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Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife
 1443852961, 9781443852968

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Civilization at Risk

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


Ron D. Petitte

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife, by Ron D. Petitte This book first published 2013 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Copyright © 2013 by Ron D. Petitte All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): 1-4438-5296-1, ISBN (13): 978-1-4438-5296-8

This book, the effort that went into it, and everything positive that comes of it, is dedicated, first, to my Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, and to those few and unique people whom I love more than anybody else in the world: These are the people I would give my life for, without giving it a thought; and, fortunately, they know who they are. Love & Blessings! James Abraham Whitestone a.k.a. Ron D. Petitte


A Preface to Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife ....................................... xi Acknowledgments .................................................................................... xiii Introduction ............................................................................................... xv Chapter One ................................................................................................. 1 The First and Original Back Story Part I: The State of Things As They Are Chapter Two ................................................................................................ 5 We Begin With “The State of Things as They Are” Chapter Three .............................................................................................. 9 The Choice of the Trafficker Chapter Four .............................................................................................. 11 Unfathomable, Unspeakable Reality Chapter Five .............................................................................................. 15 Aberrations Chapter Six ................................................................................................ 17 So That They Did Not Die in Vain Chapter Seven............................................................................................ 19 Jonathan’s Life and Sacrifice, as a Model of Courage Part II: Human Trafficking is the 21st Century Holocaust, Which Only Moral Leadership Can Combat Chapter Eight ............................................................................................. 23 “Causes Stir the World. They extend wide, and reach into the future beyond the power of man to see”


Table of Contents

Chapter Nine.............................................................................................. 25 Definitions, Worldviews, and Words Chapter Ten ............................................................................................... 29 Politics and the Pulpit Chapter Eleven .......................................................................................... 31 The Scourge of History Chapter Twelve ......................................................................................... 33 So: What can be done? Chapter Thirteen ........................................................................................ 35 The Problem with “John” Chapter Fourteen ....................................................................................... 37 The Public Policy Approach Chapter Fifteen .......................................................................................... 41 Giving Credit Where Credit Is Due Chapter Sixteen ......................................................................................... 43 Public International Policy Chapter Seventeen ..................................................................................... 45 The Encyclopedia of Human Trafficking Chapter Eighteen ....................................................................................... 47 Three Tragedies Chapter Nineteen ....................................................................................... 49 It Used To Take 80 Days (to go around the world) Chapter Twenty ......................................................................................... 51 Slavery Takes Many Forms Chapter Twenty One.................................................................................. 53 The Ultimate Responsibility Chapter Twenty Two ................................................................................. 55 Voices & Visions

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


Part III: Listen to the Words of Lincoln, Bryan, Pope Benedict XVI, Jefferson and Bonheoffer Chapter Twenty Three ............................................................................... 59 A Righteous Cause Chapter Twenty Four ................................................................................. 61 A Global Emancipation Proclamation Chapter Twenty Five ................................................................................. 65 Remember the Words of Lincoln Chapter Twenty Six ................................................................................... 67 From the Federal Level to the International Level Chapter Twenty Seven............................................................................... 69 A Call To Action Chapter Twenty Eight................................................................................ 71 One Day More! Chapter Twenty Nine ................................................................................ 73 One More Day Chapter Thirty ........................................................................................... 75 And, One Day More Chapter Thirty One .................................................................................... 77 And, One More Day Chapter Thirty Two ................................................................................... 79 Conclusion Chapter Thirty Three ................................................................................. 81 Author’s Note One More Dawn A Note About the Reference List .............................................................. 83 Reference List............................................................................................ 85


Table of Contents

Addendum One .......................................................................................... 95 The Second Backstory Addendum Two ......................................................................................... 99 Leaders in the Fight Addendum Three ..................................................................................... 103 A Special Report Notes........................................................................................................ 105 Index ........................................................................................................ 125


While distinguished academies of higher learning, governments, politicians, and the media struggle to find solutions to the imminent dangers posed to the Middle East and the world at large, a devastating human rights war has unfolded, with precious few warriors to combat it, let alone stem the brutal injustice that is of holocaust3 dimensions. “By the end of the war [World War II] in 1945, the Nazis had killed about 6 million Jewish men, women, and children—over two-thirds of the Jews in Europe. They also killed many members of other ethnic groups, especially Gypsies and Poles. No one knows the exact number of civilians killed by the Nazis during the war. David Birnbaum, in Book 1, Summa Metaphysica I, God and Evil, writing on the Holocaust, offers this description: “The victims, who were stripped of everything of which they could possibly be stripped, found themselves in the hammerlock of gross evil incarnate, in an environment itself stripped to its rawest core.”4

The word holocaust means widespread destruction.”5 I use the term intentionally, to dramatize the plight of 30 million people trapped in a widespread, horrific, situation that, in most cases, leads to their destruction.6 If there is any scourge that puts “Civilization at Risk,” it is the malignant disregard for the human rights of millions of people, who suffer slavery and inhumane treatment, at the hands of fellow human beings. With 30 million people in slavery, today, 30 million seeds of strife have been sown, as the souls of these victims are seared beyond human recognition.7 Human Trafficking cannot be combated by indifference or ignorance, but by the education of people world-wide, to awaken them to this 21st Century scourge8, as well as by instilling in people world-wide, the courage and determination to stand and fight this evil, as Augustine, Wilberforce and Lincoln did, centuries ago.9


Cambridge Scholars Publishing (CSP) is acknowledged, first; because of their bold decision to break new ground in scholarly publishing by being willing to offer a book of this nature. Creating awareness, in order to counter and, where possible, to fight Human Trafficking, is not a traditional scholarly pursuit, yet the Academy needs not only to be familiar with this spectre, but willing to take a stand against such evil and bring awareness to the students they teach. Accordingly, special recognition goes to Christine Von Gall, Deputy Editor and my first contact at CSP, who, in turn, introduced me to Carol Koulikourdi, Commissioning Editor for CSP, who has been my primary interface with CSP and who has made working with CSP a blessing; Mr. Chris Humphrey, General Manager, who, as busy as he is, worked with me to achieve the balance that CPS and I needed, in order to make this book mutually acceptable; the CPS editorial panel, for whom this work has to have presented a rather unique challenge; Sean Howley, an exceptional editor and conscientious marketer; and, last, but not least, Amanda Millar, Typesetting Manager: Amanda’s is one of the most important jobs in all of publishing, but, probably, one of the least acknowledged. Thank you, Amanda. Secondly, I acknowledge Bryan College for their unwavering support of my efforts to counter and fight this scourge, as best I can. Special commendations go to Dr. Stephen Livesay, President of Bryan College, who has gone the extra mile in support of this cause and my efforts in this regard. Dr. Livesay convened a round table of key advocates in July 2012, which gave added momentum to Bryan’s charge. Drs. Bradford Sample, Vice President (VP) for Academic Affairs and Cal White, who preceded Bradford: These men have been stalwart in their support of this mission. Dr. Matt Benson, VP for Spiritual Formation, who had the vision and courage to lead Bryan’s first foray into countering trafficking in 2001 in Calcutta, India; Messrs. Dennis Miller and Ben Norquist have taken the fight into areas, consistent with their gifts, and have greatly enhanced Bryan’s role in this war: Dennis in Atlanta and through his generous sponsoring of anti-trafficking fighters and Ben through his passion, scholarship, mentoring; and teaching; and, Drs. Ken Turner and Paul Bowling, whose writings and lectures have raised awareness on the Bryan Campus and beyond.



Thirdly, The Oxford Round Table, in Oxford, England; its able coordinator, Ms. Shenette McCandless; and, the Programme Committee and Advisory Board, are worthy of acknowledgment. This Oxford Round Table Team, like Cambridge Scholars Publishing, took a bold step in 2008, by extending an invitation to me to join other scholars in Oxford, but more so, by accepting my proposal to speak to the spectre of Human Trafficking; and, then, bringing me back to Oxford in 2011 and 2013, enabling me to continue to address this scourge and receive the highest and most critical form of peer review, in the process. Three round table facilitators were especially important to this process: Drs. Samuel K. Alexander, Yehia Khalil, and Paul Steele; and, I wish to acknowledge their contributions. Finally, I acknowledge Mr. John Glenn, my faithful technical editor, who has had to endure a sudden immersion into the military way of doing things. John has a gift set I do not, and never will have; so, suffice it to say that I could not have produced this book on my own; it has been, to my way of thinking, a splendid team effort.


The greatest of the slave liberators throughout the history of Western Civilization, specifically, those three men who stood up, spoke out, and used the power of their offices to free the slave from the iniquitous shackles of slavery, are: Augustine, Wilberforce, and Lincoln. It is left to William Jennings Bryan, distinguished American Statesman of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries; Standard Bearer for the Democrat Party for 16 years;10 Presidential Candidate three times,11 who capped a brilliant public service career with his appointment12 as Secretary of State by President Woodrow Wilson, to state the case for Augustine, Wilberforce, and Lincoln’s leadership: Government affects but a part of the life which we live here and does not deal at all with the life beyond, while religion touches the infinite circle of existence as well as the small arc of that circle which we spend on earth. No greater theme, therefore, can engage our attention. If I discuss questions of government I must secure the cooperation of a majority before I can put my ideas into practice, but if, in referring to religion, I can touch one human heart for good, I have not spoken in vain no matter how large the majority may be against me.13

All this said, I leave my argument in the hands of a bastion of British, liberal,14 secularism, none other than The Economist, whose editors argue, in a Leader on Church and state: “Let religion [to include William Jennings Bryan’s religion] compete in the marketplace for ideas…One law for all, with its enlightened insistence on tolerance and free speech, is not a ‘bit of a danger.’”15 So, it is hoped, that the reader will allow the occasional religious reference,16 as being essential to the argument, that “Human Trafficking is the Scourge of History;” which is the 21st Century Holocaust, and which “Only Moral Leadership Can Combat.”17 These ideas must be allowed to compete in the marketplace, even for the attention of Bill Gates and Warren Buffett,18 as an example of free speech, that poses no danger, but which highlights the danger to civilization, i.e., that civilization is at risk, as millions of seeds of strife are sown. I will use the voices of students and scholars; humanitarians and theologians; novelists and film makers; historians and Christian apologists;



philosophers, artists, and soldiers. I will use a disparate array of sources to, hopefully, pull all the thoughts that follow, together, in an eclectic mix that just might enable a large, diverse, and consciously concerned group of people to glimpse, if not grasp, the enormity of the evil that Human Trafficking presents to their nation and to the world today. And it is necessary to speak of evil:19 To speak of certain acts as evil is to render a judgment on such acts.20 To not speak of certain acts as evil is to render a value judgment of another kind.21 Finally, I contend that the family is at the core of Western Civilization; and the church is the framework, the very structure, that protects the family, at its core. When a woman enters prostitution,22 the family unit is broken; when a woman is trafficked, into sexual slavery, the family unit is shattered.23 If Western Civilization is to survive, let alone thrive,24 Human Trafficking must be recognized for what it is: The Scourge of History and the 21st Century Holocaust. Only then, will Western Civilization grasp the enormity of the cancer that is eating its lifeblood, and take the measures necessary to monitor and combat Human Trafficking. Restoration and protection of the family unit; respect for the role of church in society; and the global protection of human rights in an age of terrorism. These are the seeds of renewal for a civilization at risk. This is an example of: First Things25 First.26

Notes 1

Credit: Letter from Samuel K. Alexander, J.D., M.Phil., Ph.D. The theme for the 2008 Oxford University Round Table was, “Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife.” Dr. Alexander served as the 2008 Round Table Chairman. I took the title for my original abstract and paper from his introductory letter to me, of October 8, 2007. 2 In 2008 I wrote, “’Encompassed within the general theme of global security …[are] several subtopics…’” I chose, “’Protection of human rights in an era of terrorism,’” as a subtopic, which I thought framed well the message that I wished to convey, i.e., that Human Trafficking is the Scourge of History and that it is the 21st Century Holocaust, which only moral leadership can combat. The 2013 manuscript completes the work begun five years ago. The Round Table is to be credited with giving me the first opportunity to present this subject matter, which has gone through five years of development, revision, and expansion, since the initial offering in Spring 2008. 3 There are 27-30 million people, in the world, today, in slavery; the 30 million figure is, probably, the more realistic; and, in reality, the figure may be much higher; nobody knows. [Sources: The Reverend Carter Johnson, Pastor, Westminster Presbyterian Church, Dayton, Tennessee. Rev. Johnson has made numerous references to these numbers, as have Students Stopping the Trafficking

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


of Persons (SSTOP) and, nationally/internationally, the U.S. Department of State; the International Labor Organization, from which State gets its statistics; and, the International Justice Mission]. 4 Birnbaum, God and Evil, P. 12. 5 The quote is from The World Book Encyclopedia, H, Volume 9, 1987, World Book, Inc. Chicago, London, et. al., p. 263. 6 An interesting and unique reference to the word, holocaust, is found in Ross King’s literate “adventure into the world of rare books” [cover quote from the Detroit Free Press], set in the Seventeenth Century, entitled, Ex-Libris. The hero, Isaac Inchbold, a London bookseller and antiquarian, commenting on Cromwell’s soldiers, says that, “a few of the house’s other furnishings had been spared the holocaust or pillage . . . .” P. 164. I credit Dr. Rob Norris for introducing me to Ross King. 7 See Chapter Four, “Unfathomable, Unspeakable Reality,” for Facts 1 and 2. 8 Canadian rocker and singer-songwriter, Neil Young, in a news release, subsequently published June 2, 2008, said, “… I thought long ago you could change the world by writing songs … . But you can’t change the world by writing songs. Oh, you can inspire a few people, get some of them to change their thinking about something. But you can’t change the world by writing songs.” Neil Young to the The Wichita [Kansas] Eagle, by way of introducing “a model for the world’s first affordable mass-produced electric powered automobile:” Young’s initiative, with Wichita mechanic, Jonathan Goodwin, shows significantly more practicality, common sense, and the very real prospect of helping large numbers of people than the emotion driven, green revolutionaries, who, in their zeal are driving food prices higher than are affordable for many of the world’s poor. 9 Although, Lincoln and Wilberforce are the historical personages most often associated with combating slavery, I feel Augustine’s presence is both fundamental and critical to the historical trace. 10 Dr. Richard Cornelius. 11 Having the first election “stolen” from him and his party, in ways that presaged the theft of the Presidential election in 1960. -Dr. Richard Cornelius and Dr. Ronald Petitte. Turn about is not fair play. 12 The President, of course, nominates and the U.S. Senate confirms. 13 R.M. Cornelius, ed., Selected Orations of William Jennings Bryan, 75th Anniversary Edition (Dayton, TN: Bryan College, 2000), 38. 14 The editors of The Economist, the most noteworthy, political, economic, journal of our time, often refer to their self-directed liberal bent. 15 The Economist, “Sever them, Religion should have a smaller official role in Britain, not a greater one,” The Economist, February 16, 2008: 14. 16 Proponents, advocates, and supporters of other religions are challenged to present their own arguments to combat the spectre of Human Trafficking, utilizing the religious literature of their worldviews to frame such arguments. Human Trafficking menaces the civilizations of this world; accordingly, a world-wide movement, by the religions of the world, may prove to be an effective counter to this rapidly developing holocaust. I qualify this last statement, as being a mere possibility; because, some religions debase and enslave women, e.g., Islam,



Hinduism. On 28 June 2013, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter argued that: “Religious leaders, including those in Christianity and Islam, share the blame for mistreatment of women across the world.” Mr. “Carter mentioned widespread oppression in many of [the] nations where iterations of Islam dominate;” and, he voiced particular criticism of the Catholic Church. Finally, he made specific reference to “a worldwide sex trade.” 17 Part of my thesis, which will unfold throughout this paper. This thesis is explored in greater depth in, “’Washington Calling Jefferson Smith. Come in Mr. Smith: The Nation Needs You!’ Reflections on Moral Leadership and the Virtue that is the Foundation for such Leadership, in the Politics and Government of 21st Century America,” a detailed study of Moral Leadership, by this author. 18 Net Jets, “Net Jets Advertisement,” The Economist, February 16, 2008: 15. 19 David Birnbaum’s God and Evil is described as, “a major philosophical study which systematically confronts the philosophical problem of evil, and the Holocaust in particular” [Publisher’s note]. Especial thanks to Dr. Drew Randle for introducing me to David Birnbaum’s work. 20 See the BBC News Magazine for 18 December 2012. Viewpoint: Expect evil, offer forgiveness. “As long as we have free will, columnist Rod Dreher says, we’ll have evil acts like the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut. But we’ll also have the ability to love, forgive and overcome.” Dreher is a senior editor at The American Conservative. 21 See “Reagan was right: Remembering the ‘evil empire’ speech that changed history,” by Paul Kengor, for World, March 8, 2008, pg 11. Reagan “characterized the Soviet Union as the ‘focus of evil in the modern world-an ‘evil empire’.’” “The Evil Empire speech was not an anti-communist rant. It was a moral statement laying out a just cause in a just war against a militantly atheistic empire that killed tens of millions.” 22 See Caroline Moorehead, “Women and Children for Sale,” The New York Review of Books, October 11, 2007: 15. 23 For “God sets the lonely in families.”-Psalm 68:6 (New International Version/NIV). 24 The theme, survive to thrive, should be credited to Carter Johnson. 25 First Things, an Inquiry into the First Principles of Morals and Justice, by Hadley Arkes. Every person should read at least one Hadley Arkes book. First Things, The Journal of Religion, Culture, and Public Life also, is, well worth reading. 26 The Chattanooga, Tennessee, organization which advocates that the family matters, such that Family is First, i.e., First Things First. Ms. Julie Baumgardner is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO).


“Administer justice every morning; rescue from the hand of his oppressor the one who has been robbed . . . .”1

The person forced into slavery “has been robbed,”2 of the inalienable right of freedom;3 robbed of their dignity; robbed of their very person, let alone the body they have learned to care for since earliest childhood.4 Slavery is a heinous crime; a scourge5; and, Human Trafficking6 is the mechanism by which people are enslaved in the 21st Century, so many centuries after Joseph’s brothers,7 bent on murdering him, agreed among themselves to profit from his purposed demise at their hands by selling him to slave traders,8 i.e., “a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead … on their way … to Egypt.”9



The following facts comprise the United States Department of State’s research and the work of other researchers, as noted in this paper. One prefatory comment: These facts are real; the reality in 2008 is the same reality we face in 2013, and which we will face in 2014, and the years to follow. The facts, especially those originally presented by the State Department in 2008, serve as a vivid illustration of the depravity of man, yesterday, today, and tomorrow. To illustrate this contention, a Summer 2008 rape case was heard in court nearly three years later. The rape was first reported on August 30, 2008. The facts remain the same, whether they had the same relevancy in 2011, to the alleged victim, as they did to the student accused of rape, who denied the allegations and sued for damages. If the U.S. court system values facts that date back nearly three years (this case went to trial on July 28, 2011), so, too, can those people reviewing Human Trafficking facts, dating back three years, as one scholar recently was unwilling to do. He intoned, in the course of his all too quick review: “These facts are out of date.” With all due respect to my academy colleague: No, these facts are not out of date; and, they are timely, especially, in the sense of being suspended in time; and, they are just as relevant to today’s arguments. Even in a field as eclectic and creative as film making, a Dutch film, such as Bride Flight, which was made and released in The Netherlands in 2008, but was given a limited release in the United States (June 2011), was not considered for an Academy Award, because three years of time had passed; regardless, it still could have been selected by critics for any number of best film categories. And, this is the same film that was released in 2008, as it was in 2011, as it is today: The facts that were presented at trial in 2011 are the same that were reported in 2008. Finally, the facts that the State Department presented over five years ago, and which facts, have been included, for the purposes of this paper, are timeless in their validity and the truths they bring to bear on the problem at hand. 11


Chapter Two

Unfortunately, there is a tendency among some, especially, within the younger generation of academics, to rely on the most current data, even to include that found on the internet; and, if it is a day old, such information is to be questioned and, even, devalued, not because of the source, which may be questionable to begin with, but, because of the passage of time, as marked only by hours.12 “It was ludicrous and impertinent, argued the philosopher St. Augustine of Hippo, for man to impose his own moral calculations on the workings of God.” Reference is to “the profusion of possible starting points for a ‘new year….’”13 Just as Augustine argued [and I will be the first to admit that I am no Augustine] against the frivolous calculations of man, in his time; so, too, do I argue against the insensitivity of men and women, in my time, who deem only the most current facts to be of any value: “’It’s not true; it’s not true; it’s not true; it’s old news.’” 14 That which took place just a few years ago and which was reported, e.g., in 2008, has as much validity, today, as if it happened today;15 because, the spectre of Human Trafficking only has become worse in these five years16 and requires a long-term plan of action. In a round table discussion of trafficking, one scholar was critical that my focus was on the trafficking of women and girls, which it was. He claimed that men and boys are “now” trafficked more than women and girls and cited the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as his source. According to FBI data, his statement simply was not true: “The majority of victims in FBI trafficking cases are women and young girls from Central American and Asian countries. They are primarily forced into the commercial sex industry . . . . Men and boys are typically victimized in the migrant farming,17 restaurant, and other service-related industries. However, there is an increasing number of young males being forced into the commercial sex industry as well.”18

Unfortunately, in a forum, where a presenter has fifteen minutes to offer an overview of a position paper, followed by a 15 minute discussant led question and answer session, such a polemical statement can be made, with no chance for the presenter to effectively rebut, save in a subsequent journal offering, or book, after a thorough vetting of statements and a verification of facts, coupled with a rejection of misleading and erroneous information, has been completed. Granted, the form that sin takes, may shift, as the demand for one sex of children may decrease, while the other may increase; but, the reality is the same: These are children, girls and boys, and only a depraved mind can even think of harming, let alone assaulting them. So, let us not waste

We Begin With “The State of Things as They Are”


time debating whether one sex is more trafficked than another; let’s deal with the depravity that sees a child as a commodity to be bought and sold for the basest of reasons.


As has been confirmed, females are the favored choice of traffickers. They are the more vulnerable sex; offer the least resistance; and bring in greater profits to the trafficker. Sex trafficking is the scourge of our time. Labor trafficking, focuses more on males, for the simple reason of the strength and energy that can be applied to physical tasks. Granted, more and more women and girls are proving themselves to be as physically capable as men and boys, and, in some cases, more so, in this 21st Century. All this said, labor trafficking is a grievously sinful trade; but, it is significantly different than sex trafficking, and is not the focus of this book.19 Finally, those people more interested in labor trafficking should study the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s reports on “Farms, Land in Farms, and Livestock Operations.”20 One of my colleagues at a recent Oxford Round Table, at Lincoln College, in Oxford University, was Samuel Vincent Jones. Dr. Jones [Associate Professor of Law, The John Marshall Law School, Chicago, Illinois] cited the fact that there are over two million farms in the United States. The sheer volume of the farms (2+ million) gives one an idea of the potential for labor trafficking and the abuse that invariably follows. Dr. Jones has written on this problem, e.g., see his article, published in The Utah Law Review (2010.4 accessed 5 May 2011), entitled, “The Invisible Man: The Conscious Neglect Of Men And Boys In The War On Human Trafficking.” Dr. Jones clearly is a powerful advocate for the plight of men and boys, who are trafficked; and, his passion for the subject is necessary to their defense. One final comment, if I may: People interested in waging the fight against Human Trafficking, to include those who choose to write on the issues involved, need to appreciate the enormity of the problem and be understanding, if not gracious, to those brothers and sisters, who are laboring in behalf of a trafficking issue, e.g., the sexual trafficking of women and girls, that may not be of particular interest to them. Better to choose a field on which to do battle [and, the pen, if not mightier than the sword, in this battle, still can wield a cutting edge]; and, wage the fight, as


Chapter Three

best one can. It is counter-productive to criticize others in the fight, who have chosen to wage their battle on another field; it is as counterproductive, as the Protestant refusing to join the Catholic in the fight for the right to life; or, a conservative refusing to join a moderate, or a liberal, regardless of party affiliation, in the battle over the national deficit, let alone the debt ceiling. Human Trafficking is one fight that should transcend petty politics and personal prejudice.


