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Christian Faith and English Language Teaching and Learning: Research on the Interrelationship of Religion and ELT
 9780415898959, 0415898951

Table of contents :
CHRISTIAN FAITH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Research on the Interrelationship of Religion and ELT
Copyright
Contents
List of Contributors
List of Abbreviations
Acknowledgments
Preface
Foreword
1. Introduction: The Faithful Fence
Part I
Christian Faith and Language Teacher Identity
2. Called to Teach: The Impact of Faith on Professional Identity Formation of Three Western English Teachers in China
3. The Role of Faith in the Power Balance between Christian Native Speakers and Taiwanese Teachers who Team Teach
4. Folk Linguistics, Content-Oriented Discourse Analysis, and Language Teacher Beliefs
5. “Forever Changed”: Emerging TESOL Educators’ Cultural Learning and Spiritual Formation on a Study Abroad Trip in Myanmar
6. Towards Understanding the Role of Faith in the Development of Language Teachers’ Identities: A Modest Proposal for Extending the Research Agenda
Part I
Discussion Questions
Part II
Christian Faith and the English Language Learning Context
7. The Globalization of English and China’s Christian Colleges
8. Faith and Learning Integration in ESL/EFL Instruction: A Preliminary Study in America and Indonesia
9. Putting Beliefs into Practice in a Church-Run Adult ESOL Ministry
10. Frameworks for Investigating Faith and ESL: A Response to Snow, Lessard-Clouston, and Baurain
Part II
Discussion Questions
Part III
Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning Process
11. The Role of Sacred Texts in Enhancing Motivation and Living the Vision in Second Language Acquisition
12. Cosmopolitanism, Christianity, and the Contemporary Chinese Context: Impacts upon Second Language Motivation
13. Christian Language Professionals (CLPs) and Integrated Vision: The Stories of Four Educators
14. Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning: Personal, Social, and Research Perspectives
Part III
Discussion Questions
Part IV
Resources and Conclusions
15. A Working Bibliography: Faith and Language Teaching
16. Conclusion: Faith and SLA: An Emerging Area of Inquiry
Author Index
Subject Index

Citation preview

Christian Faith and English Language Teaching and Learning Research on the Interrelationship of Religion and ELT Edited by Mary Shepard Wong, Carolyn Kristjánsson, and Zoltán Dörnyei

CHRISTIAN FAITH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

This book ushers in a tradition of research on faith-based teaching that future generations of teachers and researchers can build upon . . . As language teachers are now open to making space for their values in classrooms and schools, they will need research knowledge on effective and appropriate modes of application. The conversations this book generates should go beyond the faithbased community and inspire the whole profession to systematically study the ways in which faith and values of diverse traditions can shape learning. A. Suresh Canagarajah, From the Foreword Ideological and educational-political aspects of the link between language and faith—especially between Global English and Christianity—is a topic of growing interest in the field of English language teaching. This book explores the possible role and impact of teachers’ and students’ faith in the English language classroom. Bringing together studies representing a diversity of experiences and perspectives on the philosophies, purposes, practices, and theories of the interrelationship of Christianity and language learning and teaching, it is on the front line in providing empirical data that offers firm insights into the actual role that faith plays in various aspects of the language learning/teaching experience. By adding a data-based dimension, the volume contributes to the cultivation of valid research methods and innovative ways to analyze and interpret studies of the intersection of Christian faith and the practice of teaching and learning language. Mary Shepard Wong is Professor of TESOL and Director of the field-based and online graduate programs in the TESOL Program at Azusa Pacific University, USA. Carolyn Kristjánsson is Associate Professor at Trinity Western University, Canada. Zoltán Dörnyei is Professor of Psycholinguistics in the School of English Studies at the University of Nottingham, UK.

CHRISTIAN FAITH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Research on the Interrelationship of Religion and ELT

Edited by Mary Shepard Wong Carolyn Kristjánsson Zoltán Dörnyei

First published 2013 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2013 Taylor & Francis The right of the editors to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Christian faith and English language teaching and learning: research on the interrelationship of religion and ELT/edited by Mary Shepard Wong, Carolyn Kristjansson, Zoltan Dornyei. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. English language—Study and teaching—Foreign speakers. 2. English language—Religious aspects. 3. Language in missionary work. 4. English teachers—Religious life. I. Wong, Mary Shepard. II. Kristjansson, Carolyn. III. Dörnyei, Zoltán. PE1128.A2C479 2013 428.0071—dc23 2012016838 ISBN: 978-0-415-89895-9 (hbk) ISBN: 978-0-203-33773-8 (ebk) Typeset in Bembo and Stone Sans by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon

To our supportive spouses Sam Wong, Indrii Kristjánsson, & Sarah Dörnyei

and children Laura & Vikram Ravinder, Justin Wong Linda Marie & Jonathan Kristjánsson Aaron & Benny Dörnyei

and the One who unites us all

CONTENTS

List of Contributors List of Abbreviations Acknowledgments Preface Foreword by A. Suresh Canagarajah 1. Introduction: The Faithful Fence Mary Shepard Wong, Zoltán Dörnyei, and Carolyn Kristjánsson

xi xv xvii xix xxi 1

PART I

Christian Faith and Language Teacher Identity 2. Called to Teach: The Impact of Faith on Professional Identity Formation of Three Western English Teachers in China Mary Shepard Wong 3. The Role of Faith in the Power Balance between Christian Native Speakers and Taiwanese Teachers who Team Teach Shu-Chuan Wang-McGrath 4. Folk Linguistics, Content-Oriented Discourse Analysis, and Language Teacher Beliefs Michael Pasquale

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11

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5. “Forever Changed”: Emerging TESOL Educators’ Cultural Learning and Spiritual Formation on a Study Abroad Trip in Myanmar Shuang Frances Wu and Mary Shepard Wong 6. Towards Understanding the Role of Faith in the Development of Language Teachers’ Identities: A Modest Proposal for Extending the Research Agenda Magdalena Kubanyiova Part I Discussion Questions

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85

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PART II

Christian Faith and the English Language Learning Context 7. The Globalization of English and China’s Christian Colleges Don Snow

97 99

8. Faith and Learning Integration in ESL/EFL Instruction: A Preliminary Study in America and Indonesia Michael Lessard-Clouston

115

9. Putting Beliefs into Practice in a Church-Run Adult ESOL Ministry Bradley Baurain

136

10. Frameworks for Investigating Faith and ESL: A Response to Snow, Lessard-Clouston, and Baurain David I. Smith

154

Part II Discussion Questions

165

PART III

Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning Process

169

11. The Role of Sacred Texts in Enhancing Motivation and Living the Vision in Second Language Acquisition Elfrieda Lepp-Kaethler and Zoltán Dörnyei

171

Contents ix

12. Cosmopolitanism, Christianity, and the Contemporary Chinese Context: Impacts upon Second Language Motivation Peng Ding

189

13. Christian Language Professionals (CLPs) and Integrated Vision: The Stories of Four Educators Letty Chan

206

14. Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning: Personal, Social, and Research Perspectives Ema Ushioda

223

Part III Discussion Questions

230

PART IV

Resources and Conclusions

233

15. A Working Bibliography: Faith and Language Teaching Tasha Bleistein, Mary Shepard Wong, and David I. Smith

235

16. Conclusion: Faith and SLA: An Emerging Area of Inquiry Zoltán Dörnyei, Mary Shepard Wong, and Carolyn Kristjánsson

267

Author Index Subject Index

273 277

CONTRIBUTORS

1. Bradley Baurain, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (USA) Bradley Baurain has taught in China, the US, and Vietnam, and is currently a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He has published in JLIE, TESOL Journal, the Journal of Aesthetic Education, Education and Culture, and has books with TESOL (2010) and Emerald (2011). 2. Tasha Bleistein, Azusa Pacific University (USA) Tasha Bleistein is Assistant Professor of TESOL at Azusa Pacific University and is finishing her doctorate in Intercultural Education at Biola University. She lived overseas for 11 years. She has published book chapters and journal articles, including an article in TESOL Quarterly. Her research interests include intercultural professional development and teacher training. 3. A. Suresh Canagarajah, Pennsylvania State University (USA) Suresh Canagarajah is Erle Sparks Professor in English and Applied Linguistics at Pennsylvania State University. He is the former editor of TESOL Quarterly, past president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), and has numerous publications related to ELT. He has been the plenary speaker at numerous secular as well as Christian professional academic language conferences. 4. Letty Chan, University of Nottingham (UK) Letty Chan is a doctoral candidate in Applied Linguistics in the School of English Studies at the University of Nottingham, UK. Her current research interests include the L2 Motivational Self System, faith and L2 identity, the use of imagery in the L2 classroom, and Dynamic Systems Theory.

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Contributors

5. Peng Ding, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (PRC) Peng Ding obtained her Ph.D. at the University of Nottingham and is currently working as Lecturer of Applied Linguistics in the Department of Languages and Culture at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China. Her research interests and publications include L2 motivation, teacher enthusiasm, crosscultural communication and Higher Education (HE) internationalization. 6. Zoltán Dörnyei, University of Nottingham (UK) Zoltán Dörnyei is Professor of Psycholinguistics at the School of English Studies, University of Nottingham. He has published widely on SLA and is the author of several books, including Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (2007, Oxford University Press) and Teaching and Researching Motivation (2nd ed., 2011, Longman, with Ema Ushioda). 7. Carolyn Kristjánsson, Trinity Western University (Canada) Carolyn Kristjánsson is an Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics at Trinity Western University in British Columbia Canada. Her publications include work on theological influences in Freirean thought and research on identity and interpersonal dynamics in church-sponsored English language programs and online graduate education in TESOL. 8. Magdalena Kubanyiova, University of Birmingham (UK) Maggie Kubanyiova is Lecturer in Educational Linguistics in the School of Education, University of Birmingham, UK. She is author of Teacher Development in Action: Understanding Language Teachers’ Conceptual Change (2012) and her research has been published in the Modern Language Journal, Language Teaching Research, TESL-EJ, and in several edited books. 9. Elfrieda Lepp-Kaethler, Providence College & Seminary (Canada) Elfrieda Lepp-Kaethler is Assistant Professor of TESOL at Providence University College and Seminary in Otterburne, Manitoba, Canada. In addition to her work as a teacher educator, she co-authored the Faith Series, a Bible-based English language curriculum for adults. She is also a doctoral student at the University of Nottingham, UK. 10. Michael Lessard-Clouston, Biola University (USA) Michael Lessard-Clouston is Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics and TESOL, Cook School of Intercultural Studies, Biola University (La Mirada, California). His research interests include corpus linguistics, second language acquisition, and vocabulary teaching, and his recent publications appear in the CALR Linguistics Journal and the Journal of English for Academic Purposes.

Contributors

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11. Michael Pasquale, Cornerstone University (USA) Michael Pasquale is Associate Professor of Linguistics and Director of the MA TESOL Program at Cornerstone University (Grand Rapids, MI). He earned his Ph.D. in Linguistics from Michigan State University specializing in sociolinguistics and applied linguistics. 12. David I. Smith, Calvin College (USA) David I. Smith is Professor of German and Director of the Kuyers Institute for Christian Teaching and Learning. He is Editor of the Journal of Education and Christian Belief and the Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages. His most recent book is Teaching and Christian Practices: Reshaping Faith and Learning (Eerdmans, 2011). 13. Don Snow, Shantou University (PRC) Don Snow has an MA in English (TESOL) from Michigan State University, and a Ph.D. in East Asian Language and Culture from Indiana University. He has taught in China and the US, and is currently Director of the English Language Center at Shantou University. He is the author of several books. 14. Ema Ushioda, University of Warwick (UK) Ema Ushioda is an Associate Professor in Applied Linguistics at the University of Warwick. Her research interests are language motivation, autonomy, and sociocultural theory. Recent publications include Teaching and Researching Motivation (2010, Pearson, co-authored by Z. Dörnyei) and Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self (2009, Mutlilingual Matters, co-edited by Z. Dörnyei). 15. Shu-Chuan Wang-McGrath, University of Missouri-St.Louis (USA) Shu-Chuan Wang-McGrath received her doctoral degree in Composition & TESOL at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. She was an assistant professor in the Department of Applied English at Ming-Dao University and then in the Department of Foreign Languages at National Quemoy University in Taiwan. Currently, she is teaching at the University of Missouri-St.Louis. 16. Mary Shepard Wong, Azusa Pacific University (USA) Mary Shepard Wong is Professor of TESOL and Director of the online and fieldbased TESOL graduate programs at Azusa Pacific University. She has taught for three decades in the US and abroad, conducted research on the role of faith and teacher identity formation, and published with Cambridge University Press and Routledge. 17. Shuang Frances Wu, Azusa Pacific University (USA) Shuang Frances Wu is Global Learning Faculty at Azusa Pacific University. She received her early and undergraduate education in China and holds a Ph.D. in

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Contributors

Higher Education Policy and Organization. Her research interests include curriculum internationalization, foreign language education, and the role of experiential learning in intercultural competency development.

ABBREVIATIONS

ACU CCCU CETC CLP CPCA DMIS DST EFL ELP ELT ESL ESOL GPI HE IBLP ICU IRB KCEF L2 MOE NEST NNEST NS SETs SLA TAMS

American Christian University (Pseudonym) Council for Christian Colleges and Universities Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (dissolved July 2008) Christian Language Professional Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Dynamic Systems Theory English as a Foreign Language English Language Program English Language Teaching English as a Second Language English for Speakers of Other Languages Global Perspective Inventory Higher Education Institute in Basic Life Principles Indonesian Christian University (Pseudonym) Institutional Review Board King Car Education Foundation Second Language Ministry of Education Native English Speaking Teacher Non-Native English Speaking Teacher native speaker Schweitzer English Teachers Second Language Acquisition Text Analysis Markup System

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Abbreviations

TEFL TESL TESOL TESOL TET TOEFL TSPM TTP

Teaching English as a Foreign Language Teaching English as a Second Language Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages The professional organization of TESOL, now called TESOL International Association Taiwanese English teachers Test of English as a Foreign Language Three-Self Patriotic Movement team teaching pattern

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank the following people who supported us in compiling this volume. Mary would to thank her Dean, Dr. David Weeks, and Chair, Dr. Richard Robison, for their encouragement and for providing release time for research and writing. Mary also wishes to thank the participants in her study for their time and insights and the students in her MA TESOL classes who have helped her explore the connections of faith and teaching. Carolyn wishes to thank Dr. Bill Acton, her Program Director and Dean, for his enthusiastic support of this project and her colleagues at Trinity Western University for their interest in her work. She would also like to thank Dr. Earl Stevick for his enduring friendship and his inspiring example of integrity and authenticity as a follower of Christ and a scholar of language education. Finally, we would all like to thank Naomi Silverman whose constant encouragement and wise guidance supported us throughout the process of compiling this volume.

PREFACE

This anthology contains chapters that describe data-driven studies representing a diversity of experiences and perspectives on the philosophies, purposes, practices, and theories of the interrelationship of Christianity and language learning and teaching. It seeks to help those involved in language teaching education to understand how the faith of stakeholders comes to bear on the learning and teaching of English and other languages. Contributors are researchers and practitioners who hold a diversity of beliefs about the influence of Christianity on language teaching and learning. The volume begins with a foreword by Suresh Canagarajah, who discusses the seemingly conflicting approaches to research and faith, and asks why and how Christian scholars might undertake research on faith and teaching and learning. The book is framed by an introduction and a conclusion written by the three co-editors who seek to encourage rigorous research on Christianity and SLA as well as faith and ELT. Research chapters are organized in three parts: Christian faith and (1) language teacher identity; (2) the English language learning context; and (3) motivation and L2 learning process. Each part concludes with a summary/response chapter by a notable scholar who highlights the common themes in the chapters, makes connections to relevant theories, and raises questions for further inquiry. A set of discussion questions is provided at the end of each part to facilitate discussion, encourage reflection on theory and practice, and to promote and improve research in the area of faith and SLA/ELT. The final part contains the conclusion and a substantial list of relevant resources thematically organized into fourteen bibliographies. This book will be of interest to various groups of people, including education administrators, language policy makers, scholars, and researchers in the fields of TESOL, TEFL, and modern language teaching, as well as teacher educators,

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classroom teachers, and graduate students in these disciplines. The wide network of faith-based higher education institutes worldwide should also find this volume of great interest as a source of new insight on the interface of faith and language teaching and learning. Due to its data-based nature, the book provides a valuable textbook option for research and second language acquisition courses as well as offering perspectives that will be of interest in sociolinguistics courses and other areas of applied linguistics. The studies represented in this anthology have been conducted in numerous countries by scholars and practitioners from a variety of regions, resulting in a volume that has broad international appeal. The three editors alone hail from the US, Canada, and the UK with background and experience in China, Iceland, Brazil, and Hungary.

FOREWORD A. Suresh Canagarajah

For some readers of this book, faith and research perhaps do not go together. Faith is subjective and academic research is objective. Faith is committed and research is dispassionate, even skeptical. Faith is about absolutes and research is context-sensitive. Why and how would Christian scholars undertake research on faith and teaching and learning? Before we answer that question, we have to reconsider our assumption that research is value-free. The difference values make in research should be clear for those who compare studies on faith-based teaching by secular and Christian scholars. Though research in ELT/SLA by faith-based scholars is somewhat new, our professional journals already have a couple of studies by secular scholars. However, I have always felt that there was something lacking in this research. The assumptions researchers brought to their projects led to certain distortions. Despite the best efforts of these well-respected scholars, their assumption that religions are fundamentalist, faith-based teaching is aimed at converting students, faith cannot be reconciled with reason, and religion motivates intolerance led to distortions in their findings. Often, they were unable to listen to the complex voices of faith-based teachers who attempted to articulate nuanced positions on the way faith and teaching came together for them. Such studies have only impressed upon me how erroneous it is to think that research is totally dispassionate and disconnected from values. Now, in the post-positivist period in the academy and society, people are more willing to consider the ways our values shape our scholarship and research. Some may even go to the extent of treating values as enabling and enlightening in many contexts, opening our eyes to realities we may not otherwise see. This point comes out strongly in the chapters in this volume. These researchers bring a different set of assumptions to their data and subjects. As they bring an insider

xxii A. Suresh Canagarajah

perspective on faith-based teaching and learning, the voices of teachers and students make different sense to them. The aim of these researchers is not only to critique faith-based teaching and examine the influence of faith on motivation and learning, but also to enhance it through analysis. They are not motivated by the utter irreconcilability of faith and pedagogy, but the complex interconnections between them. Their objective is not to exclude faith-based teaching from the profession, but to explore ways of making learning and teaching more holistic, rich, and empowering for everyone. They also bring an insider perspective on certain practices and motivations that those outside the faith may not always possess. All these features give a different value and significance to the research represented in this book. Readers will hopefully appreciate the importance of insider-research approaches, such as autoethnography, action research, participation observation, and narrative study. Does all this mean that values-based research is subjective and unreliable? Would researchers in this tradition display a reverse bias in favor of their pedagogical practices when secular researchers are skeptical? There are new practices and principles that give validity to research, which the research methodology alone cannot guarantee. It is not the purity of the data, dispassionate researcher stance, or validity of the methodology that makes a research study reliable. Post-positivist researchers consider other principles, such as: making their research practices and assumptions transparent; triangulating their findings through multiple data sources, including others’ research findings; being very disciplined in obtaining and recording their data; conducting rigorous, repeated, and close analysis of their data; and interpreting their findings from diverse angles and possibilities. Readers will be impressed with the care with which these researchers analyze their data and contexts. Should readers expect to see only one point of view emerging from these studies, evidence that faith-based teaching and research do not have room for disagreement and debate? If spirituality is absolute, there is no room for a diversity of perspectives. What this book shows is that faith-based teachers and researchers can disagree on significant issues. The editors have adopted the wise strategy of inviting response essays on the chapters in each section. The respondents bring out some of the tensions and differences in the studies and re-theorize them to develop alternate perspectives. The connection between faith and teaching is not simple or self-evident. This is a creative activity that requires imaginative application. It is also a risky enterprise, as the pedagogical strategies one adopts may have a range of outcomes, not always consistent with one’s faith. It may be of relative merit, as pedagogical strategies can have varying degrees of relevance to spirituality and varying depths of significance. The connection between faith and pedagogical practice can also be very contextual, as what is meaningful in one social or cultural context may not be relevant in another. We must remember that practice is not passively dependent on faith, to be translated in a one-sided way. There is a place for practice to further explore the diverse dimensions

Foreword xxiii

of one’s faith. For all these reasons, it is reasonable for faith-based teachers and researchers to disagree. These are also important reasons why faith-based researchers should analyze their data with objectivity and rigor, and not let their starting assumptions dictate their findings. In research, as in teaching, we should be open to the interplay between values and practice, allowing ourselves to be surprised by new revelations that often we recognize as nothing but divine! This book will have tremendous significance for faith-based professionals as they develop more effective and consistent pedagogical practices. It ushers in a tradition of research on faith-based teaching that future generations of teachers and researchers can build upon. There is value in developing our pedagogical traditions on well-researched and well-documented knowledge, moving them beyond the level of informal shared knowledge. The book will also have value for the larger profession. As language teachers are now open to making space for their values in classrooms and schools, they will need research knowledge on effective and appropriate modes of application. The conversations this book generates should go beyond the faith-based community and inspire the whole profession to systematically study the ways in which faith and values of diverse traditions can shape learning.

1 INTRODUCTION The Faithful Fence Mary Shepard Wong AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

Zoltán Dörnyei UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM (UK)

Carolyn Kristjánsson TRINITY WESTERN UNIVERSITY (CANADA)

The impatient gate, that swings both in and out, Whose work is lost when no one passes through; The faithful fence, that marks off false from true— No time for hanging back, no room for doubt— Exist, not in the world, but in the mind. Yet God forgive if what is there for me I either hide, or try to press on thee, To shout thee deaf, or leave thee lost and blind. This dreadful choice sets sister against brother, Either to injure, or to fail each other. (Earl Stevick, as cited in Wong & Canagarajah, 2009, p. 297) Mary never ceases to be amazed with her graduate students’ thoughtful yet diverse interpretations of Earl Stevick’s poem cited above. What do the “impatient gate” and “faithful fence” represent and what is the “dreadful choice?” In one interpretation, the dreadful choice is about sharing one’s faith and the impatient gate the opportunity that is either lost or taken as it “swings both out and in.” The choice is dreadful because one risks either “injuring” someone by “shouting [them] deaf” or “failing” them by leaving them “lost or blind.” There is no time to “hang back,” for if one does not pass through the gate, its “work is lost.” There might be yet another interpretation of these images—one in which the impatient gate represents our research questions, and the faithful fence “that marks

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off false from true” our research. The phrase, “Yet God forgive if what is there for me I either hide, or try to press on three” might, then, refer to full disclosure in research, and not overstating one’s findings and ensuring there is ample evidence for what one claims. “Failing each other” occurs by not asking the questions and not engaging in the research that explores our faith and teaching. It begs the question: What “work is lost” when we fail to investigate how our deeply held beliefs about God and language impact our language teaching pedagogy, scholarship, and students? This volume arose out of a keen desire to move forward the research agenda on Christian faith and English language teaching and learning. The idea for the book came to us (Mary and Carolyn) the night after a successful panel on faith and research at the Boston TESOL Convention in 2010. The session, “English teaching and Christian mission: Empirical research perspectives” organized by Bill Johnston, was well attended in spite of it being one of the final presentations on the last day of the conference. Four presenters, two Christians (Mary and Carolyn) and two self-identified non-Christians described their research on “Evangelicals and ELT” and a lively yet respectful discussion followed. The question dominating our dinner conversation that evening was what we could do to keep this momentum going. We surmised that an edited volume of empirical studies on faith and English Language Teaching (ELT) would inspire more research in this area. Wanting to internationalize the scope of the project and provide more expertise in research, we invited Zoltán Dörnyei to join the editorial team, and he agreed almost immediately. A call for chapters was sent out and, after receiving a solid response, we wrote a book proposal and a contract from Routledge soon followed.

Research on Faith and English Language Learning/ Teaching Some readers may be unaware of the background of the discussion of faith and language teaching within TESOL. Although research related specifically to faith in ELT is not extensive, it has been developing over the past two decades. A brief summary will be provided here that mentions a few seminal works, but for a more complete list of related works, see Chapter 15, “A Working Bibliography.” It will be shown that the unspoken agreement to not allow one’s religious faith to “intrude” on one’s professional practice is still present within TESOL, as it is in other fields, but research on identity has provided some space to explore how faith and foreign language teaching and learning impact each other in powerful ways. The influence of faith on language is not new. Accounts in Scripture of Creation, the Tower of Babel, or the events at Pentecost, for example, are rich with insights about the connections of faith and language. Likewise, the connection of faith and language teaching has been around for centuries. Comenius, the seventeenth-century scholar, often called the “father of modern education,”

Introduction: The Faithful Fence

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made insightful comments about the connections of faith and language education, many of which are still relevant today (for more on Comenius, see Howatt, 2004; Smith, 2000). The work by missionaries in language translation and learning has also been ongoing for several centuries (see, for example, the website for SIL International: www.sil.org). However, up until the 1990s, the discussion of faith and language teaching and learning was largely restricted to Christian publications and was not found much in the wider TESOL literature. This began to change in the 1990s. Earl Stevick’s Humanism in Language Teaching, published in 1990 in response to earlier conversations in the field, made the case that the “objective stance” taken by some critics of “humanistic” methods and religious faith was itself grounded in unprovable articles of “faith.” He included in this work a faith-informed assessment of two methods, as well as a discussion of teaching as “sacramental.” Two years later, Robert Phillipson’s (1992) seminal work, Linguistic Imperialism, which highlighted aspects of language work in Christian missions, caused many in TESOL to take a more critical look at the forces that made English the language of power and influence that it is today. A series of forum discussions in TESOL Matters in 1996 and 1997 called “Keeping the Faith” showcased an interesting discussion between Earl Stevick (1997) and Julian Edge (1996, 1997) around the ethical dilemmas of Christian witness and English teaching. The influential work of David Smith and Barbra Carvill (2000), The Gift of the Stranger, and then Don Snow’s (2001a) English Teaching as Christian Mission, made a significant contribution to Christian educators who wanted to explore how to better align their calling to Christ and vocation of teaching. However, the fact that these works were by Christian publishers targeting a Christian audience limited their impact on the larger TESOL community. In 2001, the tide began to turn when Tom Scovel convened a panel of scholars to speak on “Faith, Values and Language Teaching” at the annual TESOL convention in St. Louis. Several language teaching professionals were asked to speak about the influence of their faith beliefs on their practice, including Don Snow (Christian), Mary Ann Christison (Buddhist), David Mendelsohn (Jewish), Kassim Shaaban (Muslim), and Henry Widdowson (atheist), who was the discussant. (The session was recorded and was available for purchase.) This well-attended event demonstrated that the topic of teachers’ faith identities was a legitimate one, even at a professional language conference. As Don Snow wrote in CETC Newsletter about the event, “The primary significance of this event was less the specific content . . . than the fact that it occurred at all” (Snow, 2001b, p. 2). In the following years, a series of articles criticizing Christian English teachers appeared, including Alastair Pennycook and Sophie Coutand-Marin’s (2003) Teaching English as a Missionary Language and Julian Edge’s (2003) forum piece in the TESOL Quarterly, Imperial Troopers and Servants of the Lord. Stephanie Vandrick’s (2002) chapter, “ESL and the colonial legacy: A teacher faces her ‘missionary kid’ past” served to deepen our understanding of the potential negative consequences

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of unexamined attitudes of superiority and to raise our awareness of issues of power that all teachers have, especially white educated native-speaking teachers from the West. Manka Varghese and Bill Johnston’s lead article in TESOL Quarterly in 2007—“Evangelical Christians and English Language Teaching” under Suresh Canagarajah’s tenure as editor—provided an interesting qualitative study of Christian MA TESOL students’ views of how their faith impacted their teaching, and brought the issue of faith and teaching front and center to the TESOL community. Bradley Baurain’s bold article in 2007, “Christian witness and respect for persons” in the Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, provided a Christian response to the arguments in several of these and other critical articles. About the same time, Carolyn published a paper investigating the influence of Christian faith on the thinking of Paulo Freire, the father of critical pedagogy, and highlighted the need for theory building that would allow for systematic consideration of spiritual perspectives as a source of knowledge and understanding in language education (Kristjánsson, 2007). In spite of this flurry of articles on faith and teaching within TESOL, it was clear that the organization was not comfortable with the topic, as was evidenced by the TESOL Board’s decision to dissolve the Christian caucus (and all seven caucuses). The Christian caucus, which had been active within TESOL since 1996 and had grown to over 1,000 members at its peak, was dissolved in 2008 due to “legal concerns” of discrimination and fears that people would think TESOL supported Christianity over other religions. We watched how other caucuses, such as NNEST and Teachers for Social Responsibility, applied to become Interest Sections within TESOL and thus maintain their community and strengthen their influence. They did this by demonstrating that there was a solid body of research and scholarship supporting their causes, and thus they were considered robust subfields within TESOL. As a former leader within the Christian caucus, Mary started to consider how more rigorous research on faith and teaching, including publications in peer-reviewed journals, might help to legitimize the area of faith and ELT, by means of publications and conferences not only within Christian circles, but also outside them. This desire prompted her to bring together major players in this discussion into one volume, and after securing the help of the then-editor of TESOL Quarterly Sueresh Canagarajah, they invited several of the authors mentioned above (Phillipson, Stevick, Edge, Pennycook, Canagarajah, Smith, Snow, Vandrick, Vargese, Johnston), as well as some twenty others, to continue the dialogue around issues of Christian faith and pedagogy, spirituality, ideology, and teacher identity in an edited volume, which resulted in the Routledge publication by Wong and Canagarajah (2009 hardback; 2011 paperback). That volume, however, was primarily ideological and conceptual in orientation and did not contain empirical studies on faith and language teaching/learning. As stated in the conclusion of that book, the editors felt that “[e]mpirical research [had not] kept pace with the amount of theoretical discussions on the role of spirituality in language learning”

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and wanted “to see more classroom research on ways in which teachers and students negotiate their beliefs in teaching and learning” (Wong & Canagarajah, 2009, p. 290). This current volume is a response to that call and a desire to “mark off the false from true” in empirical studies, and explore the questions that investigate the spiritual aspects of language teaching and learning.

About the Studies in This Volume At the outset of our project, we faced some uncertainties about whether we would be able to solicit enough high-quality research papers on the topic to make up a robust anthology. While we knew that there was a healthy segment of the language teaching community that was interested and even involved in investigations concerning faith and language education, it was to be seen whether this interest would materialize in actual research studies of sufficient rigor to meet our editorial guidelines. Also, we were unsure about which aspects of language education would be targeted by the emerging studies and which would remain underrepresented. Our initial plan foresaw three main areas to be covered: (a) faith and language teacher identity; (b) faith and language learner identity; and (c) faith and language acquisition. Thus, we anticipated papers concerning the interface of faith beliefs and the identities of the agents in the language education process, as well as papers identifying direct links between faith beliefs and the mechanisms of second language acquisition. In the end, the research papers that were accepted for the volume only partially confirmed our initial anticipations. We were pleased to receive a healthy number of empirical studies, mainly qualitative in nature, and the final content of the volume provides evidence for both the theoretical and practical validity of this new emerging subfield of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). The richest data were obtained about teacher identities, while learners were mainly examined in relation to their learning context—hence the change of title of Part II. The most significant divergence from our original expectations occurred with regard to the actual process of second language learning (Part III). While we recall a few papers at past conferences that specifically linked faith-based issues to components and mechanisms of SLA (for example, praying as a learning strategy in missionary language training), for the present volume there was only one such area represented: the motivational basis of the learning process. Motivation is indeed an obvious factor to mediate faith beliefs but it is not the only possible one by any means; we feel that future research may target a wider scope of potentially relevant issues (we will come back to this question in the conclusion). As the content of the book was gradually taking shape, we decided to make two further modifications to our initial plans. First, in order to strengthen the theoretical embededness of the data-based studies, we invited three content specialists to write review papers for each section. We were pleased that Maggie Kubanyiova, David Smith, and Ema Ushioda accepted our invitation, and their

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summaries and responses—also accompanied by suggestions for further research— have become an invaluable asset to the book. The second change was motivated by the growing recognition that the literature relevant to the areas investigated in this book is considerably larger than each of us would have thought individually. This prompted the idea to go beyond simply giving reference lists for each chapter and to create a set of working bibliographies. Mary joined forces with Tasha Bleistein and David Smith, and together they collected hundreds of resources related to Christian faith and English language teaching and learning. They prioritized and categorized these resources into fourteen working bibliographies on various subthemes that emerged, and wrote an introduction that explains the selection process and provides a context for the bibliographies presented in Chapter 15. We hope that this chapter will be of help both to graduate students who may be starting their investigations and seasoned researchers who might become inspired by a study that had previously gone unnoticed. In sum, the final volume that has emerged as the outcome of a long and enjoyable journey will hopefully fulfill its role in putting the domain of faith and language learning and teaching firmly on the research agenda within applied linguistics. The selection of papers offers a rich coverage of Christian learning situations and a wide array of interesting Christian voices sharing honest views about how their faith interacted with their language-related experiences, as well as a host of interesting ideas that are worth pursuing further. Finally, as the three content reviews demonstrate, the studies in this volume are also valuable in their own right by contributing to the progression of several content areas of applied linguistics research. We have come to the end of this journey and we sincerely hope that the contributors of this anthology have succeeded in creating an “impatient gate” that is welcomingly open and a “faithful fence that marks off false from true.”

References Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6, 201–219. Edge, J. (1996). Keeping the faith. TESOL Matters, 6(4), 1, 23. Edge, J. (1997). Julian Edge responds. TESOL Matters, 6(6), 6. Edge, J. (2003). Imperial troopers and servants of the Lord: A vision of TESOL for the 21st century. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 701–709. Howatt, A. P. R. (2004). A history of English language teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Kristjánsson, C. (2007). The word in the world: So to speak (a Freirean legacy). In D. Smith, & T. Osborn (Eds.), Spirituality, social justice and language learning (pp. 133–153). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Pennycook, A., & Coutand-Marin, S. (2003). Teaching English as a missionary language (TEML). Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24(3), 337–353.

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Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Smith, D., & Carvill, B. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I. (2000). Gates unlocked and gardens of delight: Comenius on piety, persons, and language learning. Christian Scholar’s Review, 30, 207–232. Snow, D. (2001a). English teaching as Christian mission: An applied theology. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Snow, D. (2001b). Faith, values and language teaching forum: Reflections. CETC Newsletter, 5(2), 3. Stevick, E. (1990). Humanism in language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Stevick, E. (1997). Response to Julian Edge’s “keeping the faith.” TESOL Matters, 6(6), 6. Vandrick, S. (2002). ESL and the colonial legacy: A teacher faces her “missionary kid” past. In V. Zamel, & R. Spack (Eds.), Enriching ESOL pedagogy (pp. 411–422). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Varghese, M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 5–31. Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, A. S. (2009). Christian and critical language educators in dialogue: Imagining possibilities. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 290–291). New York: Routledge.

PART I

Christian Faith and Language Teacher Identity

2 CALLED TO TEACH The Impact of Faith on Professional Identity Formation of Three Western English Teachers in China Mary Shepard Wong AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

This chapter describes the findings of two studies conducted a decade apart that investigated the pedagogy and professional identity formation of three Western Christian English teachers in China. The findings from the original study revealed thirty factors that influenced the teachers’ pedagogy and identity formation. Wenger’s (1998) social theory of identity formation was used to analyze interview transcripts of both studies, revealing how identity formation evolved over time as the teachers were engaged in various communities of practice. The follow-up study revealed several similarities among the participants, most notably the importance of faith, which influenced their “calling” to teach in China, their commitment to teach well, and the formation of relationships that sustained them. A difference found among participants was the extent to which they recognized and struggled with dilemmas of their missionary status, power, and privilege. The study reveals the significant influence of teachers’ faith on their pedagogy and long-term professional identity formation.

Introduction While walking down a crowded narrow outdoor market street in Ningxia, Hui Autonomous Region in China among seemingly endless stalls of squid on a stick, grilled mutton, dried animal parts, and fruits and foods that I could not identify, a Muslim Hui man called out in a sing song parrot-like voice, asking, “Who are you, why are you here? Who are you, why are you here?” I do not think he expected an answer, and maybe these were the only English phrases he knew. But I was struck by the questions, as they went to the core of my inquiry. How do we identify who we are and how does this impact what we do? The winding market street that followed the legendary Silk Road had no doubt seen thousands of foreigners

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with a multiplicity of motivations, many not in the best interests of the local people. If the cobblestones beneath my feet could talk, they would have asked the same questions, “Who are you, and why are you here? His questions were probing and haunting, and embodied what I was exploring: identity and purpose. Over the past few decades, research on teacher learning, knowledge, and cognition has burgeoned. A number of studies have explored the interrelationships of teachers’ professional, social, political, racial, and cultural identities (see Duff & Uchida, 1997; Kubota & Lin, 2006; Morgan, 2004; Pavlenko, 2003), and a few have highlighted the importance of theorizing the complexity of professional identity formation among English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers (see Tsui, 2007; Varghese, Morgan, Johnston & Johnson, 2005). One published empirical study (Varghese & Johnston, 2007) was found that explored what Morgan (2009) has called a “blind spot” in teacher identity research in TESOL—teachers’ religious or spiritual identities. Another gap in teacher identity research in ELT, according to Ricento (2005), is longitudinal studies. This study addresses these three areas of need in the research on teacher identity in ELT: theorizing teacher identity, exploring teachers’ religious identity, and longitudinal studies. Although actual studies on the pedagogical implications of teachers’ religious identities are rare within TESOL, over the last several years a discussion has developed around the influence of a teacher’s values, faith, and spiritual identity on his or her language teaching (Baurain, 2007; Buzzelli & Johnston, 2002; Canagarajah, 2009a; Johnston, 2003; Palmer, 2007; Smith & Carvill, 2000; Smith & Osborn, 2007; Snow, 2001). The potential harmful effects of faith-informed practice have been discussed (Edge, 2003, 2004; Johnston & Varghese, 2006; Pennycook & Coutand-Marin, 2003; Vandrick, 2002; Varghese & Johnston, 2007), as well as the potential for a more positive influence of faith and practice (Canagarajah, 2009a; Liang, 2009; Stevick, 2009; Wong, 2009). The three teachers who took part in the two related interview-based studies described in this chapter are Suzanne, Cynthia, and Jacque.1 The first study (Wong, 2000)2 was conducted in 1998–1999 and the follow-up study3 was conducted in 2008. The question guiding the first study was: 1.

What factors influence the pedagogical decisions and identity formation of these Western Christian English teachers in China? The questions guiding the follow-up investigation were:

1. 2. 3.

In what ways have these teachers changed from the first study, a decade earlier, especially in terms of their professional identity formation? How are the teachers and their identities similar to one another? And how might this account for their longevity in China? What is the impact of their religious faith on their pedagogy and professional identity formation?

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Theoretical Framework Wenger’s (1998) social theory of identity formation was used in the analysis of the data in the follow-up study and applied post hoc to the initial study, as it provided a framework to interpret the ways in which the teachers were forming their professional identity through practice. The underlying premise in this framework is that learning is not simply the reception of knowledge and facts, but is in fact social in nature, and thus is a process of participation in communities of practice, participation that is first legitimately peripheral but that gradually increases in engagement and complexity (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The framework was used to analyze how the teachers were positioning themselves in terms of who they were, where they had been, and where they were headed, and reconciling the nexus of multimemberships of the various communities and constellations of practice into one identity. According to Wenger, communities of practice are formed when people engage in shared learning in a common domain. Constellations are larger, comprised of multiple communities. Wenger states that we belong to many communities/ constellations of practice and notes that some communities of practice are in the past, some are in the present; in some we participate as full members, and others in more peripheral ways. Some may be central to our identities while others are more incidental, but our participation (or non- participation) in these communities contributes to the forming of our identities.

Methodology This investigation was qualitative in nature, specifically participant observation/ interview studies. It was undertaken with the assumptions of a postpositivist paradigm,4 using the principles of grounded theory to investigate the lived experience of the teachers in China, focusing on how their religious beliefs and practices influence their teaching and identity. Steps were taken to ensure that the study was conducted in an ethical manner. Official approval from the human subjects review boards from the appropriate universities were obtained and signed consent forms were collected from all participants. Confidentiality was maintained by using pseudonyms.

Bracketing and Monitoring Biases Having a strong theoretical predisposition can negatively influence a study. I am a Christian5 educator seeking to understand how educators perceive and interpret their spiritual identity, and how this understanding impacts their teaching and professional identity. On one hand, this provides me access, an insider’s understanding of the subculture, and a rapport with those I seek to understand. On the other hand, being so familiar with the culture, the practices, and the jargon can diminish my ability to gain fresh insights and understandings and to be open

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to critique. It could be argued that an outsider (perhaps a non-Christian in this case) would be a more objective principal investigator, notwithstanding the rather large obstacle of access an outsider would have in finding, meeting, living among, interviewing, and observing Christian educators and missionaries living abroad. But it also could be argued that anyone’s religious persuasion (Christian, Buddhist, Muslim, atheist, agnostic, etc.) would constitute a bias. Qualitative researchers believe that all people have biases, and instead of denying them, or claiming to be “objective” (if that is possible), we make our biases and assumptions explicit, and then seek to monitor and bracket them. “Bracketing” involves suspension of preconceived ideas to minimize prior assumptions. In order to do this, I made explicit my assumptions (that is, that a teacher’s religious faith influences and infuses teacher identity and pedagogy in a multitude of complex ways and can be either an asset or detriment involving moral dilemmas). I asked the following question as I made meaning from the data and applied the theoretical framework: How do my knowledge, experiences, beliefs, and relationships with the participants reduce or augment the significance of this item to the understanding I am constructing?

Data Sources and Analysis The main sources of data are fifteen in-depth interviews, five with each participant. I interviewed each of the three participants in January 1998, July 1998, January 1999, July 1999 (which informed the first study), and March 2008. The final interview in 2008 was conducted in China 10 years after the initial interview, and was the basis of the follow-up study. The support letters the teachers sent home over the 2-year span of the first study were also used as data sources. In the 2008 study, I traveled to China to interview all three participants, and in two cases I lived with them for a few days on the campuses where they taught. Data analysis of the transcriptions was interactive in that I transcribed and coded them between each set of interviews. The transcripts were read several times and a coding scheme emerged. The codes were recorded in the margins and color coding was also used to denote themes. The process of renaming, splitting, and merging codes to better match the data was continuous. Once themes were determined to be robust, they were grouped into categories. The teachers’ letters of support were also read for themes, looking for both negative cases and confirmation of the themes found in the interviews. Clusters of communities of practice emerged in the second study and were found to be isomorphic with the categories of factors impacting pedagogy found in the first study.

Participants The identities of English language teachers, as with all humans, are complex, multilayered, fluid, and fluctuate according to context. The teachers in this study

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had these common features: race (white), national origin (American), religion (Christian), location (expatriates living in China), profession (teachers), subject taught (English language), and language background (“Native”6 English Speaker). Since many of these identities are vested with cultural power and prestige, their combined interaction has the potential for a compelling and powerful influence, which should not be ignored or downplayed (Varghese, 2009). At the time of the first study, the participants were my students in a graduate TESOL program in which they completed their Master’s degree while teaching abroad. The teacher/student relationship may have influenced their answers, but the interviews were conducted at five points in time over a decade, resulting in greater confidence in the data. The teachers were part of a nonprofit organization that recruited, trained, and sent teams of Christian teachers to teach English in universities in China.7 Both nonprofits represented in this study were transparent about their Christian identity to both the Chinese government and the academic institutions where the teachers worked. The teachers were financially supported by individuals, many of whom were part of the teachers’ local churches, and thus the supporters may have viewed these teachers as “missionaries” who were offering both a service and Christian presence in China.8 At the time of the second study, the three teachers were no longer my graduate students, but they were still part of an American-based Christian nonprofit and still received financial support from church members. Suzanne and Cynthia were with the same nonprofit they started with 10 years prior; however, Jacque had changed organizations.

Analysis: Categories and Communities Analysis involves what I call an “Alice in Wonderland effect”9 in which the investigator needs to “shrink” to get inside the phenomenon to see it differently and find and label its many small parts to understand how they work together. But it also involves “growing” to gain an outside perspective to see how the phenomenon functions as a whole within a larger context. In the first study, the thirty factors that emerged from the participants’ stories are the “many small parts” that influenced their teaching and identity. It was important to take the time to find these and see what role faith played from this perspective. But it was also valuable to view the teachers in the larger context, as they engaged in communities of practice, many of which were distinctively Christian. It was their participation and non-participation and movement in and among these communities of practice that formed their identities. The description of the factors and the communities and constellations of practice and the reflection on the work of how the teachers reconciled conflicting identities provides a deeper understanding of how faith influences the identity formation of these Christian teachers. The findings from the first study (1998–1999) revealed that there were thirty factors that influenced the pedagogy and identity of these Western teachers in China, which I grouped into four categories described by metaphors: (1) “baggage

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brought,” or factors such as experiences and expectations that the teachers brought with them that had both negative and positive effects on their teaching; (2) “the hand dealt,” or constraints upon their teaching such as problems with class assignments or the conditions of the classroom; (3) “support network,” or personal issues such as a teacher’s health and team relationships, which at times hindered and at other times enhanced their effectiveness, and (4) the “political climate,” or events that took place (political events, reaction to media, natural disasters, reaction to disasters, social unrest) that impacted the classrooms (see Figure 2.1). Wenger’s social identity theory was used to analyze the data in the follow-up study (2008) and it was applied post hoc to further analyze the results of the first

POLITICAL CLIMATE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

BAGGAGE BROUGHT

Political events Reaction to media Natural disasters Reaction to disasters Social unrest HAND DEALT

1. Teaching experiences 2. Cross-cultural experiences 3. Learning experiences 4. Goals of the teacher 5. Skills of the teacher 6. Gender of the teacher 7. Interests of the teacher 8. Religion of the teacher 9. The sending organization’s goals 10. Supporters’ goals

PEDAGOGY AND PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY FORMATION

1. Administration’s goals 2. Classes assigned 3. Textbooks used 4. Resources (or lack of) 5. Time with students 6. Tests and National exams 7. Students’ ages and maturity level 8. Students’ interests 9. Students’ culture of learning 10. Students’ gender

SUPPORT NETWORK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. FIGURE 2.1

Relationships with teammates Relationships with Chinese colleagues Personal relationships Physical and emotional well being Professional development/support

Four categories of factors influencing teachers’ pedagogy and professional identity formation

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EMERGING NATIONAL/POLITICAL COMMUNITIES Constellation of U.S. nationals Community of local expatriates EMERGING MISSIONAL COMMUNITIES

EMERGING PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITIES

Constellation of Evangelicals Constellation of missionaries Community of the teacher’s mission agency

PEDAGOGY AND PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY FORMATION

Community of financial supporters and church members

Constellation of professional language educators Community or “cohort” of graduate students Community of local academic colleagues

EMERGING PERSONAL COMMUNITIES Community of foreign teachers / “team” Community of Christian locals FIGURE 2.2

Four clusters of emerging constellations and communities of practice

study. During this process, four clusters of communities of practice emerged that were isomorphic to the four categories described above (see Figure 2.2). The first cluster of communities, “emerging missional communities,” related to the teachers’ identities as missionaries. The second cluster related to professional or teacher identities, the third cluster related to personal relationships and networks, and the fourth related to their national and political identities. The thirty factors that were found in the first study and the communities of practice that emerged while conducting the follow-up study will be described below.

1. “Baggage Brought” and Emerging Missional Communities of Practice The first category of factors that influenced the teachers’ pedagogy I called “baggage brought,” for although the category contains seemingly positive factors for teachers such as teaching and learning experiences, in the context of China these factors needed to be “unpacked” and in some cases discarded. These factors included: teaching experiences, cross-cultural experiences, learning experiences, goals of the teacher, skills of the teacher, gender of the teacher, interests of the teacher, religious faith of the teacher, the sending organization’s goals, and their

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supporters’ goals. Analysis of this category reveals teachers were engaged in several constellations and communities of practice related to Christian missions: constellation of evangelicals, constellation of missionaries, the community of the missionary organization they were part of (or the nonprofit), and their US church community and financial supporters.

2. “Hand Dealt” and Emerging Professional Communities of Practice The teachers faced both difficult conditions and favorable circumstances that affected their pedagogy in various ways. I called this “the hand dealt,” relating to the luck of the draw in a card game and players having to make the most of the hand they are dealt. These ten factors relate to the resources and constraints of the local educational context and include: administration’s goals, classes they were assigned, textbooks they were required to use, resources they had or did not have, time spent with students, tests and national exams students took, students’ ages and maturity levels, students’ motivation and interests, students’ culture of learning (pedagogy of preference), and students’ gender. Three professional communities that emerged here were: the constellation of professional language educators, their community or “cohort” of graduate students, and the community of their local academic colleagues.

3. “Support Network” and Emerging Personal Communities of Practice A set of influences related to social, professional, and personal issues emerged and impacted the teachers’ pedagogy and identity formation. These I called “support network” to represent the important relationships and resources needed for teachers to remain emotionally and physically healthy. The factors included: relationships with teammates, relationships with Chinese colleagues, personal or romantic relationships, physical and emotional well-being, and professional development and support from the nonprofit and their local institution. Two communities of practice that emerged related to these more personal factors were: the expatriate community of foreign teachers, which the teachers referred to as “team,” and the community of Christian locals.

4. “Political Climate” and Emerging National/Political Communities of Practice The spring of 1999 was a politically tense time as it coincided with four important anniversaries in China: the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Peoples’ Republic of China, the 40th anniversary of the Dalai Lama’s exile, the 10th anniversary of the demonstrations at Tiananmen Square, and the 80th anniversary of the May 4 movement, a demonstration of 3,000 students in Tiananmen

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protesting the domination of foreign powers within China. The political “storm” that hit during this year was the NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, which impacted the teachers’ daily routines. Although for a number of days all three teachers were put under a type of “house arrest,” the teachers felt support from their students. The events offered the teachers an opportunity to view the actions of the US and Chinese governments in a new light and the chance to become more aware of how their political views and positioning, as well as the actions and statements of their government, church, and sending agency related to their teaching and identity. The following factors comprise this category: political events, reaction to events in the media, natural disasters, reaction to natural disasters, and social unrest. The national and political constellations and communities of practice that emerged relating to this category were: the constellation of US nationals and the community of expatriates in the communities where they worked. The extent to which the teachers dealt with issues of national and political identity is discussed later.10

Results: Change, Similarities, and the Faith Factor Changes Across Time The first question of the follow-up study asked: “In what ways have these teachers changed from the first study, a decade earlier, especially in terms of their professional identity formation?” All three teachers’ responsibilities increased over time, whether from teacher to teacher trainer, team member to team leader, language learner to language coach. However, the data showed that the teachers’ identities did not “change” as much as they continued and developed along the trajectories that emerged in the first study. In other words, they matured and developed based on the communities of practice that were most central to their identities, and their participation (or non-participation) in these communities contributed to the ongoing formation of their identities. Cynthia identified and interacted most with the community of “team,” or the local group of expatriate teachers she worked with. Suzanne identified the most with her “sending agency,” and engaged more fully in this community of practice and the ministry aspects of her work; Jacque identified most with the local community, and sought to engage in the local academic and church communities. The following section includes several excerpts from the interviews, noting the changes across time in each of the participants.

Cynthia: From Frustration and Fear to Commitment and Trust During the 2 years of the initial study, Cynthia was teaching junior high (grades 7–10) at a private boarding school in a capital city of China, and 10 years later, she was teaching at the college level and was a teacher trainer in her nonprofit.

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Her situation at the private school was difficult because, as she stated in the interviews, she felt they “didn’t know what to do with a foreigner.” She felt like a “financial drawing card” for the school and was left “unchecked” to do her own thing without collaboration with Chinese colleagues. Her third semester was especially hard due to difficulties in personal relationships, a series of illnesses, and arduous working conditions. Her fourth semester was marked with strained team relationships and the added pressure of being a team leader. At the end of the initial study, she took a year of “home leave” before returning to China for language study. A decade later, in the follow-up study, Cynthia had a much-improved working relationship with her new team. She also felt supported and nurtured at the university where she was teaching part time. As planned after the final interview from the first study in 1999, she took a year off in the US and then returned to China to engage in full-time language study. She then turned her efforts to coaching other expatriates in her organization on language and culture learning in China. At the time of the second study, she worked full time for the nonprofit and wanted to get further training in counseling to help other expatriates in China. In the final interview, she stated, “it was learning to trust in God and going through that turmoil with that [first] school” that made her grow and develop. She further observed, “that student who you interviewed 10 years ago” had changed in many ways, going “from frustration and fear” to “commitment and trust.”

Suzanne: A Specific Calling to a Specific Place During the length of the initial study, Suzanne taught grades 9–11 in a capital city in China. In the first semester, she experienced tensions between the Chinese and Western teachers who did not interact or trust each other. These tensions dissipated somewhat by the second semester, and by the third semester the relationships between the foreign and Chinese teachers improved significantly. In the fourth semester, the teachers were collaborating, due in part to her action research project, in which she conducted weekly meetings over several months facilitating discussions among Chinese and American teachers regarding professional, classroom, and pedagogical concerns. She spoke of deep relationships formed with colleagues and former students and times outside of class in which she shared her faith with those who asked her about it. At the end of the final interview, she “went career” with her nonprofit and was the only teacher in the study to return to China the following year. In the follow-up study, she revealed that her relationship with a particular Chinese administrator was a source of anguish for her. This “totally corrupt” leader, as she put it, asked her to change test scores and allow “mystery students” to take exams for her real students. She failed the students, however, stating that her faith beliefs could not let her do otherwise. She described how at first she resented her placement in that city and school, but later she felt she was “where God has

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called” her, and that she had found a home, purpose, and meaning in her missionary community of practice.

Jacque: Part of the Local Community and Church At the time of the first study, Jacque was new to teaching and to China. He taught English majors and Ph.D. students in a remote area of China and was at first frustrated by the students’ “myopic test vision” but soon realized the importance of the test in their lives and changed his teaching focus and pedagogy accordingly, working with Judy his teammate to make classes more to the Chinese students’ liking, with structure, tests, focus, and seating arrangements, all to help them improve their test scores. This change that took place in his teaching was helped not only by Judy, who joined him midway through the initial study, but also by two course projects for the Master’s degree he completed, an ethnography on the impact of tests and an action research project aimed at providing necessary resources for Chinese teachers. His “awakening” also was spurred on by input from his students. He related a “deflating story” that took place after what he thought was an ideal class discussion on AIDS. He heard some students say that they thought the lesson was “superfluous” and that they would be better served by getting help with the high stakes test they were about to take. These events caused Jacque to re-evaluate what and how he taught, moving away from Western content and pedagogy. After the first study, Jacque returned to the US to marry Judy, where they stayed for a few years while she completed a graduate degree. They returned to China with a different nonprofit, and at the time of the second study, he was preparing to take the Chinese exam to enter a doctoral program in Chinese Literature. He works openly with the local church on projects that help the community and has taken on leadership and teacher training roles in his nonprofit.

Similarities and Differences among Participants The second question asked was: “How are the teachers’ and their identities similar to one another and how might this account for their longevity in China?” As noted above, the teachers differed in terms of which community of practice they engaged with most. The community of practice that was most salient to Cynthia was her team, while Suzanne’s strongest sense of identification was with her mission organization, and Jacque’s community of practice that was most evident was the local church and academic communities. The following seven similarities were found among all three participants: • • • •

commitment to live in China long term; engagement in full-time extended language study; leadership roles in their nonprofit organization; change to part-time teaching due to leadership roles;

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• • •

engagement with the local community; feeling of being “called” to China; and faith-informed pedagogy and professional identity.

At the end of the first study, all three teachers stated that they had made a commitment to teach and live in China long term. As Jacque stated in the final interview, “I knew I was going to spend the rest of my professional career here. This is where my life was going to be.” Each teacher engaged in ongoing and full-time Chinese language study between the two studies and felt that the use of Chinese helped them to form meaningful relationships with local Chinese, which they noted was important to them personally and contributed to their longevity in China. For example, Suzanne stated in the second study, “A former student is now a colleague, and at my party there were three or four people who had known me for 10 years, and that is amazing in China, and that makes it really rich.” It was evident that their faith motivated them to make this commitment to stay long term, learn the local language, and form meaningful relationships. Leadership roles in their nonprofit organizations were also something they all had in common, which resulted in reducing their teaching loads to part time. Finally, they all felt called by God to be in China and stated specific ways in which their faith informed their pedagogy and identity, which leads to the next question: the faith factor.

The Faith Factor The final question was: “What is the impact of their religious faith on their pedagogy and professional identity formation?” Not only did the three teachers all feel “called” to teach in China, but they all stated their faith motivated them to “do [their] best” as teachers, and be a good witness. One teacher said she felt like she was “in a fish bowl” with her faith constantly on display. The teachers’ faith also influenced the way that they responded to difficult educational circumstances and sustained them through difficulties. Three examples are the way Suzanne dealt with a conflict with an administrator who asked her to commit fraud, the conviction Cynthia had to avoid “shoehorning” Christmas into the curriculum, and Jacque’s paradigm shift from “them” to “us” or from a local to a global community of practice as described below.

Suzanne: “So We Failed Him” Wenger’s concept of reconciling multimemberships of communities of practice is useful to analyze how faith informed the teachers’ practice and the conflict teachers felt between Christian and secular communities of practice. For example, although Suzanne participated in her community of local academic colleagues, she noted that she chose not to participate in some of the practices of this community when they conflicted with the values of her faith-based communities.

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In the following exchange from the follow-up study, she stated that she “played the dumb foreigner” and failed a student who she was told to pass by her director: We would see [the director] take a completed exam, and see him give it to students taking the exam. One day he called us in and said “I have students who have to pass.” [laugh] I said, “They’ll pass if they do well,” I was just playing the dumb foreigner. Then a person’s name was written on a piece of paper and he said, “like this person, you know who this is, right? [But this student had cheated,] so we failed him. What could we do? If the leader changed his grades [later], we couldn’t change that.

Cynthia’s “Sin” Cynthia’s “sin” story described in the follow-up study is an example of her reconciling her missionary/teacher identity and identifying what she felt were inappropriate ways to bring faith into the classroom. She stated: Our finals ended before Christmas, and there was nothing that they needed to know about Christmas for the final so I didn’t try to fit it in. And I would share this with the teams [of Christian teachers] I went to visit when they asked what I was doing with the holidays. And a lot of them would just say “why? How could you not [discuss Christmas in class]?!” And I said there was absolutely nothing that [my students] needed to know about this holiday in the context of their language learning. You know maybe I could try to fit it into whatever activity but it would be so contrived to do that. And that isn’t to say I would ever avoid talking about it like in office hours if they asked. And [the teachers] were [looking at me] like I was committing a sin or something. I think this goes back to language objectives and thinking about whether something is needed or appropriate. Ironically, it was Cynthia’s faith-informed belief that Christian teachers should teach well and thus include only the content that supports learning objectives that caused her to not include Christmas in her lessons. One of Cynthia’s jobs within her nonprofit was to travel to see other teams, or in her words, “to discuss what [teachers were doing] in the classroom, [to see if they were] teaching with integrity and not pushing [an] agenda.” Although it is encouraging to note the nonprofit makes efforts to monitor and control the inappropriate discussions of religion in the classroom, the reaction of the teachers (that is, surprise that she did not “teach Christmas”) causes one to doubt that the nonprofit has successfully communicated this to all the teachers.

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Jacque’s Faith-Informed Identity A final example is how faith influenced identity formation, as seen when Jacque explained how his spiritual identity began to change through relationships with his Muslim friends. His categories begin to shift from “we Christians vs. those Muslims” to “we fellow believers of God.” He related his local understanding of being a Christian believer to the more global constellation of followers of God as he interacted with a friend: My best friend, or good friend, actually my, my two closest teaching friends were both Hui, Muslim. . . . And at first I thought that we Christians were the only ones to suffer [for our faith] during the Cultural Revolution, but they, they told a little bit about their story during the Cultural Revolution. He suffered terribly and they kept their faith and they were so loving. They shattered my preconceptions about what it was to be Muslim. I had these feelings about Muslims and stuff like that, but these people were not like that. They were tender. They cared for me, welcomed me, and they knew we were Christians. And one day the uncle came up to me and said “Christians and Muslims should be friends.” And he said to me, “No matter what happens to you, keep and nurture your faith, keep your faith intact.” And I left there feeling exhorted, encouraged and blessed in a way that I had not in many churches. These three stories illustrate how faith informed Suzanne’s educational practice to fail a student, Cynthia’s pedagogical decision not to “teach Christmas,” and Jacque’s identity formation shifting from “them” to a more inclusive “us.”

Implications Issues of Power and Privilege Since the “political climate” and national communities of practice brought to light issues of power and privilege, we will revisit that here. During the few days following the NATO 1999 bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, Jacque was allowed to leave his apartment only to teach and noted that there were large demonstrations in his city. He was deeply affected by the anti-American sentiment and shared how he was cursed at in the street and saw signs on campus that said, “America is attacking China.” In his writing class, he received essays written off topic that stated, “How can you justify America bombing our embassy? We are a peace loving country and you are invading our country.” Unlike other teachers, he accepted some responsibility for the event and stated, “On Monday, I went in and right away I apologized to the students.” However, he was told by his nonprofit not to engage in a political discussion in class, so he said, “I addressed the issue and said I was sorry

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and then made it a non-issue, as it would not affect our English class,” although it obviously already had affected the class. While these events brought to the forefront the teachers’ national identities and provided the opportunity to see how Americans were viewed from another perspective, the events did not lead all the teachers to a more critical understanding of issues of power and privilege. As one teacher said, “It was interesting, and it got back to normal later. We were the same old friends. We don’t work for NATO.” Perhaps this was a missed opportunity to reflect more deeply on the larger issues behind the anti-American sentiment and to heighten the teacher’s awareness of their own culpability in the political realities that affected the students, the teacher, and the class. Several Christian scholars have expressed the need for Christian English teachers to examine and problemitize the issue of power and privilege. Snow (2009), for example, notes, “Christian English teachers may be too uncritical in accepting the advantages offered by the dominance of English, and too comfortable drawing on its power” (p. 175). Canagarajah (2009b) states, “Whether we like it or not, all TESOL professionals are implicated in the military and imperialist designs of Anglophone regimes” and suggests teachers “develop a reflexive awareness of their implication in the wider nexus of power relations, make this an agenda for discussion with students as they teach” (p. 85). Finally, Stevick (2009) notes, “‘wanting to communicate’ + ‘political power’ often has become ‘wanting to impose.’ Of this we must be wary” (p. 295). Numerous non-Christian scholars in TESOL have commented on the need for a critical exploration of issues of power and privilege among Christian English teachers (for example, Johnston & Varghese, 2006; Vandrick, 2002, 2009; Varghese, 2009; Varghese & Johnston, 2007). Ramanathan (2009) calls for a questioning of “intentionalities” (p. 73), which she maintains need to be constantly interrogated. She states: Ultimately, it might be the unceasing questioning of our own intentionalities and horizon structures, of religious ideals and their historicities, of our roles and engagements with and about them that will save us from religious arrogance and bigotry. Indeed, how can we as teachers, researchers, academics not do otherwise? (p. 74) Morgan discusses the perils of not holding in check the power that teachers have, and states, “Teacher identity as pedagogy is always potentially ‘dangerous.’ Teachers have considerable influence and, in some settings, substantial power over students’ futures,” and continues, “Therefore . . . [we need to be] always open to new accents, reinterpretation, and critical readings” (Varghese et al., 2005, pp. 34–35). The “key question,” Morgan (2009) states, “is how we might ideally and ethically address such concerns in pedagogy, without denying our

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own identity, humanity, or spirituality—if that denial were even consciously possible” (p. 175). Based on this study, the following is a list of practical implications for teachers seeking to avoid imposing their ideologies on students, while at the same time allowing their core beliefs to inform their pedagogy and identity. Such teachers might: • • • •





examine and question the assumptions supporting their pedagogical preferences (such as those found in this study under “baggage brought”); seek out a richer understanding of the realities of the target local context (such as those that emerged in “hand dealt”); anticipate and prepare for ethical dilemmas and challenges with students, teammates, and colleagues (for example, the “support networks” in Figure 2.1); develop more critical understandings of the political policies of their own countries and engage more with the social and political realities of the countries in which they work (such as those that arose in this study described in “political climate”); conduct ethnographies and research to raise awareness of their own professional identity formation and communities of practice they engage in; and consider more deeply what ideologies and faith beliefs inform their teaching and can serve to motivate and sustain their professional identity and growth.

Further Research This study addressed the question of how faith informed the pedagogy and professional identity formation of three Christian English teachers over the span of one decade. It demonstrated that faith informed the teachers’ reasons to enter the field as expressed in their “calling to teach”; the content they chose to focus on, such as Jacque’s focus on form to help students pass the exam; topics they avoided, such as Cynthia’s omitting discussions of Christmas as it did not support the curriculum; and how they responded to critical incidents, such as Suzanne’s failing a cheating student in spite of instruction to do otherwise. For these teachers, the construct of identity (namely their Christian identities) and the construct of pedagogy are interrelated. The study may have raised more questions than it answered, prompting further research on the role of faith in the identity formation and pedagogy of English language teachers. Studies could be conducted to contest or confirm the findings in this chapter and further explore new ones. An area of need brought out in this study is the lack of awareness in teachers of issues of power. Studies could be conducted to explore ways in which teacher educators could sensitize future teachers to issues of power and identity to minimize or mitigate power differentials.

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While this study focused on Western Christian teachers in China, additional studies are needed that explore other areas of the world and other types of teachers such as non-Western teachers who study in the West and return to their countries of origin, as well as studies that investigate the impact of other faith beliefs on identity formation of language teachers. Collaborative studies that include alumni, current students, and their teacher educators should also be considered in addition to those that include principal investigators who come from different religious perspectives. Also, the impact of students’ faith beliefs on language learning and teaching could be further explored.

Conclusion: Identity and Purpose In this study, I have described the factors that influence pedagogy and identity formation of three Christian English teachers in China. I found that their identities were multiple and varied; shifting and in conflict; contested and constructed in social, cultural, and political contexts. Religious faith arose as a salient factor for these three teachers, influencing the beliefs and experiences they brought, how they dealt with constraints of the local context, and how they responded to emerging issues of both a personal and political nature. Not all the teachers critiqued the power and privilege they had as white Christian English-speaking teachers with advanced degrees from the US who rose to leadership roles in their nonprofits, moving from language teachers to teacher trainers, nor how they mitigated the potential imposition of their beliefs upon their students. However, they all related stories of hearing and learning from the other, and in one case, even the religious other. The study confirmed that answers to the questions “Who are we and why are we here?” can have a profound influence on our teaching. Identity and purpose are not topics typically covered in teacher education programs, but in light of what was found in this study, it is imperative that teachers reflect deeply on intentionalities, and in the case of the intersection of the spiritual and professional, challenge that which is found to be inappropriate yet not neglect to strengthen that which brings wholeness to our teaching and our lives.

Notes 1. All names are pseudonyms. 2. The original study (Wong, 2000) investigated five teachers; however, only three were still in China a decade later. Each of the thirty factors in the initial report was supported by data from all three of the participants discussed here. 3. In the second study, I traveled to seven countries/regions to interview and/or observe forty current and former graduate students in our MA TESOL program teaching in Asia; however, only Suzanne, Cynthia, and Jacque are discussed here, as they were in both studies. 4. A postpositivist paradigm includes the understanding that everything is value-laden, our values and identity impact our inquiry, the subject of inquiry is complex,

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5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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knowledge is dynamic and changing, and accommodating for difference, diversity, and pluralism and an openness to complexity is desired. I believe that one cannot teach people language without touching the spiritual, as humans are spiritual beings. Although I believe that God is truth, I realize that my perception of truth is tainted by my human condition and sin, and so I am open to learning how my understanding of God is incomplete or incorrect. Native speaker is in quotes to note my dissatisfaction with the term that renders “nonnative speaker” as deficit. See Liang (2009) for a discussion on this, as it relates to Christian identity in teaching. For a series of discussions from multiple viewpoints regarding the ethical and pedagogical dilemmas of teachers who teach abroad while serving under nonprofits, including missionary agencies, see Wong and Canagarajah (2009). Although these teachers received a salary and benefits from their Chinese schools, the Christian nonprofits required that the teachers raised additional funds to cover the teachers’ insurance and initial training, as well as ongoing support services, such as negotiating a fair contract, monitoring their well-being, providing teacher development and counseling, and covering overhead costs of the nonprofit. In the classic story by Lewis Carroll, Alice finds a bottle that says “drink me,” which causes her to shrink, and food that says “eat me,” which causes her to grow, and thus her perspective and access to her Wonderland changes. For a discussion of how nationalism can operate among Western Christian English teachers working abroad, see Byler (2009), Edge (2003, 2006), Johnston and Varghese (2006), Pennycook and Coutand-Marin (2003, 2006), Phillipson (1992), Vandrick (2002, 2009), Varghese (2009), and Varghese and Johnston (2007).

References Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6, 201–219. Buzzelli, C., & Johnston, B. (2002). The moral dimensions of teaching: Language, power, and culture in classroom interaction. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Byler, M. (2009). Confronting the empire: Language teachers as charitable guests. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 120–130). New York: Routledge. Canagarajah, S. (2009a). New possibilities for the spiritual and the critical in pedagogy. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 1–18). New York: Routledge. Canagarajah, S. (2009b). Can we talk? Finding a platform for dialogue among values-based professionals in post-positivist education. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 75–86). New York: Routledge. Duff, P., & Uchida, Y. (1997). The negotiation of teachers sociocultural identities and practices in postsecondary EFL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 219–238. Edge, J. (2003). Imperial troopers and servants of the Lord: A vision of TESOL for the 21st century. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 701–709. Edge, J. (2004). Of displacive and augmentative discourse, new enemies, and old doubts. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 717–721. Edge, J. (Ed.). (2006). (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire. New York: Palgrave. Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Johnston, B., & Varghese, M. (2006). Neo-imperialism, evangelism, and ELT: Modernist missions and a postmodern profession. In J. Edge (Ed.), (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire. New York: Palgrave. Kubota, R., & Lin, A. (2006). Race and TESOL: An introduction to concepts and theories. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 471–493. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press. Liang, J. (2009). The courage to teach as a nonnative English teacher: The confessions of a Christian teacher. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 163–172). New York: Routledge. Morgan, B. (2004). Teacher identity as pedagogy: Towards a field-internal conceptualisation in bilingual and second language education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 7, 172–188. Morgan, B. (2009). The pedagogical dilemmas of faith in ELT: A dialogic response. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 193–204). New York: Routledge. Palmer, P. (2007). The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life (10th Anniversary ed.). New York: Jossey-Bass. Pavlenko, A. (2003). “I never knew I was bilingual”: Re-imagining teacher identities in TESOL. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2, 251–268. Pennycook, A., & Coutand-Marin, S. (2003). Teaching English as a missionary language (TEML). Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24(3), 337–353. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Ramanathan, V. (2009). Questioning religious “ideals” and intentionalities: Staving off religious arrogance and bigotry in ELT. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 72–74). New York: Routledge. Ricento, T. (2005). Considerations of identity in L2 learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 895–910). New York: Routledge. Smith, D., & Carvill, B. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I., & Osborn, T. A. (Eds.). (2007). Spirituality, social justice and language learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Snow, D. (2001). English teaching as Christian mission: An applied theology. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press. Snow, D. (2009). English teachers, language learning, and the issue of power. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 173–184). New York: Routledge. Stevick, E. (2009). The dilemma. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 292–297). New York: Routledge. Tsui, A. B. M. (2007). Complexities of identity formation: A narrative inquiry of an EFL teacher. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 657–680. Vandrick, S. (2002). ESL and the colonial legacy: A teacher faces her “missionary kid” past. In V. Zamel, & R. Spack (Eds.), Enriching ESOL pedagogy (pp. 411–422). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Vandrick, S. (2009). A former “missionary kid” responds. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 141–149). New York: Routledge. Varghese, M. (2009). Caught between poststructuralist relativism and materialism or liberal and critical multiculturalism? In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 150–153). New York: Routledge. Varghese, M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 5–31. Varghese, M., Morgan, B., Johnston, B., & Johnson, K. A. (2005). Theorizing language teacher identity: Three perspectives and beyond. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(1), 22–44. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wong, M. S. (2000). The influence of gender and culture on the pedagogy of five Western English teachers in China. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge. Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, A. S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge.

3 THE ROLE OF FAITH IN THE POWER BALANCE BETWEEN CHRISTIAN NATIVE SPEAKERS AND TAIWANESE TEACHERS WHO TEAM TEACH Shu-Chuan Wang-McGrath UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ST.LOUIS (USA)

Christian missions have considered English Language Teaching (ELT) as a great opportunity for evangelization and have a history of using English education as an entryway to spread the gospel or be a witness (Edge, 1996, 2003; Pennycook & Coutand-Marin, 2003; Pennycook & Makoni, 2005; Snow, 2001; Wong, 2009). Schweitzer English Teachers (SETs), who have been invited by the Taiwanese government to team teach with Taiwanese English Teachers (TETs) in public elementary schools since 2003 in what is known as the Schweizer English Program, have a similar evangelistic purpose as the missionaries. The purpose of the Taiwanese local government, on the other hand, is to provide their students with authentic English language input and cultural knowledge under a limited budget. In an EFL teaching context, the pairing of Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs) has been found to benefit EFL students with both the strengths of NESTs and NNESTs. Nevertheless, even though the collaboration model between NESTs and NNESTs has been emphasized to compensate for the weaknesses and enhance the strengths of both sides (Liang & Rice, 2006), the differences between NESTs and NNESTs are likely to generate power issues. Studies on team teaching (Donaldson & Sanderson, 1996; Kachi & Lee, 2001; Miyazato, 2009) have raised the potential conflicts surrounding teachers’ values, viewpoints, characteristics, language, and cultural differences. In a setting with Christian teachers, it is important to ask in what ways the teachers’ Christian faith might affect this balance of power. In the Schweitzer English Program, SETs and TETs demonstrate the kind of differences that would be expected in any other interaction between NESTs and NNESTs (for example, language, culture, etc.). However, on top of these

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differences, the SETs’ Christian identity plays a significant role in this NESTNNEST team teaching relationship. In this study, I explore the team teaching patterns (TTPs) in a specific EFL context in Taiwan. I discuss this in what follows along with the power factors that play into the TTPs and consider how the dynamic of religious beliefs enhances or mitigates these power issues between the NESTs and NNESTs.

Historical Background of the SET Program Research indicates that there has been a great gap between urban and rural English education in Taiwan. The greatest needs for rural English education are in the areas of educational resources (Chang, 2004; Chiang, 2005; Ho, 2004; Su, 2005). Various authors have indicated that, in addition to the sociocultural factors that rural students face in their English learning process, the shortage of qualified English teachers (Chang, 2004; Ho, 2004; Su, 2005) has been a problem. In 2001, as an effort to bridge the gap between urban and rural English education, the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan began to hire native English speakers to come to Taiwan to teach English in rural areas. This policy provided the opportunity for students in rural areas to have access to native English speakers. However, in spite of this effort, there is still a great shortage of English teachers in rural areas. For example, in Nantou County (a rural county in central Taiwan), the location of this study, the Education Bureau reported that there was a shortage of fifty-six English teachers in 2005. The challenges of English education in rural regions have caught the attention of several educational organizations. In 2003, the King Car Education Foundation (KCEF) joined the Institute in Basic Life Principles (IBLP) in Taiwan and the US to introduce groups of young Christian native English speakers to assist with English teaching in the remote regions of Taiwan. These young Christian NESTs were introduced by KCEF to the Taiwanese people as the Schweitzer English Teachers (SETs). KCEF adopted the term “Schweitzer” from the evangelical Christian doctor, Albert Schweitzer. This was done in order to represent the voluntary spirit of the Christian native English speakers in helping rural students. SETs have been teaching in rural schools without the same monetary benefits available to other native English teachers. Regular NESTs invited by the Taiwanese government are paid around US $2,500/month while SETs are only paid around US $800/month (Huang et al., 2006; Tsai, 2003).

Methodology Participants Nantou County has 155 elementary schools varying in size from 1,666 students in the largest to only six students in the most remote township. In Nantou County,

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the Schweitzer English Program SETs went to different public elementary schools each weekday. This resulted in the SETs being paired with four or five TETs in several public elementary schools in order to provide as many schools as possible with the opportunity to have NESTs. The participants in this study were configured into teaching pairs in which each Schweitzer teacher was paired with two Taiwanese teachers responsible for twenty-three students in the six public elementary schools in Nantou County. Lydia (SET) was teamed with Miss Song and Miss Li (TETs). Carol (SET) was teamed with Miss Chen and Mr. Lin (TETs). Jason (SET) was teamed with Mr. Wu and Mr. Wei (TETs). A brief description of each participant is helpful to provide a sense of the personal as well as professional dynamics in the relationships between SETs and TETs. Lydia, 18 years old, finished her homeschooled education at the age of 16 and went to college for 1 year. She spoke fluent Chinese due to her parents’ evangelic ministry to Chinese people in America. Her team teacher, Miss Song, age 37, had recently received accreditation to teach English in her school but she did not consider herself “good” at English. During my observation, I barely heard her speaking English. Lydia’s other TET, Miss Li, age 31, had majored in English in college and had some English teaching experience in cram schools. Both TETs did not have any expressed religious beliefs. Carol, 19 years old, was homeschooled and had never been to college. She did not have any previous teaching experience. However, she had experience caring for children through various opportunities at her church in America. Carol’s TET, Miss Chen, age 43, received her MA in Agriculture in America. Before teaching in the elementary school, Miss Chen taught English at cram schools and the YMCA. Carol’s other TET, Mr. Lin, was 32 and had an MA in Elementary Education and a BA in English. Before teaching in the elementary school, Mr. Lin taught English at a cram school. Both of Carol’s TETs were fluent in English. Miss Chen expressed a belief in Taiwanese folk religion while Mr. Lin acknowledged being a Buddhist. Jason, 20 years old, was homeschooled until ninth grade and attended a public high school. He took some college-level business classes for 1 year. His teaching experience included teaching vacation Bible school at his church and joining shortterm mission teams to teach Bible stories to children. Jason’s TET, Mr. Wu, was 37, had an MA in Image Processing, and was invited to team teach with the Schweitzer teacher in his elementary school due to his good command of English. Jason’s other TET, Mr. Wei, was 41 years old and had two MA degrees. He had taught English at a cram school before teaching in the elementary school. Mr. Wu did not have religious beliefs but Mr. Wei was interested in religious philosophies.

Data Collection Procedures The data for this study were collected between April and June of 2008. Data included transcripts from semi-structured interviews and field notes from

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classroom teaching observations, interactions after class, and casual conversations. All Nantou SETs were living in the dorm of one elementary school where Carol taught. During the 2-month data collection period, I stayed in a room next to the SETs’ dorm rooms. I relied on standard data collection techniques. Bernard (2006) describes the advantages of semi-structured interviews, which allow participants to talk freely about their stories and perspectives, while still providing a measure of consistency through the use of a written interview guide. I prepared a list of questions to explore the team teaching experiences and perspectives of the SETs and TETs. In each interview, I took notes and recorded the interaction with two digital recorders. The SET interviews took place in the classroom where I stayed during my data collection and ranged from 57 to 75 minutes. Interviews with the TETs ranged from 13 to 54 minutes and occurred mostly during their break or lunchtime at their schools. Only Miss Chen was interviewed at her home after school because she lived near to where I stayed. The interviews with the students were even shorter. I interviewed them during the break (10 minutes) or nap time after lunch (30 minutes). Some of them came in groups and shared the interview time. Student interviews were as short as 8 minutes to as long as 39 minutes. All interviews were conducted in the participants’ native languages, with SETs interviewed in English and TETs and students interviewed in Chinese or Taiwanese. Each of my observation days usually started with following one Schweitzer teacher (picked up by his or her team teacher or a school administrator in the early morning) until four or five o’clock in the afternoon. The field notes of classroom observations were taken at the research sites while most notes on the interactions after class were taken right after each observation day. Casual talks usually happened in the car to school or back to the dorm with the Taiwanese teachers. The convenience of staying next to the Schweitzer teachers also made the casual talks happen easily.

Results Team Teaching Patterns between SETs and TETs The Schweitzer English Program contract negotiated between the IBLP and the Nantou County Government states that “SETs serve as assistants.” However, this is a vague definition of what the SET role is to be in the Schweitzer English Program. For their part, the TETs said that they were not instructed or informed of how to teach with the SETs, and that the role of the SETs was unclear to them. Therefore, it is not surprising that the pairs each developed their own pattern of interaction and collaboration. Based on classroom observations, I grouped SET- TET team teaching interaction into four TTPs, partially informed by Hsu’s (2006) categories—TTP 1: master teacher/assistant pattern (Bailey, Dale, & Squire, 1992); TTP 2: main

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TABLE 3.1 Team Teaching Patterns (Adapted from Hsu, 2006)

Team Teaching Pattern (TTP)

Teams Observed

TTP 1. Master teacher/assistant pattern (Bailey et al., 1992)

Mr. Lin/Carol Miss Chen/Carol Mr. Wu/Jason Mr. Wei/Jason

TTP 2. Main teacher/English teacher pattern (Bailey, Curtis, & Nunan, 2001) TTP 3. Autonomous teaching pattern TTP 4. Coordinated teaching pattern (Bailey et al., 1992)

Miss Song/Lydia Miss Li/Lydia

teacher/English teacher pattern (Bailey et al., 2001); TTP 3: autonomous teaching pattern; and TTP 4: coordinated teaching pattern (Bailey et al., 1992). Table 3.1 shows the category that each SET-TET pair fit into. Each of the observed patterns demonstrated different power control over the class. TTP 1, the master teacher/assistant pattern, is defined by Hsu (2006) as follows: A veteran teacher act[s] as the team leader to develop curricular plans, choose teaching resources, act as an authority, and give a planning leadership; meanwhile, a beginning teacher or an intern teacher [i]s alongside as an assistant. In this pattern, the master teacher decide[s] the amount of English to be utilized as well as the portion of English and Chinese in class to cope with the learning situations and student language proficiency in class. (p. 49) Hsu’s definition describes the political, pedagogical, and linguistic control that the local English teacher had in the classroom. On the other hand, the NEST’s role in this TTP is politically, pedagogically, and even linguistically powerless. Mr. Lin/Carol, Miss Chen/Carol, and Mr. Wu/Jason fit into this TTP. In my observation, the TETs and SETs that fit into TTP 1 had similar characteristics. All TETs in TTP 1 had strong English oral proficiency and were experienced English teachers. The SETs had similar quiet classroom personalities. Even though Jason would make exaggerated facial expressions to amuse students while team teaching with Mr. Wu, most of the time he was quiet, sitting or standing by for Mr. Wu to ask him to demonstrate pronunciation or play a game with the students. In addition to sharing similar classroom personality types, the two SETs also shared the fact that they had little command of the Chinese language. In this case, the power that was granted to the TETs as “master teachers,” combined with their high command of English and the fact that the two SETs had little command of Chinese, mitigated the SETs’ native English speaker power in the EFL classroom setting.

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TTP 2, the main teacher/English teacher pattern, is defined by Hsu (2006) as follows: A subject or homeroom teacher who know[s] students well, hold[s] the leadership to discipline the class, provide[s] lesson plans, explain[s] grammar, translates, and offers learning strategies to students, speaking mainly in the students’ first language. The English teacher [takes] the main teacher’s signals to carry out activities for students individually or in groups by speaking English. In this pattern, the two team teachers put the Chinese and English languages in use distinguishably, and the two languages [are] of equivalent importance. (p. 49) The definition of this pattern demonstrates the sociocultural power and the overall control of pedagogy that local teachers had in the classroom. Different from the unequal linguistic power in TTP 1, in which NNESTs (TETs) have the upper hand, in TTP 2 both the NNEST and NEST have linguistic power, but in different languages. Mr. Wei and Jason fit into TTP 2 because Mr. Wei’s oral English proficiency was not as strong as that of the TETs in TTP 1. At the same time, Mr. Wei overpowered Jason socioculturally due to Jason’s novice teaching status. It might have been convenient for Mr. Wei and Jason to fall into this TTP as they did not have to communicate with each other in English in this form of interaction. Many of Mr. Wei’s pedagogical strategies were very comfortable for Jason and made it easy for him to defer to Mr. Wei’s linguistic and sociocultural understanding of the students. In the teaching pattern that emerged between them, Mr. Wei’s pedagogical expertise seemed to mitigate the balance of power between the NNEST and NEST. TTP 3 is what I call the “autonomous teaching pattern” because the NEST and NNEST taught independently or alternatively during the week. They were in the same English class at the same time, but only one of the two teachers was in control of the class activities at any given time. This was the teaching pattern demonstrated by Miss Song and Lydia. Miss Song and Lydia negotiated that each of them would teach one of the two English classes held each week. Therefore, when I observed Miss Song and Lydia’s classes, Lydia carried out the teaching by herself as though she was the only English teacher. In reality, Miss Song and Lydia communicated with each other after their first team teaching class and decided that Miss Song would prepare the teaching materials and Lydia would teach the class when she came to the school. Miss Song deferred to Lydia the entire control of the classroom because she was worried about her own ability to teach English pronunciation. Lydia, on the other hand, proposed to teach the entire class due to her confidence in teaching and her linguistic power in both languages. The teaching pattern evident in the interaction between Miss Song and Lydia seemed to demonstrate a shift of power in the NEST’s

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favor when the NEST had adequate command of pedagogical strategies and the local language. TTP 4 is the coordinated teaching pattern, and, according to Hsu (2006), occurs when: Two team teachers [work] with concerted efforts as well as sharing equivalent responsibilities to carry out classroom activities and role-playing in story telling for all or different sub-sets of students. They [signal] each other to switch the control of transition, timing and pacing in teaching, and [echo] their partner teacher to reinforce students’ understanding of the teaching material in English. They [play] off each other’s positive features and drawbacks. In this pattern, the class [is] accomplished only in English. (p. 49) This teaching pattern requires good communication by both teaching partners in order to share equal responsibility in all classroom activities. Miss Li and Lydia fit this pattern as they both shared equal teaching responsibilities, alternating in terms of who would have the control of the class at any given time. They taught by sharing each other’s skills and knowledge and carried out the class only in English. Miss Li spoke fluent English and they spent time before each class to discuss the teaching content and how they would carry out the lesson. Lydia, meanwhile, spoke good Chinese and had a certain level of understanding of the students’ cultural background from her family’s evangelical ministry in America. Lydia, in her team teaching with Miss Li, performed a completely different teaching pattern than when teaching with Miss Song. Unlike Miss Song, who acquiesced her designated institutional power to Lydia’s NEST status, Miss Li exercised equal teaching power with Lydia. In the four TTPs, with the exception of the interaction between Miss Song and Lydia, none of the SETs played a role in which they exercised power over their TETs in the classroom.

Factors that Shaped the TTPs Linguistic and Sociocultural Power of NESTs All three SETs acknowledged that their presence in the team teaching classroom was for students to hear their pronunciation. Drawing on institutional teaching philosophy or their own, all TETs expressed their expectation that the SETs were to provide authentic English language input for the students. Miss Chen, Mr. Lin, Mr. Wu, and Miss Li, despite their high level of English proficiency, believed that it was beneficial for the students to learn English from NESTs. Mr. Wu said, “It is good for the students to learn authentic English and have a real conversation with an American. It serves as a new stimulation for the students.” In the same manner, Miss Chen also expressed that the SETs served as motivation for students to learn English.

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In the interviews with Carol’s students (team taught with Miss Chen) and Jason’s (team taught with Mr. Wu), three expressed their desire to go to America in the future after learning with the SETs. The students had developed or increased their integrative motivation to learn English because of their interaction with the SETs. They had become interested in entering into the target community of the English language. As an advanced English learner himself, Mr. Wu regarded having an SET partner as an opportunity for him to practice English and learn more about the English culture. He had a variety of topics to talk about with Jason, and the conversations centered on cultural, political, and even religious issues. Mr. Wei appeared to see Jason as his English conversation partner and took the opportunity to practice his English when taking Jason back to the dorm. Furthermore, Mr. Wei regarded Jason as his authority on the English language and culture. He asked Jason to provide an English lesson for him and other colleagues at lunchtime. Lydia’s team teacher, Miss Song, who was worried about not being able to teach English pronunciation professionally and authoritatively, even saw Lydia as her rescuer because of her status as a native English speaker. For their part, as NESTs, the SETs honestly expressed their purpose to team teach with the TETs. SETs mentioned several times in the interviews or in conversation, “We can help them [the students] in English.” They did not speak with arrogance that they were superior to the TETs, but they acknowledged that they could offer help in English because of their NEST status. Along with their authoritative status as native English speakers, the exotic, young, and attractive image of the SETs won the admiration of students. Mr. Wei even mentioned that his students forgot that he was the main English teacher after Jason started to team teach with him. When asked how he felt about being ignored by his own students, he expressed that he didn’t feel bad now since teaching English was one of the subjects he had to teach as an elementary school teacher. He did not remember if he had been envious or uncomfortable at the beginning stage of cooperating with Jason. However, he was not certain he would be free from uncomfortable feelings if English were his sole subject to teach. In the interview, a student of Mr. Wei’s confirmed Mr. Wei’s comment and expressed his admiration toward Jason: “He is super because he is a foreigner.” Other students had comments based on physical appearance, as in the case of the student who noted appreciation, “Because their eye colors are very different and cute.” Miss Song, in her team teaching time with Lydia, deferred to Lydia to teach the entire class. She stated that students loved to have her. She believed that it was best for the students to have Lydia the entire class time. In their role as assistants to the Taiwanese teachers, the Schweitzer teachers only partnered with each of their TETs once a week and did not have to deal with the institutional pressure as TETs did. The SETs’ friendly image contrasted with the TETs’ stern posture toward the students. Miss Chen and Mr. Wu

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commented that the students might not be necessarily learning much English from the SETs but they liked to play with them. A student made such a comment of both her TET and SET: “He [the SET] played games with us; the Taiwanese teacher gave us tests.” In summary, the TETs understood the SETs’ authoritative status as native English speakers. The students’ admiration toward the SETs based on perceptions of them as “exotic, young, cute,” and friendly might have contributed to the TETs being more assertive in their classes since they were the primary teachers in the team teaching practice.

Power of the Local Language and Culture An understanding of the local language and culture in an EFL context plays a significant role in lowering the learning anxiety of students. Research by Chan & Wu (2004) on the foreign language anxiety of Taiwanese elementary school students shows that speaking to a native speaker is an anxiety-inducing situation similar to taking tests for the students in their study. They further point out that, in the view of teachers and students, the local language and the target language should be used in language teaching to lower anxiety. In a related study, Miyazato (2009) found that the role of Japanese teachers as “language/cultural/psychological mediators” in team teaching with NESTs also contributes to lowering anxiety among students. In the SET-TET TTPs observed in this study, with the exception of Lydia and her interaction with Miss Song, none of the SETs played a teaching role in which they exercised power over their TETs in class. Designated as the main English teachers in the Schweitzer English Program, the TETs also had a natural advantage in that they understood the students’ language and culture and were experienced teachers from the same educational system as their students. Miss Song indicated that students from the fourth grade and above had experienced some difficulties learning from NESTs because of shyness and anxiety factors. The previous SET therefore had problems managing the class. She explained that the school wanted to make use of this teaching resource (SETs) and therefore placed Lydia in a lower grade level. The school assumed that students in the lower grade level would not have as much language learning anxiety as students in higher grades. After Lydia’s first class with Miss Song, Lydia expressed confidence in her ability to teach the entire class by herself. Miss Song had confidence in Lydia since she spoke fluent Chinese. In Miss Song and Lydia’s class, Lydia taught mainly in English but she sometimes brought up clarification in Chinese. Her competence in the local language obviously made a difference in the class atmosphere. The other two SETs, Carol and Jason, had been learning Chinese since they started teaching in the Schweitzer English Program. In addition to their power

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status as NESTs, their efforts in learning the students’ language helped bridge the culture and language barrier between themselves, their TETs, and the students. Carol’s team teacher, Miss Chen, went so far as to offer a compliment on her effort to learn Chinese. Both Carol and Jason’s students gladly became their Chinese tutors in or after class. Snow (2009) urges NESTs to make a commitment to learn a second language and argues that: . . . as speakers of a powerful language who are concerned with issues of dominance and power, one response should be at times to step out of the power role by becoming learners of other languages, both because of how the experience of learning the other’s language transforms us and because of the message that such a choice sends about our vision of what kind of place we think the world should be. (p. 183) In this study, the native speaker status of SETs was “taken as a virtue” (p. 180). They were linguistically and socioculturally powerful, as discussed in the previous section. However, when they stepped out of the power zone of their native speaker status to learn the local language from their team teachers and students, they gained power through humility. Snow (2001) defines professionalism as “a desire to do one’s work well that is backed up by efforts to continually learn and improve” (p. 67) and notes that becoming familiar with different teaching settings is a demonstration of teacher professionalism. In the informal chats I had with SETs during my data collection, I found that they worked on improving their teaching skills by observing their TETs and/or by means of self-evaluation. For example, Lydia had the opportunity to work with four different TETs for the same class early in the spring semester. She observed and evaluated how the students reacted to different TETs with different teaching styles and how the students learned the most. It helped her see what kind of teacher she wanted to be and what kind of teacher was more effective for students in this context. In my informal conversations with Jason, he shared that he paid attention to the ways his TETs taught and their pedagogy. He noted how the class was run, how the teaching went, and how the activities unfolded. He tried to figure out what worked well in class and what did not. Research conducted by Miyazato (2003, 2009) shows that NESTs feel it is difficult to understand the local educational culture and language and that Englishonly classes create tension and distance between NESTs and students. The support of local team teachers in the areas of language and culture is therefore appreciated. The results of the present study show that the three SETs investigated did not share the same problems as the NESTs in Miyazato’s studies, perhaps due to their TETs’ support. Tension and distance in any given English-only class (Miss Song and Lydia’s classes; Miss Li and Lydia’s classes) did not appear to exist. Lydia was even able to discipline the students like a local English teacher.

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The Role of the SETs’ Christian Identity in the Team Teaching The SETs did not overtly proselytize in the English classroom during my observations. However, Carol and Lydia taught about Christian holidays such as Christmas and Easter. I found that, when discussing religious topics in the classroom, the negotiation of teaching roles varied between Carol and Lydia. In this section, I will focus on the results for Carol and Lydia, since these yielded the clearest picture of the role of their Christian faith in the team teaching context.

Miss Chen and Carol Carol defined her own role in the classroom as an assistant who felt it was her duty to teach what her teachers asked her to teach. She never assumed the role of leading the class and she always did exactly what her Taiwanese teachers “instructed” her to do. Her TETs only asked her to pronounce English words, read sentences, and play learning games with the students. Thus, the power relationship that emerged between Carol and Miss Chen over religious topics might have reflected this team teaching status. Even though Carol was a NEST, she was in her first year of teaching in Taiwan and had no previous teaching experience. Compared to Carol, Miss Chen was an experienced English teacher. She had received her graduate degree in the US and was fluent in spoken English. Miss Chen’s age was close to Carol’s mother’s age. By nature, Carol was quiet in the classroom and did not take an active role in the teaching. She did not think that any of her TETs ever acted against her religious belief; however, the power relationship in her teaching pattern with Miss Chen seemed to cause a dilemma for Carol over presenting religious-related themes in class. When topics that were related to religious concepts such as holidays came up in the context of a teaching lesson, a dilemma arose for Carol. She explained, “When it comes to whether I can share something about Christ, I would be more like— What is she [Miss Chen] going to think? [Will] I upset her? I don’t want to offend her.” Miss Chen and Carol collaborated within the master teacher/assistant pattern. Carol, in her teaching role with Miss Chen, only followed Miss Chen’s curriculum and materials. Therefore, when it came to her desire to introduce religious-related themes in class, Carol struggled with the power relationship that had developed between Miss Chen and herself. In order to keep a good relationship with Miss Chen, Carol withheld any offer of personal feelings or desires to share religious themes with her students in the class. From Miss Chen’s perspective, she considered “religious holidays” (as they were to Carol) part of American culture. She stated, “I usually teach the students about American holidays, for example Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Easter. When Carol came, I asked her to tell the students the origin of the holidays, some stories, and how she celebrated those holidays in the US.” Since Miss Chen planned the lessons and Carol

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was teaching alongside as an assistant, what seemed to be a regular cultural theme in class to Miss Chen became a difficult moment of inner conflict for Carol, who felt that holidays such as Christmas and Easter could not be appropriately presented without a full picture of their religious significance.

Miss Song and Lydia Compared to Carol, Lydia had a different type of interaction with her TETs, either equal power as with Miss Li, or full control of the class, as with Miss Song. Because of her teaching relationship with her TETs, Lydia seemed to have confidence and more power over what she could share in terms of her religious faith. I found the examples of her interactions with Miss Song to be a good illustration of this stance. While Carol seemed to stay in the role of assistant with her TETs, Lydia negotiated and operated in an assertive role. Lydia defined her role in the class as “following” her TETs’ lesson plans, “allowing” them to use her skills as an NEST. Judging from her statements, Lydia had an attitude similar to Carol’s toward her team teaching relationships. In my observations, however, because of her fluent Chinese and communication skills with her TETs, she seems to have had at least equal power in the classroom. This impression was only strengthened in my conversations with Lydia, in which she showed a strong sense of confidence and control over her teaching. From the TET’s perspective, Miss Song expressed how much she appreciated Lydia’s active, outgoing personality and her sensitivity in working with her. Miss Song was concerned about her English pronunciation in teaching English, and she was very glad that she had Lydia’s help in this area. Therefore, Lydia, as negotiated with Miss Song, took control of the classes that I observed, though Miss Song had prepared the teaching materials. Even though Lydia was a novice SET, she demonstrated an extroverted personality and took a great interest in teaching. Being an experienced teacher in other subjects, Miss Song, on the other hand, was a novice teacher in English and had low speaking proficiency. On this last point, Miss Song commented that, “Her [Lydia’s] Chinese ability is a big plus in our team teaching.” Even though Lydia was a first-year SET, she was able to win Miss Song’s trust, and she taught with great confidence. Lydia was able to help Miss Song develop her pronunciation skills, but when she and Miss Song had a conversation, it was mostly in Chinese. Lydia’s interpersonal skills, teaching ability, and Chinese proficiency created the opportunity for her to implement her own ideas in teaching about religious holidays in class. When I asked her if she had any opportunity to integrate Christian ideas into her teaching, she said that her TETs would ask her to “teach about Easter,” or to “teach about Thanksgiving.” That was when she felt that she had the opportunity to tell religious stories and share her Christian faith with her students. Lydia had a positive relationship with Miss Song, and thus Miss Song was comfortable with the manner with which she (Lydia) would reference her

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religious faith with the students in class. Nevertheless, Miss Song was surprised at Lydia’s objection to the Halloween teaching materials she prepared, including some ghost stories and traditions about Halloween. When Miss Song gave Lydia the teaching materials she obtained from the Internet, Miss Song reported Lydia’s comment in her own words, “How silly computer!” Miss Song’s intent was to introduce her students to the cultural ideas of different holidays celebrated in America. Not realizing that Lydia was reacting to the materials because of her own religious belief, Miss Song thought she had prepared something incorrectly or offended her in some way. She wondered if she had misunderstood the concept of Halloween, so in her own words, she asked Lydia, “Why?” Lydia explained to her that she did not celebrate Halloween because of her religious faith. Lydia did teach about Halloween to the students, but she purposefully avoided the origin of Halloween and most ghost stories. Miss Song told me that she later understood Lydia’s reaction to the Halloween ghost stories she prepared. Miss Song, in turn, explained to Lydia her intention for the students to learn American holidays. Because Lydia had full control of the class, she could avoid teaching about the major ideas behind Halloween and only present one of the ghost stories. Influenced by her religious faith, Lydia exercised her power over Miss Song by evaluating and selectively using the teaching materials Miss Song prepared for her. Miss Song also asked Lydia to teach about Thanksgiving, which led to an interesting difference of viewpoint, which was, however, simply treated with goodwill on both sides. Miss Song admitted that she translated differently when Lydia was telling the students about thanking God for everything. “I didn’t think students would understand the concept of God. Instead of telling them to thank God, I told students that we should thank those around us.” Miss Song said that she knew that Lydia was aware of her false translation, but Lydia let it go and did not jump in to correct her. “She [Lydia] knew that I might not understand all her ideas, and she would let it go, if it was still close enough.” When it came to religious-related concepts such as this in class, Lydia overtly expressed her position and ideas to her TETs. In her overt responses to questions about religious themes, she stated that she did not experience any religious resistance; she did not bring up the Halloween issue or Thanksgiving mistranslation incident. In fact, she felt she was fortunate to have a team teacher like Miss Song who was fairly tolerant of her religious faith. In conclusion, both Carol and Lydia defined their teaching assistant roles with reference to their institutional designation. In addition, they both had a strong faith conviction and a passion to advocate for it. As a result, Carol and Lydia experienced inner conflict or disagreement with their TETs concerning holiday themes related to religious beliefs. Carol, despite her desire to share her Christian faith through the holiday topic, wanted to show her respect to Miss Chen. Even though she was a teaching assistant, she could have exercised her NES status power

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to teach the themes with cultural authority. She did not. She chose to relinquish the power of her NES status and submit to Miss Chen’s teaching authority. Lydia, who had the power of classroom teaching, NES status, and the local language, naturally exercised her power to only present part of the stories prepared by Miss Song but she also respected Miss Song’s adjusted translation. Lydia noted that she appreciated Miss Song’s respect of her religious faith and demonstrated that she was aware of her power; however, she sought not to abuse it by challenging Miss Song about the mistranslation of thanking others and not God. This is a delicate balance, for, as Wong (2009) states, “it is not an easy task to seek to live out one’s faith and not impose it on others, and as teachers we must be aware of our power and privilege and be vigilant to not abuse it” (p. 102).

Summary In this study, I investigated SET-TET teaching patterns and the role of faith in this collaboration. As a native Taiwanese and Christian English educator, I was interested in learning how issues of the SETs’ Christian faith affected the dynamics and power relations of team teaching. It was clear that both SETs and TETs were dedicated to teaching English to Taiwanese children in the economically impoverished county of Nantou. In the team teaching relationship, the SETs’ native speaker status granted them linguistic and sociocultural power over their TETs despite their institutional assistant status. The TETs, on the other hand, had institutional power due to their designation as the primary English teachers. Given this power structure, the SETs and the TETs worked within their restrictions of knowledge, language proficiency, and pedagogy to benefit the students. In this study, I started with the assumption that it is impossible for a teacher of any religious faith and/or value system to abandon who they are in the classroom. Teachers cannot abandon their identity or change who they are when they are in their English classrooms. The SETs did not use their English classrooms as a platform to preach their Christian faith. However, all three SETs presented Christian perspectives on holidays or other issues when the TETs invited them to do so. For their part, the SETs taught English with an underlying philosophy influenced by their Christian faith. The faith-rooted teaching philosophy was best manifested in a statement from Lydia regarding what she believed to be her mission teaching in Nantou County: “What makes what you believe different or better than what I believe? Only through a change of life can people see what you believe.” The young SETs had very mature attitudes toward their teaching mission. The role that Christian faith played in the SETs’ team teaching with the TETs is mostly demonstrated in three aspects: being a cooperative team teacher, working diligently, and caring for and motivating students. In order to witness their Christian faith to the Taiwanese teachers, the SETs felt they needed to work with their master teachers harmoniously. I was limited

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in my observation because I was only invited into the classes with both SETs’ and TETs’ approval. However, I did not hear of any major conflicts between the TETs and SETs in any part of the program. The compliant attitude of Carol and Jason toward their TETs’ institutional power, evident in TTP 1 and TTP 2, spoke to this intent. Lydia, in her cooperation with Miss Song and Miss Li, spoke a lot about her passion to teach well and benefit the students. Even though the TTPs with Miss Song and Miss Li were very different, they both reached the same goal—they provided students with excellent teaching. The SETs did not hold a degree; they had limited professional training and might be criticized by some as less qualified teachers. However, organizers of the Schweitzer program expect a minimal level of competence even though their teachers are volunteers, and being committed to professionalism seems to constitute the SETs’ primary witness to students and TETs. The greatest commandment that Jesus gave was to love the Lord and then one’s neighbors (Matthew 22:37–38). The balance of power between the SETs and TETs was best observed on a basic human level. Both TETs and students noted that they felt the SETs’ genuine care and love. There was no evidence in this study that the power balance was manipulated with the intent of winning students over to thinking positively about Christianity. Rather, native speaker status was used as a tool to help fellow teachers help their students learn English well.

References Bailey, K. M., Curtis, A., & Nunan, D. (2001). Pursuing professional development: The self as resource. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Bailey, K. M., Dale, T., & Squire, B. (1992). Some reflection on collaborative language teaching. In D. Nunan (Ed.), Collaborative language learning and teaching (pp. 162–178). New York: Cambridge University Press. Bernard, R. (2006). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (4th ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Chan, D. Y. C., & Wu, G. C. (2004). A study of foreign language anxiety of EFL elementary school students in Taipei county. Journal of National Taipei Teachers College, 17(2), 287–320. Chang, Y. C. (2004). A study on the differences of English teaching in urban and rural elementary schools (Master thesis, National Hsinchu University of Education, Taiwan, 2004). Electronic Theses and Dissertations System, 093NHCT5576003. Chiang, M. H. (2005). A study of the current implementation of English teaching in the elementary schools of Miao-Li County (Master thesis, National Taitung Univeristy, Taiwan, 2005). Electronic Theses and Dissertation System. Donaldson, G. A. Jr., & Sanderson, D. R. (1996). Working together in schools: A guide for educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Edge, J. (1996). Cross-cultural paradoxes in a profession of values. TESOL Quarterly, 30(1), 9–30. Edge, J. (2003). Imperial troopers and servants of the lord: A vision of TESOL for the 21st century. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 701–708.

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Ho, F. S. (2004). Current implementation of English teaching and needs-assessment in the elementary schools of Penghu County (Master thesis, National University of Tainan, Taiwan, 2004). Electronic Theses and Dissertations System, 092NTNT5576001. Hsu, J. L. (2006). An analysis of team teaching in the English Schweitzer Program in Nantou County (Master thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, 2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations System, 094CCU05462026. Huang, W. H., Huang, Y. C., He, Y. H., Tung, T. K., Lin, M. H., Chen, H.Z., et al. (2006, January 12). Half of the foreign English teachers are leaving. Retrieved December 19, 2007 from www.english.com.tw/modules/news/article.php:storyid=1095. Kachi, R., & Lee, C. H. (2001). A tandem of native and non-native teachers: Voices from Japanese and American teachers in the EFL classroom in Japan (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 478746). Liang, J., & Rice, S. (2006). Forging new identities: A journey of collaboration between native and non-native English-speaking educators. In N. G. Barron, N. Grimm, & S. Gruber (Eds.), Social change in diverse teaching contexts: Touchy subjects and routine practices (pp. 161–182). New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Miyazato, K. (2003). Japanese EFL learners’ anxiety in native speaker teachers’ classes. JALT Conference ‘02 Proceedings, 1–8. Tokyo: JALT. Miyazato, K. (2009). Power-sharing between NS and NNS teachers: Linguistically powerful AETs vs. culturally powerful JTEs. JALT Journal, 31(1), 35–62. Pennycook, A., & Coutand-Marin, S. (2003). Teaching English as a missionary English. Discourse, 24(3), 337–353. Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2005). The modern mission: The language effects of Christianity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(2), 137–155. Snow, D. (2001). English teaching as Christian mission: An applied theology. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Snow, D. (2009). English teachers, language learning, and the issue of power. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 173–184). New York: Routledge. Su, C. C. (2005). The effects of unfavorable cultural factors in remote regions on English Education in primary schools—with reference to three schools in central Taiwan (Master thesis, Nanhua University, Taiwan, 2005). Electronic Theses and Dissertations System, 093NHU05665004. Tsai, L. B. (2003). The report of foreign teacher employment in Taiwan. Retrieved December 31, 2007 from http://teach.eje.edu.tw/eduReport/checkDir/lanpin20031211144232. htm. Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge.

4 FOLK LINGUISTICS, CONTENT-ORIENTED DISCOURSE ANALYSIS, AND LANGUAGE TEACHER BELIEFS Michael Pasquale CORNERSTONE UNIVERSITY (USA)

The study of folk linguistics (for example, Niedzielski and Preston, 2003) seeks to discover non-linguists’ beliefs about language in general. A folk linguistic approach to second language acquisition seeks to discover what non-linguists believe about the second language acquisition process. This chapter explores the beliefs about second language learning and teaching held by pre-service and veteran language teachers who identify themselves as evangelical Christians. Results show that, for most teachers, faith plays a role in their views about various aspects of teaching and learning; however, whereas veteran teachers understand their faith and practice to be inseparably intertwined, the accounts of pre-service teachers indicate a less integrated understanding.

Introduction Folk linguistics is the study of what the folk, or non-linguists, believe about language. Historically, some linguists have expressed skepticism about the reliability and value of such knowledge. For example, Leonard Bloomfield (1944) named such beliefs “stankos” and deemed them unworthy of investigation. However, others disagree. Hoenigswald (1966) argued for the importance of folk linguistic beliefs and, in his seminal work on the subject, framed the scope of the field: We should be interested not only in (a) what goes on (language), but also in (b) how people react to what goes on (they are persuaded, they are put off, etc.) and in (c) what people say goes on (talk concerning language). It

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will not do to dismiss these secondary and tertiary modes of conduct merely as sources of error. (p. 20) Accounts of folk linguistic belief held by the general public abound in the popular media (for example, Hawke, 2000). Specifically, people can be found to hold strong and often divergent ideas relating to the language acquisition process. For example, some believe that it is a specialized activity and only those who are intelligent or born with a special talent can fluently acquire a second language (for example, Sharp, 2007). Others view language learning as a relatively easy process that depends mainly on finding the right program or system (for example, Addison, 2008). Research in folk linguistics attempts to collect and organize these beliefs in order to analyze them. Niedzielski and Preston (2003) established a framework for studying folk linguistic belief based on open-ended conversational interviews. Their broad study looks at folk beliefs on topics ranging from sociolinguistics (for example, regional dialectology) to general linguistics (for example, phonology and syntax). They also collected responses relating to applied linguistics and the acquisition of second and foreign languages. Pasquale (2011) provides a background to research on folk beliefs about second language acquisition (SLA). Folk SLA involves discovery of what nonlinguists (that is, “folk”) believe about the second language acquisition process. Inquiries of this type involve questions such as: • •

What do the folk believe about how second languages are learned? What do the folk believe about second language teaching and learning practices?

These general categories can, in turn, lead to an investigation of more specific beliefs about topics such as the relation of motivation and intelligence to how languages are best learned, and an understanding of the teacher’s role and assessment choices in language instruction. Folk linguistic research on second language acquisition (for example, Pasquale & Preston, 2008, forthcoming) can encompass more than the study of student and teacher beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and metacognitive knowledge. It can also include the underlying cognitive domains and procedures that constitute belief systems. Questions such as “Do learners believe they learn languages the same way they learn in general?” and “Do teachers believe that overtly acquired notions have an impact on acquisition?” are the type of matters addressed. In this research area, beliefs and belief systems are seen as complex entities comprised of social, cognitive, cultural, affective, and idiosyncratic factors. Two primary research strands have emerged—teacher cognition and student cognition—and the goal of researchers has been not only to understand what teachers and students know

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and say they believe about the language learning process, but also to better recognize what they think about and how they make decisions related to language learning (for example, Woods, 1996, 2003). Whether a language teacher can truly be considered a “novice” whose beliefs about language learning and teaching may be characterized as “folk beliefs” is debatable in the context of folk linguistic research. It is assumed that most, if not all, foreign language teachers have taken linguistics coursework as part of their teacher preparation program. However, it can be argued that this linguistic knowledge only constitutes part of a teacher’s belief system. What is done in practice is also important. Woods (1996) explores cases where a teacher’s intentions or beliefs about teaching and learning do not necessarily correlate with their praxis. Situations such as these, which he calls “hot spots,” are of interest to folk linguistic researchers. Current research in teacher and learner cognition, therefore, is focusing on how overtly stated beliefs may or may not correspond with actions. Attention to context is also key to understanding the potential influence of external factors such as social, institutional, or instructional factors on teacher beliefs (c.f. Borg, 2006). Preston (2010a, 2010b) provides additional accounts of the cognitive processing aspects of folk linguistics in general.

Content-Oriented Discourse Analysis In her work on the folk linguistic beliefs of language learners, Kalaja (1995) adopts a discourse-based approach rather than using a quantitative measurement tool with predetermined response options (for example, Horwitz, 1985, 1987), a decision based on the view that learner and teacher folk beliefs are not static. In research informed by this understanding: . . . the focus could be on what language learners have to say about SLA in the course of everyday talk or writing. Beliefs would be thought to be socially constructed and dependent on context, and thus more or less variable in nature. . . . Discourse analytic methods seem the most appropriate for this purpose. (Kalaja, 1995, p. 200) One such approach to discourse analysis can be found in the identification and interpretation of metalinguistic expressions respondents use as they reflect on language learning and teaching experiences. These interpretations may be based on the pragmatic framing of comments, including those of “metamessages” (Gumperz, 1982) or “discourse markers” (Schiffrin, 1987). From this perspective, metalanguage is not only language about language, but is also a study of language that includes the ideology, identity, and social practices of the speaker (Jaworski, Coupland, & Galasinski, 2004, p. 4). Niedzielski and Preston (2003, p. 302) differentiate between types of metalanguage, which they label Metalanguage 1

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and Metalanguage 2. The first refers to explicit, conscious folk linguistic discourse while the second refers to the folk beliefs that lie behind the overt statements.

The Role of Faith and Teaching The role of faith and spirituality in language teaching has been explored from both positive and negative angles. Christian educators and scholars have sought to explain how their faith can support and strengthen their teaching practice (Baurain, 2007; Scovel, 2004; Smith & Carvill, 2001; Snow, 2001; Wong, 2009). Others have charged that teachers who openly assert their spirituality, Christian teachers in particular, are especially worrisome (Edge 2003, 2006; Pennycook & Coutand-Marin, 2003; Pennycook & Makoni, 2005; Varghese & Johnston, 2007). There are two key themes that have emerged from the literature: that faith can have a direct influence on teaching (either positive or negative) and that a teacher’s faith is integral to their identity. Baurain (2007) appeals to the Bible to support his claim that a teacher’s faith can have a positive influence on practice. His main point is that Christians are motivated by the directive to value and respect other people and appreciate their intrinsic worth (p. 202). He further argues that the doctrine of God’s love, and in turn the command to love not only one’s neighbors but even strangers, is also very powerful in informing how teachers should approach their task. Baurain concludes that love for others, specifically for one’s students or for people from other cultures, is based on the centrality of that divine love in the Christian faith. In a similar vein, Smith and Carvill (2001, pp. 16–17) argue that, in loving the stranger, the greatest act is one of hospitality. This entails not only personal hospitality on the part of the teacher, but also an emphasis on helping foreign language students to welcome others into their world. In the view of Smith and Carvill, it is this faith-informed pedagogical focus that is so powerful. However, Byler (2009) claims, that a strong, outward faith may also be perceived as a negative attribute, even by other Christians. Like Baurain, his argument centers on respect, but in this case the lack of respect that some Christians show toward other people and cultures. He attributes these negative characteristics to a naïve understanding of the world and the placing of political views on par with theological ones. From this perspective, the influence of faith on teaching is seen more negatively due to the intolerance and lack of respect shown by some Christian teachers in their practice. These arguments are also made by critics such as Edge (2003) and Pennycook and Coutand-Marin (2003). Closely related to the theme of faith and teaching practice is the theme of faith and teacher identity. Varghese, Morgan, Johnston, and Johnson (2005) define identity as an “understanding of self,” a self which is not exclusive to itself, but rather dependent on social, cultural, religious, and political context(s) (pp. 23–25). In this understanding of identity, a teacher’s faith can play a crucial role. Wong (2009) specifically calls on Christian English language teachers to develop their identity as global Christian professional teachers, keeping in mind their global

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and political contexts. If one accepts that identity is constructed, maintained, and negotiated primarily through discourse (Varghese, 2011, p. 22), then an analysis of what teachers say has the potential to illuminate how they draw on faith perspectives in making sense of who they are and what they do. These insights inform the interview study reported in this chapter, which investigates the folk beliefs of pre-service and veteran teachers regarding the interrelationship of faith and second language learning and teaching.

The Study A total of ten teachers participated in this study. Four were pre-service teachers, three female and one male, and were students enlisted from a Christian University in the American Midwest. All were in their senior year and were student teachers or had already completed their student teaching assignments, three in English as a Second Language and one in Spanish. Six veteran teachers, three female and three male, also participated. Each veteran teacher had at least 10 years of teaching experience, and the group included individuals who taught in the US, abroad, and in both contexts. Five were teachers of English as a Second Language and one was a teacher of German All ten participants identified themselves as “evangelical Christians.” Before each interview, the participants signed an informed consent form and filled out a questionnaire to provide information on demographics and language learning history (see Table 4.1). The interviews were conducted by the author and included questions such as the following:

TABLE 4.1 List of interview subjects

Name (Alias)

M/F Age

Language(s) Learned (L2)

Language(s) Taught/ Preparing to Teach

Category

Julie Laura Scott Josie Gary Richard

F F M F M M

21 22 22 24 35 40

F

40

Karen

F

40

Becky

F

62

Ronald

M

67

ESL (adults in Asia) ESL (K12 in US) ESL (K12 in US) Spanish (K12 in US) ESL (adults in US) German/French (K12 US) ESL (adults/teens in US/Asia) ESL (adults/teens in US/Asia) ESL (adults in US/Africa) ESL (adults in US/Asia)

Pre-Service Pre-Service Pre-Service Pre-Service Veteran Veteran

Susan

Spanish German Spanish Spanish Spanish German/ French Mandarin French/ Mandarin French/ Swahili French/ Bengali

Veteran Veteran Veteran Veteran

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1. 2. 3. 4.

How do students best learn a foreign language? What have you done personally that has helped you learn a second language? What effective strategies have you seen in your students/friends? How has your faith played a role in your teaching/learning a second language?

These questions were used as initial prompts but the interview was open-ended and allowed the interviewees to bring up their own topics or to elaborate as desired. Each interview lasted between 20 and 30 minutes, was recorded on a Sony ICD digital recorder, and then transcribed by the author following a basic Jeffersonian transcription convention (for example, Schenkein, 1978, pp. xi–xvi). The transcriptions represented a Metalanguage 1 perspective (that is, a detailing of what the respondent said overtly about language learning). Interview transcripts were then analyzed in order to get at the Metalanguage 2 level of understanding, which is the underlying folk beliefs relating to what they said.

Results In what follows, teachers’ reports of the role faith plays in their understanding of teaching and language learning will be explored first. The topics that emerge relate to professionalism, hospitality, motivation, and curriculum choice. Next, the aspect of teacher identity will be examined. Differences are found, in particular, between veteran and pre-service teachers.

Faith and Teaching Many of the participants shared how faith plays a role in their lives as language learners and teachers. In these accounts, the role of faith ranged from the conviction that Christian teachers should teach with honesty and integrity to understanding one’s purpose for teaching. Only one participant did not make such connections, a pre-service teacher named Josie. Responding to the question of whether or not her faith had any influence on her teaching, she said, “I don’t think so . . . there isn’t really a “Christian” way to teach . . . just like [there isn’t] a Christian way to play volleyball.” The other three pre-service teachers and six veteran teachers all affirmed that faith played a role in their lives as educators.

Professionalism Participants identified professionalism as a key trait for Christian teachers. Professionalism was defined by characteristics such as integrity, hard work, and dedication to teaching and administrative tasks. Karen, a 40-year-old veteran teacher who had taught English in China, saw integrity as the key to professionalism, a position that she linked to Christian witness:

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An issue of teaching in China is one of integrity because if you are just using TESOL to just get in the door you are being deceptive and the faculty and students will figure it out and it is not a good witness. If you are going you must be a good teacher, and your professionalism and quality of teaching—that is really the most important thing. In Karen’s view, being an effective Christian witness could not happen through deceit. She understood professionalism to be a key outgrowth of one’s faith. Other teachers also commented on the importance of professionalism and how, in their opinion, it was often the defining characteristic of Christian teachers. Susan, another veteran teacher who had taught in the US and China, explained it this way: Professionalism is important, how we conduct ourselves as ESL-FL teachers will impact students and staff in ways we can’t always imagine and, as an example, um—when we taught in a school in China we taught for a time and then had to leave. We heard from people there later and they said “you guys really cared about our students” . . . In some ways it was good that we had to pull out because they could see a contrast, how our lives were different, how we cared for their students, how we prepared for class, those extra things we did that were not necessarily, um, part of the job description. Here in Susan’s answer, there is an assumption that “professionalism” is a by-product of a teacher’s Christian faith. Susan clearly describes “Christian” professionalism in terms of care for students, proper course preparation, and going “above and beyond” the job description when teaching English in China. Both Susan and Karen see faith-informed “professionalism” as something that can distinguish a Christian teacher from a non-Christian teacher.

Hospitality Hospitality, the act of welcoming and caring for others, also emerged as an important perspective. Terms such as “love” and “relationships” were used to identify the importance of a community of learning in which teachers care for students and students care not only for their own academic lives, but also care about people from different languages and cultures. Julie, a 21-year-old college student preparing to be an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher, explained her perspective on what characteristics lead to effective language teaching. In her view, effective language teachers are first . . . called to love their students . . . [and] a good teacher gets to know their students better and form relationships . . . a good foreign language teacher also makes a class fun, they are creative . . .

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Julie’s use of “call” indicates that she senses a responsibility to place priority on cultivating good relationships in the classroom. The use of the term “call” is particularly relevant from the standpoint of an evangelical Christian worldview and suggests that she feels compelled, by God, to show love to her students by getting to know them. To Julie, these actions characterize quality teaching. It may also be significant that she does not say that teachers are “called” to make a class fun and creative. These attributes are associated with effective teaching, but do not seem to be rooted in any particular theological understanding. As discussed earlier, scholars such as Baurain (2007), Snow (2001), and Wong (2009) argue that the biblical command for teachers to value and respect other people, especially their students, is a powerful motivator. Especially central to this point is the place that love plays in the process. In her comment, Julie echoes Baurain’s point that Christian teachers are motivated by a biblical call to love others. Whereas Julie understood the attitude of teachers toward students from a perspective informed by her faith, Laura, another pre-service teacher, framed her understanding of language learning with reference to her Christian faith. Her response corresponds with Smith and Carvill’s (2001) vision of hospitality in the language classroom: I think learning a language and learning about other cultures—there’s just such value in that—um—it teaches you so much more than—just—I don’t know—it’s not just a surface “I can speak another language”—it opens you up to a whole world and whole new experiences . . . it gives you—insight into yourself and looking at other cultures—like when I go to China and I am trying to learn what I can before I get there—and—thinking about “OK, I’m alone here, the only other thing I have is God to get me through this”— . . . that dependence—it brings out the best in you—to work so hard to learn how to communicate . . . I feel like—just—in the way that God reveals to you “This is the plan I have for you and I have for your life”—these skills so I can do this—I think it is the same thing with language—he will give you a passion for that— . . . it kind of frustrates me to think that someone would say something like “I’m not going to learn that language because it’s ugly”—I mean what must people think of English? English isn’t the most beautiful I’m sure. Here, Laura’s account demonstrates her faith-informed understanding of language acquisition as more than just gaining the ability to communicate. It is a source of new insight and understanding of others and a way that God works through people to develop maturity and trust in Him. In addition, Laura reveals her belief that learning a foreign language can be seen as God’s plan for a person, something for which He can provide passion. She also focuses on a point that Smith and Carvill (2001) make, that learning the language of others should not been seen from an egocentric perspective (for example, “I’m not going to learn

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that language because it’s ugly”). Laura’s Christian faith gives depth to her understanding of language learning.

Motivation The teachers who participated in this study spoke of the interface of faith and teaching not only in characteristics such as professionalism and hospitality, but also in descriptions of motivation underlying language learning and teaching. Richard, a 40-year-old veteran teacher of French and German, commented on his own initial motivation to learn another language and how his faith brought a new perspective: I discuss with my kids in the classroom on the first week of school when I get them in my class for the first time is I talk with them—“Why are you learning a foreign language?” and everyone tells me why he or she is learning a foreign language—and then—I tell them why I started to learn a foreign language in high school—I wanted to travel, I wanted to work— I wanted to work in international business—make lots of money— ((laughs))—that was my perspective when I was 15 years old—now my perspective is—I want God to speak through me in those languages so it has been a growth pattern. In these remarks, Richard takes the view that as he has matured, his Christian faith has changed the motivation underlying his interest in language learning. Whereas he was originally motivated by what he could gain for himself, his more mature, faith-based perspective is the motivating belief that language learning is something God can use. He goes on to clarify this perspective with reference to his understanding of worldview: I don’t think it is possible to separate your worldview—whatever it is— from, from anything you do because anything you take time and energy in has an expectation of some benefit or you wouldn’t do . . . it is an outgrowth of something you take as your picture in the world. Here, Richard’s comments highlight his awareness that the position he takes is an outgrowth of the overall Christian framework that shapes his perspective on the world. In a similar vein, Scott, a pre-service teacher, expressed his understanding of Christian belief as a motivating influence that came to bear on the nature of teacher-student interaction, with implications for language learning: There is the basic belief that all people are made in the image of God, so if a Christian teacher truly believes that—which he or she should—then

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that will greatly influence how a teacher interacts with the students or relates to them and . . . I think also that if they build meaningful and trusting relationships with students then that will also help them learn languages. Scott also noted that he saw the divine presence of the Holy Spirit as a source of motivation: I think that the Spirit is definitely something that is an enabler, but I think, um, but for me it kind of goes back to motivation. The Spirit will motivate and through that a drive will help the learner to learn. Scott’s statements reveal the theological roots that inform his thoughts about language learning and teaching. His comments indicate two areas of emphasis. First, he draws attention to his understanding that people are “made in the image of God,” a common belief in evangelical Christianity based on the biblical passage of Genesis 1. He places heavy emphasis on this point, and underscores his personal belief that it should be something that influences a Christian teacher to care about students. A second point is his reference to the Holy Spirit, a member of the Trinity of God. Evangelical Christians believe that, at conversion, the Holy Spirit dwells within a Christian to encourage and guide. It is noteworthy that Scott not only believes the Spirit functions in a spiritual or theological capacity, but also sees the Spirit as someone who can help a Christian learn another language.

Curriculum and Faith In addition to discussing motivation for teaching and the place of love and hospitality, Smith and Carvill (2001) note how Christian faith can have a positive impact in the classroom in terms of curriculum planning. This is spelled out further in Smith and Osborn (2007), where ideas for lesson plans pertaining to themes of spirituality and social justice are illustrated. The teachers in the present study also touched how on their faith related to their choice of classroom topics. Becky, a 60-year-old teacher with over 20 years of experience teaching English in Africa and the US related the topic of witness and integrity to the choice of lesson materials in her classroom: I feel we should never use ESL as a chance to witness . . . I feel like it is a wrong motivation. We should teach ESL because we love language, we love culture, we love people of the world . . . um, we love teaching, and in that context to trust God who is bigger and wiser than I am to give us those opportunities. We don’t need to be God in the teaching of ESL by bringing in religious materials, but rather I think God, in his wisdom and grace, as we teach with honesty and integrity and him as our focus, will give us opportunities to share.

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Here, Becky links honesty and integrity to an understanding of how her faith informs her decision not to take overtly religious material into her ESL classroom. Nevertheless, she did talk about religious themes: For me, the teaching of culture has opened a tremendous amount of doors of opportunity to share my faith. For example, at Christmas, I teach the five basic winter celebrations like Hanukah, so I feel I give adequate time to all of the various winter celebrations. And without fail my students ask me “Well, teacher, what about you? What do you do during winter vacation?” And I always have a chance to say what I believe and how I celebrate Christmas. . . . Holidays are a built-in opportunity in talking about culture and cultural events to give students and to piggyback on that to share. Becky clearly sees teaching about holiday celebrations within the context of Western cultural traditions as a way to share about her faith in a non-religious context such as in the public school setting in which she teaches. In her view, this is a natural opportunity to talk about her Christian faith. Other teachers also remarked on their use of holidays as a way to bring in religious themes. Karen noted how she used holidays to teach about Christianity in her classroom in China: I mean, absolutely use the holidays as an opportunity to share, but the problem in a place like China is that they already have an idea of Christianity and Western culture being kind of equating to each other and they believe that they have to turn their backs on their culture and you don’t want to perpetuate that idea. Show the secular with the religious, how people celebrate Christmas around the world, that it isn’t just an American holiday. Like the others, Karen believes that holidays provide a good opportunity to talk about faith, but warns that, if not done with a global perspective, Christmas and other holidays will be viewed as merely “Western” or “American” holidays and not recognized for their potentially transcultural religious significance. Gary, a younger veteran teacher of adult ESL in the US, reported not only using holidays, but also other materials to get at matters of faith in a manner reminiscent of ideas suggested by Smith and Osborn (2007): One way I apply my Christian worldview is through the materials I select, there are a lot of materials you can choose that will, um, express a Christian theme. It can be a theme like forgiveness, a theme that only Christianity teaches, um, it can be a theme like chastity or things that Christians can teach the rest of the world. I don’t teach too much of an explicitly Christian theme most of the time because I don’t want to step on any toes,

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for example, if a holiday comes up I can tell them what we are really celebrating like Palm Sunday or Easter, you can tell them what it is about. While Gary refers to using holidays, he also believes that he can effectively communicate a Christian worldview perspective through strategic attention to the thematic content of his materials. It is interesting to note, from a folk linguistic point of view, that Gary believes that only Christianity teaches a theme like forgiveness, or that the idea of chastity is an explicitly Christian idea. Like Gary, Susan made curriculum choices that would allow for a discussion of faith-related topics. Unlike Becky, she did not believe it was detrimental to incorporate materials that had an explicit religious orientation and she included resources such as Christian books in her American Literature course in China: I added in some resources, for example, I included Puritan writers, I would supplement their textbook to bring those ideas about God, people of faith, and their stories were a good source for that. Ronald too used readings to expressly bring up topics of faith in his adult ESL classes in the US: I have found that short stories that help students to think about issues of life and I have taken articles out of the newspapers, out of magazines, or off the internet to good effect, also children’s books or even biblical stories like David and Goliath, also asking about holiday traditions in their countries then it can flip and they ask about your culture and holidays. In each of these examples, veteran teachers brought up their use of holidays or stories to introduce Christian themes in their classes. Becky and Karen thought this was best achieved indirectly by teaching about holidays and welcoming questions relating to their own practices. On the other hand, Susan and Ronald felt it acceptable in their contexts to be more explicit and did so by incorporating materials that were overtly Christian in orientation.

Faith and Teacher Identity The results gleaned from the interviews with both veteran teachers and pre-service teachers provide insights into some similarities and differences between experienced and new teachers regarding the way they understood the connection between their Christian faith and their professional identity. This had implications for perceptions of tension arising from different worldview perspectives. Richard, a veteran teacher, mused about the interrelation between faith and being a teacher:

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At the risk of sounding like I am going a certain direction theologically— is this a heart spirit filled Christian who does not separate his everyday activities from his faith? . . . If it is the last of those—then—I would say that a teacher should be a stronger teacher as a result of his or her faith— than—if that person were to try to separate faith out . . . because—if you are a soul, heart, spirit, and biblically led Christian then you should understand that God gave you a set of skills for the purpose of doing something for his kingdom and not for the purpose of gaining a name for yourself and—then—you should as an outgrowth of that continue to develop stronger and deeper and broader expertise in that area. In his account, Richard takes the position that a committed Christian does not see faith as something that can be separated from the business of daily living, including the development of professional skills and engagement in professional activities. In fact, the belief that professional activity is done for God rather than personal advancement ought to lead to the development of greater professional expertise. Laura, a pre-service teacher, also considered the interrelation of faith and teaching by contrasting her non-Christian high school German teacher and her Christian university German professor. She briefly described her high school teacher: “The teacher I had was awkward and scary and always playing videos of Nazis— so you are just thinking ‘Why am I taking this?’” She then noted why she preferred the approach of her current instructor by explaining the characteristics of a good teacher: “[A good teacher is] . . . very enthusiastic, and encouraging and aware of students and the individual needs of how they learn . . .” As she continued, she commented on her understanding of the role of faith in the practice of her Christian professor and its relation to her description of a good teacher: . . . I think about—the value that God has for people and all of our individual traits—just—it gives you a new way to look at people and to love them even though you don’t necessarily get along with them. . . . I feel like other teachers have no reason to love all their students. All Christians are like “We are called to love.”—and—it just gives you an insight and when you pray for them, who knows what God can reveal to you that way—it just— opens you up to getting you to know your students better—I feel like— it gives you a general love for them more than other people would. Laura’s statement draws out the characteristic of “love” as an important trait for teachers, a view shared by other pre-service and veteran teachers. At the same time, her description also reveals a belief that only Christian teachers can teach in a way that displays love toward students. In so doing, she sets up a simplistic us/them relationship where “Christian” and “love” correspond and

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“non-Christian” implies a relationship that does not entail “love.” For Laura, love is an important trait that is best facilitated by a teacher’s Christian faith. Both Richard and Laura see faith as playing an important role in the lives of excellent teachers. Richard, the veteran teacher, describes a holistic understanding of teacher identity, depicting his faith as interwoven with his vocation. Laura, on the other hand, highlights the differences between teachers who she thinks are effective and those who are not, noting the influence of faith-informed practice on the part of the latter. While this characterization reflects appreciation for a faith-based stance of hospitality, Laura does not explicitly consider the role that faith might play in her own teaching. In Richard’s case, his identity as a teacher is shaped by a broad sense of self where his faith plays a crucial role in shaping his whole life, including his career in education. This understanding of whole-being identity, as explained in Wong (2009), was often found in the conversations with veteran teachers. Ronald noted the connection to worldview: . . . a biblical worldview is communicated by what a teacher is, a teacher’s attitudes, responses, respect for the student, the teacher’s friendliness, integrity, concern for the students personally and their needs and the quality of teaching are all the first steps in living out a biblical worldview. In these comments, Ronald presents a position that depicts his faith-based identity as intertwined with his professional identity with the effect that who he is as a teacher and how he teaches is an outgrowth of his faith. While veteran teachers represented this understanding of their identity in positive terms, it could also be a point of tension. For some, the interconnectedness of their Christian and professional identities could present challenges and even result in negative consequences when their Christian worldview conflicts with the dominant perspective. In Gary’s experience: The place of greatest conflict for me actually was not with my students but with other staff members. Sometimes a secular place like a public university is a hostile place. There is a culture we have to confront, we have to live it basically and maneuver in that culture is the biggest thing. For Gary, negative responses from fellow teachers in his current position in a private language school presented areas of potential conflict similar to encounters with colleagues during his time at a secular university when earning his graduate degree. His account indicates a belief that ideas about Christians prevalent in popular culture often reflected negatively on his identity as a Christian. For her part, Becky also indicated an awareness of the fact that worldview perspectives could lead to labels laden with meaning that might not always be desirable or representative of the individual:

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I rather, because I have many Muslim students, rather than say I am a “Christian” or “born again Christian,” I just say I am a follower of Jesus and I think it gives the Muslims, at least in my perspective, it gives them a little bit of peace. I am not using the word “Christian” . . . they so often hate that word back in their culture . . . Becky’s recognition that a particular worldview label might be seen in a negative light by students tempered her own understanding of how she believed it was best to represent the faith-based aspect of her identity.

Conclusion These interviews provide a small glimpse of the kinds of information that can be gleaned from folk linguistic investigations. One aspect that emerged is the belief that faith, particularly in God, played an important role in the character and professional development of all but one of the Christian language teachers interviewed. Second, teachers revealed their view that faith has a strong influence on their teaching praxis and their own language learning as students. Two related emphases that emerged included perceptions of faith as a motivating factor and faith as an influence that sets teachers apart from their non-Christian colleagues. Finally, there were similarities and differences between pre-service and in-service teachers. The similarities revolved around beliefs that hospitality and care for students is an essential characteristic of Christian teachers. A main difference was that veteran teachers sought to embody these characteristics and did not see a way to separate their faith and practice, while pre-service teachers did not appear to have a perspective that was as integrated, and attributed many of their teaching beliefs to experiences with past or current teachers. Some veteran teachers also felt that their Christian identity could be negatively perceived and a point of tension in certain contexts. While this interview study has enabled an exploration and analysis of the folk beliefs of Christian teachers regarding the second language teaching and learning process, it is important to remember that what a teacher says about their beliefs may not necessarily match their teaching practice. The potential discrepancy between stated beliefs and observed practice is what Woods (1996) has referred to as “hot spots.” This study focused only on the participants’ stated beliefs. While it did not identify “hot spots,” it has attempted to take the first step toward understanding and analyzing some of the beliefs of both pre-service and veteran teachers, which may inform ongoing studies, including investigations of hot spots. There are also many other possibilities for related studies of value, including investigations exploring the place of faith-informed beliefs in the understanding of educators from other faith traditions (for example, Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, etc.), as well as those who profess no faith tradition. The study reported here provides a glimpse of how folk linguistic analysis can shed light on the way

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faith and beliefs and perceptions of practice interconnect in the lives and identities of Christian language teachers. Further research and analysis will continue to flesh out these aspects and help inform teachers and teacher educators of how beliefs can and do shape their praxis.

References Addison, H. (2008, June 28). Parlier Francais? C’est facile. The Times, p. 11. Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6, 201–219. Bloomfield, L. (1944). Secondary and tertiary responses to language. Language, 20, 45–55. Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London: Continuum. Byler, M. (2009). Confronting the empire: Language teachers as charitable guests. In M. Wong, & S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 120–130). New York: Routledge. Edge, J. (2003). Imperial troopers and servants of the Lord: A vision of TESOL for the 21st century. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 701–709. Edge, J. (Ed.). (2006). (Re-)locating TESOL in an age of Empire. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hawke, A. G. (2000). The quick and dirty guide to learning languages fast. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press. Hoenigswald, H. (1966). A proposal for the study of folk linguistics. In W. Bright (Ed.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 16–26). The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton. Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333–340. Horwitz, E. K. (1987). Surveying student beliefs about language learning. In A. Wenden, & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 119–132). New York: Prentice Hall. Jaworski, A., Coupland, N., & Galasinski, D. (2004). Metalanguage: Why now? In A. Jaworski, N. Coupland, & D. Galasinski (Eds.), Metalanguage: Social and ideological perspectives. New York: Mouton DeGruyter. Kalaja, P. (1995). Student beliefs (or metacognitive knowledge) about SLA reconsidered. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 191–204. Niedzielski, N., & Preston D. R. (2003). Folk linguistics. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter. Pasquale, M. D. (2011). Folk beliefs about second language learning and teaching. AILA Review, 24, 88–99. Pasquale, M. D., & Preston, D. R. (2008). A folk taxonomy of language learning and teaching. Paper presented at the symposium Folk Beliefs in SLA at the AILA World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Essen, Germany. Pasquale, M. D., & Preston, D. R. (forthcoming). The folk linguistics of language teaching and learning. In K. Drozdzial-Szelest, & M. Pawlak (Eds.), Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives on second language learning and teaching: Studies in honor of Waldemar Marton. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

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Pennycook, A., & Coutand-Marin, S. (2003). Teaching English as a missionary language (TEML). Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24(3), 337–353. Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2005). The modern mission: The language effects of Christianity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(2), 137–155. Preston, D. R. (2010a). Variation in language regard. In P. Gilles, J. Scharloth, & E. Ziegler (Eds.), Variatio delectat: Empirischen evidenzen und theoretische passungen sprachlicher Variation (pp. 7–27). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang. Preston, D. R. (2010b). Language, people, salience, space: Perceptual dialectology and language regard. Dialectologia, 5, 87–131. Schenkein, J. (1978). Explanation of transcript notation. In J. Schenkein (Ed.), Studies of conversational interaction (pp. xi–xvi). New York: Academic Press. Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse markers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Scovel, T. (2004). What is a Christian English language teacher? CETC Newsletter, 8(1). Retrieved July 25, 2008 from www.tesol.org/NewsletterSite/view.asp?nid=3124. Sharp, M. (2007, October 30). Boy, 10, who speaks 10 languages; Pupil stuns teachers. Daily Record, p. 12. Smith, D. I., & Carvill, B. (2001). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I., & Osborn, T. (Eds.). (2007). Spirituality, social justice and language learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Snow, D. (2001). English teaching as Christian mission: An applied theology. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Varghese, M. (2011). Language teacher education and teacher identity. In F. M. Hult, & K. A. King (Eds.), Educational linguistics in practice: Applying the local globally and the global locally (pp. 16–26). Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters. Varghese, M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 5–31. Varghese, M., Morgan, B., Johnston, B., & Johnson, K. A. (2005). Theorizing language teacher identity: Three perspectives and beyond. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(1), 21–44. Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. Wong, & S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge. Woods, D. (1996). Teacher cognition in language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Woods, D. (2003). The social construction of beliefs in the language classroom. In P. Kalaja, & A. M. Ferreira Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches (pp. 201–229). Dordrecht, Netherlands.

