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Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus: Text, Translation, and Commentary
 9783161586767, 3161491742, 316158676X

Table of contents :
Cover
Titel
Preface
Contents
Abbreviations
I. Introduction
1. Author and Date
2. Genre, Style, Function, and Setting
3. Composition
4. Religion and Philosophy in the Hymn to Zeus
5. Transmission of the Text
II. Text and Translation
Plates
Text
Translation
III. Commentary
Invocation: Praise of Zeus (vv. 1–6)
Argument: Zeus’ Rule and Human Recalcitrance (vv. 7–31)
Prayer: Deliverance and Insight (vv. 32–39)
Bibliography
1. Cleanthes: Editions, translations, and studies of the Hymn to Zeus
2. Other ancient texts
3. Other scholarly publications
Indices
1. Index of ancient texts
2. Index of subjects and names
3. Index of Greek terms

Citation preview

Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum Studies and Texts in Antiquity and Christianity Herausgeber/Editor:

CHRISTOPH MARKSCHIES

(Berlin)

B e i r a t / Advisory Board H U B E R T CANCIK ( B e r l i n ) • GIOVANNI CASADIO ( S a l e r n o ) SUSANNA E L M

(Berkeley) • J O H A N N E S JÖRG R Ü P K E ( E r f u r t )

33

HAHN

(Münster)

Johan C. Thorn

Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus Text, Translation, and Commentary

Mohr Siebeck

JOHAN C.THOM, born 1954; studied Classics at the Universities of Stellenbosch (BA 1974) and Pretoria (MA 1980); N e w Testament and Early Christian Literature at the University of Chicago (PhD 1990); teaches Greek Language and Literature at the University of Stellenbosch, Professor of Classics since 1997; recipient of an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship (Tübingen, 1995) and a Visiting Membership of the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton, 2001-2002).

978-3-16-158676-7 Unveränderte eBook-Ausgabe 2019 ISBN 3-16-149174-2 ISBN-13 978-3-16-149174-0 ISSN 1436-3003 (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum) Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://iinb.d-nb.dc. Unrevised Paperback Edition 2006. © 2005 by M o h r Siebeck, Tübingen, Germany. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that permitted by copyright law) without the publisher's written permission. This applies particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage and processing in electronic systems. T h e book was typeset by Martin Fischer in Tübingen using Bembo typeface, printed by Guide-Druck in Tübingen on non-aging paper and bound by Buchbinderei Held in Rottenburg. Printed in Germany.

For Sjarlene

Preface Although the Hymn to Zeus is often cited as o n e of the most i m p o r t a n t d o c u ments of early Stoic philosophy — indeed t h e only text to survive m o r e or less intact - it has not yet received a detailed treatment in a m o n o g r a p h by itself. Besides its indubitable philosophical interest, the p o e m also provides crucial evidence for the way philosophy came to f u n c t i o n as a f o r m of religion f r o m the Hellenistic period onwards. T h e present study strives to pay d u e attention to the most relevant factors w h i c h m a k e this p o e m exceptional: the p h i l o sophical and moral ideas conveyed in poetic f o r m , the religious u n d e r p i n n i n g given to Stoicism, and the intricate interaction w i t h the preceding literary tradition. Cleanthes offers his o w n philosophical answer to the h u m a n moral dilemma in terms of the Greek cultural heritage; the Hymn to Zeus should therefore not simply be interpreted against the b a c k g r o u n d of Stoicism in general. In the relatively long gestation period of this b o o k I built up a debt of gratitude to n u m e r o u s friends, colleagues, and institutions w h o c o n t r i b u t e d to its making by variously providing logistical assistance, intellectual stimulus, and moral support. Along w i t h o t h e r projects, the research was c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g an Alexander von H u m b o l d t Research Fellowship at the University of T ü b i n g e n in 1995, w h e r e T h o m a s Szlezäk was my host; a S u m m e r Scholarship at the C e n t e r for Hellenic Studies in 1999, then directed by Kurt R a a f laub and D e b o r a h Boedeker; and a M e m b e r s h i p in the School of Historical Studies at the Institute for Advanced Study in 2001 and 2002, w i t h Glen Bowersock as director and H e i n r i c h von Staden as my discussion partner. I also benefited from conversations with H a n s Dieter Betz, Abraham Malherbe, Elizabeth Asmis, Hans-Josef Klauck, Margaret Mitchell, David K o n s t a n , J o h n Fitzgerald, and Chris Faraone. To t h e m all my sincere gratitude. I wish to thank C h r i s t o p h Markschies, editor of the Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum, for accepting the b o o k for publication, as well as H e n n i n g Ziebritzki and Matthias Spitzner of M o h r Siebeck for their friendly assistance. I am also grateful to the Biblioteca Nazionale of Naples for providing m e with photographs of the manuscript of the Hymn to Zeus. T h e y are reproduced in this volume with permission f r o m the Italian Ministero per i Beni

Vili

Preface

c le Attività Culturali. T h e University of Stellenbosch granted me study leave to further my research for this book, and the National Research Foundation of South Africa provided financial assistance. Finally, this book, as so many other things, would not have been possible without the encouragement, support, and companionship of my wife Sjarlene. I dedicate it to her with gratitude and appreciation. Stellenbosch, May 2005

Johan T h o m

Contents Preface Contents Abbreviations I. Introduction 1. A u t h o r and D a t e 2. Genre, Style, Function, and Setting