What I am about to share is not pleasant. Accordingly, please consider the following facts, as I present them to you.21 These 20 facts should suffice, not only to raise consciousness, but inspire action;22 at least, that is my intention. I have grouped these statistics, to emphasize, thematically, aspects of trafficking of which we all need to be aware. I will begin with the general and move, ever so quickly, to the specific. It is estimated that there are 2723-3024 million people, in the world, today, in slavery; and, there are 2-4 million newly trafficked victims, annually.25 Now, let me be more specific: It has been estimated that 80% of slavery crimes involve women and children,26 which is the primary focus of this research. Please, note that the International Justice Mission (IJM) quoted this State Department statistic on their website, citing this as of 2010. So, over a two year span of time27 this “fact” continued to be “really true,” to use Webster’s definition phraseology.28 Now let me focus, ever so briefly, on that which is faced by children caught up, in this scourge: Girls are summarily executed, in order to frighten other girls into sexual bondage.29 This is a common practice of the trafficker. Victims not only are tortured; they are shot, burned, hung, and buried alive;30 and, other girls are made to watch. A Sri Lankan house maid gives a statement to police at a hospital in Sri Lanka, having returned after five months in Saudi Arabia. When she complained of a too heavy workload, her employers tortured her by hammering 24 nails in to her hands, legs, and forehead.31 The average age of the enslaved victim is seven (7) years.32 Please: Think about this. At this point, we move into a criminal area even more aberrant than that which I just shared; and, as if one specter was not bad enough, two specters now merge, i.e., the trafficking of young children, especially, girls, and the ravaging disease, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS): It takes 18 months for a sex slave to be infected with (HIV/AIDS).33 As the rate of HIV/AIDS increases,


Chapter Four

there is a direct proportion to the demand for younger and younger children.34 $15,000 is the going price for one sexual encounter with a virgin.35 In Michael Crichton’s The Great Train Robbery (1975), the value of a “fresh,” or virgin, is highlighted. In the perverse and ignorant culture surrounding this criminal event (the notorious train robbery) of which Crichton wrote, it was believed that sex with a virgin, a “fresh,” would cure venereal disease. A huge price was paid for such a treatment. The terrible irony is that 150 years later, we have not progressed; rather, moral degradation continues to consume children in the most terrible of ways. It should be noted, that it is to Michael Crichton and Sean Connery’s credit, that, in the adaptation of the book to film, this historical observation is omitted, and for good reason. There is no need to encourage prurient interest more than the entertainment industry and the Internet already do. As the average age of the enslaved victim is seven years; therefore, the average age of the HIV/AIDS infected, sex slave is eight (8) years and six months. The American author, Elizabeth George, gifted novelist, whose forte is the mystery crime novel, describes the rape of a grown woman in Missing Joseph. The description is so graphic, that I have had to put reading George aside, for the time being, even though I value, so much, her erudition and love of words [She drives me to the dictionary more than any other author I currently read.]. The aberration, now, intensifies: 83% of victims are children between the ages of six (6) and twelve (12) years;36 9% of the victims are under the age of three (3) years;37 and, in 81% of these cases, there is forced sexual penetration.38 One victim was less than hours old.39 In this particular case, no more detail was given. The assumption is: One to two hours old. On this point, alone, everybody who reads, or hears, this statistic, should join in the fight to monitor and combat Human Trafficking. Do not be naïve: “Sex predators take pleasure in afflicting pain”.40 This, also, explains child pornography, as well as child abuse: The intentional affliction of pain on an innocent child. In December 2010, New Scotland Yard had hoped to be able to host a future international conference dealing with the economics of trafficking.41 The reason such an economics conference is so important is that $32 billion is generated, annually, from Human Trafficking, for sex, “on the street,” so to speak, as well as labor activities.42 In addition, $34 billion is generated from the Internet, i.e., pornography.43,44 In total, the human trafficking industry accounts for $66 billion annually. 45

Unfathomable, Unspeakable Reality


To give you some insight into the mind of such perverts: After James Freeman was vetted and approved for membership in what police describe as a highly sophisticated child porn network, he expressed his appreciation by posting two folders online: one labeled "mild," the other "wild." "All I can say is that they are worth the download," wrote Freeman, 47, known in the global porn ring as "Mystikal," according to court documents. "My thanks to you and all the others that together make this the greatest group of pedos ever to gather in one place." Freeman, of Santa Rosa Beach, Fla., was one of 12 Americans indicted … in a worldwide investigation that ultimately charged 22 people with participating in the porn ring -- and intentionally blocking police from investigating it. In all, more than 400,000 pictures, video files and other images showing children engaged in sexual behavior were produced, advertised, traded and distributed globally in the online pornography ring, according to U.S. and international authorities. The sting, which started in Australia, also netted accused pornographers in England, Canada and Germany. Some victims were as young as five years old. Others were preyed upon for innocent characteristics such as wearing their hair in pigtails. Authorities won't say how they eventually broke through several layers of encryption, background checks and other security measures the pornographers used to protect their online user group from being accessed. The porn ring was run like a business, FBI executive assistant director J. Stephen Tidwell said . . . , with the lewd images used as currency instead of cash. "This is beyond a quantum exponential leap for us to see folks that have gone to this much trouble to produce this kind of volume of horrific exploitation of children," Tidwell said in an interview. 46 One of the most important aspects of fighting Human Trafficking is the provision of after care. This is one of the greatest challenges to fighting Human Trafficking; and, very few people are qualified, let alone capable of providing such care. The medical and psychological training is an obstacle for many who would try. It might be well to start with Mary Frances Bowley’s The White Umbrella, walking with survivors of sex trafficking, in order to assess whether such a mission is right for you. Mrs. Bowley is the founder and president of Wellspring Living, an organization fighting childhood sexual abuse and exploitation. Look her up.


Let me conclude this section of my argument by sharing what I only can describe as a series of aberrations:

The First Aberration When the tsunami struck Indonesia, on December 26, 2004, sex traffickers booked flights into the immediate region to capture slaves, for sexual trafficking purposes.47 To the best of my knowledge nothing of this nature occurred in Japan, which suffered a devastating earthquake and resultant tsunami on March 11, 2011. The extraordinary courage, determination, fortitude, patience, and resilience of the Japanese people have become a model for the rest of the world; this, coupled with a cultural attitude against such ignoble advantage taking,48 and an economic capability, which has been the envy of most nations in the world, collectively provide a defense against such evil machinations, as took place in Indonesia, in the aftermath of their natural disaster.49

The Second Aberration Caution your children: 29,000 convicted sex offenders can be found on Facebook;50, and, you should consider that the number may be growing. “The Internet is out of control”51 To give you, the reader, an example supporting Dolan’s thesis, eight girls brutally beat another girl and videotaped the assault in order to show it on YouTube to gain their 15 minutes of fame, as Andy Warhol, an American artist and central figure in the Pop Art movement, so prophetically and sarcastically remarked.


Chapter Five

The Third Aberration A case of military turpitude: There are 300,000 child prostitutes in the U.S., to include Free Trade Zones and military bases.52 As a retired soldier, this fact angers me, as it should every American.

The Fourth Aberration “A former University of Florida and NFL [National Football League] player was arrested after authorities say he left a 3-year-old girl alone in a car while he went into a Clearwater strip club. The Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office reported that 41-year-old Monty Ray Grow was charged with child abuse Sunday night.” He “went into Diamond Dolls and left the child in the parking lot of the nearby used car dealership.”53

This isn’t a case of neglect, or simple forgetfulness: This is the case of a man, who is willing to abandon a three-year-old child to satisfy his sexual desires. Not a case of trafficking; but, a wake-up call for society to put its house in order: Strip clubs are a link to prostitution, which links to sexual trafficking. In summary, I hope you will agree: “The facts are simple, the case is plain”:54 It should not be necessary for the reader to have to ponder this; rather, it is important to think broadly, to visualize this menace, this spectre, on a global scale, in order to conclude that “Human Trafficking is the Scourge of History.”55


The brave airmen, who fought the Battle of Britain56, did not risk, and in many cases, give their valiant and precious lives, in order to give human traffickers, in the late 20th and early 21st Centuries, free rein to destroy life on a global scale.57, 58 Neither did the brave Allied Servicemen, who gave their precious blood and very lives on the beaches at Normandy.59 These were honorable men, most of them very young men, who died in these epic battles; they were, as the distinguished, American, journalist and author, Tom Brokaw, described them, The Greatest Generation.60 They fought to protect and preserve life, not to take it; neither did they sacrifice their lives to victimize others,61 as the Axis Powers were wont to do. Not that many years later, on another continent, the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. did not give his life, for the cause of freedom and equality in America,62 so that countless millions of women and children could be kidnapped, sold, and trafficked into a sexual slavery of utter hopelessness and despair. The scourge of Human Trafficking turns Reverend King’s Dream into a nightmare that will not end without the moral leadership to combat it. If there is one area, where global security is failing, it is in protecting women and children, i.e., women and children, who have been kidnapped and/or sold, and who have been forced to sacrifice their bodies, in the most degrading and shameful ways imaginable. “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”63 should not be a phrase of empty words; rather, it should be a clarion call to free the global victims of slavery and to exact a justice that will send a message around the world: This evil will end, in our time.64 To honor the Allied service men and women and to honor the legacy of Martin Luther King, as well as the unsung heroes of the monumental fight against discrimination and inequality, such as Jonathan Daniels, this evil, that is Human Trafficking, must end in our time.


Jon Daniels, Virginia Military Institute/VMI, Class of ’61, entered Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, that Fall; he left Harvard for the Episcopal Theological Seminary, also in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from where he answered the Reverend Martin Luther King’s call, to join him in Selma, Alabama. The call reached Jonathan on 8 March 1965. On 20 August 1965, Jonathan Daniels took a shotgun blast, intended for a young African American girl, who Jonathan had pushed out of the way of the gun, which was pointed at her. He was killed instantly. It is sweet that Jonathan Daniels is linked in death to Bernard of Clairvaux. Jonathan would be so honored: Bernard’s life is remembered on 20th August, the day of his death. Jonathan, who also, died on 20th August, is honored on 14th August, the day of his arrest, in Fort Deposit, Alabama. Thus, Bernard and Jonathan, each, have their day of remembrance, and Bernard’s poignant hymn, “O Sacred Head Now Wounded,” takes on new meaning, in the 21st Century, as we pay tribute to Christ’s warriors, such as Bernard of Clairvaux, Martin Luther King., and Jonathan Myrick Daniels. May those who choose to fight the injustice and merciless greed that marks global Human Trafficking, find but one ounce of the courage that Jonathan Daniels exhibited on 20th August 1965 and bring this new found courage to bear in the universal fight against such unnatural human evil.65



Human Trafficking is a cause that should stir the world; that should galvanize people world-wide: Women, young people, fathers of daughters, statesmen and moralists, Christians and humanists, criminologists and immigrants; but, especially, all those people, whose ancestors suffered the scourge of slavery, or the horrors of incarceration in Nazi Germany. Rwanda was different. It was a brutal killing field. Incarcerating and enslaving the victims were not even considerations. Murder was the only act that mattered to the genocidal maniacs running wild throughout the country. Also, the grim situation in Darfur is not a case of Human Trafficking. Scholars need to be able to separate one scourge from another. There is too much work to be done, to confuse atrocities, be they genocidal, tribal, or the result of civil war, or invasion of one country by another, with Human Trafficking. After a presentation I made in Oxford, England, in March 2011, on the subject of fighting Human Trafficking, during the discussion that ensued, one scholar lamented, “What about Darfur?” Better, I think, to “choose a field on which to do battle; and, wage the fight as best one can . . . .”67 That field may be the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes, or the fight for justice in Darfur. A global, righteous indignation, needs to develop in such primary, advocacy groups, in order to heighten awareness worldwide, especially in those people, who most naturally are given to supporting human rights. It is an educational process that needs to accelerate, if this scourge is to be stemmed, let alone vanquished.


1. A Lack of Definition Genocide is defined by Webster,68 as “the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.” Human Trafficking is the deliberate and systematic destruction of women and children69, on a global scale. There is no word for Human Trafficking, that conveys the power of the abhorrent, such as “genocide” does, unless that word be “holocaust.” The expression, Human Trafficking, is not adequate to the task of describing this horror; so, I choose, out of necessity, to fall back on expressions such as “The Scourge of History,” or “The 21st Century Holocaust.”70 I will let Noah71 have the last word: Webster offers this definition of the word most closely associated with the genocide of the Jewish people in World War II and the Rwandan people in 1994: 1. “a sacrifice consumed by fire; 2. A thorough destruction, especially by fire.” Webster’s New College Dictionary, 1979 ed., s.v. “Holocaust.” Note: If we take this definition literally, and there is no reason why we should not, then, the U.S. fire bombing of Dresden and other German cities and the U.S. fire bombing of Japanese cities, which we knew to be constructed of thin wooden materials, and which bombing preceded the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, qualify as holocausts. The application of this word to the world-wide scourge that is Human Trafficking has highly symbolic value and, I trust the reader will agree, merit.

2. Human Trafficking, within the context of a religious worldview Human Trafficking is nothing new to the world. Listen to the words of Tod Lindberg, whose secular work, entitled, The Political Teachings of Jesus, is an exposition on the Sermon on the Mount72:


Chapter Nine Into a world of imperial occupation, deprivation, cruelty, slavery, injustice, heredity privilege, persecution, tribal conflict, collective punishment, piracy, the arrogance of the strong, the hopelessness of the weak, and the banishment of the sick, Jesus introduced the idea of universal freedom and the equality produced when people recognize the freedom of others by treating others the way they themselves would like to be treated.73

I feel it is important to link Augustine’s passion to combat slavery, in his time, to Lindberg’s description of the world in those times. Lindberg’s analysis is no different than that of Augustine, Wilberforce, Lincoln, Lee, students, teachers, and civil servants, who fight this global crime. Worldviews frame our thought, processes, and expressions, from the Judeo-Christian to the Islamic; from the Hindu to the Buddhist; from the humanitarian agnostic to the atheist, and so forth. A worldview is a commonality among all peoples on the earth, whether acknowledged, or not. Scholarship should require identification of such, so that the author’s frame of reference is “clear and present.” Recall, that the editors of The Economist argued on William Jennings Bryan’s behalf. So: “Let it be,” as Paul McCartney aptly phrased it. The spectre of Human Trafficking stands in the way of the successful pursuit of a 21st Century Civilization worthy of such a name, just as the spectre of Nazi Germany and the abhorrent concentration camps of War World II in Europe, coupled with the infamous Japanese comfort stations, where hundreds of thousands74 of enslaved Korean women satisfied the lust of countless Japanese soldiers,75 in the Pacific Theatre of World War II, stood in the way of a 20th Century Civilization worthy of its name, until the Allies crushed the Axis Powers and laid a foundation for the restoration of 20th Century Civilization, to someday take its rightful place in the history of Western Civilization.76 Such is the task before us, today, a herculean task requiring a monumental effort, in order to, once again, restore world civilization, in the 21st Century. Lest we not be overconfident, let alone self-righteous. Slavery, in any form, is abhorrent. The U.S. incarceration of patriotic, law-abiding, and innocent, Japanese-Americans, during WWII, although not akin to the evil of the Nazi concentration camps, nevertheless, was the type of action inconsistent with America’s declared values of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness;” not to mention the Judeo-Christian ethic.

Definitions, Worldviews, and Words


3. Remember the Words Crimes against children, especially sex crimes, are the worst imaginable. The words of Jesus have application, but not for the faint of heart: If anyone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a large millstone hung around his neck and to be drowned in the depths of the sea.77

Are these words of Jesus mere allegory, as one noted theologian,78 whose personal abhorrence of the death penalty, described them;79 or, do these words have meaning for the world, in which we live? There is evil: That we know; so, does Public Policy need to incorporate such a final response, for those whose anti-social acts know no boundaries?80 The European Union, as well as a number of states within the United States, has repudiated the death penalty, as inhumane, if not cruel and unusual punishment. Is Human Trafficking inhumane; is it the cruelest and most unusual of punishments, inflicted, not on the guilty, but on the innocent? David Cook, in a commentary for the Chattanooga Times Free Press had this to say, in the context of black-white relations: “Racism is our country’s original sin, our oldest crime. The evil-a most appropriate word-of slavery suffering that lasted for generations. The Bible speaks of the sins of the fathers being passed onto sons. What about the sins of the slave owners . . . ?”81

Does “the evil” of Human Trafficking call for a reassessment of Public Policies, on the state, national and international levels?82 Nakamura and Smallwood inveigh that: “Implementation… cannot be separated from the process of formulating and evaluating the policies being implemented. This requires consideration of different views of the policy process developed by a diverse group of participants and observers, including policy makers, bureaucrats, and social scientists.”83

Accordingly, an effective monitoring and combating of Human Trafficking requires an eclectic mix of “students and scholars; humanitarians and theologians; novelists and film makers; historians and Christian apologists; other worldview advocates; and philosophers, artists, and soldiers.”84


Chapter Nine

International leaders must step up and declare war on the “Trafficking in Persons.”85 It is a leadership responsibility to take Public International Policy in the direction of monitoring and combating Human Trafficking. Perhaps, no less a distinguished International Statesmen, as former U.S. President, Mr. Jimmy Carter, or Mr. Tony Blair,86 will take on the assignment. We cannot make too much of leadership in this “righteous cause.” Public Policy is important; in fact, critical to the success of monitoring and combating the evil of trafficking; but, it falls to leadership, to bring light from darkness. All the policy in the world will not stem the tide of a cresting wave, maligning human beings on a global scale, such that the world has not seen in its history. “Calling Mr. Smith: Come in Mr. Smith; the world needs you!”87


Of all the original candidates for the office of U.S. President in the 2008 race (and there were many) Republican, Democrat, Libertarian,, only two candidates were on record, as being opposed to Human Trafficking: Those persons were former U.S. Senators, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Democrat, New York, and Sam Brownback, Republican, Kansas,88 who was an early casualty of the most expensive presidential campaign in the history of the United States of America,89 at that point in time. Mrs. Clinton subsequently served as Secretary of State in the Obama Administration and Mr. Brownback, as Governor of Kansas, from which platforms they continued to wage the fight against trafficking. The number one issue for Americans, engaged in the presidential political process in 2008, was the War in Iraq; then, it became the economy; regardless, there were inextricable linkages between the economy and the Iraq War, and, subsequently, between the economy and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. All other issues, national and international, were subservient to these wars. In 2012, the economy; Near East warfare, e.g., Libya, with the focus later on Benghazi, as well as Afghanistan; and, immigration served as pivotal issues. Republicans and Democrats constantly are fighting over how best to solve wars, be they in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, or other flash points in the world; safeguard soldiers; and, restore a semblance of order, if not democracy, to such countries. Once a plan has been agreed to, by both major parties90, and the U.S. military has a clear cut mission to accomplish, our politicians and national government might do well to turn their attention to fighting the world-wide, 21st Century, holocaust that is Human Trafficking. In the U.S., clergy need to take a lead, with Congress, to combat this evil. It is not, as one pastor expressed himself, enough to say that, “Congress is aware of the problem; they’re smart; they know what’s happening.”91 This was the situation in World War II. Fortunately, a core of moral leaders had the courage of their convictions to take action based on their knowledge and to fight to liberate not only Jews from Hitler’s abyss, but to save Europe in the process.92 Unfortunately, this was not the


Chapter Ten

case 50 years later in Rwanda, where millions died in the worst case of Genocide, since Hitler sought to eradicate the Jewish people. And, unless, America commits to act on its knowledge of Human Trafficking, World War II will be seen as America’s finest hour and the generation that fought that war, “the brightest and best of the sons [and daughters] of the morning;”93 for darkness will have fallen over a late 20th Century, early 21st Century land, where knowledge was more prized than action. The United States had knowledge of the Rwandan Holocaust, but the Clinton Administration chose to do nothing to stop it. We, now, have knowledge of Human Trafficking; so, this begs the question: What will we do to stop it?


Augustine “plead[ed] with…urgency for forceful civil action to suppress a sudden burgeoning of the international slave trade fed by indiscriminate kidnapping.”94 Augustine was seeking a Public Policy to combat the Human Trafficking of his day. Centuries later it was left to William Wilberforce to lead the crusade against slavery in Great Britain and Abraham Lincoln to emancipate those in slavery in America, the beginning of the end of the cruelest and darkest chapter in American history.95 The fact that slavery still exists and is a world-wide epidemic, is reason to begin the fight anew, with 21st Century Augustines, Wilberforces,96 and Lincolns.97 The fight has just begun; but, any decent fighter, to include those who participate in combat type sports, e.g., rugby, football,98 wrestling, boxing, or school playground fights, knows, instinctively, that the better part of being knocked down is getting up. And, as Augustine, Wilberforce, and Lincoln became all too painfully aware, there will be setbacks and unexpected defeats. In my own attempts to heighten awareness at the state level of government in Tennessee, I have encountered Christians who valued their political connections more than fighting the scourge of human trafficking. It all comes down to priorities: The cause, or the politics.99


The solution lies individually with each nation state that is a member of the United Nations. The solution begins with education100 and understanding, i.e., it first must be understood that in origin, the problem of Human Trafficking is domestic; it is internal to each country, in this world. Second, it is necessary to understand that Human Trafficking, more often than not, crosses borders, to become an international menace. It crosses borders, because trafficking is safer to the instigator, as distance is put between the slaver and the victim’s home; it also can be much more profitable, when dealing across borders; the economic law of supply and demand governs this, as other business transactions. The Human Trafficking scenario unfolds within the boundaries of a nation state, as easily as it crosses into another country, and into another region of the world; in this way, Human Trafficking takes on the international spectre that is so increasingly difficult with which to deal. Just as the war against Al Qaida is increasingly difficult to fight, as borders become mere streets to cross; so, too, does the spectre of Human Trafficking approach borders as streets; and the unrelenting journey to despair ensues for each victim caught in the slaver’s net.


“John” was a problem, before the dawn of civilization, whenever and wherever women have been trafficked and/or forced into sexual bondage. John is the client of the trafficker; and, is generally spoken of, in the plural, the Johns being for some, if not many, the problem that creates Human Trafficking. Allowing that others will have differing points of view, I submit to the reader that the “trafficker”101 is the far more serious criminal: S/he is the kidnapper and enslaver of the innocent, just as, in a sense, the drug dealer is to the user to whom the dealer sells his product. Where this comparison may be challenged, is that the trafficker deals in human flesh; and, the drug dealer in human weakness and addiction, which you may say is one and the same thing. “Ultimately,” the problem of Human Trafficking “is internal to each city and town within a region, or state, of a country;” and, so, too, is the problem with John. Dealing with the Johns, first, must begin with local law enforcement. As long as there is a supply of women, girls, and boys to be rented, or sold, for sexual purposes, there will be Johns waiting. Please, don’t dismiss the problem; but, decide for yourself, which is the greater crime and work toward its eradication. The U.S. Department of State and the International Justice Mission (IJM), in concert with governments around the world, to include our own,102 must increase the pressure on states and airlines that fly the Johns to places such as Cambodia and Thailand for the express purpose of renting, or buying, a sex slave, to include children used for such a purpose.103 Finally, the State of Tennessee is introducing 12 new laws to combat trafficking, to include one, which will prosecute John, as a sex trafficker.