5 “FOREVER CHANGED” Emerging TESOL Educators’ Cultural Learning and Spiritual Formation on a Study Abroad Trip in Myanmar Shuang Frances Wu AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

Mary Shepard Wong AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

Higher education institutions generally recognize the need to prepare students to successfully function in a globalized world; therefore, global competence becomes an indicator for educational effectiveness. Partly due to the challenges in conceptualizing this complex concept, at the institutional, program, or course level, its outcomes are not always clearly identified. Consequently, students may be deprived of optimal learning experiences. Christian higher education has the unique opportunity and responsibility to foster students’ global competence development that is driven and reinforced by a Christian spirituality. Simply put, for Christian higher education, global competence development and spiritual formation must go hand in hand, both of which should be intended outcomes of cross-cultural learning opportunities such as study abroad. The goal of the present study is to understand the global learning and spiritual formation of thirteen TESOL students at a US Christian university who taught English in Myanmar in the summer of 2010. We accomplish this through an analysis of student journal narratives. We discuss evidence for students’ global competence, specifically cross-cultural attitudes development and spiritual formation, and explore interactions between these constructs. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research.

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Conceptual Framework Global Competence Definition To begin our inquiry, it is essential to conceptualize global competence. The American Council on Education emphasizes the need to cultivate globally prepared graduates who can live and work in diverse communities (Green & Olson, 2008). Fostering globally competent students has become a fundamental mission on many university campuses. The manner in which universities conceptualize global competence influences how they encourage and prepare students to engage in global learning opportunities (Hunter, White, & Godbey, 2006). Hovland (2009) describes global learning as integrating multiple disciplinary perspectives, enabling civic engagement, and preparing students for the responsibility of addressing global problems. Challenges in evaluating the effectiveness of global learning programs arise when universities fail to establish clear educational outcomes. To ensure that students experience optimal growth from their intercultural, cross-cultural, and/or multicultural learning opportunities, institutions need to determine the key characteristics of global competence. Fantini, Arias-Galacia, and Guay (2001) define global competence as “the multiple abilities that allow one to interact effectively and appropriately across cultures” (p. 8). Hunter emphasizes that global competence requires “having an open mind while actively seeking to understand cultural norms and expectations of others, leveraging this gained knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively outside one’s environment” (Deardorff & Hunter, 2006, p. 74). Other scholars have likewise defined global competence in slightly different ways (for an extensive review of conceptualizations of global competence and intercultural competence, see, for example, Spitzberg & Changnon, 2009).

Three Dimensions of Global Competence Beyond general conceptualizations, Olson and Kroeger (2001) define a globally competent person as someone who has “substantive knowledge, perceptual understanding, and intercultural communication skills to effectively interact in our globally independent world” (p. 117). Substantive knowledge encompasses knowledge about cultures, languages, world issues, global dynamics, and human choices. Perceptual understanding refers to the process of evaluating and organizing the stimuli that one receives from his or her environment. Characteristics of perceptual understanding include open-mindedness, resistance to stereotyping, and complex thinking. Intercultural communication skills refer to an individual’s ability to engage effectively with other people, and include adaptability, cross-cultural awareness, empathy, etc.

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Recognizing the knowledge and skills dimensions of global competence, also known as the “head” and “hand” dimensions, Fantini et al. (2001) further bring clarity to the attitudes, or the “heart” dimension of global competence, which overlaps somewhat with perceptual understanding as articulated by Olson and Kroeger (2001). Cross-cultural attitudes relate to effective characteristics, including motivations and values regarding intercultural engagement and personal dispositions such as empathy, respect, sincerity, and joy. These characteristics, along with love, compassion, justice seeking, humility, self-giving, honesty, gratitude, etc. support global competence (R. Slimbach, personal communication, January 10, 2012). They can be considered spiritual qualities. In the Christian faith, these qualities relate to what Christ calls the greatest commandments, “to love the Lord your God . . . and your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:36–40, NIV). While all three dimensions of global competence; that is, knowledge (head), skills (hand), and attitudes (heart), are indispensible, we recognize for a 3-week study abroad trip such as the one in the present study, participants in most cases have limited knowledge about the target culture and likewise insufficient opportunity to acquire language skills. While one should not dismiss the importance of the first two dimensions of global competence in a short-term study abroad trip, the focus of this study is to understand how students’ cross-cultural attitudes are impacted by the experience.

Global Competence Development and Study Abroad Several theoretical frameworks exist to explain the process of global competence development. In this chapter, we use the terms “global competence” and “intercultural competence” interchangeably. For a detailed discussion on the two terms, see Grandin and Hedderich (2009). Bennett’s Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) measures a person’s ability to discriminate and experience cultural differences (1986, as cited in Hammer, Bennett, & Wiseman, 2003). The model depicts how a person could increase his or her competency for engaging in intercultural relations by exposing himself or herself to more complex and sophisticated cultural experiences (Hammer et al., 2003). The DMIS identifies six stages that people progress through in their development of intercultural competence. The three ethnocentric orientations (denial, defense, minimization) are stages in which an individual tends to see his or her own culture as central to reality. The other three stages (acceptance, adaptation, integration) are referred to as ethnorelative orientations. In these stages, individuals develop the capacity to experience their own culture in the context of other cultures (Hammer et al., 2003). Braskamp, Braskamp, and Merrill (2009) stress the internal and external growth of students and the need to view student learning holistically. They further note the lack of research regarding the impact of education abroad on students’

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holistic development. In addition to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and awareness, Braskamp et al. (2009) examined the complex epistemological processes, identities, and interpersonal relations that are formed during a study abroad experience. Their Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), which consists of three major domains (cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal) helps reveal how students think about and form a sense of themselves and relate to others as a result of global learning opportunities. The intrapersonal and interpersonal domains relate to the attitudinal dimension of global competence on which the present study focuses. The intrapersonal domain centers on becoming more aware of and integrating one’s personal values into one’s identity. The interpersonal domain addresses one’s willingness to interact with people who have different social norms and cultural backgrounds, as well as one’s ability to relate to them (Braskamp et al., 2009). Musil (2006) emphasizes the centrality of a student identity—family background, racial/ethnic tradition, religious background, and other constructed traditions. She also states that universities need to recognize the following dimensions when attempting to integrate global education into their curriculum: “developing the capacity to analyze an issue from multiple perspectives, the significance of analyzing privilege, power, democratic opportunity, and patterned stratifications, the power of experiential learning, [and] the value of ethical and moral reflection and action” (p. 11). Deardorff’s (2006) pyramid model provides an assessment of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of global competence. It indicates that attitudes are the starting point and that individuals move from an attitudinal level to an interaction level. We argue that attitudes and interaction influence each other in all stages of intercultural development and that attitudes may not always be the starting point. Deardorff further explains that respect (valuing cultures), openness (withholding judgment), and curiosity (tolerating ambiguity) are the basic attitudes for developing intercultural competence. The desired internal outcome of intercultural competence is a shift in one’s frame of reference that allows the person to adapt and become flexible and ethnorelative (Deardorff & Hunter, 2006). Finally, Fantini’s (1995, 2001) assessment instrument, Your Objectives, Guidelines, and Assessment (YOGA), assesses attitudes as one of the intercultural competence dimensions, along with a host of other characteristics, areas, language proficiency, and developmental levels. All the above frameworks, while helpful, do not provide an extensive measure of how positive cross-cultural attitudes development and spiritual development relate to each other. College students are increasingly interested in spirituality, an outcome significantly affected by international experiences such as study abroad (Astin, Astin, & Lindholm, 2011). We contend that the interconnection of intercultural learning and spiritual formation for language educators needs further understanding and we hope that this study sheds light on this vein of inquiry.

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Spiritual Formation Spiritual Formation as a Christian Higher Education Learning Outcome The seven-year national research project Spirituality in Higher Education: Students’ Search for Meaning and Purpose concludes that college students’ spiritual development promotes traditional academic outcomes regardless of institutional type; for example, faith-based or secular (Astin et al., 2011). In this study, measures of spirituality include: equanimity, spiritual quest, ethic of caring, charitable involvement, and ecumenical worldview. From a Christian perspective, “spirituality” in today’s globalized world especially is understood to involve both the inward activity of spiritual disciplines (Matthew 6:6) and the outward activity of ethical and social action (James 1:27) (R. Gallagher, personal communication, January 18, 2012). Justice and intercultural sensitivity are characteristics of Christian spirituality in the new millennium, underscored by Jenkinson and O’Sullivan (1991). Roberta Hestenes (1993) further emphasizes one’s willingness to be a part of community and to take the risk of being involved with one another as important dimensions of Christian spirituality. For Christian higher education institutions (for a list of member institutions in North America and affiliate institutions in 25 countries, see, for example, the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities), nurturing students’ spiritual formation is integral to their missions. Although these institutions may recognize global learning and engagement as a spiritual imperative, they may not have fully explored the ways in which students’ spiritual formation and global learning interact with each other. We contend that, for Christian higher education, students’ spiritual formation and positive cross-cultural attitudes are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. A spiritually developed Christian should demonstrate positive cross-cultural attitudes. This is especially important for Christian intercultural educators such as foreign language teachers (see Wong, 2006, 2009). Similarly, fostering positive cross-cultural attitudes through international or intercultural learning has the potential to nurture students’ spiritual formation. As David Smith (2005) argues, “[c]ross-cultural learning is essential to the identity and history of Christianity, not merely something that resides at its fringes” (p. 5), and “[c]ross-cultural learning and cross-cultural communication edge towards center stage as essential parts as the mature expression of Christian faith” (p. 6). Although research is not rare on the impact of study abroad on external outcomes of global competence (see, for example, Vande Berg & Paige, 2009), for which knowledge and skills are examples, the internal development associated with study abroad needs further exploration (Miller-Perrin & Thompson, 2010). Spiritual formation and such internal development have some points of convergence. Miller-Perrin and Thompson’s survey research reveals that “the

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application of faith to daily living and decision-making” increased for students who studied abroad while decreased for those who did not (p. 95). They further infer that study abroad students “may be more inclined to encounter day-to-day circumstances that push them to rely on their faith to deal with the challenges of living in another culture” (p. 96). At the same time, challenges of cross-cultural living cause an individual to question her or his intellectual-ethical (“faith”) frameworks (R. Slimbach, personal communication, January 11, 2012), which may serve to shake (but possibly eventually sharpen) the individual’s faith convictions.

Spiritual Formation for Language Educators Spiritually mature Christian language educators view their roles as educators and scholars as a vocation, a call of God on their lives, so that they do their work as unto the Lord. They can articulate Christian views of the nature of language and learners. Their pedagogy and practice are infused with Christ-like attitudes and behaviors. We do not limit “pedagogy” to teaching techniques, but extend it to the wider concept of approach, which includes a critical holistic conception of how learning is constructed (see Smith & Smith, 2011). Examples of Christ-like practices may include responding to students with compassion, valuing others and their languages and cultures, preparing for class with diligence, evaluating student performance with fairness, upholding academic integrity, treating colleagues with respect, conducting research in a responsible manner, and setting priorities in life and work that honor people over projects. While these can be examples of moral and ethical practices for non-Christians, we argue the fundamental difference as embodied from a Christian worldview is that morality and ethics originate from the Creator and that humans are made in the image of God (Imago Dei) and therefore have inherent value. Spiritually developed Christian language educators with positive cross-cultural attitudes demonstrate an ongoing and increasing awareness of their students as spiritual and cultural beings and show respect, curiosity, and knowledge for their students’ cultural values, native languages, and religious beliefs especially when they differ from those of the teachers’. They view languages and cultures as God’s creation for which they are stewards. Spiritually developed Christian language educators with positive cross-cultural attitudes also have a heightened awareness to issues of power and integrity that often leads them to engage with the social and political issues of the countries in which they work, along with a critical engagement of the political policies of their own countries. From a Christian perspective, positive cross-cultural attitude development and spiritual formation interact with each other and have many points of convergence. As will be seen in the findings section, we identified evidence for growth in crosscultural attitudes and spiritual formation in student journals and sought to understand the interaction between these as student developmental markers.

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Methodology As a university faculty member, I (Mary) led a group of thirteen students on a study and teaching trip to Myanmar in the summer of 2010. Participants included eleven Master’s students enrolled in the MA in TESOL program and two undergraduate students. As a part of this teaching and study abroad trip, the students enrolled in a Reflective Teaching/Teaching Practicum course. Nine of the graduate students also enrolled in an elective Special Topics course in which they read and wrote about the history, culture, politics, and education of Myanmar. Students were required to complete several hours of classroom observations of local teachers at a seminary in Yangon, Myanmar, and asked to consider local ways of teaching. In addition, these students taught English in pairs for at least 4 hours a day for 2 weeks at the seminary, under the guidance of both a local mentor teacher, with whom they worked, and myself (Mary), the teacher educator. Students were asked to write and reflect about their experiences each day in a journal, with question prompts to help them explore aspects of language and culture learning as well as cross-cultural teaching and learning. Curran (2003) emphasizes the need for taking the time to reflect upon one’s international or intercultural experience as a necessary means for growth (as cited in Hunter, 2004). Similarly, self-reflection is found to be among the most powerful tools for enhancing students’ spiritual development (Astin et al., 2011). We believe carefully constructed journal prompts designed to guide students to deeper and more nuanced understandings of the local cultures and peoples, as well as their own attitudes toward cross-cultural issues, are effective tools to promote cultural learning and spiritual development for study abroad students. The sixteen journal prompts (presented in Appendix A) developed for this trip focused on learning from the local teachers. We obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval from our institution to use student journals as data for our research and obtained student consent to voluntarily participate in this study. We conducted a content analysis of student journals totaling 168 single-spaced pages and identified narratives that would address the following research questions: 1. 2.

How did the experience impact students’ global learning, specifically their cross-cultural attitudes? How did the experience impact students’ spiritual formation?

Content analysis is defined as “a careful, detailed, systematic examination and interpretation of a particular body of material in an effort to identify patterns, themes, biases, and meanings” (Berg & Lune, 2012, p. 349) and “a coding operation and data interpretation process” (p. 350). We employed a “collaborative social research approach” (p. 351; also see more discussion on p. 351 about this approach), because our study participants were students on the teaching trip that I (Mary) led. We utilized both directed and conventional content analysis

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techniques. In analyzing data related to global competence development, we adopted the American Council on Education’s (2008) International Learning Assessment Project rubric that includes three dimensions: knowledge, skills, and attitudes. From an initial analysis of the data, we found the area of attitudes (attitudinal change) the most robust, and therefore focused our inquiry of global learning on the assessment of attitudes for the purpose of this study. We have previously explained another rationale for this focus; that is, the limitation of short-term study abroad trips for fostering knowledge and skills development. The original ACE (2007) rubric on attitudes is presented in Appendix B. In the process of data analysis, we found changing the first category from “willingness to engage in intercultural or international opportunities” to “engagement with one’s emotions in the intercultural experiences” allowed us to more accurately reflect the themes emerged from the data. We then adapted the rubric accordingly. This is an example of open coding we employed in the context of a directed content analysis. Our adapted rubric provides three broad categories to organize themes that emerged from the data: (1) engagement with one’s emotions during intercultural experiences; (2) appreciation of the Karen and Burmese people and cultures; and (3) acceptance of cultural differences and tolerance for cultural ambiguity. In analyzing data related to spiritual formation, we allowed the data to guide the generation of categories, without trying to fit the themes within any pre-conceived frameworks, and therefore it was a conventional content analysis. Themes, or sentences, were our units of analysis. Because we sought to understand the meanings of the reflections in student journals, our analysis can be considered more specifically as narrative analysis. We used pseudonyms for all study participants.

Findings As mentioned previously, study participants were required to reflect upon their thoughts and feelings toward the Karen and Burmese cultures and chronicle these daily in a journal while in Myanmar and for 2 weeks after their return. For most, this requirement became something they saw as extremely beneficial as they sought to process their experiences and to grow as cross-cultural educators. We organize the findings based on the above-mentioned two research questions, drawing evidence from student journal narratives.

Cross-Cultural Attitudes Engagement with One’s Emotions During Intercultural Experiences Participants of this study abroad trip (that is, study participants) began to empathize with the struggles of the Karen people. Aaron, who had taught English as a Foreign

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Language (EFL) in China for 3 years prior to the trip, realized from reading students’ written testimonies that, because the Karen “talk different[ly], look different, and they don’t fit in [with local Burmese], many of them were picked on for being Karen in different places in Myanmar.” Study participants many times expressed the strong emotions they experienced in their interactions with the Karen students. An international student from Canada, Raquel, had travelled to a number of places in the world prior to embarking on her MA program in TESOL in the US. She described reading students’ testimonies as “emotionally draining” because of the intensity of their hardships as Christians and her strong empathy for these students. Most study participants described the final day with students as “emotional” and “sad.” Ken, for example, tried hard to not let his tears fall. He learned that some of his male students did not come to the farewell because they did not want to be seen crying. Half of the participants mentioned the desire to return to Myanmar.

Appreciation of the Karen and Burmese People and Cultures Study participants related the joy they experienced spending time with their Karen students in and outside the classrooms. They described the respectful, considerate, and generous gestures of the Karen students as “humbling” and repeatedly expressed their gratitude toward these locals in their journals. For example, the Karen students would always prepare snacks and drinks for the foreign teachers, offer them seats, help them carry their bags with teaching supplies, stand when the teachers came in, wait to leave the classroom after the teachers left, and buy gifts for the foreign teachers even though they did not really have extra to spare. Further, study participants appreciated the friendliness of the local people and observed that, despite the challenging economic condition of the people in Burma, their happiness radiated. Luke expressed his gratitude for the “rare gift” of coming to Myanmar and meeting these Karen students. In addition to appreciating their Karen students as precious individuals, study participants demonstrated appreciation for the Karen and Burmese cultures, such as language, music, and material culture. Most study participants discussed their experiences informally, learning some Karen and Burmese from their students and practicing with locals. Jade, for example, writes, “I tried to practice the Burmese I learned from our students such as ‘hello’ and ‘thank you’ with [the vendors in China Town] . . . and the local people actually understood me.” Others reported detailed conversations regarding language learning. Their attempt to speak even a few phrases in Karen and Burmese was well received by the students. Further, the study abroad group practiced and performed a Karen song to over 300 Karen students in the closing ceremony. These students broke out in applause after the first couple of lines. Study participants described this as “one of the most memorable events” of their time teaching in the seminary. Perhaps the significance the Karen

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gave to music made this “gift of music,” prepared especially for the Karen students, so meaningful for both parties. Study participants overwhelmingly expressed how impactful it was to witness the musicality of the Karen students. They were amazed, on many occasions, at the musical talent of the Karen, including in the classroom, during church service, and at a worship competition. We further elaborate on the musicality of the Karen in the “Spiritual Formation” section below. In terms of the material culture of Myanmar, several study participants mentioned enjoying the Karen and Burmese food items. Another cultural highlight was purchasing and wearing longyi, the traditional Karen clothing. This gesture of respecting the local culture was well received by the students. Aaron recounted the highly skillful cloth and clothing making he saw at a store. He was awed by two skillful acts of the locals: one woman was “cutting up long, thin lotus roots to take out the strings inside to make a soft thread,” and an 80-year-old woman was “using her feet and hands to operate a loom where she was making a Shan-pattern skirt with a very thin, fine weave.” In their journals, study participants did not show an appreciation for the political, social, or economic system or structure of Myanmar, nor the philosophical stances or religious perspectives of the dominant culture in Myanmar. They reported being very cautious while in-country and avoiding making remarks about the country or the government. Although this caution was sometimes stressful, an example of which is some study participants thought they found recording devices in their rooms when in fact they were just lights, overall, study participants became accustomed to it and simply tried to focus their energy on building relationships with the students.

Acceptance of Cultural Differences and Tolerance for Cultural Ambiguity In reading student journals, we did not identify many examples where study participants interpreted cultural events and experiences “through the eyes of” the Karen or Burmese. One possible explanation is that all study participants were only beginning to learn about the Karen and Burmese cultures and their language ability was extremely limited. This, therefore, largely prevented them from fully understanding the local cultural events and experiences. A related point, however, was that Marla relayed realizing her views regarding pedagogy being culturally conditioned. For example, she viewed student-centered pedagogy as the right way, but began to see she had held this position because of the US culture in which she was educated. In terms of acknowledging and overcoming one’s biases, prejudices, or stereotypes and suspending judgment in relation to other cultures, the experiences of Lilly and Jade, two international students from Taiwan, offer us insight. Both of them relayed pre-held assumptions about Myanmar being a dangerous country

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with a lot of criminals. Particularly, Lilly had heard in Taiwan “dark-skinned” Southeast Asian male laborers were potential criminals. She could not help but put one of the Burmese vendors she came into contact with in this category. But, in interacting with the man, her prejudice was challenged, as she found him to be a hard-working and honest individual who simply tried to make a living. She further reported realizing the importance of not judging an entire group of people by the behaviors of a few. The Myanmar experience caused both Jade and Lilly to see the Burmese people as primarily “honest” and “innocent.” It appears that, although some students are aware of the need to overcome prejudice and suspend judgment about other cultures and peoples, as stated by Aaron, “cultures are hard to compare since we all fall short of the glory of God,” the reflections of some reveal evidence of the natural human tendency to judge. For example, one study participant well intentionally described the Karen as “normal” and another as non-primitive after observing their “modern” clothing and electronic devices such as CD players. One study participant considered a monk’s staring at him and his teammates as impolite and further inferred that the monk did not like tourists or maybe Americans. In contrast, he commented that he appreciated the fact that the Karen people do not stare, as some of the other people groups in Asia may do to foreigners. He attributed the Karen’s “friendly and thoughtful” mannerisms and work ethic to the fact that they are Christian.

Spiritual Formation Encouragement by the Karen Students’ Faith Study participants frequently reflected on how greatly they were impacted by their Karen students’ strong faith in God despite their difficult financial and political circumstances. Raquel wrote: These Karen students of mine have gone through seasons of suffering that I can barely imagine, and yet they deal with their hardships with such steadfastness. They testify how, in the light of God’s faithfulness, they were able to pass through troubled times. Their hope and trust in God is amazing and beautiful to see, and has impacted me deeply. Similarly, Aaron expressed: What kind, humble people. I have much to learn from their sincerity and simplicity in worship. I think they must have opportunities to see God provide for them financially in ways that we might never see in America. I don’t know what it would be like to go to a school where the yearly room and board is only $300 and still have to rely on scholarships. What an example of faith!

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The Karen’s Musicality and the Christian Faith Music and performing arts played an important part in study participants’ spiritual experience on this trip. Most of them wrote about the musical talents of their students, whether in the classroom or in choir. Choir practice reminded Aaron that, “God created individuals to sing at different pitches so that each part would be important and could add something that the others wouldn’t be able to.” He reflected that “God has created each person with a unique personality, learning style, interests, talents and calling that no one else can replace.” Jane, a study participant with some teaching experience and extensive travel experience in Asia, imagined how powerful it would be if the Karen Christians would travel and spread the Gospel through this artistic form for which God blessed them with tremendous talent. Tim, one of the two undergraduates on this trip, wrote about giving in to the Karen students’ request to sing a song in English and described the students singing as “the most amazing . . . I had ever heard.” He commented, “[t]he singing was so perfect and I felt the Holy Spirit within them. They were like angels singing to me.”

Increased Reliance on God’s Protection A constant concern shared among study participants was the possibility of deportation because of their affiliation with the Karen Christians. However, this concern and sometimes even fear also caused the participants to experience more reliance on God. Aaron realized, “we’re in God’s hands, which is something to hope more than anything else we could imagine.” He prayed, “Lord, protect us! Let the bureaucracy be inept and confounded!” In addition, a number of other study participants got sick during the trip, and not being able to participate in planned activities allowed John, for example, to spend extended time in prayer, contemplating his own neediness and God’s sufficiency.

Encounter and Conflict with Buddhism The Christian participants on the trip experienced conflict between their faith and the predominant Buddhist religion of Myanmar and also expressed empathy for followers of Buddhism. Examples of comments included, “the culture worships idols rather than the living God” and, “it was disheartening to see so many people lost in the darkness of this false religion.” The empathy was heightened as study participants visited the “visually grand” but “spiritually void and hollow” Shwedagon Pagoda. Although several study participants described certain sacred religious practices of Myanmar as “humorous,” Luke, in particular, recognized the cultural others’ perspectives as important and valid as he mentioned the need to respect others’ faiths and love all people regardless of religious differences. As an example, in order to show “respect for the culture and its people” and “the love of Christ,” Aaron agreed to follow a Burmese man to the Saturday corner, a place of worship for the Buddhists, as he prayed for Aaron’s good luck.

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Aaron turned down all of the Buddhist nuns and children’s requests for money. He reported becoming cynical of their religion, claiming if anyone in Myanmar was not in need of money, it would be nuns and monks. He admitted being somewhat annoyed by the fact that these Buddhist nuns and children singled out foreigners to ask for money. He further wrote, “I didn’t understand it, but I couldn’t help but wish that someday people would sing Psalms that would glorify their Creator in the same, great cultural style rather than a system that encourages people to grovel before images made of metal to plead for good luck.” In contrast to most Christian study participants, Jane was the only one who described the temple visit as the “most eye-opening temple visit I have ever been on” because she witnessed first-hand how “serious” the Buddhists were toward their religion.

Missionaries and Karen Christianity Several study participants used culturally grounded evidence to critically examine the influence of missionaries on Karen Christianity. Jane described the Methodist church in Yangon as “very Westernized and everything was the exact same as my Methodist church that I grew up in.” She desired to see “a church in another country that isn’t culturally saturated in Western ways.” In her words, “I long for the old to become new—that making ‘disciples’ would mean to be like the Disciples of Christ, not disciples of the Western Church. I want to see Jesus followers who are Christ-like, not White-like.” Jane also attributed the perceived Karen Christian conservatism to the doctrinal teaching of missionaries.

English and Missions Aaron and Jane critically examined the role and status of the English language in Karen Christianity. Aaron observed that the Karen use English for religious purposes, such as during chapel service. He speculated that English somehow became superior to the Karen language because Christianity was first introduced to the Karen people by English-speaking missionaries. He wished that the Karen’s native tongue would be used instead of an unfamiliar language, so that they may understand the message to its fullest. Along a similar vein, Jane was surprised by the high level of English proficiency of the seminary teachers and staff and speculated that “English is just another thing that got passed along” by the Englishspeaking missionaries. She expressed amazement at “how Christianity and English go hand in hand.” This also caused her to think more deeply regarding missions and English teaching.

Experiencing God Across Cultures Jane described her sense of awe as she connected with one of her Karen students on a spiritual level, since they had similar experiences when coming to faith in

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Christ. They both had a dream about Jesus. Jane reflected, “I thought that maybe the Karen people would be too conservative to believe in dreams and God’s voice . . . but now I know (in a tangible way) that beyond denominational and cultural barriers, God is the same God for all his children.” Others also described that seeing the Karen worship God and live their lives victoriously despite the hardships reminded them that the love of God extends to all cultures and peoples.

Personal Transformation Despite the difficulty with re-entry, particularly not having a community as they did in Myanmar with which to process the experiences and having to face materialism, most of the study participants expressed ways in which they began experiencing transformation as a result of studying and teaching in Myanmar. Raquel commented, “The faith of the Karen Christians has put my own hardships into perspective. Being a witness to this degree of faith has had a transforming effect on me.” She also devoted time to regular, cross-cultural prayer and to keeping a daily journal to chronicle her thoughts. She reported being “on heightened alert for when anything related to Myanmar/Burma is in the news.” “Myanmar will never be just another country to me—there are people living there that I love and will never forget. The Myanmar trip was a life-changing experience,” Raquel wrote. Jane wrote, “traveling is a spiritual experience of understanding the world and how I fit into it, and understanding how God’s plan prevails over all.” She commented that the Myanmar trip has rekindled her passion for missions, and further reflected: “I feel like my capacity to love has been taken to the next level through this trip . . . I know that I am forever chang[ed].” Matthew described his greatest lesson on this trip as the others-oriented service model exemplified by the Karen. He realized the Karen students did not necessarily need his team, but that they went out of their way to accommodate them, so as to share with them what God is doing in the Karen’s lives. His insight cautioned short-term missions and service learning teams to critically examine their intention and acts to “help locals,” to consider the sacrifice locals make to accommodate the foreigners, and to value the impact that locals have on the foreigners. Finally, Lisa expressed the desire to serve the poor by partnering with an organization or individuals to provide free English classes.

Discussion and Conclusion Global Learning As noted earlier, Fantini et al. (2001) define global competence as “the multiple abilities that allow one to interact effectively and appropriately across cultures” (p. 8). A recurring theme in student journals is their adaptation of pedagogy in order to be more culturally appropriate and responsive. Marla, for example, reported

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adapting her teaching to a style to which her students would be more accustomed. Instead of a writer’s workshop model originally planned, she switched to lecturing and providing a checklist for successful writing. She and her teaching partner, like many other study participants, also incorporated teaching worship songs into the curriculum after realizing the role that music plays in the Karen culture. Lisa commented on the opposing views of teaching held by Eastern versus Western educators. While her natural inclination was to have students “do individual tasks” and “answer questions individually,” she began to learn and embrace the Karen students’ choral answers and group work. She writes, “it was very healthy for me to get out of my regular way of being and teaching for a few minutes and learn from [the local] teachers as well as [my] peers from other countries about Eastern styles of teaching.” In terms of student-teacher relationship, Suzie observed that the Karen teachers see their students as their “sons and daughters.” They consider it their duty to make sure these students, who are supported financially by their families and communities, succeed. This means, as Suzie wrote, “[teachers] giv[e] extra attention to students who are not passing—to prevent them from failure.” While the design of this study abroad trip was not necessarily to integrate multiple disciplinary perspectives, enable civic engagement, and prepare students to address global problems, which Hovland (2009) considers essential to global learning, we found evidence of students problematizing issues of power, which Musil (2006) posits as a critical component of global learning. A few of the study participants examined how the history and politics of Myanmar affected the students and teachers at the seminary where they taught and demonstrated a heightened awareness of global problems related to Myanmar and issues surrounding missions. In order to better address Hovland’s essentials of global learning, we recommend a more multidisciplinary design in course offerings and more focused coursework, enabling students to explore global issues.

Spiritual Formation Braskamp et al.’s (2009) framework informs our findings on spiritual formation. As noted earlier, the intrapersonal domain centers on becoming more aware of and integrating one’s personal values into one’s identity. Several study participants expressed an affirmation of God’s calling for them to teach overseas as a result of this study abroad trip. Raquel remarked, “I returned home with a renewed confidence that teaching English overseas is something God is calling me towards.” Similarly, John, a current government employee desiring to change career to teach English, commented, “I feel confirmed that in the long term God is preparing me to teach overseas in a new chapter of [my] life. Home is not defined by comforts of daily life . . . It is where God wants me to be at any given time.” Braskamp et al.’s (2009) framework also emphasizes one’s willingness to interact with people who have different social norms and cultural backgrounds, as well as one’s ability to relate to them. The findings of this study indicate that

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the focus on people contributes to the development of positive cross-cultural attitudes and spiritual formation. Encountering real people with cultural backgrounds, lifestyles, and religious convictions different from their own, but with the same desire for love, joy, and human dignity, caused the students to reevaluate their pre-conceived notions about other cultures and peoples. Global learning in this case impacted not only the “head,” but also the “heart” of the learner. Study participants’ willingness to be emotionally involved with the Karen as a marginalized group in the Burmese society allowed them to be impacted and transformed as cross-cultural learners. Furthermore, establishing and maintaining relationships with locals and valuing them as individuals made appreciating and suspending judgment about their culture a much easier and more natural process. David Smith (2003) articulates the necessity and urgency for intercultural learners to study the local language, to be thoughtful guests instead of just tourists, to participate instead of just observing, and to focus on people instead of just monuments. To some extent, the participants on this trip strived for all the above. Although the duration of the trip prevented them from further immersing in the local language and culture, their effort to engage with the locals fostered their growth in cross-cultural attitudes and spirituality. Teaching in a non-English-speaking country brought study participants to a new awareness of linguistic diversity of the world as God’s creation and the realization that “a language teacher is also a language learner,” as John put it. The difficulty in learning the Karen song that they later performed for their students made study participants keenly aware of the challenge their (prospective) students undergo on a daily basis as English learners. Through this trip, study participants were also able to afford new meaning to the profession of English teaching. As John described, “To be a language teacher means to bridge cultures and peoples.”

Implications on Christian Higher Education For Christian higher education, global competence ought not be conceptualized merely as a competence that can be demonstrated by products or performance, but rather as a transformation of the heart and the mind; as new attitudes toward the world, peoples, and cultures; as one’s renewed awareness on power and privilege in any given society; and as one’s sense of responsibility in contributing to more social and ecological equity in the world. Spirituality needs to be at the center and the driving force of global competence development. Fostering spiritual formation in itself is not sufficient, however, in producing globally competent citizens. Christian higher education institutions also need to create learning opportunities for students to gain substantive knowledge about world languages and cultures, along with global systems and structures, encounter people from backgrounds and lifestyles different from those of the learners, and acquire academic and professional skills such as ethnographic and cross-cultural communication skills. In the case of the present study, for example, students’

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learning would have been deepened if they had more knowledge about the Karen and Burmese languages and cultures and if they had the skills and opportunities to conduct ethnographic research with the locals, in the local languages. Of course, a short-term study abroad trip cannot and should not accomplish all of the global learning goals that a university establishes for its students. Institutions need to thoughtfully design a model where students’ global learning is fostered in a gradual and comprehensive manner during their time at the institution. Study abroad is not traditionally perceived as a vehicle through which to enhance students’ spiritual formation, and yet this study confirms the findings of the Spirituality in Higher Education project that study abroad offers the conditions for students to experience spiritual growth (Astin et al., 2011). We found evidence in twelve out of the thirteen participants’ journals of some aspects of intercultural learning that were related to spiritual development, although the levels of depth of reflection and analysis vary among the students.

Concluding Thoughts In this study, we are only beginning to explore the interconnections between global competence development, and more specifically, cross-cultural attitudes and spiritual formation. We hope this study will generate interest in additional research on how the internal and external outcomes of global competence interact with spiritual formation, in both secular and faith-based educational settings. We would like to know how frameworks used in other chapters of this volume may help in the analysis of issues related to spiritual formation, such as Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009) “L2 Motivational Self System” (see Chapter 11 in this volume), and Wenger’s (1998) framework of social identity construction (see Chapter 2 in this volume). In addition, we would like to see empirical research on what a specifically “Christian” spiritual formation for college students would look like in contrast to other faith traditions, and how Christian spiritual formation may be nuanced across denominational, theological, and cultural lines. Finally, we desire for more studies that examine the professional identity formation of global language educators, specifically studies that seek to explore the ways in which global competence and spiritual formation may contribute to a positive professional identity.

Acknowledgments We thank the following individuals for their help with our work on this chapter: Karen Beckers for assisting us with our review of the literature, Richard Slimbach for reviewing an earlier draft and providing helpful feedback, and Robert Gallagher for discussing a key concept in the paper with us and providing helpful resources. Special thanks go to the student participants on the study abroad trip, who gave us permission to use their work as our data.

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Appendix A: Journal Questions One of the learning outcomes of the TESOL program is to “demonstrate the ability to apply what was learned in an analysis of your own and other cultural systems to your teaching.” The following questions are provided to help you demonstrate this. Please address at least one of the following questions per journal entry in addition to writing about what you saw, did, felt, and are learning about Myanmar and the Karen students and teachers and language teaching. In your final entries made at Inle Lake and after you return home, please be sure that you have addressed each question at least once. 1. As you observe the classrooms of the Karen teachers, what specific cultural differences do you find in how the class is conducted? 2. What are the expectations for a “good” student and teacher in Karen culture and how are these the same or different from American culture? 3. What happened in your class that was surprising to you that would not have happened in the context of your home or American culture? 4. How will or did you apply any insight into the local culture to teaching your classes in Myanmar? Experiment with trying to adjust to a more local style of teaching. What did you do to adjust? How do your students respond? 5. How can you adjust your assignments to collect information about your students’ culture and values? If you did this, what did you learn? 6. What cultural differences do you notice outside the classroom that you could apply to your teaching? What do you want to know more about that you could ask your students? 7. Reflect and write about the cultural knowledge you are learning, the intercultural skills you are acquiring (or need to acquire), and your attitudes, beliefs and values that may be changing or are being challenged. 8. Were you able to use any of the local language to communicate? Describe the event. 9. Were you able to change any of your daily behaviors to be more culturally appropriate? Describe any of these behaviors. 10. Describe a cultural encounter you had with a student, teacher, or local person while on the trip and what you learned from this encounter. 11. Describe your interaction with and reaction to the arts, religion, social structures, artifacts, food, or habits of the local people. 12. Describe any biases, stereotypes, or prejudices you were made aware of on this trip. 13. Describe what you can learn from your students and from Myanmar. 14. Describe a specific way you have been transformed by this trip. 15. To what extent and in what ways did the various learning experiences on the trip (for example, reading, journaling, daily debriefing, interaction with locals, teaching, travel, etc.) impact your intercultural learning?

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16. After you return from the trip, describe your reentry experience. For example, how do you feel about your surroundings? To what extent do you see things differently? How do people react to your experiences, stories, etc.?

Appendix B: American Council on Education’s International Learning Assessment—Rubric on Attitudes “. . .” is to be filled with the following: “Demonstrates awareness of, openness toward, or engagement with” I.

Demonstrates a willingness to seek out international or intercultural opportunities. 1. 2. 3.

. . . his or her experiences with individuals from different cultures. . . . the ways in which his or her thinking has changed as a result of exposure to different cultures. . . . feelings or emotions that he or she experienced as a result of an international and/or intercultural learning experience(s).

II. Appreciates different cultures (for example, language, art, music, religion, political structures, philosophy, and material culture). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

. . . the language(s) and/or literature(s) of the culture(s). . . . the arts and performing arts of the culture(s). . . . the systems or structures (e.g., political, social, economic, etc.) of the culture(s). . . . the philosophical stances, views of the world and/or religious perspectives of the culture(s). . . . the material culture or artifacts (i.e., anything the culture materially creates) of the culture(s).

III. Accepts cultural differences and tolerates cultural ambiguity. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

. . . the similarities and/or differences among cultures. . . . the process of reflecting upon his or her own thoughts and feelings toward different cultures. . . . the importance of interpreting cultural events and experiences “through the eyes of” individuals from different cultures. . . . the specific ways in which he or she has been changed and/or transformed as a result of cross-cultural experiences. . . . his or her own biases, prejudices, or stereotypes in relation to a different culture.

References American Council on Education (2008). ACE rubrics for assessing international learning. Washington, DC.

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Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bennett, M. J. (1986). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige (Ed.), Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualizations and applications (pp. 27–70). New York: University Press of America. Berg, B. L., & Lune, H. (2012). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston, MA: Pearson. Braskamp, L. A., Braskamp, D. C., & Merrill, K. C. (2009). Assessing progress in global learning and development of students with education abroad experiences. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 101–118. Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241–266. doi: 10.1177/1028315306287002. Deardorff, D. K., & Hunter, W. (2006). Educating global-ready graduates. International Educator, 15(3), 72–83. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Fantini, A. E. (1995, 2001). Exploring intercultural competence: A construct proposal. NCOLCTL Fourth Annual Conference. Retrieved from www.globalmembercare.org/uploads/tx_ wecdiscussion/Fantini.doc. Fantini, A. E., Arias-Galacia, F., & Guay, D. (2001). Globalization and 21st century competencies: Challenges for North American higher education. Consortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration Working Paper Series on Higher Education in Mexico, Canada and the United States (Working Paper No. 11). Boulder, CO: Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education. Grandin, J. M., & Hedderich, N. (2009). Global competence for engineers. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 362–373). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Green, M. F., & Olson, C. L. (2008). Internationalizing the campus: A user’s guide. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Institutional and International Initiatives. Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421–443. doi:10.1016/S0147-1767(03)00032-4. Hestenes, R. (1993, Fall). Spirituality. The SEMI, 8, 5. Hovland, K. (2009). Global learning: what is it? Who is responsible for it? Peer Review: Study Abroad and Global Learning: Exploring Connections, 11(4). Retrieved August 7, 2012 from www.aacu.org/peerreview/pr-fa09/pr-fa09_index.cfm. Hunter, B., White, G. P., & Godbey, G. C. (2006). What does it mean to be globally competent? Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 267–285. doi: 10.1177/1028315306286930. Hunter, W. D. (2004). Got global competency? International Educator, 13(2), 6–12. Jenkinson, W., & O’Sullivan, H. (Eds.). (1991). Trends in mission: Toward the third millennium. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. Miller-Perrin, C., & Thompson, D. (2010). The development of vocational calling, identity, and faith in college students: A preliminary study of the impact of study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 19, 87–103.

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Musil, C. M. (2006). Assessing global learning: Matching good intentions with good practice. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from www.aacu.org/SharedFutures/documents/Global_Learning.pdf. Olson, C. L., & Kroeger, K. R. (2001). Global competency and intercultural sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(2), 116–137. doi: 10.1177/ 102831530152003. Smith, D. I. (2003). Tourists, guests and why we learn other languages. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 4, 3–9. Smith, D. I. (2005). Cross-cultural learning and Christian history. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 3–7. Smith, D. I., & Smith, J. K. A. (Eds.). (2011). Teaching and Christian practices: Reshaping faith and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Spitzberg, B., & Changnon, G. (2009). Conceptualizing intercultural competence. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 2–52). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Vande Berg, M., & Paige, R. M. (2009). Applying theory and research: The evolution of intercultural competence in U.S. study abroad. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 419–437). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wong, M. S. (2006, July). Reconstruction toward a global Christian professional language teacher identity. CETC Newsletter, 10(2). Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge.

6 TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF FAITH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ IDENTITIES A Modest Proposal for Extending the Research Agenda Magdalena Kubanyiova UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM (UK)

The last decade or so has seen a resurgence of interest in the interface of Christian faith and English Language Teaching, and the chapters presented in this section build on this research by focusing on Christian language educators’ identities. I first reflect on themes emerging from this empirical work that, in my view, hold promise for deepening our understanding of the role of Christian beliefs in developing teachers’ identities as language educators and shaping their practices. Situating my discussion in the wider debates in applied linguistics, I then offer my take on possible future directions in this growing domain of inquiry.

Introduction Applied linguistics research has increasingly begun to appreciate that who language teachers are striving to become (Kubanyiova, 2009), who they are allowed to be (Creese, 2005), how they come to view themselves as they learn to teach (Kanno & Stuart, 2011), and how they envision and re-envision themselves throughout their professional development (White & Ding, 2009) exert a powerful influence on the kinds of learning opportunities they create in their language classrooms. At the same time, in the context of the continuing emphasis on reflective practice in language teaching (Edge, 2011; Farrell, 2009), there is now a growing consensus among language teacher educators and researchers that reflecting on the philosophies, values and moral purposes that guide language educators’

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practices (Crookes, 2009; Johnston, 2003) should be part and parcel of any language teacher education and development. This collection of papers makes it clear that religious faith can be a key source for facilitating such reflection. It appears, therefore, that understanding the development of language teacher identity in relation to a philosophy of teaching that is informed by religious faith is a very timely pursuit in the current domain of applied linguistics. The studies presented in Part I of this volume adopt a range of different approaches and angles on this theme. To start with, Wong (Chapter 2) examines two sets of interview data gathered 10 years apart of three North American Christian teachers working in China and considers factors impacting on the development of their identity and pedagogy, linking these to the teachers’ multiple communities of practice, including missionary, professional, personal and political. Wang-McGrath (Chapter 3) takes a more ethnographic look at the collaborative dynamics in the pairings of Christian native speaking teachers of English recruited through a Christian agency and their Taiwanese colleagues, with a particular focus on the balance of power in their professional interactions. Pasquale (Chapter 4) engages in an interview-based exploration on how faith shaped the perceptions of North American novice as well as veteran teachers of English, Spanish, German and French by focusing on the research participants’ views on professionalism, care for students, the teachers’ own motivations to learn a second language, and their reflections on the curriculum content as a platform for enacting their identities as Christian educators. And finally, Wu and Wong (Chapter 5) focus their lenses on thirteen TESOL students’ narrative journals, with the aim to examine evidence of the interconnectedness between the development of the students’ ‘global competence’ and their spiritual formation during their summer teaching practice in Myanmar. The themes that these four studies have generated are rich and varied. Rather than discussing each chapter separately, I will first focus on key areas of interest that have emerged from this empirical work and that I see as potentially fruitful pointers for extended inquiry in this domain of research. In the second part of my discussion, I will outline more specific theoretical, as well as methodological, directions and challenges for future research that, if addressed, could further contribute to the development of this important field of study.

Emergent Themes The Centrality of Religious Beliefs in the Formation of TESOL Educators’ Identities We know from research in the language teacher cognition domain that beliefs play an important role in shaping teachers’ classroom practices, but we are much less certain about the kinds of beliefs that are at the center of language teachers’ belief systems (cf. Borg, 2006). The studies presented in this volume have begun to put a spotlight on religious beliefs as potentially central in guiding how Christian

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language educators approach their work. We have learned from the four studies, for instance, that Christian beliefs may be a key source for constructing teachers’ images of good teaching. This is a particularly intriguing finding in the context of recent research that has demonstrated that teachers’ images of good teaching and, more specifically, their future-oriented images of selves are not only key in influencing teachers’ professional development choices (Hiver, in press), but are ‘firmly imprinted in what the teachers do in the classroom, what concerns them about their practices, which classroom events they are determined to act upon and to which, in contrast, they, subconsciously or deliberately, turn a blind eye’ (Kubanyiova, 2012, p. 122). The research presented in this collection of chapters has suggested that religious beliefs may be a key catalyst in the development of adaptive images for classroom practice and a systematic effort to understand how they shape the visions of Christian language educators and, consequently, what these mean for students’ language learning opportunities could constitute an important line of future inquiry. Another current gap in the research on TESOL educators that the present collection of studies have begun to address concerns ways in which language teachers approach tensions between their beliefs and the normative pressures of their work environment (Crookes, 2009). It has emerged from the present research (most notably in Chapter 2) that religious beliefs may play a central role in strengthening teachers’ resolve and commitment in the face of adversity, in coping with the emotional challenges that working in new professional and sociocultural environments often brings and in instilling an attitude of acceptance as a way of approaching various contradictions and imperatives imposed by teachers’ institutions.

The Complex and Dynamic Relationship Between Christian Beliefs and Language Teaching Practice Teacher beliefs have been defined in the teacher cognition literature as complex, dynamic and highly situated constructs (Barcelos & Kalaja, 2011; Feryok, 2010), and the findings presented in the four studies demonstrate that Christian beliefs are no exception. While Christian believers would undoubtedly unite around a core set of beliefs that they espouse, the picture becomes much more complex when we start interrogating Christian educators’ own interpretations of what their beliefs imply for their classroom practice. We have learned, for example, that different teachers attach different, and at times even contradictory, meanings to their religious faith in relation to their pedagogical decisions. A good illustration of this are the practices and reflections of Cynthia (Chapter 2), a language teacher who consciously decided not to include specific Christian-oriented topics in her lessons as they were not part of the curriculum, which was evaluated by Wong as an expression of Cynthia’s Christian faith. Carol (Chapter 3), on the other hand, clearly experienced an internal conflict between her religious beliefs and the pressures of her teaching context when she was not able to integrate

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Christian-related content into her syllabus, and therefore felt she acted against her convictions about what her faith implied for classroom pedagogy. And finally, we have also seen evidence of a Christian language educator (Josie, Chapter 4) who did not believe there was a ‘Christian’ way of teaching, even though this, of course, may not necessarily imply that her Christian identity was in no way reflected in her classroom practice. In addition to these diverse interpretations of how Christian faith translates into classroom pedagogy, we have also witnessed examples of significant shifts in teachers’ understandings of their Christian faith through their increased and deepened engagement in their personal and professional communities of practice. For example, Jacque’s (Chapter 2) growing acceptance of people of other faiths through his experiences of generosity of people around him provides evidence of deepening his own understanding and identification with his Christian beliefs. Chapter 5 complements this finding by documenting the role of the student teachers’ cross-cultural experiences in their reassessment of the meaning of their faith convictions. This research has shown that teachers’ beliefs about what their Christian identities imply for language teaching are a result of a complex and dynamic relationship between the teachers’ sociocultural and educational backgrounds and spiritual-formation histories, on the one hand, and the specific professional and cultural contexts in which their identities are invested, on the other. While the studies presented in this part mostly focus on ways in which teachers’ religious beliefs may contribute to the formation of their professional identities, understanding how the teachers’ growing perceptions of themselves as language educators may shape, nurture or deepen their commitment to Christian identity could be an equally profitable direction for future research accounting for the complex, dynamic and interconnected relationship between the two.

The Problem of Power The issue of power has been an enduring theme in research on Christian educators in ELT and, while only one study (Chapter 3) focuses on power directly, this theme recurs in the discussion of findings across the four chapters. The reasons behind the prominence of the topic is clearly rooted in the problematic historical and political context of imposing Western ideologies alongside Christian missionary work in the developing world and in the moral questions being raised by the TESOL professional community about the legitimacy of the use of English language education in the pursuit of a missionary project (Varghese & Johnston, 2007). In the context of the studies presented in this part, these concerns make sense; the majority of teachers participating in this research are North American evangelical Christians pursuing ELT as a platform for missionary work mostly in developing countries. It is only right, therefore, that the current studies make the effort to engage with and address these important moral questions. Yet, it is also

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clear that the almost default tendency of linking Christian ELT practitioners with the position of power and privilege runs a risk of leaving out from our investigations significant populations of Christian educators who find themselves at the opposite end of the power spectrum. This concerns, for instance, Christian English language educators who do not work for missionary organisations, are multilingual speakers with English being their additional language and who live and teach in contexts in which some of their deeply cherished professional and religious identities are marginalised (for example, a Christian teacher from Eastern Europe teaching English as an Additional Language in a state school in England). Thus, while the efforts to deal with important moral questions must not disappear from the Christian language teacher identity research agenda, future research will need to ensure that concerns with power do not overshadow other, equally significant themes that could enhance our understanding of the values that underpin Christian language educators’ practices in a wider range of contexts and power dynamics.

Future Directions I have looked at the centrality of religious beliefs in the formation of TESOL educators’ identities, the complex and dynamic relationship between Christian beliefs and practice and the issue of power as three key themes emerging from the current research. I have also hinted at possible directions that could enhance the current research agenda even further. In the remainder of my discussion, I will build on these pointers for future research and propose three broad tasks for enhancing our understanding of Christian language educators’ identities and firmly building on relevant domains of inquiry in the broader field of applied linguistics.

Constructing Rich Portraits of Christian Language Educators One of the first and, in my view, most urgent tasks that Christian language teacher researchers face concerns a systematic work on the empirical construction of multilayered and textured portraits of who Christian language educators are, where they come from, and what they are striving to accomplish in their interactions with their students, teaching partners, colleagues, and their students’ parents. We need to further our inquiry into how Christian language educators forge new identities, linking their Christian selves to ‘the new worldly demands’ (van Lier, 2007, p. 62) and how they negotiate and, even more importantly, transcend conflicting images of desired practice available in the social, cultural and historical macro-structures of their teaching worlds. We have seen some important examples of this direction in the current studies, but it will be important to continue in these efforts. It may be crucial, for instance, to unpack more fully the notion of ‘calling to teach’ (Chapter 2) and what meaning this has for different experienced, as well as

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inexperienced, Christian educators with diverse life histories and whose work is embedded in a range of educational, sociocultural and geographical contexts. Linking this inquiry to the growing body of research in second language teacher education and identity development in applied linguistics, we will also need a deeper understanding of how Christian teachers navigate transitions from students to teachers (Cross, 2010; Johnson & Golombek, 2011; Kanno & Stuart, 2011) and how their understanding of being ‘called to teach’ may change over time. It seems to me, therefore, that if this field of study aspires to deepen our understanding of who Christian language educators are, it will need to continue in generating in-depth portraits of Christian teachers’ past personal and professional histories, present beliefs, emotions and dispositions, as well as their future images in relation to the multiple contexts in which their activities are situated.

Generating Thick Descriptions of Christian Language Educators’ Practices One of the most notable features in research on Christian educators in general, and in the four papers in this part in particular, concerns an almost exclusive empirical focus on ‘narrated’ as opposed to ‘enacted’ identities (cf. Kanno & Stuart, 2011). Focusing on the former can, of course, contribute in significant ways to enhancing our understanding of the ‘who’ of Christian language teaching. At the same time, however, a ‘thick description’ (Geertz, 1973) of Christian language teachers’ practices, as evidenced through a host of instructional procedures, classroom management decisions, classroom discourse patterns and general interactions with the students or colleagues, can often be equally, if not more, illuminating in this respect. It is certainly true that some of the four studies have alluded to these aspects of the teachers’ practices. It appears, however that moving beyond anecdotal evidence and incorporating a thick description of Christian language educators’ practices into the research designs will be an important next step in facilitating our appreciation of the ways in which Christian educators’ practices are informed by their Christian beliefs and, ultimately, what this means for the quality of learning opportunities in their language classrooms. The four research articles in this part have shown potential for such work and I look forward to seeing an extended empirical focus in this direction in future research.

Enhancing Methodological Rigor My final proposal is methodological, and I would particularly wish to highlight the need for dealing with contradictory evidence and researcher reflexivity as two ways of enhancing the trustworthiness of the research findings. We have seen in these four studies impressive examples of Christian language educators’ friendly interactions with their non-Christian colleagues (Chapter 3), their development

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in desired directions (Chapters 2 and 5), and the positive impact of their Christian faith on various aspects of their beliefs and practices (Chapter 4). Yet, the question remains about the ways in which deviations to these findings should be approached and, more generally, how to engage with negative evidence that may, at times, run counter to the researchers’ expectations. Reflecting on Josie (Chapter 4), whose data have been excluded from the analysis since they did not fit in with the overall argument of the paper, I wondered, for example, whether this finding was in fact an important analytical opportunity that would allow us a glimpse into the complex and dynamic interplay of Christian beliefs and language practices—a theme I touched on in my earlier discussion. Similarly, it was truly heartening to see the positive evidence of the student teachers’ spiritual formation in Chapter 5. Yet, I kept asking myself whether a more explicit engagement with the conflicts, struggles and evidence of a ‘shakeup’ in the participants’ faith convictions that Wu and Wong have alluded to could be a way towards the construction of multi-layered and textured portraits of Christian language educators that I mentioned earlier. The second issue concerns the need of the researchers to reflect on what they bring to their research and how their identities, personal and professional histories and research relationships may shape how they look at their data and what they see. Chapter 2 was the only one in this part that has dealt with the researcher identity and potential bias in interpreting the data in an open manner. In order to increase the transparency and trustworthiness of the findings, future research will benefit from following this example. I also believe, however, that a more explicit reflection on the researchers’ practice (Hawkins & Norton, 2009) and, in particular, how their identities may shape the power relationships between them and the teachers they examine (Norton & Early, 2011) will be an important next step in enhancing the methodological rigor in this domain of inquiry.

Conclusion We have seen in this collection of chapters that investigations into Christian language educators’ identities constitute a fascinating and timely area of inquiry within research on the interrelationship of religion and ELT and applied linguistics more broadly. I have outlined here three modest proposals for extending the current research agenda, including constructing rich portraits of Christian language educators, generating thick descriptions of practice and enhancing methodological rigor. I believe that approaching these challenges will not only contribute to deepening our understanding of the themes that the four studies have already highlighted in their findings, but also generate new avenues for further inquiry and thus contribute to the constructive dialogue that has been initiated in this domain (Varghese & Johnston, 2007) and that, I hope, will include an interest in a broad range of contexts in which Christian language educators of diverse backgrounds and aspirations do their work.

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References Barcelos, A. M. F., & Kalaja, P. (2011). Introduction to Beliefs about SLA revisited. System, 39(3), 281–289. Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London: Continuum. Creese, A. (2005). Teacher collaboration and talk in multilingual classrooms. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Crookes, G. (2009). Values, philosophies, and beliefs in TESOL: Making a statement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cross, R. (2010). Language teaching as sociocultural activity: Rethinking language teacher practice. The Modern Language Journal, 94(3), 434–452. Edge, J. (2011). The reflexive teacher educator in TESOL: Roots and wings. New York: Routledge. Farrell, T. S. C. (2009). Critical reflection in a TESL course: Mapping conceptual change. ELT Journal, 63(3), 221–229. Feryok, A. (2010). Language teacher cognitions: Complex dynamic systems? System, 38(2), 272–279. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books. Hawkins, M., & Norton, B. (2009). Critical language teacher education. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 30–39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hiver, P. V. (in press). The interplay of possible language teacher selves in professional development choices. Language Teaching Research. Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (Eds.). (2011). Research on second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective on professional development. New York: Routledge. Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kanno, Y., & Stuart, C. (2011). The development of L2 teacher identity: Longitudinal case studies. The Modern Language Journal, 95(2), 236–252. Kubanyiova, M. (2009). Possible selves in language teacher development. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 314–332). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Kubanyiova, M. (2012). Teacher development in action: Understanding language teachers’ conceptual change. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Norton, B., & Early, M. (2011). Researcher identity, narrative inquiry, and language teaching research. TESOL Quarterly, 45(3), 415–439. van Lier, L. (2007). Action-based teaching, autonomy and identity. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 46–65. Varghese, M. M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 5–31. White, C., & Ding, A. (2009). Identity and self in e-language teaching. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 333–349). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

PART I DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Christian Faith and Language Teacher Identity

Suresh Canagarajah: Foreword 1.

Canagarajah begins his foreword with the observation that some readers may think that faith and research do not go together. He writes: “Faith is subjective and academic research is objective. Faith is committed and research is dispassionate, even skeptical. Faith is about absolutes and research is context-sensitive. Why and how would Christian scholars undertake research on faith and teaching and learning?” (p. xxi). He then questions these dichotomies and notes that our understanding of research is evolving. What is your response to his description of the nature of research and his question of why and how to go about it?

Mary Shepard Wong: Called to Teach: The Impact of Faith on Professional Identity Formation of Three Western English Teachers in China 1.

2.

On p. 11, Wong starts her chapter with an account of her visit to a local market in China where a Muslim Hui vendor asked her, “Who are you, why are you here?” If you were asked this question in your current context, how would you define your identity and purpose? Does religious faith factor into your answer? If so, how? If not, why not? Discuss how your identity formation and participation in various communities of practice (or lack thereof) over the past decade has affected your approach to language education. How might you go about reflecting upon and investigating this more deeply? Wong (p. 26) states that an area of need brought out in her study is the lack of awareness of issues of power on the part of her participants. Under what circumstances might people be more, or less, aware of issues of power?

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What type of study would you design to investigate power dynamics in language education? Who would you recruit as research participants? Explain the reason for your choices along with the anticipated strengths and limitations of your study.

Shu-Chuan Wang-McGrath: The Role of Faith in the Power Balance between Christian Native Speakers and Taiwanese Teachers who Team Teach 1.

2.

Wang-McGrath’s study identified four patterns among the NEST-NNEST teaching teams. Do you see any one to be more desirable than another? Why? How do your own values (faith-based or otherwise) inform your response? In your view, could a different NEST-NNEST pairing have potentially changed the team teaching dynamic, including the way the TETs approached the expression of their faith in the classroom? What might you speculate about the related learning experience of students? Discuss the type of studies you would conduct to follow up on some of the specific findings coming out of Wang-McGrath’s investigation. Wang-McGrath (p. 44) states that she began her study “with the assumption that it is impossible for a teacher of any religious faith and/or value system to abandon who they are in the classroom.” Do you agree with this position? Why or why not? Is it possible for a researcher to abandon who they are when doing research? How might the findings of this study have been different if the researcher had started with a different assumption?

Michael Pasquale: Folk Linguistics, Content-Oriented Discourse Analysis, and Language Teacher Beliefs 1.

2.

Pasquale’s study explores teacher beliefs pertaining to the interface of religious faith with language learning and teaching praxis. How do you understand the role of faith and identity in the context of second language acquisition (SLA)? To what extent would you say that commonly held beliefs (that is, “folk beliefs”) in your particular sociocultural context come to bear on your answer to the previous question? Brainstorm one or two research scenarios and methodological frameworks that would allow you to further investigate possible links between religious faith and SLA. On p. 49, Pasquale quotes Kalaja (1995), who views beliefs about SLA to be socially constructed and context-dependent. Put yourself in the place of a language professional whose stance toward the interrelationship of faith and identity in SLA is diametrically opposed to yours. What might influence that person’s beliefs on these matters? To what extent might an understanding of the context in which those beliefs arise enable you to engage in dialogue with that person? How might it facilitate and enrich your own approach to research?

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Shuang Frances Wu and Mary Shepard Wong: “Forever Changed”: Emerging TESOL Educators’ Cultural Learning and Spiritual Formation on a Study Abroad Trip in Myanmar 1.

2.

Wu and Wong state that they “would like to see empirical research on what a specifically ‘Christian’ spiritual formation for college students would look like in contrast to other faith traditions, and how Christian spiritual formation may be nuanced across denominational, theological, and cultural lines” (p. 80). Choose one of these areas of contrast (different faiths, different denominations, or different cultures) and consider how spiritual formation could be assessed for the target groups—that is, what are the spiritual outcomes they hope to attain and how (if at all) do these outcomes overlap with outcomes for global learning? Then consider how teacher education programs within the target (faith, denominational, cultural) traditions might seek to make the most of any mutually reinforcing spiritual and intercultural goals. Wu and Wong note that global learning can be conceptualized with reference to the head (knowledge), the hands (skills), and the heart (attitudes). Their study focused on the heart; that is, cross-cultural attitudes and spiritual formation of the MA TESOL students who visited Myanmar. However, they also note that it is important for Christian higher education institutions to create opportunities for students to gain knowledge and acquire academic and professional skills that contribute to globally competent citizenship (p. 79). Discuss some possible research scenarios that could lead to insights regarding the interrelation of religious faith and the “head” and “hands” elements of global learning, particularly for pre-service or in-service TESOL educators.

Magdalena Kubanyiova: Towards Understanding the Role of Faith in the Development of Language Teachers’ Identities: A Modest Proposal for Extending the Research Agenda 1.

Kubanyiova outlines three proposals for extending the current research agenda, including constructing rich portraits of Christian language educators, generating thick descriptions of practice, and enhancing methodological rigor (pp. 89–91). Choose one of the first two areas she has listed and propose a study that would further the research in this area. In the context of your study, how would you implement the recommendations of her third proposal, enhancing methodological rigor? Write a brief (for example, 200–300-word) reflection on what you bring to research in the form of your own sense of identity, including but not necessarily limited to, your personal

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and professional histories. Then consider how your identity might potentially shape the relationship between yourself and the teacher(s) you investigate, as well as how it might come to bear on the way in which you approach your data analysis. Consider elements that might be both helpful and counterproductive. What steps could you take to mitigate any potentially unhelpful effects on your research practice?

PART II

Christian Faith and the English Language Learning Context

7 THE GLOBALIZATION OF ENGLISH AND CHINA’S CHRISTIAN COLLEGES Don Snow SHANTOU UNIVERSITY (PRC)

Many of the most pointed questions raised by the legacy of the past for English teachers today have to do with the tie between the spread of English and imperialism, as well as the role played in this by missionaries. Such questions include: What precisely was the tie between imperialism and the rise of English? How accurately do terms such as “cultural imperialism” and “linguistic imperialism,” with their strong connotations of “imposition of a single set of economic, political or cultural norms by a powerful outside group” (Mulhauser, 1996, p. 18) or even “attacking and destroying other ways of being” (Pennycook & Makoni, 2005, p. 11) portray the process by which English spread—as well as the role Christian missionaries played in that spread? These are not only significant questions from a scholarly historical perspective, but also real and deeply felt questions for at least some English teachers today.1 Clearly, the story of the rise of English, which involved many parts of the world over a period of many centuries, is actually a mosaic of many smaller stories that vary considerably from one setting to another, so sweeping generalizations are inevitably dangerous. In order to gain a nuanced understanding of the larger picture, we need to engage in a long process of reconstructing the constituent parts of this larger story of the rise of English. This chapter focuses on one small part of that story—the role that Christian colleges played in promoting English in China, and particularly the story of the University of Nanking. The rationale underlying this choice of focus is as follows: •

It is important to look at the case of China not only because of its sheer size, but also because much of the previous literature on the rise of English has tended to focus on colonial settings such as India and Hong Kong (for example, Brutt-Griffler, 2002; Canagarajah, 1999; Pennycook, 1998;

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Phillipson, 1992) rather than on countries such as China, Japan, and Thailand, which, while significantly impacted by imperialism, were never fully under the direct rule of any colonial power, much less an English-speaking one. The role of the Christian colleges in China is important to consider because these colleges were important vehicles through which higher levels of English training were provided in pre-1949 China; also, a great many of the graduates of these colleges went into teaching (Fenn, 1976, p. 157; Yeh, 2000, p. 19). A particular focus on the University of Nanking is called for partly by the fact that, while it was generally acknowledged as one of the most successful and influential of China’s Christian universities, it has received less scholarly attention than the other Christian colleges. For example, all of the other Christian colleges have at least one book-length history in English devoted to them; in contrast, there is no English language history of the University of Nanking. Finally, by way of full disclosure, I justify special attention to the University of Nanking on the grounds of personal interest, given that I taught for 7 years at Nanjing University, which is descended in part from the University of Nanking and occupies its old campus. As a faculty member placed at the university through one of the denominations that founded the University of Nanking (Presbyterian), I am a descendent of the missionaries who established the University of Nanking, and my time at this university could be seen as something of a coda to this particular part of the story of the Christian colleges and the spread of English in China. While I have attempted to maintain a degree of critical distance and objectivity as I explore and tell this story, I am also very much aware that it is a story of which I am a part.

This historical study examines the promotion of English at the University of Nanking during the early decades of the twentieth century. It is based on documentary sources, in particular the University of Nanking Magazine, which was the main university publication between 1910 and 1930, the years during which the University of Nanking formed its approach to the use of English and Chinese.2 The University of Nanking case illuminates many of the dynamics that affected the promotion of English, allowing us to gain a more nuanced understanding of precisely how the role of English at China’s Christian colleges was associated with the broader forces of imperialism and globalization. Study of this case can also be fruitful for educators today who wish to find ways to encourage students to learn English but also retain and take pride in their original languages and cultures.