VII IX XI 1 2 7

3. C o m p o s i t i o n

13

4. R e l i g i o n and Philosophy in the Hymn to Zeus 5. Transmission of the Text

20 27

II. Text and Translation Plates Text Translation III. C o m m e n t a r y Invocation: Praise of Z e u s (vv. 1—6) A r g u m e n t : Z e u s ' R u l e and H u m a n Recalcitrance (vv. 7—31) . . . . Prayer: Deliverance and Insight (vv. 32—39) Bibliography

31 32 34 40 43 43 69 142 165

1. Cleanthes: Editions, translations, and studies of the Hymn to Zeus 2. O t h e r ancient texts

165 168

3. O t h e r scholarly publications

170

Indices

181

1. Index of ancient texts 2. Index of subjects and names

181 200

3. Index of G r e e k terms

205

Abbreviations T h e abbreviations used for ancient texts are based on the lists in The SBL handbook of style (Peabody: H e n d r i c k s o n , 1999). T h o s e not f o u n d in that publication may easily be identified with the assistance of the Oxford classical dictionary (3rd ed., 1996). Abbreviations not listed in either of these reference works are given below. CAG Carni, aur. DGE

C o m m e n t a r i a in Aristotelem Graeca. Berlin: R e i m e r . Carmen aureum (the Pythagorean Golden Verses) Adrados, F. R . , ed. 1980—. Diccionario griego-espanol. M a d r i d :

F

C o n s e j o Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Filologia. C o d e x Farnesinus III D 15 (Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli)

IG LFH KRS

LS PDerv. v., vv.

I n w o o d , B., and L. P. Gerson. 1997. Hellenistic philosophy. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett. Snell, B., and others, eds. 1955—, Lexikon des frühgriechischen Epos. G ö t t i n g e n : Vandenhoeck & R u p r e c h t . Kirk, G. S„ J. E. R a v e n , and M . Schofield. 1983. The Presocratic philosophers: A critical history with a selection of texts. 2nd ed. C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e University Press. Long, A. A., and D. N . Sedley, 1987. The Hellenistic philosophers. 2 vols. C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e University Press. Derueni papyrus verse (i.e., line) number(s) of t h e Hymn to Zeus

Part I

Introduction T h e Hymn to Zeus by the Stoic philosopher Cleanthes is o n e of the most intriguing texts to survive f r o m the Hellenistic p e r i o d . ' It is the only c o m plete w r i t i n g we have of any early Stoic a u t h o r and therefore of i m m e n s e significance for the history of Hellenistic philosophy; it is o n e of the most i m p o r t a n t witnesses to the process of interaction b e t w e e n philosophy and religion w h i c h gained m o m e n t u m in t h e Hellenistic p e r i o d , and consequently also of interest for t h e history of Hellenistic and G r e c o - R o m a n religions; and it is an excellent example of the way the f o r m and conventions of Greek hymns were applied in the post-classical p e r i o d , w h i c h also makes the Hymn to Zeus an i m p o r t a n t text for the history of G r e e k literature. T h e p o e m is therefore often described in superlative terms, variously praising its religious, philosophical, or poetic qualities. 2 A detailed study of all three aspects (philosophical, religious, and literary) is essential for understanding t h e p o e m ; a crucial issue in the interpretation of the Hymn to Zeus is indeed the way these aspects interact. H o w o n e understands the relationship b e t w e e n t h e m d e t e r m i n e s one's view of t h e f u n c t i o n of the Hymn and its ultimate meaning. T h e latter are in t u r n closely related to questions of genre and composition. All these questions have to be addressed before w e can t u r n to a c o m m e n t a r y 1

It is preserved in Stobaeus, Anth. 1.1.12; see the discussion of the text in § 5 below. Cf. Adam (1908, 27): "perhaps the noblest tribute of religious adoration in the whole range of ancient literature"; Wilamowitz (1912, 203): "ein viel zu wenig gewürdigtes Kleinod wahrhaft religiöser Dichtung"; Kern (1926-1938, 3:98): "wohl der schönste H y m n o s in griechischer Sprache"; Pohlenz (1940, 117, 122; reprint 1965, 1:87, 92): "dieses einzigartige Zeugnis stoischer Frömmigkeit, das von dichterischer Phantasie ebenso wie von religiösem Gefühl getragen ist und dabei in j e d e m Worte auf die rationale T h e o r i e der Stoa Bezug nimmt"; "das individuellste Zeugnis altstoischer Frömmigkeit"; Festugière (1949-1954, 2:311): " u n e des reliques les plus touchantes de la piété antique"; Des Places (1957, 118): "[le] sommet de la prière antique"; R e n e h a n (1964, 382): "the most famous philosophical hymn in Greek literature"; Glei (1990, 583): " M a n n sieht, daß Kleanthes die ganze Spannweite der literarischen Tradition von den Anfängen bis in seine eigene Zeit unifaßt, und daß sein H y m n u s nicht die ekstatische Ä u ß e r u n g eines blinden religiösen Impulses ist, sondern ein hochartifizielles literarischen Gebilde"; W. D. Furley (1993, 39): "Cleanthes' hymn to Zeus ... represents an elevated combination of the tradition of hexameter hymns with the highest Stoic conception of Zeus' cosmic power"; Bremer (1998, 135): " o n e of the most venerable hymnic texts from antiquity." 2