In order to present a definition of Public Policy that will adequately serve the purposes of this paper, I turn to James E. Anderson, whose work, Public Policymaking (now in the Fourth Edition) I studied in the course of my doctoral work (at that time, the Third Edition). Anderson’s Cases in Public Policy-Making (Second Edition) was a fundamental part of this study. Just as Anderson relies on other scholars to assist him in framing a definition, so, too, I rely on Anderson to present a definition, e.g., “Public policy… may be viewed as whatever governments choose to do or not to do.” This definition belongs to Thomas R. Dye, from his work, Understanding Public Policy (Fifth Edition). Anderson develops his own definition, which in part, defines Public Policy as a “purposive course of action followed by government in dealing with some problem or matter of concern.” [pg 4-5 of 4th Ed.] This purposive course of action led to Public Law 106-386. I also want to mention Laurence E. Lynn, Jr.’s work, Managing Public Policy. Lynn speaks to “the content of Public Policy,” when he states that: “The notion that effectiveness in policymaking involves acquiring a grasp of the substantive complexity of specific issues can hardly be taken for granted” [pg 161]. Consider Samuel K. Alexander’s words: “The preservation of global security is perhaps the most complex and multifaceted problem of the age.” Dr. Alexander’s thesis was the genesis for the theme of the 2008, Pembroke College hosted, Oxford Round Table, “Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife.”105 Recall, if you would, that I have intentionally chosen to “use a disparate array of sources to, hopefully, pull all my thoughts together in an eclectic mix that just might enable a large, diverse, and consciously concerned group of people to glimpse, if not grasp, the enormity of the evil that Human Trafficking presents to their nation and to the world today.” Finally, Lynn states that “Public policy… emerges over time” and, “it is a product more of disorder… .” [pg161]. Human Trafficking is an aberration of disorder, which Public Policy needs to address more thoroughly and completely.


Chapter Fourteen

Public Law 106-386-October 28, 2000, created the “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000.” Consider that this simple act of government took 224 years106 to accomplish; more specifically, it took 139 years to bring about, since Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation.”107 This is not a criticism of the U.S. Government; rather, it is an observation and commentary on American Political History. It is in the Public Policy arena that one should voice criticism. Many people, to include State Department administrators,108 as well as Human Trafficking fighter, Ms. Christine Dolan, credit George W. Bush, for doing more to monitor and combat Human Trafficking than any previous President of the United States.109 The truth of this statement was reinforced by President Obama’s absence, throughout, virtually, his entire first term, from the arena where one would think he would have been eager to fight, because of his African-American roots and his family’s lone pilgrimage to the Africa coast,110 the launching point for the infamous slave ships that sailed to America and other destinations.111 A word about the 30 million slaves in the world, today: I have been curious about how this number, 30 million, compares with the numbers transported on slave ships, beginning in 1450 and continuing to 1850, the approximate beginning and end of the slave ship trade. The statement is made by responsible agencies, governmental and non-governmental, that there are more people in slavery, today, than ever before. Is this true? Today’s population, growing every second, is, for the sake of this argument, 7 billion.112 In 1450 the population was 450 million people; 113 and, there were 274,000 slaves arriving in the Americas.114 Real World Arithmetic leads us through simple division to determine that 0.0003 percent of the world’s population was in slavery at that time. Granted, there may have been two, three, four, ten times, that number in slavery, around the world; but, we will never know. In 1850 there was a population of 1.2 billion and 2, 902, 400 slaves were brought to the Americas on the notorious slave ships.115 Using round figures and doing the division, yields 0.0025 in slavery as a result of the Trans-Atlantic trade. Comparing today’s numbers yields 0.004; so, there is an argument that there are more people in slavery, today, than anytime in world history. Perhaps this is hyperbole; and, perhaps not. You decide. On September 25, 2012, less than two months from his reelection, President Barack Obama made a significant speech, addressing the spectre of human trafficking. He gave his speech at the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) in New York City. On April 9th, 2013, the White House held a forum to combat human trafficking. The White House press release of 9 April, announcing this forum, sought to “highlight the significant progress

The Public Policy Approach


this Administration has made to combat human trafficking….” It should be noted that this same press release referred to the President’s speech to the CGI as “his seminal speech on the fight to end trafficking in persons….” The fight to end trafficking in persons needs a higher forum, i.e., the State of the Union address. Unfortunately, nearly four years went past, before a seminal speech was given by the President on this subject; but, now there is evidence that the President is moving, to make up, for that lost time. And, while you are deciding whether there is more slavery in the world today, than in centuries past, consider this: Human trafficking will become exponentially more difficult to counter, to combat, as the world population soars from 7.2 billion people, today, to 8.1 billion people in 2025 and 9.6 billion people in 2050.116


George W. Bush inherited the “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000.” Credit rightfully goes to the 106th Congress of the United States and to President William Jefferson Clinton, on whose final watch this Public Law (106-386) was promulgated.117 President Bush could do no less than honor this landmark legislation and see to the establishment of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. This is the type of bipartisan legislation that enhances the cooperation of politicians from both sides of the aisle.118 This Public Law (106-386) is more than cross-over legislation; it is a rare example of what I would describe as, unity legislation.119 Credit Anthony M. DeStefano, whose journalistic research ability and compassion led him to write The War on Human Trafficking: U.S. Policy Assessed, for pointing out that: The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 predated the signing of the U.N. trafficking protocol in Palermo by a good two months. But by passing a domestic trafficking measure, the United States was jumping ahead and bringing itself into conformity with the U.N. measure’s requirements that nations take action to adapt their own legal systems to deal with the phenomenon.120


For all the credit that the Clinton and Bush Administrations deserve, “the United States did not ratify the U.N. measure until 2005.”121 There is no excuse for such an untoward delay, even though “practically speaking, lack of ratification had no legal effect… .”122 Mr. DeStefano states that this inaction on the Bush Administration’s part “embarrassed American diplomats,” as it should have.123 This is an example of politics at its worst. The Bush Administration’s negative attitude, and many Americans’ negative attitudes, toward the United Nations still have no place in the monitoring and combating of Human Trafficking. This is a cause that should transcend politics. Unfortunately, some, within the Bush Administration, lacked a certain humility; such humility could, possibly, have strengthened the Administration’s role in Public International Policy124 and precluded the Public Policy mistakes that diminished America’s standing in the world. It is most unfortunate that Republicans and Democrats, alike, know so little of William Jennings Bryan and his contributions to American Political History. As Maijaliisa Rauste von Wright says, the solution begins with education; and, as Myron Shibley125 would say, the solution begins with history, and our understanding of what went before. Understanding what Public Policy is, i.e., “whatever governments choose to do or not to do;”126 more specifically, when governments follow a “purposive course of action . . . in dealing with some problem or matter of concern;”127 the reader should view proposals to monitor and combat Human Trafficking, in such light, i.e., that each state in the United States should have its own office to monitor and combat Human Trafficking, which I offer, as a Public Policy proposal.128 I leave it to Robert T. Nakamura and Frank Smallwood, who, in their study of The Politics of Policy Implementation, state that: The study of policy, which is located at the intersection of the concern of policy makers and scholars, involves a broadly based interdisciplinary approach. 129 Not surprisingly the definition and rationale of policy studies are far from exact.


Chapter Sixteen There are fundamental differences over what is meant by policy, what variables can be used to explain its effects, and what criteria should be used in assessing its success and failure. Despite these differences, during recent years policy makers and scholars have increased their efforts to work together in the belief that a more integrated view will evolve from those efforts.130

Just as the U.S. Department of State was willing to work with Bryan College, supporting Bryan’s January 2008, January 2009, and November 2010 Conferences, held to monitor and combat Human Trafficking; so, too, do scholars need to emerge as participants in the Public Policy arena, which is one battlefield,131 where the fight against Human Trafficking needs to be waged. Remember the historic and poignant words of Elie Wiesel:132 “It is not hatred that kills people; it is indifference.” The human trafficker hates women and children; s/he133 hates the innocent; thus, the burden is on the scholar, as it is on the Public Policy creator, not to be indifferent to the Scourge of Human Trafficking. Indifference, pride, and conceit are three attitudes, which can sow discord.134 The first challenge to the scholar, is to recognize the threat to civilization that Human Trafficking poses. Remember: A seed of strife is sown with every person taken135 into servitude; accordingly, the attitude of indifference sows discord and contributes to this strife. Jay Greeson, in a sports commentary, dealing with “Baseball’s steroid saga just the latest outrage,” says: “The public’s collective indifference, be it perceived or real, has to be based in the exhaustion of the never-ending stories and lies and denials. We have moved through the emotional stages of shock to anger to disbelief to disgust to disinterested.”136

It is imperative that those trying to make a difference in the fight against Human Trafficking do not succumb to the emotional stages Mr. Greeson so aptly describes. Shock, anger, and disgust have relevance; disinterest and indifference have no place in this struggle. The second and third challenges to the scholar are to seek humility and not give in to pride and conceit, which are endemic within academia. The challenge is to think better of others than of oneself. Think better of the victims of Human Trafficking and join those on the battle lines and fight for a cause beyond oneself. And, who better to spread awareness and foster education than the academic? If you are a member of the Academy, take these challenges and exchange academic regalia for the uniform of a warrior. Remember the words of Bonhoeffer: Not in the flight of ideas but only in action is freedom.137


The Encyclopedia of Human Trafficking, The Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report139, is a publication of the U.S. Department of State, specifically, the Office of the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs and the Bureau of Public Affairs. Any assessment of the global scourge that is Human Trafficking begins with the TIP Report. The TIP Report is so powerful and comprehensive, in its scope, that any other work, be it a book, or movie [and “Taken”140 is a first class film, that operates on multiple levels: Drama; action-suspense; and a public service documentary]; an article, or news report; or this academic effort, for that matter, pales in comparison, such as an American college dictionary pales in comparison to the Oxford English Dictionary. For this reason, I have chosen to pay homage to the extraordinary effort by the U.S. Department of State to educate and inform people, world-wide, of the global menace that is Human Trafficking. The TIP Report is so thorough and well researched; so well written, laid out, and presented, that it would be redundant, as well as poor stewardship, with respect to time management, to even consider attempting to restate what they say better, to include: Definition, scope and nature, categorization of the forms of trafficking in persons; as well as criminal justice solutions and prospects for the future. In her cover letter to an earlier TIP Report, Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton, spoke of an urgency in the monitoring and combating of Human Trafficking, as a result of world-wide economic conditions.141 The world-wide economic crisis has contributed to a climate conducive to an increased trafficking of persons. People desperate to survive will take desperate measures, be it out of fear, or coercion. Unfortunately, the end result is the same, i.e., the most vulnerable, the women, especially young women, and children, female and male, are made to suffer horrendous fates to satisfy the greed and the desperation of the violent criminals who seek to enslave all those they can control.


Chapter Seventeen

Let me, perhaps, better illustrate, by sharing three accounts, each a tragic situation; each a continent removed from the other situations; and, these accounts, which have passed into recent history, have relevance, due to the stories they tell, which, if not timeless, still should be instructive.


Background to the First Account The first Iraq war commenced on 19 March 2003. Although generally referred to as the First Iraq War, and described by the military in the planning stages as “Desert Shield,” this phraseology gave way to “Desert Storm,” as the war was launched. It is important to note that this war was waged according to Public International Law, when the nation state of Kuwait, invaded by Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi Armed Forces, requested the assistance of the United States, to defend their sovereign state. In addition, the State of Saudi Arabia also requested U.S. assistance, as it became clear that Saddam Hussein was planning to roll over Kuwait, on his way to take over Saudi Arabia. After defeating Saddam Hussein, the U.S., led by President George H.W. Bush (’41) and General Colin Powell, then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, decided to permit Saddam Hussein to return to his homeland. All this to say, that this first war was not fought on Iraqi soil; and, the U.S. role was that of protector of the nation states of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

The First Account “Girls denied schooling or coerced into underage marriages” are considered “practices that contribute to trafficking of [the] vulnerable.”142 The female and young male populations of the Near East, e.g., Iraq and Afghanistan, come quickly to mind, because of the United States’ military involvement in these countries, since the first Iraq War, waged under former President George H.W. Bush. The problem is this: Denying girls schooling and/or coercing young girls into marriages are cultural practices linked to race, religion, and history, much of which is tribal, to include the lurid practice of making young boys dance seductively for men, which practices make for extremely complicated factors in this global fight. It will take Presidential and Cabinet-level leadership, as well as a willingness


Chapter Eighteen

to engage the United Nations (UN) leadership, to gain traction in this fight. Engaging all our partners in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), separate and apart from the UN, should be an effort that the State Department should take, in concert with the Department of Defense (DOD). The military, as academia, needs to be better read-in, to this world-wide spectre.

The Second Account In France, a few years ago, a recent debate took place with respect to reopening the brothels that were closed subsequent to World War II. The reason: A Russian and Eastern European mafia incursion into French prostitution, which has forced French prostitutes into sex slavery. This is a terrible irony, in that one form of prostitution is being substituted for another, in an effort to stem the trafficking in persons, as well as to bring sanitary conditions to the “profession.”143 Purportedly 60% of French voters think the idea a good one; and, apparently, the prostitutes themselves, as well as French feminists, supported the change, the design of which would bring some form of public oversight and protection to the women involved.144

The Third Account CBS news anchor, Diane Sawyer, began a Sunday evening145 news segment by quoting from the Bible. She quoted James, “Faith without works [deeds] is dead,” 146 in setting the scene for a powerful documentary account, which highlighted the work of American Christians, who are living out the Great Commission of Jesus Christ, as well as James’147 teaching, in Southeast Asia. American missionaries, such as Clay Butler, from California, who set up a community center in a former brothel, to assist the victims of trafficking, are being ably assisted by the International Justice Mission (IJM), a Christian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), many of whose representatives, schooled in International Law, combine courage with keen legal minds, to work with global police forces and the leaders of nation states to bring about rescue and restoration for the victims of Human Trafficking. Cambodia is a child, sex trafficking, emporium, where children are sold by their parents for sex. It is to Ms. Sawyer’s and CBS News’ credit, that they not only offered this segment, but extolled the merits and efforts of American Christians, who are fighting, child, sex trafficking, in Cambodia, which is a magnet for pedophiles.


From Southeast Asia to the Near East, to Europe: Let’s continue this sobering trip around the world. A companion piece to the 2008 Trafficking in Persons Report, a DVD148, which is, perhaps, the most heart-wrenching, fifteen minute film, one possibly could see, is entitled, “Not My Life.” This is a documentary film report of the scourge of Human Trafficking, with personal commentary by victims; caregivers, such as Sister Eugenia Boneti,; and, expert testimony from leaders, such as former U.S. Ambassador Mark Lagon.149 From what happens to children disposed of, in European orphanages, when corruption rules; to U.S. truck stops, e.g. Interstate 35 in Oklahoma, where underage, female, sex slaves are forced to satisfy the desires of truckers, some old enough to be their grandfathers, “Not My Life” is a visual wake-up call to all who would wage a fight, not merely for decency and human rights; but, for mercy and justice150 in a world descending into darkness on a global scale151. The truck stop travesty of justice and mercy requires, if you will, a few more words: All it would take would be for the president, or owning/controlling family, of a regional, nation-wide, or international oil company to stand up and say, “Not on my soil will this ever happen, again.” Cleaning up one company’s truck stops [and you can name them, as easily as I can] is where it begins; then, the president, or the controlling family, or stock holders, approach a rival company behind closed doors and say: “We did this; please consider doing the same for the sake of justice and mercy, as well as for the sake of your own company.” Joining with local and state police forces, this mission is reasonable and doable; and, it is time to “make it so.” Profit cannot and must not be separated from justice and mercy, in the fight to stem the trafficking in persons; or, the fight will be lost. The next time you drive an interstate highway, especially at night, consider the sequence of events that are playing out, for women and young girls, at the truck-stops that advertise, for you to stop and buy their gas,


Chapter Nineteen

snack food, and souvenirs. Be aware that evil is present, regardless of how bright the sky, be it sun or stars, and beautiful the scenery, day or night, criminal acts are taking place on your interstate highway, or auto route. Ultimately, realize that the governor of each state, in our union of states, has the leadership responsibility to war against the crime of Human Trafficking; and, he has resources e.g. the highway patrol and National Guard, to monitor and combat this scourge. The word will get out, very quickly, that Tennessee152 and other Justice & Mercy states will not tolerate sex slavery. Regardless of the magnitude of the evil that intensifies the problem of trafficking, one should not shy away from developing an awareness of the issue, as well as being prepared to offer ideas and suggestions to those better positioned to solve, even a part of the problem, and, thereby, contribute to an enhanced sense of justice and mercy153 for the victims of trafficking. As a case in point, what if every oil company in the U.S. made a concerted effort to monitor and combat Human Trafficking, at the truck stops that bear their company’s name? This could begin in one state, by a company that either has historic ties to that state, or holds a sizeable share of the market, in such a state. If one oil company would take on the mission of eliminating prostitution from its truck stops, state-wide, e.g., in Oklahoma154; then, having succeeded state-wide, that oil company could launch a nation-wide campaign to eliminate sex trafficking and prostitution at all U.S. truck stops. It is not too much to ask, especially, if one child’s precious life can be saved, let alone the generations of humanity that might emanate from that child. Enslaving a child, enslaves the child’s offspring, even for generations to come155. This argument holds for the United Kingdom and the European Community, as well. The British, especially, are major players in the world-wide petroleum market.


There are any number of adjectives we156 could use to describe the sex trade in children and youth; slavery is appropriate; and, it takes many forms. Consider, the “fishing boys” of Lake Volta, in Ghana. Many hundreds of these children drown, trapped in the very same fish nets they go under the water to untangle. Yet, when punishment is meted out to the traffickers of such children, it is mostly in the form of administrative penalties, versus “hard time” in maximum security prisons. Trafficking even can take a seemingly benign form, e.g., adoption157; and, it also takes other forms, which some experts do not consider trafficking; because, the victim is murdered for their body parts, i.e., organ harvesting, to include skin, which is an organ, and, now, even hair is a commodity on the black market, as it is in the established market place.158 “Thousands of Gabonese people marched to protest ritual killings, in which people are murdered so their body parts can be used in amulets to bring good luck.”159

With respect to these forms of trafficking, it doesn’t take a leap of imagination to realize that trafficking victims are bought and sold for the express purpose of being murdered for their organs and other valuable parts; and, it shouldn’t take much thought to realize that sex slaves, beaten and worn down to sickness and/or riddled with disease, are still worth one more sale, i.e., to the organ harvester, who personifies the grimmest of reapers. On 22nd May 2013 I met with Dr. Campbell Fraser, Senior Lecturer, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, as the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Bollant. Gwen Bollant is completing her doctoral dissertation on trafficking in persons. The Bollants served for many years as missionaries in the Philippines, where Gwen is focusing her research. Griffith University is a public research university in the southeastern region of the Australian state of Queensland. Dr. Fraser is researching organ trafficking. He confirmed my thesis (above) by sharing that Indian girls


Chapter Twenty

are rented by their fathers to a brothel owner, until such time as their beauty wanes; then, they are forced by their fathers to give up a kidney, to be harvested for sale on the black market. Call it organ transfer, or trafficking, the end result is the same.


The United Nations (UN) has ultimate, global, responsibility for monitoring and combating Human Trafficking.160 To an international conference, recently convened in Vienna, Austria, by the UN, world famous personages, such as Ms. Emma Thompson, internationally acclaimed actress, whose theater and film work have received critical recognition throughout the Western World, and Mr. Ricky Martin, popular singer and entertainer, were invited to participate. This is one of the ways the UN, very effectively, focuses attention on areas of great concern. For example, Ms. Mia Farrow’s work, as a UN Ambassador-at-Large, which has focused world-wide attention on the plight of Darfur, coupled with the work of Mr. George Clooney, Ms. Angelina Jolie, and Ms. Nicole Kidman, raise consciousness on an international level. The UN would do well to make Ms. Thompson161 an Ambassador-at-Large in the quest to monitor and combat Human Trafficking.162


Among many voices, I spoke of using the voices of artists;163 perhaps I should have spoken of using the visions of artists. To frame the Human Trafficking Conference, held at Bryan College, in January of 2008, Mr. Ben Norquist164 conceived, coordinated, and helped set up, an art show to compliment and challenge, not only conference attendees, but the Bryan and Dayton Communities at large. Entitled, “He Knows Their Names, Modern Slavery and the Gospel of Christ,” this art show was hosted by the Bryan Chapter of Students Stopping the Trafficking of Persons (SSTOP), an issue group, which comes under Bryan College’s Practical Christian Involvement (PCI) ministry. In researching Ms. Emma Thompson’s contribution to the war against Human Trafficking, I learned of her art show, “The Journey,” which show she “unfolded” at Trafalgar Square, in London, in September of 2007, and later in New York City.165 Ms. Thompson is “the drawing force behind a unique art installation-‘Journey’-which uses seven transport containers to illustrate the brutal and harrowing experiences of women sold into the sex trade.”166 “The ‘Journey’ installation containers portray the different stages in the transit of victims of human trafficking.”167 Now, consider Mr. Norquist’s initiative, “He Knows Their Names;” because, Christ knows the name of Elena, “a young woman from Moldova, . . . who was trafficked into the sex industry in the U.K. [The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland] when she was just 18.”168 Elena inspired Emma Thompson to take action.169 “The Journey” is only one of many “actions” that Ms. Thompson has taken in the cause of Elena, and in the cause of women and children, who have been trafficked world-wide. Beyond art, Ms. Thompson is assisting the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and participated in the Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking.170 She is a leader, and a worthy ambassador, in this century’s world-wide struggle against the rapidly expanding fire storm of a holocaust that defines Human Trafficking in the 21st Century.



