xvi 31 CILxvi 164 ZPE 127,250 ZPE 127,256 AE 1996, 1257 Tyche 13, 224 en,xvi 91 CILxvi 179 CILxvi 180 ZPE 126,252 RMD 102 RMD 103 CILxvi 112 CILxvi 123

CIL iii 10674 lnscr.teg.lam.XXV,50, 52 lnscr.teg.lam.XXV,53

- PERSONNEL Praefectus -. ----- Granianus, (praef.), caligatus ----- Dasentis -. eques ---- ----entis f. Justus, ea-, eques,


Pann. Infer

-- 145

Pannlnfer Pann. Infer

141-144-, 145

CILxvi 91 AE 1996, 1257 CILxvi 91

SOURCES Lorincz, Barnabas, (1990): Pannonia regeszeti kezikonyve, 78

COMMENT Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (94-6) agreed with J. Dunaszekcso = Lugio, Surduk = Rittium and Szony = Csalog and A. Alfoldy that the entry on the diploma for Brigetio, returning to Ad Militare dunng the AD 148 should be considered a simple mistake. He MarcomannicWars. disputed A. Radnoti's stationing of this unit at Dunaszeckcso, where the numerous tiles attested the This series of stations is based largely upon the theory presence of cohors VII Breucorum. that a diploma records the geographic order of. the units. But stamped tiles are safer indications. Since Barnabas Lorincz has more information about the Batina, a possible station fot the unit, is in Pannonia stations of the unit, namely Ad Militare, then Superior, this must have been its first ce~turystation.

NOTES I. Although the tile uses only half the full title, it seems easier to accept this, than to postulate a second series of

cohorles II Asturum, or suggest that it - transferred from Britannia to PannoniaSuperior, though this is po~ible.


COHORS I LVCENSIVM equitata ·-··....: ·


::?¼ ·=


NAME as recorded on• diploma



.13-VI-80 ILVCENSIVM 6/13 Pannonia 7-XI-88 ILVCENSIVM 3/17 Syril · 12-V-91 ILVCENSIVM 3/7 S\TI3 20-VIII-127 6/15 Gcimlnfer. ILVCENS dedicatory stone [Statilius] R(lms I LVCENSIVM c.a. 160 [Lollianus J Bylli:, I LVCENSIVM (vexillatio) funerary tablet or stone I LVCENSIV HISPANORVM .. [nominative, H.S.E.] Main1-Z.ahlbach I LVCENS [nominative, H.S.E.J H~ -···-I LVCE [nominative, H.S.E.] Humt-:" I LVCE {nominative, H.S.E.] - Tcrljuh ·•·fragment

.cu.xvi26 CILxvi35 RMD4 Chiron 27,336 CILvi31863 CIL iii 600 CIL xiii 7045 CIL iii 8486 CIL.iii 8492 CIL iii 9834

PERSONNEL Praefecti [-]. Ca[l]p[wnius] Tro., Ma[--], T. Statilius -.-. Optatus caligati Reburrus Coroturetis f. mil Andamionius Andami f. eq., Rufus Angeti f. mil. Flavos Bouti f. mil. Gav[i]llius (Andami f.)2

·t:" ~·


. ·•",f}

--.)f" ...,. -~.... :j __



, .::~C,


. :,:,i: ... ·--~~-· ./!.1..1""


CIL iii 600 = ILS 2724 CIL vi 31863 = ILS 9011 = AE 1893, 120 .. Wilkes, John J. (1969): Dalmatia, 473

1 ,

CILiii 8736 CILvi 31863

[PME C 59] S3l~ [PME S 69] R,-ims


CIL xiii 7045 CILiii 8486 CILiii 8492 ,CIL iii 9834 .CIL iii 8486


[vix.53;st.24] · · [vix.35;st.15] _ [vix.30;st.l 1] [vix.31;st10] [vix.35;st15}



T~ H~

CONCORDANCE ._ ... ·-nr. ii:~ =1\E '1890,·to


According to Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (77-8, 98-9, 150-1 ), the tombstone at Zahlbach is of Claudian date; both Reburrus and his father Corotures have Hispanic names. The numerous inscriptions from Dalmatia show that it had been at Humac in that province as the ~e Andamionius was also Hispanic. He tbciught that it left for Syria in AD 88 and stayed there for the rest of its existence at some unknown station. A vexillation took


in Lucius Venis'Parthian war under part '\\-C.~ the coIIOD-'! on.t Valerius Lollianus.

