Chinese characters: their origin, etymology, history, classification and signification, a thorough study from chinese documents [2 ed.] 9780486213217, 0486213218

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Chinese characters: their origin, etymology, history, classification and signification, a thorough study from chinese documents [2 ed.]
 9780486213217, 0486213218

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u

i

I|

—— —

=r ==3

ie

DOVER LANGUAGE BOOKS AND RECORDS

oO.

Co Be HE BS & 4. — It is the 7th radical in K’ang-hsi.

In composition,

Firstly, —

2.

—, two strokes, and some of its derivatives.

=>

f

2.

U

Chi. Activity, working up of faculties,

struggle for

life. A J. man who acts, who struggles, with his mouth

and

his 5

hand,

between

earth, to gain his point; RAM



heaven

OM

[JJ and

I, @ R,

Box Kit Wo Moo AE K WA, FO a (E a FE AQ WH Ah, — Phonetic series 325.

2 E

n

Kén‘ v2)

or Kéng?. Idea of passage, of crossing, of

duration, between two terms. Itrepresents a ]}- passageboat, that crosses —

from one bank to the other: AK

“KA. GE. RRS #. See ff L. 66.—In (L. 76 H) is often used F

1e2 =

a

OAL

the modern

ER

writing, &

for Jy. Il is a mistake.

Note

the compound Héng. Constancy, perseverance. The heart 4 (the will) crossing from the begioning till the end, as a J} boat does from — onehbank to the other; the moral trip

continued till one reaches the harbour.

Rather a well

found simile. Fw, MtvA SH. PF —. dt U1 ft he ft wb.

= 2 LE

Etymological Lessons. G

2. 3.

29

Thirdly, = is an old form of [| shang}, high; and==reversed, an old

form of “Ff hsia‘, low. See L.5.—This remark is tobe

many applications

of it. See, for instance,

remembered;

there will be

AR L.3D, JE L. 29H, etc... f is

sometimes reduced to a single stroke, as in ## L. 43 N, BH L. 50 O, ete.

LESSON

3.

About =, three strokes, and its derivatives.

A

—S>

aaa

GH FF FE. The ancient characters suggest a different interpretation. They represent the crucible of

the Taoist alchimists, with

» cinnabario it De-

compose and recompose cinnabar, was their chief prac-

tice. See L 115 D. — Phonetic Series 83. Compare & (L.14 T.)—Two old characters express the & (L.30D) transformation

of mortal

men

into immortal

genii,

by means of J} alchemy and fh divination (L. 56 A.) N.B. —In the modern wriling, many characters, for instance » Zé & 3, are

surmounted with a dot, that replaces elements which are very different in the an-

cient writing. It is the same with the dot introduced inside some of the characters, for example ZY, sJv .% The writing-brush is the cause of it. — Note by the way that 2» the 8th radical, is but a corraption of A, the 11th radical.

Etymological

Lessons. 5. 6.

LESSON

31

5.

We saw (L. 4, 9 ond 2°) — used as meaning an horizontal line. From this acception are derived the following characters; Shang}.

A

Up, upon,

superior,

to mount.

A sign

|

placed above the fundamental line —, signifying above the level; AK —, AAI Br RB S| th LE 48 3. The ancient form of this character was =

;

J 5

(L. 2G), the smaller top line being

usep

as a sign

relatively to the longer bottom line. In the more recent forms, the sign became more and more intricate. — In the modern wri-

ting, [ kept up its ancient form _L, at the top of many

aE

characters, for example, %. It is to be distinguished from —, the fictitious 8th radical in K’ang-hsi.

(See L 4D),

Hsia‘. Below, to descend, inferior. A line [ traced below

B

|

the fundamental

level; AL



line —, signifying below the

& Pod B. — The ancient form

of this character was =

P

(L. 2 G), the shorler bottom

line being used as a sign relatively to the longer top line.

LESSON

6.

About two primitives, [ and J

Firstly, | kun’. Kun*. A vertical stroke, a perpendicular; - F 5 tho #3 BH, — It forms the 2d radical in K’ang-hsi.

A

It is found in many characters, in which it has generally a symbolic signification.

It represents the trunk, in

Mut. Tree. See L. 119 A. E J

It represents a man Standing, in

Shén!. To gird up (with both hands). See L. 50 C. It represents an arow fixed in a target, in

Chung. Middle, centre. L. 109 A.

32

Etymological

Lessons.

6. 7.

It represents a spindle running through two objects, in

ee

B

Ch’uan+. To string together. See L 153 B.

5|

S|

Yin", to draw a bow; See L. 87 A. Ete.

It represents a bow-string, in

Secondly,

J chteh?.

Baio

Chiieh?. A crooked stroke, a hook; 9 46% JE.— It is the

fictitious

6th

radical

in K’ang-hsi.

The

Shuo-wén gives no derivatives from this primitive. However, in the modern characters, J occurs very frequently, The reason of the

fact is that, with the writing-brush, it is easier totrace 4. J replaced

ayy

J than

[| Consequently:

| in many characters, for example:

Ic

Hsiao’. See L. 18 H.

2. J is arbitrarily written, as an abbreviation of different figures, for example, for

the longer line of 3 in +t

N. B. —

C

>

Ts’un’. See L. 45 B.

J inoverted gives

)

i:

Chiieh?. A hook, $j a,AA AE J. that is found in

PR

bk

Yiieh+. A halberd with a hook. See L 71 L.

LESSON About the primitive

i

D

7.

J

7?

P’ieh’. An oblique line from righ to left; 4 FR 4, (AR, General idea of action, of motion. — It is the fictitious 4th radical in K’ang-hsi. Nearly all the mo-

dern J are abbreviations for other signs, while true J are hardly recogaized ia the For example:

the

modern writing.

a i 6

Etymological

Lessons.

7. 8.

33

Shéng!. The tenth part of a bushel. Composed of =} bushel, and of) which figures that a tenth part of it is taken out. See L. 98 B. Mei?”.

Eye-brow;

J

represents

the curve

orbita; the lines on the top represent

of the

the hairs;

is the eye. — Phonetic series 463.

J inverted gives

»

B™N

Fu?, an oblique line from left to right. 72 FR 4),5A Kt J . #8 &, This stroke that seldom occurs in the ancient writing, is now frequently used as an abbreviation.

J and \ combined, give

CR

a

14. To cut down with scissors, to mow. See L. 39 B.

LESSON

8.

About the primitive J~.

x a

RR

I‘. To draw, to drag; {R, 5] & JE, Forms several compounds, for ex.

14. A crooked arrow, a dart, kept by a thread, to kill birds. In the modern writing, the hook was changed into a point; and J that represents the thread or the action of drawing the arrow back, became —. It forms the 56th radical in K’ang-hsi.

I’. To draw. See L. 50 F. — Phonetic series 243.

The same in ff ti#, L. 135G. — in BE pa®, L. 134.A. — In & hsi', L. 92B. — ln 9¥ chéng!, L. 49 D, whe-

re J° became J in the modern writing. J’ inverted gives

me wk R JSye

Iy. To drag;

KR Fo J”. 48 &, Is found in

Yii?. To drag, to trail. See L. 50 G.

34

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

9. 10.

9.

About the primitives Z, i’ and 7, ya?. I’. Germination; it represents the germ

Gs

¢

to get out;

i 7K 3 Gh i

that strives

WH 4. fA FE. Hence,

general notion of movement, of effort. Cyclical charac-

ter. To be distinguished from B; FR 7, F, F 3% & Bil, — Itis the 5th radical. Among its derivatives, note @L L. 90 B, fH L. 129 A, and

Shih’. To let Z, slip from the Ea

%

hand, to lose. See

L, 48 B. — Phonetic series 155.

Ya?.

Swallow,

3 4.

It represents

flying of this bird, #§ 2 JE.To

the jerking

be distinguished

from A; fA A Z, =F Hil. — Phonetic series 4. Logical aggregates, FU, FL, L. 94 A, B, etc. The modern writing is

BL »

R

Ya?

Swallow, the jerking bird. See L. 138.

Note: The scribes often write , as an abbreviation of intricate compounds. In that case, it is neither i! nor ya’, but a conventional sign. For instance, Ml for

fig» etc.

LESSON

40.

About the primitive |_ and its two important compounds, [ and |A, with their series; then about the derivatives —f ja Se», a group apart.

re

Yin?. Curve; to cover, to conceal; gh a. RAR tk

First series: |_ combined with — (L. 1), gives i

B

yes

Hsi®. Chest, trunk, box; BLE 4 — 2d 3%, Therefore — represents the cover, _ the chest or the action of containing. —itis the 23th radical. — Note the next derivatives:

(AR

Etymological Lessons.

40.

35

Lou‘. Shut up, in a confined space; BL, KW. @ &. As Win aL chest. it forms the compound fA, mean, ugly; perhaps [@& cave-dwelling taineers (L. 86 A). —

a part of L_, to make

As the engravers

room

for

f§ moun-

often

take off [§, this character

might seem to be derived from fj (L. 44 A), which it is not.

oe a Note.

gregate means, to gather and to hide in a chest. Phonetic series 639.

The derivatives of Hsi, the 23th radical, are to be distinguished from those

of Fang, the 22th the

Ni‘. To hide, to abscond; KA L, KB #, & HB — # (L. 46G) meaning to collect, to gather, the ag-

modern

radical. In the ancient

writing, they are mingled

writing, the two series were distinct; in together. See L. 51 A, and the Lexicon by

order of Radicals.

Second

E

series: __ combined with A (L. 15), gives

Wang’. Primitive meaning, to hide; R AB L, @ 3. Now A meaning to enter, [A means to enter into a hiding place. Derived meanings, to die, to perish, to vanish. — Phonetic series 35.

Chat. KA, the line —

KB =, #8 OS, It is A, plus —. But

representing an obstacle, asin Ty (L. 1,1),

the meaning of cha is, to try to hide one’s self and to be hindered. Hence the modern meanings chuan-chu, suddenly, unexpectedly. — Phonetic series 102. See L.

37 G.

Kai‘. To beg, a beggar; AK A, BIA. & &

A

wandering J, man, who [A seeks a refuge in a foreign

country, begging alms for his livelihood; |A 3b 2 Am EB TF fit 9h ab See 77 L. 54 A. In the old form, J, and |A, were

in juxtaposition;

vered |. Note the fanciful modern this character. See L. 73 A.

then J, co-

contractions of

— It formsauimportant compound f%.

36

Etymological

ote H

ae

Sang'.

Lessons.

10

BSE. KH lA. & HK Etymologically,

to weep over the JA, dead; oe

funerals.

&

This compound.

is a typical picture of the Chinese thing which it me-

ans; to howl with several [J mouths, as —K dogs do, over a [A dead person. Meanings chuan-chu, to die, to destroy. Note the contraction of the lower part of the modern character.

Wut. KR PA KAA I. @& J

A

a

1) J

A multitude fH

(L 24H) of % men, acting upon a $f forest, felling the trees, clearing of wood a tract of land. In the old

ae

4

forin J, [A stated that the wood had vanished. Hence

chuan-chu the general

abstract

notions of vanishing,

defect, want, negation.

— Phonetic series 718.

Note. The study of this second series, EF G H1J, proofs with evidence that it is impossible to understand the characters, if one attends only to the modern forms.

Third series:

|_ combined with ++ ten (L. 24), and j eye (L. 158), gives

the interesting following compounds :

Chih?. Perfectly right, not curved in the least;

K

a

ie.

L.. B+.

AR

AR OB, & Bf. The eyes having looked

at something, did not discover any deviation. —

Pho-

netic series 335. — Note the right way of writing this character. The modern engravers cut |_, so thatone

may believe it is composed of two strokes J. The scribes often change itintoa single horizontal line Ff, elec.

ze

i

Lowe

Chén'. Perfectly true; AA BY, AA TC, & HH. So-

mething having been exposed on a pedestal, Hi iten eyes could not find any fault in it... The — of the pedestal was mingled with the lower part of __. — Perfect genuineness of nature being the characteristic of the Taoist I J\ Genii, the scope at which the Taoist transformation

% (L. 30 D) of mao aims, the Taoists replaced -F by

top of chén (contraction). KR & AA BAA

K

at the

IC. Bo The calligraphic remarks

made about Hf, are to be made here also. — Phonetic series 509.

Etymological

Lessons.

Te? BK EB

40. 14.

37

it, & ¥. The & rectitude of the

i heart. In modern writing, the A was bent down to gain room (L. 158 A), the L_ is often reduced to a small horizontal stroke. — It forms the compound

f& te2, moral 4 conduct (L. 638 A) directed by a righteous heart, righteousness, virtue. — Another compound is

Ting!

REM

[email protected]@ BE

B. Rectification

of the heart i heart of a - disciple (L. 81 0) oran auditor, by his Ef ear (L. 146 A). To hear, to listen, to be attentive, to conform to instruction, = ting is also phonetic. —It

forms

to Obey...

the compound

T’ing'. From J~ shelter and 3% to hear. An open hall, used for meetings, teaching, official

proclama-

tions (L. 59 J).

Note:

Ut

Hsiaot has nothing in common See LL. 12 N, and 160 A.

Lesson

about FL, AL, Ay, three series

perfectly

with

this series.

11.

distinct in the ancient writing, but

mingled together in the modern writing.

First series: JU hsin+. Before studying this primitive, one must explain

“Hesf

Fei'. To fly. A primitive. lt represents a crane (very common

in China) seen

from

behind.

head and the neck bent up, as when flying. Below,

the

tail.

On

both

Upwards,

the

the cranes

are

sides,

the

wings

fluttering. The small strokes represent the quills

se-

parated when the bird is flying. BA Uw ie 2 JE, — itis the 183th radical in K’ang-hsi. That

Af

being granted, one may now explain

Hsiin*. To hover. A primitive. Compare with A. The crane is hovering; its wings do not flutter. The feathers

being close together, are not visible; $e F¥ 4 BA FR

ip WA compound

Hd BH, — Phonetic series 20, Note the

38

Etymological

Lessons.

44.

Shih|. Formerly, it meant the mosquito,

the hove-

ring FU insect, forming uh swarms, that bites men; a

J. E& 41. Now this character means a louse. Note its abbreviated form #\ that it commonly

called 42 fal

pané féng!, half Ja wind. However Jal (L. 2! B) has no-

thing in common with Jl. See also Fi hsiit, below G.

Second series: % Chi‘. [s derived trom the primitive

oaSie ot, BanSl

Chi‘. To catch. This primitive is found only in one compound,

with

¥ the hand (L. 48), which gives

Chi*. To do, to hold. It represents the hand doing or keeping something; (A, A Pr $F HL... Alforms important compounds in which

it is nearly

always

wrongly shaped. The scribes write FU, (as above B), or

FL (as below J), or AL (L. 21 ), etc. See 3% shu’, L.

75 E; dh i4, L. 79 K; $b chib?, L. 102 G; AR lo, L. 74 B; etc.

K’ung?. To do a work JT (L. 82 A), by pressing or knocking; fm =. 3A FA, TL BB, Notice the compounds 2% k’ung’, pulsations of the j{\ heart, fear; and $% chu, to build a clay-wall by battering mud betwen 7X boards and AA mals. — Phonetic series 226, under its modern form.

Hsii4. The end of the night, before

dawn; the

for oblations and sacrifices; BR WAAR.

time

Boot

dit ¥ at,, Lit. To present one’s self before dawn, wheu

it is still 47 night, while FU holding one’s offering tor sacrifice. —In the modern

form, FL mutilated covers

Ay Compare with jx féng! denived from JL fan?,L. 21 B.

Inverted,

H

FU forms

R

Ais H. Chi2. To seize, to hold; # WARK This ancient form is no longer nsed and was replaced

by [email protected]

Etymological

Lessons.

44. 42.

39

Both combined form

Tout. To seize each other, to fight; BR FL TE RA :

|

¥

45 0

XE, —It is the 191th radical in K’ang-hsi, not

lo be confounded with P¥ the 169th radical.

Third series: , wan?. J

KR,

(\

Wan2?. A pill, anything round. Often used for the preceding FA. It is J, chai* inverted (L. 59 E). — The derivatives of #{, (phonetic series 34) are to be distinguished from those of JY, (L. 24; phonetic series 19). It is sometimes difficult to make the distinction.

LESSON

12.

This lesson contains three series, { , ({, (%, and an appendix.

First series:

¢ chian?.

| i

{

) )

B

ma

Shui*. Water, small river; (@ JB, The four

strokes

added to the rivulet represent the waves of the water. C C

Cc Re

Chiian®. Small water course, rivulet; 7 ay HE 4, {% FEA primitive. Forms some important compounds, as:

Ns

See L. 125. —

It is the

85th radical

Yu!'. Primitive meaning, to sounda

in K’ang-hsi.

ford.

A man

{ crossing ¢ water, holding withthe 3 handa fy es

stick ( & L. 43 D), sounding the river with a stick; BAB (KR [email protected] HAN ancient form is simply composed of 7K water and -& to sound. —

(\\ Chuan-chu the place where one is going. pronoun. — Phonetic series 318, in which

Often used the radical

fs f— 72 (& [email protected], etc. In these compounds.

chia-chieh as a relative is placed under x

4{ may be easily taken for

radical; in reality 4 is but a part of the phonetic.

The small stroke

the

at the

right of { is what remains of ¢ in the modern writing. — Note that ff has no relation with this character; itis an arbitrary abbreviation of fj pi*, pei*t (L. 54 G).

Etymological Lessons.

40

12.

Second series: {{ kuai‘. It is ¢ doubled.

a sages

Kuai*. A river, a stream larger than {. 9K XK ##€ off

FE, This character, now obsolete, was replaced

by #@. — Forms some compounds, for instance

a

Lin®. A torrent (L. 126 D).

AR

Yii2. A boat (L. 14F).

Note that engravers substitute for {{ the character

}J , easier to be engraved.

But jf being also an abbreviation for JJ, the 48th radical, this double emplov of the same sign brings confusion.

Third series: (% ch’uan'. It is ¢ repeated thrice. Ch’uan’. A river, a big stream formed by the junc-

E

Uy

\}

tion of several others; { {{ > K @BK

te

Note the differences in the modern writing. — Itis the

nj

47th radical.

Phonetic

series 18. Note the following

compounds:

ane

a

Lieh*. Bubbles; AA Ji|,47 BE, The phonetic is not AJ hsi* (the 36th

radical), as the modern

character

might suggest; it is A tai® ( the 78th radical) contracted. It forms the important compound 4 lieh* (L.

52 D).

G

WY

Yung!. Moats.

a

the writing ta-chuan, instead of & i’, city (L. 74 C),

WK ALB. GF he HR A Ae Io

there was 3h representing circumvallations (L. 90 G);

B

AR“, By (RE. — It forms the compound

© 2? ae

ir Oo

eS

S

a

Yung’. Wagtail; the 4€ bird that likes the sides of moats $%. This character is the important phonetic

769, under its modern

contracted

form

3E

(4 = RR E FE). » takes the place of ({, and J of §&,. See L, 74 C, and the series $$ hsiang!, L. 26 M.

41

Etymological Lessons. 42.

«RR

Ching!. The underground water courses, so important in the Chinese geomancy Jal 7K féng-shui. 7K DK

BBE

— Fo @ Be — th bh,EB, the

currents of water (4 that flow under — the surface of the ground (L. 4.1). The phonetic is not C kung! (L. 82), as the modern character might induce one to

it is -E ting? (L. 8f D). The primitive

believe,

meaning was perhaps -£ to examine the underground

veins. — Phonetic series 262.

aw.

Tsai’. Actual meaning chuan-chu, calamity, misfor-

tune; 2 jh. Primitive sense, BA (\, — #2 2, HB , A river (( barred — (L. 1, 3), which causes the calamity of inundation. The character now used to mean calamity, is the compound ff, that represents indifferently

either a flood (4

water), ora fire (XK

fire). Note moreover the next compound:

WwW cp

Bo

Tzii'. Grounds f¥ uncultivated, exposed to 4% floods; 7 #t

48, One writes now #¥. — The character from

must

be

carefully distinguished the phonetic series

{§ tzi! (L. 150) that forms

406. The

engravers

ot Rt

#§ tzi! two

have

no connection

whatever. — The

often cut {(, instead of 44, because it is

easier; hence the confusion of series.

Huang!.

Devastation, [A ravage caused by the Ji]

rivers; JK J

Fu

4.See L 10 E. — It forms. wy Huang’. Wild, barren, drought,

ay

a consequence of inundations for + the plants. Phonetic series 536.

KARL At

K'an*. Incorruptible uprightness,

of principles; Mi) TA A

Kr.

inflexible

KH

rigidity

A @ BR,

« & SF & H. Fidelity ({n, an ancient

form of {%) to one’s principles,

constant as the JI]

current of a river. See L. 25 H.

wR

Chou’

Main lands inhabitable (iles or continents),

surrounded by waters. three

The lands are

points in the modern

writing,

represented by and by three

rounds in the old writing. This character was composed of two (({ superposed. 7K

+ Wy FE BWA

BI.

, — Phonetic series 187.

Ag

Etymological

Lessons.

12. 43.

Appendix: In all the following characters, (4 is not ch’uan, but it represents the hair. Nevertheless they are nearly all classified under the 47th radical.

EiFS ss

M

3

See L. 40 B.

Tzti®. Different writing of $, achild born with hair.

she

See L. 94 A.

T’u?. The last inverted. Primitive sense, partus cephalicus, the hairy head coming first. See L. 94 F. Shou?. A hairy head. See L. 160 A.

wk Ptfo

Hsiao’. The last inverted. Head of a criminal hung up, as a lesson; the hair hangs down. See LL. 160 A,

119K.

OESe e0

Ch’ao?. A bird’s nest upon a tree, the bird covering

Wye

FR HA

it; B Ze 7K LE AR Ao tH JE, The £9 at the

top. of ZX a tree is the nest (a primitive, and not both hands (L. 50, A); {4 represents the feathers ofthe bird brooding

on

the nest.

Note

that this character

has

nothing in common with # kuo* (L. 110 F), though the engravers always cut itin that way. — Phonetic series 594.

LESSON

13.

About the primitive

as Eo

Ch'ui?. An object suspended,

a pendant; with its

multiples AA A MM.

First series: A doubled AA. It is found in

fe

A @

4h

Etymological

48.

Lessons.

Third series: A repeated four times AA. Note the arbitrary deformation

of

the modern forms in this series

rm

Ch'ui?. A bough loaded with leaves and

drooping

flowers; Bi 7K He HE P E.R HB. This character, now obsolete, was superseded by the next compound, its synonym and homophone

& ® $

Ch’ui?. To hang, to be suspended from. Itis the last character combined with -& t’u®, the earth (L. 81), the leaves hanging down towards the earth. — Phonetic series 485.

Hua’. Flower; H KE BBRR GTS SH ff: 7€, The vernal expansion (L. 58 E) of 4 leaves and flowers. In the secoud ancient character, #4 is a radical redundance

(L. 78 B). —

Phonetic series

687. — The modern character #, means the term of

He, (EE "RR 3

4+ vegetal ff, evolution, the flower (L. 30 D).

Ch’a'. Divergency, error, etc. [tis a logical aggregate. See L. 46 C, where

this character

was

fully explai-

ned. — Phouetic series 506.

Sul. Pongee, %& silk obtained from the cocoons of wild silkworms, collected on the 44% boughs of mulberries. Chuan-chu,

natural,

simple.



Phonetic series

568.

Kuail. [t represents the torso, back view. The verti-

cal line is the spine, A represents the museles on each side, — represents the waist; #& & 4.4 iy

Hoh kK | REAM

AE.

#8

ee Se Bt. — It forms

Ne s

Chi?, Spine, back ( L. 65).

Btymological

Lessons.

43. 44.

45

So far, all is right. But there wat another yn The scribes

Kuai'. Odd, singular, irregular. See L. 403 C.

confounded

these two

kuai',

so well

defined

and distinct in the

ancient writing, and they formed thesingle modern character 4, which resembles

neither of them. a

Now

one

may

read in K’ang-hsi,

under the arbitrary radical J , #€ kuai, spine, odd, irregular.

Who is to blame, if the students not forewarned,

find Chinese

characters

absurd

and inexplicable?

LESSON

14.

About the primitive A\ and its more important derivatives.

Three series, A, &. & A

/\

Chi?. Notion of union, of assemblage, of a junction of different elements, represented by three lines. Three

is used to mean many; = ¢

4. [email protected] A primitive,

which is now commonly superseded by the character

Ax

A

4% chi? (L. 119 G). It forms

First series;

Ho?. Union, agreement, harmony; A

B

>

=

[email protected]=many (three)

OH

Bf to

B G. Etymologically,

[J] mouths (L. 72) speaking

together;

good understanding. — Phonetic series 198. — the two following compounds:

W y

KA,

Note

Ta’. Vetch, pea, vegetables py,

ms

whose boughs are joined,

o

eolangled.

get

Chuan-chu, to join,

to adapt, to answer. In the last x

sense,

ee

ihis

character

is now

written #, which is unauthorised. — Phonetic series 570.

Yen*. To join ¢ the hands F9 to cover something; to cover.

a

&

See L. 47 L — Phonetic series 496.

Etymogical

Lessons.

44.

She’. A shed, a booth; KT] (R SEB A Y BK +, Joining of [J walls in beaten earth and of W thatch (LL. 74 and78). In its modern this character seems to be derived

135th

radical),

under

which

from

it was

form,

7 (L. 102 C,

classified by between

K’ang-hsi. But there is no relation whatever

both. It forms the compound #% shé3, to part with, to reject, and the logical aggregate

A BED ja. Composition: BR to distinguish (L. 18); KR &

o

a contracted,

=

#R

we

#

Viz. [. me;

me

[J being

replaced

by

7\. The Chinese

custom requires that anyone entering a @ house, P\ should

make

known

his presence

and_

distinguish

himself from any other person by crying out:

It is

I, so and so, who comes for such and such a purpose.»..

A man entering a house and keeping siience, is liable to suspicion.

— phonetic complex

ae

Phonetic

series 319.

Cha’. Tea; Bk Hh, ME The

A

modern scribes mutilated the ancient form.—Phonetic series 507.

82)

>>>

)

=

Ke KZ.

Boi

AY

we M

(contracted,

BS. FH. To order A, toadd

L. 40 D). The ancient character

as Gg)

the

Yay

Hui‘. To gather, a meeting; @ 3

MB

It forms

was simpler; 7

WW,

B R. To assemble

ZR

€> a multitude represented by 2 three. — Phonetic series 736.

Chiien'.

Meeting,

to gather,

from

together;

JAY A

several

4

4.

men,

From from

A

J

several mouths, It is a well known fact that a Chinese crowd cannot keep silent. —

Phonetic series 726.

Yw2. A small boat, a primitive barge; J} B RS abe

BAB KAA St.& Be Junction ofa few planks, forming a boat fff, to go up the river ¢{ (L. 12 D), Note J for fF (L. 66). Nolte also that the engravers

often cut JJ instead of ¢{, which wrongfully reminds of the 18th radical (L. 52), — Phonetic series 501.

Etymological Lessons.

G

sy

Za~

2)

HK

44.

47

Liin®. To gather A documents ff] (L. 156), to com-

pare, to meditate, to develop them; BB a, BR A. AK WA, & 3. — Phonetic series 380.

H

a—a~

Yaot.

bUu

preceding, is not derived from it. BA am, BR A, BR

This

character,

which

is much

FAA Hh.Ao 4 eH

like

the

BS n=

FL, th, A flute, a pandean pipe. Assemblage A, of several bamboos, the [] holes of which are disposed in

a row, and that gives sounds together; ff # J BA #0 Now, accord, harmony,

in general. —

fy It is

the 214th radical of characters relating to pipes and similar instraments. — Phonetic series 835.

—m.

Note the two following characters: 4> ling+, decree; 4 ming}, order. There is a difference between them.

and its compound by the addition of a [J mouth, a

. &

Ay BRA, BR

FH:to fix A upon a written

order the seal ff (L. 55 B) which makes it a writ of execution. @p, FA OAK 4), %; an order 4 gi-

“—S>

ven [J orally. ZE BE % AE

Ue

philosophical language, 47 means the decree by which

B BH.

— In the

qe

heaven calls men to life and determines their fate. Two ancient characters express this meaning well: {J

mouth of heaven dictating to a man his destiny between — heaven and earth (L. 2D)... A combining of the destiny ofa JL man. tr BH. K Z AP thee.

Ke 2c Kae EAS

O. —

Phonetic series 135.

J

Note. In the modern writing,

AY

may

he easily

confounded

with

A

{ith radical,L 15), A (12th radical, L 18), A (9th cadical, L. 25) placed onthe top of a compoind

A> fy %

under

K’aig-hsi arbitrarily classified

J, etc. But the horizontal

which generally remains, is the Lest that manifests

gy under

line of A, some the mistake.

indicative of a derivative from A. — See 4 L. 15 B.

A,

4

vestige of

Its presence

is

Etymological

48

Lessons.

44.

Second series; &. This character is put apart from on account of its many and important sub- derivatives.

Chin‘. The actual moment;

presence;

HUBRAK

the derivatives

of A,

notion of actuality, of

7.4.7.6

X

R '¥. The composition is tautologic; A, union, 7 contact. Note that 7 is often written \". For the old forms of % chi?, see L. 19 E — Phonetic series 17. It forms

(> @

Han?, hén?. To bold in the mouth ( to have actually

A> inthe M mouth); Meaning

KR A

KB FS. & HH B,

chuan-chu, to contain, to shut up. —

netic series 272. —

It is distinct from

Pho-

WO yin’, to

mutter, which is composed of the same elements.

Bw A

®

T’ant. To covet;

BBR SBR BLS dh Mo

The feeling moved by the presence 4 of a & precious

Object. [ts phonetic compounds are unimportant.

Nien. To remember, to think again of; BF B We Kis. KS. IK HE, To make & actually present to the jf heart, to

the mind,

a fact of the past.

Derived meanings, to speak of, to recite, to read; these

actions reviving, making actual, the idea

of a thing

passed or absent. — Phonetic series 385.

Yin*. & wine (L. 41 G),& new. It forms

RE ;

)

Yin°. To drink; to water. This character is now written §K,a wrongly chosen compound, for it means 4 to wish for #@ food. There were formerly three chara-

cters e.

°

Yin’, To have water 7K in one’s presence 4; to drink.

Yin°. To have food ¢& at one’s disposal 4; to eat.

Yin®. To 5 wish for # wine; to drink. The first character, which was the right one, became obsolete. An element was taken from eachof the last

two. Thus was made the irregular character

gf,

Etymological

Lessons.

14.

49

Yin‘. Cloudy weather; # 7H # KB aK FS. Beth UX B F-Lit. There are actually 4 clouds

dd) cle)

a” Y

z (L 93 A). In the dualist system, & yin denotes the inferior principle (obscurity), by opposition to $4 yang the superior principle (light). The compounds

f& and $8 are now used. -& yin’, the shady Northern watershed

[§ of a valley; B yang®, the sunny South

watershed

[§. See L. 86 A.

Ch’én". The sharp pike of a Uf mountain (L. 80). It

is a phonetic complex; KA il], 4

HE, —

Phonetic

series 253.

Ch’in?. A phonetic complex. See L. 23 E. Ch’in?. A phonetic complex. See L. 83 B. Note the contraction.

Chin!. Metal. According to the Chinese geology, the

metals are born from the earth. 4 4 # +-,Hence the

etymology: MI 4A 4 HE. In the hosom

REEL

+ FB.

of the earth ck, two grains or

nuggets of gold; 4 is phonetic. The bottom stroke of 4 is combined with the top of k, and is sometimes inverted, as stated above

K. This interpretation was made by Li-ssi. — The old character was composed of four nuggets, of horizontal lines denoting the stratifi-

cation of the metalliferous layer, and lastly of a cover which meant that the whole was conceiled under

the earth. Evidentlya primitive. 7 W (@ JE. — It is the 167th radical ofa group of characters describing

metals and their uses.

50

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

45.

15.

About tbe primitive A, and its derivatives. Ju‘. To enter, to put in, to penetrate into; A ah.

A ”.

A

4%. WW AR OAR AL tt JB, The character the penetration of roots into the earth;

line representing the plant, the two

represents the

vertical

descending lines

denoting the roots. It is the reverse of 44 ch’u!, to go out

(L.

78 E), that

represents

a plant

growing

upwards; #& Hi & Bf} A2,— lt is the 11th radical.

Ch'tian?. Complete, entire, perfect. The etymologists

we i

give two different interpretations of this character:

—_—

TL U.. 82) is ordered A, finished, complete, perfect. According to this etymology, 4 is derived from A (L. 14) and not from A. The bottomstroke of A. is combined together with the top stroke of [..

1.The old one: BK A.M a

1. & %H The

work

2. The modern one: KA EMF Bt HA BA = jade (L. 83) spotless, perfect: A. would be an abbreviation

of AA yen® (L. 117

B), used as a

phonetic. This unlikely supposition is of Li-ssu. Phonetic series 192, under its present form.

C

WW)

Nei. To enter, interior, into; AA TJBA A. & Be 8 Sb ti A 4h, See [J chiung’, the outside, L. 34

A

A. —

i)

Bl

Phonetic series 74. It forms

O+. Na‘. To speak in a whisper, as it were Fy into one’s [J] mouth & &% HH UMOLKM [email protected] Note the modern form contracted. Taken for Py (the compound for the simple, p. 16, 1), it forms the two

be

following characters: :

Yu‘. To penetrate %

é

into fy, to

pierce with a sharp instrument (L. 95 C). — Phonetic series 720,

B

Hsi!. Swallow; 3 4. MA 4€,

ES BRB.Y 1 HE ALA bird £ that builds its nest within

the dwellings (a thing common

in China); Yl (and not {lJ, as the modern cha-

racter might induce to believe) represents the head (L. 78 A), says the Glose. It may be so; it seems

probable

however

that Hi represents the grass with which

the swallow stuffs its nest. — Phonetic series 840. 38 is a wrong abbreviation of this character (see L, 87 C).

Etymological The following character

Lessons.

is derived from

combination

and fusion of # and compound, belongs to & (L. 73 C).

45. 16.

51

A, and not from

fy. The

mouth

fa. It is formed

[] at the

bottom

by

of the

Shang'. To give advice, to consult, to deliberate; KH D

4

a

a

BM

In the old character

which ae

A. To express =, one’s fy interior feelings.

there

were two

days added,

proves that the Rg 3 deliberations of old,

were not shorter than the present

probably took

place during

time

ones;

they

the night, between

days, just as now; & HABA

two

— 8.—

In the sense of trade, RR is chia-chieh for its compound with A (L. 161, cowry, the money of the an-

2

cients), trade being made with P¥ talk and A money. The Glose says so.

E In the modern writing, A became 2 on the top of (3 wang? (L. 10 E), jay lin’ (L. 76 B); and - in Ay érh3 (L. 18 0). — Two A. are a part of the

character jj liang?‘( L. 35 H 1). LESSON

46.

About the primitive %. A

Y

on

AK.

Nf)

I’. Clothes, a cover, cloak. The summary outlines of clothing. On the top, the upper garments

and sleeves,

_E 4 H 4h. At the bottom, the robes waving and » K

draggling,

“P «@ KK ak

radical ofa large

group

ZS JE, —

lt is the 145th

of characters

relating

to

garments. The phonetic complexes are not important;

note #£ i', to rely on, to trust to. Note the modern contracted form, and compare it with that of FR 113th radical (L. 3 D).

Note. In composition, 4 has three positions. — 4. One the left side of the cha-

racter. It is then contracted under the form 7%. — 2. on the top or at the bottom, it is then unchanged. — 3. Cut into two halves, 2

the phonelic being introduced

on the top, AX at the bottom,

between the two. These characlers are not to be

confounded with those belonging to the 8th radical ».; & is the test; any time one sees AX at the bottom of a compound, dical, not of »

8th radical. —

then it is a derivative of J 145th

4. Note also that in some

ra-

characters, as a conse-

quence of the fusion with an element placed on the top, the upper part of ZX is Quite altered in the modern forms, The lower part has also been altered in the character 2 (L. 16 M).

46,

Lessons.

Etymological

52

AZ Fil,HyBE » Ba OEfa 2

» Be Be TL Ze « Kis

Note the following derivatives; ~

B

AJ)

A

AX)

Ch’ut. Begioning; ti &. KI

KR. & B.

A JJ knife and # garments; for, says the Glose, the cutting is the first thing required to make clothes.

Zt KEK & $G AL. This is quite true! oa NO

roy AC

Nai. To bewail, to lament; KO, MK. & HR, Howling [J of the mourners dress.

clad in mourning #

Shuai. So!. Straw-clothes against rain; ! iG KK te, BR KR. FF (MB, (See L. 116). This character is now

written 33 —

chia-chieh

for

The modern meaning,

is,

cachexy

from

decay, is

mataria,

slow

exhaustion caused by the marsh-fever, the ¥~ disease of the rainy € countries. — Phonetic series 563, under its modern form.

Chung}!. Primitive sense, the under-garments: clothes, * inside (L. 109); A Ae, Mp,

#€

RK

4H, Then, by extension, the inside of man, the feelings of his heart, fidelity.

pe

Kun. Official 24 robe FE of the Emperor, adorned with dragons; BA AM KK,@& B- See AL. 18 C. Note

the

modern

form.



Its phonetic

complexes

are not important, v. g. 7 kun}, to bubble. The two following characters

are to be carefully

distinguished:

AL S AS

Li?. The inside, the lining of clothes, FE Wy ah, AM #, HH. Then, in general, interior, inside. FE is a synonym. See 8 L. 149 D.

Ko®. To tie up. i BoB ZR BE. Note that 3 lo? naked, composed of the same elemeats, is neither

an homophone nor a synonyme. See 5R L. 120.F.

Etymological

on

Lessons.

16.

53

Hsiang). To take off one’s ZX,robe HEA HE EF > #, in order to work in common, to help the others. See (L. 72 H) the radical nang?, intricate and unrecognisable in the modern writing. — Phonetic series 831.

fey

Aw

Bit)

phonetic tai *. — Phonetie series 820.

Ae

Piao’. The outside of the clothes (compare above G). The first garments J were beasts’skins worn with the € hair outside; 4 HK UE BH. Sh

Huai’. To tie the clothes tight round the

hide in one’s bosom; FE 4

Eco HH. KH

KK

body; to

See (L. 100 C) the

MK EE. FH, See E

L. 100. — Phonetic series 389.

Yuan? Trailing robe; BKHAK cr

BSE 8.

About Hi, contracted and combined with 24, see L.

91 E. — Phonetic series 587. It forms the phonetie complex

Huan. Timid looks; B # @wA See

HB, KB.

fj L. 158. — Phonetic series 734, under its modern

coutracted form.

Tsu’. Soldier, satellite; BR A

=
dwellings,

KK Fp to partake. Note that the heritage equally divided among the

male

offspring,

Chinese families

many

members,

counting

being

and

the

poverty

follows the partition.

Kung!. Common. Division and distribution J\ of private f, goods (L.89 A); KR ABA L.@ 3. FP

HAUMA.

BZ.

By extension,

justice,

implying a treatment equal for all; while g§ ( L. 71Q) means justice in the sense of a kind, decent treatment. — Phonetic series 68. It forms the phonetic complexes

Etymological Lessons.

48.

Sung}. The tir-tribe; HR A,

—w

avs BRK. B WB, — Phonetic

AN

b

4

series 394.

Weng. FE wb. KRAAB BE, Hairs or feathers in the neck.

2 J4\

The modern sir, isa mei chosen

to denote

existed before;

meaning,

the characters appellations

SB HE HFT

old man,

Z¥ and 7

of politeness

were which

A Mm HS

FS.

Phonetic series 584. See ZF kun?, L. 16 F, ete.

Pan‘. To divide

in two

by

the

a halt; @ eh J} BoM ABR Etywnologically,

in all

middle,

7\ lo divide an 4: ox

its length,

as

the

butchers

4.

equally;

in two

do,

Be

parts,

before

cutting up. — Phonetic series 144. K’ang-hsi

the

wrongly

classified this character under the radical -F.

Yen?, The ravines, on the mouutains’ ridges; separation 7\ and flowing [J of waters; AR OLB A\, & HK. — Phonetic series 169. Note the phonetic

complex ff ch’uan?, a boat. Distinguish fe pan', L. 66 B. See $B L. 29 D. Ku.

A deep hollow, a gorge,

— Bxk— %K K.H

fp from

a torrent; [I] 2

AF.— Ibis the 150th

radical. Phonetic series 284. Distinguish 4 ka? from # chiiao4, L. 17 H. The two are identic in the modern writing. — It forms

Jung’, yung?. To contain, to

xe

A

shut Ups Ae af. From + tocover, and 4

.. Chuan-chu, lo endure, demeanour,

a mask,

hollow, a recipient;

@&

to bear, to compose one’s

a face

made

to

“»

disguise

the 4 depths of the heart. — Phonetic series 542.

io

A

Hsin‘. A ravine, a torrent, See L. 118 D.

Etymological Lessons.

FAN ik

©

MA

Chieh*.

48.

Boundaries,

59

limits;

the

limes

that

Pi?. Certainly,

7\

EA

A SBN separale A men. BNA oF \ HE FP UB. — Phonetic series 42.

necessarily. An arrow ~& that divides

J\, that solves a doubt, a dilemma; BA RAK,

@ BX

KAP FP Ah, It seems to have primitively

been a kind of interjection poiuting outa strict order;

Ee BZ

jal. There are different

meanings derived

from it. K’ang-bsi wrongly classified this character under the radical j%. — Phonetic series 148. It forms the phonetic complex « Mi‘. A quiet —

yA

Mk

retreat (L. 36),

close, still, silent; # a. — Phonetic series 383. It forms

mye

bss Second

j

Mii. A grotto, secret, mysterious

A (L. 80); th xn aH ab, Ete.

series: Jy

Hoaly JI

Hsiao*. Small, trifling, mean; H 2 Fh YW, This idea is represented by the 7\ partition ofan object already sinall by its nature; KR

|i

|

Zp 2

J. — It is the 42th radical, It forms

Se =

fay

ay 3E

Chien!.

becomes

Point, sharp. A ~& big object (L. 60) that

dJy small on its top. Itisa @

SF vulgar

modern character.

Hsiao’. To be like one’s father, not degenerate; ? A 4H (4. Small Jy flesh gy, offspring, like the big flesh,

one’s

parent...

7X #f pu-hsiao,

to

be

degenerate; F Ul # %. RAK AB — Phonetic

series 277. In the modern

writing,

some

derivatives of s=y (L. 65 D) v.g. iB. seem to be derived

from J; the scribes are the cause of this mistake, as of so many others.

So3. A small jj, object, not larger than the Fi (L.

461) cowries used as money by the ancients. AR ay, KA, & &. Bw KH Z B. Io that sense, this character is now written #§. — Phonetic series 566.

Etymological

>

L

@ TC



Bs

ay Wo

Lessons

48.

Hsi'. Chink, fissure »J, aJv very small, that leaves passage for a slender & light (L. 88); A @, E F i.e ERK ES HK — Hi CE. Note how the top of & disappeared, by its fusion with the upper Jv. This character is now replaced by the compound

Bg hsi‘, chink, fissure.

Mut. Striped; 9 4.

KARMA E.R

This character is derived from the preceding; the #Jy on the top was suppressed, and replaced by % (L. 62 A) stripes, added at the bottom. It forms # mu‘, the waving

of grain;

chuan-chu, grace, amenity.

Shao’. Little, few, wanting; FA 4 a, It comes from J to diminish that which is already yJy small;

Ko)KR) 88)

2S

SE.

See L. 7 A shéng!. — Phonetic series 80 It forms

» \ y

Np

Sha. Sediment, gravel or sand

(\

deposed by water. KK rp R A

BoB KBR YD. EK DP. +> Fi, That which

appears, when

7K

water a

decreases. — Phonetic series 302. It forms

«

lp

7

Miaos. To contract Jy the eyelids, or to use one eye { only, in order to examine attentively

a subtile object.

ft H

extension, subtle, confused

HH

#8 ie wh. @ —

Be

By

Phonetic series 465.

Is derived from Jy, and not from a. A

Chiao?.

sparrow. fF Aoh B BA

oh AA HE. EE, Lit.

the small )Jy bird #€ that lives from the superfiuity of men; and, by extension, any small

bird.

Note that

the J that reminds of Jy, belongs to #€. See an analogous case in # (+> f€ L. 34 F). — = forms the following compound, in which dy passed through a still more singular alteration in the modern writing.

»

WN

re

rE

Chieh?. To cut off; BF a AA RoE

RE, See 71 F. Not to he

confounded aX

For

ey hsing', see L. 158 D.

with

the

derivatives of }, L. 96 B.

Etym ological

Lessons.

48. 49.

61

Appendix: The following characters have nothing in common

with JJ. nor

with JJ. See faj L. 36 E, ffL. 35 F, @ L 92 A, HK L.12% A, HL. 1b C, HF

L. 3D, J L. 59C, ¥€ L. 126 E, 2H Re A L. 442 G, L, ete. The following is derived from \ and not from JJ,

0

Erh®. A final used

$N

) (

there

as a full stop, equivalent

to a

now, that is done; ft z tn UL i @ At

the end ofa phrase, the voice is A drawn in, and the

AN

| reserve of breathing is 7\ sent forth; KR A

Wie ENE ain

ARS

|

HD A, It is now used

(chia-chieh for #f L. 35 L) as a personal

‘pp

thou, you. The modern compound

{;’

pronoun, $f is used for the

same purpose.

LESSON

19.

About the two series Jj and &.

First series; 75. A s

Nai®. A primitive. A difficulty of breathing; any difficulty in general; (@. = Z Wy M. Itisintended to represent the air curling to make its way through

7

Je

the wind-pipe. A sigh, a cry. This character, or rather the sound that is written

connective

particle, 2 #

4

2

jaj, as say

7%, is in style an important the Chinese etymologists; the

conjunctions being not meanimg characters, but hearer understand, how that which one is to say, is one has just said — Phonetic series 7. In reality, Among the derivatives ascribed to it, 1 Those in nai

exclamations to make the connected with that which J4 does are

not

form

a series.

arbitrary abbreviations

of more intricate forms, e. g. Wy for hat nai3, milk. 2 Those in éng and ing belong

to the phonetic (2 (later on 324) jéng', for which 7% was written from immemorial

time. @4 meant the shrieking gry of a bird surprised on its nest, a meaning analogous to that of 7% (See p& L. 41 D, and |_ L.10A). Now JF and 3 being both read nai, are used one for another, and JF is the graphic radical of a series that has no relation whatever with it.

Etymological

62

Lessons.

49.

To this character 74 combined with AZ chih3(L. 31 B), is ascribed the compound

>

®

Ying?. Note the fusion of theJ from AZ, with the J from 7%. Success, happy issue. To get AZ well out of

a Jy difficullty; G E Z FR. It forms with the dish I (L. 157), the compound

% R

Ying’. AA Ml. KB.@ SB. He GW

The

abundance that comes to one when, by one’s

efforts,

one By arrived to fill with provisions [ff] one’s vessels.

The etymologists give also as a derivative of J7

c 6

Ytin‘. To be with child, # + a. This derivation is a fancy character,

one, as the J

is a

commentators

primitive,

that

admit.

In this

represents

the

closing in of the - (L, 94 A) foetus by the womb.

Note. 3 L. 22 C, and 3 L. 23 B, have nothing in common with 74. Second series: R.

>k B

Chi?®. To reach, to seize, to catch; # 4.

Ay @& nected with compound

mB

KB WBA

A FJ hand that seizes a A, man. Not conJ%. —

Phonetic

series

40. Note

Chi?. An emotion

JR of the jf\ heart;

which

ensues,

occasionally

the

with that

haste, zeal, impatience,

hatred, etc. Note how the old form of J% was preserved in the modern character.

E

now obsolete, but that may be still found Note: & had old forms, primitives,

Cie

in compounds. Those forms are

For instance at the bottom

of

Ss

24 7

wh Fe

Chin’, L, 14 K.

Shih‘. L. 34 D.

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON About the primitive

JL: and its derivative

20.

63

20. A that forms important compounds.

First series: JL.

Neen B Re Rf\

BeOR ahaa

Chi’. A seat, a stool; 4 PR LY forms

the

artificial

416th

ah

ARIE. — It

radical. Phonetic

series 4.

Derivatives

Ch'u’, ch’u+.

To stop in a

place, to sojourn; a

place; BR JL AR MX. & HH.AX IL Ti Ik. The primitive idea is AZ to have found a JL, seat, a place of

rest. In the modern character, yf hu is a phonetic redundancy. Compare jj, L. 32 C.

P’ing?. To Jean up, to sit down; fe JL ah.A ILe BR tf (L. 82 C). To lean f% one’s self ona JL stand. By extension, moral help, proof, evidence.

This cha-

racter is now written 4 or 3% L. 17 E. Note:

JL is written as an

arbitrary

abreviation

of more

intricate

phonetics,

e.g. §L chi! for § dearth, famine.

Second series: f.

> A A

Chrieh®. A partial primitive. It was formerly pronounced tsu* or chu’. It representsasmall Jl, square stand, with "> shelves superposed; this utensil, so common in China, was primitively used at sacrifices; the — lower stroke represents the earth. See 4 L. 17 G, the modern form more explicit ( the stand,

WW the meat placed upon it);

HYP it &.60 HS its meaning and

became

KR JL. A = HH. —

2 HA. Now H changed (chia-chieh)

an

important

conjunction, #& 3 ZB Z), — Phonetic series 110. It forms the phonetic complexes

© BO Al Bil

Chut. strength

To help; A (L. 53)

Wy, H

for others.

engravers are the cause

why

%%. To exert The

one’s

fanciful ways

this character

of

is often

mistaken for a compound of the 109th radical. See the

lead cut character here joined. — Phonetic series 264.

Etymological Lessons,

a BB

20. 24.

Ch’a?. A proper name; AR A.H AK, Chia-chieh for #2, to examine, to search. — Phonetic series 420. See below, note.

Cha'. A proper name; AA -E,A BE, —

Phonetic

Series 589. See below note.

Note. The engravers fancifully cut the two

preceding

characters, F and G, as here joined, which leads one to

mistake them for derivatives

from

9

L. 143 B. —

These characters, with their series, would,

according

to the Chinese etymologists, originate from the Kiangsu. Hence their anomalous pronunciation. It is an effect of the dialect. See pp. 15 and 16.

LESSON

aa RhR

21.

About the primitive -L fan®. Fan’. Idea of generality, of universality; B 2 #8 %, 41, This character was differently explained by the philologists. —

Some, starting from an ancient

that was probably

but an abbreviation,

M (an old form, L. 19 E),

form

explain:

AR

KA —,& H, The num-

= of heaven and earth, generalised by 3%; all beings existant. — The classical form ofthe character seems to denote a more natural explanation: — the unity, the origin of beings and numbers (L. 4 A), contained in a kind of primitive, which denotes the generalisation of a particular case. It is the true

notion

of

JL. — Phonetic series 19. The scribes often write JL, instead of A or FU (L. tt E J). See also J (L. 14 G).

nto

Féng!. The wind; AA gt 4K. RR, For, says the Glose, when the wind blows, insects are born; Jal #),

AK (A

& wi, This composition and interpretation are in the manner of Li-ssi. —The ancient character was derived from

H

suo,

J

motion(L.

7 A),

JL extension,

expansion. All this seems to mean that the atmospheric currents are produced by the action of solar rays; which is true for some winds. — It is the 182th

radical of a group of characters relating to storms, etc. Phonetic series 439, See gl (L. 11 C).

Etymological Lessons.

C

a :

fe

D

ANAK,

Mr

=

21, 22,

65

Féng}'. The male phoenix. A modern character; AK BAL %. See the old character, L. 64 I. P’ei*. Small ornaments made of jade or ivory, scentcushions, hanging from the girdle, when worn. bh ABR

KurFA ib. € Rok

full dress is

th. Anything

JX worn bya A man on the fj piece of linen which, being rolled up, makes a girdle (L.35 A). This character seems to be of a relatively modern origin.

LESSON

22.

About the primitive J{, and its derivative {. First series: Jl.

A

o ry

Shu2, ch’u?. The jerky flapping ofa short wing; &

z

DFE

4h. RHE.

Then, in general,

any rhythmical and jerky motion. The derivatives of JU must be carefully distinguished from those of J9 L.

49, and JU, L. 20; in the modern writing, this distinction is not easy to be made. Forms

Fu’.

A wild duck; the bird § which

heavily; BF AB We BA,

flies JU

& BE. BA BH,

FE IU TL tho

OM 390

To. The balancing of twigs and

flowers. It is used

as a specificative of flowers, — 2% %& i-to hua. — Phonetic series 240. Note the modern form 2.

ts 2 Ce Second series: ¥%.

wes He

Wy

sJ2.

Shu’, ch’u?. The right hand 3 making a jerky J\ motion; to strike; Jy A BE A a. By extension, a stick, a ferule. — It is the 79th radical. series 51. Note the following derivatives

Phonetic

Shan‘; Xj Hl a, AAW, HA Re, @& By Jerky motion of the scythe that cuts the grass; to mow.

66

Etymological

Lessons.

Ku; KA WK

ia

22. 23.

2. The upper part of the thigh,

the fleshy PY part of man’s

body,

upon

which

the

mandarins of old bestowed the 7% ferule bountifully.

Ba RR ke

FA 2%. The great hall ofa tribunal, BK Fe,

Tien‘;

flogging 4 was given on the Re breech; a realistic-but exact description. The modern scribes

where

write fi. See L. 32 A.

Shé!.

BX

py

order;

i J 4. Hi BR tL. To notify an

to set in order, in the Asiatic way, with many = cries

and %& strokes; KA BK i.2 LL + fe

2.4 Bik

GSUA

14. The satellites; those who, being armed 24 witha whip or a bamboo, 4 prow! about every where,

looking fora victim; BA “¥ KA 4.@& Bom

ZX MW

47 Hh. Other important derivatives will be explained elsewhere, e. g. By tuan‘ L. 164 D,

pR ching’ L. 173, #¥% pan! L. 66 B, Ete.

LESSON

23.

About the two primitives JU and 747. First series: jt.

gu fF oR

Chiu®. Nine; a numerical sign, without any other signification; B& fe wl @.dF AW. — Phonetic series 5. It forms

Hsiu’. This character was

made,

they

say,

to be

used as the name of the founder of the #% yj Hou-han

Dynasty, 4] FF Liu-hsiu, At his birth, A HA * JL FA. hanging

down

% F a story says there were from

one

only FZ

beautiful ears. This phenomenon

stalk,



found, FU nine

was regarded as a

presage of the Emperor’s future elevation. Hence HM HMM 1. KE This auspicious character

was used to desiynate the bachelurs FF > hsiu-ts’ai, in imperial times. In the modern writing, JU was changed into Jj (See L. 19). — Phonetic series 278,

Etymological Lessons.

23.

67

Second series: {4. Jou. The hind legs and tail of an animal; the track

C

ey

TR

of an animal’s paws and rail; a step; BR Je Be th at {% FZ. It is a primitive

that has nothing in common

with FL. — It is the 414th radical. Found ia

D

¥,

Cc

Yui. It represents an insect with a big tail, probably

Hi

the scorpion. #& 44, f& FE. Name of the celebrated Emperor who was the founder ofthe § Hsia Dynasty,

1989 B.C, See our Textes Phonetic series 504.

E

Historiques,

Yt5. Monkey; #¢ 4,7 AA

4.

p. 38. —

Xf, Its head,

says the Glose, resembles that of the demons(L. 40 C),

and its tail is a prehensile one. Cf. # L. 49 H. — series 503. Note the successive following

Phonelic

compounds

Li?. A yak; the #4 paws and the big tail; [XJ isan abbreviation of fq L. 40 C, the head; changed

into %

in the modern

writing,

represents

the horns (Cf. fF L. 136). — Phonetic series 628. Chin?. It is #, the horns Ao aA

being replaced by the phonetic 4 chin! (L. 14K). Wild animals

Bp Bt #8 4%. by opposition to domesticated animals

8% (below 1). — Phonetic series 728. ee

F 3 Iya

al BF

mee

58

is considered as the central

part of the compound x

hsia?.

9

G

Fei. A big ape. The character represents, the fA head, the four hands, and }fj the tail. Note the successive abbreviations. A contraction of the last 8,

fi

Hsieh+. The white ant; g& 4. 4 JE, it forms

Chiieh; x #, WK Bw HB. RA

BK.

FE. A swarm of termites fA stealing %

grain in a Ft storehouse, to eat it. To steal, to act by stealth, etc. The scribes

write in different mauners this intricate character. Note

that the form authorised by the 3% 4 8a (RB is also mutilated. From +f (L. 24H) there remaios only a J , which leads to confound 5% with 3% (L. 123).

Etymological Lessons,

"% sR

23. 24.

Want, A scorpion, (% JE, The claws &3, the head fi], the tail #47. This character is now used to write the number

tee nothing

10000 (chia-chieh); see

Le

in common

page

11. ag 4%

et FW SM, Ithas

with

the 140th

radical, under

which it was classified by K’ang-hsi. It is not derived

from § ya? (above E), but from

ch’ait L. 47 X. —

Phonetic series 765, that must not be confounded with the series of §%. The sound of the compounds is de-

rived from ch’ai‘, and not from want; e.g. 3 mai‘, Note

Li‘. A scorpion ye

fe

down undera J

B§ crouched stone (L. 59 A).

Pricking, sharp, bad, cruel, and

other chuan-chu. — Phonetic series 804.

Shou?!. The domesticated animals, by opposition to

4 ch’in? wild (above E); 7 fkBS 4 2E SE RK

=

Ye

4. RoW HA SE Z FE, On the top two ears, in the

GC 00

middle fj the head, at the bottom #y the paws and tail. The second ancient character the

modern

from which

one, is an abbreviation.

I[t forms

came the

compound @f shou', flocks

or herds guarded hy FR

dogs. But $2 t’o®, crocodile,

has another

origin. See

L. 72 E.

LESSON

24.

About the primitive -- and its multiples +f HF fHt-

i++

First series: --.

Shih’.Ten ¥ZAH-BEH

E.|

dto fi) OO Ff oe 3 fH A. The number

that

contains all the other simple numbers (decimal numeration). Symbol of extent (two dimensions) and of the five cardinal points (East, West, South, North, Centre). — It is the 24th radical. Phonetic series 10, Note the derivatives

Chi*. To know how to calculate; @ ‘@ a. AA By B+, @ &, To know how to enounce = the ten numbers -f of the decimal reckon, to plan, a scheme.

system. By extension, to

Etymological Lessons.

C

st

24.

69

Shih*. An affair a thing: , BUM—

+t =z Mok + @ —.dff — & +.

M+.

+, Because, says

a Glose, all things are comprised between the two terms of numeration, — and +. By extension, a sage, a man pointed out, by his learning, to become an of-

ficial (now f+). —

+

It is the 33th radical. It forms

=~

Chi?. Speach [] ofa + sage,

2

bringing luck; good, auspicious,

happy; 3 42,0 ALBA IBA +.

inauspicious, L. 38

%&, Compare [Xj hsiung!,

D. — Phonetic series 180. See @ L. 38 G. Compare w@ L. 165 B, & L. 75 B, ete. Note IL =A

Chielh?. A phonetic complex. a Rep oes head & straight;

oe

ia IS phonetic — Phon. . ser. 797,

Chien’. A thousand; D

ts

:

+ Fy woBR +. A RB,

Ten times one hundred. The hundred is not represented in the character. The J on the top, an abbreviation of AL (L. 28), is phonetic says the Glose. = is perhaps an old primitive. — Phonetic series 16. Forms Nien?. The crop, the harvest;

BS ae WR lh. RB Fe The

Sf

thousand grains. By extension, a year, the time required for a harvest. The modern character is an incongruous contraction.

Chang‘. A lenght of ten spans, now of ten feet; -F

K

SS

RU

RH

See L. 43 L. —

+.@ FHA hand

Ku’. 0d; kb 7

f& 4

3 and -

ten

Phonetic series 13.

ATAD@S +ti

WH. That which

passed through -- ten

mouths, i.e. a tradition dating back ten generations.— PE hsieh

composed

of the

same

elements

unanimity, ten mouths speaking in unison;

means --

we 1 ® B+. — Phonetic series 132. It forms Ku’. Hermetically closed [J on

2)

ah

(8)

uf

all sides (L. 74). [0SE44, AAT], thy HE. — Phonetic series 368. Hu®*. The fetlock of an ox; BA

At cE aA aR a. It is

now

used

particle, chia-chieh for §§, —

Note: ¥ ti? is not derived from 7. Sce L, 120 H.

as

an

interrogative

Phonetic series 450.

70

Etymological

° B @

Lessons.

24.

Chih?. Straight; AA L.A +.

B.S && When

ten eyes have seen to it, the line must be straight. See

L. 10 K, where this character was fully explained.



Phonetic series 335.

Note: K’ang-hsi incorrectly classified under 4+, 4 L

46 E, 2 L 46M, 22

L. 18 D, ete.

Second series: -+ repeated twice ++, +f. H

4r

Nien. Erh*-shih®. Twenty; = -++ ##44.@ &. The tens added one to another. In composition, it often means a multitude (L. 101). It is liable to be

YW

coufounded with ff kan! (L. 73 B). It forms.

(Kx

Kung}. Anaction done in common, all taking part in it, represented by +f twenty F3 pairs of hands; AA at

KW BB. & FESeeL 47 Q

+t

¥, 7

\

te



Phonetic

series 225.

Kuang|. Light, luster. AR Wet WA HAA K, € 3%. Primitively twenty tf 4X tires (L. 126). The modern form represents AL { 4X8, 4 man with fire (L. 29); probably a inan carrying a torch. Theancient form was maintained in a few compounds (below L) — Phonetic series 222. It forms

ee AS

Huang’. Brightness 36 of the [] sun, to dazzle: fi a AR A. KY. F£,— Phonetic series



the ploughed earth AA (L. 119);

K Huang’. Yellow, the }¢ hue of oe

th 2 3H. Note how HY

and Je are mixed

MAB KM GE X up.

derivatives, L.4171. — It is the 201th radical series 688.

See

the

Phonetic

Etymological Lessons,

24.

7A

Shut. All +f the inhabitants M

it

RR

of a J” dwelling,

gathered around the 4X hearth ancients, the hearth

(L. 126); among

the

gave light and heat; fe TP SR

the BAT BR & A He. RF, Meanings chuan-chu WR a the familial flock, concubines and children; the human herd, Phonetic

the people.

series 645.



Various chia-chieh.

Note

the

following

—-

logical

aggregates, in which #. was replaced by the radical.

Tu*.

J

g

To

measure,

a

rule,

a

degree;IQ Hz Wo KAM

~~ ff&,A hand which counts or i measures JE a quantity. — Phonetic series 484. 200e

Hsi*. A mat, a meal; because, inthe olden times, HE people

fz mats, thedishes being

used to eat, while sitting on placed on a mat. JE jh, BM

iD. 2A HE. See fi},a napkin, L. 35 A,

Third series: -++ repeated three times; Hf. N

He

+H

San'-shih?. forms

0

ie

++

active life; an

Thirty;

=

-- #F &.

Shih+. A period of thirty years;

ww

duration of a man's

a generation; = - %¢ B—

ttBA tt iti 2 42.98 Sf. The vertical stroke of -F on

3)

age,

@ #. It

the

left side

is lenghtened,

prolongation and duration of life. 157. It forms

Yeh!.



to

denote

the

Phonetic series

The #£ successions of

leaves upon the 7 trees; a leaf ‘

(now

3); by extension,

a thin

plate of metal or gold; AA fit, ZA AK, tt ap B. HE Fh HL. — Phonetic series 494. Compare % L. 104 A.

72

Etymological

Lessons.

24. 25.

Fourth series: ++ repeated four times, }}f.

p He +t

Ssti'-shih®.

Forty; —

{+ Ff &,@ #. Twice

twenty. Some etymologists think this }if to be the top

part of the following character

oF

Tai’. A girdle, to take along asif worn at the Sirdle, to wear; #1 4, This derivation is an arbitrary

one,

calligraphic, not etymological. j}f is a primitive, while means the girdle, and the other part represents



the trinkets (Mf (L. 21 D) hanging from thegirdle; [ 4, At the bottom, the robes are represented by two

Hi} (L. 35), one above the other; JA & JJ, —

Pho-

netic series 648. Wnu?. See L. 101, where

R

rN

ee

explained. A luxuriant

this

great number of Fe men.

It is now

negation; no, none, no more, —

LESSON

character

# forest destroyed an

was

fully

by {ff a adverb

of

Phonetic series 718.

25.

Note: The primitive J. jén®, aman, being written in different manners; several lessons are devoted to it. Here is a list of them.

A\ jén? standing, or { put on the side.

L. 25

& jén? inverted. Multiples of AL and &.

L, 26 L. 27 A\ jén? on the top of the compounds, curtailed. L. 28 JL jén? at the bottom of the compounds. L. 29 F jén? bent down. L. 30 A

FP jén? sitting down. VL, jén? overturned. *J jén® doubled up.

KR AL RK jén? moving on. X jén? with arms.

L. 32 L. 30D L, 54 L. 3! LL. 60, 61

Etymological Lessons.

25.

To

About the primitive J. under its two forms, A. and 4.

A

A

i

Jén2, A man, represented by his legs; the one who stands upright. Compare J (L. 60): fA, EE zw Je.

AKWZERRKHOMEG SFR UL. —

It is the 9th radical of characters relating to man.

It forms

Chiu? A prisoner, to emprison;

B

AY

KB A ZE Op,

3%, A man J in an [J enclosure, L. 74. See B L. 157 C.

Shan®.KR A 4 Ph oh, & HA C

man

JA ina

door P¥ (L. 129 C), moving sideways to give way to others; by extension, a sudden and quick motion in general.

Shu. To guard the frontiers; Ji a man with Ka spear (L. 71 F); SF 3 UA ON Fe 2K.@& B, See the compound # (L. 90 D),

D

Fu?. From E

AR

\

imitating

J. man

and

the dog, or

K

dog (L. 134). A man

making

others

imitate

crouch, to fall or lie prostrate, to hide, to subject, etc. — Phonetic series 196.

» F

AS

Weit*. The place where a J. man )

@ RW

4i if 2 fi. By extension, w. (L. 60 BH).

Ae

is ¥p standing

erect; the place assigned, according to his dignity, to

each official; A AAA.

G

it. To

to humble,

a!

pE

SD

seat, rank, person.

See

Jén?’. The virtue that must unite men to men; tte, BR A BR. 8 BF, See L. 2 B, where this character was explained.

W

ant

Nz

Hsin‘.

True

words,

and, by extension,

produced by these words

upon

faith, confidence; jo

KS.

HWA NAAR form, a

the

effect

truthfulness,

A A. @ 2G

Aman J anda & word. In the

old form,a J, man and a

ancient

others,

word



{J mouth.

In still more

and a jf} heart; words

coming from the heart and appealing to it.

14

Etymological Lessons.

(gh

@3

Ne

25, 26.

Hsien!. The tavist Genii; KK A, KM Bo ek,

BHR

AR

REREAS.

FS© ff fl.

According to the legends, they live on the mountains,

I

hence the moderu character fjjj, man and mountaio. The etymological meaning is { a man who pe

Jw

®

by the taoist practices, above mortals.

rose,

(See L. 50 P,

L. 10 L). LESSON

26.

About the J. inverted which is now written &. (Compare with the old forms, L. 25 A and 26 B).

Preliminary note: The modern A

{. corresponds to two old primitives. —

1. A) representsan old instrument, a kiod of scraper, of spoon. (% FZ, i Ul & #. Thischaracter becamesoon

A

obsolete. In the derivatives that remained after it ( 8&, ka. etc.) it was written & even before the reform of Li-ssu. This explains how, in the series

{ , one may find several characters

that mean

utensils (below

D, M). — 2. JL inverted, over-turned. Hence the significations derived origin of this character; to turn round, to invert, to compare,

from

C, the

to join, to match, to

pair (right side and reverse).

B

((

YY

Pi®. To turn one’s self round, etc.

First series: Compounds in which

B

fee G

BI

MB RK A, —

It

is the 24th radical.

& means an object.

Shih®. A spoon, a key. (Phon. #& L. 112 1). x

Ch’ang!. A special liquor, used in the sacrifices, to induce the jf shén? to come down; J) ## a wus

BH We A LL RE wh A LYBS hoe OR.

b PL i Z.A vase |_| (L. 38E) full of 3 grain

which, when fermented, produced the liquor; at the bottom,

& the spoon with which people drew up the

liquor from the vessel. Compare below M. — It is the 492th radical. It forms

te

Yi. Oblation of the liquor WY. See L. 130 E.

Etymological Lessons.

teDsFe

Tsan!.

26.

75

A forked brooch used to fix the hair. Now

%% The character

represents

aman

J, with a b

brooch on the top. KB & HA. U &. IE, it Ll F 3E. & FF Ay, Nole the alteration of the modern character and try do distinguish it from JC wu? L. 61 C, and from Jc chit L. 99 E. Repeated twice, tsan! is phonetic in hsm’, a caldron (L. 155), and in

ey

Tsan'. To murmur, F $A

HKALE

See L. 73 A. Not to be confounded,

EB,

either with 4 ti

(L. 60 L) as many scribes do, or with @ L. 79 B. — Phonetic series 709. Note

By

Tsan?. I, we. This modern

character is an arbitrary

abbreviation of G.- Itis used, regardless of the sense,

to write the sound tsan?, a personal pronoun used by common people in the provinces of the North. Its

derivatives { and B%, much used in the books written in spoken language, have no more value than ¥& itself. SHkEEAXK

RE

S.6

BSF

seb.

-

4 must be distinguished from # chiu', L. 31 B.

ere iR

Second

E F

series: Compounds in which & means man, etc.

Pao’. A tithing of -- ten & men. It forms some phonetic compounds, eg. ¥2 pao3, a bustard, etc.

Ni?. Near, in contact;

Etymology, A

jf 2 4, Morally,

FP, KM bk, & FF. But

intimity.

FP (L. 32)

means also, a man. Therefore ni means, two men pear

one another. Phonetic series 140.

a

up 4 We fil

Nang?. A high [J dignity, towards which rise the eyes and desires of & men;

LA

DGHEU

SBS

exalted,

to desire; B

B.SK AH

4B, — Phonetic series 73. Compare FJ) yin', L. 491.

Ssii’. Dead, todie; RF

MA. @BA

ZK

oA J man, F dead (L. 118 C). Note 1. to the modern character, the top stroke of 4 is prolonged

and covers [. 2. In the ancient form, instead of & , the inverted form, there is. A, the straight form.

Etymological

AY H(

P’in3.

Lessons. 96.

Etymologically, the cow that makes

{the

pair with the 4& bull. Now 4 mu? means the

male,

and 4b p'in? the female of all kinds of animals. Note the analogous compound

yu', hind, female of the

E, lu, stag.

A(R

Kéng’. Etymologicaliy

& to turn & the head.

Then, to turn over, lo overthrow, in general; B

K A.

&u :

&, There are also a few unusual phonetic

complexes;

for these, see J tsi,

L. 112; and HE

pi®, L. 271.

Third series: A special series is ascribed to the following compounds of &, on account both of the singular forms which were given to them in the modern writing,

and

of the importance

of their

derivatives.

In the old writing,

those

characters were perfectly regular.

«Ez

Yao?. KA. KM LK, & &, To turn one’s back & lo the § sun; obscure, hidden. It forms £§ yao’, dark as in a 5¢ cavern; $% yao’, the South-East angle, the most retired place in a +> house; etc. In its modern form, the next seems to be a compound of the same elements; it is not so.

a

u

Chih’. The old form is composed of 7, the tongue (L. 102 C), and of —, a sweet thing (L. 1, 4°); good,

agreeable to the taste; G# AM AS —. HS. After Li-ssi, the character was composed of }f kan! sweet (L. 73 B), and of & Phonetic; MK HH, & . Chuan-chu, an edict of the Emperor who is supposed to speak in soft words. — Phonetic series 186. Jt forms ‘#& ch’ang? (L. 36 E), 2§ ch’i? (L. 30 E), #§ chi! (L. 421 M).

Ként. MAL

MA LE. & B&. KL

To turn

suddenly round , inorder to — look a man full in the face, haughtily; anger, defiance. — It is the 138th radical. Phonetic series 249 and 741. Note. fi liang? has another origin. See L. 75 F.

Item 3 t’ui*. See L, 31 C.

Etymological Lessons.



26.

77

Hsiang!‘ Boiled grain, the Chinese soup $ fan*- It is composed as WI (L. 26C). A © vase (primitive); —

its contents (L. 1. 4°);

(L.264) RAE

% the spoon

HP BL

to draw

up

RURZ.

Its contracted form must be distinguished from liang (L. 75 F). It forms the following characters:

Ty cy WY Hsiang!. The & grain producing country, between the walled cities, represented by two f&,, one of them —SwWO being straight, the other being inverted and abbrevia—=™ARO 7>»D

Tso‘. To sit down, to be seated; es,

@& H.Two

A men

ground, in the old fashion, and talk. — Phonetic series 309.

KR +.K& sitting on

facing each

=

A

the

+

other to

Etymological

Lessons.

27,

Wauat'. The work 7 (L. 82) of AA witches; incantations.

Two witches who

MR hike HELL oe

magic,

dance to obtain

he

RA

rain

LOA

Fe FE.lt forms x

Shih‘.

The

stalks

At

of

oh

“a Achillea Sibirica z, that were

SH

used by the wizards Af to divine. 4, BR Fi. BA BR. & Bo It forms

Hz

the phonetic

complexes Hf shib‘+, to bite,

YE shih’, bank, quay. See $&% Ling?,L 72 K.

Distinguish

to gnaw;

Q& from

2

L. 16M, and from 3 contracted in 2 L. 13 C, etc. Chia'. A man X(L. 60) who clasps two AA others in his arms; to press, to squeeze, to pick up, to fix; #¥

oA

A HR = ALS BMo —

Phonetic series 257.

To be distinguished from ¥€ shan? (L. 13 B), and from 3 lai? (L. 13 C). It forms the phonetic complex

Chrieb*.

@&

ee

Box, casket, AA [—

(L. 10. B), BE BE, It is now written Re.

Third series: Two , turned one against another.

Tk Df

Pei?. The opposite of AA (L. 27 A). Not to follow each other, to turn one’s back,

AK

BH

disagreement;

SEOAHM IR BAK

AA =

Aw

f% dt. Derived meaning, the back #§ 4 ; and, by extension, the North 4i Jf44, the cardinal point towards which

one

turns

down facing the South,

one’s

back

when

sitting

according to custom. — The

modern scribes write dE for different

more intricate

characters. See 36 kuai', L. 103 C; 3 ch’éng?, L. 3 E, etc.

H

it

at

MK

Ch'iut. A hill, a mound; 2A tt, AA —.

FB

#4 a. The Glose is summed

represents

up thus: —

the top ofa height. On the top, JE two one against another, instead

of four

men

men

— turned

whom

it

would have been too difficult to depict. The meaning is that, from

the top one

may see towards the

four

Etymological Lessons.

81

27.

directions i. e. towards all directions; a culminating

point.



Phonetic

series

413. — Note that J& ping! (L. 47 D) is unconnected with fF... Item, the kind of primitive f (L. 80 B)... But FF forms

fetie pit

Fourth series:

Hsii'. A high upland; % FF wo AA Fr, BOR, These uplands being generally wild and barren, hence chuan-chu, empty, that which

contains nothing;

Phonetic

ie 22 ORK Me OB) Wee aL. — 685, under its modern corrupt form.

4 series

& repeated twice ( A, inverted form, L. 28).

i bE (((

Pi‘. It is M inverted (27A), AA—

&.@& &, To

effect a union, to follow, to cooperate, to plot. Pi’. Meanings derived from the inversion (See L. 26

A, 2°), to draw a parallel between, to compare, rank.— It is the 81th radical. Phonetic series 77. It forms

Pi?. A synonym of the preceding. The two men are placed upon - (L. 81) the earth. —

Phonetic series

299.

GA HMHA

Chieh!. Together, all; fa] WA Several Jk men

AM IES Be

fy (L. 169 A contracted) acting in

concert. — Phonetic series 428. K’ang-hsi erroneously

classified this character under the radical 106 fy.

« AO

K’un!. A number $f or men under the A sun (L. 143); multitude, generality; fa] We BA A. BA Sk, @ §& .Chuan-chu of different kinds; H 4, ,a posterity, those who will succeed in life, under the sun; #& df, the multitude of insects that the sun

is supposed

to

bring forth... Chia-chieh 5f 4, an elder brother; compare ko!, p. 11. — Phonetic series 371, P’i?. The navel which is supposed to be in communi-

cation with the head fg (L. 40 A) through channels

in which circulate the. vital spirits. J. ARR

A we Ww.

ah,

KH B. So the lower part

would not be fs, but a kind of primitive,

represen-

ting the channels. Instead of Ba. the scribes write fq, hence the erroneous character here joined, — Phonetic series 557.

82

Etymological

Lessons.

27.

Note 4: J}£ is intended to delineate the feet in some

characters

that represent

animals, e. g.

Fe, Ch’ao}, jerboa, L. 106 C. jig Lu4, antelope. L. 136 A. Note 2:Two ff, one above the other, represent also the feet in the following series

' FE Ag

Néng?, formerly Nai‘, which explains the sound of some derivatives. The great brown bear. After Li-ssu, this character was explained thus: two

K

paws,

A

the body, J, the growling of the angry bear. (L. 85 E). But the study of the old forms reveals aspecia! primitive delineating a head, a hairy body standing, and claws. (L. 146 H). The bear is the symbol of bravery;

hence

the meanings chuan-chu, valour, an officer; # BE =

rar

& — Phonetic series 554. It forms

Tai‘, Martial attitude. AA i). AA BE.

F, — The

outward of the jf interior §B valour.

Hsiung?®. The small black §& bear; +» \ ¢ sg

cst

represents

the feet (L. 126 C), a graphic redundancy.

Pat. A §§& bear, figuratively an officer taken in a PX) net (L. 39 C); to dismiss,

other

chuan-chu.

The

to resign,

to cease,

and

explains

that the

net

Glose

means calumnious accusations. Compare #§ L. 39 F.

Fifth series: J. repeated thrice.

« AR Im

Chung‘. Gathering, faciunt; BR = JA, &

a

Chung’. A crowd; KR= \ AA A.@& RH, Note that mm is not PR) (as above, in #E), but the eye @

ae 3K

FRiit

syhonym

meeting. Tres collegium #&, The next compound, a

and homophone,

is now used instead.

(L. 158) depicted horizontally. The full of JL men;

all the men

taken

visual

Ej space

in at a glance;

crowd, all, etc. The scribes fancifully and strangely altered this character, as one may specimens here joined.

Chit. To meet; JZ a reunion

B=

KN.AK RR

series 775.

see by the two

of 44 men;

& a,

oh OB. See L. 146 F. — Phonetic

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

28.

83

28.

About some peculiar forms of )\, curtailed in the modern writing, either through want of space, or through a partial fusion with a phonetic; A is reduced hf, etc. In the ancient writing,

“Rm » &

J,

J has its normal torm.

Chi?*. To attain, to seize upon. A 3 hand that seizes a A, man. This character was explained, L. 19 D. — Phonetic series 40. Hsien‘. A trap, a pit; oJ. 3 wi PA A 4 AA EY

@

°F

EF & te +h, A man A who falls into a £Y

pit(L

439). Cf. L. 38D. — Phonetic series 360.

Fut.

1. Morally, a J. man

who

has & cowries.

money (L. 161); the pride caused by fortune;

dination,

in order to gain

LAE

insubor-

disdain; KA J SF AOA Br Fe th, — 2.

Physically, a JY man

wee

to

who bears a load on his back,

B cowries;

to toil hard,

to suffer;

HA Ge

Shé'. Primitive sense, the flush of the face; JA Raho

oO Say ON

K\K

V .@ BR

EEA

& FFOD

The composition of this character is typical; J. a man, and [J (L. 55) a seal; because, says the Glose, the colour of the face corresponds with the feelings of the heart, as the stamp reproduces the seal. By extension, the flush arising from passion, sexual pleasure, colour

in general

2 2D.

ra

— It is the 139th radical.

Wei?. A man J looking from up a J~ steep cliff (L. 59); a perilous situation, danger; J) wh, BA A

“4 YT | & 3. There are important compounds, about which see L. 59 H. 2 F

T

c

a

7

Ch’ien’. One thousand. This anomalous character was explained L. 24 D. A on the lop is phonetic; +} is for -+ A 4, ten times one hundred, says the Glose. — Phonetic series 16.

T’ing?. Upright, raised, attentive; KR A ve + _E,

@ HK. HEL H,HW,

Aman Qon the

sb ground (L. 81). Not to be confounded with jén4 (L. 82 C). In the modern writing, the two characters are almost identical.

84

Etymological Lessons.

28. 29.

Tiao‘. Actual meaning, to mourn for one dead, in order to console his family. Composition: a man J,

H

who carries a bow & (L. 87) over his shoulders. The Chinese of olden times did not bury their dead. The corpse was packed up in a bundle of grass (L. 78 G), and left to rot away in some consisted

remote

place.

The

rite of condoling,

in offering one’s self with a bow, to protect the corpse

beasts. AMM

at that time, agaiust wild

FZHMRR LU GMS KB. & B. The

meaning, to hang up, to suspend,

comes

from the fact that the bow was

carried

hanging across the shoulder, which is represented by the old character.

I

RE

4}

Chiu!. Primitive sense, egotism hurting one’s neighbour; a man J, who does not look for his own

4 (L. 31 B) benefit; KA. KB. @ Be 48 3 44. By extension, offence, fault, mistake; j&§ 4, — Phonetic series 338. Shén!. Body, person. It is J. with a big belly and a

J

Z

leg. See L. 148. — It is the 158th radical of characters relating to the shapes of the body.

Note:

The head

(sharp snout)

of some

animal

figures, is like

ancient writing. The resemblance is merely a graphical one.

ROR

A

in the

For instance:

F

T’u?, hare, L. 106 B. LESSON

Yii?, fish, L. 142 A. 29.

About JL, the form taken by A, when placed at the bottom of the characters.

A

IL

(2

Jén?.

A man (two

legs). It sometimes

means, feet,

support. & AW A 1, — It is the 10th radical. Erh?. Aninfant: #& + a, KIL. AA Ba. OF He

Abody JL and a Bob 64H. &fgA (L.AAR. JL B St. 6S head 40 C) opened in the form of —4, representing a skull,

the

fontanels of which

closed. — Phonetic series 352.

are

not yet

Etymological

SR

Mao}. From

Lessons.