The humblest citizen in all the land, when clad in the armor of a righteous cause, is stronger than all the hosts of error. I come to speak to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty-the cause of humanity. (William Jennings Bryan)-“The Cross of Gold,” 1896.171


To free slaves from the scourgers that traffick them and to bring an end to this 21st Century Holocaust Just as Martin Luther King, Jr., paid homage172 to Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation, which Lincoln, as President of the United States, issued initially on September 22, 1862, and which took effect on January 1, 1863, by a renewal proclamation issued by Lincoln that day, it is right that world leaders, especially the President of the United States and the Secretary General of the United Nations, should issue Global Emancipation Proclamations in behalf of the slaves, who are being trafficked world-wide, in our time. It is right for the President of the United States to do so, because President Lincoln said that: The Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons . . . .173

The U.S. should be committed, as once before, to put our resources, to include our military, to freeing persons trafficked as slaves. Domestically, the National Guards of each state in the Union can be used to stop the trafficking of persons, within the U.S., especially, in the border states, where illegal immigration is directly linked to Human Trafficking.174 As posse comitatus175 has been redefined by the first George W. Bush Administration, in light of “9/11” and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita,176 with no opposition from the U.S. Congress, or the courts, the Reserve Forces of the U.S., also, could be brought to bear, in the domestic U.S.’ monitoring and combating of Human Trafficking. I would go as far as to posit that the U.S.; members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); and other treaty allies, e.g., the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS) states; should be willing to consider committing small, elite components of their regular armed forces, e.g., Navy SEALs and


Chapter Twenty Four

other Special Forces, in this struggle, world-wide. Understandably, this postulate speaks to the issue of sovereignty, which should not be breeched, if at all possible, and need not, in the case of fighting human trafficking, as the nation states referenced in this paragraph, all have exceptional special forces components, which can carry out the mission, in their own countries and regions. Somalia is a different case; because, it is a lawless land; and, Pakistan is different still; Pakistan is an ally of the U.S.; but, this begs a discussion of Public International Law, which is not within the purview of this discussion. That said,

Consider This In January 2012, “U.S. Special Operations forces rescued an American hostage and her Danish colleague in Somalia….” Navy SEAL Team 6, which carried out the operation that killed Osama bin Laden, dropped 12 SEALs, by parachute, “from an Air Force Special Operations plane to a spot two miles from the compound where the hostages were being held . . . .” Mr. Thisted and Ms. Buchanan work for a Danish aid agency.177 At this point in time, fighting Human Trafficking is not in the vital interest of the U.S., as was coming to the aid of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, major Near East oil producers and allies, or, as is the continuing war on drugs. There is insufficient manpower within Interpol (the International Criminal Police Organization) or the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) or the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) or MI6 (Military Intelligence “6;” the British counterpart to the U.S.’ CIA); but linking these police and governmental investigative and intelligence agencies with armed special forces units, be they U.S., British, French, Dutch, German, Italian, Norwegian, or other nations within NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and/or other treaty nations, would significantly increase the ability of nation states, as well as collectives, such as the European Union, to war against Human Trafficking. Again, consider: 1. The war on drugs; and 2. The war against Al Qaeda: The former is fought, cross borders, internationally, with special forces units working in concert with police and intelligence agencies of countries having the need to fight these wars and willing to allow the U.S. to intervene; but, the latter, doesn’t always follow the same script. As a case in point, consider the success of the U.S. CIA-Navy SEALs operation to identify, target, and kill Osama bin Laden, in a raid on his compound, in Abbottabad, near the Pakistani capital of Islamabad, on 2 May 2011.178

A Global Emancipation Proclamation


When the U.S. military entered Kuwait to stop and force back Saddam Hussein from his invasion of that U.S. friendly, Near Eastern nation-state, it was at the invitation of the Kuwaiti government, consistent with Public International Law. Conversely, when U.S. Navy SEALs entered Pakistan to kill Osama Bin Laden, the CIA requested the mission be approved and launched by the Commander in Chief of all U.S. Armed Forces, the President of the U.S., who did not seek the consent of Pakistan’s Government. 3. Lincoln, in his Emancipation Proclamation, issued his decree with these supporting words: “By virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States. . . .”179 4. Military forces need real life fighting experiences to train and stay on the cutting edge [no pun intended]. Such small scale, limited exercises would serve such a purpose and is consistent with “President Obama’s focus on the narrow, targeted use of force after a decade of large-scale military deployments.”180 5. Today, there are 30 million people in slavery, world-wide. The United States supported rebellions in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, before cautiously estimating, let alone realizing, the consequences, in a rush to spread democracy and freedom throughout these lands. As U.S. Armed Forces were committed in Libya via Executive Fiat, rather than Congressional authorization, this begs the question: Why not rescue victims of Human Trafficking, whose rights, let alone freedoms, have been trampled underfoot, by Executive Fiat? The precedent has been established in Somalia. It, now, is left to established and emerging international leadership to accept the challenge, as Lincoln accepted it, in his time. President Barak Obama could do no better than to include the spectre of Human Trafficking in his next State of the Union address to the nation, as he has passed on this opportunity in his first address to the Nation and each of his subsequent State of the Union Addresses, even though the State Department and Health & Human Services argued for its inclusion.181 I say this; because, reference to Human Trafficking was noticeably absent from George W. Bush’s final State of the Union message, as it was from his previous messages.182 This was an opportunity to focus national and international attention on the plight of trafficked victims, but the President, and his advisors, chose not to.183 This is an opportunity the current President, his advisors, and those cabinet members, such as the Secretaries of State and Health & Human Services,, should not miss, again, especially as such messages can be the foundation for new Public Policy.184


Chapter Twenty Four

Finally, it is left to the Commander-in-Chief to ensure that his soldiers, sailors, marines, airmen, and coast guard personnel, do not contribute to the profits of slave traffickers, let alone the agony of the enslaved, by visiting and/or frequenting prostitutes or brothels of any kind, thus encouraging prostitution and the continued enslavement of women and children. The “oldest profession”185 needs to be phased out of business, and military personnel, as guardians and protectors of the innocent must honor their service commitment and their country by conduct becoming the uniform they wear.186


“The military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons.”187

Granted, Lincoln was focusing on the slave seeking his/her freedom, be it on the road, or in a boat; in a safe house, or crossing field, forest, stream, or mountain. The slave was not to be interfered with, or hindered in any way; rather, slaves were to be safeguarded and aided, in their quest for freedom. Lincoln’s admonition to his military forces has direct application, today, be it in Texas, or Iraq or Afghanistan; California, or Germany; Alabama, or Korea; or on the African Continent.188 The burden of leadership falls, first, and foremost, on the Commander-in-Chief, as Lincoln acknowledged; but also, on the Secretaries of Defense and State, to ensure that the U.S. Armed Forces conduct themselves with dignity and integrity in all matters, foreign and domestic. One of the facts stated earlier, was that no less than 300,000 child prostitutes work in the U.S., to include U.S. Free Trade Zones and military bases.189 Each and every State in the United States needs to create its own Office to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking, especially, those states with military installations. The Department of Justice funds 39 antitrafficking task forces nationwide:190 They need to fund 50; one for every state in the nation. Ireland’s Department of Defense provides “ongoing anti-trafficking training for all Irish troops prior to their deployment abroad . . . .”191 The United States does the same.192 The problem of Human Trafficking is domestic.193 Take this observation to its logical point of origin, and the problem of Human Trafficking begins at home, in the towns and villages, cities and states, of each nation in this world. From Tennessee and Georgia to New York and Massachusetts; from New Jersey to the Dakotas; from California and Oregon, to Illinois and Michigan; from Maine to Alaska; and from Rhode Island to Hawaii, legislation should be written to establish state offices to


Chapter Twenty Five

monitor and combat the trade in human beings, in additional to the regional offices Department of Justice (DOJ) funds. During the anti-trafficking conference that Bryan College held in January 2008, one of the initiatives Bryan students took up, was to lobby, via a focused mailing to state legislators, that laws be established to monitor and combat Human Trafficking. Although, it took time, this initiative succeeded. According to the Polaris Project, Tennessee scored a four out of a possible twelve in the Legislative Year 2009-2010, in monitoring and combating trafficking in persons, via legislation. With the close of Tennessee’s legislative session in 2010-2011, the Polaris Project had raised Tennessee’s score to six, with their nationwide, state by state, report, which came out, in August 2011. This was a classic example of grass roots Public Policy making.194 Regardless, as a Professor of Politics and Government, 50 percent right is a failing grade. Much more needed to be done; and much more has been done: Currently, Tennessee has ten criminal statutes in place; and, judged against the 12 indicators the Polaris Project uses to rate states, Tennessee now scores 7.5 total points on the 12 point scale, or a grade of 62.5, which is a “D-“ in any of my classes; but, the Polaris Project places Tennessee in Tier 1/Green, which means that Tennessee, with the 7.5 rating, still scores higher than a number of other states.195 This said, Tony Gonzalez, recently writing for The Tennessean, reported “‘Sweeping changes’ beef up laws on trafficking: Twelve new laws are going into effect July 1 [2013]; one will permit those paying for sex to be prosecuted as traffickers.”196 Obviously, Tennessee’s grade will jump with this legislation, such that Tennessee will be a leader among states in the U.S. A state trafficking task force is being created as part of this “sweeping” legislation; a definition of sex trafficking is included, which underwrites the new legislation, i.e., “coercive adult prostitution and any sexual exploitation of children.”197


And just as it is right that the President of the United States, and other national leaders around the world, proclaim freedom for the slaves of Human Trafficking, so, too, it is right for the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Ban Ki-moon, to do so, and not just in his global leadership capacity; but as a Korean citizen, seeking to restore the honor, dignity, and precious memory of the more than 200,000 Korean women, and others, who were forced into sexual slavery in the Pacific Theater of World War II; as well as Jewish, Roma198, and other women, who were forced into sexual slavery in the European Theater of World War II,199 this proclamation should be issued.200 The Criminal Justice community must stand up and be counted as standard bearers in the fight against this 21st Century Holocaust.201 If this fight is to succeed, there cannot be light sentences for human traffickers, i.e., for those persons who rape, torture, and murder children and women.202 This said, we should not forget John Newton, a brutal slaver, who found Christ, turned his life around, and wrote “Amazing Grace”203


Pope Benedict XVI said204 that the world’s nations must defend the human rights of their citizens, . . . recognizing that humanity is a family and protecting the “innate dignity of every man and woman.”205


“The time is now, the day is here!”207 Every day that passes, more crimes are committed against the victims of trafficking, in all its myriad forms: “Three women who vanished a decade ago were found captive Monday . . . ,”208 May 6, 2013. Their ages, when kidnapped, were 14, 16, and 20.209 Each kidnapping was a separate incident; the women were not related; they were chained and held captive solely for sexual purposes. “In court, prosecutor Brian Murphy said . . . [the perpetrator] used the 210 women ‘in whatever self-gratifying, self-serving way he saw fit.’”

They were kidnapped by a “former school bus driver Ariel Castro, [who] owned the home [in which they were incarcerated], situated in a poor neighborhood dotted with boarded-up houses just south of downtown Cleveland [Ohio].”211 Ten years. “A 6-year old girl believed to be . . . [one of the captive’s] daughter also was found in the home . . . .”212 Prosecutors said Thursday [May 9, 2013] they may seek the death penalty against Ariel Castro, the man accused of imprisoning three women at his home for a decade, as police charged that he impregnated one of his captives at least five times and made her miscarry by starving her “and repeatedly punching her in the stomach until she miscarried.213 Cuyahoga County prosecutor Timothy McGinty said his office will decide whether to bring aggravated murder charges punishable by death in 214 connection with the pregnancies that were terminated by force. ‘Capital punishment must be reserved for those crimes that are truly the worst examples of human conduct,’ he said. “The reality is we still have brutal criminals in our midst who have no respect for the rule of law or 215 human life.”

“The time is now, the day is here!”216


“One more day before the storm!”218 “A woman convicted of sexually exploiting her 14-year-old daughter to produce child pornography was sentenced Thursday to 40 years in prison by a federal judge who called her conduct ‘shocking’ and ‘egregious.’ “The damage you have done to your daughter is incalculable,” Judge Paul 219 Barbadoro told the 43- year-old woman.”

The woman who trafficked her daughter was a Manchester, New Hampshire, lawyer. Federal prosecutors sought a sentence of 100 years in prison. Judge Barbadoro described the daughter as “100 percent victim,” and the mother as “100 percent perpetrator.”220 There needs to be a storm of righteous indignation at the use of women and children for pornographic purposes. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, as amended, “defines ‘severe forms of trafficking’ as: “sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age . . . .”221 According to Anthony M. DeStefano, Congressman Henry A. Waxman “said that many public health and social service advocates were worried that any [Bush Administration] policy condemning prostitution ‘will both increase stigma and make it harder to work effectively with the vulnerable populations they are trying to reach.’”222

And, therein lay the tension: How do we fight trafficking, and the prostitution that is embedded in this scourge, without stigmatizing the victims and precluding their restoration to a normal life? Perhaps, if the focus of the storm is pornography, vice prostitution, even though there are indelible links between the two, progress can be made “at the barricades of freedom.”223


Chapter Twenty Nine

And, remember Tod Lindberg’s words: “Into a world of imperial occupation, deprivation, cruelty, slavery, injustice, heredity privilege, persecution, tribal conflict, collective punishment, piracy, the arrogance of the strong, the hopelessness of the weak, and the banishment of the sick, Jesus introduced the idea of universal freedom and the equality produced when people recognize the freedom of others by treating others the way they themselves would like to be treated.”224


“Tomorrow is the judgment day”226 “A man who has been charged with killing an Alaska couple and raping their 2-year-old great-grand-daughter is a registered sex offender convicted of breaking into a home and assaulting an 11-year-old girl four years ago.”227

The perpetrator killed the elderly couple with “blunt force.” 228 I submit that it is time that laws governing registered sex offenders be strengthened to assure civil society that a heinous crime, such as that committed four years ago by this perpetrator, and others like him, is the last. If the original sentence, which addressed breaking and entering a home, followed by the rape of an 11-year-old child, had been ten times four years, or the 40 years the mother, who trafficked her daughter for pornographic purposes, received, this double murder and rape of a twoyear-old child, would not have happened. Listen to the words of Cuyahoga County Prosecutor Timothy McGinty: “Capital punishment must be reserved for those crimes that are truly the worst examples of human conduct,” he said. “The reality is we still have brutal criminals in our midst who have no respect for the rule of law or human life.”229 “Tomorrow is the judgment day.”230


“Will you take your place with me?”232 At Washington, the U.S. Naval Academy is investigating allegations that three members of its football team sexually assaulted a female midshipman233 at an off-campus house last year, a Pentagon spokesman said Friday, and a lawyer for the woman said she was “ostracized” on campus after she reported it.234 The Naval Academy concluded its investigation by formally charging the three football players with sexual assault.235 In light of the fact that “Military sex assault reports [are] growing;”236 that “Military sexual-assault issues have deep roots;”237 and, that the “Military justice bill faces an uphill battle;”238 the latter being legislation that “would remove commanders from the process of deciding whether serious crimes, including sexual misconduct cases, go to trial;”239 a cultural sea change240 needs to take place both within the military and within American society, as a whole. The culture that surrounds American football is strong. Witness the push back at Penn State over the sanctions that have been imposed on the once hallowed football program, because of the criminal assaults perpetrated on young boys by an assistant coach and the resultant coverup, which, when exposed, brought severe National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sanctions, which the University humbly accepted. Yet many alumni, boosters, and fans think the punishment excessive. And, now, three football players at the venerable U.S. Naval Academy are accused of raping a fellow midshipman, a female, who has been ostracized on campus; because, she reported the crime. What makes this incident so egregious is that the three accused male perpetrators and the female victim all are in training to protect and defend, not only the United States of America, but the cause of freedom worldwide, as U.S. service men have done, since U.S. Presidents first dispatched uniform service members overseas.241 More importantly, these four midshipmen242 are training to be officers and leaders of other men and


Chapter Thirty One

women. If found guilty, these three men will have dishonored the flag and country they committed to serve, let alone the young woman they are accused of violating. So, why do I include this incident, which is not a case of Human Trafficking, or prostitution, or pornography, but which is a case of reported gang rape? “The woman said she was ‘ostracized’ on campus after she reported it.”243

A cultural sea change needs to take place, not just at the U.S. Service Academies, or Penn State, but on college and university campuses across the nation, where athletes are held in high esteem.244 To put it simply and directly: A reported victim never should be ostracized; and, although accused perpetrators are innocent, until proven guilty, those who seek to bring justice to a situation, be it at the Naval Academy, or Penn State, should be shown the mercy for which Micah calls.245 Finally, it only can be hoped, that as U.S. society better recognizes the egregiousness of sexual assault and comes more readily to the defense of victims, not only in this country, but abroad, that the cause of fighting Human Trafficking will gain able and stalwart warriors, committed to defending the innocent and bringing justice, in order “to make a difference in the world.”246 “Will you take your place with me?”247


One of the most significant, salient, and refreshing messages that the U.S. Department of State communicates, is that monitoring and combating human trafficking is a partnership, i.e., it is a partnership between government (in this case, the U.S. Government) and civil society. Bear in mind that civil society is not limited to local, regional, and state government; but, it encompasses civic groups, e.g., Rotary and Kiwanis Clubs, Veterans’ organizations, Parent Teacher Associations (PTA), the YMCA/YWCA248, and church and synagogue groups and organizations: This is the one fight that is the better for the merging of Church and State. All this said, State has identified just a “tip” of the iceberg that looms, as a spectre in the night, inexorably moving to crush civilization’s attempts to protect human rights. We must never, never, never give in249 to this evil that plunges the innocent into the valley of deepest darkness.250 So, I ask you, my readers, to be beacons of light in the valley of deepest darkness. Finally, it is left to Dr. Wilfred M. McClay, who holds the Sun Trust Chair of Excellence in Humanities, at the University of Tennessee, at Chattanooga, to state that: Like Jefferson, we all are carriers of purposes far larger than we know. Purposes whose full realization cannot be achieved in our lifetime, or even be fully understood by us, but which we are called to carry forward as faithfully as we can, our charges to keep.251

In this sense, let us be like Jefferson,252 like Augustine and Wilberforce and Lincoln; let us carry the purpose of eliminating Human Trafficking from the face of this earth we call home; even though we realize that this momentous challenge cannot be achieved in our lifetime; and even though we acknowledge that we do not and cannot fully grasp, let alone understand the scope of this global tragedy; but let us respond to this call for action and carry forward the mission, as we understand and grasp it, faithful soldiers that we might be.

Chapter Thirty Two


In conclusion, let the words of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, taken from his “Stations on the Way to Freedom,” as he speaks to “Action,” serve us today, tonight, and tomorrow: Do and dare what is right, not swayed by the whim of the moment. Bravely take hold of the real, not dallying now with what might be. Not in the flight of ideas but only in action is freedom. Make up your mind and come out into the tempest of living. God’s command is enough and your faith in him to sustain you. Then at last freedom will welcome your spirit amid great rejoicing.253



As you have seen from the four tragic accounts I detailed under the headings of “One Day More,” “One More Day,” “And, One Day More,” “And, One More Day,” the evil that permeates sex trafficking, prostitution, pornography, sexual assault, and attendant murder is not going to stop; but, it can be discouraged and abated and peoples lives spared the “incalculable damage”255 such evil inflicts. I challenge you to continue the fight. Reading this book has brought you into the fray; and, you will have garnered any number of ideas, as to how to carry yourself in this battle, whether it is through Criminal Justice; the Law; Medicine, to include Nursing; research and writing; serving a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) involved in the fight, or a governmental organization; politics, local, regional, state, or national, the choice is yours. For those of you who are able, a donation goes a long way: The Justice & Mercy Initiative at Bryan College is just one of many worthy initiatives to fight trafficking in persons: It is important for you to note that all of the author’s proceeds, for the writing of this book, go directly to the Justice & Mercy Initiative. I cannot, will not, profit from the misery of the victims of human trafficking; so, any donations go directly to create awareness, to educate, and to fight the battles that are possible to fight. And, finally, it is time to bring this effort to a close. As I said, at the beginning of this note, the scourge will continue; and, tomorrow’s press will detail more abuse, more crime, and more tragedy for the victims of human trafficking. It would avail little to carry on, reporting and writing. Others have equally important ideas and some, more important ideas to share on the subject; and, their words will be well worth considering. Thank you for considering mine. Blessings & Best!


Many of the sources used in the compilation of this book are primary. The subject matter, Human Trafficking, virtually requires that primary sources, not only be utilized, but that they be valued for their timeliness and currency. Other scholars may take a different approach; but, for the purposes of this work, I have found that such sources as: Newspaper articles, web sites, e-mail, letters, interviews, lectures, and speeches, to have been invaluable, in presenting the case for Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife. In addition, the annual report, which the U.S. Department of State issues, devoted to Trafficking in Persons, I found to be a seminal, primary source. Finally, references to literature and film, paintings and sculpture, and musical scores, all were critical to the eclectic mix of sources I have tried to bring to bear on this treatment.256


Alexander, Samuel K., Letter to Ronald D. Petitte, October 8, 2007. Amazing Grace. Directed by Michael Apted. Performed by Ioan Gruffudd, Romola Garai and Benedict Cumberbatch. 2006. Amistad. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Performed by Morgan Freeman, Anthony Hopkins, Nigel Hawthorne, and Djimon Hounsou. 1997. Anderson, James E. Cases in Public Policy making. 3rd ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York, 1982. —. Public Policy-Making. 3rd ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York, 1984. —. Public Policymaking. 4th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, 2000. Arkes, Hadley. First Things, an Inquiry into the First Principles of Morals and Justice. Princeton University Press. 1986. Atonement. Directed by Joe Wright. Performed by James McAvoy, Keira Knightley, and Vanessa Redgrave. 2007. Bales, Kevin, and Ron Soodalter. The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009. Barrow, Bill. “Jimmy Carter: Women’s Plight Perpetuated By World Religions.” The Associated Press and The Huffington Post. June 28, 2013. Batstone, David. Not For Sale: The Return of the Global Slave TradeAnd How We Can Fight It. Harper Collins, 2010. Battle of Britain. Directed by Guy Hamilton. Performed by Harry Andrews and Michael Caine. 1969. Beck, Marilyn, and Stacy Jenel Smith. "Arnold movie of lynching of Lena Baker brings tears." The Chattanooga Times Free Press, February 25, 2008, D5. Benedict XVI. Speech to the United Nations. April 18, 2008. Birnbaum, David. Book 1, Summa Metaphysica I, God and Evil. Harvard New Paradigm: Boston, New York. 1988; 2012. —. Book 2, Summa Metaphysica II, God and Good. Harvard New Paradigm: Boston, New York. 2009.


Reference List

Boling, Paul. "What Does It Mean to be Human?" Paper presented at Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century, Bryan College, Dayton, TN, January 26, 2008. Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. Ethics. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1965. Boublil, Alain and Natel, Jean-Marc (French lyrics); Kretzmer, Herbert (English adaptation); and, Schoenberg, Claude-Michel (Music composer). Les Miserables (musical score). Paris, 1980-New York, 2013. Bowley, Mary Frances. The White Umbrella, walking with survivors of sex trafficking. Moody. 2012. Brattebo, Douglas M. and Malone, Eloise F., editors. The Lanahan Cases in Leadership, Ethics & Decision Making. Lanahan Publishers, 2002. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Newscast on the state of French brothels, as aired by National Public Radio (NPR), March 21 and 22, 2010; also, April 28, 2010, as part of “The World.” Brokaw, Tom. The Greatest Generation. New York: Random House, 1998. Browning, Robert. “Andrea Del Sarto” (“The Faultless Painter”); Line 97. 1855. Bryan, William Jennings. Selected Orations of William Jennings Bryan. Edited by Richard M. Cornelius. Dayton, Tennessee: Bryan College, 1996. Bush, George W. "State of the Union 2008." Address to the nation. January 28, 2008. (accessed March 5, 2008). Also, State of the Union addresses beginning in 2001 through 2007. Chattanooga Times Free Press. “Man charged in rape of toddler.” May 28, 2013. —. “Pope heading to Sicily today.” July 8, 2013. —. “SportsBriefs: Football.” July 16, 2013. Churchill, Winston S. “Never Give In.” Harrow School, Harrow, Middlesex, U.K. October 29, 1941. Clairvaux, Bernard of. O Sacred Head, Now Wounded. 1153. Clawson, Heather J., et al., Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States: A Reviw of the Literature. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. August 2009. Accessed April 21, 2011. Clear and Present Danger. Directed by Phillip Noyce. Performed by Harrison Ford, William Dafoe, and Anne Archer. 1994.

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


Clinton, William Jefferson. "The State of the Union: 1993-2000." The Washington Post. January 27, 2000. http://www.washingtonpost .com/wp-srv/politics/special/states/states.htm (accessed March 5, 2008). Cook, David. “Black and white anger.” Chattanooga Times Free Press. July 17, 2013. Cornelius, Richard M., ed. Selected Orations of William Jennings Bryan, 75th Anniversary Edition. Bryan College Press, Dayton, Tennessee, 2000. Costello, Robert B., ed. The American Heritage, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, New York. 2000. Crary, David. “Military sexual-assault issues have deep roots.” Chattanooga Times Free Press (after, The Associated Press). June 3, 2013. Crichton, Michael. The Great Train Robbery. New York: Avon Books, 1975. Curtin, Philip D. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1969. Defiance. Directed by Edward Zwick. Performed by Daniel Craig, Liev Schreiber and Jamie Bell. 2008. DeStefano, Anthony M. The War on Human Trafficking: U.S. Policy Assessed. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2007. DeYoung, Karen and Jaffe, Greg. “Navy SEALs rescue kidnapped aid workers Jessica Buchanan and Poul Hagen Thisted in Somalia.” January 25, 2012. DiLorenzo, Thomas. The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003. Dolan, Christine. A Shattered Innocence, The Millennium Holocaust. A Report to the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, 2001. —. "Human Trafficking." Address, Bryan College Commoner Forum. Dayton, Tennessee, April 18, 2007. —. E-mail message to Ronald D. Petitte, Summer 2007 (message deleted; no further reference). —. "Children in Slavery: The 21st Century Campaign." Keynote address, Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century, Dayton, TN, January 25, 2008. —.”Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century.” Handout. January 25, 2008. Dowd, Maureen. “When myths collide in the capital.” Chattanooga Times Free Press. May 14, 2013.