The University of Nanking The University of Nanking was formed in 1910 through the merger of three colleges. The first, Nanking University, was founded by the Methodists in 1888

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under president John Ferguson, who later served as a prominent University of Nanking board member. His successor, A. J. Bowen, eventually became the first president of the University of Nanking. The two other colleges, Christian College (1891) and Presbyterian Academy (1894), joined Nanking University in 1910 to form the University of Nanking.3 The University of Nanking was initially quite small; in fact, when it opened there were only ten students (Wang, Gong, & Chang, 2002, p. 577). However, it grew quite steadily, and by 1922 it had 300 students, 64 Chinese staff, 34 foreign staff, and library holdings of 17,430 books (Bowen, 1922, p. 4). In addition to the normal humanities and science programs offered by many universities in China, the University of Nanking was one of the first universities in China to have a department of agriculture, which was established in 1914 by Presbyterian missionary Joseph Baillie in response to rural famines in China (Zhang, Zhang, She, He, & Chen, 2002, p. 22). There were several other ways in which the University of Nanking was somewhat distinctive among the Christian colleges. For one thing, it was relatively proactive in promoting Chinese into leadership positions; in fact, President Bowen felt that Chinese should be pressed into leadership “just as rapidly as, and possibly a little more rapidly, than many think wise” (cited in Fenn, 1976, p. 113). One indication of this commitment was the early decision to appoint Chinese members to the university’s board of directors; one of these, Tao Xingzhi, was not only a member of the university’s first graduating class but also went on to become one of China’s most famous modern educators. Also, the percentage of Chinese faculty at the university was quite high right from the start. Another distinguishing feature of the university was that, from early on, it relied heavily on income from student fees for its financial support, rather than depending so heavily on donations from mission boards in the US (p. 184). This tended to give the university somewhat more freedom of action, and also made it more responsive to the needs and desires of the local community. With regard to the language issue, the picture initially seems to be quite straightforward—the role of English at the university was very extensive. First, the university entrance examination included a test of English, and many of the books suggested as preparatory reading for the entrance examinations were in English, so students could not be admitted without strong English (Zhang et al., 2002, pp. 68, 409). Second, a student could not function academically at the university without strong English. English was the medium of instruction in most classes, except courses related to Chinese language, literature, and culture. Also, the textbooks for many courses were in English, often imported directly from the US (p. 224). Finally, English was the dominant language in many other aspects of campus life; even the commands used on the campus sports fields were in English (Wang et al., 2002, p. 586). The important role played by English at the University of Nanking is suggested by other details as well. For example, in its early years, the library collection was

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not only relatively small but also dominated by books in English; as of 1914, out of a collection of approximately 5,000 books, only about 800 were in Chinese (Fenn, 1976, pp. 164–165). Another example of the dominance of English is the school journal, the University of Nanking Magazine, which was initially published only in English, even though many of the articles were written by Chinese faculty and students. A third suggestive detail is the high success rate of University of Nanking students in inter-collegiate debate tournaments in English (Wang et al., 2002, p. 621). So, is it fair to conclude that the dominance of English at the University of Nanking was accepted and unchallenged? Not necessarily. As mentioned above, the University of Nanking Magazine was at first published only in English. However, a group of students—including the previously mentioned Tao Xingzhi—protested this policy, with the result that, in 1913, the university added a Chinese section to the magazine, which incidentally soon outgrew the English section in length.4 Another challenge to this policy came in the form of a 1921 government report that was critical of the inadequate Chinese skills of University of Nanking students, to which the university responded by strengthening the Chinese department and actively recruiting well-known Chinese scholars to teach in it. Yet, a third challenge to the dominance of English appeared in connection with the university’s successful debate teams. In a 1922 University of Nanking Magazine article, student Iting T. Wang notes with pride the success of the university’s English debate teams, but also reminds his readers of the need for organized debating events in Chinese, and calls for the establishment of an intercollegiate body devoted to that purpose (Wang, 1922, p. 3). In this regard, it is also interesting to note that, while University of Nanking debating teams won glory for themselves and their school through skilled use of English, they generally did so wearing traditional Chinese scholars’ gowns rather than Western-style suits, in sharp contrast to teams from St. John’s and some other Christian colleges (Wang et al., 2002, p. 621). University of Nanking leaders seem to have had a relatively strong desire to encourage students to become competent in both Chinese and English. President Bowen’s view of English was that, although it was a valuable tool for students to learn to master, it should be viewed only as a tool, and one that should not be over-emphasized (cited in Nanjing daxue gaojiao yanjiusuo, 1989, pp. 14–15). Board member John Ferguson stated similar views even more sharply; for example, in a 1929 talk he roundly criticized University of Nanking students because they were better at expressing their ideas in English than Chinese, and suggested that this sorry state of affairs should be a source of shame for citizens of China (p. 45). As we saw above, these leaders’ sentiments were backed up with concrete action, such as dramatically increasing the Chinese holdings of the library, strengthening the Chinese department, and adding a Chinese section to the school’s flagship publication, so it appears that these sentiments were sincere and reflected a genuine reluctance to sacrifice students’ Chinese skills in favor of

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their English. This leads us to the question: If university leaders genuinely valued both Chinese and English, why was the actual university language environment so heavily English-dominant? Of course, one reason for the heavy use of English was the simple fact that, if the goal was for students to be competent in both Chinese and English, it was obviously English that required more emphasis; after all, the students already spoke at least one variety of Chinese as their native language. However, this was clearly not the only reason the University of Nanking was so profoundly Englishdominant. The 1922 Report of the China Education Commission gives considerable attention to the “language problem in education,” and its analysis of why English was used so much in many of the Christian colleges focuses on three main factors— the fact that many teachers were Westerners, local demand for training in English, and lack of suitable textbooks in Chinese (p. 305). All of these are directly relevant to the situation at the University of Nanking. As we have already seen, even in its first decade, foreigners made up only a part of the University of Nanking teaching staff, and over the years the teaching staff came to be predominantly Chinese. However, the other side of the coin is that, throughout its history, foreign staff made up a substantial percentage of the University of Nanking faculty, and it was easier for foreign faculty— predominantly American—to teach in English rather than Chinese. Obviously, the same was true of the visiting speakers and exchange faculty the University of Nanking often invited from the US (Bowen, 1918, pp. 1–3). Of course, at least some foreign staff and faculty, including both Bowen and Ferguson, had high levels of competence in Chinese. But it appears that, over time, such individuals were more the exception than the rule. As the Report of the China Education Commission (1922) notes of new missionary educators arriving in China, “. . . there is reason to fear that in general their attainments in speaking and especially reading Chinese would not compare favorably with that of their predecessors” (p. 306). The report goes on to state that newly arrived teachers are “loaded up from the beginning with too many routine tasks” and also mentions “the demand for teaching or teaching in English” (p. 306). As the report concludes: Before long the golden days for language study have slipped by; the relish for it is lost; contentment with such knowledge as has been acquired becomes habitual, the Chinese, with whom one has to do daily, show no outward signs of disrespect; in short, there is no compelling incentive to the unremitting study and resolute refusal to be diverted from it, which alone brings proficiency. (p. 306) What the 1922 report fails to note is the degree to which Chinese faculty members contributed to the dominant role of English at the University of

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Nanking. At first glance it seems natural to assume that the Chinese faculty, who were preponderant from the 1920s onward, would tend to use Chinese in preference to English. However, examination of the background of these teachers shows why this would not have been the case. Many of the Chinese faculty were themselves graduates of the University of Nanking, or at least of other Christian colleges. For example, of the seven new Chinese teachers who came to the University of Nanking in 1922, all were graduates of the University of Nanking, and several also had graduate degrees from the US (Observations, 1922, p. 32). This means that, although these faculty members were Chinese, they had received their higher education in English-medium institutions. Also, as we shall see below, most of these Chinese faculty members probably attended English-medium secondary and even primary schools before entering the University of Nanking. So, while they presumably still spoke Chinese fluently, in academic life and settings they were probably more accustomed to functioning in English than in Chinese. Furthermore, it is likely that these Chinese faculty members took pride in their strong English skills, as well as the modern and even foreign educations symbolized by that command of English. Here, we need to remember that, in this era, the residual prestige of traditional Chinese learning, based heavily in command of classical Chinese, was still quite high, and this was an area in which graduates of missionary institutions tended to be relatively weak. This would make it quite natural for Chinese faculty at universities such as the University of Nanjing to emphasize their strong suit—good command of English. As the 1922 China Education Commission Report points out, a second important factor underlying the dominance of English in the Christian colleges was demand for English from Chinese students and their parents. Part of the appeal of English-dominant higher education lay in the employment opportunities it created. As the report notes: The opportunity to learn English has been indeed a great attraction to the student from a purely occupational and utilitarian point of view. So much has this been the case, that the courses offered for their value in giving a liberal culture were regarded as and became little more than opportunities for practice in English, the acquirement of which brought prompt remuneration and easy promotion in business careers. (p. 102) This concern that students were only interested in English because of job opportunities is challenged to some degree by a 1919 article by a student, Chen Hsieh I, entitled “Why Should We Learn English?” In arguing for the value of English learning, Chen (1919) mentions a broad range of factors, such as the fact that “many books on literature and science have been translated into English” (p. 15) and that it has substantial value in the world of education and politics. He also notes that it is the “most widely used language” and “the language of

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the two leading nations, Great Britain and the United States of America” (p. 15). However, as he also points out, it is the “predominant language used in the commercial world” (p. 15) and one suspects that this reason might have been more salient in the minds of many potential students than the other reasons mentioned by Chen. A related factor, less emphasized in the 1922 Report but clearly apparent in the case of the University of Nanking, is the fact that studying in an Englishdominant college prepared students for opportunities to study abroad after graduation. Particularly in the years between 1910 and 1925, tens of thousands of Chinese students hoped to study abroad, often in the US (Wang et al., 2002, pp. 586–587); for example, from the University of Nanking’s 1919 graduating class, fourteen students went on to further study in the US in schools including Yale, Columbia, Cornell, Iowa State University and Albany State Library School (Sie, 1919, pp. 24–25). The appeal of institutions such as the University of Nanking lay partly in their ability to prepare students for such opportunities by giving them both English skills and familiarity with Western academic environments. The final factor emphasized by the 1922 Report was the fact that, for many subjects, textbooks were far more readily available in English than in Chinese. In the early decades of the twentieth century, there were still many academic fields that lacked adequate Chinese language textbooks, which led to considerable reliance on textbooks written in English. The use of English-language textbooks, in turn, dramatically increased the exposure that students had to English, not only because students had to read in English to complete homework assignments, but also because reliance on English-language textbooks naturally encouraged the use of English in class, if only because students had learned the technical terms of their fields mainly in English. One additional reason why English was so dominant had to do with the education that the University of Nanking students received before entering the university. As mentioned briefly above, many students came from secondary schools with missionary backgrounds, such as Chinking Presbyterian High School and the Suchow Anglo-Chinese Academy; in fact, a great many were graduates of the University of Nanking’s own University High School. For example, of the seventy-two new students enrolled in spring 1917, forty-four came from University High School, and most of the rest came from other missionary-run secondary schools—with a few also transferring in from tertiary institutions such as St. John’s University and the Nanking School of Theology (Sarvis, 1917, p. 19). In this regard, the University of Nanking was quite similar to the majority of Christian colleges (Yeh, 2000, p. 67). The significance of this is that, even before arriving at the University of Nanking, most students had studied in institutions that were especially strong in English. As noted in a 1922 University of Nanking Magazine article about the results of that year’s entrance examinations, “applicants from government schools are weak in English, but stronger in Chinese and mathematics when compared with both church and private schools.” In

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contrast, “those from church schools are strong in English but deficient in Chinese and mathematics” (Observations, 1922, p. 32). The upshot of this is that most new students entered the University of Nanking with relatively strong English skills, which made it much easier to use English as the medium of instruction and the primary language of campus life. Furthermore, it meant that, long before students entered the University of Nanking, they had chosen to invest considerable time and effort making English one of their competitive advantages, which ensured that the students entering the University of Nanking would be willing partners in the project of further developing their English skills as a strategy for enhancing their post-graduation educational and employment opportunities. This, in turn, would have made it far easier to create and maintain an atmosphere on campus in which English was the predominant language.

To What Extent Did the Dominance of English Result from Imperialism? There was clearly a tie between imperialism and the dominance of English at the University of Nanking, as well as at most other Christian colleges. The very right of Protestant missionaries to live in China, and eventually to establish universities there, was coerced from the Chinese state through military force in the first and second Opium Wars, so the existence of a tie between imperialism and the Englishdominant Christian colleges is obvious. Instead, the question is one of what the precise nature of that tie was. More pointedly, the question is one of how accurate it is to characterize the use of English in the Christian colleges as “attacking and destroying” other languages and cultures (Pennycook & Makoni, 2005, p. 11), with its implied parallel to the application of military force in the imperialist project in China. While a tie certainly existed, it was considerably more complex and indirect than the characterization above implies. One of the most significant results of Western imperialism, particularly the British Empire, was a dramatic increase in economic globalization; in fact, as Niall Ferguson (2002) writes, “. . . no organization in history has done more to promote the free movement of goods, capital and labour than the British Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries” (p. xxi). The prominent role played first by Britain and later the US in promoting the global trading system led to the English language becoming the most widely used language in this system—and also the language that offered the greatest utility value for those who wished to participate in the system and benefit from it. “The more England gained of the world market—in part a function of the industrial revolution there—the more the international extension of trade and production relations inevitably transmitted English, rather than French, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, Chinese or Turkish” (Brutt-Griffler, 2002, p. 115).

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In China, we see both parts of this dynamic: British use of military and political force to open China’s markets to an increasingly globalized trading system, and also a resulting demand among Chinese—first only in the treaty ports, but gradually expanding deeper into the country—for education in the English language. One main reason the University of Nanking and most other Christian colleges gave such a prominent role to English was that, among Chinese parents and students, there was substantial demand for English-medium education; in fact, at colleges such as Shantung Christian College and Hangchow Christian University, the demand from Chinese people was sometimes greater than the willingness of missionaries to offer education in English. Offering an education that led to a high level of proficiency in English made it much easier for Christian colleges to attract larger numbers of students; furthermore, these were students who were willing and able to pay for their education, rather than requiring financial subsidies from the schools, as had often been the case in the past (Lutz, 1971, p. 56). By responding to the popular demand for English, Western missionaries were able to find greater levels of acceptance in Chinese society. In a country where missionaries had often faced prejudice and rejection, teaching English helped missionaries to find a role in Chinese society in which they were tolerated and even welcomed. Writing during the Anti-Christian Movement of the 1920s, University of Nanking faculty member G. W. Sarvis (1925) notes: The claim is frequently made concerning missionary education, as well as concerning missionary work in general, that it has been forced upon an unwilling people. Unfortunately, missionary work shares the inglorious distinction of being in company with business in being protected by treaties that were made unwillingly by officials of the Chinese Empire. The importance of this fact may, however, be very easily exaggerated. The truth is that missionary work has never been forced upon the people of China. It could have made no progress whatever had not missionaries provided something that some of the people in China wanted. . . . The fact that large numbers of students are willing to attend missionary colleges and pay very substantial sums for tuition is sufficient proof that considerable numbers of Chinese now desire the education which missionary colleges offer. (p. 2, original emphasis) While Sarvis too quickly brushes aside the role played by force in making mission work possible in China, he is clearly aware that it is important for missionaries to offer an education that not only serves the purposes of the local population, but also helps moderate any hostility they might feel toward Western missionaries due to the circumstances under which mission work first began in China.

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In short, while there is a very direct tie between imperialism and globalization of trade in that the former actively promoted the latter, the tie of imperialism to the spread of English is more indirect; globalization created conditions in which people in China—and many other parts of the world—actively responded by learning the language that appeared most useful to them under these new conditions. While economic globalization was probably the most important factor accounting for the prominent role of English in China’s Christian colleges, it was not the only factor. As seen above, another important reason that English was used as the medium of instruction was that, for most university-level subjects and courses, textbooks were much more readily available in English than in Chinese. This reflects the high degree of “investment” English experienced from the 1800s on, not only through an increasing flood of English-language textbooks, reference works, and academic publications, but also through functional elaboration of its vocabulary, which ensured English had terms for discussing all modern topics. This high degree of investment in English was an additional way in which the utility value of English was enhanced, making it an appealing language for students interested in mastery of modern fields—and especially for those interested in further study in English-speaking countries such as the US or Britain. As BruttGriffler (2002) notes, globalization was not only economic; rather it consisted of the development of a “world econocultural system, which includes the world market, business community, technology, science and cultural and intellectual life on the global scale” (p. 110). We saw the impact of this factor in Chen (1919), in which he points out not only the economic and employment benefits of learning English, but also the educational and intellectual opportunities offered through mastery of the language. The impact of this factor is also seen in the large numbers of Chinese students who, in the early part of the twentieth century, wanted to study in the West, especially in English-speaking countries such as the US. This factor reminds us that, while imperialism certainly had a major impact on the spread of English, there were other important factors that did not have any inherent tie to imperialism.

Was the Dominance of English Undesirable? English was clearly the dominant language at the University of Nanking and most other Christian colleges, and from our contemporary perspective it would be easy to simply assume that this dominance was bad, especially if we accept the equation that missionary colleges + English dominance = cultural imperialism. However, we need to ask the question: Was the dominance of English in these colleges excessive? If so, in what sense? There were certainly occasions when the University of Nanking was criticized by its own students for over-emphasizing English. As noted earlier, an example of this was the controversy over what language the university magazine should

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use. From 1910 until 1913, the University of Nanking Magazine was only published in English. Many students felt that the magazine should be published in both Chinese and English, and by 1913 this led to the addition of a Chinese-language section. The inaugural article explains the need for a Chinese section by criticizing obsession with “Europeanization” and calling for the preservation of Chinese civilization, and also points out that the Chinese section of the magazine will encourage writers to hone their Chinese skills and cultivate their love of Chinese (Wang et al., 2002, p. 592). Examples of public criticism of the dominance of English at the University of Nanking are particularly numerous during the Anti-Christian Movement of the mid-1920s. A mild example of this criticism was the 1922 call from student Wang Iting to establish a Chinese debating association to parallel the English debating association (Wang, 1922, p. 3); earlier, Tao Xingzhi had made similar calls for speech contests in both Chinese and English (Wang et al., 2002, p. 592). Somewhat sharper criticisms appear in a 1922 University of Nanking Magazine article, which notes that church schools “are too much foreignized; many and perhaps most of the subjects in and above middle school grades are taught in English and not in Chinese; their graduates are to some extent denationalized . . .” (Observations, 1922, p. 32). The article goes on to say “it is questionable whether such kind of graduates are fit to Chinese present social need” (p. 32), and concludes “that English can serve only as a means and not an end or a substitute for Chinese, our national language and literature” (p. 32). Similar criticisms are echoed in an editorial by T. C. Wang (1924), commenting that it is “rather strange that most of the mission schools in China, if not all, do not pay enough attention to Chinese as they do to English or other foreign languages” (p. 2). Furthermore: “Many graduates of mission schools fail in society simply because they are deficient in their national language. They are entitled as the foreignized Chinese” (p. 2). Clearly, the dominance of English did not go unquestioned. However, before concluding that the dominance of English at Christian colleges was wrong, we need to put the situation into perspective. First, it is important to note that, during the first half of the twentieth century, English played a prominent role in all education in China. As China made efforts to modernize following Western models, courses in all Chinese universities relied heavily on English-language textbooks and reference materials, and gave examinations in English (Yeh, 2000, p. 10). This made it important for universities to ensure that entering students already had a good command of English, so entrance examinations for most subjects, except Chinese, were generally given in English. This emphasis on English at the university level was reflected in a similar emphasis on English at the secondary school level; in fact, it was estimated that approximately half of the study time of a typical Chinese secondary school student during these years was devoted to English (pp. 20–21). This is not to say that the role of English in public universities was precisely the same as in the private Christian colleges. For example, Chinese was used in

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more domains in public universities, one being course lectures, which were often given in Chinese. Also, English was often treated more as an object of study than a medium of communication, with a heavy emphasis on translation and on mastery of grammar (pp. 12–13). In contrast, the Christian colleges tended to use English in virtually all domains, both spoken and written, and placed great emphasis on functional proficiency in English. The Christian colleges’ ability to promote spoken English was based on their relatively high number of foreign teachers (Fenn, 1976, p. 124; Yeh, 2000, p. 15), which enhanced the “English atmosphere,” as well as giving students more opportunity to practice speaking English. However, while the Christian colleges gave English a somewhat larger role than public universities, the difference was primarily one of degree. In fact, in justifying the heavy use of English in the Christian colleges, the 1922 China Education Commission Report noted “the almost equal emphasis on English in government schools of the same grade . . .” (p. 308). In assessing the presumed negative consequences of over-emphasis on English, we also need to briefly examine the above-mentioned concern that graduates of Christian colleges had inadequate Chinese. The problem here is that, when this criticism was made, the precise nature of the problem was often not specified, so it is somewhat difficult to assess precisely what being “deficient in Chinese” meant. Obviously, the concern here is not that graduates of Christian colleges completely forgot how to speak Chinese, and it seems unlikely that they had serious problems reading or writing in Chinese; the very fact that most articles in the University of Nanking Magazine and other school publications—even those of a literary or academic nature—were written in Chinese suggests that there was a substantial pool of students who had a strong command of written Chinese. Some light is thrown on this question by the 1921 examination conducted by the Chinese Education Ministry of the Chinese skills of University of Nanking students, which noted specific problems such as poor style and incorrect Chinese characters (Wang et al., 2002, p. 587). This seems to suggest that the students’ Chinese was deficient mainly at the higher levels of writing. A similar conclusion is suggested by John Ferguson’s above-mentioned 1929 criticisms of students’ Chinese skills, which he follows up by arguing that if students want to be able to write Mandarin well, they need a good foundation in Classical Chinese (Nanjing daxue gaojiao yanjiusuo, 1989, p. 45). In both cases, “deficient Chinese” seems to mean inadequacies in written Chinese, particularly as judged by traditional literary standards. However, it is also likely that many University of Nanking graduates were better acquainted with the English vocabulary for dealing with their academic disciplines than with corresponding Chinese vocabulary. One important function of education, especially higher education, is not only to teach concepts to students, but also to teach them the words used for communicating those concepts; a university course is at least partly an introduction to the terminology of whatever subject is being taught. Given that the University of Nanking exposed students

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to new subjects almost exclusively in English, students’ academic and professional vocabularies would have been much stronger in English than in Chinese. In this sense, the problem at the University of Nanking was that, in most academic domains, English replaced Chinese rather than co-existing with it. In assessing whether or not the University of Nanking went too far in its use of English, we need to remember the substantial evidence that many people, especially students and their parents, considered heavy emphasis on English a good thing. The quality of English training offered by the University of Nanking and other Christian colleges was one of the main features that attracted students to the school. Furthermore, strong English skills helped make these graduates valuable to Chinese society. The Christian colleges were one small part of a larger tertiary education ecosystem, most of which did not provide the same levels or kinds of English training that they did. In essence, the Christian colleges ensured that China had a core group of teachers, academics, businesspeople, and other professionals who had very advanced skills in English, along with all the access to opportunity granted by such skills, and this was of no small benefit to China through the course of the twentieth century. While recognizing that the Christian colleges may have given English a more dominant role than appropriate or desirable for Chinese universities, we need to balance this against the benefits of this approach to both individuals and society. We also need to remember that the evidence suggests the leadership of the university had no desire to replace students’ native Chinese with English, and wanted them to have good command of both languages. However, the other side of the coin is that the dominance of English at the university probably did result in at least some deficiencies in the Chinese skills of students, and this is a trade-off the university leadership understood and accepted. This seems to be obliquely suggested in G. W. Sarvis’ 1925 article: “It is the necessities of the age and the desires of students and parents that lead to an emphasis on English and modern science that inevitably crowds out much of the old learning” (p. 2). The other point is simply that English was so dominant that Chinese had to struggle for a role even in a university in its own country. No matter what the value of English or justification for its heavy use, such a situation seems bound to create the perception that the University of Nanking “foreignized” its students.

Discussion and Conclusions Concerns about the ties of English Language Teaching to imperialism are not completely unfounded. The spread of English in China was indeed attributable in part to imperialism, and Christian missionaries were important agents in this spread. However, the prominent role given to English in the Christian colleges and other missionary-run schools is best seen as a response to imperialism more than a force that promoted it. In fact, it would be even more accurate to say that

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the heavy emphasis these schools placed on English was driven primarily by the demands of Chinese students and parents, who were in turn responding not only to the consequences of imperialism, but also of other forces such as economic and cultural globalization. In this regard, the forces leading to the spread of English in China were similar to those scholars have described for many other parts of the non-Western world (for example, Brutt-Griffler, 2002, pp. viii, 65; Canagarajah, 1999, p. 62; McKay, 2002, pp. 21–22). What lessons does the story of English and China’s Christian colleges have for English teachers today? On the one hand, this story reminds us that teaching English is an act with political and cultural implications. English has considerable historical baggage, not the least of which is the legacy of imperialism past and present. As I have argued elsewhere (Snow, 2009), there is always the danger of English teachers becoming too closely associated—especially in the eyes of their students—with the power of English-speaking nations, seeming to embrace and even endorse that power. As we saw at the University of Nanking, despite the respect the school’s leaders had for Chinese language and culture, the dominance of English at the university was at times criticized as evidence that the school at least tolerated a situation that led to Chinese students becoming “denationalized” or “foreignized.” On the other hand, the story reminds us that, for many people around the world, English is a desired and useful tool. Also, while Chinese people at times associated English with Western imperialism, they also associated it with other things such as modernity, internationalism, and empowerment. This would suggest that, in teaching English, the goal is generally to strike a balance, meeting students’ needs by assisting them in acquisition of a language that empowers them, but also honoring and encouraging their languages and cultures. Of course, the challenge lies in finding the right balance, which will obviously vary greatly from one setting to another, and the story of English and China’s Christian colleges seems to suggest a lesson pertinent to this question. In a world where the utility value of English is very high for teaching programs or institutions that profess to advocate multi-lingualism, it is important to do more than express respect for languages other than English. While the Christian colleges generally did require students to take at least a few courses in Chinese language and literature, such requirements often took on the flavor of tokenism. For example, when graduates of Ginling Women’s College were asked to reminisce about their college education, many remembered the Chinese department as being like “an exclusive club for a few dedicated students who had a family background in Chinese learning . . .” (Feng, 2009, p. 103). Also, St. John’s University essentially treated Chinese as the equivalent of a foreign language in that “six hours of Chinese literature and philosophy could be substituted for three hours of French or German” (Xu, 2009, p. 116). The fact that Chinese was generally not used as a medium of instruction, or as a language in school administration and life, ensured that students’ Chinese would be deficient with regard to academic and professional

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topics, and also sent the clear message that Chinese was less important—at least in modern education—than English. The story of the Christian colleges also suggests that giving a substantial role to multiple languages in an education program will at times be costly. As we saw, the leaders of the University of Nanking did not feel Chinese was unimportant. Rather, the problem was that, when push came to shove, they were willing to sacrifice Chinese in favor of ensuring a high-quality English program. Their reasons for giving such a high priority to English, both pedagogical and financial, are easy to understand. However, the decision to give English such high priority also fatally undermined any possibility that these institutions would be bilingual in practice, or that they would be seen as advocates of Chinese language and culture. Teaching English in a way that also persuasively promotes the ideal of valuing other languages requires giving other languages a significant presence and role in educational programs, even at times at the expense of English.

Notes 1. See Varghese and Johnston (2007) for evidence that such concerns can be found even among evangelical Christians from quite conservative backgrounds. 2. I wish to thank the library of Nanjing University for locating a nearly complete set of the University of Nanking Magazine in their archives. 3. The Chinese name of the University of Nanking, Jinling daxue (Ginling University), is sometimes a source of confusion as it is so similar to that of Ginling College, a college for women only a few blocks away. While the two schools cooperated in a variety of ways, they were always separate and distinct institutions. 4. The Chinese section of the June 1917 issue has 30 pages, as opposed to only 23 in English; in the June 1919 issue, the ratio is even more lopsided, with 86 pages in Chinese in contrast to only 22 in English.

References Bowen, A. J. (1918, April). Editorial. University of Nanking Magazine, 9(4), 1–2. Bowen, A. J. (1922, August). Ten years of growth and development. University of Nanking Magazine, 12(1), 4–5. Brutt-Griffler, J. (2002). World English: A study of its development. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Canagarajah, S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chen, H. I. (1919, November). Why should we learn English? University of Nanking Magazine, 10(5), 15–17. China Education Commission (Burton Commission) (1922). Christian education in China: The report of the China Educational Commission of 1921–22. Shanghai, China: Commercial Press. Feng, J. (2009). The making of a family saga: Ginling College. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Fenn, W. (1976). Christian higher education in changing China, 1880–1950. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

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Ferguson, N. (2002). Empire: The rise and demise of the British imperial world order and the lessons for global power. New York: Basic Books. Lutz, J. (1971). China and the Christian colleges, 1850–1950. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Mulhauser, P. (1996). Linguistic ecology: Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific region. London, UK: Routledge. Nanjing daxue gaojiao yanjiusuo [Nanjing University higher education research institute]. (1989). Jinling daxue shiliaoji [Collection of University of Nanking historical records]. Nanjing, China: Nanjing daxue chubanshe. Observations. (1922, November). University of Nanking Magazine, 12(2), 32. (No author given.) Pennycook, A. (1998). English and the discourses of colonialism. London, UK: Routledge. Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2005). The modern mission: The language effects of Christianity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(2), 137–155. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Sarvis, G. W. (1917, April). College notes. University of Nanking Magazine, 8(3), 19. Sarvis, G. W. (1925, April). Missionary education and nationalism. University of Nanking Magazine, 14(1), 1–5. Sie, C. H. (1919, October). University notes. University of Nanking Magazine, 11(1), 24–25. Snow, D. (2009). English teachers, language learning, and the issue of power. In M. Wong, & S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas, (pp. 173–184). New York: Routledge. Varghese, M. M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 5–31. Wang, D. C., Gong, F., & Chang, R. (2002). Nanjing daxue bainianshi [The hundred years’ history of Nanjing University]. Nanjing, China: Nanjing daxue chubanshe. Wang, I. T. (1922, August). (Untitled). University of Nanking Magazine, 12(1), 3. Wang, T. C. (1924, June). Editorial. University of Nanking Magazine, 2. Xu, E. Y. H. (2009). Liberal arts education in English and campus culture at St. John’s University. In D. Bays, & E. Widmer (Eds.), China’s Christian colleges: Cross-cultural connections, 1900–1950 (pp. 107–124). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Yeh, W. H. (2000). The alienated academy: Culture and politics in republican China, 1919–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Zhang, X. W., Zhang, S., She, X. Y., He, Q. X., & Chen, Y. Q. (2002). Jinling daxue shi [History of the University of Nanking]. Nanjing, China: Nanjing daxue chubanshe.

8 FAITH AND LEARNING INTEGRATION IN ESL/EFL INSTRUCTION A Preliminary Study in America and Indonesia Michael Lessard-Clouston BIOLA UNIVERSITY (USA)

Introduction In Christian universities, the integration of faith and learning is a significant goal, as professors and students approach teaching and learning within a Christian worldview (Harris, 2004). Yet, a lack of empirical research exists on whether or not faith and learning integration takes place in English as second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) classes at these universities, and if so, how. This chapter begins to help bridge this gap by reporting on preliminary research in an ESL program in the US and EFL courses at a university in Indonesia. It first summarizes issues in faith and learning integration within Christian higher education and then describes the contexts and methods of the research. Next, it reports and discusses the study’s findings, offering potential implications for faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL.

Background VanZanten (2011) offers a profile of post-secondary education in the US, noting that, with some 6,350 accredited schools, there are approximately 900 broadly “religiously affiliated institutions,” among which 102 are members of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU), plus 38 affiliates (p. 4). The CCCU (www.cccu.org/) states it has 116 members in Canada and the US, and a key criterion is that faculty and administrators at member institutions must be professing Christians. It also has “69 affiliate institutions in 25 countries.” CCCU

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affiliates may not meet that criterion, may be located outside North America, may not be four year institutions, or may not offer a sufficient range of majors. English plays an important role on many Christian campuses, as it is the main medium of instruction at CCCU institutions in North America and many abroad. Yet, not all students come from English-speaking backgrounds, and as a result there is a need for ESL/EFL classes to help such students learn English or to help prepare them for studies in English in their chosen academic disciplines. An important field of study at Christian schools is theology, and Purgason (2010) describes programs and classes in ESL/EFL for theological purposes, including some at CCCU institutions. However, it appears that no research has been published on faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL classes. Despite its title, The Word in the English Classroom: Best Practices of Faith Integration, Dessart and Gambill’s (2009) collection deals with English and literature, poetry, film, theatre, and literary criticism, but not ESL/EFL. The discussion of “faith and learning integration” is not new in Christian education. Heie and Wolfe (1987) explain that “integration emphasizes the fundamental search for commonalities between the Christian faith and the substantive, methodological, and value assumptions that underlie activity in the academic disciplines, as well as attempts to systematize academic learning into an overarching Christian schema” (p. vii). Holmes’ seminal (1987) book discusses “creative and active integration of faith and learning” (p. 6) and recent publications by Christian college presidents build on this while affirming the importance and uniqueness of faith and learning integration at Christian universities (Dockery, 2008; Eaton, 2011; Litfin, 2004).1 In a collection of essays on faith-learning integration in various fields, Downey and Porter (2009) go further to suggest that “any Christian college or university whose administration and faculty do not have an ongoing and explicit commitment to” faith-learning integration “perhaps has no adequate reason to exist” (p. xix). Further details from the faith-learning integration literature are available in helpful overview articles (Badley, 2009; Boyd, 2006; Hasker, 1992) and books (Cosgrove, 2006; Jacobsen & Jacobsen, 2004; Poe, 2004). Several edited collections also discuss integration in various disciplines (Beers, 2008; Dockery & Thornbury, 2002; Smith & Smith, 2011). While an outline of faith and learning integration is beyond the scope of this chapter, it is helpful to understand several key points as background for the current study. First, as Rosebrough (2002) states, there are at least two aspects to the integration of faith and learning, namely teaching (“the teacher-student dynamic”) and “the discipline itself ” (p. 295). Second, while there are different approaches to integration, a key one at CCCU institutions is a worldview approach (Harris, 2004), yet even in this there are different emphases on the sources or authorities that help to inform integration and the visibility of explicit integration within particular fields (Beers & Beers, 2008). Holmes (1987) summarizes the worldview approach to Christian college teaching and learning as involving four components—that it is: (1) holistic and integrational; (2) exploratory, not

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definitive; (3) pluralistic, reflecting diversity; and (4) confessional and perspectival, drawing on Christian “beliefs and attitudes and values” (pp. 58–59). In short, according to Holmes, faith-learning integration “is ultimately concerned to see things whole from a Christian perspective, to penetrate thought with that perspective, to think Christianly” (p. 60). Third, while Christian universities usually offer (and may require) extracurricular activities, such as chapel services, mission trips, etc., which focus on integration, these co-curricular programs are not the main emphasis of faith and learning integration at many CCCU institutions (Beers & Beers, 2008). Given this brief summary, the present research is concerned with better understanding if faith and learning integration is taking place in ESL/EFL instruction in order to begin to characterize it within this field. Also, there is some attention to instructors’ sources in teaching their classes. Finally, our interest here is in faith and learning integration within ESL/EFL classes Christian professors teach at two participating schools, and any benefits or challenges they experience. As a result, this investigation is guided by the following research questions: 1. 2. 3. 4.

According to instructors, is faith and learning integration taking place in their ESL/EFL classes? And, if so, how do they go about it? If they engage in the integration of faith and learning, what sources and resources do they report using in their teaching? What benefits or challenges do instructors perceive to be associated with faith and learning integration in their teaching? What training have instructors received in faith and learning integration, and what type of training might they like to receive for ESL/EFL?

Since CCCU schools exist in the US and abroad, I decided to ask instructors in both North America and overseas about their experiences with faith and learning integration. Through connections with and visits to CCCU schools, I had met ESL/EFL instructors in two contexts, where I had given talks about some research. Accordingly, my interest was to learn and describe if faith and learning integration takes place in ESL/EFL classes. This is thus a preliminary study, which aims to develop a baseline for current practices and future research.

Methods The research contexts involved American Christian University (ACU) in Los Angeles in the US, and Indonesian Christian University (ICU) in Jakarta, Indonesia; two institutions in major urban areas connected with CCCU (though both ACU and ICU are pseudonyms). While ACU’s English Language Program (ELP) offers a full-time ESL curriculum for students who need to improve their English before studying in the university’s different schools, it also offers classes to ESL students in these

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schools who wish to improve their English language skills as they start or continue in their academic fields, such as theology (a popular major). The ELP, however, does not offer degrees and instead serves all ACU ESL students, both graduate and undergraduate, who wish to learn English. Similarly, the Faculty of Arts at ICU serves all the university’s schools, offering undergraduate general education classes, including EFL reading, writing, and TOEFL preparation (Test of English as a Foreign Language). Students at ICU typically take classes in their majors and English concurrently, and their EFL classes meet their foreign language requirements. One key difference between these universities is that ACU is a CCCU member that only accepts students who are professing Christians, while ICU is a CCCU affiliate that accepts both Christians and those of other faiths. Following principles outlined in Dörnyei (2010), I constructed a questionnaire (available from the author) with three sections, which asked participants to: (1) state their level of agreement with five statements about faith and learning integration; (2) comment on their experience with, resources for, and training in faith and learning integration in their ESL/EFL classes; and (3) provide some basic personal information (age, religion, first language, nationality, etc.). In terms of procedures, after applying, I was approved through my university’s Protection of Human Rights in Research Committee protocol to carry out this study. I then inquired and received permission from the ELP coordinator at ACU and the Dean of Arts at ICU to ask their faculty if they would be willing to participate. Using purposive sampling (Mackey & Gass, 2005) to elicit ESL/EFL data of interest, during the spring 2011 semester,2 ESL teachers in the ELP at ACU and EFL instructors in the Faculty of Arts at ICU were asked to respond to an email questionnaire on faith and learning integration in their classes. After the ELP coordinator announced the possibility of participating in the research to the ACU faculty, I distributed the questionnaire and consent form to the seven instructors there via email. For ICU, the Dean forwarded my email invitation along with the questionnaire and consent form to relevant lecturers. I later sent a reminder email, followed by a final invitation to participate in the study. In the end, four volunteers from each university completed and returned the questionnaire. At ACU this number represents just over half (57 percent) of the potential faculty; for ICU, I did not receive a final statistic, but believe this represents one third of the potential EFL instructors. Volunteers were asked to return the questionnaire either by email or in hard copy, in order to allow for more anonymity. Five respondents replied by email with Word files, but three at ACU mailed me their questionnaires, which they had printed out and completed by hand. I then compiled all the responses into one “data at a glance” summary for each question on the questionnaire, for easier analysis. In analyzing the data received, I used the “data analysis spiral” that Perry (2011, p. 161) describes, reviewing participants’ responses, reflecting on and organizing them, noting major themes and possible relationships, and then drew some conclusions.

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From the information supplied in their responses, all eight participants reported they were Christians and hold Master’s degrees relevant to teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). At ACU, one also had a linguistics Ph.D. and another was completing a doctorate in education. At ICU, all respondents were Indonesian and Indonesian was their first language (though one noted she also spoke Korean), while at ACU they were all American, with English as their native tongue (though one noted he also spoke Swedish). There were five women (two at ICU and thee at ACU) and three men (two at ICU and one at ACU). Three ICU instructors said they were in the 26–35 age bracket and one in the 46–55 age group. In contrast, three ACU participants said they were in the 46–55 age bracket and one declared she was “over 55.” A distinction was thus clear in the respondents from each school, as ICU participants were generally younger. Given the small number of participants (who nonetheless represent a good portion of faculty from each participating program), data analysis here is descriptive and largely qualitative, as will be evident in the next section. It aims to answer the research questions and to offer potential examples of successes and challenges in faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL.

Findings The data analysis produced findings for each of the four research questions, related to: (1) whether faith and learning integration is taking place, and if so, how; (2) the sources and resources participants report using; (3) benefits or challenges participants perceive in terms of faith and learning integration in their teaching; and (4) their previous or desired training in faith integration.

Is Faith and Learning Integration Taking Place? And if So, How? Answers to the first research question were provided in participants’ responses in sections 1 and 2 of the questionnaire, describing their experience with faith and learning integration. Three main themes and several important points emerged. Section 1 involved the eight participants’ ratings for five statements about faith and learning integration. The prompt asked respondents to note their agreement with each statement on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree) to gauge faculty’s perception of and experience with faith and learning integration. The results are reported in Table 8.1. First, participants clearly reported that faith and learning integration is important in their teaching. Table 8.1 indicates the average response at each school and, overall (among all eight respondents), participants’ agreement with the importance of integration (statement 1) was 5 across the board, suggesting faith and learning integration is taking place in participants’ classes, despite slight variation in individual responses. Among ACU instructors, for example, one rated

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TABLE 8.1 Participants’ responses

Statement on Faith and Learning Integration

ACU

ICU

Overall

1. Faith integration is important in my teaching. 2. I make an effort to integrate my faith and my ESL/EFL teaching in my classes. 3. My university values faith integration. 4. My university encourages faith integration in its classes/ courses (including mine). 5. I would like more training in order to integrate my faith and my teaching more.

5 5.25

5 5

5 5.125

5.75 5

6 4.75

5.875 4.875

5.25

5.75

5.5

this a 4, two a 5, and one a 6. Of the four ICU lecturers, two rated statement 1 a 4 and two a 6. Similarly, for statement 2, on their effort to integrate their faith and their teaching, participants showed a high level of agreement, demonstrating that faith integration, as they understand it, was taking place in their classes. The responses to statements 3 and 4 revealed participants’ perceptions of their school’s priority for faith-learning integration. For statement 3, all ICU instructors agreed in rating this a 6; at ACU, one instructor rated it a 5 and the other three a 6, indicating integration is a high value. Participants’ level of agreement decreased, however, for statement 4 on whether their university encourages such integration in its courses, including the participants’. This average was 4.875 overall. Individual responses showed that one ICU instructor categorized this statement a 2, which is fairly low, one rated it a 5, and two a 6; while at ACU one ranked this a 4, two a 5, and one a 6. It appears participants generally viewed integration as key at their universities, but perhaps felt that it was less encouraged within their particular ESL/EFL classes. For statement 5, 75 percent of the participants (three at each school) gave this a level 6 agreement, the highest possible, while one at ACU assessed this a 3, and one at ICU a 5. One ACU professor seemed to feel that further training was not a priority, while all other participants clearly expressed a desire for more training. Despite some variation, this summary revealed overall straightforward agreement among participants that faith and learning integration was important to them and their universities, was taking place in their ESL/EFL classes, and most would like more training in it. Second, beyond the responses to statements in section 1, the analysis of participants’ answers and descriptions in section 2 further revealed that faith and learning integration was taking place in their ESL/EFL classes at ACU and ICU; yet, in answer to the how question, a variety of responses was the norm, stipulating that there is no one overarching method. Several instructors indicated that, in their view, they used indirect approaches, through various activities in class:

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I’m not sure how to do it besides being an encourager of the faith and by praying with students at times in class. (Sarah,3 ACU) Faith integration is usually done indirectly, for example: I open my classes with a prayer. Some topics from the books we use can also be used to discuss about Christian faith/values. (Robert, ICU) Additional specific answers to how participants go about faith and learning integration are outlined in Table 8.2, which summarizes six approaches listed by more than one participant who wrote these methods in their questionnaire responses. Table 8.2 corroborates participants’ earlier reports (in Table 8.1) that they made efforts to integrate faith and learning in their classes but also offers illustrative comments and examples, reflecting not only indirect, but also an often eclectic list of strategies. One instructor from each university provided very detailed responses. The ICU instructor noted that she was new to the university the semester the data were collected. Part of her response was as follows: In my academic writing classes . . . I gave my students some questions . . . for them to write an essay. For instance, once I posited a question about whether . . . latecomers should [be] considered absent (not allowed to sign the attendance list). This . . . was given in the hope that students would reflect upon their and others’ lives . . . As . . . expected, many . . . stated their disagreement with the rule. They posited various reasons . . . Jakarta’s massive and unpredictable traffic jams . . . the distance from their house to this university. (Rachel, ICU) Rachel explained that she challenged students on their thinking and motives, concluding that not all students would accept her view, yet she had at least given them “a point to think about.” The other elaborative response was from Susi (ACU), who offered examples from two courses. She noted, for example, that in her pronunciation class she taught students how to pray, “giving them common phrases and vocabulary on a handout . . . to help them to integrate into the English-speaking Christian community and be able to contribute well.” Another example: I do a solidly-linguistic English phonetics introduction for the students at the start of the . . . course (using specially-prepared materials . . .), so they can fit everything they learn into a well-integrated whole, and know where sounds sit in relation to other sounds, what makes them the same/different.

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TABLE 8.2 Participants’ approaches to integration

Approach to Integration

ACU Participants

ICU Participants

Illustrative Comments/ Examples

Prayer

Samuel, Susi, Sarah

Robert

Using readings on Christian themes

Samuel, Susi, Stephanie

Ruth

Materials

Stephanie

Ruth

Developing critical thinking skills

Samuel, Susi

Rachel

Positive attitude

Sarah, Susi

Ruth, Reuben

Sharing life experiences

————

Ruth, Reuben

We begin class with prayer usually. (Samuel, ACU) I teach students how to pray. (Susi, ACU) Introducing readings . . . with Christian subject matter. (Samuel, ACU) [Using] the reading passage that I can relate to the faith. (Ruth, ICU) Materials. (Stephanie, ACU) I’m trying to use the material from the textbook and . . . relate it with my faith. (Ruth, ICU) Get students to think critically about their faith. (Samuel, ACU) Posing reflective questions . . . to challenge them to see their own motives. (Rachel, ICU) . . . to develop good discipleship of the mind is an important part of my course. (Susi, ACU) Being an encourager of the faith. (Sarah, ACU) Through my attitude in the classroom. (Ruth) Sharing my life experiences. (Ruth, ICU) I shared my successful achievements. (Reuben)

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I use this also to “ooh” and “aah” them with God’s creation of language, our physiology that enables us to do such amazing feats, and how intricately patterned God’s universe is . . . They explore the roof of their mouths, the vibration of their vocal folds, experiment to find how the air gets out for [n] even though the mouth is closed, etc. They are amazed to hear that vocal folds open and close hundreds of times per second when we speak . . . (Susi, ACU) Next, Susi listed an upper-level speaking course, writing that students may not be used to seeing subtleties or ambiguities, and, “They may not offer . . . very compelling support, and aren’t used to ‘arguing for’ a position or answering the ‘why’ questions. ELP faculty try to push students in these ways . . .” (Susi, ACU). In both contexts, developing students’ critical thinking was reported as an important element in faith-learning integration for several participants. The third key theme also relates to the how question, and is that values and relationships are important to faith and learning integration as understood by ACU and ICU participants: I . . . behave in accordance with Christian values, e.g., patient, caring, forgiving, giving [a] second chance, etc. (Reuben, ICU) [Integration] makes me closer to my students since they know that I care about their lives not only their academic[s]. (Ruth, ICU) On occasion in the middle of class I have stopped and prayed for a student as something big comes to light through what we were doing . . . (modeling prayer/care). (Susi, ACU) Susi’s perspective on prayer here goes beyond a ritual to indicate that she valued her relationship with her students, and viewed them as spiritual beings, as Smith (2009) describes. Participants also declared that their objectives in integration are relational: The purpose is to equip my students to learn about life, faith and God. And . . . to let them know what their lives purposes [sic]. In short, the purpose is to give guidance to students so that they can focus on what they’re studying and glorify God with it. (Ruth, ICU)

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To motivate the students and show that they are cared [for]/appreciated. (Reuben, ICU) Stephanie (ACU) also hoped to build “student confidence in class participation.” Comments here and in Table 8.2 signal that faith and learning integration was taking place in participants’ classes, using a variety of approaches, and emphasizing values and relationships.

What Sources/Resources Do Instructors Report Using in Integrating Faith and Learning? Participants’ responses to several questions answered research question two, and a list of seven sources or resources noted by more than one participant is provided in Table 8.3. The overarching theme here was, again, that there is not one particular source or resource instructors use, but rather various ones that they make use of in their classes, connected to the approaches above. Although two ICU lecturers (Robert and Rachel) wrote in one place that they did not use any specific materials for integration, one from ACU (Sarah) said she used Scripture, and two at ACU (Susi and Samuel) reported using materials that they had developed: I supplement our textbooks with various readings, articles, and handouts of my own; pertaining to Religion, Ethics, Theology, and Christian thought. (Samuel, ACU) Textbooks were also important to most participants, and seemingly a springboard for integration: I use my textbook . . . but there are no additional materials that help me to deal with [the] faith integration part. (Rachel, ICU) In responding about specific resources or activities, Stephanie (ACU) noted using “visits from other faculty” while Ruth (ICU) mentioned “readings, discussion, lectures and presentation in my class . . . According to the class’ needs.” Further resources included “lists of prompts for essays” (Samuel, ACU) and “music” (Sarah, ACU). One instructor commented: I don’t use a lot of media . . . But sometimes I use some scene from [an] American drama/movie to show some particular thing. . . . I used Modern Family . . . about mispronunciation that can lead to misunderstanding . . . and Teacher’s Hope movie to show . . . how writing can change people. (Ruth, ICU)

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TABLE 8.3 Participants’ sources/resources for integration

Source or Resource

ACU Participants

ICU Participants

Illustrative Comments/ Examples

Discussion

Stephanie, Susi, Sarah

Ruth, Reuben, Rachel

Textbooks

Samuel, Susi, Stephanie, Sarah

Ruth, Reuben, Rachel

Readings

Samuel, Stephanie, Sarah

Ruth, Rachel

Lectures

Samuel, Susi, Stephanie, Sarah

Ruth

Vocabulary

Stephanie, Susi

————

Pronunciation materials

Stephanie, Susi

————

Websites

Stephanie

Reuben

Discussion materials. (Stephanie, ACU) Group discussion. (Reuben, ICU) Writings and discussions. (Rachel, ICU) I use my textbook in my class. (Rachel, ICU) Finishing the textbook exercises. (Reuben, ICU) We use . . . textbook models and apply them to Religious/Ethical topics. (Samuel, ACU) Various readings . . . on Christian themes. (Samuel, ACU) I use readings. (Ruth, ICU) Various . . . lectures on Christian themes. (Samuel, ACU) Lectures and presentations in my class. (Ruth, ICU) Vocabulary materials. (Stephanie, ACU) Lists of theological words, etc. (Susi, ACU) Pronunciation materials. (Stephanie, ACU) Specially-prepared [pron.] materials. (Susi, ACU) Practice from websites. (Reuben, ICU)

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Susi (ACU) mentioned a “lack of materials,” and elsewhere Samuel (ACU) noted that “other teachers have been impressed and asked for copies of [his] materials.” A wide range of sources is thus capitalized upon in these classes, with textbooks and other resources as staples, but there seems to be a need for specific materials for ESL/EFL faith and learning integration.

What Benefits/Challenges do Instructors Perceive in Faith and Learning Integration? Although one instructor (Robert, ICU) did not respond to the questions about benefits and challenges in faith and learning integration, the others did, communicating several points. First, the perceived benefits are for both students and instructors; for the former, Samuel (ACU) noted that integration “appears to engage . . . students’ interests” and forces them “to examine, articulate, and defend their beliefs.” Ruth (ICU) declared, “students can see themselves in many sides (spiritual, academic, etc.) through the integration class.” Reuben (ICU) stated, “The students can feel that I care about their success.” Sarah (ACU) wrote that, through integration, “students grow in faith,” while Susi (ACU) noted students’ “ability to integrate in English-speaking Christian contexts and contribute” and their “ability to present more compelling arguments . . . relevant to faith.” Stephanie (ACU) wrote that integration is “Motivating to student[s],” helping them prepare for other classes. One comment noted a perceived benefit to teachers: “The main benefit is that I know my students better. I . . . see their characteristics through their writings . . .” (Rachel, ICU). Ruth (ICU) declared that faith-learning integration “makes the atmosphere of the class better and more relax[ed].” Participants thus noted several benefits, from academic to religious, to integration for students, as well as better teacher-student relationships. Yet, second, doing faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL classes is reportedly not without challenges. Two respondents did not answer this question, and Reuben (ICU) simply wrote, “None.” According to other respondents, most of the challenges were in terms of teaching; some concerned general pedagogical issues, such as having “both undergraduate and graduate students” in classes (Stephanie, ACU) and “students’ lack of motivation” (Rachel, ICU). Other teaching challenges related to faith and learning integration—classes themselves, teachers and students, and the skills involved. Sara (ACU) noted, for example, that in her internship class, it “is easy to integrate faith & learning . . . It’s harder to do in English class.” Specific to ICU is this challenge: For me the challenges could be how to touch non-Christian students without upset[ing] them/mak[ing] them uncomfortable to be in my class. And . . . the biggest challenge for me is my own spiritual growth, so that I can share with my students. (Ruth, ICU)

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Two instructors wrote about problems with students: Often students just “go through the motions” without honestly engaging with the material. (Samuel, ACU) I think the challenges for my students are it’s not easy to open their heart and themselves to the stranger in the class. (Ruth, ICU) Susi (ACU) wrote here, “These are skill-building courses, rather than ‘content’ courses—so I suspect they may need a unique conceptualization of what faith integration looks like.” These responses reveal that, as the participants understand it, Christian faith and learning integration involves the whole person, as well as the whole class—the teacher and the students. It seems that, to be done well, faith and learning integration requires work, and as Ruth pointed out, it means a Christian teacher needs to be aware and growing spiritually to teach well. Third, there did not seem to be much feedback for participants on faith-learning integration in their classes, although all ACU instructors made positive comments regarding feedback. Samuel (ACU) noted, “Student evaluations [are] consistently high,” and Stephanie (ACU) declared, “They really like the materials and feel more confident in their participation skills.” Susi (ACU) wrote that students are “pretty impressed with God’s creation of language.” Yet, concerning integration, Ruth (ICU) said, “So far, I don’t get any feedback regarding . . . faith integration.” Rachel (ICU) declared, “Since I did not explicitly state my activity as faith integration, so far there is no[t] any feedback regarding this . . . in my class.” One explanation is that courses at ICU and ACU apparently do not incorporate integration into their syllabi—three respondents (1 ACU, 2 ICU). Susi (ACU) noted, “I don’t think I explicitly tie it to theological/integration course objectives in the syllabi in ESL.” At ICU, Ruth said, “we don’t make our own syllabus, the coordinator does.” Fourth, in response to a question about barriers to faith integration, those at ICU provided no responses. At ACU, Samuel noted students’ lack of “necessary background knowledge,” Stephanie pointed out the “time constraint,” and the others raised methodology issues: “The ‘what does it look like’ question” (Susi, ACU); “Not sure how to do it in ESL classes” (Sarah, ACU). These responses demonstrated that challenges in faith and learning integration are related to teaching, what teachers and students bring to the classroom, and the time and other usual constraints ESL/EFL students, teachers, and programs often experience.

What Training in Faith and Learning Integration Do Instructors Have and/or Desire? Section 2.C asked participants about any training they had received in faith and learning integration. One at ICU did not respond, and two (Rachel—ICU and

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Sarah—ACU) checked that they had not received any specific faith and learning integration training. The two other ICU instructors noted that they had participated in church training, including “training that sounded like faith and learning integration” (Reuben, ICU). It seems ICU lecturers so far do not report having received much training in doing faith and learning integration in academic contexts. At ACU, Stephanie noted “faculty orientation” and “seminars” constituted her training. Samuel (ACU) said that he had attended a 1-week “faculty integration seminar” and “2 Spiritual Formation workshops.” Finally, Susi (ACU) reported that she had attended some talks on integration as part of faculty orientation, plus occasional Table Talk luncheons for faculty, and that she had participated in a small group one year with readings, discussions, and experiences. Like Robert and Reuben at ICU, Susi (ACU) also declared that she had received general training through her graduate Christian fellowship. In short, several ACU faculty had received some training in faith-learning integration for academic contexts, while the participating ICU faculty did not mention any specific orientation, seminars, or workshops. Instructors from both schools, however, recounted that some personal experiences or training were relevant to them for faith and learning integration. As for training they would like to receive in faith-learning integration for ESL/EFL, one respondent at each school did not answer, and Stephanie (ACU) wrote, “Not sure.” Other answers included “How to share the Good News to students from various backgrounds (race, religions)” (Robert, ICU); “Training on how to combine faith integration and course syllabus” (Rachel, ICU); “How [a] famous Christian campus . . . conducted this faith and learning integration” (Reuben, ICU); and Sarah (ACU) said, “it would be good if the entire dept. could do this together.” Susi (ACU) wrote: 1. Being part of . . . faculty events designed to promote integration . . . 2. It’d be great if someone . . . could come . . . and brainstorm . . . what this might look like for ESL/skill-development courses—both in conceptualizing it, and in thinking of specific classroom applications. Questionnaire responses revealed that participants would appreciate training in how to combine faith and learning integration and their syllabi, how it might look in ESL/EFL courses, including specific classroom applications, and how faculty could do this together. These answers also corroborated the high level of interest most participants indicated earlier on desiring more training in ESL/EFL faith and learning integration (statement 5 in Table 8.1).

Discussion and Potential Implications Based on these findings, the following points might be considered for the four areas addressed.

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ESL/EFL Faith and Learning Integration in Practice The summary and examples from participating teachers above reveal that faith and learning integration is indeed reported to be taking place in ESL/EFL classes at ACU and ICU, yet its practice seems to vary widely and it is reportedly carried out to varied extents. •







Reflecting the range of approaches to faith and learning integration evident in the literature (for example, Beers & Beers, 2008; VanZanten, 2011), such integration in participants’ classes involves different activities, sources, and approaches. Connecting these findings to Rosebrough’s (2002) point, the data suggest that most of the faith and learning integration that participants described deals with teaching, the day-to-day in-class dynamics, rather than with the discipline of ESL/EFL. As introduced earlier, the worldview faith and learning integration advanced by Holmes (1987) posits four aspects: a holistic, exploratory, and diverse approach, which also reflects and promotes Christian attitudes, beliefs, and values. There are connections to each of these in excerpts from various participants’ responses; for example, where Susi (ACU) referred to her phonetic introduction aiming to help students “fit everything . . . into a wellintegrated whole” (holistic) and how her students “explore the roof of their mouths, the vibration of their vocal folds, experiment to find how the air gets out . . .” etc. (exploratory), but also diversity in the range of activities and sources that participants report using in integration in their classes, and a focus on clearly “Christian values” (Reuben, ICU) and attitudes, as participants in both contexts emphasized concern for and relationships with their students. Although these emphases are on teaching, some affirmation of Rosebrough’s (2002) discipline perspectives on faith and learning integration were also evident in Samuel’s (ACU) use of readings, discussions, etc. on Christian thought in ESL classes, and several of Susi’s (ACU) comments regarding her pronunciation course materials and her thoughts on the discipleship of the mind. While these examples are admittedly few in the current data, such instances may offer a start to possibly connect the discipline of ESL/EFL education to Harris’ (2004) worldview approach and Heie and Wolfe’s (1987) overarching schema that address Christian commonalities, methods, and values in faith and learning integration. The present study also corroborates Beers and Beers’ (2008) conclusion that integration ranges in its explicitness within various disciplines. Overall, those at ICU reported using more implicit, indirect approaches, for example, while some participants at ACU noted more explicit faith and learning integration in their ESL classes. Several participants discussed critical thinking skills. Perhaps one way to emphasize these would be to connect more explicit “discipline”

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understandings of language and language learning from Christian perspectives to specific skills and teaching in these contexts. Smith (2006) writes: Reflection from within a particular curriculum area can enrich and extend our grasp of what a Christian worldview might be. This does not only mean that we need a Christian view of each discipline; we need Christian work in more areas that focuses on the pedagogy and not just on the content of particular subject areas. (p. 149) As Smith (2006) suggests, language teachers’ faith and learning integration involves both the content of our disciplines and our pedagogy, and can perhaps expand our worldview. Yet, the overall results here imply that EFL/EFL education may require more thinking and work in ESL/EFL faith and learning integration in practice in order to assist Christian teachers in understanding the underlying assumptions (along the lines of Harris, 2004) and possible schema (Heie & Wolfe, 1987) that may be relevant and applied in their language teaching. As Susi (ACU) pointed out, ESL/EFL classes are usually focused on building language skills, so they “may need a unique conceptualization of what faith integration looks like,” compared with other academic courses. Yet, as Smith (2006) suggests, such work seems to require a focus on the conceptualization of both pedagogy and content. One brief discipline view is presented by Haskett (2009) in a Christian perspective on modern languages. Haskett argues that, by starting with a biblical view of language, we recognize that some aspects of God’s nature were imparted to human beings at creation, including “aesthetic appreciation and verbal expression,” both of which are “involved in language study” (p. 316). Susi’s pronunciation and speaking course examples seem to reflect this interpretation. As “language’s primary function . . . is to convey meaning,” Haskett (2009) states: Thus any study of language from a Christian perspective leads us to consider the very nature of God as a point of departure, for the verbal expression of God’s character has come to us through Christ, the living Word, the perfect expression of God’s nature. (pp. 316–317) Haskett thus supports the role of language study in the Christian liberal arts and outlines issues and topics for basic, intermediate, and advanced levels of language proficiency in modern languages in Christian university education. Although she teaches French, there are clear connections with ESL/EFL learning and teaching at places such as ACU and ICU.

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Sources/Resources for Integration According to participants, sources for ESL/EFL faith and learning integration seem largely limited to instructors’ creative use of their texts and other resources, plus any other materials they adapt or create. Two points here: •



Some writings have recently appeared on language from a Christian viewpoint and may be of interest to the participants and others involved in ESL/EFL. Articles include Robison’s (2011) philosophical and theological consideration and Lessard-Clouston’s (2012) outline of biblical themes related to language learning and teaching. Book-length discussions of such issues also exist in Poythress’ (2009) “God-centered approach” to language and Pasquale and Bierma’s (2011) concise “biblical vision for language in society.” Such perspectives on language and their potential for TESOL are important because this study has suggested there is a lack of materials for faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL teaching. Perhaps participants and others could adapt or use ideas, excerpts, or summaries from these recent publications in discussing their themes and visions with their ESL/EFL students or teachers interested in further integration training. Another potential way to address the perceived lack of sources for ESL/EFL faith and learning integration might be for instructors to create a wiki or other website where they could share materials (for integration) and teaching experiences (both successes and challenges). In this study, Samuel and Susi mentioned handouts, readings, and activities they have used in ESL, and these would likely be of interest to instructors at ICU and elsewhere. Adapting material from one context and using it in another requires work, yet sharing materials might assist others to avoid reinventing the wheel. Many Christian ESL/EFL instructors could then benefit from insights and materials that others might contribute. Also, developing means for Christian ESL/EFL teachers to share their materials might encourage more integration in classes, as well as offer support to those who are learning how to integrate their faith and their teaching.

Reported Benefits/Challenges Participants outlined important benefits to integration, especially for students, yet they also experienced some challenges in carrying it out in their courses. Reported benefits to both students and teachers included knowing themselves more completely and experiencing a better learning atmosphere. Perceived challenges may require attending to two issues. First, at this point, ESL/EFL syllabi for courses in both contexts reportedly neglect any mention of faith and learning integration, though it is valued at both institutions and something instructors report actively making efforts to incorporate into their teaching. Perhaps explicitly addressing

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this lack would provide teachers with an opportunity to discuss faith and learning integration with their students and colleagues, and thus enable instructors, second, to receive direct, constructive feedback about faith and learning integration in their ESL/EFL teaching. As a reviewer of this chapter noted, one difficulty with a survey of this type is that “faith-learning integration” is interpreted to refer to a wide range of activities (see, for example, Table 8.2), yet it is not clear if the perceived benefits and challenges here flow from integration per se, or are related to the specific practices participants report using. While this is true, in a preliminary study such as this, we nonetheless learn teachers’ perceptions of some benefits and challenges of faith and learning integration. Finally, if integration is a “foundational distinctive of a Christian . . . education,” as Beers and Beers (2008, p. 51) argue, it behooves us to create a deeper appreciation for and knowledge of its benefits and challenges in ESL/EFL, which could in turn help further develop the teaching and discipline aspects discussed earlier.

Training in Faith and Learning Integration Many participating faculty have reportedly not received much training in integration, although three participants at ACU listed some experiences. Apart from one professor at ACU, all other participants indicated a clear desire to obtain more training in integrating their faith and their teaching better. Such training might address integration and course syllabi, as Rachel (ICU) suggested, and involve ESL/EFL faculty working together, as Sarah and Susi (both ACU) encouraged. Beyond events promoting faith integration generally,4 some focus on specific classroom applications for ESL/EFL (as Susi requested), would be appreciated by instructors. Surprisingly, to my knowledge, there is no detailed discussion in the literature on faith and learning integration of how to carry out faculty training in this area. Participants’ suggestions here might be considered by those offering any such future training. Related to training, the ACU faculty here were generally older than the participating ICU faculty but also reported more specific mention of materials and other activities they used in faith and learning integration in their classes, beyond the indirect approaches seemingly common at ICU. Perhaps, as ICU faculty gain more experience with faith and learning integration and have access to seminars or other training, they will supplement their indirect approaches. This would be something to consider in a follow-up study.

Future Research For future research building on this investigation, several points are noteworthy. Neglected here, students’ perspectives on faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL would be a complementary choice for research. Also, in working with

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instructors, it would be useful to collect more information about their education, training, and teaching experience, as participants’ experience at Christian schools (or lack of it) appeared to impact their knowledge of and approaches to integration. Such further background information about teachers might also help to contextualize their practices. Also, an interview study would enable researchers to clarify participants’ responses and follow up on salient issues at the time of data collection, something that was not possible with this survey. Finally, an observational study documenting teachers’ use of specific materials or resources with students in classes could expand our knowledge of what exists and what might be helpful for faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL contexts.

Conclusion There are admittedly limitations to this preliminary research. First, the findings represent the faith and learning integration of a small number (eight) of volunteers in two contexts, but are not representative of all instructors at these schools. Second, the findings reflect reported data, where respondents stated what they do in their courses, but there was no observation of classes. Finally, the study only addresses teachers’ perspectives. However, such limitations do not detract from the purpose of the research, to provide baseline data on faith integration in ESL/EFL. This chapter introduced Christian faith and learning integration and described a preliminary study of it in ESL/EFL instruction at two universities. Integration is reportedly taking place at ACU and ICU, in various ways and to different extents. It is also clear that resources for this integration are largely limited to those that instructors produce themselves, and thus seem to be in need of development and distribution. As respondents noted, they believe there are clear challenges in carrying out faith-learning integration in ESL/EFL, yet they also perceive significant benefits for themselves and their students. I hope the examples outlined here will help participants (and others in Christian higher education) to reflect on their teaching practices while also offering them glimpses into what others are doing in faith and learning integration in ESL/EFL classes.

Acknowledgments I am grateful to the participants for sharing their experiences in faith and learning integration. I also appreciate the editors’ and reviewer’s constructive and detailed feedback on earlier versions of this chapter.

Notes 1. While aware of some Islamic perspectives (for example, Ali, 1999), the focus here is on Christian institutions. 2. Some ICU lecturers responded during their summer semester, which begins before ACU’s spring semester ends.

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3. All names are pseudonyms. 4. According to the Dean (personal communication), seminars on faith integration are now available to faculty at ICU.

References Ali, H. M. B. M. (1999). Second language teaching and learning from an Islamic perspective. Muslim Education Quarterly, 16(2), 47–54. Badley, K. (2009). Clarifying “Faith-Learning Integration”: Essentially contested concepts and the concept-conception distinction. Journal of Education and Christian Belief, 13(1), 7–17. Beers, S., & Beers, J. (2008). Integration of faith and learning. In S. T. Beers (Ed.), The soul of a Christian university: A field guide for educators (pp. 51–73). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press. Beers, S. T. (Ed.). (2008). The soul of a Christian university: A field guide for educators. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press. Boyd, D. (2006). Faith-learning integration with adult students. Intégrité: A Faith and Learning Journal, 5(1), 16–29. Cosgrove, M. (2006). Foundations of Christian thought: Faith, learning, and the Christian worldview. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel. Dessart, J., & Gambill, B. (Eds.). (2009). The word in the English classroom: Best practices of faith integration. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press. Dockery, D. S. (2008). Renewing minds: Serving church and society through Christian higher education. Nashville, TN: B & H Academic. Dockery, D. S., & Thornbury, G. A. (Eds.). (2002). Shaping a Christian worldview: The foundations of Christian higher education. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman. Dörnyei, Z. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. Downey, D. E. D., & Porter, S. E. (Eds.). (2009). Christian worldview and the academic disciplines: Crossing the academy. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. Eaton, P. W. (2011). Engaging the culture, changing the world: The Christian university in a postChristian world. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity. Harris, R. A. (2004). The integration of faith and learning: A worldview approach. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books. Hasker, W. (1992). Faith-learning integration: An overview. Christian Scholar’s Review, 21, 234–248. Haskett, K. (2009). A Christian perspective on modern languages. In D. E. D. Downey, & S. E. Porter (Eds.), Christian worldview and the academic disciplines: Crossing the academy (pp. 315–323). Eugene, OR: Pickwick. Heie, H., & Wolfe, D. L. (Eds.). (1987). The reality of Christian leaning: Strategies for faithdiscipline integration. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Holmes, A. E. (1987). The idea of a Christian college (Revised ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Jacobsen, D., & Jacobsen, R. H. (2004). Scholarship and Christian faith: Enlarging the conversation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Lessard-Clouston, M. (2012). Seven biblical themes for language learning. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 48(2), 172–179. Litfin, D. (2004). Conceiving the Christian college. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

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Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Pasquale, M., & Bierma, N. L. K. (2011). Every tribe and tongue: A biblical vision for language in society. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. Perry, Jr., F. L. (2011). Research in applied linguistics: Becoming a discerning consumer (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. Poe, H. L. (2004). Christianity in the academy: Teaching at the intersection of faith and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Poythress, V. S. (2009). In the beginning was the word: Language – a God-centered approach. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. Purgason, K. B. (Ed.). (2010). English language teaching in theological contexts. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Robison, R. (2011). Language from a Christian perspective reconsidered. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 12, 10–28. Rosebrough, T. R. (2002). Christian worldview and teaching. In D. S. Dockery, & G. A. Thornbury (Eds.), Shaping a Christian worldview: The foundations of Christian higher education (pp. 280–297). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman. Smith, D. I. (2006). Does God dwell in the detail? How faith affects (language) teaching processes. In R. Edlin, & J. Ireland (Eds.), Engaging the culture: Christians at work in education (pp. 131–152). Blacktown, NSW: National Institute for Christian Education. Smith, D. I. (2009). On viewing learners as spiritual beings: Implications for language educators. CELEA News, 1(1), 5–11. Smith, D. I., & Smith, J. K. A. (Eds.). (2011). Teaching and Christian practices: Reshaping faith and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. VanZanten, S. (2011). Joining the mission: A guide for (mainly) new college faculty. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

9 PUTTING BELIEFS INTO PRACTICE IN A CHURCH-RUN ADULT ESOL MINISTRY Bradley Baurain UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LINCOLN (USA)

Adult immigrant learners studying English in the US face numerous challenges (Auerbach, 2002; Center for Applied Linguistics, 2010; Mathews-Aydinli, 2008; McHugh, Gelatt, & Fix, 2007; Morgan, 2002; Schlusberg & Mueller, 1995; Wu & Carter, 2000). They strive to learn the language in order to find a job, read the newspaper, and talk to their neighbors. Without English, trips to the grocery store and doctor’s office can be frustrating. One source estimates that there are at least 12.2 million such adult English language learners in the US (McHugh et al., 2007, p. 6). They enroll in English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) classes and tutoring programs run by colleges and universities; federal, state, and local government agencies; community-based literacy and refugee organizations; and religious denominations, churches, and other faith-based charitable organizations. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to explore how volunteer Christian ESOL tutors put their religious beliefs into practice in a church-run adult ESOL ministry. Data were gathered about one church-run ESOL program as an avenue for probing the applied dynamics of how religious beliefs might be translated into words, actions, and patterns of behavior. The significance of this study is found, in part, in the near-total lack of published research on such programs. It is also expected that churches running such programs, as well as comparable adult ESOL programs in other contexts, might benefit and improve their services through reflection upon this research. In addition, putting beliefs into practice is an intrinsically meaningful issue, one not limited to organized religion or education, and one with which all reflective persons find themselves engaged. This study is motivated in part by a dearth of research into church-run ESOL programs. Though it is relatively common knowledge that urban churches ran Sunday Schools for teaching English to nineteenth-century immigrants, and

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though even a casual Internet search turns up hundreds of current examples of such programs throughout North America, and though these programs have been examined in scattered Master’s theses and doctoral dissertations (such as Kristjánsson, 2003), there is a conspicuous lack of published academic research in this area. Concerning adult ESOL education in general, Mathews-Aydinli (2008) turns up, since 2000, just forty-one studies, including twenty-three published articles, and not one of the published articles deals with church-run ESOL programs. This is likely due in part to the undertheorized and unstudied nature of adult education in general (Mathews-Aydinli, 2008; Morgan, 2002). Complicating the lack of empirical research is the fact that published commentary by non-religious academics tends to be critical of Christian ESOL teachers. For example, such teachers working overseas with religious organizations have been linked with American neoimperialism, accused of dishonesty and unprofessionalism, charged with inappropriate or manipulative proselytizing, and assumed to be epistemologically unable to function in a postmodern intellectual environment (Edge, 2003; Johnston & Varghese, 2006; Pennycook & CoutandMarin, 2003; Varghese & Johnston, 2007; Wong & Canagarajah, 2009). Addressing these concerns is beyond the scope of this chapter, but they are noted as relevant background perspectives from the published professional literature.

