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Cases and materials on equity and trusts [8 ed.]
 9780409327861, 0409327867

Table of contents :
Cases & Materials on Equity & Trusts - 8th Edition (JD Heydon, Mark Leeming)
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Citation preview

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts 8TH EDITION • J D Heydon • M J Leeming This work introduces and discusses the main principles and remedies of Anglo-Australian equity for students. The case extracts are accompanied by comprehensive commentary and questions, extracts from statutes and critical statements on the law. Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts concentrates on fundamental judicial and scholarly statements of the purposes and principles of all aspects of equity, and includes the law of trusts and trustees, tracing , contribution and subrogation , and all other major equitable doctrines and remedies.

• Evans, Eq

This eighth edition contains a new chapter on confidential information and additional material on equitable compensation . It also covers important developments since the last edition in 2007, including: In re Maye [2008] 1 WLR 315 Kennon v Spry (2008) 238 CLR 266 John Alexander's Clubs Pty Ltd v White City Tennis Club Ltd (2010) 241 CLR 1 Friend v Brooker (2009) 239 CLR 129 Bofinger v Kingsway Group Ltd (2009) 239 CLR 269 Aid/Watch Inc v Commissioner of Taxation (2010) 85 ALJR 154

and Trusts , 2nd ed, 2009

ISBN 978-0-409-32786-1

• Meagher, Heyden & Leeming, Meagher, Gummow & Lehane 's Equity: Doctrines and Remedies, 4th ed , 2002 [email protected] www.lexisnexis.com.au

9

?BJ

Jl

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts

Eighth Edition

JD Heydon BA (Syd) MA BCL (Oxon) Justice of the High Court of Australia

M J Leeming BA LLB PhD (Syd) Senior Counsel in the State of New South Wales Challis Lecturer in Equity, University of Sydney

LexisNexis Butterworths Australia

2011

LexisNex is AUSTRALIA

ARGENTINA AUSTRIA BRAZIL CANA.DA CHILE CHINA CZECH REPUBLIC FRANCE GERMANY HONG KONG HUNGARY INDIA ITALY JAPAN KOREA MALAYSIA NEW ZEALAND POLAND SINGAPORE SOUTH AFRICA SWITZERLAND TAIWAN UNITED KINGDOM USA

LexisNexis Butterworths 475-495 Victoria Avenue, Chat wood NSW 2067 On the internet at: www.lexisnexis.com.au LexisNexis Argentina, BUENOS AIRES LexisNexis Verlag AR.D Orac GmbH & Co KG, V1 ENNA LexisNex is Latin America, SAO PAULO LexisNexis Canada, Markham, ONTARIO LexisNexis Chile, SANTIAGO LexisNexis China, BEIJING, SHA 'GHAI Nakladatelstvi Orac sro, PRAGUE LexisNexis SA, PARIS LexisNexis Germany, FRANKFURT LexisNexis Hong Kong, HONG KONG HVG-Orac, BUDAPEST LexisNexis, NEW DELHI Dott A Giuffre Editore SpA, MILAN LexisNexis Japan KK, TOKYO LexisNexis, SEOUL LexisNexis Malaysia Sdn Bhd, PETALING JAVA, SELANGOR LexisNexis, WELLINGTON Wydawnictwo Prawnicze LexisNexis, WARSAW LexisNexis, SINGAPORE LexisNexis Butterworths, DURBAN Staempfli Verlag AG, BERNE LexisNexis, TAIWAN LexisNexis VK, LONDON, EDINBURGH LexisNexis Group, New York, NEW YORK LexisNexis, Miamisburg, OHIO

National Library of Austra lia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry Author:

Heydon, JD.

Title:

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts.

Contents

Detailed Contents

ix

Preface

XVtt

Acknowledgments

xix

Abbreviations

XXi

Table Table

of Cases of Statutes

XXV

lxxiii

Part 1 The Basic Concepts of Equity

3

Chapter 1

Law and Equity

Chapter 2

Equity Acts in Personam

47

Chapter 3

Equitable Estates and Interests

77

Chapter 4

Equitable Priorities

Part 2

111

Dealings with Property in Equity

Chapter 5

Introduction

131

Chapter 6

Equitable Principles Regarding Dealings with Legal Property

139

Chapter 7

Dealings with Equitable Interests

179

Edition:

8th edition.

ISBN:

978040932786 I (pbk) .

Notes:

Includes index.

Subjects:

Equity - Australia - Cases. Trusts and trustees - Australia - Cases.

Chapter 8

Future Property

219

Other Authors/Contributors:

Leeming, M J.

Chapter 9

Interests Which Cannot Be Dealt With

239

Dewey Number:

346.9059.

Chapter 10

Avoidance of Statutory Requirements to Prevent Fraud

255

© 2011 Reed International Books Australia Pty Limited trading as LexisNexis.

First edition 1975; Second edition 1982; Third edition 1989; Fourth edition 1993; Fifth edition 1997; Sixth edition 2002; Seventh edition 2007.

Part 3

Grounds for Relief

This book is copYTight. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act I 968 (Cth), no part of this publication may be reproduced by any process, electronic or otherwise, without the specific written permission of the copyright owner. either may information be stored electronically in any form whatsoever without such permission.

Chapter 11

Fiduciary Relationship

267

Inquiries should be addressed to the publishers.

Chapter 12

Mistake

333

Chapter 13

Misrepresentation

355

Chapter 14

Undue Influence

371

Typeset in Adobe Caslon Pro and Trade Gothic. Printed in China. Visit LexisNexis Butterworths at www.lexisnexis.com.au

V

Contents

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts

Equitable Remedies

Chapter 15

The Equity of Redemption

395

Part 5

Chapter 16

Marshalling

413

Chapter 39

Specific Performance

1125

Chapter 17

Relief Against Penalties and Forfeitures

427

Chapter 40

Injunctions

1189

Chapter 18

Estoppel in Equity

471

Chapter 41

Damages in Equity

1261

Chapter 19

Donationes Mortis Causa

509

Chapter 42

Rescission

1281

Chapter 20

Contribution

515

Chapter 43

Rectification

1289

Chapter 21

Subrogation

531

Index

Chapter 22

Confidential Information

543

Part 4

1299

Trusts

Chapter 23

The Nature and Classification of Trusts

575

Chapter 24

Distinction between Trusts and Other Relationships

583

Chapter 25

The Essentials of an Express Trust - The Three Certainties

651

Chapter 26

The Beneficiary Principle and Non-charitable Trusts

697

Chapter 27

The Constitution of Express Trusts

735

Chapter 28

The Requirement of Writing for Express Trusts; Informal Testamentary Arrangements