2

Introduction

on the Hymn. But let us first consider the author of the poem and when it was written.

i. Author and

Date

Cleanthes of Assos, son o f Phaenias, succeeded Zeno of Citium as second head o f the Stoa when the latter died in 262/1 B C E . 3 Modern reconstruction of the chronology of Cleanthes is based principally on the evidence of Philodemus, together with the testimonia of pseudo-Lucian, Valerius Maximus, Censorinus and Diogenes Laertius.4 According to Philodemus, Cleanthes was born during the archonship o f Aristophanes (331/0 BCE), 3 and died during that o f Jason (231/0 or 230/29)/' These dates are confirmed by pseudo-Lucian, Valerius Maximus, and Censorinus, according to whom Cleanthes reached the ripe age of ninety-nine years.7 The evidence of Diogenes Laertius (7.176 = SVF 1.474) is somewhat ambiguous, due to a textual variation: x a ? XoiTtac, a7T0a)(0[X£V0v TEXeuTvjaat. xauxa Z^vuvl, x a & a cpaai tivsq, [oySoYjxovTa] £TY] Piwaavxa x a l a x o u a a v x a Ztjvcovoi; ety] ¿ v v e a x a i S e x a ( [ . . . ] F D P 4 : om. B P 1 ) . . . . h e went on fasting the rest o f his days until his death at the same age as Z e n o according to some authorities," having spent nineteen years as Zeno's pupil, (trans. Hicks in L C L )

If we accept the reading of FDP 4 , the translation would read: " . . . until he died in the same way as Zeno [i.e., by suicide] ..., having lived eighty years I.e., during the archonship of Arrhenides; cf. Philodemus, Dc Stoic. V.9—14 Dorandi. For the date, see Dorandi (1981; 1991, 2 4 - 2 6 ) . 4 See von Arnim ( 1 9 2 1 , 5 5 8 - 5 5 9 ) , Pohlenz ( 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 4 9 , 1 : 2 6 - 2 7 , 2:16), Verbeke (1949, 5 2 - 5 7 ) , Dorandi (1991, 2 3 - 2 8 ) , and Steinrnetz (1994, 5 6 6 - 5 6 7 ) . * Philodemus, Index Stoic. Here. X X I X . 1 - 5 Traversa: yeyo\/i\ia.i. KAe||avtb]v en' ap^ov[xo?] | 'Apiaxocpavou? xai | xy)v R»Y PAVY

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OMJST"

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o\oyt-rr*Vf

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0v 7»r «h-« -rfs / ^ ' —'' • » • • ® f U"

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7 ' y\ -T * > V > ' e (f ' . - r r p w T r» ytl" • (tur D r a g o n a - M o n a c h o u < T a y a & ä |xev n o 8 E o u a i v > P o h l e n z vel M e e r w a l d t ^[xel;; 8' au aeßo^EaSä a ' > D i r k z w a g e r with ojou (no. 1): according to Steinmetz (following Gaiser) ojoc,, " c h a r i o t , " is a poetic reference to the sun, which Cleanthes considered the seat o f the ^ye[i.ov(.xov, the "governing part," o f the universe (Sl^F 1.499). o^ou (j.Ljx7]{jia thus refers to the human head as the seat o f the governing part o f the soul, which because o f its roundness "imitates" the sun. 81 Attractive as this proposal is, since it only changes a single letter, the complicated explanation required militates against it. A similar fairly conservative conjecture is the substitution o f r\jo\> with oXou (no. 6). As in the previous conjecture, the human being is seen as a microcosm reflecting the macrocosm. 8 2 It is doubtful, however, whether oXov without the article could mean "universe." 8 3 Furthermore, the connection between " w e have our origin in y o u " and " w e have obtained an imitation

C f . also R e n e h a n ( 1 9 6 4 , 3 8 2 ) : " T h e expression [in v. 4b] should explain why man is Atò? yévo?; the cause o f this o i x e i ó r r ] ; b e t w e e n man and Z e u s is not speech, but . . . reason." K1

Gaiser ( 1 9 6 8 , 2 4 3 - 2 4 7 ) and S t e i n m e t z ( 1 9 9 4 , 5 7 8 ) . Gaiser ( 2 4 5 ) also cites Aerius,

Pìac. 4 . 2 1 . 4

( S l / F 2 . 8 3 6 , part = Diels,

Dax. Gr.,

p. 4 1 1 . 2 1 - 2 4 = I G 11-73.4, part): aùxò

Se TÒ TJYEJJLOVIXÒV ¿Semep èv xóaptw x a x o i x e l èv xrj Y|fjiex£pà acpaipoeiSEÌ xecpaXfj ( " T h e governing part itself, like < t h e s u n > in the c o s m o s , dwells in our head w h i c h is r o u n d " ; trans. I n w o o d and G e r s o n , slightly adapted). Diels suggests the insertion o f rjXioi; in his notes. Cleanthes apparently differed from Z e n o and Chrysippus in locating the human T]Y£(j.ovixóv in the head, rather than in the heart; see Pohlenz ( 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 4 9 , 2 : 5 1 - 5 2 ) and Gaiser ( 1 9 6 8 , 2 4 5 ) . 82

S e e W i l a m o w i t z ( 1 9 2 4 , 2 5 9 ) , w h o cites Hippocrates,

Vict.