The

face;

29.

85

BA,

KAA

B.A

Hh

JL man aod G (L. 88), white, colour or form

of the

face.

Instead of this,

the

synonym

and

homophone compound $f is now used.

> JL fe

Huang!; on

the

A

top

emphatically,

JL £. & &, A A mouth of a

JL, man;

authoritatively.

to

speak

Note the

strongly,

two modern

chuan-chu, with change of sounds

1. K’uang}*. An emphatic

conjunction, so much

the more,a fortiori. The scribes write 4f yt Wi, but their writing is rejected by the critics, JE f— 5-

2. Hsiung)!. The eldest among several brothers; the one who must J exhortand correct his brothers.—

Phonetic series 123. Note also the compounds

Chu. An 52 oration that goes with the oblation

—,

y)

of a A sacrifice, and that touches the jf shén;

BA 1]

suOR

JL, MR

HK he HL Btih

Chou?*. A modern character. The [J added is a redundancy. Adjuration, imprecation; joy 4B. This character is often erroneously written 5E.

Ytieh*. Good words that dispel! grief and rejoice the hearer; hence the two meanings, to speak, to rejoice.

It is 5§ added with a 7\ (L. 18), that means, dissipa-

tion; BR JL AG HeA RK ZS HH

th p= 4, It is unconnected with used as a modern

arbitrary

(L. 18 E. ). It is

chia-chieh

exchange, delivery in the commercial

is then pronounced tuit; 4 @ Phonetic series 313.

"SuR

to

mean,

transactions; it

HB Fb, HF.



Yiin®. To consent, to grant. A man JU, who J, says yes, He to BB

Jus BA

dee €

Ho

To

make

out

one’s assent, by breathing forth a yes. See L. 85 E. —

Phonetic series 100. Note the phonetic complex

Tsun', To walk solemnly; JA A. F7%. — Phonetic series 314. s

>

.

Etymological Lessons.

29.

Ch’ung'. To nourish a ZF child, from its birth till, knowing how

AK

to JL walk, it has become aman; B

IL. & BF

BS A RK A 4.70 teed,

to fill, full, ete. Ghuan-chu and chia-chieh of different kinds. — Phonetic series 189.

mM UF

Yeh*. The head: 34 4. A A

= a ne}

BEX

JL ER. A

EF CE Wt, A head & (L. 160) upon a body

JL Note the contraction of JU io the modern charac-

ter. — It is the 181th radical ofa group of characters

relating to the head, neck, etc.

oe

Ad

Ytian?. That which is — on the top, upon JL, man. Head, principle, origin; as caput in latin; #4 Ww, &

HAEKAEKE BOA.

GRABE

EL.

£. & HK, See =, an ancient form of

_—, L. 2G. — Phonetic series 97. Note the compounds

eZ (3)

Fe

Kuant. The man’s cap, then caps and hats in general; Ff #% ee 8

% ab. BA

BB

i.

FE.0. th (L. 45 B) stands for 3, The meaning is, what is placed 3 on the 7p head, to cover it.

Wan. Entire, finished, done; B The —

putting

up of the

KA > 50 B.

+> roof completes a building.

Phonetic series 314. It forms

K’ou*.

Robbers, to

man who armed with

loot.

The

¥ a stick

(L. 43D) threatens the 5 dwel-

ling-places; BA &, AR St.

EB. RM

A B-

Kuang'. Light. The old form of this character was explained L. 24J. This is the moderu form, JL _E 2X. probably, a man carrying a torch. — Phonetic series 222.

Jung}. Inaction, to remain inactive; KR >, BR Ji.

@EA

&FPSW

SF WA JL man inhis

“+ house, because he has no work to do in the fields.

Not to be confounded and A (L. 34 E).

with 4¢ yin’, composed of —

Etymological

Te fR

Lessons.

First

who

87

Wut. A stool. A plane surface —

upona JU, support;

Bi fe - LE oF Be —

Phonetic series 36.

LESSON About F- (J, turned up).

29. 30.

bends

forward),

30.

aud

VU, ( A

inverted, the feed being

series:

OeF TR ft

Jén?. A man who leans, who bend s up; @M@. A Z JE, It forms

Ch’én?. BF MB. BFR 4K tin ke A OP OR 4. A woman forward

to conceal

who

bends

U5 her shame, says the Glose;

probably her menses (not her lence chuan-chu

A SB F

pregnancy

time, epoch,

period.

L. 112 —

L).

It is the

161th radical. — Phonetic series 254. — The primitive meaning has been preserved in the compound

z WA

Ju‘. To shame, to insult; KA wf, WA ke. @ BH. To reveal sf (for 3,L.43A)a shameful or thing. — Phonetic series 544.

at @

fe situation

Hout’. A prince (by extension,

a princess).

bAFKD&

A Bk

ERE

#

JR

OB

4» The man who notifies | his orders, F bending towards the people. This composition is analogous

that ot # chin?, a prince, See page 9. —

to

Phonetic

series 199. — J inverted, forms Ssti!. The government, the administration, that is like the reverse of the prince; KA K Jy. $8 B, — Phonetic series 159.

Second

series: [..

Worn

Hua‘. A man tumbled head over heels; RM (| A, d§ Hf, The primitive sense was, to die; J A BH L.. HE

W.

Derived

meanings,

transform; $# 40 It forms

to

overthrow,

to

88

Etymological Lessons.

30. 34.

Hua’. To change, to convert P, men

ls

Rv,

zt

4 by teaching

BH, — Phonetic them; & #7 wh.B UA 1, & series 64. It forms # hua', flowers, the term of the AX, evolution of + plants. See L. 13 F.

Chémi.

Transformation

by the Taoist practices.

See, L. 10 L.

E

x

a

Lao’. Old, venerable, a septuagenarian. Aman J whose hair and beard % (L. 100) change 2, grow

whites RA

EWG

SSA

SSG

Ut

-+ BZ, Note the strange modern contraction of A and of =. — It is the 125th radical. This character forms important compounds, in which U, was suppressed fo give room to the radical or to the phonetic. For instance:

S

Ch’i?. Sexagenarian; 4 old man who needs a better food. See § L. 26 K. — Phonetic series 513. K’ao?. Old age; Fy represents the asthmaof old men (L. 1, 1). By extension, to examine, to interrogate

pupils and candidates, which are attributes of worthies. —

Hsiao‘. x

a

Phonetic series 248.

Filial

piety;

the thing

which

the



children owe to the % aged persons in general, and to

their parents in particular; BB VHB RM # S, MF. @& HK. — Phonetic series 276. But x HL

chiao!, to teach, has nothing in common This

character,

whose

exact

form

is

with

given

#. here,

will be explained L. 39 H.



Ay

Ché®, This character is not derived from 3. See

L. 159 B.

LESSON

31.

About three derivatives of J\, partial primitives, viz.: A chiu’, AQ chih3, 9% sui’.

First series: 2.

a Te

Chiu*. A man hindered while walking, by a kind of

train; #7 8 AR Ath. teWGA IE 2

\. BS, Hence the notion of slowness, of duration. — Phonetic series 17.

Etymological

‘RR ae Aeal

Lessons.

34.

89

Second series: 4.

Chih®. To follow, to pursue a man

$8

who walks; $f

wh. BA AR. \ HB ME,— It is the 34th

radical, ordinarily placed on It forms

the top of compounds.

Ko. To AZ go on one’s way, without hearing the O advice of others; 4 ii A ta HS th. BALM OO. @& &. Separated, distinct, particular, other. The individual described by his self-love, his own way. — Phonetic series 220. It forms

Chiu!. A man J attached to his 4 own opinion, who

cares

consequently

only

for his

offends

own

against

interests, others.

offence, fault; KA A.M .8 See L. 28 I. Note

the

Bo

contraction

and

who

By extension,

SH HH

UL.

of the modern

character. — Phonetic series 338.

ye 84 Be

Lu*, Way, road;

KR AA

%; through

which &

each one & trespasses. — Phonetic series 748.

K’o*. Chiieh*.

A guest, a traveller;

>, BA &;

to stay for a time in a + house not #4 one’s own.

Liao‘. Boundary that 4 divides the f¥ fields. Chuan-

Bs if

chu,

to

partition,

to

shorten, a little, etc. It forms

& liao’, to lay down, to depose.

Lao. Old meaning: a trench to irrigate; sy water lao’, the fall of the used by @ everybody. lt forms leaves, to sink.

See 4 hait, L. 97H; 4% féng! L. 97 A; and Z& tung’ L. 17 F.

(three strokes) must be carefully distinguished from 47 hsit. the 66th radical AZ p’u! (four strokes), and fromthe 36th radieal

The 34th radical

AQ chih3

——

RR

Third series: % Sui!. A man who goes on, despite

2 i ROE

A i

of shackles.

#7

& JE. To be distin-

guished from analogous forms, as stated above. — It is the 35th radical, ordinarily placed at the bottom of

the compounds. It forms

90

Etymological

Bu LR R ik 42

Lessons.

31.

Chih+. To % reach or make

others

aim, despite of difficulties; MA XM

reach 7

7,

the

HE See

L. 133 B.

T’ui’. To have % walked with difficulty all the day H

long,

and consequently,

to

refuse

to advance

more, or to go backwards, on account of the difficulof the road. To refuse, to retreat. —

ties

47 3B teWA

A XR. RH The Z

added is a

radical redundancy (L.112E). Note the contraction of the modern character, and read again the note L. 26 0.— Phonetic series 578. oSee 4 L. 29 E; 3 L. 79K; yu L, 38 D; ete.

% inverted, forms

ah

K’ua‘

KK

To

overcome an obstacle represented by

XH

B. KA

a. The modern

f;

character

kept the old form. Phonetic in FF ko‘, a pot.

straight and inverted, forms

5 IEF

Ch’uan®. It.is composed of #, the straight and the inverted form, back toback; BR RX JER WES &. To go in contrary directions ; opposition,

contra-

diction, offence, error; At $* ah, Compare L. 27 G. — It is the 136th radical. In the compounds, Af represents two men back to back

Wu?*.

Note the following

A dance with

gestures,

performed by two groups opposing each other (See L. 65 D); A& the dancers back to back, #&

a phonélic

contracted

10 1); 48 a.FA) SE A BEAA Sok OE yy

Chieh?. tree,

hung,

Primitive sense:

on which 4¢

gallows of old. This character

back

criminals to back;

(L.

7X were the

now means a roost, for

fowls to rest on; $& #E AL, AASEAE ARE.oe BR,OF $fE {@, — Phonetic series 518. It formsthe following Shéng}, ch’éng?. A warriors’ Ke

ae

car,a sort

of

roost

for

men

standing back to back, on two ranks; the top represents a roof. The modern form does credit to the ingenious scribes. — Phonetic series 512.

See also FF, and PE L. 126 D; ete.

*

Etymological

Lessons.

34. 32.

91

Chiang* From X, the straight and the inverted form one above the other; BAR of HK fF ee

Ak 4&4. Two men, one of them (the inferior) is subject

to the other (the superior). This character is now written F&,and the pronunciation is different according to the two different meanings. Hsiang’, to subject, to submit (the inferior). Chiang‘, to descend, to send

down, to degrade. to grant (the superior). — Phonetic series 182. — RE contracted is phonetic in BE lung?,

F 4 Es =

L. 79 F; # being reduced to &, Another form of 2 straight and inverted,

above

Wei. Refractory opposition: two men who pull at the same object in contrary directions; #q 2 4b, AA MELO ap BB, (L. 74). This character is now

written j& — Phonetic series 487. See 3 L. 23 F.

LESSON

PP?

one

the other. It is found only in the compound

32.

About a peculiar form of A, FP shih’, analogous to. F, which was explained L 30A.

Shih‘. A seated man. ciently represented

by extension,

person. The Glose says: The sons, not seeing

ceased ancestor whom they worshipped, invented the

EMAFSRARHZIE

The living person who an-

the dead;

Rob RR

a dead

the de-

PF to impersonate him, PF,

wiht RR. -

It is the 44th radical of characters relating to parts and positions of bodies. It forms

Be Je Bi

Shih‘. Corpse;

) a man, #E dead (L. 26 H).

Ni2?. Two meu near each other (L. 26 F).

T’un?. The lower part of PF the body; the part seated

JU CL. 20 A); JU represents this part; KB PF

EML@BAZTRUSe

rr,

I ii &.

Hence #& tien‘, the flogging on the buttocks (L 22 D).

Instead of FX, the scribes write Jt, which makes one more false character.

92

Etymological

BL At ik

Lessons.

32.

I°. It is composed as {— (L.2 B), the feeling that must men). Is phonetic in

bind man to man ( = two, F

Weil. To smooth cloth, the 3 hand holding a 4X hot iron. By extension, to make even, to sweeten; A E,

BAT

HKU

Oh SRE.

dit, It forms %& weit, to soothe, to console, the wrinkles of jf the

heart.

Note how

changed 4R into aJy, and & into +B By, — Phonetic series 658.

“KiIN ie&

eZ to iron

the

scribes

fe HF TE

Chii'. A place, a spot, an abode. Etymologically, FP a man who found JU a seat. [ts composition is analo-

gous to that of fe, above A; B wy AA P JE.@& &, This character

JL if

was arbitrarily changed by

the scribes into fE; AA A,

BB, Compare L. 20 B.

— Phonetic series 345.

T°. Wei?. Tail. The 3 hair at the end ot FV the body. Contracted into F®, and sometimes into P,

E

forms important compounds (See L. 100 B). The Shuo-

wén tells us that the old Chinese put on a false tail,

in order to be as beautiful as animals; AB) BF

PRRBHRHA A RH KZ. Sui!. Niao’. Urine, 7

water coming from

under

the tail, for FA is FB contracted. Shih’. Excrement; the residue of 3€ grain similarly ejected; FA is Fe contracted. This character is a mo-

dern one and superseded the old BR. See L. 122 C.

KIN

Chih’. The span ofa Fi man, ofa male adult’s hand. This span was, under

the fj Dynasty, the unity of

length and measured about twenty

centimeters.

The

R grew longer, after that time, up to thirty centime-

ters. The Europeans

call it a foot. In China

it is a

hand; + xf BoAK FRR Td Bo The Z, (1.

9A), says the Glose,

represents

the opeving

of the

hand, from the thumb to the little finger. See sf (L.

45 B). It forms

Etymological

Fyfi

Lessons.

32. 33.

Chii?. To fit up, workshop

93

where

things are fitted

up. This end is obtained by using both

[J mouth and

Fe hands (span, used for the hand); MA O, JAR,@& ER MF OF 0 OP LL DP &B 2.— Phonetic series 266.

of &

Wu’.

Abode, lodgings. Place where a man

arrived 32 (L. 133 B), takes rest. &

Pr te +L AA ELA

F' being

Hy. RA PLA

OP JE a. Compare 3

(L. 133 B), which is a synonym.



Phonetic

Shih* series

490. It is contracted into J! in several characters; for instance

isi

Lou‘.

The rain

house

fj passing through

the roof of a

#1;to leak; fR HK P &. ABE

RP

T. @ &. PS. BS. See L. 125 B.

LESSON About the two primitives,

33.

and =

First series: -.

A AY

Ch’i'. Seven. A numerical sign, without any other

signification: [) 3 Bf, AX ME FR, It is radical in FAL ch’én?, second #¥ teething, about the age of seven +, years. It is phonetic in BK ch’ih+, to cry out at, to scold ; and in

wy 7) Second

Chiieh’.

To

cut;

JJ knife,

L. 52.



Phonetic

series 43.

series: .

5 ty +

T'o'. A partial primitive. It represents a small

plant

sinking its root into the ground. The ground —, the

root beneath, the stalk and a small ear above; #2 df,

Kw

#, Al

fH £ R—. FA

BR. & IB. — Phonetic

series 29. It forms

Chai?. Habitation, abode; % i,BA >, BE, & #¢, The place where a man -€ takes root, fixes his +» dwelling. — Phonetic series 177.

94

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON In this number we distinguish

34.

34.

the series of two

primitives, TJ and

>, wantonly

mingled together by the scribes, and mixed up by K’ang-hsi.

nA

First

series:

Chiung?. The suburbs, the country, the space. The two vertical strokes delineate the limits; the horizontal stroke represents the interval hetween

space; & Sh

wm

them, the void

2 Tl. oi FB. — I is the

43th radical. Note the derivatives

Chiung?.

A

synonym

of the

preceding.

The

representation is more explicit; [] (L. 74) delineating

the

walled

Phonetic

town

series

distinguished

in the

middle

of the

114. The derivatives

country. —

of [A] are

to be

from those of [BJ (L. 76 G), e. g. 3B

chiung?, to go in remote

Distinguish also

places; 34 hui?, to return.

|p] chiung* from jay hsiang* and fj

shang! (L. 36 E); from Fa of (L. 15 C); from

Bq

chiung? (L. 42 B).

cA WA

Nei‘. The interior; to enter A in a [J void space, in the interior. This character was explained L. 15 C. Note how in the old form

here joined, [J is already

mistaken for +> (34 H), while the Glose gives the true

a

explanation. —

Plronetic series 74.

Shih‘. A market. The W grass-grown

[J] space out

of the city, where people go and get -\, (L. 19 E) what

they are in need of F AR

KR. SE

HAR

SeUwU RT

ww.

(L.19B) HR,

This character has nothing in common

under

which it was

erroneously

AE

with i (L. 35),

classified by K’ang-

hsi. [t must be carefully distinguished from TH fué (35 B), and from 7ff fei* (L. 79G). There are a few insignificant compounds. Bz) naot,

market

Note

the logical aggregate

to bustle; F4 (L. 14 1) to quarrel as in the

place ffj; the noisy wrangling and confusion

of a market, so dear to the Chinese.

EHinpe

Yin2. To go away, to withdraw. A J. man who walks in order to go out of a [J space; #7 BM A

tH (J. @ B& — Phonetic series confounded with JE jung’, L, 29 J.

94. Not to be

Etymological Lessons.

"ER

Hao’.

34.

95

To rise up, high. A bird 4 that rises up in

the [J] space; MB fE -.

HU],

@& RH, When

this character is not well engraved, one might believe

it is topped by a ++ (L. 36); in reality itis the J of the left side of #€, that crosses +, just as A crosses

-~ in the preceding. —

c ZR

Phonetic series 531.

Ming? Obscurity, darkness; BA TJ, BA BPA Ae @& #&. The six >{ Chinese hours (half a day) during which the [J space is in darkness, the § sun being absent. —

Phonetic series 553.

Note. One may see how, in the modern forms, [J and -— are absolutely

mixed

together.

Second

series:

—.

H

ma(\

Mi?. To cover. A line that falls at both ends, to cover;

UB — VF HE.1% JE — Ibis the 14th radical of a few

characters

meaning,

to cover.

Note

the

following derivatives

Mi?. A trivet If covered > (L. 127 D).

a S

Kuan’. To cover +> the head 7G; a cap. See L. 29 H.

Ke,(fe

Yiian'

without

Ill-use

motive,

wrong,

grievance.

Etymologically a rabbit 4 (L. 106 B), trapped

ReRRE-

FOR GE.

+.

H. It forms

a few insignificant phouetic complexes. This character

is sometimes wrongly written %. =

is met,

with

the meaning

of physical

cover,

of moral

blindness, in many

characters, e.g. @ L. 126 F; Gb L. 154 B, 4p L. 72D; S& L. 39 |. But the following are derived from “J (L. 54), and not from rr, as the modern might induce one to believe, e.g. RH L. 69 G; ‘BS. L. 167 C; ete. -%

> -

form

Etymological Lessons.

34.

Mao’. To cover [] something —

(L.1, 4°); #@ #;

A -, — #8 HH, It forms

DD

T’ung?. Agreement, union, reunion; & & W, A FAA BO. &. The primitive meaning is: adaptation of a cover Fj to the orifice [J of a vase. — Phonetic series 246,

Chiao’. A cover FA with flowers W@ (L. 79 B); &&

seoS OO Zs DE

4%

A. Y

H

BH 4h (vegetable objects;

compare L. 1021). By extension, the shell of mollusks, of fruits, of eggs, that Fy covers them, and

mented with W fine designs; R Hm 2

AB.

is orna-

RB Z She

& Lm BH Z,In these last meanings,

this character is now written chia-chieh jj ch'iao’, the primitive meaning of which was to strike. This character forms the

phonetic series 517, in which

the

radical is placed under Fy contracted; e.g.

AX PL BL A RLFR The scribes and the engravers often forget the small stroke of FY. On the other hand, they fancy the

different writings Fe FE R, ete.

R fl il

AA

Méng?. To cover. Its composition resembles that of % (L. 34H), a boar ZK taken in a FA snare. KB A, Ph. & FH, it forms $F méng?, the wistaria, a trailing plant that covers;

to cover.

Phonetic

series

784. — The character 3 méng? is to be distinguished

from & chung’, L. 69 G ~> —9-

Mao? A covering forthe head; that which FY covers —

the head (L. 1, 4°); A ALA —. IB BL

F 4,

It is now written if. — The scribes write Ej. =; B;

so that the derivatives of FJ mao* cannot be distinguished from those of Fj yeh! (L. 73 A). Still improving on the scribes, K’ang-hsi, after having classified, under the 14th radical +~-, characters that do not belong to it, placed the true derivati-

ves of ~>, the whole series FJ, under

the 13th radical [J. Such is

of classifications based upon the modern others. — It forms the compounds.

characters,

altered

the value

or mingled

with

Etymological Lessons.

a fl

97

34.

Mao’. To rush on heedless, to act with the eyes covered F]; imprudence, temerity; 3 iif af aA AAA B.& &. — Phonetic series 462. It forms the phonetic complex

=

f=»

Man?.To offend by & headless

3 action. The & of & is bent (L. 158), togive room to 3. — Phonetic series 635.

aF A &

T’a‘.

Birds of passage flying in flock; swarm ofY Hh BR Bi. wings F} covering the sky; fe Be 68 BA

¥, — Phonetic series 571. Chou.

A helmet, the FJ headgear

of soldiers; 33]

(L. 151 A)is phonetic; AA Fj,py OR

FE HL. Not

to be confounded with the character § chou‘ posterity,

that is pronounced and written in the same way (L.65

B); neither with § wei* (L. 122 C).

sa i

Mien?.

Official

FA cap;

% mien? (L. 106 A) is

phonetic. Compare $% yuan’, L. 34 H.

Tsui‘. A meeting Hy under the same

Fy roof. See

L. 146 F. — Phonetic series 711.

Appendix. The — repeated twice, is given as being the lower part of the next

k

I

i ¥ ff

important compound, though it appears

seldom,

the

modern scribes having changed [fj into 7. Yén’'. Disappearance, loss, absence. was atone

tine

(L.159

became invisible [fj (a double

MAR

An object that

A) in a St store, and cover)

later

KRG RH HR

on. BM

FB

& (8 fA 4. See L. 23 G. Note the phonetic complex Pien!. To walk on the edge of a precipice, running the risk of falling into it and disappearing. chu, bank,

edge, margin,

Chuan-

a boundary in general; #F

EE UM 6.5 FPBo

35.

Etymological Lessons.

98

LESSON

35. chin', and

i

About two primitives nearly identical in the modern writing, liang?, with their derivatives.

rf}

First series: jf} chin’. Chin‘. A small piece of cloth resembling the EuroA

1p

Mm

pean handkerchief, that was worn in ancient times, banging from the girdle, and used for cleaning and dusting. By extension, a bonnet, the ancient Chinese putting on a cloth to cover their heads; cloth in general. [J represents the two extremities of cloth hanging

from the girdle;

{ represents the state of suspension; fm, ff) 2. A. i Rw.

— It is the the 50th radical of characters relating to cloth.

Note. The lower part of some ancient characters,

v.g. 7E L. 119, &

accidentally resembles fj. Note also that Ti (L. 79 C) has

nothing

L. 92,

in common

with fj. But ™ (L. 24 D) is derived from it, as are also the following characters

B

nig

m

Fu?. The cloth worn by the ancient Chinese, a kind of skin apron hanging from the waist, down to the knees.

custom

in the Imperial dress... —

It was

preserved

represents the

as a souvenir

girdle, tJ the

of ancient

piece

J the hanging of the same; | & 2 Rk. 56OW Wh BM

RW

ML

EF GK

of cloth,

&. ii

F KR Ti, Compare FF tai* (L. 24 Q), the construction

of which is analogous.

Note. The modern form jfi_ is used for three characters that must be carefully distinguished; fy shih’ market, L. 34 D; Ff fa apron, L. 35 B; 7fj feit vegetation, L, 79 G, that forms the important phonetic series 45, whilst the two preceding ones have only a few derivatives.

Pu’. A piece sf cloth made of hemp, nettles or dolic;

G

Ap

»

the ancient Chinese did not know of cotton. At the bottom ff, on the top 4 fat (L 43 G) as phonetic.

XW RB GRAM Chuan-chu; to spread out, etc. — Phonetic series 152.

D

to display,

TH HH. to explain,

Zz

Hsi'. The interstices of a woven

71

the crossed threads (L. 39 G); AR tt, BR 3, He

material, between

Chuan-chu, loose, not close, thinly, scattered, infrequent. Different chia-chieh. Now #, literally 7:

grain #; thin-sown. — Phonetic series 275.

Etymological Lessons.

35.

99

Chou®. A dusting-brush. See L. 44 K, L,

Shua'. To 3 wipe one’s Fi body with a fy rag; to

wipe;

KR 3 A Wh. AA A.

&, It is contracted

in the compound

Shua!. To scrape with JJ a knife or otherwise, to

scrub, to cleanse; i) a, $A AA

J). A

Bo

Pit. Rag, tatters. A ff} piece of cloth riddled with JX holes (L. 18 A, division). K’ang-hsi erroneously gives eight strokes to this character, instead of seven.

BWR £ FAG I eS BA

Bm He hee HE BH Ae HK, It forms the homophone and synonymous compound

(

ie

Pi‘, in which ¥& (L. 43 D) re-

> presents the physical action that torethe [fj cloth into fj shreds.— Phonetic series 641.

Chih3. It is also derived from #§. The top is 3 contracted (L. 102,1), boughs, foliage. fj cloth that has been pierced with

needles

and so

3% flowered.

Leaves were the first designs used for embroidery; BK

A.

A.

We 4. — It is the 204th radical.

Second series: rf liang?.

mw

m

Liang?.

It represents sealse in equilibrium.

character

is now

obsolete,

compounds in which

but

forms

its primitive meaning

still found. In these compounds,

This

important

may

a supperadded

be

ele-

ment develops the notion of weighing and equilibrium. Thus — two, represents the weight and counterpoise;

AA

to enter-enter

(L. 15), means that an equal

weight was placed on both sides; 3% 2 graphically represents the same thing. Etc.

400

Etymological Lessons.

35.

Liang’. Two weights equal, state of balance; (&,

Hi @ ok & tf JL. Hence Leang}. One ounce. This character is of modern origin. The —

level beam, is a graphic

In the sense of two,

redundancy.

this character is chia-chieh

for

the preceding. — Phonetic series 376. The scribes mutilate —fj in different ways, as may be seen here

Tsai‘. A second — weighing ;fJ, equal to the first one. —

on the top

represents the horizontal

beam.

Twice, again, repeated; RiIPL KR —. SEB

— It has nothing 2 i B —.B B 2 id’ AB FH,

in common with Fy. L. 116 A.

Ch’éng!.

This

character

is formed

like

the

preceding; but instead of — a beam, there is

a Pa ry)

Mien!.

It represents a hut, a dwelling;

& 4,

JE. — tis the 40th radical of characters relating to dwellings. It forms

a

Sung’. A hut 4» made with 7c wood;

JR», AK

Ae EB, T'ang}. A cave-dwelling 4+, in the 4G rock; BA +,

KG. id Bt.

Tsung'. Av ancestral hall; @& ji By t,o 4k», A ae. & FR. The building + from which emanates 7; (L. 3 D) the influence of the deceased ancestors over

their posterity.

By extension,

ancestors, a clan. —

Phonetic series 404.

Ning?.

Rest,

happiness; the if, heart of man being

satisfied, when he has a +» shelter anda fall ff] dish,

board and lodging; # 4. AR 4», AR ath, A , It is found contracted in

Ning?. That which one ff is in need of, to enjoy #f

rest; Br BA. MAJA, ie ooh AQ The MMofey was

rectly

replaced by ff, The scribes often

write incor-

102

Etymological

Lessons.

36.

Ning?. That which one aspires to Fy, to enjoy $e peace. To wish, to prefer; peace, to soothe;

4. BR A.

RB Si

The

modern

writers

BA inj

put

JT

(L. 57) instead of F (L. 58), out of respect for the etymology. — Phonetic series 785, under the modern form 2. — This character was specially ill-treated by the scribes. See, underneath the right one, some

Bh oF it

wrong ones invented by them.

Note:

# lao? is not derived from “>. L. 17 F.

Second series. In some modern characters, instead of being contracted into ++, mien? kept its ancient form. Only the dot which represents the top of the

roof, sometimes slipped to the left, aud was chauged intoJ . Examples:

pd JA oa

5

9

See L. 123 F.

Hsiang}. A small round window © in the Northern wall, under the roof +, for ventilation; 36 je 44, K+,M 4 O G, The © is the representation of the small window,

and not

[J the mouth, 30th ra-

dical. Ghuan-chu, lo face, direction. — Phonetic series 200. To

be distinguished from chiung? (L. 34 B). It forms

the

series

122. [a]

Shang}. Has nothing in common with apy (L. 48 H), under which it was classified by K’ang-hsi. The vertical

stroke is the top of -» protracted;

ay @eeo ak

the two lateral

strokes are /\ (L. 18 A), division, separation;

ED

AA /\,

Sp HA. The crest or ridge on the roof of Chi-

nese houses, which divides wind and raiv,and which is

placed last of all. Hence the meanings, to add to, still, elevated, superior, to esteem,

etc. —-Phonetic

series

391, in which fj placed above the radical, is contracted into —. In composition, fj means a roof ora house.

Ch’ang?®. To knock ¥& (L. 43 D) at a ff house door, to open. — Phonetic series 663.

Etymological

Lessons.

36.

408

T’ang?. Dry and even +- soil under a j roof. A hall, a meeting-house, a court. — Phonetic series 649.

BF 19:

Tang!'. Value of a fA field (L. 149), or of a house.

To value, equal to, to compensate,

to match,

convenient, etc. — Phonetic series 763.

Tang’. A house fj which is 54 smoky or dark. A poor hamlet. To club together in darkness, secretly, a cabal, a conspiracy. — Phonetic series 857.

Ch’eng!. To give § feet (L. 112 B) toa fj house,

AO: B0: SEW

to prop it up. The scribes altered the ancient form. —

Phonetic series 666. Shang}!. The flowing garment 3X, robe, which co-

vers the lower part of tbe body (L. 16); AA 4, fay BE.

Ke mt

Shang'. To bestow as a reward A cowries (L. 161), the money of the ancients; KA A. fy AE. A 4. It forms 4@ ch'ang?, to pay, to compensate.

Chang}?. The palm of the 32 hand. Chuan-chu, grasp, to rule (L. 48); RA =, fy .

Ch’ang?.

A banner jij used to head

(L. 35); hence chuan-chu,

rule, constant

to

the troops way,

con-

stantly; AR I, fa St.

KH 1

Ch’ang?.

To think

(L. 26 K); BA ,

Ff something good, to taste

fej %. Chia-chieh for the last. It

is often engraved incorrectly.

Etymological

404

Lessons.

37.

LESSON 37. About 7, derived from the primitive “», explained in the last Lesson.

A

R

Hstieh?. = 4.KA >, KA AA, A space obtained

Ns

by the 7A removal of rock or of earth; a cave, a hole a den. — It is the 146th radical. Phonetic series 425. It forms

B

Be

AA

T’u‘. A K dog (L. 134) that rushes headiong out of its A kennel, to attack an intruder. Chuan-chu,

OE

suddenly; MK, MR,

@S ER

Ap i b. Ts’uan'. A rat & (L. 189) in its % hole. To hide C

9

one’s self, to conceal one’s self in a place of safety; BE

iy AA ER FE XK oh,@& BH, — Phonetic series 843.

Ch’uan! To bore XX ,with the teeth JF (L. 147). To D

ia

perforate, te run througb, to put on; 3§ BAASBR

Ry &F Ho

5

Wa'. A hole, to make a hole as the robbers do when

E

uN

ra

they pierce throogh the walls; MA, @, Be (L. 9B).

,B > RK

RB

S., It forms # wai,

to dig out, to scoop out, to excavate.

Ch’iung?. A man A (L. 28) who § looks (L. 158) F

g

e

out from a 7X cavern, to & hit (L. 43 D) or to cateh.

To be on the watch for, to spy,

It is often altered,

g

to expect, to covet.

as are ali the intricate com-

pounds; M RKAEK SL.

BR

&.

R w,, lt forms the phonetic compound FW ch’iung?, a precious stove.

It is a radical

contracted

in the

imporiant compound

Huan’. To exchange, to change; A FA, AB. & Se

vy

&., To pass an object from

one

hand

to

another,

while #9 examining it atteatively, to avoid deception.

Now

aNote the contraction of fF into X, in the

modern writing. — Phonetic series 454.

ec

Chai’, In a confined space, narrow, as when one is “gf crouched down in a ZX hole. See L. 10 F.

LESSON

105

38.

Etymological Lessons.

38.

About the three primitives: LJ k’an; chu’, and kung!, which are both written J, in the modern way. A

Note: Two other primitives, i? (L 85 B) and ssw! (L, 89) are also written

J,, in the modern running hand: so that J, is used for four

ancient

Primitives,

which fact does not make the matter clearer.

First series: [J k’an’.

Bw

LJ

ohWY

K’an*. A hole in the earth, a pit; $R a 44H

SF,

— It is the 17th radical. It forms

K'ual'. A clod, a shovelful of 4+ earth; there is a hole [_J, where the earth was

removed;

a furrow,

a

trench; AA + — dit & FE.It forms fy chieh!, often incorrectly engraved Jag; a man FI (L. 32) sitting down on the trench which marks the limit of his properly, and thus asserting his domain. Boundary, limit.

> wy W

Hsiung!. This character represents the fall (L. 39 B) of a man into a || pit; AR, Hh BH RBH He oh, iz Bt, Chuan-chu, an accident, unfortunate, unlucky. — Phonelic series 62. Note the compounds

Hsiung!. $4)

&)

The

thorax, the

breast, the heart, the affections.

[Xj concealed in a man wo

4

“J

(L. 54). —Io the second form,

FI

JA (L. 65) represents the flesh enveloping [AJ the interior.

For, says the Glose, it isin the heart that the [XJ evil is

conceived; * 2, HK

RM

BA

Hh. —

Phonetic series 206.

LR

Hsiung!. A man JU (L. 29) under |X evil influonces, contemplating or doing evil; KA A FE LA F.& Ef, It forms the phonetic complex 4

Tsung!'. BWR,

To move, to shake; BL. 31 CY.

Phonetic. series 483,

Hsii. Mad (J with drink @ (L. 41 G).

Etymological Lessons.

106

38.

Second series: J, ch'i'.

fee

Ch’u'. Basin,

porringer;

representation is found

$e

#

in more

4,

(#.

This

intricate characters

designing different vessels. e. g.

Mi L 157A.

Ah

-£e

Ch'us An empty

HZ

th,

vessel and its cover; AA J,, +

HR JE, The top resembling - in the

modern writing, and

primitive.

4% in the old

Chuan-chu,

to empty,

aside, to leave; ideas coming vessel's

a L. 26 C.

2

cover,

and

one,

is a special

to remove,

from

the

of ils contents.

removal

Compare

to lay of a below

Ze. — Phonetic series 119. It forms

¥FH

Tiu'. To lose. Falling down J and disappearance F of an object; KAA J KA H.& FR. Compare & L, 48 B.

Chieh?. To prevent by Fy violence (L. 58) a man

from #& going, as the brigands do; A HR #HL VW Ik. BHR I, KH & EF. By extension, coercion, violence. The scribes often write $j, which is a wrong character. The philologists refer to ZH, a

contracted phonetic,

the compounds

of 4

in ieh,

as {¢ chieh*, etc. The same cover, upon a different vessel, may be found in the ancient forms of the

following characters

ee

Hu.

A pot, a jug. The representation

of the vessel

isa primitive. On the top, the cover. J 9 ah. & JEHK & GH F Wh, It has nothing in common

with a ya‘, L. 82H. Not to be confounded with k'un?, L. 45 A. It forms the next. + A!, A kind of ritual vase of old.



S

This character, now obsolete in

the primitive sense, is used instead of —~ one, in casting up accounts. See 24 C, and

38 D. & was the F auspicious vase; HF was the [Xj inauspicious corresponding vase.— Phonetic series 690.

Etymological

Lessons.

38 39.

107

g

Ho?. A dish filled and its cover. To till, to cover.

j

This cover resembles the cover of #, the vase being represented by Jf] (L 157 A) instead of J,. In the vase, — represents the contents (L. 1, 4°). #5 4h.

KAM RHA K &

{£ &, In the modern

writing,

FEM. —.

the scribes coutracted

Mt ys

SB.

the cover and the

contents into $, thus forming an illogical character, for it is made with one cover

+ and two vases, J, and fff. tt is often chia-chieh for $3, an interrogative particle: Be BK 2 zal. — Phonetic series 532, under its modern form. Note the compound

5

a

ate — Kaiit. A 2g roof made with 44 coarse grass used for

mish Jit.

thatching, to put a roof on, to conceal

and figuratively; a cover; 2 47s Sk WS

AAA

both

literally

HilA AS, HH. The mo-

dern form # is admilted by the critics, but 3%& is au unauthorised character.

Third series: J, kung!.

a

H

Dy >

Kung'. It was at first a rudimental representation

of the arm bent; 4 W (® Feo

4h. Then the hand

FL. 46.) was added. The latter forms the phonetic

>)

series 69.

U LESSON

39.

two primitives (Series { gad 2); About the character >, which corresponds with and about its multiples (Series 3. 4. 5.).

First series: 4 wu’. A

@ BR. It gn, liveJX elemen sithe l ca ts( four ri me ou FF Fi Glose, a the ; repres Fivesays Wu.ents,

we

Fe &

Later on, sides and the centre, compare + L. 24 A). and heaven ent two strokes were added, to repres earth, and thus was formed

Wu Five; FG EKO eS

X

EK MH El

live The two principles yin! and yang’, begetting the forms It earth. and elements, between heaven Wut. Au appellation to design one’s self; 1, my, me;

name

A

DDB

Phonetic series 316.

108

Etymological Lessons.

39,

Second series: X,i+.

PRY\

I+. This character is intended to depict the blades of shears;

action

of cutting

or

turning;

action

or

infiuence of any kind. It is formed of two J (L. 7 C)

intercrossed and jointed; KA J) \ FH 2, @ Ho Sol Bi 4. To cut grass, to mow. Jt is found in

Sha’. To cut % an jjt ear. See L. 45 J. Hsiung’. To roll down > intoa [J pit. See L. 38 D.

Third series: Two >, side by side, represent the meshes in the important character

c BD ih ae

Wang’. A net; to throw down

the net, to entangle,

to catch. It is derived from +> covering

(L.

34 H),

and XX representing the net; KA —

Hp &

422th

nets.

HeH.R Ht BLK radical

of characters

RH

B, —It is the

concerning

The

scribes alter J, so that it may be mistaken for bent down mm (L. 458). It forms

A fe

Wang’.

To carry off (5 by a cast of PR) the

net

10

(L.

E).

By

extension,

disappearance,

absence, negation; compare #% (L. 101, J). The scribes wrote PX) in such a way that it resembles the 469th radical FY. — Phonetic series 408. Not to be coufounded with the next

es)

» Ht m if

Kang!. The culminating

point of a mountain

[ff

(L. 80), coverod PR) by the clouds: i] af. The Glose rejects fig as being a graphic redundancy, and gives $2 as an irregular form of [iJ], Phonetic — series 366.

Chaot. To take a bird f£ (L. 168) ina PR] net; AA

PR ANE

oe RD TH FRE bh.

Lo?. To catch birds 4 with a JR) net made with 3% threads (LL. {68 and 92). — Phonetic series 815.

409

39.

Etymological Lessons.

Li‘ To blame. To entangle f¥} aculprit, in the & reproaches (L. 73 C) addressed to him; JA BY, BA

B.8ER WBA Fa’.To

tH.

punish, a penalty; A JJ,

Railings = and corporal maimings JJ sword (L. 52).

KM. @ &. inflicted

with a

C.)hih+. The Glose explains this character as follows: to procure the delivery

of a ff just man(L.

10 K),

fallen into the net fx} ofa slanderous accusation; JA AA i.& & Chuan-chy, to procure, to dispose.

of me OO Se

oR

Pat. To dismiss a HE mandarin, drawn into a fi spare. To cease, to stop. See L, 27 J.

Fourth series: Two X superposed, Yao?. Mutual action and reaction 3 4 (L, 39 B); influence; symmetrical disposition, net-work, etc. —

It is the 89th radical. Note the form of 3% on the top of the compounds,

(& $F

Hsiao®. To learn. The disciple

(L. (4), impro-

ving under the influence 7% of the master; fy 3 * & A, See below 4. —Nottobe confounded with # hsiao’, filial piely, L. 39 E. — It forms

BX

y

Chiao!'. To teach. Here the Xz (L.43 D) ferule is joined to the master’s infiuence, for the for

$8we, 5c

mation of the F disciple; FR fa. F Br xe+h. KX MR KF. BH Hsiao®. To learn. This character is more explicit than %& (above H). Both hands £3 (L. 50 A) of the master, 3€ acting from above upon the darkness which covers + (L. 34-H) the mind of -¥ the disciple. ¥%

HE Mo MA EI, Re. Fo > KH.

— Phonetic

series 733, under the contracted form 4, =f- always giving place to the radical. Note # chiao?, to perceive, to feel, which forms some insignificant compounds.

mF ® ® | BR th

Etymological Lessons.

39 49.

Yao%. Meat fy, cut up % and made ready according to the rules. —

Phonotic series 412.

Hsi!. Interstices of any material, between the intercrossed 7 threads; loose, scarce, ete. See L. 35 D. — Phonetic series 275.

Fan®. Fence, hedge-row. From two 7& trees, bound

and interlaced 2%, to forma hedge; BA fk, % Re

4 fe Wh ME AB ob,Soe MEL. 47.

Po’. A horse Bi (L. 137), 3 dappled,

spotted; 55

% Hl. HE E A Mi, By extension, to find fault with, to criticise, to censure, to refute. This character

is often incorrectly written 5%.

Fifth series:

AB HR

> repeated four times %3. representing symmetry,

meaning

action, in the following

Erh®. Harmony. See L. 35 L. — Phonetic series 776.

Shuang’.

A man X (L. 60) acting 3% with both

arms; active, alert, cheerful; BA 3%. KA K.

HK

There are diflerent chia-chieh. Compare 13 B, and 27 E.

LESSON

40.

About the three series py Aq Ba, includiug five primitives.

First series: fg hsin‘.

“Y ® HL

Hsin'. The skull, the cover of the brain; BY 28 4. {R, In composition, the head. It is often altered in the modern writing, sothat it resembles FA (L 149) It forums

P i®. The navel, which is supposed to be in communication with the head pq, through }t ducts in which

circulate the vilal spirits. See L. 27 I. — Phonetic series 557.

Etymological

BR @

Lessons.

1441

40.

Ssu'. To think; Ki. KB Od. & BBA.

3h tA tH, & AK fa. When one is thinking, says the

Glose, the vital fluid of the fy heart ascends to the fg brain. — Phonetic series 477. It forms

Li‘. To meditate; Be KAGE

ah,

x » Phonetic series 807.



NS bn 300

Head {xj and £4 hands. It will be explained, with its important series, in the L. 50, MNO

P.

Hsi*. Tenuous, slender, like a thread; M % (L. 92), KA fi. It may be that the primitive sense was hair,

the % filaments that cover pq the head.

Sub-series: { hsin‘, which is often engraved by the modern writers §§ op {¥,

a8 ah

B

WY

Hsin‘. The hairy head; Hi & ae,

Kkbk He

48, This was first a special primitive, representing the hair raised up and Knotted in a tuft; then the [xj was covered with hair (L. 12M). The engravers often

cutting fq instead of Pq, the derivatives of {fF hsint are easily confounded wirh those of (& tzt!. See LL. 150 A, and 121. —

It forms

Nao®. The brain, the marrow of the head, says the

Glose; HE Hi ALAA GBA BAA K 1 82oh. a #&, The

& (L. 26 A, 2°) is intended to mean the

symmetrical structure of the brain, hemispheres and

lobes. — Note:

tb always contracted into &, &

giving place to the radical, forms the phonetic series

469, JRS Hj Fei ete.

A‘B

34 7£ Oy £. Lieh+. Hairy, bristly, disorderly; The top is the hairy head, as above. The bottom is §Q shu, rat (L. 139 B) contracted; the whiskers and the tail of a rat.— Phonetic series 805. Fei‘. Monkey. See L. 23 F.

Etymological Lessons.

412

Second

40.

series: ff fu‘.

© tE)

é

©

8

BR RK *

Ful. Head ofa devil, ofa phantom; FZq 't forms

%

BA dL. ie

Kui. The spirit of a dead man, a manes,

a ghost, a

spectre. Further, after the introduction of Buddhism,

it meant, a devil, a préta.

EA

BR

A OR GG BS BM GH AK A Be

A.

BA

The old character is evidently a primitive representing a human form floating in the air. The more recent forms often show the split head of Buddhist prétas, and always have an appendage, that was sometimes taken fora tail, but that really represents the whirling made by the ghost, while it moves. — It forms the {94th radical of characters relating to devils. Phonetic series 548. — Now § is a synonym for horrid, repulsive, malignant.

Wei. To dread, to be in awe, awful, terrible. The character was first composed of the head of a spectre fa. and of claws JK (L. 49). Later on, a man

A frightened, was added; for, says the Glose, nothing

NS

inspires more awe, than

the

the claws ofa tiger; A WA

head

of a demon,

ALAA,

Ai eN TRH. RAR

or

@& Bek

eK

JK A a. Compare the composition of 8, L. 135 H. The

bottom

of the modern

character

is a strange

contraction (compare L. 10 H); Aq lost its J ;finally K ang-hsi placed this character thus altered under FA, the 120th radical. — Phonetic series 488.

Yii?. An ape; #& a AA ALAA 14, a ef,Its fq head and its tail and paws {4 ; the head resembles that of a

demon, fH (] 52, See L. 23 E — Phonetic series 503. Pi'. To agree, to enter into an engagement.

fq is

not a head. ft is the pledge, the earnest-money placed

upon a JC small table (L. 29K), an act that concindes a transaction. By extension, to yield (to the conditions), to give (the earnest-money). Classified by

Etymological

Lessons.

4413

40,

K’ang-hsi under fq the 402th radical. BF 4h,8 4h #9

fFRZ mE

MBEH

MAM oe

B

Compare L. 47 R SB i*, difference, disagreement. The F9 hands rejecting fy the pledge placed upon the table 7, that is, the affair is not concluded,

the

bargain is not made. — Pi* is phonetic in

es

Pi?. The nose; KA, SF AK,

fy BX

209th radical.

See & (L. 159 A).— It is the

Note: {@ aud fj muck annoyed K'ang-hsi. Finally he classified fg under [J the 31th radical, and fj under [¥ the 102th radical. It is therefore not easy to see the etymological meanings in the modern series of radicals.

Third series: [i] ch’nang!. This modern character has two ancient forms, each forming a distinct series. Further there will be an appendix for the modern abbreviation 2.

&)

D

fi)

Ch’uang!. A window, closed by a shutter or by lattices (two forms); (& FZ, It is now replaced by its

compound ,

4. Derivatives from the first ancient form. Besides shu! shutter, note

ch'uang! window,

and

tit

Ts’ung!'. To feel alarm or agitation; & 3B a. B }

thy, & #_ When the jf) heart being restless, one looks through the fq window, to see what is coming. —

Phonetic series 656. 9. Derivatives from the second ancient form.

RQ 2

i.

21s

Hei!. Black. That which the XX fire deposits around the fj aperture through

ork

HAS.

RCA

HK HB HR

which the smoke

ARE

escapes;

MOS

eS F,In the primitive

Chinese huls, the smoke found its way through the window. Note the contraction of § (L. 126 D) in the modern charocter. — It is the 203th radical. Phonetic series 678. It forms

Mei.

Chinese ink, an earthy 4 substance

made with 2 soot; M+

KAS, & B.

444

Etymological Lessons.

40, 44.

Hstin!. Smoke, to fumigate. Black 32 vapour that rises from the fire; WY (L. 78 A)is used symboli-

cally; MY MSE Se SY

& ws FE WF,

RKEEBEEA Note the modern

contrac-

tion. — Phonetic serjes 781.

&3a}

Tang?. A meeting faj in the darkness 24; conspiracy. See L. 36 E. — Phonetic series 857.

\ fr

Tséng', ts'éng?. The words that people say Af to each other, when still at the Pq door, at the

moment

of 7\ departure; adieu. By extension, still, more,

a> & s

to

add. — Phonetic series 710.

Huit. The words that people 4 say at the fq door, when A (L. 144) they meet; greeting. By extension,

meeting, reunion. — Phonetic series 736.

Note. & Chien? does not come from fq. It is HX added with 7\. See

L. 75 A.

3. Appendix. #2 an abbreviation of iJ, above 40 D, is found in 2% ts'ung! for Al. Ay BY Hence 4% ts'ung! onion. stuy sie

LESSON

41

The seven series of this Lesson are devoted to seven characters, distinct in the ancient writing, analogous or identical in the modern writing, viz: 4. fy ping’. — 2, jW vient. — 3. jf hsiat. — 4,5, 6 pW hsi', t'iao®, yao'. — 7, PF ya’.

First series:

jj ping’.

Du

AA

a

Ping®. Fire, calamity. The fire 4 under a

» roof,

in a house. The more recent form represents the flames rising up and — spreading over the roof; He

Hot KM KE.

oS

AK BE.

Phonetic series 150 It forms

Kéng!. To change, to improve; & &, & th. BA XA

LR

oh AK, Intervention of the —€ armed

hand (L. 43 D) in a jy fire, in an unhappy situation;

change, amendment. Note the contraction of the modern character, and the compound 3 su!, to return to & life. K'ang-hsi erroneously classified a under —q, the 73th. radical, — Phonetic series 283, it forms

Etymological

ee Jz

Pien‘.

Lessons.

Pien®.

4f.

415

A man

J who settles FE his

affairs well; advantage, convenience, ease: GuweA

AOA BH

ZA A



HE. — Phonetic

series 474,

Second series: § tien‘. Tien*. @ B

wv

Chin.

A_ primitive.

The

second

ancient

character is considered as an abbreviation of the first, which was explained in the L 47 1. ln composition,

Py is often used for py (L. 17 G), dried meal. It forms the phonelic compound

Chien‘.

Kubia

cordifolia,

a climbing

plant

with

large ovale leaves, used in dyeing.

Hsui*. A A man

who eats or offers Fy (for fy)

dried meat [t forms

Hsu'. Hsiu*. A roof “» ye

(ia

stops, to spend the night;

under

which a traveller

ff means,

either that he

eats the dried meat he brought with him, or rather that

he

gives

Ihe

dried

meat

to

pay

his

host

Constellations, the celestial inns. The scribes write

for jay; it is a licence.— Phonetic series 613.

mi

ii Wy

Pi*. Aid, helper, lieutenant, §f bo, & URES, AR A. FH. Two F bows, strung on a bamboo with jy leather-strongs, to prevent deformation, Fy 8, & je 4. The idea of helper, of minister, comes from the fact that, in ancient times, bows, like swords, were paired, not single, See L 87 B.

Third series: {fj hsiat Hsia‘. A kind of stopper, C

yp ru

of cover; Ze WW. 48 SS,

A primitive, often engraved f§. — It is the radical of a few common character. It forms

(16th

we

Chia’. Ku®. To buy. To fff cover an object by its

A

value in & eowries (L. 161), to pay its value.

re]

Fu?. To cover. See L. 75 1.

Etymological

116

Fourtb

Lessons.

44.

series: 4 hsi'.

MS

Hsi'. A primitive not to be confounded

with the

preceding, uader which K’ang-hsi wrongly chassified it. Image of a bird sitting on its nest; note the

successive contractions; B 7E 4 £.4 #6, Chuanchu, the West, for the birds go to roost when the sun

issctling, HAR BZ

AMER

KALU

BR

BW, It forms

Jéung'. Cry and flight of a bird caught on its nest; #

RE aff, It is now written jay. See L. 19 A, where this character was fully explained.

Yin!. To destroy, to wall, to dam in; # 4 .4A +,

AA Wi.& FH. See + j@be Go &r&

L. 81. It is now written

jw.

The primitive idea was probably that of mud nests built by certain birds, v.g. such as the swallows. — Phonetic series 499.

= eH Br &r

Lu®. The rock salt, that was first used by the Chinese, and that comes from the West, says the Glose. Hence the composition: #y hsi!, West, in its ancient form,

and four grains of salt; RG Fy WR hhAAA OW Oe, M » A, BS FE, — lt is the 197th radical. It forms the compounds

Yen?. Sait obtained by evaporation of the sea-water;

KEAR AE BB AwK EB ZS. Ancient form pg salt and the fff basin (L. 157 A) used to prepare it. Compare %& L. 82 F. Chien’. Impure carbonate of soda.

Hsien. Salted.

HE wee

T'an?. Pickled. See L. 75 G.

Etymological

Lessons.

41.

417

Fifth serics: 9§ tiao®, contraction of FR. T'iao?. Fruits hanging from plants or trees, in ears

E

8

A) Le}

or in buoches; Bi 7K Bf a, MeJG. A primitive. On the top f the pedicle, at the bottom the ear or the ' bunch. The ancient form was thrice repeated, to mean

the multitude of fruits. Not to be confounded with fj asingular form of ~§ yu? (L, 41 G). K’ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under fy, the 25th radical.

In composition,

wrillen

9], v.g.

in the modern

Li‘. Chestnut-tree; JA AK, HR

forms,

i is

TF AR, See KL.

419. — Phonetic series 550.

Bg

g

Sut. Ears, grains of corn; BA RR, Be A Ah. See K L. 422.

Sixth series: #§ yaot, contraction of fal.

F

147

ko

Seventh series: G

8

es. Be, TE See L.50,N,0,P. yu’.

8

Yu?. A primitive. It represents an ancient vase, a kind of amphora, used for making or keeping the fermented liquors. By extension, fermented liquor,

now jj chiu®. # , Be Ze FE.

Ay |. There are

chia chieh of different kinds. — It is the 164th radical of characters relating to liquors It forms

Yu? or shu®. To offer up 7§ libations, in the old

Ey

way, on a straw bundle Pp; 9 Ze 3 SF hn WSR

EMRHBBRE

SH RMKZ

EM A.

MY, te iB YY VT. @& BH. See page 362.

Chiut. Liquor 7 obtained when the fermentation is

Coad y

B

over, when the dregs are entirely 7\ separated (L. 184A);

spirits that have settled; AA By, MAA @& Bo mH ii +, — Phonetic series 432. It forms

s e

B

Tsun’. To offer with Fj both hands, the #] wine, to the manes. By extension, to honour,

high, noble.

See L. 46 E. The scribes replaced FA by +H.— Phonetic series 743.

448

Etymological



Lessons.

44, 42.

Tien}. Spirits {% for the libations, placed upon a small table JC (L. 29 K); to offer libations.

scribes often contracted

The

JC into sk, It forms the

compound

Bf

(=)

ee Chéng}. Name of a & city.

LESSON

42.

About the two primitives pQ ssi‘ and BY chiung’. First series: pg ssi. Sst‘. Four. Numerical sign. Even number, which is

A

easily divided into two halves. The old form graphically represents the division of JQ into two halves. — Phonelic series 1 0.

+&

Liu‘. Six. The even

is also indicated;

A

number,

also easily divisible,

that comes after four; fQ mafked with a dot. Note that in the other simple even numbers, the divisibilily — two; 7\ eight.

P'1®. Half of a whole.

waoS JA

The whole is represented

by

f¥. A little more than the half of pg was kopt, so that the character is still recognisable; Fp W & —.

Mo— Fe AW

4, That which, being joined with

its like, forms a pair, a match

See the compound $f

L. 73 B.

Second series: [yf chiung®.

‘hl @ i

Chiung®. A window, @& fig, 4 FZ. By extension,

light; BH ah o3t ah, Compare Pk] L 40D, and & L 44 G. The modern form is to be distinguished from fy L. 15 C. It forms the compounds

Méng’. A liliaceous plant, Fritillaria Thunbergii. A phonetic complex.

Etymological Lessons. C

Ay)

Ming?.

42, 43.

Brightness,

449

to illustrate.

The

JJ

moon



aA

shining through the BY window; HA a. HA A, BA PA.@& H. Li-ssii read ff instead of PY; hence AA, Qy) _ & sun and § moon, light. — Phonetic series 384. It forms

s

Méng?. Note in the first place that the radical is not fl. as the

character

modern.

might

induce

one

to

believe; it is gy blood; AA fi. AA BA, FA oh RR, ik fa 2% +2. To clear eo

w

aA

ei

up

HY an

obscure affair, by

swearing, inthe old way, upon a vessel full offf, blood.

Méng?. To bud, to germinate, to open, to appear in BA OP Be, See the light; #) ZF a BA YY, JA BAL L 78 B.

LESSON

43

The eight following Lessons, 43 to 50, treat about the cbaracter representing the human hand. Among the modifications introduced in the modern writing, there were none more depiorable, than the replacing ters, by unrecognisable abbreviations.

of those very expressive charac-

In the old writing, the hand is represented in six different ways: The right hand in profile. L. 43 seq.

The right hand prone. L. 49.

The left hand

Both hands

in profile. L 46.

raised. L. 47.

The hand

Both hands

facing. L. 48.

hanging L. 50.

Note. The use ofa compound, instead of the primitive, is frequent in these A series, in order to make easier the distinclion between the numerous derivatives

from hand, See p. 16, note 1.

420

Etymological Lessons.

43.

First series: %.

BA

Yu*. The right hand. The Glose explains that the fingers

reduced

are

for

to three,

the

sake

of

simplification; # FF WAR IG.= 8 Bolt is found —

in a great number of compounds.

It is the 29th

radical.

Chih!.

Bough, branch. The right hand

bough. The old form represents

holding a

the hand separating

the bough from the stem; & T7 & te HW. KM

4% SE 7}.& BH, — Itisthe 65th radical. — Phonetic series 45.

P'u'. To tap; J. @ &, AW

HK b, @ HB. The

right hand holding a rod. Compare 40 L. 43 G. The engravers invented the modern form 4C. — It is the 66th

radical

of characters

relating to strokes and

motions. Note the two following compounds

ee

v5

Mu’. Shepherd, to feed. The man who ¥& superintends, has

oversight of 4B cattle; KM &,

K+ @ &, x SR

aK

Chiao!. To teach. The master armed with a & rod, 3¢ acting upon his -{- disciple. See L.

80H. Ah, BA. EB eV BEBhab.

Fan’. To turn over, inversion. The motion J~ of the 3 hand turning over; KE F 4, HE BKM FQ,

BAY AR. FE 3. — Phonetic series 55. Chi?. To reach, to seize. A hand

9 seizing a A

man; BR 4. MA A. & BH See L. 19 D. — Phonetic series 40.

Fu‘. Father, consideved as the ehief and instructor

of his family. Composed of 3 hand and

mR kB RAM L. 43 D. —

1B BG

[|astick;

S, Compare

It is the 88th radical. Phonetic series

60

Etymological Lessons.

Bf

43.

424

P’i?. To flay; skin. The hand 9 that flays; #ij Hy Bt He RB

ZZ JKo The left stroke represents the skin;

the stroke above the 3 hand may represent the knife. These two strokes are a special primitive. — It is the . 407th radical of characters relating to skins. Phonetic series 149. It forms

RF

Chia’. False, borrowed; AK — Jk. Ff, To have = two jx skins, a double skin, a borrowed skin over The modern character reproduces

one’s true skin.

the ancient one. — Phonetic series 427.

‘RhB®

Nan, nien’. Thin skin. It is an abbreviation of je. Not to be confounded with R fa, L. 55 C. It forms

#@ nan°, to blush. Turniog jp red of the thio skin that covers the cheeks.

Second K

series:

In the modern writing, the stroke } of Z is suppressed, when it coincides

with a stroke in the same direction, coming down from the top of the character.

In this case, there remains but \ from 4. In the ancient writing, these characters are made like those of the first series.

er

Phonetic series 13.

"RS

Shih? Annalist, scribe, literate. A hand 3 grasping ep the fountain-pen (page 7); BB BM 3& a, A 3 % .@& FF. It forms

Chang}. A line of ten spans (See R_L. 32 F).A

hand and -+ ten; + RDM

LE

+8

9

Rw —

Li‘. Those among the gh titera-

N

g

ti, who were

fF (L. 2 G) set

over the instruction and admi-

nistration of the people;

GAL

ok§F

KA—,M BL. HM



ho AK S Mh he—See AL. aH.

Chiieh?. To divide, to partake; 7p Hh, AA 9, sh AR, Be FE, A hand holding one half of a bilateral efs object, which was divided into two halves. K’ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under XK, the 37th radical. — Phonetic series 53.

122

Etymological Lessons.

43. 44.

Third series: Multiples of 3

ne =

WY

Yu. Friend, friendship. The character represents the right hands of two friends, acting in the same direction; for, says the Glose, true friends are those

who cooperate;

ff] GB

A.

KA

4.89.

Compare L. 46 C.

oR

“s

Jao?. Three hands 3 picking herbs; to gather; # 3 4, It is an ancient form of #F L. 46 G The hand represented thrice signifies activity. It forms

Sang!. The mulberry, the FR RR

K BM

" BZ 3H

=

A.

Chot. To sew;

tree, the leaves of which are plucked to feed the silkworms;

FE, — Phonetic series 558. $F BW.

fA JB. This character

has nothing in common with 4 the hand. It is a primitive that represents the stitches encroaching upon one another. Compare 5* (L. 57 B). — Phonetic series 341.

LESSON 44. A

In this Lesson,

we shall examine

some

characters in which

the hand

9

Kept almost its ancient form =} in the modern writing. The ancient forms of these characters

resemble

those of the last Lesson. Do not confouhd the hand =}, with

the 58th radical -].

2

F

Ch’ou®.

A

3 hand J bound. To bind, to tie up;

MK 3A ti B 2S. FB. character.

Sometimes,

hand (L. 43 A). —

Chia-chieh,

in composition,

a cyclical

it means

the

Phonetic series 50. It forms.

Hsiu}!, To be forced to offer ff

PA

a sheep 2€ in expiation, as a reparation for wrong. Hence, to feel ashamed, to blush.

Yin. A magistrate, to govern, A hand 3 that exerts

J authority;iti

KAR

J RRA HB,

4h BH, lt forms ft it,a proper name; and

zB

Chiin!. A prince; RMF,

M

A ee ee eo ee)

dt, See, p. 9, for the story and the interpretation of this character. — Phonetic series

267. But @ ts’ang! is not derived from #. See L. 26 M, uoder @.

Etymological Lessons.

44.

123

Nieh!. A hand 3 writing upon — a surface. In the ancient form, 3 hand | writing upon a [J tablet, whose top only is figured.

Yii‘. A more explicit form. Hand writing ~ a line on a tablet. The line is horizontal, because it was impossible to trace a vertical one (p. 18,8). The modern

writing-brush is written 3®, because its handle is made of ff bamboo. — It is the 129th radical. See its important derivatives, L. 169.

Tai‘. To reach, to seize, to hold. A hand 3 that seizes a tail

FB; when

RAKE

running,

ASR

one seizes

from

behind;

IH AS ERR

2

4, For #& contracted, see L. 100. Compare 3 ch'iu?, L. 45 K. See also (L. 102 B) J b’ang!, that has nothing in common with 3%. — It is the 171th radical.

Chieh?. Result, success. The hand 9 having reached its Y end, Jk ceases from acting. See jf L. 112, and

L.

78. —

Phonetic series 330

It forms

Ch’i!. Wife. — This form is a relatively modern one; tc (L. 67) a woman who 3 holds a broom ora duster. For, says the Gluse, the woman

must take care

of the household. Compare #% (below K). — A more ancient form gives: %& daughter, and ea) price (L. 111 B). The price paid to the parents, for their daughter, by the husband. — Phonetic series 326.

Shih’. To serve. Chia-chieh any affair. Hand 3 acting with

efs fidelity,

is a false interpretation.

This

character has nothing to do with gh L. 43 M. It re4

presents the hand of a son inviling the soul

ZS

of his ancestor. See page 370.

424

Etymological

Lessons.

44.

Ping®. Sheaf of graiv 7#€ hold by a 9 hand, to bind

I

in sheaves, to hold; A Hw

MAKHR

B BH,

Chien'. A hand 3 that binds up into sheaves two (several) FR stalks of grain. By extension, to join several together, a whole. Note the contraction of the

two JK in the modern form. — Phonetic series 519.

Hui*. A broom, bundle of branches ## held in a 3;

J

es

a

BY

# 4,7 HE. See L 97 B. K’ang-hsi wrongly

classified this character under ~] the 58th radical. — Phonetic series 617. It forms

5

Hstieh®, Snow; ff rain solidified, that may be ££ swept

a

away; He FY aL. BA AB. BA FE. Twi A. F FS, The

EH

scribes contracted #& into =. Z

a

Chou.

A duster, made with a cloth, fixed by the

middle to a handle. Invented in the 2ith Century

B.

C., according to the Glose, it is still used in our days.

A 3 hand, the

[ handle, and a double-cloth

hanging. Compare the bottom of ME L. 24 Q. — netic series 343, It forms

ie

Fut.

A married

woman,

fj Pho-

wife; AA & #% a 8 UR

i.fF 3%, A woman & with a # duster, indicating her household duties. The ancients,

says the Glose,

gave

to this character

the

sound of fu, to remind the wife that she must be f% fu, obedient to her husband.

Compare 3 ch’i!, above G.

=} ae Kui. The arrival jf of the bride at her husband's ig dk house, where she will stay as a wife «yp (Sf contracted), tc HK AL PA IEA Hi 2G. FR, later on Q was added as a phonetic. Chuanchu, to belong to, to depend upon; the maried woman

belonging to a new

family,

being submitted to a new authority.

2 L

ioe

Chin’ a

(above

To dust K)

A

Pleonastic

4 hand holding a ap duster composition

scribes invented the modern form, —

(‘wo

3). The

Phonetic

series

261. The compound fm ch'in‘, to encroach upon the néighbour’s ground, is explained thus: to acl gradually and discretely, as with a 4 dusting-brush, thus gaining on { one’s neighbour's ground; jay #4 dt,FF tS

Etymological Lessons,

LESSON A

About five derivatives from

45.

425

45.

5 , that are of a special

of the series derived from them. These are: sf &%

interest,

on

account

jit RR.

First series. +f. B

+

»

Ts un‘. The Chinese inch. The dot represents the place oi the wrist where the pulse is felt, whioh place is an inch distant from the nand; hence the meaning

KA

-KBS AFH

inch;

-—t

HR Z

sf 1, By extension, measure, rule.

In composition,

sf is ofien written instead of.

; see L. 43 A. — Itis

the 41th radical. Phonetic series 32. It forms

C

At

iy

Fu. To give. A hand sf that gives up some object toa A man; KA } & H HB AL RK. — Phonetic series 420. It forms

a Ht

fis

Fu?, Building J” where the records, the title-deeds of ff donations,,

the

diplomas,

were

kept, 4 @ 38 ab, By extension, tribunal, palace.— Phonetic series 355, pa

D

a1

Shou.

(S|

A mandarin, a prefect; the man who, in his

+ tribunal, applies the sf law; BA >, KR wf, & 8.

& wo

HE BE . By extension, to observe,

to keep. — Phonetic series 237.

E

2

&

Té2. To acquire, to obtain; By Ww BB te eo FF U. To lay one’s hand +f on the thing one

sabe



had in view §, The compound 4 is now used instead.

— Phonetic series 397. Sometimes B is used as an abbreviation of Bf, e.g. #g for Be nai!; it is a licence. Note the contraction of the modern character.

F

=

4

Hsitin?. To wind, to unravel treads 2 with

x

ZR

the hands and the 1; the latter probably

(>

ting an instrument used for the winding. JA 4, f,

ces

3 +f

represen-

16,2, @S. 2H. 9 ot Fp Z.The old character represented the unravelling of threads by two handsF

holding combs, By extension, to examine, to investi-

126

Etymological

Lessons.

45.

gate (the windiog requires attention); length, duration (as of a thread winded ). The character was allered by the scribes. There are different chia-chieh. — Pho-

a

netic series 686.

Chou?. The fore-arm, the elbow; KK BW. PA Hh.& # , The fleshy AJ part above the +f wrist.

ey

Chou’. The crupper of a saddle;

44 wa. The

preceding contracted, is supposed to be the phonetic.

Now #4.

ay oH

T’ao’. To rule vf by one’s FF words; to chide

AGA

>

&

¥§

DG Bot EB.

Ch’a!. To cross, to interlace. The ancient

character represented the two hands interlaced. [In the modern character, the left hand is represented by —, $= #§



BE

MGS LOAF

& IR H. By extension,

earings, toothed wheels, etc. —

Phonetic series 12.

Third series.: %

Chao’. Claws; $= § points; A} HB.

:

=

2, Hand or paw with — FHF H. It forms

Tsao?.Flea. The insect 4 that irritates men, says the Glose. —

Phonetic series 576.

Fourth series: 7ft.

adh eR He 7K

3 a

Shu?. A glutinous grain, rice or millet; 4 RZ &4 HK AL. The idea of glutinousness is represented by the hand 3, that separates three agglutinated grains. The aocient charater represented the plant. — Phonetic series 158. It forms

Sha!. To decapitate; 2& 44,KA wt, KM >, 2,

The cutting >4 (39 B) of the ear, upon a stalk of ft rice, sorghum or millet. The ancient forms represent: on the top, the hand after the cutting; at the bottom,

the stalk beheaded. To behead a man is now said #% sha!, 4% (L. 22 D) representing the sword’s stroke.

Etymological Lessons. x

45. 46.

127

Note that the modern scribes, leaving off the dot on the =

IIL

= ZIN

top of Ft, write $z Hi) etc., which gives the phonetic 6 strokes, instead of 7, and makes one mistake j{¢ for

AK (L. 119). It is a licence. K’ang-hsi

numbered

6 strokes

in Fi), 7 in Fe, then

6 again in-¢&, etc. It is an inconsistency.

Fifth, series: xR. ~ K

eK

Ch’iu®. To search for, to ask, to implore. As 7}s

to the Glose, the primitive

composition

of this character would be like those of

BARE 4,8. w 3 IB) #F; toseize, or to hold contracted (L. 100 B). The meaning, to beg, to pray, would

According

and

meaning

3 (L. 44 E);

3 by the tail fe come from 3% 4F

sacrifice of a bull for impetration, as under the J Chow Dynasty. Perhaps, in this sacrifice, the offerer held by its tail the offered bull. — primitive sense was

It seems

9, to offer 28 hairs (L 100) of the victim,

was done in the ancient sacrifices. K’ang-hi

wrongly

rather that the with

prayers, as

classified 3 under 7{¢ wa-

ter. — Phonetic series 263.

LESSON

A

46.

The first Series of this Lesson treats about the left hand

f. In the modern

writing, on the top of the compounds, it becomes -+-; af the bottom, it becomes -f, etc. It is never written ££ (See LL. 44 and 135 H).

The second Series treats about some compounds,

in which the right hand

placed on the top, became also 7 in the modern writing. In their ancient

4

form,

those compounds are made just like those given in the LL. 43, 44, 45.

First series: } for F.

Tso. The left hand; FF

y

wh, (FR JB, Was soon

replaced by

B

E

ye

Tso%. Properly, the help J given by the left hand SF H to the right, its action; AM F, L. @& HF

YUHAFSB

Etymological

128

Lessons.

46.

Ch’as. Variance, and consequently, aberration, failure. Two hands opposite. While the left hand is acting, offering some object, the right one does not move, does not receive, remains hanging. Compare 43 P, 47 B, 47 Y,50 A, etc. The tracing of the hanging right hand being too difficult with the modern writingbrush, the composition of this character was modified as follows; F left hand, making = two with the right one, not agreeing with it, forsaken by the right

that 44 (L 18 E) remains hanging, instead of helping

the left; Bh FBR
RE

LESSON

of radicals,

Then

FJ

Po

50.

About the two hands kJ lowered, the invert of F3, L. 47.

&2

“oY

E

Chii2. Hands lowered, giving or taking downwards;

45) KA Note

FH

BF There are numerous compounds.

that the modern

writers

and

engravers

often

draw A, which makes the compounds unintelligible, and changes the number of strokes.

Kuan‘.

To wash

ones

hands.

Water

7X poured

upon the Eq hands, over a fi] vessel; HE = oy, M Ei ok BB .@

To

138

Etymological

Lessons.

50.

First series: P and its derivatives.

ow § ". & D

Shén’. Ancient form: two hands extending a rope; idea of extension,

of expansion.

straightened by the scribes was

Later

on, the rope

interpreted

a nran standing, who girds himself with

as being

both hands;

KRAOMAA HH. F His BH,The

oldest forms were

primitives, figuring

expansion of the two natural powers. — ries 153. It forms the following.

Tien. Lightning, thunderbolt,

the alternate Phonetic

the expansion

charge) &H towards the earth, ofa fH .stormy

se-

(discloud.

In the modern character, the line | is curved towards the right,

in order

to take

less

room.

The

Glose

explains the nature of a thunderbolt as follows:

KR2 BM i WE RH

RH. Thechit

yang’, the male power, rushing on the earth, fights with the ch'i*+ yin’, the female power, which gives birth to the lightning. Thus the Chinese, twenty centuries before Franklin.

Yen’, A J man (L. 60) who stretches his legs and covers a stride’s length; by extension, to cover;

BoB

KM

FR

ee RH, — Phonetic series 418.

1. To stretch FH, to pull in £ a direction; JR mA, 9]

Bh S.

FH, See L. 8 A. Now HA. — Phonetic

series 213.

Yti?. To stretch FA, to pull in another \

O

Ba HLMAN

& ER, See L. 8 B. Now

direction;

BB. —

Phonetic series 502.

Ch’én?, Name of a place. The first Capital, the first seat ot administration of China, under Fu-hsi (See our

Textes Historiques, p. 19). From 7K L. 119, cutting down of trees; [§ L. 86, building walls; ei exercising authority. The vertical lines of 7X and of eH are joined. Derived notions of antiquity, of along duration, to dispose, to fit up, etc. It has nothing in common

with 3, 1. 120 K. Compare & L. 12 0.

Etymological Lessons.

50

439

Second series: § and its derivatives "2?

I

nt

J

Ex

Yui?. To lift up. many

hands

drawing

or pushing;

Bh kjMA FA. & & St HE th. Itforms compounds, in which the radical is inserted on the top, between

the two kJ; v.g.

$8.

Pr

Yii?. A heavy Hi car (L. 167),

¢ a

J

BH. Zan

.

a roller

drawn

or

ushed with much trouble.

Yii? To give. See 7 and the analysis of BY. L. 54 H. — Phonetic series 768, in which the radical is added

at the bottom, between the two F3; v.g.

SR

SPie)

‘as Ch Torai i se;. BRFH HB,

Hsing}. To lift up §, severa) men acting [a] toge-

K Jal. G19 ersBhAD

Ms BH BL, Not 0 be

confounded with the derivatives of fF] (L. 154) #, etc. Chuan-chu, animation, success, the results

ration aud concord;

to be

in demand,

of coope-

fashionable.

Third series: # and its derivatives.

L

Ed,

BE

Hsiao?. To learn. Was explained L. 391. When

the

—F-

(iS)

hands kJ of the master act 3% downwards,

the

darkness that covers the mind of the disciple is dispelled. — Phonetic series 24 733, - giving place to the radical.

Fourth series: Ff and its derivatives. Yao!. This compound represents a fg head and two M

Ha

EN;

kj hands. It means sometimes, head and hands; and sometimes, head and shoulders, the bust. It forms compounds that are important, but unrecoguisable in

the modern form, on account of the fusion of different elements.

Etymological Lessons.

50.

Yao! The toins, the waist; & eh 4.4% A Bo. BR kj. BA &,A head fy, the two hands (J, that surround a woman’s figure, women

taking more care of

their waist than men. The ancient forms a human face, and two hands

girding

represented

the waist;

[

Re FAR. pRB eK ES EB.10 mean,

loins, waist, this character is now

written

jE.

The ancient character now means chia-chieh, to want, to need, to ask for, etc. — Phonetic series 493.

P’iao+.

Ignis fatuus (vulgo 5

2X phantom-fire)

The Chinese fear them, On the top, Ba the bust of the

hobgoblin. At the bottom, 3X the flame that takes the place of the body’s lower part. In the middle, — the waist.

The

modern

meanings

of this

character,

a

warrant, a bill, are chuan-chu (things that are feared).

— Phonetic series 642. —

K’ang-hsi who

might

rightly classified 3 under z, placed it under

have

7,

which is a mistake. But this is the worst instance, and

shows

how

all his classifications

without foundation:

are

arbitrary

instead of classifying

and

™& under

Py, as he did for B, he classified it under AR (113th radical), with which it has nothing

in common,

the

character at the bottom being 4X (86th radical).

i

eS

Clien'. To rise by climbing up. The head pg and four kJ F4 hands. The idea is probably taken from the monkeys (quadrumana). By extension, to rise up, to make headway, promotion. The modern

form

was

added with an JJ official seal, which means promotion in the hierarchy, the seal being the badge of the rank.

Now 3%, to be Immortals,

the

promoted. men

who

See rose

L. 25 1 4%, above

the

the

human

condition.

oT

EQ

fe

Nung?. The husbandman,; #F A 41, A head By, two hands F9, and g& the break of the day contracted, H giving place to bd- The nian who works from

early dawn; all field-work being dove

hot countries

very

early in

3B HE wh FS feo — Phonetic series 751.

Note: # has nothing in common with fh ch’d! L. 51 B, P13. 97 B, ts'ao? L. 120 K. Neither of the last two are derived from i.

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

64. 52.

44

51.

About two primitives, which were united on account of their

resemblance in the

old writing, [ fang! and g§ ch’a!.

First series: |" farg'. Fang'. The primitive wooden vessel, a log hollowed out, S & B. FE. The character is written

A

L

(

horizontally. By extension, chest, trunk, box. — It is the 22th radical. To be distinguished from the 23th radical (L. 10 B); the two are much

Vt

((c

alike.

Chiang‘. The primitive art, the first handicraft, which consisted in hollowing the wood with an fF

axe, to make

the [” vessels; carpentry;

carpenter; then, by extension, craft, art,

ALHALA Second

It forms.

BBO

FE

JL a

in general.

Pt Ut Be.

series: #§ ch’a!. Ch’ti!. Represents a piece of wood that is beat. It

B

was later on replaced by fang!

(above A) raised

up.

By extension, curved, crooked, oblique, not straight. —

09

Phonetic series 190. But 88 1i L. 97 B, # L. 50 Q,

nung?

ts’ao? L. 120 K, are not derived from

LESSON

ph.

52.

About the primitive JJ.

ie pT

D

Tao!. Edge-tool, knife, sword; fe w,, 4# JB. The handle is curved, to take less room. The upper hook belongs to the handle, the lower hook is the edge. See

|

page 365 the primitive instrument, of silex, fixed into

a curved handle of wood. — Note the contracted form of this character, when

it is placed on the side. It is the

48th radical of characters relating to cutting, etc.

This character

gq

is not found in the old dictionaries.

It is considered as a different writing of JJ,J) ¢ & 4E

=J. It is read

caballing.

tiao',

and

means,

perverse,

Etymologica!

142

mM 7

Lessons.

52.

Jén. Edged weapons, the edge, sharp, pointed: BA JJ. » #& 48 &. The character represents a JJ sword with a dot on the blade, to indicate the place where the instrument cuts. — Phonetic series 21. It forms

2

2,

Jén°. To bear, to sustain; AA wh. WN tp #. FH Ww. From heart and a cutting weapon. The

mF

heart wounded.

Liang?. Cutting weapon JJ fixed in the notch it made, action of a cutting weapon; BA JJ,KA — #, #8 3. It is found in yx ts

Liang?. Primitively, a narrow —

foot-bridge,

made

with

two

AK trees placed over a 7K brook wip IR.

Later on, A atree, Jp barked and planed, placed over a 7K

i

brook. beam, a sleeper. It forms

Then,

extension,

by

by substituling

3

a

to A,

the character @E liang?, sorghum.

aces

Chao’. Primitive meaning, # 4h,, to judge according to the Chinese way, viz. [J to chide and to

make some JJ amputation. Compare the similar composition of @f and JJ, L. 39 E. By extension, to cite, to send for, to call. —

> A AS eR)

Lieh’.

To divide

Phonetic series 105.

seriatim,

to arrange,

to place

according to rank or rule; 3p fi% 4, AA J). BB. See L. 12 F. —

Phonetic series 228.

Tsai?. Law, rule to be observed;

and the penalties

of old, & finesand JJ mutilations; AA JJ,MQ ALG JK. Chuan-chu, consequently. — Phonetic series 481.

Tsei?. In its modern form, this character might be taken for a derivative of #% (L. 71 0). This is not so, It is composed of *% a halberd, JJ a sword, A cowries,

€ %,

To pluoder

with

arms

robbery; a bandit. It derives not from Qij,

in hand;

Etymological

Al KD #y i)

Lessons.

Li’. To cut JJ the corn

the old

443

JK; reaping-hook;

hence,

sharp, acute; BR JJ Xi] At. | FK, Chuan-chu, harvest,

the acquisition

profit, interest of FR, and Z sickle. In the one stroke, as it may be seen above. — pounds,

52. 53.

of the year;

hence,

the

gains,

on money. — An old form was composed (L. 104) representing the motion of the corresponding modern form, 7 lost The two forms are found in the com-

one being used specially when

Aj is placed on the top of the

compound,

as in 38, #, 3%, This last character is composed of # and Z#,

the 202th

radical. The FX of the radical, and of the phonetic, are mingled toge-

ther. — Phonetic series 288.

