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Classroom management: models, applications, and cases [Third edition, Pearson new international edition]
 129204179X, 1269374508, 9781292041797, 9781269374507

Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Table of Contents......Page 4
1. Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management......Page 6
2. Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 24
3. Ecological Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 44
4. Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 66
5. Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 88
6. Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 112
7. Community Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 138
8. Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management......Page 158
9. Classroom Management in Inclusive Classrooms......Page 176
10. Developing Your Personal Classroom Management Philosophy......Page 194
11. Applying a Management Philosophy in Your Classroom......Page 210
12. Appendix......Page 226
13. Glossary......Page 228
14. References......Page 236
A......Page 248
C......Page 249
E......Page 251
I......Page 252
M......Page 253
P......Page 254
S......Page 255
T......Page 256
Z......Page 257

Citation preview

Classroom Management: Models, Applications and Cases Manning et al. Third Edition

ISBN 978-1-29204-179-7

9 781292 041797

Classroom Management Models, Applications and Cases M. Lee Manning Katherine T. Bucher Third Edition

Pearson New International Edition Classroom Management Models, Applications and Cases M. Lee Manning Katherine T. Bucher Third Edition

Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk © Pearson Education Limited 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.

ISBN 10: 1-292-04179-X ISBN 10: 1-269-37450-8 ISBN 13: 978-1-292-04179-7 ISBN 13: 978-1-269-37450-7

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Printed in the United States of America

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Table of Contents

1. Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

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2. Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

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3. Ecological Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

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4. Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

61

5. Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

83

6. Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

107

7. Community Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

133

8. Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

153

9. Classroom Management in Inclusive Classrooms M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

171

10. Developing Your Personal Classroom Management Philosophy M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

189

11. Applying a Management Philosophy in Your Classroom M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

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12. Appendix M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

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13. Glossary M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

223

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14. References

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M. Lee Manning/Katherine T. Bucher

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Index

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

From Chapter 1 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 1, you should be able to 1. explain the major types, causes, and effects of student misbehaviors; 2. discuss how teachers unknowingly contribute to students’ misbehaviors or make existing misbehaviors worse; 3. explain how student diversity (cultural, gender, social class, and developmental differences) affects behavior and perspectives of behavior;

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

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4. explain how inclusion policies challenge classroom managers; 5. explain why and how educators should develop a personal philosophy of classroom management, one on which they can base their daily management practices and strategies; 6. define the safe schools movement, and explain how can educators combat school violence and work to create safe schools; and 7. identify additional sources of information on classroom management.

Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Ms. Lacomba’s Classroom Management Challenges Ms. Maribel LaComba, a teacher in an urban school, is in her first year of teaching and faces serious classroom management challenges. As she was glad to explain: Look, I never wanted to teach fifth grade. I knew these kids would be tough. When I applied for a teaching position, I asked for a third grade. Then, they called to offer me a fifth-grade job in a school where few teachers want to work. I needed a job and didn’t know what else would come along, so I took it. What else was I supposed to do? Now, I am not sure I can control these fifth graders—they are so bad. Ms. LaComba did face serious challenges. Some of her students demonstrated relatively minor behaviors, such as goofing off, speaking out of turn, and continually getting out of their seats. She felt she could deal with these behaviors, but she was more concerned about other students who were rowdy and more aggressive. Some students, boys and girls, even bullied others and threatened them physically and psychologically. What was even more frightening was that the students’ behavior seemed to grow worse each week, and they listened to her less and less. When she tried contacting parents, she met with mixed results. Some parents suggested that she was to blame; others promised to speak to their children, but she doubted they did. Some parents seemed to imply that students always had misbehaved and that teachers just had to deal with the problem. “I don’t know what to do,” Ms. LaComba said. “Maybe I can finish out this year, but I’m not sure after that. I really want to teach, but maybe I need to look for other options and give up teaching.”

OVERVIEW Whether they were present in the nation’s earliest classrooms or teach in the contemporary schools of the 21st century, educators have had the professional responsibility to practice effective classroom management. To do this, educators must manage student behavior, establish safe classrooms, and provide teaching and learning experiences for a diverse student population in an orderly and studentfriendly manner. Although educators still deal primarily with relatively minor misbehaviors that interrupt their instructional activities and students’ learning, more schools are seeing the need to adopt safe schools policies to deal with or prevent serious misbehaviors. Whether you are a preservice educator (preparing to teach) or an inservice educator (already teaching), you should realize that the classroom management strategies that you develop and implement play a tremendously

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

important role in fostering student learning and providing safe learning environments for you and all of your students. Although some schools have potentially fruitful proposals for well-managed and safe schools, it is the individual classroom teacher who makes classroom management efforts work and ultimately provides a safe and productive learning environment for all students. In this chapter, you will read about the types, extent, and causes of misbehavior in the classroom, the types of diversity found in contemporary classrooms, and the emphasis on providing safe schools for all students and teachers. You will also see that because management and instruction are linked, both management and instructional planning are necessary. Thus, you will begin to examine your philosophy of teaching and develop a personal management plan.

KEY TERMS Table 1–1 identifies the key terms related to classroom management. TABLE 1–1

Key Terms Related to Classroom Management

• Classroom management

• Safe schools movement

• Diversity

• Sense of community

• Inclusion

• Target behaviors

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) has developed a set of standards that identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that all educators, especially beginning teachers, should have (the INTASC Standards). In addition to understanding their subject matter, educators must also understand diverse learners and student development and must be able to use multiple instructional strategies to motivate learners while creating a learning environment that allows all students to participate fully in both the social and the instructional activities of the classroom. Thus, in this chapter, you will examine the meaning of the term classroom management and the relationship between classroom management, instructional strategies, and your specific philosophical beliefs. In doing so, you must strive to develop a rationale for your own management and instructional strategies based on your personal beliefs and on the research and theories provided by experts in the educational field. Defining Classroom Management We prefer a broad definition of classroom management—one that encompasses more than just “convincing students to behave.” To us, classroom management consists of strategies for assuring physical and psychological safety in the classroom; techniques for changing student misbehaviors and for teaching self-discipline; methods of assuring an orderly progression of events during the school day; and instructional techniques that contribute to students’ positive behaviors. Connecting Classroom Management to Philosophy and Instruction As you begin your exploration of classroom management, it important to remember two points. First, an educator’s decision about classroom management should be based on the educator’s philosophical beliefs. Second, classroom management strategies should be “connected” to instructional practices.

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MANAGEMENT TIP 1–1 Setting the Stage for Success Good classroom management begins before the students arrive. Here are some things you should consider doing: • • • • •

Arrange your room. Obtain the supplies you need. Review the faculty/staff handbook. Go over the school procedures. Prepare all the materials that you will need for the first week of school. • Make a seating chart for the classroom. • Prepare a checklist of supplies that students should have, and make it available to parents and local businesses.

Here are some additional suggestions to help you prepare:

Pre-K and Elementary Meet with other teachers to determine general expectations for behavior and to identify successful management approaches.

Secondary Identify extracurricular activities and exploratory programs that will help to develop your students’ interests in specific learning areas.

It may surprise you to see that we link classroom management and instruction. The two are not separate entities. Indeed, they must go hand in hand, with the management plan providing the setting and support in which good instruction exists. An educator who does not have good management skills will have a difficult time instructing students. Conversely, even a teacher who uses a wide variety of instructional strategies will have problems teaching students without a good management plan to support desired behaviors in the classroom. For example, a teacher who keeps learners on task (e.g., correct developmental level, proper instructional pace, physical and psychological safety, appropriate curricular content) will be less likely to have students who misbehave. In contrast, teachers who are unprepared and disorganized contribute to students’ misbehaviors. All teachers can take specific steps to set the stage for a successful school year. Management Tip 1–1 offers some general suggestions for Pre-K, elementary, and secondary teachers. In developing classroom management and instructional strategies, educators need to base their practices on research and educationally sound beliefs. However, they also need to examine their own personal beliefs or philosophies about education and classroom management. Rather than “doing whatever someone else does” or “doing what our teachers did when we were in school,” educators need to determine their philosophical beliefs (e.g., their core beliefs about how teachers should “manage” students) and then base their classroom management decisions on these beliefs. For example, teachers need to decide whether they think discipline should be taught or imposed, whether teachers should be democratic or autocratic, and whether punishment works to improve or hinder students’ behavior. Teachers should always know why they, personally, use specific management techniques and strategies. This does not mean that educators can ignore research on classroom management. Rather, it means that each educator can examine the theories and research in a framework of personal beliefs and select the proven strategies that most closely reflect his or her philosophy. In the same way, an educator needs to look at a model of classroom management and see how the theory can be applied to the specific grade levels being taught. Although the theory remains the same, the educator tailors the application to the specific teaching situation.

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE IN CONTEMPORARY SCHOOLS Before we begin an exploration of classroom management theories and models in Chapters 3 through 10 of this book, and before you begin to develop a personal philosophy of classroom management and consider an actual implementation plan, you need to have a solid grasp of the most common

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types of misbehaviors, the extent to which students misbehave, and the effects of misbehaviors on teachers and students, as well as on the teaching and learning process. Types of Student Misbehaviors Both practicing teachers and preservice teachers who have observed in schools can attest to our belief that the list of misbehaviors is nearly endless. In fact, a website from The Master Teacher (www. disciplinehelp.com/parent/list.cfm?cause=All) provides a long list of common misbehaviors ranging from relatively minor off-task behaviors to more serious acts of violence and bullying. Jones (1987a) identifies the most common misbehaviors as goofing off, walking around the room, and talking and disturbing others. Although all educators experience some behavior problems, variation occurs with individual schools, grades, and teachers. For example, rural, urban, and suburban schools probably experience different problems, although all classes have some students who misbehave at times. Also, Pre-K, elementary, middle, and high school students demonstrate different behaviors and react differently to classroom management strategies. Although younger students’ behavior problems might be bothersome, in most cases these students neither pose a threat nor act violently. However, depending on the individual situation, some of their behaviors need to be addressed because they distract the teacher and other students. In some cases, educators’ actions and decisions contribute to student behavior problems. When educators impose zero-tolerance policies, post strict rules, demand immediate obedience, lack planning and organizational skills to implement effective instruction, and generally frustrate students, students are more prone to test the limits and misbehave. Extent and Effects of the Problem One of our university students asked, “Aren’t behavior problems unique to each student and each school? How can we make general statements about behavior problems and their effects?” These are perceptive questions, but this student missed several important points: • Behavior problems challenge all teachers, regardless of the school, grade level, or geographic location. • Behavior problems differ in frequency and intensity, yet they are similar in type. Although some schools do not experience any violence (albeit the threat continues to loom), all schools have some students who generally goof off and disturb others. • Behavior problems disturb teachers and students, negatively affect the teaching and learning process, and ultimately hinder academic achievement. One step toward preventing misbehaviors is for teachers to learn more about the students in their classrooms and schools. Management Tip 1–2 suggests some strategies all educators can use to learn more about the students they teach. Effects on Teachers and Students Just as the list of behavior problems is nearly endless, the effects of misbehaviors are also limitless. Unfortunately, as a result of classroom management problems, some teachers change professions during their first 2 or 3 years of teaching. They did not realize that just as time and effort must be spent on organizing and implementing instruction, time and effort must be spent on managing behavior (e.g., devising a classroom management program or learning the adopted schoolwide model). Behavior problems affect both students and teachers. When behavior problems arise, teachers often avoid creative instructional approaches because they have to deal with the increased misbehaviors. Disturbed and distracted, students who want to learn will lose valuable teaching and learning time. Still other students are bullied, threatened, and harassed. Thus, the lack of effective classroom management presents problems for everyone in a school.

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MANAGEMENT TIP 1–2 Learning About Your Students and School Before you have a discipline problem, you need to learn about the students you will be teaching and about your school’s policies for student behavior and disciplinary procedures. • Review the developmentally appropriate instructional and classroom management strategies for the age group you will teach. • Meet with other grade-level, interdisciplinary team members or subject-area teachers to discuss successful management strategies.

• Meet with assistant principals to learn school policies on acceptable student behavior and management strategies. What problems should a classroom teacher handle, and what problems should be referred to others? • Meet with parents to learn their behavioral expectations and convey your expectations to them either in person or through a newsletter, e-mail, or classroom website. • Review developmentally appropriate classroom management efforts, for example, advisor–advisee programs, sense of community, and differentiated instruction.

I dread the days when Mr. Pickett brings his class to the library. He doesn’t have any control, and the students just bounce off the walls. I was a classroom teacher before I became a librarian, so I know exactly what to do to calm the students down and get them working on task. But when I have to spend so much time managing Mr. Pickett’s class, the students don’t have as much time to complete their research assignment as the other classes do. These aren’t bad students; they just need to know the rules and the limits. —A school librarian

Causes of Classroom Management Problems Some teachers might wonder why it is important to know the causes of misbehavior. It might seem that if students misbehave, the teacher should be more concerned with stopping the misbehavior than with looking for the causes. Some misbehaviors do demand immediate attention. However, teachers who look for causes of student misbehavior might have a head start on improving classroom management. As you will read in Chapter 8, Dreikurs and Grey (1968) identified four causes or mistaken goals (revenge, attention getting, inadequacy, and power seeking) for student misbehaviors. We accept his ideas, but we also believe that misbehaviors can result from multiple causes and that in addition to personal causes, society in general and families in particular can contribute to the likelihood of a student’s misbehaving. Thus, when considering misbehaviors, teachers should try to determine the causes and then work to eliminate them rather than focusing only on correction. Mr. Filby and his students were disturbed by Whewanna, who constantly interrupted everyone. Often, as Mr. Filby asked a question, Whewanna interrupted with an unrelated question. At other times, she would blurt out the wrong answer or “accidentally” drop her books. Mr. Filby constantly admonished her to keep quiet; he put her name on the board, followed up the warnings, and carefully considered punishments. Nothing worked. Whewanna continued to talk out of turn and disturb others. Finally, Ms. Lubo, another teacher, suggested that warnings and punishments might not be the answer. Ms. Lubo thought the cause of Whewanna’s misbehavior might be to gain attention or because she felt inadequate. When Mr. Filby spoke with Whewanna, he found out that she was afraid he would call on her to answer a question she did not know. To help Whewanna, Mr. Filby did extra work with her and made sure he asked her some questions that he knew she could answer. As a result, Whewanna’s behavior did improve, not because Mr. Filby inflicted harsh punishments but because he identified and addressed the cause.

Society sometimes contributes to students’ misbehaviors. Some students see sarcasm, ridicule, and violence as a way of life or as a means of responding to others. Mimicking behaviors seen on television and in the community, students often act out, use statements heard on television, and resort to aggressive and violent behaviors, such as bringing weapons to school to impress peers or to harm or threaten other students. Although schools always have had fighters and bullies, most schools have been considered safe or immune from serious violence. Now, however, violence plagues some schools and challenges the goals of the safe schools movement (the topic of Chapter 2).

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APPLYING CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IDEAS 1–1 Determining Causes of Misbehavior For each of the following misbehaviors, identify what you might consider as possible causes of the misbehavior. The first one is completed as an example. How might your responses change if the student were in Pre-K? Elementary school? Middle school? High school? • A student refuses to do class work, talks to friends, and plays with things at her desk rather than listening to the lesson. Possible causes: Feelings of inadequacy, need for attention, more concerned with social aspects of school than with learning

• A student plays rough and demonstrates other aggressive behaviors. • A student brings a bag of a white powder to school and shows it to other students. • A student responds to every request with the comment, “I won’t do that, and nobody’s going to make me.” • A student refuses to wear a coat at recess even though it is cold outside. • A student has drastic behavior changes and has become antisocial. • A student throws spitballs at other students during class.

In other cases, misbehaviors can be rooted in familial causes. Students who experience family disruptions often vent their anger and frustration at school. Tyrone came to class wearing one blue sock and one brown sock. He was obviously angry and ready to strike out at anyone who mentioned his socks. Finally, he asked Ms. Berganio, his teacher, whether she noticed the different-colored socks. When Ms. Berganio voiced a sympathetic comment and offered to listen, Tyrone poured out the problems he was experiencing at home. As Tyrone learned that Ms. Berganio would be a compassionate yet objective listener, his behavior in class improved.

When students see violent and aggressive behaviors at home, they might begin to consider such behaviors as acceptable methods of dealing with problems. Also, some parents teach inappropriate behaviors. They say to their children, “Don’t you take anything off anyone!” or “That teacher can’t make you do that—you tell him I said so.” Others who do not teach such behavior condone it because they do not want their children to be victimized. Familial causes of misbehavior are often difficult to address because students usually have a strong allegiance to family expectations. In addition, teachers often feel frustrated and unsuccessful as they try to reason with parents who fail to teach appropriate behavior and respect for teachers and others. However, students should be held accountable and responsible for their behaviors, regardless of the cause. Applying Classroom Management Ideas 1–1 looks at several misbehaviors and possible causes.

STUDENT DIVERSITY AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Diversity can be defined as the differences among students that teachers must consider as they develop appropriate classroom management strategies. These differences include but are not limited to cultural and intracultural, gender, social class, linguistic, and developmental differences. For teachers, the keys to success are to understand these differences and their effects on behavior and to plan and implement classroom management strategies that accommodate diversities while taking extreme caution to avoid stereotypes. Although we discuss diversity in more detail in Chapters 11 and 12, the following sections provide an overview of this important subject. Cultural, Intracultural, and Gender Differences All teachers must be aware of cultural and gender diversity and its impact on classroom management. With our nation and schools growing more diverse each year, rapidly increasing cultural diversity is the norm in many parts of the United States as schools continue to be enriched by African Americans,

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management TABLE 1–2

Selected Cultural and Gender Differences

Students might have differing perceptions about: • Making eye contact • Standing closer to others • Competing with others • Receiving attention, positive or negative, in front of peers • Behaving appropriately and inappropriately • Working collaboratively toward group goals and working individually toward individual goals

Hispanics, and Asian Americans, just to name the most populous groups. No longer can educators plan classroom management procedures for the majority culture (whatever the majority culture is) and their own perspectives of appropriate behavior. Educators must also address issues of gender diversity. For example, for years educators have known that male and female students differ in their responses to classroom management methods. However, many teachers have done little to address these differences. Table 1–2 identifies some possible cultural and gender differences. Educators must look at several classroom management techniques from cultural and gender perspectives. • Educators often make eye contact to get students’ attention in the hope that they will correct the inappropriate behavior, yet members of some cultures avoid making eye contact and, in fact, consider the practice rude or insubordinate. • Educators sometimes stand closer to students (perhaps after eye contact did not work) in an effort to correct misbehaviors, yet some students value their personal space and find this too intrusive. • Educators sometimes call attention to students and their behaviors. However, students in some cultures feel embarrassed when teachers put their names on the board as a corrective measure. Others even feel uncomfortable with positive recognition, especially when they excel at others’ expense or think the recognition places others in a negative light. • Educators sometimes ask students or groups of students to compete with one another. For example, the students on the right side of the classroom might be asked to compete with those on the left side to see which group can be more successful demonstrating appropriate behavior. This can be a problem for individuals who value cooperation over competition. In light of these and other cultural differences, individual cultures and individual students must be considered when planning classroom management strategies. In addition, when working with students from various cultural groups, educators must also consider intracultural differences. It is a fallacy to believe that all members of any given group will act in exactly the same way. Thus, knowing general group preferences is just one part of understanding individual differences. Linguistic Differences As educators plan classroom management practices, they often must make accommodations for individuals with linguistic diversity. Unfortunately, many teachers are not adequately prepared to work with and manage diverse English-language learners. While Holmes, Rutledge, and Gauthier (2009) wrote about linguistic differences and language learning strategies, their conclusions are just as valid for classroom managers as for learners. They maintain that students in the United States do not speak with one voice; they come to school speaking more than 149 different languages. Even in the smallest school systems, it is common for teachers to have one or more students with limited or

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APPLYING CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IDEAS 1–2 Understanding Differences and Avoiding Stereotypes There is a fine line between identifying cultural preferences and creating stereotypes. Consider the following scenario and then respond to the questions that follow. Mr. Henry, a European American teacher, taught in an urban school that was 98% African and Hispanic American, yet he showed little concern for students’ diversities. In fact, he told another teacher that he thought the most effective classroom management strategy was to treat all students the same. Another teacher, Mrs. Hill, casually mentioned cultural differences such as eye contact, physical proximity (standing closer to misbehaving students), expecting student competition, and differing ideas about appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Mr. Henry disagreed and argued against basing classroom management plans on stereotypes. He said, “There are too many intracultural and individual differences for educators to base

management strategies on cultural differences or stereotypes. I still think treating all students the same is the best idea.” Respond to the following questions: 1. Should teachers modify their classroom management styles to take cultural differences into consideration? Why or why not? 2. What is the difference between cultural preferences and stereotypes? 3. How can a teacher respond to cultural preferences and not create stereotypes? 4. Select one type of diversity mentioned in this chapter, and indicate aspects from that type of diversity that you would need to take into consideration when developing your own management style. Compare this with the items identified by others in your group or your class.

no command of the English language. Teachers planning classroom management practices have to consider students’ prior world knowledge, experiences, and fluency in their native languages. Managing linguistically diverse students requires educators to build a strong sense of community in the classroom and to instill an appreciation of linguistic diversity. In building a sense of community, Pre-K, elementary, and secondary educators should strive to create a feeling of togetherness—in which all students, teachers, and administrators know each other—and to create a climate for intellectual development and shared educational purpose. Applying Classroom Management Ideas 1–2 asks you to consider differences and stereotypes. Socioeconomic Level If a group of individuals has particular characteristics that are valued by a society, this group will usually enjoy higher status. The reverse is also true. Thus, when speaking of upper and lower classes, we are referring to groups of individuals who either have or do not have qualities in common that are prized by a larger society. For example, upper classes have wealth, advanced education, professional occupations, and relative freedom from concern about their material needs. In contrast, lower classes live in or on the edge of poverty, have little education, are irregularly employed or employed in jobs requiring little or no training, often require assistance from government welfare agencies, and are constantly concerned with meeting the basic needs of life. Because socioeconomic differences often play a significant role in determining how a person acts, thinks, lives, and relates to others, educators who come from middle and upper classes may have difficulty understanding the social and economic problems facing children and adolescents from homes on a lower socioeconomic level. Significant numbers of children and adolescents in the United States live below the poverty line. Unfortunately, some people look at an individual’s socioeconomic class and make judgments about that individual’s ambitions, motivations to achieve, and ability to demonstrate acceptable behavior. It is a serious mistake for any educator to make assumptions about expected behavior based on a student’s wealth and social class. Teachers should never stereotype by social class and should never assume that students from lower socioeconomic classes have less desire to behave. Just

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as many learners from higher socioeconomic classes may fail to achieve and behave, students from lower socioeconomic classes often demonstrate excellent behavior. One might ask, “What do socioeconomic status and conditions have to do with classroom management and student behavior?” We think a lot because socioeconomic status affects students’ worldviews, behavior, and perceptions of appropriate behavior. We are not saying socioeconomically poorer learners misbehave worse than students from higher socioeconomic classes, but we do think socioeconomic status affects both student achievement and behavior. Developmental Differences Developmental differences among Pre-K, elementary, and secondary students are often easy to detect, and educators do not expect the same misbehaviors from 4- and 5-year-olds as they do from 16- and 17-year-olds. Although these educators may use the same research and classroom management models, they adapt the strategies to suit the general age group. However, more subtle differences exist among students in a particular grade and should be considered when developing classroom management strategies. For example, some seventh-grade students might react positively to certain management strategies, but others in the same grade might react in an immature or perhaps aggressive fashion. Inclusion and the Management of All Students Simply put, inclusion is the policy of educating a learner with special needs in the school, and, whenever possible, in the class that the learner would have attended without the disabling condition. Although inclusion is a relatively new term, the concept of educating students with disabilities has been around for decades. In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990. The intent of IDEA was to provide access to educational services for approximately half of the 8 million students with disabilities who were not receiving a free and appropriate public education. Inclusion is based on the belief that all students have a right to be educated in a general education setting with appropriate support services. In addition to benefiting special needs students academically and socially, inclusion helps to improve their self-concepts and helps all students learn to accept differences. In addition, the student role models in the general education classroom can help students with special needs improve their own behavior and social skills. Thus, educators teach significant numbers of students with special needs in regular classrooms alongside their peers without disabilities. Teachers often feel challenged to provide classroom management strategies that are appropriate for these “inclusive” students. In fact, current practices of many schools are at odds with the disciplinary provisions of IDEA. In many instances, educators address problem behaviors with negative consequences that are aimed at eliminating the problem. Unfortunately, this action does not address what the student accomplished by engaging in the behavior (e.g., student disrupts a science class to avoid a difficult academic demand). In addition, the use of punishment to teach students more appropriate behavior sometimes worsens an already-difficult situation, especially for students with special needs. The disciplinary provisions of IDEA place the emphasis on understanding why the student misbehaves. Then, educators can use this knowledge to reduce future occurrences of the behavior and to promote the use of an alternative behavior that serves the same purpose but that is more socially acceptable or appropriate. General education teachers must work with special educators to address student misconduct that is sufficiently serious to evoke disciplinary action (i.e., suspension or expulsion). Together they can provide positive behavioral interventions and strategies. Soodak (2003) maintained that the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classes provides an opportunity for teachers to identify classroom management policies and practices that promote diversity and community. Management strategies that enhance the overall quality of the classroom environment can minimize discipline issues because students feel welcomed, safe, and supported. Educators should create an inclusive community for all students by promoting membership, facilitating friendships, and proving collaborative opportunities for learning and socialization.

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT MODEL With the diversity of students in a contemporary classroom and the many needs that they bring to school with them each day, it is important for all educators to examine their beliefs about students and learning, to develop or revisit their philosophy of education, and to review the research and theories about classroom management. The goal is for each educator to develop a personal strategy for classroom management. This should be started long before an educator meets students on the first day of school and should continue, with modifications and refinements, throughout the educator’s professional career. Thus, as you read this book, you should look critically at each model or theory of classroom management. However, developing a personal management model is more complicated than blindly following a given model, theory, or practice. To move from theory and research to a personal philosophy and model of classroom management, you also need to identify student misbehaviors that you want to address, review existing models and theories to identify the parts that you believe you would be able to use in your own classroom, and develop a personal classroom management model that works for you. The philosophical beliefs and tenets of your personal model must match your perspectives about the way students learn and behave and the way you will foster learning in your classroom. Identifying Target Behaviors to Address Target behaviors are those behaviors that educators decide to address because they violate class or school policy or those that interfere with teachers teaching or students learning. Addressing all misbehaviors is not an efficient use of instructional time. Thus, in developing a philosophy and a model of classroom management, you need to identify the target behaviors in your classroom. Unless the school as a whole has a rule against specific behaviors, or unless teachers are working together as a team or working with a group of students on a departmentalized basis, we believe teachers should decide for themselves which misbehaviors to address in their individual classrooms. In this book, we place value on students’ diversities, but we maintain that diversity exists among teachers, too. Some misbehaviors bother some teachers and not others. For example, some teachers object to any talking with friends, but others address the misbehavior only if it becomes a serious interruption. Teachers’ perceptions of behavior, specific misbehaviors to be addressed, and characteristics of well-managed classrooms should be considered when identifying target misbehaviors. In addition, students have the right to know what those target misbehaviors are and how flexible the teacher is in enforcing the rules. Unfortunately, individuality in teacher expectations may present a problem when teachers work together in teams or with the same group of students at different times during the day or during the week. Applying Classroom Management Ideas 1–3 focuses on identifying what you consider target misbehaviors. Teachers’ Contributions to Behavior Problems As we noted earlier in this chapter, some teachers use instructional and management behaviors that contribute to students’ misbehaviors. This is not to say that the students always would have been well behaved if the teachers had been more careful with their teaching techniques. However, the actions of educators, the policies they establish, their instructional expertise, and their beliefs about students have a direct impact on classroom management. Applying Classroom Management Ideas 1–4 looks at ways in which teacher behaviors affect classroom management. Unfortunately, some teachers believe their classroom management strategies are effective even though they are not. Others are unconscious that their instructional and management techniques contribute to student misbehavior. It is hoped that these occurrences are rare, but all teachers need

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

APPLYING CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IDEAS 1–3 Identifying Target Misbehaviors To identify a target misbehavior, ask yourself the following questions: 1. Does the behavior disturb me as I conduct instruction and manage the class? 2. Does the behavior disturb students as they engage in the learning process? 3. Does the behavior place students in physical or psychological harm?

4. Does the behavior break a stated school or class rule— one that I have a professional responsibility to enforce? 5. Does the behavior give indications that it might escalate into a larger or more disturbing problem? What other questions might you ask? Now, think about some of the misbehaviors you have seen in schools. Use these questions to identify examples of your target misbehaviors.

to be aware of the instructional and management strategies that they use, periodically assess these strategies, and evaluate their effectiveness. Developing Your Own Philosophy and Model Some schools have adopted a schoolwide classroom management model such as the Canters’ Assertive Discipline program or the Positive Behavior Support framework. In these situations, teachers usually are required to adhere to the philosophy and mandates of the model. One advantage of a schoolwide model is the consistency that should be found from teacher to teacher. Rather than one

APPLYING CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IDEAS 1–4 Examining Teachers’ Behaviors Examine each of the following examples. Explain why each might contribute to misbehaviors or help students to act appropriately. • Mr. Henson believes that students must obey every rule at all times. • Mr. Sevilla tries to identify the misbehaviors in his classroom that might threaten other students physically or psychologically. • Ms. Whitlock tries to deal immediately with any misbehavior that she believes might escalate. • Ms. Jernigan provides work that is either unduly challenging or not challenging enough for her students. • Mr. Tow uses teaching techniques that rely on collaboration and encourages students to work cooperatively. • Mr. Lopes gives his class work that frustrates the students or fails to capture their interest. • Ms. Cadle uses positive reinforcement rather than threats or punishments. • Mr. Culliton tries to avoid calling negative attention to students.

• Ms. Kabayshi relies on the lecture method and conducts instruction for long periods of time. • Ms. Denosta uses sarcasm and techniques that rely on ridicule and harassment. • Mr. Lezzi is too lenient, and his students have no clear understanding of his expectations, expected behaviors, and the consequences of misbehaving. • Mr. Strempski tries to establish a positive classroom environment where his students feel safe. • Ms. Durant uses teaching methods that rely heavily on competition with a lot of active games in her classroom. • Mr. Sullivan has several zero-tolerance policies that eliminate the need to consider individual students and individual behaviors. • Ms. Toselli allows power struggles to develop with individual students whereby she and a few students struggle to demonstrate their power to control situations in the classroom.

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

teacher being strict and another lenient, students benefit from having teachers with similar expectations. However, all teachers might not enforce all management expectations and strategies equally. Also, problems can result if the philosophical perspectives of the classroom management model do not reflect those of the teachers. In this case, the teachers might need to change their beliefs to coincide with those of the adopted model. Although schoolwide classroom management models work effectively in some circumstances, we find that many teachers prefer to develop their own management philosophy and then build a model that reflects their beliefs. This process is discussed extensively in Chapters 13 and 14 and is presented briefly here. How do you develop a philosophy of classroom management? Bosch (1999) maintains that classroom management must reflect the personality and teaching style of the individual teacher and is a skill that must be learned, practiced, evaluated, and modified to fit the changing situations in contemporary classrooms. Too often, beginning teachers try one management strategy and become discouraged if it does not produce the desired effects immediately. Just as teachers modify and adjust teaching strategies to match students’ needs and learning styles, so must teachers modify and adjust their management strategies. In order to develop a plan for classroom management, teachers must identify their own personal and professional strengths and weaknesses and examine and evaluate their instructional practices. Then they should develop a management plan, implement it, and, finally, evaluate and revise that plan (Bosch, 1999). As you think about your philosophy of classroom management, remember that classroom management is not a synonym for discipline. Management looks at the organization and operation of a classroom, including classroom arrangement, the individuals in the classroom, the behavior of the teacher and students, the instructional strategies used by the teacher, the interactions of the students and teacher, the atmosphere of the school, and the community in which the school is located (Bosch, 1999). You can begin to develop your personal philosophy of classroom management by referring to your answers to the questions in Developing Your Personal Philosophy. Finally, as you read about the theories and models in Chapters 3 through 10 and consider the information on inclusion and diversity in Chapters 11 and 12, you need to continue to think about these questions and to explore the models and theories and their relationship to your personal beliefs. Finally, in Chapters 14 and 15, you will be able to work more intensely on the development of your own philosophy and plan for classroom management. You can use the forms that are contained in Appendix A of this book to help you in the process. Just as we do not advocate any one model or theory of classroom management, we do not advocate any specific philosophical position. We believe teachers should develop their own philosophy and then implement classroom management strategies that reflect the philosophy they choose.

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Examining Your Beliefs To form the basis for your personal philosophy of classroom management, answer the following questions to reflect your current beliefs. Later, as you explore the ideas, theories, and models presented in this book, you might want to revise or modify your responses. 1. What is the purpose of education? 2. What is a good teacher, and what is good teaching? 3. What role should a teacher play in a classroom?

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4. What should be the goals of a classroom management plan? 5. What misbehaviors do you want students to avoid? 6. What classroom misbehaviors are worth addressing? 7. How can you address diversity in a management plan? 8. What are your personal strengths and weaknesses? 9. What instructional strategies do you prefer to use? 10. Do you believe it is more effective to impose discipline or to teach self-discipline?

Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

AGGRESSION, VIOLENCE, AND THE SAFE SCHOOLS MOVEMENT Educators have always faced the challenge of relatively minor misbehaviors that were disturbing and distracted students from the educational process. In addition, educators have always had to deal with bullies. Now, they also face more serious problems of aggression and violence. Guns, knives, and other weapons are found in some schools all too often. Supported by individuals, professional associations, and governmental agencies, the safe schools movement places a priority on making schools safe for students and educators by focusing on the problem of violence and proposing possible remedies. Chapter 2 looks at school violence and the safe schools movement in more detail, but this section takes a brief look at the problem and efforts to make schools safe. The Problem of Aggression and Violence Mendler and Curwin (1997), the theorists discussed in Chapter 8, maintain that although school and societal violence is a sad reality, schools also remain perhaps one of the safest places for children and adolescents. However, violence occurs and deserves to be addressed. Mendler and Curwin identified three forms of violence: bodily (physical injury), esteem (verbal harassment, such as name calling), and property (damage to things one owns). All three breed an atmosphere of hostility and aggression in which it feels and looks better to hurt others more so than to resolve issues and tolerate others. Violence has many causes. Some children grow up abused and assume that abuse is a way of life, and others do not have a nurturing family structure. For still other students, the absence of fathers, the increasing depersonalization of communities, and the diminishing role of values and community play a major role (Mendler & Curwin, 1997). Additional causes include gang presence and activity, hate-motivated behavior, and drugs and alcohol (National Education Association, 1998). Other instances of violence can be attributed to bullies, their victims, and loners who feel anonymous or disliked by peers. The Safe Schools Movement Understanding the causes of school violence is a viable starting point for ending it, but the challenge is to identify a way to reduce its physical and psychological harm. As the name suggests, the safe schools movement places a priority on making schools safe for students and educators. Rather than simply the efforts of one organization, the safe schools movement is supported by many people, professional associations, and governmental agencies. As books, articles, and reports on safe schools focus more sharply on the problem of violence and possible remedies, the effort to prevent and reduce school violence gains momentum daily. The Role of Effective Classroom Management Teachers might believe that their classroom management methods and strategies are appropriate only for routine misbehaviors—those misbehaviors that disturb students and educators but do not cause physical or psychological harm. They might see violence or aggression as the responsibility of administrators (at the school level and the district level). When we asked about safe schools programs, one teacher said, “Efforts to reduce school violence are made at the school level; the principal has a safe schools plan. I think the associate superintendent sent it to her.” Another teacher maintained that it was best to “call the police and get the hoodlums out of here.” Such mindsets disavow the role of classroom management in the efforts to reduce school violence. Management Tip 1–3 shows several strategies teachers might take in individual classrooms to promote safe schools. Each teacher needs to become involved in creating and maintaining safe schools, and educators also need to adopt a collaborative approach to create a safe environment throughout the school. In addition, as teachers develop a classroom management plan, they need to focus on management components that make classrooms safe.

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Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management

MANAGEMENT TIP 1–3 Promoting Safe Schools All teachers need to promote safe schools. Teachers can do the following: • Model cooperation and collaboration with students and other educators. • Identify and work with students who have potential for becoming bullies or for demonstrating aggressive behaviors. • Hold class meetings and help students to identify and address possible interpersonal problems before they escalate. • Work with parents and family members of young children and elementary students who are experiencing academic, social, or behavioral difficulties.

• Help students to develop a sense of community, in which they learn to be concerned about each other’s overall well-being. • Teach students conflict-resolution skills to replace violence and aggressive responses to problems.

Pre-K and Elementary Work with parents and family members of young children and elementary students who are experiencing academic, social, or behavioral difficulties.

Secondary Maintain constant vigilance for weapons or any object that students might use as weapons.

Summary Although considerable research and writing have focused on classroom management and the various models and theorists, little evidence suggests that educators’ classroom management challenges will decrease in the future. For any number of reasons, educators will continue to deal with students who misbehave and interrupt the teaching and learning process. In addition, educators and students will face aggressive, violent, and bullying behaviors. Unfortunately, easy answers and solutions to this violence do not exist. In this chapter, you have looked at the field of classroom management in general and its connection to an educator’s philosophy and to instruction. You have also examined types of student misbehaviors, their effects on teachers and students, and the causes of classroom management problems. In addition, you have read about student diversity and its impact on classroom management and the importance of developing your own management philosophy. To do this, you must understand classroom management theorists and models and then select the ideas that work for you to develop a comprehensive classroom management plan. Once you do this, you still need to implement classroom management strategies that reflect your personal preferences for managing students. Finally, you read some general information about aggression, violence, and the safe schools movement.

As you continue in your study of classroom management, remember that classroom management is a process rather than a product. Educators’ perspectives evolve; students and their behaviors change. Therefore, you will need to improve and revise your management model continually to make classrooms productive and safe learning environments. To help you as you begin your study of classroom management, consult the Internet resources listed in “Reaching Out with the Internet,” as well as the suggested readings at the end of this chapter. Now, revisit the opening vignette for this chapter and respond to the following questions: 1. Ms. LaComba faced significant challenges that many

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

teachers face. Should she try to find a third-grade teaching position, which was her original plan? Why? Should she give up and pursue another career? Why? What help should she expect from the school administration? How might Ms. LaComba be at fault? If you were in Ms. LaComba’s situation, what would you do? After you have read the theories and models in this book, revisit this case study and give Ms. LaComba some specific advice about classroom management techniques she might use.

Suggested Readings O’Neill, S. C., & Stephenson, J. (2011). The measurement of classroom management self-efficacy: A review of measurement instrument development and influences. Educational Psychology

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31(3), 261–299. The authors provide a comprehensive review of the relationship between classroom management and teachers’ self-efficacy.

Introducing the Concept of Classroom Management Poplin, M., Rivera, J., Durish, D., Hoff, L., Kawell, S., Pawlak, P., Hinman, I. S., Straus, L., & Veney, C. (2011). She is strict for a good reason: Highly effective teachers in low-performing urban schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(5), 39–43. Studying the work of highly effective teachers can help other teachers better understand what really works to improve student learning and help teachers avoid practices that are complicated, trendy, and expensive. Roache, J. E., & Lewis, R. (2011). The carrot, the stick, or the relationship: What are the effective disciplinary strategies? European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 233–248. This report examines the results of a student to identify effective management strategies.

Taylor-Fox, H., & Rose, D. (2011). A class preamble. School Library Monthly, 27(7), 14–15. In this practical article, the authors design a classroom preamble that contains objectives, resources, procedures, assessment, and professional reflection. Trump, K. S. (2011). Managing bullying in politically charged climates. Education Digest, 76(9), 9–11. Along with suggesting ways to work with law enforcement authorities, the author looks at political and media considerations of antibullying policies. Wubbels, T. (2011). An international perspective on classroom management: What should prospective teachers learn? Teaching Education, 22(2), 113–131. Wubbels reviews international approaches to classroom management.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on understanding the need for classroom management. Classroom Management: Information from Answers.com www.answers.com/topic/classroom-management/ Education World: Classroom Management www.educationworld.com/a_curr/archives/classroom_ management.shtml Dr. Mac’s Behavior Management Site www.behavioradvisor.com

The Metamorphosis of Classroom Management www.mcrel.org/pdf/noteworthy/learners_learning _schooling/ franm.asp National Alliance for Safe Schools www.safeschools.org Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS/ Discipline Help: You Can Handle Them All: List of Behaviors At School www.disciplinehelp.com

Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 idea.ed.gov Manual of Rules and Procedures for Improving School Order and Safety from the Cather School and Grant School, public schools in Chicago www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/drugfree/ sa2cathe.htm

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

From Chapter 4 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 4, you should be able to 1. discuss the characteristics of the “behavioral approaches” to classroom management; 2. describe the key concepts of Lee and Marlene Canter’s Assertive Discipline model and explain how these concepts should be implemented in a classroom; 3. explain the Good Behavior Game developed by Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf and describe how to implement it in a variety of school settings;

Creatas/Thinkstock

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4. discuss Nelson’s Think Time™ strategy and the steps required to use it in a classroom; 5. critique the “behavioral approaches” to classroom management, including their use with a diverse population; and 6. consider all the behavioral approaches and identify concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Confronting Management Problems in the First Grade While Sabrina Price, a first-grade teacher in a suburban school system, was preparing for the new school year, she thought back to the disaster of her first year. She had taken this teaching job because she did not feel she could handle older children or the challenges of inner-city schools. However, at the end of the most recent school year, she had almost quit the profession. As Ms. Price said: I couldn’t make my students behave. They just would not listen to me! The principal discussed the situation with me on several occasions, but I just didn’t know what to do. My first-grade class was often chaotic. No one was ever in danger; but most of the time, the students were loud, ignored my admonitions, walked around the room, played among themselves, yelled to one another, and, generally speaking, just goofed off. I was good at working with small groups, but then the others in the class would make so much noise that no one could concentrate. I know I had students who wanted to learn, but it was too noisy in the room. Although I tried several techniques, such as bribing them with candy, threatening them, and saying I would call their parents, nothing seemed to work. Oh sure, some days were better than others and I was able to get them to do their work; but, on other days, I basically just gave up and let them do what they wanted to do. I want my students to like me; I want to be their friend. But right now, I’ve got to figure out a way to manage my classroom or I’m leaving teaching at the end of the year, if not before!

OVERVIEW In the opening chapter vignette, Sabrina Price found that classroom management is a major reason some teachers decide to leave the profession. Looking over various approaches to management, Ms. Price might consider using a behavioral model. As Landrum and Kauffman (2006) indicated, these models constitute “a dominant and influential paradigm in . . . educational research” (p. 47) and in classrooms. By focusing on changing observable behaviors such as talking, these approaches require teachers to identify desired and undesired behaviors without looking for their causes. In general, behavioral approaches rely on the basic operations identified by B. F. Skinner (1948, 1971) in his work on operant conditioning or behavior modification, including positive and negative reinforcement. His findings evolved into the field of applied behavior analysis or “systematic efforts to change socially important behaviors in positive ways through the application of behavioral principles,

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

with strict reliance on the frequent, repeated assessment of observable and measurable behavior” (Landrum & Kauffman, 2006, p. 53). These behavioral approaches have their detractors who believe that these clinical models of management are better suited to laboratory settings with animals than to classrooms with young people. However, there is a wide body of research that shows that when these models are used “skillfully . . . [and] with understanding of the social contexts in which they are applied” (Landrum & Kauffman, 2006, p. 67), they can be very effective for classroom management.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES In this chapter we look at several models that follow a behavioral approach to classroom management: Canter and Canter’s Assertive Discipline; Barrish’s, Saunders’s, and Wolf’s Good Behavior Game; and Nelson’s Think Time. Relying on the behavior modification work of Skinner and others, these models focus on observable behaviors in the classroom. Some, such as Assertive Discipline, focus on increasing desired behaviors, while others, such as the Good Behavior Game, focus on decreasing undesired actions.

KEY TERMS Table 4–1 identifies the key terms related to behavioral approaches to classroom management. TABLE 4–1 Key Terms Related to Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management Canter and Canter Assertive Discipline

Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf Good Behavior Game

Nelson Think Time™

• Assertive style

• Baseline for misbehaviors

• Behavior debriefing

• Broken-record response

• Class rules

• Cognitive-behavioral time-out

• Class rules

• Monitoring behavior

• Cooperating teacher

• Consequences

• Natural reinforcers

• Early intervention

• Discipline hierarchy

• Positive peer relationships

• Precision request

• Hostile style

• Rewards

• Self-management

• Negative consequence

• Team membership

• Think Time™ desk

• Nonassertive style • Positive reinforcement • Severe clause

LEE CANTER AND MARLENE CANTER: ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE Following the behavior modification (sometimes called operant conditioning or stimulus-response theory) work of B. F. Skinner (1948, 1971) and others, Lee Canter and Marlene Canter (Canter, 1974; Canter & Canter, 1976, 1992, 2001) proposed a classroom management model called Assertive Discipline. Studied by a number of researchers (Desiderio & Mullennix, 2005; Ferguson & Houghton, 1992; Swinson & Cording, 2002), it follows the belief that positive reinforcement and negative consequences will foster appropriate behavior in the classroom.

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management • Rewards and punishments are effective. • Both teachers and students have rights in the classroom. • While giving rewards and punishments, teachers must work toward creating an optimal learning environment.

FIGURE 4–1

Key Concepts of the Canters’ Assertive Discipline

• Teachers must apply rules and enforce consequences consistently without bias or discrimination. • Ideally, teachers should have their discipline plan in place when the school year begins and should communicate classroom behavior expectations to the students along with the consequences for misbehavior. • Teachers should use a discipline hierarchy with consequences that are appropriate for the grade level. • Rather than using a nonassertive or hostile response style, teachers should be assertive.

Overview of the Canters’ Model To use this model, teachers must be assertive rather than passive or hostile, state rules consistently and clearly, follow through appropriately, apply positive consequences when students meet behavioral expectations, and apply negative consequences when they do not. Punishment or unpleasant consequences should follow negative behavior, with the penalty system having increasingly severe sanctions. Figure 4–1 provides an overview of the key concepts of the model (Canter, 1974; Canter & Canter, 1976, 1992, 2001).

Practical Applications of the Canters’ Model Gerra Meador was a student teacher with a teacher who used Assertive Discipline for classroom management. While teaching a social studies lesson, Ms. Meador asked a question. A girl answered without raising her hand. Ms. Meador wrote the student’s name on a clipboard (that was her first warning) and continued teaching. The girl did not speak again without raising her hand, and because Ms. Meador never gave a public reprimand, instructional time was not lost. The Canters’ Assertive Discipline model can be translated into practical application in all levels of schools as both a schoolwide (Keiper, 2004) and an individual classroom model for management for a wide range of students. With its emphasis on clear and positive limits, rules, rewards and consequences, and on teachers acting in an assertive rather than a nonassertive or hostile manner, the Canters’ model can address many routine but prevalent classroom management problems. Let’s look at some of the components of the model. The Canters (Canter, 1974; Canter & Canter, 1976, 1992, 2001) identified three response styles, or philosophical stances, that teachers use to manage a classroom. The first, the nonassertive style, is usually ineffective and is used by teachers who fail to establish clear standards of behavior or who fail to follow through on threats with appropriate actions. In addition to Sabrina Price in the opening vignette, the following are examples of a teacher using a nonassertive style:

THREE RESPONSE STYLES.

• “I’ve asked you repeatedly to stop talking, and you continue to do it. Please stop.” • “Why do you and Bill continue to fight? You’ve been told time and again to stop it.” • “Sarah, the rules are clearly posted on the wall. I don’t know why you continue to break them.” In contrast to nonassertive teachers, teachers with a hostile style use an aversive approach, shout, and use threats and sarcasm. Although results might be instantaneous, this style has the

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

potential for emotional harm and possible abuse. For example, a hostile teacher might say one of the following: • “Sit down and shut up!” • “Put that comic book away or you’ll wish you had!” • “Do that again, Nelson, and see what you get. I’ve had my fill of you!” In opposition to those who believe that firm control is stifling and inhumane, the Canters praise teachers with an assertive style who clearly and specifically place limits and rewards or consequences on students. Making their expectations known to students, parents, and administrators, assertive teachers not only insist that their expectations be followed but also provide reasonable consequences that are appropriate for the misbehavior for students who choose not to comply with expectations. Likewise, they provide positive consequences for students who do comply. Assertive teachers often use the Canters’ broken-record response by repeating the same or a similar request for compliance a maximum of three times before invoking the consequence. Examples of comments from an assertive teacher include the following: • “We do not ask questions without permission—you must raise your hand.” • “Justin, that is your warning for leaning back in the chair. Put the chair down now or you will face a loss of classroom privileges.” • “Quentina, you did a good job leading your cooperative learning group.” For a message to have full effect, the Canters recommend that assertive teachers maintain eye contact with the student. This lets the student know the teacher is in control, but it may not be appropriate with some cultural groups. Teachers must accept the role of giver of rewards and punishments, and they must be consistent regardless of the student or the situation. According to the Canters (1992), teachers must not show prejudice toward any student. This is especially important in contemporary schools, where respect for diversity and the need for effective instruction within a safe school environment are essential. Unfortunately, Jef Unger did not believe in this philosophy. TEACHERS’ ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

• Mr. Unger had many behavior problems in his class that resulted from his lack of consistency. One week he would allow students to walk around the classroom; the next week he would get upset about it. Even in the same day, he would punish Vilay for talking to Stuart when he should be working on his homework but ignore the same behavior when Shavondria talked to Delores. As Mr. Unger said, “I know which students are good ones, and Shavondria shouldn’t have to follow all the rules. The bad ones, well, when they’re like Vilay, I really make them toe the line. And sometimes, when things are going well, I just ignore some misbehaviors. I don’t want to break the flow by enforcing rules.”

Like Jef Unger, some teachers have preconceived or even negative expectations for a few students. This means that a teacher might make excuses for the behavior of some students while condemning the behavior of others. After reading the following comments, which illustrate an excuse and a negative expectation held by teachers, evaluate the actions of Louisa Del Campo in Applying Behavioral Ideas 4–1. • “She’s usually a good student but she’s been sick. That probably explains why she’s been acting up.” • “Look at his brothers and sisters. How can you expect any better behavior from him?” Finally, teachers must be willing to work toward positive interactions with students in part by creating an optimal learning environment within the classroom that allows students to work and socialize together in a comfortable environment (Smith, 2001).

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

APPLYING BEHAVIORAL IDEAS 4–1 Acting Like Hoodlums stayed together in school and were in the two teachers’ middle school team. Glenda knew these students lived in a lower socioeconomic area where crime statistics were higher than average, but she still shuddered when she heard Louisa’s comment. Glenda had two concerns: first was that another member of her teaching team would make such a comment, and second was her concern for the students.

The Canters believe that teachers must not show prejudice. Instead, they must be fair to all students and be consistent in their actions. Although most teachers follow these beliefs, sometimes they work with others who do not keep an open mind and who rely on stereotypes. Read the following scenario; then respond to the questions. As Glenda Gonzales entered the teachers’ lounge, she heard Louisa Del Campo remark, “All the students from that neighborhood act like hoodlums. I just ignore them in my class most of the time. After all, students from there are just problems waiting to happen.” Glenda was sure Louisa was referring to a group of boys and girls who all lived in the same section of town. Sometimes rowdy and often rough looking, they

Respond to the following questions: 1. What, if anything, should Glenda Gonzales do? How should she handle the situation? 2. Review the key concepts of the Canters’ model. If you had these students in your classroom, which strategies from the Canters’ model could you try?

RIGHTS OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS The Canters (Canter, 1974; Canter & Canter, 1976, 1992, 2001) believe that students and teachers have rights in the classroom, as shown in Figure 4–2. Noting the connections between classroom instruction and management, the Canters believe that teachers who fail to teach and who deny students opportunities to learn usually have an inability to manage or control the class. The Canters (1992, p. 58) believe that a system based on positive interactions and positive recognition will “encourage students to continue appropriate behavior.” As a result, students’ self-esteem will improve, behavior problems will be reduced, and there will be a positive classroom environment for

Students have the right to • have an optimal learning environment, • have teachers who help them reduce inappropriate behavior,

FIGURE 4–2

Basic Rights of Students and Teachers

• have teachers who provide appropriate support for appropriate behavior, • have teachers who do not violate the students’ best interests, and • choose how to behave with the advance knowledge of the consequences that will consistently follow. Teachers have the right to • maintain an optimal learning environment, • expect appropriate behavior, • expect help from administrators and parents, and • ensure students’ rights and responsibilities are met by a discipline plan that clearly states expectations, consistently applies the consequences, and does not violate the best interests of the students. Sources: Developed from L. Canter. (1974). The ways and hows of working with behavior problems in the classroom. San Rafael, CA: Academic Therapy Press; L. Canter & M. Canter. (1976). Assertive Discipline: A take-charge approach for today’s educators. Santa Monica, CA: Lee Canter & Associates; and L. Canter & M. Canter. (1992). Assertive Discipline: Positive behavior management for today’s classrooms. Santa Monica, CA: Lee Canter & Associates.

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

the teacher and students. It is especially important for this positive recognition to be grade appropriate; for example, verbal praise might be appropriate for a second grader, but something more private probably is better for an older student. Along with building a classroom based on positive interactions and reinforcement, teachers should develop trust and respect in their classrooms and should also model the behaviors they want their students to develop. Sometimes, however, situations occur that test the extent of trust and respect in a classroom. • When Drew Nash confronted one of her seventh-grade students who had broken a class rule, the student pulled a knife out of his desk. Using the broken-record technique, Ms. Nash said in a calm and matter-of-fact way, “Stan, put the knife on the desk.” Stan did not, and the entire class watched to see the actions of Stan and the teacher. Again, Ms. Nash said, “Stan, put the knife on the desk.” Stan did not. For a third time, Ms. Nash said, “Stan, put the knife on the desk.” This time, Stan placed the knife on the desk. Ms. Nash never raised her voice, never threatened, and never said please. REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS The Assertive Discipline classroom management plan consists of a few simple yet specific rules along with age and grade-level appropriate rewards (see Management Tip 4–3 later in this chapter) for following the rules and the consequences of breaking them. The plan should be displayed in the classroom and distributed to parents. The Canters recommend that a teacher, perhaps with the assistance of the students, make and post the class rules. (See Management Tip 4–1.) In addition to being age and grade-level appropriate, the rules need to be specific (“Raise your hand before speaking”) rather than general or vague (“Be good”), and they should clearly spell out the behavior expectation (“Keep your hands to yourself”). Assertive teachers often remind students of expectations before beginning each lesson: “I expect you to be prepared. That means you should raise your hand before speaking, listen attentively so you will know what to do, and have only your book and notebook on your desk.” Consequences, or punishments, might include exclusion from certain classroom privileges, a time-out, contact with the parent or guardian, referral to an administrator, or detention. Consequences accumulated by a student one day are never carried over to the next day.

MANAGEMENT TIP 4–1 Developing Rules General rules might include the following: • • • •

Treat others the way you want to be treated. Respect the property of others. Be polite and courteous to each other. Keep your school clean.

Specific rules might include the following: • Raise your hand before speaking. • Ask for permission before leaving your seat.

Pre-K and Elementary Wash your hands before eating your snack. Keep your eyes on the teacher when the teacher is talking. Always be a good listener.

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Secondary Be in your seat with your book and homework on your desk when the class bell rings. Listen and follow directions. Leave your seat only with permission from the teacher.

When Using Rules Establish the rules, set the consequences, determine what will happen if the penalty is not completed, determine what will happen if the behavior continues, and teach the rules and consequences to the students.

Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

MANAGEMENT TIP 4–2 Practicing Assertive Discipline The Canters maintain that teachers should assertively take charge of classroom management by • recognizing and removing roadblocks such as negative expectations based on Culture, socioeconomic status, gender, and other diversities;

• • • •

practicing assertive responses; setting limits; following through on limits; and implementing a system of positive assertions such as personal attention from the teacher, positive notes/phones calls to parents, special awards or privileges, and material rewards.

Teachers can maintain a record of consequences by adopting whatever manner they consider easiest. In some instances, a name on a clipboard or bulletin board or chart and a series of check marks beside the name for misbehaviors can serve as a visual reminder to a student. However, Canter and Canter (2001) caution against humiliating students. The Canters (1992) suggest that teachers use a discipline hierarchy that informs students of consequences and the order in which they will be imposed. For example, a student may receive a verbal warning for the first rule violation, a time-out for a second or third disruption, a parental notification for a fourth offense, and a trip to the principal’s office for a fifth offense during a single day. The hierarchy should include a severe clause which is implemented when students demonstrate behavior that the teacher considers threatening or severe. These students are sent directly to the principal (Canters & Canter, 2001). As the Canters (1992, p. 87) explain, when a student begins to hit a classmate, the teacher calmly and assertively says, “There is no fighting in this classroom. You know the rule. You have chosen to go to the principal’s office immediately. We will discuss this later.”

DISCIPLINE HIERARCHY

The Canters (2001) maintain that consequences should be appropriate for the grade level and should reflect the difference in the developmental and psychological levels of the students. For example, in Pre-K through third grade, a second misbehavior might result in the teacher keeping the child near but apart from the group for a short time. Should the child misbehave a third time, the teacher removes the child from the group for a longer period. The hierarchy for fourth and fifth and grades might be the same except that a second offense brings 10 minutes away from the group (but near the teacher), and a third offense results in 15 minutes away from the group as the misbehaving student writes in his or her behavior journal, an effective consequence for grades 4–12. Management Tip 4–2 looks at additional advice for teachers who are practicing Assertive Discipline.

APPROPRIATE CONSEQUENCES

HARRIET BARRISH, MURIEL SAUNDERS, AND MONTROSE WOLF: THE GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME Beginning with a study of misbehaviors in a fourth-grade classroom by Harriet H. Barrish, Muriel Saunders, and Montrose M. Wolf (1969), the Good Behavior Game (GBG) has become a widely used management model in both the United States and Europe. The GBG uses behavior modification to diminish negative behaviors by focusing on peer encouragement, following rules, and demonstrating good learning skills.

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Overview of Barrish’s, Saunders’s, and Wolf’s Model The Good Behavior Game is a “classwide intervention that can have an effect on behavior—and ultimately, on the learning—of many students” (Conroy, Sutherland, Snyder, & Marsh, 2008, p. 28). The GBG rewards student teams for demonstrating proper classroom behavior such as following directions, showing courtesy to others, and keeping on-task. Although developed primarily for students in grades 1–6, the GBG has also been used successful with preschoolers and secondary school students, students with special needs, and students from different cultures (Huizink, van Lier, & Crijnen, 2009; Kleinman & Saigh, 2011; Tingstrom, Sterling-Turner, & Wilczynski, 2006). Kellam and others have conducted long-term studies of the GBG in the Baltimore public schools and have followed students from elementary school into secondary school (Kellam et al., 2008; Kellam, Ling, Merisca, Brown, & Ialongo, 1998; Kellam, Rebok, Ialongo, & Mayer, 1994). Using the principles of behavior modification, the GBG is designed to reinforce self-control and a work ethic by stressing group solidarity and cooperation. By using peer influence to promote positive behavior, the GBG increases pro-social behaviors and diminishes instances of students laughing at the disruptive behavior of others. Practical Application of Barrish’s, Saunders’s, and Wolf’s Model The GBG uses a group-oriented strategy for classroom management. A teacher, sometimes assisted by the students, develops rules and identifies inappropriate classroom behavior. The class is divided into teams and plays a game in which marks or points are given for demonstrating inappropriate behavior, breaking rules, or both. The teacher establishes a time period for playing the game. During the game, if a student on a team displays a disruptive behavior, the team receives a mark. The team with the fewest marks, or all teams if the scores are below a set level, receives a reward when the game is over. TEAM MEMBERSHIP According to Witvliet, van Lier, Duijpers, and Koot (2009), positive peer

relationships provide “a social context in which [children] . . . can practice social skills, learn social norms and roles, experience social support and validate a sense of self worth . . . [while they promote] behavioral adjustment” (p. 905). The GBG reinforces social responsibility among the team members as they monitor their own behavior as well as the behavior of others on their team. In addition, the emphasis on teams does not single out any student or treat any student differently from the group. However, there is always the problem that peer influence can “produce undue peer pressure verging on harassment toward the individual who does not exhibit the requisite behaviors” (Tingstrom et al., 2006, p. 247). Team membership is usually assigned at random. In the instances where a single student continues to be disruptive or sabotages the game by intentionally breaking the rules (Tingstrom et al., 2006, p. 248), a student can be given special tutoring or placed in a singlemember group. CLASSROOM RULES Rules for the GBG can be as simple or complex as needed and should be appropriate for the ages and developmental levels of the students. Simple rules include no tattling, not bothering your neighbor, remaining in your seat, following directions, or not talking. Teachers can supplement the GBG with daily or weekly class meetings that focus on social problem solving and rule clarification (Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2010). MONITORING BEHAVIOR The teacher identifies the time period for the game and establishes the baseline for the number of rule violations. During the game, the teacher must be consistent

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MANAGEMENT TIP 4–3 Establishing Rewards There are many different types of rewards: • • • •

Social reinforcers: Word, Smile, Gesture Graphic reinforcers: Star, Sticker, Checkmark Activity reinforcers: Free time, Special game Tangible reinforcers: Bookmark, Pencil or other supplies, Certificates

Pre-K and Elementary The Canters advocate a “marble jar” as a reward. When everything goes well, add a marble to the jar. When the jar is filled, provide the entire class with a reward.

Secondary Give students a stamp when they are prepared for class each day. To receive the stamp, a student must • Be on time to class, • have supplies, including textbook, notebook, and pen or pencil, and • have homework completed. Give each stamp a point value and count a week’s worth of stamps as a quiz grade.

in awarding marks for misbehaviors. Teams may receive rewards for having the lowest number of checkmarks or points without exceeding the baseline, for not exceeding the baseline even though they do not have the lowest total number of points, or both. The time period can be the length of a certain class or class period or a portion of a day (the morning between recess and lunch), and it should be appropriate for the students. For example, elementary teachers can begin with a short time such as 10 minutes when the GBG is first implemented and then gradually increase the amount of time. After students are accustomed to the GBG, the teacher can start and stop the game without warning as Cammy Reed does in the following example. • As her students started to get ready for math instruction, Cammy Reed turned to her fifth-grade class and announced, “The Good Behavior Game begins now. Remember our rules about talking, following directions, not bothering your neighbor, and staying in your seat. Our target is four or fewer marks for each team for the game, which will last through our math class.” REWARDS Rewards are given as positive reinforcement. Teachers are encouraged to use “reinforcers that occur naturally in the school setting (Tingstrom et al., 2006, p. 244) such as having free time, being the teacher’s helper, doing something for a set time that is not normally allowed such as tapping a pencil, working on a special project, listening to music, having a special privilege such as lining up first for lunch, or receiving a letter of praise to take home to parents. In the beginning, the rewards should be tangible such as a special badge or a sticker and should progress to intangible or delayed rewards. Older students may benefit from weekly rewards in addition to daily ones. Management Tip 4–3 contains additional information on rewards.

Initially, the GBG focused on teachers awarding marks for rule violations. An alternative approach focuses on rule following. Tanol, Johnson, McComas, and Cote (2010) found that both variations were effective and that GBG reinforcement or rule following was preferred by kindergarten teachers. The PAX-GBG format applies the model to grades K–5 (Domitrovich et al., 2010). In this format, the game begins with the teacher and students collaboratively describing the ideal classroom and the behaviors that would create it. Teachers assign students to teams so that all teams have a chance to win. The PAX-GBG also includes the “exchange of written compliments” (p. 76) and the

VARIATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF THE GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME

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APPLYING BEHAVIORAL IDEAS 4–2 Adapting to Eighth Grade Although a classroom management model may present a number of valid points, the implementation of these points is very important and may vary with the age and developmental level of the students. In the following example, a teacher forgets the level of the students she is teaching. Grace Hoffler was earning her teacher’s license for grades K–8. After completing her experience in a primary classroom, she moved into a middle school setting. One day, Ms. Hoffler forgot she was teaching an eighth-grade class and said, “Today when we play the Good Behavior Game, the reward will be a smiley face sticker for each person on the winning team.”

Respond to the following questions: 1. In general, how appropriate is a smiley face sticker for eighth-grade students? Are there circumstances in which it would be appropriate? 2. What would be appropriate rewards for the GBG for students in the eighth grade? 3. How might Ms. Hoffler adapt her positive recognition if she were teaching in a fourth- or fifth-grade class? In a high school?

use of behavioral cues and strategies to “engage students in the learning process, make more time for instruction, and create a positive classroom environment” (p. 76). To use the GBG in a multiethnic urban high school, researchers modified it. For example, the teacher told students that they would have an “‘opportunity’ to participate in a ‘competition’ for prizes” (Kleinman & Saigh, 2011, p. 102). Classroom rules were identified as expectations rather than rules and students were able to use a “reinforcement preference questionnaire . . . to select daily and weekly prizes” (p. 95). The researchers found “marked reductions in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression” (p. 95). Applying Behavioral Ideas 4–2 asks you to adapt the GBG to an eighth-grade classroom. Educators have implemented the GBG in various settings. In addition to using elementary and secondary schools and regular and special educational classrooms (Kleinman & Saigh, 2011), they have relied on the GBG to promote good oral hygiene skills (Tingstrom et al., 2006) and positive behavior during physical education (Patrick, Ward, & Crouch, 1998). McCurdy, Lannie, and Barnabas (2009) found that the use of the GBG deceased disruptive behaviors in an elementary cafeteria. While some studies have found more significant results with the GBG for males, others show the same results for both males and females (Leflot, van Lier, Onnghena, & Colpin, 2010). Researchers have also linked the GBG to behaviors outside the classroom. In a long-term study in Baltimore, Maryland, Kellam et al. (2008) found that the GBG has a significant positive impact on reducing antisocial behaviors as well as alcohol and drug dependence of males. Researchers in Europe have also linked the use of the GBG to reductions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and early-onset smoking (Huizink et al., 2009).

J. RON NELSON: THINK TIME™ Think Time™ began as an effort to “work with students who exhibit disruptive or externalizing behavior . . . [and] to develop a school environment that . . . is] both preventative and remedial” (Nelson, 1996, p. 148). Basically, it is a “systematic response to disruptive behavior” (Nelson, Martella, & Galand, 1998, p. 156) that uses “cognitive-behavioral time-out” (Nelson, 1996, p. 150) as well as rules, routines, other management strategies, and good instructional practices (Nelson & Carr, 2000) to help students to develop self-management strategies.

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Overview of Nelson’s Model J. Ron Nelson (1996) believed that some management practices such as checkmarks and repeated warnings might promote misbehaviors rather than extinguish them. Instead, he favored “establishing, teaching, and reinforcing . . . rules and behaviors and . . . [providing] systematic response[s] to disruptive behavior” (Nelson et al., 1998, p. 154). Eliminating warnings and raising behavioral expectations, the Think Time™ model relies on “Patterson’s coercion theory on adult-child interactions” (Freiberg & Lapointe, p. 763) in which the conduct of a child is established or maintained by adult–child interactions. Disruptive behavior leads to a negative consequence in which the student receives feedback and an opportunity to plan for the future. A negative social exchange between the student and the teacher is eliminated by a positive one. Instead, the student receives a time-out or withdrawal of attention as a result of the misbehavior. After the time-out, the “debriefing process helps students achieve self-directed behavior and ensure[s] that every misbehavior . . . [is viewed as] an instructional opportunity” (Nelson, 1996, p. 151). Practical Applications of Nelson’s Model Like other behavioral models of classroom management, Think Time™ relies on teachers to establish rules and routines, discuss inappropriate behaviors with students, identify and model acceptable behaviors and misbehaviors, and provide corrective feedback to students. However, rather than using a hierarchy of warnings, Think Time™ has an early intervention strategy that includes a time-out procedure that removes the student from the disruptive situation and uses the misbehavior as a learning experience (Nelson, 1996). It also provides consistent consequences for disruptive behavior, feedback to the student, and a positive social exchange between the teacher and student. Its implementation requires the cooperation of two or more teachers, and it is designed to be used with other management strategies such as eye contact and physical proximity. Let’s examine Think Time™ in more detail. Think Time™ expects teachers to catch misbehavior early and to reduce or eliminate threats, repeated warnings, ultimatums, or all three. Nelson (1996) believes that lowlevel disruptive behaviors should not be ignored because they can lead to more serious misbehaviors. When the teacher sees misbehavior, he or she prompts with a precision request or short oral cue to encourage the student to change the behavior. If the student complies, the teacher provides positive reinforcement. However, if the student does not comply, the teacher sends the student to a designated place for Think Time™ in the room of another teacher. For example, when Akisha Bandura saw Harper misbehaving, she said, “Harper, I need to see your good learner skills.” When Harper did not respond, Ms. Bandura sent Harper to Think Time™ in Mr. O’Leary’s room. In cases of serious misbehavior, the teacher sends the student directly to Think Time™ without a prompt to change the behavior. Think Time™ setting. When using Think Time™, each teacher has a cooperating teacher who will host the Think Time™ If a student misbehaves, the teacher sends the student to the cooperating teacher’s classroom. For serious misbehaviors, an escort is provided for the student.

EARLY INTERVENTION

TIME IN THINK TIME™ In the cooperating teacher’s classroom, the cooperating teacher directs the

student to the designated Think Time™ desk. There are two rules for Think Time™: The student must remain silent and must respond only to an adult. There is no set amount of time for a student to remain in Think Time™. The wait depends on the cooperating teacher’s schedule and on the student’s ability to self-manage or to reflect and regain self-control. When time allows, the cooperating teacher asks the student to describe his or her misbehavior objectively. If the student is unable to do this, the cooperating teacher lets the student remain in Think Time™ and continues the regular classroom work.

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When the student has regained control, the cooperating teacher provides a behavior debriefing form, which can be modified for young students. On this form, the student

DEBRIEFING PROCESS

1. identifies the misbehavior; 2. explains the reason for the misbehavior (e.g., gain attention, avoid schoolwork, get even with another student); 3. explains whether the expected results were achieved by the misbehavior; 4. explains what he or she should do upon returning to the regular classroom; and 5. estimates how successful he or she will be in the future. After the student finishes the debriefing form, the cooperating teacher checks only to see that it is completed properly. If it is, the student can return to the regular classroom. If not, the student remains at the Think Time™ desk. The cooperating teacher does not judge the accuracy of the form. This will be done later by the regular classroom teacher. RETURN TO THE REGULAR CLASSROOM When the debriefing form has been completed properly, the cooperating teacher allows the student to return to the regular classroom. The student waits at the door until acknowledged by the regular classroom teacher. The teacher reviews the debriefing form. If the form is accurate, the student returns to the regular class. If the form is inaccurate, the student returns to Think Time™ in the cooperating classroom. SPECIAL PROVISIONS Extreme or repeated misbehaviors can bring additional consequences. If a student continues to be disruptive or will not go to Think Time™, the teacher sends the student to Administrative Think Time™ with a designated school administrator. When a student receives repeated Think Time™ during a week, the teacher can assign the student to lunch detention and notify the parents. Read Applying Behavioral Ideas 4–3 and see if the ideas of Think Time™ could help a fifth-grade teacher.

APPLYING BEHAVIORAL IDEAS 4–3 Establishing Limits Throughout his school years, happy-go-lucky Art Brady hated to follow rules. Thus when beginning his first year as a teacher, he transferred his feelings into his classroom. He believed that his fifth-grade students would behave if he allowed them freedom and gave them lots of choices. As Art was fond of saying, “Students are creative and should be free to express their individuality in both schoolwork and behavior.” Although he conveyed to students that he expected them to act their best, he refused to place specific rules on the classroom wall. “That’s too confining” was all Art would say about it. By the third month of school, Mr. Brady’s class bordered on chaos. Students talked incessantly, walked around the room, and picked on each other. Art could not conduct instruction, and students who wanted to learn could not.

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Teaching became so frustrating and dissatisfying that Art considered leaving the profession. Then a fellow teacher suggested that they team up to implement a management strategy called Think Time™. Respond to the following questions: 1. According to the Canters, which type of teacher was Art Brady? 2. Would Think Time™ help Art Brady to manage his class? Why? 3. What would he have to do to implement Think Time™? 4. Would Think Time™ alone be a sufficient management strategy, or would Art Brady need additional strategies?

Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

CRITIQUE OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Everyone has seen and heard of acts of violence in schools, but most educators do not encounter these problems on a daily basis. Instead, most misbehavior includes students sitting idly or talking with friends, disturbing neighbors who want to learn and obey rules, and walking around the classroom without permission. Thus, although educators must continue their efforts to promote safe schools, they also must deal with the time-wasting that occurs on a regular basis. Seeking to help teachers manage the daily misbehaviors in classrooms, the behavioral models “emphasize not only the principles of behavior but . . . [an] understanding of the social contexts in which they are applied” (Landrum & Kauffman, 2006, p. 67 ). Some educators (Curwin & Mendler, 1988, 1989; Kauffman, Pullen, Mostert, & Trent, 2011; Keiper, 2004; Palardy, 1996; Render, Padilla, & Krank, 1989; Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004) have questioned various aspects of behavioral approaches to classroom management. However, a number of researchers (Desiderio & Mullennix, 2005; Domitrovish et al., 2010; Kleinman & Saigh, 2011; Leflot et al., 2010; Swinson & Cording, 2002; Tingstrom et al., 2006) and thousands of educators have attested to the effectiveness of behavior models when implemented and used appropriately. There are numerous examples of the efficacy of the behavioral approaches. The U. S. Department of Education, Office of Special Educational Research and Improvement, Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination (2001) designated Think Time as a “Promising Program” (p. 137). Further, Embry (2002) noted that the Good Behavior Game has been named as a best practice by several federal agencies and has been “documented to have long-term effects” (p. 273) in a number of studies including randomized field trials in Baltimore, Maryland. As a result, he calls the GBG a “behavioral vaccine” (p. 293) because it can have “broad community impact” (p. 293) and can be easily used by a variety of individuals in diverse circumstances. Huizink et al. (2009) found that the GBG reduced ADHD symptoms and protected “children from early-onset smoking” (p. 1). Finally, Desiderio and Mullennix (2005) cited 15 studies demonstrating the positive results of Assertive Discipline. As advantages, some educators cite the insistence of the behavioral models upon consistency and clear limits, with the same classroom rules applying to all students. Most students like to know how far the teacher will allow their behavior to go. • Rikki Tiiko liked to wad up his paper into a ball and shoot it to the trashcan in a make-believe game of basketball. Steve Hudson, his teacher, chose to ignore the behavior in the hope that it would stop. Unfortunately, it did not, and two other students joined the game. Finally, everything escalated to a point where the learning environment was disrupted, and Mr. Hudson had to correct three students instead of one. Rikki and the other students knew the limits, but as Rikki later said, “Mr. Hudson didn’t do anything, so we thought it was all right.”

By setting clear and specific limits, teachers are not acting mean or harsh. They are, however, setting clear behavior expectations and helping students feel psychologically safe. In addition, behavioral models provide sufficient flexibility to address the behavior of elementary, middle, and secondary school students with an emphasis on understanding individual students and meeting their needs whenever possible. For example, in Assertive Discipline, the key to successful implementation is for the teacher to determine appropriate behavior, rewards, and consequences for each of the school levels to reflect the students’ psychological and developmental maturity levels. Assertive teachers do not damage students’ self-esteem with statements such as “How can you be so dense to make the same mistake again? Can’t you ever learn one simple rule?” By understanding the psychological and developmental needs of their students, they plan appropriate assertive statements, rewards, and consequences. Applying

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APPLYING BEHAVIORAL IDEAS 4–4 Reviewing Antonio’s Day As you read the following scenario, ask yourself whether the teacher is practicing Assertive Discipline. If she is not, what should she have done differently? How would her response vary if the student was in second grade? Sixth grade? Ninth grade? Would this situation have occurred with the other behavioral models? Why? It was the end of a long day for Antonio and Ms. Hunley, his teacher. As Antonio’s after-school detention was ending, Ms. Hunley turned to him and said in a friendly way: “Well, it sure wasn’t your day, was it, Antonio? Boy, you did some dumb things. You gave eve-

rybody a good laugh when you came to school with one green and one blue sock. Guess you left your brains in the bed last night, right? When you spilled your soup on you at lunch, you reminded me of a first grader I used to know—a real klutz. Then, you just couldn’t stop yapping, could you? You talked all day, didn’t you? Try to get your head on right before you come to school tomorrow so you won’t seem so stupid. I don’t want to waste my time sitting here with you again.” All this time, Antonio sat silently at his desk.

Behavioral Ideas 4–4 illustrates a teacher who was not taking the needs of a student into consideration. Finally, with the behavioral models, the students know that their behavior affects the teacher’s reaction. If they behave appropriately, they are rewarded. If they behave inappropriately, they must endure the consequences, which are dealt out consistently without subjective consideration. However, it must be emphasized that although a behavior modification strategy can establish on-task behavior, high-quality instruction is needed to maintain appropriate discipline. Educators are often concerned about whether a classroom management model imposes or teaches discipline. It is a student’s choice to misbehave, but some educators believe that as the teacher imposes rewards and punishments, students ultimately learn self-discipline. Others, however, believe that if teachers assign the warnings and consequence, the teachers are imposing discipline more than they are teaching discipline. J. Michael Palardy (1996, p. 69) maintains that a behavior modification model “devalues selfdiscipline as an ultimate goal in favor of management of conduct.” Self-discipline can be achieved only when students search for appropriate methods of meeting all types of personal and social situations. Thus, to foster self-discipline in students, educators need to give students more opportunities to make their own decisions about behavior. Educators also must structure environments in which students learn to hold themselves responsible for the consequences of their behavior. According to Palardy (1996), neither of these responsibilities is considered relevant in classroom management models that emphasize behavior modification. Consider the following example: One day during the Good Behavior Game, Tim walks around the room, supposedly to discard his trash in the wastebasket. On the way, he disturbs others by knocking one student’s books off the desk and hitting another in the back of the head. When his team receives a mark for his misbehavior, he does not walk around again that day. However, the next day, an almost-identical scenario occurs.

Has discipline been taught? Is the teacher just imposing discipline? One might say that if Tim’s behavior occurs every day for 2 months and then stops, Tim has learned to discipline himself. Admittedly, a fine line exists; however, the insistence of the behavior modification models on monitoring observable behavior and using rewards and consequences will continue to raise the issue of whether students learn self-discipline or merely try to avoid negative consequences.

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Although the reliance of the behavioral models on consistency and clear limits is commendable, teachers need to be aware of two characteristics that could be damaging to students from some cultures. First, students in some cultures have been taught that maintaining eye contact with an adult is disrespectful, rude, or threatening. Thus, teachers using eye contact as part of a behavioral model, just like teachers using any management model, must be aware of and remember to make allowances for cultural differences. While reprimanding a student for inappropriate behavior, a principal looked directly in the eye of a ninth grader as he demanded, “You look at me when I talk to you!” The principal assumed the lack of eye contact meant a lack of respect or interest for what he was saying. Instead, the student was being respectful.

Second, problems could arise with the use of rewards and punishments. Students in some cultures will feel uncomfortable receiving a reward publicly, especially if it is at the expense of other students. They might not want to excel or stand out from their peers. Students in grades 5 or 6 through 12 also might feel less than honored to receive a reward, especially if it is given in front of the entire group. Likewise, students in some cultures will be distressed and embarrassed even to have a warning. For example, Manning and Baruth (2009) reported that Asian Americans often avoid having attention drawn to themselves, especially if that attention could reflect negatively upon themselves or their families. This could also affect teachers who keep names on a chart or whiteboard. Thus, teachers must know and consider the students in their classes. As you consider the behavioral models as well as other models in this book, you must determine what works for you. For example, what works for a first-grade teacher probably will not work for an 11th-grade teacher without modifications. Also, what works for educators who believe in the authority of the teacher might not work for educators who believe in establishing democratic classrooms. However, regardless of the classroom management system, teachers must believe the system works, and they must believe it works for them. Developing Your Personal Philosophy provides several questions that you can ask yourself to determine whether behavioral models align with your philosophical and psychological beliefs.

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Do the Behavioral Models Reflect Your Beliefs? If you are considering using a behavioral model in your classroom, ask yourself these questions: 1. Do I see a need (and am I willing) to place clear and specific limits on students’ behavior? 2. Do I agree with rewards for appropriate behavior and consequences for inappropriate behavior? 3. Am I able to be consistent with all students and with all situations? 4. Do I believe my students will respond better to intrinsic or extrinsic motivation? 5. Do I see the behavioral models as providing too much or just enough structure for me? 6. Do I have the ability and motivation to be as consistent as the behavioral models require?

