Classical Chinese (Supplement 2): Readings in Poetry and Prose 0691118329, 9780691118321

This supplemental volume continues the rigorous standard set forth in the main, three-volumeClassical Chinese: A Basic R

586 46 17MB

English Pages 285 [299] Year 2005

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Classical Chinese (Supplement 2): Readings in Poetry and Prose
 0691118329, 9780691118321

Citation preview

READINGS IN

CLASSICAL CHINESE

POETRY AND PROSE CGILCQ)§§AmU]E§ ANAILW§]E§

~7}l9t

Naiying Yuan

rili:. J5

.. ;:et ~

..~ ;~

Haitao Tang

James Geiss

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

Copyright © 2006 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 3 Market Place, Woodstock,Oxfordshire OX20 ISY All Rights Reserved

Library of Congress Control Nwnber: 2005931446 ISBN-13: 978-0-691-11832-1 ISBN-I0: 0-691-11832-9 British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This publication has been made possible by generous grants from The Mercer Trust and The Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning The publisher would like to acknowledge the authors of this volume for providing the camera-ready copy from which this book was printed Printed on acid-free paper pup.princeton.edu

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

FOREWORD

Foreword Selected Readings in Classical Chinese Poetry and Prose is the literary supplement to Classical Chinese -- A Basic Reader. It applies the same rigorous standard set forth in the Basic Reader and reinforces its linguistic lessons with carefully chosen exemplary works in literature to expand the scope of linguistic contact to a new realm. Literature is a linguistic art. It uses language as the medium to create pieces of writing that have lasting value because of their excellence of form, great emotional effects, remarkable imagination, etc. Chinese writers in ancient times were all influenced by the Confucian humanism and the Taoist naturalism. As a result, traditional Chinese literature demonstrated the linguistic characteristics of the Chinese language in its form, and to various degrees, either coverttly or overtly, embodied the essentials of the Confucian and the Taoist teachings. 1. The Contents: This volume comprises three sections: Poetry, Lyrics, and Prose. Section one contains thirty-two poems chosen from the Book of Odes, Han dynasty anonymous poems, Wei and nn pentasyllabic poems, six dynasties folk songs and poems by known authors, and down to Tang dynasty ancient poems and regulated verses in pentasyllabic and heptasyllabic meters, with the last poem drawn from the Song dynasty. Section two contains nine lyrics chosen from Tang, Five Dynasties, and Song times, plus the last selection which is a Yuan dynasty song-poem. Section three contains 15 short pieces of prose from Warring States period down to the QIng dynasty, including one from the Chii Ci at the beginning, and a parallel prose at the end. These selections represent a great variety of themes and styles, showing the richness and colorfulness of Chinese literary works. They are arranged in chronological order with an exception of the parrallel prose, placing Chinese literature in a historical perspective to reveal its continuity and change over a long course of development. In addition, two brief introductions, to regulated verse and to parallel prose, are provided so as to enable users of this book to get a better sense of the linguistic and artistic characteristics of these two highly sophisticated literary fonns. 2. The Fonnats: As poetry and lyrics are intimately related to music, and prose writings also needs to be chanted or read aloud, so each selection is here romanized in Hanyupmyln, with special attention called upon to redupicative, alliterative, and rhyming compounds as these are

iii

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE POETRY AND PROSE

frequently used devices for versification. The end rhymes of poems and lyrics are listed at the end of each selection, and their reconstructed sound values (of C. 600-1000 A.D.) are also given, so that users can get a feeling of the auditory effects they created. Regulated verses, lyrics, and song-poems are highly developed forms of Chinese literature. In order to highlight their respective structural characteristics we have provided specific rules for four regulated verses, two lyrics and one song-poem to show the cadence and tonal design in each form. A brief biographical sketch is given to each of the known author as a study aid. The glosses are explained in both modern Chinese and in English, as brief and to the point as possible. The grammatical categories and parts of speech of the glosses are detennined by their functions in their immediate contexts. When a gloss has two readings, both readings are given. Noteworthy grammatical points and sentence patterns are explained or analyzed immediately under the glosses where they appear. Some key words in the explanation of glosses are further explained, with a ~ sign preceding them. Set phrases derived from the text are marked with a

~

sign.

Additional vocabulary that can help clarify or elucidate the meaning of the text are given with a CO sign preceding them. 3. Understanding and Appreciation of Literature: As a linguistic art, literature is very difficult to understand fully. One needs to go beyond the basic linguistic meaning--Iexical, syntactic, and onerall structural--to grasp its descriptive, lyrical, narrative, or expository mode of expression; to perceive its visual, auditory and psycological appeal; to apprehend its theme and philosophical implication. Whether a work of literature is serene, lively, dashing, grand, cheerful, sorrowful, contemplative, or soul-stirring, it can be understood and appreciated through carefully analyzing its special linguistic effects--diction, imagery, alliteration, assonance, etc., and its literary techniques--allegory, contrast, allusion, personification, inversion, hyperbole, antithesis, etc. For each of the fifty-seven selections we have provided an introductory note to point out what we regard as some remarkable features of the work, in the hope that students can explore the work further along these lines. If students, after such exploration, can come up with their own understanding and critical assessments, it will be a very good substitute for routine linguistic exercises.

iv

FOREWORD

4. The Goals: Like philosophy and history, literature is a major component of culture. Poetry and prose hold the leading position in Chinese literarure. They touch upon the exploration of men and universe, the glorification of Nature, the adherence to life's ideals, the pursuit of love and beauty, and the lament for anitya or the impennanence of life and the eventual transcendence of that sorrow. They amply reveal the depth and breadth of Chinese culture. Through reading these selections students will further improve their knowledge in classical Chinese: such as the monosyllabic, tonal nature of Chinese morphemes and the grammatical versaltility of Chinese words; will strengthen their command of major grammatical rules; at the same time, through carefully analyzing the fonns and contents of these texts, will better comprehend and appreciate the artistic conceptions created in these literary works, and gain a better and deeper understanding of the thoughts, ideals, and aspirations of their authors, wherein lies the inner secret of Chinese culture. If in this process students develop a keen interest in the study of Chinese literature, we would regard that as an added gain.

