Catalogue of the Syriac and Arabic Manuscripts at the Patriarchal Library of Charfet 9781463211103

Isaac Armalet’s catalogue gives the first detailed description of the Syriac, Garshuni and Arabic manuscripts at the Syr

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Catalogue of the Syriac and Arabic Manuscripts at the Patriarchal Library of Charfet
 9781463211103

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Catalogue of the Syriac and Arabic Manuscripts at the Patriarchal Library of Charfet

Catalogue of the

Syriac and Arabic Manuscripts at the

Patriarchal Library of Charfet

Isaac Armalet

GORGIAS PRESS

2006

First Gorgias Press Edition. Copyright © 2006 by Gorgias Press LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the LTnited States of America by Gorgias Press LLC, New Jersey, from the edition published by PP. Missionnaires, Jounieh, Lebanon, in 1937.

ISBN 1-59333-365-X

GORGIAS PRESS 46 Orris Ave., Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA www.gorgiaspress.com

Printed in the LTnited States of America

INTRODUCTION

One cannot think of Lebanon without marveling at its delightful natural beauties: its landscapes are the most picturesque in all the Orient, framing buildings that rank among the grandest and most beautiful in the world. In antiquity, the Phoenician coasts saw the dawn of civilization and the rise of flourishing cities: Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Byblos—famed not only for their commerce but for their schools, libraries, and love of the arts and sciences. In later times, many monasteries were constructed atop its mountains, and in its plains and valleys: dedicated to the contemplative life and to active life, the monks cleared the lands, preached the Word of God, copied manuscripts, or devoted themselves to academic pursuits and to teaching. Their cells and monasteries thus became centers of intellectual enlightenment; the treasures they amassed were transmitted by the labor of their pen to succeeding generations, stimulating them in this way to imitate the zeal of their ancestors in acquiring knowledge and virtue. Patriarch Ignatius-Michael III Jarouet (1782—1800) was acquainted with these glories of ancient times: he conjured up with pride the past of his dear nation and sought a means of reviving that golden age. The reflections of the eager prelate were translated into a determined resolution to pursue at all costs the restoration he envisioned. We see him devoting himself without respite, with unparalleled enthusiasm and diligence, to uncovering those innumerable treasures left by our ancestors. He was convinced that in their works the true light would be found, the source of the most solid and certain understanding. All these efforts converged on the realization of this project; he never lost sight of it, even in the midst of the most excruciating sufferings: slander, prison, exile, flight into the desert ... This is how he managed to assemble a considerable collection of manuscripts that he himself or his students copied, and of other volumes

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bought with his modest resources or inherited from his father NaamatAJlah and his brother Chevalier Gabriel de Jarouet. Persecuted in his native land, he emigrated to Mount Lebanon, which was then completely safe, but he did not fail to bring with him his valuable acquisitions, which in turn he willed to the Monastery of Our Lady of Deliverance, which he founded at Charfet in 1786. Following the example of St. Isaac of Antioch, he never left off encouraging the ardor of his students with the wise maxims of this great Doctor: "The treasures are buried in the books: dig and you will uncover them; the riches are in the volumes: read them and you will enrich yourself." 1 fO^Mi oii,

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It is this taste for knowledge and virtue that the holy Patriarch wished to instill into his seminarians while leading them toward holy orders. He wrote on this topic: "I was convinced that all my efforts would end up fruitless if I did not construct a refuge where pupils would be formed in the fear of God, in order to send them to the aid of my flock ... With this intention, I purchased a small residence in the Kesrouan, which I dedicated to Our Lady of Deliverance. It is there that I dwell at present with several pupils, whom I take care to instruct in order to send them to the lambs of Christ." 2 Much care went into the Library created in this residence at Charfet, like a beautiful garden that the zealous pontiff cultivated in the shadow of the Cedars of Lebanon. Its renown extended well beyond the frontiers and attracted visits from many scholars rushing to quench their thirst there as at a spring of clear waters. The guests' register at Charfet has preserved for us a long list of these great men who came from Syria, Mesopotamia, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, England, even from America, whether to seek documents, copy manuscripts, or compose articles: all praised the heroic efforts of the great prelate, admiring the courage and great faith that the harsh persecutions (of which we have spoken) had brought out in him. In addition to the patriarchal Residence of Charfet, the Syrians had in Lebanon the monastery of Saint Ephrem Raghm in the village of Chabanieh. Completed under the patriarchate of André Akhijan (1662—1677), it continued to flourish until 1841, when it was pillaged by Druze brigands: Hymns of Isaac of Antioch, I, 3. Autobiography which the Patriarch wrote at the request of Queen MarieLouise of Spain (cf. pp. 374-75). 1