755

Chapter 29

Express Trusts -

787

Chapter 30

Trusts for Charitable Purposes

803

Chapter 31

Resulting Trusts

879

Chapter 32

Constructive Trusts

921

Chapter 33

Duties of Trustees

955

Chapter 34

Capital and Income

987

Chapter 35

Powers of Trustees

1003

Chapter 36

Rights and Liability of a Trustee

1015

Chapter 37

Rights of the Beneficiary

1047

Chapter 38

The Beneficiary's Proprietary Rights on Breach of Trust

1065

Vitiating Elements

vi

vii

Detailed Contents

Preface

XVII

Acknowledgments

XIX

Abbreviations

XXI

Table Table

of Cases of Statutes

XXV

lxxiii

Part 1 The Basic Concepts of Equity Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Law and Equity Introduction L aw and equity before the judicature system Equity in common law courts Conflicts between law and equity The judicature system The fusion fallacy The maxims of equity

3

3

5 8 12 12

16 45

Equity Acts in Personam Introduction Law and equity Foreign property Revenue statutes

47

Equitable Estates and Interests Introduction Rights as the product of remedies Circularity Extension of rights beyond remedies Indicia of equitable interests The 'mere' equity and multiple classification

77

47 53 54

59

Equitable Priorities Introduction Competing equitable claims Competition between equitable and legal claimants Prior equitable and subsequent legal claims Prior legal and subsequent equitable claims ix

77 79

81 82 88 100 111 111 111 125 125

126

Detailed Contents

Cases and Materia ls on Equity and Trusts

Part 2

Dealings with Property in Equity

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Introduction General Legal assignment Realty under common law title Realty under the Torrens system Choses in possession Choses in action

131 131 135 135 135 135 135

Equitable Principles Rega rding Dealings with Legal Property Equitable assignment Assignment for valuable consideration Gift oflegal interest in property unassignable at law Gift of legal interest assignable at law The rule in Strong v Bird Agreement to assign Declaration of trust Constructive trust

139 139 145 145 149 163 164 171 177

Dealings with Equitable Interests Introduction Statutory requirements of writing Assignment Direction to trustee Agreement to assign Declaration of trust (sub-trust) Direction to transfer legal interest Disclaimer Release or surrender to trustee Nomination Dealing by or on behalf of the beneficiary of a resulting trust Equitable interests and section 12

179 179 182 190 192 195 203 205 209 209 211 212 215

Future Property General Future property and present rights Future property and specific performance The assignee's rights before acquisition Contracts to sell future goods

219 219 220 229 233 236

Interests Which Cannot Be Dealt With Introduction Public pay Bare rights to litigate

239 239 239 240

X

Chapter 10

Part 3

Certain contractual rights Contractual prohibition on assignment Personal contracts

249 249 250

Avoidance of Statutory Requirements to Prevent Fraud Introduction

255 255

Grounds for Relief

Chapter 11

Fiduciary Relationship Introduction Creation of the relationship Conflict of interest Improper profit by fiduciary Loss to principal

267 267 275 297 301 307

Chapter 12

Mistake Introduction Specific performance Rescission: unilateral mistake Rescission: common mistake

333 333 336 337 342

Chapter 13

Misrepresentation Introduction

355 355

Chapter 14

Undue Influence

371

Chapter 15

The Equity of Redemption

395

Chapter 16

Marshalling

413

Chapter 17

Relief Against Penalties and Forfeitures

427

Chapter 18

Estoppel in Equity Introduction Estoppel by representation 'High Trees' estoppel Proprietary estoppel

471 471 471 475 497

Chapter 19

Donationes Mortis Causa

509

Chapter 20

Contribution

515

Chapter 21

Subrogation Introduction Volunteers Statutes and subrogation Limits of subrogation

531 531 532 534 538

xi

br

Dela i led Contents

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts

Chapter 22

Part 4

Confidential Information Introduction Identification with specificity Necessary quality of confidence Public domain Employment Former clients Government secrets Unauthorised use Remedies

543

Chapter 26

543

545 548 549

554 555

Chapter 27

Chapter 28

558

566 571

Trusts

Chapter 23

Chapter 24

Chapter 25

The Nature and Classification of Trusts Introduction History Definition Classification of trusts The trust in modern society

575

Distinction between Trusts and Other Relationships Introduction Trust and fiduciary relationship Trust and bailment Trust and agency Trust and debt Trust and contract Trust, charge, condition and equitable personal obligation Trust and equitable charge Trust and condition Trust and equitable personal obligation Trust and equitable lien Trustee and executor Trust and power The distinction between trust power and bare power

583

The Essentials of an Express Trust - The Three Certainties Introduction The three certainties Certainty of intention Certainty of subject Certainty of object The requirement of certainty for trust powers and bare powers •

651

xii

575 575 577

Chapter 29

578 580 583 583 585 586

Chapter 30

591 615 628 628 631 632 639 643 644 647 651 651

652 662 664 664

Chapter 31

The Beneficiary Principle and Non-charitable Trusts Introduction Unincorporated associations

697

The Constitution of Express Trusts Introduction

735

The Requirement of Writing for Express Trusts; Informal Testamentary Arrangements Introduction Secret trusts Summary Testamentary contracts Mutual wills

697 712

735 755

755 756 766 768 776

Express Trusts - Vitiating Elements Introduction Legality of purpose Avoidance by settlor Avoidance by third parties

787

Trusts for Charitable Purposes Introduction The distinction between 'institutions' and 'purposes ' The meaning of charity: general Public benefit Public Public - the meaning of Baddeley's case Benefit Political trusts Poverty Education Religion Fourth class Gifts for foreign charitable trusts Mixed purposes Schemes Lapse Rules against perpetuities and perpetual trusts Directions to pay income only General

803

Resulting Trusts Introduction Non-disposal of beneficial interest Property in the name of another

879

xiii

787 788 802 802 803 804 805 811 811 819 823 827 830 836 842 849 854 859 862 871 877 878 878 879 883 890

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts

Detailed Contents

Constructive Trusts Introduction Strangers receiving trust property General

921 921 922 942

Chapter 33

Duties of Trustees Distinction between powers and duties Some specific duties To learn the terms of the trust To obey the terms of the trust Duty to keep accounts and give information to beneficiaries Duty to exercise care Duty not to delegate Duty to pay correct beneficiaries Duty not to profit from the trust

955 955 959 959 959 967 973 982 982 982

Chapter 34

Capital a

Chapter 35

Powers of Trustees Introduction Trustee Act 1925 (NSW) Section 43: Maintenance and accumulation Section 44: Advancement

1003 1003 1003 1003 1005

Chapter 36

Rights and Liabil ity of a Trustee Introduction Reimbursement and indemnity Contribution and recoupment Right to impound beneficiary's interest Other rights Liability for breach of trust Relief from liability Excusable breaches of trust Lapse of time Acquiescence and release

1015 1015 1015 1027 1031 1034 1035 1040 1040 1044 1045

Chapter 37

Rights of the Beneficiary Introduction To extinguish the trust To claim in personam against a third party who has received trust property

1047 1047 1048

The Beneficiary's Proprietary Rights on Breach of Trust Introduction Tracing, fiduciary relationship and constructive trust Identification and mixing Mixing of trust money with trustee's money