The Authors

v

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE POETRY AND PROSE

Acknowledgments First and foremost, we want to express our heartfelt gratitude to Professor Frederick Wade Mote, the founder of the East Asian Studies Department at Princeton University, and to the late Professor Ta-Tuan Ch'en, Director of the Chinese Language Program in the EAS Department. This textbook project would not have been undertaken, much less completed, had it not been for their insight in recognizing that classical Chinese is a critical link in the teaching of Chinese culture. It was thanks to their strong support that we were encouraged to improve teaching materials and methods. L.L.D. David Finkelstein, President of Pro Re Nata, inc. Margaret HsU, and Professor Andrew Plaks, three friends known since the 1960s, helped to proofread and comment on the English portion of this text. We thank them all heartily. An earlier version of this book was sponsored and funded by the Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning. The publication of the current book was generously subsidized by the Mercer Trust Fund. To both institutions we are immensely grateful. Our Introductions to Regulated Verse and Parallel Prose were to a great extent based on works done by the late Professor Wang Ll of BeijIng University, to whom the credit goes; we are solely responsible for any misrepresentation of his main ideas in these introductions.

The Authors

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

~~n p' ~

-

'\

='\ ~

§

U ~ ...

,

;~ Hi

"ittt

~E*

#tt~,I]iW

006

_Iff

009

-!;#+/t.-t

013

-!; ~t + /t. -t

018

,~ ~Ji

022

Buxom Is the Peach Tree

n'\ ......J....

/ '\ '\

,I] iW

Book of Odes, Sixth

J: L1J f~K~

Climbing the Mountain to Collect Herbs

[g '\

~

m

~T ~=r ~=r ~T Going on, Always on and on

A Ballad, Anonymous

Ancient Poem, Anonymous

iliili~!f:£ Distant and Faint the Herd-Boy Star

fttt ~tt ~

To My Cousin

Ancient Poem, Anonymous

Liti Zhen

T'\

~~~=r '\', P

J\ '\

.~*A§Z[g

Miscellaneous Poems: the Fourth

Cao Zhi

fL'\

~milEBm On Returning to My Garden and Field

Tao Qian

+~

*~ .f£At~

Song ofYan

t~

025

t

~.t

030

f&J~

033

rIrJ~

039

Cao Pi

Building a Hut in the Human World

VII

TaoQian

READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE LITERATURE

+-'\

,k¥JJmx

~~

042

~~

044

rt-TJP

058

~.~. Ascend the Guanque Tower

£~~~

060

+11.'\

W@

.i.~1'1\

062

+A'\

r! jpX ElH

£~ft Wang Wei

064

+t'\

W}II 00 mfttt {{ 31§ ~ j!§

£~ft At Leisure in Wang River: a Poem to Pei Di Wang Wei

067

+='\ +_'\ +rm'\

+/\ '\

+11'\ =+'\ -

'\

=='\

A Song of the Chile Prairie

Folk Song, Anonymous

*M~* The Ballad of Muhin

Folk Song, Anonymous

~~ji'l.mx Climbing the Gate Tower at Youzhou

Chen Z'iang

Waug Zlnl1U3n

A Spring Daybreak

MengHaoran

A Song of Weicheng

~~~TW

';:'a

071

riI~ Sailing Down to Jiangling

3fa

073

3fa

076

'~-k ;r

079

~! rt

084

Sitting Alone in fmgting Mountain

L'i Bai

Li Bai

J3r~~ Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon

L'i Bai

~iP~Jt~~ In Changsha Passing Jia Yl' s Residence

Liu Zhangqing

D~&.'tl Night Thoughts Aboard a Boat VIII

DuFi'i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

--

"

=1l9"

=1i."

'±.1f

087

• • &rS

~~

091

Night Mooring at Feng Bridge

Zhang Ji

~-e-

.5:l. rsJ

Climbing the Heights

l:k & ~ .Ei: = +=

DuFil

~ J7~

Autumn Night: A Poem to Qiii, the 22nd

pc' ~~ + fL

"'4~

094

Wei Yingwu

Asking Liu, the Nineteenth

Bai Joyi

af/;i

096

=t"

~I~ Snow on River

~P~7G Liil ZOngyu3n

098

=;\ "

~TlPi

~3CF

100

--fL "

~JI:f~JJ;

-

--L.

-/'\

"

+" ..::. -

'\

-- " -=.-

A Wanderer's Song

Meng Jiao

Looking for a Recluse but Missed Him

Jiii Dao

t~

103

rW 8)3

,±.~

Pure Brightness

DuMn

105

L1J ~=r

,±.~

108

DnMli

Travelling in the Mountain

-.fst !x ~ J:. fJ] B~ ~i ~ Drinking on the Lake, Sunny, Then It Rains Sii Shi

111

~l ~~ fIJJ fi'

114

A Brief Introduction to the Regulated Verse

ix

READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE LITERATURE

~~ So

-

at

~n ~

§

~ :.t;~

122

~\~-r Fisherman's Song

Zhang Zhihe

="

11 iI f-¥.j

Reminiscing about Jiangnan

a~i

124

Bai Juyi

.= "

~~A The Beautiful Lady Yn

~~l.

126

LiYu

1m "

~~-r Raw Plum

~1t1~

130

Ji"

71< ~m ~ Bft

~tit

133

/"

~iI 1l1J Immortal at the River

~~

139

~lt

142

'\

--L....

"\

• • {W

J\ "\

~O¥~

+"

Oiiyang Xiii

Prelude to Water Melody

t"\

tL"\

~~~a

Sii Shi

Su Shi

An Immortal on the Magpie Bridge

Qin Guan

As in a Dream: a Song

~i!~

146

LiQingzhao

Il~X~ An Ugly Slave

.-i-~

149

~~'i1t '\ fj(~ (eb ) Sky-Clear Sand

,~It it

151

Xin Qiji

MaZhiyuan

x

TABLE OF CONTENTS

, -xiR§~ .,~

- "

~~~ ~

="

(\\\ X An Old Fisherman

~~

155

MT~ft; Preface to the Lanting Poems

-tA:
H± ~~T

( ~

iilll) r!i

a reduplicative compound

diezl

iJll) 4

zhuo zhuo 4.

~

[said of trees] young and pretty

• 4 3.

4

~ a reduplicative compound

*I[off3colour] !¥ 8f! ; ~ & bright and brilliant II

1E"

~ flowers; blossoms

jt ¥ [ t i . 1i]] ~ ¥ ~~ ~~ ; tJ~ t!1 8~ lb iN !¥ B~

zhUQ zhUQ qi hua

~5 t!j 8~ lb .ft 1< - ~i ti!!!~ B~ ~ 11

The peach blossoms are as bright and brilliant as fire

7

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

5.

Zr

(~

6.