2

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they mocked the Superior, Bishop Kouartos Joseph Haek; desecrated the burial vault of the bishops; and murdered two monks. Before taking flight, the barbarians set fire to the manuscript library. An insignificant portion, saved from the flames, was moved to Charfet. Nowhere in Lebanon would there be a library richer in manuscripts than Charfet's, if it had been treated with respect after the death of the greatly missed founder. But alas, when he was no longer there to keep watch over it, many volumes disappeared. We have seen several of them with our own eyes in the Syrian libraries of Aleppo, Mardin, Damascus, and Nabek. Just the fact of hauling the manuscripts from diocese to diocese—especially the liturgical books—led to the destruction of a number of volumes mentioned in the old catalogues, but of which no trace remains. Another lamentable abuse: some seminarians, and some Syrian laity or others, borrowed books but instead of returning them, kept them for themselves. Let us mention also the tenure at Charfet of Father Augustin Ciasca, 3 who selected a considerable number of manuscripts and brought them to Rome to enrich the Vatican Library: the Superior of the monastery, Maamar-Bachi, had to hand over these volumes on the order of the Patriarch Georges Chelhot. An old piece of paper, barely legible, that we have only just discovered, allows us to list the manuscripts in question: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Gospels, very old, written in Estrangelo. A book containing canonical and liturgical texts in Syriac, copied in 1887 of the Seleucid Era (1576 A.D.). Al-Murshed (The Guide), in 54 chapters, dealing with the law and Christian belief, by Yahya-Ben-Jarir of Takrit, Iraq. The Hudoye (The G o o d Paths), by Bar Hebraeus, copied in 1502 A.D.

5. 6. 7. 8.

New Testament demarcated into daily readings, copied in 1739 of the Seleucid Era (1428 A.D.). The Synods, by Severus, bishop of the Ashmunites, known under the name of Ben-El-Mukafaa; copied in 1117 A.H. (1705 A.D.). Canon Law. The biography of Bar-Sauma, copied in 1934 of the Seleucid Era (1632 A.D.).

3

Father Augustin Ciasca was elevated to cardinal in 1888.

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9.

Collection of canons and various historical documents, by Ben-EtTaib, called Ben-el-Amid, copied in 1873 of the Seleucid Era (1562 A.D.).

10. The Semhe (Rays), by Bar Hebraeus. 11. A dictionary copied in 2022 of the Seleucid Era (1711 A.D.). 12. The works of St. Nikon (a single volume), copied in 1059 of the Coptic Era (1343 A.D.). 13. Commentary on the Gospel, by Abdallah Ben-Et-Taib. 14. Collection of ecclesiastical canons, by Ben-el-Assal, copied in 1718 A.D., from a manuscript of the Maronite monastery at Rome, dated 1051 of the era of the Martyrs (1335 A.D.). 15. The dialogues of Elijah of Nisibis, copied in 961 of the Hijrah (1820 A.D.) [sic.]. 16. The Zalge (The Rays of Light), by Bar Hebraeus, in Syriac. 17. The Councils, and the causes of the schism in the Church, by Severus, bishop of the Ashmunites, copied in 2131 of the [Seleucid Era] (1820 A.D.).

18. A Syriac—Latin dictionary. These abuses caused our venerable patriarchs to finally decide to threaten excommunication to whoever purloins a manuscript from the library of Charfet. In our time, some generous souls, whose names we refrain from mentioning, have left to the monastery of Charfet a large number of manuscripts. Among them, the Viscount de Tarrazi, founder and director of the National Library of Beirut, stands out. Charfet is indebted to him for several thousands of volumes. We have with our own hand inscribed his name on numerous manuscripts owing to his generosity, so that it may remain there forever. More than once, we have seen him climb up to Charfet, remain there entire days in order to check through his books, shelve them, catalogue them, and rebind at his own expense those which were in poor condition. Also our patriarchs, our bishops, the Superiors of Charfet, all maintained for him the deepest gratitude. Numerous are the letters they addressed to him praising his zeal and expressing to him their feelings of gratitude for all the favors with which he never ceased to fill this house so dear to all the Syrian Rite. We are pleased to place before the eyes of the reader this one addressed to him by His Eminence Cardinal Tappouni on September 20, 1930: ... After studying the archives of the two libraries of our patriarchal seat, we have come to the conclusion that, among those who contrib-