1065 1065 1071 1094 1098

Chapter 32

Chapter 38

Mixing of two or more trust funds Part 5

Equitable "Remedies

Chapter 39

Specific Performance General Inadequacy of damages Lack of right to damages Breach of statute caused by defendant's fraud Part performance Particular points Constant supervision and personal service Constant supervision Personal service Mutuality Factors relevant to hardship Election for damages after decree of specific performance

11 25 1125 1127 1150 1150 1151 1161 1166 1166 1171 1175 1176 1183

Chapter 40

Injunctions Introduction Final injunctions: preliminary Exclusive jurisdiction Auxiliary jurisdiction Statutory jurisdiction at common law The scope of the final injunction Uncontroversial examples Defamation Negative covenants Licences Injunctions against unincorporated associations Injunctions against breach of statute Discretionary factors Interlocutory injunctions Mareva injunctions Mandatory injunctions Suspended and conditional injunctions Statutory inj unctions

1189 1189 1190 1190 1192 1195 1196 1196 1197 1197 1212 1228 1230 1243 1244 1248 1256 1259 1260

Chapter 41

Damages in Equity Lord Cairns' Act Equitable money remedies in the exclusive jurisdiction

1261 1261 1274

Chapter 42

Rescission

1281

Chapter 43

Rectification

1289

987

nd Income

xiv

1114

1054

1297

Index xv

Preface This book purports to introduce and expound the main principles and remedies of AngloAustralian equity. It is intended for use by undergraduates, by students in other tertiary institutions, and by those working for professional examinations. It is presented in the conviction that equity forms, and ought to form, a unity rather than merely a scattered collection of glosses on the common law; that now as much as in earlier days it is, and ought to be, reducible to certain fundamental principles; that the substantive rules of equity are better understood as related in this way than as branches of real and personal property, contract, tort and so on; and that the best judges exhibit, in their handling of equity more than most legal subjects, a consciousness of this seamless web. The book concentrates on fundamental judicial and scholarly statements of the purposes and principles of equity. Some dogmatic passages have been selected and others have been written; it has been thought preferable for the reader to obtain a grasp of the basis of the rules before becoming enmeshed in the qualifications and contradictions inherent in the details of the rules. The latter have been approached in a critical spirit. The usual suggestions for further reading and a fairly extensive range of questions have been provided. This edition, like its immediate predecessors, includes the law of trusts and trustees, tracing, contribution and subrogation, as well as other equitable doctrines and remedies . In the four years since the seventh edition was prepared, equity has so developed in Australian courts that alterations have been called for in some areas. The law governing the powers and duties of trustees has been dealt with very selectively. For a comprehensive discussion, readers are referred to Jacobs' Law ofTrusts in Australia. We are grateful to Ryan May for research assistance and to Barbara Price for assistance in typing changes to the manuscript. The staff of LexisNexis Butterworths have given their usual full co-operation at all stages .

]DH MJL june 2011

xvii

Acknowledgment The authors and publishers are grateful to the holders of copyright in material from which extracts appear in this work, particularly to the following: Lawbook Co, part ofThomson Legal & Regulatory Limited

Sweet & Maxwell Ltd Texas Law Review Thomson Publishing Services Yale University Press While every care has been taken to establish and acknowledge copyright, the publishers tender their apologies for any accidental infringement. They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with the rightful owners in each case.

xix

Abbreviations

of Equity,

Ashburner

Brown, D (ed), Ashburner's Principles Butterworths, London, 1933

Birks

An Introduction to the Law Oxford, 1985

Carter, Peden and Tolhurst

Carter JW, Peden E and Tolhurst G J, Contract Law in Australia, 5th ed, LexisNexis Butterworths, Sydney, 2007

Chafee and Re

Re, ED, Cases and Materials on Equity, (successor to 5th ed of Chafee & Re), Foundation Press, Brooklyn, 1975

Chesterman

Chesterman M R, Charities, Trusts and Social Welfare, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1979

Chitty

Beale, H G (ed), Chitty on Contracts, Vol 1, 30th ed, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2008

Conaglen

Conaglen, M, Fiduciary Loyalty: Protecting the Due Performance on Non-Fiduciary Duties, Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2010

Essays I

Finn, PD (ed), Essays in Equity, Law Book Co Ltd, Sydney, 1985

Essays II

Finn, PD (ed), Equity and Commercial Relationships, Law Book Co Ltd, Sydney, 1987

Essays III

Finn, P D (ed), Essays Co Ltd, Sydney, 1990

Finn

Finn, P D, Fiduciary Obligations, Law Book Co Ltd, Sydney, 1977

Ford and Lee

Ford, H A J and Lee, W A, Principles 3rd ed, Law Book Co Ltd, Sydney, 1996

Goff and Jones

Goff, R and Jones, G, The Law & Maxwell, London, 2006

Hanbury and Martin

Martin,] E (ed), Hanbury and Martin's Modern Equity, 18th ed, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2009

Hardingham and Baxt

Hardingham, J and Baxt, R, Discretionary Trusts, 2nd ed, Butterworths, Sydney, 1984

Hayton and Marshall

Hayton, D J, Cases and Commentary on the Law 12th ed, Stevens, London, 2005

xxi

of Restitution,

on

2nd ed,

Clarendon Press,

Restitution,

Law

Book

of the Law of Trusts,

of Restitution,

7th ed, Sweet

of Trusts,

Ca ses and Material s on Equity and Tru sts

Abbreviations

Jacobs

Heydon, J D and Leeming, M J (eds),]acobs' Law of Trusts in Australia, 7th ed, LexisNexis Butterworths, Sydney, 2006

Starke

Starke, J G, Assignments of Choses in Action in Australia, Butterworths, Sydney, 1972

Keeton and Sheridan

Keeton, G W and Sheridan, L A, Equity, Milton Professional Books, London, 1987

Sykes and Walker

Sykes, E I and Walker, S, 1he Law Book Co Ltd, Sydney, 1993

Tiley

Tiley, J, A Casebook on Equity and Succession, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 1968

Brunyate, J (ed), Maitland's Equity, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1936

Treitel

Treitel, G H, 1he Law 2007

Marshall, 0 R,Assignment of Choses in Action, Pitman, London, 1950 Maudsley, R H, 'Incompletely Constituted Trusts' in R Pound et al (eds), Perspectives ofLaw: Essays for Austin Wakeman Scott, Little, Brown & Co, 1964

Tudor

Tudor on Charities, 9th ed, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2003

Underhill and Hayton

Hayton, DJ (ed), Underhill and Hayton's Law Relating to Trusts and Trustees, 18th ed, LexisNexis Butterworths, London, 2010

Waters

Waters, D WM (ed), Waters' Law of Trusts in Canada, 3rd ed, Thomson Carswell, Toronto, 2005

White and Tudor

Hewitt, E P and Richardson, J B (eds), White and Tudor's Leading Cases in Equity, 9th ed, Sweet and Maxwell, London,