-T yu

(M~]~5~m*~~~T~fiE'**.~

M;

( JJJ

~~) ~W A. g~ ~ EI m~ [said of a girl] to get married

-TJm yuguI

( JJJ

i~)

'f:r,

( ~ W ~~]

'53f,

( ~ ii!)) ~ ~i

zhizi

7.

8. 9.

.t:::l.

.::t:.

yl

Shl

Ii j:t :¥: yi qi shljia

11.

ff

*

you

12. . . fen !Qi:

13. A

this young lady

~ g M' ~ ~ a prefix of a verb to fill in the needed syllable, and itself does not carry any lexical meaning

gul

10. ~ jia

' i§. fv: ~ 9:

i~ m) ~ T

shi

t±i ~

( ~ illl ] (tJJ

[said of a girl] to enter into matrimony

~ aii

hannonious; peaceful

mf± S3 mT the bed room of the couple r~ z pg ; ~ f~ ~ ~ the entire family

i~ m) {t~~~:§:

ff ~tl! 83 ~ ~ ~ ~ to make her [new] home hannonious and orderly

(M~)~5~m*~~~T~fiE'**.~

~ g JJt ~ ~ a prefIX of an adjective to fill in the needed syllable but without lexical meaning in itself

( ~ W iiJU] )( *. )( ~ (~

iJ!J]

*W '

plumpy and plentiful

j~ ~~ T the fruit, meaning peaches

ff.~.( • • ~)~~*W)(*.)(~ you fen qi shi

its fruits are plumpy and plentiful

d::::;:.~

14.~~ jia shi .... +

15. ~

ye

16.~~ zhen zhen

(~

~~] ~ T

; llt ~

( ~ W ilg] 4 ~ if ~ 8

the leaves

a reduplicative compound

luxuriant

READINGS IN POETRY

~ ~ ~ ~ (tii. 1JJ ) '8 8~ ~ if ~ ; '8 8~ ~ -T ~F 1jf if ~ qi ye zhen zhen

its leaves are luxuriant

17.,*A

r ~ ~J!] m)

* yi1i~1i,* shi yi jia

(1OC m] {f~~~~

jiaren

iL~

- ~ 83 A.

;

~ ~ 83 A.

family members

to make a hannonious and orderly home [used as a congratulatory message on wedding]

-*(3

B~ D

¥,~

-a

~,g~

~,~

-et

~g~

.,A

-en

~g~

'

rwJi~~

' A '

J:.wt~itti

~1T A;t~9T

r,

,IT A ~~ ~ if B - l& '

0

~~r~,~~

*:g~A~*

0

M~~Ji*§~~

~ A ~~ iii

0

*

~ ~ 1£ 3t ~

0

, ~1T A~1CJ~m ? ,

,IT A I ~ ~ , Tm if 1:b ~ ,

*

=t-m~*§tlD

0

~ AI ~ ~

0

~1T A ~ tlD ~

0

Zhuym: Shang shan cai mi WU,

xia shan feng gu fii.

Chang gul wen gu fii, xln ren fu he ru?

Xin ren sui yan hao, wei ruo gu ren shu. Yan se lei xiang sl, shou zhao bu xiang ru. Xin ren c6ng men ru, gu ren c6ng ge qu. Am ren gong zhI jian, gu ren gong zhI su. ZhI jian rl yl pI, zhI su wu zhang yu. Jiang jian lai bI SU, xIn ren bu rU gu.

9

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

This is a folk song and its author is unknown

~~~~~~~~*ffl~~M~'~~~.~. , ifiJ ~ *7~ a~ # ,tt ' ~ro JJi\ a~ .~ m ' & ttb 14 m0 This poem records the dialogue between a deserted wife and her former husband; the conversation was very simple, direct, and sincere, yet all the subtle expression and the minute detail of mentality were delicately and tactfully displayed.

1.

J: L1J

2.

t~

3.

.. ft ,\~~

( ~ iJ!J)

4.

rxia L1Jshan

( JJJ

~J!)

5.

3i

[ tJJ

~m)

6.

~~

shang shan

cm

~M

mlwu

feng

gu fii

7. ~ gui

~~

chang gul

I.~

9. ~~ fll

( JJJ i@ ( tJJ

j~) ~ 1: ill

i~) f~ ~

~!5

;

-$ to ascend a mountain

i* 1&

' 00 8

to pick; to gather

~ IJ\ 1t

m) jE l' L1.J * ; {tt L1J J: l'

*

to descend a mountain; to come down from a mountain

~ to meet; to come across

( ~ ~J!J j~) ~tt rru 8~ ~ ~ ;

( JJJ iJ!J ) WB l' ; ( JJJ iJ!J

' fi r! ~

Gracilaria confervoides, a kind of fragrant herb

i~)

( lid iJ!J] X

rru ~

fonner husband

~ J)l (Xi). BE ~ (zhu6)!it! to kneel

i$ H ij~ it!! WB ( ~ i]\ ~ ~ )

to kneel upright [in a solemn and respectful way]

again; then 10

READINGS IN POETRY

10.

{OJ ~D

hern 11.

~

t=l

yan

( _ II

~1g

[ tJJ iiI!) )

12. ~T hao

[ H¢ ~ i~

13.*~

[ • II

wei rUQ

14.

~*

shu

ia]

~ it If ? {G Mfl? to be like what? How does she look? How do you think of her?

~ to say; to be said

)

~ ~T good; fair

i~ a~) ~. ; ~ ~D not as ... as ...; not equal to...; inferior to ...

( H¢ ~ iiI!)] ~. pretty ~ --3" [~ p~ j

~~ ~affi

7\: 3&

I00k s;appearance

16.

J.R

lei

( Id

17.

*~

xiling

( itl jPJ) tt ~ f~ 1~

i~)

roughly here: it stands for the patient--you

~~~.ffl.tt.m~~m,@tiRW-n.W~

j1J l'F~T ~ 7~.& n~ Jj -

n ~ , *13 *tet~1t t~~j1J ~t­

n~~m,~~~.-.,.=.,~.=.o

The adverb "xiang" means "mutually" or to "each other," indicating a reciprocal relationship. But when only one party acts upon the other party, the word "xiang" then assumes the function of a pronoun which stands for the patient/receiver of action, and it can be either in the first person, the second person, or the third person.

18. ~J2{ SI

iiPJ) {t

to be similar; to be alike

~~*~ ~J2{

( tJJ ilg ia]

=f m

( ~ illl] ¥ t~

; Jt~ ~ t~ *Jj fY ~ *1115 '

:f *~ ~D

( ~ II IPJ g~)

~ ~D i~ ; tb ~ 1: i~ to be not as good as you; inferior to you

lei xiang 81

19.