7. Do I believe all students are capable of behaving appropriately? 8. If I use Assertive Discipline, am I able to forego all nonassertive and hostile behaviors and adopt only assertive behaviors? 9. Am I willing to treat the symptoms rather than the causes of misbehaviors? 10. Am I willing to place less emphasis on self-disciplined and responsible students and more on external controls of rewards and punishments? 11. Am I willing to use tangible rewards such as pencils, stickers, or certificates as a means of rewards or positive reinforcers? 12. Am I willing to adopt a program that provides little, if any, teacher discretion in solving behavior problems?

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Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management

Summary This chapter has provided an overview of three behavioral models of classroom management: Canter and Canter’s Assertive Discipline; Barrish’s, Saunders’s, and Wolf’s Good Behavior Game; and Nelson’s Think Time. Additional information about these models and their applications can be found in the suggested readings and on the Internet sites identified in “Reaching Out with the Internet.” Each of these models can be applied in modern classrooms. Following behavior modification research and classroom observations, the Canters developed their classroom management system to focus on assertive teachers using a system of positive reinforcement and negative consequences. Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf began the GBG to diminish negative behaviors, focus on peer encouragement, and reward student teams for following rules and class routines. Finally, Nelson created Think Time™ to reinforce rules, provide early intervention, and encourage a positive social exchange between teachers and students. Although

some researchers are critical of the behavioral approaches to management, these models hold considerable potential for use in classrooms. To review the concepts of the behavioral models, revisit the situation of Sabrina Price in the opening vignette. See if you can help Ms. Price to prepare for a successful second year of teaching with a behavioral model of classroom management by responding to the following questions: 1. What would the proponents of the behavioral models suggest is wrong with Ms. Price’s current approach to management? 2. Which of the behavioral models could Ms. Price use to help with classroom management? 3. What actions and changes should Ms. Price initiate in her classroom to use a behavioral model of management? 4. How would your suggestions change if Ms. Price were in a fifth-grade classroom? An eighth-grade classroom?

Suggested Readings Carter, D., Norman, R., & Tredwell, C. (2011). Program-wide positive behavior support in Preschool: Lessons for getting started. Early Childhood Education, 38(5), 349–355. The authors review the Program-wide Positive Behavior Support system as a behavior modification model for dealing with misbehaviors in early childhood programs. Hulac, D. M., & Benson, N. (2010). The use of group contingencies for preventing and managing disruptive behaviors. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(4), 257–262. The authors examine the effects of groups on classroom management and how teachers can use groups to improve behavior. McGoey, D. E., Schneider, D. L., Rezzetano, K. M., Prodan, T., & Tankersley, M. (2010). Classwide intervention to manage

disruptive behavior in the kindergarten classroom. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26(3), 247–261. The authors report on the use of the Good Behavior Game with kindergarten students in an at-risk school district. Morawska, A., & Sanders, M. (2011). Parental use of time out revisited: A useful or harmful parenting strategy? Journal of Child & Family Studies, 20(1), 1–8. Although the study focused on the use of time-outs by parents, the findings have relevance for teachers as well. Paciotti, K. D. (2010). Caring behavior management: The spirit makes the difference. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 76(4), 12–17. Paciotti describes a behavior management model that uses rubber ducks as positive reinforcement in kindergarten through fifth grade.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on theorists and their theories of management.

ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE Assertive Discipline www.behavioradvisor.com/AssertiveDiscipline.html Canter www.canter.net/ “Dewey, Discipline, and Democracy”—This essay is a critique of Assertive Discipline by John F. Covaleskie of Northern Michigan University.

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www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/94_docs/ COVALESK.htm “Reviewing Dewey’s Concept of Discipline”—This essay is a response to Covaleskie by Jeanne Connell of the University Illinois at Champaign-Urbana www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/94_docs/CONNELL. HTM

GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME American Institutes for Research: Good Behavior Game Research, Training, and Support

Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management www.air.org/reports-products/index. cfm?fa=viewContent&content_id=785

www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/classroommanagement/9167.html

Child Trends: The Good Behavior Game www.childtrends.org/lifecourse/programs/ GoodBehaviorGame.htm Intervention Central: Good Behavior Game www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/classroommangement/131-good-behavior-game “Medical News—Good Behavior Game dramatically reduced aggressive behavior and helped children stay on task in the classroom” www.news-medical.net/news/2005/02/21/7855.aspx PAX Good Behavior Game www.hazelden.org/web/public/pax.page Variation of the Good Behavior Game: A Behavior Management Strategy for Teachers

THINK TIMETM STRATEGY Biography of Ron Nelson www.unl.edu/barkley/faculty/rnelson.shtml Mrs. Thornton’s Citizens of the World—this page contains an example of a debriefing form from Davis School District www.davis.k12.ut.us/staff/wthorson/thinktime.html Think Time: Responding Effectively to Disruptive Behavior www.cecp.air.org/resources/success/think_time.asp The Think Time Strategy www.auburn.wednet.edu/homepages/leahill/About%20Us/ Think%20Time%20Procedures%20Flow%20Chart%20%20handbook.pdf

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From Chapter 5 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 5, you should be able to

5. describe the Lions Club International Foundation’s Lions Quest and its three levels of lessons;

1. discuss the characteristics of the ecological approaches to classroom management;

6. explain Allred’s Positive Action program and its unit topics for classroom lessons;

2. describe the key concepts of Kounin’s model and explain how these concepts could be implemented in a classroom;

7. discuss Schuyler’s, Elias’s, and Clabby’s Social Decision Making and Problem Solving Program and the program’s decision-making process;

3. discuss Shriver’s Community of Caring and how it is applied in a classroom;

8. critique the ecological approaches to classroom management; and

4. explain the basis for the Boy Scouts of America’s Learning for Life program and its eight core character traits;

9. consider all the ecological approaches and identify concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Digital Vision/Thinkstock

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VIGNETTE: Committing to an Ecological Approach Dr. Terence Eubanks was asked to provide a series of inservice sessions for an urban school division. The preliminary report on the condition of the school division showed that scores were down dramatically, even lower than they had been several years earlier; absenteeism and discipline referrals were up; and several schools had experienced serious misbehavior, including a knifing in a middle school. In spite of this, Dr. Eubanks felt he could help and decided to focus on an ecological management approach to improve academic achievement as well as behavior. Dr. Eubanks planned his first sessions as follows: Session 1: Discussion of the teachers’ perceptions of the school system’s problems and introductory overview of ecological behavior management. Session 2: Discussion of Kounin’s ideas on teacher behaviors, movement management, and group focus. Session 3: Discussion of various management models using an ecological approach that would focus on social and emotional learning. Follow-up: Dr. Eubanks and the various directors and supervisors would visit as many classrooms as they could to answer individual questions, check the use of Kounin’s ideas, and get feedback before deciding on a specific ecological management program to implement. After the first two sessions, teachers were concerned. They felt that learning Kounin’s Instructional Management model was the equivalent of learning how to teach all over again. Although Dr. Eubanks explained that Kounin’s techniques were what many good teachers already did, the teachers were still apprehensive. They also worried about the selection and implementation of an ecological model. As one experienced teacher remarked, “Whatever is decided, it will just mean more work for us.”

OVERVIEW Emerging from the research of Jacob Kounin (1970) and Paul V. Gump (Gump 1969; Kounin & Gump, 1958; 1974), ecological approaches to management focus on the physical “habitat” (Doyle, 2006, p. 98) or behavior setting such as a classroom or the entire school that has an impact on the behavior of the individuals in that habitat. Management becomes the process of establishing and maintaining order in the habitat by examining the physical design of the environment; the rules, routines, and procedures in the environment; and the conduct of activities there. A classroom, or “ecobehavioral unit” (Doyle, 2006, p. 100), consists of segments such as individual lessons, tests, discussions, group activities or seat work that help

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to regulate behavior. To Gump, these segments of classroom life “surround and regulate behavior” (Carter & Doyle, 2006, p. 385). Each segment has its own pattern of teacher–student interactions that define what is acceptable behavior for that segment. Although routines provide stability and help with management, teacher action and student involvement within the segments are important regulators of behavior (Doyle, 2009). To manage a classroom successfully, a teacher must understand what happens in the various segments and the “actions he or she can take to invite and secure a pupil’s cooperation in these programs of action” (Carter & Doyle, p. 385). Because these segments change as instruction changes, and because management and instruction are intertwined, the dynamics in the classroom are constantly changing. Thus, classroom management is not a once-and-done process. The teacher needs to modify and adjust management and instruction depending on the situation. Order is created by the actions of teachers and students. When students misbehave, the teacher tries to educate the students about the consequences of their actions and to restore order. From examining the actions of the teacher (Kounin, 1970), the ecological approach has expanded to include a “continuum of deliberate interventions designed to assist students in developing the social awareness [skills and capabilities they need in order to] . . . “function as effective, caring participants in school and in their lives” (Carter & Doyle, 2006, p. 395). Thus, some ecological management approaches focus on building social skills and improving school or classroom climate (Freiberg & Lapointe, 2006). Others are designed to create “a caring classroom environment . . . [that contributes] to a student’s sense of belongingness and motivate[s] engagement in appropriate classroom behavior” (Wentzel, 2003, p. 319). See also Chapter 8 for more information on caring classroom environments. Ecological management models build on the ideas of social and emotional learning (SEL). “[W]hen schools address children’s social and emotional needs, children become more engaged in school, demonstrate reduced problem behaviors, and increase academic performance” (Tanyu, 2007, p. 258). Reporting on the results of 213 studies of SEL programs, Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, and Schellinger (2011) found that when compared to students in non-SEL programs, students who participate in SEL programs in schools improve significantly in “social-emotional competencies, and attitudes about self, others, and schools” (p. 417), have less emotional distress (stress and depression), and show “behavioral adjustment in the form of increased prosocial behaviors and reduced conduct and internalizing problems” (p. 417) while also improving academic performance. Many of these SEL ecological management programs are very structured. Others are simple yet effective. For example, the Morning Program is a daily assembly program for elementary schools that is designed to start each school day on a positive note. Using songs, sharing information and achievements, and presenting daily educational programs (Shenendehowa Central Schools, 2011), the Morning Program helps students to feel pride in themselves, their classrooms, school, home, and community by encouraging and reinforcing proper behavior. Recognized by New York State as a state-validated program, the Morning Program also encourages families and community members to attend the programs (Sharing Successful Programs: New York State Education Programs That Work, 2010). In contrast, Open Circle, another research-validated program for grades K–5, relies on the use of the “Open Circle format in which students and teacher arrange their chairs in a circle and keep one chair empty to symbolize that the circle is open to anyone” (Taylor, Liang, Tracey, Williams, & Seigle, 2002, p. 260). Developed by

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Pamela Seigle at Wellesley College (Hennessey, 2007), the program includes a series of lessons on cooperation, self-esteem, positive relationships, and people problemsolving skills to help students learn to cope with the challenges they face daily. Many of these SEL ecological classroom management models are complete commercial programs that are implemented at the school or school district level rather than by individual teachers. They require teachers to use program specific materials to introduce and reinforce core concepts (Beets et al., 2008). However, these ecological approaches to management can be used with other management models (Doyle, 2009). This chapter briefly presents five of these programs.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES In this chapter, you will read about ecological models for classroom management. First, you will explore Kounin’s groundbreaking Instructional Management model. Next, you will look at the following ecological management models that focus on values, character education, and SEL as an ecological approach: Shriver, Community of Caring; Boy Scouts of America, Learning for Life; Lions Club International, Lions Quest; Allred, Positive Action; and Schuyler, Elias, and Clabby, Social Decision Making and Problem Solving Program.

KEY TERMS Table 5–1 identifies the key terms related to ecological approaches to classroom management. TABLE 5–1

Key Terms Related to Ecological Approaches to Classroom Management Boy Scouts of America— Learning for Life

Lions Club International— Lions Quest

Allred—Positive Action

• Career exploration

• Skills for Adolescents

• Being honest with yourself

• Skills for Action

Kounin— Instructional Management

Shriver— Community of Caring

• Accountability

• Core values

• Dangles • Desists

• Coordinating committee

• Flip-flops

• Service-learning

• Core character traits

• Fragmentation

• Site facilitator

• Service-learning

• Group alerting • Group focus • Jerkiness • Movement management • Overdwelling • Overlapping • Ripple effect • Satiation • Slowdowns • Stimulus bound

• Improving • Skills for Growing yourself continually • Managing yourself responsibly Positive actions for a healthy body and mind

Schuyler, Elias, & Clabby—Social Decision Making and Problem Solving Program • Application phase • Decision-making process • Instructional phase • Readiness phase

• Self-concept • ThoughtsActions-Feelings circle • Treating others the way you like to be treated

• Thrust • Truncation • Withitness

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JACOB KOUNIN: INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT Jacob Kounin (1970) changed the focus of classroom management from discipline based on reprimands to management based on the dynamics in the classroom. He “focused attention on the distinctive properties of the classroom environment and the relationships between the demands of this environment and the behaviors of teachers and students” (Doyle, 1985, p. 31). Testing his theories over two decades of work, he found that teachers who demonstrate effective instructional behaviors, are aware of their environment, and use effective instructional management procedures keep their students focused on learning tasks and minimize behavior problems. He developed a set of terms to discuss instruction and the teacher’s behavior in the classroom. Overview of Kounin’s Model Kounin (1970) advanced the idea that teachers’ behaviors have a positive and negative impact on learners’ behaviors. The key concepts of his model are shown in Figure 5–1. Instead of looking for psychological goals of student misbehavior or developing reward systems, teachers must look at what they do in the classroom. William Wattenberg (1977, p. 261), one of the foundational theorists, said of Kounin’s model: It counteracts mischief by keeping people productively busy. There is minimum reliance on negative experiences, a maximum reliance on activity and psychological alertness.

Practical Applications of Kounin’s Model According to Kounin, in order to be effective instructors and managers, teachers have to demonstrate appropriate teaching behaviors, maintain appropriate instructional momentum, work toward group focus, and plan a learning environment that is conducive to learning and behavior. Although Kounin did not relieve students of their responsibility to behave and achieve self-discipline, he believed that the teacher was primarily responsible for the learners’ behaviors. Management Tip 5–1 looks at instructional activities that contribute to classroom management. Kounin identified several teacher behaviors that contribute to effective classroom management. Let’s look at each in turn. WITHITNESS Effective teachers demonstrate withitness, which means they are aware of all events, activities, and student behaviors in the classroom and that they convey that knowledge to students. Without hesitation, the withit teacher can tell whether behaviors contribute to or take away from learning situations. At the same time, the students know that the withit teacher detects inappropriate behaviors early and accurately (Kounin, 1970). The withit teacher knows who is causing a disturbance even if that student likes to cause a disturbance and then fade into

FIGURE 5–1

Key Concepts of Kounin’s Model

• Teacher Behavior: Withitness and other teacher behaviors such as desists, overlapping, and satiation have an impact on student behavior. • Movement Management: Pacing and the ebb and flow of instruction are important in the presentation of a lesson and the maintenance of appropriate student behavior in the classroom. Kounin used the terms jerkiness, stimulus bound, thrust, dangles, truncation, flip-flop, slowdowns, overdwelling, and fragmentation to discuss the movement of instruction. • Group Focus: The teacher who uses appropriate instructional strategies and activities can keep the students focused on the lesson and can minimize behavior problems.

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MANAGEMENT TIP 5–1 Managing a Classroom with Instructional Activities Kounin believed that instructional behaviors are a very important part of classroom management. With careful planning, teachers can often use effective instructional activities to prevent behavior problems or to correct misbehaviors. All teachers can use instructional techniques to promote good student behavior: • Establish clear procedures. • Develop lessons that are neither too difficult nor too easy. • Focus on the entire class, not dwelling too long on one or two students. • Pace instruction to maintain student interest. • Provide curricular content and instructional methods that interest and challenge learners. • Demonstrate appropriate instructional behaviors such as withitness and group alerting, avoiding behaviors such as dangles, fragmentation, and satiation.

Pre-K and Elementary Model your instruction. When you want students to learn a new skill, be sure that you model the skills for students by working through a sample problem or procedure first and verbalize your thoughts as you complete the procedure. Use music to designate transitions between lessons and to set a calming tone in the classroom.

Secondary Know when to have the class take a break or when to change instructional strategy. During long block classes, build in a 5-minute break so that students can talk quietly, move around the room, visit the restroom, and relax at their seats.

the background as if having nothing to do with the situation. Reflecting the old adage that teachers have “eyes in the backs of their heads,” the withit teacher performs more than one task at a time (overlapping) and knows all students’ actions regardless of the teaching or learning situation (Gordon, 1997). Bertneta and Jana quietly slipped a magazine back and forth between them as Ms. Anderson taught the lesson. While continuing to teach, Ms. Anderson walked to the girls and took the magazine. Never speaking to the girls and never stopping instruction, Ms. Anderson demonstrated that she knows what is occurring in all parts of the room at all times.

Applying Ecological Models 5–1 suggests other ways teachers can demonstrate withitness and asks you to suggest additional examples. DESISTS Desists are efforts to stop a misbehavior, such as when a third-grade teacher says, “Gene, please put your feet on the floor instead of on Scott’s desk.” Gene and all the other

APPLYING ECOLOGICAL MODELS 5–1 Demonstrating Withitness The following examples demonstrate withitness: While helping a student with a problem, a teacher monitors the rest of the class, acknowledges other requests for assistance, handles disruptions, and keeps track of time. During a discussion, a teacher listens to student answers, watches other students for signs of comprehension or confusion, formulates the next question, and scans the class for possible misbehaviors.

During instruction, the teacher has all needed materials, is prepared to answer relevant questions, and is well prepared. What other ways can you suggest for teachers to demonstrate withitness? Consider teachers you have had (those who were withit and those who were not). How might you demonstrate withitness in the grade levels you plan to teach?

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students in the class know the expected behavior. Although desists are necessary at times and have the potential for a ripple effect (the effect when a teacher corrects one student who is misbehaving and the behavior “ripples” to other students, causing them to behave), they also can be threatening. In one of his studies, Kounin found that desists resulted in less-relaxed students and reduced feelings of teacher helpfulness and likability (Kounin, 1970). He also found that to be most effective, teachers should ensure that desists are spoken clearly and that they are understood. Firmness and roughness do not impact the effectiveness of desists as much as clarity does (Morris, 1996). When should you use desists and when should you just take action, as Ms. Anderson, a withit teacher, did in an earlier example in this chapter? That can be answered only by looking at each individual situation. Depending on the circumstances and the outcomes desired, a teacher must determine quickly whether to handle the misbehavior with a desist or more subtly. OVERLAPPING Overlapping is what teachers do when they have two matters to deal with at the same time (similar to multitasking). For example, a teacher can work with one student or a group of students and at the same time monitor or help another student who is working in another part of the room. Kounin found that teachers who can overlap are better able to demonstrate withitness. Examples of overlapping include:

• a middle school teacher correcting a student’s misbehavior and never breaking instructional momentum, • a kindergarten teacher distributing drawing materials while explaining the procedures and behaviors she expects, • an elementary teacher discussing an individual student’s problem while monitoring the class on the walk back from lunch, • a high school teacher acknowledging (e.g., through eye contact and proximity) a student’s inattention as she continues teaching the social studies lesson, and • a teacher correcting the behavior of a small group while he sees another student in the back of the room take a student’s book bag. He motions with his hand to the student that the student’s actions are being monitored. Regardless of the cause of the interruption, the teacher who can overlap successfully can deal with several issues simultaneously. Also, the students recognize the teacher’s ability to handle multiple issues as an indication of awareness and control (withitness). SATIATION As the term implies, satiation occurs when a teacher teaches the same lesson for so long that the students grow tired of the topic. Their interest and enthusiasm wane as the “activity becomes less and less positive then more and more negative” (Kounin, 1970, p. 126). The quality of work decreases, the number of mistakes increases, the activity no longer is an intellectual challenge, and a general breakdown of the activity occurs.

Mr. Hanna was teaching an above-average group of students. After he had clearly explained subordinate clauses and all the students had mastered the topic, about 20 minutes of class time were left. To use the time, Mr. Hanna continued to write sentences on the board and to ask the students to identify the subordinate clause. However, satiation occurred. Students showed signs of lack of enthusiasm, and they started misbehaving.

With a little thought and planning, effective teachers can avoid satiation and its accompanying problems. However, once it becomes evident that satiation is occurring, teachers can take several steps to stop it: (1) show a genuine zest and enthusiasm for the topic, (2) make a positive statement about the activity [“This next one is going to be fun; I know you’ll enjoy it” (Kounin, 1970, p. 130)], and (3) point out that the activity has a special intellectual challenge [“You’re going to need your thinking caps on for the next one, it’s tricky” (p. 130)]. Applying Ecological Models 5–2 offers some additional suggestions for avoiding satiation.

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APPLYING ECOLOGICAL MODELS 5–2 Avoiding Satiation The following are some instructional techniques that you can use to avoid satiation. After reading them, identify other instructional strategies you could use to counteract satiation. • “Read” the class to check for signs of satiation. Look for students who are tired and for signs of growing disinterest. • Always have additional work available that will extend or enrich the lesson.

• If satiation occurs before mastery, change to another activity that is designed to teach the same material, or break the class into groups. • Ask higher-level questions that will motivate additional thought about the topic. • Allow the students to put away their present work and work on independent learning projects or personalized reading programs.

JERKINESS Jerkiness refers to a lack of lesson smoothness and momentum. Some teachers demonstrate jerkiness in the way they pace instruction or proceed with the lesson. For example, a teacher might switch from one topic or activity to another without sufficiently notifying the students.

In the middle of the lesson, Ms. Overton, a teacher, glanced at the fish in the classroom aquarium. She stopped instruction to ask Jesse whether he had fed the fish. The instructional momentum was lost, and the students’ interest had to be regained (Wattenberg, 1977).

To maintain an appropriate instructional pace, a teacher should avoid changing the learning topics, avoid asking students questions that do not relate specifically to the lesson (e.g., whether the fish have been fed), and ask students to hold off questions that do not relate specifically to the instructional topic. STIMULUS BOUND When a teacher has the students engaged in a lesson and something else attracts the teacher’s attention, that teacher is stimulus bound. The instructional focus and momentum are lost while the teacher deals with another issue (e.g., the fish).

Just as Mr. Liffick started to teach, he noticed that police were in the hall frisking and handcuffing a man. Because of the position of the classroom door, the students could not see what was going on. However, Mr. Liffick clearly was distracted from the lesson he had planned. Knowing that something was going on that was attracting Mr. Liffick’s attention, the students began to fidget and turn in their seats, trying to find out what was happening.

To avoid becoming stimulus bound, a teacher needs to recognize its negative effects and make a genuine commitment to maintaining the instructional focus. THRUST A thrust consists of a teacher’s sudden “bursting in” (Kounin, 1970, p. 100) on students’

activities with an order, statement, or question without being sensitive to the group’s readiness to receive the message. An everyday example of a thrust is when someone interrupts a conversation of two or more people without waiting to be noticed. A thrust is similar to a stimulus-bound event except that the stimulus-bound event is started by a stimulus outside the teacher, whereas the thrust is initiated by the intent of the teacher (Kounin, 1970). In both instances, the result is that the teacher and the students lose their instructional pace, jerkiness results, and the conditions become ripe for misbehavior. Applying Ecological Models 5–3 asks you to suggest a professional response to a practicum student’s thrusts. DANGLES AND TRUNCATIONS A dangle occurs when a teacher starts an activity and then leaves it “hanging in midair” (Kounin, 1970, p. 100) by beginning another activity. Later, the teacher might resume the original activity. A truncation is the same as a dangle except that in a

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APPLYING ECOLOGICAL MODELS 5–3 Dealing with Thrusts interrupting their work with statements that were unrelated to the lesson, such as, “Jill, how is your older sister doing? I went to school with her, you know,” and, “Wasn’t that a great lunch we had in the cafeteria today?” As a result of Donica’s comments, students began to talk about things other than the class work they were supposed to be doing, and the level of noise in the room escalated.

As you read the following scenario, think about the effect a thrust may have on instructional pacing and classroom management. Then respond to the questions at the end. Donica Redmon was doing her practicum in a mathematics class. To Mr. Masucci, the teacher, it was evident that Donica did not understand the negative effects of thrusts. As she taught for about 1 hour, he counted eight to 10 thrusts. During her lesson, Donica made extraneous comments about the situations in the word problems, such as “I’ve never understood why people would want to drive big cars.” Then, after breaking the class into cooperative learning groups, she interrupted their work with comments such as, “Did anyone bring milk jugs for the experiment we’re going to do tomorrow?” Finally, she walked around visiting each group and

1.

What effect have Ms. Redmon’s thrusts had on instruction and classroom management? 2. If you were Mr. Masucci, what would you suggest to Donica? 3. What if Donica says, “I was just being friendly to the students.” How should Mr. Masucci explain to Donica the effects of her behavior on the students?

truncation, the teacher does not resume the initiated, then dropped, activity. In other words, a truncation might be described as a longer-lasting dangle (Kounin, 1970). Kounin (1970) provides a good example (p. 101). The students had just completed reading a story in their reading circle. As the teacher got up and walked toward the board, she said something like, “Let’s look at these arithmetic problems on the board.” Halfway to the board, however, she stopped, turned around, and walked to her desk to look at some papers there. Then, after 10 seconds at her desk, she returned to the problems on the board. The students were taking turns reading their answers to the arithmetic problems. After telling Jimmy that his answer to the third question was correct, the teacher looked around and asked Mary to read her answer to number four. As Mary was getting up, the teacher looked around the room and asked, “My, now. Let’s see. Suzanne isn’t here, is she? Does anyone know why Suzanne is absent today?”

Because of the loss of momentum and the lack of smoothness in the instructional pace, students are confused and unsure about what they are supposed to be doing. The result is that they goof off and do not pay attention to the instruction. Confusion reigns due to the teacher’s lack of smoothness in the instructional momentum. FLIP-FLOPS Flip-flops occur only at transition points, such as when the teacher terminates one activity and begins another and then reverts to the first activity. For example, a teacher says, “All right, let’s everybody put away your spelling papers and take your arithmetic books” (Kounin, 1970, p. 101). The students put their spelling papers in their desk and, after most of the students have gotten out their arithmetic books, the teacher asks, “Let’s see the hands of the ones who got all their spelling words right” (p. 101). The results of flip-flops are the same as those of dangles and truncations. The teacher confuses students, who then begin to lose their instructional focus and misbehave. SLOWDOWNS: OVERDWELLING AND FRAGMENTATION Kounin (1970) maintained that two types of slowdowns occur: overdwelling and fragmentation. Both relate to instructional movement and the need for smoothness, and consist of teacher behaviors that clearly slow down the rate of instructional movement. Overdwelling happens when a teacher dwells on corrective behavior longer

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than needed or on a lesson longer than required for most students’ understanding and interest levels (Kounin, 1970). Ms. Rentz overdwelled as she corrected behavior. While she was teaching her lesson, Hirooshi wadded up a piece of paper and threw it toward the trashcan, his imaginary basketball hoop. Ms. Rentz said, “Hirooshi, don’t wad up paper and throw it in the trash like that. You have been told time and time again. Why do you do that? And for the rest of you—I don’t like the way you have been behaving lately. LaToyia, you talk too much and disturb others. Korey, you walk around the room too much. Rosa, well, you know how you are!”

To be more effective, all Ms. Rentz had to do was to ignore the paper incident or say “Hirooshi, the others and I are annoyed when someone throws paper in the trashcan during a lesson.” A teacher was explaining how to multiply by twos so that the students would be able to answer the questions in their workbooks as a seatwork assignment. She walked to a large chart that had all the numbers from one through 100. In unison, she and the students called out all the odd numbers from one to 99 (Kounin, 1970). The teacher overdwelled and in all likelihood, the students grew disinterested and bored.

Management Tip 5–2 provides suggestions of activities that can be used in place of overdwelling. Fragmentation, the other type of slowdown, is produced when a teacher breaks down an activity or behavior into subparts even though the activity could be performed easily as a single unit or an uninterrupted sequence. For example, the teacher tells each member of a group to do something singly that could be performed by the group as a whole. In this instance, students have to wait for their turn and, while waiting, might begin to talk and engage in other misbehaviors. The following are a few questions you could ask yourself to eliminate slowdowns in instruction. Do the students look bored or disinterested? Has it been too long since I asked questions or made encouraging comments? Have I been dwelling on the same instructional point for too long? Are students growing frustrated and disenchanted with the lesson? How long have I spent on this lesson? Realistically speaking, how much time do I think should have been needed to teach the lesson? Why it is taking me so long? Should I stop the lesson and begin again during the next class (assuming the students still do not know the information)? MANAGEMENT TIP 5–2 Avoiding Overdwelling Teachers are always warned that they need to have backup ideas that they can use any time students finish a lesson in a shorter time than planned. Suggested activities include writing in a journal, selecting free-choice reading from the classroom book collection, reading a library book, doing homework, completing mini lessons that take 10 minutes or less, listening to the teacher reading a poem or short story, and listening to an audio book.

Pre-K and Elementary Assign class jobs so that students have something to do when lessons and activities end early or when they get done with in-class assignments. Assign jobs to student monitors who will keep everyone on task with their jobs. Rotate the jobs so that no one becomes bored.

Secondary Keep a set of brainteasers on PowerPoint presentations or worksheets and allow the students to solve them as a class or in small groups. Save Sudoku or word puzzles from the newspaper or Internet for students to complete.

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Ecological Approaches to Classroom Management GROUP FOCUS Group focus occurs when a teacher makes a conscientious attempt to keep the attention of all members of the class at all times. When this happens, the teacher maintains efficient classroom control and reduces student misbehavior (Kounin, 1970). One aspect of group focus is group alerting, which, according to Kounin, refers to the degree to which a teacher attempts to involve all learners in learning tasks, maintain their attention, and keep them “on their toes” (Kounin, 1970, p. 117). When using positive group alerting, teachers create “suspense” (Kounin, 1970, p. 117) before calling on a student to answer a question, keep students in suspense regarding who will be called upon next, call on different students to answer questions, and alert nonperformers that they might be called upon next. In contrast, teachers use negative group alerting methods when they focus attention on the performance of one student instead of the group, prepick a person before asking a question (e.g., putting the name first rather than after a question—“Bill, what is a linking verb?”), and call on students in a predetermined sequence, such as going down rows or the class roll. Using group accountability, the teacher holds the students accountable and responsible for their task performances. To do this, a teacher must know what the students are doing and communicate that knowledge to the students in some observable manner, including the use of recordkeeping devices such as checklists and task cards. When students know they are held accountable for their learning and behavior and teachers know each student’s progress, student misbehavior decreases. Although it is important to know about these instructional techniques, it is also important to know when and how to use them. One of the authors was observing a practicum student teach a fourth-grade class. She had done an excellent job of introducing instruction and moving smoothly toward small-group work. Then, she made a serious mistake: She said, “Everyone get an encyclopedia, so you can begin working on your projects.” Immediately, about three-fourths of the class went hurriedly to the back of the room for an encyclopedia. Chaos reigned. Management of the class could have been maintained if she had said, “The leader of your group should get an encyclopedia.” Kounin studied the ecological situation in the classroom habitat that is controlled by the teacher. Dr. Eubanks, in the chapter’s opening vignette, included a session on other ecological management models. These models build on the social and emotional learning of the students and the resulting changes in the classroom. In the next several sections, you will read about some of these models.

EUNICE SHRIVER: COMMUNITY OF CARING Founded by Eunice Kennedy Shriver and the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, the Community of Caring program was originally started to provide a “nurturing and supportive environment for pregnant adolescents and to reduce teen pregnancies” (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Center for Community of Caring, 2011). Based on the program’s success, it developed into a values and character education program for K–12 schools with a focus on creating a positive school environment for all students, including those with special needs. Overview of Community of Caring By promoting a positive learning environment, positive attitudes, and respect for others, Community of Caring is designed to combat violence, bullying, and cheating. As an integrated approach to management that involves the entire school plus families and the community, it can be classified as a schoolwide approach to management as well as an ecological one. The idea is to create a school environment that teaches values throughout the school—from the classroom to the cafeteria, the playground, or the athletic fields. Evaluated by the Center for Health Policy Studies of Columbia, Maryland, Community of Caring was endorsed by the National Association of Secondary School Principals (McCarthy, 1995). The evaluation showed positive results including a reduction in unexcused absences, fewer written disciplinary actions, more student interest in helping others, better attention to personal health, and stronger relationships with family and peers (Building Partnerships for Youth, 2009).

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Practical Applications of Community of Caring The Community of Caring program is built upon five core values: care, respect, trust and moral consciousness, responsibility, and family (Jones & Stoodley, 1999). Teachers infuse these core values into existing lessons in the curriculum and use ethical discussions to help students make sound moral decisions. Believing that the total culture of the school supports these values, students “recognize new opportunities and positive alternatives to destructive behavior” (p. 49). In addition to cross-age groups, learning circles, and friendship groups, student forums in secondary schools and class meetings in elementary schools provide opportunities for students to discuss issues and offer solutions to problems. There are several essential components of a Community of Caring. These include training for all teachers and staff and the designation of a site facilitator to work with the principal and coordinate the program with the help of a coordinating committee. The principal, site facilitator, and coordinating committee develop a comprehensive action plan that includes the goals and objectives of the program and strategies and a timeline for implementing the plan. Next, teachers weave values and ethical discussions into the existing curriculum and provide forums and class meetings where students can discuss issues and problems. Finally, students participate in service-learning projects. Throughout the planning and implementation of the plan, educators involve families and community members.

BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA: LEARNING FOR LIFE Developed by the Boy Scouts of America, Learning for Life is a pre-K–12 program that integrates character development and academics. Specially designed lessons for each level or grade focus on the Common Core and state standards while incorporating life skills and character development (Learning for Life, 2011b). Overview of Learning for Life Used in more than 20,000 schools throughout the United States (Evaluation Systems Design, 2010), the lessons in Learning for Life encourage “hands-on activities and cooperative learning in a nurturing open environment” (p. 1). These lessons support the core curriculum and reinforce academic skills while fostering the ethical, social, and character development of students. The idea is to combine life skills, character development, academic learning, and outdoor experiences to encourage positive behavior. In a study of the program, teachers reported “significant improvement in the observed behavior of students” (Syndics Research Corporation & Ryan, 2005, p. 2) following the Learning for Life lessons. Practical Applications of Learning for Life Learning for Life consists of a series of age-appropriate lessons that are designed to be integrated with reading, science, math, and social studies. With the lessons, a teacher uses small group discussions, case studies, and other strategies to encourage student reflection. There are also activities for the student to take home to extend learning. For pre-kindergarten through sixth grade, there are a series of lessons for each level (Pre-K, K–2, 3–4, and 5–6) that focus on the eight core character traits of respect, responsibility, honesty/ trust, caring/fairness, perseverance, self-discipline, courage, and citizenship (Learning for Life, 2011a). For example, a preschool teacher might use a lesson on sharing or special manners for school, while a K–2 teacher could incorporate a lesson on accepting consequences or meeting deadlines. Although the same themes are central to the lessons, the lessons for grades 3 through 4 focus on “critical thinking, conflict resolution, perseverance, courage, interpersonal skills, and ethical decision making” (Learning for Life, 2011a). By the fifth and sixth grades, life skills such as money management and fire safety as well as antibullying and Internet safety are added to the lessons which now are “geared to a higher-level of cognitive and developmental learning” (Learning for Life, 2011a). For Pre-K through grade 2 there is additional information in the lessons on personal safety.

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APPLYING ECOLOGICAL MODELS 5–4 Evaluating Learning for Life lessons Visit the Learning for Life website for curriculum information at: www.learning.learningforlife.org/programs/prek-12character-ed. Scrolling down the page, you will find links to sample lessons and activities in the curriculum. Examine the curriculum content and lessons that are appropriate for the

grades you hope to teach. Evaluate the lessons. Are the plans easy to follow? Realizing that the lessons are designed to be used as part of an complete program, how effective do you think these lessons and this curriculum would be to foster social and emotional learning?

Learning for Life changes slightly in the secondary school. In the seventh and eighth grades, Learning for Life focuses on four character traits: respect (empathy and peer pressure), responsibility (decision making and perseverance), honesty and trust, and self-discipline, including anger management. In addition to lessons on building relationships and reinforcing character and citizenship, the program’s emphasis expands to include career education and service-learning. Community members come into the classroom to explain how academic courses relate to real life. This focus on career exploration continues into the high school where Learning for Life provides lessons on postsecondary education, career readiness, making the transition from high school into the real world, becoming a productive citizen, and maintaining positive relationships. Learning for Life provides a special Champions Program for students with special needs. Included are lessons on daily living skills and personal and social skills as well as vocational skills. Applying Ecological Models 5–4 explores Learning for Life in more detail.

LIONS CLUB INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION: LIONS QUEST Developed by the Lions Club International Foundation, Lions Quest has been designated a model program by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and listed on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (Ringwalt et al., 2009, 2010). It focuses on character development, social and emotional development, citizenship, violence prevention, and servicelearning by using resources of the school, home, and community. Overview of the Lions Quest Lions Quest is a “multicomponent life skills education program” (Eisen, Zellman, Massett, & Murray, 2002, p. 620) that promotes character education, drug prevention, and service-learning on the premise that positive youth development inhibits problem behaviors. The program consists of three age-appropriate parts: Skills for Growing (kindergarten through grade 5), Skills for Adolescents (middle school grades 6 through 8), and Skills for Action (high school grades 9 through 12) (Lions Quest, 2011). Practical Applications of Lions Quest Like other commercial ecological models, Lions Quest involves the family and community as well as educators and encourages service-learning projects. Teachers learn to use a series of lessons on working cooperatively, developing communication skills, building self-esteem and personal responsibility, making decisions, and resisting social pressures (Eisen et al., 2002). These lessons incorporate inquiry learning, discussions, group work, guided practice, reflection, and service-learning projects. Teachers can use the lessons as a separate life skills course, integrate them into academic subjects, use them for advisory or guidance in individual classrooms or in an entire school, or all three (Lions Quest, n.d.). In classrooms, the Lions Quest program expects teachers to develop rules and routines and maintain clear standards for student behavior. Depending on the grade level, students can help to develop some or all of the class rules. Management Tip 5–3 provides additional information on class routines.

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MANAGEMENT TIP 5–3 Using Beginning and Ending Routines One way to manage a classroom is to develop routines for many of the common events that happen in a classroom. Teachers can use routines at the beginning and end of the day in Pre-K and elementary school and the beginning and end of class in secondary school.

Pre-K and Elementary Have a personal space for each student, such as a cubby or a crate. Establish a routine for greeting students each morning and for saying goodbye each afternoon. Create a special place for parents or guardians to pick up messages if they come to get their children.

Secondary In schools where no lockers are provided or where students have to go outside to portable or temporary classrooms, establish a place for raincoats and umbrellas as well as backpacks and projects. Establish a procedure that students follow each day when they walk into the class. For example: • Enter and take your seat quietly. • Take out your textbook and open to the page indicated on the board. • Begin working on the assignment listed on the board.

Develop a special “take-home” envelope for children to use when they take papers or information home to their parents or guardians.

Age-appropriate lesson materials in Lions Quest help the students to learn self-discipline as well as problem solving, collaboration, communication, and conflict management skills. For example, in the Pre-K/elementary program called Skills for Growing, kindergarten and first-grade students have lessons on demonstrating ways to ask for help in the classroom and on making positive statements about their classmates. By the time students are in middle school, Skills for Adolescents includes lessons on peer relations and intimidation, as well as resisting pressures to use drugs. Finally, Skills for Action lessons help high school students to prepare to become responsible citizens.

CAROL ALLRED: POSITIVE ACTION Cited for its positive effects on both academics and behavior by the U.S. Department of Education’s What Works Clearinghouse, the Positive Action program was developed by Carol G. Allred. The model “teaches students . . . what positive actions are and how to do them holistically by including the physical, intellectual, social and emotional domains” (Allred, 2008, p. 27). According to the Positive Action model, there is a positive way to do everything. When people think and do things in a positive manner, they feel good about themselves and are inclined to continue to think and do things positively. Overview of Positive Action The basis of Positive Action is that “students’ self-concepts and characters are determined by how they behave and how they feel about themselves when they do various behaviors” (Ji et al., 2005, p. 110). By making healthy and positive behavior choices, students increase their feelings of self-worth. To do this, students learn to identify positive behaviors, are given opportunities to practice them, and examine how they feel about themselves when they do positive things. Thus students have an intrinsic motivation for change. The teacher and other adults at school and at home use repeated reinforcement to help the students gain decision-making skills as they mature socially and emotionally. A number of studies (Beets et al., 2008; Beets et al., 2009; Flay, Allred, & Ordway, 2001; Ji et al., 2005) of Positive Action in elementary schools found that the program significantly decreased behavior problems, increased academic achievement and improved attendance while

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APPLYING ECOLOGICAL MODELS 5–5 Using Positive Action Visit the Positive Action website for curriculum informat i o n at: www.positiveaction.net/programs/index. asp?ID1=1&ID2=22&ID3=290 By clicking on the links, you can view sample lessons and activities in the curriculum for the grades you plan to

teach. Evaluate these materials using the questions in Applying Ecological Models 5–4.

encouraging students to “demonstrate good character and engage in civic activities” (Allred, 2008, p. 26). Students in the Positive Action program were “significantly less likely to engage in substance abuse, violent behaviors, and sexual activity than were students who did not” (Beets et al., 2009, p. 1443). Practical Applications of Positive Action Positive Action is a K–12 classroom program that includes school, family, and community components. The curriculum consists of age-appropriate lessons that can be integrated into core academic classes as well as art, music, and physical education. The lessons target positive internal behaviors including self-responsibility and positive self-concept as well as social relationships including conflict resolution, respect for others, and kindness to others. There are also school climate kits for principals and materials for parents and school counselors as well as for community groups and individuals. For fifth grade and middle school, there are supplemental drug education materials. At each level, the curriculum consists of six units, each of which has a series of daily 15-minute lessons for the classroom teacher to use with students throughout the school year. The unit topics include: self-concept—what is it, how is it formed and why is it important; positive actions for a healthy body and mind; managing yourself responsibly—managing time, energy, thoughts, actions, money, feelings, talents; treating others the way you like to be treated—respect, fairness, kindness, empathy, cooperation, caring; being honest with yourself and others—telling the truth, doing what you say you’ll do, not blaming others, admitting mistakes, knowing personal strengths and weaknesses; improving yourself continually—setting and achieving goals, persisting, and believing in your potential (Allred, 2008; Beets, et al., 2008). Applying Ecological Models 5–5 looks at these lessons in more detail. Another key component of the Positive Action program is understanding the ThoughtsActions-Feelings (TAF) circle. Jason, a fifth grader, has a thought, acts on it, and feels something because of that action. This cycle repeats over and over. Rather than having negative thoughts that lead to negative actions, Jason, with the encouragement of his teacher and other adults, must learn to change the negative thoughts into positive ones. Using the principals of positive reinforcement, adults can give ICU (I see you) positive recognition and tokens to students (Beets et al., 2008).

THOMAS SCHUYLER, MAURICE ELIAS, AND JOHN CLABBY: SOCIAL DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING Developed in 1979 by Thomas Schuyler, an elementary school principal, and Maurice Elias and John Clabby, two psychologists, the Social Decision Making and Problem Solving Program (SDM/ PS) began as the Improving Social Awareness—Social Problem Solving Program (Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program, n.d.). It consists of a curriculum for kindergarten through grades 5 and 6 designed to “promote social competence by focusing on critical social decision-making,

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self-control, group participation, and social awareness skills” (Elias, Gara, Schuyler, Branden-Muller, & Sayette, 1991, p. 409). Overview of Social Decision Making and Problem Solving SDM/PS is listed as a “Promising Program” (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Educational Research and Improvement, Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, 2001, p. 131) for improving school discipline. As an elementary program, SDM/PS helps students to build the skills to think clearly under stress and in socially and emotionally complex situations. SDM/PS targets four basic competencies: building skills for self-control, learning behaviors that are linked with peer acceptance and the ability to work cooperatively in groups, developing problem-solving and decision-making skills, and developing the ability to apply social and emotional capacities in response to changing social situations and demands (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Educational Research and Improvement, Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, 2001). Practical Applications of SDM/PS Like many SEL models of ecological management, SDM/PS trains educators and parents to help students develop self-control and social awareness skills through a series of scripted lessons which are reinforced by guided practice, role playing, and problem-solving situations. After training, a classroom teacher uses SDM/PS lessons once or twice a week with discussion, and other activities. The idea is to foster “a critical-thinking, respectful, caring and problem-solving approach . . . [that] permeate[s] all aspects of classroom life (Epstein & Elias, p. 160). The curriculum is implemented in three phases. In the readiness phase, students learn selfcontrol, as well as social awareness and group participation skills in lessons on topics such as following directions, listening, resisting and avoiding provocation, monitoring emotions, and working with others. In the instructional phase, students learn a social decision-making strategy to help them in social problem situations. Finally, in the application phase, teachers use role-playing, guided practice, modeling, and mock situations to help students learn to apply their skills. Throughout the process, teachers function as facilitators to help students make appropriate decisions. The lessons can be taught independently or integrated into regular academic subjects. Like many other ecological models, SDM/PS requires the support and participation of parents as well as other educators in the school to reinforce the learning and application of the social skills (Elias et al., 1991; Elias, Butler, Bruno, Papke, & Shapiro, 2005). In the instructional phase, SDM/PS uses an eight-step model to apply critical thinking and feeling to the decision-making process. Students learn to • • • • • • • •

look for signs of different feelings, identify the problem, decide on a goal, identify all possible solutions to the problem, for each solution, identify what might happen next, select the best solution, plan the implementation of the solution and check for other problems or obstacles, and implement the solution and evaluate it (Epstein & Elias, 1996).

Elias (2009) maintains that students can successfully apply social-emotional skills, including problem solving and decision making, not only in social situations but in academics as well. “These skills . . . are also vital for children to have in order . . . to participate effectively in a global and highly politicized world” (p. 841). In an evaluation of SCM/PS, Epstein and Elias (1996) found that students who participated in the program demonstrated more positive, pro-social behavior than a control group. The participants also had lower levels of “antisocial, self-destructive, and socially disordered behavior . . . [and] a better understanding of behavioral consequences” (p. 160).

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CRITIQUE OF ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Teachers play three roles in establishing the habitat of the classroom: instructor, manager, and person. Good classroom management occurs when teachers create a positive classroom habitat, clear classroom procedures, and clear classroom rules. By identifying appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and implementing interventions, teachers are able to make a difference and help students to understand the ecology of the classroom (Grossman, 2004; Wemlinger, 2004). The ecological models have had considerable potential to help teachers in all of these roles. Although a number of external factors (e.g., personal and family problems, peer pressure.) contribute to student misbehavior, educators, through their instructional actions, can have a powerful influence on students and the teaching and learning environment. By consistently using instructional techniques that promote and encourage learners’ best behaviors (i.e., staying on task and not disturbing others), teachers can address common misbehaviors that are experienced in many contemporary schools. For example, to implement Kounin’s model, teachers can use specific instructional behaviors that are relatively easy to learn and to apply in the classroom. Students behave better when teachers demonstrate withitness and employ techniques such as using desists properly; taking advantage of ripple effects; satiation, jerkiness, thrusts, dangles, and flip-flops; and maintaining a group focus through correct group alerting and accountability. Also, teachers should be able to implement Kounin’s theories without a great deal of extra work. In fact, most of these instructional behaviors are second nature for good teachers. All teachers should emphasize academic instruction, expect students to master the curriculum, and allocate most time to curriculumrelated activities. In addition, they should maintain an appropriate instructional momentum that contributes to high levels of success. In general, the ecological models reflect the philosophy that preventing behavior problems is easier than dealing with them after they occur. For most teachers, it is easier to use Kounin’s instructional techniques or one of the models to promote social and emotional learning than to use the Canters’ checklist, Dreikurs’s methods to identify the four goals of misbehavior, or Glasser’s quality schools theories. The ecological models also show respect for all students. For example, although a problem might occur with developmental differences (e.g., students in elementary school might be affected by Kounin’s ripple effect, but middle and secondary students might not be affected as much), no cultural or gender differences (or social class differences) appear to exist that would be affected or that would affect Kounin’s prescribed instructional behaviors. With the main focus on what teachers do rather than what students do and the attention to what teachers do to prevent misbehaviors rather than to address them after they have occurred, little corrective attention focuses on the learner. Another instructional technique that addresses the needs of most students is the use of consistency. A teacher should demonstrate withitness and effective instructional movement management and should hold students accountable for their learning and behavior every day rather than sporadically or only on days when the teacher feels the need for control. Most students like consistency because it lets them know the teacher’s expectations in terms of maintaining appropriate behavior, staying on task, and being meaningfully engaged in their learning efforts. However, Kounin’s objective treatment of all students can be a double-edged sword. Although teachers do not treat students differently, they also do not seek out specific individual differences to address. A teacher who implements Kounin’s Instructional Management ideas might prevent students from having the time or inclination to pose serious threats to others’ physical and psychological welfare. If the learners realize the teacher knows what they are doing at all times and in all classroom areas, they are not likely to misbehave unless they are seeking attention or have a serious problem. However, Kounin’s Instructional Management model does not address serious behavior problems or

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specifically promote schools that are safe from serious violence. Although demonstrating withitness when a student shows a gun or knife is better than panicking and not knowing what to do, it does not indicate how to deal with the threat in a way that keeps everyone safe. Also, if a fight breaks out in the hall between classes, demonstrating effective Instructional Management techniques will not solve the problem. Kounin’s theories are designed to handle only the routine classroom management problems that teachers must deal with on a daily basis. SEL ecological management models are designed to prevent a wide range of behaviors from routine to more serious infractions. With these models, the curricula center on the development of a positive self-concept for all students and the development of caring communities of students. By “sensitize[ing] children to one another’s strengths and differences” (Epstein & Elias, 1996, p. 160) students learn to respect and work with and value all individuals and the contributions that they make. Also, when used with culturally diverse students with varying degrees of motivation and varied abilities, SEL ecological models produce “significant positive effects on . . . social-emotional competencies and attitudes about self, others, and school (Durlak et al., 2011, p. 417). They also increase academic performance and reduce behavior problems. While there are many benefits to the ecological models, there are some disadvantages. With Kounin’s model, students do not necessarily take personal responsibility for their behaviors, nor do they learn a lesson from the use of desists because the desists are used to stop behaviors immediately rather than to teach a more appropriate way to behave. Kounin maintained that teachers should accept responsibility for learning and should demonstrate effective instructional techniques that contribute to positive learner behaviors. Although he likely thought students should develop inner control and ultimately learn self-discipline and how to discipline themselves, his Instructional Management model placed the primary responsibility on the teacher. He encouraged teachers to develop specific instructional skills to prevent misbehaviors rather than encouraging them to exert control over students. Furthermore, Kounin’s model offers suggestions on preventing behavior problems from occurring in the classroom, but it does not provide strategies to deal with serious problems when they arise (Morris, 1996). Except for keeping students productively busy, it also does little to promote the goals of the safe schools movement. However, the SEL ecological models focus on the development of internalizing and problemsolving students. By integrating “emotion, cognition, communication, and behavior (Durlak et al., 2011, p. 417) into a single curriculum, SEL models help students learn decision-making skills that they can apply throughout their lives. By using both Kounin’s model and one of the SEL models, teachers can address the concerns about teaching or imposing discipline. There are some other concerns specifically about the SEL models. Because they are commercial programs, the school or school division must pay for the cost of the program materials and for the training of educators and others involved in the implementation of the program. Once the program begins, schools must be sure they have the resources in time, staff, and funds to continue the program. Schools must also determine how the SEL model will fit into the existing structure of the school, what adjustments must be made, and whether they have the support of the educators who will implement and sustain the program. In addition, because some SEL models call for parent and community involvement to reinforce classroom activities, these individuals must also support the adoption of an SEL model (Tanyu, 2007). Classroom management is more than discipline. With an emphasis on the organization and operation of a classroom, classroom management looks at the behavior of both teachers and students and at the instructional strategies used by teachers as well as the interactions among students and teachers. Teachers who are successful using Kounin’s Instructional Management model must believe that their teaching techniques affect learners’ behavior. In addition, when using an SEL model, they must agree that their instruction has the dual purposes of conveying knowledge and serving as a means of helping students to learn to evaluate their own behavior. Developing Your Personal Philosophy presents some questions for you to consider as you determine whether an ecological management model is congruent with your own classroom management beliefs.

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Does an Ecological Model Reflect Your Beliefs? In determining the usefulness of ecological management models, you can ask yourself several questions: 1. Do I agree with the philosophy that classroom management includes student behavior and teacher’s instructional, management, and personal behaviors? 2. Do I believe that my teaching behaviors are sufficiently powerful to affect learners’ behaviors? 3. Can I learn to use Kounin’s theories (e.g., specific teacher behaviors, movement management, group focus) on a consistent basis?

4. Can I effectively implement what I know about jerkiness, stimulus bound, thrust, dangles, truncation, and flip-flops? 5. Do I prefer to watch nearly every move I make, or would I just autocratically demand obedience? 6. Am I willing to learn and implement a commercial program for the development of social and emotional learning skills in students? 7. Do I believe that I can teach SEL skills in addition to the academic demands of the curriculum?

Summary In this chapter, you have read about Kounin’s Instructional Management model. Next, you looked at the following ecological management models that focused on SEL education as an ecological approach: Shriver—Community of Caring; Boy Scouts of America—Learning for Life; Lions Club International Foundation—Lions Quest; Allred—Positive Action; and Schuyler, Elias, and Clabby—Social Decision Making and Problem Solving Program. You can find additional information about these models on the Internet at the sites identified in “Reaching Out with the Internet.” All preservice and inservice teachers can learn Kounin’s instructional techniques and the basic ideas behind the SEL ecological models. Although all teachers might not demonstrate high levels of withitness, most can learn proper desists, how to maintain an appropriate instructional momentum, and the techniques of group alerting and accountability. To develop the social and emotional learning of students, schools might implement a commercial ecological model. While most have a similar emphasis on core values, character education, life skills, and problem solving, Com-

munity of Caring and Learning for Life include service-learning. Lions Quest focuses on skills for growing, adolescents, and action. With the TAF circle, Positive Action asks students to consider their actions and the results of those actions on themselves and others. Finally, SDM/PS includes an eight-step decision-making process for students. All of these programs focus on children and the habitats they occupy. Revisit Dr. Eubanks in this chapter’s opening vignette. Using information from this chapter and the websites, respond to the following questions: 1. How would you respond if you were a teacher in this

school system? 2. Develop a plan for implementing Kounin’s ideas in

your own classroom. Where would you need to rely on Dr. Eubanks for assistance? 3. Do you believe that an SEL model can be effective throughout an entire school system? 4. How would you respond to your fellow teachers who were concerned that it would be too much work to implement an SEL ecological management model?

Suggested Readings Allen, K., Akinyanjy, K., Milliken, T., Lorek, E., & Walker, T. T. (2011). Improving the pro-social skills of transitioning urban youth: A summer camp approach. Middle School Journal, 42, (4), 14–22. The authors discuss a summer camp designed to improve prosocial skills and prevent behavior problems. Hutzel, K., Russell, R., & Gross, J. (2010). Eighth-graders as role models: A service-learning art collaboration for social and emotional learning. Art Education, 63(4), 12–18. Middle school and

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preschool students work together to construct art and to develop SEL skills. Kim, M. G., Pizzo, P. D., & Garcia, Y. (2011). The path towards social and emotional competence. Exchange (197), 24–27. Social and emotional learning is important for preschool children to develop self-management and social awareness skills. Mitescu, E., Pedulla, J. J., Cannay, M., Cochran-Smith, M., & John, C. (2011). Measuring practices of teaching for social

Ecological Approaches to Classroom Management justice in elementary mathematics classrooms. Educational Research Quarterly, 34(3), 15–39. Using the Teaching for Social Justice Observational Scale, the authors looked at practices of novice elementary teachers and the correlation between social justice and learning outcomes.

Whitted, K. S. (2011). Understanding how social and emotional skills deficits contribute to school failure. Preventing School Failure, 55(1), 10–16. Community and family risk factors can inhibit the development of the social skills that young children need to control their behavior in school settings.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on ecological approaches to classroom management.

Lions Quest Australia

GENERAL

National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices— Lions Quest

Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning: About Us www.casel.org/about/index.php

SPECIFIC MODELS Community of Caring www.communityofcaring.org/ Kounin Are You with It? pecentral.org/climate/april99article.html Biography of Kounin wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob The Kounin Model www.teachermatters.com/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=9:kounin-model&catid= 4:models-of-discipline&Itemid=4

LEARNING FOR LIFE Learning for Life www.learningforlife.org/ Learning for Life—Sample lesson plans learning.learningforlife.org/programs/prek-12-character-ed/ #prek

LIONS QUEST Lions Quest

lionsclubs.org.au/lions-quest/

www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=24 The Morning Program www.sharingsuccess.org/code/eptw/pdf_profiles/morning. pdf Open Circle www.open-circle.org/index.html

POSITIVE ACTION Minnewaska Area Elementary and Positive Action www.minnewaska.k12.mn.us/Schools/Minnewaska%20 Area%20Elementary/Positive%20Action/Positive%20 Action%20School.htm National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices: Positive Action www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=78 Positive Action www.positiveaction.net

SOCIAL DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING Sharing Circles: Introducing skills for Social Decision Making and Problem Solving ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/ecourse/sel/ Social Decision Making and Problem Solving from Sharing Success.org www.sharingsuccess.org/code/vp/profiles/50.html www.sharingsuccess.org/code/eptw/profiles/ndn10.html

www.lions-quest.org

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Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management

From Chapter 6 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting upon Chapter 6, you should be able to 1. discuss what is meant by self-regulating approaches to classroom management and the role of selfregulated learning in education; 2. explain Coloroso’s Inner Discipline, including her thoughts on the categories of teachers, ownership of the problem, punishments and rewards, four steps of discipline, three R’s of discipline, assertive

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

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confrontation, and conflict resolution, natural consequences, and bullies; 3. discuss Marvin Marshall’s Discipline without Stress®, his three principles to practice, and his Raise Responsibility System; 4. evaluate the self-regulating approaches to classroom management; and 5. identify the self-regulating concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Defusing a Confrontation “Click. Click, click.” Standing at the front of her classroom, Candi Hecht clearly heard the distracting sound that one of her students was making with a toy “cricket”—the kind students clicked at the basketball games. Although other teachers had reported some problems with the noisemakers, Ms. Hecht had not had to deal with this issue before today. She continued teaching as she walked in the direction of the sound. She was not sure who was making the noise, but it seemed to be coming from the back corner where Isabel Cohoon and Katie Davis sat. Beside them were Olin Raynor, a known troublemaker, and Paul Rodriguez, a new boy in the class. Olin had been on his best behavior since the most recent parent–teacher conference, and Ms. Hecht wanted to keep it that way. The word was that Olin’s dad had a bad temper and that calls from the school could result in physical violence at the Raynor house. However, Olin never had any visible bruises and nothing had ever been reported to any social services agency. Standing in the back corner, Ms. Hecht finished the lesson and then walked toward the front of the room. “Click. Click, click.” Before Ms. Hecht could turn around, Olin was out of his seat, grabbing the front of Paul’s shirt, shaking him, and saying: “Stop that damn noise! You aren’t going to get me in trouble, you lousy wetback!” As Ms. Hecht started toward the boys, she heard the sound of ripping cloth and Isabel Cohoon screaming.

OVERVIEW The self-regulating approaches to classroom management are closely related to the study of self-regulated learning (SRL), which began as an attempt to link student motivation and learning (McCaslin et al., 2006). Researchers studying SRL often examine topics such as the development of self-awareness; volition or what “helps the learner carry out a motivational decision to its realization” (p. 232); and social cognitive theory or the internal processes which help students to learn socially relevant behaviors. In spite of these different approaches, most researchers of SRL look at “students’ active participation in their own learning through the management of behavioral, emotional, cognitive, attentional, and environmental resources . . . [to attain] desirable learning goals” (Roeser & Peck, 2009, p. 121). SRL often involves helping students with processes such as goal-setting, planning, and monitoring (Roeser & Peck, 2009) and insuring “high levels of motivation, metacognition and strategic action” (Metallidou & Vlachou, 2010, p. 776). With SRL models, “students initiate, monitor, and exert control over their own learning” (Metallidou & Vlachou, 2010, p. 776). Researchers believe that when students are able to self-regulate their behaviors, cognitions, social environment, and goals, they are able to improve their learning (Lodewyk, Winne, & Jamieson-Noel,

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MANAGEMENT TIP 6–1 Developing Responsibility One way to help students develop responsibility and a sense of control is to assign classroom jobs to students and change the jobs on a scheduled basis. Although some teachers might change jobs every week, others might change them every month or each grading period. Remember to keep the amount of time required for the jobs fairly short and the difficulty level appropriate for the students in your grade level. Here are a few suggestions.

Elementary Board eraser and cleaner Line leader Paper collector

Secondary Role taker/attendance keeper Timekeeper Money collector for special programs

All Levels Greeter to welcome class visitors Messenger Distributor (of supplies and materials) Collector (of supplies, materials, homework) Computer assistant Cleanup crew (several students hold this job)

2009). Although students must have a sense of satisfaction and personal control, for SRL to be effective they must also realize that there are some things that they cannot control. Teachers need to increase responsibilities as students grow older and give them more opportunities to make decisions and contribute to the social environment. Management Tip 6–1 provides some ways to help students develop responsibility which will lead to personal satisfaction. Management theorists who use the self-regulating approach encourage students to study their own behavior from the operant paradigm of antecedent–behavior–consequences. Thus, after taking immediate action, Ms. Hecht in the opening vignette should let Olin and Paul reflect on their behavior rather than imposing a punishment. Olin and Paul must learn that their misbehavior leads to consequences, and they must understand the actions that led to the behavior. Students should also learn to apply task analysis and goal-setting strategies to be successful. This consists of asking the following questions: • • • • • • • •

What is my goal? What needs to be done to achieve my goal? Why is my goal worth achieving? How should I achieve my goal? What skills or resources do I need? Do I have these skills or resources? If not, how will I acquire them? At what stages is reinforcement necessary to help me achieve my goal?

While goal attainment is important, students also need to be able to assess their progress throughout the task to maintain momentum and to learn self-reinforcement. This is part of learning that, in life, there is not always someone to tell you that you are doing or have done a good job (McCaslin et al., 2006). McCaslin et al. (2006) suggest that teachers using self-regulating management approaches need to begin with self-reflection to understand themselves, their interactions with students, and how they react to student behaviors. By modeling coping, mastery, and self-reinforcement strategies, teachers can show students how to work though a task. They can also talk to students and help students think through teacher expectations, goals, and instructional tasks using the strategies of task

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analysis. Observing and conducting their own task analysis of a student’s behavior, teachers can identify problems and make the student aware of these problems before the completion of the task. The teacher must also teach each student to replace the internal dialogue of “I can’t do this” or “There’s no reason to do this” with a positive inner dialogue of “I can do this” and “It is important for me to learn to do this.” As the student’s behavior changes, the student learns to internalize the self-regulation process and to move from thinking, “I’m dumb” to “I did a good job on that” (p. 244). Finally, the teacher reinforces success and “provides proof of effectiveness” (p. 244) of the process.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES In this chapter, you will read about two theories that follow the ideas of SRL to develop self-regulating approaches to classroom management. These are Barbara Coloroso’s Inner Discipline and Marvin Marshall’s Discipline without Stress®.

KEY TERMS Table 6–1 identifies the key terms related to the self-regulating approaches to classroom management. TABLE 6–1

Key Terms Related to Self-Regulating Approaches

Barbara Coloroso—Inner Discipline

Marvin Marshall—Internal Motivation

• Assertive confrontation

• Anarchy

• Backbone teacher

• Bossing/Bullying

• Brickwall teacher

• Checking for Understanding

• Conflict resolution

• Choice

• Jellyfish teacher

• Cooperation/Conformity

• Natural and reasonable consequences

• Democracy

• Ownership

• Guided Choices

• Reconciliation

• Positivity

• Resolution

• Raise Responsibility System

• Restitution

• Reflection

• RSVP approach

• Social hierarchy • Teaching the Concepts

BARBARA COLOROSO: INNER DISCIPLINE Barbara Coloroso bases her theory of Inner Discipline on her firm conviction that adults should believe that children and adolescents are worth the effort and time required to teach them responsible behavior. Although she most often is considered a commentator on parenting issues and bullying, Coloroso has a comprehensive array of concepts, rather than a packaged model, on how to work with students. In addition, her books are resources that teachers can suggest when parents appeal for help in managing their children. Figure 6–1 identifies the key concepts found in the writings of Barbara Coloroso. Overview of Coloroso’s Model Respecting children and their capabilities, Barbara Coloroso developed a model she calls Inner Discipline (“Give Poor Parenting a Time-out,” 2002). Coloroso (1994) suggests three philosophical stances that she thinks are essential.

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Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management FIGURE 6–1

Key Concepts of Inner Discipline

The following are key concepts of the Inner Discipline theory: • Children and adolescents should be treated with respect and dignity at all times. • Teachers should always abide by the Golden Rule, being careful to always treat students the way they want to be treated. • Teachers are either brickwall, jellyfish, or backbone, and their choice affects students and their behavior. • Students should be taught Inner Discipline rather than being punished physically or being manipulated with destructive words. • Teachers should accept responsibility for teaching students to accept the ownership of their problems. • Teachers should use natural consequences as much as possible; when those do not work, reasonable consequences should be used. • Teachers should avoid punishments, rewards, and threats; use a four-step approach to discipline; and use assertive confrontation. • Restitution, resolution, and reconciliation are the three R’s of discipline.

1. Kids are worth it. With dignity and worth as individuals and human beings, they neither have to prove their worth nor earn the attention of adults. Adults do not have to like their appearances, their attitudes, and their behaviors, but adults do need to believe that children and young adults are worth their time, energy, and resources. 2. I will not treat a child in a way I myself would not want to be treated. Coloroso believes that adults should follow the Golden Rule (Coloroso, 1994). If teachers feel uncertain about what they are doing to students, they should place themselves in the students’ place to see how they would feel. 3. “If it works and leaves a child’s and my own dignity intact, do it” (Coloroso, 1994, p. 11). Efforts to discipline a student should leave the student’s and the adult’s dignity intact. Coloroso maintains that a serious problem with some discipline techniques such as rewards, bribes, and threats is that the student’s dignity and sense of self-worth are sacrificed in the name of behavior management. Teachers’ roles in Inner Discipline can be identified readily. First, teachers who are effective with Inner Discipline should subscribe to the just-discussed philosophical beliefs of treating others with respect and avoiding humiliation, sarcasm, and ridicule. Teachers also have the responsibility to demonstrate compassion after a student misbehaves (Coloroso, 2000a). Second, effective teachers need to believe in and be willing to teach self-discipline rather than believing that the teacher is responsible for disciplining students. Third, teachers need to believe in real-world consequences to discipline and management rather than the intervention of an adult. Fourth, teachers should avoid autocratic behaviors, harshness, and physical punishments. Authoritarian approaches might get students to comply, but they do not help students to develop the selfdiscipline and responsibility that Coloroso advocated (Willis, 1996). The use of Coloroso’s Inner Discipline can be learned, but teachers already must possess some of these traits for Inner Discipline to be successful. Practical Applications of Coloroso’s Model The application of Coloroso’s inner discipline requires consideration of her categories of teachers; her theories on discipline, punishment, and behavior management; and her opinions on the use of words, both harmful and praising. Coloroso places teachers in three categories: brickwall, jellyfish, and backbone (Coloroso, 1994). The category into which an individual falls affects all interpersonal relationships: student to teacher, teacher to student, teacher to other teachers, student to student, and even the way the teacher relates to the outside world.

THREE CATEGORIES OF TEACHERS

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A brickwall teacher is almost a nonliving entity who restricts and controls others (Coloroso, 1994). This teacher is all powerful; the student is the subordinate. Gray areas do not exist because all class events are clear-cut and in black and white. Operating in an atmosphere of fear, this teacher has a litany of rules; emphasizes punctuality, cleanliness, and order; enforces rules rigidly; tries to break students’ wills; emphasizes rituals and rote learning; uses humiliation, rewards, and bribes; relies on competition; and teaches students what to think rather than how to think. Mrs. Winchell, a 10th-grade teacher, was called Mrs. Witchell (behind her back) by many of her students. Making all decisions and rules, and prescribing all punishments, she did not trust her students to accept responsibility for their behavior. As Sean, one of her students, said: “I guess I’m learning in the witch’s class, but I also know I throw up every Sunday night when I think about walking into her room first thing on Monday morning.”

Jellyfish teachers have “no firm parts at all” (Coloroso, 1994, p. 38). They are wishy-washy, are inconsistent about classroom management, and allow anarchy and chaos. Without recognizable structure and rules, they are arbitrary and inconsistent with rules and punishments, use mini lectures and put-downs, use threats and bribes, and allow emotions to rule students and their behaviors. Students know a jellyfish teacher will make few serious efforts to teach proper behavior. Mr. Haney, a first-grade teacher, was a prime example of a jellyfish teacher. He thought first-grade students would behave appropriately without his guidance. As a result, his class was chaos, with students talking incessantly and playing around. It appeared that Mr. Haney did not see the chaos in the room or failed to acknowledge it.

According to Coloroso (1994), backbone teachers provide the support and structure necessary for students to realize their uniqueness and to come to know their true selves, something that brickwall teachers suppress and jellyfish teachers ignore. By emphasizing democracy through learned experiences, they advocate creative, constructive, and responsible activity; have simply and clearly defined rules; use natural and reasonable consequences; motivate students to be all they can be; and teach students how to think. Teaching students to trust themselves, others, and in their future, backbone teachers help students develop Inner Discipline and, even in the face of adversity and peer pressure, retain faith in themselves and in their own potential (Coloroso, 1994). Applying Self-Regulating Approaches 6–1 examines a teacher who faced a dilemma in the classroom.

APPLYING SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES 6–1 Helping Ms. Rendell Before you read the following scenario, review Barbara Coloroso’s three types of teachers and make a list of the characteristics of each type. Then after you read the following scenario, respond to the questions at the end.

of power and control. Oh, sure, I know my students should behave better than they do, but I figured that if I was nice to them and showed them I trusted them, they’d settle down.”

After about 3 weeks of school, Shaniqua Mason, the assistant principal, spoke with Shannon Rendell about the behavior of her fourth-grade students. They were a bit rowdy, and Ms. Mason feared that the situation would worsen as the school year progressed. In her defense, Ms. Rendell replied: “I want my students to like me, not hate me. I remember how I felt when I had a teacher who was mean and always told me what to do. And, I’ve read about the negative effects

1. Which type of teacher is Ms. Rendell? 2. Based on the ideas of Coloroso, what advice could you offer Ms. Rendell to develop a classroom management model? 3. Which type of teacher should Ms. Rendell try to be? 4. What kinds of things should she do in her classroom to become that teacher? 5. Role-play the interaction between Ms. Rendell and Ms. Mason.

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One of the key points of Coloroso’s Inner Discipline theory is that students accept ownership of the problem (Coloroso, 1997). They are capable of taking full responsibility for the problems their behaviors create, not because of fear, but because it is the right thing to do. You might remember that Mendler and Curwin (1983) also called for students to accept ownership of the problem because they thought giving students a sense of ownership for behavior problems in the classroom would result in their accepting more responsibility for solving the problems. To Coloroso, the teacher is responsible for teaching students the Inner Discipline to accept ownership of the behavior and the responsibility to take appropriate action to address it. Coloroso (1983, 1994) maintains that discipline is not synonymous with punishment. Punishment is adult oriented, imposes power from without, arouses anger and resentment, and invites more conflict. The overriding concerns of punishment include: Which rule was broken? Who did it? What kind of punishment does the student deserve? By leaving control in the teacher’s hands, punishment gives students the message that the teacher is all powerful, accepts responsibility for students’ behavior, and negates the need for students to develop Inner Discipline (Coloroso, 1994, 2000). In addition, Coloroso (1994) believes teachers should not rely on rewards to promote positive behavior. Punishment brings pain and fear, but rewards also send the wrong message, namely, that kindness and positive behavior can be bought and bartered. Coloroso believes that behavior modification techniques keep a student dependent and fearful—dependent on adults for rewards for positive behavior and fearful of punishment for negative behavior. Students who are bribed and rewarded constantly will often start to ask questions such as “What’s in it for me?,” “What’s the payoff?,” “Does it count for anything?,” and “Did I do it right?” (p. 19). According to Coloroso (1994), threats, by their nature, are punitive. Adult oriented, they are based on subjective judgment and impose power from without instead of acknowledging the power within students. Arousing anger and resentment and inviting more conflict, threats rob students of their sense of dignity and self-worth. Faced with threats, domination, manipulation, and control by someone bigger than themselves, students will experience one of three things. First, they will experience fright and will do as they are told out of dependency and fear. Second, they will fight and attack the teacher or take their anger out on others. Third, they will experience flight, meaning they run away mentally or physically. Students whose needs and feelings are dismissed, ignored, punished, or negated begin to believe they are of little or no worth (Coloroso, 1994).

DISCIPLINE AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

• “As long as Mr. Restino threatens to call my dad, I’ll do anything he wants. My dad would whip me for sure if Mr. Restino called him” (a third-grade student). • “Ms. Allern never found out who did it, but I know that a bunch of the kids in my class broke her car window last weekend. They were bragging about how they planned to get even with her” (an 11th-grade student).

Applying Self-Regulating Approaches 6–2 asks you to consider Ms. Dorler’s use of bribes and threats. The Four Steps of Discipline. According to Coloroso (2000), the process of discipline does four things that the act of punishment cannot do:

1. 2. 3. 4.

It shows students what they should have done. It gives them as much ownership of the problem as they are able to handle. It gives them options for solving the problem. It leaves their dignity intact.

When teachers use the four steps, discipline deals with the reality of the situation rather than the power and control of the adult. Students can then change their attitudes and habits that might have led to the misbehavior. The Three R’s of Discipline. Coloroso (2000) suggests the three R’s of discipline, all of which are incorporated in the four steps just mentioned. In some ways, these are similar to the

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APPLYING SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES 6–2 Using Bribes and Threats Review Coloroso’s beliefs about punishments, threats, and rewards as well as her categories of teachers. Then, after you read the following scenario, answer the questions at the end. Ms. Dorler, a high school teacher, was heard to say, “I know all those theories, but I use whatever I can to get my students to behave—whatever it takes is what I do.” Her actions backed up her statement. She used bribes (“For each day everyone cooperates in class this week, I’ll shorten Thursday’s homework by two

questions”), threats (“Peyton, sit down and mind your own business or else”), and intimidation (“Tolbert, I set the rules in this room and you follow them. Do you hear me?”). 1. What category of teacher best fits Ms. Dorler? 2. Examine her behavior in light of Coloroso’s beliefs about punishments, threats, and rewards. 3. Is she following Coloroso’s ideas? If not, how should she change her behavior?

process in the Think Time™ strategy (see Chapter 4). These three R’s are: restitution, resolution, and reconciliation. Restitution means fixing what the student did and involves repairing the physical damage (if any) and the personal damage. Resolution includes determining a way not to let the behavior happen again. Finally, reconciliation is the process of healing with the offender honoring the restitution plan and making a commitment to live up to the resolution. • Ninth graders Brent and Derek were scuffling in the hall. At first, they were not angry, but their horseplay turned a little rough and Brent became agitated. As Brent turned to hit Derek one last time, Derek jumped out of the way, and Brent ripped his backpack. The teacher on hall duty observed the incident and had the responsibility to address the situation. She worked the three R’s as follows: • Restitution (correcting what was done): Brent and Derek admitted that their horseplay got out of hand, disturbed others, and resulted in a ripped backpack. They both accepted ownership and responsibility for the incident. Brent admitted that he started the incident, and he was also probably the first one to get mad. Thus, he agreed to take Derek’s backpack to be repaired. Brent also agreed to pay up to $10 for the repair; Derek agreed to pay any amount over $10. • Resolution (determining a way to keep the incident from happening again): Both boys agreed that they should not fight, even in fun. They also agreed that if they felt like “horsing around,” they would go to the gym for a friendly competition on the mats under the watchful eyes of a physical education assistant. • Reconciliation: They both regretted that the incident got out of hand, and Brent apologized for ripping the backpack.

Do all behavior incidents end as successfully as this one? Absolutely not! What if one of the boys or a bystander had been hurt? What if Brent had adamantly refused to pay for the repairs? In those instances, the teacher would have had to intervene more in all three R’s. Assertive Confrontation. Coloroso (1983, 1994) maintained that teachers sometimes need to use assertive confrontation. However, even in these cases, teachers must use caution to avoid endless arguments that waste a great deal of energy, lead to additional and more heated arguments, and solve nothing. Coloroso (1994) offers seven rules for a fair fight and a productive, assertive confrontation:

1. When you are angry and upset, speak the message in a straightforward, assertive manner—not aggressively or passively. 2. Tell the other person about your feelings. 3. State your belief but avoid destructive words that attack another person. 4. Give direct feedback. Tell the person the problem and how you feel about the problem. 5. State what you want from the other person.

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MANAGEMENT TIP 6–2 Resolving Conflicts Although Coloroso does not describe a detailed approach to conflict resolution, she does talk about using discipline to • • • •

identify a problem, provide the student with ownership of the problem, identify ways to solve the problem, and leave the students’ dignity intact (Coloroso, 2002).

One way to do this is to have a student develop an action plan to deal with behavior problems. 1. The student develops the plan and states a. the problem, b. the cause of the problem, and c. possible solutions.

2. The student reviews the plan with teacher and revises it as needed. 3. The student carries out the plan. 4. The student and teacher review the results of the plan. 5. If the plan is not carried out, the teacher intervenes and other consequences occur, such as notifying parents or school administration.

Pre-K and Lower Elementary Have the student develop the plan with the help of others and dictate the plan to a teacher or aide.

Upper Elementary and Secondary Have the student write the plan.

6. Be open to the other person’s perspective on the situation. 7. Negotiate an agreement you can both accept. All teachers eventually face conflict of some type, either with team members, students, or parents who disagree with educational decisions. Conflicts inevitably will occur; thus, Coloroso (1994) believes that teachers need to teach conflict resolution. Rather than describing a detailed, step-by-step approach, Coloroso thinks example (emphasis Coloroso’s) (1994, p. 131) is one of the best ways to teach conflict resolution. Management Tip 6–2 provides additional information about conflict resolution. The concept of natural and reasonable consequences is a mainstay of Coloroso’s Inner Discipline theory. Natural consequences involve real-world consequences or interventions and deal with the reality of the situation rather than the power and control of the adult.

CONSEQUENCES: NATURAL AND REASONABLE

• If Francine, a Pre-K child, puts her shoes on the wrong feet, the natural consequence is that her feet will hurt. • If Juan, an eighth grader, continues to borrow school supplies because he refuses to take responsibility for bringing them to school, eventually others will stop lending things to him. Coloroso maintains that these consequences are learned without nagging, reminding, or warning. Such consequences teach students about the world around them and that they have positive control over their lives. If natural consequences are not life threatening, Coloroso suggests letting students experience them. Sometimes natural consequences can be life threatening or morally threatening (e.g., unkind, hurtful, unfair, and dishonest). • A life-threatening situation: Rolando, a second grader, tries to jump from desk to desk in the classroom. • A morally threatening situation: Tiffany, a ninth grader, agrees to take a test for a friend. If the natural consequence is nonexistent or would be inappropriate, Coloroso (1994) recommends that the teacher consider reasonable consequences that require reasoning and planning. A key point in determining reasonable consequences is for the teacher to ask whether the goal is to teach the student or punish the student.

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Coloroso calls for an RSVP approach—a consequence that is reasonable, simple, valuable (as a learning tool), and practical. • If Woody, a third-grade student, is engaged in horseplay and breaks a glass, it will not be reasonable to ask him to pick up the small slivers of glass; however, it would be reasonable for him to hold the bag while the teacher picks them up. • Temeka, a seventh-grade student, loses a calculator that she borrowed from a friend; a valuable lesson is for her to buy the friend a new and comparable calculator. • Telling Wade, a 12th grader, that he will have to stay after school until he completes his assignment and walk the eight miles home is not practical; telling him that he will have to stay after school each day until the work is complete and take the late activity bus home is practical. The Destructiveness of Words. In her writings, Coloroso shows the destructiveness of words (e.g., “She was no good,” “He’s a lazy bum,” “You’re just like your mother”) (Coloroso, 2000a, p. 132). She also discusses “killer statements” (p. 146), such as “You are a jerk,” that are designed only to attack another person. Sarcasm and ridicule, as well as humiliating and embarrassing statements, also fall into this category. Teachers need to be aware of the destructiveness of the words they use. Coloroso (1994) maintains that statements such as “Your sister never did anything like that,” “I figured you would do something stupid like that,” and “You call yourself a soccer player?” (pp. 64–65) are designed to hurt, humiliate, and embarrass. Consider the following statements to see the destructiveness of words: • Talmadge, a kindergartner, wets his pants, and the teacher says, “Grow up! Are you still a baby?” • Ivo, a sixth-grade boy, scores a D on a test, and the teacher says, “Your brother was a much better student. At least he made Bs.” • LoRee, an overweight eighth-grade girl, sits down in a desk, and the teacher says, “Better lose some weight or you might get stuck.”