See Fp L. 18 B, HJ L. 16 B, etc. mistake for JJ, the A contracted, e.g. in (4. See the whole Lesson 28.—

Do not

However

JJ has sometimes, but seldom, this form. See

a L, 55 G.

JJ repeated three times is found in

iat

Li‘... Nephelium

‘li-chih #% #¥, the fruit so dear to

the Chinese. The sound scribes

Jy lit (L. 53) induced

to write #z, thus

making

one

more

the

wrong

character.

LESSON

353.

About the primitive Jy.

“Tr

Li‘. Sinew;

by extension, strength, %5 a, (@ JE.

The top of the middle-line (the sinew) is curved, to take less room. The two side-lines and the transversal stroke represent the fibrous sheath. — It is the 19th radical of characters relating to effort of any kind. It forms

SS

SG Be BO

Liieh?. Infirm, feeble; from J strength and sp few:

iw. TD.

BB

Nan2. The man, by opposition to the woman, the male. The one who exerts his Jy strength in the work of the fq field, the woman

RSbADA

being

busy at home;

De Fo.5 ARB

#4,, Compare jg L. 135 C.

>

144

Etymological Lessons.

> de Mu

58. 54.

Chia'.

To add J the sinews tothe

violence

to

persuasion;

mouth,

RA #7, A O, & FE. By

extension, to add to, to increase,

to insist, to inflict,

etc. — Phonetic series 108.

See By L. 20 E; $ L. 38 F; SL. 90 A.

*

Hsieh®. Action in common, represented by the union

is ae

of the Fy strength of three persons; union,

concord,

cooperation;

Compare

KA = fi. @ H.W.

dt L. 47 Q. — Phonetic series 201

It forms

Hsieh?. Union, ten -+- persons,

i.e. a multitude,

joining their efforts; RR Z

fi] Fu Wo & Bho See

L. 24. Hsieh. The sides of the chest. Perfect of the ribs; na KL.

LESSON

cooperation

B.

54.

In the first part of this Lesson, 7) a particular form of the primitive A (L. 25)

will be studied. The second part is devoted to the primitives 1, J, $5, the compounds of which resemble those of “J in the modern writing.

‘4 Q

First part. 7J.

Pao!. A man J who bends to enfold an object; A

Hh 4 Pe G1. Re FE. HK W, To wrap up, to envelop, to contain; a bundle, a whole. — It is the 20th radical of characters relating to wrapping and enclosing.

Note that in a few modern characters, 7J is written like +> (14th radical); v g. B& (L. 167 C), $ (L. 69 G), etc. The following compounds form important groups.

Pao!. Actual meaning: to wrap up, to contain, in general. Primitive meaning: gestation, the fetus B

inwrapped 7] in the womb;

ABEL

RA 7J, AE, @ R,

EP RFR M TE U, Compare

Je L. 30 B. — Phonetic series 145.

T’ao®. A furnace

7) for burning

earthenware; K/) AG — Phonetic series 396.

4 (L. 130C)

& RRS

EL.

—® ®

(4@ 0 9 4®

Etymological

Lessons,

54.

445

Chi’. A handful, to grasp. Primitive meaning: the quantity of 38 grains that can

be grasped

J

by a

hand; KK 7J, ROK, & BH. E F AB, Now HH.

_— Phonetic series 346.

Yiin®. To divide = a whole 7J, into parts supposed to be equal; uniform repartition; regularity, equality;

BK)

=.

Bo

GFP 4. — Phonetic series

98. It is contracted in the two following

Hsiin?. A period of ten days; A A, 3 & BR. Phonetic series 209.

Hung}. The noise ofa crowd; KH,

SF YB.

— Phonetic series 453.

It seems rather that these two characters are derived directly from 7J, and not from 2J contracted. — Hsiin?:a whole “J, a period of ten days, — Hung!:a whole Fj, a union of ® voices. See fa} L. 38 D; AJ L. 10 G; Ai L. 54 G; py L. 176, etc.

Second series: }], “J. 4.

ry E

Chiu’. A primitive, intended to represent the tangle

of creeping plants; J. @h 4a M4 4 ah. 1@ JE. By extension, curved, crooked, entangled. — Phouetic series 5. In the modern writing, 1] is sometimes re-

placed by >}, e.g. [P} for Wl; itisa licence. From 3, and not from 7J, comes

a) 5 hy

Kou’. Curved, crooked, hook; gh th AY, 0 &,

The form %J is a modern abbreviation; S {§ EZ) ooo 4] is also read

Chii‘. A sentence; because, in the Chinese compositions, the end of each sentence, the pause, is indicated,

when it is so, by a J, hook, which is the equivalent

of the European punctuation; 7% @

4. i)

AMPA ERU RS SL ER

45 WH, Phonetic series 131, in which are found the two sounds kou and cha. JR (L. 32 F) has nothing in common with j.

4146

Etymological

Lessons.

54.

Note: The followin g, 4 chit, comes from 7J, and not from 4. It must be carefully distinguished from ij kou3 ( 43] under the 140th radical 44).

or:

Chi*.

To

restrain

deferential

reserve.

one’s

self,

self-possession,

Etymologically,

7J to restrain

one’s [J] mouth, and to stand quiet ¥

(L. 103 C);

AY ADA). BAS KI aat. # HB K fe] B. Itforms Ching}. Deferential behaviour, reverence,

in

the

reserve, 447 modesty

presence

of the

&

authority (the hand holding the rod, L. 43 D). — Phonetic series 192.

Pei‘. Pi‘. To prepare, to make y



ready all the things Ry necessary,

with 77 modesty. This is meant for women, on whom devolve the

:

preparations,

the

care

of the

household. The 7 is contracted, 1 giving room to JR. Now ff. The strangely altered this character. Some

engravers specimens

of their skilfulness may be seen here:

ailTeedFs Gah ink heh168Ak Shao?.

A primitive representing a kind of spoon,

that was used to draw

up; —

(L. 1, 4°) represents

the contents; J@ Jy 4. FE.“P BB. — Phonetic series 27. It forms

Yu, The full spoon, with an — index meaning that it is being emptied (compare L. 1, 5°). To give (the contents); A Hd 4%, This character became intricate

in course of time. The two hands F5 of the receiver were first added (L. 47). Then,

on the top, the two

hands FJ of the giver (L. 50). Under this last form, Bi makes the phonetic series 768, the radical being added at the bottom. See L. 50 J.

Etymological Lessons. Shu’. I

3)

3)

54. 55.

447

A primitive, that has nothing

in common,

either with *J, or with om. It represents a silk-worm

moving on. On the top, the head. The curved line represents the body that bends and stretches. At the bottom i (L. 110), radical, was added later on;

fh

Ah, FRB.

RH OG AOA.

Phonetic series 756. It forms

e

=,

Shu?. The # tail (L. 100 B), that $y wriggles at the

B

extremity of the body. By exteusion, 3@ 44, appendix,

to stick to (as the tail to the body), to depend from. — Phonetic series 856.

LESSON

55.

About three primitives Jj) ch’ing!, & hans, , pat.

First series: Jj} ch'ing!. Ch’ing!'. A

yy

oa

In

ancient

investing the feudatories

times

the

Emperor,

or officials, handed

when over

to

them one half of a piece of wood or of jade diversely cut out; the other half was used to make the proof, as the modern counterfoil. The two picces gathered are the Jf] ch’ing!. We shall see further (L 55B,!) Q and {J , the two halves, left and right... When they appeared before the Emperor, or when they held the functions of their

office, the feudatories

had this kind of sceptre in their hands. also as a Sea]. —

used

It forms

Ch'ing?. This character first meant the & feasts

a yee

or officials

It was

Fer

(L. 26 M) of the court, the high personages attending,

ranged in. Jj} two opposite rows. By extension, ministers, high officials.

Note: The modern form Jj is not symmetrical, because the writing-brush cannot trace the left half {] against the grain. Note also that many symmetrical representations, absolutely different in the old writing, nowadays ressemble Jf

ch'ing!. K’ang-hsi classified them under [J. These are £f} nang’, L. 26 G; J mao’, L, 129 D; Jf} luan3, L. 108 D; Ff} yu%, L. 129 E.

Etymological Lessons.

148

B

55.

Chieh?. The right half part of Jj}, the one commit}

S

ted to the functionary, that was used by him as a

badge and as a seal; tm f# U2, , By extension, P.

dignity, authority, a whole, segment, L. 47 V, W; L. 49 Note the three

¥,

rule, just fragment. L. It is the different

measure, print; part of — See L. 26 M; L. 64 D; 26th radical. writings of the modern

form. The first must be distinguished from [§, a contracted form of the 163th and {70th radicals — The second form is hardly recognisable from the cursive form of es han? (L. 55 K); as well as from @, chi5(L. 84), tC, i (L. 85 B), & ssi*#(L. 85 A). K’ang-hsi did not succeed in distinguishing them; he counted

sometimes J, two strokes, and at others @ three strokes.



The third form is to be distinguished from , pa! (L 55 L). — In all this series, it is quite impossible, without recurring to the old forms, to Know exactly which element is used.

C

ie

a

Fu2, The hand 5 holdinga [J sceptre; to impose one’s authority; 7 FA 3. BA. & &, It forms filg fu2, to steer a boat (L. 66 C); and #R paot, to repress bandits (L. 102 G). But #§ nan} is not derived

from [g; see L. 43 J. D

=

Jes

a

2 Re

tty

Chih!.

A vessel that was u ed, in

the feasts, for

pouring wine [J with measure; #2 4) 8} & B. The top that ressembles FF L. 30 A, is intended to represent the vessel, a kind of siphon. Fei®. Fleshy py, muscular, just [J as much as it is

E,

=

Proper, for the

sacrifices,

for the

table.

The

just

measure of flesh; AA WW, AA OD, ee

F

@,

4b

Shé!. The blush of the AV human face, a mark [) of the passions. By extension, colour, passion, lust. See the explanations

given L. 28D. — It is the 139th

radical. The following is not derived from £4. S)

G

Re

82

Chiieh?. To cut JJ (L. 52) a thread %& (L. 92), in

D pieces; py BRth. BA ABA JI. HA OD, & Re To cut, to cease, to leave, to renounce, etc. See the

ancient form

the last #3.

L. 90 E Has nothing in common

with

Etymological Lessons.

H BL 55

Two

J, with

55.

which

449

the scribes

made

two

&

(L. 87), are found in

? Bh ane

Hsiian*‘. To elect, to choose. Two f) seals of officials, placed upon a JU tabla (L. 70), to be committed to those who were elected, chosen. Later on, the

Y

two

hands

f9 were added

to

mean the awarding, the investiture. In the modern character, F4 and TU ioined together, gave JE, which has nothing in common with FE kung4 (L 47 Q); BR

uw, AA = 0. AA FA. & &, This character is seldom seen well written — Phonetic series 535.

Sia

The left half of J) (L.55A);@ J & 4p wh, It is found in #) i*, that means, printing of the [J seal. See the explanation given L. 49 I,

Second series: & han’.

ce

w

4

Han. To bud, to put forth buds, to bloom. A primitive, representing the effort of the blooming, of

the springing up. HAAR Z fe HE

KR. RIE.

Note the modern form, identical with the second form of J (L. 55 B); hence confusions. — Phonetic series 6. Note the following compounds, in which there

remains

something

of the

primitive idea

of

@,

external manifestation of an interior force, expansion,

eruption.

nr

CS

Fan‘. Torush & like a J dog. To invade, to offend.

>tJU

Compare 3¢ L. 37 B. In the symbolism of characters, the dog plays a considerable, though not creditable

part. EWMKMSBEKRA AF 2 3 2 Hh.

BEB

Han’. To withdraw 3% the lolled & tongue,

G94 Cad

Ry Ss

and

hold it in the [J mouth. Compare 7 L. 102 C. By extension, to endure in silence. @ #8 5 76, Note the awful modern abbreviation, which became usual.—

Phonetic series 356.

150

im t%

Etymological

Lessons.

55. 56.

Yung’. Blooming &, opening of flowers; Fj yungé

(L. 109 B) is phonetic;

AA , Aj #, — Phonetic

series 320. It forms § yung, the Fy manly vigour.

bravery, exercice of

Yu?. To shoot branches, boughs. 7 4 & 4, BA B, hy 2, Not to be confounded with #@ p'in?

(L. 58 C).

Third series: — pa.

.@ B®

Pa'. A kind of boa, large and short, found

in the

Southern Provincos, in JQ )\| Ssti-ch'uan and elsewhere. Its flesh is eaten ( # fy), and its skin is used to

cover the guitars. The character represents the boa raised on its tail; FL OF, (@

FZ, Compare L 108 A. Not to be confounded

with the third form of JJ (L. 55

B). — Phonetic series 76. Note the compound %% pa!, a guitar made from a boa-

skin (L. 83 B). LESSON

bt

56.

About the primitive h. Pus, po’. To divine by looking at the cracks in a tortoise-shell as the heat develops them. The character represents two cracks, one being longitudinal,

and the othor transversal; (@,. K IR Z JE. Ma JE Z HAR HL, — It is the 25th radical, Phonetic Series 9. It froms

ae wens

Chan’. To ask [1 aboutsome enterprise, by singeing

Jy a tortoise shell; divination; ## JK PY 44. AA b, AO.8

Bb

with Up chi’, synonym.

ae ea



UY PY BE tt, Not to be confounded made

wilh

the

same

elements;

and

Phonetic series 104

Chéng!. The salary of a fortune-teller; a sum of

cowries given to the man whosinges

Kb

|p the shell;

fl BH. A WU BB. & BH. The answer

received was considered as most certain, most firm, and most

immutable,

hence

the derived meanings: immutability, coustaucy, perseverauce in purpose generally,

and specially in the purpose of keeping continence; f JE.B £oF B F% i —.8 S Ao — Phonetic series 423,

hf A Ae

Etymological

oe

Lessons.

56. 57.

4151

Chao‘. Numerous cracks on a tortoise-shell ; AK SR YR tL, In the middle, each side, two

other

[> in its ancient form; on

cracks; the

first

left crack

is

confounded with the vertical stroke of [\. By estenSion, an omen, a numher, now series 178, +

E

3h

F

a million. — Phonetic

Kua’. The diagrams of the 8 £@ I Ching, the Book of Mutations. It seems that, in the beginning, |» the shell was first used to find the hexagram which might resolve the pending difficnity. Later on, people had recourse, for that purpose, to the $F milfoil stalks

The = is not kui! L. 81 B, but represents an hexagram. — Phonetic sories 369.

Wai!.

F

4th

er

Composed

of 47 the evening, and

divine; b AALS

4, bh BO

hy to

Sh HK, When

the sheJI was consulted about the meaning of a dream one had during the night, the divination ought to take place in the morning, or during the day, in any case before 47 the evening. After sunset, the divination [>

was no longer ad rem, being outside the ritual limits. Hence the chuan-chu meaning of this important character, ontside, out of.

Note: Like all the characters simple and easy to write, |» is used by the scribes as an arbitrary abbreviation for the most different elements. It represents a bird in Py (ancient form) L. 44 D; the antennae of an insect #8 L. 23 G; the peduncle

ot a fruit BY L. 41 E;arod & L. 43 D. — Note also that -—F has nothing in common with |[y; it isa modern contraction of $f L 47 H. — K’ang-hsi wrongly placed several among those abbreviations under [> the 25th radical.

LESSON

57.

About two primitives. J and 57. First part: J. Ting!. A nail (head and

A als

tack). It is now written

SJ... RIE. S te LU FT BH, Ting’, to nail; yu JT A %@, |s used, on account of its simplicily, as

a numeral sign, for unity, and for other different chia-chieh. — Phonetic series 11, — It forms the important compounds & t’ing®, L. 75 B, and AY ch’éng?, L, 71 M. But $f-ning?(L. 26 C)comes from FH (L.58 A), and not from J. Item, 7 (L. 63 B) has nothing ia common with J.

152

Etymological

Lessons.

57. 58.

Second part: >.

7 M

Chu’. Storehouse, to warehouse. It is now

Rr... FA Hy fA

written

WE. HS AE [i]. The old character

shows the storehouse, well closed on all sides. modern character is a nonsense. Compare primitive $$ (L. 43 R). — Phonetic series 116,

LESSON

The the

58.

About the partial primitive 77, and its derivatives.

a

%

First series: Fy.

iao*

Difficulty

or effort of

sate hiccup, the breath

4

the rospiration,

¥ fighting against an —

BER — &. See L. 1,3°. R GR S Wk obstacle. 4% 9 (8 JE.— 48 BH. Phonetic series 3. It forms

oe oa

Di

Hao’. To lament, to howl; the [ mouth uttering FH

AE tL. —

Phonetic

Haot. To call, to cry: HE ato BE ah. BA

BA.

shrieks; AA DL,

& oH

series 122. It forms

The

strong-voiced

tiger

compounds that mean,

fe enters

into different

cries, roars. It forms x

t'ao!,

covetousness; # 4 AA Rae FE.

By

& ao

Pin2. To make out py one’s motives with FH cries and noise; to quarrel, to reproof; aR jr] 4, AA Fy. AK he & #e, See ph L. 151. Not to be confounded

with #8 yu?, L. 55 K. — Phonetic series 300.

> ae f

J tl



Hsii!. Asigh, asound 7 used to indicatea 7\ pause in the music, in the verses, in the sentences;

phonetic punctuation; #& 2% Fp @ XE. It forms

a kind

of

WA Be MA,

Hut. A sigh that J passe the cesura, the pause. A particle of varied uses, interrogative, expletive, euphonic,

etc.

ZR

MAD.)

RH i BZ FE, lt forms

Hut. The roaring ¥ of the 7B tiger. To cry, to call for. Phonetio series 615.

(



Etymological Lessons.

5

58.

153

Second series: .

E

Yti?. The breath ¥ having overcome the — obstacle, spreads

~—

in liberty.

A particle

of transition,

a

preposition; talk, show; {& fa) Wp(Bom 2 BF H.

BGR

—.— & HR AB IE

series 38, under its two forms. It makes

ols +h \de

Ping®.

Compare

with

YW, Phonetic

$ L. 58 D; the

top is

different. 48 is composed of F and of AN CL. 18) placed between the two top lines, and reinforcing the idea of free expansion on /\ both sides, on all sides. The modern meaning, plane, even, is derived

from the last idea; there is no more obstacle; $& 4s SF Ht BR TBR IX. 7\ Zp the Phonetic series 454.

K’uat!, Vanity, boasting; a Fe man who % makes a show of himself. —

ah Sit

A}

2.48

He

— It is the 80th radical.

L =

N

He

x ¥

Ai®.

A

man

-£ (24C)

who

behaves badly; $f

confined, or worth to be so; a debauchee; -> $% fF

Kt +

H&B.

Tu’. The poisonous vegetables that 4: grow here and there, and that must be # avoided; poison,

veroom; FA ZB UdJk 2. @ B

ii £ BME

KH

Lou?. Woman % confined, enclosed ef in the prison of the gynecium; for ever idle; useless, etc; BE

4c, 22EZ Hah,

— Phonetic series 631. It forms

By

Shu*. Shu‘. Formerly, it meant —& to govern the $f con-

a

fined women. Now, it means, to

count, a number; gf 4, — Phonetic series 812.

Etymologieal Lessons.

67. 68.

474

Third series: $$ mu’. It is another derivative from ZX, forming a group. Mu?. O

A woman

‘Tepresented

character

who

has become a mother. This is

by the addition of two breasts to the #&. She suckles a child, says the Glose;

Bh 4%. HFA BFL IEAL F A, Idea of fecundity, of multiplication. — Phonetic series

°

3 Bh A

139. It

forms

Mei. Grass

Hi 2

,

(L. 78), Hf prolific; BR yp, AR eB,

The actual

every, each, forms.

meaning

of this character,

is chia-chieh. — Phonetic series 294. It

Fan’. Luxuriant vegetation,

the 4% plants 3% twis-

ting into a tangle; BA 44, BR,

& RR, Now F,

on account of a mistake made by the scribes, says the

Glose; #2 ff %. Ytis. See L. 94 F.

Bit

LESSON

68.

About the primitive -] chit. An appendix is reserved for a few analogous forms. In the modern writing, =] has different forms hand (L. 44).

and is easily mistaken for =

the

First series; =] chui' and & hu‘.

A

Cn

Chit‘. A primitive. It is intended to represent a boar's

ora hogs snout; wich

is lifted

RK A GA WH. 4K. The representation, up,

is very

rough.

The

top stroke

represents the nose flattened. The bottom stroke re-

presents the neck. The left stroke is a boar’s tusk, the point being forward. — The boar and the hog played @ very

important

cattle-breeding,

characters.

mostly



partin the therefore

Itis

they

the 58th

relating to swine.

Chinese gave

hunting birth

radical

and

to many

of characters,

It is unconnected with the

following.

fu hh jor fo & lof

Hut. A primitive. Represents the twisting of two or

several strands, to make a rope: Br LL Mt He th. Af, By extension,

communication, —

reciprocity, relation,

connection,

172

Etymological

Lessons.

68,

Second series: Derivatives from -] chi. Chih‘ Boar +], wounded by an 4G (131 A) arrow, Q

under the neck, between

the two J (27 |, note

1)

fofe-legs; killed at the hunting.

12. Offerings to the manes of ancestors; 2 féj 72 WY.

BKSey Bh HKBK AL,BRA,

ES A AL boars

head, 3€ grain, % silk, the whole being offered with F the hands. 2 J‘. Boar, a bristle-covered animal.

= Sb

The head,

bristles, the ff} hind-legs and tail. Compare L. 23C;K4A.P GE &. It forms

Wei'. Hui*.

2g QW Met Sh BH DHS

the

fy

This character, utterly altered in the

modern writing, first meant,

the hedgehog, the snout

of which resembles the hog's; # ma 4, (i) 3 th Jv,& Yj, The animal is specified by B (ancient form, L. 122 C) the stomach, on account of its extraordinary A; then - the two

voracily. In the modern

long bristles

of the

third

character,

on

the top

ancient form; then Hy for the

ancient form of FJ; lastly 7x for the hind-legs and tail of %.To mean hedgehog,

the characler is now written #4; while

g@ hui‘ is used

chuan-chu to mean

collection. The idea is taken from the collection of sharp points back of a hedgenog.

Appendix. seemingly come

that cover

the

According to their modern writing, the four following compounds from ~{; but the two first ones are certainly not derived from it.

Lut‘. To behead, to trim and to bark a tree (the stump F

e

A

being upright). On the top, an axe

Py

the haft of which bends to the right; J its action; | the tree — beheaded; four small strokes represent the branches and the bark cut. Now #ij. — Phonetic

ae “ae

of a special form,

series 464. — The ancient character simply represented the cutting off the trunk, the branches falling on both

sides, and the shreds

of the

Compare L. 45 J. 9) 7A tk IE,

bark torn

out.

Etymological Lessons.

68 69.

Mei*.

A modification

handle

is not represented.

473

of the preceding

The axe’s

Ancient form: a head of

5a (L. 40 C) upon a trunk cut down. Now #% Spirit of a dead Iree; supposed, to be malignant; #% My

he Hh

Oe ME.

The two following characters, of identical composition,

=> head, and 3& body of a hog, have probably been fabricated in two different centres (see page 7).

They

differ

only

by

one

separated in the first, and latter.

"RR

1 RR

stroke,

the

head

being

joined with the rest in the

Shih:?. Pig. The scribes write it, as the following, in its derivative Z§ 1i?, bristle-covered larvz that eat away the tissues and the books.

T’uan®.

Usual

meaning,

pig’s bristles.

Derived

meaning, commentaries, accessories to the text as the bristles are accessory to the pig. — Phonetic series 577.

LESSON 69. About the primitive 3¢ shih?. An appendix will treat abont ¥& hai* and

seek

RR

> Bl By

ola

EK

hsiang!.

Shih3. Boar, hog. The head is replaced by a line; on the left side, the belly and

side, the hack and the

the paws;

on the right

tail; & Wo4#. 3A. E. i

e. g. & Ay HE. It has many compounds, 3% chu%, to drive or push out pigs, to expel in general. — It is the 152th radical of characters mostly referring to Swine.

Hunt.

[]j of 3 pigs, a sty, a privy: the

Inclosure

pigs in China eating fecal matters; Jj 4. — Phonetic séries 538.

Chiat.

Human

dwelling,

says

the

Glose.

By

extension, family. BA», A R.@ Bo

XM

Hh,

NK Fh E 3%. The pigs live around the houses of the Chinese countrymen,

and even enter in them, as well The street- cleaning and privy-emptying are left to these two animals. — Phonetic series 516,

as the dogs.

ma Bulag

RR

wien)

Etymological

Lessons.

69

Chi‘. To fight with rage, as a 2K boar that defends itself against 76 a tiger; DA RK, MB, @& BOK Fe 48 FY. A BFL— Phonetic series 731.

Tun®. tices,

A sucking pig. It was offered in some sacrihence

the

flesh of which

ancient

torm,

is 3 offered.

RK a pig, the

Compare

£8 chit,

L. 65H. H WBA KABA FH ALL i elHE, @ & Sui®. To partake /\ (18) the ZX pigs, in bands, in

flocks: BA ZK, BA AA, He WW, It forms x

.

Sui. A band of pigs marching, : : :

mK

following their leader; hence, to follow

in general;

JG Ww. —

Phonetic series 758.

ae

Tui‘. Troops; garrison that guards the J} walls. It forms the

phonetic compound BR chui‘, to

fall, 3 ae Cho®.

A pig 3K having two feet © trammelled; KA

MB—

H.R

» HF HB. — Phonetic series 340

It forms

Chung’.

Tumulus,

kvoll, tomb,

chia-chieh

of an

ancient character used in hunting: 7 tf dhe Gompare 3X b 34 1, the composition of which is similar. — Phonetic series 527.

1%, Boar 3 that We attacks (L. 102E);

Me, & KH.

A

BA RR, BR,

ZS BM. Bravery, heroism. In this

sense, the compound $x if is now used.

Shih? and T uan®. See L. 68 H, I.

Etymological Lessons. Pin’.

69. 70.

175

A flock of pigs; two

being taken

for a

multitude. It forms

A

Pint. A district in the mountains [lf of Be Shensi, where boars RK formerly abounded. Hsien’.

ve

To burn brush-wood, in order to drive out

the boars.

Appendix: ¥ hai‘ and @ hsiang/, K

Ze

Fr

Hai‘. The hog ZK (L. 69 A), with one stroke added to the tail; A W A =F. dW EB. Itis used, in the horary cycle, to designate the time 9 to 11 p. m.. This

AT

time,

says the Glose,

conception.

eee

Tih 4

cy }

Hence

is the most

numerous

propitious

different

for the

figures,

that

represent two persons, sometimes aman and a woman

(L. 670), under = heaven

(L. 2G), that is to say,

cooperating with the productive action of heaven, by

begetting chidren. — Phonetic series 197.

L

$e

Ge

Hsiang‘ Elephant. A primitive, representing the characteristic parts of this animal. On the top, the trunk; then a bow representing the tusks. The legs

and tail look like those of the XX pig. &

2

¥,

&

ie py

SH

gz &

Fy 7A RR.

Z JE. — Phonetic

series 683.

LESSON

70.

About two primitives, kf chi? and 7S chit. The latter is to be distinguished from 7, wut (L. 29 K): as well as from 7\ or F3 at the bottom (LL. 18 and 47).

A

Chi®. Sieve, riddle.

It represents the object; 44 JE.

Chi?. Prop, stool, F $f Wo fR Be Both being combined form

tt 7\d¢

Ch’i®. Sieve placed upon its support; AA tt. &R FE.

OQ

F H ZX &&, The old utensil being no longer used,

the character has become

pronoun;

chia-chieh a demonstrative

By s% 2% aj. —

Phonetic

F< Chit is found in #4 L. 156C; BL. 4G; SPL. 40C; BAL. 55 HL

series 327.

476

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

74.

71.

About the primitive -& i4. Special series are reserved for the important derivative

XX ko!, and its numerous family.

WRK

First series: -& i+. I+. Primitive. Some see, in this figure, a hook driven in the wall, to suspend objects; others

see an

arrow

with a thread; others, see in it a fish or pin that was used to count, to mark, to order, to decide. — Note

for the understanding of this Lesson, that the ancient weapons were varied. Each one had its own representation. Later on, many

of them disappeared, and their characters were used for other purposes, It is the

56th radical, and forms

AX fk

Tai‘. Order ~{ of succession, substitution of 4 men, and by extension, of things; instead

AUst

3k

UR

RB.

of, in place

of;

AA.



Phonetic series 161, Not to be confounded with £& fa’,

L. 71 G.

cA, Ik

Shih*. Work JT done after “& indications, after a pattern; a model, to imitate; JE +. — Phonetic series 236,

Erh}.

AS

Two pins, two. There is an old analogous

form =X for — one. It forms

AN | a)

Erh#. Profit; a second = sum

Fl (L. 161) added to the first, to

the capital; Bi) # WwW. A Ao KX, @ &, lt is now used for security in accounts, instead of — that may be easily changed

ee MR

into

=

or

.. — Phonetic series 674.

Pi. A thing certain, decided. An arrow ora fish %& that divides J\, that solves a doubt, a dilemma; AK

KM As © He KK. SP A a, See L 18 G. K’ang-hsi erroneously classified this character

under

ip the hearl. — Phonetic series 148.

Note that # does not come from -{. See below K.

Etymological Lessons.

Second

74.

177

series: ¥& kuo!.

rR

Kuo!. A kind of halberd, formerly

much used. A

hook or crescent on the top, then a cross-bar, and a

halter hanging; 2B pa Be dh, 4@ JE, —

It is the

62th radical of words relating to spears and arms. forms

© AIk

Fa!

It

To destroy, to cut down. Aman J who receives

from behind a stroke with a 3g halberd; @

4, Be

ti, € 3K. — Phonetic series 195, To be distinguished from § tai*, L. 71 B.

me eo Weh

aH

Ts’ai?. At the bottom, “&. On the top, the phonetic ts’ai? Fe (L. 96), contracted into -—- in the modern writing. To wound with weapons; 4% a. BA Ke =. — Phonetic series 241. Chrvien’. See L. 27 B.

Chih+. The ancient chiefs or officials. They held a =& weapon, when they made known their #& (L. 73 E, contracted) will to their people G Hk FH Z

ek 7X. 4 3 F “K, Note the combination of the bottom stroke of +¥, with the horizontal stroke of %&, which gives one stroke less to the phonetic series 679.

1

B®~ 3Oo

Yii'. A primitive appanage, a post, a centre; the —

land that a landlord defended with + the weapons of his men;

[J

represents

his residence,

castle or

town; the limits are not indicated, because there were none, Ffth BA A BX

Huo‘.

Extended

indeterminate

UF

meaning

person,

—.

of the

whose

name

2B. Who

preceding, is

not

an

given,

known only to be from such a principality; a vague determination. — Phonetic series 364. It forms ci Kuo’. Anestate, well [] defined i) and surrounded with marks, as !

they were

meaning, a state, a country; B Phonetic series 625.

bi

Po’. Anarchy,

later on.

Extended

Ol. ys xX. we ee

revolution. When the fiefs are upset;

one By being straight up, the other upside down; @L

4. Bh — BtFH Be

Etymological

ws Fl

Wu?.

Lessons.

74.

The army, soldiers. The 7% lances that JF

stop the hostile incursions, thus allowing

the people

to prosper, says the Glose; MA jk. BX. Note that,

in the modern

character,

by

Me

a singular

exception, the J of 2% was placed on the top of the compound. —

Phonetic series 410.

Third series. Characters derived from ~& and easily confounded. Yiieh‘. A halberd -& witha | hook; %K. BA VY. & JE. Phonetic series 175.

=

=

Oe ot

Fede ade

& a, BA

Wut. Halberd with a crescent; fe 4, AA &, BA )» % FE. See below P, the series Fy derived from it. lt forms the phonelic complex

Maoé. Flourishing, blooming; BA PY, Di aE, 4

BY mB ai,, On its side, #€ contracted forms Ch’éng?. To grow, to prosper, to attain, to end; J

(L. 57) is phonetic; BRK BT oH

H. &

4t,,—— Phonetic series 179. J is abbreviated in the modern writing.

Shut.

The

A men

armed

with

+

lances, who

defend the frontiers: SF 3 WoAA A HH XK. See the derivative #%, 90 D. ©

ee Sh She He

Jung?

Arms in general, war. From + arms for the

Offensive, and FA (L. 152) armour

for the defensive;

the latter character is reduced to two strokes

modern writing; Fe ho AK, AH,

in the

@

Phonetic series 217.

Hsii'. To attack, to wound, to kill. A halberd s& ue

and — a wound; AA k.— dH Wie HOR GB. It forms

Mieh‘. To extinguish; B& to destroy the JX fire;

K 3 A HR. This character is now written je.

BT

Wei'. Fear; the awe felt by # women

menaced

with FX death; 32 WeKA we, M PR. fe 2B. By extension, a stern composure, an exterior that inspires awe; dignity, majesty.

Etymological Lessons.

Ry

By

74.

479

Hsien?. To bite; to wound s& with the [J mouth; AKGA OL RR BH Mt, The modern meaning,

all, together, @§ 41, is chia-chieh for 4@ or 3¢,— Phonetic series 446. lt forms » Kan’, Heart .~% bitten fe by a eX,

Rk

passion, an emotion. — Phonetic series 740.

$f

Suit.

co

indicated whether FR an attack was

Jupiter, 7A OH a, the

HH planet that to be made,

or

not. See L 71 P, L.142 G The #§ is broken up, a half being on the top, a half at the bottom. — The ancients had also, for the computation of time, a cycle of twelve years based upon the revolution of Jupiter. Hence, later on, the extended and adapted meaning, a period of twelve months,

a solar year; RO 4, 1 Ae —

+ AT

FOF

—-KEDR AK BK

# FL RR. Note that @& is a modern and wrong form. — Phonetic

series 760.

Fourth series: -& doubled, in opposite directions; #@ 0°. Q

Xk

BFR

O?. Ngo?. Two 3% weapons in conflict, two rights that oppose one another, my right, and, by extension, my Ego, my own person; personal pronoun, I, me. This

character

being

uneasy

to

write,

was

soon

changed into 7#g.— Phonetic series 297. It forms I*. Harmony, good 26 understanding (L. 103), peace

By,

restored

after

Z¥ a conflict;

convention

concluded

after a disagreement, restoring concord and giving to the interested parties. Hence all the derived meanings of this

satisfaction important

ae

character;

the bottom

of an

affair, truth,

equitable, proper, etc. Compare % L 73 D, and #

right;

conventional,

L 54 G.—

Phonetic

just,

series

737. \t forms

Hsi'. =

&

The

imprecations

4

(L. 53 D) that accompanied the

conclusion 9 of a treaty. They were made upon

immolated animals.

Hence

the ex-

tended meaning, victim; now re. Phonetic series 830.

Fifth series: *& doubled, in the same direction; 3 chien. se

R

Sz

Chien’. To exterminate, to desfroy. The common

work of two (many) halberds; AA — X%,. @ #.— Phonetic series 333.

180

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

72.

72

About the primitive [J kon, and its multiples.

First series: {) simple.

ee al ns wu

RK

K’ou®. It represents the mouth. Mouth, entrance.

RUS

B BFE,

A

— ltis the 30th radical. Pho-

netic series 23. — This primitive

is found

in many

compounds. Let us recall 7 L. 24 F; < L. 60 C; AL. 18 E; % L 64 B; oe L 2 D; ete Itis to be distinguished from [J wei? L. 74, and from other primitive analogous characters; # L. 59 D; & L. 90 F; ¢ L 109 A; etc. Note ihe derivatives

Chib®. But, however. The Glose explains this particle as follows:.When a sentence is over, the breath issues from

the {J mouth, in two

puffs, that

connect what

follows with what precedes. But what follows is written below, in the vertical Chinese lines, therefore the two strokes are turned downwards... All the particles are intonations or finals, rather musical than significative, an interpuactuation that is read; FF EB wh. A O.. A PF 5) & Fee — Phonetic series 141.

BX

Fei‘. From # dog aud ( mouth. The bark of the dog; to howl; KR MH &, AO, AR, @ & (L. 134).

K Second

B

series:

OD

c BBR RA

Ch’ui‘.

From

to grumble. (L.99).

J mouth avd

MOLM

4

to puff; to blow,

XK. @ BASHAM.

[J doubled, py.

Hstian’. Clamours. Two [| mouths expressing the

intensity of the action of the mouth; M— K’u!.

To lament.

To wail, as with

after the RK dogs manner; MK, te K OK RE 4, It forms

many

DL@e#e mouths,

BM = OL

He

Sang!. Funerals. To wail [J, as dogs RR, overa JA

dead body; JA 58, KM lA, @ Bf See L. t0 H. — These two characters vividly depict the Chinese thing that they mean.

Etymological

Chu}.

Lessons.

72.

184

Repeated cries ny to calt the hens; Hq is

phonetic.

Chia’. Large =} cup, with a -— cover; a hanap passing round, OH all mouths

drinking out of the

same;

Tan’. To assault somebody, with ng cries and a pitchfork $f (L. 104). Compare L 72 F. — The primitive meaning of this character is obsolete. It now means, single, thin, a check, a bill, only, ete. These are mere Chia-chieh. — Phonetic series 705 It has nothing in common

with

T’o’. A crocodile, whose skin was used for making drums; oX #& y(t) 88 Thi ZX. It represents the monster. The top part resembles &% L. 231. For the bottom, see fH L. 108 C. It is unconnected with tant.

O41.

To accuse

somebody

with

great

cries.

Two

mouths, and tf (L. 102 D) to attack; 3% gj 4H. Note the modern form imagined by the scribes. — Double phonetic series 470, under its two forms.

ay

Yen?.

Cries oq that &

inspire awe.

See L. 141 H.

Severe, stern, majestic. — Phonetic series 858.

Nang’. Crics on, and »% agitatioh, that accompany

Nia XE

the ra execution of a common

|[, work; cooperation,

working in common. Here again, the Chinese at work are well described. By extension, big disorder ; @L 4,

A XL. X00. F & H. See LL. 39 B, 39G, 82 A. In the modern form, was changed into Z, by a fancy of some scribe. It forms

2

Hsiang!'. Composed of the last and of 4 clothes, L. 16 A. To disrobe, in order to plough, or to work, or to help others. To work, to cooperate, to help. Note the modern contraction. — Phonetic series 831.

€ a | 4 FS

ig8

Etymological

Lessons.

72.

Nang? A satchel, a recipient (L. 74 A), in which are, or may be [] enclosed pell-mell any objects whatever; a bag, a sack.— Phonetic series 854. Chiien'. who

Meeting,

together.

Men

A

gathered A

[J chat. See L. 14 A and E — Phonetic series 726.

Kuan+. The heron Bird {£ with a ¥“ crest (L. 103 C), and 1g clamorous. —

Phonetic series 841.

Note: 5€ chou L. 29 D, and # shou L. 23 I, are not derived from pp.

Third series:

[7 repeated three times in the same line, mug.

Ling?. Noise of voices; AA =

[1, & 3, The two

following characters are vot derived from pag, though

they have a figure of the same kind.

ay Ee)

Yao‘. A Pandean flute. The three ga represent the holes of the ff] pipes united together A in a straight row. See L 14 H —

It is the 244th

radical.

Phonetic

series 835.

eh

Ling?®. Falling of fj rain in mm big drops; AR FR, non {%. Formerly, it made a phonetic series, in which is now written the compound

Ling? To offer to heaven SR jade (L. 83 A), or certain Ak dances (L. 27 E), in order to get rain Ze. Compare L. 58 H. It was

the first thing asked

from

the magicians and sorcerers, by a people whose life depended upon rain. By extension, spiritual, myste-

rious,

supernatural

power

or effect,

transcendent,

marvellous.— Phonetic series 853,

Sub-series:

[J repeated three times in a pyramidical form, &.

Lum dy

P’in’. Disposition by order and degrees, graphically represented by the taken for a multitude. meaning.

disposition

of three

elements,

[J is used as a sign and has no

Etymological

Be

Yen?.

Lessons.

72.

483

Rocks scattered upon a [{Jf mountain. The

three [J are used as signs and have no meaning.

E

w

things in a TL. Ch’ti!. To dispose, to stow away box; AA ZE Lo. @& Be By extension, lodging, place, site; Pq Fy 44. — Phonetic series 607.

But, in the two following characters, the three [J] mean

Nieh!. oy

Three

mouths

mouths.

{ joined by lines.

To be

distinguished from # yen?, above. To cabal, to plot;

= 0 # 3B. #6 BB. Now i nieh', a mouth 9 that pours its words into three & ears.

Tsao‘. Singing pon of the birds on AL trees; BA fh

Wy

a2

ti 7A‘.

@& we. B EB

th. — Phonetic series

764.

Fourth series:

M

[] repeated four times, Gh.

Ch’i!. Many mouths, clamours; 2A

nA

BA

oY. E

1.@ #.-

Four mouths may be seen in different characters, e.g.

aw

Ch’i‘.

The

vessels

for the

[| mouths,

used

eating. In the middie, a -K dog that cleans them. was not very

refined,

therefore

J

(work,

for It

utensil)

was substituted for -K; but this form was not admitted

Je He

by the critics. A very old form shows a hand and pots. The primitive meaning was probably, earthenware, clay vessels, made by the potter. By three

extension, any utensil.

Hsiao‘. A & man with four mouths. To vociferate,

to clamour; KA pa, AA A, & Ho Yin?. An £ officer with four mouths. To speak loud; Ea

BR ityBA EB. & Ee Chiao’. Union Y of several mouths. Cries, appeals

f

(L. 54 F).

Bt

O*. A modern form of 58. See L. 72 F. — Phonetic

8

series 470.

184

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

About three derivatives of (J. EJ yiieh',

73

73.

#f kan', #

yen?, that form important

series.

First series: | yieh!.

aS

iS

Ytieh'. To speak, to tell. The mouth

[J that

L. a breath.a word; § #& AOL #,, Sometimes, tion. —

by derivation;

&0

exhalation,

exhales

RY emana-

It is the 73th radical. In the compounds,

is to be accurately 143, and

distinguished,

from

from —) mao‘ L. 31 J, whichis

4

ff jih‘ L. written

by the modern scribes. — Note a more ancient and more evolved form of —¥: the breath forming like a volute of vapour before the mouth, as when condensed

in winter. See L. 76 K.

Ho?. A stranger J, a beggar, who — speaks, in order

to ask his way or to beg

By extension,

to ask,

where’? why? how? See L_ {0 G. — Phonetic series 448.

Ch’ang!

Emanation

sun’s heat (L_

fA, swarming,

143); by extension,

dour, glory. —~ The old forms

under the

prosperity, splen-

figure

sun and A.

moon, light and life. — Phonetic series 322.

Ta’. Flow 3K of BM words

(L195). — Phonetic

Series 396.

Ts’ao?. Judges. Primitively two worthies who sat and pronounced I judgment inthe if East halls. See L. #20 K. Note the ugly modern contraction.— Phonetic series 653.

cg (Ogo m Is ov &Od %> Gt

See LL. 26 D; 40 D.

Etymological

Lessons.

73.

4185

Second series: { kan’.

s +

Kan!. Sweetness of something — held in the mouth (L. 1, 4°); good, sweet;

by extension,

JJ

satis-

faction, affection; PU KMOAS-— @e— é WR HB. — It is the 99th radical of few characters relating to sweetness. Phonetic Mu.

series 129

It forms

The thing {{ sweet to the taste, the fruits

that grow on ZK trees; FW It is used now, by a mere

to mean,

a certain person

MAK

HA.

conventional chia-chieh, whose name is unknown,

or respect or caution forbids to use, $C A mu-jén; HE ZS 3, % W, Phonetic series 467. Shén‘ In the more ancient form, PU what was agreeable to the [J taste. In the more modern form, affection ff for the being PG that makes the pair (sexual) SeeL. 42 A. This affection being very great, says the Glose, hence the extended meaning, superlative, very, extremely, excessive. fy a AA O A PL.

Ar BH 2”

CE ee EO HB

K EF B-~ — Phonetic series 475.

Hsiang.

Savour or odour ff agreeable, of the #

(contracted, L. 121 1) fermented grain, of the arack;

KARA SEG.Bz RES. By extension,

fragrant, odoriferous.



It is the

186th

radical.

Chih’. contact

Formerly, the tongue with

a sweet thing —

@ (L, 102 C), in (L. 1 4°). Now

ff

sweet; & is the phonetic (L, 26 K). By extension, edict of the Emperor thatis supposed to be couched in sweet words. — Phonetic series 185.

Tien?. Sweet

}{ to the 7% tongue; it is from this

phonetic contracted, that are derived, in the phonetic

series 227 7%, the compounds in jen. See L. 102C.

GHA. & Mo Yen‘. Satiated. Glutted ff with the JR meat of a K dog. See fk L. 65G. Inthe modern character, became J, as in %§ and §F above. It forms FAR yen‘, L. 65 G.

186

Etymological Lessons.

73.

Third series: @ yen?. =

Yen®. To speak, to tell; speech, word. Words issuing

JE (L, 102 E) from the [] mouth. The sounds of the heart, says the Glose; ify % 4, —

It is the 149th

radical of characters relating to speech. It forms

=

Chi‘. To compute, to calculate. To know how to F&

‘il

enunciate the numbers till - ten, i.e. all the numbers. See L. 24 B.

= H

T’ao?. To rule sf by one’s & words; to chide; #% df,, See L, 45 B.

a =

Hsiné. Sincerity; the quality that the & words of every man J should have. Faith, truthfulness, the effect produced upon a JL man another. See L. 25 H.

Any

and praising =. one’s goods, as the pedlars do. To praise up one’s self.

ie

Luan’.

Shang’.

f

= words of

aS

Hstian‘. To go here and there #7, while offering

4s"

Fourth

by the

series

See L. 92 D.

See L. 15D.

doubled 52.

Ching‘.

oe

&

words

against

words,

dispute ; = 8. @& FF, Then the two Jl, men (L. 29 A) were added; AKA = JL.— B.S Be Lastly, the scribes contracted this character

~ted

and K’ang-hsi wrongly

classified

it under

into i,

the 417th

radical ye. Not to be confounded with $f L. 97 1.

¥ ¥

Shan‘. Harmony, good understanding 2 (L. 103), peace made again after an #& altercation By extension, amenity,

pleasantness, sweetness, good, well; AA=,

M 26, @ BR

3% A HK. Compare 3H L. 74 Q.

This character being

uneasy to trace, the scribes altered it in a strange way. — Phonetic series 702.

Etymological Lessons.

73.

487

Fifth series: % yin'. A series is reserved to this derivative of # , on account of its important compounds.

E

a §

Yin'. Utterance & of a —

sound. A sound, tone,

phonation, modulation; B wh

@&G—, @ B.

Compare the composition of kan! and chih3, L. 73 B. — It is the 480th radical. Phonetic seties 498. It forms

¥

Chang!.

A strain in music

+, or an

essay

in

literature, -+ perfect (ten representing the finishing,

the perfection); KA 7,

WMA +. & #. — Phonetic

series 593. It forms

#



Kan‘

3

evolutions

Music @, that ruled the of

the

dancers

in

ancient times (see Xf and #€ L. 31 E). It forms, by adding the

radical

Oy,

oe

Kan!.

8

Kung‘.

The & gra-

tification (L. 161) given to the musicians. Compare fg L. 65 D.

The scribes changed F into J, therefore this cha-

racter is now written $F, — Phonetic series 850.

ta

Ching‘. Limits, boundaries; where the # languages or dialects of JL men change. By extension, end; M

BLM

A. @& &

Wang-hsi who took # for his

180th radical, arbitrarily classified # under wh. — Phonetic series 603. 14. The intention j% of the man who speaks, manifested

Pad

by the sounds -

he utters; 7 4,. By extension, the

meaning, the signification that the fy intelligence of the hearer perceives in the # words of the speaker;

Ki. Ks. @8. 6 2 Fh A RB.— Phonetic series 739. It became, by contraction, the compound

Re

@ in

a

Chih+, Officer. See L. 71 l. —

gk

Phonetic series 671.

188

Etymological

Lessons.

73. 74.

Note: In the phonetic series # 739, are enclosed sume derivatives of another compound, which the scribes confounded with &, 14. Pleasure, cheerfulness, caused by a #

3

word, that

gz

hit the point - (L. 109); RM KAA B. @ #¥ .004 is divided, a half being on the top, a half at the bottom; rf is in the middle. With jf) at the bottom, we have a compound which is also written %f It meant, pleasure. This sense became obsolete, and the

character now means 100.000. It is written {@& Compare L. 47 X. — Conclusion: in modern characters, the series is uniform;

written

io apcient

characters, it is de-

composed into two distinct series.

LESSON

74.

About the primitive [] wei®. See [aj L. 76.

A

CD

Wei?. A round,

a circumference,

an

inclosure, to

contain; [A] Jj 4.4. — It is the 34th radical of characters relating to enclosures. To be distinguished

from the 30th radical [J, mouth. Different compounds of [] wei? were already explained. Let us recall

Ytian‘. Larve FJ without skeleton, that can bend in

rouod (). See L. 65 E.

Ytian®. Cowries

of a © round form. See L.

164 B.

Shé+. Dwelling made with walls. See L. 14 C. Ts’ang!. A granary to [] keep the& provisions. See L. 26 M.

Ch'iu®. A man A imprisoned [] See L. 25 B. Yin'. A man A enclosed, knowing not what to say. See L. 60 B

De HEE UD

Hun?. A sty [] for XK pigs. See L. 69 B.

Etymological Lessons.

74.

189

Lo}. Penning, cattle-breeding, fattening. To FU catch and inclose (3 an animal in a [J pen, in order, later

on, to get its Fj fiesh; & py BR 4, See LL. 10 E, 44 E, 65 A, The scribes

changed FL into A. —

Phonetic series 747, the radical being inserted

at the

bottom, betveen Fj and A.

Lei®?. A 2€ sheep

that

needs

to

be fattened.

Lean, feeble, meagre.

Ying?®. To feed one’s purse ( cowries). To gain at a game or in doing commerce. Is phonetic contracted

in the compounds io ing of the phonetic series 747.

A‘. Seat

[]

of

the

government’s

authority

J

(L. 55 B). Capital of a district, of a fief. Walled city ;

KOA. @e. #6 4, — It is the 463th radical of characters denoting towns, Let us recall the compounds

Yung!. The moat around a city L 12 G.

Yung!.

The wagtail, the bird 4€ that likes the

moats. L 12 G. Note: @& straight or turned, when abbreviated, becomes on the left. Hence the following

be :

[J on the right, %

Yung!. The wagtail, as above; . is for (*, % is for f&,. — Phonetic series 769. e05

Hsiang’. The country, the space between the cities

r

L. 26 M — Phonetic series 682.

Y and

[§, where the grains B are growing

See

Lastly, in the next, & is reduced to TY, (L. 55 B).

o+-o

A fel

Hsiang}. Composed of JE (L 47 Q) and of two & ,

later on reduced to one, and then to Q,. What is of a common € use in the cities &, ie. the streets,

the paths; Mt MG. @ Mee Ee Pb HK th, i ww.

190

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON About several serjes derived from

75.

75.

[J] wei2, viz. Ry. ey. Hs be. etc , thal are

important and difficult.

First series: # shu‘.

cae

Shut. To bind, to tie, [Fj to inclose a JK tree, taken

here as meaning any object; oe 44. AA [], MA, @ %&. — Phonetic series 303. It forms 3

a * ax

Su‘, sou’. To clear the throat,

t to cough; AA A (L. 99) i Be, —

Phonetic series 647.

Chien?. To select; to choose in a wf bundle previously 7 opened; AA a.AA 7\. & Ke FP Hil 4, Not to be confounded with the compounds of fq, L. 40 D. — Phonetic series 429. This is a singular compound, that forms ao interesting

of 3%, with

a second [J

greater, inserted half way up the tree

series.

It is composed

The radical, or

sometimes the

phonetic, is introduced in this frame.

The general idea

of this now

obsolete character was,

a recipient,a case,a bag, placed high, out of reach. The scribes altered itin many ways. The large [] is generally reduced to +, and the foot of the tree FX to

Jy. Some compounds are given here : Kaol.

Quiver, a case for arrows; % is phonetic.

T’o*. A bag; 4, stone,

represents the contents. See

the ancient character above. [t forms

Tu‘. Worms

4 in cases, books or clothes, moths,

book-worms.

Nang’. A sack, Explained L 72 H. — Phonetic series 854. The philologists attribute also to this compound, taken in the sense of enclosure,

the intricate forms of k’un’. See below, the different writings of this character. It means the path in the shape of a -{-, which cuts the [] square yards of the

Etymological Lessons.

75

191

Chinese palaces, giving in the angles four 1 spaces, planted with flowers;

ja th, .

The first ancient form graphically represented

Ha

this idea, which was

darkened by successive additions. The contractions were made by the scribes. Not

to be confounded with 3 L. 82 H.

hu?, L. 38 G. it has nothing in common with Ga yat,

fd Ba ae ae

Second series: & kao!.

*

oe

(0)

Kaol. A kind of pavilion -Y, raised upon a lJ substructure; [] represents the hall in this under building; AR, 2 BiH Z FB. An elevated place; high,

lofty, eminent. —

Phonetic series

It forms

544. When

the 489th

it is variously

or overturned, or when its strokes forms the singular following series.

“is

= A

are

radical.

contracted,

mingled,

it

T’ing?. The phonetic J ting! (L.57 A) replaced the

[] at the bottom. In the modern writing, [] hecame

—. Pavilion,

terrace; #2 HAA

BT Be.—

Phonetic series 479.

ci

Pot. An old city, 4 (L. 33 B) root of the Bj Shang dynasty, built upon a 7B height.

e

Hao?®. An angry Ax boar (L. 69) bristling up; a contracted is phonetic.

compare

Extended

meanings, bravery;

L. 69 D. IL.. or bristles, a hair, anything

very minute. Hence the modern form &, which is not classical (3, mao’, hair, L.100) — Recently the

Oss Sess

character

has been

adapted

to the porcupine,

mon in the West of China. It is supposed

com-

to be very

brave, and to shoot out its quills, like arrows. — Pho-

netic series 777.

0)

Ch’iao?. In this character, it was the top » of that disappeared, to make room for — yao’, L. 61 B;

BH WG wh he MK M BH A. & B, Something

® high, a tree for instance,

down, overhangs. —

Phonetic

the top of which bends

series 670. K’ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under [J the mouth.

192

Etymological

Lessons

75.

T’ai?. A high place, a lofty terrace, a look-out. Here

[] of the bottom

i is reduced to [J and —. The

ee

was replaced by %, L 4133 which means that the birds alight there. The - on the top, is replaced by

W L 79, which indicates the summit, as in yj” L. 59

SA SR.

AERBYVM

BOARS

staying,

By extension, any elevated place, observatory. — Phonetic series 790.

tower,

Third series: % ching', derived from 7.

es

C

eS

é

Ching'. replaced

It is #, the bottom by a

centrality. The

pivot

(L.

capital

part of which

6A); idea

or

is

of loftiness, of

metropolis, centre of the

Empire. BA i 4. A | 45| ti £. de SW, The scribes altered the bottom

it is unconnected with »J.

in the modern



character. Phonetic series 336. It

forms

Chiu! 1

a

as

Admiration

Wm exalted.

3 (L. 134 C), before something

By extension,

to go towards, to follow,

consequently.

2 Py

Ching}*. The sun a prospect.

Forms

very ¥ high; brightness;a vista, #% ying’,

shade caused by an

object, intercepting 3 light. — Another

explanation:

the sun at the capital Ht, Progmostics given by it about the affairs of the Empire. state of things, circumstances — Phonetic series 672.

he

Liang’.

The

A. men

of the

7

capital,

enlighlened than those of the provinces, a

ria

the Government, etc. By extension, ‘

;

clear,

more

advisors

to illumined.

The actual form is relatively modern.

Fourth series: $f hsiang?; modern form %, derived from &. D

Before studying thts series, that was specially distorted by the scribes, let us

note — 1. That & is anarbitrary abbreviation of —&, which has nothing in common with $ L. 94 — 2. That the scribes used the same $ asan abbreviation of two compounds of — ch'un? and kuo! (below E and H), that form series. If therefore

Etymological

Lessons.

the group = is gathered, one gets a mixture phonetic confusion

betrays a primitive

75.

of yang,

diversity

193 un,

wa,

uo, etc. This

of characters which

cannot be

distinguished in the modern writing, but is manifest in the ancient forms.

Hsiang’. To offer a —] gift toa superior A (i contracted); FJ represents the object offered; it is a

09)

3

modern primitive, distinct

from EJ yueh! L. 73, and

from & jib! L. 143. BRAK i tb FPa eB,—

The ancient form was composed of two (By abbreviated,

¥ 3

one being straight,

the other

the other receiving;

inverted; one offering,

— @ k F AM fig 44, Hence

two meanings; to treat with favour (now B héng'),

or to enjoy the favour received (now & hsiang?). Compare L. 75 G. — Phonetic series 274 and 3859; the latter is almost completely attributed pounds th’un? and huo', below E, H.

to the com-

Fu?. Abundance. According to some interpreters, this.

character is composed of —& gifts received, and of | that divides in four parts

Eq, this

division

that all the corners are filled; 7 AA

Fal QU

(® PY SE 46.48 BE. — Amore

ancient

implying

B40

|.

explanation,

though less commonly admitted, seems to be the true one.

According

to

this,

the

character

means

K-

(contracted), the heaping up of the productions of the

fi fields, goods of the earth

Abundance, prosperity,

Then the character is derived directly from j%, and not from =. — Note the modern deformation, and the compounds

transcendent

4

fa‘, bouses

influence

filled,

wealth; 7% fu?,a

that brings luck;

F jh Z

%, d,. — Phonetic series 441.

Ck’'un®. A lamb 36 grown up, big and

to be offered # asa present; AL E,W

Sich Kae

— Is altered into #, as it was Phonetic series 359. It forms

nice enough

2E, & RM.

explained above D. —

194

Etymological

Lessons.

Shu?. To take A (L. 11 E)a Bh

ai

lamb

3

acceptable,

to

be

roasted; A, iti & Z. Note the compound 3% shu’, shou’, the lamb roasted (+ L. 126); by extension,

well cooked,

Phonetic

ripe. —

series 644. Now 8% is used chia-chieh, as an interrogative pronoun.

Tun!. Br

#2

simple

Meek-minded, as a &

lamb,

honest, that is

beaten -—& and does not cry; to bear, to beat, etc. — Phonetic series 715.

Liang?. The evolution of this character parallelled the evolution of Chinese moral philosophy. Primitively

the gift Ai (asin & L. 75 D), the capital gift, the nature heavenly received. In the second aucient cha-

racter, the coming down from heaven of the gift, is shown graphically (school of Méng-tzu, good nature). In the third ancient cbaracter, — good and evil (school of Tung chung-shu). Finally, the gift has been lA, lost (school of Li-ssu and Hsiin-tzu, bad nature). — Anyhow, the primitive meaning

has been preserved:

BS, original qualities, nature, natural, inborn, good. The actual character is an arbitrary

contraction.

See

L. 26 O. --- Phonetic series 289. It forms

Lang?. Name ofan old @ city. Chia-chieh, atitle. — Phonetic series 460.

Liang?. Measure, weight, to measure, to weigh. Composed of fF (L. 120 K) weight, & natural; the weight of things according with their nature. Note the contractions. It has nothing

in common

either with

OL. 149 D, or with AL. 143 B. It forms #3 liang?,

rations, food, provisions; the quantity of 3€ grains required for food.

Etymological

G

Lessons.

75

195

& inverted, and contracted, forms Hout. Liberality, generosity. The reverse of B, L 75 D. The inferior receives a gift A; M RQ Bo It is now written

Hout. Liberality, generosity. The J~ represents the coming down of the gift, from upwards. By extension, thick, large (qualities of a generous gift). The modern character is an arbitrary abbreviation.

0CB dn Gil 4% -00

T’an?. Abundance & of pg salt (L. 41 D); salting, pickling; by extension, different macerations; various chia-chieh. After many contractions, the bottom of the

character became -{-. — Phonetic series 706.

Fifth series: & kuo, derived from #5.

ih

. o

a °

EF iL

Kuo!.

Walls, fortifications. The fence [J (L. 74)

simple, or doubled

fa] (L. 76) of the ancient cities,

with two (four) doors opposite, each surmounted with

a Fy look-out. The “— is — contracted. modern abbreviation #, see the note,

For the

L. 75 D. —

Phonetic series 349. It forms

Ar

Kuol. Walls (&

@

now uSed for the last character.

ys

Fu’.

— Phonetic series 549.

This character is derived

from

kuo!

the second ancicot form, with a simple the sense

of city,

city); it is

place.

The

fy

(above,

oO ), taken

turned

up

in was

replaced by the radical 4@ (L. 34 B), to march, to go. To go in a city, to market. By extension, to go where

one already often went, to return for a second time,

reiteration, repetition, etc. AA XY, KM BG.

Rh J. Note the absurd modern

A

contraction. —

Phonetic series 442. It forms ye Fu‘. A synonym of the last; it AB 4 is now used for the simple form,

fi HE tL. BA A, below J.

OB, See

496

Etymological

Lessons.

75.

Note. We incidently treat here about an important compound, J 1li5, shoes, to walk; it is seemingly derived from 7%, but in reality, it has no connection whatever with that character. Its story is thus given: priiilively it was

Li®. The boats Jf (L. 66), that men & put their feet in (L. 112). In fact, the ancient shoes of Chinese

much resembled a small boat; KA By, A UB,KA SR, ki

Then

4 (L. 63), to walk, was substituted for Xe feet;

and FY a man (L. 32) for &. Later on, the character was increased with AZ, to march (L. 34 C); this was

a mere redundancy. Lastly the scribes contracted fg and AZ into &, the bottom of the character thus becoming identical to 4 fat (L. 751). 2 Br HK 4h,

WAM

GE ft AR.

this compound

became

being replaced by different

i

PR.

like a radical phonetics.

Finally,

of shoes, @ For instance:

JBR BB

Chi‘, clog. Chi‘, shoe

Hsiteh', boot

Chiao', shoe.

Sixth series: ¥% k’o!, derived from &. “™

K

Mo

2

K’o!.

To overcome,

to prevail over, to repress, to

subdue, etc. The top part is jf contracted, that means, pressure from upwards, a weight that hangs

heavily. Some say, the bottom is }§ (L 65 F) shoulder, contracted.

weighs heavy upon the shoulders; LI fg 44 Wy A si. 45. F {® JB Fé. The lower part seems

A load that

RB KA

rather to be a primitive, representing

the idea of bending under # aload Note that, among the three compounds ¥h, #l BF k'o', to be able of supporting, of mastering, the first is the right one,

though it is now used the least; AA HAA

Jy, BE 4, To have the Jy strength

of 32 supporting, of subduing.

ie

does not come from 3. See L. 97 1.

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

76.

197

76.

The first series of this Lesson is about [a], which is [] wei?

L.74, doubled.

The

second series is about the primitive [@] hui®, that is often written [5] by the modern scribes. To be distinguished from the series [a] chiung?, L. 34 B.

First series: [5].

« )

we ¢

(0)

Wei*. Hui?®. Double fence (see kuo', L. 75H); a vase hermetically closed. It forms very important radical compounds, but no phonetic compounds. Those that are sometimes attributed to it, belong to [@, below G.

Lin®. A [fH] depot, to A putin BULAA.

& &. EE,

(L. 15) the grains; itis now written ey

and forms

@x

Lin®.

A depot fj for A

grains, a storehouse;

distribution of grain to the poor; gift, Phonetic series 746. Note that

favour,



a

Ping’, is a modern character, that is not

2

found in the ancient dictionaries; jy, to let

a

know to the authorities the poor that must

be #& (contracted) helped; to warn, to inform.

leg jog) Oe

T’an*. Granary jaj that may be examined at the 8 (L. 143 B) day’s light; all the grain that must be there, is really there; sincerity, honesty. — Phonetic series 762.

She‘.

Grains J€ enclosed in a je grange. When

one has grains, he does not spoil them; thrift, parsimony. See L .13 C. In the modern character, the

bottom of 3€, and the top of fj, are mingled together. — Phonetic series 755.

@)
, BH 8%, — Phonetic

a

a

wre?’

Mu?.

series 449.

To dive, while [@J turning on one’s self, in 3} something under water, the head

order to get

beingbelow; A KA HR HAY # BF. €7 FF, By extension, to disappear, to be no more. —

Phonetic series 72. The modern into JJ.

scribes changed [Q§)

The primitive [@] is found also, more or less modified, in the old form of 7; yan? cloud (L. 93 A); in an old form of Fj yaeh! (L. 73 A); in the old form of & lei? (L. 93 D), thunder rolling above fy the flelds.

LESSON

77.

About the primitive 74 kot.

tA

Kot. A twig of bamboo, with a knot, and the whorl of pending branches inserted in the knot; Pf Fe 4,

{% FZ, It is now written @, or ff. By extension, an article. Specificative compound

of unities.

Let

us

recall

the

Etymological Lessons.

77. 78.

199

Chih’, The 3 hand, breaking a bamboo sprig between two 7 knots; or, in the more modern form, x

the hand holding a bamboo sprig. A branch, a twig, It is the 65th radical. Phonetic series 45.

to hold. —

B

Chu?. Bamboo, the twigs of which are not } raised

up, but hh drooping; Fé, F ak #, It is now written 77. Contracted form AA’. — It is the 448th ke

radical

Cae

of characters

mostly

kinds or articles of bamboo. characters, e.g.

Poe

Chu?‘. A multitude

eae

referring

to the many

It is phonetic

in some

of bamboos. The common name

of India in Buddhist books.

DL wre

Chu?. A kind of rude harp, composed

of thirteen

strings that were struck with hammers. It forms

EE

Tu. To advance. Firm, resolute.

»

LESSON

78.

About the primitive Wi and its multiples. The complete series of the compounds derived from this important element will be treated in the L. 73.

First series: ! simple. Ch’'é!. A plant that A

y

8,ARS

Y

sprouts from

its grain;

the

minimum of a plant; at the bottom, the root; on the

top, the culm; on each side, one leaf; HA @ & Hi FE, It is often used as a symbol, either to represent any object

(L. 44H), or to mark a point(L. 59 F). — It is the 45th radical of characters mostiy referring to springing plants. In the modern writing, the scribes disfigured this element in the most fanciful ways. See, for instance, & L. 14 C, B L. 47M,

% L. 15C, & L, 44H, ete. gg

=

T’ao!. To hold. A hand 3 holding an Wt object; KA YR Ub. Forms 9% t’ao!, a bow-case, a scabbard, etc.

ae

*

Ch’én? An insect that crawls (L. 110), the YI head being raised ( I beak and feelers). There are unimportant compounds. Not to be confounded with # chiih!, L. 79 B.

Etymological

200

Lessons.

78.

Second series: HI repeated horizontally. Ts'ao?.

wi

B

with

herbaceous

stems.

The

repetition means their multiplicity; B FF tedA —

itis the 140th radical of characters +. The relating to plants. Modern contracted form different very scribes contracted in the same way afew Be

Wi, &

wt

4!

Plants —

elements, e.g. Fin BL 23H; Yin gH L. 54 G; ete.

Third series:

C D

}i repeated vertically, 4; not united.

WC 8

8

Ché3, shé?®. To cut, to break; fy t, An axe Jy, and the two HI stumps of a branch cut. It is now

written #ff. See L. 48 D. — Phonetic series 252. Ch’u?. Grass P bound in “J sheaves (L. 54); AB,

@e + 2.

RR FX A. By extension,

vulgar, of small value, as the grass. Compare L. 441. -Phonetic series 524.

Fourth

E

series: tI repeated vertically, Hy united.

BR

Ch’'u!. Springing of plants: the small plant.Yl (L. 78 A) formed a second pair of jeaves, and thrusts it-

Y

self out; $+ AR #€ RE from,

chuan-chu,

disfigured

It is oflen

that it becomes

2

Be

wy)

HE

to go out, to spring

Ch’.

Fis

Z& FB. To issue,

to manifest,

and

other

by the scribes, so

+, etc. — Phonetic series 117. It forms

F tail contracted (L. 100 B). To go

away tH, the tail AE lowering; MB Hi, AA B ABR 4. By extension, depression,

grievance,

bent down.

Compare li4, L. 129 A. — Phonetic series 348.

Nao?. To go ont 4) in order to #% saunter (L. 117 Bia

a

A):

Hi te th. AA HH. A

extension,

excessive

tie. &

relaxation,

Be

Now

3

pride, insolence.

By



Phonetic series 638. The scribes contracted {ff into +|

Etymological Lessons.

78.

201

Mai. To sell. This part of fA business (L 161 D) which consists in H¥ exporting goods;

to sell them;

bh eh. A HW. KM BR. & BH. The scribes contracted 14 into +. Note that #% mai‘ does not form phonetic compounds; the phonetic series in $¥,

has another origin. See L. 79 J.

Pao’. To spread F9 the 3€ grain, in order to dry it, when the —{ sun is }# rising. See L. 47S. The modern contraction is a strange one

— Phonetic series 809.

Sui‘. Unpropitious AR transcendent HY emanation. Bad omen, noxious influence; jap fi% 4, Not to be confounded

He He

with

Be ch’ung®, to revere.

T’iao‘. To sell Hy grain 3€; and its correlative Ti?. To buy A grain 3K; # (L. 62 G) is phonetic... Hi to go out; A to enter.

Fifth series: i repeated three’times, and contracted Hf.

r Fe yy

Re® HOF

Hui*®.

Vegetables,

plants in general; the three

YI

representing the multitude; Bi 2% #8 4% HK = WY WR & XZ, The modern form is to be distinguished from #f thirty, derived from ++, L. 24 N. It forms Pén‘. A man X (L. 60) who walks in the #F grass.

To stride, K 3 4, 1n the ancient character, there is K for % (L. 61 B).



Phonetic series 472.

Fén+. Ornaments, ff 1, BA A. BA Hf, Shells A and

#f

plants.

These were

the first motives

of

decoration, being easier to be traced than others. See

L. 35 G. — Phonetic series 732.

# H

Sixth series: Y! quadrupled ff. Mang}. High plants, luxuriant vegetation; 3A 4, AA We Yo FF, Note the modern abbreviation. In the compounds, the added part is inserted between the ++ on the top. and the 4+ at the bottom, the latter being often changed by the scribes into jf, X%, etc.

202

Etymological Lessons.

Mang}.

78. 79.

A hound

§

frisking about in the gg

thickets. A kind of greyhound; KR, AW Y, & eK HK BH YY BW FH, Phonetic series 693. Mo’. The § sun fading away 2B

5B

_ fh plants. Sunset; now

to be no which

more,

the

between

radical the

at the horizon, in the

. By extension,

negation. — is often

two down

to disappear,

Phonetic series 637, in placed

strokes

at the

bottom,

of the lower

++,

changed into A;eg. He, Ef, etc. Tsang}. The ancient burial; to tie — a corpse 3g in a bundle of grass. See L. 28 H. The tie — has disap-

peared from the modern character. @€eB.-HP

AU

Py

KA RE 4 oh .

Zo 18

B.S

Ae

BLAH BK FH.HM she Wy

Han?®. Cold. A man , who tries to protect himself

yW

=

against cold

7 .in a “+ shelter, by burying himself in

$i Straw. See L 47 U. — Phonetic series 530,

LESSON

79.

This Lesson, one of the most intricate, is reserved for the important series that are

derived from 4! (L. 73), viz.: Hi, > 4. Ti,

ete.

First series: i t'un?. T’un®. The underground germination. The two cotyA

root;

it,

the

wy

plumula

AZDPE

rises

ledons part from each other; the curved line represeots the struggles of the young plant in order to take above the — earth, and is brought to light; (@, Fa

AMA

AN

BR-E—

w

e

extension, the difficult beginoing of an establishment, a foundation,

HS.

By

a village, a

camp.— Phonetic series 85. It forms

e

Ch’ant. Spring. Germination if and pullulation of }> plants, by the effects of the & sun. — Phonetic series 436. The modern character alteration made by the scribes.

is another

strange

Etymological Lessons.

2

79

203

Second series: 2 chih.

Res be

Chih‘. A small plant

W ascending from

the



ground; to grow; idea of development, of progress, of

continuity; Ht dWofR.— Ay th hie &, It is now used (chia-chieh)

as the sign of the

genitive,

as an

expletive, etc. BY 3% 2% @e, Not to be confounded with @ fa?, L. 442 K. In the modern compounds, Z@ either has its ancient form, or is contracted into +, or otherwise. Note the derivatives

Ch’th!. A scarab, large black tf beetle, through —

clumsy, stupid. Compare series 520.

Shih’.

WY boring

the hard soil, coming to light. Chuan-chu,

ch’én?, L. 78 A. — Phonetic

The time, succession

of the

annual

W

sprouting periods of plants, under the action of the sun; compare L. 24 D, L. 79 A. Constancy. Later on, the character was erroneously counected with 4, — Phonetic series 562.

Sst‘. Court, temple. The place where the law or the rule +f are applied, ina W constant manner; & >

Ho 4 HE HE F Ww, — Phonetic series 238. Chib+. The will; a j% purpose

develops W itself;

that is fixed, that

4 ty #8 H, The heart

is, according to the Chinese, the seat of the iotellect and of the will. — Phonetic series 260.

Hsien!

To advance; to progress W with one’s JL

feet

29);

Balk ae Br we we Ae Seok we Me nit

(L

B

Jk

BM . F Xo wW ff Bo

Phonetic series 202. Repeated in

Shén!. BE

To advance,

to present one’s

self, in order to give one’sadvice. It forms

Tsan’. To pay a visit 3, in

ae

order to give an advice;

9

presents offered, or, more pra-

bably, received;

JA Al. #e,

@S@eAwt. BAR. # WK Ae — Phonetic series 849,

204

Etymological

Lessons.

Shih*. A warket. 1p

PA

The W grass grown

(L. 34 A), where one \_ gets

(L, being mingled with the

79.

49 E)...

horizontal

QW instead

stroke

modern form is not to be confounded,

of

either

of

,

[J, Compare with

place

[J

what one is io need of

fff fat

the down @

L

(L

stroke

4& C. The

35 B),

or with

Thi fei* (L. 79 G). It forms Ai shih‘, the kaki (phonetic complex); and Fe) naot (logical aggregate), to wrangle [54 as on the market, to quarrel, to scold, etc.

W inverted forms C

7

Mn

Tsa!. To go round; to perform a circuit or entire revolution; as i which turned on its — axis; Fj

KKK Y iii Wir wh. [0 the modern times, this cha-

Ww.

racter was changed by the scribes into fh;

#&

tf He iff is found in ff shih!, L. 86 B; and in fy wei‘, to escort, a different writing of fi, in which fff replacing the ™ of the phonetic #, means perhaps the return, while #7 means the going.

Sub-series + and =... WY combined with 4 t’u’ (L 81) forms

D

HE

Wang’.

Luxuriant vegetation, that y sprouts from

the -£ earth, here and there; rambling,

BAREUMYE

wandering;

+ EB,

Note.

In ils modern contracted forms, wang’ might be confounded with + chu’, master, L. 83 D; and with =E wang’,

king, L. 83 C. In the first case, the sound

prevents any tinction

mistake.

ig not

homophonous,

easy,

In the second the

two

case, the

phonetics

disbeing

See phonetic series 87 and 115. Note

the derivatives

Wang’

K’uang?.

To stray, to go away; BR 4,

RM £,

A mad dog that roves; Ja, Ja] we

BAR,

BK 3 — Phonetic series 285.

eh HE He me FA TER

Kuang!

A regular assemblage.

It is supposed

to

rome from [ (L.51 A), and 3 already contracted in

the writing hsiao-chuan. It seems rather that + isa primitive,

representing a regular ordering.

hstian‘, L. 47 F. — Phonetic series 223.

Compare

Etymological Lessons. Sub-series $, another combination of

E

3

=)

ne Se

Féng!. Fields

79.

205

MW with + t’a?, (L. 81).

-— and

meadows

authority sf ofa feudatory;

atenure; 5

W, under

the

an appanage, a domain,

2 $ WHA WB +,

oh oF

H fi) HE 41, This explanation seems to be erroneous. The ancient character first represented a 7 tree upon a ++ tumulus;

+f, the authority, was added later on.

It is composed like jt, in which FR was also added later on. A Knoll surmounted with a tree, represented

the liaperial possession of the land. A similar knoll, but smaller, was erected in the fief granted by the Emperor to a feudatory. Symbol of the jurisdiction; fictitious principle of propitioas influences; etc. By extension, appoint

to raise a tumulus, to invest

a noble, to

to office, to seal, to close, etc. The

forms are contracted.

Nothing in common

modern

with =

(L. 81 B). — Phonetic series 440,

Third series: 4 shéng, often contracted into $.

reOY

Shéng}!.

A plant that grows

more aod more. A

whorl was added to P L. 79B; EX 7K #— BE Y th By extension, to bear, te spring, to live, to grow. — It is the 400th radical. Phonetic series 154. Note the

derivatives

i HR

Ch’ing!. Green. The J} hue of growing 4: plants, the light green of sprouting plants; Bi 7 #h EH

(4, But FF} (L. 115 D) means red! Was the inventor

of # a Daltonian? — It is the 174th radical. Phonetic series 337.

¥ g Zz g

Hsing!

The stars;

the quintessence

of sublimated

matter, that 4 ascended and crystallised into stars;

& wz

& L B&B BI AB, The three top elements

of the ancient character are a primitive, representing the stars. The modern character is a contraction of the same. — Phonetic series 447.

Etymological

Lessons.

79.

Ch'an3. The # signs of 4 parturition. See L. 64 —= F. — Phonetic series 592.

HOY eae

Lung?. Prosperity, abundance. What descends [§ (contracted) from heaven; what is produced 4 on earth; all goods. See L. 31 F. Tu?®. The noxious

and

that

must

be

weeds

#

that

grow 4 everywhere,

avoided,

Poison,

venom.

See

L. 67 M.

Su!. This character does

not mean

to rise from the

dead, but to change gf (L. 44 A) one’s 4

existence,

in the Taoist or Buddhist sense.

Hsing}. The natural disposition, temper, spirit, the qualities and propensities; the ,%) heart of a man, at

his 4 birth.

Hsing‘.

The place where the clan-chiets

were

born

4

from

a #

heaven. They were surnanied

woman

of old,

impregnated

by

after that place; hence

the extended meaning, #§ family surname.

Shéng}!. A multitude, a great number of 4 beings.

Hi combined with 7\ (L 48) forms the two series 4 and 5.

Fourth series. iff fei‘.

oy

Fei‘. The branching ) plants, that do not W stand, but creep, and

whose

bough’s-multiply

indefinitely;

by extension, multiplication, tibres; BA HI RA, &

EEK FE FP AH At. — Phonetic series 57 The modern form is to be distinguished from ffj shibt, L. 34 D, and from ff fu’, L. 35 B... Feit is, sometimes, used also under the contracted forms 45 and 4. Note the derivatives Po‘. The multiplication, the human procreation (=| child, L. 94). — Phonetic series 304.

So’. Fibres % (L. 92) + of the plants; to tie up;a

cord. Bh 3%, KS, & Fe, — Phonetic series 565,

Etymological

mw Wy) HH

Lessons.

79.

907

Nan?. The South. Regions in which the 3% luxuriant (L. 102 F) vegetation fq expands everywhere. The country of lianas. — Phonetic series 468.

Tzu. A stop — (L. 1. 3°), in the 7fj development of vegetation. To stop. The modern form was invented

by the scribes; Jk

YW.AA Th Ri

— Ruk

2

44. — Phonetic series 86.

Fifth series: Ji p’an‘.

we OK

P’an‘. To strip hemp and 7\ divide the fibres from the HI stalk; ay

&

kk di» BA Hi IRN 5p dh.

The modern form is to be distinguished from 7X mut, tree, L 419; and from 7f{ shu®, L. 45 J. P’an* (and not mu‘) is the radical in $ hsi?, hemp. It forms

Tt NK BR iii

P’ai'*. Textile fibres Not to be confounded with $f lin?, that comes from 7x mu‘, L. 119 L. It forms Maz. Prepared hempen tow, kept under a shelter J~

(L. 59 1). — It is the 200th radical. Phonetic series 634. It forms

(ER 3

BL RR

AF

Sant. Striking

Mei?. Bad tow, AA SE (L. 170), bad; negation.

—& of the fibres, to dissociate them;

to separate; 7} fe 4, JA 32. It forms San’. To strike #& meat Aj and ABD yi

to reduce it into filaments, in the

Chinese way;

#& W 44, The

modern form contracted is now used for the last; to scatter, to separate, to disperse, to break up, etc. — Phonetic series 704.

Be

Sixth series. * lu‘. From Yi and %& (L. 60).

FAK

Lu‘. Mushroom. A plant I that stands as a man; Ak

WI,

BM K,

tracted. It forms

i i.

i.

The

*K

*&

is con-

208

Etymological

Lessons.

79. 80.

Ch’iu‘. The tadpoles that swarm

like mushrooms.

Hence the phonetic compound

Tsao‘

A stove for cooking: re KX a, — In these

intricate characters, $€ is often contracted into +, to give room. See AB L. 108 C. Mu. A benevolent Fj look; # is |-bonetic. Friend-

ao Gat Sok tk Bic BB

48 (below) being the phonetic. liness. Now fi, lu* forms ae

Yu+*. To chaffer; to haggle about

Al the price in friendly

=

e

terms. #€ is contracted into +, so that the modern form of this character is identical

i

to # mai?, to sell, L. 78 E. — Phonetic series 817.

es Earth, soil, a mound; -- #8 4, BA +. % —

Phonetic series 379. It forms

I To cultivate the ground; #&

a i bhBh, KA

HB.See

L. 44 E. — Phonetic series 619.

The following is considered contracted:

KR 3 L

Ling?

To stumble, to %

obstacle; a tumulas,

as a derivative from Ze

knock

against an

3

a hillock. —- Phonetic series 378.

For these two forms, see L. 165 B.

LESSON

80.

About the primitive {|j shan’.

awh

YW

Shan!. Mountain. On the top, three rocks; 4 i ters

+} 4

fR FE. — It is the 46th radical of characrelating

to hills.

Phonetic series 25. —

This

character is to be distinguished from certain modern contractions, e.g. fy L. 164 B, 4

L. 165 B, etc. See

L. 25 1, 4j[j bsien', the genii, the J. men who dwell on the {JJ mountains. Sometimes a symmetrical phonetic is introduced in the radical {IJ, e.g. By L. 90 D,

WAL. 69 J.

Etymological Lessons. Note the development

80. 84.