[ _ II

shou zhao

bu xiang ru

it *JJ ~ tl fi~

fingers; dexiterity; here referring to skills in spinning, weaving and other needleworks

2o.M ge

( ~ illl] -k

21.

( th

"* qu

*~ ~ {~ roughly similar to you

i~

) •

r 89 fMJ In

a woman's chamber

~ to leave; to depart 11

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

22.

I

23.

~ zhi

( tJJ pig )

24. ~ jian

su

25. ~ 26.

iN fJ

gong

[~

i~

-Ilh

[R

yip!

yu

28. ~ jiang

a fine, yellowish silk

B 13 83 ~ ~M

j i i~]

• .*. 27. ~

~i 1fi to weave

] rl li!i ~ *IB ~M

( ~ pig)

be good at

& 1m ~

zhang

a length slightly over 13 meters a unit of length (=3.33 metres)

(~ ~ jj~ )

t9

( tJJ iJg ]

;

~

pure white silk

more than

re

to take

j~t~

J::SJlVtJa J::SJlV--L.fB

M~~

-u

~D

-io

~

-u

~D

-io

J::SJlVtJa J::SJlV--L.fB ""

*

-io

*VAifJ

~

-u

~Vt~

~

-io

J:.SJl VA~,

~~~

-u

~Vt~

/

"\ 1 \ "

/ "\

~~~~.oc@~~.w (~*~-mW6) In ancient style poems, words of different tones can rhyme with each other, so long as the sound values are similar.

12

READINGS IN POETRY

~T ~T

m~T ~T

m&~ ~1i El *~ ~ B B

*JS '' it 00m OJ *i ' ~ ~ ~ 5JU. ~

,'Gt ~ ~ A:t '

~D

~

BB

~}j

tm 8

ff~

M~ m'

0

*~ ~

0

t~ J~ ~ ~ ~ It

0

l~ ~ iii

0

~ f~

BB

' '

?JJ tl m'

fr ~ - iJI

0

~ I~ ~ j¥j *1

0

~

Wi T ~ Jil jg g 1J 110 ~ flj

0 0

Zhuym: XIng xIng chong xfug xIng, yu jii sheng bie If. Xiang qu wan yu II, ge zai tian yi yi. Dao

Iu zu qie chang, hUI mian an ke zhl?

Hu rna yi rei £eng, yue niao chao nan zhi.

Xiang qu rl yl yuan, yi dm rl yi huan. Fu yun bi bai rl, you Zl bu gu fan. 8i jiin ling ren lao, sUI yue hii yI wan. Qi juan wu fu dao, nu fi jia can fan.

ttD it .'1

,

*' i:1A1t1tit it It ~

il. {l ;~ a~ ~:k ' W~ 1~ R Wi ~ Sf

~.~:t

0

it f; ~,. ,

~ f$

'P

~~

,1lL

1$lo This poem describes a pensive wife's thinking of her husband on a long journey. Since he has stayed away for a long time with no intention to return, she becomes suspicious and worrisome. The sentiment is sincere and cordial; though unavoidably plaintive, yet the tone can be regarded as mild.

1.-

1. ~T xing 2.

:m chong

( JJJ iiJ!J)

jE to walk

( Itl im) )( again 13

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

~T ~T ~ ~T ~T

r tJJ iJ!J Ilt)

xfug.x chong xing.x

3.

:g jon

4. ~

~ p~ X ~

, ~ f~ :f i~

to walk (travel) on and on

( ~ i~) ~ you [used in addressing a male in formal speech]

5JU It

sheng bie Ii

( 1iJJ

~J!J

it i$ « it. §X

Ilt) r5 ~ lJlJ ~

to part in life

:

",~ .)t. ,~ ~ ::E. h~ . " 0 Chii Ci, Nine Songs, The Lesser Master ofFate: "No sorrow is greater than the parting of the living"; translated by David Hawkes.

,

• 7' ~ ~»

)

5. ~ qu

( tJJ

........ 6. M

( IX if!) )

7.

wan

mrr

i~

~eft be apart from

-M

(~ i~) ~~M.ift, ?tz-0~ a unit of linear measure; 1/3 of a kilometer

;m; wan yum II

'*

(~

i~ m) -

ge

[ ft

i~) ~

8. ~

9. ~)£ yilya

~-r)£ tian yl yi 10. ~ ~~ daoln 11. ~1l

zu

( ~ iJ!))

( ~ iJ!J m) ( ~ if!))

)

i~

13.

*00

( ~ ?iJ. ( tJJ

jlt)

tfi. an

(Itl iJ!J)

14.

Mt9 ~

more than ten thousand II

each margin; limit; boundary

~ 8~ -

m~~

[ ~ ?iJ. iiI!))

i~

EI

if ~

12. ~ chang

hul mian

ten thousand

II

the end of the world

the road

~~!l

dangerous and difficult

jI ~ distant; remote; faraway ~ 00 to meet face to face

10J ;

{& Pr how

14

READINGS IN POETRY

15.

OJ

ke

16.~O zh1 17.

t~ }~

huma

18. ~ yi:

19.

20.

~D

( ~ iJ!J j~) ( Jb

m

~I!J] ~ to feel persistent attachment [for a thing or a person]; to lean toward

~~m

bei £eng

( ~ ~Pj H~) ~~ ~ t 151!X 8~ wind blowing from the North

~,~

( ~ iJg

*l

zh1

m wind

~~)

( ~ jim)

lSi *1

25.

Ii if§ 7t tffl

( ~ ~J!J) ~ day (m

B

m15 89 ~f *t twigs facing the south;

southern boughs

B

ii

,,~

~ ~ i:i!! day by day; daily

fF IU im) -

( ~ ~ jiPj)

JI JS

distant; far away in distance

27.~ dm

*l

to be apart from each other

yi

26.3& yuan

28.

birds inhabiting in the South

f~ ~ to build a nest

Jt ~

( th il!J

xiang qu

m

branches; boughs

f~ ~

j~)

*

m15 ~ i:i!! 89 ,I®

( JJJ iPJ) fJp ~ ;

( ~ ~Pj j~)

24.

~~ 15 i5~ i:i!! pIT illS9 I~ horses bred in the North

( ~ iJ!J]

21.1i chao

23.

m to know; to be known

m£eng

yUe niao

22.