Although you might think these are exaggerations and that teachers never use words so destructively, sometimes they do. “I took care of him right there in front of the class, and the rest of the students fell in line,” we heard one teacher boast. Interestingly, and in keeping with other management theorists such as Ginott and Dreikurs, Coloroso also believes that showing students praise rather than appreciation for efforts has the potential for being destructive. For example, when a child scores a 100 on his mathematics test and you say, “Great, Evan! I knew you were a good student!,” what will you say next week when he scores only an 85? Teachers should be careful to avoid praise that equates students’ achievement with their self-esteem. Praise risks the possibility of encouraging students to view mistakes as a negative reflection of themselves. Likewise, to avoid such feelings and to protect their self-esteem, students might blame someone else for the lower grade. Review Figure 6–2 to see some examples of ways teachers can show appreciation rather than praise for students’ work and effort. • Gwendolyn, a fifth grader, scores an A on her social studies test. Praise: “Gwendolyn, you’re a smart girl. Made an A on the test, didn’t you?” Appreciation: “Gwendolyn, thanks for your fine work on the social studies test.”

FIGURE 6–2

Showing Appreciation/ Avoiding Praise

• First grader Troy goes all day without disturbing others. Praise: “Troy, good boy for not disturbing others today. You’re a fine person, just like your brother last year.” Appreciation: “Troy, thanks for not disturbing others today. Both you and they were far more productive.” • Ninth grader Michael has a good performance at the debate tournament. Praise: “Mike, great job, you really showed them. I always knew you were a Grade A student.” Appreciation: Mike, the other debaters and I appreciate your efforts today. Good preparation and performance!”

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MANAGEMENT TIP 6–3 Dealing with Bullies Coloroso (2002) maintains that in order to combat bullies, teachers should be sure that each student • • • •

develops a strong sense of self, has at least one good friend, belongs to at least one group, and can get out of a group when necessary.

In addition, Coloroso believes that teachers should do the following:

• Try not to minimize or explain away the behavior of bullies. • Confront rather than ignore the problem of bullies. • Work with parents and other educators to develop plans to address the problem of bullies. • Know when to involve police or social service agencies in cases of serious abuse as well as racist or sexist bullying.

• Know the school procedures for dealing with bullies. • Listen to students and parents concerns about bullies.

Instead of using praise, teachers can ask questions about the grade and the assignment. Whether the grade is an A+ or a D−, students likely will appreciate the teacher’s interest in their work. Students might say how bad they feel about the D− after spending so much time and effort, or they might explain that they could have made a higher grade had they taken the test a little more seriously. With discussion rather than praise, students have little need to make excuses, and in fact, mistakes can be used as learning opportunities (Coloroso, 1994). As discussed in Chapter 2 of this book, bullying is a serious problem that challenges many teachers and administrators. In her book The Bully, The Bullied, and the Bystander, Coloroso (2002) stated that conflict resolution cannot take care of bullies and their victims because their relationship is based on contempt rather than anger. Bullies show disdain or dislike toward someone they consider worthless, inferior, or unworthy of respect (Rife, 2004). Although parents often tell their children just to ignore bullies, this does not work because efforts should be on assertive responses (Scelfo, 2003). Coloroso suggests labels (e.g., the bully, the bullied, the bystander) might be useful to identify certain roles that people play at different times (Liepe-Levinson & Levinson, 2005). However, she cautions that these terms should be used to define how a child is acting at the moment (you’re acting like a bully) rather than permanently labeling a child (you’re a bully). Management Tip 6–3 looks at Coloroso’s antidotes to bullying. BULLIES AND THEIR VICTIMS

MARVIN MARSHALL: DISCIPLINE WITHOUT STRESS® Like Barbara Coloroso, Marvin Marshall (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2007) believes in a self-regulating approach to management. Distinguishing between discipline and classroom management, he sees classroom management encompassing the structures, routines, and procedures that are necessary for the daily operation of a classroom. They are the responsibility of the teacher and need to be introduced, explained, practiced, and reinforced periodically in order for efficient instruction to take place. These procedures set the stage for students to discipline themselves. Overview of Marshall’s Model Basing his work in part on Glasser’s Reality Therapy and Choice Theory (Chapter 3), Marshall (2005a) views discipline as the responsibility of the students. They are ultimately accountable for their own behavior. When teachers develop the rules and impose consequences, the students no

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APPLYING SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES 6–3 Claiming Ownership of a Problem Marvin Marshall believes that students must accept ownership of their behaviors. Review the information in this chapter on problem ownership. Then, as you read the following scenario, decide who owns the behavior problem. Ms. Modrak, a seventh-grade teacher, questioned the issue of ownership. A consultant recently visited her school and stated that “the misbehaving student owns the problem. He or she must accept ownership and decide on a responsible action.” Although Ms. Modrak liked the consultant’s assertion, she thought about Andy, the terror of the seventh grade. He did

nearly everything she did not like. He bullied and made oral threats to other students, acted up in class, constantly thought of reasons to walk around or leave the room (“I just wanted to see if the flowers were blooming yet, Ms. M.”), yelled out answers, and nonchalantly goofed off when he should have been working. She asked herself: “Who owns this problem? Is it mine? Is it Andy’s? How can it be Andy’s if he does not recognize his behavior as a problem and will not agree to any responsible course of action? When Andy disturbs others and me, don’t I own the problem?”

longer have any ownership in the decisions, and they may “take on a victimhood mentality and have negative feelings toward” (p. 51) those who impose the consequences. Focusing on obedience engenders defiance and resistance, while using rules makes the teacher a police officer (Marshall, 2007). Applying Self-Regulating Approaches 6–3 looks at the idea of problem ownership. According to Marshall (2007), you can control but not change another person. The change must come from within the person. Thus, the “ultimate goal of discipline is self-discipline” (p. 67) in which students voluntarily comply with expected behavior standards. The alternative is obedience and accompanying punishment for non-compliance. Rewards are external motivators and are successful only if the student is interested in receiving the reward. By focusing on something external, the student learns to change the motivation from internal to external, something that, according to Marshall (2007), will not lead to responsible behavior or promote positive values. Winning the prize teaches students that they will receive something for good behavior. However, this does not carry over into the real world because “society does not give rewards for expected standards of behavior” (p. 45). Marshall (2007) also believes in the power of acknowledgements rather than praise. For example, a teacher should say “Your work shows that you are putting a lot of effort into your project” rather than “I am so pleased with the way you are working.” Marshall (2007) notes that one way to distinguish between the two statements is that praise often begins with “I am so proud of you for …” (p. 40, emphasis Marshall’s). Also, praise is often patronizing and something you would not say to another adult. Consider the statements in Applying Self-Regulating Ideas 6–4 to determine whether they are potentially destructive or potentially helpful. APPLYING SELF-REGULATING IDEAS 6–4 Identifying Potentially Destructive and Potentially Helpful Statements For each of the following statements, indicate whether the statement is potentially destructive or potentially helpful. If a state is destructive, change it. “Samal, you’re doing good work, considering that English is your second language.” “Simms, good boy, I knew you could make that soccer goal. Your team members are proud of you.”

“Alvenia, I appreciate your fine work on the mathematics test. You improved your average a lot.” “Fine play performance last night, Susan. I know you practiced hard.” “Denise, your handwriting is improving. I am pleased and I know your mom will be, too.”

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While supporting competition in extracurricular activities, Marshall also believes classroom competition is counterproductive because “rankings and ratings often depress kids who have no chance of making it” (Black, 2005, p. 34). Unfortunately, competition often allows only one student to be successful. In addition, competition focuses on external motivation and winning rather than fostering an internal interest in learning. It can lead to anxiety (Marshall, 2007) and a “pessimistic belief of the inability to change or to improve” (p. 42). Practical Applications of Marshall’s Model Developed as part of Marshall’s experiences in a classroom, Discipline without Stress® is based on three core principles of positivity, choice, and reflection. However, the core part of the model is the Raise Responsibility System, which outlines a hierarchy of social development that establishes expectations and is taught to students. This hierarchy becomes the base for students to use to selfregulate their behavior. THREE POSITIVE PRACTICES Rather than reacting to students’ misbehaviors, teachers must be proactive to promote responsible behavior (Marshall, 2004). Thus, Marshall begins with what he calls the three positive practices that promote responsible behavior and that contribute to classroom management.

Positivity. Teachers should be positive in everything they do and say. Marshall (2005b) points to simple things such as greeting people with a smile and making positive comments as good starting points. He suggests that teachers should try to restate everything they say in a positive way. Thus, instead of saying, “Don’t run,” a teacher should say, “Walk to line up at the door for lunch.” Choice. Teachers should offer choices to a student so that the student has the ownership of the result. For example:

• When seventh grader Shen-Ye behaves, Mrs. Littleman says: “What do you think we should do about the situation?” (Marshall, 2005b, p. 29). • When third grader Jamot acts out while completing a form, Mr. Lang says: “Would you rather complete the form (1) in your seat, (2) in the back of the room, or (3) in the office?” (Marshall, 2005a, p. 52) Reflection. Although teachers can control students, that does not mean that the teacher has changed the student because change must come from inside. While a teacher can hope to influence a student’s behavior, coercion, bribes, and punishment are not effective ways to do so. Thus, rather than telling students what to do, teachers should ask reflective questions of both themselves and the students. Reflective questions include:

• “If you could not fail, what would you do?” (Marshall, 2005a, p. 52). • “What would an extraordinary person do in this situation?” (p. 52). Weisner (2009) expanded Marshall’s focus on reflection to the entire school by replacing part of the daily announcements in an elementary school with a question of the day that asks students to think for themselves and to reflect. One question was: • “This evening we have parent–teacher interviews. Your parents may ask how well you pay attention to lessons, whether or not you are organized, and how well you manage yourself on the playground. How does your teacher know what to say about you?” (p. 78) With this change, students began to pay attention to the announcements. The questions are always worded positively, but they draw the students’ attention to problems and issues.

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Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management TABLE 6–2

Marshall’s Social Hierarchy

Level

Description

D—Democracy

Displaying responsibility

Acceptable—Internal

Demonstrating self-discipline Evidencing internal motivation

C—Cooperation or Conformity Acceptable—External

Complying with expected standards of behavior Conforming to peer pressure Evidencing external motivation

B—Bullying or Bossing (“Bully” is never used because it refers to a person, while bullying refers to a social interaction.) Not acceptable A—Anarchy Not acceptable

Breaking rules Bossing others Behaving irresponsibly No rules or order Chaos

RAISE RESPONSIBILITY SYSTEM The three positive practices provide the foundation for the Raise Responsibility System (Marshall, 2005a, 2007). This is a three-part discipline and learning system: Teaching the Concepts, in which teachers teach a hierarchy of four developmental levels of social interaction; Checking for Understanding, in which the teacher uses unobtrusive techniques and asks questions to help a misbehaving student; and Guided Choices, in which a teacher employs strategies to assist with continued disruptions. Marshall’s (2005a, 2007) social hierarchy consists of the four levels shown in Table 6–2. Anarchy is the lowest while Democracy is the highest level. While levels A and B are not acceptable, either level C or D is acceptable. However, only at level D does the student demonstrate internal motivation. Because educators teach the hierarchy to students, the students learn the general concepts of behavior before misbehaviors occur. Marshall (2007) encourages teachers to create examples of the levels of behavior. Weisner (2004) uses a piece of trash on the classroom floor as an example of the levels for her elementary class. At level A, the student picks up the trash and throws it at another students. Functioning at level B, a student kicks the trash around the room. At level C, the student follows the teacher’s request to pick up the trash. Finally, at level D, without being asked, the student picks up the trash and puts it in the wastebasket. Another teacher explains the levels as follows: Anarchy is unsafe and out of control, while bullying bothers others and “breaks classroom standards” (Marshall, 2007, p. 81). Conformity listens and cooperates, while democracy “shows kindness to others” (p. 81) and develops self-discipline. Teachers can even use the hierarchy to teach individual subjects. Weisner (2004) encouraged her students to become better readers by helping them identify reading behaviors at each level. For example, at level C, students would be reading only when working with or directed by an adult. Marshall (2007) suggests that a math teacher should correlate levels A and B with spending “little if any” (p. 89) time to learn, level C with “fulfills the assignment primarily to get a good grade” (p. 89), and level D with “willingly practices to improve math skills” (p. 89). The behaviors noted for each level of the hierarchy should be appropriate for the age level of the students (Weisner, 2004). For example, behaviors that symbolize anarchy to a 6-year-old might be “noisy, out of control, unsafe” (p. 505). Teachers can also support students’ behavior by adding to the list of descriptors for the levels of the hierarchy. Adding “shows initiative” to level D gives

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APPLYING SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES 6–5 Helping with Keith’s Problem Before reading the following scenario, review Coloroso’s ideas on conflict and confrontation and Marshall’s ideas on social interactions.

dents ended up bruised or crying. When Ms. Buha finally spoke to Keith about his bullying, Keith “blew up.”

Ms. Buha probably let a situation go too long. Keith, a bully, had been verbally and in some cases physically abusive to others in his class. Ms. Buha kept thinking that class rejection or isolation eventually would tone down Keith’s aggressiveness; however, that did not happen. Instead, the principal complained, some parents called, and several other stu-

“You’re picking on me, just like the other kids do. I’m no bully!” Then he slammed his book on his desk. What should Ms. Buha do? Try using Coloroso’s seven rules for an assertive confrontation and applying Marshall’s ideas on the social hierarchy.

students “another trait to which they could aspire” (p. 506). In addition, Marshall (2007) suggests using children’s literature to teach the concepts of the hierarchy to Pre-K and elementary students. A life cycle comparison (cycle of the butterfly), stages of human development (baby, child, adolescent, adult), or specific lessons incorporated into academic subjects are successful with older students. “Using the hierarchy BEFORE a lesson and reflecting AFTER a lesson increases effort and raises academic achievement” (Marshall, 2007, p. 112). Applying Self-Regulating Approaches 6–5 asks you to use these ideas in a classroom situation. The second part of the Raise Responsibility System has teachers Checking for Understanding by asking students to reflect on their behavior. However, before doing this, teachers can use a number of “unobtrusive techniques” (Marshall, 2007, p. 90) or visual, verbal, and kinetic cues such as body language, posture, voice, and pacing of speech to influence the behavior. Some of these are shown in Figure 6–3. FIGURE 6–3

Marshall’s Unobtrusive Techniques

Visual Smiling in a friendly way Changing your facial expressions Making fleeting eye contact rather than staring at a student Nodding to the student Using a group attention signal such as flicking the lights Verbal Pausing in your talking Changing the inflection or volume of your voice Thanking students for their attention Asking an evaluating question about performance—“What level is your behavior currently meeting?” Kinetic Moving to a different part of the room Using proximity Redirecting a student’s actions such as tapping a pencil from a hard surface to soft surface Source: Developed in part from Marshall, M. (2007). Discipline without stress®, punishments, or rewards: How teachers and parents promote responsibility & learning. Los Angeles: Piper Press.

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If a student misbehaves and the unobtrusive techniques do not work, the first question that the teacher asks is “On what level was that behavior?” The teacher should always refer to the level rather than the person. For example, when Ms. Mills saw Maria misbehaving: Ms. Mills: Maria: Ms. Mills: Maria: Ms. Mills:

On what level is that behavior? I don’t know. What level is it when someone does not follow the rule to work quietly on their math problems? Level B Thank you. (Marshall, 2007)

If misbehaviors continue, the teacher moves to the Guided Choices, the third part of the Raise Responsibility System, to “stop the disruption and give the student a responsibility-producing activity and/or to develop a procedure to redirect future impulses” (Marshall, 2005a, p. 53). Used only when a student is “constantly disruptive” (Marshall, 2007, p. 101), Guided Choices requires the teacher to use authority without becoming authoritarian by offering choices to the student in the form of questions. In addition to stopping the disruption, it isolates the student, provides a time for reflection, and allows the teacher to return to instruction. Marshall (2007, 2005a) explains that the first step in the Guided Choices stage is to try to help students help themselves to avoid becoming victims of their impulses. Suppose that Michael sticks his foot out into the aisle in an attempt to trip Jimmy. The teacher’s conversation to Michael sounds like the following: • “Michael, every time you stick your foot out to trip Jimmy, you are a victim of your impulses. Do you want to go through life being a victim? If not, let’s think of some procedure you can rely on so that when you get that impulse you will be able to redirect it. Without having some procedure, you will continue to be a victim of your impulses.” (Marshall, 2005a, p. 54) There are a number of different activities that can be used as part of Guided Choices. The ideas behind this stage are similar to the Think Time™ strategy (Chapter 4) because the activity should help the student to reflect on the misbehavior and “encourage self-evaluation” (Marshall, 2007, p. 102). In the primary grades, students can draw, create a story, talk to another student or adult, or use an audio recorder to explain their actions. This is similar to a time-out, but it involves a reflective activity. In upper elementary and secondary schools, teachers can have students complete a self-evaluation essay in which the student responds to the following questions: • “What did I do? (Acknowledgement) • What can I do to prevent it from happening again? (Choice) • What will I do (Commitment)?” (Marshall, 2007, p. 102) Students are given the choice (see an earlier example on choice in this chapter) of where to complete the essay. A teacher may elect to keep the completed essay or destroy it; the changed behavior, not the essay, is the important thing. Marshall (2005a, 2007) notes that the essay usually solves the problem. However, if a disruption continues after the activity or essay, Marshall has the student complete a Self-Diagnostic Referral form, which is more detailed than the essay and which varies depending on the age of the student. This form may be shared with administrators, parents, or both. At this point, Marshall employs a “three strikes and you are out” (Marshall, 2007, p. 105) philosophy. When three of the Self-Diagnostic

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Referral forms have been completed and the misbehavior still continues, Marshall recommends a “when all else fails” (p. 105) strategy. • During the first four weeks of school, Ramon had acted out continually and completed three Self-Diagnostic Referral forms. When he disrupted the class again, Mrs. Bildish applied the Check for Understanding and asked Ramon to identify his level of behavior. As Ramon talked, she placed a completed copy of the school’s discipline referral slip on his desk. When Ramon finished speaking, Mrs. Bildish noted: “I would rather have you stay in class; however, if you act on level A or B again, you are saying you would rather go to the office. If you act on level C or D, you may continue to stay in class.” The student must make the choice. The teacher has used a nonconfrontational, nonstressful approach to help the student reflect on the misbehavior and to make a choice.

CRITIQUES OF THE SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT There are a number of factors that make the self-regulating approaches of Coloroso and Marshall effective. Generally, they are easy to understand, are based on sound psychological beliefs, foster selfdiscipline, and do not require special training and staff development in order for teacher to use them. There are no elaborate and time-consuming record-keeping devices. In addition, the philosophical beliefs (e.g., believing in the worth of students, living by the Golden Rule, promoting selfesteem) are foundations that most good teachers already have. Many teachers can easily adopt the characteristics of backbone (Coloroso, 1997) teachers and become successful managers and teachers. They also will find that Marshall’s (2005a, 2007) ideas of positive practice are useful in many situations. Applying Self-Regulating Approaches 6–6 asks you to apply Coloroso’s and Marshall’s ideas to a few situations. Some teachers may have problems with the self-reflecting approaches. Autocratic ones may feel that their students and schools dictate the use of “power and control” messages. Also, some middle and secondary teachers might consider these theories to be more appropriate for younger students. For example, some teachers think Coloroso’s ideas apply only to young students. However, for high school teachers, Coloroso specifically recommends the programs of the Institute for Affective Skill Development led by Constance Dembrowsky. Dembrowsky has used many of Coloroso’s ideas in programs for high school students, including students at risk of failing. Techniques such as the Golden Rule, avoiding punishment, avoiding evaluative praise, using the four steps to discipline, using natural consequences, and setting an example for

APPLYING SELF-REGULATING APPROACHES 6–6 Addressing Contemporary Behaviors To what extent would the concepts of Barbara Coloroso’s Inner Discipline and Marvin Marshall’s Discipline without Stress® be helpful in the following situations? 1. Khaliah is goofing off and not listening while the teacher explains a language arts lesson. 2. Latane tells the teacher, “You really can’t make me do that. You just say you can.”

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3. Tyrone bullies most classmates and calls them names. 4. Yoshiro is caught drawing sexually explicit parts on the pictures that are posted in the hall. 5. Clayton becomes angry with the teacher, pulls out a knife, and says, “You stay away from me! You can’t do to me what you do to those other #&$*% bastards.”

Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management

conflict resolution have potential for addressing behaviors of students at all grade levels. In addition, Coloroso and Marshall offer sufficient details and examples to tell teachers how to move from theory to practice. Thus it seems that Marshall’s and Coloroso’s approaches have the potential to address the majority of the problems faced by most teachers such as talking, walking around, and disturbing others, as well as problems resulting from a lack of responsibility and self-esteem. Neither Coloroso nor Marshall specifically addresses students using guns and knives. However, Coloroso does address the problem of violence in her books Kids Are Worth It: Giving Your Child the Gift of Inner Discipline (1994) and The Bully, The Bullied, and the Bystander (Coloroso, 2002) and through her emphasis on nonviolent conflict resolution. Our culture is deeply rooted in a win-lose, victim-victor, adversarial approach to conflict, with violence being the tool often used to solve conflicts. Instead of bombarding students with the message that aggression is the way to resolve conflict, educators can teach through example, guidance, and instruction that violence is an immature, irresponsible, and unproductive technique for resolving conflict. Coloroso also maintains that our culture often equates masculinity with violence. Not only is it acceptable for boys to hit, it is sometimes considered a rite of passage to prove their masculinity. Coloroso (2000a) also explains that sometimes students hurt or intimidate others to cover their fears, anxiety, and sadness. Coloroso has some excellent ideas on violence and how students become violent, but she offers little specific direction for addressing violence other than her four steps to discipline and the three R’s of discipline. Both Coloroso and Marshall respect individual differences among students as seen in their call for dignity for all and their emphasis on treating others as you want to be treated. Teachers who place students in ownership and responsibility situations should not offend any students or their parents. In fact, Coloroso (1994) called for parents to have formal celebrations to recognize cultural customs and to celebrate holidays, holy days, anniversaries, and the first day of school. This call for respect and recognition of cultural customs should carry over into schools. Of all the classroom management theorists we have looked at thus far, Coloroso and Marshall are probably the strongest advocates for student self-discipline. In fact, they are opposed to teachers trying to shape student behavior through behavior modification, punishment, rewards, and bribes. Instead, they think teachers should model appropriate behavior and instill in students a desire to discipline themselves by accepting ownership of behavior problems and accepting the responsibility to correct the behavior problem.

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Do Self-Regulating Approaches Reflect Your Beliefs? To determine whether you agree with the philosophical and psychological positions of the self-regulating approaches, ask yourself the following questions: 1. How important is it for me to hold the power in a classroom and to control the actions of others? 2. Do I genuinely believe that all students are of worth and deserve my time and effort? 3. Do I think teachers always should abide by the Golden Rule (and do I have the capability to)? 4. Do I believe that whether a teacher is a brickwall, jellyfish, or backbone affects students’ behaviors?

5. Do I believe in the philosophical perspectives of logical and reasonable consequences, and can I implement them? 6. Can I see the difference between destructive words of condemnation, words of praise and acknowledgements? 7. Do I believe in Marshall’s three positive practices? 8. Do I view rewards, bribes, and threats as manipulative tactics or necessary and realistic classroom procedures? 9. Could I use the Raise Responsibility System to manage my classroom?

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Because of these beliefs, Inner Discipline and Discipline without Stress® require a certain kind of teacher or person. A teacher who feels that adults are superior to students, one who feels that adults can act one way and students another, and one who believes that students should be controlled will be uncomfortable with the self-regulating approaches. Developing Your Personal Philosophy asks you to consider your propensity for the self-regulating approaches.

Summary We do not advocate any one theory of classroom management; in fact, we want you to examine each theory in this book and decide which one (or probably which combination of theories) seems to have the most potential for you. In this chapter you have explored the self-regulating approaches to management. You read about the major elements of Coloroso’s Inner Discipline theory, such as identifying the type of teacher: jellyfish, brickwall, and backbone; advocating discipline rather than punishment; following the four steps to discipline; using natural and reasonable consequences; and modeling appropriate behavior. You explored Marvin Mar-

shall’s Discipline without Stress®, his three principles to practice, and his Raise Responsibility System. Now, revisit the opening vignette for this chapter and respond to the following questions. 1. 2. 3.

4.

What problems is Ms. Hecht facing? Is it too late for her to try the self-regulating approaches? Using first Coloroso’s ideas then Marshall’s, explain what she should do. Look for immediate as well as long-term solutions. How would the use of Coloroso’s or Marshall’s models before this incident have changed the situation?

Suggested Readings Coloroso, B. (2011). Bully, bullied, bystander . . . and beyond. Teaching Tolerance, 39(Spring 2011), 51–3. Coloroso examines the problems of bullies and the need for individuals to resist bullies, defend those who are bullied, and speak out against bullies. Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve selfdiscipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31(1), 17–26. The authors examine strategies to improve sustained self-discipline in secondary school students. Ervin, B., Wash, P. D., & Mecca, M. E. (2010). A 3-year study of self-regulation in Montessori and non-Montessori classrooms.

Montessori Life: A Publication of the American Montessori Society, 22 (2), 22–31. This research study examined selfregulation, positive work habits, and internal motivation in young children. Kim, J., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2011). Dynamic changes in anger, externalizing and internalizing problems: attention and regulation. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 52(2), 156–166. This student examined attention control mechanisms and their involvement in self-regulation of anger. Kreisle, B. (2010). Punishment or self-discipline? Early roots of reform. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 19(3), 14–15. The author presents early research on inner restraints and willpower.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for more information on theorists and their theories of management.

Kids Are Worth It

B. COLOROSO

Raising Children

Interview with Barbara Coloroso www.parentsplaceonline.org/content/exclusive-interviewbullying-expert-barbara-coloroso

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www.kidsareworthit.com www.presbyterian.ca/files/webfm/ourresources/education/ children/raising_children.pdf

Self-Regulating Approaches to Classroom Management

M. MARSHALL Discipline without Stress® www.marvinmarshall.com Discipline & Parenting without Stress

Marvin Marshall www.marvinmarshallpresents.com Parenting Without Stress www.parentingwithoutstress.org/about.html

www.marvinmarshall.net Interview with Marvin Marshall larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2010/02/02/interview-of-themonth-marvin-marshall-on-positive-classroom-management/

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Exploring the ProcessOutcomes Approaches to Classroom Management

From Chapter 7 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 7, you should be able to 1. discuss the characteristics of the process-outcomes approaches to classroom management, 2. describe the key concepts of Jones’s model and explain how these concepts could be implemented in a classroom, 3. identify the elements of the Johnson’s and Johnson’s Three C’s of School and Classroom Discipline model and how they could be used in a classroom,

Comstock/Thinkstock

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4. describe Evertson’s and Harris’s Classroom Organization and Management Program and its practical applications, 5. describe the Responsive Classroom® model and explain how it could be used in an elementary classroom, 6. critique the process-outcomes approaches to classroom management, and 7. consider all the process-outcomes approaches and identify concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Exploring the ProcessOutcomes Approaches to Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Talking, Walking Around, and Goofing Off Janice Brisky was a new teacher who was hired in November to teach a class of fifth graders who had had a longterm substitute teacher for 2 months. The students in the class were not bad in the sense that they did not fight or threaten others, but they did display many minor (but still disturbing) behavior problems. They answered out of turn, talked among themselves, goofed off, and walked around the room whenever they pleased. To make matters worse, Ms. Brisky did not seem to know the problems existed (or she intentionally ignored them). She spent nearly all her time sitting at the teacher’s desk. Although she had a good lesson plan, it was questionable how many students listened or could listen to her instruction. When she talked about how things were going in her classroom, Ms. Brisky mentioned that her emphasis was on instruction and that she didn’t want to appear to be a strict disciplinarian. “I don’t want to keep interrupting my instruction to deal with behavior problems. The students really aren’t ‘bad,’ so I just ignore things. I guess they’re learning, but sometimes it seems that I have to shout to make myself heard over the constant undercurrent of noise. Maybe I should try some management system, but I don’t know where to begin. These students need support, not discipline.”

OVERVIEW The process-outcomes or process-product approach to classroom management began by focusing on the relationship between “classroom processes (teaching) and outcomes (what students learn and how they behave)” (Gettinger & Kohler, 2006, p. 73). Models that follow this approach examine the events, including teacher and student behaviors and interactions, that happen during the teaching and learning process. They also examine the “outcomes of instruction, such as achievement, attitudes, or classroom behavior” (p. 74). Researchers found that a strict examination of process-outcomes relationships in terms of teacher instructional activities and student performance on an examination failed to account for complex classroom dynamics. Thus, the process-outcomes approach gradually expanded to “understanding the complexity of teachers’ actions, their interactions with students, and diverse teaching-learning contexts” (p. 75). In a process-outcomes model, it is important for the teacher to create and maintain “a positive classroom environment that promotes academic and social competence” (Gettinger & Kohler, 2006, p. 88). This is the type of classroom Ms. Brisky in the opening vignette was trying but failing to achieve.

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Some process-outcomes approaches pay particular attention to the ways teachers establish, teach, and enforce rules (Evertson, 1987; Evertson & Emmer, 1982) or the critical beginning-of-the year activities that establish a framework for management throughout the year (Evertson & Harris, 1992). Still others have examined the effects of cooperative learning strategies when students are held accountable for their performance (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). They also explore the use of smooth transitions, efficient use of learning time, and monitoring of student progress. Communication between the teacher and the students is critical as teachers hold students accountable, review student work, maintain visibility in the classroom, encourage all students to participate, and provide feedback. By using humor and enthusiasm with a variety of motivational strategies, the teacher directs learning and involves the students. The bottom line is that teachers “must be aware of the numerous variables that affect classroom environments and student learning” (Gettinger & Kohler, 2006, p. 91). The process-outcomes approach overlaps with other management models. For example, Kounin, one of the ecological approach theorists discussed in Chapter 5, used a process-outcome approach when he examined the effect of a teacher’s behavior on student behavioral outcomes. The emphasis of the process-outcomes models on social competence reflects the character and values education component of some of the later ecological approaches.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR PROCESS-OUTCOMES APPROACHES In this chapter, you will read about four process-outcomes classroom management models. These are: the Positive Classroom Management model developed by Jones; The Three C’s of School and Classroom Discipline by Johnson and Johnson; the Classroom Organization and Management Program (COMP) by Evertson and Harris; and the Responsive Classroom® by the Northeast Foundation for Children.

KEY TERMS Table 7–1 identifies the key terms related to the process-outcomes approaches to classroom management. TABLE 7–1

Key Terms Related to Process-Outcomes Approaches

Jones Positive Classroom Discipline

Johnson and Johnson Three C’s of School and Classroom Management

Evertson and Harris Classroom Organization and Management Program

Northeast Foundation for Children Responsive Classroom®

• Backup systems

• Civic values

• Advance preparation

• Academic Choice

• Body language

• Conflict resolution

• Extensive interventions

• Buddy teachers

• Cheap

• Cooperation

• Effective communication

• Classroom organization

• Classroom structures

• Cooperative learning

• Guided Discovery

• General rules

• Mediation/conflict resolution

• Grandma’s Rule

• Minor interventions

• Morning Meeting

• Limit setting

• Moderate interventions

• Network meetings

• Preferred activity time (PAT) • Proximity • Specific rules

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• Home groups

• Rules and logical consequences

Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management Fredric Jones believes the following: 1. Classroom management procedures must be Positive. They must be gentle, affirm the student, set limits, and build cooperation in the absence of coercion.

FIGURE 7–1

Key Concepts of Positive Classroom Management

Economical. They must be practical, simple, and easy to use once they are mastered. They must reduce (emphasis Jones’s) the teacher’s workload (Jones, 1987a, p. 9). 2. There are four groups of fundamental skills of classroom management: Developing classroom structures, including rules, procedures, and physical arrangements Remaining calm and using body language to set limits Teaching students cooperation and responsibility Providing backup systems. 3. Time and its allocation are important resources for teachers

FREDRIC JONES: POSITIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Fredric Jones developed his Positive Classroom Management theory to help teachers address an array of student behavior problems by promoting positive behavior, regardless of the grade levels, developmental levels, or diversity of the students. In his book Positive Classroom Discipline (Jones, 1987a) and other publications (Jones, 1987b, 1996, 1973, 2007), Jones described students’ inappropriate behaviors, suggested specific teacher strategies, and recognized the importance of instructional effectiveness in classroom management. Instead of controlling students, Jones accentuated the positive in all classroom management encounters. His key concepts are shown in Figure 7–1. Overview of Jones’s Model “For students to learn, they must enjoy learning” (Jones, 2007, p. 1). “Students enjoy learning when the process of instruction engages all of their senses” (p. 2). Thus, educators should be effective teachers, model appropriate behavior, use appropriate classroom management methods, and motivate students to learn (Jones, 2007). When students are actively engaged in productive learning activities, they will have legitimate reasons to behave. One of the foundations of discipline is cooperation (Jones, 2007). When responsible students do what teachers ask them to do, management becomes much easier and cooperation becomes a matter of routine. Teachers have to help students understand that it just makes sense to cooperate with the teacher and other students (www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones014.shtml). Jones (1987a) also believes that whole children (emphasis Jones’s) are at the center stage. To Jones, emotions, self-esteem, values, and relationship building are the true goals of the classroom management system. By understanding students and mastering instructional and management strategies, teachers can make all young people feel successful in their environment. Thus, teachers should strive for positive management techniques that convey dignity (similar to the ideas of Curwin and Mendler in Chapter 8), cooperation, and respect; and that demonstrate skill, caring, and effort. Dignity and respect can be conveyed in many ways. Applying Process-Outcomes Ideas 7–1 looks at the importance of conveying these feelings to students. One of the first lessons teachers must learn about classroom management is that it is emotional. You cannot manage another’s behavior until you can manage your own (www.educationworld. com/a_curr/colmunists/jones/jones010.shtml). Teachers should not assume autocratic roles, demand strict obedience, and threaten or try to control through fear. Instead, they should see students as individuals who are worthy of respect. Likewise, when teachers act maturely and competently, students will see them as role models after whom they can pattern their own behavior. Not only do good teachers tell students how to act, they demonstrate appropriate behavior in all their daily routines and interactions.

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APPLYING PROCESS-OUTCOMES IDEAS 7–1 Conveying Dignity and Respect Knowing students’ names is an important part of classroom management. In addition to conveying respect and dignity, teachers use names to identify students in various situations. As you read the following scenario, think about how the students in Ms. Creecy’s classes feel. Then respond to the questions at the end. Fayetta Creecy was a student teacher in a seventhgrade social studies class. Her lesson plans were excellent, her teaching skills were good, and she demonstrated good interpersonal skills, except for one aspect. After 3 weeks of observation and 4 weeks of teaching, she still did not know the students’ names. Because Ms. Creecy’s lessons included lots of questions, she continually had to point to a student and say something like “Yes, you.” When

asked why she did not know the names of the students, Ms. Creecy replied that she taught four classes of social studies per day and simply could not learn the names. 1.

If you were a student in Ms. Creecy’s class, how would you feel about her inability to use names to call on students? 2. What effect is her not knowing names having on her management? Is she conveying dignity and respect? 3. As an educator, what advice or tips would you give Ms. Creecy to help her learn the names of her students? 4. How would this advice vary if Ms. Creecy had been in a first-grade classroom? In a fifth-grade classroom? In an 11th-grade classroom?

Finally, good teachers use positive and “cheap” (Jones, 1987a, p. 25) classroom management. By cheap, Jones means management techniques that are simple and that require the “least planning, the least effort, the least time and paperwork” (p. 25). To be useful, a management system must save time. For example, rather than choosing a classroom management plan that requires extensive record keeping and an exhaustive list of rules, teachers should provide simple, positive, and workable rules, routines, and standards. Practical Applications of Jones’s Model Although Jones acknowledges the increased violence in schools, he also maintains that most behaviors are what he called small disruptions (emphasis Jones’s) (Jones, 1987a, p. 27) or “nickel and dime” (p. 27) misbehaviors. In typical elementary or secondary classrooms, whether inner city or suburban, roughly 80% of the disruptions are students “talking to neighbors” (Jones, 1987a, p. 27) and 15% are students out of their seats. Thus, 95% of classroom disruptions are simply students goofing off and taking a break from work. The rate of disruptions in typical classrooms escalates when teachers are sitting down at their desks (www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones009.shtml). Even the more serious disruptions that result in office referrals involve student back talk in 80% of the cases (Jones, 1996). In Positive Classroom Discipline, Jones described the “fundamental skills” (Jones, 1987a, p. 3) of classroom management, or those skills that teachers need to address misbehaviors. We have followed Jones’s general outline in presenting these fundamental skills and discuss them in four groups: classroom structures, limit setting through body language, cooperation, and backup systems. Effective classroom structures consist of rules, routines, and standards. Jones believes that teachers should set the stage properly with classroom structures so that classroom management and instruction proceed as smoothly as possible. Structures include getting off on the right foot at the beginning of the school year as well as the management tasks that teachers face continuously throughout the year. For example, they include items such as arranging the classroom or interacting with parents during telephone calls. Jones (1987a) maintains that classroom rules are much more than a list of do’s and don’ts. Students in a well-structured classroom know exactly what is expected of them, and they also have been trained and motivated to adhere to the rules. A teacher must teach the rules, explain the reasons

FUNDAMENTAL SKILL 1

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Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management The following are a number of misconceptions that teachers commonly have about discipline and the use of rules in a classroom (Jones, 1987a). • A good curriculum means teachers will not have discipline problems.

FIGURE 7–2

Misconceptions About Rules

• Some teachers are born with a gift for good management. • Some students are truly unmanageable. • Discipline and rules thwart creativity and spontaneity. • The longer teachers teach, the better their management will be. • There are some teachers who do not need help with discipline. • The only problem is with the class this year. • Students dislike and resent classroom rules.

for the rules, and motivate or convince the students that obeying the rules is in their best interests as well as everyone else’s. According to Jones, several myths, misconceptions, or natural defenses about rules exist that teachers need to recognize. Paramount among these are the beliefs shown in Figure 7–2. Both general and specific rules play significant roles in teachers’ classroom management decisions. It is important that teachers consider their own misconceptions about rules because these can interfere with a teacher’s ability and willingness to insist upon proper classroom behavior. General rules describe teachers’ goals and objectives—their hopes and aspirations for classroom management during a coming year. Rather than dictating behavior, these rules establish a tone in the class and raise expectations briefly until the students have had time to size up the teacher and determine whether the general rules are going to be enforced (Jones, 1987a). No best set of rules exists, but three guidelines will help you to prepare general rules: 1. Do not make any rule you are not willing to enforce every time it is broken. 2. Have a few general rules for behavior and work. 3. Make sure rules are simple, clear, and shared by all students. In contrast, specific rules deal with training a class to do what (emphasis Jones’s) you want them to do, when (emphasis Jones’s) you want them to do it. For example, during the first 2 weeks of school, teachers should address rules such as “how to do this” (Jones, 1987a, p. 43) and “how to do that” (p. 43). “Real rules” (Jones, 2000, p. 111) are what the teacher permits rather than what the teacher says the rules are. Thus “classroom rules are ultimately defined by whatever any student can get away with” (p. 112). Once teachers have decided on their general and specific rules, they need to teach those rules to their students. Before students arrived on the first day of school, Mr. Latis placed a number on a worksheet on each desk. Then, he met each student at the door with a personal greeting, introduced himself, shook the student’s hand, asked the student’s name, handed each student a number, and directed the student to walk to that number desk, where the student was to begin completing the worksheet.

Jones maintains that this teacher’s procedure has taught several lessons: (1) my enforcement of the rules begins at the door, (2) I care who you are and that you know who I am, (3) walk, don’t run, into my class, (4) take your seat immediately, and (5) begin to work on the assignment before the bell rings. As a teacher, Mr. Latis was the direct opposite of Ms. Brisky in the opening vignette because Ms. Brisky had no established routines. Teachers cannot assume that “students should know how to behave by this time” (Jones, 1987a, p. 42), that it is foolish to sacrifice instructional time to teach management rules, that teaching rules is a matter of being strict, or that students will understand and obey rules simply because

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MANAGEMENT TIP 7–1 Establishing Rules and Routines According to Jones (2000), when teachers do not establish rules and routines, they allow students to establish the agenda and the management plan in the classroom. During the first 2 weeks of school, teachers should teach a planned, structured lesson on rules, routines, and expected standards. Teachers should be proactive. Arrange the classroom. Have students sit where you want them to sit, not where they want to. Provide markers to show where the desks belong. Don’t let students change the arrangement without your permission. Get students working right away each day. Let students know that the classroom is where learning takes place. Use icebreakers to create a community in the classroom. Students should know the name of every other student as well as yours. List and teach the rules.

• Explain why it is important to be quiet in the halls. • Demonstrate and explain hand motions or other visual cues you will use for stop, go, start over, zipped lips, and so on. • Explain lining-up procedures. • Practice lining up. • Start the “trip.” • Be ready to go back to the classroom and start over if anyone breaks the silence rule. It may take several tries before everyone gets it right and the group walks in silence (Jones, 2000).

Secondary Bell work (about 5 minutes) is what students are doing when the class bell rings (Jones, 2000). Standard procedure should be: Come in the class, take your seat, look at the board for the day’s bell work, and get started. Tell students who want to socialize that they can remain in the hall. Once in the room, they should be working on their bell work.

Teach the routines you want your students to follow.

Pre-K and Elementary Before you have your class make that first trip through the halls to the library media center or the music room, practice the routine.

they are posted on the wall. Instead, Jones believes teachers and students benefit when the students know all classroom management expectations. Management Tip 7–1 provides additional information about establishing rules and routines in the first weeks of school. Limit setting consists of a set of physical moves performed by the teacher that signal the student to stop specific behaviors. When teachers use the skills of limit setting, they use their bodies to say what their mouths were about to say. This procedure is the opposite of what many teachers do to stop undesired behaviors.

FUNDAMENTAL SKILL 2

Seeing that Bianca was talking to Kate during the lesson, Ms. McMichael called out in a loud voice: “Bianca and Kate, stop that talking right now or else you’ll be sorry!” At the same time, she scowled and shook her finger at the two girls.

Jones believes that a better alternative is to use body language to correct behavior (Jones, 1987a). As students read a teacher’s body language, they learn what they can and cannot get away with. Teachers can use body language to set priorities, demonstrate what is important and what is not important, and reinforce rules (www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones011.shtml). The objective of limit setting is to calm the students and get them back on task (emphasis Jones’s) (Jones, 1987a, p. 86). In addition to stopping undesired behavior, teachers want their own behavior to be contagious. Unlike Ms. McMichael in the previous example, if teachers demonstrate or model calm behavior, they will calm the students. Unfortunately, when teachers let themselves get upset, students usually become resentful and often do not give their full attention for the remainder of the

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class period. Real interpersonal power is the power of calm, which allows the teacher and the students to retain their dignity and their sense of volition (Jones, 1987a). Physical proximity is a strong deterrent. Teachers can use personal space to correct undesired behaviors. The farther a teacher is from a student, the safer the student usually feels. When the teacher moves closer and into a student’s space, the student feels less comfortable. In fact, when a teacher moves within 18 inches of a misbehaving student, the student usually will correct the behavior (Jones, 1987a). A teacher also can engage in camping out, or standing either in front of or behind a student, to encourage the misbehaving or inattentive student to correct the behavior. Proximity should be used with care. Some students can feel threatened and become defensive if they believe the teacher is invading their personal space. To avoid a potential problem, the teacher can regulate the distance or turn slightly to eliminate a confrontation. By remaining calm, the teacher can have a calming effect on the student (www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/ jones013.shtml). The strength of calmness is shown through body cues. Teachers should “remember that calm is a strength and upset is a weakness” (Jones, 1996, p. 26). Once a student begins to misbehave to an extent that the teacher feels it is necessary to intervene, the teacher should face the student completely and squarely. This action tells the misbehaving student that he or she is the most important person in the classroom at that time and, therefore, must receive the teacher’s full attention. A gradual or partial turn signals to the student that the teacher has not directed full attention to the problem. Eye contact is another effective tool that teachers can use for classroom management. Jones recommends that a teacher make eye contact with disruptive students and focus on the most disruptive student in a group. To Jones, this eye contact is one of the most “sensitive barometers” (Jones, 1987a, p. 90) of emotional calm or upset on a body. Unwavering eye contact on the teacher’s part conveys calmness, which is interpreted as self-confidence. The opposite, failing to look the student in the eye, is often interpreted as meaning the teacher is anxious, uptight, and unsure. When a teacher glances away for only a moment, it tells the student that the teacher is unsure of his or her ability to handle the disruption. It also tells the student that the teacher does not want to stay in the situation. Thus, the student begins to feel more comfortable than the teacher and is unlikely to stop the misbehavior completely, even though the student might offer some insincere smile. Jones (1987a) admits that some students’ cultural backgrounds might prevent them from wanting to make eye contact. For example, Jones maintains that children and adolescents in Asian, Hispanic, and Native American cultures might be reluctant to maintain eye contact in a discipline situation. To do so might convey a sign of disrespect or impudence. In contrast, in many European cultures, eye contact typically is interpreted as a sign of paying attention, and looking away is a sign of disrespect. Teachers also must use facial and body expressions to let their intentions be known. According to Jones (1987a), every part of the body speaks. Thus, Jones suggests that teachers should smile, especially as they say students’ names. In contrast, a frown can stop misbehaviors, but a bland facial expression can convey resignation or can even imply a threat. Often teachers send messages that they are upset because of the difficulty they have hiding their anger and faking relaxation and self-control. Thus, in a difficult discipline situation, even when a teacher slows down and speaks with a relaxed tone, the teacher’s facial expressions can give the impression of being upset. Posture is also important in conveying calm. Jones recommends that teachers keep their hands low because the higher a person’s hands are, the more animated or upset the person appears. Arms folded or on a person’s hips also convey impatience, a form of being upset. Thus, effective teachers often place their hands in their pockets or at their sides to convey a sense of calmness. Another technique is to place the arms behind the back because this hides nervous mannerisms (Jones, 1987a). Good teachers practice patience. However, it is important to point out that patience is not waiting and hoping for the best; it is the relaxed demeanor with which teachers confront the problem

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Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management

while waiting for students to make emotional peace with themselves and return to the learning tasks. Another useful technique for classroom management is for a teacher to say a disruptive student’s first name, say it only once, and say it loud enough to be heard. The name should be spoken in a flat or matter-of-fact fashion. In practicing the skills of relaxation and self-control under pressure, teachers learn how difficult it is to be calm and how easy it is to lose the student’s respect during a reprimand. Teachers learn to use the power that is part of their professional role to protect rather than threaten students. When teachers effectively use limit setting, they project a calmness that conveys acceptance of the student without implying acceptance of the behavior. Jones believes that the use of silence, calmness, and genuine patience allows students to confront themselves (emphasis Jones’s) rather than the teacher and finally to accept responsibility for their own misbehavior. Also, effective limit setting can reestablish relationships and a sense of reconciliation between student and teacher. In such an atmosphere, students can begin to understand that the teacher is always there for them and cannot be alienated, driven away, or emotionally lost as a result of the student’s misbehaviors (Jones, 1987a). Responsibility training teaches learners to be responsible for their own actions. Jones (1987a) maintains that the ultimate goal of discipline is to train young people to become self-directing and to be responsible for their own behavior. According to Jones, three conditions must be met for students to demonstrate responsible behavior:

FUNDAMENTAL SKILL 3

• They have a resource for which they are responsible. • They have control over the consumption of that resource. • They must live with the consequences of the consumption of that resource. The resource to which Jones referred is time rather than stickers or awards. Time is free, is at the teacher’s disposal, and can be the universal medium of exchange in the classroom. Teachers allocate students an amount of time, the consumption or use of which depends upon students’ behavior. To help teachers manage the resource of time, Jones (1987a, 1987b) developed a system of preferred activity time (PAT). This system uses time as the reinforcer (the bonuses are more PAT; the penalties are fewer PAT) with group rewards (PAT) and group accountability (one for all and all for one). Through the giving and taking of time, teachers can hold the class responsible for the way the time is consumed. For example, if the class does an excellent job of cooperating and being responsible, the teacher can add amounts of PAT. The class can use the PAT for an activity they enjoy. You have 4 minutes to put away your art supplies and get ready for social studies. Leftover time will go to PAT. Everyone worked well and showed responsibility in the cooperative learning groups today. You have earned 5 minutes of PAT. Thank you for demonstrating that you are mature and responsible when I left the room to escort our guest speaker to Ms. Beecham’s room. You have earned 3 minutes of PAT. Jones (www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones015.shtml) emphasizes that teachers do not lose instructional time with PAT. In fact, in an effort to earn PAT, students will be more willing to start class on time and to make better use of time during transitions. Thus, instructional time is actually increased. Jones offered several general guidelines for using PAT (Figure 7–3), but he reminded teachers PAT needs to be tailored to meet the social maturity of particular students. PAT is not free time to “kick back” (Jones, 1987a, p. 161) because such an abdication of structure by the teacher usually produces boredom and negation of PAT. PAT is a group accountability system. Students who misbehave can prevent other students from getting bonuses. Therefore, disruptive students must consider the consequences of their actions on other students, who might receive fewer bonuses. When giving time, teachers should follow “Grandma’s Rule” (Jones, 1987a, p. 153). Grandma’s Rule holds students accountable and does not let them have dessert until they finish their

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Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management Grade Level

Amount of PAT

Comment

Kindergarten

Use as a break every 15 to 20 minutes.

Keep PAT “cheap” and short.

First Grade

Begin with three PATs in the morning and two in the afternoon. By midyear switch to three PATs—midmorning, end of morning and end of afternoon.

PAT about 10 to 15 minutes.

Second and Third

One PAT before and one after lunch.

Begin to lengthen PATs.

Fourth and Fifth

One PAT a day.

PAT could be as long as 30 minutes.

Middle and High

One PAT each week.

Expand to two a week if needed.

FIGURE 7–3

Suggested Guidelines for Providing PAT

vegetables. This means that they do not get their rewards (or incentives) until they demonstrate what the teacher wants. Teachers have to resist pressures to give the reward first and hope the desired behavior will happen later. Management Tip 7–2 provides some examples of PAT. FUNDAMENTAL SKILL 4 Positive Classroom Discipline includes backup systems. Although Jones thinks clear structures, limit setting, and responsibility training will allow teachers to deal successfully with almost any discipline problem, he recognizes that classroom management programs do not come with guarantees. No matter how well designed a management system is, problems can persist, crises can arise, and outrageous behavior can occur. Therefore, Jones calls for teachers to have a backup system that provides a response to undesirable behaviors. A backup system is an organization of negative reactions to suppress severe disruptions and provide negative sanctions in discipline management. In Jones’s (1987a) words, “A backup system is a series of responses designed to meet force with force so that the uglier the student’s behavior becomes, the deeper he or she digs his or her hole with no escape” (p. 256). An effective backup system is composed of a series of discrete procedures or responses arranged in ascending order so that teachers or administrators can deal effectively with a wide range of unacceptable behaviors in the classroom. These negative sanctions go beyond the mild social sanctions of limit setting. Although negative sanctions are not compatible with a positive approach to discipline, Jones believes that teachers need to understand how to use them properly. Jones thinks backup systems frequently fail because they are overused. Jones provides three levels of backup systems. The first, classroom policy, can be private or public, but the intent is to deal with the immediate problem as well as its aftereffects such as embarrassment, resentment, and revenge. Effective teachers avoid going public when at all possible.

MANAGEMENT TIP 7–2 Using Preferred Activity Time (PAT) Teachers often worry that PAT will take time from instruction. However, Jones (2000, p. 94) maintains that students can use PAT in preferred instructional activities “that the students eagerly look forward to doing.” Allow students to use PAT for the following: • Art projects Classroom murals to accompany a unit Sketch to accompany a lesson Room decorations Stained class windows Computer art projects

• Music projects Learning music to accompany a unit or lesson Listening centers • Learning games • Special-interest centers • Computer lab work • Extra silent reading time • Journal writing • Extra-credit work • A book talk by the school librarian, with a trip to the library to check out a book

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Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management Mr. Sinashaw had a rule that students could not play with any objects during class. In addition to being posted on the wall, the rule had been discussed at the beginning of the school year. Ignoring the rule, Tyree brought a two-inch model racecar to class and was “driving” it on his desk during social studies. Mr. Sinashaw quietly walked to Tyree’s desk and stood beside him, hoping he would put the car away. The model car vanished into Tyree’s desk and nothing was said. However, about 15 minutes later, Tyree was once again racing the car on his desk. This time, Mr. Sinashaw kept teaching, walked over, took the car, and never said a word. As Mr. Sinashaw later explained, “I wanted to keep this issue private—just between the two of us.” At the end of the school day, Mr. Sinashaw returned the car to Tyree and asked him not to bring it back to school. Happy to get the model back, Tyree agreed. Everything was kept between Mr. Sinashaw and Tyree; there was not any embarrassment, resentment, or need for revenge.

The second level, school policy, spells out the due process for dealing with discipline problems that must be handled by teachers and administrators working collaboratively. A well-developed school policy typically consists of a clearly defined hierarchy of negative sanctions for dealing with severe or recurring behavior problems. Such policies tend to be far more explicit at the secondary level than the elementary level and typically are referred to as a “school discipline code” (Jones, 1987a, p. 258) and “hierarchy of consequences” (p. 259). The third level, law enforcement and the juvenile justice system, is one many teachers and administrators try to avoid; however, it is one aspect of a backup system that educators might have to use. Sometimes communities construct a buffer between the school system and legal authorities. Often called a family court, this vehicle deals with juvenile offenses rather than with the single issue of guilt or innocence. The judge’s recommendation might include psychological testing or therapy, a special remedial program, a rehabilitation program, referral to county agencies such as child protection or social services, some form of restitution to the plaintiff, or even prosecution in juvenile court.

DAVID JOHNSON AND ROGER JOHNSON: THREE C’S OF SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT The Johnsons have proposed their Three C’s model as a basis not only for classroom management but also to ensure safer schools and to provide environments that are conducive to learning. This expectation that students will adhere to civic values is reminiscent of Gathercoal’s Judicious Discipline (discussed in Chapter 8) and some of the ecological models. Realistically, the Johnsons admit that no matter how hard teachers try to promote civic values and cooperation, conflict will arise occasionally. Therefore, they propose conflict resolution as a means to address problems. Overview of the Johnsons’ Model David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson (1987b) believe that by focusing on the three C’s of cooperation, conflict resolution, and civic values, educators can help to make schools safer places for students and teachers. Cooperation, as the term implies, calls for students, teachers, administrators, and community members to work together toward mutual goals. As part of cooperation, the Johnsons emphasize cooperative learning. If and when conflicts arise in cooperative communities, conflict resolution allows the participants to solve problems. This means that conflict resolution training is required for all members of the school community. When the school community shares common civic values that guide all decision making, cooperative communities can be established and can solve conflicts constructively (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). Practical Applications of the Johnsons’ Model Any examination of the practical applications of the Johnsons’ theories must focus on the use of the Three C’s in the classroom.

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Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management THE FIRST C: COOPERATION In addition to demonstrating cooperative attitudes and working cooperatively with others throughout the school day and throughout the school community, educators can emphasize cooperation by doing the following:

• involving parents and community members in genuinely meaningful school activities; • modeling cooperative attitudes in all interactions, including those with students, parents, administrators, and other teachers; • communicating effectively with all people involved in the education process; • working to understand the positions and motivations of others and striving to clarify misperceptions; • developing a sense of trust so that students will respond to the requests and needs of others; and • perceiving conflicts as mutual problems so everyone eventually will benefit from their resolution (Johnson & Johnson, 1999, 2009). As part of the emphasis on cooperation, the Johnsons advocate the use of cooperative learning, which they define as “the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning” (Johnson & Johnson, 1999, p. 125). Believing that classroom management is “enhanced by keeping students engaged constructively in learning from the moment they enter the classroom until the time they leave” (p. 125), the Johnsons agree that cooperative learning is one of the best methods of achieving this objective. Because cooperative learning is a major component of the first C, the Johnsons have developed the Learning Together cooperative learning method, which consists of five basic elements: positive interdependence (students believe they are responsible for their learning as well as their group’s learning), face-to-face interaction (students explain their learning and help others with assignments), individual accountability (students demonstrate mastery of material), social skills (students communicate effectively, build and maintain trust, and resolve conflicts), and group processing (groups periodically assess their progress and how to improve effectiveness) (Johnson & Johnson, 1987, 1989/1990, 2009). In addition to laying the foundation for safe schools, cooperative learning provides other benefits, as shown in Figure 7–4. The Johnsons also maintain that cooperative learning works with and contributes to the welfare of diverse students such as gifted students (Johnson & Johnson, 1993), learning disabled students (Putnam, Markovchick, Johnson, & Johnson, 1996), mentally disabled students (Johnson & Johnson, 1989), and students from culturally pluralistic backgrounds (Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 1999). Applying Process-Outcomes 7–2 asks you to consider Ms. Beeber’s opinions about cooperative learning. Then, Management Tip 7–3 focuses on cooperative learning and how to make it most useful.

Cooperative learning ensures that all students are meaningful and actively involved in learning; ensures that students achieve up to their potential and experience psychological success so they are motivated to continue;

FIGURE 7–4

Benefits of Cooperative Learning

promotes caring and committed relationships for every student; provides an arena in which students develop the interdependence and small-group skills needed to work effectively with diverse peers; provides students with opportunities to work together to discuss and possibly solve personal problems; and provides an arena for students in which they can feel a sense of meaning, pride, and esteem by helping and assisting each other and contributes to cooperation among educators working in the school. Source: Developed from Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1999). The three C’s of school and classroom management. In H. Jerome Freiberg (Ed.), Beyond behaviorism: Changing the classroom management paradigm (pp. 119–144). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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APPLYING PROCESS-OUTCOMES 7–2 Doubting the Use of Cooperative Learning away half of their fun! And it probably slows them down, too. Then there are those students who like to goof off. With a cooperative learning group, they’ll just wait for someone else to do the work. Nope, I don’t see how cooperative learning helps diverse classes of students, and I don’t see how it helps classroom management.”

Review the benefits of cooperative learning groups and the Johnsons’ ideas about the use of groups with diverse learners. Then read the following scenario and respond to the questions at the end. As a preservice teacher, Sandi Beeber was not sure about the effectiveness of using cooperative learning with diverse students. “OK, I know it works with regular students, those who are on working on grade level. But I’m not sure about more diverse students. What about learning disabled students? Just how much can they contribute to or get out of a group? And gifted students like to compete. Cooperative learning takes

1.

Using the Johnsons’ ideas, respond to each of Sandi Beeber’s concerns. 2. Can cooperative learning groups work with a diverse population of students? 3. What accommodations might she have to make?

THE SECOND C: CONFLICT RESOLUTION The Johnsons have worked on programs for understanding violence (Johnson & Johnson, 1995a) and for conflict resolution (Johnson & Johnson, 1995b). Although most schools have established violence-prevention programs to deal with the increasing level of violence among students, the Johnsons believe that many of these programs do not result in long-term changes in violent behavior. In order to be effective, programs must go beyond violence prevention and must include conflict-resolution training. This does not mean the elimination of all conflicts. In fact, some conflicts can have positive outcomes, and academic controversy can increase learning. Teachers can model the use of conflict resolution to solve problems and diffuse potential violence. The following example, developed from Johnson and Johnson (1999), illustrates their six steps of conflict resolution.

When Chip McFarland, a teacher, found Angelo and Darold arguing in the hall, he was afraid they would resort to violence. Drawing on his conflict resolution training, he acted as follows: “Angelo and Darold, come with me to the library seminar room and let’s explore what’s happening. This is a shared problem, and I want you to take turns explaining the situation to me” (describe what you

MANAGEMENT TIP 7–3 Using Cooperative Groups There are number of different strategies that teachers can use to establish cooperative learning groups. In most classrooms, it is ideal to vary the composition of the groups so that everyone has an opportunity to work with everyone else in the class. Randomly pass out to the class one of the following: Colored craft sticks Colored 3 × 5 cards Playing cards Use a group chart with student names at the top and side. Whenever two students work together, put a small check in the appropriate box. Allow two stu-

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dents to work with each other only a set number of times each grading period. The checks in the boxes do the record keeping.

Pre-K and Elementary Buy sets of animal stickers and use them on 3 × 5 cards.

Secondary Cut an illustration into sections. The people who have matching pieces are in one group. Have students fill out information cards; then shuffle these each time you need cooperative groups.

Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management want, using good communication skills and defining the conflict as a specific mutual problem). “I expect you both to be honest (communicate and describe your feelings openly and clearly) and to listen to what the other person is saying” (describe the reasons for your wants and feelings, while expressing cooperative intentions and listening carefully). “Remember, I’ll expect you to summarize the problem from each other’s perspective” (take the person’s perspective and summarize your understanding of what he or she wants, how the other person feels, and the reasons underlying both). “After that, we’ll come up with at least three ways to solve this problem” (invent three optional plans to resolve the conflict that maximize joint benefits). “I know you’ll choose the right solution for both of you” (choose one and formalize the agreement with a handshake).

The Teaching Students to be Peacemakers Program (TSP Program) is part of the Johnsons’ (Johnson & Johnson, 2004) conflict-resolution program. Training students in kindergarten through high school to resolve conflicts and to make their schools safe places to learn, the TSP Program exposes students to positive role models for constructive conflict management and teaches the procedures and skills required to manage conflicts constructively. THE THIRD C: CIVIC VALUES Johnson and Johnson (1987b, 1999) maintain that students and teachers must to create a community, its members must share common goals and values that help define appropriate behavior. A community cannot exist if its members have a variety of different value systems, believe only in their own self-interests, or have no values at all.

One school adopted caring, respect, and responsibility as its core values, which were translated into the civic values of integrity, courage, compassion, commitment, appreciation of diversity, and responsibility. The civic values were posted on the walls of all classrooms, reflected in the literature used by the teachers, and discussed in class meetings (Johnson & Johnson, 1987b).

Although the Johnsons think civic values ideally should apply to the entire school, they can be used in individual classrooms.

CAROLYN EVERTSON AND ALENE HARRIS: CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (COMP) Evertson’s and Harris’s Classroom Organization and Management Program (COMP) helps teachers develop a management framework and a supportive learning environment in which students learn to take responsibility for their decisions, actions, and learning (Evertson & Harris, 1992). Like Jacob Kounin (discussed in Chapter 5), who focused on strategies such as withitness, overlapping, smoothness, and momentum, and other process-outcomes theorists, Evertson and Harris (1992) see management in broad terms and focus on instructional as well as behavior management. They advocate learner-centered classrooms that support academic achievement and appropriate behavior. Overview of Evertson’s and Harris’s Model Using a process-outcomes approach, Evertson and Harris focus on teachers’ instructional behaviors, different interventions for different misbehaviors, and advanced planning or preparation for the first of the year. They insist that teachers’ behaviors and instructional practices influence students’ behaviors. Teachers who are most effective with classroom management consider the effects of their own behaviors and understand the complex relationships between instructional management and classroom management. In addition, according to Evertson and Harris, specific student misbehaviors call for different types of interventions: minor interventions, moderate interventions, and more extensive interventions. Thus, instead of having the same punishments for all misbehaviors, teachers must quickly determine the severity of the behavior offense and then determine the needed intervention. Finally, Evertson and Harris believe that teachers should plan the beginning of the year carefully, so that students will know the rules and expectations on the first day. Teachers who choose to wait to see what the students are like often find it difficult to manage students. In addition, it can be

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hard to change behaviors after the first couple of days because students who find that certain behaviors are permissible at the beginning of school might be reluctant to change these behaviors later. Practical Application of Evertson’s and Harris’s Model The following sections show the practicalities of Evertson’s and Harris’s ideas. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL BEHAVIORS Evertson and Harris suggest specific behaviors that effective classroom managers demonstrate. First, good managers conserve instructional time by planning activities and tasks to fit the learning materials; by setting and conveying procedural and academic expectations; and by appropriately sequencing, pacing, monitoring, and providing feedback for student work (Evertson & Harris, 1992). Second, teachers should deal with student misbehavior promptly and consistently. Teachers who deal quickly with misbehavior prevent it from becoming more widespread (Evertson, Emmer, Sanford, & Clements, 1983). Third, teachers who are effective managers use group strategies and lesson formats with high levels of student involvement and low levels of misbehavior (Evertson & Harris, 1992).

One key to organizing and managing classrooms for effective instruction is advance preparation and planning from the first day of school onward (Evertson, 1989). To help students know classroom expectations from the beginning, teachers should arrange classroom space and supplies, plan and teach classroom rules and procedures, develop accountability measures for work and behavior, establish consequences and incentives, choose activities for the beginning of the year, and communicate their expectations clearly (Evertson, 1987). This management plan should be maintained throughout the school year, with teachers monitoring and providing feedback about student behavior and academic work, modeling and reinforcing appropriate behavior consistently, intervening to restore order when necessary, and managing special classroom groups while conducting instruction and maintaining momentum (Evertson, Emmer, & Worsham, 2000). When teachers are careful about advanced preparation and planning, there is improved student task engagement, less inappropriate behavior, a smoother transition between activities, and generally higher academic performance (Evertson, 1987; Evertson & Harris, 1992).

ADVANCE PREPARATION

Bret Curtis, a middle school teacher, made phone calls or scheduled meetings with students and parents during the first weeks of school to explain the school and district expectations for behavior. The week before school started, Brenda Hensby, an elementary school teacher, arranged the furniture in her classroom, put up new bulletin boards, and made sure she had the supplies she needed. On the first day of class, Charlene Orenduff, a high school teacher, posted the following rule and discussed what it meant with her class: “Any inappropriate behavior in this room will be dealt with quickly, fairly, and consistently.” EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Effective classroom management also is based on effective communication between the teacher and the students. This includes letting students know how they can participate in class. Thus, during a lesson, a teacher not only presents information but also dictates to the students who can participate, as well as when and how (Evertson, 1987).

• “Remember to raise your hand if you know the answer.” • “I will only call on students to read if they are seated quietly with their book open to the proper page.” • “Since you all should have the answers to the homework problems, I will call on students at random. You do not need to raise your hands.” ADDRESSING UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIORS Although a carefully planned classroom management

system will not stop all misbehaviors, teachers usually can handle undesirable behaviors with minor intervention techniques such as using physical proximity, maintaining eye contact, reminding students

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Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management FIGURE 7–5

To deal with a misbehavior, teachers should work through the following steps:

A Five-Step ProblemSolving Procedure

1. Use a nonverbal clue. 2. Ask the student to obey the rule. 3. Give the student the choice to obey the rule or develop a plan. 4. Move the student to another part of the room. 5. Send the student to another location to complete the plan. Source: Developed from Evertson, C., Emmer, E. T., & Worsham, M. E. (2000). Classroom management for elementary teachers (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

of appropriate behavior, providing needed assistance, telling students to stop the behavior, and using an I-message. More serious misbehaviors require moderate interventions, such as withholding a privilege or desired activity, isolating or removing a student, using a penalty, or assigning detention. In extreme situations, more extensive interventions are necessary. These include the use of a five-step problem-solving procedure (shown in Figure 7–5), peer mediation/conflict resolution, a conference with the parents or guardian, or the development of an individual behavior contract with the student (Evertson et al., 2000). Applying Process-Outcomes Ideas 7–3 asks you to consider Ms. Ruiz and the misbehavior problems that result from “dead times” during transitions and class instruction. Because punishment neither teaches desirable behavior nor instills a desire to behave, it is perhaps best used as part of a planned response to repeated behavior. Evertson and Harris believe this holds true for all discipline programs, even behavioral approaches (discussed in Chapter 4 ). These systems provide methods of dealing with threats to classroom order, according to Evertson and Harris, but they fail to address preventive and supportive functions for effective management and discipline (Evertson & Harris, 1992).

NORTHEAST FOUNDATION FOR CHILDREN: RESPONSIVE CLASSROOM® The Northeast Foundation for Children (NEFC) was established in 1981 by “a group of public school educations who had a vision of bringing together social and academic learning throughout the school day” (Northeast Foundation for Children, 2011). Using practices from its laboratory

APPLYING PROCESS-OUTCOMES IDEAS 7–3 Eliminating Misbehaviors During “Dead Times” Review Evertson’s and Harris’s ideas about the influence of instructional behaviors on classroom management and the need for advance preparation and effective communication. Then read the following scenario and respond to the questions at the end. Danielle Ruiz, an elementary teacher, has taught for 3 years and continues to experience a problem: She allows her instruction to drift into “dead times.” When she does, a few of the students in the class begin to act up. The longer the dead time lasts, the more students misbehave. Some of the dead times are intentional. (“The students need a break; my not

doing anything for awhile gives them a little rest,” she often says.) At other times, she just has too many things going on at once or she cannot find the instructional materials she needs. Either way, the situation results in the students having dead time, which in turn results in their misbehaving. 1. What is causing the misbehaviors in this classroom? 2. Is there really a need for dead time in a classroom? If not, what should Ms. Ruiz do to eliminate it? 3. If some dead time is desirable, what should Ms. Ruiz do to prevent misbehaviors during it?

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school in Greenfield, Massachusetts, the NEFC developed Responsive Classroom® (RC), a schoolwide process-outcomes approach to management in elementary schools. Its goals are to promote self-reliance, build a sense of community, and help students to become invested in their own learning. In the classroom, a teacher meets the psychological needs of students by following RC practices (Brock, Nishida, Chiong, Grimm, & Rimm-Kaufman, 2008). Using social and emotional learning interventions, teachers create an emotional climate that supports learning. There are clear expectations for behavior as well as academic performance, and opportunities for student choice in instruction. Teachers take a proactive rather than reactive stance toward discipline and provide holistic support of student growth and development (Rimm-Kaufman & Chiu, 2007). However, unlike some management approaches that focus entirely on students, RC also believes in creating a schoolwide culture of social and emotional support for teachers. Overview of the Responsive Classroom® Model Based on the premise that a student’s positive interactions with peers and teachers contribute to both social and academic success, the RC model is designed to integrate academic and social learning. As a proactive behavior management strategy, RC establishes classroom expectations, allows students “to anticipate consequences for transgressions, freeing the teacher from constantly redirecting misbehavior or negotiating punishment throughout the school year” (Brock et al., 2008, p. 144). The seven principles of RC are shown in Figure 7–6. Central to the model is the importance of teachers and the role that their social interactions and instructional processes play in the social and intellectual development of children. In RC, empathy helps teachers understand students and their needs. In turn, teachers provide a structure to help students to develop self-control (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004). The structure provides “guidelines and limits for student behavior” (p. 324). Because RC is designed as a model for the entire school, administrators support teacher collaboration. They establish schedules that provide times when teachers can meet to discuss teaching practices and solve problems. Schools also use community groups and other external resources to provide professional development for educators (Sawyer & Rimm-Kaufman, 2007). Practical Applications of the Responsive Classroom® Model RC consists of a set of recommended practices that help teachers to establish a classroom climate in which students can learn. These practices focus on the process of learning; proactive approaches to discipline; opportunities for student choice, collaboration, and reflection; and the teaching of selfregulatory skills (Rimm-Kaufman, Storm, Sawyer, Pianta, & LaParo, 2006). One RC practice is the Morning Meeting. This is a daily class meeting that provides time for sharing, planning, and participating in group activities, and it begins the day on a positive note. Greeting each other by name, students interact, practice pro-social behaviors, and use public speaking

FIGURE 7–6

Seven Principles of the RC Model

1. Provide equal emphasis on social and academic learning. 2. Focus not only on what students learn but also on how they learn. 3. Understand that social growth supports academic growth. 4. Emphasize critical social skills such as cooperation, self-control, empathy, and responsibility. 5. Understand that students and their cultural and developmental characteristics are as important as academic content. 6. Understand and work with students’ families 7. Understand and support the ways in which educators can work together Sources: Developed from Brock et al., 2008; Northeast Foundation for Children, n.d.).

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skills as they share information on topics of personal interest. Teachers and students also review daily news and announcements (Teaching Tolerance, n.d.). Ms. Kistler and her students greet each other in Chinese and join in a traditional song to begin the Morning Meeting. Today, Bao Yu and Chun will share information about the Chinese holiday known as the Dragon Boat Festival and answer questions from their classmates. Then Jada and Charmun will read the news and announcements before Ms. Kistler begins a word game.

Rules and logical consequences (see also Driekurs in Chapter 8) are another important practice in RC. At the beginning of the school year, the teacher and students work together to develop positively worded classroom rules with the teacher modeling each rule. Throughout the year, the teacher reminds the students about the rules and redirects behavior rather than providing punishments or using tokens for behavior modification reinforcement. Developmentally appropriate and individually relevant, the consequences for breaking a rule relate to the rule itself. Thus, when ShaLee pushes Mason and Mason drops his books, ShaLee is expected to apologize to Mason and pick up the books (Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006). Following another tenet of Driekurs (Chapter 8), teachers use encouragement (“I notice you were working very diligently on your science project”) rather than praise (“Great job on your science project!”). RC places emphasis on academics and instructional practices through the practice of Guided Discovery and Academic Choice. Academic Choice is a “choice-based approach to activity-based learning that increases children’s investment in learning and creates a forum for reflection with peers” (RimmKaufman & Sawyer, 2004, p. 325). For example, a teacher may design a spelling activity that allows students to practice by “using the computer, pen and pad, the chalkboard, or shaving cream” (p. 337). With Guided Discovery, teachers “introduce classroom materials in a systematic way that builds a common vocabulary, creates clear expectations for use, and establishes routines for their care” (p. 337). “Today we will be working with modeling clay. What are some ways we can shape the clay?” “In the library, we will be looking at dictionaries. What are some ways you have used dictionaries?” “Who can show us how to put our crayons away when we are finished with them?” (Bechtel & Denton, 2004). Instructional practices should foster social interaction and cooperation perhaps by allowing students to share, review, evaluate, or reflect on the work of their peers. By using a variety of instructional formats to increase student engagement and motivation, teachers are able to reach all students, especially those at risk of failure (Brock et al., 2008). As in other process-outcomes approaches, classroom organization is an important RC practice. A teacher should set up the classroom in ways that “encourage independence, cooperation, and productivity” (Northeast Foundation for Children, n.d.). This includes arranging the furniture to meet both social and academic needs, providing materials for students and allowing them to use those materials independently, and displaying work that students select. The classroom should be “welcoming and engaging to children” (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004, p. 338). Management Tip 7–4 provides suggestions for classroom arrangement. Another important RC practice is communicating with parents. Realizing the need to establish positive partnerships between educators and the families of students, RC advocates a two-way flow of communication and the involvement of parents in establishing goals for students. With parent– teacher conferences early in the school year, materials sent home frequently, and parent participation in class activities, teachers try to create a partnership with parents (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004). Finally, RC emphasizes that teaching is a collective enterprise and uses practices that are designed to foster collaboration. The model encourages the use of buddy teachers who work together to support each other’s “efforts to discipline the most difficult children” (Sawyer & RimmKaufman, 2007, p. 212). RC also uses home groups, which consist of teachers from across grade levels in a single school who meet to discuss school goals, issues, and the implementation of RC practices. Network meetings involve teachers from a number of different schools who use RC. Sawyer

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MANAGEMENT TIP 7–4 Arranging the Classroom Classroom arrangement helps a teacher to use mobility and proximity as part of management. The best room arrangement should

use an interior-loop arrangement for the desks in most classrooms with a U-arrangement in computer labs or small classes, and

allow the teacher to reach any student in the room quickly,

use small pieces of masking tape to mark the placement of desks in the classroom. These visual prompts can be colored with markers to provide guides for different class arrangements such as small groups.

provide wide walkways to allow movement, move the students forward in the room, move the teacher’s desk to a corner or the back of the room,

and Rimm-Kaufman (2007) found increased teacher collaboration in RC schools, especially on student-focused topics such as curricula, discipline, activities, and individualization of instruction. Applying Process-Outcomes Ideas 7–4 asks you to apply some RC ideas in a classroom.

CRITIQUE OF PROCESS-OUTCOMES APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Process-outcomes approaches to classroom management emphasize the importance of the teacher in “creating and maintaining a positive classroom environment that promotes academic and social competence” (Gettinger & Kohler, 2006, p. 88). Unfortunately, what works in one classroom may not be effective in another and teachers need to be aware of many variables that affect management, some of which are not under the control of an individual teacher. However, there are many teaching principles and practices which, when implemented appropriately, can “enhance student learning and support positive classroom behavior” (p. 91). There have been a number of research studies of the process-outcomes approaches. For example, studies (Charney & Kriete, 2001; Rimm-Kaufman & Chiu, 2007; Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004) have shown a reduction in behavior problems and an improvement in social skills among students in schools that use the RC model. Rimm-Kaufman and Chiu (2007) found that teachers who APPLYING PROCESS-OUTCOMES IDEAS 7–4 Advising Ms. Muller Review the key concepts of the RC classroom management model. As you read the following scenario, try to determine whether Ms. Muller is following the RC beliefs. Then respond to the questions at the end. Ms. Muller, a fifth-grade teacher, thought she had a group of students who were too immature to learn self-discipline. “I have to accept all the responsibility for disciplining them,” she said. “They are simply too immature to behave. I don’t know what their teacher did last year!” To make sure they behaved during her lessons, she started each day by going over class rules. Then, throughout the day, she addressed every problem, no matter how minor. Students frequently found themselves writing, “I will not break class rules” 50

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times. When students behaved, she added a star by their name on a chart on the board. Misbehavior brought a check behind a name, with penalties spelled out for various numbers of checks. Lessons were very structured with lots of worksheets to keep students busy. “Can’t give them an inch—they’ll take a mile. That’s how this group is.” Motivational posters took up most of the wall space. 1. Is Ms. Muller correct in assuming that some fifthgrade students are too immature for self-discipline? 2. Using the ideas and fundamental skills of RC, give Ms. Muller specific recommendations of things she can do in her classroom.

Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management

used RC noted “greater assertiveness in the classroom, more prosocial behavior, and less anxious and fearful behavior” (p. 409) among students. In a study of children in grades 3–5, Brock et al. (2008) found that “teachers who implemented RC practices had children in their classrooms who scored higher on ratings of social skills, academic competence, and standardized reading tests” (p. 144). The process-outcomes approaches to management can address what Jones (1987a) called the nickel and dime misbehaviors. For example, teachers can use Jones’s ideas on the use of appropriate physical proximity, facial expressions, limit setting, preferred activity time, eye contact, room arrangement, calm, and self-discipline. In cases of more serious misbehaviors, Jones has an elaborate backup system for repeat misbehavers, while Evertson and Harris and the Johnsons rely on peer mediation and conflict resolution. One advantage of the process-outcomes approaches is their emphasis on the positive. Jones’s techniques (e.g., body language, eye contact, physical proximity) contribute to discipline being a private rather than a public matter. He also emphasizes self-discipline and learners accepting responsibility for their behavior. As Jones noted, the concepts of limit setting and maintaining physical proximity, portraying calmness, maintaining eye contact, using appropriate bodily expressions, and firmly saying names one time all are implemented easily in a classroom. Body gestures and firm speech can be influential; likewise, a slumping posture and a whiny voice can convey the idea that the teacher is uncomfortable. Without stopping instruction or making misbehaviors public, teachers often can use physical proximity and eye contact to correct behaviors. The Responsive Classroom® approach encourages teachers to work with students to develop positive rules, to model those rules, and to provide logical consequences rather than punishments for misbehaviors. Teachers do not threaten, cajole, or coerce. The ultimate goal of discipline is to teach learners to discipline themselves. A focus on cooperative learning is basic to both the Johnsons’ Three C’s model and RC. This reflects an appreciation for the diversity found in schools and the belief that pluralism and diversity create opportunities that can have positive or negative outcomes, depending largely on whether learning situations are structured competitively, individualistically, or cooperatively (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). In addition, conflict resolution, used by the Johnsons as well as Evertson and Harris, has an objective, step-by-step approach that treats all students fairly. With cooperation and conflict resolution, students should believe that their teacher works in their best interest. Evertson and Harris (1992, p. 59) maintain that “the need for effective classroom management burgeons” as schools deal with diverse populations of students with differing needs and modes of learning. Thus, the focus of the process-outcomes models on learner-centered classrooms contributes to the well-being of all students and should not offend students’ cultural backgrounds and other diversities. For example, all students will be influenced positively by teachers who use appropriate instructional behaviors, base specific interventions on the severity of the misbehavior, and plan the beginning of the school year. Students, regardless of their diversities, should appreciate knowing the teacher’s expectations for academic achievement and behavior. In addition, they should appreciate having a teacher who is committed to effective teaching behaviors. Although RC is designed for use in elementary schools, the other process-outcomes models can apply to all age groups and almost all students. With these models, students and their differences are respected, and when students demonstrate inappropriate behaviors, teachers firmly address the behaviors, but they do so in a caring and respectful manner. Underlying all of these models is the idea that students must learn self-discipline. As Jones says, “Strictly speaking, discipline means to teach, not to punish” (Jones, 1996, p. 42). As the process-outcomes models show, teaching discipline leads to “the internalization of discipline or self-discipline” (Jones, 1987a, p. 19). The actions of maintaining eye contact, using physical proximity, and saying names firmly are not designed to be punitive. Instead, they remind students of the teacher’s expectations, the class rules and routines, and how their behavior affects others and themselves. In spite of all of the advantages of the process-outcomes models, there are, some disadvantages to them. For example, in Jones’s model, although the concept of preferred activity time or PAT sounds useful and he claims implementation is easy, the accountability and record-keeping measures might be cumbersome. In addition, although Jones’s concepts can be learned, many details must be

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Does the Process-Outcomes Approach Reflect Your Beliefs? As you consider whether to incorporate the ideas of processoutcomes models into your personal classroom management philosophy, consider the following questions: 1. Do I believe that the processes I use in a classroom, including my instructional strategies, will have a direct impact on student outcomes, including behavior and learning? 2. Do I believe that classroom management procedures that are gentle and that build cooperation in the absence of coercion will be effective? 3. Can I remain calm and use body language and proximity to set limits?