Framing the Study Despite the lack of published research on church-run ESOL programs, this study can be framed and contextualized in several ways. First, community-based ESOL is a parallel context and provides relevant themes for comparison (Auerbach, 2002; Center for Applied Linguistics, 2010; Morgan, 2002; TESOL, 2003). Both community-based and church-run ESOL programs mainly serve adults, mostly with volunteers (Schlusberg & Mueller, 1995). The term “volunteer” was once associated with “religious do-gooders,” but that is no longer the case (Wu & Carter, 2000, p. 16). The adults served in such programs are highly diverse; in the US, they “range in age from 16 to 90-plus, in educational background from no formal schooling to PhD holders, and in native language literacy levels from advanced to pre-literate” (Mathews-Aydinli, 2008, p. 199). The coordinator of the church-run ESOL ministry studied in this chapter viewed a local literacy organization as the most applicable model for program structure and volunteer training. As in Auerbach (2002), the church recognized that adult ESOL learners desire to play an active role in community life, beginning with an ability to conduct casual English conversations with coworkers and neighbors. Second, the contemporary academic thread on education and spirituality, which is broader than this study’s focus on religious beliefs, suggests themes helpful in interpreting the data in this study (Palmer, 1993, 2003; Tisdell, 2001, 2003). Palmer (2003) defines “spirituality” as “the eternal human yearning to be connected with something larger than our own egos” (p. 377). Within the specific context of

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adult education, one study found that participants conceived of spirituality as including “the further development of self-awareness, a sense of interconnectedness, and a relationship to a higher power” (Tisdell, 2001, p. 2). On the relevance of spirituality to research in adult education, Tisdell comments: Spirituality is one of the ways people construct knowledge and meaning. It works in consort with the affective, the rational or cognitive, and the unconscious and symbolic domains. To ignore it, particularly in how it relates to teaching for personal and social transformation, is to ignore an important aspect of human experience and avenue of learning and meaning-making. (p. 5) The most prominent published research study specifically about the role of Christian religious beliefs in TESOL is a qualitative interview study of ten evangelical pre-service undergraduate teachers at two Christian colleges (Johnston & Varghese, 2006; Varghese & Johnston, 2007). This study found that the participant teachers-in-training conceived of their future profession in terms of Christian service, cross-cultural sensitivity, and being an exemplar of Christian faith, and in these ways witnessing holistically to their students. Third, practical ESOL guidebooks have been published by Christians for Christians, and while mostly prescriptive or pragmatic in nature rather than academic or research-driven, these sources also provide relevant perspectives (Burke, 1998; Dickerson & Dow, 1997; Eby, 2003; Moore, 2005). Burke (1998), for example, lists reasons she has observed why churches run ESOL programs, then posits that the motivations may be summarized as: “The church should work with ESOL learners because we, as its members, care about people as individuals and want to help them meet their felt needs” (p. 15). Moore (2005), on the other hand, advocates a more pointedly evangelistic approach: “Volunteer ESOL teachers in church-based ministries impact the world as they demonstrate and share the gospel of Jesus Christ with the students that God has sent to their communities and local ministries” (p. ix). In his manual, the entirety of Chapter 11 is devoted to “Sharing Your Faith With Your Student.”

Research Methodology, Participants, and Data In this qualitative case study, the central research question is: How do volunteer Christian ESOL tutors put their religious beliefs into practice in a church-run adult ESOL ministry? The term “volunteer” indicates tutors or teachers who are not paid or materially compensated for their services. “Church-run” means that a church itself organizes and operates the ESOL program, and that program volunteers are typically members of the congregation or affiliated with the church. This excludes ESOL classes that meet in church buildings but are organized and staffed by other religious or non-religious organizations. The phrase

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“put into practice” was pursued initially through participants’ self-perceptions. How did they describe putting their religious beliefs into action in this program? Their self-descriptions were then correlated with observational data by myself, as the researcher, in order to deepen, interrogate, and further interpret their perspectives. Finally, “religious beliefs” in this study were left unspecified in order to allow participants to identify and define them operationally. For example, the tutor interview questions did not name specific Christian beliefs, but rather inquired into educational domains and experiences (see Appendix). As Hatch (2002) defines it, a case study is characterized by a bounded unit of analysis—in this case, the volunteer tutors in one program—and must be a specific, contextualized phenomenon. Creswell (2007) additionally identifies a case study as an effective means for combining various data sources into a coherent narrative involving descriptions and themes. McKay (2006) gives similar guidelines for the use of qualitative case studies specifically in second language classroom research. The present case study fulfills these descriptions and additionally qualifies as an instrumental case in that it focuses on an issue or concern that it potentially illustrates or illuminates. According to Stake (2005), this term applies: . . . if a particular case is examined mainly to provide insight into an issue or to redraw a generalization. The case is of secondary interest, it plays a supportive role, and it facilitates our understanding of something else. The case still is looked at in depth, its contexts scrutinized and its ordinary activities detailed, but all because this helps us pursue the external interest. (p. 445) In this study, while learning about a church-run adult ESOL program is valuable in and of itself, another compelling motivation for the research is that the case points beyond itself to larger issues of beliefs, values, and practice (Creswell, 2007; Duff, 2008; Stake, 2005). This chapter thus presents a qualitative case study description of volunteer tutors in one church-run adult ESOL program. The main purpose was to explore how the volunteers understood their tutoring in relation to their Christian religious beliefs, as contextualized within the program. The adult ESOL program studied was located in a medium-size Midwestern American city and run by a mediumsize evangelical Protestant church, referred to as Maple Grove Church. I chose an evangelical church mainly because evangelicals are particularly active in using TESOL as a form of ministry (Tennant, 2002; Varghese & Johnston, 2007). I chose what seemed to be a smaller program so that a more in-depth case study could be done of the volunteers and the connections they made between their religious beliefs and their tutoring. Because of the lack of data on church ESOL programs, it is not presently possible to categorize this program as typical or atypical. The primary research participants were the six volunteer tutors in the program, although observation and field notes also included learners, additional occasional

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tutors, church staff, and other members of the congregation. Approval for the study was granted by the researcher’s university, the church’s governing board, and the program coordinator, with both tutors and learners signing informed consent forms. All names in this chapter are pseudonyms. Data were collected over a period of 7 months in 2008–2009. During this time, the researcher attended at least 80 percent of the program’s weekly meetings, as well as a 3-hour training session and a church service at which the ministry was presented to the congregation. Observation and field notes were taken during all events. Since tutoring pairs met in a large room set up in a single U-shaped arrangement of conference tables, it was possible to move from pair to pair quietly observing and making notes. Three of the tutors also participated in voluntary interviews of 40–60 minutes each. Interview questions had been included in a flyer so as to give potential interviewees an opportunity to reflect on them ahead of time (see Appendix). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed using Express Scribe software (www.nch.com.au/scribe/index.html). Member checking was done by providing participants with opportunities to read and offer feedback on their transcripts, as well as on an earlier draft of this chapter (Duff, 2008). All data, including tutoring observation notes, field notes, and interview transcripts, were coded and analyzed with the assistance of an open-source research tool, TAMS (Text Analysis Markup System) Analyzer (http://tamsys.sourceforge. net). Texts were initially coded by tutor and general topic, then codes relevant to the central research question were grouped into larger categories. Categories identified as recurring and significant themes were then analyzed as findings (Creswell, 2007; Hatch, 2002). Triangulation was accomplished by comparing interview transcripts to observation and field notes, as well as by means of member checking. Although the emphasis in the findings is on participants’ perceptions and descriptions, because the data contains both words and actions the data analysis also includes my interpretive correlations between tutors’ words and actions. Member checking on an earlier draft of this chapter provided participants with a direct opportunity to discuss, dispute, or verify these correlations. These strategies helped satisfy Creswell and Miller’s (2000) criterion of validity in qualitative research as “how accurately the account represents participants’ realities of the social phenomena and is credible to them” (pp. 124–125). I was positioned within this project as a participant-observer. I am a TESOL professional and evangelical Christian, but not a member of Maple Grove Church, nor did I have any knowledge of it or its ESOL ministry prior to identifying it as a potential research site. Though I preferred to function in the background as an observer, the church and tutors expected that I would serve as an “expert consultant” and that my research would help improve the program. Since I see reciprocal benefit as a morally desirable component of research, I agreed and offered advice to the program coordinator and tutors when requested, interacted with learners as a language resource, on one occasion filled in as a substitute tutor, and attended the program’s Christmas party.

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Findings Program Profile The Maple Grove Church adult ESOL program placed a strong emphasis on tutors being trained. Training resources included materials from a local literacy organization and references such as Teaching Adults: A Literacy Resource Book (ProLiteracy America, 2003). The volunteers, however, did not regard themselves as “professionals.” They felt inadequate due to their lack of knowledge of grammar and other formal elements of language. None aspired to teach ESOL as a vocation. Rather, they valued ESOL training because it was a tool to ensure they were helping learners. This was perhaps a wise stance given that research has indicated that untrained volunteers can do more harm than good (MathewsAydinli, 2008). The program usually met in a community center near the church. The center belonged to a manufactured home community but was itself built of solid brown brick. The main meeting room featured a dull brown carpet, brown wood paneling, and brown conference tables, with the sameness of color and low-wattage lighting relieved only by windows along the south and west walls and large mirrors on the north and east walls. From an affective point of view, the drab decor and dim lighting made the community center an uninviting place to learn. On the other hand, the fact that the meeting room did not feel like a classroom appeared to help learners perceive the environment as relational. The church volunteers encouraged this relational feeling, as they did not wish to be perceived as classroom teachers or authority figures, but rather as tutors or language helpers. The program’s six main tutors during the time of this study, all of whom had taught in the program before, were white, middle-class, middle-aged, and mostly female; among the adult learners, the regular attendees were Hispanic, economically less well-off, middle-aged, and also mostly female. A typical evening saw six tutors and six learners in attendance. The program met Wednesdays at 7:00 p.m. and began with a warm-up activity or conversation topic for the entire group. By 7:20 p.m., tutoring pairs or clusters had divided up around the room. One pair typically preferred the brighter lights of the community center’s kitchen, while the other pairs used the conference tables in the main meeting room. Though 8:15 p.m. was the scheduled ending time, tutoring often continued until 8:30 p.m. Volunteers tended to linger additional minutes to exchange news and check plans for the following week. Curricular resources employed by the tutors included a mixture of authentic materials (including newspapers and cookbooks) and ESOL textbooks (mainly for grammar and pronunciation). Small whiteboard tablets were a pervasive part of the lessons, even more so than learners’ ubiquitous electronic dictionaries. Tutors and learners constantly wrote and drew on these whiteboard tablets, passing them back and forth as needed. Curricular materials were not religious in nature in

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this program, although it is recognized that there are church-run ESOL ministries that use the Bible as a source of curriculum or have more directly religious content and purposes (Eby, 2003; Moore, 2005). In this case, however, biblical content was observed being used as lesson content on only two occasions by two different tutors. In both instances, a biblical narrative was being used as a reading comprehension passage. The Maple Grove adult learners who attended the program regularly were originally from El Salvador and Mexico. They knew one another well and outside of class they supported one another in learning English, searching for jobs, interacting with the public schools, and other concerns. Many also shared a traditional Catholic religious faith, self-reported as ranging from nominal to serious, which undergirded their friendship. (The fact that the church was evangelical Protestant did not appear to be an issue on either side.) How did the volunteer Christian tutors in the Maple Grove program describe putting their religious beliefs into practice in this adult ESOL ministry? Employing the instrumental case study methodology set forth above, the data were analyzed and constructed into a coherent narrative or interpretation that addressed the central research question. Analyzing and interpreting the data yielded four main themes, in addition to the program profile above.

Emergent Theme: Relationality and Empathy One of the teachers’ primary convictions was that their volunteering centered around relationships, not pedagogy or curriculum. As one said, “Learning happens when you and your students become friends.” Within personal relationships, tutors and learners could come to understand one another, including their religious beliefs and concerns. In Roger’s words, one motivation for teaching was: the friendship aspect . . . students seeing what true Christians are like, what they, how they live, evaluating the love that they express toward them, those kinds of things, and relying on God’s Word for the choices, the everyday life that they live. One relational quality that the tutors consistently linked with their religious beliefs was empathy. They saw empathy as a compassionate understanding of learners’ backgrounds, needs, and motivations. As Anne commented, “We’re all immigrants, it’s just that some of us have been here a little longer.” During a church service at which the program was presented to the congregation, she painted a verbal portrait of the learners, describing their mostly low levels of English proficiency, sketchy educational backgrounds, and personal experiences of homesickness and culture shock as a way of engaging the congregation’s empathy. Several of the adult learners in the program followed up by sharing their personal stories and experiences.

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One way in which the tutors demonstrated empathy in language learning was by making regular use of their limited Spanish, attempts that usually elicited smiles and encouragement from the learners. In those moments, they became the teachers and their tutors became the learners. Roles were reversed and it was the volunteers who stumbled in pronunciation and made halting progress in the grammar and vocabulary of a new language. What I interpreted as their humility in this area—though, when asked, they declined to claim this virtue for themselves—was one factor that helped to establish and maintain an environment of mutual adult respect, as opposed to one in which the help flowed in only one direction. In addition, their efforts were intended to convey a respect for learners’ cultural backgrounds and to model a willingness to make mistakes in the development of communicative competence in Spanish, an example the learners then felt free to follow in English. The tutors’ focus on empathy required an attitude of active listening, as found throughout the observation and field notes. For example, on one occasion, Anne gave a placement test to a new attendee, Francisco. When I joined them, the placement test and a goal-setting exercise had been completed and Francisco was recounting an injustice he had recently suffered. He had been working for a housecleaning business, but the manager had paid him only half the promised wages, spurring him to quit. The story was long, and Francisco’s English was barely adequate to the task, especially when he brought up abstract ideas such as justice and trust. He paused often, repeated many points as he searched for the right words, and made numerous grammatical mistakes that sometimes obscured meaning. Clearly, he had never told this story in English before. Throughout the conversation, Anne remained patiently committed to the difficult task of listening, asking questions, and making sense of Francisco’s narrative. She understood his psychological need for a North American English speaker to hear and validate his complaint, at the end affirming, “You handled it well. We’ll pray you find a job.” The Maple Grove tutors connected the relationality and empathy they saw at the heart of their volunteering with short-term Christian missions trips they had taken in the past. For example, during the training session, when asked by the program coordinator how they had become interested in this ministry, all but one of the volunteers narrated such an experience in countries including the Philippines, Mexico, China, and the Ukraine. Jackie, for instance, had gone on a short-term missions trip during which she had taught an alcohol and drugs awareness curriculum in public elementary and middle schools. “I came back,” she said, “and I just knew that I would not ever be the same.” In her interview, she spoke at more length about this experience and building meaningful relationships: I love the communication aspect, I love connecting with the other people, and I love it when the barriers fall . . . where they are right there with you in the moment. That’s what I love about teaching. It’s like two minds and two hearts and, you can just connect.

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This included sharing her Christian beliefs: “If I am not able to express my faith, which is so foundational to who I am, the student would not be getting my whole picture of who I am.” About the learners in the Maple Grove program, she observed: A lot of these people that are in this group have suffered, a lot, and tragically, because they have been kept down economically and socially and just in so many ways, and if you can reach through all of that, and touch the person on the other side, then that’s what really communication is about . . . They gift you with their trust, they gift you with the truth of who they are, and I in turn am able to do that, and that is a very precious, precious place to be, and it’s a privileged place to be. Because relationship building and empathy required emotional investment by the tutors, these relational values were also at times a source of frustration. When a learner would come for a few weeks and then drop out, or a participating family would move unexpectedly, or a teacher would prepare a lesson then arrive to find a tutee absent, this sometimes led to feelings of discouragement over the transience of some of the relationships. Although the tutors expressed these feelings, they also accepted these occurrences as part of the risk of their approach to volunteering.

Emergent Theme: Christian Love and Care The Maple Grove ESOL tutors were also convinced that Christian teachers should love and care for learners. Anne saw this love and care as an imitation of Christ: I think that as a Christian, my desire is that I help others. I mean I guess that’s what I see that Jesus, that’s how Jesus taught, was that you went to other people and you helped them out where they were at . . . What I want to do is help someone better themselves. As a self-check on this priority, she reported asking herself: What if that was your mom and somebody was treating your mom like that? . . . I always pray that I would love that other person as Jesus loves me, and if Jesus loves me then I can love that other person through him. In a small but symbolic way, this attitude or conviction was seen in the constant bringing of food. Teachers regularly brought items such as homemade chocolate chip cookies, garden tomatoes, and cornbread crackers and black bean dip for learners to take home or snack on during lessons. Another example was seen in the fact that, as winter set in, Deanna regularly brought a suitcase-sized

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space heater for Graciela, whose hands ached from cold and muscle fatigue. Because the community center could be drafty, Graciela greatly appreciated the extra warmth. According to Anne, the tutors’ priority of showing Christian love and care had received a boost from the decision to start taking a summer break. The program had been running year-round and volunteers were feeling burned out, so they decided to take a summer break in 2008. They stopped meeting for ESOL lessons, but at the learners’ request the group continued to meet socially. Everyone would gather at a tutor’s home and the learners would do the cooking, instructing the volunteers in how to make authentic Latin American food. From Anne’s point of view, this was a form of gratitude and, she wryly noted, an expansion of her taste horizons. On these occasions, she said, the adult learners could “give back” and make the relationships more balanced or reciprocal. As a result of these social gatherings, “the students felt that we cared for them personally, not just to come and teach one night out of the week.”

Emergent Theme: Practical Service The Maple Grove tutors invariably saw their volunteering as a form of practical Christian service; that is, they saw their tutoring as a way of serving God by serving people. They intended their language tutoring to help address material and physical concerns in learners’ everyday lives. “If they have needs,” Roger said, “God uses us as channels of his blessing to help fulfill those needs, to extend his grace to those whom he loves just as much as he loves me.” In this regard, employment was a major concern. The observation and field notes include numerous instances of sharing information about who was hiring, filling out job applications, and rehearsing sample job interview questions. Additional examples from the data include a chiropractor recommendation, a winter coat, and a group discussion of personal safety after dark and what to do if confronted by a mugger. This priority of practical service may have been a reflection of the overall church culture, a conclusion suggested by the fact that Maple Grove also served as a distribution site for a local food bank. Mathews-Aydinli (2008) notes that a practical emphasis characterizes many adult community ESOL programs, though Morgan (2002) warns that wellmeaning attempts to help immigrant learners with needs such as employment can end up perpetuating socioeconomic inequalities (see also Gulliver, 2010). Nonetheless, the Maple Grove tutors regarded practical service as one of their ministry’s distinctives, especially as compared to ESOL classes at a local community college. They had met international students who had studied there who could perform well on reading and writing tests, but who could not hold a sustained or meaningful conversation in English. The immigrant learners in the church program, on the other hand, wanted to learn English mainly for on-the-job communication. They wanted to talk freely with their coworkers and others, but

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felt reluctant and embarrassed by their low English skills. One succinctly stated her learning goal as, “So I don’t feel scared when I talk with somebody.” One tutor framed the program’s goal in this regard as: “We’re trying to bridge the gap so Americans won’t shy away from them.” The emphasis on listening and speaking was so strong, in fact, that no significant practice of writing skills was observed during this study (see Bailey, 2006). The Maple Grove tutors’ orientation toward practical service was also demonstrated by their lessons’ focus, which was usually everyday life. Typical lesson activities recorded during observations included: • • • • • • • • • • •

using the phone book; understanding weather forecasts; practicing pronunciation; responding to invitations and making plans; giving directions and using maps; offering greetings and making small talk; discussing insurance and filling out insurance forms; reading the local newspaper; understanding media coverage of the 2008 Presidential election; using recipes, cookbooks, and menus; and formulating clear and appropriate questions.

Even when grammar was the focus, motivations remained practical. Anne, for instance, taught Yolanda verb tenses because she needed them at work: She works in a job that requires, maybe the boss will give her a note that’ll say, “Room 23 needs to be cleaned today” or “Room 23’s going to be discharged today.” She wants to know what kind of question can I ask the nurse manager on the floor now, if that patient’s been discharged. So we’re learning past, present, and future. Maple Grove’s priority of practical service was also translated into action in the scheduling of the program. Previously, the ministry had met on a different night, when the church facilities were available. Learners brought their children, who usually knew English better than their parents. The children wanted to “help” with the lessons, but this both short-circuited the learning process and embarrassed the parents. So the ESOL tutoring program was rescheduled to Wednesdays, when a popular Christian children’s club was using the church facilities. Since the club provided supervised activities for the children, the adult learners could drop them off at the church before continuing on to the community center for their English lessons. In this way, the practical need for childcare was met and the tutoring program’s learning atmosphere made more effective.

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Emergent Theme: Learner-Centeredness These themes of relationality and empathy, Christian love and care, and practical service worked side-by-side with a strong emphasis on learner-centeredness in Maple Grove’s adult ESOL program. By “learner-centeredness,” I mean simply that the tutors put students’ priorities and preferences at the center of the learning process. For example, the volunteers had made recent structural changes to the ministry that reflected this orientation. As this study began, the program had shifted from a teacher-classroom structure to a tutoring structure modeled on one used by a local literacy organization. The volunteers were motivated to make this change by learners’ requests for more one-on-one conversation time, as well as the greater potential for personalizing lessons. “What we found in the past two years is that they really want more one-on-one. Each one has their individual need and we can’t meet it in a group,” said Anne. Learner-centeredness was also evident in the curriculum, which often consisted of authentic materials brought from tutors’ homes. In past years, the Maple Grove program had used a denominational ESOL curriculum that was intended for short-term overseas missions work, but the tutors had abandoned it as unsuitable for their context and audience. This emphasis on learners’ priorities was particularly seen in an initial goalsetting activity. Tutors and learners spent the entire first meeting working through a goal-identifying and goal-formulating exercise, a good example of what Auerbach (2002) calls “participant ownership” or “insider control” in communitybased ESOL (p. 7; see also TESOL, 2003). Based on this exercise, the volunteers created their lesson plans. As an example, Jackie described her planning process: We discovered what her [Graciela’s] goals were and what her desires were to focus on, and so then she and I put together sort of a lesson plan goal for the three months that we would be assigned together, and so we’re working through that, but in addition to that she’s facing some difficulties in her life so we are also working on those areas—unemployment being the major issue right now. As a result of the exercise, they also decided one goal would be intelligible pronunciation: “She [Graciela] would like to be able to communicate, pronunciation was one of her focuses, so we work on mouth position and being able to make all of the sounds that are specific to English.” Additionally, Graciela “wanted to be able to read the newspaper, so we’re going over newspaper articles and current events and trying to make those more understandable.” Employment, pronunciation, and newspaper reading are not very “coherent” from a curriculum design perspective, but they were perfectly coherent from Jackie’s learner-centered perspective. The other volunteers similarly tried to tailor pace and content to individual needs and desires. At Maple Grove, learner-centeredness was a matter of both teaching techniques and lesson content. Vernon advised his fellow volunteers: “Be free and flexible, use

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your own best judgment. Ask yourself, ‘If I were in a person’s shoes, what would I want to be learning?’.” As a result, as described above, lesson topics tended to center around personal experience. Even prior to the formal tutoring times, volunteers and learners chatted about health, job searches, travel plans, and other everyday concerns. The actual start of the session tended to feel like an extension of these personal conversations, as the group responded orally to prompts such as, “What was the best thing that happened to you today?”; “Tell me about elections and voting in your country”; and “What is a favorite holiday custom in your home culture?”.

Discussion, or, an Emergent Question: What About Witness? In considering the four themes above, one is struck by their non-exclusive nature. That is, the connections the volunteers made between their ESOL tutoring and their Christian religious beliefs are connections that can also be made by people who believe differently. Through both words and actions, the Maple Grove tutors linked the themes of relationality and empathy, Christian love and care, practical service, and learner-centeredness with their Christian faith. From their perspective, their faith motivated them to put their beliefs into practice in their ESOL tutoring in these ways. It is also true, however, that these findings are beliefs or values shared by those of other religious faiths or of no religious faith. They are themes that can be expressed or activities that can be done in Christian terms, but they can also be expressed or done in other religious, cultural, moral, and spiritual terms. This might be seen as positive in that it could lead to fewer stereotyped criticisms of Christian ESOL teachers, as well as promote professional dialogue among people of diverse convictions and worldviews. On the other hand, these findings might spur critical reflection within the program, if the church or volunteers wish their religious beliefs to have more distinctive impacts upon their activities. One distinctive and potentially controversial aspect of the findings, though it did not emerge as a central theme in the study, relates to the issue of Christian witness. Given that religion and adult education have historically been intertwined, what one academic writer calls “the legacy of evangelism in adult literacy education” might be seen as extending to the Maple Grove adult ESOL program as well (Christoph, 2009, p. 77). Despite a lack of religious language, content, or practices in the program, the church did see it as an outreach ministry to the local community. As one member of the congregation said, “We send missionaries to other countries, but look at all the internationals here in our city.” Jackie mentioned that one of her favorite Bible verses was Jesus’ command to his disciples, “Follow me and I will make you fishers of men.” When asked, “How is this [tutoring] ‘fishing’?”, she responded: “English is the bait, I guess, and we are the fishermen, and God is the hook.” Even so, witness remained a background motivation rather than a major theme in this study. I have elsewhere defined witness as “living out one’s beliefs in

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purposeful ways to as to persuade others also to accept them as true” (Baurain, 2007, p. 210). The Maple Grove tutors, by their own testimony, were engaged in living out their Christian faith in purposeful ways, but an explicitly persuasive dimension was not part of their ESOL tutoring attitudes or activities. Rather, their emphasis was informational. One of the stated goals of the program was “exposure to a Christian worldview.” It was enough for students to know their tutors were motivated by their Christian faith. Anne commented, “They’re [the learners] always asking, ‘Why do you do this? Why do you do this?’ [I answer,] ‘Because we love the Lord.’” The volunteers took a holistic approach, seeing relationships and service as ministry activities despite an absence of evangelism or converts. Anne said that the program’s overall goal was simply to glorify God and make Christianity attractive. Roger commented: It’s God who changes their hearts, and so you go with the flow, and if they have an intense [spiritual] interest, boy, you do whatever you can to bolster that, you know, their understanding of who God is . . . What I personally have done is more so tried to give them [the learners] a desire or a thirst for learning more . . . I like to say that we put them on track, or help to put them on track, to a lifelong relationship with Jesus Christ. Despite this clear background motivation, proselytizing was not observed within the program and conversations with spiritual content were rare. The ESOL tutoring relationships and lessons, as previously described, centered around language skills and everyday life. Jackie provided a unique analogy concerning Maple Grove’s adult ESOL program and how she perceived it to be a Christian ministry. She responded to an interview question in terms of the biblical metaphor of the “Body” (that is, the church). This is a biblical image of diversity and organization—just as in a physical body every limb, organ, and cell plays its part, so also in the church every person, ability, and spiritual gift plays its part. Jackie imagined a variation on this in which the church is something like a centipede, an insect body with lots of legs . . . the head [Jesus Christ] is running the body, and the legs would be those little outreach extensions, but that’s what makes the body move, and so I think that it’s [ESOL program] one of the legs that’s holding the body up, and it is definitely an outreach. The point would be to help people understand who Jesus is and what placing their faith in him is about.

Conclusion Further research in this area is highly warranted. This qualitive case study examined a single case and focused on how volunteer tutors in one church-run

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adult ESOL program put their Christian religious beliefs into practice in their tutoring. In future, learner perspectives and cross-case comparisons with other church-run or community-based ESOL programs would be desirable. A needed line of quantitative research is to determine reasonable estimates of the overall numbers and operational orientations of church-run ESOL programs in North America and elsewhere. As an instrumental case study—that is, a qualitative case study organized around a larger concept or issue—this study followed a typical pattern (Stake, 2005): researchers introduce a topical concern, pose or foreshadow problems, “concentrate on issue-related observations, interpret patterns of data, and reform the issues as assertions” (p. 448). In this chapter, a topical concern was introduced—how religious beliefs are translated into practice, and in the central research question specifically, how volunteer Christian ESOL tutors put their religious beliefs into practice in a church-run adult ESOL ministry. Suggested problems included a lack of research in this area and various criticisms of Christian ESOL teachers. Field observations and tutor interviews were carried out within the program to collect data addressing these issues. Patterns in the data were identified, analyzed, interpreted, and developed as themes; that is, values and activities emerging from the data and identified by participants as most relevant to their Christian faith were explored and discussed in the findings. For the volunteer tutors in this program, the key themes were relationality and empathy, Christian love and care, practical service, and learner-centeredness. Though witness was a clear background motivation in that the tutors wanted students to know they were Christians acting on their faith, it did not emerge as a major theme and was missing a persuasive dimension. The volunteers in this program took a holistic approach to living out their beliefs, seeing relationships and service as an authentic measure of their Christian faith. In the end, an instrumental case study looks beyond the specific case to larger concepts or issues—here, issues of beliefs, values, and practice. Within the larger question of how beliefs are translated into practice, the non-exclusivity of the four main findings in this study signals that the volunteer tutors in the Maple Grove program are normally complex people, with normally complex perceptions and motivations. When it comes to how beliefs are put into practice by believers of any stripe, religious beliefs need not be segregated into some wholly “other” category. As seen in this case, translating beliefs into practice is a dynamic process in which attentiveness to contexts and relationships is essential. Such attentiveness could help enable meaningful dialogues and respect for diversity, while at the same time enabling or empowering believers, religious or not, to remain committed to living out their beliefs and values.

Acknowledgments I am grateful to John Creswell and the editors of this volume for reading and critiquing earlier drafts of this chapter.

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Appendix: Tutor Interview Questions 1. Can you tell me a bit about your background? How did you get interested in ESOL? 2. Has your Christian faith played any part in your motivations for starting or continuing as an ESOL volunteer? What and why? 3. Tell me about a typical class or lesson. 4. Has your Christian faith played any part in your choices of teaching methods or curriculum? What and why? 5. Who are your students and why are they studying English? 6. Are there any links between your Christian faith and your cultivation of relationships with and among students? If yes, please provide examples. 7. What is your greatest reward in teaching or tutoring ESOL in this program? 8. What is your greatest challenge in teaching or tutoring ESOL in this program? 9. Which Christian beliefs do you feel are especially put into practice through ESOL as a ministry? How and why? 10. What do you think are the distinctive features of ESOL as a ministry at your church? What do you think sets this program apart from nonreligious ESOL classes or programs? 11. Are there any other comments you would like to add about the impact of your Christian faith on your ESOL teaching or tutoring?

References Auerbach, E. (2002). Shifting roles, shifting goals: Integrating language, culture, and community. In E. Auerbach (Ed.), Community partnerships (pp. 1–12). Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series. Alexandria, VA: TESOL. Bailey, K. M. (2006). Issues in teaching speaking skills to adult ESOL learners. Review of Adult Learning & Literacy, 6, 113–164. Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6, 201–219. Burke, S. E. (1998). ESOL: Creating a quality English as a Second Language program: A guide for churches. Grand Rapids, MI: Faith Alive Christian Resources. Center for Applied Linguistics (2010). Education for adult English language learners in the United States: Trends, research, and promising practices. Report by the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Christoph, J. N. (2009). Each one teach one: The legacy of evangelism in adult literacy education. Written Communication, 26, 77–110. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Into Practice, 39, 124–130. Dickerson, L. J., & Dow, D. F. (1997). Handbook for Christian EFL teachers. Wheaton, IL: Institute for Cross-Cultural Training, Billy Graham Center, Wheaton College.

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Duff, P. A. (2008). Case study research in applied linguistics. New York and London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Eby, J. W., with Stahl, R. L., & Zumwalt, N. (2003). Handbook for teaching Bible-based ESOL (2nd ed.). Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press. Edge, J. (2003). Imperial troopers and servants of the Lord: A vision of TESOL for the 21st century. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 701–709. Gulliver, T. (2010). Immigrant success stories in ESOL textbooks. TESOL Quarterly, 44, 725–745. Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Johnston, B., & Varghese, M. M. (2006). Neo-imperialism, evangelism, and ELT: Modernist missions and a postmodern profession. In J. Edge (Ed.), (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire (pp. 195–207). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Kristjánsson, C. R. M. (2003). Whole-person perspectives on learning in community: Meaning and relationships in teaching English as a second language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. McHugh, M., Gelatt, J., & Fix, M. (2007). Adult English language instruction in the United States: Determining need and investing wisely. Report by the Migration Policy Institute, Washington, DC. McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching second language classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mathews-Aydinli, J. (2008). Overlooked and understudied? A survey of current trends in research on adult English language learners. Adult Education Quarterly, 58, 198–213. Moore, K. (2005). Teaching English language learners the good news: A guide for church-based ESOL ministries. Alpharetta, GA: North American Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. Morgan, B. D. (2002). Critical practice in community-based ESOL programs: A Canadian perspective. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 1, 141–162. Palmer, P. J. (1993). To know as we are known: Education as a spiritual journey. New York: Harper. Palmer, P. J. (2003). Teaching with heart and soul: Reflections on spirituality in teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 54, 376–385. Pennycook, A., & Coutand-Marin, S. (2003). Teaching English as a missionary language. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24, 337–353. ProLiteracy America (2003). Teaching adults: A literacy resource book. Syracuse, NY: New Readers Press. Schlusberg, P., & Mueller, T. (1995). English as a Second Language in volunteer-based programs. Center for Adult English Language Acquisition, Washington, DC. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/SCHLUSBE. html. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.) (pp. 443–466). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Tennant, A. (2002, December 9). The ultimate language lesson. Christianity Today, 46(13), 32–38. TESOL, Inc. (2003). Standards for adult education ESOL programs. Alexandria, VA: TESOL. Tisdell, E. J. (2001). Spirituality in adult and higher education. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education, Columbus, OH. ERIC No. ED459370.

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Tisdell, E. J. (2003). Exploring spirituality and culture in adult and higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Varghese, M. M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 5–31. Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Wu, Y., & Carter, K. (2000). Volunteer voices: A model for the professional development of volunteer teachers. Adult Learning, 11(4), 16–19.

10 FRAMEWORKS FOR INVESTIGATING FAITH AND ESL A Response to Snow, LessardClouston, and Baurain David I. Smith CALVIN COLLEGE

The preceding chapters by Snow, Lessard-Clouston, and Baurain offer three rather different studies of the perceptions and choices of Christians involved in English Language Teaching in disparate historical, cultural, and educational contexts. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a response, a task that could proceed in a number of directions. Given the nascent state of research on religion and language teaching, I have chosen to focus less on the general strengths and weaknesses of each study, and more on the particular questions that arise from them concerning how the relationship between faith and the practices of language education might be framed. The three authors pursue different yet overlapping emphases in this regard. Snow relies on institutional frame to make the connection—the university studied was founded and run by a Christian denomination, and the actions of the institution are therefore offered as evidence for choices Christians have made in ELT, without significant exploration of the beliefs that may have accompanied those choices. Lessard-Clouston also chooses institutions with a Christian affiliation, but focuses primarily on the language of “integration of faith and learning,” a phrase commonly used (though not uncontested) in Protestant Christian education to describe the connection of faith to teaching and scholarship. Baurain’s chapter locates the faith/ESOL nexus in institutional terms (it looks at a church-based ESOL ministry) and gives passing attention to church culture, but chooses to primarily frame the data in terms of Christian ESOL tutors “putting their religious beliefs into practice” (p. 142). My intention in what follows is not to reject these as possible points of entry, but rather to push at their boundaries a little in order to indicate some of their benefits and limitations.

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Snow: Christianity as Institutional Context Snow tackles the issue of whether the English teaching practices of the University of Nanking (and, in the background, other Christian universities in early twentieth-century China) were reducible to acts of cultural imperialism, concluding that such a view would be too simplistic. In framing this investigation, the relationship between “Christian” and “English education” is defined in institutional terms—the university under study was founded by a Christian denomination and staffed in part by missionaries, and its English programs were thus directly related to missionary work in China. Such specific beliefs as may have influenced the founding and trajectory of the institution or the particular policy choices described are not explored. Instead, the chapter focuses squarely on behavioral responses to a particular context of practice. The university’s existence is related to the cultural consequences of British military and political force, agricultural study is added in response to rural famines, the prominence of English is related to student demand, the university is responsive to student demands, at least in part, because its heavy dependence on income from student fees and relative freedom from mission boards, the curriculum is shaped by factors that include the ready availability of certain kinds of textbooks, the declining competence in Chinese among English-speaking faculty is related to the routine workload, pressure from students and families is attributed to utilitarian motives stemming from the nature of employment opportunities, and so on. All of this is valuable, illuminating various aspects of the emergence of particular practices within a particular context of action. It is perhaps also a useful corrective to naïve views of missionary behavior as simply and unidirectionally determined by missionaries’ theological beliefs about evangelism. The relationship of the practices even of a Christian social institution to normatively Christian beliefs is likely to involve much negotiation with cultural circumstances and a great deal of improvisation, with the beliefs by no means always in the driving seat. At the same time, the institutional focus invites further questions that touch upon the role of beliefs in the shaping and inhabiting of practices. As I read, I find myself asking questions such as the following: •



The University of Nanking is presented as differing from other Christian colleges in relation to the percentage of Chinese faculty and the degree of Chinese leadership. It had a president who “felt” that Chinese faculty should be rapidly brought into leadership positions. Why was this the case here and not at other similar institutions? Were there particular theological convictions or views of missiology that came into play? Was the difference driven entirely by contextual pressures? The university responded to a 1921 government report by strengthening the Chinese department and actively recruiting well-known Chinese scholars. Experience suggests that such responses to external review can range from resentful compliance to gratitude at being prodded in the direction one’s

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convictions already pointed. Was this change understood by the participants as an act of necessity (born of the need to please the authorities) or as a welcome aid to greater consistency with their own convictions? Did Christian considerations play any role in informing the response? Unlike those of other Christian colleges, the university’s debating team wore traditional Chinese scholars’ gowns. Was this understood by them and/or by the university administration as an act flowing from or in tension with the institution’s theology and missiology, or were Christian considerations not consciously brought into play? Over time, the investment of English-speaking faculty in learning Chinese decreased, with the decrease ascribed to practical reasons. Was there ever any consideration of how the implied shift in stance toward Chinese speakers related to the institution’s Christian framework and missiological stance? How was the relationship between the model of liberal education offered and the Christian institutional framework understood? Was the educational model regarded as an essentially neutral device within a Christian institutional container, or as that which provided the excuse for missionary work to go on alongside it, or was there conversation concerning how the content and manner of teaching reflected the Christian goals of the institution? How did this relate to models of the connection between religion and liberal education in the US at the time? Was the imbalance between English and mathematics related to this question in any way?

It will become clear below that I am not advocating a swing to ascribing the choices described to the consistent application of principled theological stances instead of to pragmatic constraints. Practice is always a complex of contexts, repertoires, reifications, and belief-informed narratives. It does seem, however, that in order to reach clear conclusions concerning how exactly the actions of an institution should be evaluated in relation to Christian faith we need some sense of how active a role that faith actually played in shaping the choices made. As study of North American universities with historically Christian affiliations makes clear, the range of what the university’s formal relationship to a founding denomination might mean in practice can vary quite widely (Burtchaell, 1998; Lyon & Beaty, 1999), and the relationship between faith and educational practice is a matter of lively and fallible negotiation even within strongly Christian institutions. To put the matter succinctly: What difference did it make to the choices made that the University of Nanking was a Christian university? Was the institution’s Christian frame an active ingredient or an accidental accompaniment?

Lessard-Clouston: Integration of Faith and Learning Lessard-Clouston focuses on this very question of how a Christian institutional frame might lead to practices designed to foster congruence between beliefs and

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educational actions. He does so by working with a familiar central image, that of “integration” of faith and learning. Common among evangelical and reformed educators, this terminology arises from resistance to Cartesian and positivist efforts to insulate rationality and public knowledge claims from the allegedly corrupting influence of belief, and affirms the basic pluralism of the academy, reasserting the generative role of non-empirical perspectives in framing the questions that we put to the world. As Lessard-Clouston’s account indicates, while some have wielded the term as if it referred to a single, clearly identifiable procedure, “integration of faith and learning” is more aptly seen as an umbrella designation for a variety of differing and even mutually antagonistic efforts to elaborate the connection between faith and knowledge (Badley, 1996; Lyon & Beaty, 1999; Nelson, 1987). LessardClouston uses the term quite generously—for some, the use of prayer to open class, for instance, would not count as an instance of “integration of faith and learning.” It would represent rather the intrusion of a devotional practice into an otherwise unreconstructed disciplinary context and therefore a prime instance of lack of integration between faith-informed knowledge claims and the ideas informing language education (Wolfe, 1987). In fact, the range of positions is wider still: some who would affirm the broad project of faith-informed learning that the “integration of faith and learning” phrase intends to demarcate nevertheless reject the phrase as itself distorting the conversation. The phrase has tended, critics argue, to imply a ready-formed faith, on the one hand, that must be integrated with ready-formed disciplinary knowledge claims, on the other, thereby potentially obscuring the role of faith in the creative generation of new knowledge and the role that beliefs have played in the construction of existing “secular” learning (Glanzer, 2008; Jacobsen & Jacobsen, 2004; Wolterstorff, 2004). A further complication is that the phrase has commonly been associated with the effort to “think Christianly,” and has therefore often tended to focus on Christian learning as a cognitive project more than as a set of practices (Smith & Smith, 2011; Wolterstorff, 2004). The question of whether “faith and learning integration is taking place” therefore risks, without further elaboration, being either too vague (since it can name a wide variety of practices, some of which may actually be in tension with one another) or too narrow (since it may be understood by proponents or respondents to focus only on some particular aspect of the larger relationship between faith and the practices associated with learning, and may miss other aspects). In particular instances, then, some more unpacking will be needed in order to trace the role being played by faith. Consider the inclusion of “developing students’ critical thinking” as a faith-learning integration strategy. The question quickly arises: In what sense would this be an integration of faith and learning? Perhaps a teacher believes that existing teaching materials offer a distorted view of faith or a secularist interpretation of life, or that the faith of believing students is too simplistic to remain healthy and allow for growth (this conviction may

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perhaps be formed in resistance to the existing formational practices of a given church). The faith-connecting move might then be the application of critical thinking skills to faith and worldview issues. But what about critical thinking as a goal in itself? Speculatively, one might postulate a chain of logic something like the following. As Christians, we should seek to glorify God with all of our faculties. This includes our minds. This means trying to think well, and we can think of this as discipleship of the mind. Critical thinking is a necessary component of thinking well. Developing critical thinking therefore serves discipleship of the mind. This involves combining a theological premise (concerning glorifying God) with a cultural premise (concerning the importance of critical thinking, something already widely valued and urged in various contemporary educational contexts). The chain of reasoning is not straightforwardly reversible—if a teacher is promoting critical thinking, that emphasis, while congruent with Christian concerns, does not seem to be in itself evidence that anything strongly connected with Christian faith is occurring, absent a more detailed account of how this process is framed for participants. There is also a question as to whether what is happening here is an interaction between the individual teacher’s Christian beliefs and his or her socialization into the knowledge practices of the academy, rather than a deductive process of theological reasoning. Attention to the interactions of pedagogical emphases (such as promoting critical thinking) and the narrative frames within which they are interpreted by the various participants seems necessary before those actions can unambiguously be identified as representing an integration of faith and learning. The relationship between faith and the teaching and learning practices within which Christian educators are already embedded proves to be complex. As Lessard-Clouston notes toward the end of his chapter, the various meanings attached to “integration of faith and learning” and its status as a phrase often naming a broad aspiration rather than a specific set of practices mean that claims regarding the benefits of “faith-learning integration” similarly need to be approached with some care. Some of the behaviors reported might encourage students to “examine, articulate, and defend their beliefs”—others (for example, seeking to exhibit patience) might not. Some might make the “atmosphere . . . more relaxed”— others might not. The particular way in which they are carried out is also likely to be a significant variable in relation to their effects—prayer in class, for instance, may be fitting, supportive, coercive, or abusive, depending on its manner and setting and on matters such as posture, position, tone of voice, student identities, power dynamics, etc. (McLaren, 1999). If the benefits listed are actual and if they are caused by rather than merely correlated with the behaviors reported (the data presented only gives a basis for judging the teacher’s perceptions of benefits and of their causes), one could view them as collectively resulting from a broad institutional focus on integration of faith and learning; the variety of practices listed suggests, however, that specific benefits (or problems) may be present or absent in particular classrooms, regardless of the shared overall goal.

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Another issue that becomes visible in Lessard-Clouston’s chapter is the dynamics set in train when the “integration of faith and learning” is promoted as an institutional practice. Some participants’ accounts of faith-learning integration as something that they feel is expected of them but that they themselves have limited capacity to elaborate on either conceptually or practically rings true, and creates the added risk in data of this kind of effects arising from the fact that participants know and affirm that this is supposed to be important to them and ought to be happening in their classrooms, coupled with the apparent paucity of training in this area. Given the complexity of classroom processes, the variety of disciplines feeding into ELT, and the variegated richness of a 2,000-year Christian tradition of theology and practice, the impression given in some respondent comments that while ESL itself merits study at the level and duration of advanced graduate degrees, the intersection of faith and learning is associated with brief orientation workshops and sharing of practical tips is, while very familiar, perhaps not the most promising indicator of the likelihood of a robust Christian contribution to the scholarship and practice of ESL. While the Christian practitioner’s felt need may be for the relationship between faith and learning to be simplified and codified into practical routines, I suggest that the research need at this point in the emerging conversation about Christianity and ESL might be for the relationship to be made at least initially more complex.

Baurain: Putting Beliefs into Practice Baurain’s chapter combines the institutional context on which Snow dwells with Lessard-Clouston’s focus on practitioners’ perceptions of their own Christianlyframed practices, and adds an observational component that opens up valuable further avenues; nevertheless, he focuses most prominently on the role played by beliefs. He notes on a number of occasions that this focus on beliefs is a narrowing of perspective. He refers to the presence of both words and actions in his data, to the potential relevance of discussions of spirituality that extend beyond the specific role of beliefs, and to the possible influence of a wider church culture on tutors’ priorities and behaviors, suggesting that the study “points beyond itself to larger issues of beliefs, values, and practice” (p. 139). While acknowledging these broader backgrounds, his most common formulation when framing his study refers (as in the chapter’s title) to “putting beliefs into practice.” There are also references to the “impacts” of religious beliefs upon activities (p. 148), to tutors “living out their Christian faith” (p. 149), and to “how beliefs are translated into practice” (p. 150). Such formulations (familiar to congregants within Christian communities from pastoral exhortations to enact a lived faith) suggest a particular relationship between beliefs and practice. To begin with what is perhaps the starkest formulation, the idea of translating beliefs into practice seems to suggest a process in which the beliefs exist fully formed before the translation process begins, as the original text that is to be

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translated. A target context and a translation need are then identified, and a conscious process of translation takes place in order to produce a faithful analog of the original text in a new medium with as little distortion as possible. Adding talk of “impacts” and of “putting into practice” similarly suggests that beliefs already possessed are applied in some way to a form of practice such that the latter is made more consistent with the beliefs. This describes one possible vector within the faith/practice relationship (perhaps I hear a sermon that strengthens my belief that giving to the poor is a corollary of various Christian beliefs, and decide after reflection to actually increase my giving), while also needing to be located in a broader frame. Work from a variety of sources in sociology (Bourdieu, 1990, 1997), philosophy (MacIntyre, 2007), education (McLaren, 1999; Wenger, 1998), and theology (Dykstra, 2003, 2005; Volf & Bass, 2002) offers a picture of human practices as integrating narratives, actions, memberships, and aspects of material environments in emergent shared repertoires that become formative of identity. There is much here that requires lengthier statement, but for now a thumbnail sketch will have to suffice. Becoming, say, a baseball player is less a matter of acquiring beliefs about baseball that are first affirmed and then translated into actions, than of acquiring through participation a complex of beliefs, belongings, and behaviors that make up baseball. Ideas of fair play are carried in (and gradually redefined by) the tradition and its narratives, but also formed in experience and interaction and adjusted through novel behaviors as players (and others; for example, equipment manufacturers) stretch the possibilities inherent in the game. Narrativally embedded beliefs steer shared action, but they are also sustained by and emergent from action and participation. In the discussions cited above, the term “practices” is typically reserved for full complexes of narrative, behavior, identity, and belonging, as opposed to isolated individual actions or behaviors. Without intending any claim regarding sport being a strong analogy for religion, it can similarly be noted that to be Christian normatively involves not only assent to particular beliefs and narratives, but also membership in a community of faith and participation in shared worship, prayer, giving, and so on, each realized in particular historical and cultural forms (Bass, 1997). On this account, what we have in the ministry that Baurain describes is not just individuals with Christian beliefs applying those beliefs to English tutoring practices, but rather individuals negotiating boundary relationships in what Wenger refers to as “multimembership” (Wenger, 1998), navigating their involvement in the shared practices of this particular Christian community (practices that themselves will represent past and ongoing interactions between belief, culture, and shared action) and in the shared practices of the ESOL tutoring setting. Despite Baurain’s focus on implementing beliefs, his chapter presents few clear indications of pathways originating from specific Christian beliefs and ending in resulting tutoring practices; the picture seems to be more of a series of emergent emphases within the tutoring program, at least some of which are narrated by participants

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as congruent with their own Christian beliefs (this is not necessarily the same as showing that the practices are an implementation of the beliefs). At the same time, there are intriguing glimpses of a range of related church practices that could fill out the overall picture. The tutoring sessions as described in the program profile take place on a Wednesday evening at 7:00 p.m., begin with a warm-up icebreaker activity, continue with a focus on sharing needs and personal experiences, involve active listening as others share, include the offering of empathic support, have more female than male participants, display a therapeutic and sometimes practical focus, occasionally (but not frequently) include reading of Bible passages, emphasize listening and speaking but rarely include writing, have an outreach function, and take place in a communal meeting room. So far, most of this reads like a generic description of the mid-week small group meeting common in evangelical churches. In fact, it corresponds very closely to the characteristics identified in Wuthnow’s Small Groups Research Project (Wuthnow, 1994) as typical of small-group ministries in the US. Wuthnow pointed to voluntary support groups as a significant sociological feature of American religious life at the end of the twentieth century, estimating that 40 percent of Americans attended such groups and that two thirds of these groups were affiliated to religious institutions. He suggested that the function of such groups includes the amelioration through surrogate community of the effects of features of recent American life such as high mobility, family upheaval, and frequent job changes. Such groups function (not exclusively, but importantly) as an avenue for self-expression, empathic support, and spiritual growth, while also tending to avoid criticism, confrontation, and addressing of structural and economic ills beyond the level of individual encouragement. The picture that Baurain provides of the functioning of these church-based tutoring sessions (consider, for example, his description of the tutor’s conversation with the learner who had been cheated of his pay) corresponds to a considerable degree with Wuthnow’s larger account. This correspondence brings into focus some specific features of the ESL program, such as the limited use of Bible texts, the focus on empathic and pragmatic rather than structural or conscientizing responses to suffered injustices, the focus on outreach through care in action, and so on. These parallels suggest the question of whether what is happening in this ESOL program is most adequately described as the application (or translation, or impact) of beliefs from the Christian side to teaching practices on the ESOL side. The Christians involved are already part of particular Christian communities of practice, which are in turn taking particular historical shape as beliefs interact with a wider social environment. The Christian tutors are used to expressing their membership in those communities of practice not only through specific beliefs and narratives, but also through participation in particular repertoires that are themselves the emergent results of ongoing interaction between Christian beliefs and particular historical and cultural factors such as social stresses,

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individualism, the cultural prominence of therapeutic solutions, redefinitions of community along voluntaristic lines, and so on. Perhaps, then, the tutoring program, rather than representing the application of beliefs from the church context to practices in the tutoring context, is an instance of the transfer of repertoires familiar from existing Christian community practices to the ESOL teaching context. Further examples visible in the chapter where brokering between practice contexts may be occurring include church service projects (Baurain notes in connection with a food bank that the “priority of practical service may have been a reflection of the overall church culture” (p. 146)), short-term missions, and the practices of a local literacy organization. That the repertoires of both contexts (church and tutoring session) would be described by participants in terms of congruence with Christian beliefs would make sense in relation to this brokering process, as would the fact that others might inhabit similar constellations of practice and emphasis while justifying them through different beliefs. The relationship between belief and practice is not, moreover, unidirectional, and so we cannot simply shift to a view in which the tutors transfer Christian practices from the church side to the tutoring context. Wuthnow (1994) points to ways in which the practices characteristic of small group ministries, driven in part by social changes, have led to a gradual redefining of notions of community, spirituality, the functional role of Scripture, and the relative priority of particular theological topics. Religious small groups are not simply an application of theology to practice (though that element may be present); they also yield an adaptation of theology to social pressures. Practices also get translated into beliefs, and this complex conversation between beliefs and practices is already underway in the church context, not triggered for the first time in the ESOL context; both church group and ESL group may be manifestations of the same cultural process. Practice pushes back on the beliefs that frame it in ways that may reinforce them (does the empathic relational focus perhaps come from the actual experience of individual interaction as well as from theological beliefs concerning neighbor love?) or redefine them (do the relational and cultural parameters of the interactions perhaps lead to a retention of the language of outreach but without a clear element of evangelism, or of community with little commitment to the other beyond empathic support?), necessitating ongoing reflective adjustment if creative faithfulness to a particular tradition is to be maintained. Practices are not so much actions unilaterally directed by beliefs as complexes of belief and action in which forms of participation, reification, imagination, and repertoire interact (Wenger, 1998); as such, they both complicate the picture and offer a rich context within which to consider the role of faith in pedagogy (Smith & Smith, 2011).

Conclusion The three chapters discussed here gesture toward some of the complexity inherent in tracing the role of faith in practice through their varying choice of frame—

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institutional affiliation, integration of faith and learning, and application of belief to practice. Each frame makes certain aspects of the whole visible, while perhaps obscuring others. This is not a criticism per se; it belongs to the nature of particular small-scale studies. I have tried to suggest through making these frames explicit that progress toward a richer picture of how faith may be active in the context of ESL will require coordinated attention to beliefs, practices, institutional dynamics, cultural and communal contexts, and divergent interpretations of both faith and practice within the Christian fold. In order to do so, I have inevitably proceeded speculatively, suggesting without access to the original settings or data ways in which the accounts offered might be expanded. I trust that continued conversation will begin to fill out the picture.

Acknowledgments I am grateful to my colleague James K. A. Smith for connecting me with Wuthnow’s work on small groups.

References Badley, K. (1996). Two “cop-outs” in faith-learning integration: Incarnational integration and worldviewish integration. Spectrum, 28(2), 105–118. Bass, D. C. (1997). Practicing our faith: A way of life for a searching people (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Cambridge, UK: Polity. Bourdieu, P. (1997). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. Burtchaell, J. T. (1998). The dying of the light: The disengagement of colleges and universities from their Christian churches. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Dykstra, C. R. (2003). Reconceiving practice in theological inquiry and education. In N. Murphy, B. J. Kallenberg, & M. Thiessen Nation (Eds.), Virtues and practices in the Christian tradition: Christian ethics after MacIntyre (pp. 161–182). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Dykstra, C. R. (2005). Growing in the life of faith: Education and Christian practices (2nd ed.). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Glanzer, P. L. (2008). Why we should discard the integration of faith and learning: Rearticulating the mission of the Christian scholar. Journal of Education and Christian Belief, 12(1), 41–51. Jacobsen, D. G., & Jacobsen, R. H. (2004). Scholarship and Christian faith: Enlarging the conversation. Oxford, UK and New York: Oxford University Press. Lyon, L., & Beaty, M. (1999). Integration, secularization and the two-spheres view at religious colleges: Comparing Baylor University with the University of Notre Dame and Georgetown College. Christian Scholar’s Review, XXIX(1), 73–112. MacIntyre, A. C. (2007). After virtue: A study in moral theory (3rd ed.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. McLaren, P. (1999). Schooling as a ritual performance: Toward a political economy of educational symbols and gestures (3rd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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Nelson, R. R. (1987). Faith-discipline integration: Compatibilist, reconstructionalist and transformationalist strategies. In H. Heie, & D. L. Wolfe (Eds.), The reality of Christian learning (pp. 317–339). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I., & Smith, J. K. A. (2011). Teaching and Christian practices: Reshaping faith and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Volf, M., & Bass, D. C. (Eds.). (2002). Practicing theology: Beliefs and practices in Christian life. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Wolfe, D. L. (1987). The line of demarcation between integration and pseudointegration. In H. Heie, & D. L. Wolfe (Eds.), The reality of Christian learning (pp. 3–11). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Wolterstorff, N. (2004). Educating for shalom: Essays on Christian higher education. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Wuthnow, R. (1994). Sharing the journey: Support groups and America’s new quest for community. New York: Free Press.

PART II DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Christian Faith and the English Language Learning Context

Don Snow: The Globalization of English and China’s Christian Colleges 1.

2.

In his study, Snow notes that students found a way to maintain and develop their mother tongue, Mandarin, even when their education was in English. When English is the medium of instruction, what can be done to maintain and reinforce the students’ mother tongues? Why might this be important? Is there a “Christian” or biblical rationale for supporting students’ mother tongues and, if so, what might that be? To the best of your knowledge, how might such a perspective compare with the positions taken in other faith traditions? While historical research is common in various disciplines, it is less common in the field of applied linguistics. Brainstorm some of the constituent stories of the rise of English that have yet to be researched and told in this context. How might they be linked to religious faith? Choose one that you find interesting and think about how you would design a historical research study to explore it further. What kind of questions would you ask? Consider aspects such as the sources that might help you to address those questions (for example, primary and secondary, text-based, artifacts, etc.), your access to those sources, as well as some strategies you could employ to mitigate bias in the selection of sources, reporting, and interpretation of your findings. How might your questions and design differ from the framework of a researcher who has a different background (for example, linguistic, religious, political, historical, ideological, educational)? In what ways might such differences come to bear on the findings?

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Michael Lessard-Clouston: Faith and Learning Integration in ESL/EFL Instruction: A Preliminary Study in America and Indonesia 1.

2.

In this chapter, Lessard-Clouston reports on an exploratory study that investigates the integration of faith and learning in ESL and EFL contexts by means of a teacher survey. If you had been one of the study participants (regardless of your teaching context), how would your answers to the statements in Table 8.1 compare to those of Lessard-Clouston’s study participants? What type of literature support would you draw on if you were to draft a position paper regarding faith and learning integration in your ESL or EFL context? Lessard-Clouston’s study focuses on the context of higher learning. How might you go about investigating the integration of faith and learning in a different type of ESL or EFL environment (for example, EFL kindergarten, ESL high school, Intensive English Program)? What research questions would you ask? Consider the different types of data that might be generated by different investigative approaches and discuss two alternative proposals that would accommodate both classroom observations and student perspectives.

Bradley Baurain: Putting Beliefs into Practice in a ChurchRun Adult ESOL Ministry 1.

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Baurain notes that there is a dearth of research pertaining to church-run ESOL programs. Discuss some potential reasons for this situation. What questions do you have about church-run ESOL programs that you think would be helpful to explore? How might insights derived from ongoing research of such programs potentially benefit church-run ESOL programs in general? What differences might you expect to find in researching church-run language programs in ESL versus EFL contexts? To what extent could research on church-run language programs inform the understanding and practice of language education in other ESOL contexts? Overall, Baurain found that the volunteer tutors in the church-run ESOL program he studied “took a holistic approach to living out their beliefs, seeing relationships and service as an authentic measure of their Christian faith” (p. 150). Compare and contrast his findings with your understanding of adult ESOL education in other contexts. Would you say there is a difference in the way Christian teachers live out their beliefs in different contexts? How might the goals, ideological stance, and power structures of an institution influence the expression of faith-informed identity on the part of teachers and students in these different contexts? What type of comparative study would you design to explore this further?

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David I. Smith: Frameworks for Investigating Faith and ESL: A Response to Snow, Lessard-Clouston, and Baurain 1.

At the end of his response, Smith concludes: The three chapters discussed here gesture towards some of the complexity inherent in tracing the role of faith in practice through their varying choice of frame—institutional affiliation, integration of faith and learning, and application of belief to practice. Each frame makes certain aspects of the whole visible, while perhaps obscuring others. This is not a criticism; it belongs to the nature of particular small-scale studies. I have tried to suggest through making these frames explicit that progress toward a richer picture of how faith may be active in the context of ESL will require coordinated attention to beliefs, practices, institutional dynamics, cultural and communal contexts, and divergent interpretations of both faith and practice within the Christian fold. (pp. 162–163) Brainstorm a study that would get at this “richer picture” that Smith suggests is needed when investigating faith in the context of ELT. What type of designs could get at the interrelation of beliefs, practices, institutional dynamics, and cultural contexts?

PART III

Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning Process

11 THE ROLE OF SACRED TEXTS IN ENHANCING MOTIVATION AND LIVING THE VISION IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION1 Elfrieda Lepp-Kaethler PROVIDENCE COLLEGE & SEMINARY (CANADA)

Zoltán Dörnyei UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM (UK)

There is little debate about the importance of a wellspring of motivation for sustained and successful second language (L2) learning. In fact, some L2 educators argue that “motivation is probably the most important characteristic that students bring to a learning task” (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990, p. 160) and motivation has indeed been seen as one of the key learner characteristics in second language acquisition (SLA) (for a recent review, see Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). Motivation is by definition responsible for why people decide to do something, how hard they work to pursue the activity, and how long they are willing to sustain it. Accordingly, investigations into L2 motivation are important because they allow us to tap into the reasons for language-learning success or failure, and a greater understanding of the various sources of motivation may help both students and teachers to reenergize the often dreary and arid terrain of mastering a new language. Using Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009) “L2 Motivational Self System” as a theoretical framework, this qualitative interview study investigates how harmonizing one’s spiritual vision and future language self image, accompanied by using a sacred text in the learning process, can connect learners to an exceptionally powerful source of motivation for language learning.

Motivation, Vision, and Faith The factors contributing to motivation in L2 learning are many, as are the theories and constructs employed in the increasingly complex area of L2 motivational

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research. One recent approach that has been useful in understanding motivation, especially in highly motivated language learners, considers the motivational impact of L2 identity and vision. The close connection between language and personal identity comes into play in the learners’ projected future selves and, for the purposes of the current study, in visions of their future L2 selves. Generally speaking, we also know that faith motivates people; it is not uncommon to observe people motivated by belief and devotion to a deity or a set of religious ideals engaging in actions that otherwise would not be undertaken. Finally, a third area of potential motivational factors investigated in our study concerns the anecdotal evidence of learners being motivated to learn a foreign language by specific texts of significance; for example, the literary scholar learning Spanish to read Borges in the original, the philosopher learning French to study Rousseau, or the theologian learning German to better understand Barth. In our case, the text of significance under focus is the sacred text of the Christian faith, the Bible. This body of observations resonates with the well-documented research on how language learners are more motivated when they are taught with authentic materials that are related directly to their everyday language needs (see, for example, Gilmore, 2007). Admittedly, in considering motivational sources for language learning, factors concerning faith and sacred texts may not be the first to come to mind. In fact, Miller (2005) notes that spirituality has been a taboo subject and a “blind spot” in psychology as a whole, and Maehr (2005) confirms that psychological studies in motivation per se have paid very little attention to the possible role that spiritual beliefs play in shaping thoughts, action, feelings, and emotions. As he observes, religion: . . . often influences certain basic psychological processes that are well-known and often studied by psychologists: the concept of self, the framing of purpose and purposiveness. Religion demonstrably has been, and remains, a powerful motivational force in the lives of many people. (p. 141) Accordingly, Joseph (2004) has extended the link between personal identity, language, and motivation to include religious faith. He identifies a “religious identity” that he notes encompasses the most profound source for understanding the meaning and purpose of life and the existence of the universe: Ethnic and religious identities concern where we come from and where we are going—our entire existence, not just the moment to moment. It is these identities above all that, for most people, give profound meaning to the “names” we identify ourselves by, both as individuals and as groups. They supply the plot for the stories of our lives, singly and collectively, and are bound up with our deepest beliefs about life, the universe and everything. (p. 172)

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In the “global era” of the present age, questions of faith have increasingly risen to the surface in discourses such as the “war on terrorism” and other global antagonisms (Coupland, 2010), and Heather is right that “today the understanding of religious forces is perhaps rather higher on the agenda of the international community than for many years” (as cited in Mooney, 2010, p. 340). In this light, it is important to remember that language has always been, and continues to be, central to religious practice and, indeed, much of faith has long been mediated through language and sacred texts. The relationship between faith and second languages has also received attention recently in discussions on the pedagogical and ethical dilemmas facing values-based English language educators (see Wong & Canagarajah, 2009), no doubt influenced by the changing currents of religion in an era of globalization (cf. McGrath, 2010; Mooney, 2010; Thomas, 2005), but the linguistics-faith link was already highlighted in Crystal’s (1965) early work on what would later come to be known as “theo-linguistics” (Mooney, 2010). Mooney also reviews research on religious language in the field of stylistics, as well as studies of language in religion conducted from a sociolinguistic perspective. Given that language, identity, and faith are often closely intertwined, it is helpful to consider how this sea of factors influences motivation in language learning. It is against this backdrop that the motivational potential of sacred texts becomes obvious, as these may serve as an effective catalyst for combining language and faith identities to positive learning effect. The psychological theory of possible selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986) is a fruitful starting point for exploring this relationship because, as Maehr (2005) notes, religion contributes significantly to the substance of ideal and possible selves. Building on possible self theory, Dörnyei (2005, 2009) has reinterpreted the future self construct to apply to the L2 learning situation: as learners envision possible future scenarios of what they could become or might become or are afraid of becoming as a result of acquiring a new language identity, their possible future language selves become in many ways the personalized carriers of their goals and aspiration. This approach has been formalized in a threecomponent construct, the “L2 Motivational Self System”: 1.

2.

3.

Ideal L2 Self, which is the L2-specific facet of one’s “ideal self”: if the person we would like to become speaks an L2, the ideal L2 self is a powerful motivator to learn the L2 because of the desire to reduce the discrepancy between our actual and ideal selves. Thus, the image of being a person who can converse in the L2 motivates L2 learners to study the L2. Ought-to L2 Self, which concerns the attributes that one believes one ought to possess to meet external expectations and to avoid possible negative outcomes. L2 Learning Experience, which concerns the motivational impact of how the learner’s actual self experiences the immediate learning environment (for example, the impact of the teacher, the curriculum, the peer group, and the experience of success).

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As shown above, the study of linguistics and religion has received some attention over the past decades (for an overview, see Mooney, 2010). However, the role of faith from the perspective of the learner’s personal progress and motivation has been, by and large, ignored. One of a small number of studies in this regard is a quantitative study based on Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory of motivation, in which Bakar, Sulaiman, and Rafaai (2010) studied the motivation of Muslim learners of Arabic. Besides observing several established factors, such as various aspects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, they also identify a new factor they label as “Religious Motivation” that contributes to the learners’ overall motivation to learn Arabic. The authors note that religious motivation encompasses a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic orientations. The mediating link is the fact that the sacred language of Islam is Arabic, and the authors conclude that, in studying the motivation of learners involved in learning sacred languages such as Arabic or Hebrew, especially by people who have a strong affiliation to the religions these languages are connected to (that is, Muslims and Jews), religious motivation should be considered as an independent factor. Dörnyei’s construct of future language selves, Joseph’s notion of religious identity related to personal and language identity, and Bakar et al.’s concept of “religious motivation” provide a rich backdrop against which to examine the unique relationship between personal identity, L2 vision, and faith as they impact L2 motivation. This chapter emerges from conversations and subsequent formal interviews with people who are aligned with one particular faith community, Christianity, and in whom L2 learning emerges like a tributary flowing into the broader working out of their faith. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System lends itself to investigating this junction between faith and language learning, because it addresses the relationship between vision and SLA. In these language learners, we see an L2 vision and a faith-related motivation/vision combine to generate a source of motivational power that propels them to engage in observable language learning behavior with extraordinary intensity and duration. In this study, we examine one specific type of interaction between language learning vision and spiritual vision, the situation in which the increased L2 motivation is in some way related to using or desiring to use a sacred text.

The Study The participants were selected using snowball sampling, based on two criteria: first, demonstrating an unusually high motivation to learn an L2, and second, engaging in language learning in a way that is linked to using, or desiring to use, a sacred text. The seven participants chosen for this study were selected from a larger project encompassing a total of twenty people who participated in semistructured face-to-face interviews, which lasted between 45 and 75 minutes each. Participants for the current study were from a number of nationalities and, in terms of their religious background, all seven were strongly affiliated with

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Christianity. In addition to their L1, participants had learned a variety of languages—between one and seven—in order to use, understand, or access a sacred text, in this case, the Bible. In terms of their educational background, all participants had post-secondary education ranging from 3 to 9 years. All interviews were recorded with an electronic voice recording device; the data were transcribed and analyzed with NVivo software. Table 11.1 presents a short introduction to the seven interviewees. TABLE 11.1 Participant descriptions

Myat, in his mid-30s, is from an East Asian country. He is a theology student studying for a Master of Divinity in North America. In his home country, he directs a Bible/Discipleship School. He has learned English in order to be able to read the Bible in English. Julius, in his early 60s, is North American and has a Ph.D. in Old Testament Studies. He works as Professor of Old Testament in a theological seminary, where he is also an instructor of biblical Hebrew. He has learned seven languages (Hebrew, Greek, French, German, Akkadian, Aramaic, and Ugaritic) in order to understand the Bible and the biblical literature better. Linda, in her early 50s, is North American, with an MA in Linguistics. She and her husband have worked for 20 years as missionaries and Bible translators in an African country. She has learned three languages (French, Swahili, and Bosdong) in order to translate the Bible. Lucinda, in her mid-30s, was raised and has lived in South America for most of her life. She has a degree in Biblical Studies and has taken courses in translation and adult literacy development. She has learned two languages (Bibaclo and Mankhuet) in order to do Bible translation and related work. She and her husband have worked as Bible translators and adult literacy workers in a South American country for 12 years. John is in his early 60s and was born and raised in North America. He has an MA in Global Studies and has taken numerous courses in linguistics and translation. He has learned three languages (French, Sulla, and Bilabongalij) in order to translate the Bible. He and his family have worked for 35 years in language learning and Bible translation in an African country. Daryl is in his mid-60s, born and raised in North America. He has a degree in Biblical Studies and has taken numerous courses in linguistics, second language acquisition, and translation. He has learned two languages (Salimpo and Minkabo) in order to work as a missionary and translate the Bible. Together with his family, he has dedicated 35 years to language learning and Bible translation work in a South American country. Margaret is in her early 70s, born and raised in a South American country. She has completed a diploma in Biblical Studies, and has taken numerous courses in linguistics and translation. Together with her husband, she has learned Elcavinch and has spent approximately 50 years in language learning and translation of the Bible and related literature in a South American country. Note: Names and languages have been changed to protect the participants’ identities.

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Findings As noted earlier, motivation is the source of why people engage in something, how hard they work at it and how long they pursue it. Upon examining the motivational patterns that emerge from the data, two distinct phases can be observed in the participants’ accounts: (1) creating the vision (why participants learn language); and (2) living the vision (how hard and how long they are willing to work at it). Let us first consider the main sources that blend to create an L2 vision in the participants’ minds: Why do they engage in language learning? After examining how the L2 vision has formed, we will consider how hard and how long they are willing to sustain language learning. This includes the ways in which this vision is lived out in the observable goal-oriented behavior they occupy themselves with as a result.