( JJJ jPJ)

huan

(~ ~

iJg) J[~ loose

15

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

~~~

[ 11

yl dai huan

29.

7~ fu

30 .

iSW -P\

~

yun

a

1ij ) ~ ~ til! ~ Ej

D EI3 Jj~ JGt ~ ' -- ~ ~ ~11 ~

, nt III

~m IJ\ 7 to say tactfully that because she thinks of her husband she is becoming more emaciated each day, and her waist size has shrunk

[ ~ iJg) ~ clouds

t';}] e'j ~

[~

~PJ j~)

31.11& bi

[ JJJ

i~)

32.8 B bcii rl

[ ~ ~~ j~)

33.~ -T

[ ~ iP] m) i% j1H 1£ j~ S'j A.

l~~ fuyun

......

3m mi ; fS 13:

34.

il gu

[ JJJ

35.

&: fan

[ tJJ iPJ) reJ

SI jiin

37.~

A¥;

ling ren lao

* '

[ Jh

ji~) ~ ; r~ to think of; to care for II

J)Z "

, @]

*

to come back; to return

jilg j~) r~ ~ f$ to think of you; to miss you

( 1iJJ i'll

j~)

{t A. ~ ~ ; {t IX Wt ~

to cause one to become old; to cause me to become old

[ ~ jilg j~) ~ J=3 ; ~

39. ~ hii

[ liItl

40.

*

~~ th 0Dtr i% j1H 5m e'j ~ ~ the bright sun, standing for her wandering husband

8J3?t e'j

38.~ J]

sui yue

to cover; to obscure

a wanderer ll:t ~ j~ ~ ~ here: her husband

y6uzi

36.,16t ~

the floating clouds

i~)

iN t~ til!

ra'

years and months; time

quickly

B~ wan ~ J] ~

B Bt

sUI yue hii yi wan

41 . • J~ qijuan

[~J!J! 1ij ) -- ~ s'j ~

[ Jh

ra' iN ,t~ i1!! $U 7 Hi M

one's life time quickly comes to its late period

~~) 1.k!l (poo)~

16

to abandon; to desert

READINGS IN POETRY

42.

43.

r t1J jig ) m to speak of; to mention mdao o/J ~l m ( JJJ j~ j~) ~ ~ ~ m not to mention again wu fu dao g tJ

nu fi

44.:DD

jUi

( tJJ

jig m) ~ tJ to make great efforts to

( JJJ

i~] ±~ DO to increase

r ~ iJ!J)

45.9£ f&

can fan

g tJ no 9£ f&

~ ~~

food; meal

(*Jf f£ 1iJ ] g 1J ~ ~ fK ~ , f* mJi;;

m '

0

~ I~ ~

.fIlff~~O~fX ' OJ ~fXm~ ~ f~ ~ ~ ~ fil JJJt 'tk ~ 0 tl ie, • ~Jl1W» : II;jt ~ ~ JJ. ' ~ ~ -tt 0 " {Jt ~"it 'if Yh ~ i l] -1m. a}j 0

nufijiacanfan

m

!x ,

«

This line "strive to eat more" meant that even though you betrayed me, I still wish that you will take good care of yourself and be healthy and happy. In the rmgJie chapter of the Book of Rites, it says: "Tenderness and sincerity, these are the teaching of the Odes." This poem can testify to such a pronouncement.

• f"1t ~ qishlju

an imperative sentence

• iA~ wenrou Jf diinhou

warm and tender

•a • ' iJI ' ~O ~-iuen

,*t BJe

honest and sincere

J:.~V[gl:

-i

-um

~,!&

~tt

-

J:.V+=~

J:V+ll9!i!

-uen

t!J ~~ OJ kA" iJl

-m

{~ i~ ~ fU

73 -- {~ i~

In ancient style poems, rhymes are allowed to change--to switch from one rhyme to another. 17

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

ill ill ~ tj:: £ ' ~ B~~~ ' ~~-

7J(

a~ a~ tOJ il 3c

in ~~ ~ ~D ~

rs' , JI JI ~ ~~ ~g

0

~ ~ tl ~ ¥

' *L *L ~ ~ f7

0

rOJ il ~w 13. ~ '

*~

*

0

~l ~ ~q: ?

0

Zhuyln: Tiao tiao Qianniu xing, jiao jiao Hehan ni\. Xianxian zhuo su shou, zhazha nong ji zhu. Zhong rl bu cheng zhang, ql tIling

ru yii.

He Han qing qie qian, xiang qu fu jI xu?

Yingying yl shu! jian, momo bu de yii.

~.~£_*£~#U'~~J*~~'.~~ ~*m~.~'~.t.~.~.%o~~~m

,

~~'~~.*M4~~~._*~A~~~~

~'~'tti;

k~#6~t.it~~

0

Using the myth of the Herd Boy and the Weaving Maid to express the agony experienced by lovers unreasonably kept apart. Using six reduplicative compounds in a sequence to illustrate the beauty of the Weaving Maid and her tender love toward the Herd Boy is the artistic characteristics of this poem.

1.

ill ill ticio tiao

[ ~ ?iJ. iJ!J) 4

~ a reduplicative compound

j! ~ 8~ remote

18

READINGS IN POETRY

2. ~

tf:: £

qian mu xIng

3.

t& t&

r ~ ii~)

X15 rOJJt ' ft~rOJf¥j , ~~rOJ~t83~

~ £ *13 JJ the constellation of the Herd Boy, some stars in Aquila; the star Altair

r~ ?(J. ~Ig)

~

jHio jHio 4.

riiJ tl

r~

riiJ tt !J:.

r ~ jig)

he han

he han nu

4~

jig ) ~ 70J

a reduplicative compound

B BfJ ?t 89

; ~ 70J ; £ 70J

the Spinning Damsel -- the Star Vega in the constellation Lyra

zhTnilxTng

r ~ ?(J. i~)

xian xian

6.

ji

zhuQ

7. ~¥ su shOll 8.

*L *L

9.

* f7

4

~ a reduplicative compound

~ *m 89

'

~

m* fa) ~ ~ -=r 8~ ¥

delicate [hands of a woman]

flH t:p ] ~$ te *

r Jth iPJ) 51 ; ~$

; [~;t [from the sleeves]

r ~ iiJ!J m)

B ~ 89 ¥ ;

~

B 83 ¥

to stretch out

white hands

r•• ~)~~~~~~~.te*~Vfi; -Ftl-F tl tt1!

.Jt*1iJ

sound of weaving on a loom

an onomatopoeia

xiangshengci

nong

10. ~ ji: 11.

the Milky Way

t~ ~ 70J ~ t 83 ~ ~ £ the Weaving Maid

.~*£ 5. • •

white and bright

zhu

W:~f7

nongjIzhu

( Jth iJ!J)

m/

$ ··· ftt ··· to work with; to use a particular material to produce something

r ~ iPJ) ~~ ~ ~ a loom r ~ iJ!l] *~ ~ m8~ ~ (suo) -=r a shuttle r Jth iJ!J j!) ~fTft*~~.rru*~~

to weave with a shuttle on a loom 19

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE ~

12. • zhang

:f ~ ~

( ~ iil!J ] 1E *Jl: a pattern

( Jh i~ m]

,~

( ~ jil!J] B~ ~~ tears

¥~ ti

( ~ iPJ)

6~ r~ tears

in ¥~ ql tl

( ~ im)

B~ ~~ tears

( Jh iii!])

r~ to fall

13. ,(Jl ql

15. ~ lfug

~~D~ ling rii yu

16.

17.

¥~

*

( fJJ iJ!l m]

13. ~

(~~

qu

( Jh iPj)

qmg qie qian

xiangqu *~*

n ; ~ ~ PX: 1E *Jl:

( fJJ iPJ

iJ!l]

r~ ~~

X

f)Rj -

fl

X~~ X~ ; X~~rtiX~i~ clear and shallow

IWi

~§. ;

j~)

•r

to fall as if raining

to be apart

f§ ~~ ; Ii f§ ~~.

be apart from each other

18. ~l fu

(AU

19.~~

( IU ii!l] ~ j> how much; how many

~PJ)

~;;

j! xu }j'J}j'J

20 . nn

.rm.

22.

rs' jian

23.mm momo

again

im

M~ ~

Ja T~ tl ~

E8

13

,~, I~' AE

6IOi. ~ " ~ JJ4 ~

11;2

here: how far

( ~ ~ ii~) .. ~ a reduplicative compound r~ r~ rUX rti 89

ying ying 21. - lJ( yl shu!

' ~p ~~ ~

~ - ~ ~ unable to weave into a piece of cloth

bu cheng zhang

14.

~ ~~ ~l PX: 1E

r ~ iJ!l m]

m

- fJlliiJ ; ~ liiJ a river; the Milky Way

( JJJ iPJ) Fa' IWi ; 7t IWi

r lid ~~)

4

reJ

clear and limpid

to separate; to set apart

~ a reduplicative compound H

Wit Wit " ,

i~ 1W ti1! l±: 1ft

to gaze affectionately 20

READINGS IN POETRY

~ ~~~1i.J.!H "'" "'" /1" DO ~

J:R JlB ~m ~ ~ ~$P

m PI)( "'1" ~ x:E ~ I~' quietly sending the message of love 1.8

24.1v

r JtIJ JJJ iPJ ) r JJJ iPJ j~)

de

ntt ,~~

t:J:J 1t=!J ,is,

~~ can; be able to ~ ~~ IDt ~5" can not talk; be unable to talk

.~~~.~*~~.aAI~.*~*-.~~~a~.~ ;~

tK ~ ~-t. ~J.,

4=- ill '