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uted to their foundation and growth, two noble figures stand out, representing the Syrian clergy and people, both of whom deserve the expression of our gratitude: we are referring to our blessed predecessor, the Patriarch Ignatius-Michael III and our beloved son, the Viscount Philippe de Tarrazi. ... The countless valuable books that you donated to the library of Charfet are as much the witnesses of your good will and solicitude for this beloved monastery, as are the considerable efforts, prolonged vigils, and major sums generously expended to compose, copy, or buy them. They will remain forever a striking demonstration of the generosity of the blood coursing in the veins of the noble Tarrazi family. Moreover, we are very pleased to be able to take advantage of this occasion to attest to you, dear Son, our great esteem and our profound gratitude for all of your many kind deeds past and present. May God fill you with all his graces, and grant you, in return for all that we owe you, the highest reward in this world and in the next.

One hundred fifty years have passed since the founding of the library of Charfet without anyone taking it upon himself to classify its books according to modern methods in order to put them easily within reach of those who wish to take advantage of them. However, we have discovered several attempts at catalogues, the earliest by Chevalier Gabriel de Jarouet; a second, by Patriarch Ignatius-Peter VII (1820-1851); a third by Patriarch Ignatius-Antony I (1853-1864); and a fourth by Patriarch Ignatius-Ephrem II Rahmani (1898-1929). We tried ourself to publish a fifth one of the same type, when we were in charge of the library from 1898 to 1902. But all these rough drafts of catalogues mentioned only the book's title and author. Moreover, manuscripts and printed books were placed indiscriminately on the same shelf, with a single card file. The Reverend Father Moses Dallal (today Monsignor Cyril Georges Dallal, archbishop of Mossul), while he was the Superior of Charfet, was the first to think of separating the manuscripts from the printed books and placing them in a separate room. In 1925, Monsignor Clement-Michael Bakhache, having meanwhile become Superior, asked me to examine the library and give him a more detailed report than had been attempted so far. I hastened to fulfill this wish, which came indirectly from Monsignor the Patriarch. I went straightway to Charfet, where I spent three months sifting through the manuscripts one by one, page by page, recording a summary of the work and the names of the scribe and the donor, taking care to write the title on the spine of each book. I also often had to number the pages of entire manuscripts.

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When I had come to the end of this tiring and painstaking task, I contacted my close friend, the Viscount Philippe de Tarrazi, and asked his advice on the method I should follow for the rest of my work. He suggested that I do as he himself had done for the National Library in Beirut. This is, in fact, what I did: I grouped the books into classes according to the subjects they treated, then I marked each class with numbers, starting from 1, in such a way that new books could very easily be inserted as necessary, taking care simply to list their titles on the model of other books of the same type. This is the same method I have adopted in the present catalogue. Thus I list first the manuscripts concerning the Old Testament: there are 22 of them. Next, those on the New Testament, numbering 27. In third place, those relating to liturgy, numbering 42; and so on. The Catalogue as a whole is divided into two parts: the first, in 20 sections, contains all the [Syriac] and Garshuni (Arabic text in Syriac script) manuscripts. The second, in 19 sections, is reserved for Arabic manuscripts. At the end of the book, I add an appendix on the manuscripts acquired since the completion of my work. It remains for me to indicate, among the manuscripts, those which appeared to me the oldest and the most important. First, in the first section of the first part, I note the "Storehouse of Mysteries" ()(vi jjoi) by Bar Hebraeus [pp. 3 - 5 below]. This is a commentary on Holy Scripture in its literal and moral sense. It was copied in 1575 from the original text of the author, and I myself copied it in 1926 at the request of the Orientalist Martin Sprengling, professor of Arabic at the University of Chicago. I also single out as very valuable several manuscripts containing the Psalms in Syriac with very brief notes, dating to the 14th century [6—19]; and a very old Melkite manuscript [p. 13], The second section contains the manuscripts of the New Testament, among which I note especially a Harklean manuscript copied at Homs in 1480 [p. 20], and another dated 1296 [p. 24]; two others copied, one from the Peshitta, the other from the Harklean, with some extracts from the Diatessaron; lastly a beautiful Harklean manuscript [p. 39]. The third section contains the liturgical books, among which I mention two manuscripts copied in Cyprus at the church of the Mother of God, between 1552 and 1554 [pp. 45 and 53]; a very important liturgy copied at Hadchit, Lebanon, in 1500 [pp. 59—60]; and another manuscript of the same liturgy, older than the former, copied at the monastery of St. George at Bhardin, Lebanon, in 1494 [pp. 62-63],