209

of the image in the following

* i Ml

Yao*. The highest peaks of mountains (4, then 5), where the Emperors worshipped when visiting their empire (Textes Historiques, p. 32). The ancient character represents the rows superposed; the modern character

is a fanciful

scribes; A KA

WR.

deformation

made

meJE. ES

by the

MR

2. & tE &. (FE HB, It is used also chia-chieh, as a term of respect.

LESSON About the primitive

81.

-} t'u3, and its multiples. A special series is reserved for

=E tings.

First series: + t'u’.

bk +

T’u®. Earth, soil, ground. The — earth that produces all

| things. The top line represents the surface, the

soil; the down tine represents the subsoil, Hi

a

EY

BH

a th, A

It is the 32th. radical of characters Phonetic series 32.

— See th) L. 38 C; AL

1

relating

the rock; th Eo

to earth.

27D; $f & L. 79 E,F;ete.

Note the following

& =

>.

Kuai‘. To 93 clear + land, changing thus his appearance; new, strange; HW KR ih BA. M

+4, BQ, & . Forms & kuait, i moral F singularity; singularity in general; 32 4h.BA ath, 2

I Be

Nieh!. Clay ++ exposed to the i sun. Hence ++ clay Y watered, then hardening when exposed to the

ff sun. To mould earthenware, netic series 296.

bricks, etc. — Pho-

Nieh?1 (mistaken for the precedent)

Hui®. The primitive Fj mortar to pound rice, a hole dug in + the hard soil, or perhaps a hollow brick. Hence

Etymological

Lessons.

81.

Hui®. To © pound (L. 22 D) in the & mortar, to grind to dust. Chuan-chu,

Br

to destroy utterly. — &

is a vicious form. — Phonetic series 735.

Note: + t’u8 is to be distinguished from Fe (L. 60) or K (L. oe the top of 3, 3, 4, etc; and from P or W (L. 79) on the top of , . HB, etc. + t'u? is ordinarily at the bottom,

In composition,

or on the left side of the

compound.

Second series: Multiples of +. + B

=



Kui'. Lands; A & +, @ FH, Appanages :

.

.

of the .

ancient feudatories. By extension, the different sceptres given to nobles by the Emperor, when they were invested with their fief. — Phonetic series 224.

For 3 that is not derived from =, see L. 79 E.

C

FE

Yao”

Earth heaped up; + BwKM=ai

+t.eS

@. It forms

A

Px

72.

Yao®. Knoll, mound, From + earth heaped up ona

JUhigh base; HHASELCEL LE.SR. Name of the celebrated

Emperor Yao? (22 Centuries

B. C.). — Phonetic series 719.

Third series:

t'ing?, composed of A and +.

T’ing*®. A man

H

eh

Kom E EL

J standing on the + ground;

A

wyL. 60H. BE We th, Compare

To be distinguished from = jén® (L. 82 C). It forms Yin?. Idea of encroachment, of usurpation, of outrage,

of violence; $f we HR tt thi BH IN W BS fk. M KM, AE.

& BH. Lit, while standing = on one’s

righls, to encroach < on another's rights. The compound % yin’, that is now used to mean lewdness in general, is in that meaning chia-chieh for ¥% rape.

Etymological Lessons. F

> 2

3

# Z fii. The

BURMA

+. BwewR

Emperor sat on his throne

ministers were standing in two yard. Each of them

211

T’ing?. To go %_ tothe court, to stand at one’s place, for an imperial audience: 88 4, 4 BR, =

AH KA

84.

Ep. UE Z

before the inner door, the

lines, on the left and the right side, in the court-

held in his hands the sceptre,

sign of his dignity. See LL. 55

A, B; 25 F; 81 G. — Phonetic series 305.

S

Ch’én®. A minister who, when 6.4% (E B AE UB] tt. — Phonetic series 66. Jé@n‘. A burden, a charge,

yen

+

for .

The tone was

to bear,

changed:

etc. It is used

AK A,

Ae—

Phonetic series 245.

Third series. B cht. Chii!. D

EB.

b cP.

~

we

yy v

A greater square (J L. 82 A), for longer

measures, either agrarian or others. It had a handle

ora tie, to be handled. Now §. By extension, big. — Phonetic series 118.

Ch’U?. A drain, a canal, a place for yy water to run into; 7 Br fg, It comes from 8, a kind of wooden square or level, used to make the aqueducts. There are different chia-chieh.

214

Etymological

Fourth

series:

82.

fa ch’én?.

zB @

b, oy ‘a

Ch’én?.

Minister,

attendant

on

character, straightened in modern

18-8), represents

the

minister

a _ prince.

The

writing (see page

prostrate

before

his

master;Sf @ 4% 4,(B® i WR Z FE, — Mtis the 431th radical

Huan’.

It forms

Minister

Fr at the 4

palace;

an official,

an eunuch. Compare ‘& kuan'‘, L. 86 C.

wi. HK BRER

aA

Gl BeaR

Be

Lessons.

ay sek

Tsang!'. Compliance, the virtue of the Fi ministers. Phonetic tk (LL. 427. B, 71 F). There are chia-chieh

different

— Phonetic series 792.

Chien’. To have hold 3 of one’s men F; firm, solid; 4% 4 7 TEL 41,, Now &%. — Phonetic series 332.

W o}. To resalute AA kindly the saluting Bz minister;

1K tb. A A, DA EB, @& EX, It forms Lin?, To treat A kindly the different classes §, of officials Ba (L. 72). By extension, to be condescending, amicable; Li mT 4. & B.A,

Chien’. To bend f{ over a full vase fff (L. 157), to see its contents. To examine carefully, to watch over; places under watch, as an

office, a bureau, a prison,

etc. AR HL,SE 4. — Note how,

in the modern

character, the /\ contracted received between its two strokes, the J of ff dislocated. In the compounds, when a radical is added at the bottom, fi{ placed on the top, on the right side, becomes mu; see the following lan, — Phonetic series 772. Compare B@ L. 44 D.

a

Lan’, To examine carefully, to

eR consider; # we, fm th. BR g

. — Phonetic series ey “=@ 3€

Etymological

Lessons.

82. 83.

215

The derivatives of Ei are to be distinguished from those of the primitive 1°. This character, a straightened figure (page 18-8), G i. (Ip rudely represents the face and projecting chin, 44 4,

{& JZ. Compare L. 41 B. — Phonetic series 279. See

BBL. 85 A. Fifth series: a8 ya‘. Ya‘. A work

H

me.

oe.

TE deformed;

ugly, as a hunchback.

The vertical Jine is doubled,

to show

a deformation

in different directions. The meaning second, derived from —., is chia-chieh. — Phonetic series 414. It forms

ae. =

Ot. Wu+. The moral evil, deforination aH of the jf) heart (04), and the repulsion which it causes

a

(wu); to detest, to hate.

Note:

in the

modern

writing, several

characters contain

relation whatever with the ya‘ of this Lesson; e.g. =

a #

that has no

L. 38 G, ae L. 76 A. Item,

the next primitive has nothing in common with i. 2g

aay

T’ou*. A wine vessel, probably Bo fF, Is found in

aa

Cho?

wooden

made; 7#§

To cut, to scoop out: Mf tH, A

Fre The

scribes write gf. which is a wrong form.

Touy. To quarrel (L. 44 1).

[aed

LESSON

83.

About the primitive -— yi‘, jade; and incidently, about the analogous characters =— wang? and + chu’.

First series:

ya‘, often written Yui‘. The balf-translucid minerals, milky or coloured,

A

> t

HZ

=

as jade and others, of which the Chinese are so fond; 4 2 BF FH. They ascribe to it different effects, and make with it articles worn at the girdle. The character =E represents three pieces of jade | threaded; =

if, | BH FH th. The addition ofa dot 3 is modern, and made in order

to distinguish ya* from wang’. — It is the 95th

gems It is found in many compounds, object made with jade =, L. 47 F.

radica]

of characters

relating to

e.g. 3 lung‘, néng‘, to handle —9 an

B

83.

Etymological Lessons.

216

Fr

%E doubled, forms the next two:

Tf

Pan.

Veined a (L. 61 F), like certain nice

stones.

Pan!, Division of charges, of offices.

Pit

is

i}, JJ CL. 52) in the sense of Ap (L. 18) to divide. The two = are two jade sceptres,

L. 55 H. Fp Mi He th, AA 5

The middle

é

signs of dignities.

EK

OT). @

Ch’in?, Harpsichord of soniferous Fg stones, hanging from a string. See Textes Historiques, p. 82 (one stone). The ancient character represents two stones,

and the suspension string (a primitive). Compare L. 17 F —

The following cha-

racters are said to be derived from ch’in? (radical contracted; the phonetic is at pa’, ete., different kinds of citharas the bottom): %£ ch’int, 3% shé', FE pi?, or harpsichords.

Second series: — wang?. Wang?.

C

x

+

A king; the

heaven, earth and man.

[ who

man

=

connects

See L 3 B, where this

character was fully explained. —

series 87.

Phonetic

It forms

&

ie

Huang?. renowned

=.

ore

Originally,

it meant

159)

BGA,

=2K

three

rulers of antiquity, (R # Fu-hsi,

Shén-nung, #{ FF Huang-ti; kings, in the beginning

=.

the

those

who

gh

were

fy (a contraction

& B.A.

most

of 4 L.

ts Ho th E

A

E &, It was used to designate the modern

Emperors, from the year 221 B.C See Textes Historiques, p. 209. The #% if gives this definition: «light

of the Empires. @ 3% JB ah, Re fe te HB, SE OB A 8, Compare with the definition of $, betow D. — Phonetic series 452. Yin‘. Ez

fe|

Two

Liin‘.

Intercalary

moon,

explanations of this character

supplementary. are

given. —

4.

Formerly, in the plenary andience at the Court, when

the moon was intercalary, the Emperor =F sat at the door P49, not in his ordinary place; KF & AA &.PY A f PY #.— 2. Once | , every three = years,a

moon must beintercalated; PY is phonetic; = 4 — A a. BR | fe — ah. 428 HK =, St EE °F, In that case, fj is not derived from =, but directly from = L. 3, as =.

Etymological Lessons.

83. 84.

7

Third series: + chu’.

oe Ye

Chu’. A lamp-stand with the flame rising. By extension, a man who spreads light, a lord, a master. See L. 4 B, where this character was fully explained. — Phonetic series 115.

Note. Do not confound with the derivatives of = and of #, those of # L. 79 D; 7£, ¢£, etc This is more easily said than done.

LESSON

84.

About the primitive @ chi, to be distinguished from @ i®, and from — ssi‘, L. 85. Chi’. The ancient character represented the threads

ha

of the weft, on the weaving-loom.

Ges

threads transversal,

one thread

On

the top, two

longitudinal;

at the

bottom, the thread in the shuttle. The character was

simplified later on. G AW &#, HR

Z BE.

— Si, % 4a BY 4. When G, was chosen, on ac-

count of its simplicity, to become a cyclical character (the sixth of the ten stems), it was replaced by $B. It means also, chia-chieh, a person, one’s self, 1, myself;

QZ kB

&, —

Itis the 49th radical. Phonetic series 14. Note the compounds:

Chi‘. Used for the last; @, to sort %& threads. By extension, #f 4, $¥ 4, arrangement, disposition, set, succession.

Chit. To

FB tell the succession

@, of facts, either by

speaking, or by writing.

Se

Ch’'i. To rise; to put one’s self @, in motion 3.

Fei!. Women & secured for @, one’s own seif; JU i, SA & f# G. & HB, The secondary wives or concubines

of an emperor. Its original meaning,

to

match, to suit, was given to the next.

co

P’ei* The wine ] drunk at the wedding-feast $B (contracted). See L. 47 V. To pair, to mate, marriage.

Chi‘. The series @, of events or times that are kept in memory

jf; death of great men,

Hi, anniversary

day

of the death. By

because on such days, music, spirits,

avoided,

the

of parents; &

character meant,

from. — Phonetic series 256.

extension.

meat, etc. were

to shun,

to abstain

218 Note.

Etymological

Lessons.

84. 85.

The derivatives of GC, chi® are often scarcely distinguishable from those

of B& ssti4 and

@ i*(L.

85), when

these are wrongly

shaped;

as well as from

those of GY (for JJ L 55), asin §&. K’ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under chi’, On their side, the scribes commonly maltreated those series, as may be seen by the characters given above.

LESSON

85.

About two primitives, FE, ssi! and £ i8, to be distinguished from @ chi®, L. 84. K’ang-hsi gathered under the 49th radical C,, all those heterogeneous elemeats.

First series: & ssi‘.

a ad 7

Sst!. The figure of an embryo, a fetus L. 54 B. — Inthe

maternal

See 63 pao’,

womb, the child is B or

#1; at birth, Zy or Fg L. 94 E, F; when swaddled, Ff L. 94 A; when it begins to walk, 5f 29 B. — Ssut is used as a cyclical character. — Phonetic

series 28.

Note the derivatives

Sst. Sacrifice

BSHRT

ECB,.

BAAS

4, See FR OL. 3D. 12, The chin; AA fa (L. 82 G), B KR, It forms

Hsi'. Bright, splendid, glorious. dddd

Second series: B i’.

ce a Js B wv

1’. This very ancient character is supposed to represent the exhalation of the breath, the virtue that emanates

from

any

object, its action,

its use.

By

extension, use till exhaustion, to terminate, to decline,

to have done with, to be no more, passed; (# JE, > & Wh. FA a, Compare L. 73 A, and L. 76G.

Note: B is uniform in the ancient writing. In the modern writing,

it is written

different

B, B, Z, and

ways,

explain successively

by the scribes

in four

JJ, that we shall

Etymological Lessons.

85.

219

C 1. S written B, e.g.

rR

L?. To extract F} from a thing @ all that can be extracted from it, then, to stop, to finish.

Hh by

Kai’. To treat a person ora thing &

(with hand

and rod), so that amendment is & produced;

to

change, to alter, to reform, to correct.

D 2. B written EB, eg.

FB ite

Sst‘. Plough-beam and handle; the 7{ wood that

fertilizes the fields. It is unconnected with 2 L. 86 B.

E 3. SB written J, in the following series. (Note that J, is used as an abbreviation for three other primitives, L.L. 38 E, 38 H, 89 A; hence an easy confusion).

Aa

re

ec

YS

LR

% 8 & F

1. The mouth [J exhalinga G breath. By extension, to speak in order to make one’s self known; I, one’s self; BY 48, It is used as an arbitrary abbreviation of & t’ai? (L. 75 B). — Phonetic series 427.

Yiin®. To manifest one’s consent, one’s approbation.

A Jl man who & says yes. See L. 29 E. — Phonetic series 99. Forms the phonetic complex

Mou:.

Tsun.

To

dignity —

Phonetic series 314.

To low, to bellow.

S breath (RHA

walk

8

with

An 4 ox that exhales its

S RHR RE

11 Hi. See L. 132. — Phonetic series 231.

13. A final particle denoting that one has % finished to & speak; & G dj 4. The 5 dart (L. 131) means

that the action

is ended,

fixed, as when

the

arrow has hit the mark. Compare jh L. 71 E. — Phonetic series 280,

220

Etymological

Lessons.

85. 36.

at:

Néng:. Here & represents the roaring of the angry

Bt

bear, that stands up ready for a fight ( J the fleshy

body, two & claws). See L. 27 J. —Phonetic series 554.

F

4. & written JJ. By, with, to use, by means of; FA 4, K’ang-bsi counts

five strokes for this character, It forms

Ay,

Ne

Phonetic series 65.

that really has four only. —

Ssti‘. A { man who has the same fe virtue as another. By extension, (®@ tH, #4 #4. equivalent, like, similar, to resemble in general

LESSON

86.

About two primitives, that really form ovly one, because they differ only by plus

or minus strokes of the same kind; & fu‘, and & tui.

First series: & fu‘, now @. 200

Bz

Fo*.Compare

J~ L. 59 A. Declivity with successive

f=

rows

ie

that the compounds may not be too large. In the first

E

superposed.

The steps are

placed under J, so

ancient form, the three small rounds represeat a forest on the top. The scribes invented the modern arbitrary abbreviations. By extension, big earthworks, embank-

ments,

dams. —

It is the

170th

radical

and

dis-

tinguished from the 163th radical &, (also contracted into J§), by the fact that [§ is on the left side in KI

the Series

170, while

itis

on the right

side in the

Series 163 Note the two derivatives, B& yin', the shady side ofa hill (North); and { yang?, the sunny side of a hill (South). It is now used to mean the dual powers, day and night, life and death, male and ex

Va

frmale, etc.

Etymological Lessons.

8&6.

221

Second series: B tui.

E

tn

Tui'. A lighter declivity; two steps only. By exten‘sion, ramparts, city, troops that keep it, a legion. The

ff lost its J in some modern compounds; it is then to be distinguished from —, i® (L. 85 D). — Phonetic series 245. Note the derivatives

Shuai‘. To lead jfj a & legion; ageneral; BR yp,

we

,

The fj (L. 35 A) is the

guidon of the

commander. Compare the following

Shih?.

It is — the first f[j banner, that staid at B

the capilal;

the guards, whose commander

mander-in-chief,

extension,

The old

was com-

the one above the others. Hence, by

capital,

army,

forms are made

multitude,

master,

of a primitive that

etc. —

means

waving, and it tsal (L. 79 C) that means rolling. waving and rolling

mass; the people or

A

the army. —

Phonetic series 561.

Chui!

Legion #4 in march Z; H AW, to pursue.

— Phonetic series 526

Nieh4. A ii plant that grows on a f% declivity. Compare L. 59 F Notion of visibility, of notoriety. It forms

Niel. Evil deed, sin; scandal; AA 3@ (L. 102 H), 5B 4,, This character not being easy to write, the scribes replaced it by the derivative contracted yy yy

A ( properly $

hsieh!, hsfeh'), in the phonetic compound son

of sin, child born in adultery.

The

“f 3&4 Ht BB

admitted the change.

Kui!. The arrival jf of the bride in ber husband's family,

to which

(contracted).

she will

belong

See L. 44 K. The

phonelic redundancy.

as a wife

@%

—& is a modern

222

Etymological Kuan'.

C

4

(é|

Lessons. Primitive

86. 87. meaning,

the

residence

of a

mandarin who presides over a city, the » hall of the A city, (—& is the modern abbreviation) By extension, the mandarin, the government. — Phonetic series 370.

LESSON

87.

About the primitive & kung!, and iocideutally about the primitives # fu‘ and

¥ ti4, that resemble it in the modern writing. First series:

5% kung!.

A

S

Kung'. It represents a Chinese bow, with its handle

5

in the middle; £2 4. PR SA 2B 5. (®, The ancient forms

represent the bow bent or vibrating. —

the 57th

radical.

We

have

seen

it already,

It is io

we

L. 28 H, #% L. 60 D, etc. For §§, see L 90 L, im L. 110 B. Note the following

Yin®. To draw the [ string of the & bow; §§ & 5|

|

. AR BAAN. & FE, Ghuan-chu, to attract, to lead, to induce, to seduce. — Phonetic series 93.

a5

Ch'iang?. Muscular strength. To have the strength to bend a kind of & bow, the resistance of which is equal to the resistance of two ordinary bows. In the military competitions, such exercises took place.

Note 4. The bows were kept by pairs, fixed upon a stiff piece of wood, in a sheath. Hence it comes that, sometimes, in composition, two & mean a pair, or that which makes the pair, a second, as io

Wi

Pi‘. Auxiliary, minister. See L. 41 B.

Note 2. In the following, the scribes fancifully wrote

Ba

v8 ii

Jao‘.

& for another thing.

Feeble, fragile, slender. Wings

of a young

bird. See L. 62 D.

ate

Li!. A caidron 5 (L. 155) steaming (the two sidelines uodulating represent the steam ).

Chout!. Rice water or gruel; 48 grain that boils ina ta caldron, This last character is now contracted into

Dok a3.

EVI

Etymological C

Lessons.

87. 88.

223

The bow 5 is kept horizontally, in the following, as it is natural, to shoot

a bird that flies above the bowman.

=,

eS

Ww Note:

Tsun‘. To shoot a bird on the wing; KA F& Pr Li SS f&, t #, — Phonetic series 744. is a wrong form of tsun‘.

oo Sat

is a wrong abbreviation of #8 hsi!, L. 15 C.

Second series. #f fu‘. Primitive. Fu’. To act against an obstacle. Two divergent rods

D

ae

db

which one seeks to tie together; JA J, KM \ (8. fe 2 %JEB Opposition, Phonetic series 124

prohibition,

negation.



Third series. # ti‘. Primitive. ’ E

%

Ti’. ee

A thread

a catch

on

Primitive

that is wound

the top, and

instrument,

L. 102 B. —

on a spool, having

a winch

at the

reef and bobbin.

bottom.

Compare

#3

Chuan-chu, succession of brothers, elder,

younger; succession; younger brothers; && 4.48 XK

% ii 4 +4. — Phonetic series 304. Note. 9% tzti® that is like i

ti, has nothing in common with it, nor with 5.

See L. 79 G.

LESSON

88.

About the partial primitive {, and incidentally about 4%, First series.

§ pai’.

A

a

Pai?. The @

sun (L. 143) that just appears. This

meaning is represented by a small point (primitive)

on the top of the sun. The dawn,

when

the Eastern

sky becomes white . Clear, white, bright, etc. (@, A A Hew EE thE. — It is the 106th radical. Phonetic series !43.

Etymological

Lessons.

88. 89.

We saw already ] in the compounds 8 L. 29C; L. 18 L; 3 L. 60 F, etc. Note the following:

ie

Pai?. From fff cloth, and fy white. See §% mien®, L 92 B. — Phonetic series 386.

She

Pai’. One hundred; A —, G§ BG

or — th.

#% AK —, One hundred is the — unity of hundreds; is phonetic. Other commentators,

judging from an

ancient writing, consider & asa &Y contracted (L. 159); but meaning the beginning, the interpretation is the same. It is to be noted that all the great anities of the Chinese numeration, hundred, thousand, myriad, are designated by borrowed characters. See 24 D, 17 X. — Phonetic series 233. It is repeated in Hf shih‘, abundance, wealth A man > with one

GID! OG} 30

hundred

ee

under each arm ; & 4H,

Second series, # yao‘, lao‘, a special partial primitive. Yao‘

It represents a wooden

7X support en

which

(] adrum and & bells are hung. Therefore & is

not pai2, and XXis not yao! (L. 90). — The orchestrion of old Yao*, music in general. When read lao‘, it means the effect produced by music, pleasure, joy. Phonetic series 845.

LESSON

839.

About the primitive J, ssti!. See the Note, below B. Compare LL. 90, 94, 92.

ioeee)

O Fd iho

Ssii!. A cocoon. It represents a silkworm that coils itself up, and shuts itself in its cocoon. By extension,

selfish, to care only

for one’s self, separation, private,

particular; RR eS

La SRL.

It is the conventional 28th radical. The following compound replaced J, in the modern writing

Ssti!,

Etymological

meaning,

my

J, share of Fr

grains. By extension, private, personal, partial, selfish;

K 2 8 WB, — Note also

Etymological

A

Lessons.

89. 90.

995

Ch’uan‘. To calculate & (L. 47 G) one’s own

a

advantage (at the others’ expense).

assume, to usurp. if hi 4K

B

Jy

To embezzle, to

A

Note. The scribes used J, as an abbreviation for three other primitives

(LL. 38 E, 38 H, and 85 E), which makes between them.

Further, the scribes

four in all; hence

still use

arbitrarily

characters, in which case /, is an abbreviation, following

= ss [It Wes i Heb

an easy

J, for other

and not a primitive.

confusion intricate

Note

the

Lei®’. To build a wall. L. 449 E.

Shén‘’, Orion. L. 62 G.

Ch’i?. A regular assemblage. L. 174.

LESSON

90.

About J, doubled Y%, and its multiples; incidentally about &.

First series. Y yaol. Yao!. The lightest thread, as it is obtained by the A

Z

2

simultaneous winding of two © cocoons. By extension,

thread, slender, tender, #j aJ. 4, — It is the 52th radical. Note the compounds

:

Ma!,

pe

mot. Vegetable

fff fibre % (L. 79 H). It is

now used, by convention, as an interrogative particle.

Yu‘. Youog, slender, who has very

ay

Y% slender ya

&Hy tendons. Not to be confounded with ¥%J huan‘, false, L. 95 B. — Phonetic series 171.

42 / AB

4 2

Hout. To march 4 (63 A), while stretching a Y& thread behind. The later on. By extension, after.

is a radical redundancy added to follow,

behind,

posterior,

Etymological

Lessons.

90.

Luan‘. An embroiled X% thread, that is disentangled by two hands =

@ &.

3 ; [J (L. 34 A) means separation;

wore wh. Confusion, disorder.

Note the

alteration of the modern character. It forms

Luan. A synonym of the last; Z, representing the thread that is drawo #§ 3, is a radical redundancy.

Ts’ii?. To clear one’s self from a 3£ sin (L. 102 H);

to excuse one’s self; fq #2 3 wh,

c Jal Rl

Yin,. A line of posterity, heirs, generation

Trans-

mission y. of the J ( L. 65) ancestors’ substance, that

is 7\ divided into branches. The sion, in a family, of one generation A.

AN,

7

KZ

continuous

succes-

after another; AR

st FS the BA

2,

i

ZeRB UL.BE.

Dh 8 a 8 a 8

Second series. -% doubled. Yu!. It is the meaning of 4% reinforced. Very slender, almost invisible; A — 4%, @ He. BW the It forms

Yu'.

The

most

shady

¥% recesses

in the {lf hills

(L.80); I 2 RR Bb. Chit. A guard of soldiers on the frontiers

% (shu,

L. 25 D), who are attentive to the least 2% movement, to the smallest

event. Hence

the derived

meanings,

to examine into, subtle, hidden, small,a few; $¥ 4.

BR ZK. BA OMG. & RH, — Phonetic series 667.

ws oh

are derived from #& contracted. See L. 92 F, G.

Third series. -% quadrupled. In

ae

Chiieh®.

To cut short a thread, to interrupt, to

sunder, to break off, to cease,

Four threads

¥ cut

short, divided by the two _J; ®, A = #8. @ — t& $& 1 4%, $8 HB, This ancient character was replaced,

when

the writing-brush

#@ chiieh?, that is synonym;

was invented,

by

JJ to cuta % thread

in P pieces. See L. 55 G, It forms

Etymological

BT aK

Lessons.

90.

227

Tuan‘. To cut, to break off, to interrupt; 2X 44h. From an fr axe, and #§ to cut, %&. The ancient

character 34 could not be traced with the writingbrush; it was therefore written 3 chi! in the modern writing, hence (gf instead of af, which is graphically

wrong. Note the modern junction of the two _}.

g3

Be ts Als Appendix.

Chi‘.

It means the contrary of #4) chiieh?, because it

is chiteh? inverted. Later on, the 4% was added, which was quile useless.

To connect as with threads; a line

of succession; #@ 4. X HH

KR.

© 183, almost similar to X in its ancient form.

°%

Li’.

The spinal

that represents

vertebrae.

the body

A

primitive character

of two

vertebrae, and the

disk that joins them; or rather, two spinal apophysises,

with

the ligament

between

them.

4 § th,

@&

JE. By extension, tones in music, on account of their succession. — Phonetic series 291. It forms

48 4 Oe

Kung}. To bend, to bow one’s body &, so that the spinal apophysises £4 stand out along the rachis. Later

on,

& replaced —, the

the same; & to bend one’s body

body,

meaning

remaining

&. By extension,

person. — It forms §# ch’iung?, to be at bay,

exhausted, driven into a corner (5< cavern); misery;

limits, end.

Note.

The © in the following characters are probably primitives

unconnected

with 2.

Yung}'. An old form of £§. Moats ({ ofa & city

G

(two walls or buildings). L. 12 G.

Ying!. Encampment, a primitive settlement. In the more ancient

ie

oleate

OR OE OO

form, there

are

two (several) tents or

huts. In the modern form, there are huts with a fence, and two XX fires, for the kitchen, or to frighten away the wild beasts. By extension, to measure, to scheme,

to regulate. Compare 34 B, 126 F.

228

Etymological

Lessons.

90. 94.

Kung}. A big building. Several CQ rooms under the same “+ roof. This character is used to designate the

2

Imperial private residence, from the # Ch'in? Dynasty.

Now, in %& and @, it is written 4 and not #. LESSON

91.

About two compounds of Y% (L. 90), % and’, that form important series.

First series. & hsian?. Hstian?.

To put A (L. 15) the thread

dye; dyed thread; green colour

XY in the

(later on,

the black

one, on account of certain Taoist theories). Under the

¥

Gh'ing Dynasty,

the

wv

because this was the personal

of YE was name

K’ang-hsi. An ancient form was thread

(L. 92),

dyeing; #9 S$. —

suppressed,

of the

Emperor

composed

and of two points

that

of 4%

mean

the

It is the 96th radical. Phonetic

series 124. — In composition, & means, either green,

or a string (probably because the thread by big hanks). Note the derivatives

was dyed

Hsien®. The string of a bow &. Stringed instruments in general. ¥ is altered, as stated above.

Ch’u‘.

Hsiti'. The fA fields (L. 149) ¥& green,

covered with grass; meadows, pasture-lands where the cattle graze. Hence two meanings, and two sounds:

ch’nt 4% BH cattle; hsat €} 4 to feed. —

wD

Phonetic

series 525,

Ch'ien!. To haul along an ox 4B by a rope ¥;

represents (the traction or the resistance; AA 4B, BA Z. > BG) + ZS BW, — Phonetic series 600.

oO

By AR Hr

Shuai‘.

It represents a net with a frame, such as

birds are snared with, and a ¥ rope by meaas of which the trap is made to fall. By extension, to draw, to lead, to follow; together (the birds taken); suddenly (the falling of the net). — Phonetic series 646,

Etymological

Lessons.

914.

229

Second series. 3 ch'uan!.

“Ee

Ch’uan!. Some commentators say that this character is a contraction of 4+ and XY; it seems unlikely. «It is an ox led by a ring passed through the nose», says

the Glose; why then is this ring marked tail? More seemingly, the transversal piece fixed the horns represents the yoke or the collar of and the one trace passing under the animal

at the behind the ox,

is the

primitive harness; extremity

length.

curved to diminish the to attach, to draw, traction,

By extension,

resistance, to master. —

It forms

Chuan’, A writing tablet that was worn #4 attached to the sf wrist; BA BY, A wf, = AE AL. — Phonetic series 605, that must be distinguished from the series

EE fu! 528.

Hui. It has two meanings: to let one’s self be sf

willingly HY attracted; kind, compliant: what wios Bi the jf) hearts; benevolence. — Phonetic series 689.

Yitian?. A long robe Jf with a HY trail, that hinders and slakens the walk; length, hesitation. Here BA lost its middle-part and is gone through by the cover

» of #. — Phonetic series 587. It forms we

g

Huan?®. Eyes m (L. 158) anxious, and gait $ hesitating;

Fe

“\

fear, trouble, strait. The modern

we PRR

form is contracted. —

Phonetie

series 734. See L. 16 L.

T’i+. Traction EY interrupted by a -

resistance; Bh

HS] ii Ik 2 W. BE A FF he Compare L.94 C. The modern

character is a contraction. K’ang-hsi

wrongly classified it under JE. — It forms

Me He

T’i*. Sneezing. A victory won against the obstruction of the g& nose (or of the [] mouth, a different writiog); & SR 3a ww.

Etymological Lessons.

230

LESSON

92.

92.

About the partial primitive 44, and its derivatives. See again

after J, ssii', LL. 89, 90, 941, 92. The

the

textile matters, chiefly the

the Chinese from the remotest antiquity; hence elements in their writing.

the

importance

whole

silk,

series,

interested

given

to these

First series. 4 mi’.

“RS

° % RE a3

Mi’. A strong thread; #% 2@ 4,.f®. The several small threads into a big one

the

420th

radical

of characters

of

(L. 90 A). — It is relaling to textile

matters or tissues.

We saw that element

in $9 L. 40 A; 3% L. 55G; #€

L.17E; 3 1.43 H; # L. 79 @; SEL. 67 P; BL.

39D; fy L. 35 M; etc. Hsi?. Drawing out of the

thread.

hand drawing out threads .

Primitively,

tribunal, judged and

chastised; Ah, BRE. & BH BT

Hw

FB

A. iB Z@ 3%, By extension, to govern, to judge, to order

the legal tortures,

to slaughter. —

Phonetic

series 574. — Tsai3 3% contracted into 3¢ is phonetic in PE tzi®, Rottlera japonica,

a hard wood, instru-

ments for torturing were made of.

Etymological

Bs

Pit.

Ed “aed

The

Lessons.

402.

who

[J states

man

about the 3@ criminals

251 [J authoritatively

(L.55B; RAO

di. BAD, AR Gi Hl HeSR law, chastisement, etc. The

KA

. & EL,Prince,

scribes changed

J} into

FAs — Phonetic series 752.

Chén‘.

of it. It is

made

rods were

the

because

7X for the 3

hazel, wood

The Chinese

criminals,

phonetic in

Ch'in‘. Those

are

who

fA seen

habitually;

one’s

self, one’s kindred; by extension, to love, to embrace;

ie Wo BH.

BE

Hh.It lost one

stroke in the

junction, — Phonetic series 848.

Hsin’. To cut Fp (L. 126) small 3€ branches (of the hazel); shoots of the year; hence the meaning, recent, new. Now 3 fuel, wood cut for the fire, brush-wood.

aoe 7 oe 5 ot

Nieh®‘. Offence, sin For the phonetic, see L. 86 B. The meaning is probably 3¢ an offence 4 Visible, evident,

public.

Ts'U?. To rid jg of an 3¢ accusation, to clear one’s

SHO iw

Ft #

wekeA “me

self, to excuse one’s self. See L. 90 B.

Hsi'. A contraction of #E hsi', yak, L 100 B, now commonly used, e.g. in ## chih‘, etc.

4a WE

Tsui*. To commit § a crime 3% (L. 159); JW ye 44,, It appears that some malicious literati substituted this character to the Et of their enemy, the First Emperor

%& &

Chiin-shih-huang

not over flattered to be called the «first sinner», ordered by an

This Imperial

Emperor decree

that in future sin should be written 3B, the ancient character % becoming taboe; # J B Li StF. Be BOSE. This 56 Primitively meant a mm net (L. 39 C); JE (L 170) being phonetic.

HH Hi

Pien‘. Twocriminals

A #8

ting compounds

between series 786.

3 impeaching each other; 5£

Rw. KA = 2 & FE. lt forms interesin which

the

radical

the two 3: HE, #t, HF, etc. —

is inserted

Phonetic

252

Etymological

Lessons.

402.

Appendix. The primitive 4 tsao?.

ee

Tsao?.

This character

is unconnected

with

the

preceding ones, 34, etc. It is a primitive representing the

successive

division

and sub-division of a tree’s

branches, the boughs, the twigs; {# , Hence, arborisa-

# x

tion, emanation,

multitude, faggot, collection. It forms

Yeh‘.

7A crowned with

A tree

moral foliage, the deeds

its 3€ foliage. The

of a man,

the affairs

upon

which he exerts his activity, and what he acquires by

his doings, viz. merits, guods, titles, etc. P’u2. To gather with one’s F3 hands order to make with them a faggot. —

700. The compound sub-series.

4

forms

twigs 3,

ia

Phonetic series

an

unimportant

Ts'ung!. To gather B% bushes 3#. A bushy place, crowded; a collection, to collect. See L. 446 F.

Tui‘. To confront, to compare, and, by extension, to

correspond to; BA TW, A Xe, KH. & KH, To apply a sf measure to the 3£ luxuriant vegetation of the [J mouths, viz. to the testimonies of men,

to see

whether they agree or not, Compare the composition of3 (L. 73C).

must

not

To recall

rely on every

only on the testimony

to his officials

[J mouth’s

that one

testimony,

of the -{ sages, which

but

alone

deserves to be sf examined, the Emperor % BY Wénti of the first Han‘ changed by decree

[J into -£,

thus making the modern character, which was contracted by the scribes.

Chih?.

Delicate

leaves 3£, emhroidered f§ upon

linen, 3 is contracted; M f¥ 3 44.8% wal & a. See L, 35 G. — It is the 204th radical. Tsao’. To chisel, by delicate ®$ cuts, with a chisel, in & metal, so that 3 designes of leaves and branches be reproduced. Chiselling in general. Compare (L.

81 A) §& to pound grain, Sy to grind.

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

4103.

253

103.

About the primitive 36 yang?.

First series. > and its multiples.

‘-¥

Yang’.

A sheep seen

from

behind;

head, the feet and the tail of a sheep. The tail is often

curtailed, to make room fora phonetic; 4, §8 FR XE FE xz FE, Idea of sweetness, of peace, of harmony. — It is the 123th radical. It forms

Hy ertfu

the horns, the

Chiiang!.

From

Phonetic series 248.

jl men and = sheep. Nomadic

shepherds living in the Western steppes; the Thibetans.

KH

HE AWK

IL.

E, & Be

Mei®. A man A resembliag to the 3& lamb, sweet,

gentle, good; M2, Ma. @ SK

HE MK She Yep »:

BH

BH

Kaol,. A lamb 2£ that begins to »» walk. The feet being already represented in =f, there is a radical redundancy. By extension, the little ones of different animals.

Chiang!. Emperor

Yang?

The

clan

(see

mip & Shén-nung;

WE L. 79 F) of the 3% is phonetic.

To nourish (L. 26 M); 2£ is phonetic. —

Phonetic series 814.

SK PAB OR =>

Yang‘. The unceasing flow of water. See ie L. 195 D; 32 is phonetic. By extension, uniformity,

model,

tediousness, — Phonetic series 659.

Hsien!. Composed of {@ fish and 2 sheep, the two kinds of flesh that were eaten fresh by the ancients, while they cured the other extension, fresh (neither salted, nor smoked). — Phonetic series 832.

meats.

By

dried,

nor

3 fa

103.

Lessons.

Etymological

Kéng}!. A thick broth, soup. Composed of Sé and 32, a modern

abbreviation

invented

by the scribes.

Primitively, 3& a lamb stewed on a §& caldron; on

both sides, the 4 vapour that rises. See li!, L. 87 B. — See again 36 L. 600; 4 L. 44B; 3 and #¥ L. 71 Q; € L. 73 D. — See also 4 L. unconnected with 26. Shan!.

46,

that

is

Three > sheep, aflock of sheep. By exten-

sion, the rank

odour of sheep

or goats.

It forms the

following.

Ch’an’. A sheep-fold;

KR# EPFL.

P BA.

(L. 32 G) By extension, crowd, press.

Second series. * kuai?.

Sw eeof

Kuai!.

Horns of the ram.

It is 3£ without the feet;

= FR th. (R JE. It figures in different compounds, as a symbol;

see L. 35 M, 54 G, The moderna scribes

often change it into +4.

ae IN

Kuai!.

Ramified

(twice

/\ L. 18, division)

horus 46; odd, singular; BR, MB The

modern

character is absurd.

lt forms

ram’s

A, Zp the

two

phonetic compounds

it & @

gs % e

Huan!. A big € owl, the Grand-duke, with feather-horns, egrets; ME. KY, & E.G E f§, Forms the three following characters

Chiu‘. A sort of& owl, FJ (L. 139) is phonetic. It now means,

ehia-chieh,

Huai’. Huot.

old, worn out,

formerly.

To seize (an owl) with the 3

hand. — Phonetic series 782.

Kuan‘.

The heron, a screeming py bird (€ with

an egret ¥*. — Phonetic series 841.

Etymological Lessons. 103. 104. ae

255

K’ui?. A demon that wanders through the mountains.

It is said to. have ¥“ horns. This is a false interpretanee

tion resulting from the ill-formed

Da

See the ancient

form:

a face

modern character.

of demon,

two arms, a

belly, a tail, and two feet (L. 271, note 4).

©

~

v D

Chi‘ and Man‘®. See L. 35 M, L. 54 G.

Ya!'. A fork, crooked. Now, appellative of girls, yaj

i

Y

t’ou, on account

of their two

tufts of hair. — Some

interpreters consider ‘f as an abbreviation of the ancient character AX a tree whose branches are ¥ forked. It is the reason why it is given here.

LESSON

104.

About the primitive 3 pan’. Pan.

A

A sort of fork, or shovel, which it represents;

EP

LL He RE Se B WB, It was altered in

different ways hy the modern scribes. It forms

+e 3

Tan’. To assault

a man

with

My cries and a

fork. See L. 72 E. — Phonetic series 705.

Ch’i+. To repulse, to expulse. a ¥F shovel,

Two hands F9 with

casting a HF child away.

See L. 94 G.

Note the modern alteration.

Fén‘. The modern character is totally distorted. The

adoz Swx 4dt SHt

top is not 3€, but A

(L. 123)

Ordure,

filth. Two

hands (4 removing with a shovel #f the JE dung of

animals; Bt F) He

HER

He

256

Etymological

eS

Lessons.

104. 105.

Pi?. This character represents two ancient instruments: 4. A shovel upon which was offered the meat

oe

HA] at the end

of the sacrifice,

hence

the derived

meaning, to end, which is still used in our days; 2. A racket 3 with a —M net, resembling the butterflies net, to catch small animals. This character has those two meanings in very ancient texts. — Phonetic series 640. Kou?.Some consider this character as being composed of two #, one being straight, the other inverted, while the stroke al the bottom was suppressed for simplification’s sake. This explanation seems to be far fetched. Kou‘ is a primitive, whose straight and crossed lines represent graphically the timbers in the framework of a house, as they interlock

and

cross

each

net-work, an orderiog, a combination. This notion

other;

hence

is hinted

the idea

of a

in the compounds,

#, etc. Hy Be HH 4 fm 7% HH. — Phonetic series 546.

LESSON

105

About the primitive # ko. Ko?%. The raw skin of a flayed sheep, as itis stretched

out. To skin. The fork in the middle is 26 or ¥ a A

:

sheep, contracted

(L. 103); the two horizontal lines

= mean that the skin is stretched out, two hands or

scrapers £3 working it. The second ancient character

is already contracted; 3— FR. 7% HH EL. BH, GH X (R. By extension, to skin an officer, to degrade him from office with a fine or a confiscation. — It is the 177th radical. It forms

Pa‘. Leather

3 drenched

hy the

jj rain, that

stretches out when it is drawn. It forms

9al feta

a

&

Pa‘. Lengthening 3 of the moon Jf, in the first fortnight of the month; growing, prosperity. This character was used to designate the feudal princes io

ancient times; double idea of growing in glory, and of glory borrowed by them from the Emperor, as the moon borrows its light from the sun. — Phonetic series 355.

ue ig

Chi‘. Trammels. Leather ‘# to tramme! fR) a horse . In the primitive form, the leather was not represented; +s represented

Pi

the trammel put to the

feet of the horse, and the peg to tie it up. The leather was added later on. Then ¢# was suppressed.

Etymological

Jessons.

406.

|

257

106.

LESSON

About several representations of animals or other beings, primitives complete or partial, gathered here on account of their resemblance.

First series.

either

[1 swelling on both sides, in Ku®. A man JL (L 29) whose [J sides are swollen,

A

gb,

because he makes an effort;

KM JLLA A & # JE.

Mien*. Aman {- (L. 25) whose sides FJ are swol$e, db

len, whose legs are propped; to make aneffort to get

some good or to avoid some evil; AA 4, KT], & 4%. — Phonetic series 295. Tou), A kind of helmet with [1 appendixes on both oe

$8

sides to cover the cheeks; a helmet, a cowl; &i mao

(L. 29 C) represents a man, fy headand JL legs; AA

B.A

A BA & OCI JE. By extension, to cover,

to envelop. — Phonetic series 651.

Second series. ® t’u‘, a hare or rabbit. T’u‘.

B

It represents a hare when it is squatting, with

its tail perked up;

tu =>

Yiiant.

R,

(se\

HRfA. fe H EK JE, It forms

A hare §

under a covert

—, whence it is

unable to run.

Derived meanings, to injure, to itl-use

without cause,

grievance, oppression,

an inoffensive animal;

fi

the hare being

KEA-

PT. &

7, See'L. 34 H.

I sie

Mien®. The female of the hare, to bear, by allusion

7 %¥. By extension,

to the fecundity of the doe-hare.

I‘, A hare that runs away, @ #f, By extension, to live like a hare, to lead an

idle and

licentious

life;

the hare being locked upon in China as the type of profligacy, and very ill-reputed.

Third series. £% ch’ao‘. az)

C

rt

Ch’ao‘.

It represents some animal resembling

hare; Bk a. AN HH ih A. HIE, combined with # (L

the

This character,

106 B), forms

Ch’an?. The numerous tribe of the rodents. — Pho.

netic series 828.

258

Etymological

Lessons.

106. 107.

Fourth series. & huan’. Huan!. A sort of antelope; lj] 26, #9 4 &, On D

a

the top, the horns (L. 103 C); —j represents the head; at the bottom there are paws and a tail, which is often omitted

in the modern character.

This was

wrongly

classified by K’ang-hsi under +4- vegetals. — It forms

527

K’uan!,

Large, spacious, ample in the physical

sense; broad-mindedness, indulgence in the moral sense. This idea may come from the width of the -» paddocks reserved for the breeding of these animals.

LESSON

107.

About two primitives ,{%\ and 4, much alike in the ancient writing.

First series. jf bsin!.

Hsin'. It represents the heart; WN A

,

NS

On

A ith He (% FE.

the top, the pericardium opened;

in the middle,

the organ;

NSS

at the bottom, a summary delineation ofthe aorta. Theextended meanings are very numerous. There are modern abbreviations as here joined. — It is the 6{th radical of characters relating to the feelings.

y

Many derivatives from ){\ were already explained, e.g.

coin

Phonetic series 64.

Be of, wut, L. 82 H; $$ ning’, L. 36 C; AW

Be RY

FE 4h. The

character

represents the

head, the claws, the shell and the tail

character

represented

the tortoise-shell

A more ancient ornamented

with stripes, and a summary delineation of the head and of the tail. — Itis the 243th radical. It forms

Chiu’. A contest PY (L. 41 1) settled by divination. A singed #& tortoise-shell

was

formerly

used for

that purpose, See L. 56.

¢ 8B

> op dp sap 4

Min?. The soft turtle. The character was then applied to mean

(L. 79 I).

a tadpole;

Itis

the head, the gills, and atail the 205th radical. Phonetic series

TAQ. Luan?. A primitive representing the ovaries and the oviduct of the female, the testicles and cords of the mate, Kuan’. Another primitive, and not an abbreviation of luan?, It represents the shuttle, that passes and

repasses, ioserting the transversal thread of the woof between the longitudinal threads of the warp. See L. 92 G.

4109.

Etymological Lessons.

260

LESSON

109.

About the primitive es; about Fy and its important series.

First series. rp chung!. Chung’. The centre. Chungé. To hit the centre, to attain. It represents a square target, pierced in its centre by an | arrow. Later of, the target was con-

A

tracted by the scribes and changed into a form some-

=

=

what like [J (L 72); but the primitive form is still maintained in the series fj. To represent, in a design

without perspective, the perforation of the target, the two extremities of the arrow eH

were marked with

"= a

sign, or the extremity that passed through was curved;

these are mere graphic tricks; AA [J, J _E F if. — Phonetic series 52. Different compounds of rf were explained elsewhere,

3 L. 16 E; B L. 67

N; 2% L. 73 E; etc. Compare #8 L. 153. See also gs and xf L. 43 M. N.

Second series. J yung‘ and

B

shy

its derivatives.

Yung‘. This character primitively represented the bronze ex- voto offered to the Ancestors, placed in the temple as a memorial for their offspring. Afterwards it was given the shape of a bronze tripod The vessel was used for the offerings to the Mares, hence chnanchu to use, usage. The offerings brought blessing, hence chuan-chu

aptitude,

efficacity, utility,

ete. —

It is the 101th radical of a few incongruous characters,

Chout. fA aptitude RR (the old form 7 L. 19 Ey extending to every thing, general, universal; hence the derived meanings, propagation, universality; totality;

BAA & & B,The scribes arbitrarily changed 7 into J]. —Phonetic series 342

D

B® WiIKBo Gtk ZiT

Fu’. Aptitude Fj for founding and @ governing a family (lL.

43 G),

the

manhood. Then

a definitive

appellation was taken by men. Hence the extended meaning, I, myself. — Phonetic series 271. It forms

Etymological Lessons.

109. 440.

261

Fut. The hand sf (for 3 L. 45 B) of a grown up A man. Derived meanings, action, amplitude. — The ae

modern scribes imagined to write S$, and this faulty

writing became

classical in the character if fu', to

spread out, to promulge. — forms

a

a

Phonetic

series 528. It

P’u?. A wide Ef expanse of yy water. By extension, large, general, universal, etc. — Phonetic

series 753.

See fj L. 55 K; J L 102 B; if L. 54G; ete.

LESSON

110.

About the primitive 4, and its derivatives.

A

Wy

GP

Huit!, All kind of crawling animals, snakes, worms, etc.

Compare L. 108 A. — It is the 442th radical. See 2 L. 451, and jal L. 21 B. Note further @

Ch'iang?.

8

above several § acres of land (L. 3 C), a strong bow. By extension, strong, good. This character being

2

difficult to write, was replaced by 9@, a name of the same

5a:

A bow & (L. 87 A) that shoots its arrow

5

sound

which

represents

an

insect,

Elater

the snapping beetle, that unbends like a bow & when it fell on its back; 48 represents the insect, J, its head, which was arbitrarily changed

into

[J by the

scribes. — Phouetic series 668.

K’un’. Insects that are vumerous at certain times of C

sas

the year (two to intimate the great number); e.g. Gi

shih’, formerly

fly, and

now

louce;

@& chung}.

locusts; §% wén2, mosquitoes; JM 1i*, book-worms; Fe te’an?, silk-worms; etc.

262

Etymological

D

ia

Ch’ang®.

Li

140. 114

An ancient term for all crawling

and

swarming animals, insects, etc. It is found in

Bet

suppose

Lessons.

Ku®. Chronic diseases, the etiology of which escapes the Chinese, as tuberculosis, syphilis, etc. — Some

that,gss worms corrode the interior of the JJ body; f& sf g& 44. BA

BR, BH i, @ #. — Others explain that these diseases are caused by the venom of animals, swallowed with food and drink

Hence the dreadful fear of the Chinese

for the urine of the gecko (a lizard

in all the houses); also for rain-water

found

that has filtered through a roof, because it is supposed to be soiled by the venom

of scorpions

that live there;

etc. This etymology

seems

to be the right one,

because it explains better the word ff] vessel; poison of the #& worms taken with

M fod; LHW 2TAhRARBRHTBKEPRA Moreover, there are who say that the magicians make

AK B—

a poison slow and sure, by

grinding in a vessel [fj different sorts of venimous g& worms. This seems to be

rather a legend.

LESSON

111.

About the primitive tH, and its compounds.

K’ui‘. It represents an ancient recipient, either a basket or a bag. #& Aho 4 FE. Note the modern

A

abbreviation. It forms

B

P.

K'ui‘. Not mean, or cheap; a whole

tp basket of A

BAB

cowries; 4 Ar RE di, The ancient form is unexplained, 4 FF, It appears in the ancient character ¥€ L. a wn

amis

C

oom B

R &

44 G. It is perhaps Phonetic series 693.

an abbreviation

of the last —

Ch'ien. To carry soil in uf baskets, in order to erect a wall, a dike, as it is still done in China (L. 86 B). It is phonetic in

(i

B ES

Chien’. To commission, series 773,

to depute.



Phonetic

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

442.

263

112.

About the primitive Jf, and its important derivatives

First series, jk chih3, its compounds and multiples.

‘yk

W

Chihe footprint;

A coarse representation of a foot, or of the on the left side, the heels; on the right

side, the toes; on the top, the ankle; 2 jk &R FE 4fi,, Derived meanings, to march (the feet moving); to halt, to stop (the feet being still), etc. —It

is the 77th radical. Phonetic series 46. We saw the derivatives

EL. 44 F; GB L. 44 K; Bi L. 66D. Add the following:

af

re WA

Ch’it. A man J rising on his Jb heels; BA A. BA

Jk. & B. 1 be Ts’'U?. To turn one one’s heels (K%

L. 26). Now

chia-chieh used as a demonstrative pronoun, this. —

Phonetic series 242.

jk AL iE76

Ch’én?. A firm %_ gait, by posing well the jf foot

(L. 63D); BR 4. KA Jk. @& BX It forms

Yen?. A gait

firm jb an J steady (L.7);

47 4. Phonetic series 447. Not to be confounded with the derivatives of JE below I.

JE quadrupled, two being straight, and two inverted (altered in the modern writing), forms

me at

Rough,

rugged. An irregular surface, that

obliges to many

Shih‘.

steps jf in different directions. The

modern contractions #& J, now replace the ancient form difficult to write. A jew, A IL. @

Etymological

264

Lessons.

442.

Second series. @ tsu+.and 7E shu?, both being coinposed of Jk the foot, increased with a symbol ## 3,

> B Fil

(Jeg af

Bt ie #8 i BS

Tsu‘. A foot jf at rest. By extension, feet in general.

The stillness is represented by the closed (). Compare

below C. AE JE BN 4 Bet A

ELS HM.

O #F AR Wh, It is the 157th radical (two modern forms). Phonetic series 340.

Shu?. Foot jk in motion, to turn. The motion is represented by the open G . Compare above B. [ (%,

TR

be

Ee

BR.

LE EH &, The

reading pi, in the sense of rolled up piece, is a modern

chuan-chu.



ft is the 103th

radical

(two

modern forms). — It forms

Shu!. Birth jf, the feet JE coming first, Different extended meanings. See L. 94 F.

Hsiian®. To turn on one's JE heels; # (L, 117) is phonetic. — Phonetic series 614.

Ch’u?. A $k woody land; J€ is phonetic. Hswti'. Gravy J; 2€ is phonetic.

Phonetic series

448.

Tan‘, The ball J€ rolled by the #4 dung-beetle. By extension, egg.

Third series. 3 tsou’.

a:ea

Tsou’. To march. A man

%& who bends (L. 61 B)

to walk quickly and with hasty strides; to go, to travel,

to sail; HH ty, BK. Ask,

@& BH —

It is the

456th radical of characters relating to modes of going.

Etymological

Lessons.

442.

265

Fourth series. # cho‘.

Fall

E

ex (PGi

Chot. To go step by step. It is composed of jf and A (L. 68 A), say some philologists. It seems more probable that 2 are three jk footprints. Not to be confounded with % (L. 63 D). — It is the 163th radical of a large group of characters relating to

movements,

e.g. #€ chin‘.to advance, 3ft t’ui* to

move back, etc.

Note: In some modern characters, the scribes divide #; Jk is placed on the right side, underneath the phonetic; 3 is placed on the left side. K’ang-hsi classified those characters under 4 the 60th radical. Examples:

rE

T’u*. To go, KZ, ££ B. Ts'ung?. To follow; BR Z.M BR.

Hsi%.

FOS.

To move

one’s abode.

JA #, jk #, —

Phonetic series 611,

Fifth series.

F

SF \=

JE inverted

is not used alone,

but forms,

combined with }f straight, two important the

first, G, the two forms

are

when

series. In

superposed,

and jf

inverted is now written 2V (not to be confounded with

jv, nor with sp, L. 18 H, M). In the second,

H, the

two forms placed in juxtaposition are now written YX.

ie

\r ne

Pu‘. A step, to take a step, to march; #7 4, The character

represents

(compare

4

the

succession

in

L. 68 C). By extension, the

the steps

planets,

stars that move. It forms

s

WH = Shas. To step 47 in Y water, to ford, to wade Wy over. Hence be

JA

;

a)

wy

Pin?. Aman

—¥ (L. 160) who wades 2% through

water; uneasiness. In the ancient character,

Y

was

introduced between the two Jf, to gain room. Io the

modern character, SY was suppressed. — series 825,

Phonetic

Etymological Lessons:

442,

Chih‘. To ascend #§ step by step an f§ acclivity

(L 86); 2% ho BR 1B,BA tb, & KX.It forms f% chih!, merit, to promote.

Sui‘.

The planet 7 Jupiter, that presided over #&

the wars. See L. 71 P. — Phonetic series 760.

Po‘.

Two

feet; or

JF

incontrary

of separation,

directions;

divergence,

idea of twe

letting loose.



It is the 105th radical. Note the derivatives

P’o2. To stamp % with the two Y< feet, to trample. It is now a part of Fal.

To

shoot an

expansion, any

arrow, and,

by extension,

any

manifestation of a latent energy. The

modern form (to trample with a bow) is a nonsense. In the ancient primitive character, there was 4 an arrow, instead of 4%; shooting Yt of the KR

arrow by the & bow. — Phonetic series 675. Téng!.

To aseend ¥¥ upona

with

foot,

one

then

with

the

BH pedestal, other.

firstly

By extension,

to ascend, to go up, in general. — Phonetic series 708. Kui®. The cients

nicely disposed grass,

poured the libations offered

on which the Anto the Manes;

see

Graphies, page 362. This character, not easily written, was replaced, in the days of Li-ssi, by ¥¢ plus &, probably the primitive form of fa! (above). The modern form has been arbitrarily mutilated by the scribes. Now chia-chieh a cyclical character. — Phonetic series 458.

Sixth series. JF chéng‘. A special series is reserved for this compound JE, 00 account of its important derivatives.

1 £

of

Chéng!‘. To be arrived and jk to stop at the — line, atthe limit, where one had to reach, without going

astray; BA —, BA tk, @& #, By extension, correct. straight, regular. — Phonetic series 107. It forms

Etymological Lessons.

e (i

442.

267

Ting}. Order JF in the ++ house, and, consequently,

tranquillity, peace; & 14, AA TE. BM, By

extension,

fixed,

certain,

decided. —

@ &, Phonetic

series 400.

Re

e Ee

Shih‘. What was jF controlled at Q sun's light; KR A. A OE, @& 3%. The Glose compares this etymology with the etymology of f@ chih?,

L. 10 K.

Extended meanings, truthfulness, reality, existence. —

Phonetic series 476

ae K

as w

W ait. Deflected from the perpendicular, aslant; what is not A correct JF. This character is a modern one.

Fa?. It is Jf turned to the left. The inversion means that one did not reach jk the line —, the point where one had to reach; a defect, to bein want of, exhausted. The modern character is a_ fanciful

abbreviation that has nothing in common chih’ (1. 79 B). — Phonetic series 54.

Ns

re

Mien‘. This character

with 7

is considered by some philo-

logists as a derivative of JF. This is a mistake. It is a primitive,

representing

a woman

girdle; on the left, the seat;

sitting; —

onthe

is the

right, an apron

that hides the fore and lower part of the body. By extension, to conceal, to hide, retreat, confinement, screened, out of view. — Phonetic series 71. It forms

Ch’én?. From i§ and F. See L. 30 B. Min!. The retreat 5

in a +» house, the home,

a

dwelling. It forms

we) MM 5a}

Pin’. A present 9 offered toa man

BN Sp ay My

% received in

one’s house Pr 4% Wo & iG. By extension, a guest. The scribes arbitrarily altered the primitive character to the two forms here joined.



Phonetic series 787.

268

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

4143. 144.

113.

About the primitive §. Chang}, to grow. Ch’'ang?, long. The primitive A

207 xy

form indicates locks of hair so long that they must be tied by a — hand anda brooch (the fork on the

right); &.—

Hw

JB, Later on, PB was added,

which made the composition

of §% analogous

to the

one of #% (L. 30 E); manhood, when the hair is long By extensionv,

form

long in time

is an arbitrary

or distance. The

modern

contraction. — It is the 163th

radical. Phonetic series 323. It forms

Pao'. Long § locks 3 (L. 62); B % 4. KM B,

ve)

SS ret

KB 2, @ E. — It is the 190th radical.

Ssti‘. To expand # to the utmost §, to exhibit, unrestrained. See L. 169.

* #3

T’ao‘.

A modern

character. To suit what

same % height aod $

length. Assortment,

is of the to unite,

etc.

LESSON

114.

About the two primitives FG and fe.

A

Shib‘. A floating plant, without roots, that ramifies and grows, like the nymphzacez so common in China, Euryale ferox and others, that spring up from a grain, float first, then fix themselves and acquire in a short time a prodigious development. By extension, development, multiplication; a wandering hord of the primitive times, a clan, a family — It is the 83th radical Phonetic series 82. It forms

Tit. A development of the last. The floating plant FE sprouls to the bottom — of water, to be fixed and rooted there. By extension, bottom, foundation, to

oes (fh SAAR SALA

sink down; 4m — J] SR i. — Phonetic series 163.

It forms

Etymological

& So

Lessons.

444. 415.

269

Hun’. Dusk, twilight; when the sun has plunged J& below the horizon. The — of J was suppressed; KROL KR ES. & &. — Phonetic series 364. The

form By is a wrong one.

ow

Kuo?. A development of ti (ahove B), the root boring in the bottom. It is phonetically contracted

& ¢

4 $

& v

a aS

(— being suppressed) in

Kuo®. To put or to hold in one’s mouth; BR 1, 58 46 RE, Note the modern abbreviations, specially the last one, that is written in such a way that the compounds of kuo? cannot be distinguished from those of shé?. See note L. 102 C. — Phonetic series 227.

Min2?. The people, the mass, the common

multitude.

Some philologists consider this character as a ff mu? (mother, L. 67 0), with sprouts that represent the multiplication; people, the sons of women. SA HE HX

#P4.b

FOR SB.

H, tt is highly

probable that this interpretation is erroneous. a primitive, a creeping plant with sprouts,

Min? is that is

proliferous (second ancient character, 4 4 4%) The third ancient form, and the modern one, are arbitrary

abbreviations. f% is therefore a character resembling §&, and not a derivative from it. — Phonetic series 137.

LESSON

115.

About the three primitives Jf, Ff, FF.

First series

3 ching.

Laie

Ching?. Primitively, it was designed to represent eight square lots offields, divided among eight families, reserving the middle square for public use, and

digging a well in it. The well is represented by a dot; 7\ # — FFA, Such was the custom ia antiquity. See Textes Historiques, p. 25. The system was abolished, and the character is now used to meao, a well. — Phonetic series 49. It is phonetic in

270

Etymological

#) AY Tp

Lessons.

445.

Hsing?. Legal punishment ( 3A JJ a sword, L. 52), which was arbitrarily written by the scribes Ff]. See

below B. S #R ff Fil, — Phonetic series 204.

Second series. # chiien®.

a ae et

7

Ch’ien’. It represents two scales poised; AR,— F Fy A, £ AE bh. Even, level, line, row, agreement. Note the modern arbitrary contraction which, reducing to four the six strokes

of this important

the cause, forstudents

of Chinese,

researches in the dictionaries. —

phonetic, is

of many

fruitless

Phonetic series 184.

See Ff] above A. It forms.

FH Ft ° BA lal

Ping,. Two A men who march FF side by side; together, harmony, with, etc.; #9 # 4%, MB Ay AK F¥, @ HE. The remark made for the last is to be made here also, the modern contracted form counting six strokes, instead of eight. — Phonetic series 390.

K’ail. It has nothivg in common with FF. It is a representative character. Two hands Fj take away the —

bar that closes a door F¥; to open.

reverse

of F3 shuan', to shut, that was

L. 4 8; oie

oBA PABA FA —

ae

It is the explained $s

dh,

Third series. J} tan’.

Y

Ht A +H

Tan’. Ciunabar, It has nothing in common with FF. The crucible or stove of the alchimists, with 4 cionabar in it. See L. 4 C. — Phonetic series 83. It forms

Ch’ing!. Light green; the colour J} of the & sprouliog plants(L. 79 F); AA FE, AA 4, @ LOK he SE HL 3 ab. Note that J} the cinnabar is red. It seems rather curious that the two complementary colours, green and red, are here confounded

Etymological Lessons.

446. 447.

(daltonism?), An author explains seriously that the green

274 plants, when

burnt,

give a red fire 7X 4E 4K, — It is the 474th radical. Phonetic series 337. FF is still found in 7% t’ung?, scarlet red; and in fi} chan‘, a red banner (L. 417).

LESSON

116.

About the primitive £}.

FH

Jan’. The hair just growing on the body; & JE,

Be aR He

It might be considered as — inverted and doubled. See L. 400, second series. The scribes now write #3 (nothing in common with FR L. 35 J). — Phonetic series 128. It is phonetic in

Na‘, na’. A ancient & city and State in the West, perhaps

Tibet, whose

inhabitants wore 4} furs;

¥

x B.S BM Z WW, The scribes strangely altered €}. This character lost its primitive meaniog and is now used as a demonstrative pronoun in the modern spoken language. -— Phonetic series 232.

RR

So1. Clothes Zé made of £} furs or straw, against rain. It was explained, L. 16 D.

LESSON

117.

About the two primitives J and J, that resemble each other in the modern writing, but that etymologically have nothing in common.

First series

Ff fang’.

ange (2 th

a)

Fang!.

It is supposed to represent two boats lashed

together, so that they make a ferry-boat, a pontoon,

a square barge; {f fie 4, It seems rather difficult to see this representation in the character. The ancient forms represent the four regions of the space with two

dimensions,

square,

the earthly surface.

regular, correct, a rule, etc. —

By extension, It forms

the

70th radical. But, with the exception of two or three of them, all the characters classified under this ficti-

tious radical, belong to the primitive #, below, B, that is unconnected with 77. — Phonetic series 56.

972

Etymological

Lessons.

447.

P’ang}?. The space with three dimensions; the limits of that Ff space, indicated hy — on the top, and two

side lines. The ancient

forms, as usually,

are more

expressive than the modern ones. By extension, border,

side, lateral. — Phonetic series 556.

fF SeSE Sa SE)

Fang‘.

To lead -, in the open space

FF (steppe,

pasture-land), a drove; to feed. Compare Be

aoe:

By extension, to let go, to loosen, to open out, to lay

down, etc. It forms

Yao‘. To shine; fe emit G| light; AA Go KM ik, BE.

kK KA A.—

A # BA,

Phonetic

series

766

NP ME

Nao®. From

s Second series

B

i and jp. See L. 78 E. — Phonetic

series 638.

Yen!, has nothing in common

with 7. See L. 34 K.

# yen’. Yen®.

First, long overhanging branches.

mangrove, shooting,

Later, the

from its branches, roots that go

down and implant themselves in the ground (right Side; lian, the jungle. Idea of a being, hanging, waving, covering, with many stalks, etc. This charac-

ter is unconnected alterations.



with Ff. Note

It forms

nearly

its successive

all the

characters

attributed to the 70th radical Jy. Note the following compounds:

Hstian®. To revolve, to move in an orbit, to doa thing in turn. Composed of xE foot (L. 412 C), and 7 motion. — Phonetic series 614.

Etymological

BM

Lessons.

447.

273

Tsu’. A bundle of arrows -®, fifty, says the Glose;

@

ff means the numerous sticks; BR 3, BR , &, By extevsion, kind,

a multitude of beings of the same traces

a family which

ancestor,

kindred

who

relatives

individuals; 2 — FA

its descent

one

from

a sheaf of are like

B.% TE 4%, — Phonetic

series 654.

3b, Je 2H 4S

Shih? To pour out 4, at repeated times J*, probably

something

to drink;

to

bestow, to

diffuse,

generosity; L. 107.

Yu?. Contraction of j%; the waving motions f° of the swimmer ¥ (L. 94 A); to float, to swim. — Phonetic series 500.

La. A campment, Men AA encamping under the A branches of trees. By extension, men temporarily staying in aplace that is not their ordinary abode, soldiers, merchants, travellers, emigrants, exiles.

Viui2. It has certainty nothing in common with §, It is probably pot an arbitrary contraction of B wa! (L. 138 D) It seems to be a modern sign, invented to be used as a particle expressing

the relation

exists between two terms of a proposition. sents

that

[ft repre-

graphically the connection, (left side) between

= two distinct JJ terms. — Phonetic series 419.

Sub-series & kan‘. A sub-series

io

is reserved for this derivative of f°, on

account of its important compounds.

D

wr»

FL $C

Kan‘. The § solar rays penetrating into the §* jungle, draws up the yapours of the ground which, till

then, were

FW checked

(L.11);

9G Hi

#

The bottom of #* is suppressed, to give room Idea of evaporation, series 543. It forms

Ch’ien*. A radical

ob, to FA.

of a fog lifting up. — Phonetic

redundancy of the last. Z,

representing the vapours sent up. The proper room of

the vapours, says the Glose,

is upwards;

they en-

274

Etymological deavour

Bz

BE Sh af a

firmament

Lessons.

447. 418,

Z, to rise

up; hence

(and

EHs2h

the meaning, cloudy

not Jight blue of the skies), heaven.

2 BOA

LEHR

A Ro.

K BR RK BM & K. This character is sometimes used for kan!, dry. It is a licence. In that sense, the character & is to be used, in which A (L. 102) means thesdrying @, of the dampness.

Kan‘. A rod 7 very & long: by extension, power, capacity. The second form

is more recent,

and com-

monly used. It is an absurd =F phonetic redundancy,

the radical 7 being suppressed; fg (— &.

Han‘. To fly WJ very & high. Ghia-chieh, for # pencil, in # $k Han-lin, the Chinese Academy of old.

Note: In the three following, J. was suppressed in the modern form.

aA $B

Chao’. The rise of the sun and of the mist & on sea, seen

from

Imperial

a ff} boat;

dawn. By

courts, so called because

extension, the

they were held in

early morning. In this sense, they pronounced ch’ao?. Hence, the Imperial court, a dynasty, etc. — Phonetic

series 664.

i BK

Han’,

A bascule # (L. 31G, to and fro) to raise

i. water.

Chi. A lance & very & long.

LESSON

118.

About the primitives i, and F First series. © kua3.

sao

A eel

Kua. A skeleton, skull and bones without flesh, roughly shaped. By extension, to strip the flesh off, to bone, to disarticulate, article, broken, etc. §) A

Ga HB

&.fR Bo See below B, 5. it forms

Etymological 6

Lessons.

448.

275

Kuas. A defect in the conformation of the 4 bones of the [J mouth; a wry mouth with a palatal fissure. — Phonetic series 457. It forms

Kuo‘, from # (L 112 F), to go wa

€a

through. Phonetic series 742.

Ku?®. Bones #4 with flesh ya.

yes

whose

f around.

is analogous,

Compare ff,

which was explained L. 65 C. — It is the 188th radical. Phonetic series 547.

QR

composition

and

Ling‘. It is & borrowed as a symbol for arithmetic. B

yx

a

The modern sound

and shape are

primive form represented a

conventional. The

bone extracted

from the

skeleton, a fraction, a remainder, a surplus; By Tp tho

te F RE HIE BA FB, It forms 2

; i

Pieh?. To divide, to distinguish, A) difference. Composed of fi and of JJ a knife.

Second series. ¥ tai*.

;

R

Tai’.

A primitive; bones fallen to pieces; what remains definitively ofa man’s skeleton. The fourth ancient form, relatively modern, is composed of

body, and of two strokes cut up by a third, to represent

S494

Y

7

Yiti‘. Thicket, brushwood. The preceding is phonetic; the radical

is changed, Ak

(L. 119 L) instead of Al.

By extension, obstruction, hindrance. The second form is a modern arbitrary contraction.

300

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

434.

131.

About the primitive *.

Shih3.An arrow; & Ay %

K 4 tR. On the top,

the point; at the bottom, the feathers, 74 7 JE, Aa ancient form represents an arrow fixed in a man’s body (L. 32). Abstract meaning, an action that came

to its end, appointed, determined, irrevocable, as when the arrow is fixed in the targel. See LL. 18 G,

and 85 E. See also Be L. 59H, HH L. 101 B, 45 L. 165 A. — It is the 441th compounds:

Chi?. A sudden

radical,

Note

the following

y* sickness, as if one had been

struck by a 3 dart Hence the two notions, sickness,

suddenness.

I‘. A quiver, a case [> (L. 10 B) for 36 arrows; 53 RRL.

e& F, It forms

I). To take out an arrow from the B€ quiver, in order to ¥ shoot (L. 22 D): — Phonetic series 648. It forms

11. Medicine as it was practiced by the wizards of old. To sent arrows & against

the

evil

influences

that

caused the sickness && HE ZE 4, and to give to the sick PG elixirs to revive them, & PR LL 3% Fy 4h, Shé‘. To shoot an

ARR GW

a more recent

4 arrow against & somebody;

BM RAS @ He In

form, +f used

for

5

the hand,

was

substituted to 4, to the detriment of the meaning. — Phonetic series 560.

Chiht. The knowledge that makes a man able to givean [J] opinion upon a subject, with the rapidity and precision of an 4e arrow hitting the marks; AA

5, BR Ay & He — Phonetic series 334.

Etymological

Th A ith « He ORE i BL RL

Lessons.

434. 432.

301

Kui. Rule, to rule, right, straight, as it ought to he. To have the eye § to something, in order to make it

straight as an arrow 3a; AA Ke, KM A, @& F, The great resemblance of 4 writing, gave

and of #& in the anclent

birth to the false character $8, which

became usual. — Phonetic series 624.

12, Doubt, to doubt. The modern signification is the opposite of the ancient signification of this character, which was

confounded by the scribes with the next:

To miss the mark.

9g an arrow that UZ, goes astray;

hesitation, doubt, uncertainty; FE wh, BU, BR 5, @& FH. While BF primitively meant, to hit the mark; an 4& arrow that jf stops in the target; certitude, a settled matter. — -& is a phonetic added later on. — The modern character is an ill-formed contraction.

Eh MR.

AE, fH. F HE. — Phonetic

series 783. Note that 2 has nothing in common with 5. See L. 99 D.

LESSON

132.

About the primitive 4.

cl

os

Niu®. An ox, a cow, a bull. The original character represents

the animal

seen

from bebind; the head,

the horns, two legs and the tail; (@ etc, — It is the 93th radical of characters relating to bovine animals. —

Compare =f the sheep, L. 103. See again # to bellow, L.85 E; 4£ a paddock for oxen, L. 17 F; qi to graze, L. 43 D; to drive by the halter, L. 91 C; J the yak, L. 100 A; 42 an ox cut up, a half of it, L. 18 D; etc. Note the derivatives

FL +E

Mu’ and P’in®.

A bull and acow; + and & are

the two halves of #B (L. 27G). representing the pair. Now, by extension,

general. L. 26 I.

male

and female

of animals

in

302

Etymological Lessons.

4132. 133.

Kao‘. To impeach, to indict; to do, with the J} mouth, B

2.

Se ir

Hu’. This character represents the tiger's strips; B%

K tL.A FE. — It is the 141th radical. — See again FE L. 58 D, BRL. 69 D, RL. 27 H, jm L. 40A, ete. Note the following compounds:

Hu®. The tiger, the king of wild beasts [lj BK 7 B says the Glose. It represents the tigers 4 skin, and its hind-legs on which it stands up like a JL, man when leaping; @ 3.— Phonetic series 362. It forms

f% piao’, striped & as a tiger’s skin; F& 4 4H , See also below G.

ie

Lo®. To seize, to capture; #% w,, FAA HR L. 153, EB RS.

i:;J

i da 2%.To seize

is phonetic.

BR

Fy and to bind

Etymological

eh GA eyFOI Ke jes

Re Ik He

oO

Lessons.

435. 136.

Lu?®, It is derived from & L. 150; He is phonetic. A vessel. In the more recent form, [fj vessel is a radical redundancy. There are different chia-chieh. — Phonetic series 823.

Hsi’‘. An ancient earthenware & vase in form of a

tiger; & hy

tL. KB L..165

It forms py hsi*,

comedy, game.

K’ui'. A bird #€ not well determined; )£ is phonetic. It is phonetic in

K’ui!. To injure, to wrong, as by a pernicious FR breath; a grievance, a deficiency; (L. 58 E).

& 7 4, KA

Ti'. A tiger & in its J~ cavern. Compare f& L. 23 H, — Phonetic series 573.

Yao. Cruel, wild. A tiger B® which scratches a A man. The tiger's feet

JL, were

replaced

by its

E

claws. The J, disappeared from the modern character;

EK

IM A &, It forms $€ yaot, malaria, a

pernicious fever.

LESSON

136.

About the two primitives #¥ and FJ, First series. fF lu‘.

“RL OR mm e

&

Lu+. Antelope, gazelle, deer. On the top, the horns; at the bottom, the feet (L. 27 I, note 1); in the middle, the

body;

ily BK a,.

Fh pA 5g, py

XE

= JE.

—lt

is the 198th radical. Phonetic series 633. It forms

Piao’. Roe. From ff; & (L. 50 0), contracted into +, is phonetic. — Phonetic series 810.

Ch'ing‘. To congratulate.

To go #% (L. 31)

and

present to somebody, ona festive day, a deer's EE skin with hearty ,f\ wishes. This fur was the gift

commonly offered in ancient times; 77 #

Minx, KRRUKK AR. @

A wh,

Etymological

Lessons.

436. 437. 438.

307

Yu.A hind; &% denotes the female; compare 4 LL.

Oe |

fe

Be Be

132 A and 26 I.

Li‘. See L. 163.

Ch’én?. The dust + raised by a band of 2 stags. There is now but one ff stag. Dust in general.

Second series. & ssi‘. x) Q

Ssii4. It represents an animal, buffalo or a yak; fR FG,

Chai’.

either a

The philologists consider this character as

being composed

of the and B, contracted. The ssti4. Probably the elk. of the lu‘, was replaced common way of doing.

LESSON

two preceding primitives, A head of a la‘, and the tail of a In the modern form, the head by a small stroke, which is a

137.

About the primitive 55.

“Wy

Ma.

It represents the head, mane, legs and tail of a

horse; 5 Bk 4. Phonetic

series

&® Fé, — It is the 187th radical. 552.

Different

compounds

of this

primitive were explained elsewhere, e.g. [J L. 129 C;

iE L, 47 KE, etc.

LESSON

138.

About the primitive &.

‘im& R

Niao’. It represents a bird with a long tail (compare

f& L. 168); & BS 196th

MH

1.

HB. — Itis the

radical. — See again J% L. 22 B; jal L. 2

Note 4& ming?, [] singing of birds &. Ete.

C.

308

Etymological

Lessons.

4138.

A contracted next two:

form ot the last, without

Tao®. Island. The tops of mountains

mys Ts

feet, in the

{[j, rocks that

emerge from the sea, on which the & sea-birds live.

Note that B in the ancient form, is not contracted.

Hsiao}.

A bird of prey waiting on the top of a

tree. See L. 119 K. The head alone is seen; are concealed in the foliages; hence

Another

contracted

form, without

the legs

the contraction.

head, in the fol-

lowing characters:

es SS Br NG Yeh*.

A magpie. A special head (compare fA L. 29

B, §@ L. 139 B). It is phonetic in S

Hsieh. To set in order, to arrange the objects in a> house;

EB Hw. AA ™, By extension to set one’s ideas in order, by writing; to write, to compose; & 4,,

gm Ong eS

He ¥

Yen!. The pheasant. A special head, that is not JE (L. 1121),

Now,

chia-chieh, an

interrogative

par-

ticle — Phonetic series 660.

Wat. A crow, a raven, black; {@ Ff, It differs from 5 niao3, only in this, that the stroke in the middle which represents the eyes, is omitted. Perhaps because there is no contrast, between the black eyes of

the raven and its black feathers. — The second character, fF yu, is said, by some philologists, to be an

arbilrary contraction of the first. This

interpretation is not well founded. Yii? is

a relatively modern character, invented to be used asa particle denoting the relation that exists between the terms of a proposition; its use is a merely grammatical

one. It represents graphically the connexion (left side) between

two distinct JJ terms.

Anyhow,

=

#& is unconnected with #* L. 117 C. — Pho-

netic series §% 582. Phonetic series ff 419.

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

139. 140.

309°

139.

About the primitive £7, and incidentally about ff.

»

€3

Chiu‘. This character represeuts a mortar;

(i JE,

The first ones, says the Glose, were holes made in the earth; hence the meanings, pit, large hole, in the compounds. Later on, the mortar was made first of wood, then later of metal. — lt is the 134th radical.

See # L. 47 N, BG L. 402 A, etc, Note:

% g B

Hsien‘. A snare, atrap.

A man A who falls in a

E1pitsHea. AA EEL E, @ BE,SeoL.28.

B. —

GN aa

Fa FA EeeSwe zal i

Phonetic series 360.

Yao?. To draw up with

the

hand, the contents

of a Fj mortar; #7 %&, To drawup, to empty out.— Phonetic series 584.

represents the bead of certain

animals,

eg.

i L.

29B; & L. 138 C; and

Shu®, Rat, rodents in general; K

BZ

HA

4, {& FE. The head, the stiff whiskers, and the tail. The ancient character represented the animal. — Itis

the 208th radical. It forms £% ts'uan‘, a rat § in its RX hole, to hide. See L. 37 C.

Lieh‘. lt was explained L. 40 B; it is fl, with another head and stiffy hair.

LESSON

140.

About the primitive fg.

Lung’. The dragon When it ascends to heaven and

A

HE AE

flies, it rains; when it hides in the wells, there is a drought. Vapours and clouds personified. The ancient form is a representation sufficiently recognisable. The modern form is explained thus: on the right, #7 (L. 41 A) contracted, the wings; on the left, at the

Etymological Lessons.

310 bottom,

py (L. 65 A) the

440. 144. 142.

body; on the top, ¥ is thonght to be # (L. 120 K )

contracted, used as aphonetic;

MK Py, KR Fe 4H, He 44 HB, The last derivation

seems to be an artificial interpretation of a conventional abbreviation. — It is the 212th radical.

Phonetic series

which is quite different, as

824. The characters of this series, the sound of hsi?, for instance, come from an ancient series

SE

in #, that was contracted by the scribes into #€ ,

LESSON

141.

About the primitive 3.

A

Ae

RY

Sg AAS

Yen‘.

It represents the swallow;

body, two wings JE. —

the head, the

expanded, the tail. 7G B te &

Phonetic series 827.

LESSON

142.

About the two primitives, f# and #§.

First

series. ff yi’.

A

Yui2. Fish. The first ancient character furnishes a faithful likeness. The two others are composed of a sharp head, a scaly body, and a tail. See L. 17 K. —

R g

It is the 495th radical of characters relating to names and parts of fishes. It forms

Lu. Stupid, blunt; (L. 159, contracted into F]) the nose of a fish {%, without scent, £if 4,,— Phonetic

> =D yoy OD

series 809.

Chi‘. To cut open JJ a fish AR. It forms gif chit, a proper name. Yui‘. To fish. There were, io the ancient form, two

fi fishes denoting many, in the yy water.

at S is

Hsien. The result of a fishing, many fishes.