1 . 1 0 ( 2 2 C 1, p. 1 8 5 . 9 - 1 0

D K ) : évi 8è Xóyu rcavxa 8(.exoa}xr|aaxo x a x à xpÓ7tov aùxò éwuxù x à èv x£S aió[xaxi xò Jtùp àTto(xi[iY)tiLv xoù oXou, [ i i x p à 7ipò; pteyàXa x a i (jleyóCKa. Tcpòi; (jLixpà ( " I n a word, fire arranged all things in the b o d y in a m a n n e r c o n f o r m a b l e to itself, as a copy o f the w h o l e , the small after the m a n n e r o f the great and the great after the m a n n e r o f the small"; trans. J o n e s in L C L ; adapted). B e r g k ( 1 8 6 1 , hi; reprint 1 8 8 4 - 1 8 8 6 , 2 : 2 3 9 ) earlier cited C l e a n t h e s ap. Hermias,

Irr. t>cnt. phil.

14 Diels

(SVF 1 . 4 9 5 ) :

XT)V



.

Zeus is here depicted in terms of popular iconography with a thunderbolt in his hands. 158 O n e of the best known examples of such a representation is the fifth-century bronze statue recovered from the sea off Cape Artemision in which Zeus is standing and poised to throw the thunderbolt like a spear, the type known as Zeus Keraunios. 159 In this statue the thunderbolt itself has unfortunately not been preserved. H e is often depicted on coins holding a thunderbolt. 1 6 0 Zeus using the thunderbolt as weapon to enforce his rule is also a c o m m o n literary motif already found in H o m e r and Hesiod. 161 T h e self-evident nature of the thunderbolt as attribute of Zeus is clear in the Stoic Cornutus' description of Zeus: T O S e x p a x o ? , o e v x f j S c ^ t - A x e L P l x - ^ s j e i , a a c p e a x e p a i ; yj x a x ' ¿TtE^Yjyifjat.v o v o j x a a i a i ; taxi ("The might which he holds in his right hand has a name too obvious for any additional explanation"). 1 6 2 T h e thunderbolt in the Hymn has been interpreted as either a symbol of force or of creation (see esp. the Commentary on the lacuna in v. 11), but it is not necessary to insist on such a distinction: Zeus' power over nature, symbolized by his thunderbolt, not only compels the universe to comply with his will, 163 the implementation of his plan at the same time entails the creation and restoration of order in the world (cf. vv. 12—14, 18—21).

158 S e e S c h w a b l ( 1 9 7 8 , 1 4 2 3 - 1 4 2 4 , 1 4 2 9 - 1 4 3 0 ) , B u r k e r t ( 1 9 8 5 , 127), B r e m m e r ( 1 9 9 4 , 13), T i v e r i o s a n d o t h e r s ( 1 9 9 7 , 3 2 4 - 3 2 5 , 3 3 2 - 3 3 3 ) , a n d B à b l e r ( 2 0 0 2 , 7 9 0 ) . E v e n t h o u g h d e p i c t i o n s o f Z e u s w i t h t h e t h u n d e r b o l t m a y b e less c o m m o n f r o m t h e e n d o f t h e 5th c e n t u r y o n w a r d s (see A r a f a t 1 9 9 0 , 166; cited by B r e m m e r 1 9 9 4 , 2 4 n l 8 ) , earlier m o n u m e n t s a n d artifacts w o u l d still have b e e n p r e s e n t in C l e a n t h e s ' t i m e . 139 T h e statue is in t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m in A t h e n s , n o . 1 5 1 6 1 . F o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n see T i v e r i o s a n d o t h e r s ( 1 9 9 7 , 3 2 4 , 332). K e r a u n i o s is a c o m m o n e p i t h e t f o r Z e u s in cult; see S c h w a b l ( 1 9 7 2 , 3 2 2 - 3 2 3 ) .

"'" See, e.g., t h e r e f e r e n c e s f o r A t h e n i a n c o i n s in S c h w a b l ( 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 6 3 - 1 0 6 4 ) . See for r e f e r e n c e s S c h w a b l ( 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 1 8 - 1 0 2 0 , 1274, 1278, 1 2 9 6 - 1 2 9 7 ) . C f . , e.g., H o m e r , II. 2 . 7 8 1 - 8 3 ; H e s i o d , Theog. 5 0 3 - 6 , 6 8 9 - 7 0 9 ; B a c c h y l i d e s 5 . 5 8 , 8 . 2 6 ; Aeschylus, Prom. 1044; E u r i p i d e s , Ion 2 1 2 ; A r i s t o p h a n e s , Nub. 3 9 5 - 9 7 . 162 C o r n u t u s , Nat. d. 9, p. 1 0 . 1 3 - 1 4 L a n g . I read xpocxo; w i t h all t h e M S S ; L a n g S c h m i t t - B l a n k ' s e m e n d a t i o n (3éXo;.

follows

161 See D e l G r a n d e ( 1 9 4 7 , 402); " E d e t t o a n c h e c o m e l ' u n i v e r s o v o l o n t a r i a m e n t e u b bidisca al d i o nel m o t o a r m o n i z z a t o r e c h ' e g l i i m p r i m e (vss. 7 - 8 ) ; m a è a n c h e r i c o r d a t o che, in caso c o n t r a r i o , il d i o s u p r e m o a v r e b b e la forza di c o s t r i n g e r e alla su v o l o n t à , e di questa possibilità di p o t e r e c o s t r i t t i v o è s i m b o l o il f u l m i n e (vss. 9 - 1 0 ) . " B é n a t o u i l o v e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e c o m p u l s i v e f o r c e o f Z e u s a n d t h e passivity o f n a t u r e a n d o f h u m a n s in t h e Hymn (2002, 3 1 9 - 3 2 3 ) .