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In the fourth section, I point out a manuscript of very great importance [pp. 70—76], This is a compilation of several manuscripts, some dating to the 11th, others to the 13th century. The subject of the book is the exposition of the Mysteries of the Church according to the most celebrated Syrian Doctors. I must also note in the same section a collection of sermons of Moses bar Kepha, copied in 1464 [pp.76-79]; the "Good Path," by Bar Hebraeus, copied in the 15th century [pp. 80—82], contains quotations and notes of considerable interest that Paul Bedjan omitted from his edition in 1898. The fifth section contains the description of a Beth-Gazo called "old" El-Sheikh because of its antiquity and the variety of its subjects. It dates from the 11th century. In it we possess a very beautiful manuscript with drawings in color [pp. 100-101], The sixth section contains Fenqiotos (breviaries). Let us note one of them that was used by the Syrian Melkites, copied in the 14th century [pp. 120—21]; a Melkite Kenash (collection), copied in 1609 at the monastery of Palamen [p. 122]; and a Maronite breviary copied in 1520 [pp. 118-20], The seventh section contains books on the ordination of priests. I emphasize one of them, copied at Rome in 1711 from the text of Michael the Great (d. 1199) [pp. 134-35]; another dated earlier than 1414 [p. 137]; and a third copied in the monastery of Kazhia in 1571 [pp. 140—41], Lastly, in the eighth section, I draw the reader's attention to a manuscript on the offices of the Syrian Melkite priests, copied in 1589 [pp.176— 80]; a treatise on medicine [p. 268]; and another on geometry, astronomy, and meteorology [pp. 272-73]. That covers the Syriac manuscripts. Among the Garshuni manuscripts, I should note particularly: (1) The Book of the Demonstration, by AbuShaker Ben-er-Raheb (son of the monk) [pp. 183-84]; (2) The Book of Origins [pp. 184-85]; (3) The Book of the Master and the Pupil [p. 185]; (4) The Passion of Christ [p. 186]; and (5) The History of Ibn-el-Amid the Syrian [p. 263], Among the Arabic manuscripts proper, I emphasize the Book of the Gospels, translated by Yeshu' Yab, copied in 1233 [pp. 310-12]; The Book of Problems, by Yahya-Ben-Addi [pp. 345-47]; the Hymns of Saint Isaac bishop of Nineveh: we have two magnificent copies—one on parchment copied in 1259, the other in 1453 [pp. 379-81]; the History of Agabios of Mabbug, copied in 1662 [pp. 479-80]; lastly a collection of epistles on the beliefs of the Druzes [p. 427], given by Viscount Philippe de Tarrazi. Its copyist is mentioned on page 45: he copied it in 422 A.H. (1030 A. D.). This

vi*

book is the oldest manuscript at Charfet, and may also be the very oldest of its type. Some of these manuscripts were copied during our time. Father Louis Cheikho made copies of three of them, which he has placed in the Oriental Library of the Jesuit Fathers at Beirut: the "Guide," by Yahya Ben Jarir [pp. 347-49]; Manarat-el-Aqdas (the Beacon of Holy Things), by Bar Hebraeus [p. 328]; and the Ethicon [p.401]. In conclusion, I cannot abstain from expressing my warmest thanks and my deepest gratitude to all those who have collaborated in the publication of this book, whether by their encouragement or by their gifts. I am very happy to be able to present this catalogue to readers in this year 1936, which will remind all the friends of Charfet of the hundredfiftieth anniversary of its foundation: it will evoke in them the memory of its celebrated founder and his zealous successors. May God, in his infinite mercy, enable the deceased to be admitted into eternal happiness and may the living be filled with all the spiritual and temporal benefits of which they have need! May my book be for the greater glory of God, and for the honor of Charfet, this beloved House where I have been raised under the watch of our powerful protector, Our Lady of Deliverance! Beirut, September 8,1936 on the feast of the Nativity of the Holy Virgin Chorepiscopus Isaac Armalet Translated bj 'Robert Kitchen and Peter T. Daniels

Mgr Issac Armalet CHORÉVÊQUE

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