Etymological

Lessons.

4142. 443.

344

Second series. f§chiao’, Chiao’. aA

the

Horn. It is ff (the second ancient form),

tail being left out, because, says

the Glose, the

horns have much resemblance with the lanceolated fishes. Or rather, it is simply a special primitive, that represents a striate horn, — Itis the 448th radical. It forms

Tsui®. Egret (horn): of a heron

,

a

oH

€ Wl BM. KH.

and other birds;

oH BE(the sound was

changed). lt is phonetic in Y& tani’. bill, mouth.

Se

Ria

ee te

Hu®. Chinese measure, holding ten =} pecks(L. 98 B); $§ is phonetic (the sound being altered ).

Chieh?. To divide, to undo, to solve. A JJ bodkio made from the horn $§ of an

untie;

4

ox, and used to

7 FxoBy Wh, — Phonetic series 725.

Héng?. This character is of a recent formation. A big * piece of wood, a yoke fixed to the horns § ofoxen;

47 is phonetic. A transversal piece, asa beam, etc.

LESSON About the primitive

.

Jil. It represents the sun; 7% FH, — It is the 72th

A

radical of characters relating to the sun and times, — Many compounds of this primitive were explained elsewhere. See & L, 73 A, L. 114 B, BE L. 78 G, OL. 17 J, a F 60L, HL. 133 C, FHL 92K,we

OOL. 120 K, & 8

B =>

C

143

os

47 S,

|lD

L. 4121, BAL. 42 C, #1. 47 P, HL

L. 346, etc. Note the following:

Tan‘. The sun & above a — line, i.e. the horizon; — fu 4,46 BE. The morning, the dawn. See L, 76 L). — Phonetic series 162.

Yao3. Darkness. The sun trees, @

ff setting below the 7

Etymological

312

70

Lessons.

143.

7Xtrees, #F Ho — Kao®*. The J sun shining over (L. 120 K) is between both. Therefore for the progressive rising of the sun, we have the fine series A. BA, #. . Bo Lastly

3

its rays upon

Hao’. The § sun 7\ poaring down

o

A.A, Fe men; the sun at its height B A, #7 #&. The form SA, the sun @ in the F skies, is of

4

a relatively modern formation. Compare

5

Tsao’. The morning, early. Compare

5% above C.

Here the guiding-mark is 8 (L

L. 60 F.

152, contracted

into

++) a helmet, the height of a mau withahelmet; &

twoAH

ME 00

HB Lb, & FF, It is phonetic in

Ts’ao®. Primitively a plant Wi that was used to dye in black. In that sense, the character in now

written

I or &, arbitrary forms whose actual pronunciation

is tsao4; while Er became the generic name for herbaceous plants, as AK is the name for ligneous plants.

Chol}, High, elevated.

=

30r

It is unconnected

with the

‘Jast. Itrepresentsa kind of mastsurmounted with a ball and

a pendant,

a decoration

the Chinese

are

very

fond of, — Phonetic series 339.

Ching}. Luster, brightness, 3 44, What is produced a

@DO

hy the three heavenly lights,

Q

AO S

sun

moon

slars; AA = Ay, @7 %&, See LL. 62 C and 76 F. Note the following:

Ryd

be Hs Hr fy Sho oe fo ie

Tieh?®. Development of the character ¢, which was explained L 64 F, To dispose, to set §% objects in

order. The three {J represent three objects and are mere

symbols

(L. 449 F, note).

redouble, to pile up,

to fold

By extension,

up. The

scribes

to first

changed ff, into ff, and then invented the modern character

way.

which was later on abbreviated in a strange

Etymoiogical

Lessons.

LESSON

144. 446. 146.

313

144,

About the primitive 2, which formed the character 3.

nomics =

Ch’ou?.

it represents

furrows inthefields; HG

the

ploughing.

To

2 Hb. PM

trace

ZS JE.

Curved lines, to lessen the figure. Now fi. It forms.

Chou?. To ask, in the Chinese

way, by @ turning

and returning one’s [J speach. This character is now also written $f, which is a cause of confusion.

Chou?, Another, but unauthorised, variantof the last.

The modern scribes substituted 3 to sf. Hence the modern forms of the following.

oeoh FU 3i

Shout‘. Longevity, long life. On the top, # old, the

radical contracted (L. 100 A). At the bottom, the preceding,

as

phonetic.

The

scribes

altered

this

character in different ways. — Phonetic series 788.

LESSON

145.

About the primitive Ff.

A

ol q

Wa!®.

Tile.

alternatively

The Chinese convex

roofs

and coneave,

are made of rows the

curved

tiles

covering each other at the side, and being jointed together with lime. Hence the form of the character: a tile gets hooked with another; between both, — the lime.

By extension, a general

pottery,

name for earthenware,

etc. — It. is the 98th

radical ofa few cha-

racters relating to earthenware.

LESSON

146.

About the primitive H-

“HG

Eirh’. The ear. Intended to represent the pavilion of the ear. It forms the 128th radical of a natural group of characters relating to hearing.

Phonetic series 194. — Different compounds were explained elsewhere, e.g.

2.1L. 100; 32 L 84H. Add the following:

Etymological

314

Lessons.

446.

Tal. Great 4 ears FE hanging like a hog’s or spaniel’s; hangling, dangling. This is a modern character Ch’ih!. From & ear and jf) heart, because the ear reddens when a person is ashamed; to feel shame, to blush, to redden.

Wen®.

To learn any news by hearing Ff at the P¥

door. To hear, to learn, to smell. Kéng’. To feel JX fire inthe Hf

ears, agitation

ardour, generosity. Compare 44 L. 126 A.

Ché*.

It is supposed to represent

long flapping ears,

by the addition ofan appendix. H #€ 4%, (@ JE. Ch’i!. To asperse, to blame one, which is done by QQ whispers in the We ears; A O Bt A, @ x. a Phonetic series 425

Jung?. The luxuriant growth of # plants. H given as an abbreviation of J a phonetic.

is

Yeh?. A final particle. It is said to be an arbitrary contraction of Ff} (L. 147 B). — Phonetic series 414.

Bh,x OM ey

Ch’ti5. To lay hold on, to take, to seize. A hand 9 that

holds

an

# ear;

M

3, KH,

@ &

In

composition, to gather, to combine. — Phonetic series 349. It forms

Chii‘. To gather; M = A,A A, It was explained L. 27 K.

Ts’ung!.

Collection, to join; AA 3B, AA HR, See

L. 102 I.

Tsui‘. To scrape together;

AK FA, KA JR, @ ®.

See L. 34 J. — Phonetic series 711.

Etymological Nieh‘. G

es

Lessons Composed

146. 147. of three

315 ears,

showing

one

ear coming close to two ears; to whisper, to plot, to

conspire; fff H @ oh te to KW = H. & Bo Phonetic series 842.

H

The following character is added as an appendix,

because its modern con-

tracted form is like H., though it has nothing in common

as

¥y

Kan.

To dare, bold, intrepid... On the left, the bear

(L. 27 J) whose paws were

The modern

3h

AR 3 )\ |

pe

HL

suppressed to give room.

scribes altered

right, a hand

this primitive.

that whips and provokes

On the

the bear. —

Phonetic series 622. It forms Ji yen’, to attack a bear in its J~ cavern, which operation does not go without fig cries and howlings. Hence

Yen?.

AS

with it.

Derived

meaning,

a severe

injunction

ofa

saperior made, in the Chinese way, with great cries. — Phonetic series 858.

LESSON

147.

About the primitive 3. A

x

5

Ya‘. The canine teeth, hooks. The character represents their mutual jointing, [F F i $2 FB, Compare LL. 54 F and 145 A. — [1 is the 92th radical. Phonetic sories9].



Different

compounds

of this

primitive were explained elsewhere, e g. 3 L. 37 D. Note

eo B

AG

q

Hsieh?. Name ofan ancient city & lying io the East of Shantung; JF is phonetic. Now it meaus, impure, depraved,

vicious

(chia-chieh

garment). The character

for

,

a

soiled

} yeh? (L. 146 E) used as

a particle, is given as a modern difference of Ff.

316

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

4148. 149.

148.

About the primitive &

mig

Shén?.

The primitive meaning

is, conception

(4

S still means, to be pregnant). The character represents a human body (L. 2%), with a big belly (a partial primitive ), and

a Jeg moving forward to keep the equilibrium; {@ J£, By extension, the body, a person, a body’s life duration. — It is the 458th radical of characters

relating

to the shapes

body. Different compounds were explained; L. 131 D; 9% L. 90 F; ete.

of the

e.g. Sf

I1, It is Sp inverted; KA ie S, #8 B, To turn round. It forms

Yin! The ancient dancers and pantomimes, who made their 4 evolutions brandishing banners or featherbrooms, and turoing their B= body in all directions;

B22

BAB

tH. By extension,

motion, activity, high spirits, zeal.

modern

compound f& is now

LESSON

In this sense, the

commonly used.

149.

About the primitive fg.

# ©

T’ien? Field, country. It represents a furrowed field; {% FE. This character being simple and easy to write, is often used, asasymbol, for any object. — It forms the 402th radical of characters

relating

and Jand. Phonetic series 164 —

We

mostly

saw

to fields

the com-

pounds @ L. 91 B; & L. 36 E; # L. 60-E; B 1.53

C; # L. 174. — But fA is substituted to another character in

i L. 108A; 3 L 123 D; aL. 10 A;

FB L. 450. oO

oO

% R

Miao®. Sprouts. vegetation Pp at the surface of the FA fields; $) 4

HR A 3h. @& BH. —

Phonetic

series 464.

Chi®. A JL man who goes AZ and sees his ff fields,

Be m8

who works them; consequently,

plants; # PK #6. AA # chi’, corn, agriculture.

the growing of the

A A, @& Melt forms

Etymological Lessons.

D

149.

317

Li5. Composed of fA field and ++ combined ; @ i.

y

QP

F #4 The smallest hamlet, eight families cultivating a Ff ching? (1. 115). By extension, the side of a ching’. the Chinese mile, now usually measuring

1894 ft English, or about 600 metres. — It is the 166th radical. Phonetic series 287. It forms

z

gz —_

Ch’an’®. The 7\ distinct ground -+ on which each family in the hamlet Hl erected its J” dwelling: — RR 2 FH M.A shop, a stall, an estate. — Phonetic series 795.

Chiang}. Fields separated one from another, It was later on replaced by

Ea

— Z

=e @

Chiang}. Partition represented by three lines, that divide two fields fH ; a limit, a boundary; 3B 44, BA



&

HH. AA =, &@ Fé 4§ SB — This character is now replaced by §@, in which -- isa redundancy, and & represents the land-measuring compass. series 724.

\eP

©

Fw

Phonelic

Lei?. The fields, the country. — Phonetic series 803.

6088

It formis

= S20

Lei?. Rainy clouds J above the fields storm, thunder. — Phonetic series 743.

Note: §% is often



used as a symbol, to

mean

fH (L. 93);

a heap, an ordering of things.

Compare 4 L. 72 L. For instance in Be

a é R

Lei®. To build, by gi) piling up -b pises.

f

Lei®. To joininaseries, to bind %& together many tn Objects. The modern form & isa contraction. — Phonetic series 626.

x

Tieh®. To fold up. It should be written g&. See L es 143 G. The scribes imagined, for rapidity’s sake, to replace the Fy aod by J, or &. For instance:

*ASS

ff piled up,

318

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

4150. 451. 152.

150.

About the primitive {§

Bw

Tzu. It represents a vase, earthenware, pottery; {% JE. \t has nothing in common either with fW (L 119),

or with (( (L. 42 E) fanciful

form

confounded

The

invented with

i

modern

by the tzi!,

explainedL 121. Phonetic

character

scribes.

an

Not

uncultivated

series

is a to

be

field,

406. It occurs, as

a radical, iu a few compounds in which the modern scribes, and K’ang-hsi, always write AJ. For instance:

ja Ji

Lu?. A vessel. See L. 4135 D.

LESSON

151.

About the primitive ph.

“WwW6

Yu?. It represents the germination of a fruit-stone, of a large grain; FA represents

the grain,

on the top

of which the germ is coming up; 7&8 Beep fF HW 3F AR JE. HB HH. By extension, beginning, principle, origin,

starting

point,

cause,

to

produce,

etc.



Phonetic series 170. See its radical compounds #% yu? (L. 55 K), and, p’in? (L. 58C).

LESSON

P @

152.

About the primitive FA. Chia’. Primitive sense, a helmet. The character represents a helmet upon two strokes figuring a tall man, 4 — KA A Je. Later on, by extension, full armour;

lastly, any

hard coverings,

as the cara-

pace of turtles, the scales on crocodiles, etc. Different

chia-chieh, the first of the ten stems in the cycle, etc. — Phonetic series

&

Aa

109. See Fl, the

sun

risen to the

height of aman wearing a helmet, L. (43 E. Compare

the ancient form of §& L. 125 F. It forms Jung?. Defensive FA arms and %& offensive weapons, See L. 71 O. — Phonetic series 217.

Etymological Lessons.

GP C

w

t

452. 453.

319

Pi'. A drinking wase FA held with the left & hand. Chuan-chu,

vulgar. See L. 46 E, where this character

was fully explained. Here FA representing the vase, is properly a special primitive that happens to resemble

to chia®, above A. — Phonetic series 388.

LESSON

153

About the two primitives HF and gS. To pierce, to string, to tie together different (separated by the vertical line), two cowries strung together, Kuan.

A

+H-

--

objects. The primitive represents two objects

says the Glose (the horizontal line); # th # Z@ &,

mM Ao. eI. — te “= BA

-pBa

OZ. RF, It forms

Kuan‘. Long string # of cowries &. To pierce, to string, to tie. Hence {ff kuan*, usage, custom, experience.

ED

Shih?. Primitive meaning, to have $f strings of cash

Q

in one’s “+ house,

to

appearance

Silence

only.

meaning,

true,

be

the same

massive. homogeneous,

really

rich,

the

actual

inside

and

not

in

chuan-chu

as it is outside,

etc.

Lo’. To capture; ff to tie Fy strongly; pe represents Iie

the ferocity in capturing,

and

is also a phonetic. A

captive. See L. 135 C. Not to be confounded with # poo:

Ch'uan*. To string. The character is like #, above A. Two objects (not [] mouth) strung on a vertical

rod. Compare ep L. 109 A. It forms

OSfete OC

Huan’.

Affliction; a jf) heart §4 pierced, a series

of troubles.

320

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

4154. 155. 156.

154.

About the primitive FF], written by the modern

ier

Tséng*.

writers fa] or otherwise.

lt represents

the

cover

of the Chinese

caldron, used to stew bread etc. Now #h., ( JE, It is found in

B

EAS

(m2 AS

Ts'uant. Chinese hearth. On the top, Fy the cover and its FJ supports;

then

the masonry

holding

the

caldron; at the bottom, the F9 hands putting $k wood in the XX fire; & FH HF, BW HH. It is found contracted in the following:

se

Hsin‘. Primitively, to sacrifice to the hearth; # # ti, Later on, bloody sacrifice, fi, 3% 4. Cf. the Li-Chi #8 #8; BK IV, Sect. VI, par I1. BK. XVII, Sect. IV, par. 83. -— On the top # contracted. In the

middle 7G the offering, Br LL Z& af, At the bottom Fp phonetic.

In order

to

shorten

it, the scribes

imagined fp.

LESSON

155.

About the primitive §.

PA

C=

Ko?. It represents a three-legged

caldron f& JE,

See page 386. — It is the 193th radical. Phonetic series

545, — See BY lit, L. 87 B; BE kang!, L. 103 A; BR hsien, L. 134 A; etc.

LESSON

156.

About the two primitives Ff] and py. First series. [ff ch’ai?.

“HA JH mt

Ch’ai®. It represents an ancient book, written on laths of bamboo, tied together, ff @#§, The scribes imagined the modern form ff, which was wrongly classified by K’ang-hsi unde [J. — Phonetic series 103. It forms

Etymological Lessons.

wm

Ha

C

Y

HHH)

FAH ae

456.

324

Shan. To correct and exparge, which was done by erasing with a JJ knife what displeased in a {ff book;, i&. It is from this character contracted, that are derived the compounds ended in an, in the series Fj.

Tien*. The canonical ff] books, Confucian Canonics. Their excellence

is graphically

represented

fact that they are placed high on

of respect; KK HA ZE 7S ,

a SD

by the

a 7® stand,

out

& ZH, The modern

scribes kept something Phonetic series 398.

of

Pien®.

fj bung over a FR door;

Ao inscription

Bn BA HA. & OP

the

2 FO

ancient

form.



Bb.By extension,

flat, those inscriptions being written upon a tahlet. — Phonetic series 473.

Liin?. To A gather fq texts to develop them. See

> =)& Ga

Second

series.

Yaol. A collection A of pipes fj, the holes [J of which are put in a straight line on the top. See L. 14 H. — It is the 214th radical. Phonetic series 835.

Sst.

4a

=F

L 44 G. —- Phonetic series 380.

aa

i

[J before judges py] one’s litles Rq

k'uai’. K’uai5.

H

To assert

to a succession. To succeed, heir, etc. @& Fe, The ancient character simply represeated -— son, J legal.

It represents

the plaiting of a mat,

by

interlacing the rushes. It forms

y

K'uai®. The 9 hand plaits a jy mat with P}straw.

>

A family name. The modern scribes changed jy into A; not to be confounded with L. 64 1.

322

Btymological

Lessons.

LESSON

4157. 188.

157

About the primitive J].

Fat

A

Min?. It represents a vessel, porringer, plate; #R RE2HAE +t. fF HB. — ltis the 108th radical of characters mostly relating to dishes. (min, ming, méng) in the following:

It is phonetic

Méng‘. The eldest -— son. The first. — Phonetic series 382.

Fee FO

Wen!

To feed ff] a prisoner [J (L. 25 B); benevo-

lence, charity; ( #.o JI Ml & A. @& BH. The scribes invented the second form. —

Phonetic

series

5 0. See elsewhere, # L. 169 D; A L 135D; # L. 12°C; BL 19 B; B AEL 38G; Be L.50B; L. 110 D, etc.

bY poke ir

Hstieh?. A vase [J full — of blood. Blood. See L. {J. It forms Bi L. 82 F. — It is the 443th radical ofa

ni

few characters relating to blood, under which K'ang-hsi

wrongly classified 4 (L. 27 K). Phonetic series 208.

LESSON About the primitive

.

158.

.

eA

Mu‘. WW

GD

The

human

eye, A GR fR FE, Firstly the

socket with the two eyelids and the pupil;

then

the

pupil was suppressed; lastly the character was placed straight in order to give room. — It is the 109th radical of characters relating

to the eye and vision.

A See

L. 48 C;fB L.7A; | L. 34.5;

and IAL. 10K. L; ee L. 118 D; B

L. 37F; & L. 26 L; ete. See Fe L. 16L; RRL. 27K; Be L. 100; MeL. 97 F; & L. 344, eve. See Hj L. 541, and # L. 176.

Etymotogical

Lessons.

458.

323

First series. § straight.

» 4A NG

Hsiang!. To examine, to inspect; 44 a8 a, The primitive meaning may have been, { to watch

from

behind a tree ZX, or to open the ff eye in the woods AX, in order not to be surprised by a foe or a wild

beast; AA 7K. AA EL. & Bf, The abstract meaning ot reciprocity, that gives to this character extended use, is said tocome the two elements 7K and

from

a kind

— being both

such

an

of pun,

pronounced

-— Phonetic series 445. It forms mu‘,

rs

TD he

Shuang!. Hoar-frost; A i, AH #E, — Phonetic series 834.

Chien‘. To look. An — eye above 2 JL man;

jg

4. WA IL, AK OB, @& BE — It is the 447th radical of characters relating to sight. Note the compounds:

Phonetic

series

259.

Mi‘. To look for something which is not A seen Bi. It is often contracted into #.

4

ew

Té?. To apprehend,

to take sf somethiog

which

is

seen i. Compare L. 45 E.

é

Hsing?

To examine carefully, to try to understand;

We 2% th, Two explanations of this compound are given. — 1. In the first ancient form, -® is said to be the eyebrows frowning so that the FJ eye may see

distinctly; in which case, 44 would be but a variant ot fa (L. 7A).

— 2. The second ancient form gives,

4 to narrow the palpebral slit, to see FE) better. — Compare Pb, L. 18 M. — By extension Shéng®, a Province, the territory supervised —j by a governor.

Ja {6

Tun‘.

A shield, to shield. To cover J~ one’s self

totally, the eye fj observing the assailant

-++ cross-shaped Phonetic series 489.

fissure; FF LI Ff &

through a

HR B.—

Etymological Lessons.

324

Second "

series. §

»

4158.

bent. Mut. The eyes

divergent f° (L. 103 G) that look

in different directions; squint, confused view;

TE &. @& &. Inthe

AL

following derivatives,

bent in order to give room. In the whole

A

fj is

series,

the

modern scribes write ++ instead of ¥*. Mieh’. The fi guardians of the frontiers (L. 74 N)

oF

looking in all ~f directions, so that their eyes become

Ry

heavy from fatigue 3 —] 3e $§ +, (L. 90 D). —

Compare

#%

Phonetic series 808.

Méng}é. Dimness of the view. On the top ff, at the Bo

S S

ae

bottom,

J

to rub one’s eyes, #7 %. It forms the

compound

@

a

Méng}!. The radical

47 was

substituted to the & of the last. Ye

pr

Dream, to dream; the confused and dim gs visions seen during

AJ night.

Third series.

| doubled, the two eyes.

G

Chit‘. To open large and timid eyes, to regard with HH

reverent awe, apprehensive, fearful. Fear, circumspection. In the second form, more recent, the {hy heart was added to express the interior feelings. This character is now commonly written #2.

HA

ye

ee

Ch’u®.

&

always watch

Vigilance AA of the f€ birds, that for their life’s preservation;

fear.

must —

Phonetic series 838. It forms

Kuo‘. The vain endeavours of

DS

a bird to escape the 9 hand by which it wasseized; by extension,

to snap up, to catch; AR 9, AR RB, & Bo — netic series 851.

Pho-

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON About the two primitives

First series

459.

325

159.

fA aud ¥,

§ tazii‘.

‘48 @©

:

Tzu‘.

It is thought to resemble

(& FE, — Extended meanings:

the nose; & 4,

1. Self, 1, my own,

personally; behaviour, te act, action;

the nose

being

the projecting part, and in some way the characteristic of the

individual..

2.

Starting

point,

the

origin,

beginning, evolution; the nose being, according to the point of the bodily

Chinese embryology, the starting

evolution.— The successivealterations of this character are the cause why

primitives

it may

ff L. 88,

be

H and

confounded

with

the

FY LL. 443 and

73.

— It is the 132th radical.

See BE L.40C; SLL. 184A; BL. 19H; S&L. 34K. See @ L. 83; 4 L. 27 1; && L. 142A; # L. 6OL,;

& &

etc. Add the following: Hsi!. To breathe. According

to the Chinese

theory,

the $& ch’i‘. of the heart jf is breathed out, while the ch’i4 from outside goes to the heart, through

the

fy nose; BR A, BR ath, & Ee. Be 44, — Phonetic

2%

series 534.

Hsi*. The first

made

( ( contracted) attempts to fly FH,

by a young bird; JA 44, BM A. & RH. By

extension,

to

repeat

the same act, to practice.



Phonetic series 610:

Second series. # ché*.

Bt a

Che’.

This character,an important grammatical par-

ticle, was invented -to

represent a connexion and

a

succession between the members of a text. It represents clearly enough what it means.

sed branches represent the

On the top, two cros-

members

that came first;

ff represents the point where one stands, the starting

point for what

follows; on the right, a descending

line, the continuation of the discourse; $i) Bf fa) ah. By extension, phrase, speech, document. — Compare

L. 438 D. — Phonetic series 422. It forms

3

a 1

Etymological Lessons.

4159. 160.

Chu’. It is used, like the

primitive, to 3 separate

the = phrases, and to express their mutual relations;

st th BK SM. @ BK, Chia-chieh, all, whole, far #f

# Mel ® &® |

Shu®. To gather ( fH L. 39 C, a net) documents ¥; to govern; a public office. — Phouelic series 789.

Ch’é!1. To brag. A Aq man who spreads AP sentences. By extension, prodigality, excess of all kind. This is a modern character. A radical redundancy,

over #f. Two sounds and two meanings. Chu‘, to expose, to manifest, to clear up. Chao’, a particle used to indicate the moods and relations. It is often

contracted into %.

S ®

Shu!. To write, a writing, a book. A writing-brush

# that writes 3¢ sentences. The scribes altered 4§ in a strange way.

LESSON

160.

About the primitive FE, with its developments %, Mi, Hie

tee

Shou’,

The

head; § +h, 4 FE. Compare with

8 the nose, ancient form, L. 159. It forms

Ka‘. A very long -& spear to aim at the Fi heads of massed enemies (L. 71 ).

Shou'.

The head. It is the primitive with the (¢

hair (L. (2). — It forms the 185th radical —Ioverted, it becomes

Hsiao!.

The head of a criminal, hung up. The hair

is hanging down. The upper part is altered. See L. 12

N, and §& L. 92 B.

Tao’. To go # ahead #. A road, principle, doctrine, To Jead, to go. The progress of a speech, to speak. Compare L, 169 B li* and chien‘.

Etymological

Lessons.

460.

327

Mien‘. The face. A primitive [J indicating the front ot FW the head, the face; 8 Wy a. AA Ba ah (RA fi J@. The second modern form is an unauthorised abbreviation. — It forms the 176th radical. Phonetic series 466.

Yeh‘. A man, —] head upon Ji, a body (L. 29), The meaning is often restricted to the head; BA 4, MA

Ae

JL £. &@ JE. — It is the 481th radical.

Different

compounds were

explained

elsewhere, e.g.

JEL. 126 A; 4 L. 62 B; JA L. 82 A; etc. Note also Tient. The top of the Af head; TA 4, It is through the footanel, that the soul of the §@ (L. 10 L) Taoist contemplative goes out of the body, to rove about. — Phonetic series 848.

Yu!.

To suffer from

the Ej head and from the jf

heart; sadness, melancholy. It is phonetic in

Yu!. To go X with Ef troubles; sadness, melancholy. See

how the scribes altered

the

bottom

of



Phonetic series 846.

Shun‘. To swim in a forwards;

to follow

( stream, the

the current;

docile,

head compliant,

agreeable; @ #%,

Lei‘. A species, a sort, a kind; Eq heads of 3%

D

aee

ba

vegetals and $K animals, capita specierum.

Hsia‘.

A man

& who walks %, his FJ hands

hanging down. It is the thing done by the countrymen in summer time when, the works being over, the plants

grow

by

meaning, summer.

themselves; The modern

hence

the

extended

character

is a con-

traction. — This character was the first appellative the ancient bronzes, it is written JF (L. 142 B) station, A (L. 14 A) gathering of [qq (L. 40 D) huts. Sedentary state after the of the Chinese

nation. Oo

erratic period.

x

Kua’. Separation Zp of the persons & living in the same +» house, of married persons; a widow, a person, left alone, solitary; the regal We, Ourself. By extension,

partaking of goods, diminution, little.

Etymological Lessons. 464.

328

LESSON

i61

About the primitive 9.

Pei‘. A cowrie, a small A.

x

a

shell used for money

in

China in early feudal times. They were current together with the coppers invented later on, till under

the # Ch'in Dynasty (3d Century B C.); then the cowries were left out; # 4p

ook

E FER

AMR

EAM

AR. E RR

A

OR,

The character represents the shell, and its propulsive apparatus. — It is the 154th radical of characters relating to values and trade. Phonetic series 298. — Many compounds of this primitive were explained elsewhere. Let us recall

E; BL. 153A; @L. the following:

120H; FL.

144 B; SL.

130D; @L.

Qi) fx L. 52 14 M; ete. Note

Pai’. Ruin; to ruin; to break, to crush

-*& one’s

own & fortune, or another’s; BY ah, @& &,

Ao

Yuan’. A cowrie A round ©; BH} A th, Round in general. Compare & L. 65 E. — Phonetic series 586.

Chia®

Ku®. To buy. To cover

fR (L

4! C) an

object with its value in El cowries, #7 FF. re

a

Mail. To buy. To wrap up PR) (L. 39 C) an object with its value in A cowries, @ j&. — Phonetic series 697. Fut. The self-sufficiency of a wealthy A oman A. See L, 28 C.

Ying!.

Cowries

strung. A primitive form

of the

following:

Ying!. A necklace made with BR cowries, ornament of women %& in ancient times; 84 fff 4h, AA A, BA

Ye om eigeeadt 3 Mo “OWN Sp

AH. @ 3. HA A i ah, By extension, an infant, a

babe, a suckling, still hanging to its mother’s neck. —

Phonetic series 836.

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

462. 163. 164.

329

162.

About the primitive JX.

oN Qe

Kua!.

It

cucumber,

represents

cucurbilaceous

plants

as

melon, etc; (@& J%, The exterior strokes

represent

the tendrils

of melons;

in the

middle, a

fruit hangiog; #¢ ON Be SE AG HS HYoh heHt EE, rf Be H fF, — (1 is the 97th radical of characters

relating to the parts and sorts of gourds, etc. Phonetic series.

Wa!. Hollow, phonetic.

LESSON

to dig. From

(L. 37);

J

is ‘

163.

About the primitve Ay.

* AN —_>

BOR, y

A —D| —!f\ A a4

Li*. A primitive, representing two pendants; hence the general notion of assortment, decoration, elegant,

graceful, ornamented, etc. i #§ WH. fR #8 My 2

Ho F

& a &, It forms only the following

compound: Li?

Antelopes, that live in droves (idea of assort ment);

DX Eo AK fil, BE & YE. WE fF Ab, It is now used

chia-chieh, instead of the primitive, to mean, elegant, graceful, bright. — Phonetic series 344.

LESSON

164.

About the two primitives ffj and Ha. First series jfj érh?.

ih A

Erh?. Two explanations of this character are given: 4. It represents the radicles of a plant spreading

in — the ground. Compare The ground is represented part growing

A L.15A; % L. 79 B. by —; W (3%) is the

out of the ground; Ti is the part of the

plant under the ground; | ti # AW, PF an #

Fl fil. 2. It represents the beard hanging from the chin, under the — mouth (compare Py L. 41 B);

= Z Bo The second interpretation seems to be the

330

Etymological

Lessons.

4164.

true one. The first came from the fact that the old shape of {ff is like the bottom part of Ys (below B). As to the use of fj as a particle of transition, it is derived from the notion of hanging from the chin. Compare A L.72 A. — It is the 126th radical. Phonetic series 193. It forms

& A R

Juan>.

The beard jj of a man

5%; hair long,

slender, not stiff. By extension, soft, weak, — Phonetic series 456.

Shua’. A modero character. To play, as the Chinese actors do, some with false fff beards, others dressed like 2 women.

tit

Nai‘. To take patience, to restrain one’s self, by +f playing with one’s ffy beard. This character is relatively modern.

Second

series.

a chuan!.

i a

Chuant!. It represents a plant that develops itself above and under the ground; - {®@ & JB, F

H Ht HoH

hh a. 48 Be. By extension,

— A

stalks and roots. See ahove A. — Phonelic

series 434.

The compounds of this series ended in uai, come from the following contracted:

Wb aon

Ch’uai® To measure with the + span how high a plant grew

Y,

up ia. To feel, to estimate.

c We GE

Wei!. A man J striking ¥& a plant ta (contracted into MI), to take away the fibres; to strip, to peel; fibres, thin, slender, imperceptible ;# ww. RM A,

Kit

fk HH

A. &

. It forms

Wei!. To walk 4 slowly 3X, stealthily. lu composition, itis used in the sense of Hy. It forms

a BL

4Y Ae»

Chéng!. To explain with assurance -f: (L. 81D) the & threads of an affair. To testify, to give testimony. — Phonetic series 796.

via

485

Hui.

Slender §& thread %

Etymological hessons. k x

D

is

Ba

334

Tuan‘. The left part of this character is an abbreviation of 7, the top alone UW) straightened and deformed being kept; on the right, & (L. 22 D). To strike in order to reduce into fibres, as 3 above C; #€ 4h,

BRM

E

4164 465

its 43, — Phonetic series 485.

Hsiti'. The rain J necessary that the small plants strike root. Here the top [Lf of He Was suppressed, the bottom fj remaining. By extension,

pensable.

necessary, indis-

Phonetic series 779.

LESSON

165.

About the primitives @ and 4, First series. @ tou’. -

A

===>

¥

rn

Tou!

— R

it represents a dish in which meat was served

up; & B A #4, In the ancient form, the upper did not exist, anda dot

\ indicated

the contents

ofthe vessel. — It isthe 451th radical of characters relating to vessels. Phonetic series 307. — See the

compounds, #8 L. 97 B; EEL. 135 E, ete. — But ¥ L. 38 G, and & L. 142 H, have another origin. it forms

T’ou®. The head. From & L. 160 C, & is phonetic.

Me

Shu.

Tuan’, i

Vertical, straight. A vase

standing solidly

BX (L. 82 E) upright.

son, My

Short

The character was made by compari-

says the Glose.

(L. 113) was

To hhean

chosen as an

long, the

emblem;

to mean

hair —&

short,

the two smallest utensils of the ancients were chosen,

4 an arrow. and & the vase tou‘, @ #,

Second series. & chou!. B

>

MWY

Chout. A partial primitive. The bottom is not WY,

3

R

the vase

above A; but it depicts the ancient

drum,

with its —- skin,and P the 9 right hand straighteSs

ned that strikes. By extension, music,

forms

feast, joy. It

Etymological

Lessons.

165. 166.

P’éng?. The sound of the drum &; Z represents the strokes, or the isolated sounds ;BF AE thAMA B. ih 2.88, 2 B &. — Phonetic series 799.

Hsi®.

Joy;

( singing and & music. There is no

feast without these; see #8 L. 88 C. — Phonetic series 680.

Chiat.

Good, excellent, delicious; @ a band of

music; fg is phonetic (L. 53 D).

Ku’.

A drum & beaten

by a hand -& holding

drumstick (L 43 D); a radical

redundancy.

a

The mo-

dern scribes often write 3¥ instead of 3 ; Hi #8 4h,

RMS

MEE

2 4. & EH — It is the

207th radical.

Chul. A composition analogous to that of BX; a hand xf (L. 45 B) beating a & drum, @& F, It is phonetic in the two following:

fl

Shu. A tree H. Ch’u?. Cookery; AA. a S) a, — Phonetic series 800.

Ch’i®. {t has nothing in common wit’ 3% L. 164 C. Compare L. 165 B. It is another drum that made the pair, and which was beaten with the left © hand. This meaning is now obsolete.

as an interrogative

The character

is used

particle. — Phonetic series

Note #X tai!, stupefied, the effect of the 4 upon KE dogs.

LESSON

Chih‘

544.

music

166.

A primitive. It represents a feline, a head

with wiskers, paws, backbone.

Feline beasts, that are

characterised by their back long and supple, by their

undulating gait, eg. the cat, says the Glose. Compare

the characters 9K L. 69; B L. 137; §} L. 136. —It is the

beasts.

153th radical

of characters

relating

to feline

Etymological Lessons.

LESSON

467.

333

167.

About the primitive Hi.

Soe

Ch’é!. Chii!. The ancient carriage. The character is Straight, to give room;

| the axle;

== the two

wheels; EJ the body of the carriage; 4@ IE, HE HE is 2, It means in composition, to roll along, to revolve, to crush, etc. — It is the 159th

large

group

of characters

relating

radical of a

to vehicles.

See

te L. 128 A; fai L. 591; $B L. 60 M; MRL. 92D. Note the following:

He Ag cB ® egies

Lien?®. Carriages #f in file 7, Abstract notion of connexion, successian; JA @, KA Hi, & BH. — Phonetic series 630.

Chiin'. A legion 77 of 4000 soldiers, with Hi chariots; OF A 6 H&S B. By extension, an army. See L. 54 A. — Phonetic series 438.

Kui‘.

The

extremity

of the axle,

that

projects

outwards in all Chinese Bi chariots. This extremity

was

formerly provided

with

astopper to hold the

wheel, now replaced by a peg; AA Hi A fR JB, It forms

BeBR

Chit}. To jostle and strike 4 with the eod of the axles, as the Chinese cars often do; HH #y 4 th, Phonetic series 723.

Note: In the modern writing, wrong writing passed current.

[J became

{J; this

HfL

Ya‘. To crush, to grind; (| the action of a Hi wheel (L. 9 A).

ik

Hung}. Rumbling, roaring. as the noise of many

Hi chariots.

Etymological Lessons.

334

LESSON

eB &

168

168

About the primitive #

Chnoit. It represents a bird with a short tail (compare

BL. 133); B&B 2 @ EB. & JE. — Itis the 172th radical. Phonetic series 344.

See f— L. 126A; HL

GOE; HL. 39D; #2 L. 626,

BE L.12G; % L 87C; BL

15C; BL

18N; 46 L. 103 C; ge L. 72 J; BBL. L. 119 G; etc. Note the following:

FF; ZL.

158 G; 46

Shun. A falcon ££ held captive on the fist or on a + perch. Huai?. A large river in Central China, much frequented by # birds of passage. — It is phonetic in

Hui. Formerly, a piece of furniture

(7. L. 51 A).

Now, chia-chieh for (AJ, turning, confluence, a check,

etc. It forms Hf k’uai3, to carry on the arm. Chun.

Fixed,

certain,

to agree. This character

is

unconnected with /f€. Possibly an ancient target ; #€ is a contraction.

Wei?®. To answer yes, to express

[J one’s assent;

££ is phonetic; 5% 4, It is phonetic ia Suit. Formerly the name of an conjunction, % RF 2 fa, Though.

insect.

Nowa

Wei?. To consider, to think on, care, sorrow;

Fy

a. BR ity, (£ BE, It is phonetic in

i mo

Li’. At first it meant a oet PJ, a snare. It is now used to mean, care, sorrow, misfortune; while f€ is used chia-chieh as an adverb, or a conjunction.

"BR

Ts'ui'. Very high, -& # tt. KA Wl, He BR. — Phonetic series 655.

Etymological ez =

G

Lessons.

468. 169.

385

Chih‘. A band 4 holding one 4~ bird, not the pair. Hence the meaning, single, by itself; @ %. Compare L. 103 C.

EE

Shuang}. Two birds #€ in the haud 9 ; a couple,

>

a pair, doubled;

ere

H

EE

Ho®. The rain f§ surprising #€ birds, and forcing

them to seek shelter; 7 3. The modern character is a contraction.

I

iat

AEKE. =

3x.

Ch’ou?’. Words parties,

— Phonetic-series 849.

&

altercation

exchanged and

its

between

consequence,

two

4€

hatred.

enmity. The following character was formerly composed in the same way.

Shout. To sell. Formerly {1 the mouth, and two {€

op

the buyer and the seller. All know the importance the [J] mouth in the Chinese

x

JR —

The

of

modern

character is a contraction.

Yeu‘. The wild goose; ££ the birds dwelling on J~ crags, and which fly inthe form of J, (asharp angle):

ER. A OTTBA confounded

i? We

markels.

A.

BA A, Not to be

with

ane

Ying!. The falcon, now J@ It is explained thus: the tame J bird && that serves to { men; ME Ba A fr is 2. & AA A, In the ancient character, there

HE

was y~ (L. 127 C), quick, sudden. lt is the general name of birds of prey, eagles, cormorans, etc. — Phonetic series 767. It forms

anes

Ying!. Ying‘. To answer, to correspond, to do what one feels fy is right and ought to be, etc. Hi is

phonetic; 47 Wo Bftho

LESSON

169.

About the derivatives of 3 (L. 44 D).

Nieh‘. -

A hand 3 writing

See L. 44 D. It forms

[| upon a [J surface.

Etymological

“Is ye

Lessons.

469.

Vii‘. To trace # lines —, to write. See L. 44 D. — It is the 129th radical. It forms

Pei?. A writing-brush, whose handle is made of Ax bamboo.

I4 To exert one’s self, to practise, as it must be done

to Jearn how to # write and how to shoot 4& (an old form, L. 1314 A).

Ssii‘. To expound 3 long &, to display, indiscreet. See L. 113 B.

Chao?. To place one’s self near the

JA window in

order to # write. It is obsolete. lt forms Chao‘. To push & the window A

(the shutter) at

dawning, in order to 3 write. By extension, to begin,

to undertake. Compare ch’i3, L. 129 A.

Lit. A written regulation

3 for the

63 A); astatute, a fixed law,

an

4 march (L

ordinance, tone; 7&

th. fH tt.

Bw 3

Chien‘. The composition is like the preceding’s. To write 3 regnlations for the % march (L 63D), for going on; to establish, to found, to determine, etc. —

Phonetic series 430.

Shut’. To write = sentences #F ;a text, a book. See

O

L. 159 A. The modern character is a wrongly-formed contraction.

SoH ey

by ie =

as

Hua‘. To trace with the 3 writing-brush a subject; to paint, to draw. See L. 149 A. The scribes

added

a [] frame

suppressed

to fq, from

one side,

then

remains a — at the bottom

Chou. The limits

Peace fail (ule Oe i Ql clear

GE

between

enough

two

which other

they first sides;

there

of the modern character.

[J of time, during which it is to 3 write; the day, the space

two nights;

F#SHA

BRB

Compare the composition of the preceding.

ER.

Etymological

Lessons.

Chin‘.

469. 170.

337

A writing-brush 3 that traces Z lines.

This character soon became obsolete, because it made

a double use with #, It forms, contracted into #, the following phonetic compounds,

Chint. A ford,

PE B.

Chin‘. Ashes that remain from a JX fire. Hence. Chino!. Ashes that remain in a [ff brazier, when the fire is out; 4K contracted became »n; 2& ef Ae wh. Ze yh, By extension, ended, finished (the ashes being the

final

went

to

result of the combustion ), an action that its term,

consummation,

exhaustion.



Phonetic series 774.

LESSON

170.

About the two primitives JE and 3.

“aR ah

Fei‘.

A special

primitive with two sides, opposite

each other. Abstract notion of opposition, contradic-

tion, negation, wrong; no, not so; %& 4, 449 2 th. 48 HH. Compare Jb L. 27 G; and HH L. 127 D. — Itis the t75th radical. Phonetic series 353. Note the compound

K’ao'.

Primitively it meant 4% to rebuke the JE

wrongs of others; it now

means,

to lean against, to

rely on, The meaning was changed, says the Glose; it

does not say why. See L. 132 B. A JE, AA 4. 48

Bi. > Hk Chiu. It represents the famous garlic with its growing leaves; {i J%, — It is the 179th radical. It is found in

Ch’ien’. Wild garlic, IJ HE 4. See the phonetic, L. 27 B. —

Phonetic series 829.

Hsieh‘. Shallot, Me 35€ 44, From 3E; when it is §X pounded, it makes a precious — condiment. See L. 118 C. The modern form suppressed.

is a contraction;

—{ was

Etymological

338

474, 172. 173.

Lessons.

LESSON

171.

About the derivatives of &. A

=

rH

Huang’. Yellow. The hue of loess. Composed of (L. 149), and of an old form of % (L. 24 J), that are

mingled together; @ > MBAR

HK

GE X

He See L.. 24 L. — It is the 201th radical. Phonetic series 688. It forms Kuang’. A large J~ hall; #& is phonetic. By extension,

great,

vast, wide, 7c a.



Phonetic

earth

+, clay

series 802.

sb Zz ~ a

B

Chin.

Yellow

#

(contracted)

potter's earth. The modern form is a contraction

het

passed current; $i +

¥

Han*. Clay @f dried in the Q sun. Contracted into

HX

MEM

that

HA. &

Mh 4. — Phonetic series 602. It forms

4s S

R, it forms the phonetic series 609. Note the following

RR

Nan®. The state in which are the f£ birds, when the earth is $ dried and barren; famine, misery,

sub-series:

ZR

difficulty of living. — Phonetic series 847.

LESSON

172.

About the partial primitive 9. Yin?. Behaviour, gait, ritual politeness;

x

ee



@f 4,

** house, a man X (a special primitive, stiff Ina bearing, on the top, a cap) pays salutations with both Fi hands. The modern character is a contraction. Phonetic series 664, LESSON



173.

About the partial primitive Fa.

BA

Ch’ing!. On the right side, the well-known com-

PPX

pound, 4 to strike. On the left, 3% a primitive that represents a sonorous silex, hanging from a frame, #

A 4, See Textes Historiques, p. 82. Now # Compare ¥€ L. 83 B. — Phonetic series 604,

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

gt

174.175

176.

338

174.

About the primitive 7%.

RaN

Eh

Ch’i?. A whole, regular and perfect, harmony. The idea comes from the even height of ears in a corn-

field; Fc HE OF RM, ££ AR ah, fH FE, There is, in this

character,

an

intention

of

representing

the

perspective. The down stroke —, says the Glose, represents the fore-ground; the upper stroke — represents the back-ground.

when

going towards

The ears

the

represent a multilude. —

are ascending

hback-ground.

Three

ears

It is the 210th radical. Pho-

netic series 771. Note the modern contraction. It forms

at

Chai', abstinence; from 7 and #¥. In this character, the two horizontal strokes of #§ are mingled togéther with those of nw The meaning is, #§ to rule

one’s self, so that one may be fit to receive

the FR

warnings of heaven.

LESSON

175.

About the partial primitive fH.

A

é3

aS

Ch’ih’.

The teeth.

Kh R i

ancient

character

mere primitive, representing

the teeth

an open mouth. In the more

modern

was

appearing character,

a in the

phonetic Jk was added to the mouth with its two ranges of teeth; & O wy 2% Wolk a, — Itis the 241th radical.

LESSON

About the partial primitive

The

176.

. Chiao®*. A vase for sacrifices, full of aromatic

BM

wine (L. 26 C), held by a 9 hand. The upper part is a cover.

In the middle,

the vessel,

whose

right des-

cending stroke has made room for 3 , Compare L. 46 E. The modern form is an arbitrary contraction; jg

Be aHy SH, FH Z th.— Phonetic series 837.

340

Etymological

Lessons.

LESSON

177.

177.

About two modern primitives, invented under the Hf T’ang Dynasty.

24

Ka’. Convex.

YY)

These characters do not require any explanation.

Wal, Concave.

INDEX OF ALL THE USUAL GROUPS analysed

above

arranged according to the number of strokes.

The figures given refer to the Lessons, and the letters to the paragraphs.

3 o

|

4A

Ie

@ >

yu

co &

Ne AY site

oS Pod

© l=)

oO oS

—So >

Ie" 24A

=> te S

~J >

Ny beet QT eso

Sk AArenNe 412A

boa >

S

Usual Groups. 2,3 strokes.

yy

38 H kung 85 E

ED bocS & == &

89 A

fay POH ep

hooS >

ssu

7;

39 A

Fi

aoco &

te2) >

ie(Je) &

te eT

& a ao

oo= &

(34= >

hyo oo la

59 I

a

60 AG

52 A 52 A

53 A

Hee

54 A

{ey 12E Jil 12E

55 H 55 BK

A" 414A

chung

ar

18H

! 21A KA 24 C 57 A = rR 4o7THESSEIYVSdIyR ef 24D 56 A

awce Se

343

Usual Groups. 3, 4 strokes.

4

22D

Tin

H

24H

>e&

396

J} 52 B

73 A

ay

76 |

DAE

78B

bk. 424A

79 A 35 B fu 79 B shih

719 G fei

& —> ie wo—=SESa

> bo

yA 274A

79 C

HL 27 |

79 G

yy

28H

=

60J

79 H 81 D ving

13 D

7

14K

A 30 D

15

R 32 F

47 B

aC 61 F

PSPS BA FH yy} 33 B

48 Y

64 G

5 wits

82 C jén 79 D wang 83 A yu

18B

Ix 18 C

Jr A8F se 48M Fi) 19 B RB 19 D

A

ytieh

We,

48 H

Fy 34 J

48 A

In 34 K

He"

49 A

A"

A) Ls

38 D

49A

A i:

65 A

83 C wang 83 D chu 85 E

87A

Ey. 68 B wt

SSaslwWOo BASS RS SR PHS

Usual Groups. 4, 5 strokes.

344 95 A

wo PNA o

so SS oO

a ee = oO> >

>o oO =) oo onoO

ee ae —=a abe jake ae >

BERR 25B

119 A

251

425 A

bo

a rx

126 A

oe >

126 A

=

127 A

8&€

127 B

SAMS OAH C 128 A

129 A

&>

429 A

a=ee fc

—> ae = —

Pod io >>

130 A

VA2E

132 A

=> = i?) wz

4133 A

412 L

134A

— >

134 C

=—

415A

143 A

S400 oe Oba DE NeSe NB Ee GN 115 B

as& ~l >

oo—J >

S eee SST MIA ESS ooeo Q

=

Usual Groups. 5, 6 strokes.

DDcing

pp

Je”

AK 71 B

Fy a

st 7A D

ve

A

*

®

+4

He Ur

S

Fy 418 B >

\ a

56 B b 56 F

a

446A

91A

yg

Ay 418 C

Os

xj oO joa) La ryLe? ayesto oO to a x

> Sooe >

or= >

~ ©on >

hd

eT

156 A

Fe

156 A => on~J ed

158 A

108 A 108 E

109 B

on on¢ So ny oo a=oa= yep 8Ss Ses @Crhis PeeVeo.fe)

i

41A 112C

D© =

S

F

+

83 A

62C

79D

chenn

wang

62 C shan eS ie oS

EEGEHR

= le a

cr to = as = >= bo

a — to —

chu

Co ro ic]

410C

B 85 B

141F ===a La 85 ra) al SSeS IKAYMANE ARR RRA HE SIWOoOSS ERARAG oS~Jj e

o its ie wo

Usual Groups. 6 strokes.

FL 26 |

ho

26 K

Kx 6K 26 L

me E

fay °°? 38 D a Ed

Bes

py °°

Dr"

phy A

am

Hy 51 B

Dp] 40 A ry

49 I

40 C

vii) 52 D

40 D

¥

53 B

44B

53 E

eeae24d toepSPB

®t=WS Wy ED ohe ww So == > 1h

*4 C

54E

| o od

S

41D

ith

oS =e g2 > S x oO

aa

a :

I 60 B

Re:

op

Sh ST ae AeBAO ON wowo ww a oS oF : =i =

oo= oo

36E

= NF

eo1

&

60I

ae”

RB” Ay

b

ee

xz 64 E

36 1Vee lr re SS £o S&S wo ~~ oO > x= =| jo 2

El ll oF Me EAE mE ay %SS aSS BL ~J~] ow

Usual Groups. 6, 7 strokes.

99 B 102 C 114 102 D

a

7K 122 A

OH “KS 102 E

=e

420 H

vp

1228

103 A

dE 106 A

wh 110A 141 A

& EX

112A

114. 114C

nO

Ss

5=

boco =

Pyrrw ATH AY Prr

chiao 18E

“9 co

ku

FI) 17H ‘A 18 J

2«tSSie ==_

cy At St Hl AS ST clk SM a

owcr So

Usual Groups. 7 strokes.

°°

1412.4

35|

113 A

35 M

414 C

> S ~J ~J] ~JOr On & -Q

BS =

38 F

418B

=]o =

118C 1418D 119 B

~I ~1

o 3S 3©on oo

3CH sok Pal dam et Gt HE BR Ate

=]© a

TS eth Beets tiesee oO=to—>

A Be oF

a

108 D

431 C

oS

132 B

oSi

Jit 112A

BR

4a: 67 P 69A

=, 7G

134A

re xe 412 D

=m

4133 A

112E

2p 1126 7

>ow CS oO

4135 B

ES SON Oh Fo Sh Ps FE ON AR Sm Om SE SS BB OF UDoe

142 B

349

Usual Groups. 7, 8 strokes.

146 B

AA

AR 7

18£

14

153 B

pry 146

156 B

Ip =) =>

ais

14.N

co=

160 A

A=

a

=Oo = >

ae

k

@ |

iS = io > i

qoiN2] QO

yK

166 A

54D

ow— =

141

158 C

—>for)ov >

54C

I) © wo

Ss =i © = = cc >

156 H

43 R

nooo

AE 55 E

5

@

py hb 56 E



co ch OF Se = eH alt A UG a 35 E

Bae

le jz”

=ot & es or ie wa ie] Q—

HS

Zee

36 E

aps

PSa &

Rie!

esx] cp]

EE 60 M

a = Ss BREWING Stes A Zak

167 A

oh.

0

17)

Rx a

°° 186

Wy AF: 20C

9,2

iz] 26 F

ME ye

»

47K

AA Fey

60 C

aK

i

WH 641

rey 498

fee

y ae

yey 49D

jas

ae

=o

lit] 39 C

MB

27B

Aye

ol 50 G

ye >

AR

*

Ak 66 C

ea

=e 67M

BE

Usual Groups. 8, 9 strokes.

ng 124B

106 B

Ve 125 A

4109 C

Ry 125 B

83 B

wD

=>

195

B

SP

126 A

4

86 A

— —_w a

86 A

OT oi Ra ASS

a re

me

415 B

Fe

88 A

x

aH BE en oh EY

aH

VF

aRur

Ft

fea

mer

ihe 79 H # 79 K 79 K

ah dy

ae |;

ae

an

102 DG

ae 102 G

ep ee

x

ae 127 D We 128 A

Wt 128 B

A

Fe

Ye 126D

K

Ay 128 A

Est 94E

78 G

oye 1268

ANT 128 A

2 ae

103 A

iil] 120 H ry 420 K 121B nN121 E DA

ay 3 143

143 €

103 C

AS

Fa 143 D

Usual Groups. 9 strokes.

AR 13 E

fe** 4i~ v{~*

ie Bll

fi

26 M

13] 14F

°°

Bg 431

AH 17G

Bs 45 G >

“i

47H

ah. 48M

19D 7)1)

ie B Bl FS eto Fi Re 34J

chou

oF” 21 8B

35 K

>=© as

S mR

=So ip litte Lees ksiAge WesoOics)

to tS no

al Hi Ee eS 7 R =

= ot on>n SS

aSE =2 onips a

Usual Groups. 9, 40 strokes.

352

a

83 C

zi 130 B

164B

xp 131 G

Py 164 D

133 B

* 165 B

443 D

167 C

te

©S o

pis

412 H

aps

146 C

ee

449 B

ae 169 B

eS or e.s 8 oS

156 D

169 D

© on Q

157 C pape©

=

16D

De

mh =m.

v

16F 16L

17D

}Se oes

170 B

— oO OQ

he oo eS

458 B

— oO

jaanoS

qa

coJ 5S

120 H

101 B

420 |

is

bo= o

102A

120 K

ae

norae a

EsSB UL Sh St oY HW SA a) oH z v

th Bt BI BU St Soe

oe

—z~«

102 C

102 D > >wo Lo)

103 A 105 A

rot WE 106 C

a bw—

‘SP

a

ep go

422 C

ao

125 A

WwW

| 425 C

A

Ay

Fe 125 E

3

mn AM

129D 129 E

25 C 4s

EEN BE ee ait BS oo — —_oo

t

6" ie

tooo

422 C

Eg TG

— oo

bb

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Appendix.

361

QLD GRAPHIES. Whensoever the ancient Chinese noblemen had been favoured by their princes, or had experienced some kind of success or luck, they used to cast a bronze vase,

in memoriam. Symbols and Characters relating the fact, were moulded on the interior side of the vase, which was placed in the ancestral temple of the family, and served henceforth as a ritual vessel, when oblations and libations were of-

fered to the Manes. On the exterior side of the vase, the two eyes of the Ancestor, were figured, looking at his sons and grandsons with benevolence. We are indebted to these old bronze vases,

for all the old Graphies

we

possess. Ancient Chinese

epigraphy on stone, is non-existent. Many fac-similes of vases and inscriptions are to be found in the 4th French edition of this work, Caractéres Chinois, pages 361-452. In this English edition, the matter has been presented in a summary way.

Now take good notice of one thing, which uses to baffle novices in Chinese epigrapby. In all modern books, the engravers have replaced the old obsolete symbols which are not characters, by conventional current characters chosen because of their form, without reference to their meaning. To translate those signs, would cause laughable blunders. For instance, instead of the symbol Q offering of meat, they engrave the modern character 4¢ father, because the old character offering. — In the place of { the poured ly father resembled the symbo! libation, they put a @,. — For the obsolete a a distaff-load of textile fibres presented to the Manes, they put a#@. And so ov. — Remember this, when following

modern transcriptions of the photographed from rare Chinese epigraphic repertories, such as fs &

the

SR

Fk GH ete.

reading

old Graphies, which have all been

KB & it

362

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

>Ge Sn The most frequent of all Symbols,

is 3

a right hand

offering

& , which is

neither a flame, nor incense, but the smell of the offered meat, ascending towards the Ancestors.

Almost every time, beneath this symbol of offering meat, there is 1 a sort of tear, symbol of the poured down libation of wine. Instead of the falling wine, they sometimes figure @ the Splash of the wine having fallen on naked soil. This figure is rare, because it was ritual custom to pour the libation on grass, spread out or tied into a bundle, which was burned after the ceremony was over. There are many figures of this bundle of grass, sometimes graphically reduced to a IT, or -f, or anything else.

sR

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

a

363

> ~ = aA

a

se

x

iw —\y

==>

ie «RE \@_DxX gt

AL

of wine, three

things are

| (RJ a box containing =e jade. A cowries and 4 pottery. 2 #@ an amphora of wine, presented by two hands, with a ladle. 3 #K 3 distaff-load of textile fibres, with 2 or 4 hauds spinning. The idea is very clear The Ancients offered to their deceased Ancestors, all the things without which the living could not be; viz. valuables, money, vases, stuff for clothes, wine. Analyse the three figures above...

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

365

The @ cowries, current money of old China, are offered strung up, often in great quantities, as much as a man can carry with a pole. —In some texts, the

strings of cowries are figured in a compendious conventional form.

i

\\

FE

The offering of raw flesh is eventually figured by the living animal, and the flint kuife or the prehistoric axe indicative of the killing of it. When the animal is not figured, the mere knife in the hand of the son, denotes that he has killed an

animal to be offered.

4 x

Ah

tin

366

Old Graphies. First part Symbols.

Sometimes the offering

of raw meat

is figured by the skinned

hide

of the

victim fastened on a stake, accompanied by libations, etc.

The presence of the Ancestor to whom the offering is made, is ordinarily figured by }& the heel of his foot; see Lesson 112 A. In modern Chinese, to say in presen-

ce of, is ZE $B wif before

the heels of. — Now we are

able

to interprete the

whole of the following two inscriptions... (Left) In presence of my Ancestors, I offer raw meat, a libation, wine and tow... (Right) In presence of my Ancestors,

1 the son

holding the flint knife, offer raw meat, libations, precious things,

and tow.

g

=

8 ray

wine

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

367

Sometimes the offering is presented to a footprint, or to foot-prints

of the deceased

Ancestor.

Now-a-days, as of old, the Chinese try to discern the

foot-prints of the departed, on planks strewn

over

with sand or ashes, See above four figures showing

the worship of foot-prints, In the first and second, there is one; ia the third, there are two of them. In the fourth, the Ancestor has walked ali around

the offering, sniffing its smell. In the fifth, the legs of the Ancestor are visible. The frame which

ses three of these Graphies, page 368.

enclowill be explained on

In some very rare cases, the Ancestor is figured standing, and the offering is presented to him directly. See above.

368

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols..

az

Sometimes the presence

of the Ancestor

is figured by his two eyes looking

with benevolence at the offerings. As has been said on page 361, the benevolent eyes of the Ancestor are figured on the outer side of all ancient sacrificial vessels, staring at the offerers. Sometimes the two eyes are replaced by one triangle,

symbolising sight in abstracto.

3 AA\ >be KO whence The temple of the deceased Ancestor, or rather the sacred niche from square his transcendent influence is supposed to emanate, is figured by a frame, angles. or rectangular, often with iaward eurved

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

369

dE

# tA ¥ JL

of SD

Ordinarily the temple, and the presence of the Ancestor

in the temple, are figured, either by a

balustrade separating the nave from the sanctuary;

or by the

=

inlet to the sanctuary,

a narrow

stakes. In front of the entrance, raw meat

®@

pass

between two or four pillars. All the supplicants, sons and grandsons, are standing in front of this entrance, the spot where the offerings are presented. — Hereby an exceilent figure of the balustrade. In the sanctuary, the eyes of the Ancestor stare at the hide of the slanghtered victim, expanded on two tion, as usual.

and

liba-

KS. i ‘fy dttt a ay

Mt al

Some times, in a fit of rapture, the offering son is spiritually transported beyond

the balustrade and the pillars, into the sanctuary, unto the very presence of the Ancestor. See above,

on the /eft, the best figure Antiquity has bequeathed

to us.

It dates from the 2d

dynasty (circa 6.C. 1500), and shows a raptured son kneeling in presence of his standing father... Ip the two other figures, the raptured son

carries cowries or meat (knife).

oe

a

In some very rare but most precious fignres, the deceased Ancestor is represented diving, head. foremost, from heavens above, towards the hand of his offering son.

374

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

Sometimes the Ancestor is figured

by a ghostlike silhouette, with a single eye, often surmounted by a triangle. I call your attention to the second line of the text reproduced beneath on the right, in which you have firstly a footprint of the Ancestor, secondly his ghostly shade.

oy Re

a

Ye CEH 42+ 2 Piha OK He (FH er Ose

=e SE

OF = ~-

“ge KV

CG

AN

372

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

5)Y 4) B &

:

14" a

Now we are able to understand all the Graphies on top of this page, and others on the tollowing pages...

Presentation of a new-born child, to the A sight of his Ancestor. Presentation of a new-born btbe, the fontanelle of whose skull! is not yetclosed, in the temple, with a libation

Presentation of twins, with offerings and libation. Presentation to the Ancestor, is his temple, of a pair of twins, brother and sister, with offerings. In the presence of the Aucestor, after libation, offering of jade wine and tow, by the son, a grandson having recently been born.

Old Graphies, First part. Symbols.

373

Offering of a banner. In the. second figure, the for the apparition of a foot-print of the Ancestor, in the

banner is offered, with a libation, to thank

|

= 4@R iy ad

abe

wNSA

Presentation of a new carriage... with offering of bleeding flesh on a stake, in with the ordinary offerings, in the second figure.

the first figure..

~~.

o

%

Bunches of wheat are offered, to thank for the harvest.

374

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

|

.

To announce to the Ancestors, the fabrication of a bow and arrows, launching of a bark, building of a dwelling-house.

eA 1

Hm

Offering to the mountains... to the clouds. — Invitation to the dragon to make the clouds burst and rain pour down.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

375

0

This bronze plate, dating probably from the 20th century B.C., is the oldest

specimen known of Chinese writing. It is not properly a text, but the enumeration of all kinds of animals killed in a great huntiog. The document reveals... 4 that the shape of the primitive characters differed greatly from that of their derivatives... 2 that the principle of composition of characters, was always the same, from the beginning.

376

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

Hot ff 4p 3

PRrON at oH ISS HL Lb

ST? bn 90 OR On the day i-ssu, in presence of the deceased grandfather, the widowed grand motker (chief of the family) has offered, with wine etc., this bronze tripod, to last ten thousand years. enjoy it for ever.

Hoping that

innumerable

sons

and

grandsons

will

Qpree SB! Tt mR > (Fr oe St a = BAO RY eee HES SE >SN -

on

t &

es

In the eighth month, on the first

:

(teif

auspicious day which was i-mao, the ] by

duke

committed

solemnly

to

the

standard-bearers the new standards. This tripod was cast to commemorate

the fact, and was presented before the tablet of the Ancestor of the clan, with the usual offerings... sons aod grandsons worshipping in front of the sanctuary.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

Ce:

377

11 we

=

+3

A ey

HM Fe Btr

WY DY eer,ee pease Eves On the day keng-shén,

the new

emperor Wu-

ting went to the eastern gate of the city, to salute

HH ae Te con

the rising sun. On the evening of the same day, he ordered minister Hu to deliver five man-loads of cowries, to be presented with the ordinary offerings, as a token of gratitude for the prints of feet and hands of the deceased emperor Hsiao-i, which had

been noticed in the ancesiral temple, five times, HREBAN HRSh D+ oD ae HH oe + BS Ie RH during the 16 months of mourning. This vase was ume eochkaHH cast and placed in the sanctuary, to commemorate

=e Sa

the fact. — B.C. 1273.

378

Old Graphies.

Second part. Texts.

[Tr wd Sh BD a

Ft BD S! a> 4h eH mR >

RAHPBSHSK The about

emperor being to

wage

war

against the marquis of Hsu, the duke of Chou requested me Ch'in (the official conjurer) toana-

thematise the rebels. So I Ch'in made with my hand

the comminatory

gestures, and pronoun-

ced with my mouth the

imprecatory words. Therefore the emperor gave me hundred ingots of copper (of six ounces each) as a reward. I Ch'in have employed the

imperial gift, to make this vase, which I present to my Ancestors, with the ordinary offerings, in memoriam.

Old Graphies. Second part Texts.

aN

aD?

379

TY &)

SAE

+4 tt

ane

“4 An

Yim

MH FE op aK WL COR AR. GK

ee

“~~.

& =| Ap Hi vax Sp > ack

Oo HAk& Sr Oy

rt

eo a HEH ¢

GB = ote oF, Sef Sat

eo yo}TER

In the 9th month, the moon

Fy b> Oy &LY BESS TB

SSH ha wy GYwt k+4S HI Do Nw

Fb ~q GAKa f—» aD M™ oe

a e8e

being full, on the day chia-hsii,

having worshipped at the ancestral temple, sat down archives were kept. The Grand-Director

Nan-chuang

the emperor

in the hall in which having

the

introduced U-chuan

of Lu, the emperor ordered first the attendant registrar to take his tablets into his | invest thee with the charge of inspector of Hu-fang.» — Having thus been honoured and favoured by

hands, and then dictated his will, as follows: « U-chuan,

the Son of Heaven, I, their grandson U-chuan, have cast this urn, to gladden mv glorious Ancestors. I hope it will be the jewel of my descendants, for ever. — 9th century B.C.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

380

fayMF He 3

Ww

4}¥

43

Co oe

ap Il] Hi j

yy BO MO Ty St Orsah HEA Ire STOR 4zGy Ae WS il aK 4 +H Dax + Oe cy MIE AUS ie Se “0 5B) > wE So 00) > 0

During the

‘th year of his reign (probably BC 768), in the 3th month, the the emperor staying at the new

moon baginniug to wane, on the day hsin-ya,

palace in the capital, feasted jF Cha, the chief of the Literati. During the banquet, as he was ju high spirits, the emperor proclaimed: «I give master Ché ten strings of cowries.» . Cha fell on his knees aud thanked. — Having thus been honoured

and rewarded by the Son of Heaven, I Chf offer this amphora with a basin, to the first Ancestor of my race,and place them in the aucestral temple, to be the hereditary treasure of my descendants.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

381

% ‘—

Ls Samy Yo

During the fifth month (B.C. 675), on the auspi-

Et 3S HR XO ie Se Sy BH oa

cious day ting-hai, the emperor being at the capital Chou, received the spoils sent by count Pien and others, after having defeated the rebels south of the

river Huai. There was some

fine copper among the

spoils. The emperor ordered it to be melted and cast. into the form of this tripod, to be a jewel of his sons and grandsons for ever.

a

Ge oF 4 SS] EE DEW at HSS ed

382

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

S> HR al SEH Bes BSHS #H FRR OB

The emperor having received the prime mandate, the great gift of Heaven (imperial rank and dignity), on ascending

the throne

(B.C. 571) offers this

precious basin, to the Spirits of heaven aod earth, internal

hoping wars...

they To

last

will

prevent

during

ea So >_>) Se ALY Ro_IA asvr SBE SA 33 541 Be

thousands of generations, for ever

ten



[Take nolice of the fifth character in the first line, the anthropomorphic

figure of Heaven.}

Old Graphies. Sacond port. Texts.

383

Bt > A SR Tt BE Se Bt [Fr is AS

sae

>>

Kp

4 HS > S35 2 RP aR Me&ot

In the year chia yu (B.C. 567), the eighth month, on the day ping-yin, after purification, the emperor went to the temple, performed the rites, and offered this basin to propitiate the perspicacious Spirits. May the Spirits (of heaven and earth), knowing the virtue of the emperor, give him peaceful days during ten thousand years, and conserve him his imperial mandate for ever.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

384

Koo >> ~~ 8840

oS NO poe ceic >> > HE SF = TS

~—o>~ & a,\Lm>™» > o Fe OL vy Ze=ar

Yoo So EG 2

3

BVM Sows wy

ou

GP FE ewe go Hlk Bya)

a7,

iF ‘ AX eta

I 3& Chui belonging to the imperial clan, remember often with veneration and compassion, my Ancestors who died in battle for the service of the emperor. The Son of Heaven having bestowed great liberalities on me, I have cast in bronze and

offer now to them this vase tum, as a token of my filial piety. May they bestow on me long life and durable prosperity... emperor Ling (B.C. 545),

Made

by me

to be the jewel of my anthropomorphic figure of Heaven.]

Chui,

after

the

family.



[Note

decease

of

thrice the

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

385

Ly+594

SERS Br

wtbpy

wy $A

ne >p-enk >t BEF 4Aay

ak KOO Ke B ik

2ky—TT™ M

This is a fragment of a long document contemporary with Confucius, which I

quote to show the shape of the characters in which the Confucian Canonics were first written. After having witnessed those clumsy figures, | suppose

you will be rather lenient with the blunders committed by their interpreters, [See 4th French

edition, pages 442-449,}

LIST OF THE 858 PHONETICS.

The following phonetic prolific elements practically used, numbered

from 4

to 858, are classified according to the number of strokes, and then by alphabetical order. — The characters the romanisation of which is written in italics, are, either different writings, or wrong characters, refer to the genuine form.

4

40 cata Sbih?,

4 Z, Ya2.

is 14 Ting!.

5

3

2

42

A

Chi'.

x

3 4A Ch’iao’,

L

413

5 AL Chiu’. 6 B Han}, 7 J4 Nai®.

8

A Pa, 9 fr Pa’,

44

c Chi’. “ +

15 Ch’i‘. 16 Gh’ien!. 47

TK. Chiu?.

Ni 18

32

Hsin?

Tu’.

K’ou?.

Be

Kung!

ly 25 Shan’.

A

26

A

Shan!

Q7 ay Shao?. 28 ce Ssi, 29

lA Es

Et 40 Chi?,

pA 4A. Ch'iang?. 42 AY Chieh‘. 43 YY) Ch'ieh!,

| Wang?. Oe

7 Ju

36 Wu.

Yeh3. —_— a

38 Yu,

a

Rs T’ol.

4 IN

484 FF

Hs, 37

A 30

Ch’uan!. Ts’ai*. 49 sf 31 It Fan?, Y teun',

appointed to these

33 —f- Tzu, 34 FL Wan?.

24

aC Chang}.

4

[ Chiu!.

Ch’a'.

The figures

20 J 2A Jén!, 22 Ae Kan!. 23 a

JL

forms.

39 Chao’.

Chien'.

44 R

Ch'ien’.

45

Chiht. 46 tk Chih’. JN 47 a Chin!. 48 Fr Chin',

Fr 49

Ching’. aro: Ch’ov3,

388

P

List of the Phonetics. 4-5 strokes.

51 Ch’v?, 52 Chung!.

53 Chiieh?. 54

Fa?,

55 De Fan3, 56 Fang!. 57 Hh Fei!. 58 Fén!, 59 Fut.

BEous

aly ‘af DX] 62 Hsiung'. 63

Ki

Hai.

At ie VY 65 B,

mf

K 3] ie I =Ju e B Naw Sy eS ft 71 Mien4, 12

Mu?.

73 Nang?. 74. Nei‘. 75 04. 76 Pa!. 77

Pi3,

~

>

as

78 Pien!, 79

Pu?.

Mao?.

97

Yiian?.

98 Yiio?, 99 Yan?. 4100 Yan?,

Shao.

81 Shéng!. 82 Shih‘.

83 Tan'. 84 Tou?, 85 T'un?. 86 Tzii3,

K'ang#,

XS cit 69 Ly Kung?. 70

Ya?.

80

a It

92 Yao!. 93 Yin?, 94 Yin?. 95. Yu?, 96

fas

101 Cha!., 102 Cha}. 103 Ch’ai?, 104 Chan!, 105 Chaot. 106 Chén3. 107 Chéng! 108 Chia!, 109 Chia?, 410 Chiieh3,

Ch’ih?,

429 Kan!, 130 H

K’o3.

113 Ch’iu!.

fi] 134

414

Kou!.

Chiung?. BJ

415 Chu’. 416 Chu}. 417

132 Ku, 133 JM Kua!, 134

Ch’u!.



184

Fy

Chii*.

Li‘.

4y

118

135

Ling‘.

chat.

>

419 Ch’at. 120

136 HU Mao’. 137

Fol,

Min?,

121

138

Fu}.

Mo/.

122 Hao. 423 Hesiung!. 124 Hsiian?. 125 Hsiieh?, 244 Hui?. 126

I2. 127 I.

139 Mo. 4140 Ni?. 144 Nu?, - 142 KK Pa?, gy 143 Pai?. »

144

“Fp Pan‘, 445 ww Pao!. 146 Ay P’ei!, ye 147 Pén3,

ZHEAHYnNEsare

MUAHHH RSE dO & to

4411 Chih?, 112

428 Jan3.

amas HERA AMSSH HN

389

List of the Phonetics. 5-6 strokes.

168 Yang!. 4169 Yen*, 470 Yu?. 174 Yu‘. a2 Yu‘,

206 Hsiung’.

207 wd wsetieey Ne

Hsiian’.

208 Hsiieh?. 209 Hsiin?.

Ch'ung?. 190

174 Yiian'. 475: Yueh}.

Huang’. 240 Hui!.

Ch’iian?,

SeaXnskeo 176

193 Erh?, 194 Erh?, 495. Fal, 196

An',

Fu?.

477 Chai?. 178 Chao’. 179 Ch’éng?. 480 Chi?. 181 Ch'it. 182 Chiang}. 183

197 Hai‘. 4198 Ho?. 199 Hou'. 200 Hsiang’. 201

6

Lieh‘.

229 214

Mi3.

Hui?,

230 Ming?. 231 Mou?. 232

212 I. 213

Nat.

Pai’. 234

esayxeoeas DSPs P’ai’.

935 Fi Pang}.

444 Hsieh?.

Shih’.

Hsieh?.

KES MSSRAY MERI 202 Hsien!, 203

Hsing’.

Chiien!.

204

EAR MAPS RAS

227 Kuo?. 228

390 Ping’. 227 Shé?, 236

184

185 Chih’.

226

K’ung?.

4191 Chiian?. 192

Yung?.

KB

223 K’uang!. 224 Kui!. 225 Kung!.

536

Ch’a!.

173

Chiao!.

ES

Hsing’. 205 Hsiu!,

237 Shou, 238 Ssué, 239 To,

Ts BE ae Wd

List of the Phonetics. 7-8 strokes.

w~a}S

256 bw re

&@

——_E—

241 Ts’ai?, 308

el

om \ d

Ts'an?, 242

Tsu. 243 Ts'i'.

244 Tsui.

all Sp Ch

yu

245 Tui.

246 T’ung?. 247 Wei. 248 Yang?. 249 Yin'.

she

Chi*.

257 Chia!. 284 Ch’iao*. 258 Chiehé. 259 Chien‘. 260

276

Fe

295

Mien®

296 Nieh’,

297 02.

A Aw

Chih‘.

Pi’.

261 Chin. 262 Ching!. 263

300

SK SS TR >TD OH

Ch’iu?.

Chu, 265 Chuang‘.

aS 266

Chi?. 267 Chin!, 268 Fao’. 269

T’o8, 307 Tou'. 308

Féng!.

Ts’an?,

270 Fu?, 274 Fu, 272 Han?. 273 Han‘. 274 Héng!. 275 Hai!.

309 Tsot, 310 Tsu?.

Are SESS SMAKHRADA 251 Ya?.

252

a

298 Pei*. 299

2

250

Ché?, 253 Ch’én!. 254 Ch’én?. 255 Ch’éng?.

294 Mei?,

# Hsiao‘, ‘a oa Hsiao},

Eo BH ON AS 4) Se Dp HO op BDaxe

Tsun',

312 T'v?. 343 Tui’.

ee

Sa! Pie ME tn Sh HB Se

314 Wan?,

Ch’iehé.

394

List of the Phonetics. 8-9 strokes.

w o2Co

352 Erh?. 353

Chien’.

Fei’.

334 Chih'. 335

354 Féng?. 300 Fu’. 356 Han?. 357 Asi‘. 358 Hsi?. 359

9 ooto

Chien’.

Chih?.

336 Ching!. 337 Ch’ing!. 338 Chiu!. 339 Cho!. 340 Cho?. 344 Cho*. 342 Chou!, 343 Chou?. 344 Chui!. 345

Hsiang?.

360 Hsien‘. 361 Hsing‘. 362 Hu’.

363 Hun! 364 Huo’. 365

Chi.

1B,

346

366 Kang'. 367 K’én’®.

Cha!,

347 Chit‘. 348 Ch'i!. 349 Ch’a?. 350 Chaan‘4.

351 Gh'an!, 359 Ch’un?,

aa GS TA 2B Yan Ba] SS! BE dn} Sot ht OS Hh Se SN

SH NSS SE Oe EG Wt mnt fel OS

AR IK BK

373 Kuo’. 374 Lai?.

wt,

Re

AL

460

Lang?. 375 Li}.

4A3 Yeh?, 414

392 Shout.

393 Shu?. 394 Sung’. 395 Ta’.

Yeh?,

4A5 Yeh. 416 Yen?, 4A7 Yen?, 418 Yen, 502

376 Liang?.

377 Lin?. 378 Ling?. 379 Lu. 380

Yii?.

ORS SAR = FE OF at 4 AB 4AQ

Yi.

Lin?.

381 Mén?, 382 Méngé. 333 Mi‘.

384 Ming’.

420 Ch'a?.

kb +3 3. Bt

fa|

424 Ch’a? 422

¢@)

Ché?.

385 Nien‘. 386 Pai?. 387 P’éng?. 412 Pén'.

388 Pil. 389 Piao’, 390 Ping*. 394 Shang’.

&

EY Os ys SS Uh HS

423 Chéng!. 424 Chi?. 425 Ch’i!. Ch’i4.

427

fF BY BA BT ee \

73 Fr

Chia’.

428 Chieh’. 429 Chien*. 430 Chien*.

List of the Phonetics. 9-10 strokes.

Ba ny

431 Ch'ien?. A432 Chiu’. A433 Ch’iu!. 434 Chuan’. 435

HR AR pee?

fe ja

Ch’ui?.

TE} SS SE PN oot Lah rg

Bl 5

440 Féng?. 444

472 Pén!. 473 Pien®.

474

436 Ch'un!. 437 Chung!. 438 Chin!. 439 Féng'.

470 04.

Pien‘.

AT5 Shén‘. 476 Shih‘.

477 Sst'.

EE WS AE A=

478

489 Wei! 490 Wu'. 491 Wi. 492 Yang’. 493 Yao‘. 494 Yeh*. 495 Yen®. 496. Yen?. 497

Ha SS NO NB HE Baal SS) We

479 T’ing?. 480 To’, 481 toesTsai?. 482 Tsou’.

GD EB SH dt ott FR a a

FRlas

Yen'.

498 Yin'. 499 Yin’. 500

Ti‘.

BI Hil pat

508 iz Chan°. 509 ia Chén!. 510 dy) Chéng!. Ji» 511 ki Chéng?.

JE 512 Ch’éng?.

E3 yay SP.

SA pa

FB

Yu’.

501 Yi.

502 Ya.

503

NFR vere

Yu?.

AW 445 Hsiang’. 446 Hsien?. 447 Hsing’. 448 468 Hsia’. Nan?. N49 isd 469

ye Ge Be OW SEE 504

Ya°.

505 Yuan?.

10

Blt SB mae atm YS

Hsian’.

SS Ro OA ol SE

450 Hu?.

Nao’.

LI

296 Nieh‘.

SE an ih Be Ye SE

506 Ch’a!. +5

507

nr

Ch’e?.

3 Chi. 514 chi’. BAS Ch'ié. 516 Chia’.

Ch’iao’.

8 8

Hai‘.

Han?.

=

List of the Phonetics. 10-44 strokes.

ys #

548 Kui’. 549

568 AT

Su‘.

588 Jet Yuan?.

ry

AH Feng’.

550.

609

Han?.

Li‘.

Han‘.

531

551

552 532 Ho?. 533 Hsi!. 534 Hsil,

535 Hsiian4, 536 Huang!.

537 Huang’. 538 Hun‘.

539 =

©

BR Be} au Bl O85 Go ORE Se GE AO BA i

589 8

Hsi?.

=e

2,

614

B&B Ma, 553 Ay Ming?. Ak, 554 tu Néng?. ipy 555 Pant. 556 Be P’ang?. 557

FB rv.

558 Sang}. 559 Shan‘. 560 Shé!. B 561 Shih!. Ha 562 >

Shih?,

Kao!,

ea. 545 BS Ko’. - 546 Kou‘, 547 Ku?,

—B_az

pe

590 Chai?,

Hsi3.

594 Chan3.

612 BAN Hsien}.

592 ee Ch’an$, =r 593

os 613 AB Hsiu!, 614

Chang!. It

594 es Ch’ao?. 595

Hsiian?.

615 iE Hu!. 616

FES Chit.

Hut.

596

617

Chit.

=> Hui‘.

597

JB, Ch’it. x

618

BR It,

598

Be chil.

619

Hl Is,

599 We

620

Chiang}. Ae

I4.

600

621

iS Chiient.

Jung!

601 Shuail.

hry 564 WH Shuo‘. 565

623 K’ang!. 624

J Ching‘.

eI

60h

P

Ch'ing‘.

-vS

605 Chuan.

Al 567

we Sou,

Kan'.

602 Es Chin®. =F. 603

B 566 Sos.

622

Chih?.

ee 563 543 BA Kan‘,

610

jg Chat.

—iLs

iy

me ©4607 [iis Ch’ii1. 608

569

Kuo!.

Hao‘.

ES [nj

393

Ch’ung!.

Kui!.

625 [aX Kuo?.

626 ZV Lei?. 627 Li*.

x

394

List of the Phonetics. 44-13 strokes.

628 Li®. 629 liao.

Zp

iH

pits 649 T’ang?.