1. Creating the Vision Before examining the trajectory of each participant’s language learning journey, it is important to consider their sociocultural and religious contexts. All seven participants in this study align themselves closely with the Christian faith and share a common understanding of the Bible as a divinely inspired book. For example, Julius attended a Bible school right after secondary school before embarking on studies for his chosen career as an engineer; here, as he states: The first step in becoming interested [in learning languages] came through my interest in the Bible. I was taught that the Bible is foundational to everything. “The Word of our God shall stand forever”—that was a huge stone at the entrance [of the school]. Another explicit summary of the core belief in Holy Scripture comes from Linda, who responds to the question probing her motivation for spending a significant portion of her life doing Bible translation as follows: . . . because it is God who is speaking to us. This is the one place that we can with certainty go and know that God has communicated with me and what he tells us about life, eternal life, hope, salvation, and how to live. In building on this foundation, the participants demonstrate three core characteristics that work together in harmony to create the wellspring in which their language learning vision is embedded and from which their language learning motivation surfaces: (a) spiritual vision; (b) L2 goal/vision of L2 self; and (c) sacred text.

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(a) Spiritual Vision/Call All the participants described a strong inner prompting, which they perceived as a divine call on their lives to vocations of service (for example, missionary, Bible translator, Bible scholar) in the Christian church. This call included a vivid sense of themselves moving toward a hoped-for vision in a future world within an imagined community. By way of illustration, Linda described a strong inner prompting to become a Bible translator, which she remembers sensing from an early age. She credited her motivation for embarking on her training in linguistics and her 20 years of translation work to this call: It was just an absolute conviction that I just felt that that was what God was telling me to do. It’s hard to explain but it was very very strong. And from age nine on I would tell people that I was going to be a writer and a translator . . . a very strong sense of call . . . which was a really good thing for me because I really needed a high motivation. Because I would never ever have gone . . . otherwise. As a young adult, while engaged in Biblical Studies, Lucinda also experienced a strong inner prompting to become a missionary. She expressed her urge to follow this call, despite initial inner resistance, as follows: I felt in my heart that this is probably what God wanted me to do; . . . all of a sudden [it] became so clear to me, the shortness of this life and eternity and . . . I reconciled with what God wanted me to do. Myat also described an inner urge that he recalls vividly from his childhood. He interpreted this experience as a divine call to become a missionary: When I was a young boy I was convinced that God called me into . . . the ministry of sharing and preaching the gospel to all nations . . . that calling was very strong.

(b) L2 Goal/Vision of an L2 Self The particular vocations the participants found themselves called to required that they learn one or more languages, as an integral aspect of fulfilling their divine call. While all participants identified a link between their desire to learn language and their divine call, Myat’s account was particularly striking in its vividness and in the clarity with which he perceived this connection. First, he noted that learning English was one of the first tasks on his path toward his vocation as a missionary, and he clearly articulated that this was his primary motivation to learn English:

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I came to the realization that unless I am able to speak English, how can I go to other nations and do this work? And so I learned English so that I can bring the gospel to the people in a language they can understand. Myat then described particularly lucid images of a “future English self” from his childhood. From an early age, even before he knew about English as a language, he perceived himself being drawn into a “different world” and a different language: When I was a boy, about 7 or 8 years . . . I had a very strong sense that I had to be in a different world, different from the world I was living in at that time and I used to dream something entirely different, about a people group that spoke a different language. And when I grew old enough to recognize that there was such a thing as English people, having different cultures and the language, then there was no sense of doubt in me that this is the one. It is remarkable that this image of a future English-speaking self went so far as to appear even in his dreams, where he clearly saw himself speaking English fluently. The world of English in his dreams gave him a great deal of pleasure; in fact, it became a kind of virtual world that he inhabited in his mind and in his dreams: In my dream, I was very good at English. I spoke to people, but when I wake up I did not know what I spoke. But I sensed the joy of speaking English. So I lived basically in two worlds. In the world of English, and in the reality where there is very little English. Myat saw a connection between this future “English self” in his dream that seemed so real, and a sense of divine call, which he identified as a strong source of motivation to learn English. The future L2 self played the role of a model or an ideal that he imitated and aspired to. Even though he had not yet attained the L2 fluency he desired, his future L2 self as he saw and experienced it in his dreams gave him hope that it was indeed possible to achieve fluency. He connected this future L2 self to his divine call and identified it as divine providence putting into place a source of motivation that helped him to keep pushing forward in his language learning efforts: I tried to imitate the dream I had but it was impossible. However there was a strong sense, as a result of the dream, there is a possibility that I will be able to speak as in the experience of my dream. That always strengthened me. . . . I interpreted the dream as God helping me see myself in the future. I am too far away from the point I would like to be in the future, but I can see the absolute possibility that I can reach that point.

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Years later, as the L2 vision and spiritual vision/call became reality, he looked back at his “divine call” as the starting point and saw himself having come full circle: Some churches invited me to speak [in English] and I see my preaching in other churches as a part of God’s fulfilling my dream. So . . . the gospel is the main motivation. Other participants’ data was less dramatic but nevertheless demonstrated a clear motivational connection between language learning and faith-related vocation. Linda explained how, in her initial post-secondary education, she chose Greek language courses as a way of laying the foundation for a vocation in Bible translation, even though she was still tentative about it: I went to Bible College for three years and made sure I was taking Bible courses. And I took Greek with the idea that if I ever went into Bible translation I would want Greek. So I took about 12 credit hours of Greek. In a similar vein, Julius, who had in the meantime switched from engineering to theology, found himself confronted with the need to learn several languages in order to further his education as a theologian: As soon as I started doctoral studies . . . I had to learn to read German. I had to learn to read French or I couldn’t pursue doctoral studies. Margaret described the importance of call as the starting point for her work: We could only do this work under the condition that God called us to do it. Language learning is of course part of it. How else could we do this work? How else could we understand the people, understand their way of thinking? You have to know the language. As these examples demonstrate, a clear motivational connection between the future L2 self and a faith vocation can be established in the personal development of the interviewees.

(c) Sacred Text In addition to the initial divine call and the vision of a future L2 self, there was a third factor playing a central role in the language-learning facet of the participants’ vocation: a sacred text (which was, in these cases, the Bible). Myat described the centrality of the sacred text in his language learning, again with exceptional clarity and focus. He noted several reasons why he had chosen to learn English using the Bible: first, it made the process easier because he was already

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familiar with the content; second, he had no access to any other resource in English; and third, immersing in the Bible as part of learning the language resulted both in enhanced knowledge of the sacred text and the acquisition of the language that was a part of his L2 vision: I used the Bible as my textbook . . . this was a help because many of the New Testament stories were familiar to me; . . . the Bible was the only book in English that I had in my hands. The ultimate goal of learning English is that with this language I will be able to read and understand the Word of God. For me learning the truth from the Bible and learning English in my own way are inseparable. So as I read the Bible, I learned the truth and at the same time I learned English. And so it served two purposes together, two in one. Lucinda further highlighted the motivational capacity of the sacred text by noting the arduous process of language learning and making it clear that, if the sacred text were not involved, she would not embark on that demanding task: I would not learn Mankhuet or Bibaclo. I would not go through the hard effort of learning another language unless it had to do with translating the word of God or communicating the word of God in some way . . . It is much too hard of work if it were not for the burning desire to communicate God’s truth to people who need it. Julius described the key link between the sacred text and his motivation to learn Hebrew, explaining that a deeper understanding of the sacred text could only be attained through learning Hebrew: “When I took Hebrew my main motivation was . . . I was entirely intrigued by the way the gospel was preached. And the only way I could figure that out was to start to learn Hebrew.” He then spoke about the thrill of learning biblical languages during his doctoral studies in Old Testament, a fascination that is reminiscent of “flow” (Csíkszentmihályi, 1996). It is noteworthy, though, that he made a distinction between his enjoyment of language learning—which he admitted was in and of itself fascinating—and the “greater end” of understanding the sacred text at a profound level so that he was equipped to communicate his faith with deeper insight and effectiveness: Oh . . . I just never had so much joy in my life! . . . this doing languages was better than engineering by far. . . . it enabled me to read the Bible in ways that I had never been able to read it before. . . . I got involved in languages: German, French, Ugaritic, Akkadian, Aramaic, Greek, and Hebrew. But as an end in and of itself it wouldn’t have given me any joy at all. Oh no, no, no, no, no . . . It was a means to the greater end that I could preach from the Bible in ways that others can appreciate.

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2. Living the Vision We have examined the reasons why the participants engaged in language learning, allowing us to uncover a tri-part make-up of their vision: a spiritual calling, a vision of an L2 self, and a desire to access (or make accessible to others) a sacred text. In the seven cases that we selected for this study, a key component of operationalizing a response to the spiritual vision/call involved a vision of a future L2 self with a particular projected end in mind. Participants saw themselves as fluent L2 users, and a central facet of this mental picture involved interacting in an L2 with the sacred text and the imagined community surrounding it. When participants engaged in goal-oriented language learning behavior that was synchronized and harmonized with this joint spiritual/L2 vision, the process of language learning was energized with extraordinary vigor. We will now examine observable behavior from which we can make inferences about the intensity (how hard) and the longevity (how long) of the participants’ engagement in language learning and related activities.

(a) Intensity and Quality of Goal-oriented Behavior Several observable behaviors and end results allow us to infer the intensity and quality of participants’ engagement. First of all, the participants’ overall willingness to make significant personal investments and sacrifices was striking; second, we have evidence of the high level of language proficiency achieved; and finally, in a number of the participants, there was a tangible “end product”—a translated document. Willingness to Make Significant Personal Investments, Changes, and Sacrifices All participants indicated in one way or another that their decision to learn language(s) as a part of their overall spiritual call was a decision made with great care and entailed a significant change of direction in their lives. For most participants and their immediate families, this decision involved relocating from their home country to a culture significantly different than their own. It included moving to countries of extreme poverty, political unrest, harsh climates, isolation, and minimal access to medical services. It entailed living on donations from the members of their extended faith communities. Most of them learned minority languages without written codes for which resources such as language instructors, classes, and course materials were minimal, unavailable, or non-existent, thus requiring significant initiative on their part to put such scaffolds into place for themselves. Myat’s experience illustrates the intensity with which he pursued his language learning. He was so drawn by this future L2 self that he went so far as to voluntarily

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remove himself from his L1 in order to propel himself more quickly into this future world of his new language self: I was very dedicated to learning English. What I did was, the moment I stepped into the campus of the school I said goodbye to my own native language. I said to myself, I will never speak or read anything in my own language. And I said to myself, I will even dream my dreams in English and I did not want to get out of the campus without learning the language. He described the prayer he engaged in before he began to learn English. The force of his determination is expressed through abandoning his L1 in order to acquire his L2 more quickly, even to the extent of giving up language altogether in the interim and engaging in prayer without language: Then I went to my room and I wanted to dedicate myself to God in prayer and I knelt and wanted to pray but how should I pray? I had no language. I gave up my native language and here I was ready to learn a new language but I can’t use it at that point in time yet. And so I just prayed without words. Then, in addition to his studies at the theological seminary (where the medium of instruction was neither English nor his L1), he proceeded to teach himself English by working with nothing more than an English version of the New Testament, an English L1 dictionary, and a notebook. During this time, he had virtually no exposure to English speakers. To practice pronunciation and fluency in speaking, he made a habit of going into the forest alone and lecturing to the trees: I went to a jungle, a place where there was no people so I will preach to the trees, I will preach to the open space with the intention that I will train my . . . lip/mouth organs and also to make myself make sentences spontaneously. In two and half months, he had worked through the entire New Testament and created an L1 English dictionary in his notebook, based on the words in the text. John described the particular challenges of learning three languages as follows: We had no resources, no other linguists working with Bilabongalij, nor was there any other language that was similar. It was a very unique, exceptionally complex tonal language. We were not adequately prepared for such a challenge. We were still weak in French and we thought we would just pick up Sulla along the way, but that was not happening

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so we had to set aside six months just to learn Sulla. Then we went back to Bilabongalij. John and his wife chose to make sacrifices that included simple living conditions in a poverty-stricken country, far away from extended family. They and their children suffered illnesses without having readily accessible health care. Linda also described the difficulties she and her family encountered in experiencing danger and political unrest, which gave rise to their repeated evacuations from their host country. Level of Language Proficiency Achieved While we were not able to measure the interviewees’ L2 proficiency levels ourselves, the participants who were Bible translators were accountable to their sending agencies and international organizations that oversee Bible translations worldwide. These organizations require a high level of fluency as one condition for authorizing translations. They employ highly trained linguists, Greek and Hebrew scholars, and other translation experts who enforce these standards. In describing the checks and balances in the lengthy translation process, Daryl noted that, “Bible translators have to be at the top of the proficiency scale.” Lucinda described the standards in her sending agency, noting that, “I had to pass all the levels of learning before I was allowed to help [my husband] with translation.” She explained that, with other crosscultural work such as health care, one can get by with a lower level of language, but when working with translation, “it requires a much higher level of fluency.” A Tangible End Product: A Translated Document A number of the participants completed translations of all or significant sections of the Bible, which have gone through rigorous checks under the direction of organizations such as Wycliffe Global Alliance (www.wycliffe.net), SIL International (www.sil.org), and Biblica, an international organization with a 200year history of Bible translation (www.biblica.com/scripture-ministry/translation).

(b) Longevity of Goal-Oriented Behavior It is not unusual for someone to commit himself or herself to intense and rigorous language study for a short period of time. For all these participants, however, language learning was an essential part of a life-long commitment to learning. After 35 years of language learning and translation, Daryl recalled that, in their preparatory training, it was instilled in them that they were committing for “the long haul.” Daryl spent 10 years in language learning before he was able to begin with translation, but language learning continued in the years that followed; as he recalled, “I kept having to go back to the dictionaries that I had written.”

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Like Daryl, John also spent over three decades in learning languages. It was only after 15 years of language learning, linguistic analysis, and creating a written code that he was able to begin with translation. At one point, with the help of a more specialized linguist, he dedicated 5 years exclusively to deciphering the exceptionally complex tonal system of Bilabongalij. Margaret looked back at the commitment she made 50 years earlier to become a translator, which in her mind was as sacred as her marriage vows: There were two questions that my husband asked me when he proposed: if I would marry him and if I would share his work as a missionary and Bible translator. Now that he has passed away, [my marriage vows] are no longer . . . but the second promise remains. This is why I continue. At over 70, she continued to work at translation and at improving her language skills as the language changes with cultural and generational shifts: It is a very long process to learn a language. We had to figure out the grammar and all, and of course we had no materials—the way the words are constructed—it is very complicated and to get it all right—well, I won’t reach that in my lifetime. I was recently at a linguists conference and I learned more about the language groups in this region. I learned about new ways in which certain words are used and new phonetic symbols. And now we have to continue working with the language—a grammar book, a dictionary . . . Summing up, from the participants’ observable behavior, we can make inferences about the intensity, quality, and longevity of their engagement. Their willingness to make significant personal investments and sacrifices, the high level of language proficiency achieved, and finally the tangible “end product”—a translated document—all suggest that participants pursued language learning with a high level of intensity and quality. Informants’ lengthy commitment to language learning speaks of extraordinary persistence and depth of investment, fuelled by an unusually intensive wellspring of motivation.

Implications This study suggests that there exists an underground reservoir of motivation for SLA that taps into some learners’ identities in harmony with their ideal L2 selves, their spiritual vision, and a sacred text. What implications might this have for the second language classroom? What might language classrooms look like that harness this hidden wellspring? The third pillar of Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System concerns the L2 learning experience—motives related to the immediate learning environment such as the impact of the teacher, the curriculum, the

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classroom dynamics, and the experience of success. How might the source of motivation that we have identified in this study be utilized to provide sustenance that could refresh language learners and contribute to the language learning experience as a more meaningful, rewarding and fruitful use of time? Here are three broad implications to consider: 1.

2.

We might consider more seriously the implications of L2 curriculum content and its relationship to learner self-identity for learner motivation. David Smith and Barbara Carvill (2000) have pointed out that the content of L2 curricula often reflects a confined image of learner identity, such as the learner as a consumer, the learner as a cog in the economic machinery of a society, or the learner as a tourist. For example, in a language classroom, food and drink are routinely treated as items of consumption; however, Carvill and Smith suggest that this may not be the only or even most educationally interesting and necessary way to deal with this vocabulary. What might it mean to engage learners in discussions about those who do not have enough food and drink, or to consider the idea that “humans do not live by bread alone?” Carvill and Smith observe that questions concerning deeper meanings of life or the spiritual identity of language learners are seldom addressed in L2 curriculum. The results of this study indicate that some learners would welcome such a focus. We find an interesting and well-documented parallel to this need for deeper meaning in actual classroom practice in Bonny Norton’s (2001) case study research of two Canadian immigrant language learners, Katarina and Felicia. Norton argues that, while these learners were actively engaged in classroom practices, the realm of their community extended beyond the four walls of the classroom; that is, they were operating at the interface of reality and imagination. However, because the teacher failed to give room to practices of imagination but only focused instead on the pragmatic aspects of the curriculum and the classroom reality, Katarina and Felicia ultimately withdrew from their ESL classes. We might consider using sacred texts—or, more generally, texts of special significance—as L2 curriculum content. The selection of the particular text could be a response to needs identified by the learners themselves. With regard to sacred texts, we should not discount learner motivations other than purely religious ones, which is well illustrated by ways in which the Bible is commonly used in state universities in China, a country where religious proselytizing is forbidden. The first author was astounded when, in a Canadian public university, a student of Chinese heritage and Buddhist persuasion “preached” to her English for Academic Purposes class on the importance of reading the Bible as a way of learning English. Later, she discovered that this view is not at all uncommon in China, as there appears to be a widespread perception there that reading the Bible is an important source for understanding Western literature, law, economics, and history

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(Zetzsche, 1997)—and also for learning English. Accordingly, courses in “Bible Stories” are routinely taught in English in Chinese universities. Further research could investigate the nature of the motivational disposition of students, teachers, and university administrators who most likely do not align themselves with the faith communities surrounding this sacred text but nevertheless choose to use sacred texts for language learning, presumably for their literary and historical value. This phenomenon is likely to share several features with aspects of the “Language through Literature” movement that has been so widespread in language teaching methodology. We might also consider using sacred texts as L2 curriculum content in response to learners’ self-identified needs; for example, with learners who are learning a language for theological or missiological purposes or with adherents of faith communities who relocate to another country and choose to integrate into a similar faith community that functions in their new target L2. While the informants of this study represent cases of extraordinary L2 motivation involving a sacred text, anecdotal evidence suggests that there are many people who align themselves with faith communities and engage in language learning at least partially motivated by their religious identity. We have found, for example, in several faith-based English language programs that used the Faith Series (Tiessen & Lepp-Kaethler, 2011), which is a Bible-based English language curriculum and coursebook series, that many learners responded positively not only to task-based methodology, but specifically also to the Bible content for learning English. While sacred texts by no means tap into all language learners’ motivations—which, of course, could be said about any content in ESP courses—the current study indicates that there are L2 learners for whom sacred texts do constitute meaningful and highly motivating input for language learning.

Conclusion The results of this study point to a hidden but surprisingly powerful motivator for SLA that has received little attention in the field of applied linguistics: employing Dörnyei’s L2 Self System in examining the relationship between spiritual vision and L2 vision, our study highlighted the use of sacred texts as a source of singular determination and force among some language learners. We have found that when the three key components examined in this study—divine call/vision, L2 learning vision, and a sacred text—are pooled, synchronized, and channeled meaningfully, they appear to generate an unusually high “jet stream” of motivation for language learning: learners are caught in a powerful inner current that propels them to acquire language with exceptional intensity, persistence, and longevity. These results, then, may encourage materials writers, curriculum designers, and teachers to try to tap into these or analogous sources of motivation in ways that support positive outcomes for language learning.

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Note 1. We are indebted to the following people who provided insights and examples in personal communications to illustrate some of the points made in this chapter: Christy Lewis (March 24, 2010), Vickie LaClare (August 9, 2010), Mary Hogan (February 18, 2009), Oksana, Amile, Ok, Elvina, and Eunjin (June 24, 2009), Gloria Cho (March 7, 2011), InKyung Kim (March 7, 2011), Qiaojun Xu, Jack Xu (2011), Gail Tiessen and Amber Wylie (Nottingham Extension Research Group).

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O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press. Smith, D., & Carvill, B. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Thomas, S. (2005). The global resurgence of religion and the transformation of international relations: The struggle for the soul of the twenty-first century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Tiessen, G., & Lepp-Kaethler, E. (2011). Faith portraits II: The Acts of the Apostles (Biblebased English language curriculum). Otterburne, MB: Providence Bookstore Publishing. Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, A. S. (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Zetzsche, J. O. (1997). Cultural primer or “Bible Stories” in contemporary mainland China. Asian and African Studies, 6(2), 217–232.

12 COSMOPOLITANISM, CHRISTIANITY, AND THE CONTEMPORARY CHINESE CONTEXT Impacts upon Second Language Motivation Peng Ding XI’AN JIAOTONG-LIVERPOOL UNIVERSITY (PRC)

Rapid economic growth and China’s re-engagement with the world have delivered enormous improvements in living standards to the Chinese people since 1979, following the implementation of Deng Xiaoping’s transformative “reform and opening-up” (gaige kaifang) policies. Yet, these reforms have also had a huge impact upon people’s attitudes, particularly those of the generation born after the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976). China’s modernization process has brought the Chinese people into contact with diverse cultural influences, such as consumerism, globalization, the Internet, international relations, and religion. As a result, many contemporary Chinese view themselves as cosmopolitan, modern, and international in their outlook (Yang, 2005), making efforts to enjoy the benefits of their improved lifestyles. The number of people attending Christian churches in China has grown dramatically in recent years, with many in China viewing Christianity as a modernizing and liberalizing influence upon their lives (Yang, 2007). Yang (2005), perhaps somewhat controversially, describes the Christian faith as “liberating amid a stifling political atmosphere” (p. 423), and Leung (1999) notes that conversion to Christianity is more prevalent in rural areas. Yet, with China undergoing the fastest urbanization process in human history, churches are becoming a prominent feature in major cities. Migrant workers within China (that is, those working outside their hometown or province) may be drawn to the church community as a welcoming society and community far away from their hometowns (Bays, 2003). Kalir (2009) similarly provides an intriguing and

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highly relevant study of temporary migrant Chinese construction workers in Israel, mainly from villages in Fujian Province, who have converted to evangelical Christianity during their stay in Israel. He relates conversion to Christianity among these workers as a means of accumulating social, cultural, and symbolic capital, a kind of international cosmopolitanism, which is valuable to them when returning to China. Nanlai Cao (2007) argues that the new entrepreneurial urban class of China’s major cities, particularly in the wealthy coastal provinces of Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong (as well as the major municipalities of Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai) are a major group represented in church congregations. Cao’s article—based on an ethnographic study conducted in the city of Wenzhou, Zhejiang (a city famous throughout China for its entrepreneurial spirit)— somewhat contradicts Yang’s (2005) position that churchgoers are looking for political liberation. Instead, Cao argues that the sweeping economic liberalization that has occurred in China since the early 1980s has been accompanied by a relaxation of stringent controls on religious activity, which has depoliticized and promoted locally administered churches, albeit within a tightly controlled system of state-sponsored churches. Thus, various authors, including Aikman (2006), Bays (2003), Cao (2007), Kalir (2009), Yang (2005), and Yang and Tamney (2006), highlight the issue of cosmopolitanism in church congregations, although in different ways. What is certainly clear from the existing literature, as well as from my own observations at churches in the city of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, is that notions of modernity and cosmopolitanism appear to play a strong role in attracting people to the Christian church. These are combined with community relations and the philosophy of Christian beliefs, which may fill the vacuum left by the shift away from ideological Marxist-Leninist and Maoist thought, abandoned since 1979 when the “reform and opening-up” period began (Aikman, 2006). Aikman (2006) suggests that the total numbers of Christian believers in China may stand at around 70 million Protestants and 13 million Catholics (although, it must be noted that statistical information on the number of Christians in China is subject to much speculation). The Chinese government only recognizes two official churches: the Protestant Three-Self Patriotic Movement (TSPM) and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CPCA). However, there are also large numbers of “family” or “house” churches in rural and urban areas across China; these are non-state-registered churches that are technically illegal, as they are not affiliated to the TSPM or the CPCA. As for demographics, some insight is provided by Yang (2005), who reports that 7 percent of churchgoers in a southern Chinese city are university students, with 31 percent of converts in the range of 18 to 29 years of age. In the city of Suzhou, the local TSPM church, located in the Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, facilitates an Englishlanguage Bible study group that is very popular among university students from nearby universities, including Suzhou University, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool

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University as well as graduate schools, and research centers of Nanjing, Renmin, Dongnan, Wuhan, and Sichuan universities. Given the prominence of modernity and cosmopolitanism as a major motivating aspect of conversion to Christianity in China, this chapter aims to explore the potential link between Christian faith and its impact upon learning English as a second language among university student churchgoers in the Dushu Lake HE Town area of Suzhou. While the primary reasons for church attendance are faith and the desire to learn about the teachings of Christianity, there is some strong evidence in the existing literature that converting to Christianity is also motivated, at least in part, by a desire to become a member of an internationally aware, cosmopolitan, and sophisticated social group (Yang, 2005). It appears that there is an association between students’ spiritual needs, academic and career aspirations, and their willingness and passion to learn English. While it is recognized that the ability to speak English is a major benefit for students entering the job market in China, the impact of Christian belief upon the actual learning of English as a second language has not been the subject of extensive research.

The Research Site The Suzhou Municipal Government has recently spent 30 million yuan (approximately US $4.75 million) on building a TSPM Christian church with a capacity of 2,100 people along the shore of Dushu Lake. The Dushu Lake Church is a bilingual church and holds its services in both Chinese and English.1 There are five official TSPM Churches in Suzhou, and many Chinese Christians go to the Sunday worship service at the church near where they live. The churchgoers at Dushu Lake Church are people who work and live in the Suzhou Industrial Park, including students and teachers from the universities at the Dushu Lake HE Town, and migrant workers, as well as many local farmers. Every TSPM Christian Church has an English Bible Reading Group. The leaders are often American Christians who work in Suzhou. The Church holds copies of a bilingual Bible published by the Chinese TSPM Committee and the Chinese Christian Association. The English Bible Reading Group at Dushu Lake Church has been set up recently and there are six American teachers and about forty regular members. I have attended this English Bible Reading Group every week, helping to organize the sessions, contacting the learners, translating and interpreting during the session, and liaising between the Chinese pastors and the American teachers. Even though the official TSPM church in Dushu Lake HE Town is very popular, the churches that attract the majority of university students are the “family” or “house” churches. Instead of going to the state-governed churches, many university students at the HE town are regular churchgoers of a “family” church, and according to one insider, the majority of the Family Church congregation are university students. Although the student Christian population

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fluctuates due to the annual incoming of new students and outgoing of recent graduates, the Family Church has a steady annual membership of about 1,000 people. According to some student acquaintances, the reasons that many in this demographic prefer the Family Church include: (a) the preaching is often more engaging; (b) students share similar life and study experiences; (c) the gatherings are spread in different family homes where the group is often small and the atmosphere more intimate; and (d) the Bible is approached in a notably different manner than in the official Chinese Church. While the official church focuses on “love” between God/Jesus and the people, as well as among Christian members, the Family Church emphasizes the deeper meanings of God’s Word and its preaching also includes topics such as “Revelation” and “the Dead will be judged,” which are seldom mentioned at the sermons of official Chinese churches. The Family Church is so large that it has its own full-time pastors and holds Sunday worship services, prayer fellowships, and Chinese Bible study groups. It also trains the members of its choir and music group; even students with no musical background often become competent and highly enthusiastic members. In addition, the Family Church has an “English corner,” a regular event initiated by Christian Chinese students that often involves American student visitors and has the purpose of preaching the gospel among students in the Dushu Lake HE Town and in Suzhou. Many students are converted to Christianity during their time at university in Suzhou and have had their baptism in the Family Church.

The Study The adoption of Christianity in modern China is a fairly recent phenomenon and, as was mentioned earlier, there have been few academic studies examining the impact of Christian beliefs upon second language acquisition (SLA). To explore this new research domain, an emergent qualitative research strategy was selected in which analytical theories were chosen as and when relevant themes emerged from the fieldwork activities. These themes were discussed at length with the interviewees until they were sufficiently crystallized. The actual data collection procedure involved two stages. The first stage was mainly field research in which my most important task was “being there—to observe, to ask seemingly stupid yet insightful questions, and to write down what is seen and heard” (Fetterman, 1998, p. 19). I was both a participant and participant observer, “taking part in whatever is going on in the site in order to better understand the insider, or emic experience” (Riemer, 2008, p. 207). This approach facilitated a process whereby the interviewees were identified and the interview questions emerged out of the participant observation activity. This first stage of field observation and informal conversations with members of the Christian community in Suzhou was conducted over nearly 12 months.

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The second stage of the data collection involved a series of in-depth interviews with ten Chinese university students and one American student. Two of the eleven students were recent graduates, the rest were still studying; nine were females and two were males. The students ranged from 20 to 28 years in age and were from three different universities. They were enrolled in various subjects such as English Studies (with either Business or Finance), Tourism Management, Digital Media, Landscape Architecture, Electronic Engineering and Automation, Biochemistry, and Chinese Language and Culture.

Findings and Discussion Riemer (2008, pp. 211–212) contends that one of the fundamental aspects of ethnographic research is a “thick description,” which brings in “all possible meanings of an event, including meanings conferred by members of the culture itself.” This aspect was central to my approach in identifying and exploring themes as they emerged through extensive discussion with interviewees, then selecting appropriate existing theories to illuminate those emerging themes. Five salient categories of content surfaced regarding the close but rather complex associations between the participants’ Christian faith and their language-learning disposition.

Finding 1: The Intertwined Relationship Between Christian Faith and Learning English Ten out of the eleven interviewees explicitly claimed that their Christian faith was closely related to their second language learning, and all of them provided anecdotes about how the two were interconnected. Four students (Leanne, Lilly, Sue, and Rose) believed that their interest in learning English was a strong factor in directing them toward the Christian faith; their interest in English provided them with the opportunity to adopt Christianity, which in turn helped their English learning. Three students (Sasha, Eva, and Kevin) claimed that their Christian faith had exerted a huge influence on their interest in and motivation to learn English, while two students, Sharon and Vivian, explained that their early experiences of going to church with their families provided them with opportunities to hear American preachers, leading them to gain an interest in English at an early age. However, they both explained that their interest in learning English preceded their interest in Christianity, because despite going to church at young ages, at that time they did not understand much about the Christian faith. Amanda was the only participant who did not perceive any direct link between her faith and her studies of English, but she hoped that God would give her confidence and tenacity in the future when she needed to pass any English exams. Interestingly, the American student in the participant sample, Mark, also attested to a link between the Christian faith and second language acquisition. In his case,

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it was his Christian faith that created the opportunity for him to come to China and learn Chinese, and it was also his Christian faith that made him want to speak Chinese in order to be able to teach Christianity to Chinese young people. Eight Chinese students reported that learning English and reading the English Bible were their two must-do activities every day. Sasha had never been interested in learning English for its own sake, but regarded learning the Bible in English and being able to understand people’s conversation about the Bible in English as her primary motivation for English learning. Her inability to express herself in English well enough frustrated her, but after she converted to Christianity she developed a strong desire to communicate the messages of the Bible in English. Thus, English was a means for her to learn about Christianity and, as a by-product of practicing Christianity, she gained an interest in the English language. All the Chinese participants discerned some sort of a dialectical relationship between learning English and learning about Christianity, and the American student, Mark, also alluded to a dynamic relationship between his faith and learning of Chinese as a second language. As Kevin recounted: Because of the English environment in our Church—there are American Christians and the English Bible study sessions—I have a strong desire to learn English well. The experience of learning about Christianity and principles I need to abide by, the ability that God gives me to explain his words in English has motivated me to learn English. I want to be able to read the English Bible, and share my faith and beliefs with others in English. I also hope to speak English fluently with foreigners. . . . Once you form a habit of learning the Bible every day, that habit is crucial, there’s nothing else you cannot persist in, so you should have no problem to learn English every day. To summarize, several different motivational dispositions revealed themselves throughout the process of the semi-structured interviews, confirming my own observations within the group and the wider church-community. The most important factors concerning the link between second language learning and Christian faith are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4.

The identification of Christianity as being a major motivating factor in the study of English as a second language (Sasha, Eva, and Kevin). An intrinsic interest in English acting as the basis of developing an interest in Christianity (Vivian, Sue, Rose, Leanne, and Sharon). The Christian faith being a catalyst for beginning to learn a foreign language or to aid motivation in the study of a foreign language (Mark and Sasha). Christianity as a channel for providing Chinese students with opportunities to discuss their beliefs in English with both fellow Chinese and foreigners

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6. 7.

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using English as the medium of communication (Kevin, Sue, Rose, Leanne, Amanda, Lilly, and Sasha). A dialectical, dynamic process whereby an interest in Christianity that has originated from a non-faith-based interest in the English language leads to the adoption of the Christian faith, which in turn has a galvanizing effect on the motivation to learn English to develop a deeper understanding of Christianity (Leanne, Lily, Sue, and Rose). An early exposure to English language in a church environment leading to an interest in English language learning (Vivian and Sharon). Confidence in one’s own abilities arising from the security provided by the Christian faith and, specifically, a belief that God will provide help in achieving success (all participants).

Finding 2: International Outlook Yashima (2002, p. 57) defines a generalized outlook (or “international posture”) common among Japanese learners of English as an “interest in foreign or international affairs, willingness to go overseas to stay or work, readiness to interact with intercultural partners, and [. . .] openness or a non-ethnocentric attitude toward different cultures” (see also Yashima, 2009; Yashima, Tenuk-Nishide, & Shimizu, 2004). Lamb (2004) found that Indonesian children considered possessing the English language an essential attribute of becoming a “world citizen.” Indeed, a “bicultural identity” (that is, a globally associated and nationally responsible self) causes many to be highly motivated to learn English. This raises a number of questions: In a similarly globalized Chinese context such as Suzhou, do many Chinese students also want to possess an “international posture” and feel responsible as a “world citizen?” Do they regard the English language as a means to become a member of a socially, culturally, and economically advantaged stratum of Chinese society? Can conversion to Christianity be seen as a “third identity” to help an individual become a global citizen? The dataset clearly revealed an international outlook among the young Chinese converts with regard to learning a second language. All ten Chinese participants expressed readiness to interact with intercultural friends (native speakers and also Western Christians) and showed openness, interest, and non-ethnocentric attitudes toward other cultures. I also extracted a number of international elements from both informal conversations and formal interviews with each individual participant. For example, Sharon had been actively involved in organizing various activities at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, looking after visiting international students and showing them around the city of Suzhou. She was also a mature student representative in charge of a student extracurricular program called the “Buddy Program,” in which she and her team organized various cultural activities for the international students. Recently, she had received a job offer from the Shanghai branch of a world-famous “Big 4” international accounting firm. It should also

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be noted that Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, which Sharon attended, is an international, joint-venture university, with international staff from over 25 countries and where the vast majority of students go on to pursue postgraduate studies at overseas universities in the UK, North America, Europe, and South East Asia. Many students at this university have a strong international outlook and view to study and/or work outside China at some point after graduating. Sue and Rose, best friends and both students of Landscape Architecture at Suzhou University, were preparing for the GRE exam when this research was undertaken as they wanted to study in America after finishing their undergraduate degrees. Their goal was to learn Theology in the US so as to be able to preach the gospel to people from many different countries. Rose, far from being ethnocentric, demonstrated a “globalized” attitude as is evident in the following statement: . . . to learn the subject Landscape Architecture, related to ecology, we need to have love and consciousness in order to make the current living environment better for human. We need to pray to God for enthusiasm and passion for this subject and also the love and a strong sense of responsibility towards the human race. There are also other examples that demonstrate the international posture of these students. For example, Vivian kept asking me about my foreign colleagues and their cultures in every conversation we had. She had been to many places in China and possessed a strong desire to spend some time overseas both travelling and studying. She also told me in the interview that she would want to “travel to Israel in the future like many famous people have done and walk on the path where Jesus had walked and talk to the local Israelis in English.” After graduation, Kevin, another participant, looked for jobs with Fortune 500 companies in Suzhou and was thrilled to have been recently offered a job working for the Overseas Sales Department of an American car company. He commented with great gratitude that “God has led me, and the English language I have been studying for such a long time has finally been turned to good account.” Clearly, in this particular Chinese context, young Christian converts hold an international outlook, which they view as being entirely consistent with their Christian faith and the goal of becoming a global citizen. These findings add weight to the arguments of scholars that emphasize notions of cosmopolitanism in church congregations (for example, Aikman, 2006; Bays, 2003; Cao, 2007; Kalir, 2009; Yang, 2005; Yang & Tamney, 2006). As stated earlier, my own observations at churches in the city of Suzhou also pointed to the important role of notions of modernity and cosmopolitanism in attracting people to the Christian church. These observations and the findings reported in the literature provide evidence for a link with China’s recent economic progress and the emergence of an

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international outlook as a characteristic of young Chinese people. Thus, the emerging data seem to indicate that there are some special links between learning English and modern Christianity, which echoes Dörnyei’s (2009a) proposal: I do not believe that it is accidental that the portentous spread of English coincides with the contemporary Christian revival. And neither am I surprised, therefore, that teaching English and teaching about Jesus appear to fit so comfortably together. (p. 157) It seems that the adoption of Christian faith is one way of expressing such international perspectives, though it is important not to interpret the strong Christian beliefs that are evidently held by my interviewees with any degree of skepticism (that is, in the sense that Christian beliefs are adopted purely for pragmatic reasons). To arrive at such a conclusion would ignore the wealth of data that support the view that interviewees and churchgoers encountered throughout the research process have deeply held Christian beliefs that are of central importance to their identities. It is, however, important to acknowledge a strong correlation between internationally aware perspectives and a Christian faith.

Finding 3: The Influence of Role Models Six students (Vivian, Sasha, Amanda, Sue, Leanne, and Mark) pinpointed the influence of role models in their lives. These role models clearly had an impact on the individual students’ conversions to Christianity. Learning English seemed to be both a channel to reduce the discrepancy between the student and the role model and to become a successful Christian. The role models described by the participants included famous Western people (such as film stars, singers, artists, and authors), family members, Western Christian friends, and converted Chinese university peers. The participants believed that God empowered these role models by giving them aptitude, talents, skills, and ability or by transforming their habits, behaviors, mannerisms, and temperaments, among other things. Yang (2005) states that, for many Chinese people, being a Christian is tantamount to being Western, modern, and thriving economically. In his study of the conversion of Chinese temporary migrant workers in Israel to evangelical Christianity, Kalir (2009) claims that, for some Chinese people, “becoming a Christian is seen as one more step in the direction towards achieving Western modernity” (p. 143). It emerged in my dataset that some students also held an opinion that being Western means being modern, and expressed a desire to emulate successful Western people as they perceived them. The fact that many Western celebrities are Christian was also reassuring for the students, as illustrated by Vivian’s statement:

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I read the blogs of many celebrities and find that some very famous people are Christian and some have been to Israel . . . Many famous Western people I really like are Christian . . . Besides watching Western films and listening to English songs, I also read English classic literature. I tend to look up the authors and singers and movie stars on the Internet. I’m surprised that many famous people are Christian. This encourages me a lot. I believe that these people have become great persons with the help of God. I want to become a great person with a lot of ideas and talent to write great works. Much classic literature has quotes from the Bible. Similarly, Sue’s American Christian friends also influenced her in terms of mannerisms and attitudes toward difficulties in life: I met Carley, Lydia, and Rose. They are very different from other people. For example, Carley’s handbag was stolen one day. Her reaction to the incident was totally different from other people. She wasn’t annoyed and even tried to comfort us. Because they are Christian, they believe in God and take Jesus as their role model, so they have such good mannerisms. As the Bible says, Christians are different from the others. These significant other Christians appeared to shape and reshape the study participants’ formation of self. On one hand, by witnessing the supernatural work God had done in the lives of significant others, the individuals were more open and ready for conversion to Christianity. On the other hand, if the significant other Christian person also spoke English, it would motivate the student to learn English in order to reduce the discrepancy between the learner and the role model and to be part of the social circle the significant person was in.

Finding 4: The Use of Bible Scriptures and Metaphors as an Instrument to Generate and Sustain Vision Due to much time and effort in studying Scriptures and discussing them in the fellowship gatherings, many participants could remember several verses from the Bible and use them to explain their thoughts and beliefs. The dataset showed that the Scriptures/messages that the learner learned from the Bible could have a powerful impact in the following functions: 1.

They changed the students’ attitudes and behaviors, as the following extract from Vivian’s interview explains: I used to dress myself differently because I wanted to show that I was different and beautiful. As a consequence I looked so over the top. I have changed since I started to read the Bible. The Bible says that

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people need to be humble, meek, trustworthy, and so on. The Proverbs has it, “Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting” (Proverbs 31:30). 2.

3.

4.

They instilled a sense of responsibility as a Christian gifted by God to influence others (for example, by preaching the Gospel). For example, Mark and Vivian quoted Timothy 4:12–16 and Acts 22:2, respectively, to explain how they should behave as Christians and why they need to learn a second language in order to reach/influence more people. The learners had also received the reassuring message from the Scriptures that God was with them and for them to rely on when they were in trouble. For example, Mark quoted several verses from John 14:14–17, 25–27. Moreover, there were also a number of instances of the use of phrases from the Bible by several learners (including Sue, Rose, Vivian, Kevin, Sharon, Eva, and Mark), representing the learners’ perceptions of their relationships with God (for example, Psalm 62:6–7, Psalm 1:3). By using biblical phrases and metaphors, the learners also created images of a future world in which Christians and God interact—that is, an eschatological “imagined community.” The term “imagined community” was first used by Anderson (1991) and further theorized by Wenger (1998), who proposed three modes of community belonging: engagement, imagination, and alignment. Engagement means “a source of identity” (p. 174), imagination refers to “a process of expanding our self by transcending our time and space and creating new images of the world and ourselves” (p. 176), and alignment means “coordinating our energy and activities in order to fit within structures and contribute to broader enterprises” (p. 174). It seems that the process and effect of reading and using Scriptures involved all these three modes; that is, being a Christian demands one’s engagement of reading the Bible and, with the help of the metaphors, Christians create new images of the world and of themselves. The structures and rules in the imagined Christian world, then, regulate how Christians think and act in reality. For example, in her interview, Sue mentioned the Parable of the Sewer (Matthew 13): for her to be “the good seed” (that is, “the wheat” instead of “the weeds”) would be a way to enter God’s kingdom and obtain eternal life. Thus, like several other Christian learners in the study, Sue used recurring images generated from the Scriptures to gain the motivation to behave like a good Christian. Working hard on English was probably one of the byproducts of being a good Christian. In this regard, Dörnyei (2009b) claims, “language learning is a sustained and often tedious process with lots of temporary ups and downs, and . . . the secret of successful learners was their possession of a superordinate vision that kept them on track” (p. 25). This claim certainly seems to provide a good explanation for the tenacity in language learning that resulted from the Christian faith of the interviewees.

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Finding 5: Reflections on Dörnyei’s L2 Motivation Self System and Noels’ Tripartite Conceptualization of L2 Motivation Recent L2 motivation research has been directed toward a contemporary notion of re-theorizing L2 motivation under the rubrics of self and identity in a global world English context (Ushioda & Dörnyei, 2009). Marcus and Kitayama (1991) argue that “the view one holds of the self is critical in understanding individual behavior and also in understanding the full nature of those phenomena that implicate the self ” (p. 248). Possible selves represent people’s ideas of “what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming” (Markus & Nurius, 1986, p. 157). Dörnyei (2009b) posits that one of the main attractions of possible self-theory lays in its “imaginary component.” For him, as already cited above, “the secret of successful learners was their possession of a superordinate vision that kept them on track” (p. 25). Accordingly, in 2005, he proposed a new motivation theory, the “L2 Motivational Self System,” which consists of three dimensions: (a) the Ideal L2 Self, (b) the Ought-to L2 Self, and (c) the L2 Learning Experience: •





The Ideal L2 Self refers to the L2-specific dimension of one’s “ideal self”; for example, if a particular wished-for model person speaks an L2, the “ideal L2 Self” will serve as a powerful motivator because the learner wants to reduce the discrepancy between the actual and ideal selves. The Ought-to L2 Self concerns the attributes that a person assumes he or she should possess (for example, various duties, obligations, or responsibilities) in order to prevent possible negative effects (for example, blame for not fulfilling the responsibility). The L2 Learning Experience refers to the specific situational motivators associated with the immediate learning environment and one’s personal learning experience.

With specific reference to Dörnyei’s (2005) L2 Motivation Self System, the dataset offers evidence that the research participants possessed an ideal L2 self and an ought-to L2 self. However, the concepts of both the “L2” and the “self” were de-emphasized by these Christian students: even the students who were highly motivated to learn English believed that, as long as they had God, everything would be provided, be it an interest in learning English or an ability to speak good English. Thus, an ideal Christian self was considered more important than an ideal L2 self. Their ought-to L2 self was also significantly influenced by their ought-to Christian self, as explained by Rose in the following extract: After watching the film Se7en . . . I was most touched by the old policeman who said in the end, “This world is not beautiful but still we need to fight for it.” . . . So we came to this world with missions from God to save the

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world. We should keep our enthusiasm gifted to us by God. . . . I feel that people who study Landscaping Architecture should always keep love and an obligation from God. God wants me to learn this so I must feel fully obliged to care about the eco things and the environment. I feel very much responsible to study it well. Thank God, I still have a great enthusiasm for this subject. A key question arises here: When the Christian self is prevalent over the L2 self, how would Christian faith and the role of God fit into the construct of the L2 Motivational Self System? With regards to the three constituents of the construct, Christian faith impacts all of them powerfully and subtly. First, Christianity itself is centered around the notion of being a “good Christian,” as personified in the Bible by Jesus Christ, which in itself is a form of “ideal self” and “ought-to self.” Thus, attempts to achieve the “ideal L2 self” are concomitant to the pursuit of the “ideal Christian self.” Similarly, self-perceived notions of the “ought-to L2 self” are brought into line with the received notions of being a “good Christian.” In essence, what is happening here is an enveloping of the three dimensions of the L2 Motivational Self System under the umbrella of Christian faith, whereby the motivation to become a “good Christian” extends through Christian values to impact profoundly upon all other fields of endeavor, including language learning and studies. The data also provide information that can be used to reflect on the validity of another well-known tripartite construct of L2 motivation, suggested by Noels (2001; 2003) and Noels, Pelletier, Clément, and Vallerand (2000), which consists of intrinsic reasons, extrinsic reasons, and integrative reasons. According to Noels (2009, p. 297), intrinsic motivation derives from the enjoyment one feels while performing an innately interesting task (for example, mastering the language and demonstrating competence and abilities in the new language). Extrinsic motivation refers to “any sort of regulation that is external to the enjoyment of the activity itself” (p. 297). Integrative reasons are “the most internalized and self-determined form of regulation” (p. 297), which carry a “cultural” aspect (that is, a positive attitude toward the L2 community). The following description by Rose was a common statement among the research participants: “I feel strongly that God is the source of our power and the source of everything we have, whether it’s love, trust, and hope.” The question then arises: If this motivation derives from God, is it a form of extrinsic motivation? It was clear from the interviews that the language learning motivation of several participants was strong and intensive, and that they were genuinely interested in English and highly committed to learn the language. They believed that “it was God’s work” and that “God changed us from our inside and gave us a new heart and a new life” (Mark). Three participants explicitly talked about the critical difference between this “godly” motivation and worldly motivation; for example, Rose stated: “Your affections for worldly things can be short lived. However, there is also one

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kind of thing that comes from God and they are infinite and everlasting.” In light of this understanding, it seems fair to conclude that this “God-inside-us” motivation cannot be placed comfortably on the continuum between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

Conclusion While the reasons for adopting Christianity and the routes into the church community differed among the research participants, the impact of the Christian faith upon the L2 motivational disposition of all participants was evident across the group, and the interviewed students seemed very much aware of this impact. The data gathered from both the participant observation and the semi-structured interviews identified several key characteristics of the Christian L2 learner. The Christian faith appears to have a dialectical relationship with L2 motivation; that is, it appears to both influence and be influenced by an interest in English. The point of entry into this dynamic loop differs among students, as is to be expected. However, regardless of whether their interest in the English language led them to develop an interest in Christianity or whether their Christian faith led them to develop an interest in language study, the final result was the learners’ empowerment arising from their faith in God, which had a profound effect on their L2 motivation. The intensity of this empowerment was further amplified by the awareness of the students that God had given them talents and gifts, which they had a duty to develop to best effect. The power of such a unique understanding—in the sense that Christian faith allows for the students to understand the world in a specific way—cannot be underestimated. While the focus of this study has been on motivational issues, evidence from the dataset shows that such empowerment also extends to many other areas of the students’ lives. To reduce Christian faith to a component of language acquisition would be to underestimate the importance of faith to those who hold such beliefs; however, there can be little doubt that faith had a profound impact upon the language acquisition of the participants in this study. The levels of enthusiasm, motivation, self-awareness, self-confidence, and tenacity of the participants regarding language learning contrasted greatly with my previous studies of non-believing Chinese L2 students within various British and Chinese university contexts. Possible further research could explore in greater detail the relationship between ESL, global citizenship, and notions of modernity in China. As stated earlier, it would be somewhat misleading, if not cynical, to interpret the adoption of the Christian faith purely as a utilitarian attempt to develop a more international outlook. However, there appears to be a recurring theme both in the existing literature and in my own dataset concerning a relationship in the Chinese context between cosmopolitanism, Christian faith, learning English, and notions of global

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citizenship. Role models were found to influence the learners by imbuing them with aspirations, while the realization that role models held Christian beliefs was reported to be a key factor in leading several learners to explore Christianity. In this sense, pragmatic strategies to approximate their aspirations may have acted as a catalyst for the development of the Christian faith among Chinese English learners, but it requires further research to understand how their original aspirational disposition was transformed into a deeply rooted Christian faith. The most profound findings reported in this chapter relate to two key transformative factors. First, young Chinese university students, compelled by the forces of globalization and the consequent cosmopolitanism resulting from China’s increased integration with the modern world, are exploring Christianity as a form of cosmopolitanism, which, in many cases, leads to an adoption of Christian beliefs. The second transformative factor, which is related directly to their newly found faith in Christianity, is the optimism and empowerment that young Chinese Christians may feel when confronted by challenges in their lives, including, but not limited to, learning English. This study focused on the impact of faith upon language acquisition in Chinese university students and discerned a clear transformation in the motivational dispositions, sense of identity, and self-awareness of the participants, brought about through their conversion to Christian faith. Through a process of internalizing the values, dispositions, and beliefs specific to Christian faith, students experienced a metamorphosis of the self, which profoundly transformed their self-perception and their perception of the world in which they live. It is this transformative effect of their faith that led to a radical shift in their motivational dispositions with regard to learning English, considerably reducing the fear of failure and the fear of the subject, and enhancing both the students’ confidence in their own abilities to learn English and their attitudes and approaches toward the learning of English. It is this powerful “God-in-us” motivation that appears to have had a twofold impact upon the students, galvanizing their resolve to learn English and removing obstacles to effective learning such as fear, self-doubt, or lack of confidence through the introduction of a self-awareness of their own talents and limitations. A positive acceptance of these limitations led, perhaps paradoxically, to the students tackling challenges presented to them with renewed vigor. While it is clear from this research that students were both aware of and enthusiastic about the transformation of their attitudes to language learning, the impact of their Christian faith clearly transformed the students in a much more profound sense. Under the perceived shield of their faith, these students felt liberated to explore the limits of their ability without many of the usual psychological restraints (for example, motivational ups and downs, self-doubt, or lack of confidence). At the same time, they were also being imbued with a sense of duty toward God to use their talents to the fullest and to perform well in their life pursuits.

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Note 1. Due to laws governing religious services in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), those leading the services where PRC nationals attend must be officially approved pastors or ministers of the TSPM and conduct services in Mandarin with English translations where appropriate. Conversely, while the Suzhou International Fellowship also uses the Dushu Lake Church, since the pastors are foreign nationals, PRC nationals are not permitted to attend these English language services. Nevertheless, PRC nationals who are members of the TSPM congregation can attend English-language Bible study groups, which are often led by foreign worshippers who are native English speakers.

References Aikman, D. (2006). Jesus in Beijing (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Regnery. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities. New York: Verso. Bays, D. (2003). Chinese protestant Christianity today. China Quarterly, 174(2), 488–504. Cao, N. (2007). Christian entrepreneurs and the post-Mao state: An ethnographic account of church-state relations in China’s economic transition. Sociology of Religion, 681, 45–66. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Dörnyei, Z. (2009a). The English language and the word of God. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 154–157). New York: Routledge. Dörnyei, Z. (2009b). The L2 Motivational Self System. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Fetterman, D. M. (1998). Ethnography step by step (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kalir, B. (2009). Finding Jesus in the holy land and taking him to China: Chinese temporary migrant workers in Israel converting to evangelical Christianity. Sociology of Religion, 70(2), 130–156. Lamb, M. (2004). Integrative motivation in a globalizing world. System, 32(1), 3–19. Leung, K. (1999). The rural churches of Mainland China since 1978. Hong Kong: Alliance Bible Seminary Press. Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253. Marcus, H. R., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves: The interface between motivation and the self-concept. In K. Yardley, & T. Honess (Eds.), Self and identity: Psychosocial perspectives (pp. 157–172). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Noels, K. A. (2001). New orientations in language learning motivation: Towards a model of intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations and motivation. In Z. Dörnyei, & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language learning (pp. 43–67). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Noels, K. A. (2003). Learning Spanish as a second language: Learners’ orientations and perceptions of their teachers’ communication style. In Z. Dörnyei (Ed.), Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning (pp. 97–136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Noels, K. (2009). The internalization of language learning into the self and social identity. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 295–313). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 50, 57–85. Riemer, F. (2008). Addressing ethnographic inquiry. In S. Lapan, & M. Quarteroli (Eds.), Research essentials. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Ushioda, E., & Dörnyei, Z. (2009). Motivation, language identities and the L2 self. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 1–8). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Yang, F. (2005). Lost in the market, saved a McDonald’s: Conversion to Christianity in urban China. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44(4), 423–441. Yang, F. (2007). Cultural dynamics in China: Today and in 2020. Asia Policy, 4, 41–52. Yang, F., & Tamney, J. B. (2006). Exploring mass conversion to Christianity among the Chinese: An introduction. Sociology of Religious, 67(2), 125–129. Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese context. Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54–66. Yashima, T. (2009). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese EFL context. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 144–163). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Yashima, T., Tenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54, 119–152.

13 CHRISTIAN LANGUAGE PROFESSIONALS (CLPS) AND INTEGRATED VISION The Stories of Four Educators Letty Chan UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM (UK)

Introduction The word vision is an inspiring, compelling, and powerful term for many, but it is also said to be “one of the most overused and least understood words in the language” (Collins & Porras, 1996, p. 66). Individuals with visions are driven by a strong sense of purpose, a mission that extends beyond their personal wellbeing. There is a vocational calling, sheer determination, and passion that energize them. This study contextualizes the development of personal vision within Possible Selves Theory proposed by Markus and Nurius (1986). Possible selves are self-constructs that involve people’s images of their future selves. In particular, I will focus on the constructs of the Ideal Self (that is, the self an individual would like to become) and the Ought-to Self (that is, the self one thinks he or she should become) in Christian and professional realms, and examine how four seasoned Christian Language Professionals (CLPs) develop assimilated personal visions. I will also draw on Dynamic Systems Theory (DST)—an emerging approach to studying non-linear, complex, and dynamic patterns in a system—in order to illustrate the process of self-integration. The results reveal several distinct patterns of integration in this respect, underscoring the fact that the construction of an integrated CLP Self is situated in a complex dynamic self-system that involves multiple interactions between factors such as internal resources (for example, one’s Ideal and Ought-to Selves, strong Christian values, clear purpose in life), one’s life choices and actions taken, and external circumstances.

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Vision Vision has been construed differently in different contexts, but personal vision in this study is associated with several key characteristics: it is visual, motivational, ideological, future-oriented, emotionally charged, and value-laden. The term vision originally meant “something seen in the imagination or in the supernatural” (Harper, 2010). A current definition provided by the Oxford Dictionary describes it as “the ability to think about or plan the future with imagination” or “wisdom or a mental image of what the future will or could be like.” In a theoretical article on vision, van der Helm (2009) has identified seven versions of visions, ranging from humanistic vision, religious vision, political vision, and business or organizational vision, to community vision, policy support vision, and personal vision. Three aspects in particular have been identified as central to vision: “the future, the ideal, and the desire for deliberate change” (p. 99). More specifically, personal vision is defined as vision that “emerges or is developed within personal development projects” and it has “much to do with giving meaning to one’s life, with helping to make shifts in professional careers and with coaching [oneself] in realizing a personal dream” (p. 98). On another level, personal vision has been construed within the concept of goal hierarchies, which interprets it as a higher-order, distal goal that has the function of “instilling purpose” and “[moving] people towards a meaningful destination” (Masuda, Kane, Shoptaugh, & Minor, 2010, p. 222). It is seen as a target in the distant future rather than a proximal goal. A vision can be made more compelling by connecting it with strong values and vivid imagery. Masuda et al. (2010) have found that students who have a more challenging and specific personal vision set more difficult goals for their studies and show more commitment and effort to attain their goals. The importance of having a vivid vision has also been endorsed by Collins and Porras (1996) in their discussion of successful companies. They contend that vision is composed of two major components, envisioned future and core ideology. The key to constructing an envisioned future is to create a vivid description of what the future means, along with defining bold, vision-level goals. This futuristic description should arouse one’s passion, emotion, and conviction. Core ideology, another indispensible component of one’s vision, incorporates intrinsic core values and core purpose as building blocks. Core values are fundamental to successful organizations; for example, a deeply held value of the computer giant HP (Hewlett Packard) is respect for the individual, a stance that has contributed to the company’s great success. Visionary companies are said to have held onto their core values as an “almost religious tenet” (p. 66). Also, having a core purpose is vital in developing one’s ideology. A core purpose is different from goals or strategies in the sense that it should “capture what you stand for and why you exist” (p. 73).

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Possible Selves Theory In this study, personal vision is examined within the concept of possible selves, which was originally introduced by Markus and Nurius (1986). It is one of the prime theories investigating future identities and vision, maintaining that possible selves are mental representations of one’s hypothetical selves in the future. They are “visions of the self in a future state” (Oyserman & James, 2009, p. 373). These are selves that individuals would very much like to become, selves they could become, and selves they are afraid of becoming. Although these constructs are future-oriented, they are intertwined with the past and current selves, and they are derived from and reflect one’s past experiences. Possible selves can influence behavior when a person compares his or her current self and a future possible self, highlighting the discrepancies between the two. This discrepancy can elicit negative affect, which is then translated into action to reduce the gap so as to achieve the desired state (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Higgins, 1987). Individuals with a distinct image of their future selves have a higher awareness of the cues related to the goal-attaining behaviors and engage in desirable actions. Therefore, these future selves have motivational implications because they “provide meaning for the individual’s current behavior” (Hoyle & Sherrill, 2006, p. 955). Possible selves, with the Ideal Self in particular, are closely associated with vision based on the common characteristics underlying both constructs: both involve ideal, motivational, and future-oriented images. Vision is also connected with future L2 self-guides in the L2 Motivational Self System developed by Dörnyei (2005, 2009), which is the language-related adaptation of Possible Selves Theory. This relatively new approach suggests that there are three main factors determining the motivation of L2 learners: the Ideal L2 Self, the Ought-to L2 Self, and the L2 Learning Experience. The first two components refer to the L2 facets of possible selves and are linked with vision and imagery: an example of the Ideal L2 Self would be a wished-for future selfimage of someone as a speaker who is proficient in the target language and can thereby confidently speak and write in different contexts; the Ought-to L2 Self, on the other hand, is the representation that people believe others want them to approximate—that is, they feel that they are expected to live up to the expectations set by others. The third component of the system, the L2 Learning Experience, is associated with the immediate L2 learning environment of a student, which could include the relationship with a teacher, the teacher’s teaching style, and classroom dynamics, among other factors.

Christian Faith and English Language Teaching One of the key questions in this study is to explore whether seasoned CLPs integrate their Christian and Language Professional (LP) Selves. These individuals may have clear, independent identities in both their Christian and professional

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realms, but do they also have an integrated self as a CLP? Do they have a vision not only as a Christian or as a Language Professional, but also as a CLP? In recent years, we have seen an emerging research interest in the connection between Christianity and ELT. Researchers have recognized a strong worldwide presence of evangelical Christians in this field, who have been characterized as “moral agents on learners” (Varghese & Johnston, 2007). Past research has looked at how one’s faith influences educators in their profession (Craft, Foubert, & Lane, 2011; Lindholm, 2007; Wong & Canagarajah, 2009). Researchers have found that the actions taken in the professional lives of these people reflect who they are and what they believe. Several studies examining both pre-service and in-service Christian professionals in North America have identified similar themes in their findings (for example, Hong, 2008; Varghese & Johnston, 2007), pointing to the conclusion that one’s Christian beliefs and teaching practice are closely intertwined, as the teachers’ faith informs and shapes them both inside and outside the classroom. For these committed evangelical teachers, Christ serves as a role model. They express a desire to be Christ-like, see Jesus as the center of their life, and rely on the Bible as the Word of God. A consequence of this stance is that they view teaching as Christian service. For a detailed overview of this area, see a recent anthology by Wong and Canagarajah (2009), which covers a wide range of topics related to CLP identities, including being a non-native Christian English teacher (Liang, 2009) and the identities of missionary English teachers (Wong, 2009).

Dynamic Systems Theory To examine the integration of the Ideal CLP Self and the development of vision, it seems appropriate to draw on Dynamic Systems Theory to capture the complexity of the phenomena in question. Prominent figures in the field of applied linguistics (for example, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Nick Ellis, Kees do Bot, and Zoltán Dörnyei) have recently argued for the relevance of DST in second language acquisition, portraying it as a potential overarching theory of language development because of its ability to make sense of the non-linear, messy data that is common in the field. DST holds the view that the phenomena we see in the world can be understood as the outcomes of dynamic systems, which are nested: “Every system is always a part of another system” (de Bot, Lowie, & Verspoor, 2007, p. 8). Within the various systems, multiple interconnected components are influencing one another, generating seemingly unpredictable patterns and changes due to their complex interactions (de Bot et al., 2007). Unpredictability in a system is evident in that it is highly dependent on an initial state. A new and emergent state can sometimes be produced with slight input, whereas at other times the system can absorb intense perturbation without much change. These characteristics are explained by what is known as self-organization, which is “the spontaneous formation of patterns in open, non-equilibrium

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systems” (Kelso, 1995, cited in Dörnyei, 2009, p. 104). In other words, the pattern organizes itself in an emergent manner: the various components are changing and adapting spontaneously according to the workings of the system. Thus, the theory not only explains non-linear flux over time, but it also captures the emergence of order and dynamic stability in the systems with the help of attractors. These can be seen as broad magnets or “safety islands” toward which the system tends to gravitate in order to achieve at least temporary equilibrium. When a system is in a strong attractor state, it is in its preferred pattern where elements in the system are coherent and resist change. This complex dynamic can be illustrated as a ball rolling around in a terrain with different landscape features. Strong attractors can be described as deep wells with steep sides, from which it would be hard for a ball to escape once inside. The strength of the attractor would depend on how deep and steep the well is; the stronger the attractor, the more energy would be required to remove the ball from the well (Larsen-Freeman & Cameron, 2008, p. 50). A constellation of attractors—that is, a number of different factors that move the ball in the same direction—forms an attractor basin, which exerts a coordinated pull on the trajectories that enter the basin. There can also be multiple and overlapping attractor basins within a terrain, which can cause instability (Carver & Scheier, 1999). Associating DST with L2 motivation, Dörnyei (2009) has recently argued that the L2 Motivational Self System presents a “motivational landscape with three possible attractor basins” (p. 218): one that revolves around the internal desires of the learner, another around the social pressures exerted by learners’ significant others, and the third around the actual L2 learning experience. In this latest extension of his motivation theory, Dörnyei argues for the compatibility of DST and L2 motivation by assuming that any powerful global attractor for an individual is a conglomerate of cognition, motivation, and emotion, and claims that future vision can be seen as a prime example of such a conglomerate. In the present study, such a constellation of attractors can be seen to influence the integration of the CLP Self, which is the focus of this chapter.

Research Aims This study aims to explore whether Christian Language Professionals experience an integrated vision, which is examined within the concept of possible selves theory, focusing on one’s Ideal and Ought-to Selves. In particular, I will investigate the integration of CLP self in one’s work context. The main research questions are as follows: 1. 2.

Do participants experience an integrated CLP Self? If so, how do these educators develop an integrated CLP Self? What are the attractors that govern the integration?

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Methodology Participants Four informants were recruited through personal contacts. All of them described themselves as evangelical Christians and were known to be seasoned believers in their circles. They were all applied linguists working or having worked in the higher education sector, but they displayed some variation in the type of work they did, the courses they taught, and the positions they held in the education system, as well as in the time when they became Christians and how their vision of being Christian language educators developed. Two of the informants, Peter1 and Daniel, were European teachers based in the UK. The other two participants, Anna and Alex, were both educators of Chinese origin, teaching in a metropolitan city in East Asia. Peter and Anna were both university professors, with the former becoming a Christian in the middle of his career while the latter committing to Christ in her college years. Daniel was at a relatively early stage of his “teaching career” and was a missionary sent out by a UK Christian organization to a Middle Eastern country. Alex was an interesting contrast to Daniel: although he had not been formally sent out by any mission organization, he saw himself being in full-time mission, working as a Christian English teacher. Contrary to Daniel, Alex was at a much later stage of his teaching career.

Data Collection and Analysis Four in-depth interviews were used to explore the research questions. The study took place in England and East Asia, respectively, in January and February 2011. An individual face-to-face interview was conducted with each informant and each interview lasted for approximately 1 to 1.5 hours. All interviews were conducted in English. The participants were asked to talk about their journeys of becoming Christians and educators, as well as about their views as to whether they saw themselves as integrated CLPs. The interviews were voice-recorded and then transcribed verbatim by the researcher, producing a corpus of nearly 30,000 words. Detailed content analysis was conducted in two stages: the four cases were first analyzed individually for the most salient themes, including their Ideal and Ought-to Selves in the realm of their Christian and professional identities, and various other factors such as their Christian values and the purposes in their lives that led to the development of an integrated CLP Self. The relationships among various themes were also identified. In the second stage, the written analyses of their own case, together with the transcripts, were sent to each individual informant. This was to confirm the validity of the analyses and to avoid the possibility of any misinterpretations on the researcher’s part.

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Results Anna Anna was a professor who had ample experience teaching and researching in applied linguistics at a university in Asia, and was internationally known as a poet. She was born in a Catholic family and became a true believer of Christ in the second year of her university studies. Anna described herself as a Christian who believed in the Bible. In Anna’s case, there was a strong quest for the meaning in life, a fundamental desire to seek her Ideal Self, which permeated every aspect of her life. In Anna’s teenage years, various events, such as her father’s death and the Cultural Revolution in China, initiated a continuous, earnest longing to search for meaning. She developed a vision of helping Chinese people. In her words: When I was seeking the meaning of life . . . the Cultural Revolution . . . was happening already. You got these corpses . . . floating from China . . . I remember talking to one of my brothers and I was crying. He said, “Why are you crying?” I said, “I felt very helpless . . . all these poor people in China. What is happening? I would like to help them.” I remember my brother saying, “Well, you’re just a teenager. You should get educated first and then you’re in a position to help people.” In her quest for the meaning in life, Anna read various literature, ranging from philosophy, Buddhism, and Hinduism to aesthetics, but she failed to find the answers. Through the help of her Christian friends, Anna finally found meaning and faith in Christianity. At the same time, Anna’s heart was still very much drawn to China. In order to achieve her vision, she was determined to become highly educated, and she pursued a doctoral degree in linguistics even when it was contrary to her own interest: “So all this time I was still thinking one day I would go to China, not for good, but for visiting, teaching, and all that.” Since obtaining a doctoral degree, Anna has had various opportunities to teach and conduct research in China. She has researched language education in China, held seminars on the topic, and has also written a book about it. These experiences have fulfilled the dreams she had as a teenager: So it took me something like 20 years to have my purpose realized, my dream to do something as a teenager. It’s like 30 years, almost 30 years when I could do something. It’s a very long time to prepare a person, I guess. But when I went then, I was ready. To Anna, all her identities were “completely integrated” as she sought a mission in life and meaning behind all the things she did. She had a more generalized Ideal Self, which would be applicable to her various identities:

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It’s a vision as a person because to me there’s no difference between being a teacher and being a person, or being a Christian. Everything comes together. Whether I am doing my research, whether I am doing my teaching, or whether I am doing my administration, ultimately it is service to me. Nevertheless, her identity as a Christian was particularly important to her as a person and a professor. Her faith had a great impact on her and informed her work as a Language Professional. She saw “whatever [she does] in her job” as service to God. For example, when she applied for a research grant, she prayed that it would not be given to her unless God saw it fit. The way she viewed successes and failures was also influenced by her faith: My identity as a Christian is fundamental! What makes sense to me is that no matter how hard we try, we cannot be perfect! Only God will receive you with all your imperfections. God wants obedience, not success! And success is not what we aim for; it’s for God to give. Thus, at the time of the interview, a point at which Anna was at an advanced position on her career ladder, she seemed to have found the answer she was searching for in her teens; the meaning and the mission of her life.

Peter Peter was an applied linguist at a British university, and he described himself as a post-Protestant, non-denominational Bible believer. At the time of the interview, Peter had been a believer for 10 years. It was while he was an applied linguist that he became a Christian, and this being the case, he had had a strong sense of Language Professional identity firmly in place in his self-system before his Christian Self came into play. He saw himself as “a professor in the university, trying to do [his] job well”; he loves this field and is successful in it. Thus, when Peter first became a Christian, there were distinct boundaries between the professional and faith-based spheres in his mindset: “What happened first was that I did my job exactly as I used to do and, besides, I tried to be a decent person. And I had my completely independent Christian life.” His Christian identity and LP identity felt very much intact and independent. Despite this fact, he developed a strong sense of duty of what he should do as a Christian according to Christian values. This Ought-to CLP Self became a powerful attractor and initiated changes in his overall self-system over time. As a first step toward integration, his Ought-to Christian Self—that is, who he felt he should be—led him to identify himself as a Christian in his professional realm: “They keep asking you in sermons and in books whether people around you know that you are a Christian. So I made sure that people did know.”