Lawson

Lawson, F H (with the assistance of Teff, H), Remedies

of

English Law, 2nd ed, Butterworths, London, 1980

Maitland Marshall Maudsley

Meagher, Gummow and Lehane

Meagher, R P, Heydon, J D and Leeming, M J (eds), Meagher, Gummow and Lehane's Equity: Doctrines and Remedies, 4th ed, Butterworths, Sydney, 2002

Nygh

Davies, M, Bell, A and Brereton, P, Nygh's Conflict of Laws in Australia, 8th ed, LexisNexis Butterworths, Sydney, 2010

Oakley Oakley AJ

1928

Oakley, A J, Constructive Trusts, 3rd ed, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 1997 Oakley A J, 1he Modern Law of Trusts, 9th ed, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2008

of Equity, 2nd ed, Law Book

Parkinson

Parkinson, P (ed), 1he Principles Co, Sydney, 2003

Pettit

Pettit, P H, Equity and the Law University Press, London, 2009

Picarda

Picarda, H A P, 1he Law and Practice Relating to Charities, 4th ed, Butterworths, London, 2010 ·

Pomeroy

Pomeroy, Jr, J N, Pomeroy's Equity ]urisprude,i.ce, 3rd ed, Bancroft Whitney Company, San Francisco, 1905

Rudden and Moseley

Rudden, Band Moseley, H,An Outline ofthe Law ofMortgages, Estates Gazette Ltd, London, 1967

Scott

Scott, A W, 1he Law Boston, 1987

Sheridan

Sheridan, LA, Fraud in Equity, Pitman, London, 19 57

Snell

McGhee, J (ed), Snell's Equity, 32nd ed, Thomson Reuters (Legal) Ltd, London, 2010

Spry

Spry, I C F, 1he Principles

of Trusts,

11th ed, Oxford

\

of Trusts,

4th ed, Little, Brown & Co,

of Equitable Remedies: Injunctions, Specific Performance and Equitable Damages, 8th ed, Law Book

Co Ltd, Sydney, 2009

xxii

xxiii

of Securities,

5th ed, Law

of Contract, 12th ed, Stevens, London,

Table of Cases

References are to paragraphs

A Av B (a company) [2002) ... . 22.15 Av Hayden (No 1) (1984) ... . 40.44C A vThe Law Society ofTasmania (2001) .... 22.9 AH McDonald &Co Pty Ltd v Wells (1931) .... 42.6 A J Bekhor & Co v Bilton [1981) .... 40.49 A Schroeder Music Publishing Co Ltd v Macauley [1974) .... 14.10 Aas v Benham [1891) .... 11.l0C, 11.25C, 11.37 Abbott v Sullivan [1952) .... 40.28C Aberdeen Railway Co v Blaikie Brothers (1854) ... . 11.8C, 11.25C Abigail v Lapin (1934) .. .. 4.SC Abigail v Lapin [1934) ... . 4.3C Abjornson v Urban Newspapers Pty Ltd [1989] ... . 7.7 Aboriginal Community Benefit Fund Pty Ltd v Bateman's Bay Local Aboriginal Land Council (1997) .... 40.41 Abram Steamship Co Ltd v Westville Shipping Co Ltd [1923) .. .. 13.lOC, 42.3C Academy of Health & Fitness Pty Ltd v Power [1973) ... . 13.2, 13.lOC, 13.12C, 13.15 ACCC v C G Berbatis Holdings Pty Ltd (2003) .. .. 14.10 ACN 074 971109 (as trustee for the Argot Unit Trust) vThe National Mutual Life Association of Australasia Ltd (2008) .... 18.12 Acron Pacific Ltd v Offshore Oil NL (1985) .... 17.10 Acrow (Automation) Ltd v Rex Chainbelt Inc [1971) ... . 40.55 Active Leisure (Sports) Pty Ltd v Sportsman's Australia Ltd [1991) .... 40.46C Adam v Newbigging (1888) ... . 42.3C, 42.6 Adams v Champion (1935) .... 24.21

XXV

Adamson v Hayes (1973) .... 7.6C, 7.7, 7.11, 7.17, 7.24 Adamson v New South Wales Rugby League Ltd (1991) .. .. 17.1,40.4 Adderley v Dixon (1824) .... 39.SC, 39.lOC, 39.15C, 39.16C, 39.17 Addis v Campbell (1841) ... . 3.5 Addis v Gramophone Co Ltd [1909) ... . 40.21C Adler v D ickson [1955) .. .. 24.20C Administrative and Clerical Officers Assoc v Commonwealth (1979) .... 40.15 Adrian Messenger Services and Enterprises Ltd v Jockey Club Ltd [1972) .... 40.4 Aequitas v AEFC (2001) .... 11.37 A-G (ACT); Ex rel Olaseat Pty Ltd v ACT Minister for Environment, Land and Planning (1993) .. .. 40.36 A-G (Canada) v Ritchie Contracting and Supply Co [1919) .... 40.54C A-G (ex rel Lumley) and LumleyvTS Gill & Son Pty Ltd [1927) .... 40.34C A-G ex rel McWhirter v Independent Broadcasting Authority [1973) .... 40.38C A-G (Hong Kong) v Humphreys Estate (Qyeen's Gardens) Ltd [1987) .... 18.SC, 18.6, 18.7C A-G (Hong Kong) v Reid [1994] .... ll.30C, 24.2, 24.7, 38.7 A-G (NSW) v Brewery Employees Union of NSW (1908) .... 3.7C A-G (NSW) v Perpetual Trustee Co Ltd (1940) .. .. 30.1, 30.2, 30.52C A-G (NSW) v Public Trustee (1987) .. .. 30.54 A-G (on the relation of Daniels and others) v Huber (1971) .... 40.35C, 40.36 A-G (Q!d) vT (1983) .... 40.5 A-G (UK) v Guardian Newspapers (No 2) [1990) .... 22.5

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts

A-G (UK) v Heineman Publishers Pty Ltd (1987) .... 22.12 A-G v Alford (1855) ... . 36.19 A-G v Bastow [1957] .... 40.35C A-G v Biphosphated Guano Co Ltd (1879) .... 32.6C A-G v Blake [1998] .. .. 11.37, 11.38, 40.36 A-G v Blake [2001] .... 22.20 A-G v BP (Aust) Ltd [1964] .... 40.33 A-G v Breckler (1999) .... 33.2 A-G v Brown (1818) .... 26.4C A-G v Cahill [1969] .... 30.17 A-G v Codner [1973] .... 18.SC A-G v Colchester Corpn [1955] .. .. 40.55 A-G v Greenfield (1962) .... 40.33 A-G v Guardian Newspapers Ltd [1987] .... 22.12 A-G v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 2) [1990] .... 22.15 A-G v Harris [1961] .. . . 40.36 A-G v Higgins (1857) .... 2.17C A-G v Jacobs-Smith [1895] .... 27.2, 27.llC A-G v Jonathan Cape Ltd [1976] .... 22.19 A-G v Madden (1843) .... 30.55C A-G v Marchant (1866) .... 30.30C A-G v Mercantile Investments Ltd (1920) ... . 40.35C A-G v Observer Ltd [1990] .. .. 22.12 A-G vT S Gill & Son Pty Ltd [1926] .... 40.35C A-G v Wax Chandlers Co (1873) .. .. 24.27C AG Australia Holdings Ltd v Burton (2002) ... . 22.6 Agar v Hyde (2000) ... . 2.13 Agip (Africa) Ltd v Jackson [1991] .... 32.7,38.7 Agricultural and Rural Finance Pty Ltd v Gardiner (2008) ... . 18.8 Ahmed Angullia v Estate & Trust Agencies (1927) .. .. 39.15C AHR Constructions Pty Ltd v Avocat No 6 Pty Ltd (unrep) .... 13.14C Aid/Watch Inc v Commr ofTaxation (2010) .... 30.21C AJ Bekhor & Co Ltd v Bilton [1981] .... 40.50C Ajayi v RT Briscoe (Nigeria) Ltd [1964] .... 18.5C, 18.7C Ajello v Worsley [1898] .. .. 40.5 Al Nahkel Trading Ltd v Lowe [1986] .... 2.13 Alati v Kruger (1955) ... . 13.1, 13.l0C, 42.3C, 42.6