Comnwntary

74 9 toIov

uTCoepyov avLXYjToi.^ urco ^ e p a i v : Verse 9 is well b a l a n c e d w i t h

a h y p e r b a t o n in e a c h half o f t h e verse, g i v i n g e q u a l emphasis t o urcoepyov and to ^epaiv. 9 t o l o v . . . uTtoepyov: xoiov suggests t h e reason w h y n a t u r e is so c o m p l i a n t : b e c a u s e Z e u s has a s e r v a n t such as this. UTCOEpyo? in t h e u n c o n t r a c t e d f o r m is rare; it is first f o u n d h e r e a n d in A p o l l o n i u s R h o d i u s , Argon.

1.226 ( r e f e r r i n g

t o A r g u s as "helper of t h e g o d d e s s A t h e n a " ) , a n d after that n o t b e f o r e t h e first c e n t u r y C E . " ' 4 It is a p o e t i c f o r m o f t h e m o r e c o m m o n u7toupyov xa>

A L L ,

xa&T)ye(ji6vc. xouxw x t ^ twv

preferable to v / cpot.Ta: C o d e x Farnesinus has a space o f a b o u t six characters b e t w e e n 7tavTwv a n d cpotxa, b u t as Z u n t z observes, t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e n d o f v. 12 a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 13 is t o o close a n d t h e p h r a s e o l o g y agrees t o o m u c h w i t h o t h e r Stoic f o r m u l a t i o n s to r e c o g n i z e a l a c u n a here. 2 3 2 T h e all-pervasiveness o f t h e divine p r i n c i p l e is a well-established Stoic d o c t r i n e , a l t h o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e differs: Z e n o calls it " g o d " o r " r e a s o n " ; 2 3 3 C h r y s i p p u s , as w e have seen, calls it " t h e universal l a w " a n d " r i g h t r e a s o n " ; 2 3 4 also " Z e u s , " " b r e a t h " (7rveu|jt.a), " f a t e , " o r " g o d . " 2 3 5 A c c o r d i n g t o Tertullian, C l e a n t h e s also r e f e r r e d to " b r e a t h " as " p e r m e a t o r o f the u n i v e r s e " (spiritum ... permeatorem

universitatis),236

b u t this is p e r h a p s

an interpretatio Christiana — t h e w o r d 7ivsiju.a o f w h i c h spiritus is t h e Latin, is n o t well-attested f o r C l e a n t h e s , b u t b e c a m e c o m m o n l y used f r o m C h r y s i p p u s onwards. W e d o i n d e e d f i n d m a n y references to nveufxa p e r v a d i n g all things in f r a g m e n t s a t t r i b u t e d to t h e latter. 2 3 7 A c c o r d i n g to his tonos theory, b r e a t h pervades all things, b u t in a different state o f tension; h e n c e it m a y be 231 C f . C h r y s i p p u s (?) ap. Arius D i d y m u s ap. Eusebius, Praep. ev. 15.19.1 (SVF 2.599): o xolmoq Xoyoi; x a i xoivy) (funic;; M a r c u s Aurelius, Med. 4.29: t o ü tt)? xoivij? tpucreco? Xoyou. 232 See Z u n t z (1958, 290, 2 9 5 - 2 9 6 ) . T h e n n s t i u s , Paraphr. Arist. An. C A G 5 . 3 : 3 5 . 3 2 - 3 3 H e i n z e ( S V F 1.158): S t a Traar)? o u a i a ? 7i£cpoiTY]xevai t o v Seov ( " G o d p e r m e a t e s all substance"); Cicero, Nat. d. 1.36 ( S V F 1.161): rationem quandam per omnem naturam rerum pertinentem vi divina esse affectam putat ( " H e [sc. Z e n o ] thinks that a reason w h i c h pervades all n a t u r e is possessed of divine p o w e r " ) . 2,4

SVF 3.4; q u o t e d o n pp. 8 5 - 8 6 above. C f . Galen, Qua!, incorp. vol. 1 9 : 4 7 8 . 1 3 - 1 4 K ü h n (SVF 2.323a): t o v A i a ... 6Xov 8 i ' okr]Q TT)? SieXvjXuöoTa navTcov Sv)(XLOupYÖv y e y o v e v a i ( " Z e u s , having w h o l l y p e r v a d e d all substance, b e c a m e d e m i u r g e of everything"); A l e x a n d e r o f Aphrodisias, Mixt. p. 2 2 4 . 1 5 - 1 6 B r u n s ( S K F 2 . 4 4 2 = LS 471): t o TtvEÜfxa ycyovo? ex nupoQ t e x a i ¿¿po? 8 i a TtavTwv jt£cpoiTr)X£ twv ctcojxixtuv < t w > näaiv auToX? XExpaaöat. ("Breath c o m p o s e d of fire and air passes t h r o u g h all bodies by b e i n g b l e n d e d w i t h t h e m all"; trans. L o n g and Sedley); Mixt. p. 2 1 6 . 1 5 - 1 6 B r u n s (SVF2.473): nveu[iv ™ A L L , X A 9 I F ] Y E ( I 6 V L xouxw XYjc, xrav ovxiov SLOLX^CTECO^ OVXL ("the universal law, which is the right reason pervading

Argument: Zens' Rule and Human Recalcitrance (vv.