PI on ata

Fad

o>

a

650

Lu’, 633 Lué. 634

651 Tou!, 652 Ts’an1, 653 Ts'ao2. 654 Tsu2. 655

Ma?.

Ts'ui!.

Lien? 631 Lou?. 632

ES 635 ee Man’. 636 Man?. 637 Be Mo‘.

638 Nao, 639 Ni‘,

640 ae. Pi? 641

Zz

ImJ » Be

A

Piaot. 643

Ko

Shuai‘. bh 647

HKs

ou. Su.

648 Tai‘,4

690

AP.

2.

670 Chiiao?. 671 Chih4,

WR try

691 Jan?

BX

622 Kan?

672 673 674

676 eS Fan!, 677 Rik Fan?,

678 B24Hei!. 679 Hsi!. 680

663

BX crs Chéé. 666 Ch’éng!.

BE anv. 667

Kui4

ay

694 Lao?.

Be Lin? 697 A~

Mai®

698 ae Mang?® 4 699 DB P’éng* 700

681

4hf,

BiHsi‘, $i

693

xe P'n?.

Hsiang!.

683

ae

HB,

isi’.

RR Hsiang‘.

Ch’ang3. 664

692

p=]



682 = ly

=z

Erh4.

aes

RBZ Shang! 644 Shu?, 645 ieee

=e

. Ch’tieh?,

642 FI~

== eat

3% Ching’. k& Kut

656 Ts’ung!. 657 Ts'ung?. 658 Weit. 659 Yang‘. 660 Yen!, 661 in’.

Oe z Sh RE ES RS SE Aik On BK ei Bl

Bi 689 y Hui‘.

AX San‘.

BE: we

702 Shan‘.

703 ae Shun‘

We =

684 Hsien?, 685 Hsii!, 686

704 Wy Ssiil w 705 Tan! 706

ay

Hsan?.

va T’an?,

i

13

701

i

724 Ait. 128 Chan!. 723 Chi!, 724 Chiang!. 725

ie

ae 687 Hua?,

Chieh$, 726 Ch’ien!,

688

727 AI~

Chin‘.

395

List of the Phonetics. 13-46 strokes.

&

Ch'in?.

729 AK

747

728

Ching}. 730

ZE cn’. 731

fu Lo 748 BH Lut. 749 Min®. 750

Chat. 732

Hsiao?.

734 Huan?, 735 Hui’. 736

$i

ie

14

Wee a. Bane _ { EI

753 P’u’, 754 P’u’.

802° Kuang?. 803 Lei’. 804

Méng?.

Li‘.

751

Nung?. 752

Yu,

Hs 784

HE {169 ‘St Yung!

Nao’.

Fén!.

733

768

¢€

BE 3H Se Oe

594

+4 Wik

yu

805 Lieh4. 806 Lu’, 807 Li.

770 Chi?.

808

7171

809 Pao‘.

Mieh*.

ch’i?.

Hui‘.

J» 772 Chien. 173 Chien®,

737

774.

re

fe. 810 ooo

Piao!.

me

811 Shén?. 812 Shu!. 813 T't*.

Chin‘.

1’.

738

775

I’.

Chi‘.

739 s I. 740 Kan’. 74M

776 Erh’, Tid Hao?. 778 Hsien*. 719 Bsit'. 780

849 Tsan‘.

al Ee ee Bah Rt (EE ly s trisha abptatbetets K’én*.

ne BH

742 Kuo!” 743 Lei’. 744 Li‘.

745 Lien?.

eh ae

746 Lin?,

i \

814 Yang?.

Hsitan’.

jah Sh SR e| A g ¢g

781 Hsan!. 782 Huo. 783

OE DE RK HE Nt wk

815 Yaot, 816 Yu', 817 Yu‘.

16

12,

RA SR

822 Li'.

818 Ch'in'.

List of the Phonetics.

396

FE a6? “> Lait.

3 i

828

Li*.

HE

824 Lung?, ¥ 825 ~ P’in?. A 826 obbs T’éng?. 827 o>dv Yen‘.

2

Ch’an?,

20. &

Hsi!.

e

831

BH

Hsiang!.

823 Lu?.

852 Lan?. ==> 853 HBr Ling?.

829 Ch’ien!. By 837 830 a Chiao?.

852 Lan3.

822

an ;

17

Ho?.

Re Huai’. 821

416-20 strokes.

ood

Pel

Nang?.

Ch’a?.

339

HA 339

Hsien.

‘eH. Féng!.

833

855 Pat. 856

840

Lan?,

fa

Shn?.

Hsi!.

857 Tang’.

841

834

es Be

854

338

Shuang!. ee Kuan}. ET

835

Yao', 836 Ying!.

ae

ee Sc Bel EE Sr

858

842

Yen?.

Niebt, 843 Ts'uant,

eee,

PHONETIC

SERIES.

L means Lesson and refers to tne Etymological Lesson whose number is given. — S means Series and refers to the Phonetic Series whose number is added,

ordinarily

a Sub-Series.



The figures placed

behind

the romanised

sound, indicate the tone ot each character, as follows: 1. [ 4&8 shang-p'ing... 2. fF ZB hsia-p'ing... 3. _[ BE shang-shéng... 4. 3s BB ch’ti-shéng. — In order to facilitate the study, some important radical compounds were quoted, under the mention It is radical in. — The compounds in which the seeming Phonetic is an arbitrary abbreviation used by the scribes, are quoted under the mention

Abbrev. in; and the genuine character is placed on the right side ot the abridged form.

2

1

k’ao3.

eat

Longevity;

to

examine, S. 218 It is radical in

See Lesson 20. Chii. A small table, a stool.

See Lesson 9 B, Ya2. Swallow.

chii.

ya2. Swallow.

flesh,

meat

Gli of >gl

ya4, A kind of sheat fish.

p'ing2. To rely on.

= Ike

chiti. Rest, repose. L. 32 CG.

Sco Lesson 54 F. Chiu 4. Curve, winding.

Abbrev. in

To prick, to pierce. To

struggle.

ZL Be chit. To scoff,

cha. A thin wooden tablet, amissive. S 104.

Ol BR

chiu 4. To twist, to examine.

chi4.

Dearth,

to

hungry.

3

It is radical in k’ung3, A hole. L. 94 A.

aL

See Lesson 68. Ch’iao 3. Sob, the hiccups.

Abbrev. in

113. Ceremony, rite.

I ¥

chiu !. To twist.

SL,ipl ch’iu?. A dragon.

be

chiu 4. Ao awry pace. chiu 3. Bravery. ch’iu3. A dragon.

ju3, To suckle; milk. L. 94 B

nL ie

p'in 2. To entreat. S. 300.

4

ch’'iao 4. A turned-up nose.

K

yii2. To stretch .S, 38.

on

Itis radical in ch’u 4. Place.

chai.

hsii. To sigh.

bones.

ya 4. Fine dust; atoms.

cavate.

To sob; to cry, To

call. S. 122,

A small-table, a stool.

chi 4, The

ya 4. To crush, to grind.

wa5. A hollow, to dig, to ex-

hao4.

Bt

ch'iao 3. Skilful, canning.

y3

hsiu 3. Decayed, worn out.

Ie

hsiu3. Stomach-ache.

ch’iu 2. Trees whose branches droop.

RE SEE

ch’iu 2. Curve, bend.

Wr tite4. To receive, to gather, to harvest. eee

Phonetic

=g wl

k’ao 1. End bone of the spine.

chiao 4. Belly-ache.

Extremity.

chiao4. To call, to cry, to name, to cause ch’iao 4. A turned-up nose,

ehiaot.

jéng 2. Grass, hay. It is radical in

JA

ylin 4, Pregnancy,

By

ying 2. Full, abundance.

hsii3. Rising sun. It is radical in

kou 4. A hook,

hsiu4

chii 4. A phrase.

gant. S. 278,

SH a=

5

ya’

Acanthbus.

et

It is radical in

a2&

Series 5-9.

Prosperity, fine, ele-

home

nai3.

Breasts, milk,

suckle.

jan3. Te dye. L, 419 K.

to

8

Fu

y™

6

f3

See Lesson 23. Chie 2. Nine. chiui. To examine

See Lesson 18. into, to

scrutinise.

chiu 1. A chronic disease.

chiu1. The wood-pigeon.

st &Sb

ch'iu?.

Asurname.

an abbreviation

of

Used as

pai, Eight Division.

See Lesson 55 K. Han 3. To bud, to grow. fan 4. To rush against, to of -

pai. La-pa trumpet.

pai. To pull out, to eradicate,

asCc fend against, to violates

to strip.

fan 4, Water overflowing.

pai. A harrow, a rake.

ch’ou 2,

enmity. ch’iu 1. To-scoff.

To

pai.

fan 2. A vessol, a cup.

ch’iu’, Lock ofa cross-bow. ch’'iu 2, Dried meat.

fan3.

A transversal

bar

in

hsiao 3. Small.

we

a

ov

pi. Certainly.

9

See 8 GH & yu. To grow. 7

ch’iu’, A proper name.

See Lesson 56. pu3 po3. To divination.

has three edges. See Lesson 19,

divine,

p’u4. To strike.

kuei3. The axle of a wheel;

nal3. This, bere, precisely; but, then, thereupon; you, your.

the rut, a track, ao rule.

nai 3, Pain, sore,

kuei{. Tired, worn out.

dis-

SA35> >>

ch’iu®, A spear whose head

kuei3.,A snriog issuing from the side of a hill.

to

chieh 4. Limits, boundary.

[t is radical in

yung 3. To burst forth.

kuei 3. To march.

divide,

kung 1. Common, public, just.

ch’iu2, Fibrous, uncertain.

kueiS. Traitors, villains.

To

tinguish.

fan 4. A law, a role, a pattern.

han 2. To contain.

ch’iu 2. Cheeks.

to

front of the ancient carts.

ch’'iu2, A cold in the head.

ch’iu 2 A lance, a spear.

prostrate.

It is radical in

tan 4, Asurname.

féni.

ch’iu®. A kind of wijd plum.

fall

grovel.

p’o2, Celtis sineasis. Magnolia hypoleuca. tu 4. To go to, to reach.

nai 4. Incense tripod.

fu 4. To announce a death. j6ng 1. As before, yet still.

fu. To fall prostrate, to lie

jéngi. To throw, away.

down.

k'uei 2 Visage. Ge SSG Sse PRESS jéngq 2. Happiness. SS3 Bag

to throw

It is radical io

p’ui. To strike L, 43D.

Phonetic Series 10-44. a r chi 4. To divine. | wai4.

\>4

Outside, without; be-

“a

HE

chan (4, Divination.

ting 4. Alone, lonely, forlorn.

chéng 1. Steadfastness.

ting 3. Ear-wax.

chao 4, A presage. A willion.

ting4.

Plates

arranged

for

+ +

ting 4. A piece; to patch.

10

See Lesson 43. chang4. A measure

5

Chinese

A

( ten

term

of

chang 4. Weapons; to fight.

AL chang4.

ting 41. Jingling noise.

A staff, a stick; to

heat.

ting 4. Furuncle.

Shih 2. Ten.

14

District in Ssii-

ch’uan.

ting 3. Embankment, dike.

chih 4. Juice, liquor.

ving 1. Low level beach.

It is radical in

Ving 3. Raised path in field.

shih 2 Afile of ten soldiers; ten.

To count, to calculate,

to plan.

hsieh 2. Union,

harmony;

to cooperate; a regiment.

+7844 Abbrev. in

See Lesson 84

Ving 1. A post.

shih 4. A scholar, an officer.

chi4.

feet).

respect. A

ting 3. Stone anchor.

See Lesson 24. A

13

show. ting 1. Dragon-fly.

shih2.

GN chvatt. Atair pin.

tiog1. Drunk.

ms.

Of Or or

my ch’ai. A quiver.

ting 1. To enjoin; strict order.

yond, foreign; toexclude, _ | kua4. The divinatory diagrag

ting 1. A nail. tiog 4. To najl.

\

Ving2.

Very,

extreme.

co at

chi8. One’s self. A cyclical character.

chi 4. To note down ; hisfory; to remember chi4. Coarse,

t'ing 2. A pavilion. S, 479.

#E

ch’éng?2. Perfect, to accom-

ch

plish. S. 179.

cs

chi4.

It is radical in ta3. To strike, to beat; doing in general,

+4

abstain from.

SBed ass aS +HaReR

order;

to

regulate.

chi 3. A place in Honan,

BR

chit.

*

To fear,

to avoid,

to

To kneel long, awe-

strack.

4 chén4. A needle, a pin.

$+

rey ch'i3. A succorye

12 441

Ae

See Lesson 45 H. See Lesson 57.

ting1.

A cyclical character;

an adults to mourn; a nail.

ting 3. The vertex, crown of the head; to push against.

ting 3. The vertex.

sah fo=4

ting 4. To decide.

tz ch’ 3. To rise, to begin. td

G

ch’i3. A willow. ch'i8.

A_

stone

ch’a i, Afork; to pick up; to fold the hands,

hi, ch’i8. A bare hill

ch’a 4. A fork; to pitch out.

(

ch’a1. A piece. To patch. ch’ai1. To twist, together.

WS

ch’a 4. Fork of a stream.

ornament,

hung atthe girdle

It is radical io

feil. Woman. concubine. Hence pel4. A mate, marriage.

ty, p’ei 8. Ruined, falien. Compare Lesson 85.

Imperial to

pair,

Phonetic Series 15-20.

16

HAD

eh’uan3. irrigating canals.

=

a:

15

S

iil eh’uan 4, Bracelet.

See Lesson 24 D,

ch’ien 1. Thousand. See Lesson 98. eh’i 3, To implore, to beg. eh’i4.

To

reach

to;

till;

ch’'{ 3. Te fiwish, ended, done, up to.

eh’l. To eat. It is used as an abbreviation fur ch’th 7. ch’i 4, A solar halo.

BE Nt Ot at ek CY i

(ch’uan?.

To go on acir-

ch’iew 1. To graft into.

Ell usin. Tame, docile.

ch’ien 1. To advance, to be promoted,

AR SRR AH ft

ch’fen 1, Luxuriaat foliage. Kt is radical in

nfeu 2. Tho year, the crops.

ch’i 1. Barbarians.

iM 2”

vs

eh’ien 1. A road.

ch’i4. To weep.

ch’uan 4,A jade ring.

ch’fena 1, Chiliad.

ch’ien 1. A kind of fir abies leptolepsis.

finally ; at last,

FI]

cuit, to patrol.

Ail hsiin2 Silk hands; law. It is radical in

Mi al

shun 4. To follow, docile, fair.

to obey;

hsiin 4. To instruct to exhort

to teach,

Ay

chou. S. 187.

xe

Fields out of water.

chiug 1. Water veins. S. 262.

19

17

A,

i3. Strong, tall.

FM

i4. High grand.

peak;

imposing,

See Lesson 21.

See Lesson 81 A.

ho 4, To bite, lo gnaw.

chiu 8. Ancient, long since.

ho 1. Braia; oat-mea!.

chiu 3. Smoky quartz; nine. chiu 4, Poor, sick.

ko 1. To jolt, to shake.

chiu 8. Moxa, to caulerise.

,

We We

#

chiu 4. Chronic disease. disgust,

Ko 3. To rub.

ko 1. Arm,

chiu 4 corpse.

Coffin

Tis perhaps found in

=SS

s eG RE ko 1.A boil, sore.

fan 4. To overflow ; immense; vague; changing,

fan 2. A large tree.

Brahmanism.

The

wind. Usage.

custom.

A

mu 8. The Chinese acre. we

fang 4. The pheenix. It is radical in p’ei4. Pendent, the girdle.

Au

See Lesson 49 BE.

Ni «

Brahma,

féogi.

See Lesson 117 D, for

ot &

fan 1. Sail ot a boat.

AL p’éng 2. Luxuriant, bushy.

my

ko 1. Arm.

common,

containing a

S SPAS

ko 1.Flaw, speck.

kan 1. Dry, clean.

whatever ver, vulgar.

Sanscrit.

yus. Name of a place.

ko 1. A knot, a button.

ch’jem 2. Heaven.

fan 2. All, generality; whoe-

fau4.

ko. A flea.

ko 4. Displeasure, angry at.

KL

to hang on

20

See Lesson 11 B. | ch’uan 1. Stream. To flow.

Fl

hsiin 4. To fly, to soar.

Phonetic A A ww

hsiind. Speedily. hsiin 4. quick. hsiin4.

Speedy,

FF

sudden,

HT

To

interrogate, to examine jadicially, to chide. Tt is radical in

me Louse.

al iY

post.

A~ military

Formerly

Mosquitoes,

21

W 7)

ii a it it i nF

401

Series 21-24

kan 8. To open the eyes.

B

han 4, Dry, 8. 213.

kan 4. Shin-bone, hsiian f. A cart. A broken op road.

kaw 1. To concern.

Abbrev, in kan 4. To smooth. Kani.

A stick, a

chien1. Deceitfal, villainous, corrupted,

post, a

flag-staff ; railings.

It is radical in

sy

kan 1, The liver.

it

Chieh2, cretion.

f

kan 3. Culm of grain, straw

23

Ff Kan 1. Common jade.

at

See Lesson 52 B.

To divulge; indis-

kan 4. Sunset, dusk, kan 4. Blaek spots.

kan 3. To pursue. When,

See Lesson 72 A.

I fe4. Weapon, edge.

A

47]

kan 1 The magpie. k’ou 8. opening.

kan I. Staff, cane.

jén 4. Eight feet measure.

a

HV

jén 4. To speak with reserve.

=

jéo 4. To thread a needle.

k’au }. To carve,

to cut, to

engrave. k’an 4. A feast.

jéo 4. Bit, curb, rein. nan 4. Rank, shore, cliff.

jén 4. Pliant, soft.

mouth,

k’ou 4, To strike,

an

to knock.

To deduci.

i

k’ou3. mule.

Draught-horse

£1

k’ou 4. A knot.

or

€i] k’ou4, A button, Ay) k’ou 4. To knock, to tap.

jén 4. Pliant, soft.

han 4. Perspication, sweat.

jém 4. Strong. firm. jén3,

The

Radical 36.

han 4. To solder metals.

24

To bear patiently, to

endure, patience.

han. Wild dog.

jéa 4. To recognise, to know, to confess.

han 4. The tapir,

YRNeeees It is radical in

x L

han 41. To snore.

liang 2. Wound. Honce

han 1. To fend off, to protect. liang 2. Ridge pole, beam.

See Lesson 82.

HS

han 4. A rock; a mineral,

liang 2. Sorghum.

TS RARH BRR

+ ¥

han 4. Freckles.

22

kung i. Work, labour, time aly

BL

han 2. A proper name.

han4.

See Lesson 102 A.

Village gate; walled

kung 4, To assault, to atteck, kung i.

han 4. Bald. Slow, apathetic. han 4. To flee in confosion.

of work.

Merit,

meritorious

work.

fl.

kung 1. Large skate.

Rl

kung 4. To fly till

village.

F

kani.

offend.

Ashield.

A stem.

To

AS EN

han 3. Rare, scarce.

A

kung 4. Tribute, taxes.

S

Phonetic ’ungi. S. 372.

Empty,

Series 24-28.

vacant.

#]

25

wh

ch’iung 2. Name ofa place,

hung 2. Rain- bow.

See Lesson 80.

hung 1. Din, cries.

hung4. Words. of order and peace.

shan 4. Mountain, wall.

destructive

shan 4. To vilify, 10 slender.

hung 4. To warm, to dry.

shao2, Spoon.

Ry

shao 1. To burn, to shine.

ay

shao 2. Peony.

my RY) By

chao 1, To pour out, To consider, to deliberate.

chao 4, A go-hetween.

tiao 4. To hook, to fish.

shan 4. Port of Swatow.

huog 2. Red. hung2 Mercury, quicksilver.

#j tiao 3. To lead, to seize.

SEE

shan 4. Hernia.

SHR RAR S

hung 2. Swan; vast.

hsien1,

Genii,

fairies, im-

mortals. hsien 4. Kind ot rice.

kang 1. A porter’s pole. kang!.

tiao 4. A proper name. tiao1. The sable,

hanging down.

Radical 46.

Prolapse

of

yao4. A sacriliceto the ances-

26

tors.

yao 4. Tobind.

the

Wy

rectum, kang4. A frame to bear a coffin; a handbarrow.

YY

See Lesson 62.

At OH Pe

k’ang2. To carry ders, to raise.

shan 1. Feathers, long hair,

on shuul-

shan4.Afir, a pole,

5

pao 4. Leopard, panther.

is] pao 4. To jump.

3

tii. To gather,

shan 4, Drizzling rain.

a

tid. Bridle, reins.

Ey

ti4. Speckled horse.

It is radical in

chiang 1. A stone foot bridge.

yao 4. Medicine.

shan 4. Bill-hook; to cute

chiang. A stream,

chiang 1. To raise.

#

pao 2. Shooling star.

shan 1.A skirt or shift. kind of long

A treatise, a

convention. To weigh. About.

fy

_

A_

tiao 38.Pain, care,

tiao3. The ripe ear of grain

hsien 1. Rice.

kang 1. The rectum, the anus.

chiang’. bean.

BU

Ze

A jar.

kang 1.Ajar.

kang 1.

9 =]

chén 3, Bushy hair. S. 406.

BW WReeBew

Py tid. Twinkling.

heii 4, Beard,

hslang 4, The neck. Kind, sort. Sum, revenue,

Radical 59,

fy

28

27

It is radical in

a

shih 4. To imitate. §, 286, (803. The eft; second to. wu. A witch, magic,

ya4. Ugly. S. 414, py FA At Bh BO

A]

See Lesson 85 A,

See Lesson 54 H. shao2. Spoon,

ti4. Target, mark. A suffix.

B

ssit 4, Cyclical character

403

Phonetic Series 28-33. ssp 4. To sacrifice. ssu4.

A

river

city in

and

Honan.

i2. The chine Hence

i

= An uw

To spil out, to vomit,

Uu3.A rush, cyperus leqeli= formis. ch’ai2. A wolf.

t'u3. To goon foot. A disciple,

Tem-

fsal 4. To be, to exist, to be

hsi4, Splendor.

present, at, in.

ts’un2.

pao 1. To wrap up, ta contain,

To

he, t9 preserve,

tu 8. The cuckoo. tus.

The memory.

conservatione It is radical in

gestation, S. 145.

belly;

inwards ;

HE ait Bas to obstruct.

tu 4. A wild pear-tree; to stop,

29

pid. To close, to shule

31

It is radical in

Shé4. The local Genius ; its mound and sacrifice; acommunity.

v

kuai 4. To till the ground,

See Lesson 83 8B. See Lesson 45 B. 1’o 4. To lean on, to trust.

t’o1.

apprentice.

an

porary banishment.

———

——_

Tt is radical in

(a

ts’ai 2. Tu wound. S. 241.

To commission,

ch’én 2. Dust; mundanity.

Radical 38.

ts’un 4. An inch.

to en-

trust ; to feign, to allege.

ts’un 1. A village.

’o 2. To support;

ts’un 8. To consider, to conjec -

to excuse

one’s self, to feign, to trust.

ture,

t’o2. Paste. Cakes.

{s’un 4. To cut.

atch A mR

33

to surmise, to calculate.

t’o 2. Cakes of wheat flour.

AG

Ttis radical in

to 1. Paunch, belly.

See Lesson 94 A

tu 4, To give. S. 120.

t'o2, A mule.

(zu3,

A son; a seed ;a tea-

cher ;-suffix ; a cyclical

shou 8, To keep. S. 287.

chara—-

cter.

t'o 2. To undress.

at

——

ace



po 4. A city in Honan.

(62, To get. 397.

tzii 1. Zeal, care.

t'ao 8. To repress, to punish,

tzti i. Twins, two ofa sort.

to provoke,

nal 4) To suffer, to he patient.

ct

chou 3 The elbow. Hence

30

choa4.

Crapper

chou 4. sacrifices,

Spirils

used

for

See Lesson 96.

(zi 4. A character, a name.

(ziti 4. Female.

ed

ts’al 2, Materials, stuff. pro-

It is radieal io

k’ung 8. A hole.

See Lesson 81 A.

perty, valuables, goods. tus.

(s’ai2. A small tripod.

plants.

32

1s’ai9, Talent, ability.

Ss Ab =

tzi2 3. To hoe up earth wround {zit 3. To earth up.

Radical 41,

Riches, wealth,

Tuo care about; solli-

(zu 3. Seeds of cereals.

of hariess

An infamous king.

ts’ai2.

tzii3. citude,

chai 2. Family dwelling.

dust.

Earth,

ground,

fu 2 To swim, soil,

Bt RAS ae Qayw

fu 2. To brood.

404

Phonetic Series 34-37.

113. A plum-tiee.

chi 4. Cadet, last ; season.

th Al 4

ch’uanil.

Many

children,

mang 2. Vital centre.

wu 4, Disquiet.

mang 2, The top, the edge.

wu 4, To sway.

mang 2. Mosquitoes.

wu 4. Gravel.

poverty.

Radical 39.

mang 2. A place in Hunan. mang 2. People.

34

yiieh 4 A yoke.

37

mang 2. Country people.

uw,

mang 2. Ox-fly. See Lesson 59 E.

wu 4. Mountaio.

BL

mang 2. Busy, hurried.

wan 2. Pill, ball.

SSeS

Pea Hat St ao AE

mang 2. Soda.

See, Lesson 107 B, the note about mang 2. Inundation ; sudden ;

wan 2. White silk,

this confused Series.

Vast.

wan 3, Sprain, luxation,

ft Tt

and vague, chaos.

if +

mang 2 A_ beard of grain, a

mang 2. High waters;

vast

wan 2, Tears. wan 2. Kind ot rush.

sharp point, a ray. Hence

shihi. To give, to confer; to

chai3. Oblique, inclining.

TC

mang 2. Soda.

Te &

many

2. Stir, emotivn,

do, action in general,

shih 3. To unstring, to relax.

a,

It is radical in

ch’ih 2. Pool, tank, vessel.

ch’'ih2. To pass quickly, fast. 4

| kal 4. To beg, mendicant,

7E cha 4. At first, sudden. So 102.

ae

sangl.

To die, to mourn,

ch’th 3. A hill-side, a bank; to crumble away.

12. A washing-basin, vessel.

funeral.

Sie wu 2. Negation, S, 148. See Lesson 10E

chieh 8. Mother, female.

maug 2. Ege, sharp.

SSa aA ee

DW

Also, besides, still; a

final particle. hsieh 3, Flame.

It is derived by inversion, from

35

yeh3,

§2. Bolt, barred.

oe

12. To draw, to remove.

wang ?. To die, to cease wu

ios C

36

2. Not, without.

Ia

wang 2 To forget.

wang4. wrongly. wangt

Error; _ falsely, To look towards, to

go to, to advance;

to

turn aside, tv be wrong. 12. To reward, to promote; grades, steps.

42 Liquor, sweet wine. 12. Arrogant, overbearing.

hope ; the full moou.

See Lesson 29 K.

11, Contemptuous.

wang 3. No, not. §, 408. 18

Mt MS ce MF mang2.Biinp.

12.To

AL

wu 4. A stool, wit 4, Stumpofa tree; astool,

€&RZERBHR &SEFE FHF FS tit. The earth, the ground, a placee

405

Phonetic Series 38-44.

%

ti4. False or unbound hair.

ft, Ai

ttoi.

He, she, that, another.

t’o 1. To split. A coffin.

Compare the Series 126 and 465.

ey

B #5 55 a]

hsit3.

A cap or bonnet used

chi2. Threads, steps, grades,

for sacrifices.

chi 2. Steps, degrees. wu. A trowel, to roughcast. chi. To hasten. wu 4. A trowel. chi 2. A robe.

wu fe To plaster.

ehfi2, The name of the grand-

wu 14. Mud, dirt, foal, obscene, to defile, perverse.

son of Confucius. chii. To draw water from a

wut,

well; to emulate.

To

shoot

an

arrow;

whizzing.

chi 4. Salep.

it is radical in

ai

k'ua. To boast. S. 221.

chi2. A box, a satchel.

p’fug 2. Even, level, tranquil. S. 154. yiieh 4. To examine. Canton.

chi 4, A lofty peak; dangerous. chi?. Emotion. L, 19 D.

Initial particle. See Lesson 58 E.

Fa

k’uei1.

yu2. In, tu, at, through, as

To harm, to injure;

chieh 2. A pack-saddle.

defect. L. 135 F.

-F- |to. To go.

+5

+F

hsi1. To breathe, to inhale.

yii4, To designate; to

hold,

to seize.

IN

yaa 1. To go far, aberration,

hsi 4. To snivel.

sa 3. To inlay, to incrust.

See Lesson 49.

perversion.

yit2. A basin, a tub. yii2. Dike, bund.

yii2. A place in Honan,

chao 4. A bamboo skimmer.

oN

chao 3. A turban.

ER

SAA =

chua4.,To scratch, to tear, to

yii 3. Heaven, space; lemple, a

seize.

ts’ai3. To pluck. S, 402

yi 2. The taro, colocasia.

tiieh 4. To stretch, to draw

yi 2. A reed organ of 36 tubes, yit2. To pray for rain. S. 662.

A

basin,

th

sai. Slippers.

sai. To run.

ch‘a2. To receive, to bow, ta

promote.

41

It is radical in

vault; the empire.

yu2. cup.

sa 4. To drag along.

chao3. A claw.

yii1. A tie, to bind.

a_

large

out. S. 292, chéng 1. To wrangle, to con-

Ad

test. S. 324.

4A KB

show 4. To receive. S. 392.

Compare the Series 133.

40

Sce Lesson 127 B.

ch’iapg 2. Wood; a bed. ch’iang 1. A spear, to wound.

hsii 1. To sigh; an exclamation,

ch’lang?.

alas.

chop.

An ax; to back, to

hsii i. Vain boasting.

chuang 4. Form, appearance; hsii 1. Rising sun, wide.

RAR HHA HEB

hsii 3, Eyes wide open,

See Lesson 19 D.

chi 2. To reach to, till.

to declare; an accusation.

So SM

chuang 1. To adorn, to rouge, to feign.

406

Phonetic

At

chuang 4. Strong. S. 265.

WK

ch'uang2. A bed, a sofa, See SS, 599 and 792.

ow

chieh 4, To steal.

+4yJ

Hi) i)

ch’i, To lay bricks ; to build. ch'i 1. To infuse,

42

44

of See Lesson 48 F.

tit Ri

prop ;to pay, to receive,

chih 1. The limbs. chih 1. A branch, a twig.

chien 4.

To- owe;

chih 1. Aversion.

deficit,

debt, doty.

ch’ih 4, A wing; a fin.

ch'ien1, The flank.

Facings on uniform.

elien4. BY

chih 1. A branch, a twig; to

See Lesson 99.

chieh §.A lizard.

shy chieh4.

See Lesson 43 C.

Ie oth

chieh 4. To intermeddle; un alitile ; armour, scales.

By

Series 42-46.

A

water

plant,

chi4. A waler-caltrop,

euryale feroa.

chieh 4. Hard, rocky. chieh 4. Good, virtuous.

echi8, Warehouse ; to keep.

hsien 1, A shovel. hsien 1. To take pleasure in ;

chieh 4. The sole.

trapa

ineisa.

chi 4. A eourtesan.

to enjoy.

rm SAS MS

Biff chieh 4, To gnash,

FP chieh 4. A small jade tablet. Br

chieh 4. A young ox.

+

Bt

chieh 4. Jealous, envious.

aN

5i

chi 4, Talent, cleverness.

hsien 1. To lift up; to open ;

10 turn over.

+

k’an3

chi 4. Dexterous, skilfut.

k’an 8. To cut, to chop.

chieh 4. To walk in a staggering way.

k’an 3, Reserve, moilesty.

chieh 4. A boundary ; limits ;

k'an 3. A pit, a snare.

the World.

Ht is ravlical in

Ur chieh 4, To live alone.

chi4. Sboe.

Tw strike, to knock,

chal 1,

To blow

upon; to

ch'i 2. A mountain in Shensi.

SEAR MSE Rese KER HOS

ch'l?. To stand on tiptoe.

BY

ch'i 2. Bifurcation.

te

ehig. A spider.

chide.

ir

chieh 4, Theitch; an itching.

+

chieh4.

AN

stnapis.

The mustard

plant,

ch'ul 4. To cook.

225 $8

ch'ui. Toplay the ttute.

43

hsien 4, Spittle, saliva; covetuusness.

w

hhsien a. To like, to covet; to

koi3.

Be xl

+

ch’l 1, Seven.

yy

éh’leh1, important,

To cut. Eagerly

k'ul 1, Worn out

46

ok

tao 4. To rob, robber.

(sti 4. Succession, S. 944.

SF Sut

kK'uan38. To long for, to like. Business, A sum,

amount.

Sacrifice to the,

kuil. A*2p; aStrap,

exceed, surplus, remaining.

See Lesson 83

A

mountains,

See Lesson 112,

ik

chih8.

To halt,

from ; only.

to

cease

Phonetic

zit chih3. A smail islet, a bank,

A».

ech’in 3.

B=

clothes.

Series 46-49. A

coverlet,

bed-

hsin 4. Joy, to rejoice.

chih 8. Base, foundation,

chih 3. Building; -dwelling; address.

iB am

ch’ien1. Brown,

GA ch'tens. A plough.

hain 4. New, fresh, recently;

ehih 3, Happiness.

fael.

Fp

chih 8. A small table. chihB. The feet ; to stop.

ching 1. Pity, compassion.

A

fragrant plant, ch’én 1. A Jone peak, lofty.

Iris florentina.

TS.

el

han2.

ch’id.

On

tiptee;

Ax

To covet, to long for,

Ax»

greedy. nien4.

To reflect, to read, to

4”

study, S.385,

ayy

desire ;

To hold inthe mouth.

S. 278. Vani.

ch’é3. To drag, to pull apart It is radical in

263. Ht is radical in

eh'ih& Shame, to he ashamed, to make ashamed.

es

ts’ 3. To stop. S. 248.

hex yini1.

shatowy

side;

principle;

dark,

death.

a measure.

47

a &

Ter.

r= a

yin 4. Sheller, to protect.

Imperial

A sacrificial-vase ; of-

feriag.

ch’i 2, Tall, erect.

It is radical in

hsi1. To split, S. 367. chiang 4. Artisan

49

C

chin 1. Now, the presenttime. of a brother uf

border,

48

See Lesson 14 K.

chip 4. Wife

A

shé 2. To break apart.

yin 4. To overshadow, to shel-

chéng 4. To attain. S. 107.

ch't3 lands. ch’l2

ch’l. A flag, a haoner.

The

oe female

pu 4. A step, to walk; a pace;

ch’i2. To pray.

ch’j 2. A mantis,

touging for.

E> EE We FH

en)

13. A river io Shantung.

i> yin 2. To hum, to moan.

rteERPREE chihs.

hstn 4. Joyous look,

See Lesson 128,

Ve chin 1. Catty ; hatchet.

TK

my mother, ete.

chiy 1. Lapel, opening cf cogt. ¢chio 1. A sash, a string.

8

chin3. Near in time or place, intimate.

4

chin 4. Martingal.

Ir

ch’in 2. Celery.

ch’in., A pit, a well. ch’lIme Ardour.

ch‘in 2. To seize, to hold. ch’in2.

The

OS RSE MO YD OB vt viscidula.

7

Ny

hsin1. Joy, delight.

OT

hsin 1. Great heat.

a

hsin 1. Morn, dawn.

ching 3. A well; a rood of land measuring 900 mu.

ching 8. A pit, a trap. ching 3.A hole,

Chinese tute,

organ.

ch’in.

See Lesson 135 A.

oi chin 1. To chop, to chip.

A drug, scutellaria

ch'in 2 A proper name.

ching 1. To plough, to culti-

ar hsin 41. To rejoice.

vate,

ching1. Judas tree, Cercis sinensis ; thorns, brambles.

408

Phonetic

ie 50

iy

Dn HR *

Series 50-54,

tiem 4. A grand hall.

chiieh 2,

{4. Arunner, a satellite. itis

decite, ahsolutely.

To

settle,

to

phonetic contracted in { 4, Epidemic, pestilence.

chiieh 2. Magic formulae. chiieh 2, To hasten,

52

chiieh 2. To be dissatisfied.

ch’ou 3. A cyclical character from 1 to 3 o'clock A.M.

chiieh?. An archer’s ring. ehiteh 2. A shrike,

chiieh?.

niu 3. To twist, to wring. See Lesson 109 A.

niu. A button.

Iveclined

plant,

Cassia

A want,

a de-

chung 1. Middle, within.

chung 4. To hit, to be hit.

niu 3. A knot. niu3.

A

tora.

to

evil;

obduracy. nlu 8. Reftactory;

stubborn.

chung 1. Loyal, devoted.

ao Cbchung JTL

chung 1.

A bushy tree, Ligustrum sinense. It is radical in

loyalty

yp {

ech'ungl.

k’uai 4. A race-horse.

k'uai 4. Pleasure;

cheerful;

quick, sharp.

k’uai4. Chopsticks.

chung 4. Second.

niu 3. To dry. niu3.

Siucerity,

devoledness.

niu 1. Nose-bleed.

BRE

i. A cup, a goblet

ch’tieh1.

ficiency, a vacancy.

Tou dasb against,

lo rush at.

kuei 4. A proper name. mi. The sleeve of a robe.

hsiu 1. Viaods ; an offering; to feel ashamed, to blnsh,

Fth ch’ung 1, Delicate.

Bh Be me

hsiu 1. Sweets.

54

ch’ung 1. To fly up.

hstu 1. Delicacies.

hh

ch’ung. Sorrow, care. It is radical in yung 4. To use, See L.109 B.

RB

ch’uan4.

To

string,

huan 4, Affliction.

53

ch’u 1, Weapon, spear.

fan 4. Great flood,

immense,

vague, waste.

t’ou 8. To throw at ; to agree s to have recourse to ; to deliver.

chan 8. Twinkling.

Vou & To distil.

See Lesson 43 0.

It is radical in,

Ku 3, The upper part of the

a

fa. Weary, fatigued. fa 2. Handsome, elegant,

ch’u 1. Arm, stick, spear.

=Ke

fa2. Weary, tired. exhausted,

Phonetic in

See Lesson 22 D.

x= Ke

See Lesson 112 K.

Compare L. 153 B,

thigh ; a share,

shé 4. To arrange, to set up.

# $f

chiieh 3. To decide, to settle

pien 3. To dimimsh, to belittle, to censure. pien1. Acupuncture flint needle.

with a

certainly, etc.

Pien 4. To put a coffia into

chiieh 2. To dig.

the grave.

It has nothing in common with

Phonetic

ce Za

chih{. Mark of the genitive; an expletive ; to go. chih 1. Sesamum.

55

Wy Bi 5 Wij 4-

409

Series 55-58.

fang1.

Fragrant,

virtue,

fang2. Ritual,

A house; an office.

fei4.

fang 3. To be like, similar, as. fang.

To hinder, An

oppose,

ya

R [

fan 3. To turn back, contrary, opposite, to rebel. fan 3. A hill-side, a slope.

fan3.

A

embankment, tu

152 WK

fan 4. A plain, a field. fan 4. To buy in order to sell,

Bh

to trade, to deal

A

as.

Bi

fang 3. To spin, to reel.

fang3.

in.

fan 4. To faint.

pans. A board a plank, a flautened bamnoo for Heating.

pan 3, A hoard, a diploma. pan 3. Great, wide.

Name

of a river

in

It is radical in pot. Procreation. S, 304.

To be like, similar,

so4.

A cord, S. 565.

nang.

The South.

S. 468.

fang3. Toexamine, tosearch fangi.

Hi

To regret, to repent.

By

preia.

p’ei2. Rain falling.

Akind

tzi. To fettere S. 86.

of wood,

a

It is unconnected with.

plank.

fan 3. To return, to revert to.

A hanner.

83s Sx

oul, to enquire about.

fan4,

ui We

i

Boiled grain, food in

%

lungs.

pei4

A district, a ward;

a store, a workhouse.

bank, a mountain

genera), to eat.

ia

fangt.

side.

fan 4.

The

Kiangsu.

protect from, to avoid.

J

Bushy, to overshadow,

the women.

fang?.

See Lesson 43 EB.

feid.

glory. Ritual, your.

shih4.

fang 1. Fat, grease.

Ah WL

L, 34D.

tt Ast HH

fu4. An apron. L. 36 B.

fang2.

A bream.

fang 3.

Resembling;

58

iniis-

tinct.

Wi Hi Bi Wh

A market.

fang3.

Ay IK

Bright, cleare

fang 3. A pontoon. fangi. Abell; a kettles a coin. fang 2. To mould clay, as 4 potter.

fangi.

A proper name.

fang 4. To put,

to depose,

See Lesson 18 B.

>

féwi.

To

divide, to distin-

guish, to discern; the tenth of a foot, of an acre;

the hun-

dredth of a ounce; a minute.

lo let go, to issue, to set free.

fém4.

SS, 638 and 766.

dition, duty.

A part, a

lot, con-

yt

p’an 3. To rebel.

8. To imitate, to copy; ie loss

féni.

Fragrant.

A kind of wood burnt

p’ani. To grasp,

Vi

fén2.

Hy

AK

p’an4, To squint.

a model,

p’ang®2.

Limits

of

space;

a

Ji

fang1. A place, a region; square, apt, regular, easy; a rule, a means $ a comparison;

then.

if See Lesson 79

Th

Vapour, miasma,

in-

flux.

57

117 A.

in the roof of

a house.

fén4.

56

See Lesson

for perfame. fén41. Beams

A.

feild. To grow, to multiply.

fénio Mist, fog.

Se Sr So t

féo 4. Anger, hatred.

1én1.To

fly up.

fén 4. Dust;

SPs fan4.

dike.

A part, a share, lot,

function, duty.

410

Phonetic Series 58-62.

féu4

Entangled, confusion,

p’an 4, To gaze at, to long

multitude,

féni.

for; to expect.

A

napkia,

a hand-

kerchief. fém 1. To command, to give orders,

1én2.

Name

of a

river in

fe SF

It is radical in Branching,

ch'a4.

cross—road.

fén3.

Flour,

1H

ny dD

flowered

See Lesson 60 J.

silk. fén 3. Akind of mole, scaptochirus moschatus.

fui. A husband, a man, mas~

See Lesson 107 A.

ter. Fu-jén dame.

féa4. Dust; dike.

Fs

fu. An initial particle, a de-

sini.

tnonstrative, etc.

fections; centre. S|

fu2. The Hibiscus mutabilis.

ch’in 4. To sound, to fathom.

aide Hair falling off; fea-

thers moulting. p’éo1.

Perfume:

p’én2. A basin. Hence p’én2. To boil.

p’én2. Raspberry.

pin?. Shensi.

ofa place in

Name

1K BK BK K

ch'in 4. To belch, to vomit.

fu 2. To spread out. fu2.

A

butterfly,

To sit cross-legged;

ful. Anaxe.

BR

fu 1, Lapel, overall’

p’in 2. Poor, poverty.

&

shén 8, Fear, timidily.

=

ch’ih3,

ae

jui8. The heart ot Nowers.

Shame,

te

make

ashamed of.

62

fu, A storm, a tornado. Very vulgar, bad.

fui.

Shensi.

lo

how

fu 1. Wheat bran,

of a place in

copper

It is radical in

ful.

EK

Fa

Nawe

a

cash.

BREBBRESES RESTS >EB RPBSS pin1,

The heart, mind, af-

fu2. To aphold, to assist, to

{én 2. A ram.

féu1,

pué. Cloth. L, $5 C.

61

powder, plaster.

fénmi, Solar rays.

fu3. A caldron.

359

flowing robes.

1én 3, Embroileries,

fué. An axe,

I, the sovereign.

A kind of elm.

fén 4. Long

fork,

kua 3. Alone; a widow; few;

Shansi.

fén2.

te

Pe =

common

wy Ww

jade;

tik fu i. A reddish stone. It is radical in

hsin 4. To anoint with blood; a quarrel, a feud. pan4,

To dress up, to dis-

it

14, Toatternate, substitution, instead of. nien3. The imperial chariot dragged by men.

guisc. pan®.

60 To pay, tribute.

aa

pani. To extend, to promulgate, to bestow.

x]

hsiungi.

Unlucky,

unfor-

tunate, sad, cruel.

hsiung1. savage.

Violent,

cruel,

hsiung 1. The breast. haiung 1. The breast.

pan’ Wild pigeon.

res Ry

See Lesson 38 D.

Kis radical in

See Lesson 48 C.

pan 4, To divide, to share. OL

fu 4. Father.

2B 2% Compare thé SS, 206 and 483. hsii 4. Drunkeaness,

Phonetic Gy

4A

Series 63-68.

bit

02, Tu scrape, to eut.

[e] yu.

To inveigle, to decoy.

65

VA

See Lesson 199 A.

hu 4. Door or window; dwelling. family.

hu &A

handkerchief.

BL

See |.esson 85 B.

v : e Vy (n To use, with, in order to;

hu4.A quail.

according;

hu 4. To bale out water.

fl oO Ba S

tu A. Jealous, envious.

so3. A place, a building, that which, who, what.

wh

§§.

prefix connota-

WY

ssii4.

WW

Name

of a plant,

cotr

lachryma.

Like,

similar

to, to

seem,

ssii4. An elder brother’s wile.

ftis radical in

66

shan 4. Leaves, folils. S. 559.

Mil = pien3.

a

= ae

A tablet. S. 473.

Fe

114. To slip iv. S. 875.

iz

nai4. o 4. Distress. S. 15.

See Lessun 82 C.

jém2.

64

4t fk See Lesson 80 D.

dissination;

Goods,

i

fén®. Pregnancy.

@t

jéu 3. To cook.

AE

jén4 Cooked, ripe.

#t-

jén4, The breast

character;

to

k’ang 4. A flerce day.

k‘ang 4. A companion. k'ang4

A shock, a clash.

k’ang 4. The divan of a guest-

Ba

k'ang 4. Portico, vast

At AL Wn

Tu 5

chamber,

spend;

Mi At

hang 3. Mist, fog.

hang®. Tracks, ruts,

hang 2. Musicians

ang t. Dirty, filthy

kéngi. Rice which glutinous.

k’éog 1 Ht entrap. rt k’'éng 1.A pit, a trap, to ruin.

jén 4. Tu weave.

> tb 68



[\

See Lesson 18C.

B

k‘ang 4. Violent.

kung 1. Commou, public, official; usual, just; male; dukes sir.

See Lessun 61 E.

Tt

is not

A pit, a pond, to

ofx cuit,

67

02, Fo move. 02. Mistake, error; to excite,

hang 3. The throat

hang 1. Bamboo poles.

4uL

a

hang 2. To navigate, tu cross:

PS.

follow; any. S. 245.

hsiieh 1. Boots.

A boat; to cross

stream.

hang 2. To fly down.

Af: jén4. Ancimploy, an «fice; to < bear, to tolerate; confidence; to

merchaudise;

hang2.

mH

Ait

buttoned under the right arm,

ae

to deal,

alt to harm,

cyclical

great; had.

presbyopy. huo4.

A

£

transfor-

mation, to convert. hua 1. Flower, flowery; smallpox;

k’ang 8. Disappointment,

iE

pro

hua 4. To change,

k'ang 4. To oppose, tu resist.

ting a relation.

hud. A suite. S. 616.

S

ti bi Hic ff

k’ang 4. A brick bed warmec hy a fire

ty

kung 1. Centipede.

412 fi

Phonetic

Series

68-73.

kung 1. Scate.

70

aE id

72

sung 4. To praise, to celebrate, a sacrificial ode.

sung 4. To accuse, litigation.

Hs

trees in general. S. 394.

ae

wéng1. An old man, a term of respect. S. 581.

sung 1. Pine- tree, coniferous

See Lesson 100.

chung 1. Agitated, emotion.

chung 1. Restless, nervous.

mao 2. Hair, down, feathers. See Lesson 16 I.

mao 4. Muddled, confused. mao 3. Tibetan yak.

mu 2. To plunge.

BS RY

mao 2. Drunk. mao 2. Flabellum.

kuo3. Imperial court robes.

robes,

TS OS Re

kun3.

To

maoz.

mu 2. To plunge, to disappear, to cease; not, none.

mu 2. To die, to perish.

Tail of a yak used

as a banner

boil, to bubble,

to roll.

73

mao 4. Vegetables. mao 2. Style of arranging hair.

up

mao 4. A septuagenarian.

69

hao 4. To

use,

to

spend,

to Waste.

A

See Lesson 26 G.

It is radical in

Vv

lao 3, Old, to become old. plao3y.

To

nang 2. High, noble.

manifest, clock,

nang 3. A post.

watch. S. 389.

See Lesson 38 H.

wel3, Tail; end.

kung1. Humerus, acm.

nang 8. To rise, lofty, high,

th RH A Et ARR cD Aw ee

dear.

ts’ui 4. Down, soft.

kung }. The arm, to help,

Radical

——

muss roof.

82.

71

hung 2. Vast, ample, spacious.

|

nang 2. Eaves of a Chinese

yang3.

To

look

up with

respect,

hung 2. Vast, Wide, open.

yang 4, To stop lalking.

hung 2 To measure.

S33

yang?2.

huog 2. A rumbling sound,

SSS SEN SH

hung & To flutter.

i

mien 4. To cover, to hide.

5

imlen 8. To squint.

large.

running

To

mien 3. Naine of a river. mien 4,

Flour;

ying 2. To occur, to meet; to

parry.

It is radical in.

ribhbon-

vermicelli,

hslung 2. Male, brave.

horse

See Lesson 112 L.

hung 2A string; to fasten.

hung2. Vast, expand. L. 38 H.

A

away.

mien 4. A waste of waters.

i

14. To repress, to restrain; or, cither.

To be distinguished from yin4. A seal, a slamp.

Phonetic

74

M3

Series 74-77.

o4. A defile, a pass;

distress,

difficulty. iii

See Lesson 15 C. nei4.

In,

into,

interior;

near to, among.

jui 3. Small plants budding.

De Wis 5p Be

ap

jul 3. Winding of a stream.

At

fei2.

¥f

chiieh2.

Fat, fleshy, fertile,

shé 4, Golour, lust.

04. A yoke or collar. 0 4. To grasp, to hold.

To sever,

to des-

troy.

See, L. 74 G, the derivatives of

04. To belch,

mr &

o 4. A bracelet.

14, A city, ahamlet,a camp,

o 4. A knot. in the wood.

cf

yungi1.

o 4. In want of food.

yeh

hu 4, Name of a city.

The moats of acity.

Compare L. 59 H, S. 247.

77

76

re (((

See Lesson 56 L.

See Lesson 27 I.

jui 3. Mosquitoes. jui4. A handle, a haft.

né 4, Reserve, circumspection. né 4, Cautious speech.

pal. A proper name. né 4. The new moon. _—_—

na4.

Garments

cH

of a honze;

to patch, to line,

pi3. To compare.

pa3. To hold, to grasp; a handle; a handful; particie

pi3.

denoting the accusative.

pi3.

A deceased Empty

mother.

ears

without

grain, pi-la.

pa 4. A harrow.

pis. Sharp.

na 4. Reins. pa3. A target.

pid. Fine comb.

na4. To sharpen. pal. Ya-pa, a dum) man. na4.A

pi4. A plant, malva sylves-

seal.

hris.

pal. A rake. na4. A marine animal.

pa4.

na. To hand up, to énter, to possess, to keeps It is radical in. déliberale; To shang1.

grasped.

pit, To criticise; to decide

pai. Cicatrix, scar,

officially; whulesale. p’iz. A kind of medlar, p’i-

pa lL, Banana-tree.

pa, Eriobotrya Japonica.

The

part

of a

bow

a merchant.

pil. Arsenic.

ne4, na 4. To whisper.

pai. Hedge, fence.

Se ee RRR pate

It is unconnected with

fu4, jou 4. Meat. L.17G ping3. A fire. L. 41 A.

A

guitar

with

four

Sy Y

pa4.

aa Ie

© 4. Difficulty, distress.

p'i3. To take leave of.

p'i2. The termite. A father,

papa. p'i 2. Limp,

fe

p’a2. To creep, to climb

=



ie

—*

strings.

re

p’a 2. To

creep.

See

pid. Tassels or fringes.

Hilf, p'i2. To aid, adjacent,

IPE, pad. A kerchiel, aveil. Ae

je

pig.

p’al. A floating bridge.

For the following, see Le 55 B-G.

chih4. A cup, a siphon.

weak.

p'i4,

Broken wheat. The

posteriors;

to

break wind.

m

p'i 4. To cover, to protect,

to shelter,

ALS

Phonetic

p'i2. The navel. S, 557.

match.

chieh1. Cooperation

S. 428.

gle.

Ar

It is radical in or

ch’ao 3. An uproar; to wran

79

pig. The Chinese guitar.

pis. To compare

Series 78-814.

ch’ao 4. To hatrow. ch'ao lt. A vessel rolling.

S. 299.

He Ir cl |ekun

ch’ao4.

1. Multitude. S. 371.

pu2,

pu4.

A_

second

ploug-

hing.

See |.essoa 153 A.

No, not.

miaon3.

One-eyed;

delicate,

fine. S, 465.

To be distinguished from

pei3. The North. L. 27 G.

a6

p’oul.

A double handful.

p’out.

To

miao 3. Small.

miaos.

suck.

The tip, fine,

slen-

tler, a straw.

78

peil.

A

A cup, a tumbler,

miao3. The heard of grain; a second of time or of a degree.

a

glass.

iniao 4. Wonderful, excellent,

subtle, mysterious.

fu2

miao 4. Mysterious.

A proper naine.

fu2. A plant, planfage ma-

miaol. A bombyx.

jor.

Ht is radical in p'efi.

shal,

great,

Vast,

une-

qualled. S. 146. fao3.

See Lesson 47 H.

One Seriet, double form.

plen4. A river in Hupeh. pilen4, Joy, delight. plen4.

To nat.

piend.

A

military

caps

soldiers

pien 8. Joy, delight,

S 268.

ON Dy LN

tou 4. To intorrupt. S, 401.

7

wail,

Le a

plen4. A proper name.

Or not?

Awry,

wicked.

Invisible,

to

search

yb Sce-Lesson

shao8,

Few,

18 M.

id ey Si]

dust,

shal,

Different

minerals;

chu-sha cinnahar, ete. shal. Cassenaile. shad.

To sting, to

[t is radical

pierce.

in

liieh 4. Weak, vicious.

eg hsing 3. To euquire.

we w By

hsien 3. Small, little.

ts’ao 3. Worn

Sce Lesson

less, to dimi-

nish, to do without.

pebbles,

XL sha. Crape, ganze.

¥

80

Sand,

granulated; buddhist. S. 302.



out.

18 N.

ch'iao $. Small birds.

shao 4. Young.

81

pint, To risk, to disregard.

ch’aol. fam2.

An

usier basket.

Ht is unconnected

hsia4,

Low.

with

L. 5 B.

a HS wo Mt SS pass; & Customs’

ch’lal. A guardhouse at a

harrier.

To seize, to con-

fiscate. To note, to copy out.

ch'ao 8. To cry, to quarrel).

ch’ao 8. To roast, to fry. ch’ao i, To hook. Tu copys A receipt, money orders.

See

Ft

Lesson 98 B.

shéongi. The tenth part ofa peck. To ascend, promotion.

Phonetic Series 82-86. shéngi. Rising sun, perity, splendour.

$a re

shéng1.

pros-

415 og

84

= =_

To rise as in office,

tun 4e The rush of water. tun 3. Heavy eyes; sleepiness.

to ascend.

» tun 4, Dull, blant, stupid.

82 tun. A field roller.

See Lesson 98 B,

of

tun4 Small meat ball coated

tou 3, A peck measure.

with paste.

#3} tou 3. To tremble, to shake off. See Lesson 114 A. . shih4. A family, a

, kt

fou 3, Capital of a pillar.

eesax aa

tou 3, Tadpole.

‘er A

clan,

a sect.

is.

shih 8. Tv lick.

: y

tou 3, A proper name.

ft

ae

ne

ch’18. The end of the axle,

outside the bub.

At

ertenre.

J)

Hao4.

BL

A

plant,

Compare the

to

dispose;

lass

plarmca

ch’'un 2.

Pure,

unmixed,

simple.

Ais chun 1. Flesh dried; earnest. a degree,

:

ag

chun 1. A cave; to bury.

wp

ts'un 1. Village,

&

To estimate, to judge,

pulse for

A pheasant.

itRSS RR RARica

e

Weis radical in k’o 1. To measure,

12. To xenerate.

chi2.

oe aB

rg

5

rhus

verniciferde

ne} chiao 4. To call.

ch’f3. The Genii of earth.

ch’i2.

ch'un 2, Pure, exquisite.

Vou 3. Raw silhe

chih 4. To gesticulate.

a

tun 4. Turn, time.

ch'un2% Varnish tree,

chih 3. Paper.

ee

pee ere eet

tun 2. To move, to shake

materials, animals;

stuff

;

coloured

F850

As} hsieh 2. Oblique, wicked.

It is radical in

#

ch'un 1. Spring. S. 436

>

Series 163.

83

, ff}

Dn

hu 2 Ten pecks.

86

chia 4. A goblet, a cup.

See Lesson 79 &

tz 3, To stop.

See Lessou 115 D. tant. Cionabar, red,

tzii 8. Elder sister. See Lesson 79 A.

:

tan 1. To fall in ruins.

4un%A camp, a villuge.

tziu3. A handred millions: tzia. To flow; a river.

tun 2. A war-chariot.

chani.

A banner,

a signal

tzia 3. Dried meat.

flag.

+’un 2. Difficulty.

It is radical in +

tun?. A sucking pig.

(et coe cet a

Nut lo he confounded with tun 2. Sea-hog.

tung 2. Scarlet.

4 ¥ SS HE

ch’ing 1. Green, S. 337.

RESAER tzu 3. A hed mat.

chan 1. Red sandal wood,

i

tuo 4. A round bin.

tiag 4. To eondole ; to suspend. L. 28 H.

a (14. Younger brother S. 304,

4A6

Phonetio Series 87-94. 3

fin 4. Stingy, sordid.

90

87

Fast See Lesson 83 G.

wang 2. King, prince. wang 4. To rule, to govern,

wang 4. Bright ; prosperous; glorious; abundant, wang3.

Distorted; a wrong,

min 2. Alabaster. min 2. Pily, compassion. min ®. To try; hard.

wi 4. No, not

min 3. To mourn for, to commiserate, affliction.

wud.

It is radical in

ch’len 2. Respect, veneration.

a grievance ; to ho purpose.

yen 4. Countenance.

wang 1. Vast, much.

Hence

A thing, a being.

FE

wu 4, A banner.

S. 497%

wut 4. To cease, to perishe

=

ch’an3.

wang 1. Weak, crooked.

See Lesson 101 A.

min 3. Compassion.

To produce, to bear.

wu 4. Manioc.

S. 592. Abbrev. in

wang 4. To go; to visit.

It is radical in

yio4,

lin4.

A tablet.

hui. Whole, rough.

huang 2. Emperor. S, 453.

YH A mA IttL. 83 C.

hui.

nsiao 2, To learn.

89

Intercalary.

hu 4. Blearedness.

&Y SBN hui. To

For the following, see L. 79 D.

eS

AE. k'uang 2. Mad. S. 235.

neglect;

suddenly ;

confusion.

hu 1. Confusion.

Se

[=

k'uang 1. Vase. S. 223.

hu 1, To clean, to empty.

See Lesson 120 A

88 »

A See Lesson 61 F.

wén 2. Strokes, lines, variegated ; genteel; stylish; a classifier of cash. wén 2, Lines, traces.

wu 3. A cyclical character; time between 11 A.M. and 1 P. M.; noon.

as S

wén 3. Lips, kiss.

wu 38. Noon, middaye

wu a4. Disobedient,

hut. Sough of the wind.

obstinate,

perverse.

mi\ weén 3. To cut the throat. See the Series 492, 643, 707, 365.

wu 3. A coroner.

91

wu 4, To meet; conflict.

St HR % ch'u 3. A pestle.

wém 2. Mosquitoes, gnats. wén 2. Name of a river, in Shantung.

hsii3. To grant, to permit, to promise; more than.

wé6n 3. To rub, to wipe.

hu 8. Bank, shore.

See Lesson 147. ya 2. The teeth.

ya 2. Uneven teeth. wén 2. A flying fish, hsfeh 4. To lay aside, unload. wén 2. Coloured clouds.

WBS SSA

wen 4. Kaveled, tangled; lo

embroil.

yii4.

4 eee

Yo

drive;

imperial; to help.

yii 4. To withstand.

to

ya 2. To admire, to wonder at.

tule;

ya 4. To meet, to greet.

SMMES

ya 2. The cocoa-tree.

Phonetic Series 94-95. yal. An interjection,

417 echén2.

eS hsfao 4. To laugh.

To push, to knock

against.

ya 2. Fear, pain. FR.

chén 3. The veciput,

yit 4. Satiated, gift, favour.

ya4. To grind to polish.

sti

yal. A raven; a crow.

chén 4, Poison, wo 4. Dew; to moisten.

__

It is radical in

ch’én 2. Pleasure.

ya3. Etegant, good. ya 2. The winter pear.

ya 2. A germ; a shoot; a bud.

Fit tH

yaa. A verandah.

The

ch’én 2. A buffalo.

hsing 4. Lucky. S. 361.

ch’én 2. Sincerity.

93

SMS SR Fe hsiail.

tsou3. To march, L. 112 D.

opening

ch’én 2. The roe of fish.

sl Si

of a

valley ; a gorge.

ch’'én 2. To sink; heavy.

ch’én 2. Dall and lowering.

hsia 1. To breathe; to pant.

Ez 2

tani.

See Lesson 87 A.

hsia 1. To leave ajar.

hsieh 2. Impure, lewd, bad.

5|

yin 3. To draw a bow; to is-

i

duce; to lead. yin3. The earthworm, lum-

fH we

To

to

tanl.

To

procrastinate,

to

delay.

tan3.

Al yin 2. Leashes.

Tassels,

pendents,

a

fringe.

It is radical in ch’uani1.

procrastinate,

tan 4, Lunar twilight.

bricus.

hsieh 3. Bad, perverse. S. 414.

To

neglect.

put

on or

ea

yin 4. Harness.

4a

shén 3. Still more,tiow much

tan 3. Tresses or curls.

through.

a

92

t’an 3. A condiment.

zal more.

t'an 3. Salted soy.

B

5

shén 3+ To smile.

95

94

Kefe

See Lesson 61 B.

yao 1. Delicate.

See Lesson 134 C.

yao 3. Untimely death.

See Lesson 34 E.

yao 4. Magic, phantoms.

yao4, To measure,

to esti-

&

ylo 2. To march.

i

shén 3. A surname,

yn2, Evils, calamities; still more; to exceed. yu 2. A fault or errors to ac-

cuse,

mate.

yao 1, Ominous influx.

shén 2. Sincere,

honest,

yu2 A tumour. up-

yu®. The tenia.

right.

yao3. A corner, hidden. shén 1. Oat-meal.

yu 2. The cuttle fish.

yaoi. A thistle. —_——

hstieh?.

Lesson A

37. cave,

fi a den,

a cavern, wm

Hr

OF ab Oh of

yah 3. To smelt, to cast.

jan 3. The beard ; the whiskers.

fh jan 2. A wrapper.

———_

hsiieh 4. A springs

shih 3. Beginning;

hsiteh 2. To leok, tu spy. Radical 116.

to begin;

ihe jan2.A kind of boa.

then.

kA

os

chih 4. To govern, to rule, to

nan 2. Yellowish

fine wood,

#h Machilus.

punish, to heal.

126 Ce es

it

eh'ih 1. To flog.

H tal’. The Great

tan. To loll the tongue.

tan 1. A proper name,

Bear; a ter-

race.

Sce Lesson 108 A.

At, 12. Voi. A cobra.

it, ’01, To split wood ; a coffins

t’al 2. To carry ona

vit ’an 1. Breaking of a bank.

fortus.

BM

pole; to lift. t’aii. The pregnant womb; a tai2.

A globular

fish, the

Tetraodon,

Val 2. A propre name. Bi,

t’o 2. Steep rogyed path.

t'ai 2. Smoky soot. 4h

102. An confluent of streams, t’ail 2. Moss.

i

t’o 1. To draw.

Fa

43. Togo towards, toadvanees dvanee

11, The bar ofa gate.

tai 4. Dangerous; nearly, soon. tai¢. Thread raveled, tangled;

About this confused Series, Cf.

L. 107B note, SS. 164 and3z7.

na 3. An interrogative particle, S. 282. It is radical in

¥F

s01.A

cloak made of straw. L. 16 D, S. 563. It is unconnected with

R tsai4. Repetition. L. 35J.

129

tai & A woman’s headdress of false hair.

“4 x

tia 4e A demonstrative particle.

confusion.

| ot of OSE ER Se Ob Aa} ASR fas

tai 4. To reach; till, to.

+ 8 See Lesson 73 B, kanil. voluntary.

Sweet,

agreeable,

426

Phonetic Series 4129-434,

Si

kan 1, Hoar-frost.

130

ho 2. An interrogative pronoun, who, which, how? ho2.

kan 1. Liquorice.

?

kan 1, Scurvy, noma.

o

pay

kan 4.A purple colour. See Lesson 58 |.

Kan 4. To bridle one’s speech.

k'o 4. To kauil. An orange.

crunch

o1. A hill. Used as sound before proper names. Hence

proper; o1. To ease nature.

with

the

teeth.

DE we me Ok ah Ee a

Mpa]

o1. An interjection. It is radical in

k’o 4. Rock-crystal.

Kani, A sweet cake,

nelumbium

o1. Undecided, unstable,

k’o3. Convenient, can, may.

Kan 1. Slops.

Lotus,

speciosum.

koi. An elder brother. Hence

k-o1. A handle.

ko 1. To sing; a song. k'an1. A vessel which five pints.

k’o8. To march.

liolds

ko1. A song. k’o 1. Name of Mencius.

k’an 1. Wine yar.

ko. A parrot.

k’o 1. A heap of-stones. k’o 3. Uneven,

ko 1, A quay.

rough land;

unfortunate,

ch’ien 2. A pair of tweezers;

k’o3

pinchers.

To knock,

ch’ien 2. To pinch

“k’0 2. To cough.

ch’ien2. A gag, to gag.

k’o1. A hill in Shansi.

ch’ien 4. To inlay, to inchase.

k’o 4. Pain; sickness,

drunken,

S285 weete se

han 1. Bivalve shells.

It is radical in

Vien2. Sweet to the taste.

mu 3%. A certain one; S, 467. very. S,

hsiang 1, Fragrant; incense.

of dat pat Oo mh

chib 3. Sweet. S, 185,

a

Bo eae SIS ESS SSS k’o 3. To open.

han?®. To hold in the mouth, to ¢ontain.

thén 4. Superlative, 475.

131

k’o3. Small stalks.

han1. A district in the south of Chili.

ait

eh’i 2. Strange. S. 328.

k’o 3. The shaft of an arrow.

ch’ien 4. To shear

han, Intoxicated, comatose.

ay Se Sy So 38 St

k'o 3. Good, apt, possible.

oa ay

k’o 4. To ground, to put a vessel ashore.

A double series. See L. 64 F, koul,

A mark,

a hook, to

cancel,

kou 1. A hook, to hook.

koul

To point a wall.

AF Af iy

ho 2. A river; a canal.

kou 1, Raised bank in a field.

fin]

ho 1. To yawn, to exhale,

kou 4. Dirty, filthy.

ay

ho. To blame, toreprove,

kou 4, Silly, simpleton.

iy Gy

ko 8. A barge. kou 1. A hook, to hook, ko 1. A handle,

hol. Asort of lizard, ho 4, A seablubber,

kou8. A dog.

kou3. A hill in Hunan.

SRSFRSSLKK kou8. A spinous lemon-tree.

Phonetic

Al

kou 4. To mock, to laugh at. kou4.

Much,

enough,

to

suffice

Series

It is unconnected with

fri $i

chu,

To dispose. L. 32 F.

ching 4. To revere. S. 729.

132

kou 1. A sickle or bill-hook.

kou 3. Plants. Giddily.

427

4131-433.

If, if

& Ae Ti fh

k'u3. A fislt-trap. k'ul.

k'u 1. The bones; a skeleton; a skull. ——___———_—

SF Ke teeR k’ou4.

To strike, to knock.

To deduct

hou 3. To bellow

BF Ss

ch’u 1. Act ofa play, part.

chil 4. A phrase, a word, a line in verse.

chiii. To grasp; to hold; to restrain ; to adhere to chii 1. A colt.

chii 4. A shoe-string. Feet henumbed,

stif-

fened.

chii3. Beam-feathers.

ch’ti 2. A yoke ch'ii 2. Dried meat. Name

of a river in

Chihli.

eh’ii1. A thrush. ch’til1. Labour, toil.

ku 8. Ancient, old.

Fi

ku 4. Solid, firm. S. $68.

hsii4. To wasm ve

with one’s

breath.

hsii 4. Gentleness.

F | StS HSRURE HSS

hs 3. To warm, to console;

Kindness,

ku 8. A net; punishment.

i fi iti Pit ie thi Fii afi os i

a A

ku 4, The cause or reason of a

thing;

consequently;

on

ku1,

hu 4. To rely one

hu 4. Hil! with grass. hu2. Why? What? Turkish tribes. S.'450.

How?

Ai

ff

tso 4. To do, to act.

133

Tu estimate, to set a

price on.

ku 1. To trade in, to buy and sell.

ku 1. To deal in spirits.

See Lesson 162.

IN

kua 1. Cucurbitaceous plants.

ku 1. To crouch down. kua tl. To slice. ku 3. A bull; a male, ku 3. A ram or ewe. kul

A block; to revolve.

ku 1, The mole-cricket. ku 1. To mutter.

wa 1. Depression, low. Hence wa 3. To scoop vut, to dig. wa 1. Infant's wail. wa 3. To paddle.

ku& To explain ; to comment.

ku 1. A large fishing-net.

ku 3, A smoother.

kul, A whistle.

A polite term for girls;

a paternal aunt; a husband’s sister; a Buddhist nane

7

of heaven;

favour.

kul. A partridge.

kul.

Bes ae Ee

hu 4. Protection

ku {. A fault. !ngratitude.

purpose; old; to die,

ch’ti 2. Hunch-back.

hsii 4. Breath.

See Lesson 24 F.

a a =z ax

hou 1. To snore,

ch’ii2.

wi Ni ns aA

A trap.

kou 3. Senile, decrepid.

chii1.

or dry wood;

k'u 1. Rotten, arid.

SO-

hou3.

Rotten

decayed; withered.

kui. A mush-room; a bud, ku 3. Karthen utensil,

ku 1. An ealable plant. kui 1. A corner; angular.

kuf. A wine-vase; angular; vicious. ku 1, Large bellied.

ku 3. Salt-works, salt, to salt. kui, A grass-hopper.

k’u3. A bitter plant; pain,

painful,

RSH BES RSH AA S

kul. An orphan, Hence

fatherless,

428

Phonetic Series

ie kui.

An _ eatable

plant,

hydropyrum.

ih

kui.

To hoop; a circlet; to

draw tight.

wy

|

ft [=]

ping4

A

hu.

Iing3. A mountain range.

team, and, mo-

reover, at once. Hence

1éng3. Cold, chilly. p’u3. Large, universal. S. 754.

hu &. The fox. am

134-437.

gt >

135

miog4.

command,

a

A bow, an arc, curved.

136

Radical 97. Compare S, 39.

yp

134

eal See Lesson 60 H. 114. To stand erect; to rear, to

found; presently.

114. A kernel, a grain. 1i4e

To

decree; fate, life.

A

mineral

used as an

antidote.

114. A green kingfisher, alcedo bengalensis.

11.4. A drividg blast; suddenly.

See Lesson 129 D.

|

11.4. A hat of straw.

twelve

ifag4. An order; to command;

4|

pecans

fourth

of the

the

hour

mao 3. The mallow.

ling 2. A prison; an inclosuare. ling2,

A _ sort

mao 3. The Pleiades.

of truffe, mao 4. To barter, trade. -

pachyma cocos.

ling?.

Small rain;a fraction, ¢:

a remainder.

mao 3. A river in Kiangsu.

Ning 2.A cage. cunning,

a

St liao2,

comedian.

ling 8. A collar.

ling&.

To

depend on;

to

help; a little.

oe

5A

ling2. A sleigh-bell.

4. Hilly.

The

branches;

from 5 to7 A. M.;a term.

your honoured.

ling 2. Shrewd, 114. A pen, a yard, a hemper.

Syl mao3.

See Lesson 14 I.

chiao 4. A cellar.

Itis unconnected with

To hear; to listen; to

5p luan 8. Eggs. L. 408 D.

obey.

1a 2. Rags, tatters.

ling 2. Front teeth; age.

ja 1. To draw, to pull. la 4. The sound of rain.

Moge.

A tree,

the Eurya

japonica. ling 2. A house-boat,

ch'l4

To weep. It is radical in

weil 4. Seat, dignity, eondition; a person. Hence

ling 2. The sand-fly, pag-ling.

ling?

To exercise an office; to

x]

liu. A surname. L. 129 E.

fiu2. Tu sojourn, to detaina guest.S 554. Compare the Series 73.

137

ling?. A ptume or tail feather.

ling 2. A longnecKed jar.

KER RE ae Re Ree AE&

yi 4. Light, to tight,

vit

ll

liu 8. A willow. L. 429 E.

To tinkle.

ling 2. To lift.

414.

AI

iy Jing 2. The mufflon.

$1.4. Water dripping down.

overlook; to goxern.

il ch’ing 2. Minister. L. 55 A.

ya 4. Flame; to shine. ee

ling®?, The wagtail.

See Lesson 414 D.

ting 3, The collar; to receive. RS | RMRNSHSSSS ESBS DRA min& The people, the mass, the common muititude.

Phonetic min 3. A hair brush.

i

min 2. A net to catch hares.

oe

min 2. Grass ; a multitude.

Hs

Series

429

137-444

ino 4. Broken grain, grils. mo 4. Tricks. mo 4. A Kerchief, a turban.

nfi2.

To

ni2.

A hill in Shantung.

nil.

A_ final particle.

ni3.

5

min 2. To fish. min3.

To smooth

down;

mo4, The jasmine.

fold.

min3.

A mountain

ni3.

To flutter in the wind

niz.

To flow over; to des-

Mire,

i fit ae

pi2.

miu 2. Alabaster.

See Lesson 67 0.

+

mu 3. A mother; female,

min 8. Pity, compassion.

au

mien 2. To close the eyes; to

i}

mu 4. The thumb.

Sec Lesson

mu 3. The tues.

nu2.

sleep.

4 wen 38. The lips, speech. OE

mei 3. Each, every. S. 294.

eA Fa

67 C.

a term

slave;

A

nu2. To strive for.

wu 2, Not, do not.

nu 4. A wrangling.

utmost

exert the strength , 10 strive.

nug. To

140

Mosquitoes.

138

of

contempte

Not to he confounded with

wen 2. A mosiuito. wén2

4141

TR

Tei} mu 3. An elderly matron. tit

Luxuriant.

the

source of; a root; a keys

OS Be Su ma Ri AAE he RE

dirt; ad-

ni2. Mud; to daub.

min @. Emotion, trouble.

min 3. To strive.

mud;

hesive ; attached to.

troy, to perish.

min 3. To scrape off,

to

ois. Very fragrant.

ch’uan.

min3.

wood;

3 Rist oo

139

in Ssu-

Hard

quire into

Compare: the Series 167.

to

blush.

fury.

nud.

Anger,

nu3.

A cross-bow.

nu 4. Leucoma.

See Lesson 26 F. nus.

ni2. To stop; a nun. ni 4, Near, familiar. See Lesson 120 B.

Ht

je

ni3.

B

plant,

adenophora.

Ye

nfi2. A slave girl.

mu 4 Foam; spittle.

HE

ni2. Fat, grease.

mo 2. To wipe clean, to rub,

He

ni4.

Mud;

niz.

To adhere,

mo 4. The end of a branch, the end; tinally; small; the meanest

part of; powder; a negative.

A girdle.

mo 4. Fodder, to feed.

2

pnu3. Sharp flint. nu2.

A weak

horse.

nu

To exterminate

a fa-

mily.

nug.

to coat.

to besinear. mo4

in

Granulations

wound,

The children.

7’ang 3.

———

AE

to stick.

Re. ni2. A kind of tice.

pao2. trigue.

To trouble,

nao2.

Clamorous

to

ia-

vocifera-

tionSe

mo 4. Red boots.

Fr Sk SH HO

mo 4. A dull fire.

fle ni3. Thou, yous

He

nid. liar.

Dawn;

daily;

fami-

Ss PKARHRKR EF # pa,

To take,

to hold.

430 a

Phonetic

Series 142-445.

Not to be confounded

tang 3. The treasure.

with

FE yas. Friend, L. 48 B.

144

142

div

143 ~~ See Lesson See Lesson

paz.

A dog

184 A.

at the

pas. To pull dicate;

Rb Se Bt

up;

See Lesson

leash. to

in two;a

BS

half.

88 A.

pan 4. A comraie, a fellow.

era-

to draw.

pai2. White, pure; vain, for nothing. pai2.

pa2, A drug, smiiax

18 D.

pan 4. To divide

china.

ther,

A a

father’s

vain, in

4 7 She

elder bro-

senior;

an

earl,

BF Re

fa3. The hair of the human

pal3.

To

fetter;

a

res-

aWay,

to

with

ca-

traint. pan4.

a

To throw

mix.

leader.

fa4. To open sluices; to irtigate, to water.

pan4.

The

cypress;

the

thuja. pai4.

A great junk.

pan4.

Fetters.

pan4.

A woman

tamenia.

head. —_—_—__

fu3. A sash; the gentry. fu2.

To

remove

evil,

pai3.

A hundred

pai2.

White silk; property,

S. 233.

Wealth.

S. 386.

tu judge.

p’ail. p'al4, fu4.

Embroidered;

a cap;

trample

on,

To melt as

ice.

p'an 4. Light clothes for sum-

Amber.

mer p’ai4.

Dregs.

p’an4.

inferior

A

Jandmark;a

side

or bank.

soul;

p’an 4. A division, a half.

to p’a4. To fear; lest.

stam peo

pang 4. Corpulent, fat. p’a4.

po 4. Small cymbals. pod.

before the colleges. p'an4.

p’al4. The the body.

po4, A wife. To

vex, to

of leather;

a strap.

po4.

to

p’an 4. To manage.

p’an 4. The semicircular pool

harass.

paid.

fug. A knee-pad

To urge,

OE HS aSK CE

orna-

mented.

To

sacrifice

to

the

spirits of the road. po4. The

po4, The

A kerchief,

a veil.

It is contracted hsin 4.

p'a4, A turban.

with

shoulderblade;

demon of drought.

The beaver.

paoi. A door-screen of splints.

po.

pod. A flail.

made

To anchor;

eS RSS Seek Cees se

pod. A large dish,

It is radical

cottage.

vessels

blood; a quarrel.

a®@

to stop;

to fastena boat.

pod. A thatched

in

besmear

145

A thin shect of metal,

pod,

po4. Fragrant,

To

a

scapula.

pol.

To slap; to pat.

A knee-pade

fu 2 A wand held by dancers.

To rebel, to revit.

p’an 4. To halve; tu decide;

to

drive off,

fu4.

panda.

ce, S, 588,

See Lesson

in

ch’tian4. A spring. Cash. L. 135 F. yiian 3. A fountain, a sour-

1) ts

paol.

54 B.

To wrap up, to en-

velop, to warrant,

pao 4. A surname,

Phonetic pao.

The amnion.

pao4.

A plane;

paos.

Tu

146

to plane off.

eat enough;

min

sa-

tiated.

pao 4.

Pickled

434

Series 145-148.

fish 5 had

7 BS

péo 4, Stupid, dull.

p’én 4. To spurt.

It is perhaps found in poi. A bowl.

companies. pao 1. Projecting teeth. pao 4, To

148

See Lesson 188.

p’eii. Uneyualed; great, vast;

infold; to carry in

the lap; to hold tight; to hide;

largily; everywhere.

to endure.

pei 1. To snort at.

pao 4. To incubate, to hatch.

v2 )p

p’el2. An embrye; unformed, unfloisbed.

pao 2. Hail.

See Lesson 18 G.

Pei. Unburnt sundried bricks.

pl 2.Certainly, must, necessary.

p’eil. Sturdy ; robust.

Pi 4 Secret, mysterious.

p'ei 4. A enb.

pi4. Secret, mysterious.

pao 4.Reed, rush, dense, close.

p’ao 3, A long robe.

p’ao3. To, run, to flee. p’ao 4. A ballista. p’ao 2. To roar.

p’ao 4. A bubble, To soak.

Ww NSases

pi4. A torreat.

PI

pid. lodecency.

p’eii. A cub.

p’eit. Weak; timid. A surna-

me. pi4. Jewels. p’eil. To gallop.

ae

pei. A place in the north of

p’ao 2. To roast.

Kiangsu. blouming,

p’ao 2. A calabasb.

p’el1. Luxuriant, flowery.

p’ao 2. The tip of an arrow made of honee

p'ei 3. Disheveled. hair.

pi4. Rude. pis. A handle.

pi4. To tap, to pat.

pi 4. The fragrance of food.

p’ao 2, To work hides.

p'ii. Unburnt sundried bricks.

pi 4. To gaze at.

p’ao 2. A gourd.

Be OAT A BS

pid. A strong horse.

p’ao 4. A blister.

Ss

pi4.A sheat for keeping two

p’ao 2. To dig; to extract.

p’'i1. A kind of millet.

p'!3. Dyspepsia.

Compare the SS. 29, 268 and 401.

bows. pid. To kick, as a ball.

SSCSaSS SRERRES BESSA SAt p’ao 2. To incinerate.

147

&, 2 o|

pi 4. A kind of bleak.

p'ao 2. A kitchen. pi 4. A place in Shaosi,

p’ao 4. A blister, pi 4. Fragrant.

p’ao2. A buck. See Lesson 190 A.

piaol, A whirlwind,

pén 3. The origin, the root; original, capital; a

natural,

pi4.

To

close;

Secret, hidden. Attention, pis.

to

impede.

vigilance;

grieve,

fascicle.

“tu. A spring-net.

Ss ae oh

fu 2. A drum-stick.

pén 8. Rude, coarse.

SF

pén 4. Stupid, dull.

mi 4. Retirement. S. 383.

shé 4. A late, L. 82 B.