Albion Insurance Co Ltd v Government Insurance Office (NSW) (1969) .... 20.2C, 20.8C, 20.lOC, 20.llC, 20.12C, 20.13, 20.14C AldervMoore [1961] .... 17.9C Alderton v The Prudential Assurance Co Ltd (1993) .... 14.10 Alec Lobb (Garages) Ltd vTotal Oil GB Ltd [1983] .... 14.1, 14.10, 15.7 Alec Lobb (Garages) Ltd vTotal Oil GB Ltd [1985] .... 14.10 Allcard v Skinner (1887) .... 14.2, 14.3C, 14.6C, 14.10, 18.7C Allen v Distillers Co (Biochemicals) Ltd [1974] .... 33.10 Allen v Jambo Holdings Ltd [1980] .... 40.48 Allen v Snyder [1977] .... 6.22C, 10.3,23.6, 23.7, 28.4, 31.12C, 31.14C, 31.15C, 31.16, 31.17C, 32.8, 32.9C Alley v Deschamps (1806) ... . 39.14C Allied Irish Bank v Ashford Hotels Ltd [1997] .: .. 40.45 Allison v Clayhills (1907) .. .. 14.10 Aluminium Industrie Vaassen BV v Romalpa Aluminium Ltd [1976] .. .. 38.7, 38.8C, 38.9 Amalgamated Investment & Property Co Ltd (in liq) vTexas Commerce International Bank Ltd [1982] .... 18.5C, 18.7C, 18.14 Amalgamated Society of Carpenters, Cabinet Makers &Joiners v Braithwaite [1921] ... . 40.28C American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd [1975] .... 40.45, 40.46C American Surety Co of New York v Wrightson (1910) .... 20.llC AMEV-UDC Finance Ltd v Austin (1986) .... 1.9, 17.1, 17.8, 17.llC Amicable Society v Bolland (Fauntleroy's) .... 29.SC Ammon v Consolidated Minerals Ltd (No 3) [2007] .... 22.14C Amoco Australia Pty Ltd v Rocca Bros Motor Engineering Co Pty Ltd (1973) .... 15 .7 Amos v Brunton (1897) .... 40.29 Ampol Petroleum Ltd v Mutton (1952) .... 40.13C, 40 .15 Amway Corpn v Eurway International Ltd [1974] .... 22.2c Andco Nominees Pty Ltd v Lestato Pty Ltd (1995) .... 24.36 Anderson v Commonwealth (1932) .... 40.38C

xxvi

Table of Cases

Anderson v Eggers (1901) .... 13 .6C Ankar Pty Ltd v National Westminster Finance (Australia) Ltd (1987) .... 1.32C Anning v Anning (1907) ... . 6.10, 6.13C, 6.14 Ansell Rubber Co Pty Ltd v Allies Rubber Industries Pty Ltd [1967] .... 22.2C, 22.4 Anthes v Schroeder(1903) .... 16.4 Antill Pockley v Perpetual Trustee Co Ltd (1974) ... . 24.38 Antonovic v Volker (1986) .... 14.10, 18.7C ANZ Executors and Trustees Ltd v Humes Ltd [1990] .. .. 39.2, 39.36 Apostolou v VA Corpn Aust Pty Ltd (2010) ... . 36.2 Appleton Papers Inc vTomasetti Paper Pty Ltd [1983] .... 40.44C Aquaculture Corpn v New Zealand Green Mussel Co Ltd [1990] .... 1.24C, 41.17 Arab (The) (1859) ... . 16.2C Archer v Cutler [1980] .... 14.10 Archer-Shee v Garland [1931] .... 2.3, 2.4C, 2.5, 2.7, 2.18, 2.27C, 3.23 Arenson v Arenson [1977] .... 1.38C Arglasse v Muschamp (1682) .... 39.1 Argyll v Argyll [1967] .... 3.17C, 40.30, 40.42 Aristoc Industries Pty Ltd v RA Wenham (Builders) Pty Ltd [1965] .... 39.8C, 40.6C, 40.56 Arjon Pty Ltd v Commr of State Revenue (2003) .... 37.5C Armenian General Benevolent Union v Union Trustee Co of Australia Ltd (1952) .... 30.1 Armitage v Nurse [1998] .... 1.41, 33.22 Armstrong v Commr of Stamp Duties [1967] .... 20.4C Armstrong v Jackson [1917] ... . 42.6 Armstrong v Reeves (1890) .... 30.40C Armstrong v Sheppard & Short Ltd [1959] ... . 18.14, 40.23C, 40.42 NS Awilco v Fulvia SpA di Navigazione, The Chikuma [1981] ... . 17.17C ASA Constructions Pty Ltd v Iwanov [1975] .... 41.1, 41.8 Asea Brown Boveri Superannuation Fund No 1 Pty Ltd v Asea Brown Boveri Pty Ltd [1999] .... 33 .2, 33.6 Ashburton Oil NL v Alpha Minerals NL (1971) .. .. 40.47 Ashby v Commr of Succession Duties (SA) (1942) .... 27.6 Ashcoast Pty Ltd v Whillans [2000] .... 22.15