John Wilkes suggested that the unit's presence in Dalmatia was limited to the first half of the first century and that it was stationed at Humac·-(= Bigeste). · Later it was iI\,Pannoilia.




CIL iii 8736




In Dah-..£1 iapirius] Roma - · · - - -- stamped bricks or tiles _ _________ - -- ~ --. CIIIBR --------· ~Theilenhofen- -label CillBR {bronze helmet] Regensburg ·

CJLvi _1822

CIL iii 13546 CJL iii 14119

PERSONNEL Praefecti Q. Papirius Q.f.Pup. Maxi-, praef., L. Pomponiu- --(praef).,

[PME P 13] Roma [PMA P 71b] Raetia

CILvi 1822 RMD58/95


'. CONCORDANCE CIL vi 1822 = ILS 1893

=ILS 1432 --~QtvfMEl'fL_: __:__~ =-_ ·__ _ _. CIL xii 672


Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (80-1, 140, 146) _ CIL xvi p,7 only, that the Raetian unit took part in considered the career of_ this unit in Raetia and Hadrian's Jewish war can now be discounted in view Noricum and wondered whether - it Dad-been - ofthe-additionai djploma evidence. _ temporarily in Syria Palaestina under Hadrian.· In----Raetia it was stationed at Munningen where there was _ _The tiles from Tbeilenhofen stamped C _lll BR are the · space for an equitate cohort. Unless there was a only sign of activity, apart from a cohort helmet found some I 00 kms away at Regensburg. , The helmet colossal mistake, another cohors ]II Bracaraugustanorum was present in Raetia throughout the second · might belong to a member of cohors If/ Brittonum century. His sugg~tjon, based on a ~nsideration of which was based at Eining, 30 kms from Regensburg .






. ···:

_______ --~-


COHORS IV BRACARAVGVSTANORVM NAME as recorded on a diploma CILxvi 35 13/17 Syria 8-Xl-88 IIII BARA CARAVGVST ANORM· 9/12 Syria Palaest. 22-XI-139 CILxvi 87 IIII BRAC 10/12 Syria Palaest. 7-III~160 N GALLAECET BRACAVG RMD 173 RMD69 7/7 Syria Palaest.24/7-XI-186 IIIIBRACAR building inscriptions IIII RR [castellum nouum] Qasr el Hallabat 212-3 ANRW II 8, 706 1 stamped tile or brick - - -ACA VG Tille Limeskongres 2 IX, 903-12 dedicatory stone CIL viii 7079 COH IIII BRACARVM IN IVDAEA [Aufidius] Constantine PERSONNEL Praefectus C. Aufidius C.f. Maximus, praef.,

[PME A 197] Constantine

CIL viii 7079

CONCORDANCE CIL viii 7079 = ILS 5549 SOURCES Speidel, Michael (1983): "The Roman Army in Asia Minor: Recent Epigraphical Discoveries and Researches", Armies & Frontiers in Anatolia, B.A.R. - SI 56, 15-6 COMMENT to Syria Palaestina probably .at the time of the Jewish Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (80-81) bad little to revolt, when it was joined by its fellow 'J;hird Cohort. suggest about this unit, but Michael Speidel drew attenthn to the fragmentary stamp which he thought Both units were amalgamated with a ~ of Callaecians towards the end of Antoninus Pius' reign might belong to this unit which is known .to have served in Syria. but cohors /III recovered its separate identity by the reign of Commodus when the elements of ·the old . Four diplomas show that cohors IV Bracaugustanorum Callaecian unit bad been discharged. Where it was served in Syria in the first century and wastransferred stationed is unknown.