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In the next phase, there were several events that helped him further develop his integrated CLP Self. He started meeting student believers in an MA class and he commented that, “there was this kind of openness that I am a Christian professional.” He also started taking on mature Christian postgraduate students and found himself supervising research on Christian topics. In addition, he was invited to speak at Christian events and started a research project pertaining to Christianity: And certainly more and more things are opening up. Suddenly it’s almost like I am getting ready to appropriate my Christian self. It’s as if God has given me opportunities to grow up . . . More and more of my professional life is explicitly Christian-oriented. In the interview, Peter also gave examples of how some of his students came to know Christ. Such instances made him realize that he had a role to play in these students’ conversion: “I realized that it wasn’t me, but I had to play my role. So I started to think, ‘How can I combine this with my profession?’” Although, as the above indicates, Peter’s CLP Self was developing and was gradually becoming increasingly integrated, when asked whether he had a vision of his Ideal CLP Self, he did not give an affirmative answer: I have this feeling that with my Christian walk in general: I know that I am moving forward and I am doing very specific things, but I have no idea where it’s going to take me . . . For Peter, the feeling of the lack of a strong, integrated CLP vision could be explained by the fact that there are conflicts among Peter’s Ideal Christian Self, Ought-to CLP Self, and his Ought-to LP Self. First, he has stated that his Christian identity is the strongest facet of his overall identity and it presumably influences many of the decisions in various areas of his life. According to Peter, becoming “fully Christian” might even mean going in a completely new direction and leaving behind applied linguistics. He can envisage himself in various Christian roles, including preaching in a church one day: So for me the real identity is that I think I am a Christian . . . that’s more universal, that’s a very deep part of my identity. I could say that rather than stating that “I am an applied linguist.” Second, although his Ought-to CLP Self suggested that it was “more important for students to become a Christian than to get a Ph.D.,” his Ought-to LP Self responded that being employed as a Language Professional by a secular university means that Christianity should be set aside during his formal interactions with students. For reasons of this kind, the gradual integration in Peter’s Ideal CLP Self had not reached full integration. Instead, what seemed to be guiding Peter’s actions and

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behaviors was making himself available to respond to prompts from God. As he put it, “the question ever since has been: Do I need to be more proactive? Or is it enough that when I sense that there is a prompt by God, then I respond? That’s my dilemma.”

Daniel Daniel was an English missionary who had some experience teaching ESL parttime to university students in an Asian country. At the time of the interview, Daniel had completed his Master’s in Applied Linguistics at a British university and was waiting to embark on teaching English in Country Y.2 Brought up in a strong Christian family, Daniel’s Ideal Christian Self and Christian values were major attractors in his overall self-system from the beginning as he grew up “knowing about God and the Bible.” He was very much involved in the Christian Union in college and felt God calling him to be a missionary in a Muslim country. A strong desire and vision to share his faith led him to become a missionary in Country Y. As time progressed, there were changes in his self-system as his interest in teaching became an influential factor. His Ideal LP Self started to develop as an attractor when he had a chance to teach English, even though he had no prior experience. He fell in love with the profession and it became more than a mere tool for him: it was something he genuinely enjoyed and wanted to do well in. This growing attractor was nurtured by ideal environmental circumstances since he was working in an optimal situation, teaching small English conversational classes with highly motivated university students. As he summarized: I actually enjoy trying to help the students to learn with their English. Sometimes people say to me, “So is being an English teacher your cover for being in the country?” And for me, no! Not at all! I want to be a good English teacher and I enjoy trying to help students with their English. Another key factor contributing to his passion for teaching was his ability to express both his Christian and LP identities in the classroom, as a result of similarities between his role as a Language Professional and as a missionary. Due to cultural and contextual factors, his work provided an ideal context for him to share his faith as a Christian: Daniel’s Muslim students were excited to talk about religion, and even his Muslim line manager was thrilled about him creating opportunities for students to talk about religion because of the shared values between Islam and Christianity. As he reported, “In the culture in [this] country, religion is the topic that people want to talk about. The number one topic they are talking about is religion.” These favorable circumstances helped him to share his faith “in a moderate level” and “in a sensitive way.” Daniel also experienced positive emotions in the classroom and received good feedback from his students. It was “thrilling” for him to witness “Christians and

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Muslim students relating very positively with one another.” Daniel saw English teaching as a “really good medium to help break down the barriers that exists between Muslim and Christian communities in Country Y.” This was also what he wanted to do as a missionary. It was the social and community side of class that he found “the most exciting” and which enthused Daniel as a CLP. As he recalled: When I gave them the opportunity to do presentations in class on any topic they wanted to, two of the girls chose a specific topic “For my love for God” and openly asked the class at the end. This was just wonderful! A mixed class! And I said, “Could I please ask now if any of you have your favorite verses from the Koran or the Bible that you would like to share with the rest of the class?” Daniel’s Ought-to CLP Self, which involved positive regard and care for his students, was the main priority for him. This identity profoundly guided his behaviors as a teacher and the integration as a CLP. As he summed up in the interview: It’s very important to me and I share that with my students, “It’s actually the most important thing to me is that you feel loved. I almost care about that more than your English. I care more about you as people.” That’s an obligation from the Bible and from God himself. Daniel’s Ideal LP Self also led him to pursue a Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics, and, having completed his degree successfully, he has had a growing vision as a teacher, including helping to reform the education system and the way they teach English in Country Y. He has also had images of himself being back in the same classroom that contributed to the integration of his Ideal CLP Self. When asked, Daniel said he felt that the integration of his Christian and Language Professional Selves was still in progress, because he was only at an early stage of his teaching career. As the two selves were starting to merge, a wide attractor basin was developing to cater for his CLP vision; and he surprised himself by the fact that, even after graduating from his Master’s degree, he was still buying academic books on applied linguistics. Daniel feels strongly about English teaching, and, he concluded, he can “almost” say that even if he were not able to relate Christianity with his teaching, he would still be interested in becoming an English teacher.

Alex Alex is a Senior Lecturer teaching at an East Asian university, who has had ample experience in teaching many different courses, ranging from academic English

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to English literature. Since Alex became a Christian in his first year in college, his Ideal Christian Self has developed into a strong attractor in his self-system: I became a Christian. And then I thought about my vocation, my calling in life . . . I decided that I wanted my academic training and career to be closely aligned with my faith as a Christian. He made a pivotal decision in transferring from a Journalism major to English in his third year of college as his Ideal CLP Self started to develop. He thought about life values and the way he wanted to spend his life, and decided he wanted to become an English teacher so as to gain access to other countries as a missionary. This Ideal CLP Self was also enhanced by inspiring Christians he encountered who had a tremendous influence on the choices he made in life. As he recalled: I wanted to become a missionary, right? But I was not an engineer, I was not an agriculturist. What could I do if I wanted to go to Indonesia or Thailand? So, maybe I could teach English and then I could be a missionary. Even in his early years as a Christian, Alex’s independent Christian Self and Language Professional Self were influencing each other, interacting and integrating gradually. He remembered occasions in which he taught the Bible at church and realized that, “God had probably given [him] a gift for teaching” and comprehended how important language was as a means of serving God. Also, as he studied English as a major, he became increasingly interested in literature, and his studies helped him to serve at the church because his training in literature allowed him to “understand the Bible more” and to “teach it in an interesting way to people.” It was, in fact, when he finished his MA course in literature and had spent a long period of time praying about his future, seeking what God would have him do in life, that his Ideal CLP Self emerged along with a specific path for his future: There were twenty doors open and the doors gradually closed one by one. And so in the second semester in my Master’s level, only one door remained open. This was to go and teach in a Christian university in Taiwan. As he taught English and American literature in Taiwan, the job opened a new horizon for Alex. This position helped him to fully discover his interest and love for literature. He said that it became “very clear to [him] what God had been calling [him] to do in [his] life, to be an English teacher: to teach literature, to teach English.” These compelling emotions, along with the knowledge that language can be an effective tool to serve God, resulted in a strong integration of his Ideal Christian and LP Selves, thus creating a new and potent attractor basin. In his words:

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I have the strength, I have the enthusiasm, I have the passion. It’s so obvious when I started doing it. People said, “Oh, your teaching is so clear . . . everything is! We can understand whatever you said.” I feel the interest. I feel that the gift is there. Indeed, this attractor state determined Alex’s actions in deciding to pursue a Ph.D. on the teaching of literature, and it was the same attractor basin that also caused him to feel dejected when subsequently he did not have the opportunity to teach literature over a 10-year period. At the end of this period of “stagnation,” he was again given the chance to teach literature, an area in which he has thrived: I think literature really means a lot to me because it’s very much integrated with my faith, with my teaching of the Bible at church, the way I look at life, and also the kind of person I have become as a result of teaching literature. Alex commented that his “vision strengthens as time goes on” and he feels very much integrated as a CLP. This is not only because of the content he is teaching, but because “biblical values inform [his] everyday work.” He brought Christian values such as patience, kindness, and righteousness into the classroom and he also saw teaching as a service to God. He perceived students in his class as precious, valuable human beings, individuals whom God had entrusted to him and people who should be respected. He, therefore, goes into class with a mission, seeing students as sheep he should take care of as a Christian teacher: I try my best to remember that every class I teach, I teach for God. Then I try . . . I usually arrive a little early and I pray. So, when it goes well, it’s not important. I just teach it for God. That’s what I remind myself every day: this work . . . every work is ministry.

Discussion The interview data revealed that all four informants experienced an integrated CLP Self to some extent. However, although all the participants were devout Christians, the data point to different trajectories in the development of their vision as CLPs, and we do not find the same pattern of integration of their CLP Selves in their accounts. We can distinguish three main patterns displayed by the participants: (a) full integration as a person; (b) full integration of the Ideal CLP Self; and (c) partial integration of the CLP Self. As seen above, Anna can be characterized as being fully integrated as a person because her self dimensions—including her Christian Self and her LP Self, as well as various other self-facets—were fully merged and integrated. To her, it “does not make sense” to compartmentalize the various areas of her life. Anna pursued

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the same purpose in all that she did. Alex is similar to Anna in that he successfully harmonized his various goals and identities, and he was intrinsically motivated to be both a Christian and a teacher. As a result, he now displays an integrated CLP self. Both Daniel and Peter’s Ideal CLP selves can be described as partially integrated. For Peter, although he found his Christian and LP identities largely situated and compartmentalized, as he began to share his life story in the interview, it became evident that multiple “incidents” were facilitating the integration of his CLP Self. It seemed that, during the self-reflection process that was part of being interviewed, Peter was discovering an aspect of his emerging self that he had not been consciously aware of. As for Daniel, his Ideal CLP Self was taking shape as he was training to become a Language Professional. He mentioned after the interview that his Ideal LP Self was in the process of development, as he was getting genuinely interested both in teaching and in applied linguistics. However, because he was still a relatively inexperienced teacher, his Ideal LP self was only at the initial stage of becoming integrated with his Ideal Christian Self. Beyond the diverse patterns of actual integration as indicated above, we can also observe the dynamics of how the participants developed their unique, personalized vision. We saw that all the informants shared a similar initial phase in the development of their CLP Self; that is, thoughtful deliberation of what they would like to do or should do in the distant future. For Anna, it was the primary desire to find answers to the meaning of life: “What does it mean to be alive?” Daniel and Alex were both contemplating a vocational calling: Daniel was “really feeling that God was calling [him] to serve in the Muslim world” and Alex said that he “became a Christian and then thought about [his] calling and [his] vocation.” For Peter, it was a strong sense of duty of what he should do as a Christian that initiated his self-integration. These initial considerations instigated bi-directional interactions among various components in their self-systems, resulting in unique attractor basins that governed the process of integration for each individual. A different set of attractors influenced each informant. For example, it was Anna’s Ideal Self, her Christian values (for example, a core purpose to serve), and a deep sense of social commitment that formed the center of the overall attractor basin in her self-system. This set of attractors has determined the trajectories of her various actions and she found equilibrium only when the various aspects of her self were in harmony. For Peter, his Ought-to CLP and LP Selves, together with a strong self-awareness, led him to identify himself as a Christian professional, and to display prominent identity cues at work. Several factors in the environment then responded to these cues, and various people and events were gradually “pulled into the attractor state.” In Peter’s own words, “there were suddenly some interesting things happening,” such as talking with Christian students, sharing his faith with Ph.D. students, his students coming to believe in Christ, and him being invited to collaborate in academic projects related to Christianity.

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For Daniel, it was the inadvertent opportunity to teach when he discovered his immense interest and motivation in this profession, which became a strong attractor in his self-system. This newly found passion, accompanied by the positive emotions experienced in the classroom, helped his Ideal LP Self to start merging with his well-established Ideal Christian Self. For Alex, having decided to align his faith with his profession at an early stage, a powerful conglomerate of attractors started to come into view. This included the various Christian father figures who were models for Alex’s Ideal Christian Self, an awareness of his natural ability in teaching, his Christian values, and his love for literature. Compelling emotions, along with the knowledge that language can be an effective tool to serve God, as well as the conviction that this was the right path for him, resulted in a strong integration of his Ideal Christian and Language Professional Selves. The significance of the participants’ actions should be highlighted within the multiple interactions between the environment and their internal resources. It was only when Daniel started teaching that he discovered his interest in this profession, and the ideal teaching environment facilitated the development of his vision further to the point that he decided to pursue a Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics. The same was true for Alex regarding his love for literature, which was realized when he started teaching American Literature in Taiwan. And it was only when Peter publically acknowledged his Christian identity at work that “interesting things started to happen.” Thus, their overall attractor basins subsumed various contextual factors and interacted with the specific actions taken by each individual; the resulting interactions wove together a distinctive pattern of Ideal CLP Self development, creating a powerful and integrated vision. In accordance with descriptions in the literature of possible selves theory regarding the comparison of actual and possible selves, it was evident that the participants of the current study also had a strong awareness of where they were and where they would like to be. They observed and evaluated the way in which they acted as CLPs. For example, Peter commented that it was “interesting” for him to see himself interacting with Christian students, and he became increasingly aware of the role he played in his students’ conversion. Alex was conscious of his internal resources, such as his natural abilities in teaching and his love for literature, and how these were reinforced by the responses of his students, which in turn reinforced the development of his Ideal CLP Self. Similar to the life cycles of any living organisms, the development of each self-system has been constantly evolving over time; the participants reported states of growth, stability, and stagnation in the development of their CLP vision. In the “growth phase,” the CLP selves became more detailed and specific, which is well illustrated by Anna, whose initial Ideal Self was to help people in China, but it later developed into “enhancing the exchange between China and the rest of the world.” Another example is Alex, whose Ideal CLP Self as a literature teacher turned into a teacher trainer in English literature at a later stage. In contrast to the scaffolding factors that enhanced the development and enactment of an

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integrated personal vision, there were also some limiting factors in operation, as in Peter’s case where his conflicting Ought-to Christian and Language Professional Selves prevented a full CLP Self integration.

Conclusion To conclude, the results of this study show that even committed Christians do not share the same pattern of Ideal CLP Self integration; each participant displayed a unique pattern with varying degrees of stability in their self-systems. Beyond the diversity of the patterns, however, a potent overall attractor basin was seen to emerge, which in turn directed the further dynamics and development of the individual’s self system. The DST paradigm adopted in this study, combined with Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009) L2 Motivational Self System, offered a useful interpretive framework to investigate and explain the evolution of the Ideal and Ought-to Self constructs in the development of vision in Christian Language Professionals. This generic approach can be further extended to explore the development of vision in Christians in other professions or even the integration of professional identities with visions of different faiths.

Acknowledgments I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the four educators for participating in the study and for sharing their life stories. I would also like to thank the editors for providing invaluable comments and feedback on earlier drafts.

Notes 1. Aliases are used to protect the participants’ identity. 2. The specific name of the country is disguised to protect the identity of the informant.

References Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1990). Themes and issues in the self-regulation of behavior. In R. S. J. Wyer (Ed.), Perspectives on behavioral self-regulation (pp. 1–105). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (1996). Building your company’s vision. Harvard Business Review, September–October, 65–77. Craft, C. M., Foubert, J. D., & Lane, J. J. (2011). Integrating religious and professional identities: Christian faculty at public institutions of higher education. Religion and Education, 38, 92–110. de Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(1), 7–21. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Harper, D. (2001–2010). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved December 22, 2011, from www.etymonline.com. Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340. Hong, M. Y. (2008). Spirituality and English language teaching: A Christian exploration. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag. Hoyle, R. H., & Sherrill, M. R. (2006). Future orientation in the self-system: Possible selves, self-regulation, and behavior. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1673–1695. Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Liang, J. (2009). The courage to teach as a non-native English teacher: The confession of a Christian teacher. In M. S. Wong, & S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 163–172). New York: Routledge. Lindholm, J. A. (2007). Spirituality in the academic: Reintegrating our lives and the lives of our students. About Campus, 12, 10–17. Markus, H. R., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969. Masuda, A. D., Kane, T. D., Shoptaugh, C. F., & Minor, K. A. (2010). The role of a vivid and challenging personal vision in goal hierarchies. Journal of Psychology, 144(3), 211–242. Oyserman, D., & James, L. (2009). Possible selves: From content to process. In K. D. Markman, W. M. Klein, & J. A. Suhr (Eds.), Handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. 373–394). New York: Psychology Press. van der Helm, R. (2009). The vision phenomenon: Towards a theoretical underpinning of visions of the future and the process of envisioning. Future, 41, 96–104. Varghese, M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 5–31. Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. S. Wong, & S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge. Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge.

14 CHRISTIAN FAITH, MOTIVATION, AND L2 LEARNING Personal, Social, and Research Perspectives Ema Ushioda UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK (UK)

My Own Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning Background Before I begin my commentary on the three chapters in Part III, I feel it is important to declare my orientation and credentials, so to speak, in the context of the Christian faith themes that permeate this book and the interactions with motivation and L2 learning that are under focus in Part III. In this regard, readers may well recognize my academic credentials for commenting on issues of L2 motivation, since most of my research and publication work over the past 20 years has focused on language learning motivation and associated issues of learner autonomy and language pedagogy (for example, Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009, 2011; Ushioda, 1996, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2008). However, my ‘Christian faith’ orientation and credentials perhaps need some clarification. Unlike other contributors to this volume, I am not an adherent of the Christian faith or indeed of any religious faith. I see myself as essentially agnostic in my personal philosophy of life, am open-minded towards the religious beliefs and practices of others, and at the same time appreciate the tremendous cultural value and heritage of the world’s great religions, such as Christianity. Yet, I should point out that my ‘faith-less’ state does not stem from lack of exposure to Christian education and practices. As a child born (of Japanese parents) and raised in Ireland, I received all my primary and secondary education at two Catholic convent schools in Dublin, and in an era when most staff including school principals were nuns rather than lay teachers. We had prayers every day, religion classes several times a week, mass in our school chapel on the first Friday of every month, and Christian retreats periodically over the years. We learned the

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Catechism, said the Rosary, and took exams in Holy Scripture. We also studied Latin—both classical Latin and its differences from ‘Church’ or Ecclesiastical Latin, particularly in terms of pronunciation—and occasionally celebrated the Latin mass in spoken and sung form. Reflecting perhaps the arts and humanities ethos of a Roman Catholic education (as opposed to the more scientific orientation of a Protestant education in an Ireland divided by history and religion—for discussion, see Loulidi, 1990), we were also firmly encouraged, or indeed motivated, to learn foreign languages. Thus, in addition to Latin, I studied Irish, French and German, and even learned to say the prayers of The Rosary (Lord’s Prayer, Hail Mary, Glory be to the Father) in all four languages, as well as in English. I subsequently went on to major in English and French Studies at university in Dublin, and, since graduating, have pursued a career entirely in language education—first as an English teacher at a Christian women’s college in Japan and later at its international branch in the UK, which was in cooperation with a Church of England college of higher education; and over the past 20 years as an academic language professional, much like the language professionals under focus in Chan’s chapter (Chapter 13). In short, looking back on my linguistically rich Catholic schooling, I have no doubt that it laid the foundation for my longstanding interest in language study and language education. Yet, ironically, of course, despite this Catholic schooling, I have remained ‘unconverted’ to the Christian faith, though I did not sense that this inherent difference from my baptized Irish peers negatively affected my status in school or the way I was treated by its religious community. Nor did my lack of Christian faith stop me from choosing to specialize in the biblically inspired poetry of John Milton and William Blake during my undergraduate English studies, or from joining the university choir and participating in its regular repertoire of Christian sacred music from oratorios to requiem masses. Thus, aside from my specialist interest in L2 motivation, I bring to my commentary on these chapters a lifetime of immersion in and engagement with Christian culture, recognition of its personal influence on the development of my career in language education, and yet also a measure of intellectual detachment in my position as someone who does not personally subscribe to its belief system (I do not see it as relevant or appropriate here to discuss why). From this position of informed intellectual detachment, I would like to comment briefly on the chapters under focus in relation to three perspectives: 1. 2. 3.

L2 motivation in relation to a person’s motivational self-system; the social nature of L2 motivation and Christian faith; and issues of research methodology.

L2 Motivation and a Person’s Motivational Self-System It is clear from the studies reported by Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei and by Ding in this section that, when language learning motivation is intimately bound up

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with one’s Christian faith or sense of Christian vocation, this motivation becomes very powerful and sustaining. As Ding observes, this motivation may be believed by the L2 learner to derive from God and thus may be difficult to categorize as either intrinsic or extrinsic in a traditional sense. Conceptually speaking, one may well ask whether such motivation can be viewed as ‘self-determined’ if the L2 learner believes it to emanate from a higher divine source, and whether we need to theorize new forms of L2 motivation to capture this belief in divine (rather than self or external) regulation of motivation. From my own position of intellectual detachment, however, I think that, if we frame this motivation within the context of Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009a) L2 Motivational Self System instead, we can neatly avoid the conceptual limitations of self-determination theory in this regard. This is because the L2 Motivational Self System is theorized in terms of the individual’s self-related beliefs, visions, and aspirations and, hence, conceptually speaking, it can accommodate personal beliefs in divine sources of motivation and religious ideals. Thus, while the participants in Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei’s study may show a remarkable strength of vision in their ideal L2 selves, their data can nevertheless be satisfactorily analyzed and explained in terms of their motivational self-systems. In this respect, moreover, the analysis of their data shows very clearly the integrated nature of their language learning, personal, professional, and religious-vocational motivational self-systems. In other words, this analysis reflects the current intellectual shift towards dynamic systems perspectives where the focus is not on L2 motivation in isolation, but on how L2 motivation may fit within a person’s overall complex system of motivations, cognitions, emotions, interactions, and experiences (Dörnyei, 2009b). While this dynamic systems perspective is implicit rather than overt in Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei’s chapter (Chapter 11), it explicitly informs the analysis of the Christian Language Professionals’ (CLPs’) reported experiences in Chan’s study, where the focus falls on interactions among various elements in these participants’ self systems and their evolving interactions with factors in the surrounding social environment. This brings me to the second perspective I would like to highlight in my commentary on these chapters—namely, the essentially social nature of L2 motivation.

The Social Nature of L2 Motivation and Christian Faith While belief in a higher divine power would seem to be a deeply personal process, the history of human civilization attests to the inherently social nature of religious faith. This social nature is reflected in shared religious belief systems, cultures, and practices within various communities through the ages and across the globe, and in associated processes of socialization and religious education within communities, as well as (in many cases) a mission for communication and dissemination beyond. This underlying social impetus to share, communicate,

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and mediate (or translate) one’s faith (in current or future imagined communities) emerges as a very strong theme in the three chapters under focus. This social impetus is fundamental to participants’ motivation for learning particular languages (in the studies by Ding (Chapter 12) and by Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei (Chapter 11)), or to participants’ integration of their ideal Christian and Language Professional selves (in the study by Chan (Chapter 13)). Thus, while at the individual psychological level L2 motivation may be framed in terms of a personal vision of how one wants to be (Ideal L2 Self) or how one needs to be (Oughtto L2 Self) that is closely associated with an ideal Christian self, it seems that the underlying reasons for L2 learning are essentially social and pragmatic—that is, to enable effective communication and understanding. Moreover, the fundamentally social nature of participants’ L2 motivation is reflected not only in the social purposes of their learning, but also in the social context of their learning. This is particularly clear in the church-community setting constituting the research site in Ding’s study of young Chinese Christian students of English. As Chinese participant Kevin reports, regular contact with American Christians in this setting and opportunities to attend English Bible study sessions provide a motivating social context for developing his English skills so that he could read the Bible in English and share his faith and beliefs with others in the community. Similarly, in relation to social context, other participants in this study talked of significant Christian role models who have influenced their conversion to Christianity and their desire to engage with Western culture and to learn English, since many Christian role models are Western. In short, the importance of social context in mediating the growth and development of individual L2 motivation (Ushioda, 2003) is clearly illustrated in Ding’s analysis. At a general level, of course, the mediating role of social context in shaping L2 motivation is scarcely unique to Christian L2 learning settings. Yet, as I suggest here, the inherently social nature of Christian faith communities and practices may mean that the sociocultural context has a particularly strong bearing on the motivation of Christian faith community members to develop their L2 skills. Further evidence pointing to the significant role of social factors in mediating and sustaining L2 motivation is found in Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei’s study, though this social dimension is not one that is actually emphasized in the researchers’ analysis. An observation I made on reading the study was that, of the seven participants who took part in the interviews, five were engaged on a longterm basis in missionary and Bible translation work (and thus in L2 learning) with their spouse or family. In the case of one participant, Margaret, engagement in this work has continued even after the death of her husband, but it is clear that, for her, as well as for the other participants, the sense of shared lifelong commitment and vocation has been vitally important in initiating, regulating, and sustaining their motivation to learn difficult languages in daunting circumstances and achieve the necessary high levels of competence. While the strength of their Christian faith and vocation undoubtedly explains their motivational rationale and

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endurance in persisting with their language learning, we should not perhaps underestimate the strength that comes also from the sense of a socially shared enterprise bound by very close personal and affective bonds. In effect, one might describe these participants’ L2 learning processes as a very powerful and enduring form of collaborative learning. At a theoretical level, returning to Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System, this notion of a shared enterprise raises an interesting question about the individuality of one’s vision of a future L2 self. Can this vision be conceptualized as a shared vision, not in the sense of identifying with another person’s vision for oneself (that is, an Ought-to Self), but in the sense of two (or more) people sharing an identical vision of a future L2 self, bound by the same ideals, located in the same imagined communities, engaged in the same activities and pursuing the same goals? Or does such a shared vision of a future self run counter to the conceptual psychological core of possible selves theory (Markus & Nurius, 1986)? At another level, of course, this is perhaps not a conceptual conundrum, but rather an empirical question, since we do not know if the participants in LeppKaethler and Dörnyei’s study shared exactly the same vision of an L2 self as their respective spouses, as data from the latter were not included in the analysis. This brings me to the third and final perspective I would like to raise in my commentary, and this relates to research methodology.

Issues of Research Methodology A key feature of the three studies under focus is their use of qualitative research methods, whether in the form of ethnographic approaches or in-depth qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Naturally, this is the kind of research approach that I have long favoured in my own work in the L2 motivation field (for example, Ushioda, 2001, 2009), and hence I am particularly sympathetic to its methodological strengths as evinced in these three studies. As I have recently discussed in relation to possible selves theory (Ushioda & Chen, 2011), the use of qualitative and exploratory research approaches would seem especially important when the target empirical focus concerns an area of human experience as individual, complex, and contextually grounded as how one sees oneself now and imagines oneself to be in the future. In view of their unique, deeply personal and subjective nature, possible selves seem intrinsically different from the more objectively defined constructs of integrative and instrumental orientation (Gardner & Lambert, 1972), which can be applied in a generic and collective way to different learners (in the sense that we can label learners as integratively or instrumentally motivated). As I have argued (Ushioda & Chen, 2011), possible selves imply individual subjective experience and perception, and hence it seems questionable how far this unique individuality can be meaningfully captured through a quantitative measurement instrument that pre-defines and delimits respondent options. Moreover, when the empirical focus concerns deeply held spiritual beliefs

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that are core to the person’s sense of self and sense of dynamic connectedness with a larger social, transcendent, and metaphysical reality, it is patently clear that a constructivist, emic, and contextually grounded approach is needed that privileges the person’s voice, perspective, and vision. In effect, this approach constitutes what I have called elsewhere a ‘person-in-context relational view’ of motivation, self, and identity (Ushioda, 2009). However, the nature of this dynamic social and spiritual connectedness with a wider reality raises an interesting methodological question concerning the perspective of the researcher. In essence, would the data-gathering process, analysis, and interpretation be rather different, depending on whether the researcher shares or does not share the participant’s Christian faith (in broad terms) and sense of connectedness? In other words, does the empathetic and ‘insider’ perspective of the ‘Christian’ researcher contribute in significant ways to the coconstruction of meaning and understanding when interviewing participants about their Christian faith and its motivational impact on their L2 learning or L2-related professional lives? The study by Chan certainly suggests that the interview process can contribute to mediating participants’ understanding of themselves as they are prompted to reflect on their Christian and language professional identities and recount their life stories. This is evident in the case of Peter, who, as Chan reports, discovers during the interview an aspect of his emerging self that he had not previously been aware of—that is, that multiple incidents in his life were facilitating the integration of his CLP self. Perhaps a general point of principle here is the need to recognize the jointly constructed nature of the research interview process, since even narrative or life history interviews are essentially dialogic. Thus, while we should indeed aim to privilege the voices and perspectives of the participants in self-related qualitative research of this kind, we should also take care to acknowledge the researcher’s voice in the interview process and perhaps, as Mann (2011) has recently argued, explicitly represent the co-constructed context and co-text of the interview data in our analysis.

Concluding Remarks From my commentary on these three empirical chapters, it is clear that they raise a number of theoretical and research perspectives that are of relevance and interest to all of us (Christian or otherwise) who engage with issues of motivation and L2 learning in our personal and professional lives. From my own point of view, reading these studies has expanded my conception of the ‘relational’ in my ‘personin-context relational view’ of motivation, self, and identity (Ushioda, 2009), since I had not hitherto considered that, for some L2 learners, this might extend to a sense of spiritual connectedness with a larger reality.

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References Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Dörnyei, Z. (2009a). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Dörnyei, Z. (2009b). Individual differences: Interplay of learner characteristics and learning environment. In N. C. Ellis, & D. Larsen-Freeman (Eds.), Language as a complex adaptive system (pp. 237–255). Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education. Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Loulidi, R. (1990). Attitudes towards foreign language learning in Protestant and Catholic Schools in Northern Ireland. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 3(3), 227–238. Mann, S. (2011). A critical review of qualitative interviews in applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 32(1), 6–24. Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41(9), 954–969. Ushioda, E. (1996). Learner autonomy 5: The role of motivation. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik. Ushioda, E. (2001). Language learning at university: Exploring the role of motivational thinking. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 93–125). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Ushioda, E. (2003). Motivation as a socially mediated process. In D. Little, J. Ridley, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Learner autonomy in the foreign language classroom: Teacher, learner, curriculum and assessment (pp. 90–102). Dublin, Ireland: Authentik. Ushioda, E. (2006). Language motivation in a reconfigured Europe: Access, identity, autonomy. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 27(2), 148–161. Ushioda, E. (2008). Motivation and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 19–34). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ushioda, E. (2009). A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation, self and identity. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 215–228). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Ushioda, E., & Chen, S-A. (2011). Researching motivation and possible selves among learners of English: The need to integrate qualitative inquiry. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies, 22(1), 43–61.

PART III DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning Process

Elfrieda Lepp-Kaethler and Zoltán Dörnyei: The Role of Sacred Texts in Enhancing Motivation and Living the Vision in Second Language Acquisition 1.

2.

Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei found that when “divine call/vision, L2 learning vision, and sacred text are pooled, synchronized, and channeled meaningfully, they appear to generate an unusually high ‘jet stream’ of motivation for language learning” (p. 186). Was there anything that surprised you about their findings? Explain. How do the findings complement the existing literature pertaining to linguistics and religion reviewed by the authors on pp. 171–174? Do you know of other studies linking religious faith to motivation in language learning? If so, how do they contribute to the conversation? If you were to follow up on this study, what would you focus on and who would you recruit as research participants? Why? Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei focus on the role of sacred text in enhancing motivation and living the vision in SLA. Brainstorm elements of religious identity not touched on in the study by Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei that might also potentially be a source of motivation in SLA. Choose one and discuss how you would apply Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System to guide an investigation of your area of interest. What other theoretical frameworks could you draw on? What might be illuminated by one framework that might not be illuminated by the other? Explain what a study of your chosen focus would potentially contribute to the knowledge of SLA.

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Peng Ding: Cosmopolitanism, Christianity, and the Contemporary Chinese Context: Impacts upon Second Language Motivation 1.

2.

In summarizing the results of her study, Ding observes that the Christian faith appears to have a dialectical relationship with L2 motivation; that is, it seems to both influence and be influenced by an interest in the target language. How do the five key findings of Ding’s study compare and contrast with the findings of the study by Lepp-Kaethler and Dörnyei in Chapter 11? Ding’s fifth finding includes a review of two existent theoretical frameworks, and the conclusion that neither offers an adequate explanation for what she calls the “God-inside-us” motivation that emerged in her data. If you were conducting a follow-up study, what theoretical and methodological approaches would you take? In her literature review, Ding cites work by Yang (2005), who reports that, for some Chinese, converting to Christianity appears to be motivated, at least in part, by a desire to become a member of an internationally aware, cosmopolitan, and sophisticated social group (p. 191). In discussing her own results, she notes the motivational influence on L2 learning of an international outlook and (Christian) people of significance who learners in some way may seek to emulate. She also cautions against interpreting the strong Christian beliefs of interviewees with cynicism (pp. 197, 202). Compare and contrast her discussion with the positions raised by Snow in his historical study of the rise of English and Christian faith in China’s Christian colleges (Chapter 7). In your view, how might the identity of each author contribute to the interpretations of their findings? Discuss how you think research about the influence of religious faith on the motivation of EFL students could develop in the future.

Letty Chan: Christian Language Professionals (CLPs) and Integrated Vision: The Stories of Four Educators 1.

2.

Chan states that the goal of her study is to explore whether Christian Language Professionals (CLPs) experience an integrated vision. Why might this question be important to CLPs? What other audiences do you think might be interested in this question? Why? Summarize and interpret the outcomes of Chan’s study in your own words. Discuss which findings you consider to be most significant, along with the reasons for your assessment. In her conclusion, Chan suggests that the interpretive framework adopted in this study could be useful in researching and explaining the integration of professional identities with visions of different faiths. What other questions would you ask about vision and the integration of religious faith and identity in TESOL professionals? To what extent does the presence or absence of

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religious faith, combined with your own sense of professional identity, contribute (or not) to these questions? Discuss the theoretical framework(s) and methodological approach(es) you could take in pursuing answers to your question. Where would you expect this line of research to lead and what would you anticipate as the major contributions?

Ema Ushioda: Christian Faith, Motivation, and L2 Learning: Personal, Social, and Research Perspectives 1.

Ushioda begins by commenting on her “orientation and credentials” (p. 223); in other words, what she brings to the task of writing a response, thus modeling the type of reflective self-awareness that Kubanyiova recommends in Part I of this book (Chapter 6). She then structures her response to the chapters in this section around three perspectives: L2 motivation and a person’s motivational self-system, the social nature of L2 motivation and Christian faith, and issues of research methodology. Name one key insight that you derive from each of these three perspectives and explain why these aspects stand out to you. Jot down ideas for a study that builds on one or more of them, including notes on a potential focus, methodological approach, location, and participants. Where do you see the influence of your own “orientation and credentials” in your response to the previous question?

Suresh Canagarajah: Foreword Now that you have read through this book, let’s briefly revisit Canagarajah’s foreword. 1.

Think back to your initial response to Canagarajah’s opening question (p. xxi). If you were to answer the same question now, how would your response be different? On p. xxii of the foreword, Canagarajah lists various practices and principles that give validity to research. Which of these principles have been applied to strengthen the studies of this volume? How might the principles be applied to further strengthen the studies in this book? Which of them might you use to strengthen your own work in the future? How does your vision for the profession compare or contrast with the hope Canagarajah expresses in his final statement regarding attention to the ways in which faith and values can shape learning?

PART IV

Resources and Conclusions

15 A WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY Faith and Language Teaching Tasha Bleistein AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

Mary Shepard Wong AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

David I. Smith CALVIN COLLEGE (USA)

While current discussions of the relationship between Christian faith and English Language Teaching are in some senses quite young, they emerge against a substantial backdrop of publications on the relationship between faith and various aspects of education. Of the almost 4,500 degree-granting institutions of postsecondary education in the US, around 900 have some religious affiliation. Within this number, colleges and universities affiliated with networks such as the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities tend to encourage a scholarly focus on connections between faith and learning. Less systemically, there are also many individual scholars at other institutions with an interest in this nexus. Similar patterns can be observed in terms of venues of publication. A study underway at the Kuyers Institute for Christian Teaching and Learning at Calvin College has found over 9,000 articles dealing with topics related to the intersection of faith and learning in Christian peer-reviewed journals (most of which are associated with Christian colleges and universities) since 1970. There also exists a range of papers in this area in secular publications, though these are fewer in number and harder to track, and the pool of material becomes very sparse when narrowing the search to ELT and Christian faith. As Morgan (2011) notes about the recent Wong and Canagarajah (2009) volume Christian and Critical English Language Educators in Dialogue: Pedagogical and Ethical Dilemmas, “the fact that this conversation takes place at all is a significant accomplishment” (p. 828). That being said, scholarship related specifically to faith and ELT has slowly begun to emerge

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over the past two decades. As this volume demonstrates, what began as a debate focused in large measure on issues of imperialism in Christian missions work has enlarged to include empirical studies that demonstrate the importance of faith to the motivation of language learners, the impact of faith on ELT pedagogical approaches, and the significance of faith for teachers’ professional identity formations. This bibliography was developed to encourage further exploration of the relationship between Christianity and ELT, and to assist graduate students and scholars embarking on research in this area. Its intention is not only to draw together existing studies that directly focus on the intersection between ELT and Christian faith, but also to highlight a somewhat representative selection of related background literature. As in any interdisciplinary conversation, there is always a danger that those approaching the matter from within a particular disciplinary constellation will fail to integrate relevant conversations and findings that already exist in related areas, or will ground judgments too strongly in reaction to a narrow range of examples. Scholars writing on faith and education do not necessarily have issues specific to ELT in mind, and TESOL scholars may not have a broad background in existing discussions of faith and education. Neither situation is conducive to nuanced conclusions. Moreover, it is often the exploration of resources external to one’s discipline or beyond the borders of immediate conversations that stimulate new areas of research and increased understanding. We hope that this bibliography, while far from comprehensive, will at least indicate some important starting points for further exploration beyond the immediate confines of articles dealing directly or exclusively with ELT and Christian faith. Categories that emerged from our search include the relationship between Christianity and worldview, education, intercultural communication, identity, language, learning, pedagogy, materials, teacher education, and values, as well as works that explore the intersection of language teaching and missions, religion, global Christianity, and spirituality. These have been used to organize the material. A note is perhaps in order concerning a couple of these categories. First, literature on the relationship between Christianity and education. Particularly in North America, the term “Christian education” is often used to mean educational activities taking place in church or seminary contexts, where faith itself is often the topic and faith formation is a direct goal. This focus naturally includes an ongoing conversation regarding the relationship between current educational and developmental theories and Christian learning goals. At the same time (often with surprisingly little overlap), there is further literature examining “Christian education” in terms of education taking place within primarily education institutions such as schools, colleges, and universities that operate within a Christian framework of some kind, where the topics being taught might include theology but are far from restricted to it. Here, there is also an interest in how Christianity relates to education, but often with more of an emphasis on how faith might affect wider educational practice rather than on how educational

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theory and findings can inform Christian formation. Respondents included works from both discussions in their suggestions, and both have been included. Second, while some of the recent discussions of ELT and Christianity have focused around questions concerning missions, work in this area will increasingly need to take account of shifts taking place in missiology and in the study of global Christianity. The statistical heartlands of Christianity are no longer in the West nor in the northern hemisphere, and a number of scholars, including non-Western commentators, have protested the outdated, condescending, or demographically inaccurate idea that Christianity is a Western religion to be exported to other parts of the world. Eurocentric habits in the history of the Christian church have until recently been narrated in Western education, although these habits have been under pressure in recent years. We have included a few samples of this discussion in the section on missions, evangelism, and global Christianity. A number of means were used to gather resources for this project. First, the compilers of this bibliography asked for suggestions from thirty-five colleagues in the field who are reading and writing about the interaction between faith and teaching. Fourteen of these colleagues responded with lists of works that they felt had been influential in this area or in their own thinking. Respondents were asked to share their five favorite works; these works, as well as some selected by the compilers of this chapter, are indicated by an asterisk.1 In addition, bibliographies in a variety of related books, websites, journal articles, and other materials were examined, and resources from these were included. For example, the Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages recently published a cumulative bibliography covering its issues to date, and a number of those articles focus on language pedagogy. The compilers added these entries to their own lists and a master list was created and coded using NVivo (a qualitative research software program). The major codes that emerged became the subheadings for this bibliography. Some works are listed more than once since they had multiple codes. Several caveats and limitations concerning this bibliography should be noted: •



It should be emphasized that this is not an exhaustive list, but rather an organized starting point. This is inevitably the case, given the attempt to broaden the list into a range of related topics—many of these topics taken singly could generate very large bibliographies. Again, the intent has been to gather a list of resources that existing scholars in this area are referring to, but not to provide a comprehensive survey. Since the main basis for inclusion was whether the scholars surveyed consider work relevant to their questions concerning the intersection of faith and ELT, not all of the items included are necessarily by Christian scholars or written from a Christian standpoint. It should be noted that some of the authors included are from other faiths or do not identify with any faith, and were included because they were recommended as having potential to inform

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inquiry on this topic. Inclusion on this list should not be taken to imply the author’s identification with a Christian framework. By the same token, the authors of this chapter do not necessarily agree with or applaud all of the viewpoints represented here, Christian or otherwise. Christian scholars have a wide range of views on any given topic, debate and modify their positions, and are informed and influenced in their thinking by a variety of theological and theoretical perspectives; in this, they are no different from any other group of scholars. This also implies that, even where scholars are seeking to defend the congruity of their position with a Christian framework, their views ought not too quickly to be taken as necessarily representative of all Christian scholars or of Christianity in general. The Christian tradition is rich, longstanding, and complex, and so are many of the scholarly conversations with which it intersects in the works listed here; it would be surprising if the results were quick, simple, and uniform.

Undoubtedly, important resources are still missing. We encourage readers to add to and extend the scope of this bibliography in and through their own work, and we look forward to seeing an increasingly rich scholarly conversation around these topics in the coming years.

1. Christian Thought and Research Anthony, M. J., & Benson, W. S. (2003). Exploring the history and philosophy of Christian education: Principles for the 21st century. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel. Blamires, H. (1950). Repair the ruins: Reflections on educational matters from the Christian point of view. London, UK: Geoffrey Bles. Blamires, H. (2005). The Christian mind: How should a Christian think? (Reprint). Vancouver, Canada: Regent College Publishing. (Originally published 1963). *Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2011). Leading with soul: An uncommon journey of spirit (Rev. 3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. *Canagarajah, A. S. (2009). Can we talk? Finding a platform for dialogue among valuesbased professionals in post-positivist education. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 75–86). New York: Routledge. Curry, J. M., & Wells, R. A. (Eds.). (2008). Faithful imagination in the academy: Explorations in religious belief and scholarship. Lanham, MD: Lexington. Francis, L., & Thatcher, A. (Eds.). (1990). Christian perspectives for education: A reader in the theology of education. Leominster, UK: Gracewing. Green, B. G. (2010). The gospel and the mind: Recovering and shaping the intellectual life. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. *Groome, T. H. (1998). Educating for life: A spiritual vision for every teacher and parent. New York: The Crossroad. *Groome, T. H. (2011). Will there be faith? A new vision for educating and growing disciples. New York: HarperOne.

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Habermas, R. (2001). Teaching for reconciliation. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. Hasker, W. (1992). Faith-learning integration: An overview. Christian Scholar’s Review, 21(3), 231–248. Henry, D. V., & Agee, B. R. (Eds.). (2003). Faithful learning and the Christian scholarly vocation. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Holmes, A. F. (1975). The idea of a Christian college. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Hughes, R. T. (2005). The vocation of a Christian scholar: How Christian faith can sustain the life of the mind. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Jacobsen, D., & Jacobsen, R. H. (2004). Scholarship and Christian faith: Enlarging the conversation. New York: Oxford University Press. Litfin, D. (2004). Conceiving the Christian college. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Lundin, R. (1993). The culture of interpretation: Christian faith and the postmodern world. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. McCarthy, T. (2000). A call to arms: Forming a Christian worldview of teaching English as a second language. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 36(3), 310–316. *Marsden, G. M. (1997). The outrageous idea of Christian scholarship. New York: Oxford University Press. Murphy, D. (1995). Comenius: A critical reassessment of his life and work. Dublin, Ireland: Irish Academic Press. Naugle, D. K. (2002). Worldview: The history of a concept. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Newbigin, L. (1986). Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western culture. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Newbigin, L. (1991). Truth to tell: The Gospel as public truth. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Niebuhr, H. R. (1956). Christ and culture. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins. Noddings, N. (1993). Educating for intelligent belief or unbelief. New York: Teachers College Press. *Noll, M. A. (1994). The scandal of the evangelical mind. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Noll, M. A. (2011). Jesus Christ and the life of the mind. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Nouwen, H. (1969). Intimacy: Essays in pastoral psychology. Notre Dame, IN: Fides. Perkins, P. (2001). “A radical conversion of the mind”: Fundamentalism, hermeneutics, and the metanoic classroom. College English, 63(5), 585–611. Perks, S. C. (1992). The Christian philosophy of education explained. San Diego, CA: Avant Books. Peterson, M. L. (2001). With all your mind: A Christian philosophy of education. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Phenix, P. H. (1966). Education and the worship of God. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press. Placher, W. C. (Ed.). (2005). Callings: Twenty centuries of Christian wisdom on vocation. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Plantinga, C., Jr. (2002). Engaging God’s world: A Christian vision of faith, learning, and living. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Poplin, M. (2008). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa taught me about meaningful work and service. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. *Purpel, D. (2008). What matters. Journal of Education & Christian Belief, 12(2), 115–128. Sandsmark, S. (2000). Is world view neutral education possible and desirable? A Christian response to liberal arguments. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster Press/The Stapleford Centre. Scovel, T. (2007, February). A Christian perspective on research: Beams in darkness and broken lights. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 11(1). Sire, J. W. (1990). Discipleship of the mind: Learning to love God in the ways we think. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

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Sire, J. W. (2004). Naming the elephant: Worldview as a concept. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. Smith, C. (2003). Moral, believing animals: Human personhood and culture. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Smith, D. I. (1996). Rediscovering a heritage: Lull, Bacon and the aims of language teaching. Spectrum, 28(1), 9–28. Smith, D. I. (2000b). Gates unlocked and gardens of delight: Comenius on piety, persons, and language learning. Christian Scholar’s Review, 30(2), 207–232. Smith, D. I. (2002). Incarnation, education and the boundaries of metaphor. Journal of Christian Education, 45(1), 7–18. Spears, P. D., & Loomis, S. R. (2009). Education for human flourishing: A Christian perspective. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Stevens, R. P. (2000). The other six days: Vocation, work, and ministry in biblical perspective. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans & Regent College Bookstore. Stevick, E. W. (1990). Humanism in language teaching: A critical perspective. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Thiessen, E. J. (1993). Teaching for commitment: Liberal education, indoctrination & Christian nurture. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Varghese, M. (2009). Caught between poststructuralist relativism and materialism or liberal and critical multiculturalism? In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 150–153). New York: Routledge. Volf, M. (1991). Work in the Spirit: Toward a theology of work. New York: Oxford University Press. Volf, M. (1996). Exclusion and embrace: A theological exploration of identity, otherness and reconciliation. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Walsh, B. J., & Middleton, J. R. (1984). The transforming vision: Shaping a Christian worldview. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Wilhoit, J. C., & Dettoni, J. M. (1995). Nurture that is Christian: Developmental perspectives on Christian education. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Wolterstorff, N. (1984). Reason within the bounds of religion (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Wolterstorff, N. (1997). Why we should reject what liberalism tells us about speaking and acting in public for religious reasons. In P. J. Weithman (Ed.), Religion and contemporary liberalism (pp. 162–181). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Wolterstorff, N. (1999). Can scholarship and Christian conviction mix? A new look at the integration of knowledge. Journal of Education and Christian Belief, 3(1), 35–50. *Wolterstorff, N., Stronks, G. G., & Joldersma, C. (2002). Educating for life: Reflections on Christian teaching and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Wong, M. S., Kristjánsson, C., & Dörnyei, Z. (2013). Christian faith and English language teaching and learning: Research on the interrelationship of religion and ELT. New York: Routledge.

2. Education (Post-Secondary) Anderson, C. (2004). Teaching as believing: Faith in the university. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011a). Assessing students’ spiritual and religious qualities. Journal of College Student Development, 52(1), 39–61.

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Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011b). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Brueggeman, W. (1982). The creative word: Canon as a model for biblical education. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press. Budde, M. L., & Wright, J. W. (Eds.). (2004). Conflicting allegiances: The church-based university in a liberal democratic society. Ada, MI: Brazos Press. Claerbaut, D. (2004). Faith and learning on the edge: A bold new look at religion in higher education. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Craft, C. M., Foubert, J. D., & Lane, J. J. (2011). Integrating religious and professional identities: Christian faculty at public institutions of higher education. Religion & Education, 38(2), 92–110. Dockery, D. S., & Thornbury, G. A. (2002). Shaping a Christian worldview: The foundations of Christian higher education. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman. Doyre, P. J. (Ed.). (2002). The future of religious colleges: The proceedings of the Harvard conference on the future of religions colleges October 6–7, 2000. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Dunaway, J. M. (Ed.). (2005). Gladly learn, gladly teach: Living out one’s calling in the twentyfirst century academy. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. Dykstra, C. R. (1999). Growing in the life of faith: Education and Christian practices (1st ed.). Louisville, KY: Geneva Press. Elshtain, J. B. (2002). Does, or should, teaching reflect the religious perspective of the teacher? In A. Sterk (Ed.), Religion, scholarship, and higher education: Perspectives, models, and future prospects (pp. 193–201). South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Gallagher, E. V. (2009). Spirituality in higher education? Caveat emptor. Religion & Education, 36(2), 68–87. Gill, D. W. (1997). Should God get tenure? Essays on religion and higher education. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2009). The religiosity of American college and university professors. Sociology of Religion, 70(2), 101–129. Heie, H., & Wolfe, D. L. (Eds.). (1987). The reality of Christian learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian University Press/Eerdmans. Henry, D. V., & Beaty, M. R. (Eds.). (2006). Christianity and the soul of the university: Faith as a foundation for intellectual community. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Henry, D. V., & Beaty, M. R. (Eds.). (2007). The schooled heart: Moral formation in American higher. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. Hoge, R., & Keeter, L. G. (1976). Determinants of college teachers’ religious beliefs and participation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 15(3), 221–235. Jeffrey, D. L., & Evans, C. S. (Eds.). (2007). The Bible in the university. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Lee, H. (Ed.). (2010). Faith-based education that constructs: A creative dialogue between constructivism and faith-based education. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. Lindholm, J. A., & Astin, H. S. (2006). Understanding the “interior” life of faculty: How important is spirituality? Religion & Education, 33(2), 64–90. Lyon, L., & Beaty, M. (1999). Integration, secularization and the two-spheres view at religious colleges: Comparing Baylor University with the University of Notre Dame and Georgetown College. Christian Scholar’s Review, XXIX(1), 73–112. Marsden, G. M. (1994). The soul of the American university: From Protestant establishment to established nonbelief. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Migliazzo, A. C. (Ed.). (2002). Teaching as an act of faith: Theory and practice in church-related higher education. New York: Fordham University Press. Milacci, F. A. (2006). Moving towards faith: An inquiry into spirituality in adult education. Christian Higher Education, 5(3), 211–233. Nord, W. A. (2010). Does God make a difference? Taking religion seriously in our schools and universities. New York: Oxford University Press. Ostrander, R. (2009). Why college matters to God: Academic faithfulness and Christian higher education. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press. *Palmer, P. J., & Zajonc, A. (2010). The heart of higher education: A call to renewal. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pence, N. S. (2009). Spirituality in higher education: Problem, practices, and programs: A response. Religion & Education, 36(2), 130–136. Ringenberg, W. C. (2006). The Christian college: A history of Protestant higher education in America. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Schuman, S. (2010). Seeing the light: Religious colleges in twenty-first-century America. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press. Spirituality in Higher Education (SIHE). (2006). Spirituality and the professoriate: A national study of faculty beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Higher Education Research Institute, Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles. Sterk, A. (Ed.). (2002). Religion, scholarship and higher education: Perspectives, models and future prospects. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Thiessen, E. J. (2001). In defence of religious schools and colleges. Montreal, Canada: McGillQueen’s University Press. Tisdell, E. J. (2007). In the new millennium: The role of spirituality and the cultural imagination in dealing with diversity and equity in the higher education classroom. Teachers College Record, 109(3), 531–560. Vandrick, S. (1997). The role of hidden identities in the postsecondary ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 31(1), 153–157. Vandrick, S., Hafernik, J. J., & Messerschmitt, D. S. (1995). Ethics meets culture: Gray areas in the postsecondary ESL classroom. CATESOL Journal, 8(1), 27–40. Wilkens, S., Shrier, P., & Martin, R. P. (2005). Christian college, Christian calling: Higher education in the service of the church. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press. Wolterstorff, N. (2004). Educating for Shalom: Essays on Christian higher education. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Wolterstorff, N., Stronks, G. G., & Joldersma, C. W. (Eds.). (2002). Educating for life: Reflections on Christian teaching and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

3. Education (Primary and Secondary) Bevan, R. (2011). The question of conscientiousness and religious engagement in public schools. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 30(3), 257–269. Bryk, A. S., Lee, V. E., & Holland, P. B. (1993). Catholic schools and the common good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Conroy, J. C. (1999). Catholic education inside out, outside in. Dublin, Ireland: Veritas. Cooling, T. (1994). A Christian vision for state education: Reflections on the theology of education. London, UK: SPCK.

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Cooling, T. (2011). Doing God in education. London, UK: Theos. Edlin, R., & Ireland, J. (Eds.). (2006). Engaging the culture: Christians at work in education. Adelaide, Australia: Openbook Print. *Ek, L. D. (2008). Language and literacy in the Pentecostal church and the public high school: A case study of a Mexican ESL student. High School Journal, 92(2), 1–13. Graham, D. L. (2003). Teaching redemptively: Bringing grace and truth into your classroom. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design. *Green, E., & Cooling, T. (2009). Mapping the field: A review of the current research evidence on the impact of schools with a Christian ethos. London, UK: Theos. Hauerwas, S. (1992). Schooling Christians: “Holy experiments” in American education. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Haydon, G. (1994). Conceptions of the secular in society, polity and schools. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 28(1), 65–75. Haynes, C. C. (2008). A teacher’s guide to religion in the public schools. Nashville, TN: First Amendment Center. Jones, S. P., & Sheffield, E. C. (Eds.). (2009). The role of religion in 21st century public schools. New York: Peter Lang. Kunzman, R. (2006). Grappling with the good: Talking about religion and morality in public schools. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Lewy, S., & Betty, S. (2007). How to expose fourth and fifth graders to religion and spirituality in a public school classroom. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 12(3), 325–330. Lopez, D. C. (2009). Conflations and confrontations: Spirituality, religion, and values in the liberal arts classroom. Religion & Education, 36(2), 40–53. McCarthy, R., Oppewal, D., Peterson, W., & Spykman, G. (1981). Society, state and schools. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Nord, W. A. (2010). Does God make a difference? Taking religion seriously in our schools and universities. New York: Oxford University Press. Oppewal, D. (Ed.). (1997). Voices from the past: Reformed educators. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Peshkin, A. (1986). God’s choice: The total world of a fundamentalist Christian school. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Sarroub, L. K. (2005). All American Yemeni girls: Being Muslim in a public school. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Spears, P. D., & Loomis, S. R. (2009). Education for human flourishing: A Christian perspective. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. Thiessen, E. J. (1993). Teaching for commitment: Liberal education, indoctrination, and Christian nurture. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press. van Brummelen, H. (1998). Walking with God in the classroom: Christian approaches to learning and teaching (2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: Alta Vista College Press. Vryhof, S. C. (2003). Between memory and vision: The case for faith-based schooling. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. White, K. R. (2009). Connecting religion and teacher identity: The unexplored relationship between teachers and religion in public schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(6), 857–866. *Wolterstorff, N., Stronks, G. G., & Joldersma, C. (2002). Educating for life: Reflections on Christian teaching and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

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4. Intercultural Communication Bennett, J. (1993). Cultural marginality: Identity issues in intercultural training. In M. Paige (Ed.), Education for the intercultural experience (pp. 109–135). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Bredella, L. (2003). What does it mean to be intercultural? In G. Ared, M. Byram, & M. Fleming (Eds.), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 225–239). Clevedon, UK: Multicultural Matters. Buzzelli, C., & Johnston, B. (2002). The moral dimensions of teaching: Language, power, and culture in classroom interaction. New York: Routledge. Edge, J. (1996). Cross-cultural paradoxes in a profession of values. TESOL Quarterly, 30(1), 9–30. Elmer, D. (2000). Trust: A good start on crosscultural effectiveness. Trinity World Forum, 25(2), 1–4. Elmer, D. (2006). Cross-cultural servanthood: Serving the world in Christlike humility. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books. Livermore, D. (2009). Cultural intelligence: Improving your CQ to engage our multicultural world. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Makoni, S., & Makoni, B. (2009). English education in Anglophone Africa: Historical and current realities. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 106–119). New York: Routledge. *Manke, M., & Keller, K. (2006). Lao newcomers and Mennonite settlers: A case study of local cultural and language interaction. Journal of Language, Identity, & Education, 5(2), 123–141. Niebuhr, H. R. (1956). Christ and culture. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins. *Pasquale, M. D. (2011). Out of the heart: Being a culturally intelligent teacher. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 12, 45–66. *Sanneh, L. (2009). Translating the message: The missionary impact on culture (2nd ed.). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. Smith, D. I. (2003). Tourists, guests and why we learn other languages. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 4, 3–9. Smith, D. I. (2005). Cross-cultural learning and Christian history. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 3–7. Smith, D. I. (2006). The gift of the stranger revisited. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 7, 3–9. *Smith, D. I. (2009). Learning from the stranger: Christian faith and cultural diversity. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Smith, D. I., & Carvill, B. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Stambach, A. (2010). Faith in schools: Religion, education, and American evangelicals in East Africa. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Whiteman, D. (1982). Effective communication of the gospel amid cultural diversity. Missiology, 12(3), 275–285. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge.

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5. Identity and Experience Adamson, J. (2003). Challenging beliefs in teacher development: Potential influences of Theravada Buddhism upon Thais learning English. Asian EFL Journal, 5(3), 1–13. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from www.asian-efl-journal.com/sept_03_sub2.JA.pdf. *Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6(3), 201–219. Block, A. A. (2008). Why should I be a teacher? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 416–427. Bradley, C. (2009). Spiritual lessons learned from a language teacher. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 235–241). New York: Routledge. Bradley, W. L. (2007). On being a Christian professor in the secular academy. In W. L. Craig, & P. M. Gould (Eds.), The two tasks of the Christian scholar: Redeeming the soul, redeeming the mind (pp. 109–126). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. Canagarajah, S. (2007). There is something furtive about the behavior of evangelicals in TESOL. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 11(3). Chater, M. (2006). An educator’s faith. In M. de Souza, G. Durka, K. Engebretson, R. Jackson, & A. McGrady (Eds.), International handbook of the religious, moral and spiritual dimensions in education, Part One (pp. 799–813). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Coll, R. (2007). Student teachers’ perception of their role and responsibilities as Catholic educators. European Journal of Teacher Education, 30(4), 445–465. Cooling, T. (2010a). Called to teach: Teaching as a mission vocation. Cambridge, UK: Grove Books. Cooling, T. (2010b). Transforming faith: Teaching as a Christian vocation in a secular, worldview diverse culture. Journal of Education & Christian Belief, 14, 19–32. Craft, C. M., Foubert, J. D., & Lane, J. J. (2011). Integrating religious and professional identities: Christian faculty at public institutions of higher education. Religion & Education, 38(2), 92–110. Craig, W. L., & Gould, P. M. (Eds.). (2007). The two tasks of the Christian scholar: Redeeming the soul, redeeming the mind. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. Curtis, A. (2009). A question of priorities. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 280–287). New York: Routledge. Cutri, R. M. (2000). Exploring the spiritual moral dimensions of teachers’ classroom language policies. In J. K. Hall, & W. G. Eggington (Eds.), The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. 165–177). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Ferris, D. (2007, October). Living out your life mission statement in a secular classroom. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus(CETC) Newsletter, 11(3). Foster, M. (1997). What I learned in Catholic school. In C. P. Casanave, & S. R. Schechter (Eds.), On becoming a language educator: Personal essays on professional development (pp. 19–27). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hansen, D. T. (2001). Exploring the moral heart of teaching: Toward a teacher’s creed. New York: Teachers College Press. Joseph, J. E. (2004). Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. New York: Palgrave. Jule, A. (2007). Language and religious identity: Women in discourse. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. *Kristjánsson, C. (2003). Inside, between, and beyond: Agency and identity in language learning. In J. Arnold, & T. Murphey (Eds.), Meaningful action: Earl Stevick’s influence on language teaching (pp. 5–22). New York: Cambridge University Press.

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*Kristjánsson, C. (2007). The word in the world: So to speak (a Freirean legacy). In T. A. Osborn, & D. I. Smith (Eds.), Spirituality, social justice and language education (pp. 133–153). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press. *Kristjánsson, C. (2010). Collaborating with a (non)collaborator: Interpersonal dynamics and constructions of identity in graduate online learning. In J. R. Park, & E. Abels (Eds.), Interpersonal relations and social patterns in communication technologies: Discourse norms, language structures and cultural variables (pp. 305–329). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Kubota, R. (2009). Spiritual dimensions in language teaching: A personal reflection. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 225–234). New York: Routledge. *Li, D. (2011). Out of the ivory tower: The impact of wider social contact on the values, religious beliefs and identities of Chinese post-graduate students in the UK. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 12(2), 1–18. Liang, J. (2009). The courage to teach as a nonnative English teacher: The confession of a Christian teacher. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 163–172). New York: Routledge. *Mendelsohn, D. J. (Ed.). (1999). Expanding our vision: Insights for language teachers. New York: Oxford University Press. Miller-Perrin, C., & Thompson, D. (2010). The development of vocational calling, identity, and faith in college students: A preliminary study of the impact of study abroad. Frontiers, XIX, 87–103. Morgan, B. (2004). Teacher identity as pedagogy: Towards a field-internal conceptualization in bilingual and second language education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 7(2/3), 172–188. Nash, R. J. (2002). Spirituality, ethics, religion and teaching: A professor’s journey. New York: Peter Lang. Oprandy, R. (1999). Making personal connections to teaching. In J. Gebhard, & R. Oprandy (Eds.), Language teaching awareness: A guide to exploring beliefs and practices (pp. 122–145). New York: Cambridge University Press. *Palmer, P. J. (1993). To know as we are known: Education as a spiritual journey. New York: HarperSanFrancisco *Palmer, P. J. (1998). The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Phan, L. H., & Phan, V. Q. (2006). Vietnamese educational morality and the discursive construction of English language teacher identity. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 1(2), 136–151. Phenix, P. H. (1957). Religion and academic life: A personal interpretation. Teachers College Record, 58(8), 418–424. Schwehn, M. R. (2002). Teaching as profession and vocation. Theology Today, 59(3), 396–407. Scovel, T. (1999). Myra Scovel: A woman of spirit. In D. J. Mendelsohn (Ed.), Expanding our vision: Insights for language teachers (pp. 74–92). Toronto, Canada: Oxford University Press. Scovel, T. (2004). What is a Christian English language teacher? Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 8(1). Smith, D. I. (2003). Tourists, guests and why we learn other languages. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 4, 3–9.

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Smith, D. I., Avila, K., De Young, S., & Uyaguari, A. (2007). Of log cabins, fallen bishops and tenacious parents: (Auto)biographical narrative and the spirituality of language learning. In D. I. Smith, J. Sullivan, & J. Shortt (Eds.), Teaching spiritually engaged reading (pp. 107–129). Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. van Brummelen, H., Koole, R., & Franklin, K. (2004). Transcending the commonplace: Spirituality in the curriculum. The Journal of Educational Thought, 38(3), 237–253. Vandrick, S. (2002). ESL and the colonial legacy: A teacher faces her “missionary kid” past. In V. Zamel, & R. Spack (Eds.), Enriching ESOL pedagogy (pp. 411–422). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Villalobos, J. (1994). Learning and teaching English as a foreign language: A personal experience. Christian Educators Journal, 33(4), 6–7. Volf, M. (1996). Exclusion and embrace: A theological exploration of identity, otherness and reconciliation. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Wong, M. S. (2006). Reconstruction toward a “global Christian professional language teacher” identity. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 10(2). Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge. Wong, M. S. (2013). Called to teach: The impact of faith on professional identity construction of Western English teachers in China. In M. Wong, C. Kristjánsson, & Z. Dörnyei (Eds.), Christian faith and English language teaching and learning: Research on the interrelationship of religion and ELT (pp. 11–30). New York: Routledge. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Woods, G. (2007). The “bigger feeling”: The importance of spiritual experience in educational leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 35(1), 135–155.

6. Language Asker, B. (2006). Some reflections on English as a “semi-sacred” language. English Today, 22(1), 29–35. Beatson, J. (2004). Defining the purpose and mission behind core language courses. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 5, 83–88. Brend, R. M. (Ed.). (1972). Kenneth L. Pike selected writings. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton. *Brewster, T., & Brewster, E. (1984). Language learning is communication, is ministry. Pasadena, CA: Lingua House. Buzzelli, C., & Johnston, B. (2002). The moral dimensions of teaching: Language, power, and culture in classroom interaction. New York: Routledge. Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Christoph, J. N. (2009). Each one teach one: The legacy of evangelism in adult literacy education. Written Communication, 26(1), 77–110. Clark, G. H. (1993). Language and theology (2nd ed.). Jefferson, MD: Trinity Foundation. Crystal, D. (1965). Linguistics, language and religion. New York: Hawthorn Books. *Ek, L. D. (2008). Language and literacy in the Pentecostal church and the public high school: A case study of a Mexican ESL student. High School Journal, 92(2), 1–13.

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Farr, M. (2000). Literacy and religion: Reading, writing, and gender among Mexican women in Chicago. In J. K. Peyton, P. Griffin, W. Wolfram, & R. Fasold (Eds.), Language in action: New studies of language in society essays in honor of Roger W. Shuy (pp. 139–154). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Jenkins, O. B. (1989). Planning and evaluating missionary language learning. Limuru, Kenya: Communication Press. Joseph, J. E. (2004). Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. New York: Palgrave. Jule, A. (2007). Language and religious identity: Women in discourse. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Makoni, S., & Makoni, B. (2009). English education in Anglophone Africa: Historical and current realities. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 106–119). New York: Routledge. Omoniyi, T., & Fishman, J. A. (Eds.). (2006). Explorations in the sociology of language and religion. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Pasquale, M., & Bierma, N. L. K. (2011). Every tribe and tongue: A biblical vision for language in society. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2005). The modern mission: The language effects of Christianity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(2), 137–157. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Phillipson, R. (2010). Linguistic imperialism continued. London, UK: Routledge. *Robison, R. (2011). Language from a Christian perspective reconsidered. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 12, 10–28. *Smith, D. I. (2005b). Scripture, speech acts and language classes. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 71–74. *Smith, D. I., & Carvill, B. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I., & Dobson, S. (1999). Modern languages. In S. Bigger, & E. Brown (Eds.), Spiritual, moral, social and cultural education: Exploring values in the curriculum (pp. 98–108). London, UK: David Fulton. Smith, D. I., & Osborn, T. A. (Eds.). (2007). Spirituality, social justice, and language learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Spolsky, B. (2003). Religion as a site of language contact. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 23, 81–94. Stevick, E. W. (1989). Success with foreign languages: Seven who achieved it and what worked for them. New York: Prentice Hall. Vande-Kopple, W. J. (1991). Toward a Christian view of language. Contemporary literary theory: A Christian appraisal. In C. Walhout, & L. Ryken (Eds.), Contemporary literary theory: A Christian appraisal (pp. 199–230). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Yallop, C. (1993). Linguistic diversity. Philosophia Reformata, 58(2), 113–119.

7. Learning and Learners Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011a). Assessing students’ spiritual and religious qualities. Journal of College Student Development, 52(1), 39–61.

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Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011b). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. *Han, H. (2009). Institutionalized inclusion: A case study on support for immigrants in English learning. TESOL Quarterly, 43(4), 643–668. Jenkins, O. B. (1989). Planning and evaluating missionary language learning. Limuru, Kenya: Communication Press. *Kristjánsson, C. (2013). Inside, between, and beyond: Agency and identity in language learning. In J. Arnold, & T. Murphey (Eds.), Meaningful action: Earl Stevick’s influence on language teaching (pp. 5–22). New York: Cambridge University Press. Lessard-Clouston, M. (2006). Breadth and depth specialized vocabulary learning in theology among native and non-native English speakers. Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(2), 175–198. Lessard-Clouston, M. (2009). Specialized vocabulary learning and use in theology: Native and non-native English-speaking students in a graduate school. Cologne, Germany: Lambert Academic. *Lingenfelter, J., & Lingenfelter, S. (2003). Teaching cross-culturally: An incarnational model for learning and teaching. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Markham, P., & Latham, M. (1987). The influence of religion-specific background knowledge on the listening comprehension of adult second-language students. Language Learning, 37(2), 157–170. Palmer, P. J. (1999). The grace of great things: Reclaiming the sacred in knowing, teaching, and learning. In S. Glazer (Ed.), The heart of learning: Spirituality in education (pp. 15–32). New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. Smith, D. I. (1997). In search of the whole person: Critical reflections on community language learning. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 6(2), 159–181. Smith, D. I. (2003). Tourists, guests and why we learn other languages. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 4, 3–9. Smith, D. I. (2007a). Egocentricity and learning to hear a foreign language. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 8, 3–10. Smith, D. I. (2007b). Misreading through the eyes of faith: Christian students’ reading strategies as interlanguage. In D. I. Smith, J. Shortt, & J. Sullivan (Eds.), Teaching spiritually engaged reading (pp. 53–66). Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. *Smith, D. I. (2008). On viewing learners as spiritual beings: Implications for language educators. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 9, 34–48. *Smith, D. I. (2009). Learning from the stranger: Christian faith and cultural diversity. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I. (2010). Teaching (and learning from) the white rose. In D. M. Moss, & T. A. Osborn (Eds.), Critical essays on resistance in education (pp. 67–82). New York: Peter Lang. *Smith, D. I., & Carvill, B. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I., & Osborn, T. A. (Eds.). (2007). Spirituality, social justice, and language learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Smith, D. I., De Young, S. L., Uyaguari, A., & Avila, K. J. (2007). Of log cabins, fallen bishops, and tenacious parents: (Auto)biographical narrative and the spirituality of language learning. In D. I. Smith, & T. A. Osborn (Eds.), Spirituality, social justice, and language learning (pp. 107–129). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

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Snow, D. (2009). English teachers, language learning, and the issue of power. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 173–184). New York: Routledge. van Gilst, L. (1994). Foreign language study: More than conversation. Christian Educators Journal, 33(4), 5. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge.