Ashfield Municipal Council v Joyce (1976) .... 30.3 Asia Pacific Telecommunications Ltd v Optus Networks Pty Ltd [2005] .. . . 22.9 Asia Pacific Telecommunications Ltd v Optus Networks Pty Ltd [2007] .... 22.10 ASIC v AS Nominees Ltd (1995) .. .. 32.7, 33.17 ASIC v Citigroup Global Markets Australia Pty Ltd (No 4) (2007) .... 11.12 ASIC v Idyllic Solutions Pty Ltd (2009) .... 38.28 ASIC v Melbourne Asset Management \Nominees Pty Ltd (1994) .... 32.llC Aslatt v Southampton Corpn (1880) .... 40.7 Assaf v Fuwa [1955] ... . 4.4 Associated Alloys Pty Ltd v ACN 001 452 106 Pty Ltd (2000) .... 24.7, 24.24, 25 .6, 25 .7, 38.7 Associated Distributors Ltd v Hall [1938] .... 17.9C Associated Japanese Bank (International) Ltd v Credit du Nord SA [1988] .... 12.2, 12.17C Associated Newspapers Group plc v Insert Media Ltd [1988] ... . 40.5 Astleyv Austrust Ltd (1999) .. .. 11.37 Astley v Weldon (1802) ... . 17.9C Astor Electronics Pty Ltd v Japan Electron Optis Laboratory Co Ltd [1966] .... 40.7, 40.15 ASX Operations Pty Ltd v Pont Data Australia Pty Ltd (No 2) (1991) .... 13.7 Atlas Steels (Aust) Pty Ltd v Atlas Steels Ltd (1948) ... . 39.31, 40.13C, 40.14C, 40.15, 40.19 Attenborough v Solomon [1913] .... 24.34 Atwood v Maude (1869) .... 31.14C Ausintel Investments Australia Pty Ltd v Lam (1990) .... 24.14 Austin v Keele (1987) ... . 31.16 Austin v KhaWfe [1966] .... 38.22 Austin v United Dominions Corpn Ltd [1984] .... 17.3C, 17.6, 17.13 Austins of East Ham Ltd v Macey [1941] . ... 39.38C Austotel Pty Ltd v Franklins Selfserve Pty Ltd (1989) ... . 18.8 Austral Standard Cables Pty Ltd v Walker Nominees Pty Ltd (1992) .. . . 18.6 Australasian Conference Association Ltd v Mainline Constructions Pty Ltd (in liq) .... 24.14

xxvii

Cases and Materials on Equity and Tru sts

Australasian Performing Right Assoc Ltd v Austarama Television Pty Ltd [1972] .... 43.5 Australia & New Zealand Banking Group Ltd v Bangadilly Pastoral Co Ltd (1978) .... 11.6C Australia & New Zealand Banking Group Ltd v Widin (1990) ... . 39.22 Australia & New Zealand Banking Group v Karam (2005) .... 14.10 Australian Broadcasting Commission v O'Neill (2006) .... 40.7, 40.11 Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats Pty Ltd (2001) .... 22.6, 22.15, 40.5 Australian Coarse Grains Pool Pty Ltd v Barley Marketing Board of ~eensland (1982) .... 40.44C Australian Conservation Foundation Inc v Commonwealth (1980) .... 40.38C Australian Eagle Insurance Co Ltd v Mutual Acceptance Insurance Pty Ltd [1983] .. .. 20.8C Australian Football League v'The Age Company Ltd (2006) .... 22.6 Australian Guarantee Corpn Ltd v Balding (1930) ... . 8.5 Australian Guarantee Corpn (NZ) Ltd v CFC Commercial Finance Ltd [1995] .... 4.6 Australian Gypsum Ltd & Australian Plaster Co Ltd v Hume Steel Ltd .... 43.2C Australian Hardwoods Pty Ltd v Commr for Railways [1961] .... 39.1 Australian Medic-Care Co Ltd v Hamilton Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd (2009) .... 22.19, 41.20 Australian Olympic Committee Inc v'The Big Fightlnc (No 2) (2000) .... 37.2 Australian Postal Corpn v Lutak (1991) .... 38.20 Australian Steel &Mining Corpn Pty Ltd v Corben [1974] .... 13 .l0C Automatic Self-Cleansing Filter Syndicate Co Ltd v Cunningham [1906] .. . . ll.34C Avanes v Marshall (2007) .... 33 .14 Aviation Services of Australia Pty Ltd v Byrt [2009] ... . 7.9 Avon Finance Co Ltd v Bridger [1985] .. .. 14.10 Avondale Printers & Stationers Ltd v Haggie [1979] ... . 31.14C, 32.8, 40.24 Axelsen v O'Brien (1949) .. .. 39.36

B B S Lyle Ltd v Rosher [1958] .... 4.l0C, 7.16 Baburin v Baburin (No 2) [1991] .... 18.8 Bacon v Bronson (1823) .... 13 .6C Bacon v O'Dea (1989) .... 26.15 Bacon v Pianta (1966) .. . . 26.5, 26 .7, 26.11, 26 .13, 26.15 Baden V Societe Generale pour Favoriser le Developpement du Commerce et de l'Industrie en France SA [1992] .... 32.7 Baglioni v Cavalli (1900) .... 16.5C Bahin v Hughes (1886) .. .. 36.lOC, 36.12C Bahr v Nicolay (No 2) (1988) •. .. 10.3, 24.7, 24.14, 24.21, 25 .3, 39.33 Bai v Wilson (1915) .... 6.15 Bailey v Barnes [1894] .... 32.4C Bain v Fothergill (1874) .... 39.5C, 41.4C Bainbrigge v Browne (1881) .. .. 14.7C Baird v Baird [1990] .... 7.24 Baird v BCE Holdings Pty Ltd (1996) .... 42.1, 42.6 Baird v Smee [2000] .... 28.25 Baird v Wells (1890) .. .. 40.28C Bakerv Archer-Shee [1927] .... 2.4C, 2.6C, 2.17C BakervBiddle (1923) .... 15 .7 Bakerv Carr (1962) ... . 40.38C Bakerv Gough [1963] .. .. 40.32 Bakewell v Deputy FCT (SA) (1937) .... 8.7 Baldry v Fein tuck [1972] ... . 26 .5 Balfour v Sea Fire Life Assurance Co (1857) .. .. 6.4C Balkin v Peck (1998) .... 36.8 Ball v Coggs (1710) ... . 39.l0C Ballabil Holdings Pty Ltd v Hospital Products Ltd (1985) .... 40.50C Ballantyne v Raphael (1889) .... 11.32C Ballarat Trustees Executors & Agency Co Ltd v FCT (1950) .. . . 30.23C, 30.25 Ballard v A-G (Victoria) [2010] ... . 2.15C Balls v Strutt (1841) .... 33.16C Baloglow v Konstanidis (2001) .... 7. 7 Balsh v Hyham (1728) .... 36.7C Baltic Shipping Co v Merchant 'Mikhail Lermontov' (1994) ... . 14.10 Bank Negara Indonesia v Philip Hoalim (1973) .... 18.SC Bank Negara Indonesia v Philip Hoalim [1973] .... 18.SC Bank of Credit and Commerce International (Overseas) Ltd v Akindele [2001] .... 32.7 Bank of Montreal v Stuart [1911] .... 14.10