123

7-31)

share in the rationality (the logos) inherent in this law, it is also the norm by which their own actions should be guided. 3 8 2 T h e universal law has thus both an outer, cosmic, aspect, and an inner, moral, aspect. 3 8 3 Cleanthes alludes to the moral aspect in v. 17, when he says that the xocxoL ignore Zeus (i.e., the universal law as embodied in Zeus) in their actions. In this part o f the Hymn to Zeus the focus is more directly on the moral implications o f not obeying this law. As we have seen in v. 12, the phrase xot.vo aTteipoauvrj^ a n o Xuypij?' •?jv a u , rcaxsp, a x s S a a o v i^XO?

So?

xupijaai

yvcofXY];; y) j t i a u v o ; a u SLxrji; ( i h a 7ravxa x u f k p v a ? ' But all-bountiful Zeus, c l o u d - w r a p p e d ruler of the thunderbolt, deliver h u m a n b e i n g s f r o m t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e i g n o r a n c e ; disperse it f r o m their souls; g r a n t that t h e y o b t a i n t h e insight o n w h i c h y o u rely w h e n g o v e r n i n g e v e r y t h i n g w i t h j u s t i c e .

T h e transition from the A r g u m e n t to the Prayer is impressively marked by the use of epithets and by the direct address to Zeus. 4 7 3 T h e first part of the Prayer contains the petitions proper, namely, a request for deliverance f r o m ignorance, and for an understanding of Z e u s ' principle of order and justice. These petitions are typical of philosophical prayers, in w h i c h the gods are only asked for what is g o o d and beneficial for one's moral and intellectual well-being. 4 7 4 32 aXXa Zeu: T h e c o n j u n c t i o n aXXa helps to mark the shift in the p o e m . 4 7 1 After the lament a b o u t the failure of the bad people to find the g o o d life, the Hymn n o w changes into a prayer. This use of aXXa to introduce a closing

471 See H o p k i n s o n (1988, 135): "Vocatives of one, three, four and five syllables give an impressive crescendo effect." 474 This is a topos of philosophical prayer already e n c o u n t e r e d in X e n o p h a n e s frg. 1.13— 16 West (21 13 1.13-16 DK): jpi] S E 7cpwrov ¡XEV OEOV UFXVETV Eiicppovat; avSpag / EUl" James's criticism that the insertion o f au here is clumsy because it occurs in the next two lines as well, 5 0 2 may in fact be an argument in its favor: the repetition o f au and variant forms in the following verses (au, vv. 34, 35; a e , v. 3 6 ; a a , v. 37) is emphatic, and its use in v. 3 3 would be part o f this pattern. 5 0 3 3 3 av&pamou?: T h e use o f the word avSpamou^ signifies an important shift in the Hymn to Zeus. Previously, in the Invocation, the poet refers to h u m a n ity in general as mortals (rcavTeaai. ... &vY)ToIat., v. 3) w h o have a privileged relationship with Zeus (vv. 4—5) and with w h o m he associates himself by using the first person plural (ea[i.sv, v. 4). In the Argument he only refers to the xaxoL, the bad people w h o refuse to follow Zeus' guidance (cf. vv. 17, 22—31). W h e n he now asks for deliverance for people in general, it appears that the xaxoi., those in need o f God's help, are not a small minority, but they rather represent the majority o f human beings. This view o f mankind therefore agrees with statements found elsewhere to the effect that Stoics believed that the majority o f men are bad, and that the Stoic sage, that is, a person w h o lives in accordance with the will o f Zeus, is as rarely to be found as the P h o e n i x , an almost unattainable ideal type.""04 3 3 puou: puou is the first o f a series o f three imperatives requesting concrete assistance from Zeus; the other two are a x e S a a o v and 8o5 l i n o -rij? d p i a x y ] ? yvw[jLr] á CTE x i p . f i , ú f j . v o u v T E ? x a a á s p y a S i T j v e x é i ; , w ? ETCEOIXE &VYJXOV E O V x ' ' E 7 I E I 01JXE (3pOTOL? y É p a ? á X X o T I (JLEL^OV

OtJXE í ) s o t ? 7¡ x o i v ó v á e í VÓ[J.0V EV SÍXY] ÚfiVEÍV.

s o that w e , h a v i n g b e e n h o n o r e d , m a y h o n o r y o u in r e t u r n , c o n s t a n t l y praising y o u r w o r k s , as b e f i t s o n e w h o is m o r t a l . For t h e r e is n o o t h e r greater p r i v i l e g e for m o r t a l s o r f o r g o d s than always t o praise t h e universal l a w in j u s t i c e .

T h e s e c o n d part o f t h e Prayer indicates t h e goal o f t h e p r e v i o u s p e t i t i o n , a n d u l t i m a t e l y o f t h e Hymn 144

itself: t h e universal praise o f Z e u s a n d his w o r k s .