4. Do I believe that teachers should strive for cooperation and collaboration with students? 5. Do I believe that rules, routines, and standards are necessary for effective management? 6. Do I believe that students can learn to take responsibility for their action? 7. Do I feel comfortable using a system such as PAT to help students become responsible for their actions? 8. Do I believe that peer mediation and conflict resolution play a part in management?

handled. To his credit, he describes in his books what teachers should do in specific cases (and then what to do in response to the student’s next move); however, such a tremendous amount must be learned that it might take even a conscientious teacher several years to master the techniques. Gettinger and Kohler (2006) also point out that, as student change, develop, and build expertise, the process of instruction and management must change. “A ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach . . . is rarely effective” (p. 90) and the process-outcomes models do not always reflect the dynamic nature of a classroom. Teachers need the flexibility to modify and adjust their instructional approaches and classroom processes. This is not always possible with a structured model such as RC. Unfortunately, punitive measures sometimes will be needed, and classroom management techniques that work with some students might not work with others. With a focus on teachers who emphasize positive relationships with students, avoid punitive measures to managing behavior, and use a variety of instructional and management strategies, the process-outcomes approaches should meet the philosophical and psychological beliefs of many teachers. On the other hand, these approaches will not be well received by a teacher who is more autocratic, believes in punitive measures, feels comfortable when engaging in back talking with students, or thinks students need to be kept under tight control at all times. To determine whether process-outcomes ideas are congruent with your beliefs, respond to the questions in Developing Your Personal Philosophy.

Summary In this chapter, you have read about the process-outcomes approaches to classroom management. You saw how Fredric Jones’s Positive Classroom Management focuses on cooperation among students and teachers, holds students responsible for their behavior, and suggests specific management behaviors for teachers. You read about Evertson’s and Harris’s ideas for teacher planning at the beginning of the year and their ideas about instruction, communication, and interventions. Johnson and Johnson presented the Three C’s of Classroom Management, and the Responsive Classroom® model described a schoolwide model emphasizing academic and social growth among elementary students. For more information than we could present in this chapter, you can consult the suggested readings or the resources listed in “Reaching Out with the Internet.”

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Reflecting on what you now know about process-outcomes approaches to classroom management, revisit the opening vignette for this chapter and respond to the following questions: 1.

What ideas from Jones could Ms. Brisky to implement in her classroom? 2. How could she use the classroom organization ideas of RC and Evertson and Harris? 3. What other ideas from process-outcomes models would you recommend? 4. How might these suggestions differ if she were teaching a different grade level? 5. How should Ms. Brisky begin to implement a management plan?

Exploring the Process-Outcomes Approaches to Classroom Management

Suggested Readings Anderson, L. M., Evertson, C. M., & Brophy, J. E. (2010). An examination of classroom context: Effects of lesson format and teacher training on patterns of teacher-student contacts during small-group instruction. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 45(1), 25–31. In an experimental study of teaching effectiveness, researchers examined the teacher-student contacts and the impact of teacher pacing on student learning and behavior. Brophy, J. E., & Evertson, C. M. (2010). Teaching young children effectively. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 45(1), 5–8. The authors examine process-outcomes research and study second- and third-grade teachers in an urban school system. Hirschfield, P. J., & Gasper, J. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(1), 3–22. The authors explore the relationship between student engagement, academic success, and student misconduct.

McTigue, E. M. (2011). The responsive classroom approach and its implications for improving reading and writing. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 27(1/2), 5–24. McTigue examines the use of the Morning Meeting, part of the Responsive Classroom® management approach. Poplin, M., Rivera J., Durish, D., Hoff, L., Kawell, S., Pawlak, P., Soto Hinman, I., Straus, L., & Veney, C. (2011). She’s strict for a good reason. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(5), 39–43. This study of highly effective teachers in disadvantaged urban schools identifies their successful management practices and instructional methods. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Hamre, B. K. (2010). The role of psychological and developmental science in efforts to improve teacher quality. Teachers College Record, 112(12), 2988–3023. The authors examine the interactions of teachers and students as a predictor of student achievement.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on processoutcomes approaches to classroom management.

F. JONES The homepage for Fredric Jones www.fredjones.com www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones. shtml EducationWorld Chats with Fred Jones www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat022.shtml PAT Tips and examples for secondary teachers

C. EVERTSON AND A. HARRIS Biography of Alene Harris peabody.vanderbilt.edu/harris_alene.xml Biography of Carolyn Evertson peabody.vanderbilt.edu/evertson_carolyn. xml?show=SelectedPublications COMP Website www.comp.org Educational Programs That Work—COMP www2.ed.gov/pubs/EPTW/eptw2/eptw2a.html

www.fredjones.com/PAT/_SecondaryTips.html Video of a school that adopted Positive Classroom Management on EducationWorld.com www.educationworld.com/a_curr/columnists/jones/jones. shtml

D. JOHNSON AND R. JOHNSON Biography of Roger T. Johnson www.cehd.umn.edu/CI/Faculty/Johnson.html Cooperative Learning www.context.org/ICLIB/IC18/Johnson.htm Cooperative Learning and Conflict Resolution education.jhu.edu/newhorizons/strategies/topics/ Cooperative%20Learning/cooperative_conflict.html

NORTHEAST FOUNDATION FOR CHILDREN: RESPONSIVE CLASSROOM® Building Community, Day by Day—Teaching Tolerance www.tolerance.org/print/activity/building-communityday-day Responsive Classroom® Website www.responsiveclassroom.org/ Responsive Classroom® on Facebook www.facebook.com/responsiveclassroom Responsive Classroom® at Countryside Elementary School www.newton.k12.ma.us/countryside/responsiveclassroom. html

Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota www.co-operation.org

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management

From Chapter 8 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 8, you should be able to 1. discuss the need for and define the term “supportive approaches” to classroom management; 2. describe Rudolf Dreikurs’s Democratic Teaching and Management model and explain his theory that democracy is the key to effective management; 3. explain Linda Albert’s Cooperative Discipline, how she was influenced by Rudolf Dreikurs, and the practical applications of Cooperative Discipline; 4. discuss Jane Nelsen’s, Lynn Lotts’s, and Stephen Glenn’s Positive Discipline and such aspects as barriers, builders, three empowering perceptions, and four essential skills;

iofoto/Shutterstock.com

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5. describe the key concepts of Forrest Gathercoal’s Judicious Discipline, its philosophical and psychological foundations, and teachers’ roles and responsibilities; 6. describe Richard Curwin’s and Allen Mendler’s Discipline With Dignity, its key concepts, philosophical and psychological foundations, and teachers’ roles and responsibilities; 7. evaluate the “supportive approaches” to classroom management; and 8. consider all the “supportive approaches” to classroom management and identify concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Calming and Taming the Students Cassandra Bracken, a consultant, visited Park Place Middle School to look for ways, as the superintendent said, “to calm the students, to tame them down a little.” The school did not have the serious problems violence, but students were noisy and rude, and they lived in an atmosphere of hostility. Dr. Bracken heard the following from teachers: • “I’ve about had my fill of this. Not only do these students not listen to me, they don’t respect me, other students, or themselves. I don’t even think some of them know how to behave.” • “There are a number of ‘phantom students’ who never misbehave but also never do any schoolwork. These students just fade into the woodwork and do a minimum or no work at all.” • “The school administration has made the situation worse by adding more and more rules. Now, I can’t even keep up with all the regulations, and the students are worse than ever.” Dr. Bracken also interviewed some students. “We’re not too bad; it could be a lot worse,” remarked Gema. “We like to joke with each other, but most of us like it. Yeah, those goths and nerds might not like it, but they want to be left alone anyway. That’s fine with me.” Another student spoke out. “They run this place like a prison—too many rules; they treat us like babies. Now there’s ‘zero tolerance’ for this and for that. I feel that if I crack a joke someone will take it the wrong way and I’ll be expelled. This school never was much fun— now, it’s not fun at all. I’m just waiting to get out of here.” Although Dr. Bracken knew she would need time to think about the situation, she wanted to have a positive impact in her remarks to the faculty at the end of her visit. Specifically, she wanted to call attention to contemporary classroom management models that have been tested to address some of the problems at Park Place.

OVERVIEW Cassandra Bracken in the opening vignette faces many difficult decisions, including whether it is possible to develop a positive climate of respect and encouragement at Park Place Middle School. Students’ misbehaviors differ widely. Some students are openly defiant, and others demonstrate more subtle misbehaviors or are phantom students. While some classroom management theorists rely on rules and teacher control in a classroom, others focus on good management practices to support the moral and social development of the students (Nucci, 2006). They believe that effective teachers must provide positive, supportive classrooms that, in addition to establishing a climate for learning, contribute to appropriate learner social interactions. Supporting students

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by caring, encouraging, and helping learners to succeed, teachers can also “promote social knowledge construction” (p. 714) that is appropriate for the developmental levels of the students. For young children, this may mean the establishment of a “moral climate of trust” (p. 716), while for older students the focus may be on the formation of a “just community” (p. 727). These theorists also speak against negativism and ill treatment such as ridicule, sarcasm, isolation, and other punishments. Unfortunately, with the focus on behaviorist approaches to management, these democratic discipline models are often overlooked (Grandmont, 2003) by educators.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR A SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM In this chapter, we look at the following supportive classroom models: Democratic Teaching and Management developed by Dreikers; Cooperative Discipline by Albert; Judicious Discipline by Gathercoal; Positive Discipline by Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn; and Discipline With Dignity by Curwin and Mendler. These models of classroom management highlight the importance of teachers’ social and emotional competence in the development and maintenance of supportive teacher–student relationships and appropriate social conventions. With a focus on building a constructive moral atmosphere and a climate of mutual respect and cooperation, these models focus on the social, emotional, and cognitive learning of students.

KEY TERMS Table 8–1 identifies the key terms related to the supportive classroom management theorists. TABLE 8–1

Key Terms Related to Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management

Dreikurs Democratic Teaching and Management

Albert Cooperative Discipline

Nelsen, Lott, & Glenn Positive Discipline

Gathercoal Judicious Discipline

Curwin & Mendler Discipline with Dignity

• Attention getting

• Autocratic teacher

• Barriers

• Class meetings

• Consequences

• Autocratic teacher

• Capable

• Builders

• Code of ethics

• Healthy classrooms

• Democratic teacher • Code of conduct

• Class meetings

• Ineffective things

• Encouragement

• Connect

• Feelings of inadequacy

• Contribute

• Empowering perceptions

• Constitutional perspective

• Obedience

• Democratic teacher

• Essential skills

• Compelling state interests

• Logical consequences

• Encouragement

• Significant Seven

• Front loading

• Permissive teacher • Power seeking • Praise • Revenge

• Influence • Permissive teacher

• Individualizing consequences • Judicious consequences

• Long-term efforts • Responsibility • Short-term efforts • Social contracts • Zero-tolerance policies

• Justice • Professional ethics

RUDOLF DREIKURS: DEMOCRATIC TEACHING AND MANAGEMENT Rudolf Dreikurs (1968) called for democratic teaching and management procedures. His early work has had a significant influence on educators and classroom management theorists, especially those who believe in developing supportive classrooms.

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management FIGURE 8–1

Mistaken Goals. All misbehavior results when students have one of more of the following “mistaken goals” for their behavior: attention getting, power seeking, revenge, and helplessness (feelings of inadequacy) (Dreikurs, 1968; Dreikers, Grunwald, & Pepper, 1971). Democratic Teaching. Teachers should be democratic rather than autocratic (“I told you to do it now; you will do it now”) or permissive (“Well, whatever you want to do is all right, I guess. I know you’ll do the right thing, won’t you?”) in their classroom procedures and in social interactions with students (Dreikurs, 1968).

Key Concepts of Dreikurs’s Democratic Teaching and Management

Encouragement. Teachers should encourage students (I think you can do the work if you give it a good try”) rather than praise students (“You are such a good student—you always do your work just right”) (Dinkmeyer & Dreikurs, 1963). Logical Consequences. Teachers should establish classroom rules and implement logical consequences rather than punishments for broken rules and misbehavior. Punishment should seldom be used and, then, only when all logical consequences have been exhausted (Dreikurs & Grey, 1968).

Overview of Dreikurs’s Model In Democratic Teaching and Management, a multifaceted model of classroom management, four aspects stand out: identifying and addressing mistaken goals of misbehavior, acting as democratic rather than autocratic or permissive teachers, using logical consequences rather than punishment, and understanding the difference between praise and encouragement. These key concepts are shown in Figure 8–1. Dreikurs believed that when teachers act in a democratic fashion, they demonstrate effective instruction and provide a collaborative learning community where teachers and students work toward common goals. Practical Applications of Dreikurs’s Model A student talked constantly and interrupted the class until his teacher realized he felt inadequate. Once she helped him to believe that he could do the work successfully, his behavior improved. An autocratic teacher had power-seeking problems until he learned that democratic classroom procedures reduce the need for some students to be power seekers. These are two examples of Dreikurs’s model of democratic classroom management. Overall, the model has considerable potential for practical application in schools of all levels. To provide positive classrooms where teachers and students work toward a common purpose, teachers can use democratic classroom procedures that help students understand the goals of misbehavior, the effect of logical consequences, and the importance of social interactions. In a supportive classroom, there is a need for clear limits, rules, and order; student participation in the development of classroom rules; the development of a spirit of trust and cooperation with a democratic rather than an autocratic teacher; and the use of encouragement (Dreikurs et al., 1971). Teachers determine whether power seeking, attention getting, revenge, or inadequacy is the cause of student misbehavior, and they work to reduce the need for misbehavior. Let’s examine the model in a little more detail. IDENTIFYING AND ADDRESSING MISTAKEN GOALS Dreikurs (1957, 1968) proposed that all student misbehavior results when individuals pursue one or more of four mistaken goals. The following examples look at these goals and how they might be seen in a classroom.

1. Attention Getting. When students feel they are worthless, they often misbehave to get the attention they want. Dreikurs (1968) maintained that this behavior might be more dominant in young children who feel they have few opportunities to establish their social position through useful contributions or through socially accepted means. When these methods are not effective, students try almost any other method to gain attention. In fact, students even might prefer punishment to being ignored.

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2. Power Seeking. Power-seeking students attempt to prove their power by defying the teacher and doing whatever they want. Only when they are the boss of a situation or are controlling others will these students feel self-worth. At times, the behavior becomes more defiant and might include disobedience, talking back, or overt resistance (Pryor & Tollerud, 1999). 3. Revenge. Students who are seeking revenge want to hurt someone else and believe that revenge is important for their own self-esteem. Students who are focused on revenge can become more vicious and outwardly hostile with time. In order to feel significant and worthy, these students believe they must hurt someone in the same way they believe someone has hurt them. Depending on the age and development of the students involved, their revenge might include stealing, kicking, and intentionally hurting others. 4. Feelings of Inadequacy. Students who harbor feelings of hopelessness and inferiority might be focused on the goal of inadequacy. These students often want to be left alone and may work actively to avoid others (Pryor & Tollerud, 1999). As long as they are left alone, nothing is demanded of them, and their deficiencies, inabilities, and inadequacies might not become obvious (Dreikurs et al., 1971). They might not even misbehave, but their lack of misbehavior should not keep a teacher from encouraging them to take an active role in classroom activities. Dreikurs maintained that knowledge of a student’s personal life, family, and memories can help teachers to identify which mistaken goal underlies a student’s misbehavior (Carson, 1996). USING LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES The concept of logical consequences is another component of Dreikurs’s discipline model. Before providing logical consequences, teachers must establish simple, specific classroom rules. Once the rules are established, the teacher can outline a sequence of logical consequences. Finally, after the consequences are established, students must accept responsibility for their own behavior. For example, Dr. Bracken in the opening vignette might suggest that teachers identify a specific amount of work to be completed during a given class. Because of class rules, students who complete the assignments know that they will receive free time. Phantom students who do not work diligently to complete the assignments must use the free time to do so. Thus, instead of a harsh punishment, they receive a logical consequence for their actions. Some democratic teachers even encourage their students to help devise classroom rules and their logical consequences. Dreikurs believed that this practice could help deter discipline problems because the students have worked cooperatively to establish their own rules and procedures (Dreikurs, 1968; Morris, 1996).

According to the Dreikurs model, teachers should use more encouragement to boost confidence and self-esteem and less praise because students can become dependent on the praise. When praise is used, if students do not or cannot continue the behavior or record of achievement, they begin to think they are of less worth. In essence, the reason for the praise becomes the source of self-worth. As Dinkmeyer and Dreikurs (1963, p. 121) stated, “[p]raise may have a discouraging effect in the long run, since the child may depend on it constantly and never be quite sure whether he will merit another expression of special approval—and get it.” As teachers use words of encouragement to demonstrate to students that they believe in them, the encouragement not only boosts students’ self-esteem and confidence, but it also keeps students on task and minimizes student disruption (Morris, 1996). USING ENCOURAGEMENT RATHER THAN PRAISE

Praise: “You are a fine student! You finished your math in record time.” Encouragement: “I can tell you’ve been practicing your math drills, and I hope you will continue.” Praise: “You are a whiz with that computer program.” Encouragement: “I can tell you enjoy the challenges of learning to use a new computer program.”

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management TEACHERS’ ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Dreikurs (1968, p. 3) maintained that “in order to be effective, the teacher has to know more than the subject matter.” Thus, in addition to using effective instructional strategies, teachers must develop a democratic classroom. To do this, a teacher must believe in the worth and dignity of every person, in the equality of all people, in freedom of decision making, and that people can be trusted to make wise decisions (Dreikurs, 1968). In addition, when dealing with children and young adults, effective teachers must also develop positive relationships with families, the principal, and community members. In doing so, they must feel positive about their own professional accomplishments, especially their ability to teach and instill democratic classroom procedures. In summary, teachers who are serious about Dreikurs’s model should adopt several unique perspectives. First, they need to view students as social beings who want to belong and to find an accepted place in society. Second, instead of simply reacting to students’ behaviors by imposing punishments or rewards, they need to identify the goals of these misbehaviors. Then, they need to forego rewards and punishments in favor of logical consequences that result from the misbehaviors. Third, teachers who use democratic procedures must allow and in fact encourage students to take an active, participatory role in developing classroom procedures, as well as in making curricular and instructional decisions. The goal is to use sound instructional strategies and build a sense of community within the classroom.

LINDA ALBERT: COOPERATIVE DISCIPLINE In the Cooperative Discipline model, Linda Albert emphasizes that “students choose their behavior, and we have power to influence—not control—their choices” (Albert, 1995, p. 43). She thus focuses on influence, cooperation, and a positive approach to classroom management. Overview of Albert’s Model Linda Albert (1989, 1995) maintains that once teachers identify the cause of a misbehavior, they should try to influence a student’s choice of behavior through encouragement. She believes that some discipline programs, such as control theories or zero-tolerance policies, fail to show teachers how to keep misbehavior from recurring and can even make behavior problems worse. Cooperative Discipline assumes that students will misbehave again unless teachers use encouragement techniques that build self-esteem and strengthen the student’s motivation to cooperate and learn. Using the four goals of misbehavior (attention, power, revenge, and inadequacy, or the fear of failure) identified by Rudolph Dreikurs as a basis for Cooperative Discipline, Albert suggests that teachers should work with parents and students to help students with the three C’s: connecting to the teacher and other students, contributing to the class, and feeling capable of successful behavior and academic work. Noting that a teacher can have either a permissive (hands-off), autocratic (hands-on), or democratic (hands-joined) classroom management style, Albert believes that a teacher’s greatest assets are good self-control and the use of influence and encouragement to help students face daily challenges, have appropriate behavior, and be successful in school. Practical Application of Albert’s Model Although students are affected by heredity, environment, and experiences, they can choose their behavior. Thus, Albert believes they need to feel that they belong in the classroom and that they are important, worthwhile, and valued. To foster a climate for learning and teaching, Albert suggests that educators use encouragement, intervention, and collaboration to influence students. Cautioning against the use of several teacher techniques that often backfire, she tells teachers not to raise their voices, yell, insist on having the last word, use sarcasm, attack a student’s character, plead or bribe, back a student into a corner, use physical force, act superior, or bring up unrelated events (Albert, 1989). Instead, they can help students to develop a code of conduct such as the one shown in Figure 8–2.

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management FIGURE 8–2

Sample Code of Conduct

I am: Respectful—Responsible—Safe—Prepared. I will not keep anyone from learning or teaching. I will cooperate with others in the school community. I will respect: Myself—Others—The environment. Source: Developed from campus.kcc.edu/faculty/dfyfee/albert.html.

FOUR CAUSES OF MISBEHAVIOR Like Dreikurs, Linda Albert examines the four causes of misbehavior and identifies practical ways to address each of them (Albert, 1995).

Attention • Use eye contact to let the student know you are aware of his or her misbehavior. • Move closer to the student while continuing to teach. • Ask a direct question or use the student’s name while continuing the lesson. • Give specific encouragement to a nearby student who is on-task. Power • Avoid direct confrontation by agreeing with the student or changing the subject. • Acknowledge the student’s power and state your actions: “You’re right, I can’t make you finish the math problems, but I’ll be collecting the assignment at the end of class” (Albert, 1995, p. 44). • Change the activity, do something unexpected, or initiate another class discussion on a topic of interest. • Use time-out by giving a choice: “You may sit quietly, keep your hands and feet to yourself, and complete the assignment, or you may go to time-out in Mr. Weber’s room. You decide” (Albert, 1995, p. 44). Revenge • Revoke a privilege: “Rita, you will not be able to play on the swings today.” • Build a caring relationship and use affirmative statements to say “You’re OK, but your choice of behavior is not” (Albert, 1995, p. 44). • Require the return, repair, or replacement of damaged articles. • Involve school personnel or parents if necessary. Avoidance of Failure • Acknowledge the difficulty of the assigned task, but remind the student of past successes. • Modify instruction and materials. • Teach the student to say “I can” instead of “I can’t” by recognizing achievements. • Provide peer tutors or ask the student to help someone else, perhaps a younger student, to build self-confidence. USING INFLUENCE As shown in the following examples, Albert’s ideas on the use of influence over control can be applied in most classrooms.

Influence: Seeing Luchee, a first grader, talking to another student, Mr. Palmbo said, “Luchee, your talking is disturbing others. Please be considerate.” Control: Mr. Palmbo said, “Luchee, you’re talking. Take a time-out.”

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management Influence: When Ms. Alvett believed that Mark, a senior, cheated on an assignment, she talked to him privately and encouraged him to do his own work. Control: Standing at the front of the room, Ms. Alvett announced to the class, “Someone didn’t feel like completing the class poetry assignment so he copied another student’s paper, didn’t he, Mark?”

Neither time-consuming nor difficult to learn, Albert’s encouragement strategies include the three C’s: capable, connect, and contribute. According to Albert, students must feel capable of completing their work in a satisfactory manner. To assist students, teachers can create an environment in which students can make mistakes without fear of punishment or embarrassment; build confidence by focusing on improvement and on past successes; and make learning objectives reachable for all students. By accepting all students regardless of their behavior, listening to students, showing interest in their activities outside of school, showing appreciation, and using positive statements about a student’s good behavior and abilities, teachers help students to connect and develop positive relationships with teachers and classmates. Finally, teachers can help students learn how they can contribute to the welfare of the class and feel that they make a difference. Techniques to foster this sense of contribution include involving students in maintaining the classroom, holding class meetings, asking for suggestions when decisions need to be made, using cooperative learning groups, and encouraging peer tutoring (Albert, 1995). Now that you have read the ideas of Dreikurs and Albert, Applying Supportive Classroom Ideas 8–1 asks you to apply these ideas with a specific student. Albert also suggests that when addressing misbehaviors, teachers must enlist the support of parents to encourage students. When talking with parents, teachers need to choose their words carefully and use objective language and nonjudgmental terms. In addition, teachers should keep complaints to a minimum by selecting examples of misbehavior rather than naming a student’s every transgression. When a teacher is negative, parents may feel no obligation to cooperate with that teacher. Avoiding predictions of future failures, teachers should never make parents think their child is incorrigible or unable to succeed in school. Instead, teachers should present a specific plan and help parents understand that chances for success are good. Although it might be difficult, teachers should avoid taking parents’ defensiveness personally and should ask parents to help with something that is possible rather than impossible (Albert, 1997). Management Tip 8–1 has more suggestions for working with parents.

ENCOURAGEMENT STRATEGIES: THE THREE C’S

APPLYING SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM IDEAS 8–1 Helping Rashan Behave out. I can do most of it,” he rarely finished an assignment. Unfortunately, he also disturbed others so some of them did not finish either. His teacher wondered what to do.

Before reading the following scenario, review Dreikurs’s and Albert’s ideas on the causes of misbehaviors, sharing responsibility, and providing influence. Then respond to the questions at the end. Rashan was a constant behavior problem. He was neither violent nor hurtful, but he wasted time and bothered others. He never refused to do classwork, but he rarely finished it. Instead, he talked to others and the teacher, walked around the room, went to the wastebasket, or sharpened his pencils. Although Rashan often said, “I’ll get this done today—before school’s

1.

Using Albert’s and Dreikurs’s ideas, identify the possible causes of Rashan’s misbehavior. 2. What might Rashan’s teacher do to address the specific cause or causes? 3. How could the teacher use influence rather than control to help Rashan?

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MANAGEMENT TIP 8–1 Developing Parents’ Cooperation Enlisting parents’ support is important. However, when you meet with a number of different parents, it may be difficult to remember what you said to each and what they said to you. You need to: Document conversations with parents, families, or guardians.

• whom you talked to, • how you talked to them—in person, on the telephone, by e-mail, and so on, • the date, • a summary of the conversation, and • agreed-upon actions to be taken.

Keep a notebook with a page for each family or each student.

Record the times you tried to contact the parent or guardian but were unsuccessful.

Note if a student lives with more than one family during the year.

Record the date and the message that you left on an answering machine or with another person.

Use a form that includes

Keep all e-mail contacts with the parents or guardians.

JANE NELSEN, LYNN LOTT, AND STEPHEN GLENN: POSITIVE DISCIPLINE Like Albert and Dreikurs, Jane Nelsen, Lynn Lott, and Stephen Glenn (1997) envision schools where young people are treated with respect, will not be humiliated when they fail, and will have the opportunity to learn in a safe environment, with a focus on cooperation rather than competition. In these schools, teachers will provide an environment that inspires excitement about life and learning, because fear and feelings of inadequacy and discouragement are not part of the learning environment. These dream schools nurture self-esteem, mutual respect, and academic performance, and they give students the skills and attitudes that will help them to be happy, contributing members of society. Overview of Nelsen’s, Lott’s, and Glenn’s Model In the Positive Discipline model, teachers must use classroom management strategies to teach students to respect the rights of others and feel empathy and to learn how to behave. Stressing personal accountability, they must also maintain a positive connection between adult and child (Carey, 2009). As Nelsen (2006) says, punishment may work on a short-term basis, but “we are often fooled by immediate results . . . when the long-term results are negative” (p. 13). Influenced by Rudolf Dreikurs and his four goals of misbehavior, Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn place considerable priority on understanding why students behave as they do and suggest that any form of punishment or permissiveness is disrespectful and discouraging and should be avoided. They believe that teachers should emphasize caring, mutual respect, encouragement, and order in today’s classrooms. Explaining barriers (disrespectful and discouraging behaviors) and builders (respectful and encouraging behaviors), they go beyond academics and encourage teachers to teach the skills that students will need for successful lives in schools and in society. Recognizing the harmful effects of vandalism and violence in schools, they maintain that class meetings can lessen these problems. Their eight building blocks of class meetings can contribute to effective class meetings and help in a variety of classroom management situations (e.g., understanding reasons for misbehavior, developing communication skills, practicing role-playing, focusing on nonpunitive solutions). Practical Application of Nelsen’s, Lott’s, and Glenn’s Model Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn have a number of ideas on positive discipline. Because space is limited, we will focus on only three of them.

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management THE SIGNIFICANT SEVEN Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn (1997) identify the Significant Seven, those three empowering perceptions and four essential skills that all teachers should impress upon students. They explain the perceptions and skills as follows:

Three Empowering Perceptions 1. Perceptions of personal capabilities: Teachers create a safe climate in which students can experiment with learning and behavior without judgments about success or failure. “Alisha, go ahead and try this problem. I’m here to help you.”

2. Perceptions of significance in primary relationships: Teachers listen to the feelings, thoughts, and ideas of students and take them seriously. “Kraig, you contributed some great ideas to our discussion today.”

3. Perceptions of the personal power of influence in life: Teachers give students the opportunity to contribute in useful ways and help them to accept their power to create positive and negative environments. “Akemi, would you be the leader for the group that is decorating our classroom for parent visitation night?”

Four Essential Skills 1. Intrapersonal skills: Students have opportunities to gain understanding of their emotions and behaviors by hearing feedback from their classmates. They learn to be accountable for their actions and the results of their behavior. “I was upset when Cam went on and on about how bad my hair looks today. I thought he was my friend! What should I do?”

2. Interpersonal skills: Students can develop interpersonal skills through dialogue and sharing, listening and empathizing, cooperation, negotiation, and conflict resolution. “Jamila, I know how it feels when you try so hard and don’t get an A. That happened to me on the last test.”

3. Systemic skills: Students respond to the limits and consequences of everyday life with responsibility, adaptability, flexibility, and integrity because they do not experience punishment or disapproval. “I’m sorry, Mr. Nazif. I bumped Carmen’s desk by mistake. I’ll pick up her things.”

4. Judgment skills: Students develop judgment skills when they have opportunities and encouragement to practice making decisions in an environment that emphasizes learning from mistakes rather than “paying” for mistakes through punishment (Nelsen, Lott, & Glenn, 1997, p. 9). “I guess it would have been better, Ms. Talbott, to start over with the volcano project than try to repair the old one. But at least you let us try.” BARRIERS AND BUILDERS Although respect and encouragement are two basic ingredients for building positive relationships, Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn (1997) maintain that educators often create barriers to their use. They identified five barriers that teachers use with students that show disrespect and discouragement and five builders that show respect and encouragement. Instead of assuming they know what students think and feel without asking them (Barrier 1: Assuming), educators should check with students (Builder 1: Checking) to learn their unique perceptions and capabilities and to discover how students are maturing in their ability to deal with problems and issues. Rather than doing things for students (Barrier 2: Rescuing/Explaining), educators should allow them to learn from their own experiences (Builder 2: Exploring) and to help each other learn to make choices. Teachers often direct students to do things in disrespectful ways (Barrier 3: Directing) that reinforce dependency, eliminate initiative and cooperation, and encourage passive-aggressive

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MANAGEMENT TIP 8–2 Holding Effective Class Meetings According to Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn, teachers should use the following ideas for planning and conducting a class meeting: • • • • •

Form a circle. Practice compliments and appreciations. Create an agenda. Develop communication skills. Learn about separate realities (there is more than one way; it does not have to be “my” [p. 64] way).

• Recognize the four reasons people do what they do (remember Dreikurs’s four mistaken goals of misbehavior). • Practice role-playing and brainstorming. • Focus on nonpunitive solutions. Source: Developed from Nelsen, J., Lott, L., & Glenn, H. S. (1997). Positive discipline in the classroom. Rocklin, CA: Prima.

behavior. As an alternative, educators should allow students to be involved in the planning and problem-solving activities that help them become self-directed (Builder 3: Inviting/Encouraging). Sometimes, when teachers expect students to do certain things (Barrier 4: Expecting), the potential becomes the standard, and students are judged for falling short. If educators demand too much too soon, they can discourage students. Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn encourage teachers to celebrate the direction of a student’s maturity or potential (Builder 4: Celebrating). Finally, “adultisms” (p. 24) (Barrier 5: Adultisms) occur when educators forget that students are not mature adults and expect them to act and think like adults. Instead, educators should interact with students to understand the differences in how people perceive things (Builder 5: Respecting). Such respect also contributes to a climate of acceptance that encourages growth and effective communication (Nelsen, Lott, & Glenn, 1997). Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn (1997, p. 3) explained the “incredible benefits of class meetings for teachers and students,” including involving students in their education, teaching them to think for themselves, and eliminating most problems with students who act out. Even Pre-K and elementary students can use class meetings to clarify rules, resolve interpersonal conflicts, engage in collective problem solving, and create a peaceful atmosphere in the classroom (Angell, 2004). Management Tip 8–2 has additional suggestions for class meetings.

THE EIGHT BUILDING BLOCKS OF CLASS MEETINGS

FORREST GATHERCOAL: JUDICIOUS DISCIPLINE Like Dreikurs, Forrest Gathercoal based his model of Judicious Discipline on the belief that educators should develop democratic classrooms in which students know that their constitutional rights of freedom, justice, and equality will be protected. Overview of Gathercoal’s Model Synthesizing professional ethics, effective educational practices, and student constitutional rights, Judicious Discipline requires that students accept responsibility for their actions. It also asks educators to create an environment that respects the citizenship rights of students (F. Gathercoal, 2001). Gathercoal suggests that rather than being a stand-alone model, Judicious Discipline can successfully complement other classroom management models. Figure 8–3 provides an overview of the key concepts of Judicious Discipline. Practical Applications of Gathercoal’s Model When implementing Judicious Discipline, educators need to focus on professional ethics, a constitutional perspective to school rules with judicious consequences, and the development of a

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management FIGURE 8–3

1. Based on the U.S. Bill of Rights, Judicious Discipline is a citizenship approach that teaches students about the rights and responsibilities needed to live and learn in a democratic society (P. Gathercoal & Crowell, 2000).

Key Concepts of Gathercoal’s Judicious Discipline

2. Educators should always practice professional ethics by modeling acceptable standards of moral and proper conduct and by acting in the best interests of students (F. Gathercoal, 2001). 3. Students and educators should cooperatively develop behavioral guidelines for their own teaching and learning based upon four interests: property loss and damage; threat to health and safety; legitimate educational purpose; and serious disruption of the educational process (F. Gathercoal, 2001; P. Gathercoal & Crowell, 2000). 4. Educators should use judicious consequences rather than rewards and punishments (F. Gathercoal, 2001). 5. Educators should consider students’ constitutional rights and provide consequences based upon individual situations (F. Gathercoal, 2001). 6. In the same way that citizens’ rights in the community and overall society should not be violated, teachers need to ensure that students’ rights in schools are not violated and that they receive due process.

democratic school community. In addition, because Judicious Discipline is designed to complement more refined management models, teachers need to decide what to use as their primary classroom management model. Judicious Discipline is a front-loading (P. Gathercoal & Crowell, 2000, p. 174) framework. This means that educators develop and teach rules and expectations for behavior through class discussions, group activities that are designed to create rules based on constitutional concepts, and class meetings in which classroom conflicts are resolved peacefully in a democratic forum (Landau & P. Gathercoal, 2000). Front loading also means that one of the first things that happens in a classroom is that students develop a class set of expected behaviors. To help them get started, teachers have to focus on the Bill of Rights and the legal compelling state interests that are discussed later in this section. Then, the students must to help define what these concepts mean in various teaching and learning situations. ETHICAL PRACTICES F. Gathercoal (2001) suggested that all educators draft and post their personal statement, or code of ethics. This allows students and other teachers to see the ethics by which the educator tries to live. Reflected in the statement should be an indication of acceptable standards of student conduct and the belief that an educator should act in the best interests of students. Ethical practices reflect the way educators were raised, their educational training, and their daily interactions with students and other educators. Figure 8–4 shows seven positive ethical practices that Gathercoal considered appropriate for all educators, especially educators who consider themselves to be student centered.

FIGURE 8–4

Educators should 1. Encourage and model an eagerness for learning and teaching,

Positive Ethical Practices

2. Model responsible professional behavior, 3. Manifest appropriate personal behaviors, 4. Focus their efforts on motivation, encouragement, and building students’ self-esteem, 5. Accept the reality that students behave in ways they truly believe at that time are in their own best interests, 6. Develop judicious rules and consequences that accept students as citizens, 7. Feel challenged by the problems in education and be proud they are in a position to help students. Source: Developed from Gathercoal, F. (2004). Judicious discipline (6th ed.). San Francisco: Caddo Gap Press.

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F. Gathercoal (1998, 2001) and Wolfgang (1995) explain that Judicious Discipline followers must adopt a constitutional perspective to school rules and create an environment that respects the citizenship rights of students, especially the fundamental human values of freedom, justice, and equality that are contained in the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. However, respecting students’ constitutional rights and providing them with considerable freedom does not mean that students are free to misbehave or that they have the freedom to do as they please. Rather, it means that students have the freedom to think and act on behalf of their self-interests as long as those actions are balanced against the welfare needs of the larger community (F. Gathercoal, 1998, 2001). Educators have a professional responsibility to “sustain a balance between the individual and the state’s interests in our public schools” (F. Gathercoal, 1997, p. 68). Keeping these rights in mind, teachers constantly have to answer questions such as the following: A CONSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE TO SCHOOL DISCIPLINE

• Do students have the right to publish and distribute any material they wish on school grounds? • Can Brooke refuse to complete specific assigned readings based on her religious beliefs? • Can Lamont wear clothing that is prohibited in the school handbook but is an expression of his religious faith? • Can Samit and Davisha be excused from school for religious practices without losing the opportunity to learn? • Can I search students’ property, including lockers, purses, pockets, or vehicles in the parking lot? • Unless I grant Lesa a due process hearing, can I discipline her by putting her in the hall or other isolated area, or can the principal suspend or expel her, thereby depriving Lesa of the right to be educated? • Can I lower Rahjean’s grade, described by Gathercoal as a student’s “property” (Wolfgang, 1995, p. 128), because he was late to class? Gathercoal offers four compelling interests of any state as the basis for classroom rules: health and safety, property loss and damage, legitimate educational purpose, and serious disruption. These interests translate into class rules such as, “Be safe. Protect our property. Do your best work. Respect the needs of others” (Landau & P. Gathercoal, 2000, p. 454). Broad in scope, these four rules address any management issue that might arise at any grade level or in any setting. Property Loss or Damage. No one has the right to destroy the property of another person or school property; therefore, educators have a responsibility to prevent the destruction of property (F. Gathercoal, 2001). • “Elaine, be sure you’re wearing appropriate shoes on the gym floor.” • “Class, please clean up your work area and return the microscopes to their storage cases.” Legitimate Educational Purpose. Educational rules and consequences should help students succeed in school and should address issues such as plagiarism, classroom and homework assignments, grading practices, and special or advanced placement (F. Gathercoal, 2001). • All school-aged children and young adults must attend school. • “Hanson, homework is due at the beginning of each class. The rule is that late work will not be graded without a valid absentee pass from the school office.” Threat to Health and Safety. Educators are responsible for protecting students’ physical safety, as well as their psychological and emotional health. This includes the development of rules on playgrounds, in science labs, during physical education, and even in hallways. • “Larisha, remember that all students must wear protective eyewear when working in the industrial technology labs.” • “Noell, the rule is that students should not run in the halls or stairways.” Management Tip 8–3 includes some suggestions to prepare for serious disruptions in your classroom.

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MANAGEMENT TIP 8–3 Preparing for Serious Disruption of the Educational Process School officials have the legal authority and the professional responsibility to deny student rights if those rights seriously disrupt educational activities. According to the courts, to be serious, a disruption “must materially and/or substantially interfere with the requirements of appropriate discipline in the operation of the public schools” (F. Gathercoal, 1997, p. 72).

• School Rule 11: Students cannot wear gang colors or symbols at school. • School Rule 3: Students cannot have knives of any type in school or on the school grounds.

When students break the rules, teachers need to consider two important things to shape the consequences to the behavior: (1) What needs to be done? and (2) What needs to be learned? “What needs to be done” (F. Gathercoal, 1998, p. 210) usually involves restitution and apology. On the other hand, “what needs to be learned” (p. 210) looks at changing future goals and attitudes, such as the immorality of taking another student’s possessions or the dangers of running in the hall. As students work toward equitable solutions to these questions, they must believe that their feelings and opinions are valued and that the teacher wants to help them rather than dish out punishment. “Never think that being consistent means treating all students alike,” cautioned F. Gathercoal (1997, p. 48). Consistency is a mainstay in many classroom management theories, but Gathercoal has a different conception of its use. In fact, he believes that consequences for misbehavior should be individualized, should not be designed to punish students, and should consider individual differences among students in order to meet the emotional and learning needs of students. Students who misbehave simply might have different ways of learning from their mistakes and, as a result, they might need different consequences (F. Gathercoal 1997, 1998).

SHAPING AND INDIVIDUALIZING CONSEQUENCES

CLASS MEETINGS As you have read in this chapter, several theorists propose class meetings as a means of giving students a voice in class decisions as well as helping students to resolve interpersonal conflicts. In class meetings, students can deal with undesired behaviors or arrive at peaceful conflict resolution (Bertone, Meard, Flavier, Euzet, & Durand, 2002). In addition, democratic class meetings are an essential part of the effective operation of Judicious Discipline classrooms. By providing excellent opportunities for developing and discussing goals, expectations, and relationships, they contribute to the sharing of power and to the avoidance of power struggles because all students have opportunities to express their concerns. When students feel that they have power in class operations, they are less likely to misbehave (P. Gathercoal, 2000, April). Class meetings also can help students to learn skills, such as conflict resolution, that they can use in all aspects of their lives. In his presentation at the American Educational Research Association meeting, Paul Gathercoal (2000, April) explained the key elements of democratic meetings. In advance of the meetings, the teacher should determine who can call a class meeting and when the meetings should be held. Some teachers allow a student to call a meeting at any time, and others have specific times and places for the meetings. The idea is to give students a sense of significance and some power and control over events in the classroom. At the meeting, the room should be arranged so that everyone can see everyone else. A circle is an arrangement that provides a feeling of community and that encourages positive and productive communication. During the meeting, certain rules apply. First, everyone must agree that names will never be used during the class meetings. Using names casts an accusatory finger at the person being named and has the effect of putting that person on the defense. Instead, teachers should suggest that all speakers say, “a person who acts in this way. . . .” This general statement protects individuals in the class and allows them to participate in the discussion about behavior and not about personalities. Everyone also should agree to stay on the topic and to keep family concerns out of the discussions.

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APPLYING SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM IDEAS 8–2 Planning for Class Meetings Kelli Selby decided that she would hold class meetings this year. However, she knew that good class meetings do not just happen. She knew that her class would include students with a wide range of abilities—perhaps gifted students, perhaps some who had learning disabilities. What she was unsure about was how to begin the process.

Review the ideas of Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn, and Forrest Gathercoal about effective class meetings. Then, list three suggestions you would give Ms. Selby in planning her first class meeting. Meet with a group of other students in your class who hope to teach on the same level as you do. As a group, develop a list of suggestions for planning class meetings and develop an agenda for the first three meetings.

Students and teacher should maintain a class-meeting journal. Each class meeting begins with journal writing, or, for younger students, drawing in a journal. A prompt for the writing or drawing might be a question such as “Does anyone have concerns, clarifications, or problem areas they would like to discuss?” This type of broad statement encourages everyone to write. Now that you have read about the use of class meetings in several models, Applying Supportive Classroom Ideas 8–2 asks you to use these ideas to help a teacher plan meetings for her class.

RICHARD CURWIN AND ALLEN MENDLER: DISCIPLINE WITH DIGNITY Like Judicious Discipline, the Discipline With Dignity model of Richard Curwin and Allen Mendler emphasizes teachers conveying dignity upon students and restoring their hope in democratic, student-centered classrooms. In addition to providing for supportive classroom environments where students feel physically and psychologically safe, Curwin’s and Mendler’s model addresses violence, hostility, and aggression in our schools. Overview of Curwin’s and Mendler’s Model Mendler (1992, p. 25) maintains that “most discipline programs incorrectly place their emphases upon strategies and techniques.” However, such an approach does not work because all students do not respond the same way or, as Mendler (1992, p. 25) stated, “it is fruitless to expect that any technique will work with all people who present the same symptom.” Instead, effective discipline programs should focus on individual students and their specific problem behaviors and on teacher behavior. Thus, Discipline With Dignity is based upon the key concepts shown in Figure 8–5.

FIGURE 8–5

Key Concepts of Discipline With Dignity

Curwin and Mendler believe the following: Classroom management should be student centered, democratic, nonauthoritarian, and responsibility based. Using the seven basic principles of teacher behavior, teachers should work toward long-term behavior changes rather than short-term quick fixes, stop doing ineffective things, be fair without treating everyone the same way, make rules that make sense, model what they expect, believe that responsibility is more important than obedience, and treat students with dignity.

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Practical Applications of Curwin’s and Mendler’s Model With Curwin’s and Mendler’s Discipline With Dignity model, teachers do not need to keep track of offenses and consequences, nor do they have to look for causes of misbehavior as Dreikurs advocated. However, they do have to adopt several roles and accept several responsibilities for successful implementation. First, regardless of the problem or the student behaviors, teachers must be willing to convey dignity, to understand the reasons for conveying dignity, and to genuinely believe that children and adolescents deserve to be treated with dignity. They must consider the effectiveness of their teaching and management behaviors and must be willing to change behaviors that do not work or rules that do not make sense. They must also be willing to make personal and social connections with learners, especially those who demonstrate high-risk behaviors. Finally, to address problem behaviors, teachers should ensure healthy classrooms in which students experience improved selfesteem, achieve higher academic grades, feel physically and psychologically safer, enjoy attending school, demonstrate more cooperative attitudes, and have better interpersonal relationships. PREREQUISITE ESSENTIALS TO ADDRESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIORS

Curwin and Mendler

identify seven basic principles of teacher behavior (Mendler, 1992). Principle 1. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity use long-term efforts to change behaviors rather than short-term efforts. Maintaining that a program with rigid rewards and consequences is doomed to failure (Mendler, 1992), Mendler thought teachers should look toward long-term behavior changes. In other words, teachers who try only short-term quick fixes often deal with the same problem behaviors and miss an ideal opportunity to teach students self-discipline and long-term behavior changes. Principle 2. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity stop doing ineffective things. It seems incongruous to state that some teachers might need to stop ineffective efforts to change problem behaviors; however, many teachers continue to do things even after all feedback suggests that what they are doing does not work (Mendler, 1992). Perhaps the methods worked with some group of students at some time, but either the students or the behaviors (or both) have changed, and the teacher either does not realize the changes or does not know better classroom management methods to try. Examples of ineffective methods include using “commonsense” methods (p. 28) that do not get students to respond appropriately, using positive reinforcement that often results in students behaving worse, teaching social skills that fail to get students to change behaviors, and sending students to detention when it is clear that being there does not change behaviors. Principle 3. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity think, “I will be fair, and I won’t always treat everyone the same” (Mendler, 1992, p. 31). Although most teachers have heard repeatedly that consistency is the key to effective classroom management, Mendler disagrees and states that students and their behavior problems deserve individual consideration. Because Discipline With Dignity seeks to teach students how to be responsible, it is necessary to tailor the consequences to the individual and to teach students the difference between being fair and treating everyone exactly the same way. Once students understand this concept, a teacher is free to work with each student and take the approaches that best meet that student’s needs. Principle 4. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity make rules that make sense. Although people break rules for many reasons, rules that are viewed as pointless or unimportant are the least likely to be followed. Instead of school rules being viewed as traps waiting to snare students, they should be considered guidelines needed in order for success to happen. Students who see little value in doing homework are unlikely to do it unless they can see how they will benefit in some way. Students also deserve an explanation for why rules exist (Mendler, 1992). Instead of “I’m the teacher and you’re the student, so you just go by the rule,” students should be given explanations such as “The reason for not running in the hall is that someone could fall and get hurt” or “The reason for not calling other students names is that someone’s feelings might get hurt.” Most students will obey rules for which they see a reason or how it benefits them in some way.

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Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management Principle 5. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity model what they expect. In Mendler’s (1992, p. 35) words, “actions speak louder than words.” Teachers should let students see them living and abiding by the same rules as students. Ms. Carnahan was always prompt in returning homework to the students in her class. “I expect students to do the assigned homework, and I reinforce the importance of completing homework by making sure that I return it the next day, if possible.” Ms. Parker, a student teacher, chewed gum all day long. Although she was secretive about her gum chewing, some students knew she was ignoring a rule that she enforced for the students. Her cooperating teacher reminded Ms. Parker that it was her responsibility to model good behavior for the students and that the gum would have to go. Principle 6. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity believe that responsibility is more important than obedience. The term obedience means “do not question and certainly do not be different” (Mendler, 1992, p. 36), but the term responsibility means “make the best decision you possibly can with the information you have available” (p. 37). Obedience also implies a hierarchical structure in which one or several powerful individuals dictate the terms of behavior for the masses. Thus, obedience models of discipline have limitations that hinder their effectiveness (Mendler, 1992). Within a responsibility model of discipline, students accumulate information, see the options available to them, learn to anticipate consequences, and then choose the path they feel is in the best interest of themselves and others. Because learning responsibility is an ongoing, dynamic process, bad decisions are viewed as opportunities by which students can learn to make better ones. This process also promotes and requires critical thinking. Principle 7. Teachers who practice Discipline With Dignity always treat students with dignity. Mendler maintained that the seventh principle is perhaps the most important. Without dignity, students learn to hate school and learning. When teachers attack students’ dignity with put-downs, sarcasm, criticism, scolds, and threats, students might follow the rules; however, they also might become angry and resentful. Although teachers should speak to students in a kind and caring manner even when correcting them, treating others with dignity involves more than our manner of speaking. It involves attitudes, body language, tone of voice, and eye contact. Successful educators always convey a basic sense of respect to their students by listening, being open to feedback from students, explaining why they want things done in a certain way, and giving students some say in classroom affairs that affect them (Curwin & Mendler, 1997a). Treating others with dignity has to be practiced every day. Teachers cannot have days when they treat students with dignity and other days when they do not. Students, like adults, do not forget easily when they or others have been treated poorly. Ms. Dela Vega always treated Mason with dignity, yet she did not treat Abdul the same way. Hearing the sarcastic comments that Ms. Dela Vega made to Abdul, Mason wondered when he would be on the receiving end. Dignity in discipline often can be accomplished by using privacy, eye contact (with sensitivity to cultural preferences), and proximity when delivering a corrective message to a student. Teachers also should speak comments quietly so that only the student can hear.

Curwin and Mendler (2001) maintain that social contracts are one of the most effective ways for teachers to take charge of their classrooms and still give students a voice in class decisions. Social contracts are effective because they clearly define acceptable and unacceptable behavior in the classroom or school before (emphasis Mendler’s and Curwin’s) students misbehave. Without a contract, many good rules and resulting consequences are fully understood by students only after they break the rules. In addition, contracts are effective because they give the students a sense of ownership in what happens in the classroom because they were involved in making the rules. Finally, social contracts spell out an exact procedure for the students and teacher to follow when rules are broken. Management Tip 8–4 provides the steps to follow in developing a social contract.

SOCIAL CONTRACTS

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MANAGEMENT TIP 8–4 Developing a Social Contract A good contract involves both teacher and students. According to Curwin and Mendler, teachers need to follow these steps to develop a good social contract: • Teacher identifies the rules that are absolutely necessary to maintain minimal control in the classroom. • Teacher proposes other clear and specific rules that are necessary for effective classroom management. • Teacher develops consequences for each rule. • In small groups, students develop rules for the teacher’s behavior. • Students develop consequences for each of the teacher’s rules. • In small groups, students develop rules regarding each other’s behavior in class.

• Students develop consequences if these rules are broken. • Class reviews all rules to ensure everyone understands what they mean. • The class and teacher decide which of the proposed rules and consequences will become part of the contract. • Each student is tested on his or her knowledge of the social contract (a perfect score is required for passing). Source: Developed from Mendler, A. N., & Curwin, R. L. (1983). Taking charge in the classroom: A practical guide to effective discipline. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company, p. 25.

Mendler and Curwin (1983) tell about a second-grade class that developed a social contract containing 17 rules. Figure 8–6 provides three examples of rules (and consequences) that the class proposed and voted to approve. CONSEQUENCES The social contract depends on the development of effective rules and consequences. The rules clearly state what behavior is expected, and the consequences clarify, in advance, what will happen if the agreed-upon expectations are not met. A consequence is not a punishment. Consequences directly relate to the rule, and they are logical (see the influence of Dreikurs) and natural. By helping a rule violator learn acceptable behavior from the experience, consequences are instructional rather than punitive. Mendler and Curwin (1983) offered several examples:

• Rule: Students are not for hitting, fighting, or hurting. Consequence: Do one nice thing for the victim before the day is over. Punishment: Stay after school for 2 hours and sit in silence. FIGURE 8–6

Rules and Consequences for Students Rule 1: Students do not yell out. They raise their hands and wait to be called upon. The teacher reminds students to wait and not to yell out. The teacher will not call on students who yell out.

Examples of Rules Proposed by Second Graders in a Social Contract

Rule 2: Instead of fighting, hitting, or pushing in school, students should talk to each other to solve problems. The teacher reminds students of our rule. The student will take a time-out. Rule 3: Do not throw anything in the room. Hand things to each other. The student must pick up what is thrown. The student must apologize to others and clean up. Rules 4–17 dealt with topics such as completing homework, doing work neatly, running in the class or school, sharpening pencils, hanging clothing, taking others’ belongings, and copying others’ work. Source: Developed from Mendler, A. N., & Curwin, R. L. (1983). Taking charge in the classroom: A practical guide to effective discipline. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company, p. 25.

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• Rule: All trash must be thrown in the wastebasket. Consequence: Pick up your trash from the floor. Punishment: Apologize to the teacher in front of the entire class. Effective consequences are clear and specific, provide a range of alternative options that allow the teacher to implement a consequence and still treat students as individuals, relate to the rule as much as possible, and teach rather than punish (Mendler & Curwin, 1983). Mendler and Curwin recommend four generic consequences that can be effective for breaking almost any rule. 1. Reminder of the rule: “Jef, we raise our hands before speaking. This is your reminder.” 2. A warning: A warning should be a stern reminder rather than a threat. “Malikah, this is the second time today that you have gotten out of your seat to bother Kristen. This is your warning.” 3. Developing an action plan for improving behavior: “Malikah, you are out of your seat bothering Kristen. I want you to write for me how you intend to stop breaking this rule. List clearly what you will do when you want to tell Kristen something.” 4. Practicing behavior: When students do not know how to demonstrate expected behaviors, a teacher can role-play the appropriate behavior first and then have the student repeat it. POWER STRUGGLES Power struggles, one of Dreikurs’s four goals of misbehavior, can present serious problems as teachers and students vie to win a confrontation. Prevention is the best policy, but sometimes teachers are faced with students who refuse to do something the teacher has asked.

• A kindergarten student refuses to move from one desk to another. • A sixth-grade student refuses to read aloud in class. • A 12th-grade student refuses to give up a knife to the principal. Teachers need to realize that some power struggles are inevitable. Thus, they need to be prepared to deal with them even if it means refusing to engage in the power struggle at all. According to Mendler, most problem moments can be defused through a combination of listening, acknowledging the student’s concern, agreeing that there might be truth in the student’s accusation, and deferring (emphasis Mendler’s) to a private time for continued discussion (Mendler, 1995). Teachers can use an “or” statement to defuse the situation or let the student save face, especially if the power struggle is in front of the class. Another method is to remove the student from the class to avoid having an audience of students. “Lars, give me the comic book now or after class.” “Rosette, either move to the other desk now or stay in for recess.” “Trey, either stop talking to Sidney or take a time-out.” “Chin Yuan, let’s discuss this in the hall.” The ultimate goal is to defuse the situation before it becomes clear that the student will never obey the request or until the student appears angry or violent. Remember, no one wins a power struggle. Always look for a way out of the situation as soon as possible, even if the student has the last word. Zero-tolerance policies originally were intended to improve safety by ensuring that all students follow the rules and by sending a strong message to the school community that violent, aggressive behavior will not be tolerated. Developed in the 1990s as part of a larger package of federal school violence-prevention initiatives, they fall into one of three groups: (1) violence prevention and conflict-resolution programs; (2) gun-control laws; and (3) punitive and judicial forms of discipline (Casella, 2003). Although schools need effective policies to protect everyone in the school community, these policies are, according to Curwin

ZERO-TOLERANCE POLICIES

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and Mendler, inherently unfair because all students are treated alike, regardless of the circumstances. As Dr. Bracken in the opening vignette saw, fear can be a consequence of zero tolerance. However, eliminating zero-tolerance policies can be difficult because the concept is simple to understand, sounds tough, and gives the impression of high standards (emphasis Curwin’s and Mendler’s) for behavior. As an alternative to zero-tolerance policies, Dr. Bracken could suggest the following (Casella, 2003): • • • • • • • • •

Peer mediation, student support teams, and other forms of effective conflict resolution Character study as part of academic coursework Counseling programs for all students Inservice programs for teachers about violence prevention Student governance councils and interventions in which all students can participate In-school suspension accompanied by academic work, tutoring, or community or school service Victim services programs Discipline contracts that are agreed to and signed by students, parents, and school staff Student-developed problem-solving plans

CRITIQUE OF SUPPORTIVE APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT The classroom management models that subscribe to the supportive approaches have several advantages. Promoting respect and communication among teachers and students, they focus on democratic ideals and allow students to take responsibility for their own actions, help establish class rules, and influence instructional practices. Some of the models, such as Discipline With Dignity, emphasize restoring dignity, helping students regain hope, and making a special effort to learn about individual students. In general, the models propose that schools are for students and that educators are charged with the responsibility of making sure schools address the individual needs of students. When educators are genuinely committed to helping students, those students feel good about themselves, their teachers, and their school as a whole and are more likely to demonstrate appropriate behavior. With these models, teachers do not have to keep detailed records of behavior or rule violations. Deikurs’s theories form the basis for many of the supportive approaches. His logical consequences, when used consistently, are a fair and basic element in a discipline plan. In addition, his theories of social interest and the understanding of causes of behavior can contribute to making schools safer for students and teachers. For example, when teachers take appropriate actions to reduce students’ mistaken goals (e.g., inadequacy and attention getting) and when they help students to develop the ability to interact in a cooperative manner, they often can reduce the feelings of hostility that might lead to violence. Through Judicious Discipline, students can learn how their behavior infringes on the rights of others to learn (and vice versa), and a teacher can move management issues away from a struggle between student and teacher for classroom control and toward a method by which two people can work together to resolve a conflict. All classroom management models or theories should take into account our schools’ increasing diversity and should recognize that students might react differently to teachers’ management techniques. All students need encouragement (a mainstay of the supportive classroom), and all students need to feel they are capable, connected, and contributing (Albert’s ideas) to the school community. The tenets of Positive Discipline demonstrate respect for diversity in their emphasis on respecting others, conveying mutual respect, and encouraging students to become productive in and out of the classroom. In addition, the use of class meetings accentuates the emphasis on mutual respect and confidence in students. One challenge for educators is to treat students with dignity even they feel the students do not deserve. With supportive models, successful educators convey their basic sense of respect to their

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students by listening to what they think, encouraging their feedback, apologizing after acting in a hurtful way, explaining why they want things done in a certain way, and asking opinions about how procedures in the classroom are conducted (Mendler & Mendler, 2010). The supportive classroom models have been tested in schools. For example, Judicious Discipline has been tested in Minnesota, Michigan, and Oregon to determine its usefulness in practical situations. In these states, the use of Judicious Discipline with class meetings promoted good citizenship and safe, productive learning environments (Landau & P. Gathercoal, 2000). Teachers found positive results, primarily in reducing fighting and other angry outbursts. In addition, the consistent use of class meetings based on the framework of rights and responsibilities provided students with an opportunity to discuss issues of concern peacefully. However, several disadvantages also are associated with the supportive classroom models. It might be difficult for teachers to identify and understand students’ reasons for misbehaving. In addition, even though teachers understand why students misbehave, they might not be able to respond properly and to provide logical consequences for all misbehaviors. Some deep emotional problems that lead to serious feelings of inadequacy or to elaborate plans for revenge might require professional skills beyond those held by classroom teachers or most school counselors and might need resources that are unavailable in many schools. Teachers who are inherently autocratic or permissive or those who are insecure might have difficulty adopting supportive classroom approaches to management. How, they ask, can educators be expected realistically to instill dignity, especially if they are being threatened in some way. Also, some teachers might have difficulty the idea of students making rules for themselves and recommending consequences. Applying Supportive Ideas 8–3 asks you to respond to one such teacher. In contrast, some educators believe that these models do not go far enough. Kohn (1996) maintains that the supportive classroom models still maintain too much adult control. Punishments may be replaced with logical consequences, but students are not really in control of their own behavior and are not truly creating their own community (Watson & Battistich, 2006). There is also the reality that a difference often exists between what a person says is an ethical or democratic thing to do and what that person does when an actual dilemma occurs. In the real world, time constraints, unforeseen situational factors, and spur-of-the-moment emotions come into play. Until you experience a situation, you never can be sure exactly how you will behave. Thus, in a classroom, educators consistently must try to use the same ethical, democratic behavior so that students feel secure and know what they can expect. Over time, students will gain confidence and come to believe that their teachers always will act in the students’ best interests (F. Gathercoal, 2001).

APPLYING SUPPORTIVE IDEAS 8–3 Implementing Supportive Approaches in a Diverse Urban School The following comments were made by a teacher in an urban school in a neighborhood with a high number of students on free and reduced lunch. Oh, I know all about those supportive approaches of classroom management. In fact, I read about them in a book. But they don’t apply to us. They talk about caring and mutual respect, and they expect us to use class meetings to help with classroom management and let the students help develop class rules. My class is too bad for me to try to use some touchy-feely stuff. I do my best with this difficult group, but I don’t think they would respond to any democratic

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teaching, or so-called logical consequences. They’d probably run over me and take advantage of me if they had a chance. Look what they did to their teacher last year. Drove her to quit teaching, that’s what they did. Sure, these models look good on paper, but implementing them is a big question mark. No, I think I’ll keep this bunch under control and keep my job. 1. Is this teacher right or wrong? Why? 2. Are there parts of the supportive approach that apply to all schools?

Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Do Supportive Classroom Management Practices Reflect Your Beliefs? Determine how close your management philosophy is to that to the theorists discussed in this chapter by answering the following questions: 1. Do I prefer a democratic, a permissive, or an autocratic classroom? 2. Do I believe students should have a say in the determination of class rules and should participate in class meetings? 3. Do I feel comfortable conveying dignity to my students? 4. Do I have the basic philosophical and psychological belief that each person is born with the capacity to develop his or her social interest?

5. Do I believe that for democracy to exist there must be a clearly defined social vision that is characterized by high expectations, high levels of honest encouragement, and an insistence that all people are responsible for others’ well-being? 6. Do I believe in the use of encouragement rather than praise and clearly understand the difference between the two? 7. Do I believe in logical consequences (whenever possible) instead of a set punishment for misbehavior in general? 8. Can I work toward long-term behavioral change rather than quick fixes?

It is also possible that students from different cultures will respond differently to the supportive classroom models. Because of child-rearing practices that reflect cultural beliefs, students may have been taught, either consciously or unconsciously, to behave in different ways. In other words, because of their cultural backgrounds, students might respond differently to feelings of inadequacy or the need to gain attention. In fact, students in some cultures might not want attention, especially negative attention (Manning & Baruth, 2009). Other students might associate a negative stigma with a power-seeking situation, especially with a teacher they were taught to respect. The suggestion that teachers should use touch and move within close proximity to misbehaving students might result in psychological discomfort for some students. Another problem might be that the teacher’s lack of authoritarianism and the fact that students sometimes make rules and set consequences for teachers can be discomforting to students who have been taught that teachers are to be placed on a pedestal. In spite of these drawbacks, the supportive classroom models have great potential. Knowing that students have a psychological need to belong to a group and to feel valued, a teacher can help these students by encouraging them to interact with others, helping them achieve academic success, and helping them develop their own social interest. Students, regardless of their special needs and specific behavior problems, deserve to be understood as individuals. Overall, the basic philosophical beliefs of considering individual students, believing in freedom of student decision making, and trusting people to make wise decisions (Dreikurs, 1968) show that the supportive classroom approach is flexible enough to address specific student needs. All students need encouragement (a mainstay of Albert’s model), and all students need to feel they are capable, connected, and contributing to the school community.

Summary Classroom management theories that are based on the idea of developing supportive classrooms provide a climate of respect, a democratic environment, cooperatively developed rules, logical consequences, and a focus on the rights and welfare of both educators and students. You have read about Rudolf Dreikurs’s model of Democratic Teaching and Management as well as his influence on Linda Albert and her belief that students should

accept responsibility for their own behavior. Jane Nelsen’s, Lynn Lott’s, and Stephen Glenn’s Positive Discipline model has presented the concepts of barriers, builders, empowering perceptions, and essential skills for management. Finally, Forrest Gathercoal’s Judicious Discipline has emphasized the importance of a democratic classroom, while Richard Curwin’s and Allen Mendler’s Discipline With Dignity focuses on individual

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students, social contracts, healthy classrooms, power struggles, and consequences rather than punishments. Revisit the opening vignette for this chapter and respond to the following questions: 1. How can the supportive approaches to classroom manage-

ment be used to help “calm down and tame the students”? 2. How can Dr. Bracken convince the school administra-

tors to loosen their rules and eliminate zero-tolerance policies, and also convince students to accept responsibility for their own behaviors? 3. How can Dr. Bracken help the teachers to examine their own teaching behaviors to determine whether their behaviors contribute to student problems?

4. Is it possible to develop cooperation, a sense of com-

munity, and an acceptance of civic values at a school such as Park Place? 5. Will positive discipline and a climate of respect, encouragement, and dignity solve the problems that the educators at Park Place are experiencing? 6. Think about all the models and theorists in this book. What should Dr. Bracken suggest? Then, consider whether you want to implement one of these theories singularly or couple it with one of the other supportive classroom models or with one of the models discussed in this book.

Suggested Readings Bear, G. (2011). Positive psychology and school discipline: Positive is not simply the opposite of punitive. Communique, 39(5), 8–9. The author explores the meaning of positive psychology when applied to school discipline. Curwin, R. L. (2010). Motivating urban youth. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 19(1), 35–39. Teachers need to express hope to students and show them that they really care in order to help youth make meaningful changes to their lives. Ferguson, E. D. (2010). Adler’s innovative contributions regarding the need to belong. Journal of Individual Psychology, 66(1), 1–7. Eva Dreikurs Ferguson examines Adlerian psychology and the need for well-being.

Lardas, N. (2010). On positive discipline. International Educator, 25(1), 21. Positive discipline can reinforce the good qualities of students and teachers. Mendler, A., & Mendler, B. (2010). What tough kids need from us. Reclaiming children & Youth, 19(1), 27–31. A strong sense of right and wrong can help even tough students develop more responsible behavior. Ruen, K. K. (2010). Teaching toward wholeness: The aesthetic in education. Encounter, 23(3), 42–45. Aesthetic activities such as painting and drawing can aid in the development of a support classroom for young children.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on supportive classroom approaches to classroom management.

L. ALBERT

“Safeguarding Our Schools,”—an article by Amy Eckman that appeared in the September 1998 issue of Education Update and contained information from As Tough as Necessary familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,3-6436,00.html

Cooperative Discipline website cdiscipline.tripod.com/

R. CURWIN AND A. MENDLER Discipline Associates and the Teacher Learning Center www.disciplineassociates.com Discipline With Dignity (3rd ed.) by Curwin and Mendler— Overview and sample chapters shop.ascd.org/ProductDetail/tabid/55/ProductId/2141/ Subsystem/ECD/ProductCode/108036E4/Default.aspx Discipline With Dignity—A brief article by Curwin and Mendler life.familyeducation.com/discipline/parenting/36342.html Discipline With Dignity Stresses Positive Motivation www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin534.shtml

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R. DREIKURS Alfred Adler Institute www.adlercentre.ca/aai.html Biography of Dreikurs from New World Encyclopedia www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Rudolf_Dreikurs Dreikurs and Nelsen aqueductpress.blogspot.com/2010/07/horde-of-rebelliouskids.html North American Society of Adlerian Psychology www.alfredadler.org

Supportive Approaches to Classroom Management

F. GATHERCOAL Biography of Gathercoal www.dock.net/gathercoal/bioforrest.html Judicious Discipline—an article by Forrest Gathercoal www.behavioralinstitute.org/FreeDownloads/TIPS/ judicious%20discipline.pdf

J. NELSEN, L. LOTT, AND S. GLENN Positive Discipline homepage www.positivediscipline.com Positive Discipline Association positivediscipline.org

Judicious Discipline homepage www.dock.net/gathercoal/judicious_discipline.html

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From Chapter 9 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 9, you should be able to 1. discuss what is meant by a community approach to classroom management; 2. explain Kohn’s ideas on classroom management, moving beyond discipline, and eliminating rewards and competition; 3. describe Freiberg’s Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline; identify its key concepts, goals, and themes; and explain its practical applications;

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4. discuss the Child Development Project; its emphasis on a caring community, cooperative learning, and developmental discipline; and its important findings for classroom management; 5. evaluate the “community approaches” to classroom management; and 6. consider all of the “community approaches” to classroom management and identify concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Community Approaches to Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Selecting a Management Approach “What do you mean we need stronger rules and structured consequences here at Grover High?” That question came from teacher Jackie Dela Ossa during a beginning of the year inservice at Grover Cleveland High School (GCHS). GCHS was an inner-city school that had had an increase in discipline problems over the past two years. To start the school year, KaVan Wilson, superintendent for the district, had arranged this inservice to “get some ideas on how to handle the behavior problems before they develop.” The first speaker, Dr. Ricki Eperson, had advocated a stricter behavioral approach to management. Now, during the Q&A period following the presentation, Ms. Wilson found that not all of the GCHS teachers favored the speaker’s suggestions. The comments and questions from the teachers came faster: “Yeah, why can’t the students become involved in helping establish the rules? It’s their school, too!” asked another teacher. This was followed by: “This school would become a prison and we’d be reduced to guard duty” and “I’m trying to develop a sense of community with my students, and all your suggestions would do is destroy it!” Then another teacher commented, “I think rules are exactly what this group of hooligans needs!” Before things could get completely out of control, Ms. Wilson stepped up to the podium. “OK, I think there are some other viewpoints out there that we need to consider. I want to thank Dr. Eperson for her comments. Remember, we have other speakers today, so let’s hear what they have to say before reaching any conclusions. Now, let’s take a break before our next presentation.” Waiting in the audience, Dr. Cheryl Tomasino took a deep breath. She would make the next presentation and was going to talk about community building. But what should she say to get her audience to listen with open minds?

OVERVIEW As we discussed in Chapters 5 and 8, school climate has an effect on self-esteem, peer relations and student behavior. In school, students are exposed to the “unwritten or hidden curriculum” (Barr & Higgins-D’Alessandro, 2009, p. 753), which includes the traditions, values, and beliefs of the school culture. This shared school character has an impact on the feelings, perceptions, and behavior of both the students and teachers and the development of a sense of community. As KaVan Wilson found in the opening vignette, some teachers place a great emphasis on building a community with their students in the classroom. In traditional management models based on behavioral theory, teachers thought about the school and classroom community only to keep the community under control so that students could learn from teacher-structured activities (Watson & Battistich, 2006). This focus began to change with the work of Piaget and Vygotsky

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and their work on social relationships (Dalton & Watson, 1997; Weinstein, 1999). Researchers examined the “social and academic effects of students’ sense of community” (Watson & Battistich, 2006, p. 255), the shift in control from the teacher to the community, and the emphasis placed not on extrinsic rewards and consequences but on “explanation, support, guidance, indication & persuasion” (p. 275) to increase internal motivation and self-control. Alfie Kohn (1996a) encouraged teachers to abandon the ideas of adults controlling student behavior and instead to create a “caring community” (p. 118) with an “engaging curriculum” (p. 118). Although not everyone agreed with Kohn, a number of theorists began to examine the role of community as a foundation of classroom management. While some models discussed in Chapter 8 such as Cooperative Discipline (Albert 1989, 1995), Discipline With Dignity (Mendler, 1992), and Judicious Discipline (F. Gathercoal, 2001) stressed the support of the community in classroom management, these models were, for the most part, still adult centered and controlled. However, other approaches explored ways to “build relational communities, trusting that in a supportive environment, students will want to learn and behave ethically” (Watson & Battistich, 2006, p. 256). Watson and Battistich (2006) identified six classroom management programs that focus on the community. These include Just Community (Power, Higgins, & Kohlberg, 1989), Moral/Constructivist Community (DeVries & Zan, 1994), Community of Learners (Rogoff, Turkanis, & Bartlett, 2001), Democratic Community (Wolk, 1998, 2000), Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (Freiberg, 1999), and the Child Development Project (Battistich, Watson, Solomon, Lewis, & Schaps, 1999). In this chapter we will discuss both CMCD and the CDP in more detail along with the work of Alfie Kohn. There are several themes that are common to all of the community approaches to classroom management (Watson & Battistich, 2006). • Educators take a positive developmental view of students and work with them instead of trying to control them. • Students exist in a social context that should support them as they mature. • Communities are relational with an “atmosphere of mutual caring and respect” (p. 260). Students have developmentally appropriate levels of autonomy and freedom, and a voice in decision making. • The curriculum is integrated and student centered and should “appeal to students’ intrinsic learning motivation” (p. 261). • Bribes, threats, rewards, and punishments are deemed coercive, should be restricted or eliminated, and should be replaced with explanation and persuasion. • A common set of activities builds and sustains the community. These include activities to help students and educators to know and understand each other, to teach students to resolve conflicts and to work together respectfully, to involve students in establishing class rules, to provide opportunities for students to work together, and to use literature to foster empathy and to create shared experiences.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR COMMUNITY APPROACHES In this chapter, you will read about the following community approaches to classroom management: Beyond Discipline developed by Kohn; Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMDC) by Freiberg; and the Child Development Project (CDP) by the Developmental Studies Center. These management models shift the emphasis for management to the students

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to create a caring community that is built on trust and mutual respect. In many respects these community approaches are more philosophies than actual models because they often emphasize a philosophical approach that educators should take rather than providing a list of management strategies.

KEY TERMS Table 9–1 identifies the key terms related to community approaches to classroom management. TABLE 9–1

Key Terms Related to Community Approaches to Classroom Management

Alfie Kohn— Beyond Discipline

Jerome Freiberg— Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMCD)

Developmental Studies Center— Child Development Project

• Autonomy

• 1-minute student managers

• Caring school community

• Communities

• Citizens

• Cooperative learning

• Competence

• Consistency

• Cross-age buddy program

• Deep modeling

• Constitution

• Developmental discipline

• New Disciplines

• Tourists

• Homeside activities

• Relatedness

• Literature-based reading and language arts

ALFIE KOHN: BEYOND DISCIPLINE Alfie Kohn challenges some commonly accepted beliefs about students and discipline and encourages educators to move beyond traditional concepts of classroom management. Although behavior modification approaches may force students to behave in a particular way, they do not promote “a dedication to, or an understanding of, that behavior” (Kohn, 2004a, p. 185). He sees disciplinary techniques such as rewards, bribes, threats, coercion, and punishment as instruments for controlling people. Instead, he maintains that educators need to move beyond rules to a point where they ask what children need, how those needs can be met (Kohn, 1996a), and how educators can help students to decide for themselves how best to behave. His ideas of “deep modeling” (Kohn, 2004a, p. 186) encourage teachers to help children to see what is behind or beneath ethical decisions. Overview of Kohn’s Ideas Kohn does not provide a well-defined model of classroom management. Rather, he focuses on four areas: a criticism of the New Disciplines, ideas about the nature of students, suggested alternatives to punishments and rewards, and ideas on community. To Kohn, even the New Disciplines such as Canter and Canter’s Assertive Discipline, Driekurs’s Democratic Teaching, Curwin’s and Mendler’s Discipline With Dignity, and Kounin’s Instructional Management are driven by a negative set of beliefs in which it is difficult to distinguish the so-called logical consequences from the old-fashioned punishments. He maintains that the New Disciplines “suggest a subtler, somewhat nicer way by which we can continue to do things to (emphasis Kohn’s) children—as distinct from working with (emphasis Kohn’s) them in a democratic environment to promote their social and moral development” (Kohn, 1996a, p. 38). “Traditional classroom management techniques, with their narrow emphasis on observable behaviors, make it very difficult to attend to the person who engages in those behaviors” (Kohn, 2005, p. 22).

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Examining the nature of students, Kohn (1996a) maintains that people usually consider only the dark side of students’ human nature. However, these cynical feelings about competitive, lazy, and aggressive students are not real. Rather than being selfish and self-centered, students are decent, able to feel the pain of others, and prepared to relieve that pain. Drawing on the work of Deci and Ryan (1990), Kohn (1996a) believes that educators must provide for three universal human needs: autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Students who are autonomous have self-determination or the ability to make decisions rather than being the victim of things outside of their control. When they are related, students have a connection to others and a sense of affirmation and belonging. Finally, students want to be competent, to learn new things, to acquire skills, and to put them to use. Worried that teachers often place a value on students because of academic success or test scores, Kohn (2005) also found that students “require unconditional acceptance to flourish” (p. 21). Kohn believes that “schools will not become inviting, productive places for learning until we have dispensed with bribes and threats altogether” (Kohn, 1996a, p. 36). Making students suffer in order to alter their future behavior might result in temporary compliance, but this approach probably will not help students to become ethical and compassionate decision makers. Rather than promoting reason, punishment damages relationships between teachers and students and tends to generate anger, defiance, and a desire for revenge. While a teacher may view a punishment or consequence as justified or logical, the student may have a different opinion. In that case, the consequence cannot have the intended result of changing the behavior (Kohn, 2008). Many teachers who see the harmful effects of punishing students turn to using rewards. However, Kohn claims that “manipulating student behavior with either punishment or rewards is not only unnecessary but counterproductive” (Kohn, 1993, p. 783). Rewards (e.g., As, awards, stars, stickers, praise, privileges) and their use elicit only temporary compliance in many cases (Kohn, 1994). Not only are extrinsic rewards ineffective at producing lasting change in attitudes or behaviors (Kohn, 1993), they fail to help children become caring, responsible people or lifelong, selfdirected learners (Kohn, 1994). Kohn links his focus on learning and the classroom environment to an emphasis on positive behaviors and believes in learner-centered classrooms in which the climate or environment is “often guided by a certain set of values, a vision of what school ought (emphasis Kohn’s) to be like” (Kohn, 1996b, p. 54). In these rooms, teachers work collaboratively with students, encourage students to make decisions, and use student interests and questions to drive much of the curriculum. Promoting deep understanding, teachers should build on students’ natural curiosity and desire to become competent and should help students become proficient learners (Kohn, 1997, September 3). To produce not only good students but good people, teachers need to focus on promoting positive behaviors rather than on curbing negative ones as a way to eliminate troublesome or even violent conduct (Kohn, 1997, September 3). Kohn (1996a; 1997, September 3; 2008), a leading critic of competition in schools, argues that it is inherently destructive for students to compete for grades or for good behavior rewards. In fact, competition means someone has to lose or fail in order that others can win. Thus, teachers should not expect students to compete with each other to see which ones or which groups demonstrate the best behavior; neither should discipline become a competition or contest between the teacher and the students. Instead of competition, Kohn emphasizes communities, but he also recognizes the difficulty in defining the term. In saying that a classroom or school is a “community,” then, I mean that it is a place in which students feel cared about and are encouraged to care about each other. They experience a sense of being valued and respected; the children matter to one another and to the teacher. They have come to think in the plural: They feel connected to one another; they are part of an “us.” And, as a result of all this, they feel safe in their classes, not only physically but emotionally. (Kohn, 1996a, pp. 101–102).