Reference List

Dreher, Rod. “Expect evil, offer forgiveness.” BBC News Magazine: Viewpoint. December 18, 2012. Economist. "Sever them, Religion should have a smaller official role in Britain, not a greater one." The Economist, February 16, 2008: 14. —. “What a choice.” Eltis, David. Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New York. 1989. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). “Human Trafficking: Today’s Slave Trade.” April 18, 2011. Fox News. Untitled article by an unnamed contributor, as found on:… Fraser, Campbell and Bollant, Gwen. Interview. Dayton, Tennessee. May 22, 2013. George, Elizabeth. Missing Joseph. New York: Bantam Dell, 2003. Gonzales, Tony. “‘Sweeping changes’ beef up laws on trafficking: Twelve new laws are going into effect July 1 [2013]; one will permit those paying for sex to be prosecuted as traffickers.” Chattanooga Times Free Press (after The Tennessean). May 27, 2013. Goodstein, Laurie. “Pope’s focus on abuse brings hints of change.” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, April 18, 2008: A1. Google: June 28, 2013. Greeson, Jay. “Baseball’s steroid saga just the latest outrage.” Chattanooga Times Free Press. July 11, 2013. Grisham, Ann. "Child Slavery, Education, and Hope." Research Paper, Bryan College, 2007. Guralnik, David B. ed. Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language. 2nd College ed. Toronto: Nelson, Foster and Scott LTD., 1974. Harvest USA Mid-South. “Pornography in America, Statistics on Sexual Brokenness.” Chattanooga, Tennessee. January 27, 2001. Haslam, Bill. Private conversation. Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee. March 20, 2010. Havelkova, Eva. "Trafficking in Women in CEE." Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century, Dayton, TN, January 26, 2008. Heber, Reginald. The Brightest and Best of the Sons of the Morning, 1811. Ho, David. “Pope urges U.N. to defend human rights.” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, April 19, 2008: A4.

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


Hoerber, Robert C., ed. Concordia Self-Study Bible, New International Version. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986. Human Trafficking. Directed by Christian Duguay. Performed by Mira Sorvino, Donald Sutherland and Robert Carlyle. 2007. Inherit the Truth. Directed by Tony McCuiston. Performed by Raymond Legg, Tony McCuiston and Ronald Petitte. 2007. Institute of Research and Dialogue for Peace. Building Lasting Peace in Rwanda: Voices of the People. Kigali: Pallotti-Presse, 2003. "International Religious Freedom Act of 1998." Public Law 105-292. October 27, 1998. Available from: Thomas (Library of Congress), (accessed February 18, 2008). Johnson, Carter. "Christian Hope." Sermon, Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century. Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee. January 27, 2008. —. "God's Sovereignty and Man's Responsibility in an Evil Filled World." Sermon, Westminster Presbyterian Church (WPC), Dayton, TN, February 3, 2008. —. “God of My Fears.” WPC, Dayton. March 21, 2010. —. “Harmony.” WPC, Dayton. May 19, 2013. Johnson, Gale. Monkey in the Middle: The Scopes Evolution Trial. Performed by Raymond Legg, Tony McCuiston and Ronald Petitte. The Rhea County Court House, Dayton, TN, 2007. Jones, Samuel Vincent. “The Invisible Man: The Conscious Neglect of Men and Boys In The War On Human Trafficking.” Utah Law Review. 4 (2010): 1143-1188. Jordan, Lara Jakes. “Police call child porn ring sophisticated.” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, March 5, 2008: A4. Joseph, Victor (author); Hill, Kent R. (editor). “Stolen Lives: Dignity, Forgiveness, Hope, And Future-Mindedness For Victims Of Sex Trafficking In India. Support for this Report provided by a grant from The John Templeton Foundation. Kengor, Paul. "Reagan was right, Remembering the 'evil empire' speech that changed history." World, March 8, 2008: 11. King Jr., Martin Luther. "Martin Luther King Jr.: ‘I Have a Dream’." American Rhetoric. 2008. (accessed Febraury 20, 2008). King, Ross. Ex-Libris. New York: Penguin, 1998. Kristof, Nicholas. “Branded for Life.” Chattanooga Times Free Press. June 7, 2012.


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Lacey, Robert and Danziger, Danny. The Year 100: What Life Was Like At The Turn Of The First Millenium, An Englishman’s World. Boothbay Harbor: Abacus, 2003. Lantzer, Emily. "Images in Slavery: Human Trafficking in Light of the Pentateuch." Research Paper, 2007. Lee, Abraham. "Overview of Human Trafficking and the State Department." Keynote address, Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century. Dayton, TN, January 26, 2008. Lewis, C.S. The Problem of Pain. New York: HarperCollins, 1940. Limanowska, Barbara. Trafficking in Human Beings in South Eastern Europe. Report to the United Nations, UNDP, 2005. Lincoln, Abraham. "The Emancipation Proclamation." 1869. “Lincoln’s racial views, President urged blacks to settle in Central America.” Chattanooga Times Free Press, March 6, 2011, A5. Lindberg, Tod. The Political Teachings of Jesus. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. Loven, Jennifer. "Bush urges action to stop genocide in Africa." The Chattanooga Times Free Press, Febraury 20, 2008: A6. Lynn Jr., Laurence E. Managing Public Policy. Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 1987. Mason, Francis K. Battle Over Britain. London: McWhirter Twins Ltd., 1969. McCartney, Paul. Let It Be. Apple Records. Դ 1970. McClay, Wilfred M. “A complex hero: Something of Jefferson lingers in us all even in 2008.” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, April 20, 2008: G1-2. Meredith, Robert. The Crucifixion. Painting, 1981, Bryan College, Dayton, TN. Miller, John R. “The Justice Department, Blind to Slavery.” The New York Times, July 11, 2008. Moorehead, Caroline. "Women and Children for Sale." The New York Review of Books, October 11, 2007: 15. Mullen, Shirley A. “Moral Integrity.” New York City, New York. March 1, 2013. Nakamura, Robert T. and Smallwood, Frank. The Politics of Policy Implementation. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980. Nash, Corrie. "Economics of Human Trafficking." Research Paper, 2007. NetJets Inc. "NetJets Advertisement." The Economist, February 16, 2008: 15. Newton, John. Amazing Grace. 1772. Noel, Christy. "Human Trafficking." Research Paper, 2007.

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Obama, Barack. “The State of the Union: 2009-2013.” O'Donovan, Oliver, and Joan Lockwood O'Donovan. From Irenaeus to Grotius: A Sourcebook in Christian Political Thought. Grand Rapids/Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publish Company, 1999. Paschall, David. “Vandy IDs dismissed four players.” Chattanooga Times Free Press. July 16, 2013. —. “Murray denies fear of Clowney.” Chattanooga Times Free Press. July 19, 2013. Petitte, Ronald D. "The Scourge of Human Trafficking." Bryan Life, Winter, 2007. —. “‘Washington Calling Jefferson Smith. Come in Mr. Smith: The Nation Needs You!’ Reflections on Moral Leadership and the Virtue that is the Foundation for such Leadership, in the Politics and Government of 21st Century America.” Unpublished. Fall, 2007. —. “Special Report To New Scotland Yard.” 2011. Phillips, Donald T. Lincoln on Leadership. New York: Warner Books, 1992. Popa, Dana. Not Natasha. London: Autograph, 2009. Pornography In America: Statistics on Sexual Brokenness. Chattanooga: Harvest USA: Mid-South, 2011. Rausta-von Wright, Maijaliisa. “Seeds of Strife: An Educational Challenge.” Oxford. March 17, 2008. Reno, R.R., ed. First Things: A Journal of Religion, Culture, and Public Life. The Institute on Religion and Public Life. Current. Ricketts, Travis. "Battle of Britain from the Perspective of the Luftwaffe." Research paper written for Professor Robin Highman's "Seminar in Military History", Kansas State University, 1998. Roots. Directed by Marvin Chomsky and John Erman. Performed by LeVar Burton and Edward Asner. 1977. Roosevelt, Eleanor, Committee Chair, with Cassin, René; Malik, Charles; Chang, Peng Chung; and Humphrey, John. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations General Assembly. December 10, 1948. Saving Private Ryan. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Performed by Tom Hanks, Tom Sizemore, Edward Burns, and Matt Damon. 1998. Sawyer, Diane. News segment. CBS News. Sunday evening, March 21, 2010. Schindler's List. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Performed by Liam Neeson, Ben Kingsley, Ralph Fiennes and Caroline Goodall. 1993. Sen, Amartya. The Idea of Justice. London: Penguin, 2009.


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Reference List

"Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000." Public Law 106-386. 2000. Walter, Shoshana. “8 Teens Arrested In Beating of Lakeland Girl.” The Ledger, April 6, 2008. News.html (accessed April 28, 2008). Wiedmer, Mark. “Do off-field woes mirror SEC’s on-field success? Chattanooga Times Free Press. July 16, 2013. Wire Reports. “U.N. chief seeks lower food prices.” Chattanooga Times Free Press, June 3, 2008. Witte, Brian. “3 midshipmen charged with sexual assault.” Ibid. (after, The Associated Press). June 20, 2013. Woolf, H.B., ed. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, 1979. Worldwide Documentaries. Not My Life. DVD. Disclosure, 2008. Zero Dark Thirty. Directed by Kathryn Bigelow. Performed by Jessica Chastain, Jason Clarke, and Chris Pratt. 2012.


As this is not the normative, academic, paper, primarily because the subject matter is so aberrant, in light of a 21st Century Civilization, which now is at risk, an explanation is in order. The first contact for Bryan College, with respect to Human Trafficking, was in 2001, when Bryan’s India Team, led by Dr. Matt Benson, now Vice President for Spiritual Life at Bryan, spent one week in Calcutta, India, working with slaves, whose freedom had been purchased by a wealthy Christian Indian businessman, who, then, gave them employment. In January 2007, four of my students257 asked to go to Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, to attend a conference on Human Trafficking. This conference brought together these four students with Ms. Christine Dolan, one of America’s foremost advocates for the monitoring and combating of Human Trafficking, as well as with Ms. Anna Paden, a recent graduate of Georgetown University (‘06), who was assisting Ms. Dolan in her mission. Again, Dr. Benson took the lead, personally selecting and sponsoring these four students. In April of 2007 Bryan College’s Commoner Forum, a student led forum, under the, then, Bryan Center for International Leadership, which I directed, hosted an evening session for Bryan students, to be briefed by Ms. Dolan. Over onethird of Bryan’s student body came out on the Thursday evening before final exam week. The success of this venture led the Center for International Leadership [now, the Center for Leadership Initiatives], which I direct, to co-host, with Bryan’s Center for International Development, directed by Mr. Dennis Miller, and Bryan’s newly established chapter of Students Stopping the Trafficking of People (SSTOP), a national conference to combat Human Trafficking. Titled “Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century.” The Bryan Conference brought together, on January 25-27, 2008, spokespersons from the U.S. Department of State (Mr. Abraham Lee), Ms. Dolan, student representatives of SSTOP and campuses throughout the Southeast, and


Addendum One

Bryan’s Bible, Christian Thought, and Philosophy Departments, to address the subject. Remembering the annual invitation I once again had received, to participate in and contribute to the work of the Oxford Round Table, I prepared an abstract. Having subsequently been selected to contribute to the 2008 Round Table, by the Oxford Round Table advisory committee, I prepared the first complete draft of this paper, which I presented in the Oxford Union in conjunction with Pembroke College on Wednesday, March 19th, 2008. I was ably assisted by my distinguished discussion leader, Dr. Suk-hee Kim, of Norfolk State University, in the United States of America. Shortly after my return from England, The International Institute of Christian Studies (IICS) invited me to offer a paper at their annual conference, on the monitoring and combating of Human Trafficking. I explained that I had just presented a paper on this subject at the Oxford Union, in Oxford University, Oxford, England, and offered to speak on another subject; but, their interest was in combating the evil of Human Trafficking; so, I gave a quickly updated version of this paper to the annual conference of the IICS, in Kansas City Missouri, in July 2008. In January 2009 (23-25 January), my newly designated Center for Leadership Initiatives cosponsored, again, with the Center for International Development and SSTOP, Bryan College’s first, international conference, “The Criminal Justice Solution to Human Trafficking.” The State Department chose Dr. Abraham Lee to once again assist us, as a keynote speaker. And, we brought Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn, from New Scotland Yard, to join forces with Abraham Lee, to take our efforts to stem this scourge, to the international stage. The Midwest Political Science Association held their annual, international conference, from 22-25 April 2010, to which conference I was invited to speak to “The Criminal Justice Solution to Human Trafficking.” Dr. Abraham Lee assisted by dispatching 75 copies of the latest Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report to Chicago, for me to disseminate before and after my address. Subsequently, I was invited to attend the release of the U.S. Department of State’s 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report, on 14 June 2010, in Washington D.C. with Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton. In November of 2010 (3-7 November) the newly formed Bryan Institute and the Bryan Center for Leadership Initiatives sponsored, in conjunction with SSTOP, a second, annual, International Conference To Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking: International Human Rights: Freedom from Persecution258 brought together, once again, the Department of

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


State, this time in the person of Ms. Ann Karl259 and New Scotland Yard in the persons of Detective Inspector Steve Wilkinson and Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn, who had spoken so eloquently in 2009. Joining the State Department and Scotland Yard was the International Justice Mission, in the person of Dr. Wayne Barnard. Immediately following this international conference, I brought Detectives Wilkinson and Llewellyn to Washington D.C., to meet with the State Department, on Monday, 8 November 2010. Based on these initiatives, as well as the paper presentations I have made in England and the United States, subject: Fighting Human Trafficking, I was invited by New Scotland Yard to attend a special conference they initiated to advance the fight against Child Trafficking. The London Metropolitan Police hosted the conference, which was held at New Scotland Yard, on December 6th, 2010. The focus of the conference was the cooperative effort between the United Kingdom (UK) and Romania, the largest source for Child Trafficking in Europe. The London conference was funded, in large part, by the European Commission. I was the only American to attend. A few of the dignitaries , with whom Bryan College was seated, on December 6th included: The House of Lords (two members); the House of Commons (three members of Parliament [MPs]); the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs Office; the Home Office; the British Red Cross; Police Officials throughout the UK; the London School of Economics; the University of Essex; the European Commission; European Justice (Eurojust Headquarters); European Police (Europol Headquarters); International Police (Interpol Headquarters); International Police from Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Romania; the United Nations; and, the U.S. Department of State (unable to attend). Speakers included a Member of Parliament; the leadership of the Metropolitan Police and New Scotland Yard; and government and police officials from Romania. On December 7th, accompanied by my Scotland Yard hosts, I was given a private tour of the Houses of Parliament. After the tour, I was invited to attend a closed door session in the House of Commons, where Scotland Yard detectives briefed a delegation of Members of Parliament, on the efforts of the joint investigative teams, comprised of officers from Scotland Yard and the Romanian National Police Forces, fighting the influx of Roma children, being trafficked to London. As three years had passed since attending my first Oxford Round Table; and, as a new invitation had been extended to me to revisit a roundtable, I attended the 2011 Oxford Round Table, held this time in Lincoln College, in the University of Oxford, and on 29th March 2011, presented a snapshot of what, in time, would become the final draft of this manuscript.


Addendum One

Finally, The Oxford Round Table, once again, extended an invitation for me to join a new group of scholars assembled around a table at Harris Manchester College, where I presented a précis of the completed manuscript on 31st July 2013. Now, I am honored to be able to bring the culmination of this thought, writing, peer reviews, and coordinated effort to fight Human Trafficking, to publication.


The Unites States Department of State It is right to recognize the exceptional commitment of political appointees and career civil servants, who join forces to publicly take on this fight. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Justice leads America’s national fight to monitor and combat human trafficking. Many have been quick to criticize the U.S. for not including itself in the Department of State’s “Trafficking in Persons” Report,260 from foreign nations to some of America’s leading and most passionate advocates. What these critics fail to recognize is that the Department of State is the United States’ window to the world, as represented, at the highest level, by Secretaries, such as Dr. Condoleezza Rice, Hillary Rodham Clinton, and John Kerry, down to the summer interns, who toil away at Foggy Bottom.261 State deals with the world, not with the domain that is the territorial United States. The U.S. Department of Justice monitors and combats Human Trafficking, within the United States and reports on it. The Justice Report, “Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons,”262 is more extensive than any report the State Department does on any, one, foreign country. The work of the U.S. Departments of State and Justice, not only is vital to, but foremost in, the fight against Human Trafficking. Critics, please, take note and enquire: How many nations self-report their efforts to monitor and combat Human Trafficking? Let’s give credit where credit is due,263 and recognize United States efforts, under the George W. Bush Administration, to monitor and combat the 21st Century holocaust and, now, under the Barack Obama Administration, where Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, first led the battle and where, now, Secretary John Kerry carries on the fight. To her great credit, Secretary Clinton was determined to include the United States in her report on Trafficking in Persons. This was a bold and courageous move, which sent the clearest signal possible to the rest of the world: We hold ourselves accountable; and, we expect you to do the same.


Addendum Two

The U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, formerly led by an Ambassador, Mark Legon, under President Bush and Secretary Rice, now, is led by the Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State and Ambassador-at-Large, Luis CdeBaca. Mr. CdeBaca directs the Department of State’s anti-trafficking efforts for the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights, Maria Otero. Three of Secretary Otero and Mr. CdeBaca’s foremost warriors are: Ms. Paula Goode, former Interim Director and Deputy Director; Dr. Abraham Lee; and, Miss Ann Karl, who work with Ms. Goode, in the Office to Monitor and Combat The Trafficking in Persons. These committed agents have been instrumental in supporting Bryan College’s international conferences to fight the spectre of Human Trafficking. It should be noted that Dr. Lee recently spent a year at the Department of Justice, enhancing and expanding the coordinated work of State and Justice.264 Obviously, these people, I mention, are representative of thousands of impassioned, individual, advocates; students, scholars, executives, and public servants, nationally and internationally, who monitor and combat Human Trafficking. It is not possible to list them all, and I will be the first to state, that I do not, cannot, know them all, as much as I would like to. Special mention also is accorded:

SSTOP Students Stopping the Trafficking of People (SSTOP) is an organization that is taking hold on college and university campuses across the United States, from Bard College265 to Bryan College266 to Georgetown University.267 Significant work initially was done by such student leaders as Paul Gutacker268 and Paige Ratzlaff,269 Michael Reneau,270 Bonnie Marie Yager271 and Anna Paden;272 and, student researchers, such as Ann Grisham and Christine Noel, Corrie Nash and Emily Lantzer,273 who committed to a serious study of the problem, to better prepare themselves for advocacy, as well as to educate and enlighten people (who know nothing of the problem). College and university faculty, who commit to research, write, and speak of the devastation brought to innocent lives, such as Drs. Paul Boling274 and Ken Turner275 and college administrators, committed to combating this scourge, such as Stephen Livesay,276 Cal White, Bradford Sample, Matt Benson277, Dennis Miller,278 and Ben Norquist.279 Continuing the tradition, Bryan students have been led by Jonathan Warner, a designated Scholar of the Center for Leadership Initiatives,280 for his work leading SSTOP; and, Olivia Smith, Andrew McPeak, and, Maddie Mondell.

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


Mr. Dennis Miller, who directs the Center for International Development, has expanded his mission work by partnering with the State of Georgia, where he plans, coordinates, and implements international conferences to create awareness of the spectre of trafficking. Dennis has been especially effective in his outreach to high school, preparatory school, and home schoolers. Mr. Ben Norquist has designed and begun teaching a series of four courses dealing with trafficking domestically and internationally. He led a group of students to Cambodia to witness first-hand the horrors and challenges of countering and combating Human Trafficking.

IJM The International Justice Mission (IJM) is an organization of unique merit, which operates on a professional, not-for-profit, level, employing primarily lawyers, as well as law school students, to engage governmental and police officials of nation states at the Public Policy level. Founded by Gary Haugen, a graduate of both Harvard University and the University of Chicago’s School of Law, IJM’s mission, like that of the State Department, is the world outside the United States. The IJM is the premier, world-wide, private, organization, in the fight against the trafficking in persons. In this sense, IJM is the private counterpart to the public, Department of State. It should be noted that Mr. Haugen was honored by the U.S. Department of State: Gary was recognized as one of ten international heroes, in the fight against modern day slavery. He was the only American so recognized and was personally cited for his remarkable work by the Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton, on the 19th of June, in this year of our Lord, 2012.

New Scotland Yard Great credit is due the United Kingdom (UK)’s New Scotland Yard and the London Metropolitan Police Service. The UK has waged a monumental fight against Human Trafficking, led by such warriors as now retired, Detective Inspector Steve Wilkinson281 and retired Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn,282 who had significant success in the all too brief period of time their missions were funded.


Addendum Two

FBI Last, but not least, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) “launched a 72-hour nationwide operation targeting pimps who prey on children – an undercover mission that rescued 105 teens ranging mostly in age from 13 to 17 years old, with the youngest victim being 9 years old . . . .”283 “Ronald Hosko, assistant director of the FBI’s criminal division, said ‘Operation Cross-Country’ – launched Friday [26 July 2013] – included sting operations in 76 U.S. cities that resulted in the arrests of 150 pimps.”284 Let me just say that it was time. On July 11, 2008, John R. Miller, former Ambassador-at-Large on International Slavery, a portfolio he held at the U.S. Department of State from 2002 until 2006, took the U.S. Department of Justice, of which the FBI is a major component, to task in an article he wrote, as an Op-Ed Contributor to the New York Times; the article is entitled “The Justice Department, Blind to Slavery.”285 To put this timeline in perspective, John David Ashcroft headed the Justice Department, as Attorney General, serving the George W. Bush Administration from 2001-2005; he was followed by Alberto R. Gonzales from 2005-2007. Eric Holder has served the Barack Obama Administration, as Attorney General, from 2009 until the present (2013). Mr. Miller now serves as a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson Center and a senior fellow of the Discovery Institute. He is a bold and eloquent spokesman. Read what he has to say; it appears that Mr. Holder has, to his credit.