432

Phonetic

Series 149-152.

p’o 4. Very, much.

149

151

p’ot. A wave, a ripple.

~

p’o2

5

An

old

woman;a

stepmother.

p’o 2, Stones like flint,

See Lesson 43 H.

p'ig. Skin;

leather; furs; a

cover; a surface.

pos

p'i 4. To slander.

‘Too

pol. Vilreous, glass.

See Lesson 58 F.

The toad.

po 3. To go lame.

p’log 2. Even equal; peaceful, quiet; scales; to weigh.

pot. Spinach.

p'lng 2. Sea-weed.

p’i4. A large needle.

RSS RSS Se I vi

p’l 4, Distorted, twisted.

po4. A winnowing basket.

p'l 1. Fear.

li is radical in

chia3.

p’l1, Rent paid on land.

P’ing 2. The noise of shatting a door.

ping 8. Lovel land.

False. S. 427.

p'ing 2. A chess-board. p’l1. To crack.

p'ing 2. To discuss, to settle.

150 p’li. To expand the wings.

P'ing 2. A ravine, a wady.

A

p’ii. A standard.

= =

p’l1. To peel, to cut.

p'l4. Lassitade, fatigue.

Ping 2. Duckweed.

p’éng 1. A crashing noise.

See Lesson 41 A. ping3.

pi3. He, him, that, those.

p’éug 1. Earnest, ardent.

The third of the ten péng 1. To seize; to accuse.

stems, pings.

pi 4. To add, to give.

pi3. The pine, Cunninghamia

handle,

a haft;

authority,

Péng 1. To send, a convoy.

ping 3. Bright, luminous.

Sinensis.

ch’éag 4 A steelyard.

eee

p’el 1. To opon, to Spread out,

ping 3. Bright, glorious.

152

ping 3. The lepisma.

p’el 4. A short cloak.

pei3. He, him, that,

A

Lhose;

ping 1. Sad, moarnful.

yonder.

SEH Bee

pei4. A coverlet; to cover;

suffer; a sign of the

Voice.

pei 4. To saddle.

p’o 4. To break, to destroy.

p’o1. A declivity,a slope. p’o2. Cripple, tame.

&Bese

to

passive

p’o1. A declivity, a slope.

ping 3. A shell-fish. plug 3. A place ia Kiangsu. See Lesson 36 C.

plog 4. A sickoess. ping 4 To sleep.

pu4. Cotton, linen ; to spread out; to arrange.

aw FS PASSA pud.

kéng 1. To change. S. 283 Nothing to do with

fou 4. Vile. L, 10C.

To

frighten;

afraid ;

alarmed.

pu 4. To extend; to diffuse.

33 ta

pa d. To scatter,

Phonetic Serics 153-457. ae a

153

ey SP A cyclic character;

to extend; to report.

iy 1

to explain.

shén 1. To groan; to multer.

2 x,

shéni.

A large girdle; those

who wear it, the gentry. shén 1. To tell ; to believe.

To obs-

tleh 2. To forget ; to neglect. tieh 2. Door, flight of steps, entrance,

tfeh4. Ranking posterity.

hsing 4. Natural disposition; temper; property.

Be ae Re

leh 3. Iron.

hsing 1. Rust. Oxides.

Cieh 4. A spider.

=

eS

ching 1. A banner; to signal, to announce.

14. Ease, negligence.

14. To rush by, to rush on, to

It is radical in

jul3. many.

Prolific

exceed.

like swine;

14. Licentious; to overflow.

156

su 1. To revive.

ch’ing 1. Green. S. 337.

Ay

ch’an 3. To produce, to bear,

shén 1. Decayed trees,

S. 592. tu 2. Poison, virus,

k’un 1. The earth; the inferior

power.

155

tien 4. Lightning; electricity; telegraphy.

#3 aoa

yen 3. To cover. S, 418.

A

A

i He

shih2.

A

stone ;

rocks,

minerals. tan 4. A picul, 100 catties. shih 2. A stone shrine to keep the ancestral tablets.

shih 4. The marmot.

ché 2. To gather.

See Lesson 48 B. shit.

fo

See Lesson 59 D.

Rane Ae RHJung 2. Abundance.

It is radical in

154

cucumbers;

—_—__

hsing 4. Surname.

shéaoi. To extend; to dilate;

shén 2, Spirit, spiritual; the Genii; the natural powers; the animal spirits,

Leucoma.

eure. Unhappy.

hsing 1. The stars. S. 447.

See Lesson 50 C.

shéui.

shéug3.

433

To lose; to omit; to

ché 4. A thorny tree, Cudra-

fail ; a fault; an omission.

nia triloba.

ché2. A proper name.

chith 4. Order, degree. See Lesson 79 I.

KF

shao 2. Abundance.

chih 4. A sheath, a wrapper.

shéng 1. To bear, to produce; to live ; to come forth ; unusual ;

voripe, unacquainted,

—==——

chih 4. To stitch; to sew.

ey Sa a

chih 4. A sheath.

hed ; life.

The

children of a

tu 4. Worms in books or clothes. Etc. Radical 112.

—$—_—_—_—

shéng 1. Draught animals. shéngi,

tu 4. Jealous, envious.

unpolis-

eh’ih 4. To flog.

157

sister or ofa daughter. tieh2.

shéng 4. Wealth.

To

alternate;

able to.

shéng 1. A polecat.

tleh 1. To slip and fall.

shéng1, Numerous; a mul-

tleh 2. The eyes unsteady.

titude.

REAR Se

shéng 1. Pandean pipes.

ete

to be

OSS OF FO SS

tiela4. The sun beginning to decline.

See Lesson 34 0,

Te

shih 4. An age; a generation of thirty years; the world.

434

Phonetic Series 457-463.

shth 4. To buy on cre.lit; to

ssii4.

borrow; to pardon.

posterity.

To succeed to; heirs,

162

ssti 4. To feed.

i 4. Loquacious; garrulous. ssti4. To peep at. 14. A saddle.

Lede

ssti4. The handle ofa plough. yeh 4. Leaf, lobe, hinge

S.

49i,

hsieh 4. To leak to divulge; diarrhea.

hsieh 4. A frame bow in good shape.

esti 4. To ruminate. ssti4. To peep at.

tan4. The rising sun, the dawn ; day ; actors who take the parts of females.

seti 4, A hamper.

tan 4. Only, simply.

to keep a

Nsieh 4. To fastens a halter.

ts’t ‘. To wait upon. ts’ti2. An expression; a com-

hsieh4. gant.

Reckless;

extrava-

Abbrev. in jig Fe

2 0

158 ==)

tan3. To dust, a duster, fan 8. The gall.

to accuse; to request.

160

vis. A drawer.

i

position;

{s’ti 2. The ancestral hall of a family; offerings.

hsieh 4. Dysenteria.

See Lesson 143 B.

See Lesson 42 A.

tan 1, To mutter, fan 3. Pain, care, tan 2. Soft leather.

tan 4, A nightingale-

tan 4. A round basket, tan 4 The jaundice. ——_————

ssu 4. Four; all around, tans,

See Lesson 45 J. est4, A team of four horses.

wt fil

panicum miliaceum.

esti 4. A river in Shantung.

shu 2. Sorghum chieh,

6sii (. A spoon.

YF

shu 4. To follow; to narrate.

shu2.

A

glulinous

graia,

; vit shu 4. A river in Shantung, Gl shu 4, A path; an art; magical iy rales.

aK ch’u 2. Afraid. Mis radical in

sha4. To kitl, to decapitate.

159

ol

161

ARK See Lesson 71 B. fal 4, Toallere to substitute; a generation; a Series.

tai 4 A shell. tu4, A bag, a purse. fal 4, Indigo, blark. (ai4, A bag, a pocket.

#y

who

To contcol; the officer

presides; « courls the fa-

calties of the soul,

f’an 2, Black cfouds; darkaess. tang. A loft. S 762.

ta2. The

concobine

of the

tyrant Cheou-hsin.

163

A See Lesson 114 B.

ti3. The foundation. To

See Lesson 80 C. ssiil,

t'an8. To strip, naked,

stalks, shu-

®

Re

A plain, level place;

ease.

teach, till,

t81. To beod down, low. 113. To oppose; to be equiva-

tai 4. A mountain in Shaotung.

lent; to reach.

RR A BARRA A tai 4. To lead,

(13. The root, origin,

Phonetic Series 163-467, ti 3. To gore ; to strive against.

we

Vien 2, To cultivate.

ti4. Sadness. t_en4.

To till the ground;

farmers.

ti3. To vilify, to slander.

tien 4, Inlaid meta!- work.

A snake-fish.

Yo 2. Humphbacked,

til. A ram or buck, of a stream

¢’02,

t’o 2. Saddle: bags.

ti 3. To push with the horns.

Name

A beaver.

t’'o2. The ustrieh.

tien 4. Government lands,

tis.

Vo2.

{fen 4. Inlaid shell work,

in

to4. A rudder.

It is radical in

Chihli.

ti8. The famous bow of the

It is radical io

mio 2, Sprouts. S. 464,

emperor Shun.

sha2. A

ti3. The os coccygis.

serpent.

Compare

a L=we the Series 126 and 37.

113. Hamlet. S. 287.

Ivis unconrected with ti3, A hotel; a ludginghouse.

ti3. Base, foundation; a suffix.

hsi4.

RR SRA BRR

~

165

Ze &

chih 3. To venerate; to cultiyate; only, yet. chih 2. Thick callous skin.

Ste Lesson 17 F.

tungi.

tung !. Asparagus.

ae

tung 2. A proper name.

t'o1 That, another; to charge. tol. That, another; he, him.

os

chih1, Ripeness. See Lesson 108 A.

chih 3. Whetstone.

73 JK aK a

BB

ch’ih2

To go to and fro;

irresolute.

t'o 1, To pull, to drag along ;

ch’ih 2. An islet ; a dyke.

to protract.

to 2. An affluent. ch’'th 3. Larva of ants.

t'ung®.

A bright red blaze.

ee

tung.

The rattle of droms.

*

t’éng2.

Pain, ache; to love

dearly ©

t’o% Asteclyard weight chung’,

t’o 2. A counterpolse. ch’ih1, An owl.

ii

tie-beam;

See Lesson 149 Ao

Vien?. fields,

A

field;

cultivated

A rodent

chung te

marked

t’0 2. To stip; a fault.

t'o2. Yo2.

with

See Lesson 120 C. wei4.

A camel; to bear

A ryctic character. A

negation.

An anchylosis.

the back.

gtass-

x mh

t'o 3. Cakes.

Face to2, drink; drunke

green

167

on.

flushed

A

hopper.

to fix;

to? A solid. t’o2. To deceive, to impose A

# ©

chungi

t’o 2. Steep and rugged paths. t’o 2. A hank of silk or floss.

Cumpare the Series 62 and 217.

164

The end; to the

last. with spots.

huol. Obscure, dark. S. 863.

HA

oe

ch’jih 1. A mackerel.

It is radical contracted jn

2

Winter.

Ye URE

OR BR AK

A

Fine, thin, slender. L.

40 A.

ti 1. Disease.

—“

166

ss 1. To think Ly 40 Ace

ie

wel 4. Taste, flavour.

&

Phonetic Series 4167-171.

mei 4. No

sun;

dark, obs-

angi.

cure, hidden; to feign.

tit vone

imeit, Dimness

a

of vision.

T

yu2.

pope ty Yo sraeas

yang, The hen of the mandarin duck.

meli4, A younger sister.

mefé. To {vel with the

rellect,

yu2.

A

yud4,

Nice.

yu4.

A polecat.

it

inei 4.

A

a veil.

demon

mei4.

Hh

hsiu 4, A cavernous cliff.

ere Ht

ying1!.

A

luster,

flower;

chou2.

talent, bravery. Hence A river

in Honan

ie

ying.

The luster of gems.

4}

ying4.

To

RMRSSES, BM mei 4. To rest; to sleep.

shine

on,

chih 4, To make,

2

L, 120 C,

choud4.

yiog1.

A flame; red.

$i

ying.

The sound of jingTo

bless,

to pray

for.

of snoWe

chou 4, Earth. The universe. Always.

168

169

chou 4. Progeny, offspring.

# SES SESS HERE Se chou4.

Zr +d

vy?

A helmet,

ch'oul.

See Lesson 60 K.

To

suck

in;

to

smvke.

See Lesson

yang 1. The midst, the center; fo pfay.

yang1.

Progeny.

chou4.

Crystals

yingi.

a

pivot,

chou 2, Tlic stern ofa vessel.

ling bells,

112. To fell. S. 627,

axle, a_

chou 2, Sisters-in-law.

lo

Wei y

An

a roller.

Hit reflect.

It is radical in

A sleeve.

ying 1. Apricot-tree.

of the

woods.

centipede.

ying 4. Dislike, disgust. hsiud.

mel4, A sleeve,

citrus

ylug4. To shine on, to

hatde

met de Red boots.

The shaddock,

dccumana.

yen3.

A misfortune; 4 ca-

18 E,

A marsh

ch'ou 2. Silk.

at the foot

of hills.

lamity.

yen®,

Shore;

yen2.

Tu go along.

ch’ou 2. Grieving; sorrowful.

& =

along.

yang 1. A calamity. yaug 1. Shoots, young plants.

ch'oul. extract.

To draw

out,

to

To contract.

ji NirTo follow; docility. To

yang 4. To speak cautiously,

ch’len1.

aH

Lead-ore.

direct;

to teach.

———_—_

fe Uo os =SS

yaug 2. The badger.

yang.

A harness.

Hh tig.

ch'uan 2. A beat.

171

170

yang te To vomit.

ayoi

yang 2. Fine dust; to fille

yang 2. To whip, to

beat,

yang 1. Wide; violent. yang 4. The navel,

SEES RESE S

yang2. A fish, pseudoba-

grus fulvidraco.

A fife or flute.

See Lesson 90 A,

See Lesson 451. yu2.

Cause, origin;

by, since-

THY yu. oil

from,

Young,

yu 4,

growing.

i) yu3,

A varnish.

immature;

437

Phonetic Series 474-477.

Ww) yu 1, To bell.

Dk ik

ey) yu3. Black; anashy colour,

“:

1] yu.

Sorrowful.

ix

rT

yung 3. To sing, to chant.

yiteh 4. To overstep; to excced.

&&

yung 3. To recite.

yiieh 4. The shade of trees.

yunogs. Toswim.

176

yung 1, To throw. It is radieal in

yang 4, Rising. S. #59.

I yao 1.Hollow.

mai 4, The pulse.

ia SS

yao3. A vacaut look.

ch’ang 3. A long day; las

an 1. Peace, rest.

ting.

an 4. To press down.

yao 4. Leg of a boot. A

yao 3.

Obscure,

niu4.

To

break.

174

Mulish,

As; ac-

cordingly, an1.A

deep, mys-

terious.

+4)

See Lesson 67 G.

mai 4. The bluod vessels.

#4) yao 4. bow.

Ws,

saddle

an 4, A hot spring. an 4. Corrupted meat.

stubborn.

an 1.A quail.

See Lessun 64 D. Not to be confounded with

%]

huan4,

A

dream,

yuau 3, To turn in Ded.

an 4. A table; a tribunal ;asuit.

unrea.

L 95 B.

yitan 1. A vacant,

yuauye

172

The

dull ege.

drake

477

of the

mandarin duck.

yiian 4. Ill treatment. to have

4

a grudge.

og

yiian 4. A park field.

wau 2, I'v curve. Se 107.

See Lesson 46 G.

yu4, The right hand; on the right.

wan 3. A bowl, a deep dish.

WES a Tf at

wan 4. The wrist.

yu.

To aid, to help.

yu4.

Divine care and protec-

See Lesson 33 B.

chai2. A, family dwelling; to inhabit. —————

cha.

tion ; to protect.

To open: to widen out.

aed ot

cha 4. A crack.

It is radical in jao3. To gather. If. S. 454.

ch’af. To talk big; to brag; to boast.

173 See Lesson 71 L.

mK #

yiteh 4. A halberd.

See Lesson 125 D,

*

yung 3.

petual,

Eyer-floving;

per-

ch’a3. Four hundred sheafs.

ch’ad.’

A

seablubber

medusa.

yiteh 4. A battle-ax.

ch’a 4. Disappointment.

yiteh 4. To vomit.

ch‘a 4. To chide.

S38

yiieh 4. To scamper away, to be terrified.

ERE eA

ch’a 3, A handsome person.

or

438

Phonetic

178

Je jn( See Lesson 56 D,

chao 4. An omen: 4 prognostic: a inillion.

chav 4. Area around a graye,

BES

chao 4. Asurname.

chao4. A banner with tortoiSes and snakes,

ch’ao2. A surname, eee

XE

WE Bh a We Wk Bk Ie

Ee a se sj

t’1a0 8. Licentiousness.

cis Bb x

Series 178-484.

t'a0 2. The peach. t'80 1. To wash.

t’ao 2. To fle; to escape. t’ao2. To wail.

igi wl a

tuo 2. A colt.

chi 2. A concubine of Huang-ti. chi 4. Earnestly, chit. Black spots on the skin.

eh’il.

The dung-heetle;

chieh1.

yao 2. To shine.

A knot; to tie; to

ehieh 1. Thatch.

at Pott 3q Ls

yao?2. Mother-of pearl

chieh 4. {nquiry; to examine,

chich 4. A medicinal plant,

Laths.

chieh 4. To lift clothes.

179

tiao 4. A kettle.

ehieh 1, Firm ; sudden.

chieh3.

(iao 8. Planks: a bed.

Labeuring

hard;

tenacity. chieh 1. Skill.

Viao 1. To carry;a load; to stir

See Lesson 71 M.

up; to choose. (ao 1, Room where the oldest aneestral tablets weie kept

chieh2,

ch’éng 2. To finish ; to accom-

hsieh2.

A proper

name, S. 797.

plish ; to become; to succeed. ch’éng2.

1’fao 2, To seduce.

chieht

Guileless; sincere;

To flay, to sealp.

to rectify; perfection.

ch’éng2.

Viao 4. To jump.

chieh 1. Baek hair, chignon,

A wall of a cily;

a city.

Uiao 3. A tall person,

ch’éng 2. A place in Honan.

Piao 1. Unsteady.

Kt

ii. A vessel.

One. S. 690 L.

38 G.

ch'éng 2. The archives.

SeRBRRRSE OE F 3 =E "iao 4, To gaze at.

ch’éng 2. To contain.

Uiao 1. Licentivus.

94 Ky di

shéng 4.

Abundant;

flouri-

Viao 4, To offerflesh in saerifice.

shing.

Ulao4, The moon appearing before sunrise.

shéng 4. A bright light.

=

Viao 1. To cut open; to sever, Viao 4, To salute,

Sir #h) See Lessou 97 D.

ch'i4

180

Ulao 4. An imperial audience.

To cut a notch iva

stitk.

he Co

ch’i4 A covenant. S, 426.

ch’ia 4. Carcless, egoistic,

tiao 1, A cavity,

5K

See Lesson 24.C,

Viao 3, Secret, hidden,

eis A

a

contract ; fixed, firm, constant.

yao 2. Elegance.

yao4

chi 2. A monkey.

searabee.

t’ao2. A small flat drum.

tino4. A kettle.

Chi 2. Robust, struag.

chi 2. Fortunate, lucky.

yeh4. eal,

nieh4.

To bite; to

Phonetic

SOL £

See LL 81 F and 79 F.

hsieh 2. To raise ; to nelp.

ie

hsteh 4. To rule; cvercition.

439

Series 481-184.

lung 2. Abundance.

Compare. S. 269.

hsiaod. To produce; eff cts,

results; to imitates similar. hsiao 4, To pattern imitate,

183

cehieh2. Pare, limpid.

134

chieh t, To scrape; to clean-

se. ehieh2,

Pure,

after, to

TT

to purify;

chaste, chastily. See Lesson 61 D.

we ng

lieh 4. To praise.

chiao 1, To blend, to unite;

Mleh4

intercuurse, chiao1. A suburb; imperial:

To sharpen.

23

sacrifices

See Lesson 115 B.

FF

chiao 1. The heron,

182

Chiao 3. To slrangte. To

chiao4.

An

to

To

deseend;

enclosures;

a

ch’ien1. A fire-fly.

to

chiao3. A meat dumpling.

degrade.

chiang 4. The rain- how. chiang4. degrade. chiang.

chiang4d

To

descend;

chiaol. A slip.

chien3

bright

to

rebel.

Water

\F

overtlo-

yén 2. Beauliful, skilled,

chiao 3. Leathern drawers.

YeRrchiaot. Oy

chiang 4. To hate.

PAR SRPRR v

chien 1, The heron,

chiao 3. Handsome,

red

ehlang4. Unsubmissive;

yén 4. A big dog.

A croccdile.

yén 2. To grind.

chiao 1, A shark. chiao 3, Graceful.

ping 1. Together. S. 89&

winge

chiao 4.

hslang 2, Tv subdue; to yield. hang 2. A sullen dog.

RR RR

hang!. A ram; to ram down the earth.

Stones

used

for

Two

boafs

together.

p’ang 2. To swell.

FRR FN

p’ang 2. A proper uame.

It-is phon. contracted in

Ie 7 chiao3. Pure while; effulIZ gent. 7 —_—— divination.

yao 3, To bark. yao 38. To bite.

p’angi.

Callous hard skin.

S435 #SS

chiao3. To cul.

colour,

chiang 4,

chien 2, A full grown hog.

to

A small bean.

A

to

ch’len 1. A river in Shausi.

park.

chiang 4,

level;

ch'ien 1, A hill io Shansi,

examine,

confront, lo compare.

See Lesson 31 F.

Even,

raise in hoth hands.

chiao 3, Crafly, cunning

Citiaa de

ch’ient.

lashed

AK

hsiao4. A school- house.

ES

hsiao 4, Cheerful.

hsing 2. A place in Coihti. It is radical in

if

hsiao 4. To foil; exertions to

imitate; merit.

(hsing?. Form, shape; body; material ; to appear.

chit. A tie- beam. This is phon. contracted in

He FF

chit.

The

hairyin, sign of

nobility. i4. A proper pame (form altered ),

440

i

Phonetic Series 485-189.

HE

It is unconnected with

k’ail

To open. L. 115 G.

chih 4. A gizzard.

chu1. A peart; the pupil of the eye; a bead.

chih 4. To bite,

chu.

Vermilion;

imperial.

185 chu 1. The

chih 4. A leech.

A

chiht.

A

place

prosperily.

chih4.

chul. A light weight; small thing; a trifle.

To do, to cause, to

reach,

See Losson 26 K.

ta

Et 24

48

chih3.

An

chih4.

Imperial

al edi meaning.

Gili ter

oh

chu 4. To peck up.

chiht.

A proper name.

chih4

A nut.

ehih4.

To stop up;

Dl

stupid.

shih 4. A house;a household; a wite.

i4, To visit; to go to; to reach.

ch’i. A man of sixty. S. 513.

tieh 2, Hempen cloth as mourning.

worn

AS BAS

ch’aug 2. To taste. L. 36 Ee

187

zy solstiee,

chil 2, A nephew; a niece.

oH

echoui,

A Department.

chou.

A continent.

ch'ou2.

chih4. A chariot.

wine; chih 4. A sickle,

and

fro;

irresolute,

A river in Shaotung.

ehui.

Elegant garments.

ehul.

The cheeks.

chut.

To hop.

echui.

A

place

in

Shao-

chui.

Xanthorylum.

ch’u2.

To differ; to

distinct;

very.

kill;

189

To touch lightly,

To pledge to repay.

ch'ou3.

To answer,

ch'ou3

To grasp.

Sus

with

See Lesson 29 F.

ch'ung 1. To fill; to satisfy; to banish. ch’'ung 1. Excited, agitated.

echih 2, Hampered. chihi. graze.

a stump;

chui.

See Lesson 12 L.

chih4. To go to: to reach;

to

A trunk;

shu 1. Cracefnl, lovely.

Sce Lesson 133 Br

chih4 Togo

ehul.

tieh 2. Old, infirm.

186

tills as for; utmost;

A dwarf; a pygmy.

tung.

tleh 2. A mound,

It is radical in

ehui.

to punish.

ehih 1. Pat, grease ; ointment;

cosmetics.

1

is

a

to

indicate to hope.

He

fine;

188 ch’uag 4. A gingal.

to

ch’ung 1. Bubbling of water.

chih 4. Brigit.

ch’ung i. Lamium album. chih 4. Manacles ; fetters,

SO A HA GS AY Ra RO

chih 2. To bruise.

a

view.

Decree;

chih 2. A finger; a toe. echih3. To designate;

Delicate,

spider.

chui. To punish; to Flame; to put to death.

in Kansu;

See Lesson 120 D,

ae chul. Red.

St ot at

t'ung3.

The end; a whole,

a system; to rule.

Phonetic

190

ehviian 2. To

on

BE

discourse

OS Crooked;

ch’ii1.

Leaven.

ch’itt 1. The

ty

194

eh’iian 2. A wagon. ch’tian?

perverse

To creep.

ch’iian 2. To estimate.

See Lesson 446 A.

ch'iian 2. A fat unblemished

erh3; The ear; a handle; a final particle.

victim.

common

earth-

ch’tign2.

worm,

Cured;

convalcs-~

erh $. Bait for fish ;cakes.

cent.

& Ree ch’ii4.

explain;

upon,

eh'itan 2. A spring.

See Lesson 51 B.

ch’ii1. songs.

4M

Series 190-195.

A bamboo frame,

to

eh’tiang,

rear silkworms.

A trap.

erh 4. A second; an assistant.

ch’itan 2 A fragrant plant.

191

shuan1.

To

fasten;

erh3, A river in Honan. erh 3. Ear-trinkels.

to tie

up.

ag BH BR GER Be BERS at fe

evh 3, Cheeks, face.

shuan}.

See Lesson chitan4

erh 3. A famous steed.

193

47K.

Tired,

A_ peg.

erh4.

To gash the ear ofa

victime,

weary.

evh 4. To cut the ears.

chiian 4. A_ bag.

erh4. A tuft chiian 1. A* stake.

chiian1.

See Lesson 164 A.

The ring through

It is. radical in

erh 2. A copula; a disjunctive

animal’s nose. wife chiian 4. To love; and children. chiian3. To roll. S. 350. chitan4. A roll; a book; a

an

particle.

Fa

ch’f1

erh 2. The whiskers,

erh?. A species of mushroom.

section.

erh2.

A hearse

or

funeral

Hb HL

carriage.

chitian4.

A

deed; a dip-

AB HE OR SE OSE GR a huan4.

The

Tame

animals;

tu

mai4.

192

eave

The roe of fishes.

To endure; patient; to

nai 4, Beard ; to shave.

at =a

nai1. Weary, siek. Perhaps it is found in

Zy be 3. All; rey complete.

the whole;

See Lesson 71 G.

be able.

a—

To take. S. 349.

AR, Ik

ARSAHRN SH erh?

Compare S. 514

ch'ii3

195

erh 2, To flow

feed.

eh’ih1. To be ashamed.

Radical 128.

erh 2. A small column.

fist.

To blame. S. 425,

nich 4. To plot. S. 842.

erh 1. To boil.

Jomas ch’'iian?.

wén 2, To hear.

ey shua 3. To handle, to play. Compare the SS. 43¢, 466, 779.

1K tk Be Fed

fai. To cul down.

fa2. A raft.

fa2. A side-gate. mand.

To com-

442 4% 4&

Phonetic

fa2. Tu clear, to plough.

hsia 4. Ta soak; to harmonise. hsia4.

fa 2. Leafy; luxuriant.

kai 1. Must, ougbt.

Not to be confounded with %

Series 196-£99.

fai4.

tion

Kati.

For, instead; a genera-

5, 161.

196

WK

kait.A

%

Kail. Extraortinary, rare.

op oS

barren hill.

hsia 4. To boil, to irritate.

ko, A knoll, a mound. kod. A clam, oyster.

Kail. The great loe.

kol.

A

«umestic

pigeon,

a

dove. kai. Bounds, limits

‘kail.A step; a ledge.

See Lesson @5 E.

Kali.

fu. To subject; to fall prostrate; to lie in ambush; to to hide; a decade

up; to give;

precious, rare.

AR IK brood;

To heap

A triennial sacrifice to

the ancestors,

k’o4. A cave, a cavern.

Bright lights all; tho-

roughly.

as

kai3. Much, many.

in

op oS op ne

kei3.

chi3.

To

give;

the

preposition to; to suffices

dog-days ; to serve.

BR v

y

Ghia 2. Lined garment.

Kail. Tertian ague.

fu 2. A wrapper. fu 4. To swim

kK'ol.

To

carve,

chia 1. Cake.

to chisel;

oppressive.

HK

fuz

A sheath.

fu2. A fungus-like substance,

pachyma coeos.

chia 1. Eyes dim and tired.

k’o 4, A quarfer of an hour. chia 1. Aleather jerkin.

k’o2 To cough.

:

2p op i> ub ap

k'o2. To cough.

197

chiai. A girdle mourners.

worn

by

k’o 1. The chin.

ch’'ia 4. Filling, opportune.

& ® 198

See

Lesson 69 K.

&%

hal 4. A cyclic character.

&

hai 2. A child.

wy

hai 2. Bones, skeleton.

joins;

match;

to unile;

to

meet;

7%

hal 2, To search, to scrutinise.

ho2. A hox or dish.

BY,

hai 4, To frighten, fear.

WK

Wy

na 8. To take, to hold.

together,

oS OS BR HG of >

ho 4. Name ofa place in Shen-

hai 4 To raise up.

ho 4. The jaw- bone.

hai. Tu examine, to accuse.

ho 2 To environ; everywhe-

a je

Sig

re,

Do Bm o

shih 2. To gather, to collect.

199

ho 3. All, whole, complete.

hai. To cough.

Ky. ho 2, A put,

yen 8 To cover, S. 496.

suitable; to

with; a region,

Wg

It is radical in

ta 2. A kind of pulse. S. 570.

See Lesson 14 B.

up

Ascholars cap.

ch'ia4. To stumble.

ho®. To shut the mouth; to

1% hai 4, Sorrowful, depressed.

é

ch’ia4

See Lesson 30 C.

= o

hoeud. The sovereign; an impress. After ;then.

hai. To breathe softly. 5] hou 4. To meet.

Phonetie hou4

Name

Series

443

200-205.

of aplace in

hang 2. A row; a beam.

202

Shantung.

hang 2. Girdle pendents.

hang2. A bambuo mat.

kou 4 Dirt; sordid.

wt

kou, To reproach,

—_—_—_———__

RAS eS

See Lesson 79 B, kou

Billi am x

hény 2. A balance ; to adjust.

4. To pair, to copulate,

helen 1. Before. hsien 4. To go before.

200

hsien 2. Melancholy;

@

(0

despon-

wt

hsien 2.

hsien 1, Multitude ; concourse. hsiem 1. In troops.

hsiang4. A window; facing,

apposite to ; to like; to favour.

: i \

zz

hsien 1. The din of a multitu-

B

de

yen 3. To overflow ; abundant;

xy

licentiousness.

if

yen 3, A centipede.

eS ‘ ¢|

ch’ien 1.A fault; an error; to

go beyond.

hsien %. Polished; bright.

hsiang 4, Jewels.

hsien3.

To take up

hsiang 3, Provisions ; rations,

fingers.

hslaog 3. A sound.

hsien3. To molt.

204

in the

hsien 1. Fine pebble.

Wl HH

hsieén 3. Barefooted.

See L. 145 A, and S. 204.

shang 3. Nooutide; midday.

he fay

A door knocker; a

lock.

hsien 4. To castrate.

I

hsing 2. Torture ; to castigate.

shang 4. To esteem. 5. 391.

hsien3.

ay

hsing 2. A mold; an example ;

Bamboo

articles of

various kinds.

201 hsi3. To wash ; to cleanse; tu reform.

203 See Lesson 53 E.

th Hi

ae

hsieh? United in agreement;

—aS/ See Lesson 63 C.

hsing?. aN +1 elements.

Vy hsleh 2 Harmony, nion,

pie 2. The flanks, the sides;

To step;

hsing 2. A figure, a form. hsing 2. A sacrificial vessel.

hsing?. A whetstone.

oR Neh See Lesson 119 C.

to do;

hsiu 1. To rest, to cease; to

hsing 4. Action, conduct. hsing 4. An aquatic plant.

to intimidate,

Hl sit At)

a statute.

205

h

concord; a regiment; to aid.

H, hsfieh 2, To fold; to drag.

i

bit; a rank,a

dency.

See Lesson 36 E.

shang3.

A

degree,

=>

repudiate. hsiul.

To burn; crepilation.

=. oe a oe

hsing1. The thighbone. ies

hsteh it. Heat. to dry.

hsiu 1.

4 hsieh, To intiaitate. ra

hsiehi,

weak

To

inhale;

hsiu 1. To cover ; to weed.

lean;

hang 2. A rank ; a category ; 2 profession ; a corporation.

BR ayo}

Shelter ;

protection,

FAH

hsiw 1. To abriek,

shade;

444

Aik ifs fils

Phonetic

hsiu 1, A leopard.

Abbrey.

ife

hsiu 1. A sort of owl. hsiu 1. A fine warsteed.

Series

verance;

stable;

He te) i

if

ordinary;

hsuin 4. To begin a quarrel.

208

The thorax, the

breast.

The thorax,

the

breast.

hsitn 2. Hills, hilly.

2, TK

Shansi.

See Lesson 157 D.

hsitan 4. Variegated.

hstieh3

hsiin 2. A feudal

hsiumg 1. Timorous, nervous,

hsii 4. Compassion, to pity ;

to strike.

wFH 82SRH ch’fung 2, Sad, forlorn.

hsii 4. Silent, still

210

frightened, hsiung 1.To brawi; threate-

A trenoh,

a chaunel.

R TK

nings.

hsiung1. A rush of water.

hsii4. Compassion,

pity.

S553 B

hsi2. Alms.

207 ——

aaa

See

209

8

See Lesson 76 H.

huil.

An ashy colour.

k'uil.

Lesson

54

A

embers.

helmet.

A

por-

A

period

Great,

liberal;

to

enlarge.

E.

A palace, to pro-

claim; wide. S, 449.

hsiin2.

hsuian 1, Glorious; dignified.

days; of ten years; a set time; to spread,

The

light of the

sun; lo dry.

hsitian 1. To smoke.

of ten

To

follow;

Ye) 1)

to ac-

huan 2. A kind of celery. huao 2, Pillars befurea grave; delay.

ding to; pervading.

hsiin?.

To

follow;

accor-

hsiin 3. The crossbeams of a bell or drum frame.

hsiin2.

A

bramhing

coral.

huan i. A badger.

le]

hstin 2 Larve. yiian 2. A wall of brick. A river in Honane

To play with, to jest.

214

hstin 2. Sincere, true, frank.

cord with; comprehensive.

huan2, A high hill.

k’ul1.

hsiin 4. To conform to.

hsiin?.

Io ih ar Re oe aSe mt yuan 2.

Ashes,

k’uid, See

hsiian 4,

Lesson 46].

huit.

ringer.

hsiian 4. To revolve.

hstiani.

in

hsiian 4. To wave the hand;

Blood, hloody,

&— x

hsti4.

state

hsiin 2 A proper name.

to give alms.

a

To bury alung with

hstin 2. To enquire about.

See Lesson 38 D.

=| }nstuna

hsin4.

the dead; suttee.

perse-

commonly.

W a

in

heng 3. Constance;

206

hslungd.

206-211,

hui2.

76 G and A.

To revert to, to re-

volve; tu turn back; atime, q turn; the Moslems.

hsiin 4. A_ look.

hstin?. Name of a_ river. Truly, in® eed.

See Lesson

fi)

hull’,

Fennel.

Phonetic 341

faui2. To come

7a

to returu,

4

back

again,

irresolute.

Hi] hui2.

indistinet.

Disordered;

Nui2.

salmon,

A

Jarge tree,

whose

truit is red.

vf 1] if

snes

hui 2. A whirlpool.

Fi

212

j 2 Svap.

te

i2. A wife's

pillow,

sister; a

A mountain

hg

12.

KE

i2. A beech-tree,

J i

tR

Pleased,

screen,

a.

Pregnant.

jén 2. To weave; to thread. jén3.

ete.

Nsieh4.

To leak,

to

drop;

dwell

To

upon;

to

jén 4. A

head-dress

of fea-

thers.

hsieh4,

To tie up, to fetter.

chuai4.

To

ez lin4. To let.

Irail, to drag;

216

to pail.

chuai 4, To hobble; to swing about one’s

40

body.

chuai 3. To jolt. choail

Conceited language.

214

By

See Lesson 88 D. juz. As,

like;

also;

to go

to; to desire.

DIN

ju2. Moist; to soak in.

JN

ju2. To eat. Pain.

ma-

ju2. The skin of the bamboo.

See Lesson 60 1.

in Corea.

satistied.

id.

Also,

moreover.

i4,

A proper name.

ju 4. Lint; tow.

ju

i 4. Great, fine ; to play chess.

A large napkin; a flag.

ju 2. A quail.

i4. Chess.

i 2. Snivel, mucus. i2. Silore, silurus

a

to divulge.

ternal aunt; a concubine.

hee 12.

buller,

jéu2.

j6n 4. The lappel or flap iu front of a coat.

A kind of rice.

60 D,

Be i2. A barbarian; vulgar; to Skill; to feel at ease. Hm

i4.

ti38. A

iL 48

FR is en a)

hui 2. The tape worm.

See Lesson

of a dress;

The train

consider.

A

yey

#0]

i4.

AAS

2412-247.

streaming.

Fi

:

{0} hui 2. Undecided;

f&in] hui2.

re

Series

asotuse

shu 4. Benevolent; to pardon;

ah St tS

i2. To sit on the heels.

(4. A

canopy

chi4.

Trace,

excusing others. foot

marks,

hrsii4 Down. Loquacity.

vesliges, results. I

#2.

An

ulcer, a sores

chi4.

217

Trace, vestiges.

ee

AR FB,

id.

Tires;

Ti2.

The

a panic grass.

Sa &

yeh 4. The

pelican.

night.

S. 415.

215

x 8 213

See Lesson 5@ F.

FQ

i4. To trail, to drag after one.

See Lesson 74 0.

jung 2. Arms ;Soldiers; war. You, your. To assist. Barbarians.

jung 2. Velvet. See

tf

L. 82 C, andS.

jén4.

Sincere;

duty;

2

trusted;

burden; to

friendly confidence,

66,

@

hear;

jung 2. Down.

3S Se 0jung 2. A tribe of the West.

446 BE

th Bh TK Be HK Bk

Phonetic

jung2

To aid; to oppose.

Ki

jung 2. Acacin, mimosa, jung 2. A war-horse; valiant. jung 2. A gibbon; fierce.

Series

247-220.

k’én3. A fold under the arm. k’én 3. To gnaw.

AR

Pal 4a

k’én 3. Rumbling of stonés.

aR

ko2.

A council-chamber;

ko 1. To put down; to hinder;

to differ ; to be able; to dispute, k’o 4. Reverence.

k’én 3. To guaw. S. 744.

k’o2. To vomit blood.

——

jung 2. A malvaceous plant.

sung 1. A proper name. sungi. A kestrel.

218

PR AR AR

if

We

a

See Lessun 30 E,

k’ao 3. Longevity; ancestors ; to examine.

k’ao3

To toast; to dry.

ER I AR

k’o4.

hén 1, Loud, angry tones. hén 3. Dogs quarreling; bad,

Hatred,

resentment ;

k’aod. Irons, fetters.

k’ao 8. Mangrove.

0 2. nat 2. yeh 2. The forehead. aera

aS

hén 4. A scar, a cicatrix.

ch’iao 4. Reyerent and attentive.

ho4, A badger.

ying, Silver.

ho 4. To drain

ylug. Stone like jade.

ho 4. A kind of panic grass.

yin 2. Beach, limit.

lu 4. Togivea present; to bribe. fu 4, A chariot.

yen 3. The eye; a hole.

hsien 4. A limit; a boundary ; a restriction.

219

lo4, A camel.

zt hsien 4. The threshold,

Compare the SS. 289 and 578.

k’ao 8, To dry up.

lao 4. To lop off.

220

fao4. A kind of bird; feare

& Fg

lao 3. Koumiss.

lao 4. To die. laod. A necklace.

See Lesson $1 B.

~

lao 4. A water bird, the rail.

ko8. Each, every. ko?. To reach; to examine; a rule; a degree; to arrange,

lao 4. Stones; to pile up.

lao 4. Fibres .

See Lesson 26 L.

kén 4. Obstinate; to resist. kén 1, Roots; origin, cause; a base. k6n 4. The heel; to follow; to imitate.

ko i. ‘The armpit; the side.

kén 4. A wild plant,

ranunculus acris.

lao 4. To wrangle. lao 4. A river in Honan.

RARER HERS SREP ARR RHF

lao 4. The fall of the leaf; des-

kén 8. To wrangle.

i a ee

lao 4. A smoothing-iron.

kod. A flea. ko 4. Short sleeves.

ko 2. Horns of a stag.

MR SR Ro

ko 2, A wild onion,

a

a RS So

cruel ; very, extremely.

héo4. sorrow.

A guest; a dealer;

traveller. Hence

lu 4. A road; to travel. S. 748,

k’ao 3. To put to the question.

dk aE AE GR Se SK

a

cupboard,

cend.

Hf

liao 4. To spy, to watch.

Phonetic Series 224-225. Be

Hiao 4. Limits,

disposition, a

4AT

Kuang 1. The bladder,

kui,

plan: a little; to make little ac-

of a

count of.

kung.

liao 4. To lay down.

horne

A

cup

made

of k’ui3. A stride, three cubits.

k’uf 1. To cat open and clean;

It is radical in

to stab,

huang 3. Splendour. S. 537

el SR

chiu t. A fault. S. 338.

huang 2. Yellow.

kui.

L. 24. S.

223 f ma

hui 4. Anger, rage

~&

\

See Lesson 58 G.

Kua 4. Obstacle; cares. kuna 4. To deceive.

Kua 4+ To suspend.

See Lesson %9 D,

k’a 1. To hoast; to overpraise.

kua 4. To tie.

kK’uaug },. Regular.

tia 1. Landatory; conceited.

k'uang4.

k‘'ua 4. To straddle; to step Across,

thing; big branches

k’ua 4. The thighs: to bestride

The

frame

of a

Kua 4, Diagrams. S. 369.

i

fu 2. Confidence; sympathy.

“eS

fu2.

hedock. chuang 4

Large; — thick;

7f>

sloul.

chuangt.

Agricultgre;

a

fu2. Ant

fu. A raft.

See Lessou 183 A:

266 mS

fao 3. Not, or not.

tu 2. To boil; to cook.

ccmeecarceesline

Y

Iq

uh

See Lesson 32 F.

fu 2. Bran of rice.

p’i3. Obstruction.

“Wa~~

p’i3. Great. A surname.

lion; circumstances.

An

asso-

ciation,

hav2

fa]

tou t

j 4. To interrupt,

P

fu2.A nel; a snare.

Compare the SS, 19 and 146.

chiit. A clasp; to hook.

a

jus.

269

Milk;

to

suckle;

the

breasts.

chit 4. A handle; to hold.

+

chu &, To put spikes on.

yao 1. The bladder. p’ao 2. To svize; to hold.

See Lesson 97 A.

chiA.

The epidermis ot plants;

intimacy.

4B) chii 4, Grippled.

3)

fu 2. A suburb; a collection.

fui.

chit3. A chess-bourd. A posi-

th

of war; a

tu 3. To float; io drift; volatile;

farms a village; sedate; grave.

Hay

prisoner

ze silly.

Wie He Fr RFE

$e

A

captive.

48 53

Bent down; to salute.

a

fémg 1. To butt; to oppose.

p'iao 3e To die of hunger.

267

271 2

}teng 1. The peak ofa moun-

we (tain.

v

ee

Sovereign;

ruler; a gentleman; sir.

A

bee; a wasp;

a

hornet.

1& féng i. A beacon fire-piace.

See Lesson 44 C.

chéni.

féng i.

prince;

i=

féng 2. Slightly open eyelids.

See Lesson 109 D. >

fu3.

name.

To begin! just now; a

457

Phonetic Series 274-275. Ai Deg

p’u3. A kind of rush; rush; mats.

fu 8. Dried meat,

To

help: to assist;

a

ie

yu 4. A window; to teach.

minister.

Fig yeti

fud. Name ota star.

See L. 75 D, and S. 359.

A_

basket

used

at

i worship pu3.

To seize; to catch; the

police.

pu 8, To give a fee. pu 3. To patch;

See Lesson 14L.

to contains

We

han 2. To feed by hand.

Ee fa

hang. Gems put mouth of a corpse.

Sh

pul. The time from 3 to5 p. m. 4A

1

to restrain;

aa

pul. A shop.

pe AS

efficacity; success.

héngi.

héng 1. Fat; puffed up.

ze p’éng 1. To boil; to cook.

a

han 2. A drain; a pipe.

han3.

The chin; to bent the

273

See Lesson 35 D.

S See Lesson 102 A.

sii.

p’u, To fiees

ti

hsii. To appear.

fils p’u 1. The ray. poe

p’u 2. A feast; to drink deep.

seldom;

DAS hsii. To chuckle. To consider; to com-

tj passionate.

han 4. A bank; a dyke.

han 4, titi Fa fi +0

rare;

to hope.

hsii, The dawn;

han 4. Fierce; cruels violent.

iB

Few;

4

hsf'l.

p’u 1. Track; scent.

to hum.

into the

han 4. Drought.

Bi

To moan;

haa i. To restrain.

pul. A roof. p’ut. To spread out

doubt.

han 2. A cavern.

pu 4. Fear.

oa

vere;

haw 2, To bold in the mouth;

head.

tiff pu&, A plain; a port.

fii

héng 1. To pervade; tp perse-

a

to mend; to ER

add on.

~

Oo )

ah

fu3. A caldron; a measure.

fui. To ‘diffuse; ample. SS. 528, 753.

Hi

274

272

fu3. Embroidery,

EB. fu3.

A nightingale.

Compare the S. 22,

fu8. To feed. fu3.

hi

k’an3.

To ward off; to defend.

qe

han 8. Protuberant eyes.

a

han 4. To solder.

to dry in

the sun,

Whi

hsi1. A_ river in Hupeh. hsii.

Bit

To long for; to gaze

Bi

hsii.

Swine;

hsit.

Thit';

pigs grunting. scattered;

se-

parated; few ; rare,

fal

eo

p’u 8. A garden.

hau 4. A vicious horse. han4.

ai

p’u 1. Sickness; debility.

Te

p'ug. Sedge- grass.

4B]

p’u 2. To crawl.

ii p’u 2. The vine. ii

BB ay

p’u 2, Shore.

Leather

Hk

archers.

kan3.

To

hsi8.

To

snore.

armilets for

pursue; quickly; ab

hsii. To sob;

to whimper.

hal 1. Name of a city.

when.

FEE ans. The stalk of millet ie

kan 1. A pole.

i

shih 4. To adorn,

Gi ch’'th 1. Muslin.

458 a

Phonetic

eh'thi.

Series 276-279.

fil] hsiaol.

An amphora.

to

hsiao1.

276

To cut;

to pare ;

hsteh 4. To shake; to float.

erase.

hsieh 4. Chestout tree.

Night; darknesse

hsiao1.

The

hsiao1.

Headache.

hsiehi,

sky; heavens.

Tu

pull out

a

stoper.

DR Set wD

hsieh 4. Grits. See L. 65 D.

See Lesson

# lege e iz

hsiao 4, Filial

Handsome;

like;

278

elegant.

piety;

mour-

ch'iao3.

ning.

Grief; care: silent;

A

still.

hsiaoi.

To scream; to pant.

ech'iao 4. To ridicule.

hsiaoi.

Asthma.

ch’fao 4. Steep cliffs; strict.

hsiao!.

Grand; imposing.

iy

eh'iao4.

Steep

cliffs.

Se-

verity. Jt is unconnected

aX wl

ch’iao4.

330 K.

with

chiao 1. To teach. chiao4. Doctrines;

ap

ch’iao4. A sheath; a scabbard.

See Lesson 23 B.

3

hsiu 4. Growing grain coming into

ear;

luxuriant;

a

li-

centiate.

sects 5

schools; 1v cause; to make.

Shao.

A tail; long

shaol.

A bucket.

hsiud4.

hair.

Rust

of metal.

chiao 4. Leaven; to ferment.

See Lesson 39 H.

shaol. Jungle grass.

277

shao4.

To whistle; a patrol.

shao1.

To carry.

shaol.

The fapel of a coat.

shao1.

hsiao 4. To he like.

ra

hsiaoi.

Saltpetre.

hsiaoi.

To

melt;

sume;

hsiaol.

melt;

to expeud;

to

ter.

hsiao 1. To

The

egg-cocoon

fi

hsiaol,

An eel.

allure;

to entice,

Se &

A moth.

tou 4. To pass through.

sister.

shao1. Fringes

B (b

of a flag.

Water

driven by the

of

hsiao 3. Grits.

Se BE a8 dk os as Ge

yus.

shaol, Twigs, small.

shao4. rain.

torrefy.

Moantain

yu 4. ‘to

Yu.

279 eldest

chao 4, A surname.

hsiao1.

Tares.

shao 8. A little; a trifle.

silk.

hsiao 1. The tbe mantis,

shaol.

embroider.

ta seduce.

con-

to cancel.

To roam; to saun-

hsiao i. Raw

To dry in the wind.

Coarse jade.

to con-

sume. hsiaoi. To

shaoi,.

hsiu4é.

niud,

The ends ofa bow.

shao 1. The stern of a vessel.

To

SAS 4 MM

See Lesson 18 J.

hsiu4.

It is unconnected

goblins.

hsieh 4. A trine. hsieh 4, Sorrow.

with

See Lesson 82 G.

[re A fie Re

12. The chin, 42. The viscera,

fat

between

the

i 2. A sea-hog. i2. The chin.

Ti 42. A dining-hall;

to feed.

Phonetic

450

Series 280-284.

283

280

282

See Lesson 41 A.

See Lesson i3.

85 E.

ra

A final particle.

kéng 4. More; further.

kéng1. To change, to alter; a night watch.

See Lesson 132 B.

kéng 3. Thorny ; stubborn ; an

hsil.

A girl; to play.

hsil. To giggle.

kao 4. To tell ; to announce to;

outline,

to indict,

kéng8. Chokiug ; sobs,

kao 4. To announce to.

SS Rt

BB Of oe

yeh?2. Dust.

aii. To suffer;

to lean on;

kao 3. A place in Shantung,

k’ao4d.

near.

kéng 3. A ditch or channel. kéng 8. A well-rope.

kéng 8. Hard, firm, unyielding.

Fierce; cruel; very;

excessive.

ai3. To belch,

kéng 3. Fish-bones.

k’ao 4, Hot air; td dry.

aii. To moan.

kéng 3. Disease; sickness.

+i ok

k’ao 4. To lean upon; to rely upon. ching 1. Night watch,

ssii4, To wail upon.

SEO wt ssi4,

chiao4 A

A river bank.

cellar.

ching 1. White rice. ch’iao 4. Stony ; rocky. ying 4. Hard ; strong; obstinate -

hao 4. A flood; vast; grand.

Itis radical in

hao 4, Fear; anxiety.

hao4. See Lesson 14 C. i4. A walled

White;

pien 4. Convenient. S. 474.

bright;

eee Be 8PSPS gu 1. To revive.

huminous.

city.

284

tsao 4. To make; to create ; to 44. Shortness of breath.

as

build ; parties to a suit.

A double Scries.

11. To bale out; to decant. ts’a0 4, Sincere.

14. Damp; soaked.

ts’a0 1. Coarse paddy; inferior. 44. Disquiet; anxiety.

See Lesson 17 H.

ku 3. The snow-goosc ; a target.

14. Strong, robust.

ch’iaod.

ku 4. Manacles; fetters.

44, Salted fish.

The

upper

lip. It

forms

Sh

ch’tao 4. To refuse; to Jeave;

14, A bag; asheath. It,is radical in

Eo Co GG Cd coe CER cae HOM

yung1. A moat, S. 769.

k’u 4, Tyrannical ; cruel; extre-

certainly ; but.

mely.

oF ie

k’ul, To inform. name.

A proper

B23

chiao$. Feet; base. eee

460

Phonetic

Series

284-288.

Nall ch’'i4. To laugh boisterously.

k'uang 2. Lies; to deceive.

nip

Kil ch'l4. Labour; toile

k’uang 2. Inundation,

jy 12 i

£8

ah

RS

k'uang 2

hsi4. Coarse linen.

a

hsi 4. A ravine; a defect.

kuang 4. To stroll ;to ramble: to toss about.

286

A @

See Lesson 18 E. » ¢

|~

¢

li2. A wheel- barrow. 113. To pily; sad.

hi2, The thousandth part

= KE

113. Inside; lining; inner.

lit. The wild cat.

mai 2. To bury ; to conceal; to hoard.

See Lesson 129 B, k’un4.

ku 8. The ery of a pheasant.

distress ;

Fatigue;

poverty.

k'un 4. To nod; sleepy.

yi4. Abundant ;plenty; generous.

k’un8.Tobind; to tie up; a bunch.

yii4. To bathe.

It is radical io

Ee

ch’an 2. A domain. S. 795.

Ff ie ete

k’un 8, To bind.

yeh 3. Waste

ig

k’un 8. A sheaf.

yii-4. A poker.

shu4.

(RAR RS é yli 4. Desire; lust; passion.

>

hsii 2. Common ; workdly ; customs.

It is radical in

8 z

huo1.

An

opening;

large;

clear; to penetrate.

Hence

ae ho4.A diteh, a canal.

285

a villasa

Iiang 3. To measure. Le 70 F.

4a ith

k’un 4. Gynaceam.

287

1

¥ ¢

See Lesson 52 Fe 1i4. Sharp; mterest on money;

See Lesson 149 D.

43. A hamlet; the third of a mile. 113. Veins; strie; to rule; to

manage; abstract right; the first principle. 1h. A fox.

AE. KE

38. The wives s'slers-in-law

See Lesson 79 D.

168, A mat sail.

RE k’uang 3, Mad; wild,

A collage;

288

k’un 8. Loyalty.

jung 2. To bear; to contain. S. 542. hsiin 4. A ravine. L. 118 D.

E4

BH SS bs BS Ee

wilder-

farm.

k’un 8. A threshold.

yi 4. To wish; to covet; to like.

land;

ness; rustic. L. 95 A. Hence

ht is unconnected with

yii 4. A ravine ; a gully.

yii 4. The thrash.

of

a tael.

ku 4. A valley; a revine; the bed of a torrent.

oS

Abrupt; quick.

1i1. A final partiele.

of brothers;

li3 The carp.

fe Re Se

“M3. Rade; rastic,

profit,

a M14. Clever; active.

PF

14. A sooni.

i el Fi

lt 4. Driviog wind and rain.

Fil

1 4. The jasmine

aR

4. Aclam.

U4. Dysentery.

413. The Chinese pear.

Phonetic

}1i2. To

# BQ g

148,

lang 2. Weeds.

lid. To

lang 2. A proper name.

13.

Cocoa-tice.

Jang 2. Empty, desert.

Ni2.

A species of euphordia.

A plough;

the Tibetan

lang?2.

Young bamboos.

Jaug 2

Hay.

lang4.

A

cious. lang2.

A gentloman ; a title.

chii8. An

yak. /-li, Chinese Turkestan.

2. Black. U4. Vitreous,

R &

lang 3. Clear; bright.

contracted

niang?.

A

woman;

the body.

This is phonetic in

tm Rs cm

kung. A palace; castration; a eunuch; constellations.

a wifes a mother.

292

290

js

wr #

liang 2. Virtuous; good ; nalu-

See Lesson 49 C. See Lesson 47 F.

ral gifts.

Ris

liaug 2. Grain, food.

Ha

liang 4. To expose to the sun.

Es

kuug 1. To bow L. 90 F.

See Lesson 75 F.

R

A textile plant.

S. 460.

=i

osier basket.

It is radical in

Abbrev. in

289

chii3.

high door; spa-

a Bt oe Bp =

bd 112, A thistle.

—_—-

polish; a file.

hale; hatred.

112. Dun colour.

ap

AGA

Series 288-293.

lung

To

bandle:

lieh 4. To hold.

to play

with; to deceive,

liang 2. To measure; to consider. L. 75 F.

liieh 4. To draw

lung 4. To makea fool of.

liieh 4. Twenty

through. ounces.

nung 4. To handle.

lieh 4. Embankment. fe

lang 2. The

lang 2.

wolf.

Different

kinds

insects.

lang 4. Waves;

néng4,

To handle.

ltieh 4, Wood

néng4.

To make a fool of.

liieh 4. Weak.

néng4..

To chirp.

profligacy.

Compare

lang 2. Enamel.

fang 2%. A chain, lang 2. The sago-tree.

rE lang1. To jump.

4iv3. Verlebrae; tunes.

ns

lang 4. To wail,

1u3. A comrade.

Nes

lang 2. Fire;

Jang 8. To play upon words.

lo 4. To draw through.

AS BARAREKRT lo4.

ju3.

Small column;

Btn 12.

7%. k lintel,

A village; the gate -of

a villago.

Libation,

293

See Lesson 90 F.

lang 2. Tall.

blaze.

hiieh 4. Enclosure.

4 &

il vale pe

lieh 4. Exhausted.

S. 780.

291

lang4. Waste land.

th Sea St el a

for dyeing,

of

See Lesson 184.

I

mang 2, A moljossus,

462

Phonetic

fan 2. Luxuriant ; abundant;

mang 2’ A shaggy-haired dog. mang 2

Series 293-298. nieh 4. Slime.

humerous.

A jargon.

nieh 1. To fill ap.

295

niehi.

mang 3, A bull.

To

with the

knead

fingers. maog?.

nieh 4. Disorder; danger.

Compare S, 735.

horse.

Aspotted

mang2.

oO oe SS Ot Se oF

ta FG

A river in flenan.

See Lesson 106 Ao

mang 2. Stupid, dull.

e5

mang®. A rock;

mien3.

great;

297

To avoid; toevade;

to spare.

a=

mien3.

bundance.

To make an effort ; to

excite. mien 3. To make an effort.

294

%

See Lesson 74 Q.

mien 3. Parturition.

o 3. I; me; my.

mien 3. A yellow fish.

0 3 Sudden.

mien 4. A ‘mourning cap.

o4. Hungry.

See Lesson 67 P.

o 2. A moth.

mien 3. A cap of ceremony.

mei3.

Each;

mei2.

Leaven

every. used

o2. A rocky cliff,

map 2. To err; lo deceive.

in fer-

menlings

man®.

A sole; to cover

mei 2, Plums; prunes.

leather.

mei 2. Breast of an animal,

wan 3. The evening; late.

0 2. To recite.

with

o 2. To chant.

wans8.

meli2. A ridg, a chain.

To lead; to drag; to

SRS HAPS S

o 2 The domestic goose.

Led

draw back.

FR {oz High; eminent;

mei 2. Malt.

Wan 3e A hearse.

i

mei 2. Strawberries.

wans, Gomplaisant.

Damp ; wete

hui4. The three upper lines of a diagram.

3K

hui 3. To teacl.

hul3. To repent; to regret. hui 4. Dark; obscure; unlucky.

AY feet oe

roin 3. Clever; witty.

Tt is radical in

L. 94 Fe

i

wo 2. A moth.

i

wo 4. Hungry.

Compare L, 106 B. tu 4, A hares Hence

rear.

It is radical io

E 3 (4, Justice. S. 737. Hence 2

hsii. A proper name,

44. Lust.

298

See Lesson 81 A. to

wo 2. A g00se.

=

was altered in

nurture;

The sound was altered in

296

orowd.

yii4. To

5 4 wo 8. I; me; By.

yttan 1. Injustice.

hai3. The sea; immensity; a

St # # ii

o 2. A species of artemisiae

wé6n 4. Mourning-clothes.

me 3. To defile; to soil.

St a a BS t

The sound

+e

A SRAES SAMS SS SSS

mel 4. A heart-disease.

mei?

a moun-

\tain in Ssich’uan.

B

nieh 1. To fill up.

See Lesson 164 A.

BR

pei4e moneye

A cowry;

valuables;

Phonetic Series 298-303. ch'6ng 8. To rua

pel 4. The fan- palm.

463 shai.

“~

A Buddhist

cassuck.

Compare L, 65 K.

pei4. A young heifer.

Sai we

301

pei 4. Inlaid work.

pei4.

lifiaveous

D

plant,

fritilaria,

pai4. \

A

\ine a

4,

pei4. A gerboa; hindranre.

Sh on si A

= 4

destroy.

shal. gird.

To

hind; totieup;

shat.

A species of pyrus,

to

shai, Long fine hair.

801. A tree, shorea robusta.

See Lesson 79 G.

A defeat; turuin; to

shat. A Shark.

po 4. To beget. {1 1. To feel, to palp.

po 1. Cakes; biscuits.

AA Kee

PO 2 The neck,

28

pai 4, Buddhist psalmody.

z §

re

po 4.A flail.

801. A species of sedge.

80 1. To saunter; to meditate.

BE soi. Abundant

po 4, Dust. po4, Suddenly.

pi4. To compare; to match; to

vegetation.

303

po 4, The chaff of rice,

equal.

po 4. A wood pigeon.

pi 4, Steps; the Throne.

po 4. Suddenly.

pi4. A stockade.

po 4. Sound of waves.

pi 4. Mussels.

pil. Mistaken ; wrong.

p'i 2. Limp; weak.

Sec Lesson 120 |.

Te 4h aR OE th ae OR Se SE ah

p’o 4. To pluck up.

shud. shui.

pei 4, Rebellious; to oppose.

AA fe Re ie Ae eI

R

pel4. A quarrel; a revolt.

p’13. A fierce atimal.

To bind; to tie up; to

restrain.

pei 4. Obscure; dark,

300

ba

Distant; to separate;

lax; careless, shud.

To rinse; lo suck in.

Fad

shu 1. A sackeloth.

ak

su 4. Vo fears to tremble

AR

su 4. 'o shake the head.

pei 4. To resist.

© +=

oe TE GS qt

pl2. Tulipa edulis, pi-chi.

302

See Lesson 58 C. p’in 3, To manifest one’s feel-

»

ver

ings.

p’in 2. A confident. P'in 1, Elegant.

ae GE

p’in 4, To enquire about; to

invite by presents; to engage;

to betroth,

yy

»

be su 4, A kind of bicchtree, fk iH

See Lesson 18 M, SS. 80 and 465. wy

sha i, Sand; gravel; pebbles.

ee

shai. The cholera.

su 1. A river in Shansi.

gu 4, Boiled grain. gu 4. To urge; speedily; quickly.

tpi gud. A cricket, aK

sou 4, To cough. S, 647.

Phonetic

Series 303-308.

It is radical in

BL #7)

ch’'ih 4. An Imperial Edict.

HI

la 2. To cut. S. 459.

IR

305 >

Ce

séng 8. Fear; terror.

9 #& 4 =

See Lesson $1 Fs

vingi.

\

To erccl;

to stand

erect, still, rigid.

?

suj 2. Four sheafs. sui). The buckthorn. sui 1. Coriander.

nei 3. Hungry.

ting 1. The audience-chamber ; the Court.

304

suii.A loop, a strap.

ed 4&

nei 3. Stinking. nei 2. To rub.

Ving3. A staff. See Lesson 87 E.

ti4.

A

brother;

307

ing 3. A boat.

YT —_,

a

t’ing 1. A dragon-fly.

as a younger

ting 3. Bars; ingots.

younger

disciple. ti4. To hehave

4

See Lesson 196 A.

brother should ; submission. ting 4. Dried meat.

14. A young sister or sisterin-law ; a girl. Be

t'ing1. A strap of leather.

ti4. To stare; to gaze.

Ving 2. A sceptre. Bs, ti4. To roast. ting 1. The thigh-hone-

Hf

tid. A girdle’s clasp. t'ing 3, Handsome.

i

us Bh 6

Mii wil He Bh 5

B 18 te. Ae Te

tou 4. A vessel.

tou 1. Exhausted, toud. A tree. tou 4, The neck; the throat. tou 4, To search ; to spy.

t’i1. A ladder; stairs.

Ving 8. Thatch.

tou 4. To delay; to loiter.

tid. To weep.

Ving 2. Stalks; straw.

tou 4, A sacrificial vessel,

t’13. A panic grass.

Uing 2. Thunder, lightning.

Ui. Coarse pongee.

ht RR RRR Re eS Cing1.

The audience-hall; a

court-yard; a room; a house.

Ci. Criple.

tou 4. Beans; pulse.

fea tou 4. Smallpox. koe ROK Ro

306

tid. To shave the head.

t’ou 2. The head; the top; the

end ; the chief; before; a suffix.

&

t'1 3. Tbe pelican. t'i4. Mucus.

t’ou4. A river in Shansi. It is radical in shu 4. To stand. L. 166 A.

See Lesson 67 F.

Vi2.A. net forcatching rabbits.

to8. Secure; safe ; prepared.

It is radical in

fi

qn

firm;

quiet;

real WR

tuan 2, Short. L. 165 A.

308

tid. Order; series; a section; but; however.

Uui3. The legs.

It is unconnected with

A Hp

t’ul 8. Lame; rheumatism.

tzii3. To stop, L. 79 G. tiao4. To lament; tosuspend ; a thousand cashs. L, 38 H.

ps

sui2. A mist ; wet,

BE

See Lesson 118 C. ts’an J. To eat; a meal,

Phonetic ts’'ani.

a BR

A

fish,

trichiurus

465

Series 308-312.

ts’u 4. To urge; to press;

armatus.

constrain,

ts’an 4, Elegant.

ts’u 4. Narrow ; shallow.

chien 1. To chisel; to cut. suant1. Numbness,

ts'an4. Henee Vie

He we

White rice; bright.

ts’an 8. Glittering.

chot. A hoe.

Suanl.

cho 1. To grasp; to seize.

Suagl.

SHS Ba

ts’an 4. Gems,

Radical

For the following hsieh4.

A shalot.

See

157.

grieved;

af-

GF FERS

311

L.

To cut; to diminish.

suan 4. Sour; flicted.

cho 1. To soak; demp.

te’an 4. Pure, limpid.

A tion.

hstin4. A phenix; a phea-

sant.

170, Be

309

sol.



See Lesson tsuni. See Lesson 27 D.

A

29 KE.

tso 4. To sit downs

tsun 4.

YS OE

Deep;

tso 4. A clothes-bay.

yu

tso 1. Young; graceful.

to dig;

Compare S. 100.

to

tso 4. A hill ready to fall.

p

tso 4. A seat; a divan; nume-

RE 4k

gy

tsum 4. To seizes

to pinch.

tsun4. To

to com-

tsun4.

312

ts’o 8. Stones; pebble.

tsun4. A landlord; a bailiff, tsun 4. To look ale

ts’o 2. Short; a dwarf.

tsun 4, Dawn,

ts’o 4. A file.

scraps. tsun4.

Hp: ts’o 4 Minced meat.

The

clear. remains;

the

liu 2. Sulphur. liu? Fringes; a streamer;

The

new

moon;

abroad;

to

spread

exile.

liu2. Pure

gold.

A kind of marmot.

shui.

A comb; to comb.

tsun 4 To kick.

310

tsun

1. To retire.

Distant, in relationshut. lax; ship, time or space;

coarse.

S PKS PHP IS CH SY SSS

ts'un1. To laugh al, to deride.

shui. Coarse food. It is radical in

ts’un 1. To correct; to amend.

See Lesson 112 B. (su2. The feet; enough; suffice.

a

pennant, liu 2. To flow;

vast; to spread.

chua1., To dress the hair.

Current, stream.

liu 2. A glass-like substance;

tsun 4. A fine horse; noble;

tsun4.

Uus.

glass.

weak; small.

ts'o 2. To stumble,

iL 4

a fire.

tsuu2. Steep; stiff; obstinate.

als ts’o 4. To rub, to bruise,

BK

To put out

rative of hills, buildings, etc,

tsun4,

ee

stop;

plete.

1

to make

refined.

enlighten.

RE

incite;

so 1. Virtuous; maidenly,

To walk slowly.

tsuu 4, Elegant;

A weaver’s shuitle.

sol. To mischief.

to

ts'un 1. Bough; ridicule.

to rub; to

yi4. To feed; to rear.

aS s

hei).

Vinegar. L. 94 F.

Phonetic

Bt

3413

suHt See Lesson

Series 343-347.

wan 2 Lacquering.

yu3.

sh

yii 2. Prancing.

kuan 1, ‘Sedge, mats.

316

kKuan3.

A clarinet.

koan8.

Gullet; stomach.

29 D,

Rh. 2

yiteh 4. Nice words. huan3.

yuieh 4. To be

assent. yueh 4. perusee

pleased;

To wash.

See Lesson 89 A.

to

huau 3. To smile. To

look

at;

wu2,

to

huan 3, Bright;

huan3,

tui 4. To exchange; to barter:

luminous.

ns OH

Voie

To

huan 4. The knee-pan. huano3.

off; to es-

of insects and

paper

It is radical

tsia papyriferae

k’ou4,

cho’.

shuo1. Tibi

%

speak; to-talk ;

to scold.

shui4,

Duties

on goods.

shui4.

A handkerchief.

S33

juli 4. Pointed, acute, keen,

ym

to miss

an opportunily.

ie

wu2

wu?

Flying squirrel.

wu.

A place in Shantung.

wud.

To awake. to discuss; to

talk.

yii3.

Irregular teeth.

yas.

A clapper.

yii3. A prison; to emprison.

wu 4. A mistake; to err.

=

Ks

neglect;

Name of a river.

yui8. Words;

The centipede.

wu 4, To

to butt,

ox;

wu 2. A sound.

2. A proper name.

wu.

to resist.

wu.

Yo

mE oe

314

29 H.

See Lesson 61 A.

wu

wu 4. To oppose; wu 4. A wild

to gore.

315

A joist; a stick.

To

in

To rob. L.

S$ Ss eSS SY

sterculia,

wu 2. Rocky.

A tench,

yiian 4. A court-yard ; a hall.

plant, fa-

Eleococca,

trees.

cape from.

reptiles, t’'o4. The

conscious;

wu 2. Fine iron.

A faggot.

wu.

take

t’o 4, Exuvie

hend; to become

wu 4. To see; to meet.

huan3. Pleasure.

wu 4. To awake; to appre-

huan 8. To rub; to polish.

To gallop.

Vui4.

1; me.

intelligence.

The morning star.

to pay ; to deliver.

tui4.

To smile.

OOM oR AR OY at OG Pee GW ER a od os OO

ya2. A yamen, a tribunal.

A trowel.

317 yai2 To rejoice;

to

give

pleasure. wan2,

To finish; to com-

yi 4.

plete; to settle.

Wan 4. Clear, plain.

at SE St

wan8.

To string.

A

stag.

yii2. To foresee; to provide; to avoid. Hence

SE ne Te

yu 2. A torrent.

See Lesson 12 C.

{

yal. A place; where,

that which;

467

Phonetic Series 347-321. yul

319

Sadness: distance.

hsiut.

To adorn; to calti-

je

vale; to restore.

hsiui.

®

ch’ag. Tea. L. 14 C. S. 507.

320

OM

“PD

Dried meal; salary. See Lesson 11 C.

e (3

shu 4 Haslily, quickly.

te

shu 4. Deep blue.

aot

R BR

ee

surplus ;

Cultivated fields.

yung 3. To burst forth. yung 8. To bubble.

iA

yung 3. To jump.

tf

yung3. A raised path.

hi

yung 3. A chrysalis.

Slow; sedale; dignified.

clause; a numeratives hsit4

tiao 4. A basket.

ee ih

yi 2. Heath-coek.

hsii

A twig; an article;a

Sec Lesson 53 K.

Remainder ;

excess.

yii2

A saah; a fringe.

Viao®

yu 2. [, me.

yii2.

To arrange; to state;

to narrate.

AR yung3. Wooden W) figies.

figures; ef-

oF

Viav 2. Reins of leather.

Ar yung. A raised path. hsleh1,

{'iao?. A long narrow fish.

Oblique; transverse; G3

heterodox.

yung 8, Daring; brave.

—_—

hsiao 2. Small bamboo.

t'u 2, Bitters. Afflicuion.

“ms

S|

yung 3 To urge; to encourage.

hsiao 1. To flutter about.

tu2.

AG

t'ung3.

:

tung. To permeate; to go through; to communicate; con-

A mountain in Anhoei.



PRR R&RH

tu2. A road; a way.

i 2, To wash; to cleanse.

{'u2

318

lacl; general; to apprehend.

Dregs.

+h

v'u2. A woodpecker.

Fy]

t’u 2. A hackney.

102. A limber tree.

tung 2. A tube; a pipe.

jA

Vung 4. Pain; sore. tung 1. The

vu.

made

—— on

Grasse

t'urz. Name of a river

a8

vu 2. Mad; 10 smear.

yu 2. Fire-wvod.

Gt 2

yu 2. Burnivg wood.

——

HR

al

ch'u2. To deduct; of, Hence

ch’u 2. A river.

SS B i

sui. Koumiss,

Radical 164.

sung 4. To hum over; 10 recile.

321

—_—_——_——_———

tu 2. Stupid.

ch’u 2. A toad.

ehiul. Liquor after fermentation. S. 482. chiu8. Spirit, wine.

noise of drums

beating.

A Kind of rice.

yus. A cyclic character. libation

vung 2. The convex tiles ona

%

See Lessun 41 G

A

ung 3. To strike, to break.

rvof.

t'u 2, Anxiety; care.

yu3.

A buckel; a barrel.

to get rid

See Lesson 65 E.

8

yiian 4. Larve, worms.

BRS SHSMRSPSSSKRSHPHR VHEPES ch’u 3. A legume.

—seeee

iF

yiian 1, A small worm, alarva.

468

Phonetic

chiiaul.

To

reject;

324-325

to re-

nounce, to subscribe.

324

323

chiian4, Anxious; angry. ehian 1.

Series

A scabbard;

traces of harness.

chiian 4, Alert.

*s ee

aes See Lesson 49 D.

chiian 1, To watch.

chéngi1.

wrangle;

to

chéng&4. To pierce; to earn; to make an effort.

See Lesson 113.

chitan 1. Graceful,

ch’ang2 space.

chiiao 1. A harness.

Long, of time or

chéngi. wide. chéngi,

ch'‘ang 4. Disappointment.

chiian 1. Bubbling water.

To open the eyes To

reprove;

to

remonstrate with.

ch’ang 1. Mad; wild.

chitao 1. Stalks of corn.

chiian3 A police station; a postal relay.

chéng 1. The clang of metal.

ch’ang 2. A scolopendra.

chéng 1. The tendon Achilles.

ch’ang 4. A case for hows,

Chiian 1. A cuckoo.

ch'ang2

chiian 2. Gauze. chiiani.

To

contest.

chiian 1. A grey horse.

chéngt. A fabulous griffin.

A kind of fruit, chéng 4. To draw, to stretch.

carambola.

A net, to entangle.

chéng1. A tinkling sound. chang 8. To grow ; senior.

chéng 1. High; overtopping.

chang 4. Swelling; dropsical.

322

chéng L.A Kite.

chang 4. A curtain; a tent

8 =

ehang4.

The

ch'éng 1. Brambles.

Anaccount; a bill.

chang }. Cakes.

See Lesson 78 A.

ch’ang1.

&RPERRSBRE LER

chang 4. Eyes swollen.

chang 1, Provisions.

light of the

Sat aman Sa Fam Sam te yt AF

sun; Shining; glorious.

chang}.

To draw a bow; to

stretch ; to draw up; todisplay;

ch’ang 4. To sing.

a sheet; a numerative.

ch‘ang\. A prostitute.

ch’ang. To direct.

5

chang 4. To over-flow;

ch'éng 2. Door-posts.

ch'aug1.

ch’'éng 4. To polish

ch’ang 1, To throw a garment looscly over the body.

ch'ang!.

The

calamus

ch’ang1

case:

The gate of heaven;

the palace gates,

to wash.

i

ching 4. Quiet; still.

P|

to

ervelap; to include; rative.

mn WF pao l. Hair.

pure;

net;

325

U See Lesson 27 D.

a snare;

ssit 4. Long.

acorus.

#

ching 4. Clean;

vt

It is radical in 1804.A

ch'ang 4. To sing: harmony.

ching 4. Quiet,

inundate

ch'ang 1. Mad; wild. A conger-eel

s

to

a nume-

chi 2 Extreme.

ms

chit. The

maximum;

very;

the zenith; the pole; the first principle.

chi. To kill.

469

Phonetic Series 326-329. eh’i2.

ch’i 2. Stalks of pulse.

326

A valuable

stone;

a

curio.

ch’i 2. A hoe.

ch’l 8, Variegated silk.

at Ht a

ch’'i 2. To cross the legs.

ch’i2, Craggy.

eh’i 2. The unicorn.

chili, Odd; surplus; remain-

ch’f1. The demon of pestilen-

See Lesson 44 G.

der.

ce; uglye

chi 1. Surplus; leavings.

SRESBEE

ch'!1. Wife.

ch’i2. A flag; a banner.

ch’i4. To marry.

‘ 4

ch’1 1. To roost; to stay.

chi 1. Uneven; irregular. eh’i1. A basket for dust.

chil. A chisel,

ch’i i Grieved; sufferiug. ch’il. Cold;

freezing; mise-

rable.

St wee

grey colour;

chil.

ch’'l1. End of the rain.

To pinch.

ehii. An

ch's2, Edible fern.

Rt Wid RE St

13. To

chi. A proper name.

chi 1, Tendrils of vines.

=eS

i1.

chi, Une year period.

ch’i2. He, she, it; his, hers,

ARO aR Ch St Se Ree

chil.

Foundation;

Projecting;

steep.

i3. A pot i3. The sides of a chariot.

328

13. Sweet-smelling.

ch’i1, To cheat; to deceive;

i3.

to abuse.

flutter to the breeze.

A drunken

man;

o

uo-

eos

A waving: movement;

i 1, An exclamation.

329

ch’l 8, A piebald horse, sput-

ted,

eh’i 2. Prosperity.

See Lesson 58 I.

ay

ch’i 2. Cloth; band.

ral

eh’i2. A small crab.

Bay

ch’i 2. Extraordinary;

ch’l2. A wild goose. ch’! 2. Ugly; to scoff at.

Precipitous;

irregular.

ch’i 2. Lame; cripple.

ch’13. A gem.

ch'iil, To bile; to eats

ch’i2. A cake.

ch'il. A spider

te

ch’i. A river in Honan.

TR BA

strange.

ch’i2. To ride; to sit astride,

ch’il.

sf at S HE

ch’i1, A bridge,

to

SPREHRPHRS BARSRAS

Yo

steady.

vr é

a seat.

property;

the thrones

its.

el.

to trust

13. To drag.

chil. A full year.

ch'it. A period; a limil of time; lo expect; to hope.

Se ae

to lodge.

lean upon;

i3. A chair;

chi 4. To fear

See Lesson 70 C.

=!

ion;

to; inclined.

327

\ d

A dark

very. Hence

ch’i 1. Luxuriant.

=

chi4. To lodge at; to deliver; to send,

eh'i2.

ch’'l 1. Name of a place

‘X

ch'i2. The chess

See Lesson 129 A.

rough;

EEfous To open; to explain.

oR ES a

ch’i3. A

to

begin;

banners a_ signal

flag. ch’i8

A banner;

a sigaal

flag.

ch'l3. The san through the clouds,

_pierciag

Phonetic Series 330-335.

470 tt is radical contracted

ES

chao4.

To

in

begin; to in-

stitute; to arrange

330

=

chien

Et

hsien2.

ch'ien 2. Copper

3, To hold, to grasp.

Worthies;

cein,

or

cash.

ch’jen 8, Shallow;

sages;

super-

ficial; to run aground.

good; virtuous.

——$——

hsien 4. Thread.

chin 8.- To bind tight; urgent; important.

EO

shén 4.

See Lesson 44 F.

kidneys;

Alert; active; cle-

chan 4. A wWagunchan 4. A sheep-pen.

Sub-Series.

ver.

chien 1, Firm;

solid; dura-

chieh 4. The eye-lashes.

ble.

chieh2.

Handsome.

chien 1. Stingy; expenses.

chieh?.

A fan; a running

chien 1. A mullet.

Hence

echileh4.

k'éng 1. Kumbling of stones.

To

chalter;

k'éng1.

331

Jingling.

xe

shu4.

Upright;

Rit wR EO

cular; to erect. L.

perpendi165 A,

a

ts’'an2.

To ruin; te injure;

mischievous;

speiled.

Ke

U

See Lesson 131 E

—_—_

333

See Lesson 67 E.

lamp-bowl;

A

334

It is radical in

cs

i

k’éng 1. To butt against.

to

slander.

a

chan 3. tea-cup.

ch’an 3. To trim; to cut,

hand.

a friendship.

OR OR Re ee

to curtail

chieh 8. Quick; to break off

oe ee

chan4. A coverep shed; a store- house; a godowne

the

testicles,

chieh@. Skill; success. chieh 2

The

chihi.

To know.

chihi

A spider.

ch’ieh 4. A concubine.

i

chith 4. Wisdom ; cleverness.

ch'leh 4. To jabber ; to speak evil.

3ees

ch’ih 1. Stupid;

chieh 1. Tu receive; to for-

See Lesson 74

ward; to connect ; to fullow,

Re

chienl,. paper;

sha4.

Great feather-fans,

tablet;

note-

tablet;

nole-

A

a letter. See Lesson 10 K.

chien 3. To flatter.

332

chih 2

chien 4. A farewell entertain-

BA ER

ment.

chien 4. To tread upon; to

keep dne’s word.

chien i. Firm, solid.

ke Me He ee Re me Be

chien 4. Water dashing;

splash.

Straight;

uprighte

chih 2. Price; value. chih 3. To lean on.

chien 4. Mean; low; cheap. See Lesson 92 E.

ie

a letter.

chien1, paper;

A_

doting.

335

chien 1. Small; narrow.

chieh J. To graft.

sha4. shua4. Light; sudden ; temporary. e wes

RB.

to

chih 2. Grain the first crop.

first

chih 2 To prosper.

honest;

Phonetic chih 2. To

BE verne

chih4.

plant;

337

a pole.