8. Materials and Resources Burke, S. E. (1998). ESL: Creating a quality English as a second language program: A guide for churches. Grand Rapids, MI: Faith Alive Christian Resources. Dickerson, L. J., & Dow, D. F. (1997). Handbook for Christian EFL teachers. Wheaton, IL: Institute for Cross-Cultural Training, Billy Graham Center, Wheaton College. Eby, J. W. (2003). Handbook for teaching Bible-based ESL (2nd ed.). Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press. Moore, K. (2005). Teaching English language learners the good news: A guide for church-based ESL ministries. Alpharetta, GA: North American Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. Pasquale, M. D. (2011). An ESL ministry handbook: Contexts and principles. Grand Rapids, MI: Credo House. Pierson, C. (2003a). In the workshop: Designing an English for Bible and theology course. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 39(2), 232–236. Pierson, C. (2003b). Dictionary of theological terms in simplified English student workbook: A resource for English language learners. Wheaton, IL: Evangelical Missions Information Service. Pierson, C., Dickerson, L., & Scott, F. (2011). Exploring theological English: Reading, vocabulary, and grammar for ESL/EFL. Carlisle, UK: Piquant Editions. *Purgason, K. B. (Ed.). (2010). English language teaching in theological contexts. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Seaman, A. (Ed.). (2011). Passport to adventure: Kindergarten and primary 1 levels. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design Press.

9. Missions, Evangelism, and Global Christianity Adeney, B. (1995). Strange virtues. Downers Grove, IL: InterVaristy Press. Anderson, P. (2001). Is tentmaking dishonest? World Christian, 14(3), 23–24. Barnett, M. (2005). Innovation in mission operations: Creative access platforms. In M. Pocock, M. G. Van Rheenen, & D. McConnell (Eds.), The changing face of the world missions: Engaging contemporary issues and trends (pp. 209–244). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Baurain, B. (1992). Teaching English feeds a worldwide craving. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 28, 164–173. *Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6(3), 201–219. *Bosch, D. (1991). Transforming mission. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. *Brewster, T., & Brewster, E. (1984). Language learning is communication, is ministry. Pasadena, CA: Lingua House.

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Byler, M. (2009). Confronting the empire: Language teachers as charitable guests. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 120–130). New York: Routledge. Chamberlain, M. (2009). First the log in our own eye: Missionaries and their critics. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 46–52). New York: Routledge. Christoph, J. N. (2009). Each one teach one: The legacy of evangelism in adult literacy education. Written Communication, 26(1), 77–110. Coutand-Marin, S., & Pennycook, A. (2003). Teaching as a missionary language. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24(3), 337–353. Dickerson, L. (2006). Teaching English – to missionaries! Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 42, 192–198. *Dormer, J. E. (2011). Teaching English in missions: Effectiveness and integrity. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The English language and the word of God. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 154–157). New York: Routledge. Dyrness, W., & Engel, J. (2000). Changing the mind of missions: Where have we gone wrong? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Easterly, W. (2007). The white man’s burden: Why the West’s efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. New York: Penguin Press. Edge, J. (1996a). Keeping the faith. TESOL Matters, 6(4), 1, 23. Edge, J. (1996b). Letters: Julian Edge responds. TESOL Matters, 6(6), 6. Edge, J. (2003). Imperial troopers and servants of the Lord: A vision of TESOL for the 21st century. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 701–709. Elmer, D. (2000). Trust: A good start on crosscultural effectiveness. Trinity World Forum, 25(2), 1–4. Erny, E. (1991). Keys to effective evangelism by teaching English. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 27(1), 6–9. González, J. L. (1998). For the healing of the nations: The book of Revelation and our multicultural calling. In T. R. Thompson (Ed.), The one in the many: Christian identity in a multicultural world (pp. 1–7). Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Griffith, T. (2004). Unless a grain of wheat . . . TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 714–716. Hardin, D. C. (1998). Teaching English as a tool of evangelism: Problems and limitations. Journal of Applied Missiology, 4(1). Retrieved August 6, 2012 from www.ovc.edu/ missions/jam/teacheng.htm. *Hiebert, P. (1985). Anthropological insights for missionaries. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Jenkins, P. (2002). The next Christendom: The coming of global Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press. Jenkins, P. (2006). The new faces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the global south. New York: Oxford University Press. Johnston, B. (2009). Is dialogue possible? Challenge to evangelicals and nonevengelicals in English language teaching. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 35–45). New York: Routledge. Johnston, B., & Varghese, M. M. (2006). Neo-imperialism, evangelism, and ELT: Modernist missions and a postmodern profession. In J. Edge (Ed.), (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire (pp. 195–207). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Kuhlman, F. (1975). English Bible classes for the Japanese: An evaluation. The Japan Christian Quarterly, 41(2), 88–92. *Lingenfelter, J. E., & Lingenfelter, S. G. (2003). Teaching cross-culturally: An incarnational model for learning and teaching. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Lo, J. (2000). What have we done? Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 36 (1), 436–438. McCarthy, T. (2000). A call to arms: Forming a Christian worldview of teaching English as a second language. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 36(3), 310–316. Newbigin, L. (1989). The gospel in a pluralist society. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Pennycook, A. (2009). Is dialogue possible? Anti-intellectualism, relativism, politics and linguistic ideologies. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 60–65). New York: Routledge. Pennycook, A., & Coutand-Marin, S. (2003). Teaching English as a missionary language (TEML). Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24(3), 337–353. Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2005). The modern mission: The language effects of Christianity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(2), 137–157. Phillipson, R. (2009). Dialogue and discourse. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 66–71). New York: Routledge. Plumb, S. (1997). A key to their hearts: English may develop into an interest in Christ. In Teaching more than English: Using TESL/TEFL on the mission field at home and abroad. Evanston, IL: Berry. Pocock, M., Van Rheenen, G., & McConnell, D. (2005). The changing face of world missions: Engaging contemporary issues and trends. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Purgason, K. B. (1997). Christianity in the classroom. Principles and resources for teaching English. In Teaching more than English: Using TESL/TEFL on the mission field at home and abroad (pp. 59–66). Evanston, IL: Berry. Purgason, K. B. (1998). Teaching English to the world: Options and opportunities. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 15(1) 33–39. Purgason, K. B. (2004). A clearer picture of the “servants of the Lord.” TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 711–713. Romanowski, M. H., & McCarthy, T. (2009). Teaching in a distant classroom: Crossing borders for global transformation. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Sanneh, L. O. (2003). Whose religion is Christianity? The Gospel beyond the West. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Sanneh, L. O. (2009). Translating the message: The missionary impact on culture (2nd ed.). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. Siemens, R. E. (1997). The vital role of tentmaking in Paul’s mission strategy. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 14(3), 121–129. Slimbach, R. (2000). First, do no harm. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 36(4), 428–441. Smith, D. I. (2005, December). How not to bless the nations. Perspectives, 6–11. *Snow, D. B. (2001). English teaching as Christian mission: An applied theology. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Stabler-Havener, J. (2009). Christian English teachers’ presence: Reflecting Constantine or Christ? In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 131–140). New York: Routledge.

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Stambach, A. (2010). Faith in schools: Religion, education, and American evangelicals in East Africa. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Stevick, E. W. (2009). Afterword: The dilemma. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 292–297). New York: Routledge. Teaching more than English: Using TESL/TEFL on the mission field at home and abroad. (1997). Evanston, IL: Berry. Tennant, A. (2002, December). The ultimate language lesson. Christianity Today, 46(13), 32–38. Tennet, T. (1997). English opens doors: Reasons to consider a career in TESOL. In Teaching more than English: Using TESL/TEFL on the mission field at home and abroad (pp. 17–20). Evanston, IL: Berry. Thiessen, E. J. (1993). Teaching for commitment: Liberal education, indoctrination & Christian nurture. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Thiessen, E. J. (2011). The ethics of evangelism: A philosophical defense of proselytizing and persuasion. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. *Tokudome, M. (2009). Be BOLD: Responding to criticism and promoting further dialogue. CELEA News, 1(2), 10–14. Vandrick, S. (2002). ESL and the colonial legacy: A teacher faces her “missionary kid” past. In V. Zamel, & R. Spack (Eds.), Enriching ESOL pedagogy (pp. 411–422). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. *Varghese, M. M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 5–31. Volf, M. (1996). Exclusion and embrace: A theological exploration of identity, otherness and reconciliation. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Whiteman, D. (1982). Effective communication of the gospel amid cultural diversity. Missiology, 12(3), 275–285. Wong, M. S. (2009). Deconstructing/reconstructing the missionary English teacher identity. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 91–105). New York: Routledge. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Wong, M. S., & Stratton, D. J. (2011). From accomplices to advocates: Recognizing and reducing discrimination among “non-native” speakers in mission organizations. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 47(4), 440–447. Woodward, M. (1993). Teaching English as a tool of evangelism. Journal of Applied Missiology, 4(1). Retrieved August 6, 2012 from www.ovc.edu/missions/jam/teacheng.htm. Yeoman, B. (2002, May/June). The stealth crusade. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from www. motherjones.com/politics/2002/05/stealth-crusade.

10. Pedagogy Anderson, C. (2004). Teaching as believing: Faith in the university. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. Baurain, B. (2011). Morality, relationality, and listening pedagogy in language education. The International Journal of Listening, 25(3), 161–177.

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Beatson, J. (2005). Text-based vs. thematic/theological activities for the FL classroom: Finding the right fit. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 65–70. Block, A. A. (2008). Why should I be a teacher? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 416–427. Bradley, C. A. (2005). Spirituality and L2 pedagogy: Toward a research agenda. Journal of Engaged Pedagogy, 4(1), 26–38. Brouwer Konyndyk, I. (2004). Teaching students with learning disabilities: A Christian imperative. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 5, 89–91. Brouwer Konyndyk, I. (2011). Direct and explicit instruction in the foreign language classroom: Showing hospitality to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 12, 79–85. Buck, R. B. (1998). Spirit-filled teaching: The power of the Holy Spirit in your ministry. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson. Cecero, J. J., & Prout, T. A. (2011). Measuring faculty spirituality and its relationship to teaching style. Religion & Education, 38(2), 128–140. Cutri, R. M. (2000). Exploring the spiritual moral dimensions of teachers’ classroom language policies. In J. K. Hall, & W. G. Eggington (Eds.), The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. 165–177). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. De Vries, H. J. (2002). Classroom devotions in the foreign language course: Possibilities for effecting change in student motivation and attitude. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 3, 10–30. De Vries, H. J. (2005). Attentiveness. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 88–92. Dively, R. L. (1997). Censoring religious rhetoric in the composition classroom: What we and our students may be missing. Composition Studies, 25(1), 55–66. *Dormer, J. E. (2011). Teaching English in missions: Effectiveness and integrity. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Ferris, D. (2007, October). Living out your life mission statement in a secular classroom. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 11(3). Fisher, J. W. (2008). Impacting teachers’ and students’ spiritual well-being. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 29(3), 253–261. Freire, P. (1997). Pedagogy of the heart. New York: Continuum. Friedeman, M. (1990). The master plan of teaching: Understanding and applying the teaching styles of Jesus. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books. Goodburn, A. (1998). It’s a question of faith: Discourses of fundamentalism and critical pedagogy in the writing classroom. JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, 18(2), 333–353. Graham, D. (2003). Teaching redemptively: Bringing grace and truth into your classroom. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design Publications (ACSI). Green, E. (2010). What would Jesus do now in the classroom? The CREATe research project. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 31(3), 349–352. Gregory, M. (2002). Pedagogy and the Christian law of love. Journal of Education and Christian Belief, 6(1), 9–25. Hansen, D. T. (1993). From role to person: The moral layeredness of classroom teaching. American Educational Research Journal, 30(4), 651–674. Hansen, D. T. (2007). Ethical visions of education: Philosophy in practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Harrell, H. H. (1920). Jesus, the master teacher. New York: Association Press. Harris, M. (1987). Teaching and religious imagination: An essay in the theology of teaching. New York: HarperCollins.

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Hendricks, H. (1987). Teaching to change lives. Sisters, OR: Multnomah. Hess, M. E., & Brookfield, S. D. (2008). Teaching reflectively in theological contexts: Promises and contradictions. Malabar, FL: Krieger. Lindholm, J. A., & Astin, H. S. (2008). Spirituality and pedagogy: Faculty’s spirituality and use of student-centered approaches to undergraduate teaching. Review of Higher Education, 31(2), 185–207. *Lingenfelter, J., & Lingenfelter, S. (2003). Teaching cross-culturally: An incarnational model for learning and teaching. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. McCarthy, T. (2000). A call to arms: Forming a Christian worldview of teaching English as a second language. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 36(3), 310–316. Meeter, M., & Wiersma, S. (1970). Contrasting Christian approaches to teaching literature. Grand Rapids, MI: Calvin College. *Mendelsohn, D. J. (Ed.). (1999). Expanding our vision: Insights for language teachers. New York: Oxford University Press. Migliazzo, A. C. (Ed.). (2002). Teaching as an act of faith: Theory and practice in church-related higher education. New York: Fordham University Press. Miller, L. (2009). Present to possibility: Spiritual awareness and deep teaching. Teachers College Record, 111(12), 2705–2712. Moore, M. E. M. (1998). Teaching from the heart: Theology and educational method (Rev. ed.). Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. Moore, M. E. M. (2004). Teaching as a sacramental act. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press. Morgan, B. (2004). Teacher identity as pedagogy: Towards a field-internal conceptualization in bilingual and second language education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 7(2/3), 172–188. Morgan, B. (2009). The pedagogical dilemmas of faith in ELT: A dialogic response. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 193–204). New York: Routledge. Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (1999). Teaching to change the world. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Osborn, T. A. (2005). Critical reflection and the foreign language classroom (Rev. ed.). Greenwich, CT: Information Age. Osborn, T. A. (2006). Teaching world languages for social justice: A sourcebook of principles and practices. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. *Osborn, T. A. (2007). Teaching world languages for social justice. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 8, 11–23. Osborn, T. A. (2009). Reconsidering roadside assistance: The problem with Christian approaches to teaching English language. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 215–218). New York: Routledge. Palmer, P. J. (1999). The grace of great things: Reclaiming the sacred in knowing, teaching, and learning. In S. Glazer (Ed.), The heart of learning: Spirituality in education (pp. 15–32). New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. Palmer, P. J. (2003). Teaching with heart and soul: Reflections on spirituality in teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(5), 376–385. Pederson, K. M. (1995). Humanising feedback in the foreign language classroom: Moving from technique to dynamic. Journal of Christian Education, 38, 5–32. Purgason, K. B. (1997). Christianity in the classroom: Principles and resources for teaching English. In Teaching more than English: Using TESL/TEFL on the mission field at home and abroad (pp. 59–66). Evanston, IL: Berry.

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Purgason, K. B. (2009). Classroom guidelines for teachers with convictions. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 185–192). New York: Routledge. Purgason, K. B. (2011). English language teaching in theological contexts. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Rand, L. A. (2001). Enacting faith: Evangelical discourse and the discipline of composition studies. College Composition and Communication, 52(3), 349–367. Scott, L. (2005). Singing into the wind: Uses and abuses of “Christian” songs in our foreign language classes. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 75–81. Scovel, T., Christison, M. A., Snow, D., Shaaban, K., Mendelsohn, D., & Widdowson, H. (2001, March 2). Faith, values and language teaching. Panel presentation, 35th Annual TESOL Convention, St. Louis, Missouri. Smith, D. I. (1993). Can modern language teaching be Christian? Spectrum, 25(1), 25–38. Smith, D. I. (2000a). Faith and method in foreign language pedagogy. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 1(1), 7–25. Smith, D. I. (2000b). Spirituality and teaching methods: Uneasy bedfellows? In R. Best (Ed.), Educating for spiritual, moral, social and cultural development (pp. 52–67). London, UK: Cassell. Smith, D. I. (2000c). Modern language pedagogy, spiritual development and Christian faith: A study of their interrelationships. Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Education, University of London, London. Smith, D. I. (2004). Technology and pedagogical meaning: Lessons from the language classroom. Christian Scholars Review, 33(4), 511–526. Smith, D. I. (2006). Does God dwell in the detail? How faith affects (language) teaching processes. In R. Edlin, & J. Ireland (Eds.), Engaging the culture: Christians at work in education (pp. 131–152). Blacktown, NSW: NICE. Smith, D. I. (2008). Christian faith and language pedagogy. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 9, 3–9. Smith, D. I. (2009). The spiritual ecology of second language pedagogy. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 242–254). New York: Routledge. Smith, D. I. (2010). Teaching (and learning from) the white rose. In D. M. Moss, & T. A. Osborn (Eds.), Critical essays on resistance in education (pp. 67–82). New York, NY: Peter Lang. *Smith, D. I. (2011). Hospitality, language pedagogy, and communities of practice. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 12, 29–44. Smith, D. I., & Smith, J. K. A. (Eds.). (2011). Teaching and Christian practices: Reshaping faith and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, D. I., Sullivan, J., & Shortt, J. (Eds.). (2006). Spirituality, justice and pedagogy. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. Smith, D. I., Sullivan, J., & Shortt, J. (Eds.). (2007). Teaching spiritually engaged reading. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. Snow, D. (2001, May). Faith, values and language teaching forum: Reflections. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 5(2), 3. van Dyk, J. (2000). The craft of Christian teaching: A classroom journey. Sioux Center, IA: Dordt Press. *Varghese, M. M., & Johnston, B. (2007). Evangelical Christians and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 5–31.

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Widder, R. A., & Widder, W. (2008). The forest and the trees: Helping teachers integrate a biblical worldview across the curriculum. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. *Wolterstorff, N. (2006). Teaching justly for justice. Journal of Education & Christian Belief, 10(2), 23–37. *Wolterstorff, N., Stronks, G. G., & Joldersma, C. (2002). Educating for life: Reflections on Christian teaching and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Wood, H. (2008). Living the gospel in the foreign language classroom: Shaping stories and students. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 9, 10–33. Yorba-Gray, G. B. (2006). The personal narrative journal in the Christian foreign language classroom. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 7, 44–66.

11. Religion Bigelow, M. (2008). Somali adolescents’ negotiation of religious and racial bias in and out of school. Theory into Practice, 47(1), 27–34. Block, A. A. (2008). Why should I be a teacher? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 416–427. Brantmeier, E. J., Lin, J., & Miller, J. P. (Eds.). (2010). Spirituality, religion, and peace education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Brown, S. (2008). A Buddhist in the classroom. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Crystal, D. (1965). Linguistics, language and religion. New York: Hawthorn Books. Dan, W. C., Haroon, H. A., & Naysmith, J. (1996). English and Islam in Malaysia: Resolving the tension? World Englishes, 15(2), 225–234. Dasen, P. R., & Akkari, A. (Eds.). (2008). Educational theories and practices from the majority world. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. de Souza, M., Durka, G., Engebretson, K., Jackson, R., & McGrady, A. (Eds.). (2006a). International handbook of the religious, moral and spiritual dimensions in education. Part one. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. de Souza, M., Durka, G., Engebretson, K., Jackson, R., & McGrady, A. (Eds.). (2006b). International handbook of the religious, moral and spiritual dimensions in education. Part two. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Elshtain, J. B. (2002). Does, or should, teaching reflect the religious perspective of the teacher? In A. Sterk (Ed.), Religion, scholarship, and higher education: Perspectives, models, and future prospects (pp. 193–201). South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Farr, M. (2000). Literacy and religion: Reading, writing, and gender among Mexican women in Chicago. In J. K. Peyton, P. Griffin, W. Wolfram, & R. Fasold (Eds.), Language in action: New studies of language in society essays in honor of Roger W. Shuy (pp. 139–154). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2009). The religiosity of American college and university professors. Sociology of Religion, 70(2), 101–129. Haynes, C. C. (2008). A teacher’s guide to religion in the public schools. Nashville, TN: First Amendment Center. Hefner, R. W., & Zaman, M. Q. (Eds.). (2007). Schooling Islam: The culture and politics of modern Muslim education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Hoge, R., & Keeter, L. G. (1976). Determinants of college teachers’ religious beliefs and participation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 15(3), 221–235.

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Hones, D. F. (2001). The word: Religion and literacy in the life of a Hmong American. Religious Education, 96(4), 489–509. Hunt, A. (2006). The essence of education is religious. In M. de Souza, G. Durka, K. Engebretson, R. Jackson, & A. McGrady (Eds.), International handbook of the religious, moral and spiritual dimensions in education. Part one (pp. 635–650). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Jones, S. P., & Sheffield, E. C. (Eds.). (2009). The role of religion in 21st century public schools. New York: Peter Lang. Joseph, J. E. (2004). Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. New York: Palgrave. Kunzman, R. (2006). Grappling with the good: Talking about religion and morality in public schools. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Lei, E. V., & Kyburz, B. L. (Eds.). (2005). Negotiating religious faith in the composition classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann. Lewy, S., & Betty, S. (2007). How to expose fourth and fifth graders to religion and spirituality in a public school classroom. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 12(3), 325–330. *Li, D. (2011). Out of the ivory tower: The impact of wider social contact on the values, religious beliefs and identities of Chinese post-graduate students in the UK. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 12(2), 1–18. Lopez, D. C. (2009). Conflations and confrontations: Spirituality, religion, and values in the liberal arts classroom. Religion & Education, 36(2), 40–53. Mahboob, A. (2009a). Additive perspective on religion or growing hearts with wisdom. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 272–279). New York: Routledge. Mahboob, A. (2009b). English as an Islamic language: A case study of Pakistani English. World Englishes, 28(2), 175–189. Markham, P., & Latham, M. (1987). The influence of religion-specific background knowledge on the listening comprehension of adult second-language students. Language Learning, 37(2), 157–170. Merriam, S. B. (2007). Non-Western perspectives on learning and knowing. Malabar, FL: Krieger. Nelson, J. (2010). The evolving place of research on religion in the American Educational Research Association. Religion & Education, 37(1), 60–86. Noddings, N. (2008). The new outspoken atheism and education. Harvard Educational Review, 78(2), 369–390. Nord, W. A. (2010). Does God make a difference? Taking religion seriously in our schools and universities. New York: Oxford University Press. Omoniyi, T., & Fishman, J. A. (Eds.). (2006). Explorations in the sociology of language and religion. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Parshall, P. (1994). Understanding Muslim teachings and traditions. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Ramanathan, V. (2009). Questioning religious “ideals” and intentionalities: Staving off religious arrogance and bigotry in ELT. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 72–74). New York: Routledge. Sarroub, L. K. (2005). All American Yemeni girls: Being Muslim in a public school. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Schwehn, M. R. (1993). Exiles from Eden: Religion and the academic vocation in America. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Scovel, T., Christison, M. A., Snow, D., Shaaban, K., Mendelsohn, D., & Widdowson, H. (2001, March 2). Faith, values and language teaching. Panel presentation, 35th Annual TESOL Convention, St. Louis, Missouri. Shah, S. (2009). Muslim learners in English schools: A challenge for school leaders. Oxford Review of Education, 35(4), 523–540. Spolsky, B. (2003). Religion as a site of language contact. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 23, 81–94. Sterk, A. (Ed.). (2002). Religion, scholarship and higher education: Perspectives, models and future prospects. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Thomas, R. M. (2006). Religion in schools: Controversies around the world. Westport, CT: Praeger. Tulasiewicz, W., & To, C. Y. (1993). World religions and educational practice. New York: Cassell. White, J. B. (2006). Introduction. In J. B. White (Ed.), How should we talk about religion? (pp. 1–10). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. White, K. R. (2009). Connecting religion and teacher identity: The unexplored relationship between teachers and religion in public schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(6), 857–866. White, K. R. (2010). Asking sacred questions: Understanding religion’s impact on teacher belief and action. Religion & Education, 37(1), 40–59. Zine, J. (2001). Muslim youth in Canadian schools: Education and the politics of religious identity. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 32(4), 399–423.

12. Spirituality Astin, A. W. (2004). Why spirituality deserves a central place in liberal education. Liberal Education, 90(2), 34–41. Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011a). Assessing students’ spiritual and religious qualities. Journal of College Student Development, 52(1), 39–61. Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011b). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bauman, C. M. (2009). The specter of “spirituality”: On the (in)utility of an analytical category. Religion & Education, 36(2), 54–67. Bauman, C. M., Gallagher, E. V., & Lopez, D. C. (2009). Fuzzy but not warm: On the (continuing) descriptive and analytical inutility of “spirituality.” Religion & Education, 36(2), 141–149. Bradley, C. (2009). Spiritual lessons learned from a language teacher. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 235–241). New York: Routledge. Bradley, C. A. (2005). Spirituality and L2 pedagogy: Toward a research agenda. Journal of Engaged Pedagogy, 4(1), 26–38. Brantmeier, E. J., Lin, J., & Miller, J. P. (Eds.). (2010). Spirituality, religion, and peace education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Brown, E., & Bigger, S. (Eds.). (2006). Spiritual, moral, social and cultural education: Exploring values in the curriculum (2nd ed.). London, UK: David Fulton. Brown, H. D. (2009). Imperatives, dilemmas, and conundrums in spiritual dimensions of ELT. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English

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language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 265–271). New York: Routledge. Cecero, J. J., & Prout, T. A. (2011). Measuring faculty spirituality and its relationship to teaching style. Religion & Education, 38(2), 128–140. Davies, A. (1993). Speculation and empiricism in applied linguistics. Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 14–25. Dewey, J. (1934). A common faith. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Durka, G. (2002). The teacher’s calling: A spirituality for those who teach. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Fisher, J. W. (2008). Impacting teachers’ and students’ spiritual well-being. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 29(3), 253–261. *Freire, P. (1984). Know, practice, teach the gospels. Religious Education, 79(4), 547–548. Gallagher, E. V. (2009). Spirituality in higher education? Caveat emptor. Religion & Education, 36(2), 68–87. Gatto, J. T. (1999). Education and the Western spiritual tradition. In S. Glazer (Ed.), The heart of learning: Spirituality in education (pp. 151–171). New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/ Penguin. Glazer, S. (Ed.). (1999). The heart of learning: Spirituality in education. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. Huebner, D. (2005). Education and spirituality. In H. S. Shapiro, & D. E. Purpel (Eds.), Critical social issues in American education: Democracy and meaning in a globalizing world (pp. 309–324). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kubota, R. (2009). Spiritual dimensions in language teaching: A personal reflection. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 225–234). New York: Routledge. Lindholm, J. A., & Astin, H. S. (2006). Understanding the “interior” life of faculty: How important is spirituality? Religion & Education, 33(2), 64–90. Lindholm, J. A., & Astin, H. S. (2008). Spirituality and pedagogy: Faculty’s spirituality and use of student-centered approaches to undergraduate teaching. Review of Higher Education, 31(2), 185–207. *Mayes, C. (2001). Cultivating spiritual reflectivity in teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28(2), 5–22. Milacci, F. A. (2006). Moving towards faith: An inquiry into spirituality in adult education. Christian Higher Education, 5(3), 211–233. Miller, L. (2009). Present to possibility: Spiritual awareness and deep teaching. Teachers College Record, 111(12), 2705–2712. Nash, R. J. (2002). Spirituality, ethics, religion and teaching: A professor’s journey. New York: Peter Lang. Palmer, P. (2003). Teaching with heart and soul: Reflections on spirituality in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(5), 376–385. *Palmer, P. J. (1993). To know as we are known: Education as a spiritual journey. New York: HarperSanFrancisco. Pence, N. S. (2009). Spirituality in higher education: Problem, practices, and programs: A response. Religion & Education, 36(2), 130–136. Purpel, D. E. (2005). Social justice, curriculum, and spirituality. In H. S. Shapiro, & D. E. Purpel (Eds.), Critical social issues in American education: Democracy and meaning in a globalizing world (3rd ed.) (pp. 349–365). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Purpel, D. E., & McLaurin, W. M., Jr. (2004). Reflections on the moral and spiritual crisis in education. New York: Peter Lang. Rogers, J. L., & Love, P. (2007). Graduate student constructions of spirituality in preparation programs. Journal of College Student Development, 48(6), 689–705. Schneiders, S. M. (1989). Spirituality in the academy. Theological Studies, 50(4), 676–697. Schoonmaker, F. (2009). Only those who see take off their shoes: Seeing the classroom as a spiritual space. Teachers College Record, 111(12), 2713–2731. Scott, L. (2005). Singing into the wind: Uses and abuses of “Christian” songs in our foreign language classes. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 6, 75–81. Shahjahan, R. A. (2004). Centering spirituality in the academy: Toward a transformative way of teaching and learning. Journal of Transformative Education, 2(4), 294–312. Shahjahan, R. A. (2010). Toward a spiritual praxis: The role of spirituality among faculty of color teaching for social justice. Review of Higher Education, 33(4), 473–512. Smith, D. I. (1999). Cross-curricular spiritual and moral development: Reflections on the Charis Project. Journal of Christian Education, 42(2), 27–34. Smith, D. I. (2001). The spirit of the foreign language classroom. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. Smith, D. I. (2006). Coral gardens and classroom ecology. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 7, 87–90. Smith, D. I. (2007a). Dialogue, spirituality, and voice: Verburg and Bakhtin on speaking and hearing. In D. I. Smith, & T. A. Osborn (Eds.), Spirituality, social justice, and language learning (pp. 155–170). Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Smith, D. I. (2007b). Moral agency, spirituality, and the language classroom. In D. I. Smith, & T. A. Osborn (Eds.), Spirituality, social justice, and language learning (pp. 33–50). Charlotte, NC: Information Age. *Smith, D. I. (2008). On viewing learners as spiritual beings: Implications for language educators. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 9, 34–48. Smith, D. I., & Osborn, T. A. (Eds.). (2007). Spirituality, social justice, and language learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Smith, D. I., Avila, K., De Young, S., & Uyaguari, A. (2007). Of log cabins, fallen bishops and tenacious parents: (Auto)biographical narrative and the spirituality of language learning. In D. I. Smith, J. Sullivan, & J. Shortt (Eds.), Teaching spiritually engaged reading (pp. 107–129). Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. Smith, D. I., Sullivan, J., & Shortt, J. (Eds.). (2006). Spirituality, justice and pedagogy. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. Spirituality in Higher Education (SIHE). (2006). Spirituality and the professoriate: A national study of faculty beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Higher Education Research Institute, Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles. Tisdell, E. J. (2003). Exploring spirituality and culture in adult and higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Tisdell, E. J. (2007). In the new millennium: The role of spirituality and the cultural imagination in dealing with diversity and equity in the higher education classroom. Teachers College Record, 109(3), 531–560. Woods, G. (2007). The “bigger feeling”: The importance of spiritual experience in educational leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 35(1), 135–155.

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13. Teacher Education Brookfield, S. (2006). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Elliott, D. C. (1995). Nurturing reflective Christians to teach: A valiant role for the nation’s Christian colleges and universities. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Hermann-Wilmarth, J. M. (2008). Creating dialogic spaces around controversial issues in teacher education. Teachers College Record, 110. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=15189. *Kristjánsson, C. (2010). Collaborating with a (non)collaborator: Interpersonal dynamics and constructions of identity in graduate online learning. In J. R. Park (Ed.), Interpersonal relations and social patterns in communication technologies: Discourse norms, language structures and cultural variables (pp. 305–329). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. *Mayes, C. (2001). Cultivating spiritual reflectivity in teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28(2), 5–22. Murrell, P. C. Jr., Diez, M. E., Feiman-Nemser, S., & Schussler, D. L. (Eds.). (2010). Teaching as a moral practice: Defining, developing, and assessing professional dispositions in teacher education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Palmer, P. J. (2003). Teaching with heart and soul: Reflections on spirituality in teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(5), 376–385. Robison, R. (2006). Truthfulness in English teaching: Reflections of a teacher trainer at a Christian university. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 10(3). Rogers, J. L., & Love, P. (2007). Graduate student constructions of spirituality in preparation programs. Journal of College Student Development, 48(6), 689–705. Sanger, M. N. (2008). What we need to prepare teachers for the moral nature of their work. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40, 169–185. Sanger, M. N., & Osguthorpe, R. D. (2011). Teacher education, preservice teacher beliefs, and the moral work of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(3), 569–578. *Smith, D. I. (2008b). On viewing learners as spiritual beings: Implications for language educators. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 9, 34–48. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. New York: SUNY. Welch, N. (1993). Resisting the faith: Conversion, resistance, and the training of teachers. College English, 55(4), 387–401. White, K. R. (2009). Connecting religion and teacher identity: The unexplored relationship between teachers and religion in public schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(6), 857–866.

14. Values, Ethics, and Social Justice Apple, M. W. (2004). Ideology and curriculum (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. Ball, D. L., & Wilson, S. M. (1996). Integrity in teaching: Recognizing the fusion of the moral and intellectual. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 155–192. *Baurain, B. (2007). Christian witness and respect for persons. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6(3), 201–219. Baurain, B. (2011). Morality, relationality, and listening pedagogy in language education. The International Journal of Listening, 25(3), 161–177.

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Bigelow, M. (2008). Somali adolescents’ negotiation of religious and racial bias in and out of school. Theory into Practice, 47(1), 27–34. Block, A. A. (2008). Why should I be a teacher? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 416–427. Block, A. A. (2009). Ethics and teaching: A religious perspective on revitalizing education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Brantmeier, E. J., Lin, J., & Miller, J. P. (Eds.). (2010). Spirituality, religion, and peace education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Brouwer Konyndyk, I. (2004). Teaching students with learning disabilities: A Christian imperative. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 5, 89–91. Brown, E., & Bigger, S. (Eds.). (2006). Spiritual, moral, social and cultural education: Exploring values in the curriculum (2nd ed.). London, UK: David Fulton. Bullough, R. V., Jr. (2011). Ethical and moral matters in teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(1), 21–28. Buzzelli, C. A., & Johnston, B. (2001). Authority, power, and morality in classroom discourse. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(8), 873–884. Buzzelli, C., & Johnston, B. (2002). The moral dimensions of teaching: Language, power, and culture in classroom interaction. New York: Routledge. Campbell, E. (2003). The ethical teacher. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press. Campbell, E. (2008). The ethics of teaching as a moral profession. Curriculum Inquiry, 38(1), 357–385. Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. *Canagarajah, A. S. (2009). Can we talk? Finding a platform for dialogue among valuesbased professionals in post-positivist education. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 75–86). New York: Routledge. Colenerud, G. (2006). Teacher ethics as a research problem: Syntheses achieved and new issues. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12(3), 365–385. Cooling, T. (2010b). Doing God in education. London, UK: Theos. Cutri, R. M. (2000). Exploring the spiritual moral dimensions of teachers’ classroom language policies. In J. K. Hall, & W. G. Eggington (Eds.), The sociopolitics of English language teaching (pp. 165–177). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Edge, J. (1996). Cross-cultural paradoxes in a profession of values. TESOL Quarterly, 30(1), 9–30. Edge, J. (2004). Of displacive and augmentative discourse, new enemies, and old doubts. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 717–721. Edge, J. (2009). Nonjudgmental steps on a road to understanding. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 21–33). New York: Routledge. Edge, J. (Ed.). (2006). (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire. New York: Palgrave. Ferris, D. (2007, October). Living out your life mission statement in a secular classroom. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 11(3). *Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.). New York: The Seabury Press. (Original work published 1968). *Freire, P. (1984). Know, practice, teach the gospels. Religious Education, 79(4), 547–548. Giroux, H. A., & McLaren, P. (1996). Teacher education and the politics of engagement: The case for democratic schooling. In P. Leistyna, A. Woodrum, & S. A. Sherblom

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(Eds.), Breaking free: The transformative power of critical pedagogy (pp. 301–31). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Goodburn, A. (1998). It’s a question of faith: Discourses of fundamentalism and critical pedagogy in the writing classroom. JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, 18(2), 333–353. Hafernik, J., Messerschmitt, D., & Vandrick, S. (2002). Ethical issues for ESL faculty: Social justice in practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hall, G. (2010). Exploring values in English language teaching: Teacher beliefs, reflection and practice. Teacher Trainer, 24(2), 13–15. Hansen, D. T. (1993). From role to person: The moral layeredness of classroom teaching. American Educational Research Journal, 30(4), 651–674. Hansen, D. T. (2001). Exploring the moral heart of teaching: Toward a teacher’s creed. New York: Teachers College Press. Hansen, D. T. (2007). Ethical visions of education: Philosophy in practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Jacobs, A. (2007). On charitable teaching. Journal of Education and Christian Belief, 11(2), 13–24. *Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Johnston, B., Juhász, A., Marken, J., & Ruiz, B. R. (1998). The ESL teacher as moral agent. Research in the Teaching of English, 32, 161–181. Joldersma, C. W. (2009). A spirituality of the desert for education: The call of justice beyond the individual or community. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 28, 193–208. *Li, D. (2011). Out of the ivory tower: The impact of wider social contact on the values, religious beliefs and identities of Chinese post-graduate students in the UK. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 12(2), 1–18. Mash, R. J. (2005). Foreword. In B. Zubay, & J. F. Soltis, Creating the ethical school: A book of case studies (pp. xii–xv). New York: Teachers College Press. Murrell, P. C., Jr., Diez, M. E., Feiman-Nemser, S., & Schussler, D. L. (Eds.). (2010). Teaching as a moral practice: Defining, developing, and assessing professional dispositions in teacher education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Nash, R. J. (2002). Spirituality, ethics, religion and teaching: A professor’s journey. New York: Peter Lang. Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 19(4), 317–328. Osborn, T. A. (2006). Teaching world languages for social justice: A sourcebook of principles and practices. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. *Osborn, T. A. (2007). Teaching world languages for social justice. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 8, 11–23. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Phillipson, R. (2010). Linguistic imperialism continued. London, UK: Routledge. Pike, M. (2006). From beliefs to skills: The secularization of literacy and the moral education of citizens. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 27(3), 281–289. Purgason, K. B. (2004). How to communicate values and truth in the context of teaching English as a second or foreign language. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 30, 238–243. Purpel, D. E. (2005). Social justice, curriculum, and spirituality. In H. S. Shapiro, & D. E. Purpel (Eds.), Critical social issues in American education: Democracy and meaning in a globalizing world (3rd ed.) (pp. 349–365). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Purpel, D. E., & McLaurin, W. M., Jr. (2004). Reflections on the moral and spiritual crisis in education. New York: Peter Lang. *Pyper, M. J. (2009). Student reflections on humility in the world language classroom. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 10, 28–42. Reagan, T. G., & Osborn, T. A. (2002). The foreign language educator in society: Toward a critical pedagogy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Robison, R. (2006). Truthfulness in English teaching: Reflections of a teacher trainer at a Christian university. Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus (CETC) Newsletter, 10(3). Robison, R. (2009). Truth in teaching English. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 255–264). New York: Routledge. Sanger, M. N. (2008). What we need to prepare teachers for the moral nature of their work. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40, 169–185. Sanger, M. N., & Osguthorpe, R. D. (2011). Teacher education, preservice teacher beliefs, and the moral work of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(3), 569–578. Scovel, T., Christison, M. A., Snow, D., Shaaban, K., Mendelsohn, D., & Widdowson, H. (2001, March 2). Faith, values and language teaching. Panel presentation, 35th Annual TESOL Convention, St. Louis, Missouri. Shahjahan, R. A. (2010). Toward a spiritual praxis: The role of spirituality among faculty of color teaching for social justice. Review of Higher Education, 33(4), 473–512. Smith, D. I. (1997a). Communication and integrity: Moral development and modern languages. Language Learning Journal, 15, 31–35. Smith, D. I. (1997b). Power and mutuality in modern language education: The possibility of a Christian orientation. M. Phil. F. Thesis. Toronto, Canada: Institute for Christian Studies. Smith, D. I. (1998). For profit, pleasure and power? Cultural diversity and the mixed motives of foreign language education. Pro Rege, 36(4), 1–13. Smith, D. I. (2002). Reflections on authenticity. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 3, 3–9. Smith, D. I. (2003). Tourists, guests and why we learn other languages. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 4, 3–9. Smith, D. I. (2007). Moral agency, spirituality, and the language classroom. In D. I. Smith, & T. A. Osborn (Eds.), Spirituality, social justice, and language learning (pp. 33–50). Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Smith, D. I., & Osborn, T. A. (Eds.). (2007). Spirituality, social justice, and language learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Smith, D. I., Sullivan, J., & Shortt, J. (Eds.). (2006). Spirituality, justice and pedagogy. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. *Snow, D. B. (2001). English teaching as Christian mission: An applied theology. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Snow, D. B. (2009). English teachers, language learning, and the issue of power. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 173–184). New York: Routledge. Stevick, E. (1996). Letters: Keeping the faith. TESOL Matters, 6(6), 6. Vandrick, S., Hafernik, J. J., & Messerschmitt, D. S. (1995). Ethics meets culture: Gray areas in the postsecondary ESL classroom. CATESOL Journal, 8(1), 27–40. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. New York: SUNY.

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Wilkins, J. D. (2007). Assessment that teaches: An experiment in just evaluation. Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages, 8, 67–70. Wolterstorff, N. (2004). Teaching for justice: On shaping how students are disposed to act. In C. W. Joldersma, & G. G. Stronks (Eds.), Education for shalom: Essays on Christian higher education (pp. 135–154). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. *Wolterstorff, N. (2006). Teaching justly for justice. Journal of Education & Christian Belief, 10(2), 23–37. *Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, S. (Eds.). (2009). Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas. New York: Routledge. Xiao, X., & Chen, G.-M. (2009). Communication competence and moral competence: A Confucian perspective. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 4(1), 61–74.

Note 1. Special thanks to our colleagues who contributed to this project: Brad Baurain, Michael Chamberlain, Carolyn Kristjánsson, Michael Lessard-Clouston, Marilyn Lewis, Rhonda McEwen, Michael Pasquale, Cheri Pierson, Linda Samek, Don Snow, Melissa Smith, Michelle Stabler-Havener, and Rich Slimbach. We also wish to thank Azusa Pacific University MA/TESOL students from the 2011 Fall II TESL 560 course for their help with editing.

16 CONCLUSION Faith and SLA: An Emerging Area of Inquiry Zoltán Dörnyei UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM (UK)

Mary Shepard Wong AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY (USA)

Carolyn Kristjánsson TRINITY WESTERN UNIVERSITY (CANADA)

The primary motivation for bringing together the current volume was the desire to go beyond ideological and belief-based claims concerning the interaction of religion and language and to generate firm insights into the actual role that faith plays in various aspects of the language learning and teaching experience. We were interested in soliciting studies that met international research standards and that produced findings with sufficient internal and external validity. The final collection of papers in this volume is the outcome of careful selection and several rounds of editing, and as a result, the quality of the chapters is compatible with that of similar anthologies in other applied linguistic areas. Given that, as David Smith describes in Chapter 10, research on faith and language teaching and learning is still in a “nascent state,” we hope that the research base and the rich content displayed by the contributions will offer a significant boost to future investigations in the field. Because this volume contains three review chapters—one after each main section—that discuss the specific papers in detail, we would like to use this concluding chapter to reflect on some general issues that have arisen from the material in this book. The fundamental question to consider is whether we can talk about “faith and language learning and teaching” as a distinct research domain. While the term “faith” is used widely in everyday parlance and most people would have no problem understanding the meaning of the word, it is not

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entirely straightforward to define what aspects of faith are to be examined in relation to the language learning process. The notion of “integrating faith and education” is admittedly rather vague and has been understood to imply diverse educational practices (see Smith’s analysis in Chapter 10) and therefore it is instructive to observe how the various authors have interpreted faith as a mediating factor in their studies. As already mentioned in the introduction, the richest vein in this respect has been the examination of how faith beliefs influence Christian teachers’ identity formation and, subsequently, their educational practices. Incorporating faith-based beliefs in a research paradigm that is centered around the self-construction of language practitioners lends itself to exploring how teachers’ faith identity informs (or does not inform) their practice. One analytical framework discussed in this volume is Wenger’s social theory of identity construction (see Wong, Chapter 2 and Ding, Chapter 12). The concept of teachers traversing through and negotiating various (and sometime conflicting) Communities of Practice was found to be useful in identifying and describing the teachers’ emerging sense of professional identity. As Smith observes in this volume (pp. 154–164) and develops elsewhere (2011), Wenger’s theory can help get at a “richer” picture, one that is more integrated or holistic, that helps us take into account institutional context, individual beliefs, and pedagogy, when exploring teachers’ practices. Smith notes: Practices are not so much actions unilaterally directed by beliefs as complexes of belief and action in which forms of participation, reification, imagination, and repertoire interact (Wenger, 1998); as such they both complicate the picture and offer a rich context within which to consider the role of faith in pedagogy (Smith & Smith, 2011). (Smith, Chapter 10, p. 162) In future research, Wenger’s theory could be applied to explore the relevance of faith in teachers’ practices in multiple ways and contexts, such as at different stages in their professional journeys (novice to experienced), in different types of institutions (such as institutions that encourage faith to those who seek to minimize its expression) and in different cultural contexts, just to name a few. While the relevant studies in this book provide valuable insights into the complex relationship between professional and faith-based identities from the perspective of teachers, future research could potentially be enhanced by also including student voices in the research designs, following the proverbial principle that the proof of the (educational) pudding is in the eating (by students). In other words, future studies could investigate how students’ appraise the way their teachers put their religious beliefs into practice. An interesting question in this respect is whether students would identify the special contribution of committed Christian teachers merely as indications of professional values or whether they could also sense the outworking of the teachers’ spiritual identity in their language classes

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and what impact this might have on their learning. Related to this is the question of implications for learner agency (Duff, 2012; Kristjánsson, 2013; van Lier, 2008), and possibilities for investigating how spiritual agency on the part of teachers and learners might come to bear on conditions, behaviors, and perceptions of significance that to date have been understood in terms of social agency (for example, Lantolf & Thorne, 2006, pp. 238–240). An intriguing aspect of the data concerning the formation of teachers’ professional Christian identity is the salient developmental aspect, that is, the complex, dynamic, and interconnected relationship between the teachers’ faithspecific and education-specific selves. It becomes very clear in some of the chapters that the interaction is not only monodirectional—that is, the teacher’s Christian beliefs shape and enhance their professional awareness and practice—but bidirectional, with the Christian self also maturing in the process as it is nurtured and deepened by the teachers’ growing perceptions of themselves as language educators (see Maggie Kubanyiova’s analysis in Chapter 6). This dynamic conceptualization is in full accordance with the current intellectual shift towards dynamic systems perspectives in applied linguistics (for example, Dörnyei, 2009; Larsen-Freeman & Cameron, 2008). The challenge for researchers posed by the adoption of this perspective is, according to Kubanyiova, to develop systematic research programs that enable them to construct multi-layered and textured portraits of “who Christian language educators are, where they come from, and what they are striving to accomplish in their interactions with their students, teaching partners, colleagues, and their students’ parents” (Chapter 6, p. 89). A complex systems perspective is also relevant to studies that aim to examine language learning within specifically Christian learning situations such as Christian higher education institutes and church-based teaching programs. A key tenet in contemporary linguistics is that language has a fundamentally social function, but while most scholars would agree that the individual’s experience in the social environment affects every aspect of human functioning, including language acquisition and use, how this actually happens is a hotbed of disagreement among social scientists. In psychology, this dispute has often been referred to as the “person situation debate,” and a Focus Issue of The Modern Language Journal (Lafford, 2007) has articulated well the current tension between cognitive and social agendas in applied linguistics (for good summaries of the cognitive-social debate, see LarsenFreeman, 2007; Zuengler & Miller, 2006). With respect to Christian language education, the three chapters that specifically target learning situational issues (Chapters 7–9) make it clear that the nature of the institutional context, the approaches adopted to the integration of faith and learning, and the methods for putting faith beliefs into practice are in constant interaction with each other, allowing for a variety of permutations and outcome options. This diversity is not surprising given that we also find significant variation in the kind of Christian self-images that believers form on the basis of the perception of their own faith, and therefore the various ways by which people

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might try to approximate these self-images is bound to represent a wide scope. All this implies that future research on “Christian language education” will need to go beyond the use of holistic metaphors and employ, instead, precise definitions of specific aspects of what makes the learning environments in question distinctively “Christian.” In fact, the need for well-defined metaphors also applies to the study of teacher identities: for example, as Kubanyiova points out, seemingly well-known notions such as being “called to teach” will need to be unpacked more fully because they may have a rather different meaning for teachers with diverse past histories (both professional and Christian), working in a range of educational, sociocultural, and geographical contexts. The dynamic systems perspective is reflected most explicitly in the final set of chapters (Chapters 11–13) that use motivational concepts to understand how Christianity has affected the research participants’ language-related behavior. All these studies utilize Dörnyei’s (2005) L2 Motivational Self System as a starting point, as it specifically focuses on the interaction of multiple identity dimensions, but at the same time all three chapters attempt to elaborate on this motivational construct in light of the data. As Ema Ushioda points out in Chapter 14, a common feature of the three chapters is that the qualitative descriptions of the participants highlight the interactions among various elements in their self systems and their evolving interactions with factors in the surrounding social environment. This, as she goes on to explain, underlines the inherently social nature of language motivation as a key determiner of the integrated nature of the participants’ language learning, personal, professional, and religious-vocational motivational self-systems. The theme of interaction and integration is, in fact, the focal issue of the concluding study in the book by Letty Chan (Chapter 13), and her analysis of four committed Christian language educators demonstrates the dynamic interplay of various aspects of faith-based and professional beliefs in shaping who we are and what we do (or do not do) in our pedagogical practice. A final point we have already mentioned in the introduction concerns what is not included in the book. There is, for example, a general absence of linking faith-based beliefs with concrete teaching approaches and learning mechanisms. We are aware of the danger that lies in reducing the rich complexity of identity, behavior and belonging encompassed by praxis to isolated actions and behavior in the classroom (see Smith, Chapter 10). However, while it is important to recognize this complexity and expand our investigations and theoretical understandings of the relationship between faith and the learning and teaching of language, this emphasis must not overshadow our need to also understand the specific related conditions and characteristics that converge in the outworking of effective faith-informed classroom interaction. One potentially fruitful research agenda in this area might outline optimal combinations of educational factors that are conducive to fully utilizing the benefits of faith beliefs. Are there certain approaches, materials, and learning formats that would be particularly fitting for Christian language learners in given situations? Are there any teaching strategies

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and techniques that would be particularly suitable for bringing out the best of Christian educators in different contexts? These are some of the very practical questions that we need to answer in a systematic manner and based on situated evidences of best practice if we wish to make the spirit of this book relevant to a wide range of practitioners. Also missing in this volume is a discussion of other faith beliefs on language education. As noted by Wong and Canagarajah (2009), this dialogue and research would be enriched if we were “to extend [it] to other faith traditions to move beyond the focus on Christianity and to explore how other ideologies, faiths, and religions influence teaching and learning, and the identities of teachers and students” (p. 291). What can be learned from a study of the impact of Buddhist teacher identity on teaching and learning, or of an Islamic identity or of any number of other faith traditions? How is the impact similar and how is it different? What is the effect when students are of the same faith background as the teacher, and what is the impact when faith backgrounds are different? What is the impact when faith is of great importance to the students, for example, but not the teacher, or vice versa? In sum, there is a lot of food for thought in the chapters of this anthology. They present genuine practitioner voices and insights, ambitious attempts to extend a rigorous research methodology on the study of the interaction of faith and second language acquisition, promising embryonic theories to explain the uniqueness of the “Christian” data, and a wide range of relevant literature which outlines a substantial corpus that is much larger than most of us would have thought—all in all, we believe that this is a good start! In light of the findings presented here there is no need for any further justification that faith can impact both the teaching and the learning of languages in a decisive manner; thus, the domain of “faith and SLA” is a valid research strand and for some people a highly intriguing one at that. We join Suresh Canagarajah in hoping that the conversations generated by this book will “go beyond the faith-based community and inspire the whole profession to systematically study the way in which faith and the values of diverse traditions can shape learning” (Foreword, p. xxiii).

References Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Duff, P. (2012). Identity, agency, and second language acquisition. In S. M. Gass, & A. Mackey (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 410–426). London, UK: Routledge. Kristjánsson, C. (2013). Inside, between and beyond: Agency and identity in language learning. In J. Arnold, & T. Murphey (Eds.), Meaningful action: Earl Stevick’s influence on language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Lafford, B. A. (Ed.). (2007). Second language acquisition reconceptualized? The impact of Firth and Wagner (1997) [Focus issue]. Modern Language Journal, 91. Lantolf, J., & Thorne, S. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2007). Reflecting on the cognitive-social debate in second language acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 91, 773–787. Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Smith, D. I., & Smith, J. K. A. (2011). Teaching and Christian practices: Reshaping faith and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. van Lier, L. (2008). Agency in the classroom. In J. Lantolf, & M. Poehner (Eds.), Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages (pp. 163–186). London, UK: Equinox. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Wong, M. S., & Canagarajah, A. S. (2009). Christian and critical language educators in dialogue: Imagining possibilities. In M. S. Wong, & A. S. Canagarajah (Eds.), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue: Pedagogical and ethical dilemmas (pp. 290–291). New York: Routledge. Zuengler, J., & Miller, E. R. (2006). Cognitive and sociocultural perspectives: Two parallel SLA worlds? TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 35–58.

AUTHOR INDEX

Addison, H. 48 Aikman, D. 190, 196 Ali, H. M. B. M. 133 Anderson, B. 199 Arias-Galacia, F. 65–66, 77 Astin, A. W. 67, 68, 70, 80 Astin, H. S. 67, 68, 70, 80 Auerbach, E. 136–137, 147 Badley, K. 116, 157 Bailey, K. M. 34–35, 146 Bakar, K. A. 174 Barcelos, A. M. F. 87 Bass, D. C. 160 Baurain, B. 4, 12, 50, 54, 136, 149, 154, 159, 160, 161, 162 Bays, D. 189, 190, 196 Beaty, M. 156–157 Beers, J. 116–117, 129, 132 Beers, S. 116–117, 129, 132 Beers, S. T. 116 Bennett, M. J. 66 Berg, B. L. 70 Bernard, R. 34 Bierma, N. L. K. 131 Bloomfield, L. 47 Borg, S. 49, 86 Bourdieu, P. 160 Bowen, A. J. 101–103 Boyd, D. 116 Braskamp, D. C. 66–67, 78 Braskamp, L. A. 66–67, 78

Brutt-Griffler, J. 99, 106, 108, 112 Burke, S. E. 138 Burtchaell, J. T. 156 Buzzelli, C. 12 Byler, M. 28, 50 Cameron, L. 210, 269 Canagarajah, S. 1, 4–5, 12, 25, 28, 99, 112, 137, 173, 209, 235, 271 Cao, N. 190, 196 Carter, K. 136–137 Carver, C. S. 208, 210 Carvill, B. 3, 12, 50, 54, 56, 185 Chamot, A. U. 171 Chan, D. Y. C. 39 Chang, R. 101, 102, 105, 109, 110 Chang, Y. C. 32 Changnon, G. 65 Chen, H. I. 104–105, 108 Chen, H. Z. 32 Chen, S-A. 227 Chen, Y. Q. 101 Chiang, M. H. 32 Christoph, J. N. 148 Clement, R. 201 Collins, J. C. 206, 207 Cosgrove, M. 116 Coupland, N. 49, 173 Coutand-Marin, S. 3, 12, 28, 31, 50, 137 Craft, C. M. 209 Creese, A. 85

274

Author Index

Creswell, J. W. 139, 140, 150 Crookes, G. 86–87 Cross, R. 90 Crystal, D. 173 Csíkszentmihályi, M. 180 Curtis, A. 35 Dale, T. 34 de Bot, K. 209 Deardorff, D. K. 65, 67 Deci, E. 174 Dessart, J. 116 Dickerson, L. J. 138 Ding, A. 85 Dockery, D. S. 116 Donaldson, G. A. Jr. 31 Dörnyei, Z. 2, 80, 118, 171, 173–174, 184, 186, 197, 199, 200, 208–209, 210, 221, 223–227, 269, 270 Dow, D. F. 138 Downey, D. E. D. 116 Duff, P. 12, 139, 140, 269 Dykstra, C. R. 160 Early, M. 91 Eaton, P. W. 116 Eby, J. W. 138, 142 Edge, J. 3, 4, 12, 28, 31, 50, 85, 137 Fantini, A. E. 65–67, 77 Farrell, T. S. C. 85 Feng, J. 112 Fenn, W. 100–102, 110 Ferguson, N. 106 Feryok, A. 87 Fetterman, D. M. 192 Fix, M. 136 Foubert, J. D. 209 Galasinski, D. 49 Gambill, B. 116 Gardner, R. C. 227 Gass, S. M. 118 Geertz, C. 90 Gelatt, J. 136 Gilmore, A. 172 Glanzer, P. L. 157 Godbey, G. C. 65 Golombek, P. R. 90 Gong, F. 101–102, 105, 109, 110 Grandin, J. M. 66 Green, M. F. 65 Guay, D. 65–66, 77

Gulliver, T. 145 Gumperz, J. 49 Hammer, M. R. 66 Harper, D. 207 Harris, R. A. 115–116, 129, 130 Hasker, W. 116 Haskett, K. 130 Hawke, A. G. 48 Hawkins, M. 91 Hatch, J. A. 139, 140 He, Q. X. 101 He, Y. H. 32 Hedderich, N. 66 Heie, H. 116, 129, 130 Hestenes, R. 68 Higgins, E. T. 208 Hiver, P. V. 87 Ho, F. S. 32 Hoenigswald, H. 47 Holmes, A. E. 116, 117, 129 Hong, M. Y. 209 Horwitz, E. K. 49 Hovland, K. 65, 78 Howatt, A. P. R. 3 Hoyle, R. H. 208 Hsu, J. L. 34–37 Huang, W. H. 32 Huang, Y. C. 32 Hunter, B. 65, 67 Hunter, W. 65, 67 Hunter, W. D. 65, 67, 70 Jacobsen, D. G. 116, 157 Jacobsen, R. H. 116, 157 James, L. 208 Jaworski, A. 49 Jenkinson, W. 68 Johnson, K. A. 12, 25, 50, 90 Johnston, B. 2, 4, 12, 25, 28, 50, 86, 88, 91, 113, 137–138, 139 Joseph, J. E. 172, 174 Kachi, R. 31 Kalaja, P. 49, 87 Kalir, B. 189, 190, 196, 197 Kane, T. D. 207 Kanno, Y. 85, 90 Kitayama, S. 200 Kristjánsson, C. 2, 4, 137, 269 Kroeger, K. R. 65–66 Kubanyiova, M. 85, 87 Kubota, R. 12

Author Index

Lafford, B. A. 269 Lamb, M. 195 Lambert, W. E. 227 Lane, J. J. 209 Lantolf, J. 269 Larsen-Freeman, D. 209, 210, 269 Lave, J. 13 Lee, C. H. 31 Lepp-Kaethler, E. 171, 186, 224, 225, 226, 227 Lessard-Clouston, M. 115, 131, 154, 156–159, 266 Leung, K. 189 Liang, J. 12, 28, 31, 209 Lin, A. 12 Lin, M. H. 32 Lindholm, J. A. 67, 68, 70, 80, 209 Litfin, D. 116 Loulidi, R. 224 Lowie, W. 209 Lune, H. 70 Lutz, J. 107 Lyon, L. 156, 157 McGrath, A. 173 McHugh, M. 136 MacIntyre, A. C. 160 McKay, S. L. 112, 139 Mackey, A. 118 McLaren, P. 158, 160 Maehr, M. L. 172, 173 Makoni, S. 31, 50, 99, 106 Mann, S. 228 Markus, H. R. 173, 200, 206, 208, 227 Masuda, A. D. 207 Mathews-Aydinli, J. 136, 137, 141, 145 Merrill, K. C. 66, 67, 78 Miller, D. L. 140 Miller, E. R. 269 Miller, W. R. 172 Miller-Perrin, C. 68, 69 Minor, K. A. 207 Miyazato, K. 31, 39, 40 Mooney, A. 173–174 Moore, K. 138, 142 Morgan, B. 12, 25–26, 50, 136–137, 145, 235 Mueller, T. 136–137 Mulhauser, P. 99 Musil, C. M. 67, 78 Nelson, R. R. 157 Niedzielski, N. 47–49

275

Noels, K. 201, 200 Norton, B. 91, 185 Nunan, D. 35 Nurius, P. 173, 200, 206, 208, 227 Olson, C. L. 65–66 O’Malley, J. M. 171 Osborn, T. 12, 56–57 O’Sullivan, H. 68 Oyserman, D. 208 Paige, R. M. 68 Palmer, P. J. 12, 137 Pasquale, M. D. 48, 86, 93, 131 Pavlenko, A. 12 Pelletier, L. G. 201 Pennycook, A. 3, 4, 12, 28, 31, 50, 99, 106, 137 Perry, F. L., Jr. 118 Phillipson, R. 3–4, 28, 100 Poe, H. L. 116 Porras, J. I. 206–207 Porter, S. E. 116 Poythress, V. S. 131 Preston, D. R. 47, 48, 49 Purgason, K. B. 116 Rafaai, Z. A. M. 174 Ramanathan, V. 25 Rice, S. 31 Ricento, T. 12 Riemer, F. 192, 193 Robison, R. 131 Rosebrough, T. R. 116, 129 Ryan, M. 174 Sanderson, D. R. 31 Sarvis, G. W. 105, 107, 111 Scheier, M. F. 208, 210 Schenkein, J. 52 Schiffrin, D. 49 Schlusberg, P. 136, 137 Scovel, T. 50 Sharp, M. 48 She, X. Y. 101 Sherrill, M. R. 208 Shimizu, K. 195 Shoptaugh, C. F. 207 Sie, C. H. 105 Smith, D. I. 3–6, 12, 50, 54, 56–57, 68–69, 79, 116, 123, 130, 154, 157, 162, 185, 235, 267–268, 270 Smith, J. K. A. 69, 116, 157, 161

276

Author Index

Snow, D. 3–4, 12, 25, 31, 40 50, 54, 112, 154–155, 159 Spitzberg, B. 65 Squire, B. 34, 35 Stahl, R. L. 138 Stake, R. E. 139, 150 Stevick, E. 1, 3–4, 12, 25 Stuart, C. 85, 90 Su, C. C. 32 Sulaiman, N. F. 174 Tamney, J. B. 190, 196 Tennant, A. 139 Tenuk-Nishide, L. 195 Thomas, S. 173 Thompson, D. 68, 69 Thornbury, G. A. 116 Thorne, S. 269 Tiessen, G. 186–187 Tisdell, E. J. 137–138 Tsai, L. B. 32 Tsui, A. B. M. 12 Tung, T. K. 32 Uchida, Y. 12 Ushioda, E. 5, 171, 200, 223, 226, 227, 228, 270 Vallerand, R. J. 201 van der Helm, R. 207 van Lier, L. 89, 269 Vande Berg, M. 68 Vandrick, S. 3, 4, 12, 25, 28 VanZanten, S. 115, 129 Varghese, M. 4, 12, 15, 25, 28, 50–51, 88, 91, 113, 137, 138

Verspoor, M. 209 Volf, M. 160 Wang, D. C. 101, 102, 105, 109, 110 Wang, I. T. 102, 109 Wang, T. C. 109 Wang-McGrath, S. 86 Wenger, E. 11, 13, 16, 22, 80, 160, 162, 199, 268 White, C. 85 White, G. P. 65 Wiseman, R. 66 Wolfe, D. L. 116, 129, 130, 157 Wolterstorff, N. 157 Wong, M. S. 1–2, 4–6, 12, 27–28, 31, 44, 50, 54, 60, 68, 86–87, 91, 137, 173, 209, 235, 268, 271 Woods, D. 49, 61 Wu, G. C. 39 Wu, S. F. 86 Wu, Y. 136–137 Wuthnow, R. 161–163 Xu, E. Y. H. 112 Yang, F. 189, 190, 191, 196–197 Yashima, T. 195 Yeh, W. H. 100, 105, 109, 110 Zetzsche, J. O. 186 Zhang, S. 101 Zhang, X. W. 101 Zuengler, J. 269 Zumwalt, N. 138

SUBJECT INDEX

agency 269 assumptions xxi–xxiii; 14, 26, 44 attractor 210, 215, 217, 219, 220 beliefs: and language acquisition 177–184, 192–203; and motivation 55, 171–186, 203, 225–226; and practice 20, 23, 40–41, 43–44, 49, 87–88, 142–150, 159–162, 269; religious 32–33, 86–87, 138, 155, 157, 190; and research xxi–xxiii, 228, 268, 270, 271; teacher 47–62 bias 13–14, 91 Bible 50, 142, 161, 172, 175, 179, 180, 185, 192, 194, 212, 213, 216 Bible study 190, 191, 192, 194, 198–199, 226 Bible translation 175, 177, 183, 184 Bible translator see Bible translation Buddhist 3, 76, 271 calling/call (of God) 11, 22, 54, 69, 89, 177–179, 270 Catholic 142, 190, 212, 224 caucus 4 CCCU 115–118 China 11–27, 99–113, 189–204 Christian beliefs see beliefs; religious Christian education 116, 154, 223, 236 Christian English teachers see teachers; Christian

Christian language educators 69, 86–87, 90–91 see also teachers; Christian Christian Language Professional (CLP) 206–221 Christianity i, xix, 56, 57, 68, 76, 155, 159, 174, 189, 191, 193, 194, 195, 197, 201, 202, 203, 209, 223, 226, 236, 237, 238 church 2, 76, 162, 189–196, 217, 236 church-run ESOL 136–150 colonialism see imperialism community 68, 77, 162, 185; Christian 160, 162, 192; church 189, 194, 202, 226; faith xxiii, 160, 174, 186, 226; imagined 177, 181, 199; international 173; L2 201; learning 53; local 101, 148; surrogate 161; target 38; teaching 5; TESOL 3, 4, 88 community of practice 11–26, 86, 88, 161, 268 community-based ESOL 137, 145, 147, 150 conflict 22, 27, 31, 42, 43, 45, 60, 75, 91, 214 constellations of practice see community of practice cosmopolitanism 189, 190, 196, 202, 203 curriculum 26, 56–58, 78, 147, 185–186 divine call see calling/call (of God); see also vision

278

Subject Index

Dynamic System Theory (DST) 206, 209, 225, 269, 270 empowering/empowerment xxii, 112, 197, 202, 203 evangelism 148, 149, 237 faith: and learning integration 115–133, 156–159, 235; and practice 3, 12, 22–24, 47, 50, 59–61, 69, 85, 129, 130, 148, 154, 156–158, 268; and research see beliefs; and research faith beliefs see beliefs; religious folk linguistics 47–49 future self/future L2 self 172, 173, 178–179, 206, 208, 227 global competence 64–67, 79–80 globalization 100, 106, 108, 112, 203 higher education xx, 64, 68, 79, 104, 110, 115, 269 higher power 138, 225 holidays 23, 41–44, 57–58 hospitality 50, 53–54 humanism 3 ideal self/ideal L2 self 173, 200, 201, 206, 208, 212, 214–220 identity 5, 11–27, 41–44, 50, 58–61, 86–88, 91, 160, 172, 174, 185, 195, 213–214 ideology 26, 49, 88, 190, 207 imperialism 3, 25, 99–100, 106, 108, 111–112 Indonesia 115–134 integrity 52–53, 56–57, 69 intercultural competence see global competence international posture 195–196 Jewish 3 L2 Learning Experience 173, 184, 200, 208, 210 L2 Motivational Self System 80, 171, 173, 184, 186, 200, 201, 208, 210, 224, 227, 270 language identity 173, 174 love: doctrine of God’s 50, 66, 144; for other people and cultures 53, 75, 77; for students 45, 54, 59, 144–145, 216; students’ for teachers 38

methodological rigor xxii–xxiii; 90–91, 271 missionary 3, 23, 175, 177, 215, 217, 226 missionary institutions/education 99–113 missionary work 88, 107, 155, 156 modernity 112, 190, 191, 196, 197, 202 Muslim 3, 24, 174, 215–216 Myanmar 64–82 NEST/NNEST 31–45 non-Christian 14, 25, 53, 52–59, 60–61, nonprofit (organization) 15, 23, 24 ought-to self/ought-to L2 self 173, 200, 201, 208, 213, 214, 216, 219, 226 philosophy 44, 86, 160, 190, 223 possible self/possible L2 self 173, 200, 206, 208, 227 post-positivist xxi–xxii power 15, 24–26, 27, 31–45, 69, 88–89, 112 practice(s) xxiii, 156, 160–162; classroom 86–87, 185; formation through 13; institutional 159; pedagogical xxii, 270; professional 2; reflective 85; religious 13, 48, 173; research(er) xxii, 91; teaching 50, 87, 155, 209; thick description of 90, 91 praxis 49, 61, 270 prayer 75, 77, 122, 123, 157, 158, 182 professionalism 40, 52–53 religion 172–174 respect 43–44, 50, 54, 67, 69, 75, 143, 218 responsibility: of higher education 64–65; sense of 24, 54, 79, 196, 199, 200 sacred text 171–186 Scripture 2, 124, 162, 176, 198–199 service 15, 77, 138, 145–146, 177, 209, 213, 218 SIL 3, 187 sociocultural context 226 spiritual call see calling/call (of God); see also vision spiritual formation 68–71, 74–77, 80 spirituality 4, 50, 67–68, 79, 138–139, 172 study abroad 64–84 Taiwan 31–45 teachers: Christian 2, 11, 15, 23, 25, 31, 44, 50, 52–59, 61; faith-based

Subject Index 279

xxii–xxiii; pre-service 47, 61; veteran 35, 47 team teaching 31–45 tension xxii, 20, 40, 58, 60, 87 TESOL convention 2, 3 theo-linguistics 173 values xxiii vision 206–207

vocation 60, 69, 141, 177, 179, 206, 225; see also calling/call (of God) volunteers 45, 137, 138, 143, 145, 149, 150 witness 3, 4, 22, 31, 44–45, 52–53, 56, 148, 150 worldview 54, 55, 57–58, 60, 69, 115, 236