A brief special report, which I was asked to render to New Scotland Yard is offered in tribute: “With all due respect, I would, as a foreigner, add my voice to those requesting that Operation Golf not be shut down. The value of this Operation only can be measured in the number of lives saved, to include those victims rescued from trafficking. There are some operations that should be “budget resistant.” Moreover, the expertise those few, brave, and experienced officers have built up, in the fight against trafficking, cannot easily be replaced. The public international, working relationship, between the Romanian National Police and Romanian Government officials and New Scotland Yard is ground breaking. As one who has studied Public International Law (Universities of Edinburgh, Vienna, and The Hague Academy) and who now directs a Center for Leadership Initiatives (Bryan College), you, at the Metropolitan Police and New Scotland Yard have accomplished a feat of incredible proportions, one that should not be consigned to the dust bin of history. I understand that there are Members of Parliament, who voice a similar opinion. I have had the honor of hosting two of your detectives, Roddy Llewellyn (Detective Sergeant) and Steve Wilkinson (Detective Inspector), both of whom brought vital information to over 1500 college/university level students, at Bryan College, in Dayton, Tennessee (USA), in their all too brief visits to the Southeast. They have taught masterfully and raised awareness exponentially; and, I was honored by your organization, when I was invited to attend the 6th December 2010 Conference you so ably hosted, subject: Joint Investigative Teams (JITs). Therefore, it is most unfortunate that such extraordinary expertise will be lost with the closing down of this unique operation. Monitoring and combating Human Trafficking should be the cause of us all, in this 21st Century.286 All this said: Even though Operation Gulf may have to be shut down, New Scotland Yard will continue the fight against Human Trafficking; and, based on its extraordinary history, new warriors will come to the fore


Addendum Three

and will bring great credit to the United Kingdom, the Metropolitan Police, and New Scotland Yard.” sic semper tyrannis.287



Jer. 21:12. The NIV, i.e., The Concordia Self-Study Bible, 1986, Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, is the translation I have chosen to use. With reference to justice, Amartya Sen’s modern classic, The Idea of Justice is recommended reading. A philosophical treatise, Sen does not deal with Human Trafficking, per se; rather he is interested in defining human rights, e.g., at P. 360, he asks: “What are human rights,” along the lines of Pontius Pilate’s query, “What is truth?” (John 18:38). I would be remiss not to credit Dr. Richard H. Morgan, who, at the Lincoln College Oxford Round Table, introduced me to Amartya Sen’s Idea of Justice. Later that afternoon, I was walking by Blackwell’s Bookstore, on Broad Street, Oxford, when I saw Sen’s book in the shop window. Needless to say, I rushed in and bought it. 2 Ibid. 3 “United States Declaration of Independence,” 1776. 4 “No one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church . . . (Eph. 5:29). 5 Scourge is the description I first put to the menace of Human Trafficking, when I began this writing, in the Summer of 2007, as part of the series I am developing on Moral Leadership. The series is entitled: “‘Washington Calling Jefferson Smith. Come in Mr. Smith: The Nation Needs You!’ Reflections on Moral Leadership and the Virtue that is the Foundation for such Leadership, in the Politics and Government of 21st Century America.” Bryan students, from the campus organization, Students Stopping the Trafficking of Persons (SSTOP), adopted the term for the national conference (January 25-27, 2008) co-hosted by Bryan’s Center for International Leadership [now, the Center for Leadership Initiatives] and the Center for International Development. 6 The subject, Human Trafficking, is capitalized, as a mark of emphasis, throughout this paper, just as Satan is capitalized in the Bible and in literature; conversely, traffickers, as a group, are not; there just might be hope for some one, or more of them: Consider, John Newton. 7 All but Reuben, who tried to rescue Joseph from the hands of his brothers. 8 Judah was the primary instigator; but, taking to heart and following Reuben’s lead, he said, to his brothers, “Come, let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay our hands on him; after all, he is our brother, our own flesh and blood.” 9 Gen. 37:25. 10 The third definition of fact, according to Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, David B. Guralnik, Editor in Chief, Nelson, Foster and Scott LTD., Toronto, Canada, 1974, p. 501. 11 Chattanooga Times Free Press (TFP), Tuesday, July 12, 2011, Page 1 (of the lead section), “Sewanee rape case lawsuit heads to trial.” In an exchange of phone



messages with the author of the article, Todd South, on June 25, 2013, Mr. South shared that the student accused of the rape won a modest civil judgment of $26,500. He had asked for over $5 million. Fault was found on both sides of the case; and the judgment, in the accused student’s favor, would be a semester’s tuition at The University of The South. The TFP printed the concluding article, “Jury finds Sewanee and student at fault; awards student $26,500,” on September 3, 2011. 12 Hyperbole, I admit. I credit Dr. Ken Turner, for his use of hyperbole, which brought me to this obvious confession. Please, bear with me. 13 Quotes are from The Year 1000: What Life Was Like At The Turn Of The First Millennium, An Englishman’s World, by Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger, p. 187. This book was first published in 1999 in Great Britain by Little Brown and Company, and was later published by Abacus in 2003. 14 Credit Maureen Dowd, “When myths collide in the capital,” Chattanooga Times Free Press, for Tuesday, May 14, 2013, B6. Ms. Dowd cleverly used these lines (“It’s not true . . . it’s old news.”) from the American Broadcasting Network (ABC)’s show “Scandal,” to introduce her op-ed piece. 15 The word fact comes from the Latin, factum, “that which is done.” It is “a deed; act.” It is “a thing that has actually happened;” to include a “thing that has been.” This, then, does not, and should not, preclude salient facts that have been established, as part of the historical trace of late 20th and early 21st Century slavery. 16 Evidence the enormity of the problem of children being trafficked through Europe, into London, at the very time that, perhaps, the most effective unit, in the fight against Human Trafficking, in the 21st Century, has been shut down, i.e. at New Scotland Yard. 17 The Chattanooga Times Free Press, in an article under “World News,” entitled, “Pope heading to Sicily today,” reported the following: “As archbishop of Buenos Aires, he [Pope Francis] denounced the exploitation of migrants as ‘slavery’ and said those who did nothing to help them were complicit by their silence.” 18 “Human Trafficking: Today’s Slave Trade,” The Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed 18 April 2011, 19 The “fishing boys” of Lake Volta, in Ghana, are examples of the grievousness of labor trafficking. 20 United States Department of Agriculture Economics, Statistics, and Market Information System; from the National Agricultural Statistics Service: “Farms, Land in Farms, and Livestock Operations;” publication dates July 28, 1995 to February 19, 2013. I chose to use 2010. 21 There are a wealth of facts in the State Department’s “Trafficking in Persons” Report, which is published every year; The Justice Department’s “Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons” Report; and, The Department of Health and Human Services’ literature review of “Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States;” just to name a few. 22 See the last page of this book and the words of Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


23 Carter Johnson, “God’s Sovereignty and Man’s Responsibility in an Evil Filled World” (sermon, Bryan College, Dayton, TN, February 3, 2008). 24 Students Stopping the Trafficking of People. 25 Abraham Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking and the State Department” (lecture, Scourge: Human Trafficking Conference, Dayton, TN, January 26, 2008). The United Nations provided the statistic. 26 Ibid. In addition to the State Department, e.g., the 2008 Trafficking in Persons Report, The International Justice Mission (IJM) has cited this statistic, as has the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). 27 See “The State of Things as They Are.” 28 A search on 22 May 2013, on IJM’s website, using their search engine, for “percentage of slavery crimes involving women” brought this response: “Your search yielded no results.” Conclusion: I only can assume, at this time, that the IJM website has evolved, such that today’s choices are: “Home; Who We Are; Our Work; Give; Get Involved; News; Press Center; and, Careers.” The State Department website and their search engine, when presented with the same query, gave me a list of countries, beginning with Italy, with a link to “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.” These reports come from the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. The Italy report is dated March 31, 2003; followed by the “2009 Human Rights Report: Brazil,” dated March 11, 2010; and, a second entry for Italy, as of March 4, 2002 ; then, Croatia [no alpha order, or chronological order, here] as of March 11, 2008. 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid. 31 U.S. State Department “Trafficking in Persons Report” June 2011, page 37. Is there any wonder why Saudi Arabia was Tier 3? Saudi Arabia is specifically cited by Jimmy Carter in his wide-ranging interview on the plight of women. 32 Johnson, “God’s Sovereignty and Man’s Responsibility.” 33 Ibid. 34 Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” 35 Ibid. This is the premise of the film, Taken. 36 Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” New Scotland Yard provided the statistic. 37 Ibid. 38 Christine Dolan, “Children in Slavery: The 21st Century Campaign” (lecture, Scourge: Human Trafficking Conference, Dayton, TN, January 25, 2008). 39 Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” 40 Dolan. Ibid. 41 In December 2010, I had the honor of being selected to attend Scotland Yard’s conference dealing with Joint Investigative Teams, or JITs, launched by the United Kingdom and Romania. The U.S. Department of State was not able to send their representative; so I had the distinct honor of representing the U.S. The future Economics Conference was discussed at that time. 42 Ibid. The International Labor Organization (ILO) provided the statistic, as of February 2006. Note: It came to my attention, attending the University of Nebraska-Lincoln’s Conference on Human Trafficking, in Fall 2012, that the State



Department relies on the ILO for all its trafficking statistics. I would challenge how accurate the ILO can be, with respect to sex trafficking, when labor trafficking is their bailiwick. 43 Ibid. 44 According to Harvest USA Mid-South, in their pamphlet/brochure entitled, “Pornography in America, Statistics on Sexual Brokenness, “porn revenue is $13 Billion per year in the U.S. alone!” Harvest takes this statistic from Jerry Ropelato, TopTen REVIEWS, Inc., ©2009. Harvest goes on to state that: “Every 39 minutes a new porn video is made in the U.S.” The U.S. produces 89% of all porn web pages. Note: The Harvest brochure was created on January 27, 2011. 45 From the facts reported above. 46 Let’s not call them “folks;” call them what they are: Criminals. The paragraph is quoted in its entirety from Lara Jakes Jordan, “Police call child porn ring sophisticated,” The Chattanooga Times Free Press (March 5, 2008): A4. 47 Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” 48 This is post World War II Japan I am recognizing. See P. 28 for the ignoble use Japanese soldiers made of Korean women, trafficked into brothels for the pleasure and “comfort” of these WWII soldiers. 49 “The Impossible” is an exceptional film account of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and one family’s heroic account of survival. 50 Ibid. Explanation from“Facebook is a social utility that connects people with friends and others who work, study and live around them. People use Facebook to keep up with friends, upload an unlimited number of photos, share links and videos, and learn more about the people they meet.” Facebook is a website, where anyone with an e-mail address can post personal information, pictures, and videos about themselves. Gaining access to another individual’s information is relatively easy, regardless of the age, or location, of either party. The relative ease with which anyone can learn your e-mail address, phone number, or where you go to school, should give pause for concern to all parents [with thanks to Jonathan Barnett, Bryan College, Class of 2009, and Regent’s Law School, Class of 2012]. 51 Christine Dolan, Friday, 25 January 2008, Rudd Auditorium, Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee. Ms. Dolan was Bryan’s keynote speaker for the national conference Bryan hosted, subject: Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century. 52 Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” 53 Chattanooga Times Free Press, “SportsBriefs: Football,” for Tuesday, July 16, 2013, P.D3. 54 Gale Johnson. Monkey in the Middle: The Scopes Evolution Trial. Performed by Raymond Legg (William Jennings Bryan), Tony McCuiston (Clarence Darrow) and Ron D. Petitte (Judge John T. Raulston). The Rhea County Court House, Dayton, TN. 2007, 44. The script is taken directly from the trial transcript. The words were spoken by William Jennings Bryan, in dialogue with Judge John T. Raulston. 55 Although this is my contention, a careful reading of the facts should/will, I hope, support the thesis, that, “Human Trafficking is the Scourge of History.” These 20

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


facts should suffice to not only raise consciousnesses, but inspire action; at least, that is my intention. 56 In the United States, we have suffered the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and, more recently, the attacks of 9/11; we have not, though, suffered anything comparable to the London Blitz and the Battle of Britain. In honor of my father, who was born in London, and my UK brothers-in-arms, I have chosen this event to illustrate the sacrifices that were necessary to redeem Western Civilization in the dark hours of WWII. 57 Travis Ricketts, “Heavy losses of pilots at times severely hampered the effectiveness of the Royal Air Force. In the two-week period beginning 24 August, British losses totaled 103 killed and 128 wounded; such losses far exceeded the graduation rate,” after Bekker, Luftwaffe Diaries, 171. 58 Likewise, I strongly recommend Guy Hamilton’s film, “Battle of Britain,” as one of the finest depictions of this epic battle. 59 Also, I strongly recommend Steven Spielberg’s, “Saving Private Ryan,” as one of the finest depictions of this epic battle: Two battles, two epic struggles, to save Western Civilization. 60 Brokaw, The Greatest Generation (New York: Random House, 1998). 61 Finally, the film, “Atonement,” depicts the anguish and sheer tragedy of death in the European Theatre of World War II. 62 I will use the descriptor America to represent the United States of America, as it so often is referred to. Note: Today, many Canadians consider themselves North Americans; and, we share the continent with the peoples of Central and South America. Canada and the United States collectively form North America; otherwise, the United States holds the Middle ground, which becomes a geographical stalemate. 63 “Declaration of Independence.” 64 Unrealistic, I acknowledge, but: “If a man’s reach cannot exceed his grasp, then what is a heaven for?” A slight paraphrase of Robert Browning’s memorable phrase, which reads, “Ah, but a man's reach should exceed his grasp, or what's a heaven for?” 65 Dr. Todd Charles Wood, Genome Scientist, Professor of Biology, and President of the CORE Academy of Science, speaks to the natural evil of pathogens, predators, poisons, and parasites, within the created world. 66 Johnson, Monkey in the Middle. “Causes stir the world,” are words William Jennings Bryan actually spoke. I quote from the script; because, this is how I first learned of this phrase. 67 The author’s words. 68 Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, 1979 ed. 69 Women and children are the focus of this work; and, the FBI confirms that the vast majority of the victims of Human Trafficking are women and children, the latter being girls and boys. 70 Credit should be given to Ms. Christine Dolan for her expression, “The Millennium Holocaust.” 71 I have an ally in Dr. Shirley A. Mullen, President of Houghton College, in New York. In her paper on “Moral Integrity” for the “Integrity Project,” held in New



York City, on March 1, 2013, she says: “I take as my ally—our friend Noah Webster;” and, then she makes reference to the 9th New Collegiate Dictionary. 72 The Gospel of Matthew, Chapters 5-7. 73 See Lindberg, Preface, P. x. 74 Carter Johnson, “Christian Hope” (sermon, Westminster Presbyterian Church, Dayton, TN, January 27, 2008). 75 Ibid. Korean sex slaves, or comfort women to the Japanese, were forced to have sex 25-50 times per day. 76 A good source for reading on the subject is: The Lanahan Cases in Leadership, Ethics & Decision Making. Note: This worthy book of essays is required reading for all Midshipmen and Midshipwomen entering the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis. It also was used in the Honors Program at Bryan College, as a book of readings for “The Contemporary World,” the capstone Honors Course, at Bryan, as well as in the foundational course in the Politics and Government Major, Politics, Philosophy, and Economics. 77 Matthew 18:6 (NIV). 78 Whose identity shall remain confidential. Consider, that the Reverend Billy Graham dismissed former President Bill Clinton’s torrid affair with Miss Monica Lewinsky, with the expression, “Boys will be boys.” We all are sinners; we all are fallible; we all err; we all misspeak, even Dr. Graham, on this occasion. Boys need to be taught to respect the dignity and worth of each and every human being, especially those who are weaker and more vulnerable to abuse. Former President Clinton dishonored his family, Miss Lewinsky’s family, and the office he was charged to uphold, by his actions in this affair. No apology has been forth coming, of which I am aware. Dr. Peter Held, formerly, Vice President, Office of Student Life, Bryan College, and now a Senior Fellow for Christian Worldview and Professor of Christian Thought and Biblical Studies, at Bryan, also recalled the words of Dr. Graham, as being unfortunate. I reference Dr. Held, as my search for the quote and context are on-going. Finally, The Economist chose to break with its acknowledged liberal bias, in order to “lean toward” U.S. Senator Robert Dole, in his Presidential fight against, then President Bill Clinton, because of Mr. Clinton’s decided lack of integrity. See The Economist for November 2nd , 1996, i.e., the Leader, “What a choice.” Note: The Economist does not support candidates; but, they have preferences, toward whom they lean, if I may express it this way. Special thanks is due Louise Katsiaouni of The Economist’s Editorial Department, in its New York City offices, who graciously and expertly tracked this Leader for me, confirming my memory, but pinpointing the edition. Louise also gently pointed out that the Editors of The Economist do not support political candidates; but, they will speak for whom they think will make the preferential office holder, when all is said and done. Thank you, again, Louise. 79 The Prolife Movement, to be consistent, should abhor the death penalty; unfortunately, many Christians are conflicted on this point, i.e., they will argue that abortion is wrong, in any situation; but, that the death penalty should be upheld. There is much to be said on behalf of the Prolife Movement, the case of Tim Tebow, perhaps being the most noteworthy. His is a beautiful and compelling story. See, also, the film Defiance for a telling argument in behalf of the child of a

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rapist. Changing the name of the movement may dispel such an apparent contradiction. 80 A number of states in the U.S. do. See, also, the Chapter titled, “One Day More!” 81 David Cook, “Black and white anger,” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Wednesday, July 17, 2013, P. B1. 82 I wish to acknowledge the contribution of Professor Harold Waller, Professor of Political Science, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, who graciously inveighed for a greater focus on Public Policy, in order to more effectively monitor and combat Human Trafficking. Professor Waller’s discernment also prompted me, in the initial rewrite of the first paper, on this subject, after the adjournment of the Pembroke College, Oxford University Round Table, to clarify and reinforce my reasons for incorporating a worldview framework into this study. These initial Public Policy paragraphs were in the draft, as presented to The Oxford Round Table on 19 March 2008. This note merely serves to acknowledge and thank Dr. Waller, whose opinion I greatly respect, as well as I do his graciousness, in advising me privately, after my presentation, rather than launching a public critique in his own behalf, which some academics are wont to do. See Pp. 11-12 for an example of a self-serving critique. 83 Robert Nakamura and Frank Smallwood, The Politics of Policy Implementation (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980): See P. viii of the Nakamura and Smallwood work. 84 Words of the author. Note, please: “Other worldview advocates” have been added to this paragraph. 85 This is the descriptor used by the U.S. Department of State, as well as other cabinet level departments, such as Health & Human Services. It should be noted that former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, in the release of the Trafficking in Persons (or TIP) Report, in June 2012, took light hearted issue with the word “trafficking.” She, as most peoples in the English speaking world, thinks of traffic as dealing with cars, trucks, buses, 86 Mr. Blair, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1997 to 2007, has served as the Middle East envoy for the United Nations, European Union, United States, and Russia. He also has served as a senior advisor to JPMorgan and taught for Yale University in the 2008-2009 School Year. Perhaps, of greatest import is his Faith Foundation, which “supports initiatives in the field of inter-religious dialogue” [this last sentence from a Google search on Tony Blair, 5 June 2013]. 87 From “‘Washington Calling Jefferson Smith. Come in Mr. Smith: The Nation Needs You!’-Reflections on Moral Leadership and the Virtue that is the Foundation for such Leadership, in the Politics and Government of 21st Century America,” Ron D. Petitte, author. 88 See Anthony M. DeStefano, The War on Human Trafficking: U.S. Policy Assessed (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2007), P. 33, for then Senator Brownback’s alliance with Senator Diane Feinstein and Senator Paul Wellstone, in the fight to combat Human Trafficking. Mr. DeStafano is an expert in Public Policy, as it relates to Trafficking in Persons (TIP).



89 Mr. Michael Bloomberg, who speculated on a Third Party run for the Presidency, ventured that $500 million (or one half of one billion dollars) might be spent to win the office. Personally, I think this is obscene and a distortion of the American political process; but, then, if it takes $8 million to run for a U.S. Senate seat; and there are 100 senators, that amounts to $800 million, in theory, as the cost of a House of Congress. 90 Regardless, who wins Presidential elections (2008; 2012; 2016), Congress is an equal, if not, the major decision maker, in the decisions to resolve America’s involvements in the Near East and elsewhere [an argument Thomas Sowell makes, i.e., that Congress is the leader, to include in economic and financial decisions]. 91 As with my friend, the first theologian, this second theologian and pastor also shall remain unknown to the reader and the public at large. 92 On a smaller and more modest scale, The Integrity Project and its Christian Leadership Summit took place in New York City on March 1, 2013. Dr. Robert F. Davis conceived, sponsored, organized, and implemented this project conference, which was sponsored by the Consortium for Educational Advancement, of which Dr. Davis is the Director and whose mission “seeks to challenge Christian leaders and institutions to demonstrate and nurture the highest level of integrity, in character, accountability, intellect, doctrine, and morals.” 93 Reginald Heber, from his hymn, “The Brightest and Best of the Sons of the Morning.” 94 O’Donovan, From Irenaeus to Grotius, 109. 95 Movies may tell the story better for the visual generations of late 20th and early 21st Century. A few examples are: Roots, a dramatization of author Alex Haley's family line from ancestor Kunta Kinte's enslavement to his descendants’ liberation; Spielberg’s Amistad; and The Lena Baker Story, about the execution of a woman, who killed her sex slave. 96 Christine Dolan, via an Email correspondence, in the Summer of 2007, as we finalized plans for her participation in Bryan College’s conference, “Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century,” said this: “The truth is that slavery has been around for a long time - centuries - each generation has its own face of this scourge in some form or fashion and the chosen placement of turning humans into commodities is embedded in our society on levels that are breathtakingly immoral and in many cases, subtle!” Ms. Dolan is an eloquent and compassionate advocate in the cause of fighting Human Trafficking. 97 The reader is referred to The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War, by Thomas J. DiLorenzo, for an alternative view of Lincoln and his view of the issue of slavery. And, an article appeared in the Chattanooga Times Free Press (TFP), entitled, “Lincoln’s racial views, President urged blacks to settle in Central America,” which article originated with the Associated Press. The article was published in the TFP, Sunday, March 6, 2011, on page A5. The article references a new book, Colonization After Emancipation, by Philip Magness and Sebastian Page. It should be noted that Illinois’ state historian, Tom Schwartz, who also is a research director at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library in Springfield, Illinois, “said that while

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historians differ, there is ample evidence that Lincoln’s views evolved away from colonization in the final two years of the Civil War” (from this article, as cited). 98 An example from the Chattanooga Times Free Press for Friday, July 19, 2013, P. D4, specifically, from an article by David Paschall, “Murray denies fear of Clowney:” “Murray developed a resilient reputation late in his redshirt freshman season, taking several hard shots from Auburn defensive tackle Nick Fairley during a 49-31 loss to the Tigers in 2010. One of those hits was deemed a personal Foul, but Murray bounced back the next game to lead the Bulldogs to a win over Georgia Tech.” The University of Georgia’s Aaron Murray has proven himself a courageous quarterback, who shows no fear on the gridiron, not of Nick Fairley, or Jadeveon Clowney, or other defensive specialists, who seek to take him down and knock him out of the game. 99 In a brief, personal conversation with, then Republican Gubernatorial Candidate, Bill Haslam, at Bryan College, in Dayton, TN, on Saturday afternoon, March 20, 2010, I spoke to the need to fight Human Trafficking in Tennessee. Mr. Haslan appeared receptive. And, the progress Tennessee has made in this fight validates this conversation; but, unfortunately, when I, subsequently, tried to reach him through a logical church connection, I encountered the state fortress, an unusual alliance between church and state, which is not always in the better interest of either. 100 Maijaliisa Rauste-von Wright, “Seeds of Strife: An Educational Challenge” (paper presented at The Oxford Round Table, Oxford, UK, March 2008). Dr. Rauste-von Wright, is Professor Emerita of Educational Psychology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. She presented her paper to the Oxford Round Table on March 17, 2008. 101 I embrace this new law and its definition of “trafficker,” as I believe my colleague, Dr. Morgan, will. 102 The U.S. Department of State, as first among equals, has a strong influence on her sister agencies, e.g., Defense, Justice, Health & Human Services, Homeland Security, which domestic departments must carry the fight within the borders of the United States; conversely, IJM is a private, not for profit, non-governmental organization, which works beyond the borders of the U.S., in concert with the U.S. State Department. 103 With especial thanks to my colleague, at the Lincoln College, Oxford Round Table, Dr. Richard H. Morgan, of Stony Brook University, New York, who inveighed for this commentary. See also, David Batstone’s Not For Sale: The Return of the Global Slave Trade-and How We Can Fight It, i.e., Page 43, “The Men Who Drive The Demand.” 104 I acknowledge, again, Dr. Waller’s contribution. 105 See Note 1 to A Preface to Civilization At Risk: Seeds of Strife. 106 From 1776. 107 September 26, 1862. 108 These are the career civil servants, who do not rely on political patronage.