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Practical Application of Kohn’s Ideas Although he does not focus on specific practices to use in a classroom, Kohn does present many philosophical issues for educators to resolve. First, Kohn (1996a, p. 2) proposed several “profoundly negative theories” that teachers need to face. • “If the teacher isn’t in control of the classroom, the most likely result is chaos” (Kohn, 1996a, p. 2). • “Children need to be told exactly what the adult expects of them, as well as what will happen if they don’t do what they’re told” (Kohn, 1996a, p. 2). • “You need to give positive reinforcement to a child who does something nice if you want him to keep acting that way” (Kohn, 1996a, p. 3). These assumptions are staples of the classroom management field. To Kohn, teachers who agree with them believe that disaster will occur if students are not given precise instructions on how to behave. They imply that requests and explanations never suffice, that reasonable expectations will not be honored without threats of punishment, and that the only reason a student would ever demonstrate kindness is to be rewarded with an adult’s approval. If qualities like generosity must be propped up by verbal rewards, they must be unnatural, which suggests that students who are left on their own are concerned only about themselves (Kohn, 1996a). Instead, Kohn proposes a different way of looking a management: • “The real alternative to making children suffer for their offenses (or dangling goodies in front of them for doing what they’re told) is to work with them to solve problems” (Kohn, 2005, p. 23). • “The idea is for the teacher to think about what these students need (emotionally speaking) and probably haven’t received” (p. 23). • “Accepting students for who they are, rather than for what they do, is integrally related to the idea of teaching the whole child” (p. 24). Students should be given the freedom and responsibility to move beyond rules to a point where they can decide appropriate behavior for themselves. Kohn maintains that teachers who rely on rules turn children into lawyers who scan for loopholes and narrow the discussion to technicalities when a problem occurs. These teachers also become police officers—a role that is at odds with being facilitators of learning. Finally, rules usually include a punitive consequence for breaking them, something that Kohn does not support (Kohn, 1996a). Applying Community Models 9–1 considers this issue of rules.

APPLYING COMMUNITY MODELS 9–1 Eliminating Rules In contrast to many other theorists mentioned in this book, Kohn is not in favor of rules or rewards for behavior. Make a list of the theorists that you have studied in this book. Which favor rewards? Which favor rules? Then, read the following scenario and respond to the questions at the end. Phillip Naylor was a high school student teacher. In a discussion at a weekly seminar, he said, “Kohn’s opinions on rules might make sense for early childhood students, but they certainly do not apply to the high school where I teach. Listen, these students are tough with a capital T—they argue, threaten others,

and fight. What will happen if I tell them the class does not have or need rules? What we need are strict and specific rules—ones we can enforce.” 1. React to Mr. Naylor’s comments. 2. How do you feel about Kohn’s beliefs about rules? 3. How do you feel about his beliefs about rewards and punishments? Do you believe they would be effective in classrooms today? For another perspective, try reading Brant’s (1995) book Punished by Rewards: A Conversation with Alfie Kohn.

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Kohn (1995) told of times when things in his classroom did not go well. Reflecting on those times, he now realizes that the problem was not with the students. Instead, the problem was with his curriculum, textbooks, worksheets, and diet of disconnected facts and skills. Unfortunately, most discipline plans offer an array of techniques with which to manipulate student behavior. Many educators find these strategies convenient and take for granted that the fault lies solely with the student. Kohn, on the other hand, believes that when students misbehave, a teacher should focus not only on the students, but also on what they are being asked to do. Also, when a student is off-task, the teacher should ask “What is the task?” instead of “How do I get this student back on task?” Threats and bribes might produce a short-term change in behavior, but they cannot help students to develop a commitment to positive values. According to Kohn (2010), teachers also need to look at their classrooms to see what they say. Bare walls have an institutional feel, while lists of rules and punishments indicate that control is a primary consideration. Charts with grades or ratings of students show that relative performance is important. Finally, commercially developed inspirational posters are so generic and often unrealistic for many students that it makes Kohn wonder if the curriculum is impersonal as well. Instead, the school should reflect the learning, the people in the school, and the things that students create to develop a sense of community. In examining contemporary problems, Kohn (1999) recognizes the violence facing schools today and places most of the blame on structural problems related to secondary education. He believes that instead of taking more constructive approaches, educators try to curb violence by telling students what to wear, subjecting them to drug tests, and announcing zero-tolerance policies. When punishment proves ineffective, then it is wrongly assumed that the answer is more punishment.

JEROME FREIBERG: CONSISTENCY MANAGEMENT AND COOPERATIVE DISCIPLINE Jerome Freiberg’s Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline began as a schoolwide effort designed to improve discipline in inner-city schools. Using terms such as classroom constitutions, 1-minute managers, and tourists, Freiberg designed a program that uses five basic themes to improve behavior, school climate, and academic achievement as well as to teach self-discipline at all grade levels and in schools with diverse populations. Overview of Freiberg’s Model Consistency management was the name given to a program that translated research in classroom management, instructional and school effectiveness, school climate, and staff development into practical classroom and school applications (Freiberg, Prokosch, Treister, Stein, & Opuni, 1989). Ten years later in Beyond Behaviorism: Changing the Classroom Management Paradigm (1999), Freiberg expanded the name to Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMCD). We will use Freiberg’s latest terminology throughout this chapter. The key concepts of consistency management and cooperative discipline are shown in Figure 9–1. A foundation of the program is the belief that teachers must shift from a teacher-centered classroom, in which the teacher assumes full responsibility for leadership, to a person-centered one, in FIGURE 9–1

Key Concepts of Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline

Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline contains these concepts: An entire school must develop a continuity of actions and expectations for staff, teachers, and students and must be committed to giving students consistent messages about self-discipline. Teachers should provide a sense of continuity of actions and expectations that help students learn to become responsible for their actions and to develop self-discipline. Teachers should strive for person-centered classrooms (emphasizing caring, guidance, and cooperation) rather than teacher-centered classrooms. Teachers should turn students from tourists to citizens. Teachers support five themes: prevention, caring, cooperation, organization, and community.

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which the teacher and students share leadership responsibility (Freiberg & Lamb, 2009). Thus, because of the emphasis on shared responsibility among students and teachers for classroom discipline, classrooms become communities of ownership (Fashola & Slavin, 1998). In addition, representatives of community and business groups come to the classroom and work with the students and the teacher to provide a variety of learning experiences rather than having the class rely solely on the teacher. Freiberg (1996, 1999) bases his CMCD on the belief that students should be turned from passive into active learners in order to create classrooms where cooperation, participation, and support are the cornerstones. Using the terms tourists and citizens, Freiberg maintains that students who behave as tourists are passive onlookers who lack feelings of genuine participation, and students who behave as citizens are active decision makers who feel they are an integral part of the classroom. Students need a reasonable degree of freedom in the classroom. However, Freiberg et al. (1989) caution that a basic distinction exists between freedom and license. In a classroom with freedom, the climate is one of mutual respect in which students and teachers share and build responsibilities. In contrast, chaos, disrespect, and a lack of focus are signs of a classroom with license. CONSISTENCY MANAGEMENT CMCD has two basic components (Freiberg & Lamb, 2009). First, the Consistency Management component focuses on continuity within a school as well as on classroom and instructional organization and planning by the teacher. Emphasizing the need to prevent misbehaviors rather than intervene later, Freiberg (1999) believes that “messages that are changed every year or are inconsistent for every classroom diminish discipline and achievement” (p. 76). Thus, CMCD involves everyone in a school who works with the students, from the administrators and classroom teachers to the library media specialist, physical education teacher, bus driver, and custodian. Everyone must give students the same message about responsibility and self-discipline. Freiberg et al. (1989, p. 379) explained the importance of consistency and that the term consistency should not be confused with rigidity. Consistency provides a sense of continuity of actions and expectations for students, teachers, school staff, and even substitute teachers. Management Tip 9–1 suggests ways to provide leadership to substitute teachers. Freiberg’s model abandons the behaviorism of Skinner in favor of an approach that emphasizes self-discipline, community building, and social decision making (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clark, & Curran, 2004). Students behave appropriately, not out of fear of punishment or desire of reward, but out of a sense of personal responsibility. In an individual classroom, whether making seating

MANAGEMENT TIP 9–1 Providing Leadership to Substitute Teachers Substitute teachers often face a number of challenges and often do not have the instructional success that the regular classroom teacher would have. A teacher can create a substitute survival kit. Although the contents will vary based on the grade level and the subject, helpful materials include the following to ensure consistency in the classroom: Lesson plans Class roll

Schedule of special activities List of students who go to special programs

Pre-K and Elementary Activities for breaks and rest periods Specific locations for art, music, physical education, and other special activities

Seating chart Description of the management system List of class rules Description of daily routines Names of students and other teachers who can provide assistance Map of the building

Secondary Remediation materials for students who might experience academic difficulties Name and location of the guidance counselor and the appropriate administrators for discipline and/or instruction

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arrangements, passing out papers, taking attendance, or providing equal opportunity for class participation (e.g., selecting students at random), the teacher becomes the instructional leader who creates a consistent, supportive, flexible, and caring environment in which everyone (teacher and students) participates and learns. The teacher “leads” her or his team members toward management efforts that promote learning and psychological and physical well-being. Teachers provide strategies to promote positive role models, help students to achieve self-discipline, and allow students to enjoy reasonable freedom in classrooms through a person-centered leadership style rather than a strict, teacher-centered style (Freiberg, 1999; Freiberg et al., 1989; Freiberg & Lamb, 2009). COOPERATIVE DISCIPLINE The Cooperative Discipline component expands the leadership role in the classroom from the teacher to the student. It gives all students the opportunity to become leaders (Freiberg & Lamb, 2009). With multiple chances for leadership in small and large ways, students gain the experiences necessary to become self-disciplined. As partners and stakeholders in the classroom, students can create a classroom constitution (or compact) or accept responsibility for tasks that teachers usually do. In addition, this student responsibility also includes knowing what to do when the teacher is absent, how to solve disputes, how to prevent problems, and how to work cooperatively in groups. Rather than being the sole responsibility of a single teacher, teaching and learning become a collaborative effort that extends throughout the entire school and remains consistent as a student moves through the grades. The overall goal of the CMCD program is to create a warm and supportive, but firm and orderly, classroom environment in an urban setting (Freiberg et al., 1989). Freiberg has a carefully prepared staff development program that is provided to all teachers in schools that adopt the CMCD model and that helps them work with all aspects of CMCD. When a school district adopts the CMCD model, the first year of the program is implemented at the elementary school level, with the second and third years implemented at the middle and high schools, respectively. This provides a consistent framework throughout the school district.

Practical Applications of Freiberg’s Model When teachers use Freiberg’s CMCD, they must adopt five basic themes, use a progressively ordered sequence of disciplinary management, teach students to become 1-minute managers, and allow students to assume more leadership in the classroom. Figure 9–2 provides an overview of Freiberg’s five themes of CMCD. CMCD teachers work to prevent classroom management problems. Freiberg (1999) believes that 80% or more of classroom management is problem prevention rather than problem intervention. To prevent or minimize future discipline problems, teachers can plan classroom rules as well as consistent and appropriate rewards and punishments for students’ adherence or lack of adherence to them (Freiberg et al., 1989). Then, during the first weeks of the year, they can provide students with opportunities to begin to develop self-discipline, set standards for their own behavior, and develop the rules more fully and add rules of their own.

THEME 1:

• Before the school year began, Ronald Morales worked with the other teachers and staff in his school to identify the school climate they wanted and the six general rules they would enforce throughout the school. Then he FIGURE 9–2

Five Themes of Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline

Prevention: Focus on problem prevention rather than problem solving and reduce the need for intervention. Caring: Let students know that teachers care by developing a caring environment. Cooperation: Move students from tourists to citizens and help them to assume ownership and responsibility for self-discipline. Organization: Share the responsibility for classroom organization to build ownership and increase valuable teaching and learning time. Community: Build teams, involve the community, and link the school with the home. Source: Developed from “Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline.” www.ed.gov/pubs/ToolsforSchools/cmed.html

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Community Approaches to Classroom Management planned the physical layout of his room, the routines he would follow, and the jobs that he felt he could assign to students. During the first weeks of school, he worked with the students to develop a class constitution that stated the rights of everyone in the classroom, the rules they would follow, and a grievance procedure for any complaints. Mr. Morales was pleased to see that the students took an active role in identifying the things they felt would make the classroom a place where they could learn and feel safe.

Although a class constitution can take many forms, it usually lists the rights of the students and the rules for learning and helps students gain a sense of ownership and pride in their class and their school (Freiberg et al., 1989, p. 380). Teachers should guide students in the development of the constitution to be sure it is a set of positive rules and objectives that have meaning for the students. For example, in one fifth-grade Magna Carta that Freiberg (1996, p. 33) cites, the students listed the following rights: “feel safe, complain to the grievance committee . . . , ask questions, speak freely, have friends, not be put down, . . . get help, . . . and be treated kindly.” Rather than being a fixed document, the constitution can be reviewed and revised as conditions in the classroom change (Freiberg, 1999). Applying Community Approaches 9–2 looks at a teacher who is having difficulty developing a classroom constitution. THEME 2 CMCD teachers provide an environment where students know teachers care for them. Students want to know that their teachers care about them. Thus, teachers should listen to students, reflect on what they say, trust them, and respect them while also helping students to learn proper behavior. Teachers should also work to get students to care for each other and to understand that words can be as harmful as actions. How much the teacher cares is more important to students than how much the teacher knows (Freiberg, 1996).

CMCD teachers cooperate with students to help them develop a feeling of ownership, to become involved, and to have opportunities for self-discipline. In a cooperative classroom, students develop a sense of ownership and involvement, and they have more opportunities for self-discipline (Freiberg, 1999). Freiberg (1999) shares the story of Sergio, a student from an inner-city middle school. One day when his teacher was absent and the substitute did not show up, Sergio wrote in his journal: “I feel lucky today because the day has just started and we have already been trusted in something we have never been trusted on, being alone. It is 8:15 and everything is cool. Nothing is even wrong . . .” (p. 83). In the class, one student took attendance and sent the list to the office. Another student led the homework review and began the scheduled classroom presentations. The students were on-task and on schedule when the substitute arrived.

THEME 3

CMCD teachers work with students to organize the classroom to increase teaching and learning time and to help students build ownership and self-discipline. Because classroom organization is

THEME 4

APPLYING COMMUNITY APPROACHES 9–2 Creating a Constitution that won’t work, so I drew up a constitution myself and presented it to the class. They weren’t enthusiastic about it, but what else could I do?”

Review Freiberg’s comments about a class constitution and the steps used to develop one. Then read the following scenario and respond to the questions at the end. Fred Rainey thought he was a true believer and advocate of Freiberg’s CMCD, but he was having trouble getting his class to develop a constitution. “I talked a little about the U.S. Constitution and how it protects the freedoms and liberties of all citizens. Then I let the students come up with ideas, but all they wanted was things like no homework, free ice cream, and the right to talk to their friends whenever they wanted to. Well,

1. 2. 3.

What choices does Mr. Rainey have? Is it necessary for the students to write their constitution? How should he introduce the idea of a constitution to his class? 4. How will that introduction vary by the grade level Mr. Rainey teaches? 5. What procedures should he use?

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a mutual responsibility of the students and the teachers, students assume classroom management positions, become 1-minute student managers (Freiberg, 1996, p. 34), and free the teacher for instructional activities by assuming responsibility for routine classroom tasks. At the beginning, jobs can be identified by the teacher, but students also should be involved in revising the list. Although teachers in the primary grades often select students for classroom management positions, in grades 3 through 12, many teachers have students complete applications for specific jobs. These applications are reviewed, interviews sometimes are held, and students are selected for positions based on their interests and skills. By rotating the jobs every 4 to 6 weeks, all students, not just a select few, are able to hold management positions in the classroom. Students work for the intrinsic reward of contributing to the organization and smooth operation of the class. THEME 5 CMCD teachers involve parents and community members in school activities and try to link the school with the home. When students see adults other than the school staff in the school, they are exposed to additional positive role models who validate the importance of education (Freiberg, 1999). With the diverse makeup of today’s families and communities, teachers need to use a variety of flexible approaches to reach out to families and community members. Freiberg et al. (1989) suggest that CMCD teachers use a system of progressively ordered disciplinary management to help students. Realizing that students will not abandon disruptive behaviors automatically, teachers need to prepare students to assume responsibility for self-discipline and classroom management. This might take extra planning and work with students in the beginning, but the longterm dividend is worth the effort. Even when the plan is in place, teachers still need to have a disciplinary management plan that will help students to regain self-control. Thus, when a problem begins to develop, a teacher can start with a subtle intervention, such as the use of nonverbal eye contact. If the student continues to break a class rule, the teacher might need to use more overt interventions, such as standing next to the disruptive student or revoking the student’s privileges. This progressive sequence of management applies to students who disregard the class constitution as well as to those who disobey other rules. Freiberg (1996, 1999) has many other ideas for developing a CMCD school, most of which are covered in the extensive staff-development programs that are provided exclusively to CMCD schools. These intensive programs begin in the spring of the year preceding the implementation of CMCD and continue throughout the first and second years of implementation, with special sessions for new teachers. An attempt is made to time the staff development to the needs of the students and teachers. As Fashola and Slavin (1998) suggest, CMCD can be a standalone model or can complement other classroom management models—even models directed at improving curricula and instruction. Management Tip 9–2 provides information from a first-year teacher who, after attending a Freiberg workshop, analyzed her teaching.

MANAGEMENT TIP 9–2 Analyzing Instruction for Management Freiberg (2002, p. 59) believes that self-assessment is a “crucial component of instructional change” and helps new teachers to develop a repertoire of instructional strategies that contribute to classroom management. He suggests that new teachers audio- or videotape a class and analyze the lesson. They should ask themselves the following: • • • •

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How did I begin the lesson? Did I gain the students’ attention? Did I make the objectives clear to the students? Did I involve all of the students in the lesson?

• How did I give directions? • Did I make sure all students understood the directions? • What strategies did I use to make sure all students were on-task and learning? • What types of questions did I ask? • Did I allow an adequate amount of time for students to answer? • How did I move throughout the classroom? • Did I favor or ignore any students? • Did I provide sufficient time for student questions?

Community Approaches to Classroom Management

DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES CENTER: THE CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Started in 1987 by John Bates, Kenneth Dodge, and Gregory Pettit, the Child Development Project (CDP) is designed to study the “various family, child, peer, neighborhood, and school factors that influence the social, behavioral, and scholastic development of children (Child Development Project, n.d.). The program is now part of the Developmental Studies Center, a nonprofit organization in Oakland, California (Guhn, 2009). As a multifaceted model for elementary schools, the CDP incorporates some of the ideas discussed in previous chapters (e.g., ecological, self-regulating, process outcomes, supportive classroom approaches) to “promote prosocial behavior, not only as a classroom management tool, creating a positive academic learning environment, but [also] for the sake of the moral development of students” (Sanger & Osguthorpe, 2009, p. 26). It is probably one of the most studied management and developmental programs, with longitudinal studies following students into middle school, high school, and beyond. Overview of the Child Development Project Model The CDP developed as a “social constructivist approach to cooperative learning” (Watson & Battistich, 2006, p. 263) and as an attempt to “integrate sociomoral and academic learning through activities that appeal to students’ interests, develop their understanding, and build community” (p. 263). Based on the philosophy that children have a need to belong, to become competent, and to have autonomy, the CDP incorporates some of the research of Johnson and Johnson (Chapter 7 of this book) and the attachment theory of Ainsworth and Bowlby (1991). The emphasis is on noncoercive ways to develop internal motivation, pro-social behavior, and academic engagement (Watson, 2008). The CDP is a whole school program that is designed to help elementary schools become communities of caring that foster the students’ social, ethical, and intellectual development (Battistich, Schaps, & Wilson, 2004). A comprehensive program, the CDP enhances the development of children by changing the home, school and classroom environments (Battistich, Watson, Solomon, Schaps, & Solomon, 1991). Although there are schoolwide rules and expectations, the emphasis is still at the classroom level with both in-school and after school activities. At present, the CDP has two component parts. The first is a literature-based reading and language arts curriculum that incorporates high-quality multicultural children’s literature. This program is “designed to help children see that reading can be both fun and informative, encourage them to explore the values and behaviors of characters in a wide variety of fictional situations, and sensitize them to the needs an perspectives of diverse others” (Schaps, Battistich, & Solomon, 2004). In the second component, the emphasis is on community building and creating a caring school environment. We will focus our discussion on this second component. When a school adopts the CDP, the Developmental Studies Center provides teaching materials and activity guides for school and home use, staff development workshops, and other schoolbased assistance including support for teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. Three to four years are usually required for complete implementation of the CDP, which expects both school and community involvement and support. Applying Community Approaches 9–3 asks you to consider the issue of community and parental involvement. Practical Applications of the CDP Model There are a number of elements in the CDP, primary of which is the creation of a caring community which satisfies the need of students so they bond with it and internalize its values and goals (Watson & Battistich, 2006). According to Schaps (2009), in a “high-community school” (p. 9), there are “respectful, supportive relationships among and between students, teachers and parents” (p. 9). Figure 9–3 shows the characteristics of such a school.

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APPLYING COMMUNITY APPROACHES 9–3 Voting for Privacy The community approaches to management involve parents and members of the general community in education. However, not all teachers seem comfortable with it. Read the following scenario and then respond to the questions at the end. Ms. Romanski was a teacher in a school with an excellent reputation and tremendous parental and community involvement. However, even the principal admitted that perhaps the school had too much support. Although the principal was reluctant to express his views, Ms. Romanski had no problem making her beliefs clear. “Absolutely, we have too much involvement at this school. Parents and community members are always walking down the hall, poking their noses in our business, and telling us

how to do things. With the parent volunteers and senior citizen volunteers constantly popping in and out of my room, there are no jobs left for the students to do. I don’t know about this community thing, but any more community involvement and I will not get anything done.” 1. Think back to what you have read about the community approaches. Is this what they mean by community involvement? 2. Can you have too much parental and community involvement in a school? 3. What advice would you give Ms. Romanski and the principal of this school?

The CDP (Schaps, 2003, 2009) identifies several ways in which to build this sense of community. One is to provide regular class meetings where students are active participants in identifying and discussing issues and solving problems. Another is for teachers to use collaborative learning activities to engage all students. These cooperative learning projects should promote the ethical, intellectual, and social development of students (Muñoz & Vanderhaar, 2006). The CDP also recommends “cross-age buddy programs” (Schaps, 2009, p. 9) so that younger and older students have opportunities to work together and learn from each other. Whole-school events such as “Family Heritage Week”, “Family Hobbies Fair”, “Family Film Night” and “Family Heritage Museum” link students, parents, educators, and the community. Service learning projects take students into the community and bring the community into the school. Finally, “homeside activities” (Schaps, 2003, p. 22) provide a cycle for learning to begin in the classroom, continue in the home, and then return to the classroom. This allows both teachers and students to learn about the other students in the classroom and to experience a variety of perspectives from other cultures. Many of these activities are conversations or interviews conducted by the students to “connect school learning with home experiences and perspectives” (p. 23). • A teacher in a CDP classroom said: “The year I first started doing relationship-building activities in the classroom, I really got to know the kids. I had never gotten to know them so well and so quickly before, and they got to know me. At the same time, things were very hectic that first month in my classroom. Instead of just putting names on the board when kids were doing something wrong, I constantly had to be talking to people about what they were doing. But suddenly it became obvious to me that there was no more humiliation in my classroom, no more manipulation of the students by threats, no more punishments at the end of the day” (Watson, 2006, p. 3).

FIGURE 9–3

Characteristics of a School with a Sense of Community

In a school which is a caring community: 1. All students, no matter what their diverse backgrounds, are engaged. 2. Parents take an active roll in education. 3. The school emphasizes academics as well as social and civic participation. 4. There are regular opportunities for students to collaborate with others. 5. There are chances for students to have some autonomy and to have a voice in decision making (Schaps, 2009).

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MANAGEMENT TIP 9–3 Learning Students’ Backgrounds The CDP maintains that it is important for teachers to understand students’ cultural backgrounds to develop skills for cross-cultural interaction. Specifically, teachers must learn about the following: • Family background and structure • Educational background • Interpersonal relationship styles

• • • • • •

Use of discipline in the home and culture Cultural concepts of time and space Religious beliefs and restrictions Food customs and preferences Health and hygiene Traditions, history, and holidays of the culture

As a teacher uses activities to help students know each other and build a classroom community, a caring school community develops. Students learn from each other and through community service as they fulfill a need for influence, autonomy, and a sense of belonging (Solomon, Battistich, Watson, Schaps, & Lewis, 2000). Because the students are part of a community, they also learn to have respectful, supportive relationships with peers and adults and “standards of competence and character by which to live and learn” (Developmental Studies Center, n.d.). Management Tip 9–3 lists some things teachers need to know and understand about students. Although the CDP contains individual classroom, schoolwide, and family involvement components, the CDP sees the “individual teacher as the major change agent” (Guhn, 2009, p. 345). Thus the program includes an “intensive classroom program [with] three major elements: collaborative learning, a literature-based language arts curriculum [which is now broken out into a separate program called Making Meaning] and ‘developmental discipline,’ an approach to classroom management that emphasizes the development of students’ self-control and personal responsibility” (Battistich et al., 2004, p. 244). In the following discussion, we will look at the two components that comprise the Caring School Community part of the CDP. Although the literature-based component is now in a separate program, literature is still used in the Caring School Community to promote pro-social values and developmental discipline. As you read above, cooperative learning is a major part of the CDP. It emphasizes working on meaningful yet challenging tasks, and it promotes the benefits of collaboration by encouraging students to work with others in “fair, caring and responsible ways” (Muñoz & Vanderhaar, 2006, p. 49). Students are taught the skills to work together cooperatively, not competitively, to reach common goals. Instead of a separate character development program, the regular school day becomes the school’s character-building and misbehavior prevention program (Schaps, 2003). Developmental discipline focuses on developing “caring, respectful relationships among all members of the classroom community”(Muñoz & Vanderhaar, 2006, p. 49), and encourages problem solving to “promote student responsibility and competence” (p. 49). With developmental discipline, the emphasis is on self-discipline. By using “internal academic and prosocial motivation” (Watson, 2006, p. 2), the CDP provides a “developmental, problem solving approach to student misbehavior, and focuses on student needs and helping students develop and uphold classroom norms and values” (p. 2). Thus, students are granted developmentally appropriate autonomy as they participate in the development of class rules and use class meetings to discuss issues. Students and teachers work together to develop solutions to discipline problems (Schaps & Solomon, 1990). Because the focus is on intrinsic motivation, teachers avoid extrinsic rewards and punishments, which may in fact inhibit the development of intrinsic motivation. The CDP promotes positive development for all students rather than preventing misbehaviors among students “deemed at risk” (Battistich et al., 2004, p. 244). Applying Community Approaches 9–4 asks you to consider what creates a caring school environment.

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APPLYING COMMUNITY APPROACHES 9–4 Creating a Caring School Environment The following are some activities that can create a caring environment in the classroom and the entire school. After reading them, identify other ways in which educators can show they care about students. 1. Administrators can visit classrooms to read stories, teach lessons, and share their own experiences. This allows students to see them as more than disciplinarians. 2. Each month, library media specialists can feature new displays of student work in the library and can arrange

for students to decorate showcases to show their hobbies and interests. 3. Individual birthdays can be celebrated in the classroom on the date they occur, and a whole-school celebration can be held each month for all students and staff with birthdays during the summer. This is a common practice in elementary schools, but it rarely occurs in the secondary schools (Freiberg, 1999).

CRITIQUE OF COMMUNITY APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Can the development of a sense of community among students, educators, parents, and community members be an effective management tool and promote academic excellence? According to a number of studies, the answer seems to be “yes.” For example, Freiberg (1999, 2000) found that CMCD led to increased student and teacher attendance and fostered positive school and classroom climates. Its use has also provided significant gains in student learning as measured by standardized national tests (Slavin & Lake, 2008; Freiberg, Huzinec, & Templeton, 2009). Longitudinal studies of the CDP show that when a sense of community is developed in elementary school, the benefits persist through at least middle school (Schaps, 2009). Battistich et al. (2004) reported that a number of studies show that the CDP has a positive effect on “students’ sense of the school as a community [emphasis in original], and other school-related attitudes and motives [emphasis in original]; social attitudes, skills, and values [emphasis in original] and involvement in problem behaviors” [emphasis in original] (p. 245) such as substance abuse. The community approaches to discipline have considerable potential for addressing nonviolent (but still disturbing) as well as violent student behaviors in contemporary classrooms. For example, Freiberg (2002, p. 58) wrote that when classes are poorly managed, “disorder and chaos steal time from learning and exhaust the teacher.” Poor management can lead to student discipline problems. In addition, student misbehavior often discourages teachers from using the interactive instructional approaches (e.g., cooperative learning, learning centers, projects, experiments) that foster student achievement and active learning. The community approaches can reduce these problem behaviors as students realize they have ownership in the school and the individual classroom and as they develop the self-discipline to behave appropriately. These models, with their framework of schools adapting to individual needs and their focus on caring, cooperation, and community, can be used successfully to address the needs of all students, rather than only those with specific behavior problems (Fashola & Slavin, 1998). Applying Community Approaches 9–5 asks you to apply these models to a student who is goofing off. Freiberg (Freiberg, 1999, 2000; Freiberg et al., 1989) points out that community models, especially CMCD, can prove successful with behavior problems that require disciplinary referrals. The reasoning is that students who feel a sense of community and know the teacher cares for them will not see a need for violent behaviors. In one at-risk, urban elementary school that adopted CMCD, disciplinary referrals for its 276 students dropped from 109 in the year before implementation to 19 the next year, with suspensions decreasing from 24 to 0 (Freiberg et al., 1989). In two rural intermediate schools, discipline referrals decreased 40% to 60% in 3 years (Freiberg, 1996). We believe the community approaches have and can continue to reduce disciplinary referrals, but we are less sure what a teacher using one of these approaches will do if a student brings a gun or knife to

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APPLYING COMMUNITY APPROACHES 9–5 Helping Tiwanda did nothing. When questioned, Tiwanda would say, “What’s the point in studying? I’ll just get to high school, get pregnant, and get on welfare like my mom and my sister. So why should I worry about school? I’ll never graduate anyway.”

Review the key concepts and themes of the community approaches to management. Then read the following scenario. Tiwanda was not a violent student. Good-natured and usually a pleasure to be around, she just did not have a lot of interest in schoolwork. Instead, she looked for other things to do so that she could avoid working on her assignments. During independent practice time, she said, “No problem—I’ll do this at home tonight.” However, she never did. Other times she just sat and

1. 2. 3.

Consider each of the five themes of CMCD. How would each of them apply to Tiwanda’s situation? What would the CDP say about Tiwanda? Using the ideas of the community approaches, give her teacher some suggestions to help Tiwanda.

school and threatens to use it. However, in all fairness, other classroom management programs discussed in this text thus far have not offered solutions to this problem either. The community approaches have the potential for creating a school climate that should lessen the possibility of acts of violence. All of the community approaches to management respect diversity. All cultures, all social classes, and both genders should appreciate caring teachers who have a positive view of children. In addition, these models do not require punishment, threats, bribes, rules, and other forms of compliance. Undue attention will not be given to individual students and their misbehaviors. Also, the emphasis on the three universal human needs (autonomy, relatedness, and competence) of all individuals should help students to succeed. To be successful with the community approaches, teachers must have a desire to develop caring, compassionate, and ethical students, regardless of their specific differences. For example, Freiberg’s CMCD has been evaluated primarily with inner-city schools in Houston, Texas, and is used in urban schools in Chicago, Illinois, and Norfolk, Virginia, as well as in some rural schools. In schools with many African American and Latino students, student behavior and academic achievement have improved (Fashola & Slavin, 1998). The program has proven its effectiveness with boys and girls, as well as with students of various cultures and social classes. Freiberg (2000) maintains that an emphasis on compliance rather than self-discipline leads to dissatisfied teachers and students. Instead of bribing students with rewards and punishments, teachers should provide opportunities for students to become leaders. As Freiberg (1999, p. 12) wrote: “In the person-centered learning environment there is discipline—self-discipline” (emphasis Freiberg’s). Objecting to rewards and punishments that shape students’ behavior, Freiberg believes that self-discipline in a person-centered classroom will eliminate the need to use behaviorist approaches. There are, however, some disadvantages with the community approaches. Teachers must adhere to the person-centered philosophical position and must maintain consistency. A teacher who sends students inconsistent messages, believes in an autocratic management style, does not believe in students’ taking a role in the governance of the classroom, or follows a strict behaviorist approach probably will not be successful with either CMCD or the CDP. Another disadvantage is that the CMCD and CDP models must be purchased as a complete package by an entire school because they are not designed to be adopted by a single teacher or group of teachers in a school. The cost for the required staff development could be prohibitive for some schools. Developing Your Personal Philosophy identifies questions you can answer to determine your propensity toward the community approaches to classroom management. Realistically, teachers probably will not like these approaches if they believe teachers control discipline and consider students to be passive learners. However, teachers who are person centered should seriously consider some of their approaches. Although both CMCD and CDP are whole school packaged models, individual teachers can adopt some of the philosophical stances and activities from them for use in a specific classroom.

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Subscribing to a Community Approach Respond to the following questions to examine your philosophical and psychological beliefs and their relation to the community approaches to classroom management. 1. Do I agree with person-centered philosophies, and would I feel comfortable implementing them in my classroom? 2. Do I agree that my classroom and school should be a caring community? 3. Do I feel comfortable using collaborative activities? 4. Do I agree that students should have opportunities for autonomy and influence in the classroom?

5. Do I agree with the five themes of CMCD or the principles of the CDP, and how would I design my classroom and instruction to reflect them? 6. Do I agree that students should be assigned classroom jobs that teachers traditionally have done? What jobs would I feel comfortable assigning to my students? 7. Do I believe that students can and will develop selfdiscipline? Am I prepared to help them do this? 8. Do believe that parents and community members must be involved in education?

Summary In this chapter, you have explored some community approaches to classroom management. After examining the ideas of Kohn’s Beyond Discipline, you read about Freiberg’s Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline and the Developmental Studies Center’s Child Development Project. When these approaches to management are implemented, teachers can show caring and concern for their students and can develop cooperative skills and attitudes. With the emphasis on students assuming responsibility for self-discipline and accepting leadership positions within the classroom, these approaches offer opportunities for improved student behaviors and increased academic achievement. As students move from tourist to citizen roles, they become an integral part of the classroom, school, and outside community. You can find additional information about these approaches by visiting the websites in “Reaching Out with the Internet” at the end of this chapter or checking some of the suggested readings.

Revisit the opening vignette for this chapter and respond to the following questions: 1. Suppose you were Dr. Cheryl Tomasino. What major

points would you include in your presentation on community approaches to classroom management? 2. The community approaches to management are schoolwide models. However, they are based on a number of principles that any teacher can use. What are these principles? 3. If Alfie Kohn were addressing this group of teachers, what might he say to them? 4. How effective do you think a community approach to management would be in a school like Grover Cleveland High School? What if this was an elementary school? A middle school?

Suggested Readings Burns, R. W. (2010). Desperate times call for drastic measures: How far would you go to teach a lesson in respect? Catalyst for Change, 36(2), 18–25. The author examines her experiences in creating a sense of belonging and community in a classroom. Kohn, A. (2010). Bad signs. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(1), 4–9. Reflecting on the use of signs in school such as “No Whining” or inspirational posters, Kohn examines what he sees behind the sign. Lansford, J. E., Yu, T., Erath, S. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2010). Developmental precursors of number of sexual partners from ages 16 to 22. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(3), 651–677. This follow-up study of students in

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the Child Development Project examines possible early adolescent antecedents of adolescent and adult behaviors. Shields, D. L., & Bredemeier, B. L. (2010). Competition: Was Kohn right? Phi Delta Kappan, 91(5), 62–67. The authors examine Kohn’s views on the problems of competition in education. Tokarz, B. (2010). Building community: Lessons learned from small islands. Exchange, 195(Sept./Oct.), 74–78. After living on an island, the authors draws parallels between the sustaining community on the island and building a community of very young children.

Community Approaches to Classroom Management

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on understanding community approaches to classroom management.

“Measuring School Climate: Let Me Count the Ways”—an article written by Freiberg

CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline—Tools for Schools

Child Development Project www.cdp.auburn.edu

cmcd.coe.uh.edu/article/measure.html www.ed.gov/pubs/ToolsforSchools/cmcd.html

Child Development Project—Caring School Community www.devstu.org/caring-school-community Child Development Project—Programs That Work www.promisingpractices.net/program.asp?programid=138

A. KOHN Alfie Kohn www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Alfie_Kohn Alfie Kohn’s homepage

J. FREIBERG Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline cmcd.coe.uh.edu

www.alfiekohn.org/index.php Biography of Alfie Kohn www.alfiekohn.org/bio.htm

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From Chapter 10 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 10, you should be able to 1. discuss the need for and define the term whole-school approaches to classroom management; 2. describe the Positive Behavior Support framework of classroom management including its components, implementation, and levels of interventions; 3. explain Project ACHIEVE, its Stop and Think social skills process, and its emphasis on teaching social skills;

Anthony Magnacca/Merrill

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4. discuss the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program, including the curriculum and use of peer mediators; 5. evaluate the whole-school approaches to classroom management; and 6. consider all the whole-school approaches to classroom management and identify concepts to include in your own personal philosophy.

Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management

VIGNETTE: Combating Vandalism “I don’t know what’s going on in this school!” Kate Aronson, a fifth-grade teacher, was walking down the hall with Kevin Hertzog, the assistant principal. “First it was the drawings on the walls in the bathrooms. Then it was those gang symbols in the second floor stairway. Now someone defaced a display in the library yesterday. This can’t be the Northwest Elementary School that I’ve taught at for six years, can it? Can I really feel safe here?” “Things have changed,” Kevin said with a sigh. “You know we expected some problems with the completion of the new wing on the school and the redistricting. It’s brought a whole new group of students into the school—kids who have never been together before. They’ve come from schools where the expectations were different.” “But it isn’t just the students,” Kate replied. “I don’t think some of the new teachers have the same ideas about discipline that we’ve had here at Northwest. I’ve heard everything in the lounge from a get-tough, zero-tolerance approach to a ‘kids will be kids’ hands-off attitude. But I’ve also heard some expressions of fear of violence.” “Yeah, you’re probably right, Kate. We need to do something soon before this petty vandalism does turn into violence and someone gets hurt. But this is a new problem here at Northwest and I’m not sure Mrs. Donehoo knows where to begin. She’s a great principal, but she’s never had to face these kinds of problems. “Well, Kevin, let’s go to her with our concerns and some suggestions!”

OVERVIEW Many models and theories of classroom management were designed to be used by individual teachers in their own classrooms. Sometimes, however, the discipline problems extend outside a single classroom. As Kate Aronson and Kevin Hertzog saw in the opening vignette, vandalism, bullying, violence, and general misbehaviors undermine the feelings of safety throughout the school. In the previous chapters, you have read about a variety of models and theories for classroom management including behavioral, ecological, self-regulating, processoutcomes, supportive classrooms, and community approaches to classroom management. Some of these models and theories focus on character education, the development of social skills and social learning, a reduction in off-task behaviors, and the strengthening of instruction. Although some models (e.g., Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline, the Responsive Classroom®) were developed to be used throughout a school, in examining them, we used the perspective of an individual classroom teacher. In this chapter, we change our focus

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APPLYING WHOLE-SCHOOL APPROACHES 10–1 Developing a Sense of Belonging The following are a few examples of ways in which to help students have a sense of belonging at school. After you read them, identify additional ways in which you could help students to develop this feeling. 1. Allow students to participate in developing class rules and determining acceptable behavior in the classroom. 2. Have the students identify a name for their class or team.

3. Use bulletin boards in the classroom, library, other school locations, or even the walls of the halls to display the work of all students rather than just a selected few. 4. Encourage students to work in groups (e.g., peer tutoring groups, cooperative learning groups) so that all students get to know their classmates.

to look at the use of whole-school management models and provide information on a few of them. In looking for the causes of aggressive and sometimes violent behavior, researchers have found that both parents and communities contribute to the problem because of their failure to help students develop appropriate social skills and by failing to model these skills. Thus, it falls to the schools to help students develop the skills they need to avoid misbehaviors and function in a social environment. Unfortunately, many school discipline policies and practices (e.g., ambiguous rules, zero-tolerance policies, suspensions and expulsions that may target specific cultural groups) only contribute to the problem and do nothing to change the misbehaviors. In addition, once patterns of misbehavior are established, it becomes more difficult to change or redirect the behavior (Lewis & Sugai, 1999). Therefore, in response to increased concerns about violence in schools and the need for safe schools, schools have begun to look at more than dealing with discipline problems once they occur. With a focus on preventing problems, more schools are “decreasing problem behaviors by teaching appropriate behavior” (Horner & Sugai, 2000, p. 231). Rather than targeting students with the potential for misbehaviors, schools are instead using whole-school approaches and establishing schoolwide management programs. These programs are a direct contrast to the “traditional ‘get-tough’ approach to managing problem behavior” (Sugai & Horner, 2006, p. 246), which tends to increase rather than stop misbehaviors. Why use a whole-school approach? Luiselli, Putnam, Handler, and Feinberg (2005) found that “large-scale, multicomponent, skill-building, and preventative interventions” (p. 85) result in “positive social and character development” (p. 85) for students, an improved school climate, and a reduction in antisocial behavior. This helps students to develop a sense of pride in their school and a sense of belonging. Applying Whole-School Approaches 10–1 asks you to consider the importance of a sense of belonging for students. A whole-school plan is usually designed for a particular school by a consultant and the educators in the school. The planners examine existing management models to identify one that fits the needs of the school and will improve instruction, identify behavioral expectations, increase engagement in classroom activities, reinforce appropriate behaviors, and provide for the evaluation of the success of the program. In the following sections you will read about whole-school approaches to classroom management that are supported by research by educational professionals and written about in peer-reviewed

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journals in education, psychology, and the social sciences. We also looked for models that were replicated in a variety of schools in different states, are currently in use, or both. Unfortunately, this meant that either the Seattle Social Development Project (Skills, Opportunities and Recognition—SOAR) or the Peaceable Schools and Communities (PSC) model could not be included. Cited for its long-term success (Hawkins, Kosterman, Catalano, Hill, & Abbott, 2008; Huang, White, Kosterman, Catalano, & Hawkins, 2001), SOAR used a public health model to prevent at-risk behaviors. It was implemented in Seattle elementary schools for 6 years beginning in the 1980s. Researchers have followed students in the program throughout their school years and into adulthood (Elias & Schwab, 2006). PSC was developed by educators at the Center for Peaceable Schools and Communities and the Peaceable Schools Institute at Lesley University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Focusing on conflict resolution and the development of the skills students need to work together and to understand the roots of peace and justice, the program was used in schools in Louisiana, New York, and California (Brion-Meisels, Brion-Meisels, & Hoffman, 2007; Townley, 1999). Unfortunately, limited financial resources forced the closing of first the center and then the institute in 2010 (Hoffman, Brion-Meisels, & Brion-Meisels, 2011). There is one other schoolwide program, restitution, that does not meet the criteria mentioned above but has “potential as [an]effective school-wide approach to classroom management” (Evans & Lester, 2010). Restitution was developed by Diane Gossen from Glasser’s Reality Therapy and Canadian aboriginal practices such as doing what is morally right. Because it requires self-evaluation, the program helps students to examine their behavior to determine whether it is helping them to achieve or hindering them from achieving personal success (Gossen, 1998). Key phrases that teachers use in the program are: “I’m not so interested in what went wrong as in how we can make it right” (p. 186), and “I’m not interested in blame, shame, fault, apologies or excuses, only in fixing” (p. 187). Gossen (2006) reports significant reductions in misbehaviors in schools using this mode.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS FOR WHOLE-SCHOOL APPROACHES In this chapter, we look at the following whole-school approaches to classroom management: the Positive Behavior Support framework, Project ACHIEVE, and the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program. Rather than provide detailed information about establishing the model in individual schools, we have done two things. First, we have provided information in “Reaching Out with the Internet” at the end of this chapter to help you locate additional information on each model. Then, in the discussion of the model, we have tried to identify information that you can use in developing your own philosophy and model of classroom management.

KEY TERMS Table 10–1 identifies key terms related to whole-school approaches to classroom management. TABLE 10–1

Key Terms of Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management

Positive Behavior Support

Knoff—Project ACHIEVE

Educators for Social Responsibility—Resolving Conflict Creatively Program

• Primary or universal level of interventions

• Social skills

• Core skills

• Stop and Think

• Peace in the Family

• Secondary level

• Peer mediation

• Tertiary or individual level

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POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Emerging from the behavioral, biobehavioral, physical and environmental, and social roots of human behavior, Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is “the application of positive behavioral interventions and systems to achieve socially important behavior change” (Sugai et al., 2000, p. 131). Rather than being a management model, PBS is a systems approach to help schools to plan, implement, and evaluate appropriate behavior support and disciplinary practices in order to efficiently and effectively provide behavior support for everyone in the school from the students to the teachers and the staff (Lewis & Sugai, 1999). Based on the premise that “intensive individualized emotional and behavioral support interventions work better as part of a comprehensive continuum of behavior support” (Sugai & Horner, 2008, p. 68), PBS attempts to prevent and change the patterns of misbehaviors while improving the quality of life in schools through a three-tiered continuum of interventions. Overview of Positive Behavior Support PBS is a philosophical stance that refers to the use of systems and positive interventions to “achieve socially important behavior change” (Sugai et al., 2000, p. 133). Originally developed to deal with students who had severe disabilities and problems of violence and aggression, PBS has expanded to include the management of all students within a school. Preventative and proactive, PBS is based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis and is designed to use “collaborative, data-based decision-making” (Safran, 2006, p. 3) to create a schoolwide intervention plan. Although there are several names for PBS (e.g., Effective Behavior Supports or EBS; Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports or PBIS; School-Wide Positive Behavior Support or SWPBS), we will refer to it as PBS. In all variations, PBS includes parent training, social skills training, proactive management policies, individual behavioral interventions, and academic restructuring to make the curriculum more appropriate for the students (Lewis & Sugai, 1999). Educators teach behavioral expectations in the same way they teach any subject in the curriculum with the goal of “establishing both the overall social culture and intensive behavior supports needed to achieve academic and social success for all students” (Horner et al., 2009, p. 133). Figure 10–1 outlines the components of a PBS approach to management. In PBS, the central idea is for educations and other stakeholders to create and sustain a school environment that “improves lifestyle results (personal health, social, family, work, recreation, etc.) for all children and youth by making problem behavior less effective, efficient and relevant and making desired behavior more functional” (Sugai et al., 2000, p. 135). In the PBS approach, interventions should be culturally appropriate and “consider the unique and individualized learning histories (social, FIGURE 10–1

Components of a PBS Approach to Management

• Identify three to five schoolwide behavior expectations. • Teach social skills and behaviors expectations. • Provide reinforcement for appropriate behavior. • Correct misbehaviors by using a consistent set of consequences. • Collect and analyze data on behavior. • Involve all stakeholders. • Replace reactive discipline with proactive management and prevention. • Use administrative support and resources on both the school and district level to facilitate the implementation of PBS. Source: Developed from Blonigen, B. A., Harbaugh, W. T., Singell, L. D., Horner, R. H., Irvin, L. K., & Smolkowski, K. S. (2008). Application of economic analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) programs. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 5–19; Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3–12; and Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. G., Handler, M. W., & Feinberg, A. B. (2005). Whole-school Positive Behavior Support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performance. Educational Psychology, 25(2-3), 183–198.

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community, historical, familial, racial, gender, etc.) of all individuals . . . who participate in the PBS process” (p. 134). When educators identify appropriate behavior, teach students how to demonstrate that behavior, and provide consistent consequences for misbehaviors, most common misbehaviors in schools will be eliminated and the academics of the school will be strengthened. As one teacher told us • I didn’t think I’d like this whole-school management idea. There was lots of planning and then, too, I had to modify what I did in my classroom. But, now that we’ve done this for two years, I really see a difference in the students. I don’t have to spend time quieting them down when they come back from another teacher. We’re all on the same page with discipline, and that counts!

Practical Applications of PSB Rather than a list of classroom management strategies, PBS is a framework that educators can use to identify problems, establish methods to solve those problems and improve outcomes, assist in the implementation of those methods, and evaluate the success of the plan. Consisting of three levels or phases, PBS provides for a continuum of processes to deal with varying degrees of behavior problems from the universal strategies or rules and procedures through more intense secondary and tertiary phases of interventions for continuing or more severe misbehaviors. Because PBS is a structure for schoolwide management, schools must select specific management practices, such as those found in Chapters 3 through 9 of this book, to use with PBS. To be successful, these strategies must be evidence based, “grounded in a theoretical model that has been experimentally validated” (Sugai & Horner, 2006, p. 248). For example, using the PBS approach, a leadership team of teachers, administrators, staff and other education professionals collects data about the misbehaviors in the school. If the leadership team finds that there is a need to address bullying in the school, the team should examine classroom management strategies that specifically address bullying and decide on an approach to solve the problem that will have the support of at least 80% of teachers and administrators in the school. Then, the school may use staff development professionals from the district or paid outside consultants to provide staff training on the specific management model. Finally, everyone in the school implements the model in the school. Members of the leadership team provide ongoing training, support, coaching, and evaluation of the practice (Sugai & Horner, 2006). DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN To implement PBS, a school must have the sup-

port of its administration and the district-level administrators who are willing to commit both time and money to the plan. After everyone in the school is trained on the use of PBS, a team of teachers, administrators, staff, and other professionals from the school identify three to five positive behaviors that at least 80% of the adults in the school can agree to and support. While individual teachers may describe what these behaviors look like in the classroom, the leadership team identifies what these behaviors look like in the nonclassroom parts of the school such as the playground, halls, and cafeteria and how these behavioral expectations will be taught to the students (e.g., in classroom, at an assembly, through a morning show broadcast to all classrooms). Applying Whole-School Approaches 10–2 looks at some of these plans. Finally, the team develops an office discipline referral form that helps everyone in the school be consistent in dealing with misbehaviors (Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2011).

APPLYING WHOLE-SCHOOL APPROACHES 10–2 Teaching Appropriate Behavior On the Internet, the website Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports has a number of sample lesson plans for teaching appropriate behavior to students. Visit www. pbis.org/training/student.aspx, select two or three lesson

plans that are appropriate for the grade level(s) you plan to teach, and evaluate them. How effective do you think the lesson plans would be in helping students learn appropriate behavior?

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Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management THREE LEVELS OF INTERVENTIONS PBS has three levels of interventions for misbehaviors. Each is more specific and moves from the general school population to the group level and finally to the individual. The universal or primary level of interaction consists of the schoolwide discipline and management practices that are developed by the leadership team and supported by the entire school. These practices consist of teaching strategies and interventions that are designed to help all students to develop pro-social skills and appropriate behavior. Their purpose is to prevent and deal with behavior problems while maintaining positive student–teacher relationships and instructional quality. Because this is a schoolwide plan, there are schoolwide rules that are consistently followed by everyone in the school. Educators assess the entire process and monitor the success of the plan across the school. On the primary or universal level, there is an emphasis on “defining, teaching, monitoring, and rewarding a small set of behavioral expectations for all students across non-classroom and classroom settings” (Horner et al., 2009, p. 134). There is also a “clearly defined and consistently implemented continuum of consequences and supports for problem behaviors” (p. 134). One key to the success of PBS is that the educators consistently collect data about misbehaviors and the social behavior of the students and use that data to make decisions about management. As one principal said:

• I know I resisted at first, but PBS forced us to collect information about student behavior. Now, when I want more money for teacher workshops, I can point to our data to show that our program works and should be supported. I got enough extra money from the superintendent to send four team leaders to a national institute for training!

For students who do not respond on the universal level, educators move to the secondary level and repeat the process—What are the problems? What are the strategies that can be used to prevent or deal with the problems? The secondary level contains group interventions that address the needs of groups of students who are at risk of social failure, academic failure, or both. These students may have high risk factors for misbehavior such as low achievement, poor self-esteem, or limited family support and may require additional help to be successful (Lewis & Sugai, 1999). Sometimes all that is needed is additional support for these students. Management Tip 10–1 provides a suggestion for helping students who are easily distracted. Finally, the leadership team develops a system of support for students who, because they do not respond on the secondary or group level, move to the tertiary level. The tertiary or individual interventions are designed to help specific students with emotional and behavioral challenges as well as to assist the children’s families (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai & Horner, 2006). At this level, school psychologists, counselors, and special education teachers join with other educators to develop a behavior intervention plan that has individualized interventions to eliminate misbehaviors. At each of the three PBS levels, there are specific intervention strategies that educators can use, especially at the secondary and tertiary levels. For example wraparound from the mental health field (Scott & Eber, 2003), Behavior Education Plan (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004) with its component Check-In, Check-Out (Fairbanks, Simonsen, & Sugai, 2008), and First Steps to Success (Walker et al., 1997) are specific programs that have been suggested for use with PBS.

MANAGEMENT TIP 10–1 Helping Distracted Students Some students are easily distracted, especially by noise in the classroom while they are working independently. Allow

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these students to use old headphones to keep ambient noise to a minimum.

Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management

MANAGEMENT TIP 10–2 Catching Students in the Act Some schools use “Caught in the Act” (CIA) slips to reward students for appropriate behavior such as following rules and procedures, cooperating appropriately with others, using conflict resolution strategies, demonstrating appropriate behavior over a period of time. The slip includes the student’s name,

grade level, reason for the reward, and the location. The student then places the slip in a special container in the administrative office or school library. A drawing is held weekly and monthly with prizes such as key chains, pens, books, T-shirts, special privileges at school, or gift cards (Luiselli et al., 2005).

Educators reward students who demonstrate appropriate behavior. Some schools use schoolwide assemblies to recognize the students who “do the right thing” (Lohrmann-O’Rourke et al., 2000). Still other schools give students who exhibit proper behavior a token that can be redeemed at a special school store. Management Tip 10–2 has an additional suggestion for reinforcing social skills.

REWARDS FOR POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

PBS IN THE INDIVIDUAL CLASSROOM Although PBS is designed to be implemented on a schoolwide basis, its strategies can be used in an individual classroom to decrease problem behaviors, to support a positive classroom climate, and to increase academic success for all students. First, the discipline code or code of conduct should be agreed to by everyone, including students and teachers. The code should be written in positive terms that outline acceptable behaviors and should be taught to the students. Students earn rewards when they adhere to the rules and demonstrate appropriate behavior. Applying Whole-School Approaches 10–3 looks at rules and accompanying behaviors. PBS focuses on the positive, but this does not mean it ignores misbehaviors. There are consequences for students who misbehave. The goal of these consequences is to help students change their behavior. For groups of students who are having problems with their behavior, the teacher makes a special effort to teach the skills and positive behaviors related to the problem. If there are still students who misbehave, the teacher addresses these on an individual basis.

APPLYING WHOLE-SCHOOL APPROACHES 10–3 Identifying Behavior Expectations On the following chart, list positive rules (a few are given for your consideration) and some behaviors that show that stu-

dents are following the rules. You do not have to complete each column for each rule.

Rule

In Class Behavior

In Small Group Behavior

Individual Behavior During Instruction

Be responsible

Do not bother your neighbor

Contribute to the group

Do your own work Listen to the teacher

Be productive Be honest Be polite Be safe Be on time

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HOWARD KNOFF: PROJECT ACHIEVE Created by Howard Knoff, Project ACHIEVE began as an initiative of the University of South Florida’s School Psychology Program to provide training for guidance counselors, school psychologists, and elementary instructional consultants in racially diverse elementary schools with students from low socioeconomic areas (Knoff, 2000; Knoff & Batsche, 1995). A “cognitivebehavioral program whose purpose is to teach children how to manage themselves and their behavior” (Kilian, Fish, & Maniago, 2006, p. 8), it was selected by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 2001 as a model program and identified as an effective, evidence-based social skills program by the National Association of School Psychologists (National Association of School Psychologists, 2002). As a school-based program, Project ACHIEVE focuses on staff development to prepare all school employees to “address the immediate and long-term academic and behavioral needs of all students” (Knoff, 2000, p. 19) especially those who are underachieving and at risk of failing. Included in the program are classroom-based social skills instruction, an emphasis on student problem solving, and the development of intervention techniques for both academic and behavioral problems (Knoff & Batsche, 1995) in elementary and middle schools. Overview of Knoff’s Model In Project ACHIEVE, Knoff (2000) connects students’ mental health needs and school safety in a continuum that “begins with classroom and grade-level student discipline and behavioral (self-)management, continues with the analysis of school-based ‘special situations,’ extends to planning for potential crisis situations, and ends with outreach to parents and the community” (p. 18). Thus, management operates on a prevention-intervention-crisis management scale. Project ACHIEVE began with six goals: (1) enhance the problem-solving skills of teachers, (2) improve the classroom management skills of teachers and the classroom behavior of students through social skills training, (3) improve school services, in regular classrooms whenever possible, to students whose academic performance is below average, (4) support the social and academic progress of students by involving parents in the education process, (5) collect data to validate the project, and (6) create a school climate in which all adults in the school believe in and support every student. To reach these goals, the project focuses on strategic planning, effective teaching, parent education, and behavioral support and interventions (Knoff, 2000). Students learn “prosocial interpersonal, problem-solving, and conflict resolution skills” (p. 20) with the teachers developing appropriate classroom, grade-level, and schoolwide accountability systems that consistently reinforce appropriate behavior and provide consequences for misbehaviors. All adults in the school, including the cafeteria staff, custodial staff, and bus drivers as well as the parents, are trained to provide consistency in the program (Knoff & Batsche, 1995). Practical Applications of Knoff’s Model The integration of Project ACHIEVE into a school is spread over several years. The year before the project actually begins, an advisory board plans the implementation. The members of the advisory board present an overview of the requirements of the plan to the educators in the school. Eighty percent of the faculty and staff must vote to accept the plan in order to implement it. With that approval, a variety of teams (e.g., school climate team, grade-level leaders, pupil personnel support team) are established, baseline data are collected, and a data management system is established (Knoff, 2000). Actual implementation of Project ACHIEVE with students begins in the second year. For more information on the implementation process, refer to the websites at the end of this chapter and to Knoff’s (2000) detailed explanation. However, we want to examine some of the components of the program which we believe you should consider for your personal classroom management philosophy and plan.

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Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management FIGURE 10-2

1. Stop and Think (Calm down and think). 2. Are you going to make a Good Choice or a Bad Choice? (Think about possible choices).

The Stop and Think Process

3. What are your Choices or Steps? (Identify good choices). 4. Just Do it! (Act on the good choice). 5. Good Job! (Provide self-reinforcement). Sources: Developed from Kilian et al. (2006). Making schools safe: A system-wide school intervention to increase student prosocial behaviors and enhance school climate. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(1), 1–30; and Center for the Improvement of Child Caring. (n.d.). Stop and Think. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from ciccparenting.org/NewsLetters/ StopandThink.htm#event5.

As part of Project ACHIEVE, teachers learn to use a Stop and Think social skills process (Knoff, 2000) that helps them learn to analyze student behavior problems, identify “replacement” (p. 21) behaviors for the misbehaviors, and teach social skills. The Stop and Think process (see Figure 10–2) is a basic part of Project ACHIEVE. When students use this process, they decrease impulsive behavior, examine their choices, demonstrate appropriate social skills, and provide selfreinforcement (Kilian et al., 2006). Management Tip 10–3 has ideas for reinforcing the process. All teachers in the school use the same basic process to teach each social skill: teach the steps of the skill, model the steps using appropriate language, role-play the skill, provide feedback to students on the use of the skill, and have the students use the skill in increasingly complex situations (Kilian et al., 2006). The program, which is available commercially, has four developmentally appropriate curricula for teaching the social skills in Pre-K and first grade, second, and third grades; fourth and fifth grades; and middle school or grades 6 through 8. Project ACHIEVE’s core and advanced social skills are divided into four categories as shown in Table 10–2. At each grade level, all of the teachers on that level use the same instructional practices or “teaching steps” (Knoff, 2000, p. 24) to teach the same skill. While designed specifically for Project ACHIEVE, the teaching routine for each skill can be used by individual teachers. For example, each skill is taught for two weeks in a 25- to 30-minute social skills class. In Pre-K and first grade, the lessons will be shorter. Knoff (2000) suggests using “circle time” for younger students and a period between the “first and second academic period of the morning” (p. 24) for older students. On the first day of the first week, the teacher discusses the importance of the skill, explains where and when the skill should be used, teaches the skill and how to use it, models the skill, and role-plays with students the use of the skill. The teacher consistently uses the Stop and Think language. On the second and third days, the teacher reviews the skill and helps students to role-play more situations where the skill is important. Knoff (2000) suggests that each student should have at least two opportunities to demonstrate the appropriate skill either through individual, small group, large group, or entire class role-plays. After the first three days, the teacher begins to integrate the social skill into the academic instruction in the next four days by providing opportunities for students to practice the skill. “For example, to practice the Following Directions skill, the teacher could take a math lesson and tell the students that they have to (a) do the math work required in the lesson for that day and (emphasis MANAGEMENT TIP 10–3 Using Stop and Think To help students learn and use the Stop and Think process, teachers can use a number of tangible reinforcers as well as verbal praise. Some schools use red and white or red and

yellow “Stop and Think” stickers, Good Job! stickers, and hand-held Stop and Think signs that all adults in the school have available.

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Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management TABLE 10–2

Project ACHIEVE Social Skills

Prerequisite Skills or Survival Skills

Interpersonal Skills

• Evaluating yourself

• Waiting your turn

• Asking for help

• Dealing with teasing

• Following directions

• Interrupting

• Accepting consequences

• Dealing with losing

• Listening

• Sharing

• Deciding what to do

• Dealing with being left out

Problem-Solving Skills

Conflict Resolution Skills

• Rewarding yourself

• Asking for permission

• Apologizing

• Dealing with anger

• Using brave talk

• Joining an activity

• Setting a goal

• Walking away from a fight

• Using nice talk

• Contributing to discussions • Avoiding trouble

• Dealing with accusations

• Answering questions

• Understanding the feelings of others

• Dealing with peer pressure

• Responding to failure

• Dealing with the anger of others

• Waiting for an adult’s attention • Beginning/ending a conversation

• Dealing with fear

• Giving/accepting compliments Sources: Developed from: Kilian et al. (2006). Making schools safe: A system-wide school intervention to increase student prosocial behaviors and enhance school climate. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(1), 1–30; and Center for the Improvement of Child Caring. (n.d.). Stop and Think. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from ciccparenting.org/NewsLetters/ StopandThink.htm#event5.

Knoff’s) (b) practice the social skill (Following Directions) . . . at least 1 to 2 times whenever appropriate or requested” (Knoff, 2000, p. 24). The teacher should gradually increase the application of the rule to more challenging situations. Finally, in the last three or four days or the infusion period, teachers “prompt and reinforce students at every reasonable opportunity (emphasis Knoff’s) for using the targeted social skill and [the Stop and Think process] . . . during actual, real-life classroom situations” (Knoff, 2000, p. 25). Applying Whole-School Ideas 10–4 asks you to consider the use of the Stop and Think process.

EDUCATORS FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: RESOLVING CONFLICT CREATIVELY PROGRAM Started in New York City in 1985 by Linda Lantieri and Tom Roderick, the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) is now an initiative of the nonprofit organization Educators for Social Responsibility. With a focus on social and emotional learning, and character education, the K–8 program is designed to create a peaceable and caring community while improving school success

APPLYING WHOLE-SCHOOL IDEAS 10–4 Assisting Arturo Mr. Satcher could tell that Arturo was angry or emotionally upset in some way. As Arturo came into class after lunch, he slammed his books on his desk and left no doubt that he was furious. Later Arturo was working with his group on a science project, when Tumaro, a member of Arturo’s group,

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dropped a beaker. Arturo became very upset. It was clear he was about ready to explode. How could Mr. Satcher use the Stop and Think process to help Arturo?

Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management

and preventing violence (Selfridge, 2004). “The RCCP is based on a relatively simple idea that is often hard to carry out: that people should listen to one another when there are problems and work toward peaceable solutions” (Lantieri, 1995, p. 387). Studies of the program have found that “high rates of instruction in the RCCP curriculum across 2 years were significantly related to positive changes in children’s academic achievement and social and emotional development trajectories, reducing their risk of future school failure, aggression, and violence” (Brown, Roderick, Lantieri, & Aber, 2004, p. 161). Overview of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program In response to the concerns about violence in schools, a number of violence prevention programs have been developed. “What distinguishes the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program from [other programs is the] emphasis on transforming the culture of participating schools and making them nonviolent learning communities” (Lantieri & Patti, 1996, p. 29). In RCCP schools, student talk about their problems rather than “shov[ing] them under the table” (p. 29). They learn to “express and control their anger appropriately” (p. 29) because they have the skills they need to resolve conflicts on their own or with the assistance of a peer mediator or an adult. Because they take part in making the rules, the students also know what will happen if they break a rule. RCCP uses many of the social and emotional learning (SEL) strategies that you read about in Chapter 5 to encourage responsibility and self-management and to provide a caring and supportive school environment. Everyone in the school, from the office staff to the custodial and cafeteria staff, models positive communication, respectful interactions, and the peaceful resolution of conflicts (Selfridge, 2004). Central to RCCP is professional development for teachers and administrations, parent education, the involvement of the entire school, and student-led peer mediation. The curriculum, which consists of developmentally appropriate lessons, focuses on key skills of “active listening, empathy and perspective taking, cooperation, negotiation, the expression of feelings in appropriate ways, and assertiveness as opposed to aggressiveness or passivity” (Lantieri & Patti, 1996, p. 30). The skills are taught to promote intercultural understanding, conflict resolution, and a positive classroom climate (Aber, Pederson, Brown, Jones, & Gershoff, 2003). Practical Applications of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program Like most whole-school approaches to classroom management, implementation of RCCP begins with a needs assessment by consultants and district leaders to identify local needs and resources. They also provide the baseline data that will be used to evaluate the success of the program. Next is training for teachers and staff in the goals and objectives of the program, and the ways to implement RCCP. This is followed by on-going and advanced support for the teachers and staff once the program actually begins, outreach programs for parents, and the training of peer mediators (Aber et al., 2003). Teachers learn how to teach the lessons that will help students learn and practice the skills for academic, social, and emotional success (Selfridge, 2004). “Peace in the Family” (p. 63) workshops involve parents in the process and take conflict resolution skills into the home. Some schools prefer to begin RCCP with the school administrator(s) and a few teachers in a school. Then, in subsequent years, more teachers are involved (Aber et al., 2003). Part of the RCCP is the use of detailed teaching guides that provide age-appropriate activities to help student learn SEL skills. Figure 10–3 identifies the core skills of RCCP. Some sample elementary lessons are contained on the RCCP website listed at the end of this chapter. Another important part of RCCP is peer mediation. “Students identify potential conflict situations and offer their expertise to their schoolmates to resolve their problems peaceably and amicably” (Selfridge, 2004, p. 60). Students who will be trained as peer mediators are selected from grades 4–8 after being nominated by other students and recommended by their teachers. Some schools also use a formal application process in addition to the nominations and recommendations. After training, the

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Core Skills of RCCP

• Communicating and listening • Dealing with anger and expressing feelings through assertiveness • Resolving conflicts through negotiation and mediation • Supporting collaboration • Appreciating and celebrating diversity • Countering bias and eliminating discrimination Developed from Aber, J. L., Pederson, S., Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., & Gershoff, E. T. (2003). Changing children’s trajectories of development. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty; and Brown, J. L., Roderick, T, Lantieri, L., & Aber, J. L. (2004). The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: A school-based social and emotional learning program. In J. E. Zins (ed.). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp. 151–169). New York: Teachers College.

students work in pairs, wear special T-shirts, and mediate conflicts during recess and lunch. They also offer their assistance in individual classrooms. Trained to help other students to settle a conflict, the peer mediators do not intervene in fights (Aber et al., 2003). As one teacher mentioned: • Peer mediation really does work. Last week, Rich and Karron started to argue about whose turn it was to lead the class back from the cafeteria. Before I could do anything, Melisha and Brian, two fifth-graders, came over and offered to help. You know, I think Rich and Karron listened better to them than they would have to me! Those yellow T-shirts send a visual signal to stop and listen.

CRITIQUE OF WHOLE-SCHOOL APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT The models selected for inclusion in this chapter have been the subject of a great deal of research throughout the years. Most of these studies have pointed out the success of the whole school approaches. In fact, some studies have followed the original participants through their school careers and into adulthood. Perhaps the most studied model is the PBS framework. Researchers in elementary schools in Hawaii (Horner et al., 2009) found that students in PBS schools saw their schools as safer than students in the control group. Luiselli et al. (2005) reported on the implementation of a PBS model at an urban elementary school in which the “intervention included the entire student population, had a prevention focus, emphasized academic and social competence, stressed positive reinforcement, enlisted the full cooperation of school administrators, and evaluated outcomes through data-based monitoring” (p. 192). The result was fewer suspensions and office referrals. Teachers reported “better learning in classrooms” (p. 192), an observation that was reflected in standardized tests in reading comprehension and mathematics. In another study, Lassen, Steele, and Sailor (2006) found significant reductions in discipline referrals and suspensions as well as gains in standardized reading and math scores in schools using PBS. Maryland implemented the Maryland Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports model based on the PBS approach. With state-level coordination and support, more than 33% of the individual school divisions in the state had implemented the PBS structure when Barrett, Bradshaw, and Lewis-Palmer (2008) released performance data. Overall, schools using PBS reported a reduction in suspension rates and significantly fewer discipline referrals when compared to students on a national level. Other studies of whole-school models have also reported success. A study of the use of Project ACHIEVE in elementary schools (Kilian et al., 2006), found “consistent decreases in undesirable behaviors across all grades in classroom and non-classroom settings” (p. 24 ). Included were decreases in office referrals and suspensions, reductions in bullying behaviors, and positive changes in attitudes and school climate. Accompanying the behavior changes were

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Do Whole-School Approaches Contain Strategies You Can Use? Determine whether you can use any of the strategies discussed in the whole-school approaches by answering the following questions: 1. Do I believe that classroom management can have an impact on vandalism, bullying, and violence? 2. Do I believe that having everyone in the school using the same approach to management will increase the chance of success of any model? 3. Would I be willing to go through the training required to implement a whole-school model?

4. Am I willing to give up the autonomy of developing my own classroom management plan? 5. Am I willing to use prescribed lessons to teach social skills to my students? 6. Do I believe in a three-level intervention continuum for misbehaviors? 7. Do I believe that a process like Stop and Think will improve student behavior? 8. Would I feel comfortable working with peer mediators?

improvements in academic achievement as shown on standardized test scores. Likewise, an extensive study of RCCP by the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University (Aber et al., 2003) found that “RCCP benefits all children regardless of race/ethnicity, gender or classroom and neighborhood context” (p. 6). Finally, in a study of RCCP in elementary schools, Garibaldi, Blanchard, and Brooks (1996) found that teachers “claimed they could more effectively address problems that they could not identify or address prior to RCCP training” (p. 408). The whole-school models are most effective when teachers support the program and actually implement it in each classroom. Failures often occur when teachers believe they are coerced to participate or when they think a program will take too much time or too many resources to implement. Because the programs rely on consistency throughout the entire school, the success of a model relies on its use by each teacher. Project ACHIEVE and RCCP rely on teachers providing social skills instruction for students. The outcomes from this instruction often depend on the quality of the classroom instruction and the beginning skills of the students. “Implementing [a whole-school approach] may not reduce problem behavior if students have such low skills that classroom instruction is aversive” (McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Boland, & Good, 2006, p. 288). In addition, the administration at both the school and the school district level must be prepared to support and adequately fund the program. Each of the whole-school models requires significant training for educators and staff before the program begins. This often means hiring consultants and purchasing the materials that are specifically required by the program. If training is ongoing, time must be allocated for that training once school begins. This can mean the use of inservice days or the hiring of substitutes to release teachers for the training.

Summary One approach to classroom management is to use a wholeschool model. Fortunately, there are a number of evidencebased, well-researched models and approaches to management that involve everyone in the school. From the cafeteria staff to the librarian, the classroom teachers, and the administrators, everyone follows the same management plan, stresses the same rules, reinforces the same skills, and provides the same rewards and consequences.

In this chapter you have read about a few of these whole-school models. You have read that Positive Behavior Support is a systems approach to management that provides a framework with a three-tiered continuum of interventions. Project ACHIEVE focuses on the Stop and Think social skills process and emphasizes the consistent teaching of survival, interpersonal, problems solving, and conflict resolution social skills. Finally, the Resolving Conflict Creatively

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Program uses classroom instruction, peer mediators, and a Peace in the Family program for parents to help students learn core skills such as dealing with anger, assertiveness, collaboration, and respect for diversity. Now revisit the opening vignette for this chapter and respond to the following questions: 1. If you were going with Kate and Kevin to Mrs. Done-

hoo, what would you say to her? What suggestions would you make?

2. How would you make the connection between the

vandalism that Kate and Kevin noted and more violent behavior? 3. Using the information in this chapter, provide a rationale for a whole-school approach to classroom management. 4. What could Kate and Kevin do to present their concerns to other teachers? 5. What would you say if individual teachers questioned the use of a whole-school plan?

Suggested Readings Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148. The authors research the impact of PBS in 37 elementary schools. Carter, D., Norman, R., & Tredwell, C. (2011). Program-wide Positive Behavior Support in preschool: Lessons for getting started. Early Childhood Education, 38(5), 349–355. The authors look at the Program-wide Positive Behavior Support model to support appropriate behavior in young children. Forthun, L. F., & McCombie, J. W. (2011). The efficacy of crisis intervention training for educators: A preliminary study from the United States. Professional Development in Education, 37(1), 39–54. Crisis intervention training goes beyond traditional classroom management strategies to train the entire staff of a school to de-escalate conflict while addressing the causes of the conflict.

Powell, N. P., Boxmeyer, C. L., Baden, R., Stromeyer, S., Minney, J. A., Mushtaq, A., & Lochman, J. E. (2011). Assessing and treating aggression and conduct problems in schools: Implications from the Coping Power Program. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3), 233–242. The authors explore a contextual social-cognitive model to handle aggression and other disruptive behaviors in schools. Scott, T. M., Rosenberg, M., & Borgmeier, C. (2010). Decisionmaking in secondary and tertiary interventions of schoolwide systems of Positive Behavior Support. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(4), 513–535. The researchers examine the secondary and tertiary interventions that are part of PBS. Zehr, M. A. (2011). A progressive approach to discipline. Education Week, 30(22), S12–S13. Sylvester Middle School in Burien, Washington, uses PBS to improve student behavior.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on schoolwide approaches to classroom management.

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

SCHOOL-WIDE APPROACHES

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Investing in Student Success

Classroom Management from the National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/ classroom_management

www.pbis.org

ici.umn.edu/products/impact/182/over2.html School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual pbismanual.uoecs.org/manual.htm University of Oregon study on Positive Behavior Support

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Association for Positive Behavior Support

uonews.uoregon.edu/archive/news-release/2009/7/gainsseen-school-wide-positive-behavior-support

www.apbs.org Biography of George Sugai www.education.uconn.edu/directory/details. cfm?id=249 Florida’s Positive Behavior Support System Project flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu

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RESOLVING CONFLICTS CREATIVELY PROGRAM Educators for Social Responsibility esrnational.org

Whole-School Approaches to Classroom Management Linda Lantieri homepage lindalantieri.org Resolving Conflict Creatively Program—Elementary esrnational.org/professional-services/elementary-school/ prevention/resolving-conflict-creatively-program-rccp Resolving Conflict Creatively Program—Middle School esrnational.org/professional-services/middle-school/ prevention/resolving-conflict-creatively-rccp

PEACEABLE SCHOOLS Tennessee Center for Civic Learning and Engagement tccle.org/peaceable.html

PROJECT ACHIEVE Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice http://cecp.air.org/resources/success/project_achieve.asp Project Achieve homepage www.projectachieve.info Project Achieve at Amphitheater Public Schools www.amphi.com/departments/achieve

RESTITUTION RealRestitution www.realrestitution.com

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From Chapter 11 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 11, you should be able to 1. define special needs and identify how these factor(s) affect classroom management; 2. define inclusion, inclusive classrooms, and least restrictive environments;

6. identify and explain classroom management theorists and models with particular promise for addressing special needs; and

3. explain the often complex relationships between special needs and other diversities as well as their effects on classroom management;

7. consider whether your personal philosophical beliefs allow for developing and implementing classroom management plans in inclusive classrooms.

4. explain the practice of co-teaching wherein general education teachers and special education teachers collaborate;

Jack Hollingsworth/Photodisc/Thinkstock

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5. explain how effective and positive classroom management can be accomplished in inclusive classrooms;

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VIGNETTE: Supporting Inclusion A university professor, Dr. Emerson was well known internationally for her workshops in implementing classroom management practices in inclusive classrooms. Because of her expertise in “co-teaching” or the working together of general education teachers and special educators, she agreed to serve as a consultant for a large school system that had a reputation for its “reluctance for change,” especially in terms of addressing the problems of students with special needs. To present her ideas, she planned to visit one school for a week, with representative teachers from all the schools attending meetings there each day. Very organized and well spoken, Dr. Emerson came prepared to “give her all” about managing students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. About the middle of the first day, she faced a major stumbling block when she confronted such questions as “Why do we have do this?”, “Why do we have to manage disabled children? Don’t they belong in special education classes?”, “Some of us have been here for years and don’t think the government should dictate who we teach and manage. We were trained in subject matter and teaching methods, but we weren’t trained to work with these disabilities!”, and “Who can be an expert in how to teach learners with so many disabilities?” One teacher even commented that she had spoken with the union representative to determine whether “teaching disabled kids was included in the teachers’ contract.” Dr. Emerson was somewhat “taken aback” and knew she had to change her consulting plans for at least the first several days. She decided: (1) the teachers did not understand concepts such as “inclusion,” “inclusive classrooms,” or “co-teaching;” (2) the teachers did not fully understand the legal requirements for teaching learners with special needs in the least restrictive environment; and (3) the teachers did not understand classroom management models and theories that held potential for working with all students. Before she could address number 3 (which she had actually come to do), she would need to spend at least some time changing attitudes, that is, numbers 1 and 2.

OVERVIEW Managing student behavior and maintaining appropriate classroom climate is important for all teachers in grades Pre-K through 12. All students, including learners with special needs, can misbehave at times, and it is the responsibility of the teacher to develop a management plan to promote appropriate behavior for everyone in a classroom. In response to federal legislation, more students with special needs are now placed in classrooms with other students rather than in dedicated special education classes. Although learners with special needs do not inherently misbehave, their behaviors can challenge educators to make appropriate responses that take into consideration the needs and capabilities of these learners.

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As Dr. Emerson found in the opening vignette, some teachers have not welcomed students with special needs into their classrooms and have been apprehensive about the special challenges these students might create for both instruction and management. It is important to emphasize that simply because a student has special needs does not mean she or he will demonstrate behavior problems. Just like all other students, some students with special needs misbehave and some do not. The challenge for educators is to provide an adequate response to all students’ misbehaviors. The response might include taking deliberate action or not taking any action at all. This chapter provides a summary of special needs or disabling conditions, examines some of the challenges faced by educators, and then shows how selected classroom management models and practices contribute to positive student behavior in inclusive classrooms. Because of the number of special needs that exist, we will not attempt to identify each of them and the strategies to work with them. Rather, we encourage you to use the references, suggested reading, and Internet sites to locate additional information.

KEY TERMS Table 11–1 identifies the key terms related to classroom management and inclusion. TABLE 11–1 Key Terms Related to Classroom Management and Inclusion • Behavior Support Plan

• Inclusion

• Collaboration

• Inclusive classrooms

• Co-teaching

• Learners with special needs

• Functional behavioral assessments

• Least restrictive environment (LRE)

SPECIAL NEEDS We define a “learner with special needs” as: A student who differs from other students in ways such as mental characteristics, sensory ability, physical abilities, or multiple conditions and who requires specialized services from educators in teaching and learning situations as well as classroom management. You might question this preference for the term special needs rather than disabling conditions. We feel that special needs has a more a positive tone or perspective than disabling conditions. “Disabling” seems to accentuate the negative, while “special” emphasizes the positive. You do not have to agree with this opinion. In fact, we encourage you to consider both terms and make your own individual decisions about the term to use. A comprehensive list of selected special needs of students in Pre-K through 12 schools today can be found in almost any special education textbook or on websites in the Reaching Out with the Internet section at the end of this chapter. Selected examples include attention deficit disorder, blindness and low vision, chronic health impairments, deafness and hearing loss, developmental disabilities, head injury, learning disabilities, mobility impairments, and psychological disturbances. Special needs also include gifted and talented students who need assistance making the most of their unique abilities. We encourage you to use the resources at

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the end of this chapter and to consult additional resources for a more in-depth look at these special needs. Unfortunately, some learners have more than one physical, psychosocial, or cognitive need. Further, as you will read in the next section, a complex and intricate relationship exists among these areas of special needs. This increases the importance of your having at least a basic knowledge of special needs, so your classroom management plan can reflect the needs of all students rather than the class as a whole. Too often, teachers make statements such as: “Bethany is a visually impaired girl who needs special allowances for her handicap.” Such a statement ignores all Bethany’s strengths and special abilities. Bethany might be extremely bright in many areas, and her one special need should not take precedence over her talents. Also, as Dr. Emerson experienced in the opening vignette, sometimes teachers make critical remarks such as, “I don’t know how to teach and manage students who have special needs—I’m not a special education teacher.” These two factors (i.e., emphasizing student weaknesses instead of strengths and claiming lack of knowledge in working with special needs children) can create a limited learning environment.

ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES A learner’s achievement level can be defined as the individual’s previously acquired knowledge that relates to what is being taught. Along with achievement, a learner’s overall intelligence, abilities, or special expertise contributes to the degree to which he or she processes and reacts to information. Students organize their perceptions and experiences of the school and physical world into cognitive structures. Although much is still to be learned about cognition, we do know that cognitive development is an active process in which learners assimilate information into cognitive categories and adapt their previous categories to accommodate new information. These functions of assimilation and accommodation cause the change and growth in learners’ thinking that constitutes cognitive development. Students functioning at lower cognitive levels may misbehave. Faced with repeated academic struggles, underperforming students may become frustrated and disaffected and have lower selfconfidence. All of this may contribute to a higher rate of school disruption. Low literacy achievement in the elementary grades is linked to later aggression in the third and fifth grades. Similar patterns have been found in later grades—low achievement in the middle and high school is linked with more serious forms of aggression a year later (Gregory, Skiba, & Noguera, 2010). On the other hand, high-achieving students can also become discipline problems as a result of academic boredom in the classroom. The learner’s developmental stage is perhaps the most significant individual difference affecting academic achievement and classroom behaviors. Learners functioning at one developmental level simply cannot comprehend the management tasks required of the next higher developmental level. That is why classroom management expectations and practices designed for middle or high school learners often will not work for Pre-K or elementary students without significant modifications. A youngster at the concrete-operations stage cannot master intellectual challenges that demand formal, abstract thinking abilities that lead to specific classroom management behaviors. Classroom management practices might make sense to a more advanced level of students, but they may appear totally foreign to another less developed group of students. As thinking abilities move from one developmental stage to a more advanced stage, educators should change classroom management practices. Rather than assume that learners can succeed by committing more effort to positive classroom behavior, educators should understand that development and readiness, not effort alone, affect how students behave. Although some behaviors might be learned, students will be unable to learn classroom expectations that are beyond their cognitive ability at any given age. A significant (although not insurmountable) task is to decide developmentally appropriate classroom management practices when one, two, or three developmental levels exist in the same class. Developmental levels and cognitive readiness of all students must be considered and addressed with any classroom management plan.

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INCLUSION, INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS, AND LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENTS Inclusive education involves educating students with special needs in age-appropriate general education classes where they can be valued members of the class and receive the supports and services they need to succeed. Inclusive education should promote acceptance, belonging, and tolerance among students with and without special needs and allow all students to have access to a high-quality educational program. Today parents, students, teachers, and administrators throughout the United States expect schools to educate as many students as possible in general education classes. This means that teachers must use effective classroom management including teacher-directed, peer-mediated, and self-discipline strategies to promote academic achievement (Soodak & McCarthy, 2006). In previous chapters, you read about the importance of community building as a part of classroom management and examined some community and whole-school approaches. Because inclusive education is about belonging, membership, and acceptance, when learners with special needs are included in the general education classroom, teachers need to use the classroom management policies and practices that promote diversity and community. Community-building management strategies should help all students to build friendships, collaborate, and address challenging behaviors in a positive, proactive manner that is consistent with the goals of inclusive education (Soodak, 2003). Parents are an important part of inclusive education. Historically, the movement grew out of a parent initiative that focused on the rights of children with special needs to participate with their peers who do not have special needs. Parents and many educators supported the belief that separating learners on any characteristic, such as ability or race, inherently leads to inferior education for those “tracked” (Soodak, 2003, p. 328) out of the mainstream. In addition, allowing only part-time involvement in targeted subject areas based on student “readiness” (p. 328) to participate did not produce the desired outcomes. Thus, quality inclusion is not merely determined by student placement, but rather by creating an environment that supports and includes all learners. Social relationships are important in inclusive classrooms. This does not mean that academics are neglected. Instead, both are supported and encouraged. Important to students, parents, and teachers, friendships provide learners with an opportunity to develop appropriate skills and attitudes, enhance the life of learners and parents, and promote academic success. To promote friendships in your classroom, you can use activities that involve cooperation and collaboration rather than competition; develop rituals that involve all members of the class; use children’s and young adult literature to promote discussions about friendships and belonging; and establish classroom rules that encourage respect, such as requiring turn-taking, listening to others, and involving all students (Soodak, 2003). Some confusion exists concerning the similarity of inclusive classrooms and mainstreaming. A philosophical or conceptual distinction should be made between these terms. Those who support the idea of mainstreaming believe that a child with special needs belongs in the special education environment and must earn his or her way into the general education classroom. In contrast, those who support inclusion believe that the child always should begin in the general environment and be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in that classroom.

SPECIAL NEEDS AND OTHER DIVERSITIES: COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS Rather than looking at only one special need of a learner, the most effective teachers consider the whole child. For example, instead of considering only Ben’s loss of hearing, perceptive teachers look at Ben’s strengths, for example, his academic abilities, gender, cultural background, social class, and his other talents. Realistically speaking, a learner whose parents are on a higher socioeconomic level, regardless of cultural background, might have a better chance of school success than one with lessinvolved parents who work two to three jobs just to pay for rent and food. The student from the lower socioeconomic level will in some cases need more support to be successful in school. A management plan must take that into consideration. Some students face double or even triple jeopardy. For example, a girl might be a second language learner, hearing impaired, and speech impaired. Being a girl or a being a minority (regardless

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of the majority culture) might contribute to her difficulties. All these special needs can result in perceptions of failure even before the actual teaching, learning, and management process begins. In addition, multiple special needs can damage a student’s self-esteem as well as impede appropriate identity development. The student may ask, “Why me?” and “Why am I not like everybody else?” While such conditions or needs do not automatically lead to behavior problems, a student might withdraw into her or his own world or show aggression. Still, perceptive educators need to be able to address multiple special needs.

CO-TEACHING In co-teaching, a general education teacher and a special education teacher or other specialist provide instruction to students in an inclusive classroom. Both educators are both responsible for developing a management plan, planning instruction, teaching and facilitating learning activities, and assessing their own effectiveness as well as student progress (Friend, Cook, Hurley-Chamberlain, & Shamberger, 2010). The method contrasts with the consultation model of providing support for students with special needs. In the consultation model, general and special educators may work cooperatively, but the special educator only suggests instructional design modifications. He or she usually does not implement instruction in the inclusive classroom. Proponents of co-teaching argue that the model allows special educators to bring their expertise to bear on the instructional design process, while the consultation model does not. In fact, researchers (Scruggs, Mastropieri, & McDuffie, 2007) found that when the teachers are personally compatible, both benefit from coteaching. Ultimately, the collaboration between educators should increase the academic achievement of all students in the inclusive classroom. In addition, co-teaching limits the “pull-out” (Soodak & McCarthy, 2006, p. 476) time from the classroom for students with special needs and should decrease the isolation and stigmatization of students. • Gary Sauers, a general education teacher, and Loretta Treese, a special education teacher, successfully co-taught a fifth-grade class. When asked what made them such an effective team, Ms. Treese replied, “We’re a team and we leave our egos at the door. We do a lot of talking about things like what to do with the class and what management strategies we want to use. And, we share daily tasks like taking attendance or lunch money, or being in charge of the class.

Effectively co-taught classrooms, in which both teachers have the same perception of teaching and management, have a positive classroom climate, activity-based instruction, and high expectations for behavior and academic performance (Soodak & McCarthy, 2006). Unfortunately, co-teaching is not always successful. Supports such as training, planning, and reflection time are necessary. In addition, the teachers need to share a “common belief system, demonstrate parity, share leadership roles while completing tasks, and practice a cooperative process” (Conderman, Johnston-Rodriguez, & Hartman, 2009). Management Tip 11–1 provides information on co-teaching. MANAGEMENT TIP 11–1 Managing During Co-Teaching As you know, when managing a traditionally taught class, teachers can make their own decisions, and if necessary, adjust for individual needs. However, during co-teaching, the general education teacher and special education teacher must work collaboratively. When deciding on management with a co-teacher: 1. Decide each teacher’s specific management roles— rather than teachers competing, demonstrate to students agreed-upon management goals and strategies.

2. Discuss management philosophies and reach compromises, whenever necessary. 3. Leave “egos” at the door—managing during coteaching should not be a contest of “who is the best manager.” 4. Plan management strategies that reflect knowledge and positive attitudes toward individual learners both with and without special needs.

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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS Teachers must effectively manage Pre-K through grade 12 students in any classroom, whether it is a general education or inclusive classroom. Their practices should make learners with special needs feel they are welcomed classroom participants who are capable of social, behavioral, and academic success. Throughout this text, you have explored classroom management models and theories, examined misbehaviors behaviors and accompanying causes, and identified effective practices, both group and individual. In the following section, you will look at management strategies that may have particular meaning to inclusive students. Remember that classroom management is more than rules and procedures. It also includes establishing a supportive learning environment for everyone in the classroom. As Soodak (2003) indicated: “The inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classes provides an opportunity for teachers to identify classroom management policies and practices that promote diversity and community” (p. 327). Inclusive Classrooms—Rationale The philosophy behind inclusive education is primarily about belonging, membership, and acceptance (Soodak, 2003) and the creation of a welcoming community in the classroom. Any management system that educators use in inclusive classrooms should facilitate friendships among students, teach and promote positive and supportive behavioral strategies, respond to misbehavior in a manner to support change, promote schoolwide use of positive behavioral supports, and eliminate exclusionary discipline polices. For many decades, learners with special needs were taught in isolated classrooms, away physically, socially, and academically from other learners. The outdated rationale was that these students could not keep pace with regular classroom learners and in some cases might hold other learners back academically. In addition, their special needs were believed to lead to special management problems that regular classroom teachers could not handle. More contemporary thinking and the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) established a goal to teach and manage all students to the best of their ability in the general education classroom and to avoid any feelings of segregation because of special needs. Sometimes, inclusion is referred to as teaching in the least restrictive environment. It is important for you, as a teacher, to remember that learners with special needs and learners without special needs are probably more alike than different. The attitude for teaching in an inclusive classroom requires that you replace “if” (if I should try to include students with special need in this activity) with “how” (how can I modify this activity to include all of the students in my classroom). Rather than single out a student with a special need, remember that some of the other students in your classroom are also on different achievement levels and may on occasion misbehave. All students will benefit from differentiated instruction and the use of a variety of instructional techniques that will help students with a variety of learning styles and preferences. In inclusive classrooms, behavior interventions must be equitable and support all students. Instead of excluding some students or demeaning them, educators must be prepared to teach students new behaviors and to make changes in the classroom (e.g., seating arrangements, schedules) that will support positive behavior (Soodak, 2003). Management Tip 11–2 provides information on promoting friendships to help all students. MANAGEMENT TIP 11–2 Promoting Friendships To promote friendships and create a caring community, teachers can use activities that emphasize cooperation instead of competition; use peer-mentors; hold class meetings and discussion circles; use children’s literature to discuss

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the ideas of belonging, friendship and helping each other; establish class rules to encourage respect for everyone, and taking turns; and ensure that everyone has a chance to participate in activities.

Classroom Management in Inclusive Classrooms

Inclusive Classrooms—Practices What are inclusive classrooms like? In inclusive classrooms, students are active, not passive learners. Students with special needs learn at their own pace and have accommodations and alternative assessment strategies to help them succeed. To learn from and support each other, students often work in small groups. This means that classroom rules have to allow for the activities (e.g., talking, movement) that occur in groups. Teachers encourage students to make choices, permit students to make mistakes, and allow them to learn from those mistakes. However, teachers also provide support so that all students are successful. Instructional goals are attainable but challenging (Watson, 2011). What must a management plan do in an inclusive classroom? First, the plan must provide a safe environment where learning can take place and students feel free to make choices. Second, the plan should help create a sense of community for all students, no matter their academic and/or behavioral differences and abilities. Key terms are “membership, friendships, and collaboration” (emphasis Soodak’s) (Soodak, 2003, p. 328). Finally, the plan should identify the accommodations that must be made to ensure fair expectations for all of the students. Teachers should not assume that students know the class rules for behavior. Emmer and Stough (2001) found that some researchers believe that the best approach to classroom management in an inclusive classroom is what is called an instructional approach. Here, teachers actually instruct students in what is appropriate behavior and how to act during specific class activities and school situations. You have read about this practice as part of some models discussed in Chapters 2 through 10 of this book. Oliver and Reschley (2010) noted five broad categories of management strategies for inclusive classrooms based on the work of Simonsen, Fairbanks, Breisch, Myers, and Sugai (2008). These categories are shown in Figure 11–1. Researchers characterize these as primarily antecedent strategies because they occur before rather than after misbehaviors. Oliver and Reschley (2010) note the success of models such as the Good Behavior Game in the management of inclusive classrooms. As in any classroom, behavior interventions in an inclusive classroom must be identified both for the students who are not typically disruptive as well as for students at risk for “patterned disruptive behaviour” (Jull, 2009, p. 493) because of a clinical diagnosis. In addition, any student who is performing low academically is at “a great risk for behavioral problems because inappropriate behavior typically results in escape from difficult academic tasks” (Oliver & Reschley, 2010, p. 188). In inclusive classrooms, Soodak (2003) suggests the following when students misbehave: • Diffuse and redirect the behavior by providing the student with choices (e.g., redo the work, replace materials) and natural consequences. • Do not use punishment. • If it is necessary to remove a student from a class, do so for only a short time and allow the student to return without humiliation, shame, or anger. FIGURE 11–1

Classroom management strategies in inclusive classrooms should 1. provide structure and predictability; 2. allow teachers to post, teach, model, review, and provide feedback on behavior expectations;

Categories of Management Strategies

3. engage students in observable ways using reinforcement strategies; 4. include a continuum of strategies to reward appropriate behavior; and 5. include a continuum of strategies to respond to misbehaviors. Source: Developed from Oliver, R. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2010). Special education teacher preparation in classroom management: Implications for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35(3), 188–189.

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APPLYING INCLUSION PRACTICES 11–1 Exploring Peer-Mediated Strategies Websites:

Select one of the peer-mediated strategies listed in this text, then use library databases and online information to locate addition information on the strategy and respond to the questions. For example:

www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno= ED255017 eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=EJ481379 Questions:

Reverse-Role Tutoring Database article: Tournaki, N., & Criscitiello, E. (2003). Using peer tutoring as a successful part of behavior management. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(2), 22–29.

1. 2.

Define the peer-mediation strategy. Explain how you could use this strategy in an inclusion classroom.

To assist students with special needs, teachers frequently use peer-mediated instructional strategies such as Reverse-Role Tutoring, Learning Together, Classwide Peer Tutoring, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions, Teams Games Tournaments, Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies, Cooperative Homework Teams, Numbered Heads Together, Cooperative Learning Groups, Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition, reciprocal teaching, and literature circles. By pairing or grouping students with and without special needs, teachers can expect benefits for everyone. “The research on peer-mediated instruction generally shows that these strategies improve the achievement of students with and without disabilities in inclusive settings” (Soodak & McCarthy, 2006, p. 469). Applying Inclusion Practices 11–1 asks you to explore one of the peermediated strategies in more detail. In order for peer mediation to work, teachers must instruct the students in the ways they are expected to act. Peer mediators do not do the work for the other students. Instead, they learn to support and instruct other students, coach them, and provide feedback (Hall & Stegilla, 2003). The teachers monitor the process and assist without taking over the process. Although peer mediation is often used with academic goals, it can also be employed as a strategy to help students achieve behavioral and social goals.

PEER-MEDIATED STRATEGIES

SOCIAL INTERACTION As noted above, membership and friendship are very important for all students, but especially for students with special needs (Soodak, 2003). Classroom management practices in inclusive classrooms must promote social interaction and should lead to acceptance for all students. Although this might sound like a simple task, it sometimes requires determined efforts on the part of students, educators, and parents to promote friendships among students. Social interaction is more than teacher-designed peer-mediated strategies. It requires students to learn to accept themselves and to accept others. Many learners face complex relationships because of a combination of their special needs, level of self-esteem, and cultural identities that affect their ability to make friends or interact in small groups. For example, Carasha, an African American girl, might face a sense of double or triple jeopardy. She is a female African American, has poor self-esteem, comes from a family in a lower socioeconomic class, and has a special learning need. Individually and together, these might affect her ability and motivation to make friends. Only by understanding each individual learner can teachers determine how those students will interact socially. However, such a task takes time. Teachers must learn the student’s personal characteristics, family and home background, special interests, and myriad other factors that influence the learner’s strengths, weaknesses, and in this case ability and motivation to demonstrate appropriate behavior in the classroom.

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Maintaining that classroom management is crucial, Beaty-O’Ferrall, Green, and Hanna (2010) explained that some students experience a decline in academic achievement and self-esteem because of teacher–student relationships in the classroom. When teachers adopt a relationship-building approach to classroom management by focusing on developing the whole person, they can help students to develop positive, socially acceptable behaviors. Building relationships as a means to manage classrooms includes using gentle interventions, finding time for bonding, avoiding punishments, and building activities that ensure the success of all students. Parents, Family Members, and Caregivers Teachers, both general and special education, as well as resource professionals understand the need to involve all parents, family members, and caregivers in inclusive classrooms. Nelson and Guerra (2009) noted that some parents, while having high expectations for their children, are not involved in the classroom. Sometimes this leads to parents and teachers having different expectations for children. Although parents are involved in the creation of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) for a child with special needs, some parents believe that the IEP means that the school will assume all responsibility for the child, including both academic and social development. Other parents see the IEP as a partnership and collaborate with the school. Thus, teachers need to make sure that parents and caregivers are aware of classroom management plans and how they are implemented. In addition, they can actually ask parents, family members, and caregivers what management practices might work best for their children. Applying Inclusion Practices 11–2 looks at relationships with parents and caregivers. Perceptions of Special Needs When planning and implementing classroom management strategies in inclusive classrooms, teachers need to be sure that their policies strive to change perceptions of students with special needs as being “deficit-driven” (i.e., the learner is responsible for his or her condition). Instead, their policies should reflect the view that teachers can change learners’ academic performance as well as classroom behavior. For example, instead of focusing on weaknesses and special needs, effective teachers in inclusive classrooms build on the students’ strengths. This does not mean that teachers can ignore special needs. Rather, it places emphasis on the learners’ strengths and abilities. In using Positive Behavior Support (PBS) (see Chapter 10 and the next section in this chapter), teachers develop management plans for individual students. To do this, general and special education teachers may work with other professionals. For these partnerships to be successful, all participants must share the same philosophy of inclusion. Just as Dr. Emerson found in the opening

APPLYING INCLUSION PRACTICES 11–2 Working with Parents, Families, and Caregivers Several decades ago, educators used the term parent involvement, basically meaning to involve parents in parent teacher associations as well as helping with classroom tasks. Now, nearly all publications use parents, families, and caregivers. 1. Why do you think the term “parents” has been changed to parents, families, and caregivers? 2. While involving parents, families, and caregivers is important for managing all learners, why might it be more important for learners with special needs?

3. How might you “educate” parents, families, and caregivers about the management of learners with special needs? Vice versa? 4. A parent once told one of the authors, “I make him behave at home; it is your job to make him behave at school.” What would your response have been?

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vignette, not all teachers readily accept IDEA. Some do not agree philosophically with inclusion, and some might feel inadequate to teach and work in inclusive classrooms. • For example, in one middle school, the Hawk team was working toward inclusion. Unfortunately, although the team leader was enthusiastic, another teacher on the team was vehemently opposed and two were apathetic. Fortunately, the team leader was well versed in inclusion and inclusive classroom management techniques. By showing the other teachers that they were legally bound to inclusion and that they could work effectively with learners with special needs, the team leader succeeded in changing the other teachers’ mindsets toward inclusion. Eventually she engaged the other teachers in classroom teaching and management techniques that promoted inclusion.

Behavior Support Plans Behavior Support Plans (BSP) are part of the IDEA, and they are explained in detail by Horner, Sugai, Todd, and Lewis-Palmer, (1999–2000). A BSP may be developed on the tertiary level of the PBS model discussed in Chapter 10. “Failure to reduce disruptive behaviours can expose students to increased risk of short- and longer-term problems, including exclusion and dropout” (Jull, 2009, p. 497). Thus, an intervention strategy such as a BSP that includes behavioral interventions and teaching strategies is necessary for some students. An alternative to punishment or traditional behavior modification approaches to classroom management, a BSP is designed to teach positive behaviors and replace an adversarial relationship with a climate of civility. It is based on the idea that problem behaviors are context-related and that interventions should reflect respect for and an understanding of the individual student. In addition to using traditional strategies to reinforce positive behaviors, the BSP teaches students how and when to use appropriate behaviors (Soodak, 2003). Students who have emotional and behavioral difficulties benefit from the specific supports in the BSP. By defining how the school and classroom environment will change, a BSP helps a specific student reduce problem behaviors, improve pro-social behaviors, and become more successful within the school. The BSP outlines what each person involved in the plan will do and how the effectiveness of the plan will be determined. In addition to increasing management consistence, the BSP provides professional accountability for everyone involved in the plan. Typically developed by a team of individuals (although an individual teacher can use the process) including teachers, administrators, family members, educational specialists, and, sometimes, the student, the BSP identifies the actions to be taken, the resources needed, and the expected outcomes of the plan. To obtain the information that they need to develop the BSP, educators often conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) in which they examine the function of the student’s misbehavior and the motivation for it. With that knowledge, educators can work with others to develop a BSP that provides either interventions, or instructional or environmental accommodations to help the student (Emmer & Stough, 2001). • For example, Timoura may act out when the class is directed to get into a small group because she is frustrated when working in a small group. Using a FBA to determine the reasons for Timoura’s behavior, the teacher may provide behavioral assistance by giving clear directions for forming the groups, have another student help Timoura get to her group, and give Timoura extra help once group work has begun (Soodak, 2003). When Timoura no longer acts out before getting into a small group 80% of the time, the plan is considered successful.

Because classrooms are dynamic places, a BSP will not solve all problems. Teachers need to respond to situations as they occur, as well as take the time needed to design and implement a plan to support change. When students misbehave, particularly when the behavior disrupts learning or threatens the well-being or safety of others, teachers may need to respond with immediacy to restore order, preserve dignity, and provide guidance. The goal is to manage the problem behavior without losing sight of how the behavior connects to the individuals’ history and the context. A number of researchers have reported success with the use of a BSP (Soodak, 2003). By being proactive and teaching expected behaviors, whether to one student, an entire class, or the whole

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school, educators are able to decrease the rates of problem behaviors, increase perceptions of school safety, and reduce chaos in nonclassroom settings (Sugai & Horner, 2008). Exclusionary Policies As you read in Chapter 2, the use of exclusionary policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies) can create problems when managing students in any classroom. However, the use of these policies can create even more problems in inclusive classrooms. “Designed to send a message that aggressive behavior will not be tolerated, many schools have adopted a tough, clear, and seemingly simple plan: evict students who commit specific acts of aggression” (Soodak, 2003, p. 331). The opposite from the positive approaches to classroom management that are consistent with the goals of inclusive education, these policies punish and exclude children from school. Soodak (2003) notes two major problems with the use of exclusionary policies in inclusive schools. First, because they erode civility and disenfranchise those students most in need of emotional connectedness (Skiba & Peterson, 2000, 2005), the policies undermine the purpose of inclusive education. Second, many schools do not apply exclusionary policies equally to all students. As you will read in Chapter 12, many minority groups are impacted unfairly by these policies because of cultural differences. In addition, students with special needs including emotional and behavioral needs have a great risk of expulsion. Instead of trying to find ways to include students with special needs, the goal of some educators “may well be the removal of troublesome students from mainstream educational environments” (Skiba & Peterson, 2000, p. 340). There are legal safeguards included in IDEA to protect students with special needs from being “unfairly punished for behaviors beyond their control or when the consequences of the behavior were not understood” (Soodak, 2003, p. 331). A school must determine whether a misbehavior is related to a student’s special needs before providing a consequence for the behavior. “In addition, school personnel must also determine whether the student was receiving an appropriate education as defined by his or her own individualized education plan (IEP) at the time the incident or behavior occurred (Soodak, 2003, p. 331).

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT THEORISTS AND MODELS FOR INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS Educators must provide a classroom environment in which students agree to cooperate with everyone in the classroom and to focus on academic achievement (Brown, 2004). To do so, effective classroom managers must use many essential research-based pedagogical processes (e.g., all the models and theorists in this book) as well as have the ability to respond appropriately to the needs of students in inclusive classrooms. As you review these theories, Management Tip 11–3 cautions you to remember to view students as individuals. MANAGEMENT TIP 11–3 Managing Individuals Managing learners with special needs should be considered a rewarding challenge rather than an insurmountable hurdle. Several helpful tips include: 1. Focus on the individual’s strengths rather than weakness; for example, a learner with one or more special needs might have special talents in art or music. 2. Learn as much as possible about the special need through inservice experiences, university courses,

resource people, and the Internet (e.g., “Reaching Out with the Internet” found in this text). 3. Clearly explain management practices, for example, behavior expectations and reasons. 4. Consider specific special needs and plan for particular needs rather than expect all learners to abide by the same rule.

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It is somewhat difficult to pinpoint models and theorists who have particular relevance for inclusive classrooms because teachers differ in their commitment to promoting inclusive classrooms. As Dr. Emerson in the opening vignette learned, some teachers have reservations about inclusive classrooms. Other more supportive teachers will use any model or theory to help learners with special needs and to promote the idea of inclusion. Below are a few examples of theories and models that teachers could use in inclusive classrooms. Although some educators might not agree with the concepts of rewards and punishments for learner behavior, B. F. Skinner (1948, 1971) (Chapter 3) believed that most learned human behavior is shaped by positive rewards. Skinner felt that when educators reward a learner for desirable behavior, responsibility is placed upon the learner to learn proper behavior in order to receive credit for behaving in a desired manner. Thus, students repeat behaviors that are rewarded and stop those undesirable ones that are ignored or not rewarded. With inclusive classrooms, this of course depends on the learner’s knowing right behavior from wrong behavior and having the ability (and motivation) to make correct decisions. Teachers can also have a positive influence on learners with special needs by using proven teaching techniques and behaviors. In direct contrast to Skinner, Thomas Gordon (1970, 1974, 1989) (Chapter 3) believed that rewards and punishments were ineffective. Even before the development of inclusive classrooms, Gordon wrote that effective teachers need skills that include the ability to identify problems and student needs and change the class environment and instructional practices to improve student behavior. Believing in self-discipline, teachers should avoid yelling, screaming, and punishing students. Similarly, Kounin and Gump (1958, 1974) (Chapter 5) proposed Instructional Management, another model that suggested appropriate learner behavior, depended upon effective instructional practices. Likewise, Evertson’s and Harris’s (1992) Classroom Management and Organization Program (Chapter 7) was based upon effective teacher behaviors. These models proposed teachers’ behaviors and instructional practices influenced student behavior, but ultimately learners must develop self-discipline. A comprehensive Pre-K through grade 6 management program, the Child Development Project (CDP) (Chapter 9) uses class meetings, pair and small group learning activities, and open-ended literature discussions to develop students’ social, ethical, and intellectual skills. Promoting positive development, CDP is based on the belief that prevention efforts are most likely to be effective when they are employed early in a child’s development, before antisocial behavioral patterns have a chance to become firmly established. When a school becomes a caring community of learners, educators provide a supportive environment for all students that fosters collaborative relationships and builds students’ sense of community in school (Promising Practices Network, 2004). Although designed only for the elementary grades, we think this model is appropriate for the inclusive classroom because of its goals and activities that are designed to teach appropriate behaviors. Applying Inclusion Practices 11–3 asks you to apply some of these ideas to an inclusion setting. Schoolwide PBS (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) is actually a decision-making framework for improving academic and behavior outcomes. However, the tertiary interventions in PBS often use the BSP discussed earlier in this chapter. In fact, the PBS model was originally designed for use with students with special needs. By using evidence from research and developing a continuum of behavior and academic interventions and supports, teachers teach social skills. They also arrange the classroom to prevent misbehaviors and to use appropriate instructional and management strategies to help all students (Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports, 2011). Because PBS teaches pro-social skills and behaviors, we think it is appropriate for students with special needs and overall inclusive classrooms. Although some special needs learners might not have the ability to make important decisions, we believe most students with special needs can be taught some degree of decision-making, for example, right and wrong behaviors, appropriate actions toward others, and respect for basic school rules and procedures. In fact, Jull (2009) suggests that self-monitoring is a universally beneficial intervention strategy, especially when a “problematic behavioural pattern is identified” (p. 497) and when the misbehaviors are expected to stop after a

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APPLYING INCLUSION PRACTICES 11–3 Using Effective Instructional Practices Many classroom management theorists such as Kounin, Gump, Evertson, and Harris focus on effective teaching behaviors. In fact, teachers who are organized and demonstrate effective teaching behaviors usually have fewer behavior problems. Part 1: Effective Instructional and Management Practices 1. Choose two or three special needs. What effect would having students with those special needs in an inclusive classroom make on instructional and management practices? 2. How might a teacher in an inclusive classroom with students having those special needs modify instruction and management, with regard to classroom arrangement, organization of materials, and teaching of behavior expectations? Part 2: Dealing with Misbehaviors 1. Tracey and Leon are working in a small group in your classroom. Leon has special needs, but has

worked well in groups in the past. Suddenly, you hear Tracey call Leon a “cripple” and a “retard.” What should you do? How will this impact instruction and management? 2. Lance has recently moved to your community and has had a FBA. Unfortunately, the teacher in whose class Lance was placed has left on a medical leave and Lance is now being moved to your classroom. What should you do before Lance’s first day in your class? 3. Janna was also recently assigned to your classroom. Although she was in the gifted and talented program in the previous school she attended, she has not been tested for the program in your school division. She is an excellent student, gets her work done quickly and then, perhaps because she is bored, begins to talk to her neighbors who are still working. This is a violation of your class rules. What should you do?

short intervention period. Applying Inclusion Practices 11–4 asks you to identify desired behaviors for your classroom. We hope that you have noticed the differences in the theories discussed above. Skinner believes in rewards and punishments; Gordon does not believe in rewards and punishments; Gordon, Kounin, Gump, Evertson, and Harris believe effective teacher behaviors and instructional practices (as well as other tenets) influence learner behavior. Schap’s CDP supports communities of learning, while PBS emphasizes a decision-making framework. Many similarities and differences exist among these models. That is one reason that all educators should consider individual models and make an informed decision on which one (or ones) best reflects their philosophy of classroom management in inclusive classrooms. Applying Inclusion Practices 11–5 asks you to consider the other models, theories, and ideas presented in this book and to determine whether they would be appropriate to use in an inclusive classroom.

APPLYING INCLUSION PRACTICES 11–4 Identifying Pro-social Behaviors You are the general classroom teacher in a co-teaching situation. You have read about teaching pro-social skills. First, determine your grade level and the needs of your learners with special needs. Then, respond to these questions: 1. What pro-social skills are appropriate for the age group or developmental level? 2. What methods will you use to teach your desired prosocial skills?

3. A student deliberately disregards one of your pro-social skills. What action will you take, for example, punishment, another explanation of the skill, ignoring the situation? Be sure to consider everything you know about exclusionary practices as well as rewards and punishments.

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APPLYING INCLUSION PRACTICES 11–5 Evaluating Models for Inclusion Throughout this book, you have read about models, theories, and ideas for classroom management. Review several or all of the models that you think have, on the surface, the potential to be used successfully in an inclusive classroom. Then ask the following questions about each model: 1. Would a student with a special need be unfairly subject to disciplinary actions with this model? 2. What are the goals of this model, and how will students with special needs respond to them? 3. What effect will the disciplinary techniques, consequences, or punishments have on preventing future misbehaviors?

4. Will this management model bring students with special needs into the classroom or exclude them? 5. Does this classroom management strategy institutionalize the idea that students with special needs are second-class citizens? 6. What would need to be done to make the model more responsive to the needs of students with special needs? Is that feasible?

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY What Are Your Beliefs About Inclusive Classroom Management Practices? As Dr. Emerson learned in the opening vignette, all teachers cannot align their individual mindsets with the philosophical beliefs required for effective inclusive classroom management practices. Some teachers feel ill equipped to work with learners with special needs, or they simply do not believe inclusive classrooms are best for learners with special needs. We suggest you answer the following questions as you develop your personal philosophy of inclusive classroom management practices: 1. Do I agree with IDEA and its amendments requiring students with special needs to be provided educational experiences in “least restrictive environments?” 2. Do I perceive disabilities and special needs as “deficitdriven” phenomena (i.e., the learner is responsible for his or her condition)? 3. Do I view myself as capable and motivated to work with learners with special needs? 4. Do my classroom management philosophy and practices reflect any negative bias toward (sometimes called ableism) learners with special needs?

5. Do I feel capable of co-teaching where I plan and implement instruction with another teacher, without a sense of ego that limits the team’s effectiveness? 6. Do I agree that exclusionary practices do not have any place in the inclusive classroom? 7. Do I agree with positive behavioral supports and the accompanying functional behavioral assessment? 8. Do I believe a complex relationship exists among learners’ special needs and other distinguishing characteristics such as gender, cultural backgrounds, and socioeconomic conditions that can result in a sense of double or triple jeopardy? 9. Do I believe in a collaborative approach of educators and parents, families, and caregivers for learners with special needs? 10. Do I believe I have the motivation and ability to teach learners with special needs or do I feel like the teachers in Dr. Emerson’s consulting group?

Summary At one point in history, Pre-K through grade 12 educators thought all learners should “behave” in the same manner conducive to academic achievement. Some did; some did not; and others were intimidated to behave properly. Most students with special needs were sent to special classrooms

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and did not mingle with students in the general classrooms. Fortunately, for students and educators, this scenario has changed in most situations. In this chapter, you have read about special needs, inclusion, inclusive classrooms, and least restrictive environ-

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ments and how they affect classroom management. In addition to exploring the complex relationships between special needs and other diversities, you have read about the practice of co-teaching and how effective and positive classroom management can be accomplished in inclusive classrooms. Finally, you have seen how different models reflect the principles of inclusion and have had an opportunity to examine your own beliefs about inclusion. Now, review the opening vignette about Dr. Emerson’s reluctant group of teachers. Then, review what we have written about inclusion and inclusive classrooms and respond to the following questions:

1. What should Dr. Emerson say when educators make

negative statements? 2. Do the teachers have a valid point? Why or why not? 3. Why would the writers of IDEA insist that learners with

special needs be taught in a least restrictive environment? 4. How do the management expectations of inclusion

and least restrictive environments vary with grade levels? 5. Some secondary teachers view themselves subject matter specialists, for example, “I am a math teacher.” How can we best convince all teachers that they are, first, teachers and managers of learners?

Suggested Readings Bickel, P. S. (2010). How long is a minute? Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(5), 18–22. Bickel discusses a proactive plan for emergency crisis interventions. Conderman, G. (2011). Middle school co-teaching: Effective practices and student reflections. Middle School Journal, 42(4), 24–31. Although Conderman looks mainly at middle schools, he provides a comprehensive examination of co-teaching that will help teachers of all grade levels. Hoyle, C. G., Marshall, K. J., & Yell, M. (2011). Positive behavior supports: Tier 2 interventions in middle schools. Preventing School Failure, 55(3), 164–170. These authors suggest that although school personnel attempt to implement a variety of positive behavior supports, they continue to need assistance in identifying the best interventions. Martinussen, R., Tannock, R., & Chaban, P. (2011). Teachers’ reported use of instructional and behavior management

practices for students with behavior problems: Relationship to role and level of training in ADHD. Child & Youth Care Forum, 40(3), 193–210. The authors identify recommended management strategies and how frequently teachers use these strategies. Scott, T. M., Anderson, C. M., & Alter, J. (2012). Managing classroom behavior using positive behavior supports. Boston: PrenticeHall. These authors focus solely on positive behavioral supports and provide an example of an actual behavior plan. Utley, C. A., Obiakor, R. E., & Bakken, J. P. (2011). Culturally responsive practices for culturally and linguistically diverse students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities—A Contemporary Journal, 9(1), 5–18. Some students with special needs also have other diversities that can impact the effectiveness of management practices.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on special aspects of classroom management. Council for Exceptional Children www.cec.sped.org/am/template.cfm?section=Home Data Accountability Center: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Data www.ideadata.org/default.asp Federation for Children with Special Needs fcsn.org/index.php How to Teach Special Needs Students www.ehow.com/how_4597419_teach-special-needs-students.html Intervention Central www.interventioncentral.org Learning Disabilities Online

National Association for Gifted Children www.nagc.org National Association of Special Education Teachers—Classroom Management www.naset.org/?id=783 National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities www.ndpc-sd.org National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt.html Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; U.S. Department of Education www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html Special Education from About.com specialed.about.com

www.ldonline.org

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From Chapter 13 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 13, you should be able to 1. present a rationale for developing a personal philosophy of classroom management and explain the role of various models in the development of that philosophy; 2. identify the problems you believe should be addressed in a management plan; 3. explain which definition of discipline (i.e., imposed discipline or self-discipline) best reflects your philosophical beliefs;

Anthony Magnacca/Merrill

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4. explain how your philosophy meets the psychological and developmental needs of students; 5. discuss the need to provide an inclusive model of management; and 6. explain the need for educators to seek collaborative assistance and advice from other stakeholders in classroom management efforts.

Developing Your Personal Classroom Management Philosophy

VIGNETTE: Dealing with a Schoolwide Model Ms. Sharon Faletti, a fourth-grade teacher, taught in a school that was known for its well-behaved students. Although the usual minor management problems existed, the school had been free of violence and serious behavior problems. Ms. Tamika Story, the principal, required all teachers to use a specific management model and had started the year with a series of workshops on the model and its use. As Ms. Story liked to say, “If we all adhere to the same classroom management system, children will see consistency from class to class.” Although Ms. Faletti remembered the workshops, she was not convinced that all teachers needed to adopt the same model rigidly. As she said, “We’re all different—our management philosophies, our strategies, and our goals. Sure, we can make children behave with our adopted model, but with varying degrees of success. Plus, why shouldn’t we be allowed to develop our own more personalized model that reflects our own philosophy? We should be able to look at the various models and choose among them to determine what works best for us.” However, although some teachers wanted a model based on their personal philosophy—one they could tweak when necessary—most teachers liked having a schoolwide model. Ms. Faletti assumed she had no choice except to go along with them. As she said to herself, “Maybe I could change a few things, maybe change a few rules and use some flexibility in individual situations. No, I guess not; everyone is supposed to do the same. I just don’t know. Maybe the only option is to transfer to another school.”

OVERVIEW This book has provided you with an opportunity to review a variety of classroom management models and theories. Now you need to decide whether you want to adopt one management model or eclectically select ideas from a combination of models to develop a personal classroom management philosophy. Most teachers reflect on their own beliefs about children and adolescents, their ideas about classroom management practices, and the practices of successful teachers. They then combine these ideas with a consideration of the specific behaviors they will need to address, the various definitions of discipline, their students’ psychological and developmental needs, the goals of the safe schools movement, and commonly accepted management models, such as those examined in this text, to develop their own personal management philosophy. As you read through this chapter, examine your own philosophical perspectives to develop a personal philosophy of classroom management. To help, you may wish to use the responses of educators to the situations in the opening vignette and case study. Then, in the next chapter, the experiences of practicing teachers will help you to translate your philosophical position into application.

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KEY TERMS Table 13–1 identifies the key terms related to developing your personal classroom management philosophy. TABLE 13–1 Key Terms Related to Developing Your Personal Classroom Management Philosophy • Imposed discipline • Inclusion • Taught discipline

RATIONALE FOR DEVELOPING A PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY As a result of our hundreds of visits to elementary, middle, and secondary schools, we have concluded that some educators have not engaged in a deliberate process to develop a personal philosophy of classroom management. They try one strategy, throw it out when it is not immediately effective, and move on to another. Some even move back and forth from one strategy to another, alternating between the autocratic and democratic classroom management methods within the same lesson and then wondering why classroom management is such a problem. We also have seen many educators who have developed carefully thought-out blueprints for their management practices. These effective classroom managers • • • • •

use classroom management practices that reflect their philosophical beliefs, think about their management practices and why they use them, take into consideration the steadily increasing student diversity in the classroom, provide actions to be used in the case of violent and aggressive behaviors to ensure safe schools, keep in mind how students, parents, administrators, and other teachers will react to their plan, and • make sure their management ideas are concrete and can be translated into practice. Synthesis of Management Plan and Philosophical Beliefs What kind of classroom manager do you want to be? Think back to Dreikurs, Grunwald’s, and Pepper’s (1971) discussion (Chapter 8) of autocratic and democratic teachers. Do you recall how Coloroso (1994) (Chapter 6) labeled teachers as brickwall, jellyfish, or backbone? Dreikurs’s and Coloroso’s types of teachers reflect particular philosophical beliefs. For example, autocratic and brickwall teachers see themselves as adults who must control students, who lack the ability to achieve self-discipline. In contrast, democratic and backbone teachers believe students can learn to discipline themselves. Somewhere in between are the jellyfish teachers, who appear to have neither the philosophical perspectives nor the desire to manage students. If you are allowed the freedom to choose your own classroom management model or eclectically choose concepts from several models, you probably will be in a good position to have a management model that reflects your philosophical perspectives. Consider the range of models from the Canters’ (1976, 1992) fairly rigid Assertive Discipline or Nelson’s (1996) Think Time™ to Kounin’s (1970) emphasis on teachers’ instructional management or Gathercoal’s (2001) beliefs in judicious discipline. Do you feel comfortable using Skinner’s behavior modification with its punishments and rewards, or are you inspired by Kohn’s (1996) call to move beyond discipline? If, on the other hand, you teach in a school that has adopted a specific classroom management model, you probably will have to adjust your philosophical thinking to meet the expectations of the model. However, even in a single-management-model school, your daily interactions with students will demonstrate your personal philosophical perspectives. In this chapter’s opening vignette, Ms.

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RESPONDING TO THE VIGNETTE: Helping Ms. Faletti Consider the following questions about the opening vignette. Included are the responses of some educators to the questions. 1. How important is it for all the teachers in a school with a schoolwide management model to use the approved plan in their classrooms? • Teacher consistency and “buy-in” are big factors in the success of a schoolwide model. • A schoolwide model can be a big plus. Students don’t need to worry about what rules apply in which classroom. Behavior in the common areas is regulated, too. If your school has a plan, go with it! • Consistency in discipline is important with a schoolwide model. 2. Is there a way Ms. Faletti could be more eclectic and select some aspects of other theorists to use along with the approved model? • Usually, there is some room for personalization to meet the needs of the students in your classroom and to align more closely with your own philosophy. I worked in a school that required teachers to “hire” students for classroom positions. But each teacher could design the jobs that fit his or her classroom. • I’ve worked in a school that requires a classroom constitution with rules for schoolwide use, as well as for use in each classroom. Teachers have some flexibility to guide and develop goals in their own classrooms to match their personal philosophies and beliefs. 3. What can teachers do if the approved schoolwide model is not in line with their philosophical beliefs and there is no opportunity to incorporate other ideas into the approved model? • I’ve seen some training for a schoolwide model that is highly structured and without flexibility. It wouldn’t work for me. I’d seek a transfer to another school. • Ask to visit schools that have this model and talk with teachers in that school. E-mail works, too. • Some of the same rules [in a management plan] can work [for all teachers], but I do not believe that the same plan will work. Each teacher has a different personality and philosophy, and the level of students makes a big difference. Talk to your principal and see if you can’t work something out that will allow you to use some of your own ideas along with the plan.

Faletti was not pleased with a schoolwide classroom management model. After rereading the vignette, look at the questions and the reactions of some educators in Responding to the Vignette. By now you may be asking how to go about developing your own management philosophy. Surprisingly, something that sounds as lofty as a philosophy can be relatively easy to develop, although it will take some time and thought. The first step is to determine how you feel about students, your role as a teacher, and the ultimate goals of your classroom management ideas. A number of items must be considered in reaching your conclusions, and Developing Your Personal Philosophy 13–1 contains a list of several questions to help you begin the process. The Need for a Personally Effective Plan You need to feel effective with whatever classroom management technique you adopt. Realistically speaking, what works for one teacher might not work for another. Charlotta Kayama spoke softer and softer as her students grew louder. Without fail, her students also became quieter. Ms. Kayama was a teacher who could manage her class by softening her voice. We have seen other teachers try the same technique with the opposite results. Elliott Purcell taught in a school that had adopted the Good Behavior Game (GBG). He liked it and had refined the model to a fine art. Kena Sample, an excellent student teacher, was placed with Mr. Purcell, but she did not like the GBG and never developed any degree of expertise with it.

Whenever we are in teachers’ lounges and hear one teacher say to another, “Try my classroom management technique; it always works,” we are skeptical. It is our belief that you have to decide for yourself what works for you and what you feel comfortable with. That is one reason we encourage an eclectic approach to decide what works most effectively. Remember, a teacher might be able to make

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 13–1 Understanding Philosophical Beliefs To help identify your philosophical beliefs about classroom management, ask yourself the following questions.

Beliefs About Students 1. Do I believe that students need to be “controlled and disciplined” or that they can be taught self-discipline? 2. Do I believe that students are basically good, or are they naturally disruptive and therefore need to be molded and conditioned to behave appropriately? 3. Do I view students as equals or as subordinates? 4. Do I believe that establishing a democratic classroom and giving students responsibility means letting them take over the classroom?

Teachers’ Roles 1. Do I see myself as an autocratic or a democratic teacher? A brickwall, jellyfish, or backbone teacher? An assertive teacher? 2. Do I see my management role as being a leadership process or a collaborative process with students, parents, and other professionals?

3. Do I believe that I should make all the rules and assign consequences, or do I believe that students should offer their input? 4. Do I want to “manage” or “discipline” my students? What do I perceive as the difference? 5. Do I believe that the time spent teaching classroom rules or developing rules with the students is time that could be better spent on instruction?

Classroom Management 1. Do I believe in rewards, punishments, structured time for reflection, bribes, and threats, and do I think these are necessary for effective classroom management? 2. Is the ultimate goal of my classroom management plan to manage to control the class for another day, to make everybody follow the rules, or to teach students self-discipline so they will discipline themselves? 3. Do I feel more comfortable adhering to the tenets of a school-adopted classroom management program, or do I want to have more freedom to choose my own classroom management practices?

students behave but might still feel ineffective or uncomfortable because of the management strategies that must be used. The Need for a Plan That All Parties Consider Fair Ms. Slate’s class complained that she was unfair. Their comments included “She’s mean,” “A control freak,” “She’s got classroom pets and picks on the rest,” and “Never listens to our side of the story.” Everyone acquainted with Ms. Slate knew she could control her class. In fact, her principal once said, “I have no problems with Ms. Slate’s class; she always makes the students behave.” However, the students and some of the parents complained that she had favorites and used “heavy-handed tactics” such as sarcasm, ridicule, and autocratic demands to keep the rest under control. We are concerned that many people did not think Ms. Slate’s management philosophy was based on fairness and equitable treatment for all students, but we are equally concerned about the role model that she presented. As she demonstrated the opposite of equality, fairness, collaboration, and positive human relations, her students began to adopt many of the negative behaviors she modeled. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Models Although some classroom management models and theories almost purport to make miraculous changes in student behavior, it is realistic to say that all models and theories have their advantages and disadvantages. In our examination of each model in this book, we listed advantages and disadvantages in the respective chapters. Now, in Developing Your Personal Philosophy 13–2, you learn how you might question the advantages and disadvantages of a few selected models in relation to your own philosophical perspectives.

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 13–2 Comparing Theories and Models to Your Management Philosophy As you begin to develop the philosophical basis for your own classroom management plan, consider the following general questions. Then, go back and review all the information that you recorded in the Developing Your Personal Philosophy sections in Chapters 1 through 12. General Questions to Consider 1. Do I believe that I can manage students’ behaviors effectively and positively with this model or these practices? 2. Would I feel comfortable or would I feel constant anxiety or frustration using these ideas?

3. Does this model expect me to control students’ behavior through rewards, punishments, bribes, and threats, and do I feel comfortable doing this? 4. Would I have to ask administrators and parents to intervene in efforts to maintain proper behavior if I used these ideas? 5. Would I have to use management techniques that I do not like? 6. What impression would I give students if I used this model in my classroom?

DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY As you begin to develop your personal classroom management philosophy there are a number of different questions you must consider. You must also take into consideration the factors that will impact the success of your plan. Considering Which Problems to Address When you develop your personal philosophy of classroom management, you need to consider the specific student behaviors you want to address in the plan. Do you want to respond to all behavior problems or just ones that interrupt the teaching and learning process? Are there problems you believe you can ignore? Table 13–2 illustrates three general categories of misbehaviors. As you develop your own philosophy of classroom management, you need to consider which misbehaviors your plan will address and which, if any, it will ignore. TABLE 13–2

Levels of Misbehaviors

Levels of Misbehaviors

Examples

Minor Misbehaviors

While completing an in-class assignment, Eli asks Dunca for a pencil. During silent reading, Leah stops and stares out the window for a long time. In the middle of a lesson, Mason walks across the room and throws something in the wastebasket.

Disruptive Misbehaviors

Kanesha calls out the answers all the time instead of raising her hand. Ty shoots paper wads at other students. Anita starts aimlessly walking around the room and stopping to talk to other students when she is supposed to be working on a project with her group.

Aggressive Misbehaviors

Trina pushes Sherena out of her chair and starts pulling Sherena’s hair. Cade pulls a knife out of his pocket. Nelson calls Lakeisha “trash from the projects” and makes a crude gesture.

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Although minor misbehaviors can escalate into more serious problems, most teachers ignore them whenever possible. As one teacher explained: “I try to ignore a lot because I think it’s better to address behaviors that actually interfere with my teaching. It’s taken me a long time to come to this conclusion, but now I seem to know what behaviors to correct and which ones to ignore. Things like minor talking, a little walking around the room, and occasional goofing off don’t bother me anymore. The students know the limits, but they know they have some freedom, too.”

Rather than stopping the instructional momentum and losing students’ attention, a teacher should try to ignore minor misbehaviors and proceed with the lesson. However, Redl and Wattenberg (1959), discussed in Chapter 3, believe that misbehavior is often contagious. Once one student misbehaves and the teacher fails to provide an adequate response, other students misbehave because they assume the teacher is not going to take action. It takes talent and experience to determine which minor misbehaviors will probably not spread and which ones will escalate into more serious problems. Thus, the most effective managers usually consider each misbehavior to determine its seriousness rather than trying to address all misbehaviors. Unless the teacher believes a disruptive behavior is only temporary, it should be addressed before it interferes with teaching and learning. Finally, aggressive behaviors should always be dealt with firmly and decisively. As you can see, trying to address all misbehaviors might be inviting disaster, but not addressing any misbehaviors creates an environment in which students fail to learn and are even physically and psychologically harmed. Case Study 13–1 looks at Mr. Vannostrand as he tries to determine which misbehaviors he can ignore and which ones to address. The included comments from educators should help you to begin to determine specific behaviors you want to address in Developing Your Personal Philosophy 13–3. Discipline: Imposed or Taught? As you develop your management philosophy, you also need to consider whether you believe discipline should be imposed or taught. This is a crucial point because if you favor imposed discipline, then you must be willing to accept total responsibility for managing students’ behavior. If, however, you believe in taught discipline, then you must work to teach discipline and to teach students to eventually discipline themselves. When imposing discipline, a teacher punishes students in order to convince them to demonstrate appropriate behavior. “I will discipline Jodette for talking without raising her hand.”

In contrast, a teacher who teaches discipline tries to help students learn or develop the selfdiscipline to demonstrate appropriate behavior. “I will teach Jodette self-discipline so that she knows to always raise her hand before speaking.”

You might remember this topic from Chapter 8, which covered Rudolf Dreikurs’s Democratic Teaching. In that chapter, we discussed how Dreikurs, Grunwald, and Pepper (1971, p. 21) thought that “the teaching of discipline is an ongoing process, not something to resort to only in times of stress or misbehavior.” The teacher who seeks only to impose discipline has a never-ending challenge; the teacher who seeks to teach discipline has hope that students will learn self-discipline. However, the answer might not be so clear cut. Teachers who want to teach discipline or teach students to discipline themselves might have to impose discipline until students learn self-discipline. In other words, instead of teachers facing an either-or situation, the reality is that students have varying degrees of self-discipline, perhaps even changing daily. Students’ Psychological and Developmental Needs Whether you decide to adopt one of the models in this book or eclectically select the “best” from a number of models, you need to consider how your management philosophy and practices affect your

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Case Study 13–1 Identifying Misbehaviors That Need Attention Mr. Stuart Vannostrand, a 10th-grade teacher, wanted to develop his own personal classroom management philosophy and model. Unwilling to address every minor misbehavior, he wanted to identify those that would warrant his attention as well as the nondisruptive ones that he would ignore. When he mentioned his idea to some of his colleagues, they were skeptical and told him that it would be unfair for him to address some problems and ignore others. Most of the teachers in his school posted a fairly rigid set of rules and imposed penalties for all misbehaviors. To them, all behavior situations were clear-cut. Students either broke the rule or they did not. If they broke the rule, they were punished. “You have to be consistent,” one of his colleagues said. “You can’t do all this deliberation. Spend your time teaching, and stop all this dallying around trying to figure out what misbehaviors need to be addressed—do something about all of them. That’s the easiest thing to do.” Unwilling to give up his idea, Mr. Vannostrand tried to determine a way to differentiate between behavior problems to be addressed and ones to be ignored. As he jotted a few words and diagrams on his notepad, he pondered: What should I do if a student breaks a behavior rule, yet the misbehavior does not disturb anyone else? What should I do if a student breaks the same rule, and others begin to break the rule, too? For example, if Deon leans over to ask April a question about an assignment, should I remind him that it is quiet time? Then, what if Josh starts talking to Wansa about the basketball game last night and Sherina joins the conversation? How can I address one misbehavior and ignore the other? Although the misbehavior is the same, the result differs. Can I consider the effects of misbehaviors to determine my response? If Rohlin has a knife, then I have to address the problem. If he utters a relatively minor obscenity, do I have to say something? I realize I have to have a management philosophy, I just don’t see why I should address every misbehavior.

Questions for Consideration 1. Are there times when one student could misbehave and Mr. Vannostrand should do nothing and other times when another student would misbehave and he would have to take action? • Teachers need to respond to misbehavior. However, the best way to deal with classroom management problems is to prevent them. Well-behaved,

productive classes are the result of the time and energy teachers devote to careful planning, meaningful activities, and a sense of fair play. • To take action sometimes and not at others for the same misbehavior—well, it wouldn’t work in my classroom. I treat everyone the same way. 2. How much time will be involved with all the decision making, and is it worth spending this amount of time? • It’s important to establish an environment conducive to learning right at the beginning. That means discussing and developing with students needed classroom rules and consequences. • To teach without a classroom management plan is unthinkable. If you do not have a plan, your students will. Take the time upfront or you will spend more time later! 3. Does Mr. Vannostrand risk having students say he is unfair and inconsistent? • Mr. Vannostrand should explain that he expects students to follow class rules but that he alters consequences depending on the situation. He should clarify his expectations, using examples, and should show that to treat each person and situation exactly the same is not always fair. Most 10th-grade students will be able to understand and accept this concept. Although asking another student a question about the assignment during “quiet time” breaks one of his rules, it does not warrant the same consequences as an off-task conversation about a basketball game. • The answer really depends on the grade level. This might work with high school students, but I’m not sure primary students could understand the difference. Their idea of fair can be very literal. • The incident with Deon and April offers an opportunity for Mr. Vannostrand to demonstrate his classroom management style and begin to earn the respect of his students. Teenagers value teachers who are not afraid to confront problems, whether it is to help a student or to diffuse an explosive situation; they appreciate teachers whose priority is education, not rules. 4. What models of classroom management featured in this book would you suggest to Mr. Vannostrand?

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 13–3 Determining Specific Misbehaviors to Address Make a list of misbehaviors you might expect to see in your classroom. Then use the following questions to categorize them. Which are misbehaviors you need to address and which, if any, can you ignore? 1. 2. 3. 4.

What seems to be the goal of the misbehavior? What is the result of the misbehavior? Does the misbehavior directly affect or annoy someone? Is a student being physically or psychologically harmed (e.g., fight is beginning, someone is being called names, someone is being threatened)?

5. Does it appear that the misbehavior is temporary? 6. Does it appear that other students might copycat the misbehavior? 7. Is it a violation of a stated rule, or should the student just know better? 8. Will the correction of the misbehavior cause more disruption than the actual problem?

students’ psychological and developmental needs. Will your philosophy help students to feel safe, physically and psychologically, from your actions as well as the actions of other students? You also must let students know that you respect their diversity: cultural, gender, social class, cognitive, physical, and sexual orientation. Although you should avoid embarrassing or ridiculing students into compliance, you also must use developmentally appropriate philosophical practices; management strategies appropriate for preschool or elementary students are probably inappropriate for middle school or high school students (and vice versa). Along with this, you must consider the powerful effects of peer pressure (negative and positive) on middle school and higher students and remember the disastrous effects that can occur when students are harassed, bullied, ridiculed, and threatened on a daily basis. Although it can be difficult at times, you must work to leave students’ self-esteem intact, regardless of their misbehaviors. Finally, you always must consider your students’ cognitive, psychological, and physical developmental characteristics and then examine how your classroom management practices (and the underlying philosophical beliefs) affect students’ many developmental and psychological needs. Case Study 13–2 looks at Dr. Kellerstrass, a principal who thinks a kindergarten teacher is failing to provide appropriate classroom management practices that meet the developmental and psychological needs of her students and asks some questions about how you would handle the situation. The case study also includes some responses of educators to the questions posed. Considering the Challenges of Inclusion Inclusion, or the teaching and managing of special needs students in regular classroom settings, should also be considered as you develop your management philosophy. First, you need to explore honestly your beliefs about educating and managing special needs students in regular or general education classes. In addition, you should consider how your management responsibilities will change as you have increasingly diverse student populations in your classes. Your philosophical deliberations should address the academic and the behavioral needs of students with disabilities (Gable, Hendrickson, Tonelson, & Van Acker, 2000). Positive student–teacher relationships and quality academic instruction are key factors that help all students achieve (Osher et al., 2004). According to Gable et al. (2000), to meet the behavioral needs of all students, you must accept the beliefs that all students learn best • in an environment that reflects a unified approach to positive disciplinary practices, with emphasis on early intervention so that minor difficulties are resolved before they escalate and become major problems;

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Case Study 13–2 Questioning a Teacher’s Management Style Dr. Marissa Kellerstrass, a new principal, thought that Ms. Laverne Sallo, a primary school teacher, used management techniques that failed to consider the developmental and psychological needs of her kindergartners and that were more appropriate for students 4 or 5 years older. For example, Dr. Kellerstrass was concerned that Ms. Sallo tried to keep her 5-year-olds too quiet and seated for too long. The principal also believed that Ms. Sallo did not give her students enough opportunities to be creative and spontaneous in their learning. In one meeting with Ms. Sallo, Dr. Kellerstrass explained, “You keep your students seated and quiet for too long. These are 5-year-olds. They should be given more opportunities to move around, explore their world, and develop self-discipline.” In reply, Ms. Sallo said, “True, but I’m afraid to give them too much freedom; they are too much trouble to get calmed down again. You know, they’re such a rowdy group at times. I’m afraid you might walk in the room and the children might be going bonkers. What if you did an impromptu evaluation and they were loud? What if I tried to get them back in their seats and they wouldn’t go?” Dr. Kellerstrass tried to help Ms. Sallo understand about 5-year-olds’ development and the activities they needed. “Your children need to socialize, experience freedom of movement, learn self-discipline, make decisions about their behavior, move around to the various learning centers, and talk quietly among themselves. Please reconsider your philosophical beliefs about classroom management and children’s developmental and psychological needs.” After the meeting, Ms. Sallo thought about the conversation for a long time. She had to admit that the principal was correct in thinking that she did not have a management philosophy that was compatible with kindergartners’ development. However, she also knew that she had difficulty managing her kindergarten class. She had always had management problems, even during her student teaching. In fact, she chose to teach kindergarten because she feared she could not get older students to behave. Now she faced another predicament: Her principal did not like her management philosophy and style. With her annual evaluations at stake, she knew she had to take some action to show Dr. Kellerstrass that she was at least trying.

Questions for Consideration 1. Is it possible for Ms. Sallo to let her kindergartners talk a little and walk around and still get them back on-task when she wants them to be?

• Yes, but an established routine is an absolute necessity for a functioning classroom. Each child is an individual with fears and concerns that have to be met. Their sense of security depends on understanding what is expected of them at all times. There are times to talk and times to listen and that has to be established. “Do we have our listening ears on?” is a key for my students to listen to me. 2. What are some of the developmental characteristics and psychological needs of kindergartners that she would need to consider? • To meet the developmental needs of kindergartners, you have to give them choices of activities. They need to socialize, make decisions about their own behavior, and have choices and limits provided so that they can develop self-discipline and begin to think for themselves. • When children are actively engaged, they can sound loud or seem unruly at first glance. However, if you look closely, you’ll see children talking about their learning and learning through play. • Kindergartners need lots of practice with things like lining up, walking quietly in the hall, reading aloud, calendar time, cleaning up, moving between centers, and so on. For example, centers should be introduced slowly, modeled, and practiced at the beginning of the year so that students understand what exactly is to be done at each center. Classroom management takes less time at the end when you spend more time in the beginning. 3. How can Ms. Sallo balance being too firm with being too nice? • New teachers have to establish classroom management procedures the first week of school and then follow through on a consistent basis. • Let Ms. Sallo pay several visits to developmentally appropriate kindergarten classrooms so she can observe center time, transitions, and direct instruction. 4. What management models would you recommend Ms. Sallo consider using to meet Dr. Kellerstrass’s expectation of considering the developmental and psychological needs of her students and, at the same time, making the children behave?

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 13–4 Exploring Your Beliefs About Inclusion Explore your beliefs about inclusion by responding to the following questions: 1. Do I believe that inclusion is the best way to educate special needs students? 2. Do I agree with the philosophical assumptions suggested by Gable et al. (2000)? 3. If I do not agree, how can I best meet the challenge so I can stay in compliance with Individuals with Disabilities Education Act?

4. How do I feel about special needs learners who will be educated in regular classrooms? 5. Can I manage special needs learners in a caring and professional manner? 6. What special management methods should I employ as I work with these children and adolescents?

• in an environment in which schoolwide and classroom academic and behavioral supports are routinely provided; • when discipline is addressed through instruction, with appropriate behavior taught in a routine and systematic manner; and • in an environment in which administrative leadership fosters a school, home, and community partnership for promoting positive school outcomes for all students. Thus, as you develop your classroom management philosophy, you need to consider the impact that inclusion will have on the realities of your situation. It will be important for you to resolve these philosophical considerations prior to developing your classroom management plan. Ask yourself the questions in Developing Your Personal Philosophy 13–4. Developing a Personal Philosophy We favor an eclectic approach to classroom management, in which educators pick and choose from a number of management models and theories as they develop their personal philosophies upon which to base their classroom management strategies. What makes this particularly difficult is that only you can decide what you think works most effectively. No one is able to decide what works for another teacher. Thus, you will need to consider each topic discussed in this chapter and identify your own philosophical precepts (e.g., perspectives toward students, students’ and teachers’ roles, whether discipline should be taught or imposed) to determine what you want to adopt from the various models and theories. As teachers told us: • To develop a plan, consider first what you and your students need to make the most effective use of time. How can the plan be made positive but have consequences for those who do not follow the rules? • Use common sense and the advice of others. Be consistent, be firm, be fair. Respect is the key. • All grade levels require a well-ordered classroom. My advice to new teachers about developing a classroom management plan is to consult the other teachers on their grade level and to use the other teachers’ systems as much as possible until there is time to develop their own plan. • Here are my dos: Be fair and consistent, have a good sense of humor in the classroom, call parents for support, be calm (students want to see you blow up), admit when you are wrong and laugh about it, and remember you are the adult and a role model.

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Developing Your Personal Classroom Management Philosophy TABLE 13–3 An Eclectic Approach: Selecting from Various Models Theory/Model

Concepts to Reflect in Our Personal Philosophy

Kounin: Instructional Management (Kounin, 1970)

Classroom management must include instructional management. Teacher’s behavior affects students’ behavior.

Coloroso: Inner Discipline (Coloroso, 1983, 1994)

Students are worth the effort and should be treated with respect and dignity. Teachers should abide by the Golden Rule.

Canter and Canter: Assertive Discipline (Canter, 1974; Canter & Canter, 1976)

Both teachers and students have rights. Teachers should insist upon students demonstrating responsible behavior.

Dreikurs: Democratic Teaching (Dreikurs & Grey, 1968)

Teachers should use logical consequences instead of punishments. Teachers should be democratic rather than autocratic.

Ginott: Congruent Communication (Ginott, 1965, 1969)

Teachers accept and acknowledge students. Teachers avoid you-messages.

Curwin and Mendler: Discipline With Dignity (Curwin & Mendler, 1980)

Classrooms should be student centered. Teachers avoid authoritarian stances.

Jones: Positive Classroom Management (Jones, 1987a)

Management strategies should be simple, easy to use, and “cheap” (Jones, 1987a, p. 25). Teachers must have exemplary planning and instruction.

Freiberg: Consistency Management (Freiberg, 2000)

Students should be self-disciplined. Teachers should have student-centered classrooms.

Gathercoal: Judicious Discipline (Gathercoal, 1997)

Teachers should demonstrate professional ethics, provide democratic classrooms, and provide behavior guidelines.

Kohn: Beyond Discipline (Kohn, 1996)

Teachers should not base their management decisions upon negative ideas about students. Educators need to develop a sense of community in the school.

Evertson and Harris: Managing Learning-Centered Classrooms (Evertson, Emmer, & Worsham, 2000)

Teachers should plan for the first of the year so that students know exactly what to do. Teachers should categorize misbehaviors to identify those needing minor, moderate, and extensive interventions.

Marshall (Marshall, 2007)

Students must accept ownership of their behaviors. Change must come from within the person

Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969)

Peer influence can promote and reinforce self-control and a work ethic.

What do we like? What aspects of the models in this book reflect our own thinking? Because space will not permit a detailed listing of each of the models and all of the aspects we think reflect our philosophy, we have provided examples in Table 13–3. All the other theorists and models discussed in this book can also be of help in the development of a personal philosophy of classroom management. Once you have examined your philosophical beliefs, review the models and identify the concepts in each that reflect and support your ideas.

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SEEKING COLLABORATIVE ASSISTANCE AND ADVICE All too often educators see classroom management as a singular or isolated effort in which teachers are assigned a class but given little professional assistance in managing it. Some teachers might have the help of subject-area and instructional specialists, but most schools expect teachers to have a welldeveloped classroom management philosophy as well as workable management strategies. Often teachers fend for themselves and hope their students are well behaved, and they hope their classroom management strategies work. However, experienced teachers often recommend that new teachers seek the advice of others in developing their management plan. Unfortunately, there are teachers who considered a career change after only a year or two because they felt the demands of classroom management were too great and because they thought other professionals neither understood the problems they faced nor wanted to help. Rather than feeling isolated or overwhelmed with behavior problems, teachers need to collaborate. In doing so, they can see that other school professionals do understand the challenges of classroom management and are willing to offer advice and expertise. While realizing that the practices that work for some teachers might not work for others (hence the need for a personal philosophy of classroom management), all teachers can learn new and innovative methods of managing students and can see that, especially in middle schools or where teachers are teamed for instruction, classroom management can be a collaborative rather than an isolated effort. In working with others, teachers also can see that the various constituencies have differing opinions on the challenges of managing students, such as views about the responsibilities of students, the roles of teachers, the definitions of discipline, and the goals of classroom management.

Summary Educators need to develop a personal philosophy of classroom management regardless of the grade they teach or the management problems they face. Their philosophy can include any number of aspects, such as definitions of discipline, roles of teachers, behavior problems faced, and the goals of classroom management. We lean toward an eclectic approach or selecting the best from each model but at the same time encourage all educators to rely on their profes-

sional expertise as they develop a personal philosophy that they think will work for them. The suggested readings and websites listed in “Reaching Out with the Internet” have additional information and resources on developing a classroom management philosophy. Once developed, the philosophy should become the basis for classroom management strategies, with practices that reflect their philosophical positions.

Suggested Readings Black, S. (2011). I want to believe. American School Board Journal, 198(1), 32–33. The personal beliefs of teachers can have a great impact on their classroom management strategies. Groeling, C. (2011). Struggles of student teachers. Instrumentalist, 65(7), 25. Personality, teaching style, and rapport all play a role in classroom management. Hoerr, T. R. (2011). Who were you? Educational Leadership, 68(6), 89–90. The way you were as a student can have a big impact on who you are as a teacher.

Oxtoby, K. (2011). Show them who’s in charge. Times Educational Supplement, 4924, 31–32. Teachers and administrators offer management suggestions for new teachers. Roache, J. E., & Lewis, R. (2011). The carrot, the stick, or the relationship: What are the effective disciplinary strategies? European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 233–248. The authors examine different discipline models and explain how a combination of them can be effective.

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information on classroom management. The American Federation of Teachers—Discipline and School Safety www.aft.org/issues/safeschools/schoolsafety

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Classroom Management—adapted from Froyen and Iverson www.intime.uni.edu/model/teacher/teac3summary.html Classroom Management by Gene Van Tassell www.brains.org/classroom_management.htm

Developing Your Personal Classroom Management Philosophy Education World—Classroom Management 101 www.educationworld.com/a_curr/archives/classmanagement. shtml Focus on Classroom Management www.atozteacherstuff.com/pages/7663.shtml Management Ideas from Answers.com www.answers.com/topic/classroom-management The Metamorphosis of Classroom Management by Fran Mayeski—this article examines changes in this field and provides concrete examples of new approaches www.mcrel.org/pdf/noteworthy/learners_learning_schooling/ franm.asp

A Primer on Behavior Management—from Dr. Mac’s Behavior Management Advice Site maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu/eres/docs/eres/EDSPC715_ MCINTYRE/Primer.html Prince George’s County Public Schools—Classroom Management www.pgcps.org/~elc/gameplan.htm TeacherVision Management Ideas www.teachervision.fen.com/classroom-management/ resource/5776.html Teachnet.com—this site has some excellent management ideas www.teachnet.com/how-to/manage

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From Chapter 14 of Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading and reflecting on Chapter 14, you should be able to 1. identify key terms to use in applying your classroom management system; 2. begin to personalize your personal philosophy of classroom management by identifying human relations skills you will use and explaining the factors you should consider as you build a positive classroom; 3. discuss how you will select classroom rules, conduct classroom meetings, and identify issues you will emphasize, ignore, and address;

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4. explain how you will communicate with parents, teach discipline and cooperation, treat individual students and their differences, address off-task and disruptive behaviors, and deal with violence; 5. explain how you will put your management plan together; and 6. use other sources of information as you translate you philosophical beliefs into management practice.

Applying a Management Philosophy in Your Classroom

VIGNETTE: Translating Philosophical Beliefs into Practice Ms. Ocha, an elementary teacher, was experiencing difficulty translating her philosophical beliefs into workable practices. As she explained to another teacher, “I know what I want, but moving from philosophy to practice is really difficult. I want a democratic classroom and freedom without rules, but the children just will not cooperate. In fact, they seem to throw up obstacles to derail my plan by fighting, calling each other names, and generally acting up. Two or three even bully others. How can I implement a caring environment when my students don’t care for each other? Plus, I’m sorry to admit it, but I do get upset at times. I mean, what else can I do when they try to hurt each other, walk around the room for no good reason, and call each other names?” That night, Ms. Ocha tried again to list on paper what she wanted her class to be like. She wrote, “I want my children to • work in a positive environment that is free from undue criticism and unfavorable judgment and that promotes self-esteem; • collaborate with other children in an atmosphere free of competition and some children winning at the expense of others; • feel they are safe from bullies, harassment, sarcasm, and ridicule; • feel they are in a caring environment, or “community,” where the teacher cares for and respects children and children care for and respect each other; and • work in a classroom environment that is free from rewards, punishments, and bribes.

OVERVIEW Now that you have considered your philosophy of classroom management, you need to think about how you will implement your philosophical beliefs and turn them into a management plan. As most educators such as Ms. Ocha in the opening vignette will affirm, it is a big step from philosophy and theory to actual practice. The process can be challenging, but the results of developing and implementing your own classroom management plan will benefit you and your students. Just like the management plan itself, the move from philosophy to practice varies from teacher to teacher and depends on the use of human relations skills and the ability to build a civil classroom community, communicate with parents, and teach discipline and cooperation to all students.

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KEY TERMS Table 14–1 identifies the key terms related to applying a management philosophy in your classroom. TABLE 14–1 Key Terms Related to Applying a Management Philosophy in Your Classroom • Class meetings

• Human relations skills

• Classroom community

• Inclusion

• Classroom management plan

APPLYING YOUR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT SYSTEM After Part 1 provided a foundation, Part 2 in this book presented many classroom management models and theories. Part 3 then explored special aspects of management. Finally, in this last section, Chapter 13 asked you to develop your personal philosophy of classroom management. Now, based on this information, you need to begin to make the transition from theory to practice. Personalizing Your Classroom Management System Although some teachers prefer the security of a school-adopted classroom management model, other teachers like to implement classroom management strategies that work for them and that reflect their philosophical beliefs. Still others are able to use their own ideas while working in a school with a schoolwide or grade-level management plan. As you move from philosophy to practice, you must examine ways to develop effective human relations skills, build a sense of classroom community, teach self-discipline and cooperation, and communicate and collaborate with parents. Likewise, you must understand and plan for students’ many differences—developmental, cultural, gender, and social class. In doing so, you have to keep in mind the realities of life and the fact that live students in a classroom are different from cardboard students on the page of a textbook. The opening vignette looked at the difficulty Ms. Ocha experienced when she tried to translate her philosophical beliefs into practice. After rereading the vignette, look at the questions and the reactions of some educators in Responding to the Vignette. Developing Human Relations Skills Like Ms. Ocha, all educators need to realize that classroom management involves working with live human beings. Thus, effective human relations skills need to be used in every classroom. Perhaps the best example of good human relations is a teacher who follows Coloroso’s idea (1983, 1994) and applies the Golden Rule, in which teachers treat students as they would like to be treated. Good human relations skills also can include the ability to respond appropriately when someone is having a bad day, to say something positive instead of offering a negative response, or not to say anything at all and to convey emotions and concern in a nonverbal way. “The point of classroom management [should be] to ensure a productive environment in which children are challenged, respected, and able to grow” (Ullucci, 2005, p. 41). Developing Your Personal Philosophy 14–1 asks you to identify the human relations skills you could use in a variety of classroom situations. Building the Right Climate Just as teachers need human relations skills, schools and classrooms need to have strong, positive cultures in which educators share a sense of purpose; collegiality, improvement, and hard

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RESPONDING TO THE VIGNETTE: Helping Ms. Ocha Although Ms. Ocha taught in an elementary school, the following questions could apply to students at any level. As you respond to the questions, consider also the comments of some educators. Then, reflect on the questions in light of the level of students you hope to teach. 1. Is it possible for Ms. Ocha to implement all of her philosophical ideals in her classroom? • Poor Ms. Ocha! I commend her expectations, but she needs to get in touch with reality and modify her fantastically unrealistic goals. They are certainly not achievable as long as teachers are dealing with real live little human beings, who will never be capable of achieving the perfect harmony Ms. Ocha is dreaming about. • Develop a philosophy, but don’t be afraid to adjust it over time. Think everything through to the most minor detail, and don’t assume your students will know or do certain things. Ask them or tell them. 2. How realistic are her ideas? • I object to her belief that children should work in an atmosphere free from competition. Life does involve judgment and competition, and children need to understand that. • This teacher has some good ideas about what she needs to do. She can’t forget that her job is to teach students how to be what she wants them to be. • I like Ms. Ocha’s strategies for improving the environment of her classroom and applaud her positive goals. 3. Why does such a gap exist between what she expects and the way her students act? • Elementary students need to know that actions have consequences and part of life is accepting responsibility for our own actions. • She should learn to be happy with small successes and not frustrate herself by trying to change human nature and achieve perfect harmony in a first-grade classroom. • This teacher has not let her students know what she expects or when they are doing what she wants. I have posted a behavior chart divided into three sections. The left section represents the happy face, the center section has the worried face, and the right side has a sad face. Each student in my class has a number. When students misbehave, I more their number progressively to the right on the chart. When their number is under the sad face, they go to time-out in the room or miss part of their recess time. I rarely take away all of recess because that leaves the child with nothing to work for. 4. What suggestions can you give to help Ms. Ocha translate her philosophical ideals into practical applications? • This teacher needs rules! And she needs to teach them to her students. • Ms. Ocha needs to teach behaviors by taking class time to teach the children how she expects them to behave. • She should use the resources of her school to help her, like the counselor and the school librarian. There are great books on civility, sharing, and getting along with others.

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 14–1 Using Human Relations Skills Give specific examples of ways in which you could use each of the following human relations skills in your own classroom: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Convey warmth and positive feelings toward students. Demonstrate or model positive treatment of others. Accept students and their strengths and weaknesses. Convey appreciation of students’ various differences.

5. Offer constructive criticism. 6. Encourage success in behavior. 7. Avoid finding fault and blame unless absolutely necessary. 8. Provide students with hope and optimism. 9. Disagree without being argumentative or blaming others.

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work are valued; and rituals and traditions are used to celebrate student accomplishments, teacher innovations, and parent commitment. If feelings of success, joy, and humor are present, there is usually a shared sense of what is important, a shared sense of caring and concern, and a shared commitment to help students learn. When teachers develop a caring classroom culture, students can be taught how to behave and to treat others with dignity. Students should know that teachers want to help them and should realize the importance of more cooperation and fewer punishments. David Rollins, an experienced teacher, decided to work on creating a positive culture in his classroom. With the help of an advisory committee consisting of students, parents, and the school’s administrators, Mr. Rollins assessed current student behavior in his classroom and identified behaviors to be changed and those to be ignored. After discussing student diversity and the safe schools movement, Mr. Rollins and the committee came up with a set of lofty but attainable goals to improve student behavior. Without overwhelming Mr. Rollins and his students, the committee also helped him identify an effective way to assess changes in student behavior and to measure the progress that students made toward developing self-discipline.

Creating a Sense of Community In addition to creating a positive classroom culture, effective classroom managers also create a sense of classroom community. Belenardo (2001) explained that a sense of community consists of shared values, a feeling of belonging and caring, interdependence, commitment, and regular contact with others in the community. “Learning is assisted if students believe that they belong to the community or group that makes up a class and if they contribute to, and benefit from, that classroom community” (Wighting, 2006, p. 371). In a genuine school community, people should feel an attachment to the community and a sense of duty to work toward the welfare of the school community as well as the community at large (Obenchain & Abernathy, 2003). While providing students with opportunities to learn and interact in a humane, respectful, and psychologically safe learning environment, teachers want a safe and supportive community that promotes harmony and interpersonal relations among students and reflects positive verbal interactions. Such a school community provides teachers and students with opportunities to express opinions, listen to others with empathy, and support others in a nonthreatening situation. In addition, it helps to eliminate student cliques and other sources of conflict (Batiuk, Boland, & Wilcox, 2004). Ideally, the existence of this community should lessen conflicts between educators and students, reduce discipline referrals, and reduce confrontations among students. Although rubrics exist (Rubin, 2004) to evaluate school climate, the challenge is how to develop such a community. Developing Your Personal Philosophy 14–2 offers several strategies for building sense of community in a classroom and asks you to identify others.

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 14–2 Building a Community

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To build a sense of community within a classroom, teachers can:

• provide everyone with opportunities to participate, and • avoid forcing a member to voice an opinion.

• identify things the class can do together, • help each member identify his or her place within the class, • ensure that discussions are inclusionary rather than exclusionary,

What other things might you do to create a sense of community within your classroom? What obstacles might you face? Is creating a sense of community an unrealistic goal for some teachers? Are there some situations in which it might be difficult to create a sense of community?