NOTES 1. Originally reportedby D.Littman et al. in Syria 17, David Kennedy reported (Archaeological Explorations in N. E. Jordan, p.358) that he was unable to find it.

2. Reported by J.G.Crow and D.H.French in "New Research on the Euphrates Frontier in Turkey", published in Roman . Frontier Studies 1979, Part m 903-12.


COHORS V BRACARA VGVSTANORVM NAME-as recorded on a -~--·diploma · CILxvi 55 V BRACAVGVSTANORVM 10/11 Raetia 30~VI-107 1 12/14 Raetia (16-VIII-]116 VBRACA RMD 155 12/14 Raetia 16-Vll-116 AE 1995, 1185VBRAC [V BRAC]A_VGVSTANO[RVM] 7/7 Raetia RMD25 121/S - ---- . 11/13 -Raetia RMD94 VBRAC 138/40 12/14 . Raetia V BRACARA[VG] 147 CILxvi 94 : VBRACARAVG 11/13 Raetia i56/7 RMD51/104 VBRAC 11/13 Raetia 28-JX-157 AE 1995-,l 182 VBRACARAVG 11/13 Raetia 28-JX-157 RMD 170 RMD 112. 161/3 .· [V BRACAR]AVG 11/13 Raetia CIL xvi 121 · · •· VBRACA 11/13 . Raetia 166 ----------ll/13 Raetia "167/8 RMD68 VBR dedicatory stone --. ------ - -- - -· COH V BRACARA VGVSTANORVM IN GERMANIA .. [Stlaccius]. Roma CIL vi 3539 funerary tablet _________ - - . -:· Lara de los Infantes --


_ AE 1980, 586

PERSONNEL Praefectus M. Stlaccius C.f. Col. Coranus, praef., caligatus -adigenus Laturus, miles,

- [PME S 81] Roma Larade

CIL vi3539.

losInfantes -

AE 1980, 586

CONCORDANCE CIL vi 3539 = ILS 2730 ·--·------·--


Saddington, Denis (1982): The Development of the Roman Auxiliaryforces from Caesar to Vespasian (49BC-AD79), 215 n.58 ---- --- --. -_-COMMENT Juan Manuel Roldan Hervas (81-2) used the inscription All that iscertain aboutthis cohort is that it did serve in of Stlaccius Coranus to indicate the unit's first province Gennania and Raetia. It might have taken part ·in was Gennania, until Trajan transferred it to Raetia Claudius' expedition, and it may have been stationed at where it was stationed at Gnotzheim and later under _ Gnotzheim arid KOnzig. for which the evidence is _ Antoninus Pius at Ki.inzig. missing orrefers to cohorsIII Breucdnim.- It is ironic that like cohorsm Bracaronim, the Fifth only appears on diplomas from Raetia, one epitaph from its home Denis Saddington used the same inscription to suggest that the unit was involved in Claudius' expedition to region and one from Rome. Its activities in Raetia are Britannia where its activities resulted in the award of equally as Wlknown as those of the Third. Why has no decorations to its commander. trace been found of1his unit?

-=,_NOTES ---~--· ---~--

1. Originally thought to be 11/13 at some time jn·~e · - ·--z.. A line above the letters QVI indicates a number and this autumn of 116, the new diploma enables a correction 10 be __feature_probablybelongs to the.period AD 50-80. This stone





- exhibits-the~lexities





of innovation.




a number of smaller ethnic groups who contributed some units to the Imperial Roman Army.

Also occupying the northern coast of the Iberian peninsula and the mountains of the coastal range, were

SOURCES Strabo: I'E:wypa