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National Conference to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking, held at Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee, 25-27 January 2008: Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century. Ms. Dolan previously appeared at Bryan College on April 18, 2007, at which time she also credited President Bush for his positive support of this office. Secretaries of State Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice also deserve credit for their roles in the development of this critical State Department Office, as does the former Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton, who is one of the foremost warriors in this cause. Hopefully, the current Secretary of State, John Kerry, not only will follow in this tradition, but will make his own mark. 110 July 10-11, 2009, President Obama visited Ghana. The “Slave Trade Tour,” to include the Salaga Slave Market, are featured, when one searches for “Obama visit to Ghana.” 111 An editorial comment, if I may: Were Hillary Clinton to succeed in winning the White House in 2016, look for her first, formal, address to the nation, in January 2017, to publicly take on this fight; she will give it the highest forum. 112 Actually, the 7 billion mark was reached on 31 October, 2011. When I checked on 1 June 2013, at 1:14 p.m., the clock hit 7,120,321,800. 113 All figures are approximations, of course. 114 With especial thanks to Ms. Vonnie Johnson, Bryan College Librarian, who sent me these figures, based on Philip D. Curtin’s work, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), P. 268. 115 Johnson’s research includes that the figure for 1850 should be credited to David Eltis’ revision of Curtin’s figures; see Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New York, 1989). The world population figures come from “worldometers real time world statistics.” I did a Google search, for which I will not apologize. 116 The Associated Press. “Population to reach 8.1 billion in 2025.” Chattanooga Times Free Press, June 14, 2013, P. A5. 117 Consider, also, that President Clinton opened the Office on International Religious Freedom; he established two landmark offices, within the Department of State, to protect human rights in an era of terrorism; yet, his record on Rwanda is a different story. 118 In the Congress of the United States, Republicans sit on one side of the legislative chamber; Democrats on the other. 119 The author’s terminology. 120 DeStefano, 45. Anthony M. DeStefano is a reporter for Newsday, covering New York City legal affairs and criminal justice. Prior to joining Newsday, he was a reporter at The Wall Street Journal. He is an attorney and member of the New York State Bar. Author information provided by Rutgers University Press. Anybody seriously interested in Public Policy, as it addresses “the War on Human Trafficking,” needs to begin with Anthony M. DeStefano’s seminal work on the subject. In addition, another noted journalist, Nicolas Kristoff, has made a significant contribution to the war on Human Trafficking through his nationally syndicated editorial pieces, a number of them coming “out of Africa.” 121 Ibid. 122 Ibid.

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Ibid. Just as we have Public International Law, I submit to the listener/reader that we should have Public International Policy, with measures to monitor and combat Human Trafficking at the forefront of such international policy proposals. 125 Scholarly participant at the Lincoln College Oxford Round Table, in Oxford University, March 2011. Myron is a true classical scholar and linguist of renown. 126 James E. Anderson, Public Policymaking (Houghton Mifflin Company: New York, 2000); after Dye. 127 Ibid. P. 39. 128 See Chapter Twenty Four, “Global Emancipation Proclamation,” as a case in point. 129 “I will use the voices of students and scholars; humanitarians and theologians; novelists and film makers; historians and Christian apologists; philosophers, artists, and soldiers. I will use a disparate array of sources to, hopefully, pull all my thoughts together in an eclectic mix that just might enable a large, diverse, and consciously concerned group of people to glimpse, if not grasp, the enormity of the evil that Human Trafficking presents to their nation and to the world today” (Petitte). 130 Nakamura and Smallwood, The Politics of Policy Implementation, vii. 131 See Chapter Three, “The Choice of the Trafficker,” where I introduce the battle field analogy. 132 Elie Wiesel is a writer, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor. 133 As difficult as it may be to believe, women are involved on the criminal side of this horrific human flesh trade. 134 Carter Johnson, “Harmony,” sermon given at Westminster Presbyterian Church, Dayton, Tennessee, on 19 May 2013. 135 See the movie, Taken. 136 Chattanooga Times Free Press for Thursday, July 11, 2013, P. D1. 137 Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Ethics (The Macmillan Company: New York, 1955). 138 The author’s description. 139 This report, commonly referred to as the TIP Report was most recently revised in June 2013, the thirteenth annual Trafficking in Persons Report. 140 Pierre Morel, Director, Taken, 2008. 141 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report, June 2009. 142 Ibid; Clinton cover letter. 143 Facetiously called the oldest profession in the world. 144 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Newscast, as aired on National Public Radio (NPR), 21 March 2010 and 22 March 2010; also, NPR aired this segment on 28 April 2010, under the banner, “The World.” On 15 July 2011, I called NPR to see if there were any new developments; but, there were none that NPR was aware of; the record showed the 28 April 2010 newscast, as the last coverage of this story; a Google news search yielded considerable information, but nothing new with respect to a decision, either way. The French Government should be very wary of any Russian and Eastern European incursion into their underground market place. According to globalpost, brothels have been outlawed in France 124



since 1946; yet, a permanent exhibit on brothels is part of a Paris museum. I would not call this a triumph of culture. 145 21 March 2010. 146 James 2:26b. 147 James was the brother of Jesus; he, as few others, knew exactly what he was talking about. 148 Digital Video Disk. 149 Worldwide Documentaries, Not My Life, 2008. 150 Isaiah 1:16-17; and Micah 6:8. The Justice & Mercy Initiative, part of the Center for Leadership Initiatives at Bryan College, has, as its mission, the fighting of Human Trafficking. 151 Carter Johnson, “God of My Fears” (sermon, Westminster Presbyterian Church, Dayton, TN, March 21, 2010). 152 Used as a second example; because, this is my home state. 153 The themes of Isaiah, “Cease to do evil, learn to do good, seek justice, correct oppression” (Isaiah 1:16-17; English Standard Version [ESV]); and, Micah, “Act justly and… love mercy” (Micah 6:8b; New International Version [NIV]) are themes that run through this paper. 154 Oklahoma is used as the example; because, it is the state featured in the U.S. State Department documentary, “Not My Life.” 155 Mike Beaver, Not My Life, 2008. 156 I am using the “royal we” intentionally, as I want you joining with me, in this fight. 157 To her credit, Diane Sawyer, who referenced “adoption,” as a form of Human Trafficking in her news show, made no mention of it in relation to the Haitian incident involving American missionaries. Her focus was extremely positive, visa-vis, Christian efforts to fight Human Trafficking. 158 Scalping was a horrific spectre that white pioneers faced in their settling of the American West. It is rather ironic that it, now, is back, and in vogue, only this time, as an economic practice of the human trafficker. At least these scalpers will not be associated with the noble savage. 159 “Thousands protest ritual killings,” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Sunday, May 12, 2013, A15. This article originated with the Associated Press. An amulet is “an object worn esp. around the neck as a charm against evil or injury” [from The American Heritage College, Third Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston & New York, 2000, p. 46]. I trust the reader will not miss the terrible irony in such an amulet being used to ward off evil. 160 On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted and proclaimed The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: “Recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world . . . .” Specifically: “Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind . . . .” Both quotes are from the Preamble, with punctuation editing, by this author. Note: with those who assisted in the drafting of this historic document. Credit to:

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See the following chapter on “Voices & Visions” for Emma Thompson’s impressive work fighting Human Trafficking. 162 The U.N.’s work, in this particular, obviously, is not Public International Policy; neither is it Public International Law, nor International Human Rights Law; regardless, its effectiveness is far greater than policy and legal advocates may wish to admit. Finally, it should be stated that The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is considered “The Foundation of Human Rights Law.” Credit to: 163 See Introduction. 164 B.A. Bryan College, M.A. St. John’s College, currently serving as the Director of Faith & Mission at Bryan College. 165 Information is courtesy of now retired New Scotland Yard Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn. 166 From, “This interactive exhibition is based on real-life stories of young women who leave their home countries in search of a better life but are deceived or coerced by traffickers and forced to work in the sex industry.” 167 United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, “Container Exhibit Highlights Plight of Trafficking Victims,” UN.GIFT, 168 United Nations, “Container Exhibit Highlights Plight”. 169 Ibid. 170 Associated Press, “Conference tackles human trafficking,” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, February 14, 2008. 171 Nobody says it better than Bryan. Quote taken from, “The Cross of Gold” speech, 1896. Cornelius, Selected Orations, 38. History is worth reading. 172 Martin Luther King, Jr, “I have a Dream” (speech, Washington, D.C, August 23, 1963). 173 Abraham Lincoln, Emancipation Proclamation, Executive Order by the President, September 22, 1862. This is one of the best examples of the efficacy of Presidential Executive Orders. 174 As the issue of illegal immigration is decided, if not once and for all, but, at the very least, as an initiative of President Barak Obama and the Congresses with which he is working, new Public Policy should be written and implemented to follow any law that ensues. 175 The Posse Comitatus Act, U.S. Code 18 (1887), § 1385. 176 Let’s just call this: Revisionist Public Policy. 177 Karen DeYoung and Greg Jaffe, “Navy SEALs rescue kidnapped aid workers Jessica Buchanan and Poul Hagen Thisted in Somalia,”, January 25, 2012, National Security Section. 178 Credit the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) and the Associated Press (AP), among other sources. Zero Dark Thirty, a film by director Kathryn Bigelow, is a dramatic narrative account of the hunt for and killing of Osama Bin Laden. 179 Lincoln, Emancipation Proclamation. 180 DeYoung and Jaffe. Ibidem.

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There was no State of the Union message, in 2009, as there was nothing to report, until after the inauguration and a reasonable time in office had passed, for the newly elected President, generally, accepted as one year, when the first State of the Union Address is given. For President Obama, this was January 2010. This said, a newly inaugurated President gives his first address in the same time frame, setting, and style, as if it were a State of the Union Address. The Reference List for this book does not separate State of the Union addresses from the traditional first speech to the Nation. Finally, please note that my source for the “argument,” presented to the White House by State and Health & Human Services, is confidential. 182 E.g., The State of the Union, 28 January 2008, which was his last state message. 183 Done well, The State of the Union is a report on all areas of national government. Only the Budget of the United States is a more thorough report. Former President Clinton gave masterful reports, via the State of the Union message. 184 Cabinet Secretaries feed information and detail into the drafts of the State of the Union Address; but, once submitted, they cannot control whether such information and detail is accepted. They can lobby; but, they will reach a point of tension, when they will have to decide how much political capital to expend in this internal fight. 185 Facetious description of prostitution; impossible to attribute. 186 See “The Third Aberration,” above. 187 Lincoln, Emancipation Proclamation; emphasis mine. 188 U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM). 189 Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” 190 TIP Report, June 2011, P. 373, “The United States of America.” 191 Ibid., P. 200, “Ireland.” 192 Ibid. The TIP Report’s U.S. Section makes a number of references to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) taking pains to ensure that defense contractors and soldiers do not engage in TIP, in any way, or form, to include relations with prostitutes (P. 377). 193 See Chapter Twelve, “So: What Can Be Done,” where I first set forth this proposal; also, Chapter Thirteen, “The Problem with ‘John.’” 194 Credit Ms. Emily Lantzer with this initiative. This effort, by Ms. Lantzer, and other Bryan students would make an excellent case study in the formation, implementation, and evaluation of Public Policy. 195 Credit Dr. Kevin Clauson, Professor of Politics & Government, Head of the Disciple of Criminal Justice, and Director of the Law & Public Policy Initiative of the Center for Leadership Initiatives, at Bryan College: Dr. Clauson teaches State & Local Government, among a number of other Law courses, and takes his classes to Nashville to lobby in behalf of anti-trafficking legislation; credit, also, the Tennessee Legislature, e.g., Senator Ken Yager, who has a heart for fighting trafficking; and, last, but not least, Governor Bill Haslam. Note: These latest statistics on Tennessee courtesy of the Polaris Project, 21 May 2013. Thank you, Jessica.

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196 As reported in the Chattanooga Times Free Press for Monday, May 27, 2013, P. B1. The description of “sweeping changes,” as well as the subheading pertaining to the “’johns,’” should be credited to Margie Quin [also spelled Quinn in the article], an assistant special agent in charge at the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI). See the Chapter, “The Problem with ‘John’” from this book. 197 Ibid. 198 The collective description, Gypsy, has been replaced by Roma, a politically correct descriptor, in which there is no historical accuracy. The Roma (“Gypsies”) originated in India. If we look at Roma, as a people who roam, there is more logic to the name; but, unfortunately, the current descriptor comes from an abbreviation of Romanian, as Gerri for Germans, or Ami for Americans. Romania is home to the world’s largest Gypsy population. 199 These women were forced to have sex 25-50 times per day. (C. Johnson, Christian Hope 2008). 200 Sidney Lumet’s The Pawnbroker and Steven Spielberg’s Schindler’s List are film testimonials to this degradation. 201 Lee noted that “The criminal justice system has to toughen up.” [After Abraham Lee, Bryan College, 26 January 2008]. 202 Ibid. 203 The film Amazing Grace, starring Ioan Gruffudd and directed by Michel Apted, about the mission of Wilberforce to eliminate slavery from his land, is well worth seeing. 204 April 18, in a speech to the United Nations. 205 David Ho, “Pope urges U.N. to defend human rights.” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, April 19, 2008, A4. 206 Alain Boublil and Jean-Marc Natel wrote the original French lyrics; Herbert Kretzmer wrote the English adaptation; and Claude-Michel Schoenberg composed the mucic for Les Miserables. “One Day More” is one of the signature songs from this musical. 207 Ibid. A lyric verse sung by the cast. 208 Thomas J. Sheeran and John Coyne. “Police facing questions in 3 women’s Ohio rescue,” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Wednesday, May 8, 2013, P. A1. This article is from The Associated Press. 209 The Associated Press, “Police: Ohio captive suffered 5 miscarriages,” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Friday, May 10, 2013, P. A8. The math varies from article to article: 15, 17, and 21 may be more accurate. 210 Ibid. 211 Sheeran and Coyne, P. A9. 212 Ibid. 213 The Associated Press, “Police: Ohio captive suffered 5 miscarriages,” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Friday, May 10, 2013, P. A1. 214 Ibid. 215 Ibid. Author’s note: Ariel Castro committed suicide in his prison cell, which for many, if not most, people, was a perversion of justice, which did not allow for closure, in any normative sense. 216 Boublil & Natel; Kretzmer; and Schoenberg.

120 217


Alain Boublil and Jean-Marc Natel; Herbert Kretzmer; and Claude-Michel Schoenberg, Les Miserables, “One Day More.” Ibid. 218 Ibid. 219 The Associated Press, Chattanooga Times Free Press for Friday, May 24, 2013, P. A7. 220 Ibid. 221 Trafficking in Persons Report for June 2008, P. 6. 222 DeStefano, 110, after Waxman, letter to U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, April 13, 2005. 223 Alain Boublil and Jean-Marc Natel; Herbert Kretzmer; and Claude-Michel Schoenberg, Les Miserables, “One Day More.” Ibid. 224 From the Preface to his secular work, The Political Teachings of Jesus. 225 Alain Boublil and Jean-Marc Natel; Herbert Kretzmer; and Claude-Michel Schoenberg, Les Miserables. Ibid. 226 Ibid. 227 Chattanooga Times Free Press for Tuesday, May 28, 2013, P. A5. 228 Ibid. 229 The Associated Press, “Police: Ohio captive suffered 5 miscarriages,” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Friday, May 10, 2013, P. A1. 230 Alain Boublil and Jean-Marc Natel; Herbert Kretzmer; and Claude-Michel Schoenberg, Les Miserables, “One Day More.” 231 Ibid. 232 Ibid. 233 Yes, this is the correct way to describe a female at the Naval Academy. 234 Chattanooga Times Free Press for Saturday, June 1, 2013, P. D6. The Associated Press filed the report. 235 Brian Witte, “3 midshipmen charged with sexual assault.” Writing for The Associated Press, Mr. Witte’s article appeared in the Chattanooga Times Free Press, on Thursday, June 20, 2013, on P. A8. 236 Ibid., for Wednesday, May 8, 2013, P. A3, by way of the Associated Press. 237 David Crary, writing for the Associated Press, whose article was picked up, by the Chattanooga Times Free Press and published Monday, June 3, 2013, P. A8. 238 Ibid., Wednesday, June 12, 2013, P. A3, via the Associated Press. 239 Ibid. 240 Pun intended. 241 It only has been during the latter part of the 20th Century and in this early part of the 21st Century, that women have been allowed to join the fight. 242 Collective, to include women; and, in this case, the aggrieved female midshipman. 243 Chattanooga Times Free Press, June 1, 2013, P. D6. 244 David Paschall, “Vandy IDs dismissed four players.” Chattanooga Times Free Press for Thursday, July 16, 2013, P. D1. See, also, Mark Wiedmer commentary on this same day, “Do off-field woes mirror SEC’s on-field success?” (TFP, D1.): Mr. Wiedmer references “a possible sex crime allegedly committed by four of his [Football Coach James Franklin’s] now former players inside a VU [Vanderbilt University] dormitory on June 23.”

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife 245


Micah 6:8. This popular phrase has been the institutional “purpose” of Bryan College, in Dayton, Tennessee, for so many years, that I credit Bryan with the original phraseology. 247 Schoenberg, and company, of course. 248 Young Men’s Christian Association/Young Women’s Christian Association. 249 Winston Churchill, “Never Give In” (speech, Harrow School, Harrow, Middlesex, UK, 29 October, 1941). 250 Carter Johnson, “God of My Fears.” 251 Wilfred M. McClay, “A complex hero, something of Jefferson lingers in us all even in 2008.” The Chattanooga Times Free Press, April 20, 2008, P. G2. Dr. McClay “delivered the remarks [from which this quote is taken], Monday [14 April 2008] at the White House by invitation of President Bush and First Lady Laura Bush to commemorate Thomas Jefferson’s 265th birthday.” 252 The key is, “in this sense,” as Dr. McClay so eloquently states the case. Bear in mind that, Jefferson was a slave holder, who reportedly sired children by his slave mistress, Sally Hemmings. 253 Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Ethics (The Macmillan Company: New York, 1955). 254 Who else, but Schoenberg and friends. 255 Judge Paul Barbadoro. See the account that opens the chapter entitled, “One More Day.” 256 With especial thanks to the University of Maryland’s University Libraries, for their delineation of “Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources.” 257 Bonnie Marie Yager, Bryan College Class of 2007, Paige Ratzlaff (’08), Paul Gutacker (’08), and Michael Reneau (’09). Note; please: If I have taught a student in one class, I consider that person my student for the rest of their life. 258 An invitation was extended to me by the President of the Voice of the Martyrs, Dr. Tom White, on 18 February 2011, to bring a chapel message to their mission headquarters in Oklahoma. What better message than to incorporate the persecution of 30 million people world-wide with that of the persecuted church. 259 Dr. Abraham Lee was on special assignment to the Department of Justice, assisting them to enhance and expand their efforts to fight trafficking, especially, in light of the fact that, for the first time in the short history of the TIP Report, the U.S. is, itself, included in the survey of nations. Credit goes to Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton for this courageous move. 260 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, annual Human Trafficking report prepared by the Department of State (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007). 261 Affectionate, if somewhat facetious reference to the U.S. Department of State. The name originates from the fact that the Harry S. Truman building, which is the headquarters for the U.S. Department of State, is located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood. 262 U.S. Department of Justice, Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons, annual Human Trafficking report prepared by the Department of Justice (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007). 263 See Chapter 15, “Giving Credit Where Credit Is Due.” 246

122 264


See: Lee, “Overview of Human Trafficking.” Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. 266 Dayton, Tennessee. Note: New York City is at the opposite end of the spectrum from Dayton, Tennessee. New York City has a population of 8.2 million people; Dayton has a population of slightly more than 6,000 people; New York is one of the largest, most cosmopolitan, and secular cities in the world; Dayton is one of the smallest, least pretentious, Christian cities in the world. 267 From Bard to Bryan to Georgetown completes the circle; Georgetown is a large, established, successful, university, with a world-wide reputation for excellence in fields as diverse as medicine and foreign affairs. 268 Bryan College, Class of 2008. Mr. Gutacker was Bryan College’s commencement speaker. Bryan has a unique and remarkable history, during which students and faculty have selected an outstanding, graduating, senior to give the commencement address. This rich tradition is so much more appealing and meaningful than having some political or entertainment celebrity speak to the graduates. 269 Bryan College, Class of 2008. Miss Ratzlaff and Mr. Gutacker shared in Bryan’s coveted graduation prizes, the P.A. Boyd Awards, given to Bryan’s most outstanding graduating seniors (one woman and one man). Paige and Paul were married shortly after graduation, on Sunday afternoon, May 25, 2008. 270 Bryan College; President of SSTOP; Class of 2009. 271 Bryan College Alumna, Class of 2007. 272 Georgetown University Alumna, Class of 2006. 273 Researched the Biblical basis for monitoring and combating Human Trafficking, in her paper, “Images in Slavery: Human Trafficking in Light of the Pentateuch.” 274 Paul Boling, “What Does It Mean to be Human?” (Paper presented at Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century, Bryan College, Dayton, TN, January 26, 2008). 275 Ken Turner, “Biblical Response to Slavery” (Paper presented at Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century, Bryan College, Dayton, TN, January 25, 2008). 276 Dr. Livesay is President of Bryan College; he whole-heartedly supported Bryan College’s hosting the national conference on Human Trafficking, “Scourge – Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century,” January 25-27, 2008 and all subsequent conferences. Stephen Livesay is a visionary for 21st Century issues of this nature. 277 Under Dr. Benson’s leadership [he serves as the Vice President for Spiritual Formation at Bryan College], four students (Gutaker, Ratzlaff, Reneau, and Yager) were selected to represent Bryan College at a conference sponsored by Students Stopping the Trafficking of Persons, or SSTOP, and hosted by Bard College in New York State. Dr. Benson provided the monies for the students to make this trip. 278 Dennis Miller is the Director of Bryan College’s Center for International Development. Mr. Miller arranged Ms. Dolan’s and Dr. Havelkova’s participation 265

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife


at Bryan’s 2008 conference, with the aid of a grant from the Grandview Foundation of Chattanooga, Tennessee. 279 In addition to leading Bryan College’s Faith & Mission Directorate, Ben also teaches, in particular, courses dealing with Trafficking in Persons. 280 At Honors Day, Bryan College, 25th April 2011. 281 Detective Inspector (DI) Stephen Wilkinson joined the Metropolitan Police Service in 1980, where he was recruited for the CIB3 Anti Corruption Command, which utilized specialist detectives to investigate corruption in organised crime. Assigned to the Specialist Crime Directorate investigating kidnapping and trafficking in drugs, guns, and people, he encountered Human Trafficking for the first time. This experience led to DI Wilkinson being selected as Tactical Adviser to Operation Pentameter 1, a national initiative to "lift the stone on human trafficking in the UK," from which the United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC) emerged. DI Wilkinson is a former member of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Expert Group in Human Trafficking and has delivered training around the world. He headed the Metropolitan Police Service Human Trafficking Team (HTT), where, working with Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn, he secured 25% of all the UK’s convictions on trafficking for sexual exploitation. In March 2010 he joined Op Golf, which was a Joint Investigation Team (JIT) with Romanian authorities, investigating human trafficking into the UK. DI Wilkinson’s last assignment was with the Dedicated Cheque and Plastic Crime Unit’s Intelligence Cell, part of the renowned “Met.” 282 Detective Sergeant (DS) Roddy Llewellyn joined the Metropolitan Police Service in 1980 and served as a Police Officer for 30 years, until his retirement in April 2011. In September 2006, Sergeant Llewellyn was promoted to Detective Sergeant and was tasked to establish the Human Trafficking Team at New Scotland Yard. The only unit dedicated to investigating Human Trafficking in the UK, DS Llewellyn, in concert with Detective Inspector Steve Wilkinson, was responsible for securing 25% of all Human Trafficking convictions in the UK during the last six years of his unit’s operation, dismantling 28 Organized Criminal Networks in the process. Even though heralded as a “center of excellence,” in the fight against Human Trafficking, the trafficking team was shut down, due to financial restraints within The Metropolitan Police Service. DS Llewellyn subsequently was engaged on an International Joint Investigation Team, Operation GOLF, targeting child trafficking within the Roma community, from Romania to Western Europe. Roddy is a keen sportsman, playing, coaching and officiating in Rugby; teaching skiing to persons with disabilities; and investing time in numerous charitable organizations. 283 Being at Oxford University, in England, attending the Oxford Round Table at Harris Manchester College, when this story broke, I went to the Internet to find this account, as reported by on 29 July 2013. The article was not titled; I assume it came straight from Fox News script. 284 Ibid.