Applying a Management Philosophy in Your Classroom

Selecting Classroom Rules In creating a classroom management system for a classroom community, you need to decide whether you want classroom rules for your students. Before you decide, remember that Kohn (1996) cautioned against rules in his call for teachers to move beyond discipline. If you decide that you do not want to make and enforce rules, you might depend, instead, on the ability of students to discipline themselves for the overall welfare of the class. We respect Kohn’s (1996) ideas and think students ultimately should accept responsibility for their behavior, but our experiences tell us to think more realistically. We believe that some classroom rules will be necessary from the first day of school until students learn the self-discipline necessary to demonstrate appropriate behavior. In each classroom, students need to know what the rules (behavior expectations) are and that the rules will be applied fairly. In addition, the presence of rules does not mean that classrooms are not democratic. In classrooms where time was devoted early in the school to organization and teacher-managed activities, more time was spent later in the year on child-managed activities (Cameron, Connnor, & Morrison, 2005). What rules should teachers select? Should they have rules posted the first day, prior to students arriving? Should they delay and have students offer suggested rules? Should they wait to see how the students behave prior to making and posting rules? These are good questions and deserve conscientious attention. In fact, we asked a number of teachers about the use of rules in their classrooms. Here are a few of their responses: • I involve students in making rules. If students have “ownership” of the rules, if they made an investment in creating the class rules, they are more likely to follow them. • No, I don’t involve my students in establishing my management system. I already know what works and what doesn’t, and I am not willing to go through what doesn’t just so they can see for themselves. It is always easier to lighten up later than to get stricter. • In addition to my own rules, I usually allow students to give me the three rules they think are most important. I also send parents a questionnaire asking what they expect their child to accomplish, how we can best meet that accomplishment, and what they are willing to do to make sure it happens. I review this at all conferences with parents. • I teach young students, so I have a set of rules and procedures that I’ve developed over a number of years. I start the year with my basic rules, and they are usually well established by the end of September. • I establish my rules before school begins. A handout is given to every student and explained by me the first few days of school. The student and the parent or guardian are required to sign the classroom expectations indicating they have read and understand them. Some of my rules and classroom procedures consist of the following: Respect all others and their property. Raise your hand and wait to be called upon if you wish to speak. Speak courteously and politely to others. Remain in your seat unless permission has been granted by your teacher. We believe that teachers need to develop their own rules for the beginning of school, at least until the students can be involved in making rules or until they learn self-discipline. It is to everyone’s benefit for students to behave appropriately and avoid infringing on others’ rights and property. Basic rules that are necessary for the welfare of all students should be posted and discussed the first day of school and, if necessary, taught during the first several days of school. Within the first weeks of school, teachers should give students an opportunity to suggest other rules that they consider important for the general operation of the classroom and for students’ safety, well-being, and academic achievement. Before making rules for your class, you might want to review the ideas of Gathercoal (2001) found in Chapter 8 of this book, especially his ideas about rules and compelling state interests. Setting a positive tone (listing the things students should do rather than the things they should not do), rules should,

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whenever possible, be developed before the misbehavior occurs. However, making the rules is not enough. An effective teacher also needs to develop a process for communicating the rules to students as well as parents or guardians, teaching the rules, reviewing them periodically, and revising them as needed. Along with rules, you must consider the consequences when the rules are broken. Review your philosophical beliefs and the ideas of the classroom management theorists discussed in this book. Will you use rewards when rules are followed or a check-mark system when rules are broken? Will you have a hierarchy of responses? Will you examine the reason for the misbehavior before identifying a consequence? Conducting Class Meetings An excellent time to discuss rules and expectations is at a class meeting. Several classroom management models discussed in this book advocated the use of class meetings such as Glasser (1969); Albert (1995); Johnson and Johnson (1987); Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn (1997); Community of Caring (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Center for Community of Caring, 2011), Jones and Stoodley (1999), and Gathercoal (2001). You might recall that Gathercoal mentioned the key elements of democratic meetings, and Nelsen, Lott, and Glenn suggested the eight building blocks of class meetings. Emphasizing, Ignoring, and Addressing Issues Even when you have rules in your classroom, you will be faced with a dilemma of whether to ignore minor infractions or to address the behavior whenever a rule is broken. Some teachers place an emphasis on positive behaviors rather than on negative behaviors. This approach reflects the ideas of Skinner’s behavior modification and Redl’s and Wattenberg’s group dynamics. By ignoring minor misbehaviors and praising positive behaviors, these teachers hope that negative behaviors will lessen and positive behaviors will increase. When students see other students demonstrate positive behavior and receive rewards or reinforcement, then they also will start to demonstrate positive behavior. Ignoring negative behaviors does not mean ignoring serious misbehaviors, especially misbehaviors that can result in physical and psychological damage to students. Teachers never should ignore threats, acts of violence or potential violence, weapons, racial slurs, accusations about others’ sexual orientation, or any misbehavior that could cause physical or psychological damage. In addition, teachers should not ignore misbehaviors that disrupt the teaching and learning process and students’ learning. Nor should they ignore misbehaviors that have the potential for becoming contagious. The hardest part is knowing what to ignore and what might become contagious. This is a skill that takes time to develop. Teachers have to know their classes so well that they know which behaviors might spread and which students might be the instigators of trouble. Just remember that ignoring the negative should never mean ignoring behaviors that could result in physical or psychological harm. Developing Your Personal Philosophy 14–3 presents some situations and asks you to determine how the teacher should react. Communicating with Parents “I hope you can do something with him; his mom and I can’t. But then discipline is your job, not mine.” These words were said to a kindergarten teacher as a father dropped his son off at the classroom door on the first day of school. Some parents and guardians think their responsibility stops when the child leaves for school. They view classroom management and discipline as the teachers’ responsibility. Fortunately, all parents and guardians do not share that opinion. When Mr. Owens brought Marcia to school, he said to the teacher, “This is my granddaughter. Please let me know if Marcia does not behave or if she gets in any trouble. I’m behind you, you know.”

Well-informed parents or guardians can be significant assets to teachers and overall classroom management efforts. Some parents or guardians even might want to have an active role in classroom management programs and might be willing to serve on classroom management committees to review management policies and to know consequences for misbehavior.

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DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 14–3 Reacting to Positive and Negative Behaviors For each of the following actions, first identify whether the action is positive or negative. Then indicate how you would respond if the action occurred in a classroom on the level you want to teach. Would you ignore any of these actions? Be sure that your response is developmentally appropriate. • Alma raises her hand to answer a question. • Lanita complains that you are unfair for giving homework on Fridays. • Lucious calls Martin a “sissy” and says Martin acts like a girl. • Chad accidentally knocks Tabatha’s books to the floor and then helps her pick them up. • Rumor has it that Quentin, a boy in your class, bullies other children on the school bus.

• Luis sees a knife in Burton’s backpack and tells you, even though Burton has not taken the knife out. • Duffy keeps drumming his pencil on the desk in an attempt to annoy you. • Francisco and Earl have a few disgruntled words, but nothing significant happens. • Three students in a cooperative learning group are working collaboratively and are on-task. • Sherita quietly helps Jorge find the right page number in the book as you explain an assignment. • Patti tries to trap you in a last-worder situation. • Melinda hurries to get her assignment notebook out of her desk and her books accidentally crash to the floor. • Toby calls Raul a “homo” and says he probably has AIDS.

Communication with parents and guardians is important. Parents and guardians who know the teachers’ expectations are more supportive. Particularly effective teachers send letters and classroom management expectations to parents or guardians during the first few days of school. Figure 14–1 lists some items that can be included. Parents and guardians then sign to show they have read and understand the teacher’s behavior expectations. Although all parents and guardians probably will not read the letter and expectations, it is still a good idea to provide the opportunity. Teaching Discipline and Cooperation Some teachers try to change from autocratic (control and demanding practices) to more democratic practices. This does not mean, however, that they become what Dreikurs (1968) called permissive or what Coloroso (1983, 1994) called jellyfish. When teachers try to provide a democratic classroom environment, they teach and model self-discipline, cooperation, and collaboration. This is often not an easy task to accomplish because teachers also have to maintain an orderly learning environment in which students demonstrate proper behavior and feel safe. Because some students are accustomed to autocratic teachers who demand strict obedience, convey the rules, and apply consequences for misbehavior, the change to a democratic classroom requires a change of mindset for teachers and students. Case Study 14–1 explains the frustration Mr. Rahman experienced as he tried to apply his management techniques. FIGURE 14–1

Teachers should communicate the following types of management information to parents and guardians: • the overall behavior goals of the school and class, • the specific behavior expectations for the particular class,

Management Information for Parents

• the consequences for behavior, • the times when a student misbehaves that the teacher will contact an administrator, • the times when a student misbehaves that the teacher will contact the parents and guardians, • the best times and places for the parents and guardians to contact the teacher, and • the ways in which the parents or guardians can help to promote safe schools and well-managed classrooms.

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Case Study 14–1 Sensing Frustration with Applying Management Techniques During his student-teaching semester, Mr. Tucker Rahman, a middle school teacher, developed the philosophy of classroom management that he planned to implement during his first year of teaching. He wanted to teach cooperation, have weekly class meetings, create community in his classroom, and communicate with parents. However, by December of his first year of teaching seventh grade in an urban middle school, he was finding a tremendous gap between his philosophy and actual practice. In fact, he was afraid that he might become an autocratic “ruler” rather than the “manager” he had planned to be. Although Mr. Rahman wanted to teach cooperation, he found that his seventh-grade students were anything but cooperative. In fact, he found that teaching cooperation was difficult or impossible with some students who were accustomed to autocratic teachers who ruled sternly. “Some of them don’t know how to cooperate; they seem to think that an adversarial relationship should exist between students and their teacher,” he said in dismay. The weekly class meetings ended in failure. The students refused to participate in meaningful discussions. They were rude to each other, offered accusatory remarks, wisecracked, and did not have a clue about how to act in a civil manner. “I really wanted those class meetings to work,” Mr. Rahman said, “but after the third week, I thought I should invest my energies in other areas. Maybe someday I’ll try it again.” When Mr. Rahman tried to create a sense of community, he had equally dismal results. Instead of caring and respecting each other, students were hostile, clownish, and discourteous, with many trying to one-up the others. “I made a mistake by putting my full name on the door. I thought it would make me seem more human. Now, some students even call me F###er Rahman behind my back. I’m supposed to teach a sense of community and caring to this bunch?” The final straw was his lack of success in communicating with parents. He moaned: “Parents won’t respond, won’t collaborate with me, and won’t help me teach their children. Very few come to progress report meetings each 9 weeks, and even fewer attend monthly parent–teacher meetings.” Each day as he drove home, Mr. Rahman relived his school day, questioned his philosophy, and second-guessed the decisions he had made that day. “Is it the students or is it me?” he asked himself. “Why can’t I get these students to act civilly? Why can’t I get the parents to cooperate? What else can I try that I have not already tried?”

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Questions for Consideration After reading each question and the reaction by an educator, provide your own answers. 1. Evaluate Mr. Rahman’s actions during his first 4 months. • Mr. Rahman has good goals, but he made a mistake in thinking that he could not accomplish them in the kind of classroom that he called autocratic. • By implementing weekly class meetings and trying creating a sense of community within the classroom, Mr. Rahman was asking these students to blindly leap into a democratic style of classroom management, one that was probably completely foreign to the majority of them. He needed to teach them what the expectations were. 2. Why has he met with such limited success in implementing his ideas? • Students at the middle school level are experienced enough in the workings of a school that they know the academic expectations: Complete all work to the best of one’s ability in order to succeed. Socially, however, they are just beginning to grow up and need lots of help. • Mr. Rahman not only wanted these students to commit to his style and prosper from it, but he also wanted them to be appreciative of his progressive thinking and willingness to share control. Students simply do not have the background knowledge and experience required to perform as Mr. Rahman hoped at the middle school level without a great deal of modeling and preparation. 3. Must he become an autocratic ruler to survive as a teacher? If not, what must he do to turn his philosophical beliefs into practical applications in his middle school classroom? • Structure is important even in middle school. And structure does not make a dictatorship. Rules and procedures are important. Otherwise, students just run wild. 4. How might this scenario have changed if Mr. Rahman had taught in an elementary school? A high school? A suburban or rural school?

Applying a Management Philosophy in Your Classroom

Considering Individual Students and Their Differences No matter what classroom management plan you adopt, you must consider individual students’ differences. This important step is often overlooked. Moreno and Abercrombie (2010) maintained that understanding how to “accommodate instruction so that all children can perform to their full potential” (p. 112) is essential. As a result, effective classroom managers often have to figure out how they can match instructional behaviors and management strategies most effectively with students’ motivation; self-esteem; and gender, cultural, and developmental characteristics. Some students are motivated to excel in school and behave accordingly, but other students are less motivated or are disinterested in schoolwork and see misbehavior as an escape from the “chores” of school. Similarly, some (but not necessarily all) boys prefer competitive activities that could lead to classroom management problems, and some (but not necessarily all) girls prefer collaborative activities that can be less disruptive. Do keep in mind that although socialized gender differences exist, many girls like to compete and many boys like to collaborate. Also remember that the same misbehavior can occur for different reasons. Students who mature later might misbehave to gain attention or seek power, and those who mature earlier might misbehave to prove their adulthood. Although students with lower self-esteem might misbehave to gain attention [remember Dreikurs’s (1968) goal of inadequacy], students with high self-esteem might be sufficiently confident to misbehave to gain attention. Because of stereotypes, students in some cultures could be labeled or perceived as loud or boisterous, and students in another group could be seen as quieter and more reserved. However, it is important to remember that diversity exists within groups as well as between them and that it is imperative to avoid stereotypes. For example, a teacher should not expect all members of a cultural group or gender to act the same way. Only by recognizing their own cultural predispositions toward management and understanding the cultural backgrounds of students and the behavioral pressures of society, can teachers provide appropriate management strategies for all cultural or gender groups (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke, & Curran, 2004). As you implement your management plan, you need to keep in mind student differences. To help you identify the differences among your own students, you can ask the following questions: MOTIVATION

• Is the student genuinely motivated or feigning motivation to stay out of trouble? • Is the student intrinsically motivated or is extrinsic motivation necessary? • Is there a relationship between the student’s motivation (or efforts) and achievement, or is the student experiencing only frustration and therefore misbehaving? • Do your classroom management strategies seem to motivate students to misbehave or only make behavior worse? SELF-ESTEEM

• • • •

Does the student have positive self-esteem? Does the self-esteem vary with educational activities or behavior situations? How does the student’s self-esteem affect his or her behavior? Do your classroom management strategies promote self-esteem or do they denigrate selfesteem, thus making student behavior worse?

GENDER AND CULTURE

• Are girls and boys allowed to engage in competitive and collaborative activities, depending on which they choose? • Do classroom management strategies treat boys and girls equitably, without gender stereotypes? • Are cultures treated equitably without perceived expectations that some students will be well behaved and others, rowdy? • Do your management strategies take into consideration cultural differences and preferences?

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• Does the student’s rate of development affect his or her behavior? • Is there evidence of significant developmental differences (e.g., psychosocial development lagging physical development)? • Does the student’s development affect his or her self-esteem, which in turn affects behavior? Considering Inclusion and Learners with Special Needs As inclusion brings more learners with special needs into the general classroom, you need to consider the impact that this will have on your philosophical beliefs and classroom management practices. A common misconception is that teachers must rely on complex and intrusive procedures to deal with special needs learners. In fact, the majority of these students will respond positively to standard classroom management strategies (e.g., group contingencies, teacher proximity, clear expectations, teacher praise) (Gable, Hendrickson, Tonelson, & Van Acker, 2000). However, in addition to the standard strategies, several others are especially valuable when teaching in an inclusion classroom. Peer-mediated instruction and interventions are a set of alternative teaching arrangements in which students serve as instructional assistants for classmates. This peer teaching can be direct (e.g., tutoring) or indirect (e.g., modeling, encouraging) and can focus on academic or interpersonal outcomes (Maheady, Harper, & Mallette, 2001). Another classroom management method that works well with learners with special needs is the Good Student Game (GSG) (Babyak, Luze, & Kamps, 2000), which is similar to the Good Behavior Game, which was discussed in Chapter 4. In the GSG, students have opportunities to observe, evaluate, and record their own behaviors. In addition, because teamwork is emphasized, students learn to help each other monitor personal behavior. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the development of an intervention or management plan for a special needs learner is accomplished through a team problem-solving process known as functional behavioral assessment. Most educators realize that various social and environmental events influence appropriate and inappropriate student behavior. Functional behavioral assessment identifies those antecedent events (e.g., the teacher asks Paige to answer a question) that set the occasion (e.g., Paige makes a vulgar comment) for subsequent events (e.g., the teacher gets upset and asks another student) that likely continue a misbehavior. In this example, the teacher is less likely to call on Paige again; therefore, Paige has learned that she can get rid of something she does not like to do by misbehaving. If the teacher realizes this, either the teacher or the team can devise strategies that allow the student to achieve the desired consequences without resorting to disruptive acts (Gable et al., 2000). Alexakos (2001) suggests that one way of promoting positive behavior in inclusive classrooms is to create a learning environment that nurtures and supports all students. A sense of belonging, relevance of tasks, hands-on experiences, and fun contribute to classroom interest. In classrooms where teachers show interest in students’ needs, students are more likely to ask for help. In addition, the physical environment (e.g., the physical space) can help eliminate or reduce stress, anxiety, and disorder. Students with mild disabilities might be less accepted by peers and in danger of becoming “invisible” (Alexakos, 2001, p. 43). To help all students feel included (and thus improve classroom behavior), teachers can ask students at the beginning of the year to complete personal inventory cards that identify their likes and dislikes. These interests can be incorporated into lessons, establishing positive personal connections. The instructional strategies that you use can have an impact on the classroom learning environments. Students in inclusive classrooms (as well as all classrooms) need opportunities to interact with each other and to engage in shared inquiry and discovery in their efforts to solve problems and complete tasks. The use of cooperative learning groups helps all students see the benefits of bringing together people with diverse backgrounds (e.g., disabilities and special needs) to solve problems as they listen, talk, read, and write together to achieve common goals. In the process, everyone becomes accountable because individual performance affects group outcomes (Montgomery, 2001).

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Addressing Off-Task and Disruptive Behaviors Most teachers deal daily with students who demonstrate off-task behaviors. As you might recall, Fredric Jones in his book Positive Classroom Discipline (1987a, p. 27) found that most behavior problems are of a lesser degree, or what he called small disruptions (emphasis Jones’s). You can review his findings in Chapter 8 of this book, but in general he found that students are off-task between 45% and 55% of the time (Jones, 1973). Thus, any classroom management plan must provide ways to address these common misbehaviors. Off-task and minor disruptive behaviors can have a number of negative consequences, especially if the off-task students disturb other students who want to learn and stay on-task or if they disturb the teacher who is trying to teach. Thus, off-task behaviors are significant problems for many educators, and keeping students on-task can be time consuming and challenging. Something as simple as a change of classroom setting can have a significant impact on off-task behaviors (RimmKaufman, La Paro, & Downer, 2005). Case Study 14–2 talks about Ms. Bazemore, who must deal with off-task behaviors.

Case Study 14–2 Dealing with Off-Task Behaviors As a ninth-grade teacher, Ms. Celestine Bazemore thought the biggest problem she faced was her students being offtask. “It’s not the fighters and bullies that give me problems. It’s the students who just sit and do nothing productive that really bother me,” she repeatedly said. “Students look out the window, daydream, play around, goof off, and distract each other from learning. They don’t actively misbehave; they just don’t do what they’re supposed to do. Some feign sickness to get out of work; others make only a halfhearted effort to complete assignments. Sure,” she continued, “I’ve tried commonly accepted techniques such as looking the students in the eye, standing close to them, and reminding them to get back on task. I even spoke with them in small groups and individually about the need to keep working productively, to listen to me, and to take a more active interest in their schoolwork. I’ve explained that they’re in high school now and they needed to think about their future. However, nothing worked for long. Some of the students worked for a while, but others never made a serious effort. I’ve tried small cooperative groups, hoping individuals in the group would have some success motivating others to take an active role in learning activities. But that didn’t work for most of my students.” Then, at a professional conference, Ms. Bazemore listened to a presentation by Dr. Shelia Kwon and learned that at least some of the problems with her students might begin with her. Dr. Kwon explained that classroom management is more than behavior management. Effective management techniques also include teachers’ teaching techniques (e.g., lesson plans, instructional pace, instruc-

tional level, efforts to motivate). Dr. Kwon suggested that teachers should: • adapt lessons to learners’ interests and talents, • do more direct teaching—standing in front of the class and proving direct instruction, • provide work at the learners’ levels—neither underchallenging nor over-challenging, and • provide work at the appropriate instructional pace, so learners would not get bored. Ms. Bazemore left the conference with several thoughts in mind: “I’m still convinced they are unmotivated and perhaps downright lazy, but I do need to look at what I do. Maybe I have been trying the wrong approach. I mean, it seems logical that my instructional techniques influence my students just as my behavior management strategies do.”

Questions for Consideration 1. What role does instruction play in a classroom management plan? • A well-planned and delivered lesson can do much to end off-task behaviors. • Teacher attitude and enthusiasm for instruction are really important. If the teacher isn’t interested in and enthusiastic about the lesson, management will suffer. • If you don’t plan or know what you’re supposed to teach, the students will take advantage of the situation. (continued )

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2. What other instructional techniques should Ms. Bazemore consider? • Ms. Bazemore needs to consider other instructional techniques, such as working with partners before working in larger groups. • Try rubrics; students love to know exactly what is expected of them and often “work up” to the rubric. • Vary activities. Use two or three activities per bell instead of one long lecture or one singular classwork assignment. • Have students responsible for doing something during instruction—have them manipulate materials, record ideas and notes, write answers. • Put all of the students’ names on note cards and draw these randomly; participation is then mandatory, and the teacher can assign a weekly participation grade. • I can usually tell if students are doing something other than what they are supposed to be doing by the way they look down at their laps. They may be reading or writing a letter. I usually give them my “evil eye,” and they get back on-task. Sometimes I walk over to them and they get back ontask. If they have done it before, I just warn them that the next time I catch them, they will receive a detention. 3. What else might Ms. Bazemore consider in addition to her instructional techniques to motivate her students and keep them on task? • Ms. Bazemore is in a corner. Her instructional methods and her students’ behaviors have been long established. An overnight change cannot happen in her class, and it is too late for the old adage “don’t smile until Christmas” to work. I never bought into that idea, however. I recommend doing five things in the beginning of the school year to prepare students for the optimal use



• •



of instructional time, and smiling is allowed through (almost) all of them. 1. Use 10 minutes of instructional time to teach classroom procedures for the first several weeks of school; establish a routine from the beginning. 2. Define expectations and establish consequences early—from the first day of school. Students need to know that for an ACTION there will be a REACTION and that as they choose a BEHAVIOR, they also choose a CONSEQUENCE. 3. Identify learning styles and achievement levels the first week of school. 4. Decide for yourself (from the beginning) what behaviors you will tolerate and what behaviors you will not. 5. Make many phone calls the first month of school. Ms. Bazemore needs to give frequent feedback; in the beginning of the year, it helps to give graded feedback every day. Students will know that they can succeed, yet they will also know that not doing work has repercussions. Occasionally, I offer a free homework pass or allow the students to have lunch in the classroom. The most common things I encounter are talking, not having supplies, and daydreaming. I gently but firmly let the students know their behaviors are unacceptable and give them a chance to change them. For repeat offenders, I let the natural consequences occur. For severe cases, I contact the parent or an administrator. The most common thing I see is students doing tasks that do not apply to my instruction (writing notes, doing homework, etc.). I have them clear their desks of everything—that is a great way to focus attention.

Dealing with Violence and Violent Behaviors In Chapter 1 and more extensively in Chapter 2, we discussed the violence that is affecting our schools and the safe schools movement. In the future, educators will continue to deal with bullying, aggression, and violent behaviors. Do remember, though, as Jones (1987a, p. 27) explained, 95% of classroom disruptions are “nickel and dime” misbehaviors of students goofing off and taking a break from their work. For information on resolving conflicts, dealing with bullies, and coping with the more serious but infinitely less common violent behaviors in some school, we refer you to Chapter 2 in this book.

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PUTTING YOUR MANAGEMENT PLAN TOGETHER Now that you have had an opportunity to review management theories and to reflect on your own philosophy of classroom management, it is time for you to put everything together into your own personal classroom management system. Developing Your Personal Philosophy 14–4 is designed to help you begin that process. In addition to the questions listed, you also should consider personal questions—ones that you consider relevant for the students and the grades you plan to teach. A good management plan requires review, evaluation, and modification throughout the year and throughout your career as a professional educator.

DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY 14–4 Your Classroom Management Plan Following are some things you will want to include in your personal classroom management plan. We have identified a few of the questions that you might ask in each category as you develop your plan. For other ideas, you can review some of the Management Tips found throughout this book or the Internet sites listed in each chapter. In addition, you should consider your responses to the activities and the Developing Your Personal Philosophy sections of this book. When you are done, you should have an opening day plan that can be modified as you go along.

My Classroom Management Plan Philosophy of Management • In one or two sentences, what is my philosophy of classroom management?

Hierarchy or Consequences for Rule Infractions • What will I do when a student breaks a rule? Will I have a hierarchy of consequences? Motivational Strategies • What strategies will I use to motivate my students (e.g., tickets or marbles in a jar)? Will I rely on intrinsic or extrinsic motivation? Management Procedures and Routines • What procedures will I use in my classroom (i.e., beginning the class, ending the class, distributing materials, collecting materials and assignments, assigning student helpers or assistants)? How often will I change the assignments?

Behavior Expectations • What behavior do I expect from my students? How can I convey that to my students? Pre-School Checklist • What things will I need to do before school begins each year? Classroom Slogan or Motto • What will it be (i.e., Respect, Cooperate, Participate)? Will I develop this on my own or ask for student input? Classroom Arrangement • How can I arrange my classroom most effectively (i.e., placement of desks for students and teachers; location of bulletin boards, chalkboard, whiteboard, Smartboard, other permanent fixtures)? Class Rules • What rules will I have to begin the school year? Will I ask for student input for all, some, or none of the rules?

Instructional Planning • What lesson planning format will I use? What instructional strategies will I rely on? What, if any, of the instructional techniques of Kounin will I use? • What strategies will I use to develop a positive classroom management culture and climate, build a community in my classroom, communicate with parents and guardians, teach self-discipline and cooperation, teach rules and procedures to my students, deal with individual students and their differences, prevent discipline problems, support my discipline program (e.g., physical proximity, withitness), correct discipline problems (e.g., conflict resolution, zero tolerance), work with inclusion students in my classroom, and Provide a safe classroom for my students and me?

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Summary Applying effective classroom management strategies requires more than acting on intuition or a whim. Educators with successful and effective classroom management programs usually have a personalized philosophy of classroom management goals and strategies. They use these philosophical perspectives as the basis of their classroom management program. As successful educators can attest, an effective classroom management program requires specifics, such as effective human relations skills with students and parents, the willingness and ability to build a positive class environment,

and the ability to establish rules and conduct class meetings. Sadly, effective classroom managers also must deal with difficult challenges, namely, violent and aggressive behaviors, that are often beyond the purview of classroom management models and efforts. Lest you think classroom management is too great a challenge, we asked some experienced teachers what advice they would give to beginning teachers. For more information on classroom management, we encourage you to consult the Internet sites listed in “Reaching Out with the Internet” and the sources listed in the suggested readings.

Suggested Readings Balli, S. J. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ episodic memories of classroom management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 245–251. The author explores the thoughts of preservice teachers about classroom management strategies and models. Gillies, V. (2011). Social and emotional pedagogies: Critiquing the new orthodoxy of emotion in classroom behaviour management. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(2), 185–202. The author looks at the emphasis on social and emotional learning in behavior management. Groeling, C. (2011). Struggles of student teachers. Instrumentalist, 65(7), 25. A teacher provides management ideas to help novices.

Guercio, R. D. (2011). Back to the basics of classroom management. Education Digest, 76(5), 39–43. A teacher explains his methods of management. Holt, C., Hargrove, P., & Harris, S. (2011). An investigation into the life experiences and beliefs of teachers exhibiting highly effective classroom management behaviors. Teacher Education and Practice, 24(1), 96–113. What are the beliefs, backgrounds, and experiences for highly successful teachers with effective classroom management skills?

Reaching Out with the Internet Visit the following websites for additional information about classroom management and commercial programs that are available. A to Z Teacher Tips Classroom Management Behavior atozteacherstuff.com/tips/cmanagement.shtml Dave Wiggins at the University of Minnesota—high school classroom management www.geom.umn.edu/~dwiggins/plan.html#1e Discipline by Design www.honorlevel.com

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Education World—Classroom Management www.educationworld.com/a_curr/archives/classmanagement. shtml Harry and Rosemary Wong—Classroom Management www.classroommanagement.com Master Teacher—resources on classroom management www.disciplinehelp.com Teachers Helping Teachers—classroom management suggestions from teachers www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/ClassroomManagement.html

APPENDIX You can use the following two forms to help you develop your own philosophy of classroom management and your own classroom management plan.

DEVELOPING YOUR OWN PHILOSOPHY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Use the following form to begin to develop your own philosophy of classroom management. Remember, this is not a static document. It should grow and change as you learn and develop as a professional educator.

MY PHILOSOPHY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT I believe that the purpose of education is to: To me, the following characteristics describe a good teacher: To me, the following characteristic describe good instruction: I believe that, in a classroom, a teacher should play the following management role: The goals of my classroom management plan should be to: I consider the following to be target misbehaviors that I will address in my management plan: Although I might not specifically address each of these behaviors in my management plan, I want students to avoid the following misbehaviors in my classroom: I will use the following strategies in my management plan to address diversity: • Cultural and Ethnic Diversity • Academic Diversity • Gender Diversity • Linguistic Diversity • Social Class Diversity • Physical Diversity • Developmental Diversity • Socioeconomic Diversity • Students with Special Needs I believe that I bring the following personal strengths to the teaching profession and to the development of my management plan: In developing my management plan, I believe I must recognize the following personal weaknesses that may influence the implementation of my plan: I prefer to use the following instructional strategies: In considering whether it is more effective to impose discipline or to teach self-discipline, I believe that:

DEVELOPING YOUR OWN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN Use the following form to begin to develop your own classroom management plan. Like your philosophy of classroom management, this is not a static document. It should grow and change as you learn and develop as a professional educator. However, as you read Classroom Management, you should add to this document. By the end of this text, you should have a beginning plan that you can take into an internship or your own classroom. From Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Appendix

MY CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN Philosophy of Management (In one or two sentences, what is my philosophy of classroom management?) Behavior Expectations (What behavior do I expect from my students? How can I convey that to my students?) Pre-School Checklist (What things will I need to do before school begins each year?) Classroom Slogan or Motto (What will it be? Will I develop this or ask for student input?) Classroom Arrangement (How can I arrange my classroom most effectively, including placement of desks for students and teachers; location of bulletin boards, chalkboard, whiteboard, and other permanent fixtures): • Instructional materials (centers, whiteboard, smart board, etc.) • Furniture • Classroom decor (decorations, posters, communication devices, etc.) • Personal and professional items (diplomas, hobbies, etc.) • Student recognition/class PR (news clippings, student awards, etc.) • Other items (rocking chair, pillows/cushions, etc). Class Rules (What rules will I have to begin the school year? Will I ask for student input for all, some, or none of the rules?) Hierarchy or Consequences for Rule Infractions (What will I do when a student breaks a rule? Will I have a hierarchy of consequences?) Motivational Strategies (What strategies will I use to motivate my students? Will I rely on intrinsic or extrinsic motivation?) Management Procedures and Routines (What procedures will I use in my classroom? How often will I change the assignments?) Instructional Planning (What lesson-planning format will I use? What instructional strategies will I rely on? Which, if any, of the instructional techniques of Kounin will I use?) What Strategies Will I Use To: • • • • • • • • • • •

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Develop a positive classroom management culture and climate? Build a community in my classroom? Communicate with parents and guardians? Teach self-discipline and cooperation? Teach rules and procedures to my students? Deal with individual students and their differences? Prevent discipline problems? Support my discipline program (e.g., physical proximity, withitness)? Correct discipline problems (e.g., conflict resolution, zero tolerance)? Work with students with special needs in my classroom? Provide a safe classroom for my students and me?

GLOSSARY 1-minute student managers Students assume classroom management positions, freeing the teacher for instructional activities by assuming responsibility for routine classroom tasks.

Barriers These are disrespectful and discouraging behaviors.

Academic Choice This is a “choice-based approach to activitybased learning that increases children’s investment in learning and creates a forum for reflection with peers” (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004, p. 325).

Behavior debriefing As part of Think TimeTM, students examine their misbehavior, explain the reasons and results, describe what they will do in the future, and estimate their chances of success.

Baseline for misbehaviors The number of allowed misbehaviors during the Good Behavior Game.

Accountability The teacher holds all members of the class responsible for their learning and behavior.

Behavior modification (sometimes called operant conditioning or stimulus-response theory) The belief that positive reinforcement or a reward should follow positive behavior.

Achievement The extent the student is progressing in a wealth of ways (e.g., academically, socially) and how this affects her or his behavior both individually and as a member of a group.

Behavior support plan A plan that is used to identify behavior problems and to teach appropriate behavior for an individual student.

Active listening A belief fostered by Thomas Gordon, it says that teachers must genuinely hear and understand the comments, concerns, and behaviors of students.

Being honest with yourself This unit in the Positive Action model includes telling the truth, doing what you say you’ll do, not blaming others, admitting mistakes, and knowing personal strengths and weaknesses.

Advance preparation Organizing and managing classrooms for effective instruction is advance preparation and planning from the first day of school.

Beliefs, attitudes, and values Three factors that affect students’ behavior.

Anarchy The unacceptable, lowest level on Marshall’s Social Hierarchy

Body language The way a teacher stands and acts that conveys skill and confidence in classroom management.

Application phase The final phase in the Social Decision Making and Problem Solving model in which teachers use role-playing, guided practice, modeling, and mock situations to help students learn to apply their skills.

Bossing/Bullying This unacceptable second level on Marshall’s Social Hierarchy occurs when individuals break rules, boss others, and behave irresponsibly.

Appreciative praise Considered productive by Ginott, this type praise deals only with the students’ efforts and accomplishments.

Brickwall teacher A teacher who restricts and controls others; he or she is all powerful; the student is the subordinate.

Assertive confrontation Teachers sometimes need to use assertive confrontation, a method that offers seven rules for a fair fight and a productive confrontation

Broken-record response According to the Canters, this is a response to misbehavior in which the teacher repeats the same or a similar request for compliance a maximum of three times before invoking the consequence.

Assertive style This style is used by teachers who clearly and specifically place limits and rewards or consequences on students and make their expectations known.

Buddy teacher In the Responsive Classroom® model, these teachers work together in their discipline efforts.

Attention getting One of Dreikurs’s four goals of misbehavior, this is when students feel they are worthless and often misbehave to get the attention they want.

Bullying Physical or psychological intimidation that occurs repeatedly over time and creates an ongoing pattern of harassment and abuse.

Autocratic teacher In contrast to permissive teachers and democratic teachers, autocratic teachers rule with an “iron fist,” demanding obedience at all times in a controlled environment and allowing students little freedom. This hands-on teacher has rigid expectations and demands immediate obedience. Autonomy One of three universal human needs according to Kohn. Backbone teacher By emphasizing democracy through learned experiences, backbone teachers advocate creative, constructive, and responsible activity; have simply and clearly defined rules; use natural or reasonable consequences; motivate students to be all they can be; and teach students how to think. Backup systems These plans (e.g., classroom policy, school rules, law enforcement, juvenile justice) are in place for correcting continuing and more severe misbehaviors.

Builders These are respectful and encouraging behaviors.

Capable Students feel confident and capable of achieving appropriate behavior and achieving academically. Career exploration A focus in some management programs such as Learning for Life which provides information on postsecondary education, career readiness, becoming a productive citizen, and transitioning from high school to the real world. Caring School Community A basic part of the Child Development Project. Cheap Instead of referring to financial costs, “cheap” refers to management techniques that are simple and require the least planning time and paperwork. Checking for Understanding The teacher uses unobtrusive techniques and asks questions to help a misbehaving student. Choice One of three positive practices identified by Marshall.

From Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases, Third Edition. M. Lee Manning, Katherine T. Bucher. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Glossary Choice Theory A theory by William Glasser, it holds that students have specific human needs and motives and should accept responsibility for their behavior. Citizens Active decision makers who feel they are an integral part of the classroom are called citizens. Civic values The common goals and values that help define appropriate behavior in a community are civic values. Class meetings These are meetings in which classroom conflicts are resolved peacefully in a democratic forum of students and the teacher. Class rules According to the Canters, rules should be age and grade-level appropriate and specific and should clearly spell out the behavior expectation. While some theorists believe the teacher establishes the rules, others involve students in their creation. Classroom community This is a school community in which people feel an attachment to the community and a sense of duty to work toward the welfare of the community. Classroom management This involves strategies that teachers use to assure physical and psychological safety in the classroom; techniques for changing student misbehaviors and for teaching self-discipline; methods to assure an orderly progression of events during the school day; and instructional techniques that contribute to students’ positive behaviors. Classroom management plan This is an organized plan that is based on philosophical foundations of discipline and spells out the management activities and practices in a classroom. Classroom organization Part of many classroom management models, classroom organization refers to the physical arrangement of the classroom. Some theorists also use the term to refer to the rules, policies, and procedures used in the classroom. Classroom structures Structures are the rules, procedures, and physical arrangement of the classroom. Code of conduct Students (and sometimes teachers) develop a code that governs their behavior and attitudes in the classroom; different than a list of rules in the sense that a code is broader and guides students toward behaviors they adopted. Code of ethics Rules, guidelines, and expectations that consist of a few principles that guide behavior comprise a code of ethics. Cognitive-behavioral time-out A time, during Think TimeTM, when students are placed with a cooperating teacher to reflect on their misbehaviors. Collaboration Cooperative efforts among professionals (and parents and learners) in which all parties share expertise and work toward a common goal.

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Competence One of the three universal human needs according to Kohn. Conflict resolution A model of solving conflicts that focuses on productive ways to handle conflict, without aggression or passivity; it may include a conference with the parents or guardian or the development of an individual behavior contract with the student. Congruent communication Haim Ginott’s model of classroom management. Connect Students feel connected or have workable relationships with other students as well as the teacher and administrator. Consequences Punishments that result from misbehaviors are consequences. Consistency Not be confused with rigidity, consistency provides a sense of continuity of actions and expectations for students and teachers. Constitution Sometimes referred to as a contract, this is the product of the teacher and students working together to develop rules that reflect both classroom rules and the standards identified by the school as a whole. Constitutional perspective A view used by teachers in Gathercoal’s model to examine rules in light of democratic principles. Contribute Students feel capable of making a contribution to the behavior and well-being of the class. Control theory This is an earlier name for the Choice Theory of William Glasser. Cooperating teacher In Think TimeTM, this is a partner teacher who accepts misbehaving students from another classroom. Cooperation This is the need for students, teachers, administrators, and community members to work toward mutual goals. Cooperation/Conformity This is the acceptable, external second level of Marshall’s social hierarchy in which students comply with expected standards of behavior. Cooperative learning This is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. Coordinating committee A local committee helps in the implementation of the Community of Caring classroom management model. Core character traits These are the eight traits of respect, responsibility, honesty/trust, caring/fairness, perseverance, self-discipline, courage, and citizenship that are the basis for the Learning for Life program. Core skills A set of skills in the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program.

Communities A place in which students feel cared about and are encouraged to care about each other; they experience a sense of being valued and respected; the children matter to one another and to the teacher. They have come to think in the plural: They feel connected to one another; they are part of an “us.” And, as a result of all this, they feel safe in their classes, not only physically but emotionally (Kohn, 1996a, pp. 101–102).

Core values The Community of Caring program is built on five core values: care, respect, trust and moral consciousness, responsibility, and family (Jones & Stoodley, 1999).

Compelling state interests These are the basis for classroom rules: health and safety, property loss and damage, legitimate educational purpose, and serious disruption.

Co-teaching Two or more people share responsibility for teaching some or all of the students assigned to an educational setting. It includes the distribution of responsibility among professionals for

Corporal punishment This is physical punishment that, according to most classroom management theorists, is ineffective and accomplishes “nothing that cannot be achieved better by some other method” (Redl & Wattenberg, 1959, p. 375).

Glossary planning, instruction, and evaluation for a classroom of students. It is often used as an inclusion practice in which a general and special education teacher provide instruction in the same classroom.

Early intervention Think TimeTM has an early intervention strategy that includes a time-out procedure which removes the student from the disruptive situation and uses the misbehavior as a learning experience.

Cross-age buddy program Part of the Child Development Project, it teams younger and older students so they have opportunities to work together and learn from each other.

Effective communication According to Evertson and Harris, teachers must not only be heard, they must be understood so that their instructions are followed and there are no misunderstandings.

Cultural disequilibrium The cultural mismatch between two groups or between students and teacher.

Empathic understanding This is a technique favored by Thomas Gordon in which a teacher learns about individual students, their specific needs, and their interests and abilities in order to tailor curricular and instructional decisions toward individual students.

Culture People’s values, language, religion, ideals, artistic expression, patterns of social and interpersonal relationships, and ways of perceiving, behaving, and thinking. Cyberbullying This is a form of indirect bullying in which students use computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices to bully others. Dangles The teacher continues to find materials, reviews lesson plans, and talks with individual students when the class as a whole is ready for instruction. Decision-making process This eight step model in the Social Decision Making and Problem Solving model helps students apply critical thinking and feeling. Deep modeling Kohn’s idea to encourage teachers to help children to see what is behind ethical decisions. Democracy This is the acceptable, internal, and highest level of Marshall’s social hierarchy in which students demonstrate self-discipline and internal motivation. Democratic classrooms These are classrooms in which students know that their human rights are secure. Democratic teacher A hands-joined teacher encourages students to help devise classroom rules and their logical consequences, as well as helps students to feel psychologically safe in the classroom environment. Desists The teacher engages in a effort to stop a misbehavior. Developmental discipline An approach to classroom management that emphasizes the development of students’ self-control and personal responsibility” (Battistich, Schaps, & Wilson, 2004, p. 244). Developmental levels Several meanings can be given to developmental levels, for example students’ development during the Pre-K level, elementary level, or secondary level, as well as one being an early mature or late mature.

Empowering perceptions These include three perceptions: perceptions of personal capabilities (teachers create a safe climate where students can experiment with learning and behavior without judgments about success or failure); perceptions of significance in primary relationships (teachers listen to the feelings, thoughts, and ideas of students and take them seriously); and perceptions of the personal power of influence in life (teachers give students the opportunity to contribute in useful ways, and help them to accept their power to create positive and negative environments). Encouragement In contrast to praise, teachers should use encouragement to boost confidence and self-esteem and less praise, because students can become dependent on the praise. Environmental design This school design contributes to safe classrooms and schools. Essential skills These consist of intrapersonal skills (students gain understanding of their emotions and behaviors by hearing feedback from their classmates); interpersonal skills (students develop interpersonal skills through dialogue and sharing, listening and empathizing, cooperation, negotiation, and conflict resolution); systemic skills (students respond to the limits and consequences of everyday life with responsibility, adaptability, flexibility, and integrity because they do not experience punishment or disapproval); and judgment skills (students develop judgment skills when they have opportunities and encouragement to practice making decisions in an environment that emphasizes learning from mistakes rather punishment). Evaluative praise Considered destructive by Ginott, this type of praise deals with the students’ character and personality. Extensive interventions According to Evertson and Harris, this is the highest level of intervention for the most severe behavior offense and includes a five-step problem-solving procedure.

Direct bullying These are actions such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, and stealing.

Extrinsic bribes The opposite of internal motivation, it may consist of things such as a homework pass, token, or sticker.

Discipline as self-control This is a belief by Thomas Gordon that the ultimate responsibility for discipline lies within the individual students who have to accept responsibility for changing their behavior.

Feelings of inadequacy One of Dreikurs’s four goals of misbehavior, students who harbor feelings of hopelessness and inferiority might misbehave to compensate for their inadequacy.

Discipline hierarchy This is a plan that informs students of consequences and the order in which they will be imposed. Diversity Differences among students that teachers must consider as they identify appropriate classroom management strategies; these differences include (but are not limited to) gender, sexual orientation ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, and development.

Flip-flops The teacher is engaged in one activity and then returns to a previous activity that the students thought they had finished. Foundational theorists These are theorists in the study of student behavior and classroom management, including B. F. Skinner, Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg, William Glasser, and Thomas Gordon. Fragmentation The teacher engages in a type of slowdown, for example, the teacher breaks down an activity into subparts that could be taught as a single unit.

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Glossary Front loading One of the first things that happens in a classroom is that students develop a class set of expected behaviors. The students focus on the Bill of Rights and the legal compelling interests and then help define what these concepts mean in various teaching and learning situations. Functional behavioral assessments Using this process educators examine the function and motivation for misbehavior. Gender Basically, whether one is female or male. For years, educators considered education and classroom management practices in terms of white males; however, we now realize that girls and boys think and react differently as well as respond differently to classroom management practices. General rules These describe teachers’ goals and objectives—their hopes and aspirations for classroom management during the coming year. Rather than dictating behavior, they establish a tone in the class, raise expectations, express the teacher’s values and typically deal with good behavior and good work habits. Grandma’s Rule According to this rule, students do not get their rewards until they demonstrate what the teacher wants (you don’t get dessert until you eat your vegetables). Group alerting The teacher obtains and holds the attention of the class, both at the beginning of a lesson and as the activities change within a lesson. Group dynamics “Group life in the classroom” (Redl & Wattenberg, 1959, p. 262): an understanding that individual behavior affects group behavior and vice versa.

I-messages Teachers use these statements to express how they feel about a given behavior or how it affects them. For example, effective teachers use statements such as “I’m frustrated by all the talking in this room.” Imposed discipline Teachers assume responsibility for managing students’ behavior. Punishments are used. Improving yourself continually This unit in the Positive Action program consists of setting and achieving goals, persisting, and believing in your potential. Inclusion A term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students) www.weac.org/Issues_Advocacy/Resource_Pages_On_Issues_one/ Special_Education/special_education_inclusion.aspx. Inclusive classrooms Classrooms that ensure that all students, regardless of disabling conditions or special needs are accepted, considered to be valued learners, recognized for special needs and talents, and provided an appropriate educational program and any necessary supports needed for them to be successful learners. Indirect bullying These actions cause a student to be socially isolated through exclusion.

Group focus The teacher keeps the attention of all members of the class at all times, which assists in maintaining an efficient classroom and reducing student misbehavior.

Individualizing consequences Gathercoal believes that consistency does not mean treating all students alike and that consequences must fit the individual.

Guided choices Part of Marshall’s Raise Responsibility System, it requires teachers to help students think about the choices they are making.

Ineffective things These behaviors, techniques, and decisions are those that teachers continue to demonstrate that do not work or achieve the desired purpose.

Guided Discovery With Guided Discovery, teachers “introduce classroom materials in a systematic way that builds a common vocabulary, creates clear expectations for use, and establishes routines for their care” (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004, p. 337). Healthy classrooms Classrooms in which students trust their abilities and their environments, see benefits of improving behavior, and make significant and meaningful decisions, and teachers and students work collaboratively and cooperatively.

Influence As opposed to control, teachers try to influence students to demonstrate appropriate classroom behaviors. Instructional phase As part of the Social Decision Making and Problem Solving model, students learn a social decision making strategy to help them in social problem situations. Intelligence Sometimes called cognitive processes, intelligence refers to one’s ability to learn and to understand.

Hidden curriculum The beliefs, values, and norms that are transmitted by the structure of education including management plans and policies.

Internal motivation The opposite of external motivation; for example, taking self-satisfaction in having appropriate behavior is internal motivation.

Home groups In the Responsive Classroom® Model, these groups consist of teachers from across grade levels in a single school who meet to discuss school goals, issues and the implementation of RC practices.

Interventions Either minor interventions, moderate interventions, or extensive interventions; instead of having the same punishments for all misbehaviors, teachers must determine the severity of the behavior offense and then determine the needed intervention.

Homeside activities Part of the Child Development Project that takes activities from the classroom into the home and then back into the classroom.

Intraculture Refers to the variations within a single cultural group.

Hostile style According to Canter and Canter, this is a teacher’s style that uses an aversive approach, including shouting, threats, and sarcasm.

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Human relation skills These are interpersonal skills that a teacher uses to work with and manage the students in a classroom.

Jellyfish teachers These teachers are wishy-washy, are inconsistent about classroom management, and allow anarchy and chaos. Without recognizable structure and rules, they are arbitrary and inconsistent with rules and punishments, use mini lectures and putdowns, use threats and bribes, and allow emotions to rule students and their behaviors.

Glossary Jerkiness The teacher fails to develop a consistent flow of instruction, thus causing students to feel lesson momentum jerks from slow to fast (See also thrust).

Movement management The teacher keeps lessons and groups engaged at an appropriate pace, with smooth transitions and varying activities.

Judicious consequences Consequences must be commensurate with the violation and must be compatible with the needs and interests of the student and the school community.

Natural and reasonable consequences Real-world consequences or interventions deal with the reality of the situation rather than the power and control of the adult doing so.

Justice Concerned primarily with due process and deals with basic government fairness; students have the same right to fair and reasonable rules as citizens in the nation have to be governed by fair and reasonable laws.

Natural reinforcers Rewards of reinforcers that occur naturally in the classroom such as free time, being the teacher’s helper, or working on a special project.

Labeling The assigning of a description or characteristic to a student that might follow her or him throughout the school years, for example, “trouble-maker,” “bad girl,” “disruptive boy,” or any other number of labels that cause teachers to look for those characteristics. Learners with special needs Students who differ from other students in ways such as mental characteristics, sensory ability, physical abilities, or multiple conditions and who require specialized services from educators in teaching and learning situations as well as classroom management. Least restrictive environments (LRE) The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires school districts to educate students with disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate with students without disabilities. It specifies that the removal of learners from the general education environment may occur only when the nature or severity of the student’s disability precludes satisfactory instruction in general education classes, even with supplementary aids and services. Limit setting These are a set of physical moves performed by the teacher that signal the student to stop specific behaviors. Literature-based reading and language arts A part of the Child Development Project. Logical consequences In contrast to rewards and punishments, Dreikurs suggests teachers use logical consequences that result from the misbehaviors. Long-term efforts These efforts hope to change students’ attitudes and mindsets to a point where they will not want to repeat (nor see a reason to do so) a misbehavior in the future. Managing yourself responsibly This unit in the Positive Action program consists of managing time, energy, thoughts, actions, money, feelings, and talents. Mediation A dispute between two individuals is resolved through the use of a third party or mediator who helps the two individuals negotiate a settlement. Minor interventions See Interventions. Moderate interventions See Interventions. Monitoring behavior The time in the Good Behavior Game during which the teacher observes student behavior and awards marks for misbehaviors. Morning Meeting This is both an independent ecological classroom management approach as well as a part of the Responsive Classroom® model. Motivation Internal and external factors which contribute to a person’s interests, commitment, and actions.

Negative consequence According to Canter and Canter, this is an unpleasant consequence or penalty system having increasingly severe sanctions that follows negative behavior. Negative reinforcement Something undesirable is removed to stimulate a desired behavior. New Disciplines These are the newer classroom management models and theories that, although not behaviorist in nature, are similar to behaviorist models. Network meetings In the Responsive Classroom® model, these meeting involve teachers from a number of different schools who use RC. Nonassertive style This style is used by ineffective teachers who fail to establish clear standards of behavior or who fail to follow through on threats with appropriate actions. Obedience According to Mendler (1992, p. 36), this means “do not question and certainly do not be different.” Obedience also implies a hierarchical structure in which one or several powerful individuals dictate the terms of behavior for everyone else. Operant conditioning (or behavior modification) This name is used to refer to the theories of B. F. Skinner, which hold that human behavior can be dramatically improved through the use of scientific application of behavioral principles. Overdwelling The teacher dwells on an issue and engages in a stream of talk clearly longer than the time needed for students’ understanding. Overlapping The teacher supervises and attends to more than one group or activity at the same time. Ownership Students learn that they are capable of taking ownership of their behaviors and full responsibility for the problems their behaviors create, not because of fear, but because it is the right thing to do. Peace in the Family A set of workshops in the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program what takes conflict resolution skills into the home. Peer mediation This is a technique used to help students resolve serious conflicts they cannot handle independently. Permissive teacher Hands-off teachers usually let the students do what they want to do and depend upon their judgment to do what is best for them and other students without clear guidance from the teacher. Pleasure–pain principle According to Redl and Wattenberg, a teacher uses the pleasure–pain principle to deliberately provide experiences to produce pleasant to unpleasant feelings. The hope is that a pleasant experience will induce an individual to repeat a desirable behavior, and an unpleasant experience will make the individual want to avoid repeating that unwanted behavior.

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Glossary Positive peer relationships A context in which students learn and practice social skills and receive social support.

prejudice. To guide students, educators should appeal to students’ sense of fairness and also see the consequences of their behaviors.

Positive reinforcement A theory of B. F. Skinner which holds that proper and immediate reinforcement (a favorite food, compliment, or other reward) strengthens the likelihood that appropriate behavior will reoccur; he also found that behavior can be shaped by providing a reinforcing stimulus just after a desired behavior happens.

Reconciliation This is the process of healing, with the offender honoring the restitution plan and making a commitment to live up to the resolution.

Positivity One of the three positive practices in Marshall’s Discipline without Stress®. Teachers should be positive in everything they do and say. Power seeking One of Dreikurs’s four goals of misbehavior; power-seeking students attempt to prove their power by defying the teacher and doing whatever they want.

Relatedness One of the three basic needs according to Kohn. Resolution Determining a way not to let the behavior happen again; in other words, how can students accept what they have done and see its implications for a new beginning?

Precision request This is a short verbal cue or direct request used by a teacher in Think TimeTM to encourage a student to change a behavior.

Responsibility According to Mendler (1992, p. 37), this means “make the best decision you possibly can with the information you have available.” Within a responsibility model of discipline, students accumulate information, see the options available to them, learn to anticipate consequences, and then choose the path they feel is in the best interest of themselves and others.

Preferred activity time (PAT) This involves allocation (both giving and taking away) of time for appropriate and inappropriate behaviors.

Restitution This involves fixing what the student did and repairing the physical damage (if any) and the personal damage.

Primary level of intervention Basic or universal level of behavior support and intervention in Positive Behavior Support that is used throughout the school.

Revenge One of Dreikurs’s four goals of misbehavior; students who are seeking revenge want to hurt someone else and believe that revenge is important for their own self-esteem.

Problem ownership A theory of Thomas Gordon; it holds that educators must get the message to students that the behavior problem rests with the individual students and they will have to accept responsibility for changing their own behavior.

Ripple effect The teacher corrects one student or calls attention to one student for his or her misbehavior (called a desist) and it “ripples” to other students, causing them to behave better.

Praise In contrast to encouragement, when praise is used, if students do not or cannot continue the behavior or record of achievement, they begin to think they are of less worth.

Professional ethics One of the foundations of Gathercoal’s model in which educators model acceptable standards of moral and proper conduct.

RSVP approach These consequences are reasonable, simple, valuable (as a learning tool), and practical. Rules A statement of expected behavior, performance, or conduct. Also a statement that establishes a standard.

Profiling Checklists of behaviors and personal characteristics associated with youths who have perpetuated violence are used to predict an individual student’s potential for acting out in a violent manner.

Safe school This is a place where the business of education can be conducted in a welcoming environment free of intimidation, violence, and fear.

Proximity This is the distance a teacher stands from a student, in an effort to let the misbehaving student know his or her inappropriate behavior is recognized by the teacher.

Safe schools movement This movement is supported by individuals, professional associations, and governmental agencies and places a priority on making schools safe for students and educators by focusing on the problem of violence and proposing possible remedies.

Psychological needs According to Glasser, these are the need for survival, the need to belong, the need for power, the need for freedom, and the need for fun. Quality schools This term used by William Glasser refers to schools that have positive academic and behavior results. Raise Responsibility System This is the core part of the Discipline without Stress® model of Marvin Marshall. It offers a hierarchy of social development. Readiness phase In this part of the Social Decision Making and Problem Solving model, students learn self control, as well as social awareness and group participation skills in lessons on topics such as following directions, listening, resisting and avoiding provocation, monitoring emotions, and working with others. Reality appraisal A theory by Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg, it holds that teachers must help students understand whether their actions are guided by intelligence and conscience or by fear or

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Reflection One of the three positive practices in Marshall’s Discipline without Stress®. Teachers should ask reflective questions of themselves and students.

Sane messages These messages address the students’ behavior rather than the students’ character. Satiation The students have focused on one learning aspect too long and begin to lose interest, make more mistakes, and misbehave. School-based risk factors These are items such as poor design of school space, overcrowding, lack of caring, insensitivity toward multicultural factors, student alienation, rejection of at-risk students by teachers and peers, and anger and resentment at school routines and demands for conformity. Schoolwide positive behavior supports These provide an operational decision making framework that guides selection, integration, and implementation of the best evidence-based academic and behavioral practices for improving important academic and behavior outcomes for all students.

Glossary Secondary level of intervention Group interventions for behavior support in Positive Behavior Support. Provided for students who are at risk of social and/or academic failure.

Social skills Project ACHIEVE identifies four categories of social skills, including survival skills, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, and conflict resolution skills.

Security technologies These are items such as smart cards, metal detectors and wands, alarm systems, and closed-circuit television.

Socioeconomic status The social and economic position, which is often based on income, education, and occupation.

Self-concept An individual’s perception of herself or himself, including such things as social competence, academic skills, gender roles, and cultural identity.

Specific rules These rules train a class to do what you want them to do and when you want them to do it.

Self-discipline According to Gordon, discipline problems reside within the students and they will have to accept responsibility for changing their behavior. Self-management A process during Think TimeTM when a student reflects and tries to regain self-control. Sense of community This is a feeling of togetherness, where all students (both elementary and secondary), teachers, and administrators know each other and create a climate for intellectual development and shared educational purpose. Service-learning The curriculum integrated academic instruction with meaningful community service both to strengthen academics and promote civic responsibility. Severe clause This part of the Canters’ discipline hierarchy provides a way to remove students from the classroom if they pose a threat to others. Short-term efforts Efforts to provide a quick fix for behavior problems; the goal is to stop the behavior at that particular time, but it does little to prevent the student or another student from repeating the same behavior again.

Special needs learners See Learners with special needs.

Stimulus bound The teacher has the students engaged in a lesson and then something attracts her or his attention; she or he loses the instructional focus and momentum while dealing with the other issue. Stop and Think This part of Project ACHIEVE is a process to help students decrease impulsive behavior and provide selfreinforcement. Subculture This is a racial, ethnic, regional, economic, or social community that exhibits characteristic patterns of behavior sufficient to distinguish it from others in the dominant society or culture. Supporting self-control Because individuals control their own conduct, misbehavior results from a temporary lapse of an individual’s control system. Teachers must help students learn to use their control system. Target behaviors Educators decide to address these behaviors because they violate class or school policy or interfere with teachers teaching or students learning. Addressing all misbehaviors is not an efficient use of instructional time. Taught discipline Teachers work to teach students to discipline themselves.

Significant Seven These are the essential skills and empowering perceptions.

Teacher Effectiveness Training The model of Thomas Gordon in which teachers learn the skills they need manage their classrooms.

Site facilitator An individual in a given school who is responsible for the implementation of a program.

Teaching the Concepts The part of Marshall’s Raise Responsibility System in which teachers teach a hierarchy of four developmental levels of social interaction.

Situational assistance This theory by Redl and Wattenberg holds that if a student has lost his or her self-control, a teacher steps in with situational assistance to help the student regain control. Six-step problem solving This process for resolving conflicts is part of Gordon’s model and is outlined in Chapter 3. Slowdowns The teacher, when teaching, moves too slowly and stops instruction too often. Thus, the students lose interest or learning momentum. Skills for Action This is the high school portion of the Lions Quest program. Skills for Adolescents This is the middle school portion of the Lions Quest program. Skills for Growing This is the kindergarten and elementary portion of the Lions Quest program. Social contracts In this arrangement, teachers and students work together to define acceptable and unacceptable behavior and consequences for breaking the agreed-upon rule. Social hierarchy Part of Marshall’s Raise Responsibility System, it consists of four developmental levels of social interaction.

Team membership Students work with their peers in social relationships. Tertiary or individual level of interventions The tertiary level of behavior support and intervention in Positive Behavior Support is used to help specific students with emotional and behavioral challenges and to assist their families. Think TimeTM desk This time-out desk in a cooperating teacher’s classroom is a place where students may sit and reflect on their misbehavior. Thoughts-Action-Feelings circle A student has a thought, acts on it, and feels something because of that action. Thrust The teacher teaches too slowly or too fast or switches back and forth, thus failing to acquire and hold an appropriate momentum for students to learn. Tourists Passive onlookers lack feelings of genuine participation in classroom activities. Treating others the way you like to be treated A unit in the Positive Action model that encourages students to treat others the way they like to be treated.

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Glossary

Violence These behaviors range from threats of physical violence to physical assaults and homicide and contribute to an unsafe school.

Written intervention plans This document describes the effective prevention practices that will be taken to help troubled children, educates students and parents, and includes steps to be taken when early warning signs are observed or when a tragedy has occurred.

Warning signs These are indicators that could be used to prevent violent behaviors.

You-messages These messages attack a students’ personality and character, as contrasted with I-messages.

Withitness The teacher perceives everything in all areas of the classroom at all times.

Zero-tolerance policies These rules provide strict consequences, without regard for individual circumstances and individual consideration.

Truncation The teacher engages in a dangle, yet fails to resume the original, dropped activity.

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Index Page references followed by "f" indicate illustrated figures or photographs; followed by "t" indicates a table.

A Abilities, 57, 115, 122, 174-176, 179, 181 defined, 175 Ableism, 186 cultural, 186 individual, 186 Absences, 50 Absenteeism, 41 Abstract thinking, 175 Abuse, 15, 24, 52, 54, 148 alcohol, 15 drug, 52, 54 emotional, 24, 52 substance, 52, 54, 148 Academic achievement, 6, 41, 53, 97, 103, 140, 149-150, 165, 167, 175-177, 181, 183, 186, 209, 211, 216, 237 Academic curriculum, 233 Academic difficulties, 141 Academic goals, 180 Academic performance, 42, 57, 98, 100, 116, 158, 162, 177, 181, 232, 238 Academic skills, 51 Academics, 51, 53, 55, 101, 116, 146, 159, 176, 231, 234 skills, 51, 53, 55, 101, 116, 176, 234 acceptance, 55, 92, 118, 130, 138, 176, 178, 180, 239 ACCESS, 11, 176 Accessibility, 232, 237-238 Accommodation, 175 Accommodations, 9, 96, 179, 182 accommodations, 9, 96, 179, 182 effectiveness, 96, 182 Accountability, 43, 50, 56, 58, 92, 95, 98, 103, 116, 162, 182, 187 inclusion and, 182, 187 of teachers, 162, 187 Accuracy, 32 Achieve, 10-11, 31, 44, 85, 95, 123, 129, 142, 154, 157-158, 162-164, 166-167, 169, 180, 192, 198 Achievement, 6, 11, 41, 53, 85, 97, 103, 105, 112, 140-141, 148-150, 160, 165, 167, 175-178, 180-181, 183, 186, 211, 215, 218, 234-235, 237-238 academic, 6, 11, 41, 53, 85, 97, 103, 105, 140-141, 148-150, 160, 165, 167, 175-178, 180-181, 183, 186, 211, 234, 237-238 grouping, 180 tests, 41, 103, 140-141, 140, 143, 148 Achievement gap, 235 Acquired knowledge, 175 ACT, 6-7, 9, 11, 13, 25, 32, 87, 99, 111, 113, 118-120, 128, 161, 163, 178-180, 182, 187, 200, 209, 214-216, 231, 232, 239, 241 provisions, 11, 32 actions, 6, 12, 22-26, 36, 42-43, 45-46, 50, 53-54, 56, 58, 85, 92, 97, 103-104, 112, 114, 116-118, 120, 124, 127, 182, 184, 186, 192, 198, 209, 213-214 overview of, 23, 36, 50, 53, 97, 116, 118, 140 Active learners, 141 Active learning, 135-137, 141, 144-150, 148 Active listening, 165 Activities, 3-5, 41, 44-45, 47, 49, 51-52, 54-57, 85-87, 93, 95, 98, 100-102, 112, 115, 118-119, 121, 130, 156, 165, 176-179, 181, 184, 197, 199, 211, 215, 217-219 developmental, 5, 51, 56, 87, 100, 136-137, 145, 147, 150, 199, 215 follow-up, 41, 150 instructional, 3-5, 41, 44-45, 47, 49, 55-57, 85, 87,

93, 95, 98, 100-101, 137, 141, 144, 148, 177-179, 184, 215, 217-219 learning, 3-5, 41, 44-45, 47, 51-52, 55-57, 85-87, 93, 95, 98, 100-102, 112, 115, 119, 121, 130, 136-137, 141, 144-149, 156, 165, 177-179, 184, 197, 199, 217-218 planning, 4, 45, 51, 98, 100, 118, 141, 144, 177, 181, 197, 219 purposes of, 57 varying, 57 Activity guides, 145 Activity reinforcers, 29 Adaptability, 117 Addiction, 231, 236, 241 Addition, 4, 7-9, 11-12, 15-16, 23, 26, 28-30, 33, 51-52, 56-58, 88, 90, 94-95, 97, 103, 109, 113, 115, 119, 121-122, 124, 127-128, 141-142, 148-149, 156, 165, 167, 176-183, 187, 198, 210-212, 216, 218-219 Adjustment, 28, 42 Adjustments, 57 Adler, Alfred, 130 biography of, 130 Administration, 16, 52, 109, 159, 167, 240 Administrators, 10, 15, 24-25, 93-95, 100, 130, 141, 145, 148, 159, 166-167, 176, 182, 192, 195, 202, 210, 237 educational, 10, 15, 176, 182, 202, 237 of schools, 148 adolescence, 105, 150, 231, 234, 236, 239 social problem solving, 231, 234-235, 234, 238 Adolescents, 10, 15, 43, 50, 52-53, 58, 91, 123, 191, 200 development in, 234, 240 Adulthood, 157, 166, 215 Adults, 53-54, 113, 118, 120, 124, 136, 144, 147, 159, 162-163, 192 Advanced placement, 120 advice, 16, 27, 88, 146, 190, 200, 202-203, 220 Advisory committee, 210 Affect, 6, 12, 35, 56-58, 86, 102, 124, 172, 175, 180, 187, 196, 198, 215-216 Affirmation, 138 African Americans, 8, 235, 238 Age, 7, 11, 26, 30, 51-54, 103, 112, 137, 146, 165, 175-176, 185 mental, 52 Aggression, 15-16, 30, 122, 158, 165, 168, 175, 177, 183, 218, 233, 236-237, 239 forms of, 15, 175 aggressive behavior, 37, 126, 183, 236-237, 237 Agreement, 97 AIDS, 213 Alcohol, 15, 30 Alert, 50 ALLIANCE, 17 Alternatives, 51, 137, 232, 242 American Educational Research Association, 121, 235 American Federation of Teachers, 202 American Guidance Service, 231 American School Board Journal, 202, 231, 237, 241-242 Analysis, 21, 158, 162, 231-232, 234-235, 238 Anger, 8, 52, 91, 138, 164-166, 168, 179 management, 8, 52, 91, 138, 164-166, 168, 179 anger management, 52 animals, 22 Antisocial behavior, 156, 241 anxiety, 195, 216 Apologies, 157 Application, 5, 21, 23, 28, 43, 55, 98, 111, 113, 116, 139, 158, 164-165, 191, 231, 237 Applications, 1, 19, 23, 31, 36, 39, 44, 51-52, 54-55, 83-84, 88, 94, 100, 107-108, 111, 118, 123, 133-134, 140, 142, 144-145, 153, 159, 162, 165, 171, 189, 205, 209, 214, 221, 231, 239 Applied behavior analysis, 21, 158

reinforcement, 21, 158 Appreciation, 10, 97, 103, 115, 209 Approaches, 5-6, 17, 19-37, 39-59, 83-105, 107-131, 133-151, 153-169, 176, 182-183, 203, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239, 242 brief, 130 Appropriate education, 183 Appropriate language, 163 Area, 7, 25, 59, 120, 202, 237 Arizona, 232 teachers, 232 Art, 32, 54, 58, 92-93, 141, 183, 193, 236 materials for, 54, 141 music, 54, 93, 141, 183 questions about, 193 responding to, 193 Articles, 15, 114 Arts, 137, 145, 147 standards, 147 Asian Americans, 9, 35 Assertive discipline, 13, 20, 22-23, 25-27, 33-36, 137, 192, 201, 232, 234, 239, 241 Assertiveness, 103, 165-166, 168 Assessing, 158, 168, 177, 236, 239 Assessment, 4, 17, 22, 144, 165, 179, 182, 186, 216, 233-234, 240 Assessment:, 234 alternative, 179, 182, 216 behavioral, 22, 179, 182, 186, 216, 234, 240 cognitive-behavioral, 22 community, 4, 144, 179, 234, 240 concerns about, 165 crisis intervention, 234 decision making, 234 direct, 216 ecological, 233 family, 165, 182, 234, 240 formal, 165 functional, 182, 186, 216, 234, 240 functional behavioral, 182, 186, 216 group, 182, 186, 216 group work, 182 health, 233 HELPING, 233 history, 182, 186, 234 IDEA 2004, 17 in grades, 144 integrated, 233 methods, 4, 233 methods of, 4 monitoring, 22 need for, 17 plan for, 216 planning and, 144 problem, 144, 182, 216, 233-234 procedures, 17, 216 reasons for, 182 risk, 165, 179, 182, 234 self-assessment, 144 special education, 179 stress, 216 supportive, 165 Assessments, 174 classroom, 174 comprehensive, 174 of students, 174 Assets, 113, 212 Assignments, 49, 95, 112, 120, 149, 217, 219, 222 Assimilation, 175 Assistance, 10, 26, 33, 45, 55, 58, 99, 141, 145, 165-166, 174, 182, 187, 190, 202, 241 Association, 15, 50, 121, 131, 162, 168, 187, 232-233, 235-236, 239 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 233, 236 assumptions, 10, 139, 200 atmosphere, 14-15, 92, 109-110, 118, 136, 207, 209,

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233 At-risk behaviors, 157 Attachment, 145, 210 Attachment theory, 145 Attending, 123, 144, 173 Attention, 7-9, 13, 27, 30-32, 35, 44, 47-48, 50, 56, 86, 90-91, 109-111, 113-114, 127, 129, 144, 149, 164, 174, 196-197, 211, 215, 218, 231, 236 and learning, 56, 144, 174, 196 from teachers, 109 negative, 9, 13, 27, 31, 44, 47-48, 50, 129, 174 positive, 9, 13, 27, 30-31, 35, 44, 50, 56, 86, 109-111, 113, 127, 129, 144, 149, 174, 211, 215, 231, 236 student, 7-8, 27, 31-32, 35, 44, 47, 50, 56, 86, 90-91, 109-111, 113-114, 127, 129, 144, 149, 164, 174, 196-197, 211, 215, 231, 236 theories, 44, 56, 113, 127, 129 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 30 Attention getting, 7, 110-111, 127 Attitudes, 4, 42, 50, 57, 85, 95, 116, 121, 123-124, 138, 148, 150, 166, 173, 176-177, 231, 240 behaviors and, 42, 85, 123, 138, 150 teacher, 4, 42, 50, 57, 85, 121, 123-124, 138, 148, 150, 166, 173, 176-177, 231, 240 Audience, 126, 135 Audio, 49, 144 AUTHOR, 17, 130, 150, 220, 239-241 Author talks, 240 Authority, 35, 121 legal, 121 Authors, 16-17, 36, 50, 58-59, 105, 150, 168, 181, 187, 202 Autonomy, 136-138, 145-147, 149-150, 167 Average, 25, 46, 162 Avoiding, 10, 45-47, 49, 55, 115, 164, 181 Awards, 27, 92, 138, 222 Awareness, 42, 46, 54-55, 58, 238, 240, 242 self, 42, 54-55, 58, 238, 240

B Back, 21, 24, 34, 45-46, 50, 88, 90-92, 94, 102, 104, 112-113, 140, 146, 159, 166, 178, 192, 195, 199, 214, 217-218, 220, 233, 236 Back talk, 88 Backbone, 192, 194 Background, 45, 147, 176, 180, 214 Background knowledge, 214 Backup system, 93-94, 103 Balance, 120, 199 Baltimore, 28, 30, 33 Baseline data, 162, 165 AS, 162, 165 BASIC, 10, 21, 25, 55, 58, 95, 103, 117, 122-124, 127, 129, 140-142, 163, 175, 184, 211 Beginning teachers, 4, 14, 220 Behavior, 2-3, 5-15, 17, 20-37, 41-42, 44-46, 48-53, 55-59, 85-87, 89-94, 96-105, 111-115, 117-119, 121-130, 135-140, 142-143, 145, 148-149, 154, 156-163, 166-168, 173-175, 177-185, 187, 191-197, 199-203, 209-213, 215-220, 222, 231-242 aggressive, 3, 7-8, 11, 37, 117, 126, 138, 156, 183, 192, 195-196, 220, 237 awareness of, 238 challenging, 13, 179, 217, 232, 237, 239 communication and, 101 desired, 5, 14, 21-22, 46, 93, 99, 158, 184-185, 216 disruptive, 28, 30-32, 36-37, 91-92, 168, 179, 182, 194-196, 215-217, 237-239 environment and, 44, 184, 232 hurtful, 115, 128 modification, 21-22, 27-28, 34, 36, 101, 137, 182, 192, 212, 219, 237, 239, 241 off-task, 6, 140, 197, 217 replacement, 114, 163 routines and, 52, 87 self-esteem and, 52, 112-113 simple, 26, 28, 33, 42, 87, 89, 112, 127, 180, 183, 201, 217 social, 2, 8, 10-11, 22-23, 28-29, 31, 33-34, 36, 41-42, 46, 50-53, 55-59, 85-86, 92-94, 99-104, 111, 113, 123-125, 127, 129-130, 136-137, 145, 148-149, 154, 156-158, 160-163, 166-168, 178, 180-182, 184-185, 216, 220, 231-232, 234, 236-237, 239-241 target, 12-13, 29, 156

244

violent, 7-8, 96, 115, 126, 138, 148-149, 156, 168, 192, 218, 220, 231 Behavior change, 158, 231 Behavior changes, 8, 122-123, 166 Behavior management, 17, 25, 36-37, 41, 97, 100, 180, 187, 203, 217, 220, 231-233, 235, 237, 242 bullying prevention, 233 dropout prevention, 187 Behavior modification, 21-22, 27-28, 34, 36, 101, 137, 182, 192, 212, 237, 239, 241 Behavior problems, 6, 12, 24-25, 35, 44-45, 53, 56-58, 85, 87, 94, 102, 113, 123, 129, 135, 148, 159-160, 163, 174, 177, 185, 187, 191, 195, 197, 202, 217, 232, 238 Behavior support plan, 174 Behavior support plans, 182 Behavioral approach, 22, 135 Behavioral assessment, 182, 186, 216 Behavioral challenges, 160 Behavioral principles, 21 Behavioral problems, 162, 179, 238, 240 Behavioral support, 158, 162, 236 Behavioral theory, 135 Behaviorism, 95, 140-141, 234, 236, 242 Behaviors, 3-9, 11-13, 16-17, 21-22, 26-31, 35-36, 41-42, 44-46, 48, 52-58, 85, 87-88, 90-91, 93, 97-100, 103-104, 113, 116-117, 119, 121-123, 126, 130, 137-138, 144-145, 148, 150, 155-161, 163-164, 166, 168, 173, 175-176, 178, 181-185, 191-192, 194-196, 201, 206, 209-210, 212-213, 215-218, 220, 221, 231, 234-235, 237-239 at-risk, 36, 148, 157, 234-235, 237 bad, 3, 7, 85, 117, 150, 163, 237-238 beliefs and, 4-5, 12, 150, 212, 216, 231 classroom management and, 4-5, 11, 16, 36, 88, 99, 176, 184, 212, 220, 221, 231, 234-235 coping, 168, 218, 239 describing, 29 desirable, 99, 184 nonverbal, 99, 144 on-task, 28, 144, 213, 217-218, 234 self-management, 22, 30, 58 SHARE, 97, 148, 181, 212 verbal, 26-27, 163, 210 Belief system, 177 Beliefs, 4-5, 12, 14, 25, 35, 57-58, 89, 102, 104, 120, 129, 135, 137, 139, 146-147, 150, 172, 186-187, 190-194, 198-202, 206-208, 212, 214, 216, 220, 231, 238, 240 ability, 35, 89, 186, 192, 207-208, 214, 220 control, 25, 57, 102, 104, 135, 139, 147, 192, 194, 201, 214 self-efficacy, 240 Belonging, 138, 147, 150, 156, 176, 178, 210, 216 Benefits, 57, 95-97, 118, 123, 147-148, 167, 180, 216 Best practice, 33, 234 Best practices, 241-242 Bias, 23, 166, 186 disciplinary, 186 system, 23 Bill of Rights, 119-120 Biography, 37, 59, 105, 130-131, 151, 168 Blame, 3, 140, 157, 209 Blaming, 54, 209 Blindness, 174 Blocks, 116, 118, 212 Blueprints, 192 Body language, 86-88, 90, 103-104, 124 Bonding, 181 Bonuses, 92 Bookmark, 29 Books, 7, 15, 34, 48, 101, 104, 161, 164, 209, 213, 231, 235, 239 assignment, 7, 213 multicultural, 231, 235 talking, 104 Bowlby, 145, 231 Boys, 3, 25, 149, 215, 231, 238 Brainstorming, 118 Buffer, 94 Bulletin boards, 98, 156, 219, 222 Bullies, 7, 15-16, 207, 213, 217-218, 239-241 Bullying, 6, 16-17, 50, 155, 159, 166-167, 218, 232-233, 235-239 preventing, 6, 232, 235, 239 research-based programs, 232, 235

Burns, 150, 231, 236 Bus drivers, 162 Businesses, 5

C California, 145, 157 Capacities, 55 Capacity, 129 Cards, 50, 96, 161, 216, 218 Career, 12, 16, 43, 52, 202, 219 education, 12, 43, 52, 202 information, 16, 52, 202 Career exploration, 43, 52 Caregivers, 181, 186 Caring, 36, 40, 42-43, 50-51, 54-55, 57-59, 87, 95, 97, 103, 110, 114, 116, 124, 128, 134, 136-138, 140, 142, 145-151, 163-165, 178, 184, 200, 207, 210, 212, 214, 232-234, 236, 240, 242 Caring classroom, 42, 210 Case studies, 51 Case study, 16, 191, 196-199, 213-214, 217 CASEL, 59 CAST, 168, 236 Categories, 163, 175, 179, 195 Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 169 Centers, 93, 148, 199, 222, 236 art, 93, 236 computer, 93 interest centers, 93 organization of, 93 Chains, 161 Challenging behaviors, 176 Change, 6, 8, 14, 16, 21, 31, 36, 42, 45, 47, 53-54, 90, 98, 104, 114, 123, 129, 135, 138, 140, 143-144, 147, 150, 155-156, 158, 161, 173, 175, 178, 181-182, 184, 191, 198, 201-202, 209, 213, 217-219, 221-222, 231, 233, 235, 238, 241 attitude, 155, 178, 217 continuing, 45, 114 essential, 129 in schools, 6, 42, 53, 138, 140, 156, 158, 233, 238 motivation for, 53, 182 personality and, 14 planned, 47, 90, 98, 143, 173, 217 problems with, 155, 161, 217 rate of, 175 theory of, 14, 241 Change agent, 147 Changes, 8, 36, 42, 50, 52, 96, 122-123, 130, 165-166, 178, 194, 203, 210 Chaos, 32, 50, 139, 141, 148, 183, 233 counseling and, 233 order and, 233 Character, 40, 43, 50-52, 54, 58-59, 86, 113, 127, 135, 147, 155-156, 164, 231, 234-237, 239, 241 Character development, 51-52, 147, 156, 231, 234 Character education, 43, 50, 52, 58, 155, 164, 235-237, 239, 241 Characters, 53, 145 Charts, 140 Chats, 105 Cheating, 50 Checklist, 5, 56, 219, 222 Checklists, 50 Chicago, 17, 149 Child development, 134, 136-137, 145, 150-151, 184, 231, 234, 239-241 curriculum, 136, 145, 231, 234 Children, 3, 8, 10-11, 15-16, 21, 28, 33, 37, 42, 53, 55, 57-59, 86-87, 91, 99-101, 103, 105, 110-111, 113, 120, 123, 130, 137-139, 145, 149-150, 158, 160, 162, 165-168, 173, 175-176, 178, 180-181, 183, 187, 191, 199-200, 207-209, 213-215, 231-240 art of, 236 behaviorist approach, 149 compassionate, 8, 138, 149 constructivist approach, 145 focus on, 15, 28, 42, 57-58, 91, 100, 103, 110, 138-139, 183, 237 rights of, 120, 176 Children with disabilities, 11, 178 Children with special needs, 176, 187 gifted children, 187 Chip, 96 Choice, 34, 49, 86, 99-101, 113-114, 163, 191, 233, 238, 241-242 Choice theory, 233, 238, 241-242