xxviii

Table of Cases

Bank of New South Wales v City Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd [1969] .... 16.SC, 21.7 Bank of New South Wales v Rogers (1941) .... 14.3C, 14.7C, 14.10 Bank of New Zealand v New Zealand Guardian Trust Co Ltd [1999] .... 11.37, 36.21 Bank of Victoria Ltd v Mueller [1925] ... . 14.10 Bankruptcy v Schultz (1990) .... 2.24 Bankstown City Council v Alamdo Holdings Pty Ltd (2005) .... 1.1 Banner Homes plc v Luff Developments Ltd [2000] .. .. 32.1 Bannerman Brydone Folster & Co v Murray [1972] ... . 15.7 Bannister v Bannister [1948] .... 10.2C, 31.12C, 39.20 Banque Belge Pour I.;Etranger v Hambrouck [1921] ... . 38.3C, 38.6C, 38.7, 38.18C Banque Financiere de la Cite v Pare (Battersea) Ltd [1999] .. .. 21.7,21.12 Banque Keyser Ullmann SA v Skandia (UK) Insurance Co Ltd [1990] .... 11.37 Barbados Trust Co Ltd v Bank of Zambia [2007] .... 9.9, 24.18 Barclay v Messenger (1874) .... 17.22 Barclay-Johnson v Yuill [1980] .... 40.49, 40.S0C Barclays Bank Ltd v ~istclose Investments Ltd [1970] .. . . 11.6C, 24.10, 24.llC, 24.12, 24.13C, 24.14, 26 .5, 26.15, 31.5 Barclays Bank Plc v O'Brien [1994] .... 14.10 Barclays Bank Plc v Weeks Legg and Dean [1999] .... 24.14 Bardswell v Bardswell (1838) .... 25.7 Bargentv'Thomson (1864) .... 17.14C Barlow Clowes International Ltd (in liq) v Eurotrust International Ltd [2006] .. . . 32.7 Barlow Clowes International Ltd (in liq) v Vaughan [1992] .... 38.22, 38.26, 38.28 Barnardo's Homes v Special Income Tax Commr [1921] .... 2.6C Barnes v Addy (1874) ... . 1.41, ll.3C, 22.17, 32.2, 32.3C, 32.4C, 32.SC, 32.7, 32.10, 38.7, 41.11 Barnes v Racster (1842) ... . 16.8 Barns v Barns (2003) .... 28.25, 28.27 Barque ~ilpue Ltd v Brown [1904] .. .. 40.19 Barrett v Hartley (1866) .... 15.7

Barrow v Isaacs & Son [1891] .... 17.14C Barry v Heider (1914) .... 4.3C, 4.5C, 6.10, 6.13C Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (No 1) [1980] .... 11.37, 33.17, 36.19 Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (No 2) [1980] .... 36.21 Barton v Armstrong [1973] .... 13.lOC Barton v Armstrong [1976] .... 14.10 Barton v Bank of New South Wales (1890) .... 10.2C Base Metal Trading Ltd v Shamurin [2005] .. .. 33.17 Basset v Nosworthy (1673) ... . 4.12 Bateman's Bay Local Aboriginal Land Council v Aboriginal Community Benefit Fund Pty Ltd (1998) .. .. 40.41 Bathurst City Council v PWC Properties Pty Ltd (1998) .. .. 32.10 Baumgartner v Baumgartner (1985) .. .. 24.33 Baumgartner v Baumgartner (1987) .... 31.15C, 31.16, 32.10 Bawdes v Amhurst (1715) .... 39.20 Baxter v Four Oaks Properties Ltd [1965] .... 40.42, 41.3 BBB Constructions v Aldi Foods [2010] .. .. 18.12 Beach Petroleum NL v Abbott Tout Russell Kennedy (1997) .... 41.16 Beach Petroleum NL v Kennedy (1999) .... 11.18, 11.22, 22.9, 32.7, 41.16 Beatty v Guggenheim Exploration Co (1919) .... 11.l0C, 32.8 Beech v Ford (1848) .... 39.16C Beecham Group Ltd v Bristol Laboratories Pty Ltd (1968) .... 40.44C, 40.45 Behnke v Bede Shipping Co Ltd [1927] .. . . 39.9 Bekhor Ltd v Bilton [1981] .. .. 40.S0C Belan v Casey [2002] .. .. 22.9 Belar Pty Ltd (in liq) v Mahaffey [2000] .... 36.6 Belding v Read (1865) .... 8.10, 8.llC Bell Group Ltd v Westpac Banking Corpn (No 9) (2008) .... 11 .37, 32.7 Bell v Lever Bros Ltd [1932] .... 12.2, 12.10, 12.llC, 12.13C, 12.17C, 13.2 Belmont Finance Corpn Ltd v Williams Furniture Ltd [1979] .... 32.SC Belmont Finance Corpn Ltd v Williams Furniture Ltd (No 2) [1980] ... . 32.SC, 32.7

xxix

Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts

Bendall v McWhirter [1952] .... 3.14C Beneficial Finance Corpn Ltd v Multiplex Constructions Pty Ltd (1995) .. .. 3.13 Benjamin v Leicher (1998) .... 6.15 Bennell v Westlawn Finance Ltd [2010] .. . . 6.14 Bennett v Bennett [1934] .... 28.21C Bennett v Colley (1832) .. . . 36.21 Bennett v Minister of Community Welfare (1992) .. .. 41.16 Bennett v Wyndham (1862) .... 36.3C Beresford v Royal Insurance Co Ltd (1938) .... 29.SC Berham Investments Pty Ltd v Belgot Pty Ltd (1982) .. .. 15.7 Bernard v Josephs [1982] .. .. 31.13C Berowra Holdings Pty Ltd v Gordon (2006) .... 3.10 Bester v Perpetual Trustee Co Ltd [1970] .... 14.6C, 14.10 Beswick v Beswick [1966] .... 24.17, 39.14C Beswick v Beswick [1968] ... . 24.17, 27.10, 27.12, 39.15C, 39.17, 39.33, 40.5, 40.22 Bethlehem Engineering Export Co v Christie 105 F 2d 933 (1939) .. . . 40.15 BICC plc v Burndy Corpn [1985] .. .. 17.20 Bickerton v Walker (1885) .... 3.26C Bigg v Qyeensland Trustees Ltd [1990] .... 28.27 Biggs v Hoddinott [1898] .. . . 15.4C, 15.5C, 15.6C, 15.7 Bilbie v Lumley (1802) .... 12.2 Billson v Crofts (1873) .. .. 29.10 Bingham v Bingham (1748) .... 12.2, 12.8C, 12.9C, 12.llC Binions v Evans [1972] .... 31.12C Birch v Ellames (1794) .... 39.24C Birch vTreasury Solicitor [1951] .... 19.4C, 19.5 Birks v Micklethwait (1864) .. . . 36.9 Birmingham & District Land Co v London & North Western Rail Co (1888) .. .. 18.4, 18.SC, 18.7C Birmingham v Renfrew (1937) .... 2.7, 10.2C, 25 .7, 28.18C, 28.19, 28.21C, 28.25, 28 .26C, 28.27 Birtchnell v Equity Trustees, Executors &Agency Co Ltd (1929) .... ll.3C, 11.SC, 11.13C Biscoe v Jackson (1887) .... 30.54 Bishopsgate Insurance Australia Ltd v Commonwealth Engineering (NSW) Pty Ltd [1981] ... . 43.5 XXX