~~~

At :tR lit a it

The general sense of the last two lines is that the dignified and pretty Weaving Maid, affectionately gazes at her lover, the Herd Boy, across the Milky Way, but she is unable to talk with him.



~

A!.. duangzhuang

sober; dignified

~ff~~4=-.*~~*~'~~~~~~~~.' ~-~-~~~~~8~7'm~.~.~~~~

, ~~**-.

It;t. « f.is ~ 1w»

0

'*

~-l-1t1f~~ «~,*;T»

~~

,

~

~~ ~t

-

a*4

~ it

According to a Chinese myth, the Herd Boy and the Weaving Maid were originally a couple; they committed a minor offense and were separated as a punishment. They were allowed to unite once a year on the seventh night of the seventh lunar month, when magpies build a bridge over the Milky Way for them to get together. Both Poem no. 7 and Lyric no.? dwell on this legend as well.

-io -iu

t!J ~~ J: VA~R~N J: Vt!l; OJ lBiW In ancient style poems these two rhymes are interchangeable.

21

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

¥¥wL~'M~~~momv-w~,~tt-W~! ~~~

••

,~.~.~o~~m~*,~~~*tto

Zhtl yIn: Tlngting shan shang song, sese gil zhong !eng. Fengsheng yi he sheng, songzhi yi he jlng! Bingshuang zheng canqi, zhongsUI chang duanzheng. QIbu II mnghan, songbO you renxing.

11 ~Jl

(d. 217) , ~ ~

#' ' tl.sr

(4' ~ tl .if- ~ _) A..

# 6~ Jllt ~ Jill] ~j] ~ 7J if ~ l~ ~ 1~ a~ A 1; it *>~ ~ qt A.. " 'jt.hi « # ~» 7 6, J:. ~ " ~ « I~ ~ .tt .1t » o

II

-Jt ~ k 1- "

~ --

0

0

1 ]

II

0

II

0

Liu Zhen (d. 217 A.D.), courtesy name Gonggan, was a native of Dongplng, present-day Pingyin district in Shandong province. He was one of the "Seven Literary Masters of the Jian'an Period." His poetic style was famous for being vigorous and forceful. eao Pi praised his poems as superior to those of his contemporaries, and the Liang dynasty critic Zhong Hong ranked him in the 'upper category' in his Classification ofPoets. His work is entitled

Collected Works ofLiu Gonggim.

«.~~»~~~'~k~~~~~o~~~~

*

~~t.~~~~-.~~.~.'~~~.~ a~. t1Q ~k ~ 3 ~ 0 Jllt ~~.i ISJ'] 1(: tii ~ 0 pk ~1f. 7ji

Jllt ~ '

~JtG #.,- 4Ji '4 -- ~

0

This is the second poem in a series of three. In the poem the poet exhorts his cousin to uphold a strong integrity, like the pines and cypresses that withstand

22

READINGS IN POETRY

the most adverse circumstances. The style is extremely vigorous and powerful. The strength of character and vigor of style, said to be characteristics of the Wei-fm period, can be sensed in this poem.

1.

J~ zeng

( tJJ

2.

~~ 5f3

( ~ il!]

--- --3.¥¥

( ~ ?(J.

c6ng di

ilg] ~ ~ to give to j~)

5.

tA

song

~ {S £ ~

a cousin

iPJ) .. ~

a reduplicative compound

~ fr ; ~ ~ ti H ti1! fr ~ tall and erect

ring ting

4.