To arrange;

471

Series 336-339.

to go-

338

gtay

wR

Compare S. 509

336

See Lesson

115 De

See Lesson 31 B.

cling 1. Green; blue; black;

grey; the white of an egg.

chiu 1. Fault; blame.

ch'ing 2. Passions; feelings; circumstances ; lust.

chiu 4. The male of the elk.

ch'ing 8. To beg; to request;

See Lesson 75 C.

to engage.

i

ching 1.

iri yy

ching 1. A while.

ch’ing 2. Clear sky.

i

ching 4. A large deer.

ch’ing 1. Pure; honest.

A

capital.

ch’iu 2. Hatred; to hate.

ching 2. ‘Tu inherit.

liu 3. A skein of silk.

ch’l 3. Flag ; banner. eh'ing 4. To cool

ch’ing 2. To tattoo.

kui8. A sun-dial; time.

eh’ing 1. A mackerel.

ch'ing 2. Strong.

kao 1. A large drum.

ching 1. The essential part;

chiang 4. To quarrel.

wo ss me Rw 1

essence ; spirit; semen; skill.

ching 4.

Quiet;

kaol. A quivers

tranquil;

peaceful.

Hang 2. Cool ; cold.

339

ching 1. The pupil of the eye. ching 1. A dragon-fly.

liang 4. To dry in the sun; to

ching 4.

aerate.

To

ornament;

to

paint.

liang 2. Togrieve; melancholy.

ching1. A heron:

Mang 4. To trust ; to consider;

See Lessun 143 F.

to excuse.

ching 1. Turnips.

liang 2. A carriage.

cho 1. Eminent.

ching 1. A privy.

cho 4. Manifest.

liang 2. Strings; hands.

a Sr Ss

eh’ien4.

Mang 4. The cornelian tree. ee

St

Fine bamboos;

a

cho. A table.

basket. ch'ien 4, Violet-colour.

liao 4, To rob ; to plunder; to

cho 4. Cries.

ch’ien 4. A pall to cover a

flog.

hearse.

H Ss a Hs RH SR HRSA RM ch’len 4.

chiu4. Togo or come to; to

Comely;

pretty. chao 4. A screen, A covers

Hence

follow; to make the best of; then; immediately.

igh Mv

ch’jen 4. Luxuriant.

It forms

chiu 4. To monopolise. chiu 4. To bire.

Ff ges

chiu 4, A vultore.

st

ch’ao 4. Drenched; wet.

ts’al 1. To doubt; to suspect;

ch’ao 4.

to guesse The sound was altered.

t’ien 1. The blue sky.

Radical 174.

Generous;

liberal.

It is radical in

i

ch’ao 4. To get ahead.

ample;

472

Phonetic

‘be tao 4. Affliction, to grieve for.

+a

tiao 4, To adjust; te move; to fall.

aS

=

Series 340-343.

cho. To spy.

ch’ou 2. Disappointed.

cho 1. Gluttony.

ch’ou3. A gibbon.

a

ch'ou2.

ch 04. To cease.

By t'lao 3. To assail; to strike.

Acoverlet ; a hed-

curtain.

ch’o 4. To suck, to sip; to weep. Hk

340

tiao4.

Cadence; an air; to

transfer.

ch’o 4 To suck up; to drink.

tiao 1, A boat.

ch'o 4. Tosuck up; to sip.

tiao1. Withered. chui4. To baste; to connect;

tiaol.

to sew.

See Lesson 69 L.

K

cho?.A

chui4

To baste; lo sew to-

tiao1. The fishing eagle.

gether.

pig bound

To carve; to chisel.

tiao1. EK

cho2. To polish stunes.

fo 4. To pluck ; to gather.

i

cho 4. To peck up food.

to4. To mend clothes.

7x

cho 2. To acense; to vilify.

1o 4. Tc weigh.

To carve; to engraye.

Se 2 Af Wo

tiao i. To carves to wilher.

2K cho1. To drip. eS

R

cho 4. To strike.

Hit

t'iao 2. To blend; to harmonise; to Lemper.

to 4. The turtle-dove.

tiao 2, The perch.

to4. To cut; to engrave.

iao 2. The cicada.

ehung 3. Ainound, The sound

#&

342

was altered. S. $27.

t’i1. Free; noble.

341

BR FR See Lesson 49 R 33

cho 4. To sewe

Bs cho®. A libation.

343 See Lesson 109 C.

=aa

a

chou, A dynasty ; a turn.

4a —
~ = ‘

huai 2, The bosom, to cherish

huai 2. A large tree, Sephora japonica.

Chinese

holding ten pecks. 000%

for

Shanghai. hu2.

to

destroy ; vicious, depraved.

-conceal, to think of

hu 4, Retinue.

i

To spoil; to ruin,

SE

kindly, to put in the bosom, to

ling, family.

Bk

HUAI

hu 1. Cuvfusion, distraetion.

hu 1. Sough of the wind.

A boat, a scow.

bu 2. The fox.

huai 3. The ankle. huai2.

A stream

in Honan

and Anhui. huai2, To take in hunting, to

catch, to obtaine Huo 2.

HUANG

HUAN

huang 2. The Emperor, impetial.

huan 8. Imperial domains, a

huang 2. Afraid, nervous.

closure, the universe,

huang 2. The moat around a

huao2,

A_slavegirl’s

hair

done up. huan ?. Fine silk, to gird, to tie round.

huang 2, The locust.

hwan 1. To craw), huang 2 The sturgeon.

huan®. To go back; to return, to repay ; 10 compensate;

Sik Gad Fd Et

back, a time, a turn, a revolution, the Moslems. hui 2, Fennel or caraway.

city, the tutelar deity ofa city.

huang 2. Leisure, careless.

hoan?. A ring; a bracelet; to surround.

fd]fe To revert to, to tarn

huang 2, Blazing, bright. huang ®. The female phenix.

ila] ina

7

All hui 2. Undecided, irresolute. ree

2

hul 4. latelligent, quick, wise,

huawi. To rejoice; merry , to like. To

jolly;

huaug 3. The full brightoess of the sun, to dazzle. huang3

vociferate;

Uncertain, agitated.

?

virtuous.

Be

hui 4. Unclean, to defile.

to

huaeg 3. A curtain, a screen.

rouse.

huant.

hui 2, The tape-worm.

hui 4. A broom.

still, further.

huant.

To return, to doubie.

A gentle, tractable

horse ; gleefal, frolicksome ; to play.

huang3. The

blaze of fire,

effulgent.

ie hui 4, Maddy. ae

huang 3. The sound of bells. huan 1. A badger.

hul 4. Rumbliog, to hum,

hui4. Kind, gracious, to be docile.

huang 34. A shop-signe

4 hui 4. A marshy orchid. >

huan 4. Toremove; to change ; to exchange. Huan 4. To call out to summon; to name.

huan4 A flame; brightness.

huang 8. Disturbed, sorrowful. huang 8

huang 4. To give, to bestow,

huan3.

To wash; a period

of ten days,

ia

to confer on.

S Bk He HEPES huan 4. Sick; ill; paresis.

He hui4.Akindof cicada.

Delirium, confused.

huia. A sore, to suppurate.

sn

huang 2. YeHow, imperial, a surname, huang 2. Brimstone.

huang 2 Jade, gems.

huan 4. Affliction, surrow,

hul4, The three upper lines

#p of a diagram, ae

hul 3. To teach, to advise,

‘bh

hui 3. To repent, to regret.

Fi

hui4 Dark, obscure, unlucky.

huang 8. A reed, a spring,

huan 8. Slow, tardy

lax, to

delay.

huan 2 Pillars or stone tablets.

to catch.

huang 2. Jaundice. hal4. To meet together, to

before a grave, to delay.

huan4

A dignitary

collect, to unite, a guild, @ huang 1. Wild,

empty, huan 4. Illusion, unreal, false.

HY NSS SE ae BS i

hvan4d

Domestic

animals,

to rean

sv

hui 4, Te rash, to flee, angry.

huan 4. To flee, te escape.

unproductive,

blasted, a jungle, a fa-

mine.

huang1. Appretensive, nervous, ohscure.

huang3. To lie, to mislead. He HM ho a BG RRR SRBRSN SF St SSS

=z

fondtu know. huid.

A bundle,

in

abun-

dance.

hui4. To draw, to sketch, to embroider, to adurn.

Hui. Hun. Hung. Huo. hul3. To break, to injure, to Spoil, to slander. bui 8. To burn down.

Ee ite

hui3. To slander, to defame.

i

hui. Bright, glisteriug, hull.

To move, to shake, to

rouse, to brush away.

huil.

beautiful,

Excellent,

iB Be

e+

hui4. A confluence, to deposit, a check, a draft.

ee Se

mR i

605

hun 2 A fine stone, a gem.

BB hung 1.To die, suddenly,

He

hua®. A sort of marmot.

huni.

Strong smelling. vegetables, forbidden to those who fast.

The

rumbling

of

hung 2. A school, an academy.

—____

HUO

hun4. A piggery, a privy.

hun4.

Confused,

dirty,

unclean, a privy. huni.

Confused,

See

Ho.

huo 4. Or, either, if, supposing

turbid,

that, perhaps.

Stupid.

huo4. Doubt, suspicion, unbelief, to deceive.

€E, hun®, Fritters.

ae

Nganhui,

huo 4. Spell, delusion.

hun 2. The

huiL Acobra.

a

soul, the manes,

| the vital priaciple.

huo l., To split open, to risk,

huii, Ashes, embers.

to expose.

hui 4. Plants, herbs.

huo8, To catch, obtain. Huai 2.

HUNG

hui 1. To destroy.

hui 4. A porcupine; a class, a Series, to classify. hui4. Goods, to bribe, hush money.

to

hui 4. Anger, rage.

A

Spa-

hung 2. Vast, wide, open.

hung ®. Deep, mysterious.

huo8. A sudden rain.

Uk

huo 3. The cholera.

Ti ie a

He hung 2. To beHow.

taboo,

ze hung 8. Noise, to trick, cheat.

versatile.

huo 4. To meet With, to unile.

to

K'uo4.

hun 1. Dusk, dark, confused.

huo3.

= hung 4, A lane. hung 4. The din of battle, to fight.

huni. To marry, marriage. buono {. The dimness of death.

hun 4. Dulness of vision. io

mind,

oo =

huo8. Furniture, gear.

hung ® Rain bow, ho®. Grain.

hung 4. Words destructive of

hod.

order and peace.

ST. hung2. Red.

Agreement, concord, to

gather, with.

cB SSS RAM

ho 2 Harmony.

K

Turbid, chaotic, Die whole, the mass. hunt, Meat which must not iB

be eaten on fast days.

Fire, flame, to turo,

fever.

hun 1. An entrance.

hun®?.

hno 4. To knead, to mix up.

huo 3, To live, mobile, active,

huog 2. Ao inundation, vast,

immense.

HUN

the crops,

harvest.

ded, to make great, to magnify.

ah

To reap

huol.

Bl, hung 2. Large, vast, expan-

hui 4. To conceal, to shun, a

huol. Confused dull, stupid.

to get, lo

huo“%. A snare.

FE hung 2. Vast, ample, ciouse

hu! 1.A signal flag.

OS St ae SF Gt Fat

hungi1. carriages.

hung 3. Mercury, quick-silver.

hung 3. Sound of birds.

hung 2. Swan, vast.

B

leagues.

ie

huo 4. Misfortane, calamity.

huo 3. Numerous, a band, col-

606 4

I.

huo4. Goods, merchandise, to

ee

11. An exclamation.

deal,

ag

huo 1. Open, spacious, clear.

i2, Toremove, to shift; to influence; to announce.

ii. A vessel ; one.

12. Sweet cakes, sugar, a de-

licacy; joy.

14. Spoilt food.

i2. To hand down,

ex-

suitable,

44. Admirable; cellent.

42. A foreigner or barbarian,

tual pleasure.

distant, vulgar, to kill, to feel

i4. Duty,

right, loyal, idea,

at ease.

meaning,

purport, common,

—————

i4. A city.

free, adopted, justice.

i2. Soap. 12.A wife’s sister, aunt, a concubine.

14. To bale out, to decant, to

12. Usages, observances, man-

maternal

press.

ners. 14. To consider, to deliberate

12. A noted hil in Corea.

i2. To doubt, to suspect, to similar, sop-

upon, to discuss.

fear, to dislike,

44. Ants.

12 Pleased, well satisfied. 1 2. Soivel, mucus.

pose. i3.To

14, Athought; an idea, a sen-

at BR Sk

timent;

an

intention,

compares

similar;

to

gucss ; to decide, to intend.

mea-

14. To practise ;to learn, tuil,

12. Young, delicate. Ni2.

niog; wish, purpose. i4. A hundred thousand; num-

pain, sprouts.

14. To glance at, to spy.

herless. 42. An interjection; to sigh;

14. To heal, to cure;

to moane

ii. To screen, leucoma in the

44, To reflect; to call tomind,

eyes.

to remember.

14. Thesolitary wasp or sphex.

iz. A yoke.

.

2

i2. A rainbow.

12. A roe.

ete a o =~

i4. The breast, the heart;

feelings.

i4, Different; foreign, strange,

i4. A dish filling with water; toincrease; to benefit;

i4. A dart, to aim at.

more

and mores

i1. One.

12. To let

44 Wearied; worn out. Tu 4.

138. To lean upon; to trust to; fot inclined.

41. Clothes. ig. To dress, to wear. ii. To rely on, to trust to, to

»® BRE sy

i 2. To send presents.

BR ra

conform tu, to accede , accor-

BR

&

der, a frontier; posterity. ——

Ba

i4. Skill,

handicraft,

trade,

art, to plant.

S To cultivate; agriculture ; handicraft ¢ trade; alaw; a

rule; art.

i4, The train of a robe, a bor-

i 3. To cease, to finish, cline; already, excess.

to de-

Fz 14, Au interjection, tu stop. -

ay 43. A chair, a seat-

i2 A fruit-tree, Aronia asizi3. A caldron.

Sg

—$—$——

ding to.

i4. Joy ; pleasure.

to transmit, to be-

queath.

i4. A piece of gold, a weight.

i 4. To translate ; to interpret.

i 4. The wings of a bird, to shelter, te assist.

+ eR eh eS LR GRE ‘as

i4. To overfiow,

44. Black.

i4. The government postal service, a courier. 14. To unravel; to uofold ; to explain ; continuous; unceasing.

heterodox.

i4. To hang, to strangle.

MRSS ES BERS ZU

a doctor.

the

14. A quarrel.

SF

to leave,

to induce. 12. Harmonious concord, mu-

tica,

yy

i 4. Easy; to be at ease

°

change ; to transform.

he

j

to

i4. A chameleon.

42. The fat around the viscera.

ale 42. A porpoise.

I. Jan. Jang. Jao. Jé. Jan. ae

yl

i2. The ching the jaws.

é

RR it

ide Ease, luxury, negligence. exceed,

v

tk

IP

OR Se

=

i4. To rush by, to rush on, to

607

3. To use, with, in order toe according ; a prefix connotating a relation,

43. Name of a plant ; Coix la-

jang 3. To cry out, to scold.

i

confusion or Woese

;

i4. To overflow; licentious.

[|N

i1. One; alike ; 10 unite ¢ the

i4. To repress,

FA

i4. A proper name,

jang3, region.

wy AF

pray in

jang 2 Pulp, flesh.

Jang ?. Wadding, colton.

jang 2. Lilium giganteum.

14. A band of eight dancers.

i4. To assist; ready to tly.

JAO (Jo)

2. A river in Shantung. 14. To exceed; to let loose; lust.

i1. He, him, this. /-li. Turkestan.

HH

aft

?

Mould, humus, soil, a

jang 3. To fast and

curb ; an initial particle ; or, either. 12. Offerings; rule ;principle ;

i4. Bright; to morrow.

of grain,

order to deprecate evil.

to restrain, to

law.

ert

The culm

abundant, prosperous.

13. A tail, Wei3.

5 ii 4.: Great, fine ;: to play chess. i4. Chess.

jang3.

i1. A cyclic character. To mark.

whole of; as soon as,

14, Also, moreover.

3p

Jang 3, To seize, to reject. jang 4. To ferment, to cause

ehryma,

jao8. To wind round, to sur-

i 4. To visit; tu go to ; to reach.

round, to avoid.

i1. Ariver in Honan.

i1. Reverence; to bow.

jao3, To wind round, to in-

i 3. A final particle.

jao2.

volve, to be entangled in, Hitt, i2. To

reward, lo promote;

grades, steps.

i4. To encounter, to oppose; rebellious; to conjecture.

st, 12. Arrogant, overbearing.

i4. To bury.

ayy

jao 4. Weak, feeble.

By

jao3. To trouble, to disturb,

ae

i 1. Contemptuous,

=k

tii turn aside, fo be wrong,

au

little.

RE ide Epidemic, pestilence.

jan 3. Tender herbage.

BS

jan2.

ys

{i 4. Warm, lo Warm.

The beard ; the whis-

bbe

kers.

i4. Firm; intrepid; fortitude.

JEN Jan®.

BB

JE (Jo)

jan 3. Tender, weak; little by

—___

Hy

to tame animals. jao4. If. Jo4.

JAN

ttt 43. To goto, to advance¢ to

Zz . ‘ ' iia i4. A petty official; a satellite.

To light; thus;

so;

however; bute

i4. To trail ;to drag.

jén2. Humanity, jan 2, To light a fire, to bura.

i 4, The train ofa dress.

ce, perfection.

jan 3, To dye; to impregnate ; to soil.

iA 12, Fit and right; proper; it ought ; should ; must. =

abundance, li-

14. To dislike.

Pa, i2. Liquor, sweet wine.

AY,

Plenty,

heral, to pardon,

JANG

42 Suitable; right; proper; relations.

jang 4. To cede, to yield, to a

give way to, to scold.

Jén 4. Edge blade

benevolen-

B

Jén. Jéng. Jih. Jo. Jou. Ju. Juan. Jui. Jung. jo. To provoke, to rouse, to

jén 4. A measure of eight feet.

t=

jén 4, To thread (a needle).

jo4. Name ef a place.

jén 4. To speak cautiously.

jo 4. A kind of plum.

ye=

ju2. To immerse, to moisten.

JUAN

jo4. A variety of bamboo.

én 4. Bit, curb, rein. jén 4. To staff, to fil.

JOU

e tk an3. Soft, yielding, pliable

jéu 4. Pliant, soft. jén3.

juz. A child, wives of officials.

incite.

To bear patiently,

to

joud. Flesh, meat, corporeal.

endure, fortitude, patience.

Jud.

jén 4. To recognize, to know,

to consider, to confess,

jou 2. Soft, yielding, pliant.

jén 2. A cyclical character.

jou.

jén 2. Pregnancy.

subdue. jou3. To

To hend, to twist, to

bend

by fire or

jou 4. Mixed tegether, pap.

jé04. The breast of a coat, buttoned under the right arm.

jou 2. Soft leather.

jén 4. An employ, an office, to bear, to tolerate, confidence, to

jou 3. Tender meat.

RaeBssrvss RBRRSH

JU

coat.

by

Jén 3. Creepers (plants ).

jén 3. Ripe grain, a harvest.

jén 3, Well cooked food.

a> gxos

JENG

ju.

Flesh,

meat, corporeal.

jui3. Plants budding, springing.

jui3. Junction of two rivers. jul 3. Gnats.

jul3 Central organs of a fto-

Jou 4, ju2.

juan4. Ductil metal.

fh jui4. A handle, a haft.

ju 4. To enter.

jén 3. To dwell upon, then.

wer.

Milk,

to suckle,

the

——— ————_

breasts. jul 4.

j4ng2. As before, yet, still.

$3away.

jé0g1.

To throw,

to fling

ja3. Thou, you. Nii3.

Perspicacious,

clever,

shrewd.

jui4. Poioted, acute, keen.

ju 3. Thou, you, your. juz. As, like also, to go to,

JH

nervous.

im an3. To wriggle.

A iW

jou2. To trample.

{én 4. The flap in front ofa

juan 4. Timid,

jul

fotlow, any.

jén 2. Pregnancy.

ga

juaa8. The Diospyros Lotus.

iti

steam.

jén 3. To cook.

bi i

RH BE GH wh Si

jul 4. Precious; auspicious.

to desire.

Sf SS ju2.

Roots, to examine, to

JUNG

eat, to toil.

ji 4. Sun, day.

JO (Jao. J8)

ju 4. To insult; to dishonour, to defile, to humble one’s self.

ju4. A thick stuffed

mat, a

mattress.

jo4. To be as; if, as to, to foliow, to be in sympathy with, much.

Sw 8

jus. The nists.

literati, Confucia-

et oR a

jung 2. A fire-fly. Ying2.

jung2. To bind reel, a circuit.

round, to

jung 2. Honour, glory.

Jung. Ka. Kai. K’ai. Kan. jung 2. To receive, to contain, to endure, to bear with, the air,

609

Tit ka 1. A scab. Chiat,

KAN

the countenance, the face. Yung2 jung 2.A mould; to smelt, to

KAI

cast.

kan 1, Sweet, agreeable, winso-

jung 2. Trinkets,

me, voluntary.

jung®?. The banian, Ficus indica, jung 2. The Hibiseus mutabilis.

kan te Liquorice. kan 1. Gingivitis.

kai 4. To cover, a covering, a

toof, to build ; for, since.

kan 4. A purple colour.

—_Seee

jung. To use, to employ, to display, to make, merit, ordinary, how? Yung 1.

Kan 1. Slops. kaid. The vertex.

kan 1, An orange.

kai 4 A cloak.

jung1. A hireling, to hire,

kan 1, Sweets.

just, impartial. Yung 1.

jung 2. Indolent, easy-going.

kai 1. Must, ought. kand4.

kal 1. To give; supplies. jung 2. Weapons, arms ; soldiers.

You,

kai}. Bounts, limits.

kan 1, Concerned, anxious.

your. To assist.

Barbarians.

kan 4, To smooth down.

jung 2. Velvet.

kai4.

To level, to

adjust, kan 1.A

altogether, generally.

jung 2. Down, Fur.

kan 1. The liver. kan 4. Sunset, dusk.

jung 3. Affairs, dutics, extra,

supernumerary. jung 2. To melt, to aHoy, cash. Yung 2.

kai 4. To ask alms, to beg, a mendicant.

ee eS ah Et Bi SBR SSM SAS kal3.

jung 3. Down.

To

change,

kan 1. A bamboo stake,

to alter,

kan 8. To

another.

FR RFARR BS FRS &ZSIS A

K’Al

kan 1.A pole, a handle.

KA k’ai 8. Good, brave, zealous. k’ai3. An armour.

ka L Laughing, cackling.

, mow down. k’ai3. A scytheto k’ai3.

kan 4. The trunk ofa tree, a tree, a stem; affairs, skilful,

HL

kan 1, Dry, clean.

A victory, the trium-

phant return of an army, joy, a minister.

ka 3. A mound. Ko2,

kai. A dumour,

ae

capablee

ka. A lance. A scamp.

kai. A knot,

to fodow

kan 8. The stalk of mitet, hay.

ant.

ka 8. Convex.

pursue,

after ; to eject, quickly, When.

jung 2. Thick, dense, luxuri-

ka 2. A clam. Ko 2.

Stick, a post, railings.

~~ eee

kai 4. To wash, to Water.

ap Te Sr ot kd Mal aS

A shield, a trunk, a

slem, to offend.

kan 3, To dare, to venture, presumptuouse kan S. To wash.

k'al 4. Generous, loyal, noble-minded, worried. k’ai1. To open, to begin, to

kan 38. To influence, to be affec~

write out, boiling.

hm 06S SS E Eclassic style of Chinese

k’al8. A model, a pattern, the

ters.

kan 3. The Olive.

charac-

ted by, to be moved, to excite.

BS a

kan 4. A river in Kiangsi.

K’an. Kang. K’ang. Kao. K’ao. K’é.

610

K’AN

=

k’an 1. To bear, to sustain, to

AK AK

He

ea Hed aA ft fit qf 4

Hao 3.

kao3. simple.

K’ANG

k’an 4. To investigate, tou ex-

Plain white, undyed,

kao 1. A boat-hook.

Hs Si BR

amine.

k'ang 4. Violent, excessive.

k’an 3. To cut, to chop.

.

= =| J

by a stove,

k’an3. A pit, a hole, a snare,

kaol. A lamb, a kid. kaol. Cakes.

k’aog 4. A brick bed warmed k’an 3. Reserve, modesty.

kao 1. Sweets,

k’ang 4. To oppose, to resist.

a pun.

k’ang 3. Deceived, disappointed.

annoyed, kao 1. High, emiuent.

mR ope

kao1. High, eminent. A pro-

k’ang 4. To match, a companiou.

essTo spy, to watche

per lame.

k’ang 4. The divan of a guestchamber.

k’an 4. To look at, to examiae, to watch.

k'ang 1. Peace, repose, pros-

k’an 1, A niche for an idol.

K’AO

perity. k’aug 3. Generous, magnaniMOUS.

k’an 3e Grave, dignified. k’an4. A feast, pleased, contented.

kK’ang 1. Chaff, husks of grain.

k’an tl. To carve, to cut,

A5

tu

ay

engrave.

3 Fat SSS 3 A S

k’ang®. To carry on shoulders. To bear.

KANG

i fi h fia)

kao 8. Whiteness, brightness.

Ba Ee

be capable, fit,

#8)

==I

kang 1. A tether.

es

kang.

Hard,

unyielding,

kao 4, To tell, to announce to,

to indict.

lation, law.

edict.

kao 4.

BE OF Ge

kang 1. Steel, hard.

kang}. An earthen jar.

To annoance

to,

k’ao 4. Cruelty, very, extremely. K'u 4-

an

k’ao 4. Hot air, to dry, k’ao 4. To lean on, to trust,

kao 8. Name of a place.

st

ay peeks

High,

lofty,

near to. noble, k’ao 3, Hot, to warm.

eminent, your, in direct ad-

kang}. A porter’s pole. kang}.

A jar with

wide

By |dress. kao l. Fat, viotment,

BZB=s GRAF kang4.

A frame to bear @

a plas-

St =

k’ao 4.

Bounty:

money,

to

feast, to regale.

eter.

mouth. kang 1. The rectum.

k’ao 3. To toast, to heate

k’ao 4. lrons, fetters.

box.

just now, recently. kang. Rope of a net, regu-

Aged, longevity, an-

cestors, to examine.

k’ao 3. To put to the question, to torture.

KAO

mound. A sehtry-

k’ao3.

a

kao.

ba)

rotten, withered.

Decayed

wood, dry,

KE

coffins

Fas

FA

kang 1. The four stars ofthe

Dipper, ; the four guardians of

Buddhist temples.

Straw,

a sketch,

draft. ee kao 3. Straw, a rough draft.

a

Al wi

k’'é 1. To carve, to chisel. K'o.

k’é1. To bear. K’o1.

Kén. K'én. Kéng.

KEN

K’éng. Ko.

614

K’ENG

ko2.

A partition, a shelf, to nextto. Chieh 4,

interpuse,

iy

kén 4. A

border,

a_

limit,

FS J since, till.

lw

uA ti AN

ko. A screen,

k’ény 3. A moment. Ch'ing 3.

Ko 2. The diaphragm.

k'éng 1, Aslant, inclined, to overturn, to pour out,

ko 2. Spasm, to hiccough.

kén 4. To resist, obstinate. Sr,

kén 1. Roots, origin, cause, a

k’éng 1. A pond, a pool.

hase.

k'éng1.

Em

kén1, The heel, to follow, with, to,

rt

4

K’EN

Tig

4

k’én 3. To gnaw. k’én 8. To gnaw. Henee.

pit, a hole,

ko 1. An elder brother, to

entrap, to ruin.

ko 1. To sing, a songe

k’éngi. A proper name. Obsko1. A parrot.

tinate.

ko1. A quay.

k’éng 1. The linkling of gems. k’'éng1.

The jingling of me-

ko2.

tals.

KO

hide, to

flay, to

ko. An individual or thing, a

To open new land, to

plough.

Raw

degrade.

k’én 3. To beg, to supplicatee k’én3.

A

classifier, this, this one. ko38. Each, every.

k’6én3. To be willing, to as-

Ko2.

sent,

rule, a pattern,

To reach, to examine, a

ko, A spear. Kuo1. ko {. To cut.

tt Dk ae sa ot

k’én 3. To annoy, to worry. ko1l. The arm.

KENG

kéug 1. To change, to alter.

A

night

a textile.

A council-chamber, the

watch.

kéng 3. Thorns, opposition, a

RR =BS

ko 1. To put down, to differ,

to support, to dispute.

k’o 2. Convenient, proper, can,

eal

ko 1. To jolt; to bump.

whole, an outline.

kéng 8. Choking, sobbing.

ko 4. A flea,

kéng 3. A ditch or channel.

ko 4 Displeasure, disgust.

kéng 2. A well-rope.

ko 1. A knot.

kéng 2e Constant, virtuous. kéng1. A ragout. kéng1. A cyclical character,

age.

kéng8. The nape ofthe neck.

may, to permit. k’o4, To crunch

with

the

teeth,

k’o 4, Quartz gem. k’o 1. Name of Mencius. k’o 1.A heap of stones.

ko, A flaw.

k’o 3, Uneven, rough, unfortu-

ko 1. A boil, sore.

k’o3.

nate. To knock, to beat, to

thump. k’o 3.

ko2.A knoll Ka2,

Small

plants,

petty,

trifle. ko®. Aclam. Ka 2.

kéng. Stalks.

S Rit Baek Bees

K’O

court, a cupboard.

kéng 4 More, further.

ge ‘kéngl. Ching 1

wy PRR BRS MEA H

ko 4. Dung-beetle ko.

ey

ko 8. The outer coffin. ko3. Pueraria phuscoloides,

& Ro Maas kol. dove,

A domestic

pigeon,

k’o 4. Pain, sickness. a

se SHH HAey k’o3. A proper name.

612 ak

K'o. Kou.

k’o 4. A task.

RR

k’o4, Grain.

eR

k’'o 4, An ingot.

K’ou. Ku.

ei Ay

KOU Ay

kou1. A mark,

to hook on.

$2] kou 1. To point a wall.

RR k’o4. A clod ot clay. a

k’o 4. Female of borses, mules,

$4 )kou 1. A hook ; to hook; to

etc,

$y |detain.

ya

k’o 4. Numerative of trees.

k’o1.

Numerative

i Hiss 7e

kou 8. A dog.

a

kou 8. A spinous lemon -tree.

mh

of small

round things.

kou 4. To suffice, enough. k’o 4. To envelop; to embrace;

k’o 4. To make haste. K’uo4.

4E

k’ou 1. Deep sunken eyes,

k’ou 4. To rob ; brigandage, k’ou4.

The

seeds

of carda-

moms,

kou 3. Grass 5 if, if so; im-

KU

k'o 4. To cooperate. K’uo 4.

kou 4. Dirty; sordid, immora-

Rey AY

k’o4. Kuo.

lity.

Rs

k’o 1. To measure,

vast,

k’oul. To raise ;. to feel for; to dig.

promptu ; carelessly.

35

Large,

k’ou 4. Taknock ; to tap.

FF KR

to include. K*uo 4. »

k’ou 4. A button.

liberal.

ku 3. Ancient, old.

kou 4. To pair, to copulate.

ku 3. A net, involved.

ku 1. A fault; to hinder others; kouw 4. To construct;to unite; to copulate.

a degree.

Science.

ot

=

koud,. course.

k’o 1. A tadpole,

Love;

sexual inter-

By

The cause or reason of

pose; old; to die.

ku 1. To estimate, to reckon ;

pen.

to set a price on» second-hand.

k’o 4. A quarter of an hour.

kou 4. To reach up to.

kul.

To trade in, to buy and

sell. Koul.

k’0 2. To coughe Hai 4.

A drain;

a ditch; a

moat. kou 4. To buy.

A k’o 1. The chin,

kou 4. To meet one suddenly; to oceur.

k'o 4. Reverent. Ch'iao 4. k’o 4, A guest ; a dealer

kout. A bamboo frame.

ah OS ee 2 ot

kou 4, To draw a bow to its

full stretch; enough ; adequate.

k’o 4, Can, able ; to be fit for ;

to sustain, to subdue,

tore-

To subdue

K’OU to over=

Raf come. A'é1,

k’o1

To knock.

k’0 2. A wooden

oup to hold

spirits.

k’o3. Thirsty, parched.

14] k’o 4e Dried.

ku L. To squat,

ku3. A bull. ku3. A ram or ewe. ku 1. A wheel ; to revolve. kui, The mole- cricket. ku 1. To gurgle.

press, K’é 4. Rl) =

ku 1. To deal in spirits.

a

stranger. Ch'ieh 4,

fe te 8

ku4.

a thing ; consequently ; on pur-

k'o1. To earve.

—_

+e

Of OH ot Be

kou 4. To meet with ; to hap-

S$

IK

ungrateful.

ku 1. A polite term for females, a young lady, a paternal aunt, husband s sister, Buddhist

k’ou3. The mouth. Numerative of persons, etc. k’ou4. To strike, to knock ; to fix, to close, to covers to seize ;

ku 1. A mush-room, a bud

to deduct,

Hence.

fi

k’ou3. Domestic animal.

ku 4, Te stop, to restrain.

za

k’‘ou 4, A knot.

ao

nun, to tolerate. Hence.

ku 4. Strong,

ROG ERE FSR MEHR

firm,

ku 4. Hard frozen.

lasting.

Ku. K’a. Kua. K’ua. Kuai, ku 4. A chronic disease.

Bat Eee

K’uai.

613

K’U

K’UA

ku 3, Salt pond ; to care for

kul. A wine-vase;

k'ul.

angular,

vicious.

ku 1. Fatherless; no protector;

Sow-thistle,

k'ua 1. To boast, conceited.

bitter,

painful, afflictions.

aOt

k’ul.

Dry

k’ua4.

wood,

decayed,

k’ua4. The thighs ; to bestri-

withered.

solitarye

kul.

The eatable Hydropy-

de.

k’ul. A skeleton, a skull.

ay OF st ot

k'ual. Pretty; vain.

rum.

ku.

To hoop, to draw tight.

k'u 4. Tyrannical, cruel, very, extremely. K’ao 4.

KUAI

k’u1. A proper name.

ku2, Bones.

dh iy SS S B

ku4. To trouble,

-__

to try, to

Kuali 3, To deceive, to seduce, a kidnapper, to limp.

k’u 4. A storehouse; a shop.

dig.

k’u 4, Trowsers;

ku3.

A sort

pantaloons.

kuaf 3. A staff.

of paper mul-

berry.

kuai 1. To slap,

k’u1. To weep bitterly

ku 3. Millet grain; corn. ku8.

The

naveor

bab of a

Rett RE FE k’u 1. A cave, a hole.

kuaii, A green cricket.

wheel.

kuaiil. The calf of the leg.

SE BY ie GE SH

KUA ku 4, To hire, to borrow.

y

: ku 4. To look after, to regard

Kua 1. Cucurbitaceous plants.

to consider.

kuai. To slice,

———————“—-

A

= SRA 22s =

drum,

drumshaped,

bulging, to excite.

ku 3. Dropsical.

kuai2. A proper name.

PE kuai 4, Strange, monstrous, te PE dislike, to blame.

ku 4. To hire, to borrow.

ku3.

To straddle, to step

across.

alt ak

kuai1. Strange, odd,

kuai 4. Name of a place,

kual. To biow, as the wind.

K’UAI

kua 1, To scrape, to shave off. kua 1, A crow, a rook.

k’ual 4. A drain. a trench.

ku 3e Blind.

kua3. To cut a criminal

in

k’uai 4. Crafty, mischievous.

pieces.

| fo of A) @

ku 3. The suow-goose, a target.

kuat. A garden slug, a suail.

ku4, Manacles, fetters.

kua 8. Awry, distorted.

ku 3. A Valley, a ravine.

kua4

ku3. The upper part of the

kua4, An outer coals

k’uai4. Minced meat.

k’uai4.

thigh, a slice, a share.

ku3.

A shopman, to taffic.

Chia3.

ku 3. Worms, A slow poison. Dropsy.

TR Be re RED

ku 1. A circlet, to hoop.

To divine, the diagrams.

To guip down,

greedy. k'uai4.

Pleasure,

cheerful,

quick, speedy, sharp, keen. k-ual 4. Chopsticks.

kua4. To hang up, iv suspense; a numeralive.

k'ual 4. A clod, a tump,

kua3e

k’ual 3. To rub, to smovth, to carry.

Alone, forlorn, a wi-

dow, few, seldom ; 1, the savereign,

ap ah mp SS SF aS

k'ual 3 Rush.

Kuan.

614

-KUAN

PH

ae x4»

kuant.

K’uang. Kuei.

kuan 4. To wash the hands.

kuan 4. A libations kuan3.

An official, a man-

To turn, a handle

AL

k’uang 4. Moreover, a fortiori;

it

circumstances.

by

KUEI (KU!)

which to turn a machine.

darin, public.

fete,

K'uan. Kuang.

kuan3. A tube, a clarinet,

K’UAN

to regulate, to govern.

kuei1. Jade sceptre, insignia

va kuan 1, Coarse textile fibres,

aE

kuan8.

of rank.

An office, a hall, a

aR

school. kuan 3. A restaurant, a club-

kuan 1. An inner coffin.

IE

kuan38.

BR) som.

kuei 4. The cinnamon tree.

k’uan 1. Large, indulgent; to

kuei 1. Name of a place.

forbear.

kueii. The door to the wo-

A duct in the body,

men’s apartments; girls.

esophagus, kuan1

kuei1. A sceptre.

ral, to treat well, an article, a

house, a school-roow, etc.

he

k’uan 2. Sincere, true, libe-

KUANG

The Emperor’s chario-

kuei3. Traitors, villains.

teere

rh te

kuang 1. Light, bright, glory,

kuan 3. Sorrow, sadness.

naked, only.

He i

ee }

mines kuan4.

An

observatory,

kuang 4. Water sparkling in

wy

ie1. To consider, to exa-

the sun.

HE kuang 1. The bladder.

a

kuei 4, To behead; an executioner.

kuei 4. To pray,

kuan 4. A heron.

x kuang 3. Broad; large, liberal.

kuan 4, To water, to pour, to

aE kuang 4. To stroll, to ramble.

ie

kuan 4. A jar, a mug.

$e

kuan 4, A box.

ME

kuan 4. Cares, pain.

kuan4.

To

through,

a string,

K’UANG

kuei 4, Chinese juniper.

kuel 4. Honourable ; esteemed ; prized; dear. kuei 4. Troubled , anxious.

kuel 2. A press¢ a boxe

AE

traverse,

to go

wt

k’uang 2. Mad, wild.

kueiS. To deceive; to pretend.

k’uang 2. Lies, to deceive.

kuei 4. To kneel.

—_——_—_

a series,

habitual. A

uy

Taoist convent.

force one to drink,

4

kuel3. The axle of a wheel,

it mae Bett @sthe rut, a track, a routince

kuan 4, Habitual, addicted to.

k’uang 1. Regular, to rule, to

kuel 8. Spirits ; a ghost; devils.

help. k’uang 4. Big branches,

kuei 4. The rose.

the

frame ofa thing. kuan 1. Rush, recd.

HEE k’uang 4. The eye-socket.

a rule, custom,

kuans. A flute.

=

ake

kuau1.

To bar the door, a f=

barriers

a custom-house,

k'uaog

*

2. To deceive.

kueli. To return; to send k’uang4. A_ yacant waste, emply, spacious, lazy, to waste.

connected. Kuan-ti the Chine-

se god of War.

kuan 1. A hoge fish. A bachelor, a widower. kuani., A cap, a crown, a crest.

kuel 3. A sundial ; time.

k’uang 1. A basket.

to

bear upon, involving, results,

ak oe RS HSE

kueil. A pair of compasses,

k’uang 4 A A desert. ie

back; to restore; to belong to; addition.

vault; a grave.

k’uang 4. Deception.

kuei 1. A tortoise.

kuei 3. A cyclical character, He ee SS $e Keene

K’uei.

K’UEI

ae

Kun. K’un. Kung. K’ung. kun 3. To turn

round, to re-

615 kung3. An official sceptre.

volve,

kung1.To

respect, to vene-

Tate, te revere.

k’uei 2. Name ofdifferent places.

kun 3. Imperial

k’uef 2, In opposition ; separated; distant.

Tobes.

k’uel 2. To squint.

SY Rae Rat

kun 3. To

robe,

court

kung}. To offer; a cult. kung 1. Work, labour, time of

boil; to roll, to

work.

move backs

kung 1. To assault, to attack.

k’uei 2. To consider; to calculate.

k’uel 2. The mallow.

on

kun3. A great

fish; a proper

kung 1,

name,

Merit, meritorious

service. kung 3. Quick-silver.

K’UN

k'uel 2, A giants chief; eminent, great. k’uei 4. A present of victuals.

k’uef 4.Ashamed, bashful.

k’uei 4. Provisions, victuals.

k’ueli 4. A heap. k’uei 4. To draw.

k’uei 4. A basket.

k’uei 4, Wearied, exhausted.

He #A dH #8] a ta [ea Fé By

k’uei 2 The stride made by a

Ee

man, a constellation.

k’uei 2. To peep, to watch, to

spy.

Ji

———

k’ueil.

A

helmet, a por-

ringere

k’uei2. A mountain goblin, A proper name.

S BERR FRAMED HSB PRE k’ueil. To

k’un 4. Distress, poverty, dis-

BS SW H>) ee

concerted.

kung 1. Common, public, official, usual, just, male, duke,

k’un 3. To bind, to tie.

k’un 3, To tie up,a bunch.

sir.

k’un 3, A sheaf,

kung 1, Scolopendra.

k’un 3. The thresholde

kung 1. A bow, a measure of five or six cubits.

k’un 3. Sincere, loyal, true.

kung 1, Body, personto , bowe

k’un 4. Women’s apartments.

kung1.A_

k’un 1. Elder brothers.

kung 1. Castration,

k’unl. The range of K’unlin mountains, between the desert of Gobi and Thibet.

kung 3, A mine, mineralogy.

k’un1, What

kung 1. The humerus, to help.

is inferior, the

earth, the moon, the wife, tbe

kung 3. A proper name.

minister, compliant.

Ea

k’un 3. Corridors, gyneceum,

70

k’un 1, To shave the head.

\y

ZHRERBRMG Ss Mo

kung 1. A cup made of horn.

K’UNG

harm, to injure,

KUNG

breathe heavily,

k'ung 1. Empty, void. k’ung 4. A space, blank. k'ung 4. To draw, to rein in,

to sigh.

om i

k’uei2.

Cross-roads, a tho-

kuug 4.

Generally,

aH, in

common.

roughfare.

to accuse.

kung 1.To offer, to expose, a

testimony, ad avowal.

KUN

kung3. hands

To bow,

before the

arch, a vault.

He

kun 4. A stick, a rowdy.

palace, castration,

a eunuch, constellations.

wanting, defect.

k’ueid., To

kung 4. Tribate, taxes. Hence

kung 3. To burrow as a mole; to stir up.

kung 3. A pillar.

Re Ht

with the breast, an

. 2 ¢

oh

k'ung 1. Simple, guileless. k’ung3. To fear, to afraid, perhaps. k’ung3. The surname Confucius.

be of

616

Kuo. K’uo. La. Lai. Lan. Lang.

LA

KUO

lan 4. The lustre of a gem. lan &, Orchideous plants.

kuo3.

Fruit, really,

effects,

la 4. Wax, a candle.

consequences, kuoS$s, Fruit, cakes.

kuos.

To wrap up, to bind,

la1, Empty, sterile.

lan 2. Ragged garments, lanli.

la 1. Coarse, vile.

lan 4. Greedy, covetous.

bandage.

Jan4.

Ja 4, Tin.

kuoil.A pot, a boiler. kuo 4.

SS 78 Re 1

To

pass

by,

past,

transgression, fault.

kuo 4 To seize, to capture. kuo 4, Frightened, surprised.

Wa ie fais

kuo4. A reel.

=z

la 4. Mean apparel.

lan 2. A basket.

la 4. To omit, neglected, dirty.

lan 2. Blue, indigo.

la4. The winter solstice sacri-

lan ®@. Dishevelled hair.

fice, the 12th moon.

lan 3. To inspect ; to behold. Hence

la 2. To cut.

lan$.

la2. A scar. lan 3. The olive.

la 4. Acrid, biting.

lau 3. Lazy; remiss; idleness. lan 2. Covetous, avaricious.

OE SE ER Se GRR ER RE rR

kuol. A lance, a spear. Koi.

lan 3. Mist; fog.

LAI

Rl

kuo3. A nation, a country, a State.

LANG

laf 2. To come, the future. lai 4. To give, to bestow.

K’U0

lang 32. The woil. fais. Weed.

k’uo 4. Curried leather.

lang?.

HR

laig. A variety of bamboo.

k'uo4. To cut off, great, to enlarge. k’uo 4. A ravine, a gorge.

lai4,

To rely upon, to trust

to, to accuse, to repudiate.

=

lai 4. Leprosy.

Ra

waves.

lang 2. White cornelian.

lang®2. A gentleman ¢a term

k'uo 4. To cooperate, to meet.

Jan 4.

K’o4.

worn out, disaggregated.

Cooked

thoroughly,

ce, ro include. K’o 4,

lan 2. Tu hinder ; to embarrass, to obstruct.

k'uo 4. To hasten, K’o 4.

lan 2. A railing; a balustrade.

k’uo 4. Large, liberal. K’o-4.

lang 4. Profligate

of

of respect. Hence

mour.

SS & Hh

kinds

lang 8, Clear, bright.

LAN

k'uo 4. Noise of talking, cla-

k’uo 4. To envelop, to embra-

Different

insects.

lang 1. To jump.

k’uo 4, To stretch, to expand.

ry

o interfere

ja 3, A sound.

la 1. To draw, to puil, etc.

ES

To grasp ;

with; to monopolise.

fication.

2 fo 3. An outer coffin.

NG

profuse,

lan 3. A rope, a hawser-

kuo 4. An ouler wall of forti-

laha

ue ae GE HE ft Be

To overflow,

lawless.

=4H 4

lan 2, Billows; waves.

lang.

Enamel,

lang®?.

Arcc-palm,

fa-lang.

ping-

lang.

lang 2 A dung—beetle; a mantis.

S28 Ei Se BE 22m

lang2.

ridor.

A verandah; a cor-

Lao. Lei. Leng. Li.

LAO

lel 2. Bronzes; copper coins. lei 3. Pimples.

lao 3. Old, to become old. lao 3. The mother of my mo-

lei 3. To tie ; to bind, to imp-

ther.

licate in, to harass.

617

A

M2. A sash.

i zi

lei3. To hind with ropes,

lao 3. Inhabitants of the Laos.

1412. Good omense

M2 Slimy, sticky. 113, To separate, to leave, dis-

lei4. To pound, to crash.

lao 4. Name of a place.

111. A vitreous substance.

$12. Water dripping.

lei 3. Scrofulous glands.

lao 8. Betel.

112. Dregs,

tance, distinction. Hence 112. A ladle.

Jei3. Puppets.

Jao8. Koumiss.

Jao4.

Silk

Tei3. A wall, masonry,

not yet reeled ;

fibres. lao 4, A branding-iron; to burn in.

lei 2 A wine jar.

11 4, Antelopes ; elegant, graceful.

lei2.

lf 4. A companion, a mate.

To creep, to cling to.

Hence.

lao 4. Name of a river,

CRRA MASH

lao4. The fal of the leaf ; to obtain; an abode.

113. To advance, successively.

lei. Tired out, exhausted.

ge ee et SE 7

lig. A rope, a cable.

lei3. A basket.

M2. A milltped. lao 2. To toil; labour ; trouble.

lel4. A species; a kind, a

Jao2. To fish up; te drag out

class.

of water.

lei4. The ribs, the side of a

lao 2. To chatter.

body. leig. Lean, thin, emaciated;

Jao 2. Wasting away from toil

1i 3. A fleet horse. li 2. The oriole.

14, A place in Shantung.

to destroye leit. A bridle, the reins; to

or anxiely; phthisis.

restrain.

lao.

A stable for cattle; a

jail; firm; strong.

li 4, The chestnut-tree ; care,

dignified.

lef 4. Tears.

Eh St Soi aH SH

lei3. A heap of stones.

lao 2, To scold.

li 4. Fear, terror, to tremble.

BERR RET EHH li 4. To smooth.

LENG

lao 4. A fleod, to overflow.

143. A river in Hunan.

UR Se HT ES

lao 4. Joy, to rejoice. Yao4.

LEl

léng 2 An edge, a corner.

lei 8. A harrow.

St

lei3. To eulogise the dead ; prayers.

léng 2. A sharp edge, a crest.

Se AF Re a

lei&, Thunder.

fei2. An edible clam.

a Be

Li

ae

fe Ae ae

Must,

newly

distilled

spirits.

113, A mullet.

113,

Ceremony;

etiquettes

presents, Worship.

1é6ng3. Cold, chilly.

lel 2. To pound; to beat,

ei eB

Hi 3.

{€ng 4. To look fixedly.

1i2. To stretch, to spread.

we R

114. To transgress, to come to; to stop.

114. The cry ofa heron, wild goose, etc, If 4. Sadness.

618 re

Li Lia. Liang. 114. The white jasmine.

11 4. Small stones, gravel.

114. Attached to; belonging; underlings ; government ; admi-

Ii 4. The lustre of gems. 112. A pear-tree.

Be

nistration 3 the square style.

114. A scrubby oak, Quercus

serrata.

113. A dark dun colour. 112. A plough;

114. Astronomy, calendar.

yak. f-li,

14. Idea of duration, of succession, to array in order, to

experience.

LIA

the Thibetan

112. Black. Hence

aw

lia3. TWo, of persons.

LIANG

142. Thistles.

114. A drop, to drip.

113. A hamlet; tre third of a mile.

4. Strength5 energy.

re OH OR HS aA

id. The Nephelium lichth.

113. Veins; striz; lo rule; to

tiang 8. Two, both, an ounces

manage; abstract right.

a tael.

lf 2, The foxe

112. Tho wild cat. ix

1i4. To stand erect sto rear, to

112.

The

found3 presénily.

sisters-jn-Jaw.

V4. A kernel, a grain.

113, The carp.

lia. A pen, a yard.

lit. A final souad.

fiang 4. Numeralive of chairs,

carts, elc.

wives of brothers;

liang 3. A sprite.

SaaS &ml\

liang 2. Good; virtuous; Da-

tural gifts,

ar

lid. A conical hat of straw.

liang % Grain, food.

li3. inside; lining; inner.

BE RE Rt KS

lid. Rain- water.

=a

114. To overlook, to exercise an

et

office, to governe

liang 2. To measure, to considefe

112. To regulates to give; the jhousandth part of a taele

liang 2. Rations 3100d ; grain liang 2. Sorghum.

.

144. A whetstone, bad, creel.

114. A whetstone.

liz. A widow.

liang 2. Ridge pole, beam.

12. The yak of Thibet:

1i4. Coarse, husks. li. Tail of a yah.

Hang 2 Freshness; to cool.

W4. A ford, to ford. M4. Rock oyster.

1i4, Rule, example.

Hang 4, To dry in the suns to aerate.

lia.

143. Shoes ; to walk.

liang 2. Togrieve ; melancholy.

To stimulate, to incite.

1i3. A plom-tree. U4. Sharp 5 witty; profit; in-

Ii 4. Magtstrates, officers.

terest on moneye li 4» Clever; active.

3S BH

IU 4. Dysentery.

liang 2. A hearse.

M14. To scold about; to rail at. 112. Sorrow, grief; to suffer;

li 4. A sound,

liang 4. Faithful; to trust; to cohsider; to excuse.

10 incur.

ee eS E ee eee ARR RAMS ee RRR aS 1i4. A Wood~borer.

liang4. bright.

Sth Rt StS StS AS Sat SE

Clear,

Mang 2. Ice. Ling2.

luminous;

Liao.

Lieh.

Lien.

liao 2. To depend on, to help,

LIAO

619

Lin.

a little.

lien 4. The Melia azedarach.

liao 4. To estimate, to judge, liao 1. Tograsp; to raise; to stir up.

ee liao 3. Cheerful. .

liao 2. Cunning of speech.

to reckon, lo dispose, materiats.

lien 8, Face, honour.

stuff, pulse for animals, colored glass.

lien 4. To shroud a corpse.

!fao 4. To rob, to plunder, to flog.

to concentrate.

lien 8. To collect, to gather,

lien 3. A wild vine berry. ie

liao 2. The cicada.

LIEH

~~

See

lien 2. A lady’s dressing-case,

liao2, To bind, to Wrap, a

a bridal trousseau.

turn.

ie ee

lien 2. A corner, angular, in-

liao 2. Fire, to burn, a signal-

fieh 4. To draw.

light. liao 2, To hunt at night with

lieh 4. Strong, robust.

lieu 2. A door-screen of clath.

torches.

lieh 4. To hunt, the chase.

lien 2, A waterfall, a cascade.

liao 4, A surrounding wall.

Neh 4, To skip over.

lien 2.,A hook.

lieh 4. To arranye, a series.

lien 2. The leg.

lieh1. To grimace.

lien @. A bamboo blind.

corrupt, to search out.

Mao 8. Bright, shiaing. Re

liao 2, A rafter.

1 "8

lfao2. A companion, league,

a collieh 4. Anxious.

Bet liao 4 Fetiers.

lieb 4. Buroing,

~

official, 4 window.

E&

liao 2. The penis.

covet. lien 2. A sign showing where

to split, a

wine is sold.

eS PRRKS SSS SHH H

schism.

lien 2. A dressing case, the

bridal outfit.

He

liao 2. To cure, to heal.

2

Haog,

Distant,

hieh 4. To crack,

Counected, united, to

jien 2. To pily; to desire, to

fiery, virtu-

ous, glorious.

Hiao 2. A companion, a pelty

»

lien.

combine with, to assemble.

lieh 4. To stumble.

HES liao 8, A clear eye, clear See

sickle, a reaping-

LIEN

a river

LIN

in

Manchuria. lier 3. To connect, to continue.

—_—

liao 4. Limits, disposition, a tn, a little, to make

lien 3. To take, to remove.

little

account of,

ae v

Neighbouring,

near,

contiguous. lien 2. A pouch.

take.

liao 2. Deep and clear.

Bi

liao 3. Name of a place.

sa

1iao 2 Waste, wast.

B

liao 4. A proper name.

fin 2. Rugged, precipitous.

lien 2. A chain.

ling. A pangolin.

Hen ®. A vessel, a cup.

SY ft bist Oe a te

Men.

The lotus, Nelwmbi-

lin 4. To grind, to abrade.

um speciosum.

lin 2. To select. lien4.

—_

liao’.

Waterpepper,

bitter

experience.

Ff

The ghost lights, phos-

photus. fing.

lien 2. To Weep.

liao 4. To lay down, to let, to.

BB



lin2

liao 3. Fixed, concluded, done.

To boil raw

silk to

lin 2. The female of the uni-

soften it, to drill in, to practise.

corn.

lien 4. To smelt ores, Lo refine.

lin 2. The scales of a fish.

lien 4. To separate dross by fire, to purify.

lin 2. Veined, as marble.

620

&

Lin. Ling. Liu. Lo. Lou.

lin

a . .

obey.

In 3. A granary, a grant from

Hong 2. Front teeth ; ages

the publi¢ funds, salary.

Ning.

fin3. To shiver With cold or fear.

fly.

lin 2. To toast, to torrefy.

AE et SS Te Wh Se

To hear, tolisten, to

lipg2.

A firefly.

The venimous

sand-

ling 2. To tinkle.

ling 2. Plume, feathers.

lin 8. To fear, to tremble.

ling 8. The throat, a collar,

lin 3. A government granary. Ling 3.

to manage, to receive.

lin 3. Cross-beams, rafters.

ling2% A prison, an enclo-

lin 2. A forest, a grove, a col-

Zl x]

liu 3. A proper name.

a

Hu 4. Six. Lu 4.

#5 1

iin 2. To drip, to soak.

liu3. A willow; debauchery.

ling 3. A mountain range.

LO

sure. ling 2 A huge truffle, Pa-

lo 2. A spring net ; a sieve-; to spread out; humpbacked.

chyma cocos. ling 2. Small rain, a fraction,

lection.

liu 3. A skein of thread.

lo 3. A gong.

a residue, a remainder.

to 3. To rend.

lin g. A precious stone \iat 2, Diseases of the bladder, dysuria.

lin 2, Refreshing rain.

lo 2. Clever, lively.

ling 2. A subtle substance, the spirit or energy

of a being,

soul,

transcendent

spiritual,

log. To prattle, to annoy.

power. ling

lo 2. To cruise about; to patrol; to explore.

. A trellis.

Hin 4. Avarice, stinginess. lin 4. A rush. jin 2. To condescend, about,

lo 2. Deep and open baskets.

BR SASS Wee Ym

ling 4 Apart, separate, besides, furthermore.

temporary.

lo2. Wisteria. Carrot, turnips, 103, Naked; to strip.

LIU

S ARS RRR lin 4. To let.

lo. A mule. liu.

LING

To keep, to stop, hoslo 4. To pile ap.

pitality.

iu, The pome-granate.

ie

ling 2, A mound, a tomb, to deseerate, to insult.

4 ling 2. Ice, pure, to insult.

Liang 2.

io Be

ling 2. Silk cloth, damask. ling 2.

The

waterchestnut,

RRR UR SHE

lo 2. A conch; a spiral; a screw.

liu 4, A current, a stream.

it I" 8. To seize; to capture ; pri-

liug. A ring,

soners,

liu 3. To linger ; to saunter, lo4.

htug?. Atumour, a wen.

Trapa.

a

fr Lo op

ling4.

to

lod. tibation.

A law, an order, to

command. Your honoured.

liu 2, Sulphur.

He Be ao Ge Bi St aS}

liu’.

Hog?

stretch;

a

liu 2. A glass-like substance. PY 4>

To

Liteh 4.

Alone, A mime.

Shrewd, cunning,

streamer; a peonant;, fringes. liu 2. To flow; to spread abroad;

Nog3. A collar.

to circulate.

Mug 2. A sleigh-bell.

SE

lo 4, Acamel.

Fringes of pearls; A

liud. A stone roller.

LOU 234 lou 2. To trail along.

draw.

Lou. Lu. Liian. Lueh lou 3. To embrace,

LUAN

tug,

lou 2. Ants. lou 2, An upperstorey; a tower. lou 8e A sowiog-machine.

624

Lu. Luan. 1 .s salary.

Iu 4. Green jasper, rough, la-

Es

ih

borious.

Iiian 2. A proper name. fiian?.

To bind

or tic,

lou % A skull.

luan 8, Flesh cut into slices.

lou 4. To carve; to engrave.

liian 4. Ardentiy loving, to dot on, to lust after.

lou 2. Misshapen, hunchbacked.

lu 4. To advance ; to proceed.

to

bend, to crook, to contract.

lud. To drip; strain.

to leak,

to

lu 4. The skin shrivelled, wrin-

RM Re RR

kled.

lu 4. To record, to wrife down,

au index.

Li.

LUEH

lou3. A basket. lou 4. To trickle, to drop. lou 4. Piles,

iu 3. Stupid, coarse.

4 Hy

liieh 4. Weak, fe2ble, vicious.

ju3. To growL

hieh 4. To draw out between

ju 8. A towere An oare

two fingers.

lu3. A grape.

lou 4. Vile. lou 4. To expose ; to disclose ;

LU

to appear. Lu 4.

LU 13. Vertebrae. Musical tunes, 13. A comrade. 143. SmaH column,

1a 2. The gate of a village.

Ju 2, A hut.

lu2. A stove.

Py

18

lu 3. Natural salt; rude; incivil, Iti 3. Potash.

lu 3, Gravel, pebbles.

lu 2. A brazier.

lu 3. The skin, to state. lu. A windlass, a pulley.

lu4.

Dry land, a continent,

Used for the numeral

liu six.

lu 4. Grain which ripens early, precocious.

ju2. A wine jar.

fu 2. A skull. 1th 4. To think, to meditate ; to care for.

lu %. Gurgling.

1% 2. An ass; a donkey.

lu 2, Hempen thread.

lu 4. To kill, to slaughter. lu 4. To scorn.

lu4.

To give a present,

to

bribe.

i 2. Hunchbacked ; misshapen. Lou 2 143. Torn clothes, ragged, lan-lii. 18. A thread ; to state in de-

tail.

iu2. A gourd.

lu 2. A cormorant. lu 2. Water rushes. iu 2. A thatched hovel.

lu 4. A chariot.

lu 4, Road, way, path. Hence lu 4. A heron. lu4. Dew. Lou 4.

108, Many dimes; repeatedly. lu 4. A stag; a deer.

13. A body of 500 soldiers,

lué. A block.

LUAN

to travel, exile,

1a 2. The backbone, strength.

Ju 4. A basket, luan 2. Spherical, round.

lu4. A Wooded mountain.

J 4. Musical notes, law, right.

ee SRT eee PR lik4, Green.

juan 2. Twins,

Rk SS RRS SRE ESR RSS lu@ A box, a case.

luan 2, Little bells, imperial cars.

22

Lun.

juan 2. Argus pheasant, small

belis ; imperial. Juan 2. A river in the northeast of Chihli.

mBo

Lung.

Ma. Mai.

Man.

MAI

Bee lung®2. A hatter.

A

aR(or

lung 2. A cage, ty monopolise. mai 4, Corns

lung 3. A hole,a cave. luan 3. Eggs, testicles.

lung 2. Deaf, deafness.

hung3

luan 4. Troable, disorder, discord, anarchy.

2S =

mal 3. To buy, to purchase.

A barrow, a grave.

mai 4. To seH.

lung2. Abundant.

mal 4. To step, to ga.

lung 2 The vault of heaven,

LUN (Liin

mai 4. To brag.

a cavity , a hole.

EtG me &

mai 4. To exert one’s strengt he.

=

lund. To discourse, with reference to.

togic,

ARG ai We Si Sa

lung4.

To

handle,

to play

with, to deceive. Nung, neng.

lum 2. Constant, regular, moralse

lun?. A wheel, a turn, to revolve.

MA

disk, a

lun 2. To wind, to regulate, To classify. lung.

St

ma 3. Locusts, ants, ete.

To wave, to brandish.

ma 4. A graft.

hun 2. Complete, Whole,

SHS SS XH BE

lung?.

BSS FA

mal. A nurse.

ma 1. An interrogative particles

E

mas. Weights, numerals. ma4.A knightin chess.

MAN man 3. Wide, long.

man 4. Slow, remiss, neglectful, rude.

man 4. Water wild, reckless.

overflowing,

man 2. To recriminate.

ma 3. To pile up.

man 2. Steamed dumplings.

ma 4. To curse, to revile.

maa4

A dragon, imperial,

glorious.

H

veins or arteries,

ma 3. Agate, cornelians

=|

LUNG

mz &

mai 4, The

the pulse.

ma 4. A military sacrifice,

lun 2, The K’unliin mountains.

lun 4e To moisten.

maid. A raised path, a street, to malke

mad. A horses

To choose, to select.

lum 4. The intercalary moon, extra.

to

mai 4. Wild tribes ofthe North.

TA a

hun 2. Eddying water, engulfed, lost.

mai 2.To bury, to conceal,

hoard.

To pilaster, to lay, to

pave.

lung 2, A pen, a cage. ma,

Hemp, textile fibres.

man 4. A curtain, a screen.

luog 3. A dike. lung 3. To grasp, to collect. Acomb, lung 2. The throat.

mak. Lama, a_ tibetan bonze.

ma. An interrogative particle.

Mot. ma 2. To see indistinctly.

man ®?. A trowel.

man 4. Plain, simple. man &. A kind of turnip.

lung 2. Dull, dim, obscures

ma?. Numbness, pock-marks. tung 2. Tinkling. lung 2. Fleshy.

& at 2a SS

lung 2. To kindle a fire,

mal. Confused. Moi.

2RELE BERS E% ma}, A frog.

mao 1. Brazenfaced,

mans.

To deceive, to blind,

to conceal.

as Me SMe ee Se ee man 2. To limpe

Mang. Mao. Mei. Mén. Méng. man 68. Full, complete, Manchu. man &. To cover with leather.

fe $i

man 2. Barharous

tribes in

the South of China.

;

mao 2. A cat,

=

mao 2. Hair, down, feathers,

he E

mang 2, Cardiac region.

mang?. People.

zz

Tt ee +Sz ee Df Of

tered.

mang 2. A beard of grain, a

sharp point, a ray. Hence vast

and vague, chaos. mang 2. Alkalines.

ct Tk

mang3. Jungle, growth, rustic.

mao 4. Muddled, confused.

pe mel 2, A kind of millet. joe sz

mao 2- Tail of a yak used as a banner.

ies

under-

mei 2, Arrack.

mei 2, No, not, malice, defeat, loss.

mao 4. A man of seventy.

A cyclic

character,

35

a term, a mortise.

ne

mei 4. Dark, retired, secret, silept.

ies mei 4. Ink, black.

mao 3. The mallow.

Si ct IK

mei 2. To bind, to tie.

\

BE

mao 4. Vegelables.

mao3.

hurried, flut-

mei 2. Rosy jade, a rose. mei@. A stalk, a stick, a gag, a numerative.

¥

mang 2. Country people.

High waters,

mei 4. To rest, to sleep.

54

mao @. An anchor.

Hei IE

mang 2. Blind.

mang 2.

ie

delicate.

MANG

mang 2. Busy,

mao 8. Cantharides,

623

mao 3. The Pleiades,

Ket mei 2, Coal.

mao 4. To barter, trade.

Het

mei 2. A go-between.

mao 4. Exuberant, flourishing.

ri

mei 2. Microbes.

4

-

= maoi. Hii Mol.

To feel for, to paip. Se

mang 3. A kind of boa.

mel3.

Delicious,

beautiful,

well.

We

mei 4. Dryads,

th mei 3. To defile, to foul.

MEI

MAO

aps

mei 4. Thick, close. Mi 4.

imei3, Each, every. mao 4. A covering for the head, to rush on, rash.

mei2, Plums, prunes.

mao4, A cap or head covering of any kind.

mei 2. The eyebrowse

mao 4. Ill-will and jealousy.

mei4.

n~

To love,

to coax,

MEN F

flatter. mao 4, A torteise-shell.

mei2.

A mountain in Ssi-

ch‘van. mao 4, The outward mieo. mao 4.

meiz.

Lintel

of a door or

window.

door,

a

gale, a

. ‘FA mén 1. The sign of the plural #4

mén 1. To feel for, to press.

Ry

mén 4. Depressed, melancholy,

mei 4, No sav, dark, hidden,

stupid.

MENG

to conceal.

mao 2. A Jance.

mei 4, Dimness of vision.

mao2,. Reed used for thatching, a hut, a privy.

mw SYN SA ha Mou 4.

A

The outward, mien,

aspect, manner, gait.

mao4.

mén2.

family, a school, a seet.

to

Abundance,

energy.

7

mei 4. A younger sister.

Ft Sti HE Hm Fa

mei 4. Hamadryads.

méng 2. To cover, to conceal,

ignorant, to receive, Mongol.

ge méng 2. Dimsighted, ignorant.

Méng. Mi. Miao. Mieh. Mien. Min.

624 méng 8.

Obscure,

confused,

to deceive, to mislead.

méng 3. Gnats. méng 2. A cruiser.

5 oe Ws

mi 4. Invisible, to search for.

KE os 3. Parturition.

mien 4, A mourning cap.

mi 4. Secret, mysterious.

mien 3. A cap of ceremonys

meéng 2. Drizzling rain, mist.

MIAO

mien 8. Namie of river.

méng 4. Chief, head, first. méng 3. Fierce, savage, cruel.

miao®?. The tender blades of grass; sprouts; aborigines. miaog.

méng 32. A covenant.

SF SE S63 BBN SHE

delineate;

to

mien 4. The face ; the front ;

sketch; to depict.

the surface ; to visit ; to meef ;

————— a

méng 3. A germ, a shoot, to

YE Re

To

mien 4. Flour; nouilles.

turn; time.

thrive.

miao3.

méng 4, A dream, to dream.

trifling. miao3.

méng 3. Stunneil, stupid.

of a degree. miao 4, Wonderful, excellent,

The

tip, a straw,

Asecond

mien 3. Modesty, timidity. mien 8

of lime or

subtle, mysterious,

mien2.

miao3.

cotton.

A one-cyed

man.

The

Vast;

boundless3

ver-

colton-plant;

Saas F=H BR

mien 2. Soft; downy;

Hence miao3,

Wheat-flour;

micelli. ———

floss

silk; continuous,

vaguee miao3. To despisé, to insult.

mil8. Grains of rice or millet, etc.

a

mien 3. To ¢lose the eyes ; to sleep.

miao 3. Obscure ; mysterious. Yaos.

mi 3. Pholophobia. m1. The elk, difform.

mi’.

miao 4. A temple. A fair.

ming.

Reduced to pulp, rice

min 2. To angle.

mi2. To confuse, to bewitch, fascinated.

min3. To smooth down; to handle geutly. min 2, A mountain ia the Ssti-

MIEH

mi 2, A riddle, a puzzle.

mi 4. Still, silent. mii 4. Honey. mi 4. Close,

mieh 4. To put out; to extinguish; to destroy. mifeh4,

intimate, secret.

Meid.

Minute,

worthless;

not, without.

mieh 4. Splints.

mi2. To complete, full, very, much. mi 2. To inundate, vast, much.

MIEN mieng.

To avoid, to evade;

to spare.

mid. Ends of a bow, to stop,

mien 3. To make an effort; to

to keep down.

excite, to constrain,

ee & RR H PARR RET HS 2E mai 4. Sleeves of a robe.

The people, the cum-

mon multitude.

miao 4. A proper name Niu 4.

gruel.

mien 3, To incline, to bow.

i

ch’uan.

ik Hk Ric is e Be Bd

min 3. To inundate; destraction.

min 2, Alabaster. min S. Strong. Hence

min 3. Pity, compassion. min 8. Strong, brave. ming.

Pity,

compassion,

Pity,

compassion,

sympathy. min3.

ny sympathy.

Ming. Mo. Mou. Mu. min 3. Quick .of perception ; clever; wilty.

min 8. Turtle; tadpoles.

iA —35—

RR

min 3, Pottery, vases.

mo 2. Mushrooms.

MU

mo 4.A negative, an interro~

gative, is it, is itnot? Mud. A plan, a scheme, to

mo2,

'

miin 2. The Fukien province.

625

mediate,

mu 4. Not, is it not? Mo 4,

SE

mo 1. Confused. Ma 1.

MING

, Mu 4, To love, to long for.

mo 4. A sandy desert, the Gobi.

mu 4. A graye, a tomb,

mo 4. A thickening of the cornea.

ming 2. Dark, obscure,

ag mt Ot] ming ¢=

mu 4. To collect alms,to invite, to enlist,

mo 4. The skin, to caress.

ming 3. Obscurity.

m= \

mu 4. Evening, sunset,

mo 4. Dust.

mu 4. To bestride.

3. To close the eyes.

ming 2. Ocean, mist.

m0 4, To feel, to palp, to succeed. Mao 1.

mu 4. A curtain, a screen,

mo 4. Silent, solitary.

look.

miu 4. The eye, an index, to

ming 3. Reticent.

Sai Sar 3 ming

mu 2.A pattern, a model, a fashion, a mould,

2. A veil.

mu 4. Lucern.

ME Sa SE Yat EH mt

mo 4. The end ofa branch, the

ming 2. A name, an appella-

end, finally, accessory, powder,

ming 2. To carve, to engrave.

¢

x

to rub

to cut.

OF TH ae Yo oe Se 3a oe OD

mu 3. An elderly matron. mu 38, The thumb. mu 8. The toes.

mu 4. Wood, a tree,

clear,

mos.

To

plot,

to

scheme,

to explain, intelligent.

strategye

miog4.To

mo &. To plunge, to disappear. Mu 20

command, a de-

cree, fale, life. ming 2. The cry ofa bird, to

—ia sound.

Se uit

mu 4. To wash, to give, to receive.

mur2, To plunge, to disappear, to cease, not, none. Mo 2.

MOU MO

mo 2, A devil, a demon.

mo 1. An inlerrogative particle,

mu 2. To die, to perish.

mu 4, To pasture, a shepherd,

mou 2. To bellow.

to superintend, aruler, a teacher.

mu3.

mou 2 The pupil of the eye.

The male of quadru-

peds, a bulle The peony. mou 2. Barley.

Nat.

mu 8. A ceitain one.

mo 2, A basin. To rub, to polish. A

mou 3. The personal name of

Confucius ch’iul,

mu 4. Majestic, to revere.

being res-

pectfully pronounced iow 3.

mu4.

mill, to grint. mo 2, Steamed bread in small loaves.

fm FR Sm

root, the key.

mo 4, Jasmine.

> RRARD

mo?

that which

mo 4, Fodder, straw.

at SF St

ming 2. The tea-plant. ming %. Bright, light,

mio 4. loam, scum, saliva.

out, toanoint

ming 2. A river in Chibli.

mother,

produces, the source of, the

mo 38. To wipe clean,

ming 2. A strong spirit, drunk.

= Ss

mu3.A

a negative,

tion, fame.

mo 2, To feel with the hand,

to palp, to caress. Hence

mou 4, Dull. blind,

OF Sk BRH

mou 4, To exert one’s energy,

prosperity. Mao 4.

i

A_

benignant

harmony, concord.

mu 8. The Chinese acre.

eye,

Na. Nai. Nan. Nang. Nao. Nei. Néng.

ni

NA na 4, This, there.

nan 2. To recite.

x

nan2.

TH

Difficult, hard; is it

Ni. nao 1. Straw; fuel ; vile.

nao 2, Impure ammoniacal salt.

fha3. Who? what? where.

nai. A final particle. nag. A buddhist sound.

w

nan 3. To blush , shame,

na 4. Robe ofa honze, to patche na 4.A

seal.

nan 4, Bank, shore.

nan 2. Ancven grained reddish

na4. To hand up, to pay, to keep.

wood,

a

A bag ;a sack.

fk

a

4

nang4. To snuffle,

nai 4. To endure, to bear; to

Ty nel 4. Sadness, pi my nel 4. To speak cautiously. Né 4. nei3. To assent, Né3.

nang 1. To mutter.

NAI (Al)

néi4. In, into, interior, near lo, among.



NANG nang3

nal, Filthy. Ang t.

Ay

—_——

na 3, To take, to hold, ete.

i

NEI (Né)

fian 2. The male of the human Species; a man.

nei 3. Hunger. nel 2. To rub; to polish. Né2.

nang. To slab.

be able.

NENG

nang 4. Mouldy; spoiled. nal3. This; here; precisely; then ; thereupon,

nang 1. Muddy.

i nang 4. Dust. nal 3. Breasts; to suckle; milk.

néng 4. A bear, able to, ae bility, power.

nang 3. In former times; pre-

(is néag 4. Muddy.

viously. AJ*

(nai. Means ; resource; to endure,

4

EF néng 4. To handle. Lung4.

itil helehe 5 haugs. Warm, mild. Nuan3.

nal 2, The forehead.

NAO (AO)

NAN (AN)

Je

ni2. To stop; a nun.

We

ni 2.A slave girl.

ve

ni2. Mud, miry, to adhere, to

nao3g. The brain. nan 1. |, me.

nao3. anger.

nant. A guail. nani,

A hut; a

irritation;

——..

nan 2. The south.

mang. A kind of cedar,

He (sss

nao 3. Cornelian; agate.

PIE nia. To diasn.

nao. To scratch, to vex, to trouble.

WE nts. Anin io Shactong. JW wit. A Gnat sound.

Buddhist

monastery.

at oh Et St at

Vexation;

naoZ, Cymbals. mao 2. Curved; weak,

EE

nid, To hide, to abscond.

627

Ni. Niang. Niao. Nieh. Nien, Nin. Ning. Niu. No.

#2 |niet. To knead with the fia

ni3. Ashamed, mortified.

ja |gers, to fabricate, to trump up. fa x

ni3. Aucestral tablets. nl 3. Overflow.

a

nieh4.

ee

Yeh.

To gnaw,

to cat.

ayy

nieh 1, Worn out, weary.

i

nieh 4. A target, a judge.

ning 2. Rest, repose, serenity, peace, to prefer, how, why?

ni 4. To sink, to be drowned, doting on.

ni4.To grasp, to catch hold.

ning To enjoin charge straitlye

Be 4s Sh gE

——_——-

ni §. Grease, fat.

NIEN 7>

a

ni 2. Yeung, small, delicate. / 2.

+

8 Wes

ni 4. Revolt. / 4.

NIANG

ning 3. To wring. ning 4. Persnasive,

ni3. The second personal pronoun, thou, you.

upon, to

nien 4. To think,

to ponder

on, to study, to reoite.

nien 3. To nip with the fin-

insinva-

ting, fatteringe

a

ning 2- To freeze, to congeal.

gers, to twisl,

NIU

nien 4. A dike. pien 4. To calk.

niu?

An ox, a bull, a cow,

bien 4. A tow- rope.

cattlee

nien2.

niu3. To twist, to wring, to

—_——_———>

&

UR

ane2. A mother; a lady.

Glutinous, to stick

ture

upe

niu 3. A button.

nien2. The mud fish.

nien?. To take up fingers, to piok out.

NIAO

in

the

niu 3. A knot. piu3, Inclined to evil.

nieuw 3. Imperial vehicles

piao 4, Cruel. Yao 4.

at We 31

niu3. Morose, stubbor.

nien 3. To expel, to dismiss.

pniao 3. Birdse

piud.

nien 3. To roll in the fingers,

oy

niao4s. Urine. Sui 1.

to Twist.

niui, A lass.

union, Counexion, niu4. mixture. Miao 4. fallacious, niuad. Mistakea,

nien 2. The year, the crops. nieo 3. A roller.

pieh 4. To whisper, to plot. nieh 4. Pincers, to pinch.

error.

RE

niu. Tares.e Yud.

nien 4. Twenty.

niu 4, To clutch, stabborn.

——-

ae

nieh 4. A son of a concubine, evils of sin, sorrow,

Li

i

if

fright,

nien8. To go afoot.

NIEH

i

Nose-bleed,

defeat, rout.

retfibu-

a

plen2.Withered, faded.

tion. Yeh 4.

nieh 1, Mad, slime,

AR (yer)

nin 2. Your hononr, yeu, sir.

i

no2, To shift, to remove.

628

Nou. Na. Nu. Nuan.

FF

NOU (Ou)

nung 4. To handle.

Lung 4.

Néng 4.

noud4. A hoe, to weed.

{5

Nung. O. Ou, Pa.

I BA

o 4. To rest, to lie down. Wo 4,

0 (No)

OU

nou 8. A mate. 0u3. nou. To beat Ou.

03.1, me, my, Wo3., ou3. Tou heat, to smokee

© 2. Sudden.

NU

ou 4. To soak, to stecp.

02, Good, beautiful.

x

© 2, The forehead. Nai,

nii3. Women, a girl. Ju 3.

NU nus.

A slave, a term of con-

tempt.

nus.

To

exert the

utmost

strength, to strive.

nu 4. Anger, fury. nu 3. A cross bow.

or IN OY de WS a

nu 2. Children. See T'ang 3,

oul. To vomit, to spit.

o2. To hum.

oul. To recite.

o?. A moth, Wo2.

Ou 4. To excite, tu irritate.

0%. The domestic goose. Wo 2.

ou 3. A tumulus, a tomb.

© 2. A mountain in Ssiich’uan.

ou 1. To beat, tu strike, tofight.

HHS SBS SS Gd a

ou 1. To vomit, to retchs

o 4. A precipice.

oui. A bowl, a cup.

© 4 Honest, sincere. ou 1. A sea gull.

o 4. The crocodile.

nu 8. Granulations.

nu 2. Children weak and tender, to exterminate a family.

o4, Hungry. Wo 4.

0 4. To be frightened.

ae

o4. A sharp point. 04. The osprey or fish-eagle.

NUAN

ou3, An image, an idol, to mate, suddenly.

o4. Name of lifferent places.

ous.

Two

mato. ous. lotus.

The

furrows,

a pair, a

ee i oo Wi Si RES WHE rvot-stock

of the

PA

o 4, The crocodile. nuan 3. Mild. Nang 3. o 4, Evil, wrong. Wu4.

ze

|nuan 3. Lukewarm. Nang3,

NUNG nung 2, To cultivate, agriculture, a farmer.

nung 2. Pus, matter. nung i. To mutter,

nung 2. Sticky.

AE Re HE Se Me

pat.

o 4. Weakness, incapacity.

nung 2. Mucus of the nose,

© 4, To sfop, to cheek.

rit Bay Mp Be

Je Du LU

(E ra

0 2, To deceive, to harm.

A proper name, sign of

the oplative. pa3e

To

hold,

to grasp, to

seize, a bundle, a particle denoting the accusative, a specificative, to lease.

pa4. A handle.

o 1. Used as sounds. A.

pa 4. A harrow. o2.

To exorcise the demons

which cause pegtilence,

eu ne

o 4, Difficulfy, distress.

o4. A defile, a pass, difficully. o 4. A yoke or tollar.

pa3. A target, pai. A dumb man, ya-pa, pat. A rake.

5G

pad. The part of a bow graspede

Pa te Cicatrix, scar.

Pa

paid. Weeds

pa 1.A banana-tree.

629

P’an.

We

to ruin; to

destroy.

(ee (EE

pai3,

pal. A guitare

To unfold,

C

To govern, to incroach

on, a tyrant.

to promulgate, to bestow.

pai 4. To salute; to reverence. pani. Manner; fishion ;sort; kind.

Bit He

pan 1. To remove; to transport.

pai. Carrot; turnip.

pani. pa 1. Eight.

Hi

pan 1, Cantharides

p’ai4. To branch, as a river ;

pai. To strip.

tu ramify. to deputo,; to appoiut to a post. A school, a sect.

pal. Eight.

¥FA

pa 2. To draw, to eradicate, to To stop,

a troop.

p'ai4. Textile fibres.

extirpate. pad.

pan 1. To dispose ; a series:

japk

pan 1. Variegated.

——

me

Marks on the skin;

moles

P’Al

pal. Trumpet, la-pa.

#2 2S>

A board, a plank, a

pan 1. To extend, to expend, worn out.

pal, To break.

pa 4. A dike.

pan3. diploma.

pau 4. To dress up, to disguise, style of dresse

to expand,

tu expose. A ferry.

SS ? pai 4. Exhausted;

pa4. A father, papa.

pa4

Pan.

tares.

paid. A defeats

pai. A hedge, li-pa,

» 4

P’a. Pai. P’ai.

to finish,

to

pan 4. To manage , to act ; fo

p’ail. To pat; to slap.