124 285


John R. Miller, “The Justice Department, Blind to Slavery.” The New York Times, for July 11, 2008. This article can be accessed today via: 286 I submitted this, all too brief, report on 1 April 2011; and, I have taken the liberty to make a few editorial corrections. The final paragraph was added on 26 June 2013. 287 Latin phrase: “Thus, always, to tyrants.” This is the motto of the State of Virginia. As a graduate of the Virginia Military institute (VMI), I am imbued with this motto and tradition.


“2009 Human Rights Report: Brazil” 16 “9/11” 59 “Amazing Grace” 66 “Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons” 94 “Atonement” 22 “Battle of Britain” 22 “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices” 16 “Desert Shield” 47 “Desert Storm” 47 “Farms, Land in Farms, and Livestock Operations” 13 “fishing boys” 52 “He Knows Their names, Modern Slavery and the Gospel of Christ” 55 “holocaust” 27 “I Have a Dream” 59 “Integrity Project” 27 “John” 37 “life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness” 29 “Not My Life” 50 “O Sacred Head Now Wounded” 24 “oldest profession” 62 “Saving Private Ryan” 22 “Scourge - Human Trafficking Slavery in the 21st Century” 91 “Stations on the Way to Freedom” 77 “Taken” 45 “The Criminal Justice Solution to Human Trafficking” 92 “The Cross of Gold” 58 “The Impossible” 20 “The Journey” 55

“trafficker” 37 “Trafficking of Persons” 15, 31 “U.S. Special Operations forces” 60 “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000” 38 “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000” 41 “Women and Children for Sale” 6 “worldwide sex trade” 5 106th Congress of the United States 41 21st Century 13 21st Century Holocaust 2 9/11 22 A Righteous Cause 58 Aaron Murray 34 Abbottabad 61 Aberrations 20 Abraham Lee 15 Abraham Lincoln 34, 59 Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library in Springfield, Illinois 34 academia 44 academy 10 Academy 44 Academy Award 10 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 16 action 15 adoption 52 Afghanistan 32 Africa coast 39 African American 24 African Continent 63 African-American 39 after care 19

126 agnostic 28 airmen 22 Al Qaeda 60 Al Qaida 36 Alabama 63 Alain Boublil 68 Alaska 64 Alex Haley 34 Allied service men and women 23 Allied Servicemen 22 Allies 28 Amartya Sen 7 Amazing Grace 66 America 29 American 21 American Broadcasting Network (ABC) 11 American history 34 American hostage 60 American missionaries 49 American Political History 39 Amistad 34 Andrew McPeak 96 Andy Warhol 21 Ann Grisham 96 Anna Paden 96 Annandale-on-Hudson, New York 91 Anthony M. Destefano 32, 41 anti-trafficking task forces 63 Ariel Castro 68 Army 61 artists 5 Asian 12 atheist 28 atomic bombs 3 Augustine 3 Australia 18, 60 Australian 53 awareness 26 Axis Powers 22, 28 Barack Obama 40 Barack Obama Administration 94 Bard College 91, 95 battle 26 Battle of Britain 22

Index battlefield 43 Bekker, Luftwaffe Diaries 22 Benghazi 32 Bernard of Clairvaux 24 Bible 8, 49 Bill Gates 5 Bill Haslam 35 Billy Graham 29 Blackwell’s Bookstore 7 Bonhoeffer 44 Bonnie Marie Yager 95 Brian Murphy 68 Brian Witte 73 Bride Flight 10 British 51 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 49 British Red Cross 93 Brokaw 22 brothels 62 Bryan and Dayton Communities 55 Bryan Center for International Leadership 91 Bryan College 4, 43 Bryan Institute 92 Buddhist 28 Budget of the United States 62 Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor 16 Bureau of Public Affairs 45 Bush Administrations 42 California 63-64 Cambodia 37,49 Canada 18 Capital punishment 69 Caroline Moorehead 6 Carter Johnson 2 Cases in Public Policy Making 38 Catholic 14 Catholic Church 5 cause of humanity 58 cause of liberty 58 CBS news 49 Center for International Development 91, 96

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife Center for Leadership Initiatives 50, 79, 91-92 Central American 12 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 60 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 47 Chattanooga Times Free Press (TFP) 10 child abuse 17 child pornography 17 Child Trafficking in Europe 92 Christ 24, 66 Christian apologists 5 Christian Leadership Summit 33 Christianity 5 Christians 35 Christine Dolan 17 Christine Noel 96 church 6 Church and state 5 Church and State 76 civil society 76 Civilization 3 Clarence Darrow 21 Claude-Michael Schoenber 68 Clay Butler 49 Clearwater 21 clergy 33 Cleveland [Ohio] 68 Clinton 42 Clinton Administration 33 Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) 40 Colin Powell 39 Colonization After Emancipation 34 Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) 61 Commander in Chief 61 Commoner Forum 91 Condoleezza Rice 39 Conferences 43 Congress 33 Congressman Henry A. Waxman 70 conservative 14 Consortium for Educational Advancement 33


CORE Academy of Science 24 Corrie Nash 96 Courage 24 crimes 15 Criminal Justice 78 Criminal Justice community 66 Croatia 16 Cuyahoga County 72 Danish 60 Danny Danziger 11 Darfur 26 David B. Guralnik, Editor 10 David Batstone 37 David Birnbaum 2 David Crary 73 David Eltis 40 David Ho 67 David Paschall 34, 74 debt ceiling 14 Defiance 30 democracy 61 Democrats 32, 42 Denmark 93 Dennis Miller 96 Department of Defense (DOD) 47 Department of Justice (DOJ) 63-64, 95 Detective Inspector Steve Wilkinson 92, 98 Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn 92, 99 Detroit Free Press 3 DeYoung 61 Diane Sawyer 49 Diane Sawyer 49 Dietrich Bonhoeffer 15 Dietrich Bonhoeffer 77 dignity 7 Dolan 21 Dr. Abraham Lee 95 Dr. Campbell Fraser 53 Dr. Condoleezza Rice 94 Dr. Drew Randle 6 Dr. Ken Turner 11, 96 Dr. Kevin Clauson 64 Dr. Paul Boling 96

128 Dr. Peter Held 29 Dr. Richard Cornelius 4 Dr. Richard H. Morgan 7, 37 Dr. Rob Norris 3 Dr. Robert F. Davis 33 Dr. Ronald Petitte 4 Dr. Shirley A. Mullen 27 Dr. Suk-hee Kim 91 Dr. Todd Charles Wood 24 Dr. Waller 38 Dr. Wayne Barnard 92 Dr. Wilfred M. McClay 76 Dream 22 Dresden 27 drug dealer 37 Dutch 10, 60 earthquake 20 Eastern European 49 Eastern European mafia 49 Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade 40 economics 18 education 42 educational 26 Egypt 8 Egypt 61 Eleanor Roosevelt 54 Elena 55 Elie Wiesel 43 Elizabeth George 17 Emancipation Palermo Protocols 38 Emancipation Proclamation 59 Emily Lantzer 96 Emma Thompson 54 Encyclopaedia of Human Trafficking 45 England 18 enslaver 37 entertainment industry 17 Episcopal Theological Seminary 24 Ethics 44 European Commission 93 European Community 51 European Justice (Eurojust Headquarters) 93

Index European Police (Europol Headquarters) 93 European Union 30, 32, 60 evil 3, 33 Executive Fiat 61 Ex-Libris 3 Facebook 20 Faith Foundation 32 family 6 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 12, 15, 60 film makers 5 film making 10 fire bombing 27 First Iraq War 47 First Things First 6 First Things, and Inquiry into the First Principles of Morals and Justice 6 First Things, The Journal of Religion, Culture, and Public Life 6 Foggy Bottom 94 Foreign and Commonwealth Office 93 Fort Deposit, Alabama 24 France 49 Frank Smallwood 32 Free Trade Zones 21 freedom 7 freedom 61 French prostitution 49 Gabonese 52 Gale Johnson 21 Gary Haugen 98 General Colin Powell 47 Genocide 27 George H.W. Bush 47 George W. Bush 39 George W. Bush Administration 59, 94 Georgetown University 91, 95 Georgia 64 German 60 German cities 27 Germany 18

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife Ghana 13, 39, 52 Gilead 8 global 21 Global Emancipation Proclamation 59 global security 2, 23, 38 globalpost 49 God 11 Google 32 Government 4 Governor Bill Haslam 64 Grant Commision 49 Great Britain 34 Greg Jaffe 60 Griffith Business School 53 Griffith University 53 Guy Hamilton 22 Gypsies 2 Gypsy 66 Hadley Arkes 6 Harold Waller 30 Harrow School 76 Harrow, Middlesex, UK 76 Harvard University 24, 98 Harvest USA Mid-South 18 Hawaii 64 Health & Human Services 61 Her Majesty’s Revenue and Custom’s Office 93 Herbert Kretzmer 68 Hillary Rodham Clinton 32 Hindu 28 Hiroshima 27 historians 5 history 42 Hitler 33 holocaust 2 Holocaust Survivor 43 Homeland Security 37 Houghton College 27 human evil 24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 16 human rights 2 Human Trafficking 3, 8, 95


Human Trafficking: Today’s Slave Trade 12 humanitarians 5 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 59 Illinois 64 India 66 Indian girls 53 Indian Ocean tsunami 20 Indonesia 20 International Criminal Police Organization 60 International Human Rights Law 54 International Human Rights: Freedom from Persecution 92 International Institute of Christian Studies (IICS) 91 International Justice Mission (IJM) 2, 15 International Labor Organization (ILO) 2, 18 International Police (Interpol Headquarters) 93 international slave trade 34 internet 11 Interpol 60 Interpol Headquarters 93 Iraq 32 Iraq War 32 Iraqi Armed Forces 47 Ireland 63 Isaiah 50 Ishmaelites 8 Ishmaelites 8 Islam 5 Islamabad 61 Islamic 28 Italian 60 Italy 16 J. Stephen Tidwell 19 Jadeveon Clowney 34 Jaffe 61 James 49 James E. Anderson 38, 42 James Franklin 74 James Freeman 18 Japan 20

130 Japanese cities 27 Japanese comfort stations 28 Japanese people 20 Japanese-American 29 Jay Greeson 44 Jean-Marc Natel 68 Jefferson 57, 76 Jefferson Smith 5 Jerry Ropelato 18 Jessica Buchanan 60 Jesus 28-29 Jesus Christ 49 Jewish 66 Jewish people 27 Jews 2, 33 Jimmy Carter 5, 16 John Coyne 68 John Kerry 39, 94 John Newton 8, 66 Johns 37 Joint Investigation Teams (JITs) 18, 100 joint investigative teams 93 Jonathan Barnett 20 Jonathan Daniels 23 Jonathan Goodwin 3 Jonathan Warner 96 Joseph 8 JPMorgan 32 Judah 8 Judeo-Christian 28-29 Judge John T. Raulston 21 Judge Paul Barbadoro 70, 78 justice 23 justice and mercy 50 Justice Department 15 Kansas City Missouri 92 Karen DeYoung 60 Kathryn Bigelow 61 kidnapper 37 kidnapping 34 Kiwanis Clubs 76 Korea 63 Korean sex slaves 28 Korean women 28 Kunta Kinte 34

Index Kuwait 47 Labor trafficking 13 Lake Volta 52 Lara Jakes Jordan 19 Laura Bush 76 Laurence E Lynn, Jr 38 law enforcement 37 Law Medicine 78 law of supply and demand 36 Lee 28 Les Miserables 68 liberal 14 Libya 32, 61 Lincoln 3 Lincoln College 7, 13, 42, 93 Lindberg 28 literature review of “Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States” 15 loan Gruffudd 66 London 55, 93 London Blitz 22 Louise Katsiaouni 30 Luis CdeBaca 95 Maijaliisa Rauste von Wright 42, 36 Maine 64 Managing Public Policy 38 Manchester, New Hampshire 70 Many Frances Bowley 19 Margie Quin 64 Margie Quinn 65 Mark Legon 95 Mark Wiedmer 74 Martin Luther King Jr. 22, 59 Massachusetts 64 Matthew 29 Maureen Dowd 11 McGill University, Montreal, Canada 30 Members of Parliament 93 Metropolitan Police 92 MI6 60 Micah 50, 74 Michael Crichton 17 Michael Reneau 95 Michel Apted 66

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife Michigan 64 Midwest Political Science Association 92 Mike Bearer 51 military bases 21, 63 military installations 63 Military Intelligence “6” (MI6) 60 Missing Joseph 17 Model 24 Moldova 55 Monkey in the Middle: The Scopes Evolution Trial 21 Monty Ray Grow 21 moral degradation 17 Moral Leadership 5 Mr. Abraham Lee 91 Mr. Ban Ki-moon 66 Mr. Ben Norquist 55 Mr. Blair 32 Mr. Dennis Miller 91, 96 Mr. George Clooney 54 Mr. Jimmy Carter 31 Mr. Michael Bloomberg 32 Mr. Peter Bollant 53 Mr. Ricky Martin 54 Mr. Smith 32 Mr. Thisted 60 Mr. Tony Blair 32 Mrs. Gwen Bollant 53 Ms. Angelina Jolie 54 Ms. Ann Karl 92, 95 Ms. Anna Paden 91 Ms. Buchanan 60 Ms. Christine Dolan 39, 91 Ms. Emily Lantzer 64 Ms. Emma Thompson 54 Ms. Julie Baumgardner 6 Ms. Mia Farrow 54 Ms. Monica Lewinsky 29 Ms. Nicole Kidman 54 Ms. Paula Goode 95 Ms. Vonnie Johnson 40 Myron Shibley 42 Nagasaki 27 Nakamura 30


National Agricultural Statistics Service 13 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) 74 national deficit 14 National Football League 21 National Guard 51 National Public Radio (NPR) 49 natural evil 24 Navy 61 Navy SEAL Team 6 60 Navy SEALs 60 Nazi Germany 26 Nazis 2 Near East 32 Neil Young 3 New Jersey 64 New Scotland Yard 18, 92 New York 27, 37, 64 New York City 33, 40, 55 New York State Bar 41 New Zealand 60 Newsday 41 Newton, Connecticut 6 Nick Fairley 34 Nicolas Kristoff 41 Noah 27 Nobel Laureate 43 Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) 49 Norfolk State University 91 Normandy 22 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 47 Norwegian 60 Not for Sale: The Return of the Global Slave Trade and How We Can Fight It 37 Not My Life 50 novelists 5 Nursing 78 O’ Donovan, From Irenaeus to Grotius 34 Obama Administration 32

132 Office of the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs 45 Office on International Religious Freedom 41 Office to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking 95, 63 Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 41 Oklahoma 51 Olivia Smith 96 One Day More 68 Operation Golf 100 Oregon 64 organ harvesting 52 Osama Bin Laden 60-61 Oxford English Dictionary 45 Oxford Round Table 13, 38 Oxford Union 91 Oxford University 13, 30 Oxford University Round Table 2 Oxford, England 26 Pacific Theatre of World War II 28 Paige Ratzlaff 95 Pakistan 60 Parent Teacher Associations (PTA) 76 Parliament [MPs] 93 Paul Gutacker 95 Paul Kengor 6 Paul McCartney 28 Pearl Harbor 22 pedophiles 49 Pembroke College 30, 38 Penn State 73 Philip D Curtin 40 Philip Magness 34 philosophers 5 Pierre Morel 45 Pinella County 21 Polaris Project 64 Poles 2 Politics 14, 32 Pontius Pilate 7 Pop Art 21 Pope Benedict XVI 57, 67

Index Pope Francis 12 posse comitatus 59 Poul Hagen Thisted 60 prejudice 14 President Barack Obama 59 President Bill Clinton 29 President Obama 39 President of the U.S. 61 President Woodrow Wilson 4 Presidential Executive Orders 59 Proclamation 39 Professor of Politics & Government and Director of Law & Public Policy Initiative of the Center for Leadership Initiatives 64 Prolife Movement 30 prostitution 6 Protestant 13 Public International Law 47, 54 Public International Policy 31, 42, 54 Public Law (106-386) 41, 38 Public Policy 30 Public Policymaker 38 Public Policymaking 42 Pulpit 32 Queensland 53 Raymond Legg 21 Reagan 6 Regent’s Law School 20 Reginald Heber 33 regular armed forces 60 religion 4 Report 15 Republicans 32, 42 Reserve Forces of the U.S. 60 Reuben 8 Rhea County Court House 21 Rhode Island 64 ritual killings 52 Robert Browning 23 Robert Lacey 11 Robert Nakamura 32 Rod Dreher 6 Roma 66 Roma children 93

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife Romania 18, 92 Romanian Government 100 Romanian National Police 100 Romanian National Police Forces 93 Ron D. Pettite 21 Roots 34 Ross King 3 Rotary 76 Royal Air Force 22 rule of law 69 Russia 32 Russian 49 Rwanda 26, 41 Rwandan Holocaust 33 Sacrifice 24 Saddam Hussein 47 Salaga Slave Market 39 Sally Hemmings 76 Sam Brownback 32 Samuel K. Alexander 2, 38 Samuel Vincent Jones 13 Satan 8 Saudi Arabia 16, 47 Scandal 11 Schindler’s List 66 scholars 5 scourge 3 Scourge - Human Trafficking: Slavery in the 21st Century 21 Scourge of History 2 Sean Connery 17 Sebastian Page 34 Secretaries of Defense and State 63 Secretary General of the United Nations 59 Secretary of State 4, 32 Selected Operations 58 Selected Orations of William Jennings Bryan, 75th Anniversary Edition 4 Selma, Alabama 24 Senator Brownback 32 Senator Diane Feinstein 32 Senator Ken Yager 64 Senator Paul Wellstone 32


Sermon on the Mount 28 sex slave 16, 37 sex trafficker 37 Sex trafficking 13 sexual exploitation 65 Sidney Lumet 66 sinful 13 Sister Eugenia Boneti 50 slave ship trade 39 slave traders 8 slavery 3 Slavery 29 Smallwood 30 soldiers 5 Somalia 60 source 11 Southeast Asian 49 Soviet Union 6 Special Forces 60 Sri Lankan 16 St. Augustine of Hippo 11 St. John’s College 55 State Department 15 State of Georgia 96 State of Tennessee 37 State of the Union 40 States Department 10 Stephen Livesay 96 Steven Spielberg 22, 66 Stony Brook University 37 strife 3 students 5 Students Stopping the Trafficking of Persons (SSTOP) 2, 55 Summa Metaphysica I, God and Evil 2 Sun Trust Chair of Excellence in Humanities 76 Taken 16 Tennessee 34 Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) 65 terrorism 2, 6 Texas 63 Thailand 37 The “fishing boys” of Lake Volta 13

134 The American Conservative 6 the American West 52 The Associated Press 40 The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census 40 the brother of Jesus 49 The Concordia Self-Study Bible 7 the Dakotas 64 the death penalty 68 The Department of Health and Human Services 15 The Economist 5, 28 the European Theater of World War II 66 The Evil Empire 6 The Executive Government of the United States 59 The Federal Bureau of Investigation 12 The first Iraq War 47 The French Government 49 The Gospel of Matthew 28 The Great Train Robbery 17 The Greatest Generation 22 The Greatest Generation 22 The Hague Academy 100 the Home Office 93 the House of Commons 93 The House of Lords 93 The Idea of Justice 7 The Integrity Project 33 The International Justice Mission (IJM) 15, 37 The Invisible Man 13 The Justice & Mercy Initiative 50, 78 The Lanahan Cases in Leadership, Ethics and Decision Making 29 The Lena Baker Story 4 the London Metropolitan Police Service 98 the London School of Economics 93 The Netherlands 10 The New York Review of Books 6 The Pacific Theater of World War II 66

Index The Pawnbroker 66 The Political Teachings of Jesus 28, 71 The Politics of Policy Implementation 32, 43 The Posse Comitatus Act 59 The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda and an Unnecessary War 34 The State of the Union 62 The Tennessean 64 The Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 45 The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 70 The U.S. Department of State 37 the United Kingdom (UK)’s New Scotland Yard 98 The University of Georgia 34 The University of the South 11 The Utah Law Review 13 The Wallstreet Journal 41 The War on Human Trafficking: U.S. Policy Assessed 32, 41 The White Umbrella 19 The Wichita [Kansas] Eagle 3 The Year of 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millenium, an Englishman’s World 11 theologians 5 Thomas J. DiLorenzo 34 Thomas J. Sheeran 68 Thomas Jefferson 76 Thomas R. Dye 38 Thomas Sowell 32 Tim Tebow 30 Timothy McGinty 69 Tod Lindberg 28, 71 Todd South 10 Tom Brokaw 22 Tom Schwarts 34 Tony Blair 32 Tony Gonzalez 64 Tony McCuiston 21 tortured 16

Civilization at Risk: Seeds of Strife Trafalgar square 55 traffickers 13 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) 95 train robbery 17 Trans-Atlantic trade 40 Travis Ricketts 22 truck stops 51 tsunami 20 Tunisia 61 U.K [The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland] 55 U.N. Trafficking protocol in Palermo 41 U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) 63 U.S. Ambassador Mark Lagon 50 U.S. Armed Forces 61 U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales 71 U.S. Congress 59 U.S. court system 10 U.S. Department of Agriculture 13 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) 63 U.S. Department of State 2 U.S. Free Trade Zones 63 U.S. military 32 U.S. Naval Academy 73 U.S. Naval Academy of Annapolis 29 U.S. Senator Robert Dole 30 Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights, Maria Otero 95 Understanding Public Policy 38 United Kingdom 18, 51 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 32 United Nations 15, 36 United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking 55 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 56 United States 30 United States Declaration of Independence 7


United States Department of Agriculture Economics, Statistics, and Market Information System 13 United States Department of States 10 United States Security Treaty (ANZUS) 60 Unites States 10 unity legislation 41 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 54 University of Chicago’s School of Law 98 University of Edinburgh 100 University of Essex 93 University of Florida 21 University of Helsinki, Finland 36 University of Maryland 80 University of Nebraska-Lincoln 18 University of Oxford 93 University of Tennessee, at Chattanooga 76 University of Vienna 100 Vanderbilt University 74 venereal disease 17 Veterans’ organizations 76 Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking 56 Vienna, Austria 54 virgin 16 Virginia Military Institute (VMI) 24 War in Iraq 32 Warren Buffett 5 Warriors 24 Washington 73 Waxman 70 Webster 15 Webster’s 27 Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language 10 Wellspring Living 19 Western Civilization 6, 22 White House 40 Wilberforce 3 Wilfred M. McClay 76

136 William Jefferson Clinton 41 William Jennings Bryan 4, 21, 28 William Wilberforce 34 Winston Churchill 76 World 6 World War II 2, 20 World War II in Europe 28 Worldviews 28 Worldwide Documentaries 50 WWII 22

Index Yale University 32 YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) 76 Young Men’s Christian Association 76 Young Women’s Christian Association 76 YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) 76 Zero Dark Thirty 61