For the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the moral and physical world, cf. L o n g (20(12, 154)

( q u o t e d in n. 52 above); for the relationship b e t w e e n nature, reason, law and justice, cf. S c h o f i e l d (1999a, 7 6 6 - 7 6 8 ) . For the just administration o f nature, cf., e.g., Epictetus,

Ench.

31.1 ( q u o t e d in n. 156 above). ^

Lloyd-Jones gives an e x c e l l e n t interpretation o f the e v i d e n c e (1971).

54tK

C f . esp. the references in n. 51 above.

157

Prayer: Deliverance and Insight (vv. 32—39)

T h i s section is based o n the m o t i f o f reciprocity that is c o m m o n l y f o u n d in G r e e k prayers a n d h y m n s : t h e g o d deserves o u r g r a t i t u d e as r e t u r n - f a v o r for the gifts b e s t o w e d by h i m o r her. S u c h g r a t i t u d e is very o f t e n n o t expressed as direct thanksgiving, b u t r a t h e r as praise. 5 4 9 Several w o r d s in these verses reflect technical t e r m s usually associated w i t h this m o t i f , namely, TIJJNRJ, a[I.£L(5o[I.AL

(v. 36),

U[XVEW

TT.JI.AM,

(vv. 37, 39), yepou; (v. 38), a n d p e r h a p s

SIXT]

(v. 39). It w o u l d h o w e v e r b e a mistake to read these verses as straightforward praise in r e t u r n for t h e gift p r o v i d e d by Z e u s (vv. 34—35). 530 As Festugiere p o i n t s o u t in an a c u t e o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e gift o f insight is n o t o n l y answered by praise; the insight i n t o t h e way t h e w o r l d is g o v e r n e d itself is a precondition for b e i n g able to praise Z e u s . Z e u s himself t h e r e f o r e provides the necessary u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h o u t w h i c h it is n o t possible to reciprocate by h o n o r i n g him." , M W h i l e t h e I n v o c a t i o n bases t h e reciprocal d u t y o f m a n k i n d to praise Z e u s o n their privileged relationship w i t h h i m (they alone have their o r i g i n in h i m ) (vv. 3—6), t h e reciprocal relationship a c c o r d i n g to t h e Prayer is t h e r e f o r e g r o u n d e d in God's provision o f yvcoji.?]. 3 6 ocpp' av ... a(ji£(.pco(j.eCT9a a e : Verses 3 6 - 3 7 c o n t a i n a final clause expressing t h e p u r p o s e o f the i m p e r a t i v e

x u p r j a a i yvwfxy]-zv, aXXo TI E 8 E I TJL^ai;TCOIETVxai xoivfj xai ISla RJ U(JLVEIV TO &EIOV >TAI EUCPYJFXETV xai E7iei;£p)(EA&at. Ta? ^aptxai;; oux eSei xai axomTovTa; xai apouvxa? xai ItT&iovTa? aSeiv TOV UJJLVOV TOv e l ; TOV 9 E O V ; ... xauxa ¿ 9 ' sxacrcou ecpujjivetv eSsi xai. TOV [iiyiaTov xai &EI6T(XTOV U[i.VOV etpUJjLVELV, OTL tr]v Svivaj/xv eSwxev T7)V 7tapaxoXou97)TLxr)v T O U T O I ; x a l 0 8 0 xpTja-rix^v vuv 8e Xoyt-xoc; elfj-t.• UJJLVETV ¡XE S E I XOV &eov. TOUTO (JLOU TO Epyov ECTTIV ... xai 6[XA73 It is u n n e c e s s a r y to c h o o s e 5M ,7

T h u s also H o p k i n s o n ( 1 9 8 8 , 136).

" T h i s is s e e m i n g l y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g P o h l e n z ' s t r a n s l a t i o n : " D e n n k e i n

h ö h e r e s A m t w a r d G ö t t e r n u n d M e n s c h e n v e r l i e h e n , / als das G e s e t z zu p r e i s e n , das b e i d e im Rechte v e r b i n d e t " ( 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 4 9 , 110; m y e m p h a s i s ) . 371

T h i s is t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e f l e c t e d in m o s t r e c e n t translations; cf., e.g., W i l a n i o -

w i t z ( 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 6 , 1:327): " n a c h W ü r d i g k e i t l o b z u s i n g e n " ; F e s t u g i e r e ( 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 4 , 2 : 3 1 3 ) : " c h a n t e r c o m m e ll se d o i t " ; M e i j e r ( 1 9 8 3 , 2 9 ) : " o p p a s s e n d e w y s e te b e z i n g e n " ; L o n g a n d S e d l e y ( 1 9 8 7 , 1:327): " t o s i n g in r i g h t e o u s n e s s " ; Isnardi P a r e n t e ( 1 9 8 9 , 1:250): " l ' i n n e g i a r e nella g i u s t i z i a " ; S t e i n m e t z ( 1 9 9 4 , 5 7 8 ) : " z u R e c h t zu b e s i n g e n " ; I n w o o d a n d

Gerson

( 1 9 9 7 , 141): " t o praise w i t h j u s t i c e . " T h e p h r a s e is first u s e d a d v e r b i a l l y in P i n d a r ; cf. Ol. 2 . 1 6 ; 6 . 1 2 ; Pyth. 5 . 1 4 ; Nem. 572

5 . 1 4 ; see also J a m e s ( 1 9 7 2 , 33).

See N e s c h k e (1998, 951).