Circles, 51, 59, 178, 180 Citizenship, 51-52, 118-120, 128 Clarity, 46 Class discussions, 119 Class jobs, 49 Class meetings, 16, 28, 51, 97, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 121-122, 127-129, 146-147, 178, 184, 208, 212, 214, 220, 231, 235, 237 Class rules, 22, 26, 52, 102-103, 112, 120, 127-129, 136, 141, 147, 156, 178-179, 185, 197, 211, 219, 222 Classroom, 1-17, 19-37, 39-59, 83-105, 107-131, 133-151, 153-169, 171-187, 189-203, 205-220, 221-222, 231-242 arrangements, 87, 102, 142, 178, 216 conference, 99, 217 displays, 28, 148 environment in, 97, 115, 142, 148, 183, 196, 200, 208, 213 first day of school, 12, 89, 98, 211-212, 218 learning styles and, 178, 218 organizing, 6, 98 secondary classrooms, 88 talk in, 88 Classroom arrangement, 14, 101-102, 185, 219, 222 Classroom behavior, 23, 28, 42, 85, 89, 102, 162, 175, 181, 187, 216, 235, 237, 242 management system, 85, 162 Classroom climate, 42, 100, 161, 165, 173, 177 Classroom conflicts, 119 Classroom control, 50, 127 Classroom discipline, 84, 86-88, 93, 141, 217, 235-236, 242 classroom rules, 88 rewards, 93 Classroom environment, 11, 13, 25, 30, 42, 44, 85, 102, 138, 142, 182-183, 207, 213, 232 democratic, 207, 213 room arrangement, 102 student learning and, 102 time, 13, 25, 30, 44, 85, 142, 182-183 Classroom management, 1-17, 19-37, 39-59, 83-105, 107-131, 133-151, 153-169, 171-187, 189-203, 205-208, 211-217, 219-220, 221-222, 231-242 and student behavior, 11, 135 classroom arrangement, 14, 101-102, 185, 219, 222 for social studies, 92 positive behavioral support, 236 schedules, 100, 178 student conduct and, 119 vignette, 3, 16, 21, 23, 36, 41, 50, 58, 85, 89, 104, 109, 112, 127, 130, 135, 150, 155, 168, 173-175, 182, 184, 186-187, 191-193, 207-208 withitness, 43-46, 56-58, 97, 219, 222 working independently, 160 Classroom organization, 84, 86, 97, 101, 104, 142-143 Classroom questions, 214 Classrooms, 3-4, 6, 11-12, 14-16, 21-22, 25-26, 30, 33, 35-36, 41-42, 52-53, 59, 88, 96-98, 102-103, 109-111, 114, 116, 118, 121-124, 129-130, 138-142, 148, 155, 159, 162, 166, 171-187, 193, 199-201, 208, 211, 213, 216, 231-234, 236-241 behavior, 3, 6, 11-12, 14-15, 21-22, 25-26, 30, 33, 35-36, 41-42, 52-53, 59, 96-98, 102-103, 111, 114, 118, 121-124, 129-130, 138-140, 142, 148, 159, 162, 166, 173-175, 177-185, 187, 193, 199-201, 211, 213, 216, 231-234, 236-241 behavior in, 22, 33, 36, 59, 98, 124, 174, 180, 184, 193, 216, 233, 238, 240-241 caring classroom, 42 competition in, 138 first week of school, 199 for grades, 30, 42, 138 inclusive, 11, 171-187, 216, 231, 234, 236, 238, 240-241 regular, 11, 30, 33, 96, 141, 162, 178, 200, 237 special, 11, 30, 33, 52-53, 98, 129, 141, 162, 166, 172-187, 200, 208, 216, 238-239, 241 Clauses, 46 Cleaning, 199 CLEAR, 13, 23, 33, 35, 45, 52, 56, 89, 93, 100-101, 111, 123, 125-126, 144, 146, 164, 182-183, 196-197, 216, 218 Climate, 10, 42, 54, 59, 100, 109-110, 113, 117-118,

129-130, 135, 138, 140-142, 149, 151, 156, 161-166, 173, 177, 182, 208, 210, 219, 222, 231, 236-237, 240-242 Cliques, 210 Clothing, 120, 125 religious, 120 Coaching, 159 Code of ethics, 110, 119 Coercion, 31, 87, 104, 137, 235 Cognition, 57, 175 Cognitive development, 175 abilities, 175 COIN, 235 Collaboration, 13, 16, 53, 58, 100-102, 104, 113, 147, 166, 168-169, 174, 176-177, 179, 194, 213, 235, 240 coteaching, 177 in the schools, 168, 240 school administrators, 166 skills in, 58 small groups, 102, 179 special educators, 177 students, 13, 16, 53, 58, 100-102, 104, 113, 147, 166, 168, 174, 176-177, 179, 194, 213, 235, 240 time for, 100, 194 understanding, 13, 194 with families, 113 Collaborative learning, 111, 146-147 Collecting, 114, 219 Collegiality, 208 color, 241 Colors, 121 Com, 2, 6, 17, 36-37, 59, 87-88, 90-92, 105, 108, 130-131, 151, 169, 187, 203, 220, 234-235, 241-242 Commitment, 47, 97, 140, 184, 210 Committees, 212 rules, 212 common goals, 97, 111, 147, 216 Communication, 52-53, 57, 86, 97-99, 101, 104, 116, 118, 121, 127, 165, 201, 213, 222 active listening, 165 behavior and, 98, 104, 121, 213 boards, 98, 222 good, 53, 97-98, 127, 213 parents, 53, 98-99, 101, 116, 127, 165, 213, 222 power and, 121 skills for, 52-53, 165 Communication skills, 52, 97, 116, 118 Community, 4, 7, 10-11, 14-16, 33, 40, 42-43, 50-52, 54, 57-59, 90, 94-95, 97, 100, 105, 110-111, 113-114, 119-121, 126-130, 133-151, 155, 159, 162, 164, 176, 178-179, 184-185, 200-201, 207-208, 210-212, 214, 219, 222, 231-232, 234, 236-237, 239-242 agencies, 10, 15, 33, 94 groups, 10, 51, 54, 95, 100, 126, 138, 141-142, 179, 185 resources of, 52 schools and, 7, 51, 94, 208, 236, 239-240 Community groups, 54, 100 Community in the classroom, 10, 90, 178, 241 building, 10, 241 Community involvement, 57, 145-146 Community of learners, 136, 184 Comparison, 241 Comparisons, 234 Compassion, 97, 233 Competence, 54, 58, 85-86, 102-103, 110, 137-138, 147, 149, 166, 234, 236, 240 clinical, 234 maintaining, 102-103 Competencies, 42, 55, 57 Competency, 239, 241 Competing, 9, 177 Competition, 9-10, 13, 30, 116, 134, 138, 150, 176, 178, 207, 209, 236-237 Complaints, 115, 143 Complexity, 85, 235 Compliance, 24, 138, 149, 198, 200, 234, 237, 242 Compliments, 29, 118, 164 Components, 15, 23, 51, 54, 141, 147, 154, 158, 162 Composition, 96, 180 Comprehension, 45, 166 Concept, 1, 3-17, 36, 43, 54, 57, 103, 112, 123, 127, 197 Concepts, 11, 20, 23, 25, 36, 40, 43-44, 53, 84, 87, 102-103, 108, 111, 118-119, 122, 129, 134,

137, 140, 147, 149, 154, 173, 184, 192, 201 guides, 102 introducing, 11 Conclusions, 9, 135, 193 Concrete examples, 203 Conferences, 101, 211 families, 101 parent, 101, 211 Confidence, 91, 112, 114-115, 127-128 Conflict, 16, 51, 53-54, 86, 94, 96-97, 99, 103-105, 117, 121, 126-127, 154, 157, 161-162, 164-169, 210, 219, 222, 232-233, 235-236, 240-241 freedom and, 241 resolution, 16, 51, 54, 86, 94, 96-97, 99, 103-105, 117, 121, 126-127, 157, 161-162, 164-165, 167, 219, 222, 232-233, 235-236, 241 Conflict resolution, 51, 54, 86, 94, 96, 99, 103-105, 117, 121, 127, 157, 161-162, 164-165, 167, 219, 222, 232-233, 235-236, 241 conflicts, 94-97, 118-119, 121, 136, 165-166, 168, 210, 218 Confrontation, 91, 114, 126 Confusion, 45, 48, 176 Connections, 25, 123, 216, 235 Consciousness, 51 Consequence, 22, 24, 27, 31, 34, 112, 125-127, 138-139, 183, 212, 218, 239 Consequences, 11, 13, 22-27, 31-36, 42, 51, 55, 86, 92, 94, 98, 100-101, 103, 110-113, 117-121, 123-130, 135-137, 158-162, 164, 167, 179, 183, 186, 194, 197, 200-201, 209, 212-213, 216-219, 222, 232-233 reinforcement and, 22, 36 Consideration, 10, 34, 123, 140, 161, 173, 176, 191-192, 195, 197, 199, 214-215, 217 Consistency, 13, 24, 33, 35, 56, 121, 123, 134, 136-137, 140-142, 149-151, 155, 162, 167, 191, 193, 201, 231, 234-235 Constitution, 120, 137, 142-144, 193 Constructive criticism, 209 Constructivist approach, 145 Consultants, 159, 162, 165, 167 consultation, 177, 235, 241 roles, 177 Contact, 9-10, 24, 26, 31, 35, 46, 91, 98, 103, 114, 116, 124, 144, 210, 213, 218 Content, 5, 37, 45, 52, 59, 100, 232 beliefs about, 5 expectations, 5, 100 Context, 28, 105, 136, 167, 182, 231, 240 Continuity, 140-141 Contracts, 110, 124, 127, 130 Control, 3, 7, 13, 24-25, 28, 31-32, 46, 50, 55-57, 59, 87, 91-92, 100, 102, 104, 109, 113-115, 121, 125-128, 135-136, 138-140, 144, 147, 149, 165-166, 183, 192, 194-195, 201, 213-214, 234-235, 242 self-control, 28, 31, 55, 91-92, 100, 113, 136, 144, 147, 201 Control group, 55, 166 Control theory, 235 Conventions, 110 Conversations, 116, 146 cooperation, 9, 16, 28, 31, 42-43, 54, 86-88, 94-95, 100-101, 103-104, 110-111, 113, 116-117, 130, 140-142, 148, 165-166, 176, 178, 206-208, 210, 213-214, 219, 222, 235-236 Cooperative groups, 96, 217 Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition, 180 cooperative intentions, 97 Cooperative learning, 24, 48, 51, 86, 92, 94-96, 103, 105, 115, 134, 137, 145-148, 156, 180, 213, 216, 236, 239 approaches, 24, 48, 51, 86, 92, 94-96, 103, 105, 115, 134, 137, 145-148, 156, 239 components, 51, 147 group processing, 95 learning circles, 51 Coordination, 166 Coping, 168, 218, 239 behaviors, 168, 218, 239 Coping Power Program, 168, 239 Copyright, 1, 19, 39, 83, 107, 133, 153, 171, 189, 205, 221, 231 Core academic classes, 54 Core Curriculum, 51 Core values, 43, 51, 58, 97

245

Correlation, 59 Coteaching, 177 Co-teaching, 172-174, 177, 185-187, 235, 240 Coteaching successful, 177 Co-teaching survey, 240 Council for Exceptional Children, 187 Counseling, 127, 232-233, 236, 239-242 chaos and, 233 grief, 233 psychology, 232-233, 236, 239-242 techniques, 127, 232-233 Counselors, 54, 128, 160, 162, 232, 241 crisis, 162 for parents, 54 professional school, 232, 241 Courses, 52, 183 Courtesy, 28 Courts, 121 Creating, 4, 10, 15, 23-24, 50, 100, 102, 128, 143, 145, 148-150, 176, 210-211, 214, 231-234, 237-241 Creativity, 89 Credit, 93, 104, 184 Crises, 93 Crisis, 162, 168, 187, 233-234, 237 Crisis intervention, 168, 234 appropriate, 168 study of, 234 Crisis management, 162 Critical thinking, 51, 55, 124 modeling, 55 steps, 124 Criticism, 124, 137, 207, 209 Critiquing, 220 Cue, 31 Cues, 30, 90-91 visual, 90 Cultural, 2, 8-10, 24, 35, 56, 91, 100, 103, 124, 129, 147, 156, 176, 180, 183, 186, 198, 208, 215, 221, 232, 236, 238-239, 241 ableism, 186 Cultural conflict, 232 Cultural differences, 9-10, 35, 183, 215 Cultural diversity, 8 Culturally and linguistically diverse students, 187 Culturally responsive teaching, 232, 235 Culture, 9, 27, 51, 100, 135, 147, 158, 165, 177, 210, 215, 219, 222, 231, 237, 241 Culture:, 231 and behavior, 135 high, 135, 165, 177, 215, 237, 241 Curiosity, 138 Curran, 141, 215, 233, 242 Curriculum, 51-52, 54-58, 89, 135-136, 138, 140, 145, 147, 154, 158, 165, 231-234, 236-237 accessing the general curriculum, 236 core academic classes, 54 goals and objectives, 51, 89, 165 hidden, 135, 237 implementing, 51, 56, 58, 236 preschool, 51, 58, 232, 237 relationships and, 52 small group, 51 social skills, 52, 55, 58, 154, 158, 236 structured, 135 Curriculum development, 233, 236 Cyberbullying, 236

D Daily living, 52 Daily living skills, 52 Daily routines, 87, 141 Data, 158-160, 162, 165-166, 187 Databases, 180 Daydreaming, 218 Deafness, 174 Deafness and hearing loss, 174 Decision making, 40, 43, 51-52, 54-55, 58-59, 94, 113, 129, 136, 141, 146, 197, 234, 241 by teachers, 94 ethical, 51, 146 school-based, 234 shared, 136, 141 Decision-making, 40, 43, 53-55, 57-58, 158, 184-185 defensiveness, 115 Definition, 4, 190 Definitions, 191, 202

246

Democracy, 36, 108, 129 Democratic teachers, 112, 192 Department of Health and Human Services, 52, 162 Dependence, 30, 237 Dependency, 117 Depersonalization, 15 Depression, 42 Depth, 175 Description, 141 Design, 17, 41, 51, 101, 150, 177, 182, 193, 220, 234, 240 Development, 4, 10, 14, 16, 51-52, 57-59, 99-100, 109-112, 118, 120, 125, 130, 134-137, 140, 142-151, 155-157, 159, 162, 165-166, 168, 175, 177, 181, 184, 190, 199, 201, 216, 221, 231-234, 236-237, 239-241 of preschool children, 237 social and emotional, 52, 58-59, 100, 110, 165-166, 232, 234, 240-241 Development of children, 100, 145 Developmental disabilities, 174 Developmental perspective, 232 Developmental studies, 136-137, 145, 147, 150, 233 Devices, 50, 222 Diagnosis, 179 Diagrams, 197 Dialogue, 117 Dictionaries, 101 Diet, 140 Differences, 2, 8-11, 35, 56-57, 103, 118, 121, 149, 179, 183, 185, 206, 208-209, 215-216, 219, 222, 232, 238-241 socioeconomic, 10-11 Differentiated instruction, 7, 178 learning styles and preferences, 178 Diffuse, 96, 179, 197 Diffusion, 231 Dignity, 87-88, 91, 108, 110, 113, 122-124, 127-130, 136-137, 182, 201, 210, 233, 238, 241 Dimensions, 235 Direct instruction, 199, 217 Directions, 26, 28-29, 55, 144, 163-164, 182 Directors, 41 Disabilities, 11, 122, 158, 173-174, 178, 180, 186-187, 198, 200, 216, 238-239 ADHD, 187 Disabled students, 95-96 Disaster, 21, 139, 196 Disciplinary actions, 50, 186, 239 Disciplinary strategies, 17, 202 Discipline, 4-5, 7, 11, 13-14, 17, 20, 22-23, 25-27, 33-36, 41, 44, 51-53, 55, 57, 59, 84-89, 91-94, 99-103, 108, 110, 112-113, 116, 118-131, 134-138, 140-144, 147-151, 155-156, 158-162, 166, 168, 175-176, 178, 184, 190-194, 196, 199-202, 206-208, 210-213, 217, 219-220, 221-222, 231-242 and planning, 141 cooperative, 51, 86, 92, 94, 103, 108, 110, 113, 123, 127, 130, 134, 136-137, 140, 142-143, 147-148, 150-151, 155-156, 213, 217, 231, 234, 236, 239 historically, 176 isolation, 110 Discipline issues, 11 Discipline problems, 89, 94, 112, 135, 142, 147-148, 155-156, 158, 175, 219, 222, 232, 235, 238, 242 discrimination, 23, 166 Discussion, 41, 45, 55, 114, 117, 121, 126, 139, 145, 147, 157, 178, 192 guided, 55 Discussions, 41, 51-52, 119, 121, 164, 176, 184, 210, 214 conceptual, 176 conflict, 51, 121, 164, 210 Disequilibrium, 231 Disproportionate representation, 239 Disruptions, 8, 45, 88, 93, 120, 217-218 Distress, 42 Diversity, 2, 4, 8-12, 14, 16, 24, 87, 97, 103, 127, 149, 166, 168, 176, 178, 192, 198, 210, 215, 221, 231-233, 237-238 books about, 231 celebrating, 166 children with special needs, 176 Division, 41, 57, 185 Doubt, 164 Drawing, 46, 96, 122, 130, 138, 161, 237

Drug dependence, 30 Drugs, 15, 53 abuse, 15 Due process, 94, 119-120 Due process hearing, 120 Dynamics, 42, 44, 85, 212

E Early childhood, 36, 139, 168, 232 Early childhood programs, 36 Early intervention, 22, 31, 36, 198, 241 Eclectic approach, 193, 200-202 Ecological model, 41, 58 Ecology, 56, 242 Education, 1, 5, 10-12, 14-15, 17, 19, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42-43, 50, 52-55, 58, 83, 86, 95, 105, 107, 118-120, 130, 133, 140-141, 144, 146, 150, 153, 155, 157, 159-160, 162, 164-165, 168, 171-179, 181, 183, 187, 189, 197-198, 200, 202-203, 205, 216, 220, 221, 231-242 at home, 53, 181 civic, 54, 86, 130, 146 evidence-based practices, 240 for teachers, 11, 36, 118, 146, 165, 178 global, 55, 240 problem-solving skills, 162, 164 right to, 11-12, 120 supports, 159-160, 168, 176-178, 187, 200, 216, 232, 239-240 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 11 Education programs, 42 Education Week, 168, 237, 241-242 Educational Change, 235, 241 Educational research, 21, 33, 55, 59, 121, 234-235, 241-242 applied, 21, 33 basic, 21, 55 Educators, 2-6, 9-12, 15-16, 25, 30, 33-35, 51-52, 55-57, 87, 94-95, 100-101, 110, 113, 117-120, 124, 127-130, 136-140, 146, 148, 156-162, 164, 167-168, 173-178, 180-187, 190-193, 196, 198, 200-202, 207-210, 216-218, 220, 232, 234-235, 242 mentoring, 234 Educators for Social Responsibility, 157, 164, 168 Effective instruction, 6, 24, 98, 111 Effective managers, 98, 196 Effective teacher, 184-185, 212 Effective teaching, 103, 162, 185, 235 Effectiveness, 13, 33, 46, 87, 95-96, 105, 123-124, 140, 149, 168, 177, 182, 186-187, 232, 235-236, 240 Effort, 6, 9, 15, 30, 87-88, 92, 127, 140, 142, 144, 161, 175, 201-202, 217 Ego, 186 Eighth grade, 30 Elementary grades, 175, 184 Elementary school, 8, 28, 53-54, 56, 98, 105, 142, 148, 150, 155, 166, 209, 214, 231, 234-235, 237, 239-241 Elementary schools, 42, 51, 53, 100, 103, 145, 148, 157, 162, 166-168, 232, 235-236 Elementary students, 16, 104, 118, 175, 198, 209, 233 E-mail, 7, 116, 193 Embarrassment, 93-94, 115 Emotion, 57, 220 Emotional and behavioral disorders, 179, 239 Emotional development, 52, 165 academic achievement and, 165 programs for, 165 Emotional support, 100 Emotions, 55, 87, 117, 128, 208 self-destructive, 55 Empathizing, 117 empathy, 52, 54, 100, 116, 136, 165, 210, 231 caring and, 136, 165, 210 training for, 165 Encouragement, 27, 36, 54, 101, 109-117, 119, 127, 129-130 Energy, 54, 197 Engagement, 42, 98, 101, 105, 145, 156, 169 in learning, 101 English, 9-10 Middle, 10 English language, 10 Enthusiasm, 46, 86, 217 Environment, 4, 11, 13, 15, 23-25, 30, 33, 41-42, 44, 50-51, 56, 85, 87, 97, 102, 113-118, 120, 129, 136-138, 142-143, 145, 147-149, 156,

158, 165, 173-176, 178-179, 182-184, 187, 196-198, 200, 207-210, 213, 216, 220, 232, 236 arranging, 102 home, 42, 51, 142, 145, 147, 149, 165, 187, 200 least restrictive, 173-174, 176, 178, 187 outdoor, 51 Equal opportunity, 142 Equality, 113, 118, 120, 194 ESCAPE, 93, 179, 215 Ethics, 110, 118-119, 201 Ethnic, 221, 241 Ethnicity, 167, 241 Evaluation, 50-51, 55, 156-159, 199, 219, 231-232, 234, 236, 241 intervention strategies, 232 Evaluations, 199 Events, 4, 44, 53, 85, 113, 121, 146, 216 stimulus, 44 subsequent, 216 Evidence, 16, 28, 52, 59, 159, 162, 184, 216, 231, 233, 240-241 Evidence based, 159 Evidence-based practices, 240 Exceptional, 180, 187, 233-234, 237-238, 240 Exclusion, 26, 182 Expectations, 5, 7-8, 12-14, 23-27, 30-31, 33, 56, 89-90, 97-98, 100-101, 103, 119, 121, 125, 129, 139-141, 145, 155-156, 158-161, 175, 177, 179, 181, 183, 185, 187, 192, 197, 209, 211-216, 218-219, 222, 239 classroom behavior, 23, 89, 175, 181, 187, 216 realistic, 209 Experience, 6, 8, 28, 30-31, 95, 99, 117, 123, 125, 128, 138, 141, 146, 181, 196, 199, 214, 242 experiences, 3, 10, 44, 51, 113, 117, 136, 141-142, 146, 148, 150, 175, 183, 186, 191, 211, 216, 220, 237 in school, 113, 150 Experiments, 148 Expert, 173 Experts, 4 Explanation, 123, 136, 162, 185 Expulsion, 11, 183 Expulsions, 156 Extensions, 29 Externalizing, 30, 242 Extracurricular activities, 5 Eye contact, 9-10, 24, 31, 35, 46, 91, 98, 103, 114, 124, 144 eyes, 26, 45

F FACES, 3, 109 facial expression, 91 Facilitating, 11, 177 Factors, 56, 59, 128, 145, 160, 175, 180, 193, 195, 198, 206, 242 Facts, 140 Failure, 59, 101, 113-114, 117, 123, 156, 160, 164-165, 177, 182, 187, 214, 232, 235 Fairness, 51, 54, 149, 194 Falls, 156 Families, 7, 35, 42, 50-51, 100-101, 113, 116, 144, 160, 181, 186, 239 foster, 101, 113 involving, 181 needs, 42, 50, 100-101, 144, 160, 181, 186, 239 Family, 8, 15-16, 36, 50-52, 54, 56, 59, 94, 112, 116, 121, 145-147, 157-158, 160, 165, 168, 180-182, 232, 234, 240 Family involvement, 147 Family members, 16, 181-182 Family structure, 15 Family support, 160 Fathers, 15 fear, 87, 113, 115-116, 127, 141, 155, 164 Federal legislation, 173 Federation for Children with Special Needs, 187 Feedback, 31, 41, 86, 98, 117, 123-124, 128, 163, 179-180, 218 general, 86 mediated, 180 feelings, 8, 32, 43, 46, 53-55, 87, 97, 110-112, 116-117, 121, 123, 127-129, 135, 138, 141, 155, 164-166, 178, 209-210 control of, 128 Females, 30 Fifth grade, 3, 36, 54

Fighting, 27, 125, 128, 207, 232, 241 Files, 239 Film, 146 Findings, 21, 36, 134, 217, 239-240 fire, 51 Fire safety, 51 First grade, 21, 93, 163, 237 Fish, 47, 162, 237 Flexibility, 33, 104, 117, 191, 193 Flip-flops, 43, 48, 56, 58 Flow, 24, 44, 101 Fluency, 10 FOCUS, 15, 22, 28, 36, 41-45, 47-48, 50-52, 56-58, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103-104, 109-110, 116, 118-119, 122, 127, 129, 135-136, 138-142, 145, 147-148, 155-156, 164, 166, 183, 185, 187, 203, 216, 218, 234, 237 Food, 147, 176 Forms, 14-15, 126-127, 143, 149, 175, 221, 232 Forum, 101, 119, 187, 232-233, 238 Forward, 93, 102 Foundations, 87, 108 Free time, 29, 92, 112 Freedom, 10, 32, 113, 118, 120, 129, 136, 139, 141-142, 192, 194, 196, 199, 207, 241 Frequency, 6 Friendships, 11, 176, 178-180 Frustration, 8, 195, 213-215, 237 Fun, 46, 96, 109, 145, 216 Functional assessment, 234, 240 Functional behavioral assessment (FBA), 182 Functioning, 175, 199, 232 Functions, 99, 175 Furniture, 98, 101, 222

G Games, 13, 93, 180, 239 Gender, 2, 8-9, 27, 56, 159, 167, 176, 186, 198, 208, 215, 221, 231-232, 237, 239-241 childhood and, 232 stereotypes, 8, 215 Gender differences, 8-9, 56, 215, 232, 241 Gender stereotypes, 215 General curriculum, 236 General education, 11, 172-173, 176-178, 198 general education classroom, 11, 176, 178 General education teachers, 11, 172-173 Gifted and talented, 174, 185, 187 Gifted and talented students, 174 Gifted students, 95-96, 122, 236 leadership, 236 Girls, 3, 25, 45, 90, 149, 215, 231-232 personality, 231 Glasser, William, 233 Goals, 7, 9, 14, 44, 51, 54, 56-57, 87, 89, 94, 97, 100-101, 111, 113, 116, 118, 121, 126-127, 134, 145, 147, 162, 165, 176-177, 179-180, 183-184, 186, 191, 193, 202, 209-210, 213-214, 216, 220, 221 chart, 209 harmful, 116 lesson, 44, 51, 57 Goals and objectives, 51, 89, 165 Golden Rule, 201, 208 Good Behavior Game, 20, 22, 27-30, 33-34, 36-37, 179, 193, 216, 233-234, 237-238, 241 Governance, 127, 149 Government, 10, 173 Grades, 6, 27-30, 35, 42, 51-52, 54, 103, 123, 138, 140, 142, 144, 163, 165-166, 173, 175, 184, 219, 234, 237 Grading, 96, 120, 237 level, 96, 120, 237 Grief, 233 counseling, 233 Group alerting, 43, 45, 50, 56, 58 Group dynamics, 212 Group instruction, 105 Group processing, 95 Group theory, 236 Group work, 50, 52, 182, 236 Grouping, 180 Grouping students, 180 Groups, 9-10, 21, 24, 36, 47-49, 51, 54-55, 86-88, 92, 95-96, 98, 100-103, 115, 125-126, 138, 141-142, 156, 160-161, 179-180, 182-183, 185, 215-218 Groups:, 88, 126 Growth, 100, 104, 118, 175, 240

Guidance, 52, 136, 140-141, 162, 182, 231 respect, 52, 136, 141, 182 Guidance counselors, 162 Guided discovery, 86, 101, 231 guided practice, 52, 55 Guidelines, 89, 92-93, 100, 119, 123, 201 Guides, 102, 145, 165 Guilt, 94

H Handicap, 175 Handicapped children, 11 Harassment, 13, 15, 28, 207 Hawaii, 166, 231 Hazelden, 37 Head injury, 174 Head Start, 7 Health, 50, 52, 119-120, 147, 157-158, 160, 162, 174, 231, 233, 235-237 Health impairments, 174 Health needs, 162 Hearing loss, 174 Helping, 33, 45, 50, 57, 95, 110, 115, 121, 125, 127, 129, 135, 143, 147, 149, 157, 159-160, 178, 181, 193, 209, 220, 233 helping others, 50 Helplessness, 111 learned, 111 hidden curriculum, 135, 237 Hierarchy, 22-23, 27, 31, 94, 212, 219, 222 High schools, 142, 235, 237 Hispanics, 9 History, 147, 182, 186, 232, 234, 241 concepts of time, 147 Home, 8, 29, 42, 51-53, 86, 101, 142, 144-147, 149, 165, 180-181, 187, 200, 214 Homework, 24, 26, 29, 49, 98, 120, 123-125, 143, 180, 213, 218 Homework assignments, 120 Honesty, 51-52 Hope, 9, 33, 52, 93, 112, 122, 127, 130, 185, 196, 202, 209, 212 Human relations, 194, 206-209, 220 Human services, 52, 162 Humiliation, 146, 179 Humor, 86, 200, 210, 238 Hygiene skills, 30 oral hygiene, 30 Hyperactivity, 30, 236

I I PLAN, 186 I Search, 120 Id, 37, 59, 168, 187, 232-233 IDEA 2004, 17 IDEAL, 29, 96, 123 Ideas, 7-8, 10, 12-14, 16, 24-25, 30, 32, 34, 41-42, 49, 56, 58, 87-88, 96, 98-99, 102-104, 114-118, 122, 127-128, 134-137, 139, 143-145, 149-150, 155, 163-164, 173, 178, 184-186, 191-193, 195, 201, 203, 208-209, 211-212, 214, 218-220 from research, 184 sequence of, 144 identity, 177 Identity development, 177 Illinois, 36, 149 Illustration, 96, 235 Immediacy, 182 Immorality, 121 Implementation, 5, 30-31, 33, 41, 51, 55, 57, 101, 103, 123, 144-145, 148, 154, 158-159, 162, 165-166, 221, 231, 238, 241 Importance, 16, 87, 100, 102, 110-111, 124, 129, 141, 144, 156, 163, 175-176, 210 Incentives, 93, 98 Inclusion, 2, 4, 11, 14, 166, 172-174, 176, 178, 180-182, 184-187, 192, 198, 200, 208, 216, 219, 236 Inclusive classrooms, 171-187, 216, 231, 238, 240 Independent learning, 47 independent practice, 149 Indications, 13 Individual differences, 9-10, 56, 121 Individual needs, 127, 148, 177 Individual psychology, 130 encouragement, 130 Individualization, 102

247

Individualized Education Program, 181 Individualized education program (IEP), 181 Individualized learning, 158 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 11, 178, 187 least restrictive environment, 178, 187 Inferiority, 112 Influence, 28, 56, 97, 99, 110, 113-115, 117, 125, 127, 129, 145, 147, 150, 180, 184-185, 201, 216-217, 221 Information, 2, 14, 16-17, 29, 36, 42, 49, 51-54, 58-59, 90, 96, 98, 101, 104-105, 124, 130, 144, 150-151, 156-157, 160, 162, 168, 174-175, 177-178, 180, 182, 187, 195, 202, 206, 208, 213, 218, 220 policies, 2, 17, 130, 156, 178 Initiative, 117, 162, 164, 176, 231, 235-236 Inquiry, 52, 216, 234 Inquiry learning, 52 Inservice teachers, 58 Instruction, 4-7, 13, 16, 24-25, 29-30, 32, 34, 42, 44-45, 47-50, 56-57, 85, 87-88, 93, 98-100, 102-105, 111, 114, 141, 144, 150, 155-156, 161-163, 165, 167-168, 174, 177-178, 180, 185-186, 194, 198-202, 215-218, 221, 236, 238, 240 accountable, 50, 56, 216 activity-based, 177 adequate, 144, 174 and gender, 215 indirect, 216 learning strategies, 180, 236 sequencing, 98 strategy, 32, 34, 45, 100, 180, 186 tiered, 167 unit, 49, 93 Instructional activities, 3-4, 44-45, 85, 93, 144 Instructional assistants, 216 Instructional design, 177 Instructional management, 41, 43-44, 56-58, 97, 137, 184, 192, 201 group alerting, 43, 56, 58 ripple effect, 43, 56 satiation, 43-44, 56 Instructional strategies, 4-5, 14, 44, 47, 57, 104, 113, 144, 180, 216, 219, 221-222 Integration, 162, 233, 242 Integrity, 97, 117 Intellectual development, 10, 100, 145 Intellectual skills, 184 intelligence, 175 Intensity, 6 Interaction, 95, 101, 105, 147, 160, 180, 236 Interactions, 14, 24-26, 31, 42, 57, 85, 87, 95, 100, 105, 109, 111, 119, 165, 192, 210 Interest centers, 93 Internalization, 103 Internalizing problems, 42 International Journal of Reality Therapy, 238, 242 International perspective, 17 Internet, 16-17, 36, 49, 51, 58-59, 104-105, 130, 150-151, 157, 159, 168, 174, 183, 187, 202, 219-220 conduct, 168, 220 Internet resources, 16 Interpersonal relations, 210 interpersonal skills, 51, 88, 117, 164 Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), 4 Intervention, 22, 28, 31, 36-37, 97-98, 113, 142, 144, 158, 160, 162-164, 166-168, 182, 184-185, 187, 198, 216, 231-232, 234, 236-237, 239-242 Interventions, 11, 42, 56, 86, 97, 99-100, 103-104, 127, 144, 154, 156-160, 162, 166-168, 178-179, 181-182, 184, 187, 201, 216, 231-234, 236-240 culturally appropriate, 158 reaching out, 104, 157, 168, 187 schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, 168, 232 Interviews, 144, 146 intrinsic motivation, 53, 147 Introduction, 143 Intuition, 220 Issues, 9, 11, 15, 17, 46, 51, 101, 105, 117, 120, 127-128, 139, 146-147, 202, 206, 212, 232-239, 241-242 Items, 10, 88, 193, 213, 222

248

J Joint, 97 Journal of Negro Education, 235 Journal of Teacher Education, 17, 202, 233, 242 Journal writing, 93, 122 Journals, 157 Judgment, 117, 207, 209 judgments, 10, 117 avoiding, 10 Justice, 59, 94, 110, 118, 120, 157, 232-233, 238, 240-241

K Key terms, 4, 22, 43, 86, 110, 137, 157, 174, 179, 192, 206, 208 Kicking, 112 Kim, 58, 237-238 Kindergarten, 29, 36, 46, 51-54, 93, 97, 126, 198-199, 212, 240-241 Kindergarten students, 36, 241 Knowledge, 4, 10-11, 25, 44, 50, 57, 110, 112, 125, 175, 177, 182, 214, 241 of community, 4, 10, 50, 214 prior, 10 teaching behaviors, 44 Knowledge construction, 110 Kohlberg, Lawrence, 239 Kohler, K., 235 Kohn, Alfie, 136-137, 139, 150-151, 232

L Language, 9-10, 86-88, 90, 103-104, 115, 124, 137, 145, 147, 163, 176, 236, 238 body, 86-88, 90, 103-104, 124 difference, 10, 115 informative, 145 Language arts, 137, 145, 147 relationships among, 145, 147 Language learning, 9, 236 Languages, 9-10 Large group, 163 Law, 17, 94 Leaders, 142, 149, 160, 162, 165 Leadership, 140-142, 150, 159-160, 177, 194, 200, 202, 231-242 and management, 160, 177 management and, 140, 142, 150, 202, 231, 234-235, 242 relationship, 202, 237 Leadership style, 142 Leads, 31, 103, 142, 149, 176, 181 Learners, 4-5, 9, 11, 17, 44-45, 50, 56-58, 92, 96, 103, 110, 123, 136, 138, 141, 149, 173-187, 200, 203, 216-217 active, 141, 175, 179, 217 Learning, 2-9, 11-14, 16-17, 20, 23-25, 27-28, 30-31, 33, 40-45, 47-48, 50-52, 55-59, 84-87, 90, 92-105, 108-117, 119, 121-122, 124, 128, 130, 134, 136-149, 154-156, 158, 164-166, 169, 172, 174-175, 177-180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190, 195-197, 199, 201, 203, 206, 210, 212-213, 216-218, 220, 231-234, 236-242 Learning:, 59, 166, 232, 234, 237-238, 240-242 and problem solving, 40, 43, 55, 58-59 connected, 4, 138 contexts for, 236 discovery, 86, 101, 216, 231 events, 4, 44, 85, 113, 121, 146, 216 from mistakes, 117 guided discovery, 86, 101, 231 in small groups, 179-180, 217 Learning: instruction and, 238 mastery, 47, 95 observable, 50, 137, 179 readiness, 43, 47, 52, 55, 175 social aspects of, 8 strengths and weaknesses, 14 to learn, 6-7, 25, 33, 45, 56-58, 87, 97, 102, 115-117, 121, 136, 138, 143, 146, 175, 179-180, 184, 196, 210, 217, 233 Learning activities, 87, 146, 177, 184, 217 Learning areas, 5 Learning center, 105, 130 Learning communities, 165, 241 Learning disabilities, 122, 174, 187, 239 Learning environment, 4, 23-25, 33, 44, 50, 56, 97,

116, 145, 149, 175, 178, 210, 213, 216 Learning environments, 4, 16, 128, 216 creating, 4, 128 Learning experiences, 3, 141 Learning groups, 48, 92, 96, 115, 156, 180, 216 Learning objectives, 115 Learning outcomes, 2, 20, 40, 59, 84, 108, 134, 154, 172, 190, 206 Learning process, 6, 13, 16, 30, 85, 195, 212 Learning Strategies, 9, 86, 180, 236 Learning styles, 14, 178, 218 Least restrictive environment, 173-174, 178, 187 Least restrictive environment (LRE), 174 Lecture, 13, 218 Legislation, 173 Lesson planning, 219 Lesson plans, 59, 88, 141, 159, 217 Lessons, 36, 40-41, 43, 45, 49, 51-55, 87-89, 102, 148, 150, 163, 165, 167-168, 216-217, 231-232, 234, 241 ending, 53 scripted, 55 Letters, 213 to parents, 213 Level, 5-7, 10, 15, 23, 26-28, 30, 43, 47-48, 51-52, 54, 93-94, 96, 104, 120, 122, 141-143, 145, 157-163, 166-167, 175-176, 180, 182, 185, 187, 193, 197, 200, 208-209, 213-214, 217, 237 Library, 7, 17, 49, 90, 93, 96, 101, 141, 148, 155-156, 161, 180, 241 life experiences, 220 life skills, 51-52, 58 Limit setting, 86, 88, 90, 92-93, 103 Limitations, 124 Limits, 6-7, 23-24, 27, 32-33, 35, 87, 100, 104, 111, 117, 177, 186, 196, 199 Lions Club, 40, 43, 52, 58 Listening, 8, 29, 49, 55, 93, 97, 115, 117, 124, 126, 128, 164-166, 176, 199 to understand, 8, 93 Literacy, 175, 231, 239 Literature, 97, 136-137, 145, 147, 176, 178, 180, 184, 236 Literature circles, 180 Logical consequences, 86, 101, 103, 110-113, 127-129, 137, 201, 233 Longitudinal study, 231, 234 Loss, 24, 48, 119-120, 174, 176, 233 Louisiana, 157 Love, 218

M maintenance, 44, 110 Management, 1-17, 19-37, 39-59, 83-105, 107-131, 133-151, 153-169, 171-187, 189-203, 205-220, 221-222, 231-242 Mandates, 13 Massachusetts, 100, 157 Mastery, 47, 95 Matching, 96 Materials, 5, 43, 45-46, 53-54, 57, 98-99, 101, 114, 141, 145, 167-168, 179, 185, 218-219, 222 Math instruction, 29 Mathematics, 48, 59, 166, 238, 241 center, 166, 241 lessons, 241 matter, 4, 26, 87, 89, 92-94, 102-103, 113, 138, 146, 173, 179, 187, 215, 233 Mean, 5, 33, 41, 96, 110, 119-120, 125, 135, 138, 146, 161, 167, 174, 176, 181, 194, 207, 211-213, 217, 232, 237 Meaning, 4, 91, 95, 130, 143, 147, 178, 181, 239 Measurement, 16, 236 Measures, 98, 103-104, 150, 238 Media, 17, 90, 141, 148 agenda, 90 Mediated instruction, 180, 216, 236, 238 Mediation, 86, 99, 103-104, 127, 157, 165-166, 180 Mediators, 154, 165-168, 180 Meetings, 16, 28, 51, 86, 97-98, 101, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 121-122, 127-129, 146-147, 173, 178, 184, 206, 208, 212, 214, 220, 231, 235, 237 class, 16, 28, 51, 97-98, 101, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 121-122, 127-129, 146-147, 178, 184, 208, 212, 214, 220, 231, 235, 237 telephone, 116

Memories, 112, 220 Mental health, 52, 160, 162, 233 Mentoring, 234 Mentors, 178 Messages, 53, 91, 140-141, 149, 201 Michigan, 36, 128 Middle school, 8, 25, 30, 41, 46, 52-54, 58, 98, 109, 143, 145, 148, 150, 163, 168-169, 182, 187, 198, 214, 231, 234-235, 237-238, 241 Milk, 48 Minnesota, 105, 128, 220 Minority groups, 183 Misbehavior, 4, 7-8, 12-13, 23-24, 27, 31-34, 41, 44-47, 50, 56, 91-92, 98-100, 102-103, 111-116, 118, 121, 123, 126, 129, 147-148, 156, 160, 178, 182-183, 196-198, 212-213, 215-216, 238-239 Misconceptions, 89 Mobility, 102, 174 Mode, 157 Modeling, 55, 95, 98, 101, 119, 137, 214, 216 live, 119 Models, 1, 5, 11-12, 14, 16, 19, 21-22, 31, 33-36, 39, 41-43, 45-48, 50, 52, 54-59, 83, 85-87, 94, 97, 103-104, 107, 109-110, 118-119, 122, 124, 127-130, 133, 135-137, 139, 142, 144, 148-150, 153, 155-157, 163, 165-167, 171-174, 178-179, 183-187, 189-192, 194-197, 199-202, 205, 208, 212, 220, 221, 231, 233-234, 238, 242 Modification, 21-22, 27-28, 34, 36, 101, 137, 182, 192, 212, 219, 237, 239, 241 Momentum, 15, 44, 46-48, 56, 58, 97-98, 196 Money, 51, 54, 159-160, 177 Monitoring, 22, 28, 34, 46, 55, 86, 98, 160, 166, 184, 236 progress, 86 Monitors, 45, 49 Moral development, 137, 145 Morning meeting, 86, 100-101, 105 Motivating students, 242 Motivation, 35, 53, 57, 101, 113, 119, 130, 136, 145, 147, 180, 182, 184, 186, 215, 219, 222, 233, 236, 240 achievement, 53, 180, 186, 215 and development, 233 extrinsic, 35, 136, 147, 215, 219, 222 intrinsic, 35, 53, 136, 147, 219, 222 Motivational Strategies, 86, 219, 222 Motivations, 10, 95 Movement, 2, 4, 7, 15-16, 41, 43-44, 48, 56-58, 102, 176, 179, 191, 199, 210, 218 Multicultural education, 235, 238, 241 Multitasking, 46 Music, 29, 45, 54, 90, 93, 141, 183, 240 listening to, 29 mutual goals, 94 Mutual respect, 110, 116, 127-128, 137, 141 Myths, 89

N name calling, 15 National Association for Gifted Children, 187 National Association for the Education of Young Children, 239 National Association of School Psychologists, 162, 239 National Association of Secondary School Principals, 50 National Center for Children in Poverty, 166-167, 231 National Center for Education Statistics, 233, 239-240 National Education Association, 15, 239 National School Safety Center, 239 National Staff Development Council, 239 Natural consequences, 179, 218 Nature, 56, 104, 137-138, 209 NCES, 240 NCREL, 17 needs, 5, 10-12, 14-15, 28, 33-34, 42, 47, 50, 52, 56, 92, 95, 99-101, 103, 120-121, 123, 127, 129, 135, 137-138, 144-145, 147-149, 156, 160, 162, 165, 172-187, 190-191, 193, 196, 198-200, 209, 212, 216, 218, 221-222, 234, 239 during transitions, 92, 99 Needs assessment, 165 Negation, 92 Negative reinforcement, 21 Negativism, 110

Net, 36-37, 54, 59, 131, 151, 220 New Orleans, 235 New York, 42, 157, 164, 166, 231-242 New York City, 164, 237 New York State, 42, 240 News, 37, 101, 168, 222, 234 Newsletters, 163-164 Noise, 21, 48, 85, 160 Norm, 8 Norms, 28, 147 Notes, 27, 183, 218 Notification, 27 Novice, 59, 231, 235 Novices, 220 Numbered Heads Together, 180 Numbers, 10-11, 49, 102, 173

O Object, 12, 16, 209 Objective, 8, 56, 90, 95, 103, 115 Objectives, 17, 51, 89, 115, 143-144, 165 Observation, 88, 166 Observations, 36 occupations, 10 Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, 187 Ongoing process, 196 Onset, 30, 33, 236 On-task behavior, 34, 234 Open Circle Program, 236 Opinions, 95, 121, 128, 139, 202, 210 Oral hygiene, 30 Oregon, 128, 168, 238, 240 Org, 17, 37, 52, 59, 105, 130-131, 151, 159, 163-164, 168-169, 187, 202-203, 231, 233-234, 236-241 Organization, 14-15, 57, 84, 86, 93, 97, 101, 104, 140-145, 164, 184-185, 211, 232 Organizational development, 237 Organizing, 6, 98 Orientation, 198, 212 Outcomes, 2, 20, 40, 46, 59, 84-105, 108, 134, 145, 154, 159, 166-168, 172, 176, 182, 184, 190, 200, 206, 216, 232, 234-235, 237, 242 Outdoor experiences, 51 Outlines, 158, 182 Overlap, 46

P Pacing, 44, 48, 98, 105 Painting, 130 Paradigm, 21, 95, 140, 234, 236, 242 Parent participation, 101 Parental Involvement, 145 Parents, 3, 5, 7-8, 16, 21, 24-27, 29, 32, 36, 53-55, 88, 95, 98-99, 101, 113-116, 127, 144-146, 148, 150, 156, 162, 165, 168, 176, 180-181, 186, 192, 194-195, 200, 206-208, 210-214, 219-220, 222, 231, 238, 240 as teachers, 200, 208 collaboration with, 16 communication with, 213 expectations of, 192 involvement, 98, 101, 145-146, 148, 165, 176, 181 involvement of, 101, 165 Parking lot, 120 Participants, 42, 55, 94, 146, 166, 178, 181 Participation, 55, 101, 111, 141-142, 146, 218 Partnerships, 50, 101, 181, 232 Passivity, 165 Path, 58, 124 Patience, 91-92 Patterns, 105, 156, 158, 175, 184 Paying attention, 91 Peck, 240 Peer mediation, 99, 103-104, 127, 157, 165-166, 180 Peer pressure, 28, 52, 56, 164, 198 peer relationships, 22, 28 Peer teaching, 216 Peer tutoring, 115, 156, 180 classwide, 180 Peer-mediated instruction, 180, 216, 238 Pencils, 35, 115, 125 Perceiving, 95, 234 Perception, 177 Perceptions, 9, 11-12, 41, 108, 110, 117, 129, 135, 175, 177, 181, 183, 232-233, 242 Performance, 42, 50, 57, 85-86, 98, 100, 116, 140,

158, 162, 166, 177, 181, 216, 232, 238 Period, 27-29, 91, 96, 135, 161, 163-164, 185 Permissive teachers, 111 Perseverance, 51-52 Personal characteristics, 180 Personal space, 9, 53, 91 Personality, 14, 193, 202, 231, 233 Personality development, 231 Personalization, 193 Personnel, 114, 145, 162, 183, 187 Perspective taking, 165 Persuasion, 136 Peterson, 183, 241 Pets, 194 Phi Delta Kappan, 17, 105, 150, 232-235, 237-239, 242 Philosophy, 2, 4-5, 12-14, 16, 20, 24, 35, 40, 56-58, 84, 104, 108, 129, 134, 145, 149-150, 154, 157, 162, 167, 178, 181, 185-186, 189-203, 205-220, 221-222 contemporary, 4-5, 12, 14, 24, 56, 178 Physical development, 216 Physical education, 30, 54, 120, 141, 231, 239 Physical environment, 216 Physical force, 113 Physical proximity, 10, 31, 91, 98, 103, 219, 222 Physical safety, 120 Physical space, 216 Place value, 12 Placement, 102, 120, 176, 219, 222 Plagiarism, 120 Planned response, 99 Planning, 4, 6, 9-10, 45-46, 51, 88, 97-98, 100, 104, 118, 122, 141, 144, 159, 162, 177, 181, 197, 201, 219, 222, 231, 237 learning activities, 177 of questions, 88, 144 Planning instruction, 177 Play, 3, 10, 14-15, 30, 56, 89, 94, 100, 104, 114, 126, 128, 163, 197, 199, 202, 217, 221 absence of, 15, 104 Plays, 8, 28, 163 Pluralism, 103 Pockets, 91, 120 Poetry, 115 Policies, 2-3, 6-7, 11-13, 17, 94, 110, 113, 126-127, 130, 140, 156, 158, 176, 178, 181, 183, 212, 231, 238-239, 241 Policy, 11-12, 28, 50, 93-94, 126, 231-234, 237 Population, 3, 20, 96, 160, 166, 236 Populations, 103, 140, 198 Positive behavior, 13, 25, 28, 30, 36, 51, 53, 87, 154, 157-158, 161, 167-168, 178, 181, 187, 212, 216, 231-232, 236-240 Positive behavioral support, 236 Positive goals, 209 Positive learning environment, 50 Positive psychology, 130 Positive reinforcement, 13, 22, 29, 31, 36, 54, 123, 139, 166, 238 secondary, 29 Positive reinforcers, 35 positive relationships, 43, 52, 104, 113, 115, 117 Posters, 102, 140, 150, 222 Potential, 16, 24, 36, 46, 54, 56, 91, 95-96, 111, 118, 129, 148-149, 156-157, 162, 165, 173, 186, 212, 215 Poverty, 10, 166-167, 231 power, 7, 13, 91-92, 110-114, 117, 121, 126, 129-130, 136, 168, 215, 239 coercive, 136 to influence, 113 Power struggles, 13, 121, 126, 130 PowerPoint, 49 PowerPoint presentations, 49 Practice, 3, 9, 12, 28, 33, 52-53, 55, 90-91, 100-101, 112, 117-119, 123-124, 148-149, 159, 163-165, 169, 172, 177, 179, 187, 192, 199, 206-208, 214, 220, 232-242 acts, 33, 149 Practicum, 47-48, 50 Praise, 24, 26, 29, 101, 110-112, 129, 138, 163, 216, 234, 237 Predicting, 239 Preferred activity time (PAT), 86, 92-93 prejudice, 24-25, 239 Preschool, 36, 51, 58, 168, 198, 232, 237 Preschool children, 58, 237 Preschoolers, 28

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Presence, 15, 211 Presentation, 44, 121, 135, 150, 217 Prevalence, 240 prevention, 52, 96, 126-127, 140, 142, 147, 158, 162, 165-166, 169, 184, 187, 231, 233-234, 236-237, 240-241 dropout, 187 evidence-based, 52, 162, 233, 240 tertiary, 184, 234, 240 Prevention programs, 96, 165, 236, 241 Prevention science, 231, 234, 240 Pride, 42, 95, 143, 156 Principals, 7, 50, 54, 238 Principles of Behavior Modification, 28 Print, 105, 241 Privacy, 124, 146 Problem behavior, 156, 158, 167, 182, 233 Problem solving, 28, 40, 43, 53-55, 58-59, 118, 142, 147, 162, 234, 241 Problem-solving, 55, 99, 118, 127, 162, 164, 216 Problem-solving skills, 162, 164 Procedures, 5, 7, 9, 17, 41, 44-46, 56, 87, 90, 93, 97-98, 104, 110-113, 128, 143, 159, 161, 178, 184, 199, 211, 214, 216, 218-219, 222 Processing, 95 Product, 16, 85 Productivity, 101 Products, 37, 168 Professional associations, 15 Professional behavior, 119 Professional development, 100, 165, 168, 234 needs assessment, 165 Professional ethics, 110, 118-119, 201 Professional skills, 128 Professionals, 156, 159, 181, 194, 202 Profiles, 59 Programming, 231 Programs, 5, 7, 15, 36-37, 42-43, 47, 52, 54, 57-59, 93, 96, 99, 105, 113, 122, 126-127, 136, 141, 144-146, 149, 151, 156, 158, 160, 165, 167, 212, 220, 231-233, 235-236, 240-242 community and, 59, 141, 145-146 Project, 29, 92, 101, 117, 134, 136-137, 145, 150-151, 154, 157, 162-164, 166-169, 184, 195, 231, 237, 239-241 Projects, 47, 50-53, 59, 93, 146, 148, 195 incorporating, 51 Prompts, 31, 102 topics, 102 Property, 15, 26, 119-120, 211 Prosocial behavior, 103, 145, 231 Prosocial behaviors, 42, 163-164, 237 Protecting, 120 Psychological safety, 4-5 Psychologists, 54, 160, 162, 239 Psychology, 16, 36, 130, 157-158, 162-164, 168, 232-242 social psychology, 237, 239, 241 Psychopathology, 237 Psychosocial, 175, 216 Psychosocial development, 216 Psychotherapy, 233 Publications, 87, 181 Publishing, 125, 233, 238 Punishment, 5, 11, 23, 99-100, 111-112, 115-117, 121, 125-126, 129, 137-141, 149, 179, 182, 185, 234, 238, 241 Purchasing, 167 Puzzles, 49

Q Qualitative research, 240 Quality, 11, 34, 46, 56, 105, 145, 158, 160, 167, 176, 198, 235, 240 Question mark, 128 Questioning, 199 Questions, 6-7, 10, 13-14, 16, 24-25, 30, 32, 35-36, 41, 45, 47-50, 54, 57-58, 88, 96, 99, 101-102, 104, 115, 120-121, 129-130, 135, 138-139, 143-144, 146, 149-150, 164, 167-168, 173, 180, 185-187, 193-195, 197-200, 208-209, 211, 214-215, 217, 219 condemning, 24 easy, 16, 45, 193 encouraging, 49, 54, 57, 115, 129 ideas for, 104, 144, 186 leading, 24, 138 leads, 149 literal, 197

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poor, 180, 209 what if, 48, 150, 197, 199

R Race, 167, 176, 231, 241 Race/ethnicity, 167 Range, 23, 57, 93, 122, 126, 192 Rates, 165-166, 183 Reaching, 16-17, 36, 58-59, 104-105, 130, 135, 150-151, 157, 168, 174, 183, 187, 193, 202, 220, 232 Readiness, 43, 47, 52, 55, 175-176 Reading, 2, 20, 24, 40, 47-49, 51, 84, 93, 103, 105, 108, 115, 134, 137, 139, 145, 148, 154, 166, 172, 174, 180, 190, 195, 199, 206, 214, 218, 236, 238 aloud, 199 assisted, 180 effective instruction, 24 pointed, 166 summer, 148 to students, 2, 24, 115, 145, 166 wide, 93, 145, 236, 238 Reading comprehension, 166 Reading programs, 47 Readings, 16, 36, 58, 104-105, 120, 130, 150, 168, 187, 202, 220 Reality therapy, 157, 233, 235, 238, 242 Reasonable consequences, 24 Reasoning, 148 Recall, 192, 212, 217 Receiving, 9, 11, 29, 35, 124, 183 Recess, 8, 29, 126, 166, 209 Reciprocal teaching, 180 Recognition, 9, 25-26, 30, 54, 157, 222 Recommendations, 102, 165, 238 Record keeping, 88, 96 Record-keeping, 103 Recordkeeping, 50 Records, 127 Redistricting, 155 Referral, 26, 94, 159 Referrals, 41, 88, 148, 166, 210 Reflecting, 2, 20, 40, 45, 84, 104, 108, 134, 140, 150, 154, 172, 190, 206 break, 45 Regulations, 109 Rehabilitation, 94 Reinforcement, 13, 21-22, 26, 29-31, 36, 53-54, 101, 123, 139, 158, 163, 166, 179, 212, 238 Reinforcers, 22, 29, 35, 163 RELATE, 47-48, 52, 101, 125-126 Relatedness, 137-138, 149 Relationship, 4, 14, 16-17, 85, 87, 105, 114, 146-147, 175, 181-182, 186-187, 202, 214-215, 237 benefit, 14, 182 Relationships, 22, 28, 43-44, 50, 52, 54, 85, 92, 95, 97, 104, 110, 113, 115, 117, 121, 123, 136, 138, 145, 147, 160, 172, 176, 180-181, 184, 187, 198, 238 healthy, 43, 54, 110, 123 relaxation, 91-92 Reporting, 42 Reports, 15, 37, 157 Representation, 239 Rereading, 193, 208 Research, 4-5, 7, 11-12, 16, 21-22, 33, 36, 41-42, 51, 55, 59, 102, 105, 121, 140, 145, 150, 156, 158, 166, 168, 180, 183-184, 187, 231-242 contemporary issues, 232-239, 242 findings, 21, 36, 239-240 theory and, 12, 231, 236, 242 Research center, 187 Resilience, 231 Resistance, 112 Resolution, 16, 51, 54, 86, 94-97, 99, 103-105, 117, 121, 126-127, 157, 161-162, 164-165, 167, 219, 222, 232-233, 235-236, 241 achieving, 54, 95, 157 Resources, 16-17, 37, 52, 57, 87, 100, 104, 128, 157-158, 165, 167, 169, 174-175, 182, 202, 209, 220, 239 Respect, 8, 24, 26, 35, 50-52, 54, 56-57, 87-88, 92, 97, 109-110, 114, 116-118, 120, 124, 127-130, 136-137, 141, 143, 149-150, 168, 176, 178, 182, 184, 197-198, 200-201, 207, 211, 219 Responding, 7, 36-37, 164, 193, 200, 208-209, 233-234, 241

Response, 22-24, 30-31, 34, 36, 47, 55, 93, 99, 104, 156, 165, 173-174, 181, 196-197, 208, 213, 232-233, 236-237 Response styles, 23 Responses, 8-9, 14, 16, 27, 93, 173, 191, 193, 198, 211-212, 219 Responsive Classroom, 84, 86, 99-100, 103-105, 155, 231-232, 239-240, 242 Responsive practices, 187 Responsive teaching, 232, 235 Restructuring, 158, 235 Reward systems, 44 Rewards, 22-24, 26-30, 33-35, 92-93, 113, 119, 123, 134, 136-139, 142, 147, 149, 161, 167, 184-185, 192, 194-195, 207, 212, 232, 237-238 Rigidity, 141 Ripple effect, 43, 46, 56, 237 Risk factors, 59, 160 Rituals, 176, 210 Rogers, Carl, 234 Role playing, 55 Role-play, 126, 163 Role-playing, 55, 116, 118 Roles, 24, 28, 56, 87, 89, 108, 113, 123, 150, 177, 194, 200, 202 Room arrangement, 102-103 Roots, 157-158 Routines, 30-31, 36, 41-42, 52-53, 87-90, 101, 103-104, 141, 143, 219, 222 Rubric, 218 Rubrics, 210, 218 Rules, 6-7, 12, 17, 22-24, 26-33, 36, 41, 52, 56, 86-90, 97-98, 101-104, 109, 111-112, 118-130, 135-137, 139-145, 147, 149, 156, 159-161, 165, 167, 176, 178-179, 184-185, 191, 193-194, 197, 200, 206-207, 209, 211-214, 219-220, 222 Rural schools, 149

S Safety, 4-5, 17, 51, 119-120, 126, 155, 162, 182-183, 202, 211, 231-233, 235, 237, 239-241 plans, 162, 182, 237 SAT, 34, 149 Satiation, 43-47, 56 Scale, 59, 156, 162 Schedules, 100, 178 School, 2-17, 20-21, 23-26, 28-30, 32-34, 36-37, 41-43, 46, 48, 50-59, 84, 86, 88-90, 93-95, 97-101, 103, 105, 109, 113-115, 118-121, 123-130, 135, 137-151, 153-169, 173, 175-176, 179, 181-185, 187, 191-194, 197-202, 208-215, 217-220, 222, 231-242 School activities, 95, 144-145 School board, 202, 231, 237, 241-242 School counseling, 232, 236, 239-241 School counselor, 236 School counselors, 54, 128 School culture, 135, 231, 237 School day, 4, 42, 94-95, 99, 147, 214 School district, 36-37, 43, 142, 167, 237 School policies, 7 School professionals, 202 School psychologists, 160, 162, 239 School reform, 231, 235, 237 School safety, 162, 183, 202, 231-232, 239, 241 School success, 164, 176, 235 School violence, 2, 15, 126, 236, 239, 241 zero-tolerance policies, 126 Schooling, 17, 203, 242 Schools:, 168, 231-233, 235, 239 governance of, 149 urban, 3, 6, 17, 30, 41, 58, 105, 128, 130, 142, 148-149, 166, 231-232, 234, 237-241 Science, 11, 51, 101, 105, 120, 164, 231, 234, 240 in the curriculum, 51 new, 11, 51, 164, 231, 234, 240 Sciences, 157 scientific literacy, 231 Scope, 120, 231 Scores, 28, 41, 138, 166-167 Screening, 238 Search, 34, 120 Seating, 5, 141, 178 Seating arrangements, 178 Seattle, 157, 235 Seatwork, 49 Secondary school, 28, 33, 50, 52-53, 234

Secondary students, 11, 56 Section, 15, 25, 119, 174-175, 178, 181, 187, 208-209 Security, 199, 208, 234, 240, 242 Segregation, 178 Self, 4, 11, 14, 16, 22, 25, 28, 30-31, 33-35, 42-44, 51-55, 57-58, 87, 91-92, 97, 100, 102-103, 112-114, 116, 118-120, 123, 135-136, 138, 140-145, 147-150, 155, 157, 160, 162-163, 165, 176-177, 180-181, 184, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198-199, 201, 207-208, 210-211, 213, 215-216, 219, 221-222, 233, 235-236, 238, 240 Self-assessment, 144 Self-concept, 43, 54, 57 Self-control, 28, 31, 55, 91-92, 100, 113, 136, 144, 147, 201 Self-determination, 138 Self-discipline, 4, 14, 34, 44, 51-53, 57, 102-103, 123, 140-144, 147-150, 176, 184, 190, 192, 194, 196, 199, 208, 210-211, 213, 219, 221-222, 235 Self-efficacy, 16, 240 self-esteem, 25, 33, 43, 52, 87, 112-113, 116, 119, 135, 160, 177, 180-181, 198, 207, 215-216 self-evaluation, 157 Self-management, 22, 30, 58, 165 self-monitoring, 184, 236 tools for, 236 Self-regulated learning, 238, 240 Self-reinforcement, 163 Self-responsibility, 54 self-worth, 53, 112 Semantics, 238 Sense of self, 28 senses, 87 Sensitivity, 124 Sentences, 46, 219, 222 Sequence, 49-50, 112, 142, 144 Serious infractions, 57 Service learning, 146 Service learning projects, 146 Setting, 5, 11, 27, 29-31, 33, 41, 54, 86, 88, 90, 92-93, 98, 103, 120, 142, 164, 184, 211, 217, 235, 240 Severe disabilities, 158 Sex, 240 Sexual orientation, 198, 212 Shame, 157, 179 Shared inquiry, 216 Shared responsibility, 141 Sharing, 42, 51, 59, 100, 115, 117, 121, 164, 209, 240 Signals, 91 Significance, 117, 121 Signs, 45-47, 55, 141, 150, 163, 237, 240 Silence, 90, 92, 125 Silent reading, 93, 195 Sixth grade, 34, 51 Size, 89, 104 Skills, 4-6, 11, 16, 27-28, 30-31, 42-43, 45, 51-53, 55, 57-59, 87-88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 100-103, 108, 110, 116-118, 121, 123, 128-129, 138, 140, 144, 147-148, 150, 154-158, 160-168, 176, 184-185, 206-209, 220, 234, 236, 239, 241 attending, 123, 144 practicing, 6, 27, 92, 116 prosocial, 42, 58, 103, 147, 162-164, 185 receiving, 11 sending, 123 speaking, 45, 100, 103, 176 Slips, 161 Slowdowns, 43-44, 48-49 Small group, 46, 51, 161, 163, 182, 184-185 Small groups, 21, 49, 95, 102, 125, 179-180, 217 Small-group instruction, 105 SMART, 222 Smoothness, 47-48, 97 Social and emotional development, 52, 165 Social competence, 54, 85-86, 102, 166, 234, 236 Social environment, 156 Social goals, 180 Social interaction, 101, 180 Social interest, 127, 129 Social knowledge, 110 Social learning, 100, 155 Social problem solving, 28, 54, 234 Social psychology, 237, 239, 241 Social reinforcers, 29 Social relationships, 54, 136, 176 Social responsibility, 28, 157, 164, 168

Social sciences, 157 Social services, 94 Social skills, 11, 28, 42, 52, 55, 58-59, 95, 100, 102-103, 123, 154-158, 160-164, 167, 184-185, 236, 239, 241 Social skills instruction, 162, 167 Social skills training, 158, 162 Social studies, 23, 46, 51, 88, 92, 94, 232 beginning of, 88, 94 Social values, 147 Socialization, 11 Socioeconomic status, 11, 27 student achievement and, 11 Sociology, 220 Solutions, 16, 51, 55, 116, 118, 121, 147, 149, 165 Songs, 42 Sound, 5, 51, 113, 180, 199 Sounds, 103, 127, 193 speech, 103 Space, 9, 53, 91, 98, 102, 116, 147, 201, 216 Speaking, 3, 9-10, 21, 26, 45, 49, 100, 103, 124, 126, 139, 176, 193, 196 Special education, 160, 172-177, 179, 181, 187, 235, 238-239, 241 Special education teacher, 175, 177, 179, 239 Special education teachers, 160, 172, 181, 187 Special educators, 11, 173, 177 Special needs, 11, 28, 50, 52, 129, 172-187, 198, 200, 216, 221-222 Special needs children, 175 Special programs, 141 Speech, 103, 176 Spelling, 48, 101 Stability, 42 Staff, 5, 37, 51, 57, 127, 140-142, 144-145, 148-149, 158-159, 162, 165, 167-168, 239 Staff development, 140, 142, 144-145, 149, 159, 162, 239 Staff training, 159 Stakeholders, 142, 158, 190 ownership, 142 Standardized test scores, 167 Standardized tests, 166 Standards, 4, 23, 51-52, 88, 90, 104, 119, 127, 142, 147, 236-237 State standards, 51 States, 8-10, 25, 27, 51, 123, 128, 157, 168, 176, 234 Statistics, 25, 233, 239-240 Stereotypes, 8, 10, 25, 215 poverty, 10 Stigma, 129 Stimulus, 22, 43-44, 47, 58 Stop, 23, 29, 33-34, 45-46, 49, 57, 90-91, 98-99, 122-123, 126, 154, 156-157, 163-164, 166-167, 184, 197 Storage, 120 Stories, 148 Strategic planning, 162, 237 Strategies, 2-17, 25, 30-32, 44, 47, 51, 57, 86-87, 96-98, 104-105, 113, 115-116, 122, 137, 140, 142, 144, 159-161, 165, 167-168, 174, 176-182, 184, 187, 191, 194, 198, 200-202, 208-210, 215-217, 219-220, 221-222, 231-232, 234, 236, 241 deliberate, 174 Stress, 42, 55, 196, 216, 238 Structure, 15, 34-35, 57, 92, 100, 124, 147, 159, 166, 179, 214, 238 Structured activities, 135 Student achievement, 11, 105, 148, 235 Student behavior, 3, 6-7, 11, 44-45, 52, 58, 87, 98, 100, 135-136, 138, 140, 149, 160, 163, 167-168, 173-174, 184, 194, 210, 215-216 Student engagement, 101, 105 Student input, 219, 222 Student involvement, 42, 98 Student outcomes, 104, 168, 232 Student performance, 85 Student progress, 86, 177 Student success, 168 Student teachers, 202, 220 Students, 2-16, 21, 23-36, 42-58, 85-105, 109-113, 115-130, 135-150, 155-168, 173-187, 190-202, 206-220, 221-222, 231-242 antisocial, 8, 30, 55, 156, 184, 241 calling on, 50 conferences with, 211 embarrassing, 198 exceptional, 180, 187, 233-234, 237-238, 240

in regular classrooms, 11, 162, 200 reluctant, 91, 98, 146, 187 Students at risk, 179 Students with disabilities, 11, 187, 198 Students with special needs, 11, 28, 52, 173-174, 176-177, 179-181, 183-184, 186-187, 221-222 Student-teacher relationships, 160, 198 Studies, 23, 28, 30, 33, 36, 42, 46, 50-51, 53, 88, 92, 94, 102, 136-137, 145, 147-148, 150, 165-166, 232-234 D, 36, 145, 147, 150, 232-234 G, 46, 50, 53, 145, 148, 150, 232-234 Style, 10, 14, 22-24, 113, 142, 149, 197, 199, 202, 214 Subordinate clauses, 46 Subordinates, 194 Substance abuse, 52, 54, 148 Substance use, 231 Substitute teachers, 141 Success for All, 158, 161 Suggestions, 5, 36, 46, 49, 57, 101, 104, 115, 118, 120, 122, 135, 149, 155, 168, 202, 209, 220 Supervision, 233, 236 Support, 4-5, 11, 13, 25, 28, 36, 51, 55, 57, 85, 97, 100-102, 109, 115-116, 127, 130, 136, 139-141, 145-146, 154, 157-162, 165-168, 174, 176-182, 200-201, 210, 219, 222, 231-232, 236-238, 240 Support system, 36, 168 Supporting, 109, 166, 173, 238 Suspension, 11, 127, 166, 235, 241 Suspensions, 148, 156, 166 Switch, 47, 93 Symbols, 121, 155 Synthesis, 192, 241 System, 21, 23, 25, 27, 35-36, 41, 58, 85, 87-88, 92-94, 98, 103-105, 141, 144, 160, 162-164, 168, 173, 177-178, 191, 206, 208, 211-212, 219, 237-238, 240, 242 Systems, 9, 44, 51, 86-88, 93, 97, 99, 158, 162, 167-168, 200, 231, 233-234, 236-237, 240 belief, 240 human, 158, 162 Systems approach, 158, 167, 237

T Tactics, 194 Talented students, 174 Talking, 6, 12, 21, 23-24, 26, 28-30, 33, 85, 88, 90, 104, 112, 114-115, 126, 146, 177, 179, 196-197, 199, 218 Tangible reinforcers, 29, 163 Tannock, R., 187 Target behaviors, 4, 12 Tasks, 44, 50, 88, 92, 98, 142, 144, 147, 175, 177, 179, 181, 216, 218 Teacher, 3-8, 10, 12-15, 17, 21-24, 26-35, 41-42, 44-51, 53-58, 85-93, 96, 98-105, 109-113, 115, 121-130, 135-136, 138-144, 146-150, 155, 159-161, 163-164, 166-167, 173, 175-182, 184-187, 191, 193-194, 196-202, 207-218, 220, 221, 231-235, 237-242 Teacher control, 109 Teacher education, 17, 202, 220, 233-234, 238, 241-242 Teacher quality, 105 Teacher tips, 220 Teacher training, 105 Teachers, 2-17, 21, 23-29, 31, 33-37, 41-47, 49-53, 55-59, 85-105, 108-113, 115-130, 135-150, 155, 157-168, 172-182, 184-187, 191-194, 196-197, 199-202, 208-217, 219-220, 222, 231-235, 237-242 Teachers:, 109, 238 as facilitators, 55 autonomous, 138 beliefs and attitudes, 231 career education and, 52 caring, 36, 42-43, 50-51, 55, 57-59, 87, 95, 97, 103, 110, 116, 124, 128, 136-138, 140, 142, 145-150, 163-165, 178, 184, 200, 210, 212, 214, 232-234, 240, 242 decision makers, 138, 141 educators, 2-6, 9-12, 15-16, 25, 33-35, 51-52, 55-57, 87, 94-95, 100-101, 110, 113, 117-120, 124, 127-130, 136-140, 146, 148, 157-162, 164, 167-168, 173-178, 180-182, 184-187, 191-193, 196, 200-202, 208-210, 216-217, 220, 232,

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234-235, 242 ESL, 239 general education, 11, 172-173, 176-178 head, 7, 34, 174 influence on, 56, 110, 129, 184 leadership roles, 177 misconduct, 11, 105 participation of, 55 research of, 41, 145 substitute, 85, 141, 143 Teaching, 3-7, 12-14, 16-17, 21, 23, 25, 30-32, 34, 36-37, 44-46, 49, 56-59, 85, 87-89, 94, 97, 100-105, 108, 110-111, 113-114, 118-119, 123, 128-130, 137, 139, 142-145, 154, 156, 159-160, 162-163, 165, 167, 172-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-187, 194-199, 201-202, 212-214, 216-217, 220, 221, 232-241 Teaching:, 187, 232, 235-236 time spent, 194 Teaching practice, 240 Teaching practices, 100, 240 Teaching skills, 88 Teaching strategies, 14, 160, 182, 234 Teaching style, 14, 202 Teaching team, 25 Teaching Tolerance, 101, 105, 241 Team leaders, 160 Teams, 12, 28-29, 36, 127, 142, 162, 180 crisis management, 162 Teamwork, 216 Teasing, 164 Techniques, 4-5, 9, 12-13, 16, 21, 41, 45, 47, 50, 56-58, 87-88, 98, 103-104, 113, 115, 122, 127, 137, 140, 162, 178, 182, 184, 186, 195, 199, 213-214, 217-219, 222, 232-233 Technology, 120, 232, 236, 238 Television, 7 Tennessee, 169 Terminology, 140 Test, 6, 26, 117, 138, 167 Test scores, 138, 167 testing, 44, 94, 242 Tests, 41, 103, 140, 148, 166 standardized reading, 103, 166 Texas, 149 Text, 149, 178, 180, 183, 191, 221 Textbooks, 140 The Parent, 26, 116, 146, 211, 218 Theme, 142-144 theories, 4-5, 12, 14, 16, 36, 44, 56-58, 94, 113, 121, 127, 129-130, 139, 155, 173, 178, 183-186, 191, 194-195, 200, 208, 219 Theory, 5, 12, 14, 22, 31, 87, 108, 135, 145, 184, 201, 207-208, 231, 233-236, 238, 240-242 Theory of Practice, 241 Therapy, 25, 94, 157, 232-233, 235, 238, 242 Think, 5, 9-11, 13-15, 20, 22, 30-33, 36-37, 48-49, 52-53, 55, 88, 97, 109, 111-112, 115, 117-118, 120-121, 123, 128, 130, 135, 138-139, 146, 150, 154-155, 157, 159, 163-164, 166-167, 173, 181, 184, 186, 192, 194, 196, 199-202, 207, 209, 211-212, 214, 217, 220, 232, 239 Think time, 20, 22, 30-33, 36-37, 192, 239 Thinking, 46, 51, 55, 124, 175, 178, 192, 199, 201, 214, 236 Thomas, 54, 184, 238 Threats, 13, 23, 31, 56, 99, 124, 136-140, 146, 149, 194-195, 212 Thrust, 43-44, 47-48, 58 Time, 5-7, 12-13, 20-23, 25-34, 36-37, 44-46, 49, 53-54, 56-57, 85-96, 98-100, 103, 109, 112, 114-115, 119, 121, 123, 125-126, 128, 142-144, 146-149, 159, 161, 163, 167, 173, 176-177, 179-183, 192-197, 199-200, 202, 209, 211-212, 217-219, 235, 239 dead time, 99 engaged, 56, 87, 95, 146, 182, 192, 199 on task, 5, 7, 37, 49, 56, 90, 112, 217-218 to think, 31-32, 53, 109, 112, 199, 211, 217 units, 54 Time out, 36 Time-outs, 36 Token, 161 Tone, 45, 89, 91, 124, 174, 211 Tone of voice, 124 Tools, 151, 236 for teaching, 236

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Tools for Teaching, 236 Topics, 40, 47, 54-55, 101-102, 105, 125, 151 touch, 129, 209 Training, 10, 36, 51, 55, 57, 89, 92-94, 96-97, 105, 119, 158-160, 162, 165, 167-168, 177, 187, 193, 234-235, 240 Traits, 40, 43, 51-52 Transfer, 191, 193 Transitions, 45, 86, 92, 99, 199 Treatment, 56, 110, 168, 194, 209, 240 Truth, 54, 126, 241 Turns, 48, 96, 178 Turn-taking, 176 Tutors, 114

U Understanding, 4, 9-11, 13, 15, 17, 22, 33, 49, 54-55, 59, 85, 87, 96-97, 111, 116-117, 127, 137-138, 145, 151, 164-165, 180, 182, 194, 199, 215, 236 United States, 8-10, 27, 51, 168, 176, 234 Units, 54 Urban education, 231-232, 234, 238 Urban schools, 17, 105, 149, 239 U.S. Department of Education, 53, 55, 187, 233, 239-241 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 52, 162

V Values, 15, 43, 50-51, 58, 86-87, 94, 97, 120, 130, 135, 138, 140, 145, 147-148, 210, 236-238 philosophy, 58, 145, 210 Variables, 86, 102 Vegetables, 93 Verbal behavior, 240 Verbal praise, 26, 163 Victim, 125, 127, 138 Victimization, 232-233, 242 Video, 105 Videotape, 144 violence, 2, 6-7, 15-16, 33, 50, 52, 57, 88, 96, 109, 116, 122, 126-127, 140, 149, 155-156, 158, 165, 167, 191, 206, 212, 218, 232-233, 236-241 Vision, 40, 99, 129, 134, 138, 174 Visual cues, 90 Visual prompts, 102 Vocabulary, 101 Voice, 9, 26, 90, 103, 121, 124, 136, 146, 193, 210 Volunteers, 146

W Walden Two, 241 Walkways, 102 Walls, 7, 97, 140, 155-156 wants, 93, 97, 121, 199, 209 Warmth, 209 Warning signs, 240 Washington, 168, 233, 239-241 Watson, 128, 135-136, 145-147, 179, 231, 233, 241-242 Wattenberg, 44, 47, 196, 212, 239, 242 Wealth, 10 Websites, 17, 36, 58-59, 105, 130, 150-151, 162, 168, 174, 180, 187, 202, 220 district, 36 Welfare, 10, 56, 95, 115, 120, 129, 149, 210-211 Welfare agencies, 10 Well-being, 16, 103, 129-130, 142, 182, 211 What Works Clearinghouse, 53 Whole, 12, 49, 87, 127, 139, 145-146, 148-149, 153-169, 175-176, 181-182, 238 Whole child, 139, 176 Wholeness, 130 Windows, 93 Wisdom, 233 Withdrawal, 31 Withitness, 43-46, 56-58, 97, 219, 222 word problems, 48 Words, 48, 93, 112, 115, 123-124, 129, 143, 196-197, 212-213 Work, 2-4, 7-9, 11-14, 16-17, 21-25, 28, 30-31, 35, 41-42, 44, 46-48, 50-52, 55-58, 86, 88-90, 93-96, 98-101, 103-105, 109-113, 115-116, 120-123, 125, 127, 129, 135-136, 138-139, 141-144, 146-148, 151, 156-158, 161, 163, 165-166, 173-177, 179-182, 185-186, 193,

196-198, 200-202, 207-210, 214, 217-219, 222, 232, 236-237, 240 Workbooks, 49 Working through, 45 Worksheets, 49, 102, 140 World knowledge, 10 Worldviews, 11 Writers, 187 Writing, 16, 49, 93, 102, 105, 122, 218 to solve, 49

Y Young adult literature, 176 Young children, 16, 59, 105, 110-111, 130, 150, 168, 239

Z Zero, 6, 13, 109-110, 113, 126-127, 130, 140, 155-156, 183, 219, 222, 232-234, 238, 241 Zero tolerance policy, 232 Zero-tolerance policies, 6, 13, 110, 113, 126-127, 130, 140, 156, 183, 238