!l ~ ;

( ~ jiJn ) r~ fit

' - tt 1it if< fj

evergreen tree

~=e ~=e

tI2:)\ tI2:)\

*

pine trees; a kind of

[ .. " IPJ) • ti (m6ni)7( me3 it fi ; if ~ (xHiosa) e3 simulating the rustling sound of the wind

se se

.Jt~1ij

an onomatopoeia

xiangshengcf

6. 7.

tt

gU

m

reng

8.m~

il!J]

L1.J

(~

iJ!J )

m wind

( ~ il!)

teng sheng

9. 10.

11.

a gorge; a deep valley

m) JEs3Wfi

the rustling sound of the wind

-101 ylhe

!.i

sheng

[ ~ ?(J. il!)) ~ 7( ; ~3l ~!~

; VI

powerful; strong; loud

tA *1

( ~ iJ!J j~)

«lJ Jmg

13.

tt

(~

bing

jPJ)

r~ t!t 8~ ~3l ~JJ

;

*1 ~*

the branches of pine trees

~ ~3l ~ 1J

strong; sturdy

that has frozen and become solid 23

ice; water

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

14. ~ shuang

(~~)m;~.~~oo~~*.~.~ffi~M~ 8~

It: ~ ~E a8a II

the ground at night 15. iE zheng

frost; a white frozen dew coating

(IiU jJij) iE ~ in the course of; in the state of ...

II

(M

~ jJij) ~~.(i; ; iiilS.~

j¥ ~

( IU

m) - ~ $U BIt

18. ~~ rn chang

( IIU

jJij]

19. ~ iE duan zheng

(M~

i~)

ti.i 83

20.:R =f qibu

( IU

) •

m~ ... ; mJj~ & rt3~ 1JJ ~ 1t J:E

21. ~li Ii

( J1J il!)) JI Je to encounter

22.~~

( ~ illll aD ) iii IS 8~ • (i;

16. 4~ canqI 17.

zhong sui

nfug han

23.

24.

*E

bo

*14

ben xing

severe and cold; harsh and cold throughout the year; year round; the

whole year

i~

fl ~

always; constantly upright

Isn't it...? Doesn't it...? Would it not...? Could it not...? Here: a rhetorical negative question is used to emphasize an affmnative meaning.

severe cold

( ~ il!)) fa f!t ; -

m1it ~ ~ *

evergreen tree

( ~ ill!) m] [W ff 89 tt ~

cypress; a tall, straight,

; ifiit. 89 R t1

intrinsic nature; a cold resistant nature

-ung - ng

~JJ'

t'.±

24

-i ng

READINGS IN POETRY

~m:~~T 1\" DJA "I

fxilffM~f(~~ @ffl€~!iRiifJ1~

,tt ,tt J~, !i ~~ ~ ~~ B~ .R:j(;