-v73 C f . esp. t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s o f W i l a m o w i t z a n d M e i j e r q u o t e d in n. 5 7 1 . F o r t h e use of

Slxy]

t o r e f e r t o t h e p o e t i c d e m a n d s o f c o m p o s i n g h y m n s , see A d r a s t u s ' s t a t e m e n t in

Prayer:

Deliverance

and Insight

(vv.

32—39)

163

between these three: the justice owed to Zeus entails all three aspects. 374 We have to extend the same justice to him in our singing that he applies in ruling the world. This interpretation continues the motif of reciprocity prevalent in these last verses. 39 ufxvelv: T h e Hymn to Zeus ends strikingly with a word denoting praise by means of a hymn, u^veiv indicates the ongoing activity expected of those w h o have been enabled to understand the way God is at work in the world (vv. 34-35) — a continuous praise of which the present hymn itself is a beginning and a prime example. T h e infinitive at the same time forms an inclusio with the participle ujjtvouvTe? in v. 37, emphasizing that singing a hymn is the appropriate way of honoring and thanking Zeus for the gifts and privileges received from him.

Euripides, Suppi. 1 8 0 - 8 3 : xov &' U(XVO7IOI6V auxo? av XLXXY) (XEXY) / pjaipovxa X I X X E I V rjv Se fi.7] nia^ XO8E, / ouxoi S u v a t x ' av otxoSev y ' axwfxsvoi; / xepitetv av aXXoui;- OUSE y a p Stxrjv E/EL ( " W h a t e v e r songs the h y m n - w r i t e r creates, h e m u s t create w i t h joy. If h e does n o t e x p e r i e n c e this [sc. joy], h e w o u l d n o t in his distress b e able t o give pleasure to o t h e r s f r o m his o w n resources; for h e does n o t have t h e r i g h t " ) . T h i s passage is also q u o t e d by Furley and B r e m e r (2001, 1:63), but w i t h a slightly different i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . r>7 "' T h e translations of, e.g., Festugiere and S t e i n m e t z q u o t e d in n. 571 seem to cover all three. For t h e a m b i v a l e n c e of t h e phrase, cf. also Hesychius, s.v. EV SLXTJ: S I X A I W ; .

Bibliography Abbreviations used for j o u r n a l s a n d series are those listed in The SBL handbook of style (Peabody, Mass.: H e n d r i c k s o n , 1999). O t h e r abbreviations may b e f o u n d in L'Année philologique (journals) a n d S. M . S c h w e r t n e r , Internationales Abkürzungsverzeichnis für llieologie und Grenzgebiete (2nd ed.; Berlin: de G r u y t e r , 1992) (series).

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translations,

and studies of the Hymn

to

Zeus

A d a m , J. 1911. T h e H y m n of C l e a n t h e s . In The vitality of Platonism and other essays, ed. A. M . A d a m , 1 0 4 - 8 9 . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e University Press. Albini, F. 1985. Osservazioni sull'inno a Z e u s di Cleante. PP 4 0 : 2 7 5 - 8 0 . - . 1990. In m a r g i n e a Cleante, Inno a Zeus. SIFC 8 : 1 9 2 - 9 7 . Appel, W. 1984. Z u r Interpretation des 4. Verses Kleanthes' H y m n u s auf Z e u s . Eranos 8 2 : 1 7 9 - 8 3 . A r n i m , J. von, ed. 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 2 4 . Stoicorum veterum frammenta. Vol. 1 1905. Leipzig: Teubner. Asmis, E. 1982. Lucretius' Venus and Stoic Z e u s . Hermes 1 1 0 : 4 5 8 - 7 0 . Bénatouil, T. 2002. Logos et scala naturae dans le stoi'cisme de Z é n o n et C l é a n t h e . Elenchos 2 3 : 2 9 7 - 3 3 1 . Blakeney, E. H . 1921. The hymn of Cleanthes. Texts for Students 26. L o n d o n : S P C K . B r o w n , C . 1990. C l e a n t h e s ' Hymn to Zeus 32. LCM 1 5 : 2 - 5 . B r u n c k , R . F. P., ed. 1784. H&IKH IIOIHZIE sive Gnomici poetae Graeci. 2 n d ed. 1817. Leipzig: G e r h . Fleischen J u n . C a m b r o n n e , P. 1998. L'universel et le singulier: L ' H y m n e à Zeus d e C l é a n t h e : N o t e s d e lecture. REA 1 0 0 : 8 9 - 1 1 4 . Cassidy, W. 1997. Cleanthes: H y m n to Z e u s . In Prayer from Alexander to Constantine: A critical anthology, ed. M . Kiley a n d others, 1 3 3 - 3 8 . L o n d o n & N e w York: Routledge. Colaclidès, P. 1968. "Hxou ¡AÌ|JU]|JUX. Ciotta 4 6 : 5 8 - 6 0 . C o o k , A. B. 1925. Zeus: A study in ancient religion. Vol. 2, Zeus, god of the dark sky (thunder and lightning). Part 1: Text and notes. C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e University Press. C u d w o r t h , R . 1678. The true intellectual system of the universe: The first part; wherein, all the reason and philosophy of atheism is confuted. L o n d o n : R o y s t o n . R e p r i n t 1964. S t u t t g a r t - B a d Cannstatt: F r o m m a n n ( H o l z b o o g ) .

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