, , ,

0

~~~rn1mIfJl

0

~ {OJ l~

fa ~ 1m 15 ?

~ ~ ~ ?'c ~ ,x ID: EEl -E- -r T:tb -c:: !iZ: ..Jt ..Jt ~ .:c. fn ' ~ /t\: I~' 1=1 /1' J:tX I~'\

:tr.

~jti~rft§~~

8~ fj a~a~~fXJ*

*- j~ 3c ~ *~ ~

0

0

1& ~ P/~ ~ ~ ~. pJj , ~

¥*f&ft~~m

'

W7 ~ fi~ ~

0

£tllffi¥jE&*~

0

~R ~ ~ai

, fi 513 {OJ ~ ~f{ lOJ ~ ?

Zhuyin: Qiiiteng xiaose tianqlliang, caomu yaoluo lit wei shuang. Qun yan ci gui yan nan xiang, man jon ke you S1 duan chang. Qianqian sl gUl1ian guxiang, jiin he yanliu jl tuoffing? Jianqie qiongqiong shou kongfang, you 1m SI jiin bu gan wang. Bu jue lei xia zhan yIshang. Yuan qin ming xian fa qingshang, duan ge wei yin bUneng chang. Mingyue jiaojiao zhao wo chuang, xing han xi liu ye wei yang. Qianniu Zhlnu yao xiang wang, er du hegii xian he liang?

t

~ (187-226 A.D.)' ~ 1-~!i

'

~ ~ ~ iL ' ~ ifi1i. ~ ~ of

~t-1"F1J~ u~~~~"

'k~flJJl-fIt.J~~4~

~~t-' 1~1J~ u~*1i"

'~;fil~~~#Jl-f1t.J

o

k~#'~t~~~~l~~~~~o~~k~ 25

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

Cao PI (187-226 A.D.), courtesy name Zmuan, was known as Emperor Wen of Wei, after he usurped the collapsing regime and founded the new dynasty. He wrote an "Essay on Literature," which is regarded as the earliest important work of Chinese literary criticism. His "Song of Yan" is also regarded as the earliest extant poem written in the septasyllabic form. He held an important position in the history of Chinese literature, and was one of a few rulers who had achieved literary excellence.

Han



~~.4~~~~~~~~.~~~~~'~

1... ~ a~ il 5t it Ji: '

~ & ~tf1

JJl\ ' fh A. .;:.;

5~

0

~

*-

~A+~.*.$~.~m~~~~'~ff.~ ~~~4~.~

••

~ ~ it -f a~ -t- ~ #

••

'

o.~ • • '~A.4~o~

~ ~a 41i ~ ${- Ii

#

ra' ~tt j

--

•• ~~~t~~~~o

o4t~#~

This poem depicts the scene of a pensive woman thinking of her far away husband in a lonesome, chilly, and sleepless autumnal night; is a pensive but tactful and exquisite playing upon one's heartstrings. At the end of the poem, through crying out against an injustice imposed on the Weaving Maid and the Herd Boy, the heroine lamented over her own distress, leaving a lingering aftertaste for one to savor. This is probably the earliest poem with septasyllabie lines, with rhymes falling on the end of eaeh line. It built a bridge between Chue! and Tang verses, and played an important role in the development of Chinese poetry.

1.

~ ~ ~T ~~~g

( ~ iJ!J

jj)

11 « ~ Iff • *§ ~ ~

· ~ ~m aH»

,~~

~~o~Jff~~~~A~~'~~~

aH ~m 89 ~ 15 ~* In '

~~ t!t aH ~m )ic fW ~*!Rm *~~J to decrease; to dissipate

r th iP.I)

t~ ft to grow; to increase

$ ~ rll ~ (Jh il!1 3~] ¥U Jl: r9: fi r~ ~ §X: tl ~

zu mo xiao zhang

eventually it neither decreased nor increased 251

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

~ g3.i 134..an..

( lid jig) *. It tt!! ~ generally speaking

135. ~ jiang (J.i

136.

§ zl

(

am)

*"

jI ~ ~ Jcj , ~ IF II ~

, OJ ~ fjj(; II ~o a conjunction used at the beginning of a subordinate clause to express a supposition, it can be rendered as "if'

1t iJ!l] t:t

from

am) ~ ~ to change r IU am) ~ 1]\ $ }f ill A. ~ ~~ , ~8 ~ m~ 5& '

137. ~ bim (JiJJ 138. ~ zeng

139.

»A

yi

140. D~ shun

- D~

yishun

~

~"

[ tJJ jPJ) Jm

9t

II

II

somewhat to one's surprise ...; simply

to wink once

~~ (JJJ i~ m) 1m.l[ ~ ij~ i¥ .Ll: -

zeng bu neng yi yl shun

~

to wink

Oz 6~

( JJJ i~ j~) -

II

B" '1.1:. interchangeable with "yi", meaning "to stop"

r tJJ j~) Uz (zha) D~

:f ij~ ~ -

¥I .l["

OJ ~ it

~

Oz D~

ra' ) (~ ;; :x.. ffi! rB' -

1~8~ lB3i)

( 1JB Jr ~~ 8~ t)J $ ~m fl

cannot stay static for an instant (stressing the fleeting nature of all things in the world) 141. ~~ wu

( ~

iim) }l ~m

things; all things under the sun

r ~ ~ am) ~ Ii exhausted; ended 143. .ftiJ ~ ¥ r Jh jiPJ m] ~ it J!' IJJE? what to envy? 142.:Ii Jln

Mx~W

144.

El*=

qie fii

~~tt~m~.~~,~~~~~

When an interrogative pronoun is used as an object, it should precede the verb that governs it.

(~~)~R;ffiR'~~~~'~IF~~-~~m. moreover; besides, following the previous text, meaning to take a step further

252

READINGS IN PROSE

r ft iPJ) ~ § each 146. ff .± ( JJJ jJ!] m) 1f ± A

145. ~

ge

you zhii

++

147.1U gou 148.

(lid i~) ~D

r ~ iPJ m)

PIT ff

suo you

if

1f 83

*

@ things owned

; th IJIDJ ~ Ij\ ~ foj ~ a tiny hair; very small or very little [in size or quantity]

( ~ ~~ m) - *~ ~ =5

149. -~ yihao

r tJJ iPJ)

150.1f:£ qii

£L*-

( D1J

conj

[prep]

(~J [s ]

ID1J

C [conj ]

151.

*

to have a master; to have an owner

~ to take

1C !t!! 0

z rB1

~~

t:r

s adv v

(4tJJ

__

pn

(1l.AJ

[ s ] conj

[1 . v . ]

IDi

¥: p

Cia]

conj

: .. ~ -_. }J~ J.l ---

Jft -_. jfQ •--

:

(

,

0

Iii tE ef zpJi t:r. '

conj 1. v .

1sj -_. 111- --

Itt wei

~

~.

'

[ s ] adv v

Jft 11\ _•• .,. ~ -••

Itl jP]) ~ 1]\ ~N n~ ~ f~ fB II '

mff ± ~g ~ am ~g 83 mJ 00

· an adverb·IndicatIng the limit of a scope, used before the subject or predicate, can be -;:r, -Eo~ ~ []J p~ 1\\9

II

0 -J=i "

/" 'A

II

0"

/ "

~

~

rendered into modem Chinese as "zhi you" or "zhi".

r t1J iPJ ) ~ 11: to prohibit; to prevent ... from... rJ¢ ¥§ jJ!I) g~ m; ~ m to be exhausted; to be used up

152. ~ jm 153. ~~ jie 154. ~ ~~

if r ~ iPJ m)

zao wu zhe

155. ~ zang

'

r ~ iPJ]

~U ~ "FA ~m 83 N

the Creator; Mother Nature

jf ~ treasury

.~~(~~m)~1f~~~.~;~.~.ffl~~.~

wu jln zang

an inexhaustible treasury 253

SELECTED READINGS IN CLASSICAL CHINESE

r th JiiJ) t~ ; ~ ~ ; IiX ~ to like; to enjoy; to appreciate fin 3f!1 r ~ iPJ m) ~ ~ 8~ ti ~ Cf. poem 12, n. 10, p. 49

156. ~ shi

~J1X~89 ti~ what we enjoyed and appreciated

suo shi

pff~~ (~if!] m) FJT~reJ~~/J1XJi ~ roJ § ~ 83 ti ~

suo gong shl

~~ roJ J1X Ji 89 ti ~ what we enjoyed and appreciated in common adv

o (extra.posed)

U

S}] ~

(ll)

~'.EL~~illi

K~~illL s

v

( .j- ~

0

[s]

a

z

v

ft,aS}]J! ~

1}J ~

tt if SJL ffi tp

(A. )

v

0

g, Hi v

~

conj [s]

v

(?til. '

z.

[s]

0

0

1}J ~]

~.' adv pa

(!t] ~tm~Zglif't!! ' pn

[s ]

~ ~ Tffi ~

s

0

[o/s] v

v

mL (?t-''Jl ~) adv

k

0

[1.v . ]

s

v

conj [s]

.:r ] it JIl. '

( S)] ~ )

part

flWIZplf~~

(IL) [1 .v . ]

*13 Z

' ~ ~ ]I! ~

, ~ ~D

0

pn

~ ~ ~1 Ii

0

~f

B

' f1\ ~ ~~ if

0

*~ ~

0

Ke xi er xiao, xi zhan geng zhuo. Yao he jl jill, bei pan lang ji. Xiang yu zhen jie hii zhou zhong, bu zhl dong rang zhl jl bro. 157.

*

Xl

r~ ?(;. iPJ)

158. ~ zhan 159.

£

geng

160. ~ yao

r ~ iPJ) r Id iPJ) r ~ iPJ)

'tk ~ ;

i*j" happy; glad

~;fq\ wine cups pj. ;

X

once again

f!!, ~ Z ~l8~ j[ (hiin)*

cooked food, especially meat and fish

254

READINGS IN PROSE

161. ~ he 162. ~f i'i jljln

( ~ lip'] )

ji

~ pit 1l:~ f~ 71