Black v Freedman & Co (1910) .... 38. 7 Blackburn v Smith (1848) .. .. 42.3C Blackett v Darcy (2005) .... 6.15 Blackler v New Zealand Rugby Football League (Inc) [1968] .. .. 40.4 Blackwell v Blackwell [1929] ... . 28.5E, 28 .11, 28 .13, 28.14C, 28.26C, 28.27, 39.20 Blair v IRC (1936) .. .. 8.6C Blake v Gale (1883) .. .. 1.16C Blanch v Stroud Shire Council (1947) .... 40.31C Blankenship v Boyle (1971) .... 33.16C Blathwayt v Cawley [1976] .... 25.12 Blausten v IR Commr [1972] .... 25.12, 25.15C, 25.16 BLB Corpn of Australia v Jacobsen (1974) .... 11.2, 11.28C, 11.33, 11.37, 32.7 Blight v Hartnoll (1881) ... . 25.llC Bloch v Bloch (1981) ... . 31.13C, 31.14C Blomley v Ryan (1956) .... 14.9C, 14.10 Bluebottle UK Ltd v Deputy Commr of Taxation (2007) ... . 1.41, 5.10, 8.5, 9.9 Boardman v Phipps [1967] ... . 11.4, 11.25C, 11.37, 23 .6, 24.2, 24.7, 32.1, 32.4C, 32.7, 32.8, 33.22, 38.20 Bofinger v Kingsway 'Group Ltd (2009) .... 1.39, 21 .1, 21.12, 32.10, 38.7 Bolton v Curre [1895] .... 36.17 Bonar Law Memorial Trust v IRC (1933) .... 30.22 Bond v Barrow Haematite Steel Co [1902] .. . . 8.4C, 34.6C Bonnard v Perryman [1891] .... 40.7, 40.11 Bonner vTottenham and Edmonton Permanent Investment Building Society [1899] .... 20.1, 20.4C Booth vTurle (1873) .... 10.2C Borden (UK) Ltd v Scottish Timber Products Ltd [1981] .... 38.8C, 38.9, 38.10 Boreland v Docker [2007] .... 3.23 Boriard v Brown [1975] ... . 39.22 Bosaid v Andry [1963] .... 41.6C, 41.8, 43.5 Boscawen v Bajwa [1996] .... 24.14 Boston Commercial Services Pty Ltd v GE Capital Finance Australasia Pty Ltd (2006) .... 9.7 Boston Deep Sea Fishi ng and Ice Co v Ansell (1888) .... 11.23C Boulting v Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians [1963] .... 11.8C, 11.20C Bourne v Keane [1919] .... 26.5, 30.20

Table of Ca ses

Boutique Balmoral Ltd v Retail Holdings Ltd [1976] .... 39.22, 39.25 Bovaird v The Trustee of the Bankrupt Estate of Frost [2010] .... 1.16C Bovill v Hitchcock (1868) .... 1.5 Bow McLachlan &Co v Ship Camosun [1909] ... . 41.2C Bowles v Rogers (1800) .. . . 24.32C Bowmakers Ltd v Barnet Instruments Ltd [1944] .... 29.3C, 29.5C Bowman v Secular Society Ltd [1917] ... . 26.1, 26.4C, 26.9C, 26.lOC, 30.21C, 30.33C Boyce v Boyce (1849) .... 25.7 Boyce v Paddington Borough Council [1903] .... 40.37, 40.38C, 40.41 Boyd v Ryan (1947) .... 39.32 Boyd vThornley [1925] .... 34.6C Boyer v Bolender 18 A 127 (1889) ... . 20.5 Boyns v Lackey (1958) .... 41.1 Boys v Ayerst (1822) ... . 39.32 BR Meadows & Sons v Rockman's General Store [1959] .... 18.4 Brace v Calder [1895] .. .. 9.llC Brace v Wehnert (1858) .... 39.33 Bracebridge v Buckley (1816) .... 17.14C Brackenbury v Brackenbury (1820) .... 27.SC Bradleyv Carritt [1903] ... . 15.SC, 15.6C, 15.7 Bradley v Commonwealth (1973) .... 40.30 Bradto Pty Ltd v State of Victoria (2006) ... . 40.44C, 40.46C Brady v Stapleton (1952) .... 11.lOC, 38.10, 38.llC, 38.12, 38.19C Braithwaite v A-G [1909] .... 31.8C Brand v Chris Building Co Pty Ltd [1957] .... 18.14 Brandon v Robinson (1811) .... 29.1, 29 .9C Brassard v Smith [1925] .. .. 2.l 7C Brayv Ford [1896] ... . ll.3C, 11.8C, 11.25C, 32.4C Brayson Motors Pty Ltd v FCT (1983) .. .. 40.44C Breadner v Granville-Grossman [2001] .... 33.6 Break Fast Investments Pty Ltd v PCH Melbourne Pty Ltd (2007) .... 41 .10 Breen v Williams (1994) .... 11.14 Breen vWilliams (1996) .... 11.2, 11.14,22.17 Bremer Vulkan v South India Shipping [1981] .... 40.7 Breskvar v Wall (1971) .... 4.3C, 4.4 Brett v Hamilton (1909) .... 24.29C Brice v Bannister (1878) .. .. 6.2, 6.6, 8.4C

xxxi

Brickenden v London Loan & Savings Co [1934] .. .. ll.21C, 41.16 Brickles v Snell [1916] .... 17.21C, 17.22 Bridge v Campbell Discount Co Ltd [1962] ... . 17.3C Bridge Wholesale Acceptance Corpn (Aust) Ltd v Burnard (1992) .... 9.1, 39.36 Bridgeman v Green (1757) .... 14.2, 14.10, 15.7 Bridgewater v Leal1y (1998) .... 14.10 Brikom Investments Ltd v Carr [1979] .... 18.7C Brisbane Units Development Corpn Pty Ltd v Robertson &Anor [1983] .... 13.14C Bristol & West Building Society v May May &Merrirnans [1996] .... 41.16 Bristol & West Building Society v Mothew [1998] ... . 11.22, 11.37, 24.14, 33.17 Britain v Rossiter (1882) .... 39.22, 39.25 British American Tobacco Australia Services Ltd v Blanch [2004] ... . 22.9 British Steel Corpn v Granada Television Ltd [1981] .... 22.12 British Waggon Co and Parkgate Waggon Co v Lea (1880) .... 9.llC Broken Hill Proprietary Co Ltd v Hapag-Lloyd AG [1980] ... . 40.19 Brooks v Alker (1975) ... . 14.10 Brook's Wharf & Bull Wharf Ltd v Goodman Brothers [1937] .... 20.4C, 21.3C Broome v Monck (1805) .... 6.17C Brough v Nettleton [1921] .... 39.22 Broughton v Snook [1938] ... . 39.25 Brown v Brown (1993) .. .. 31.11 Brown v Burdett (1882) ... . 26.7 Brown v Dale (1878) .. .. 31.9C Brown v Heifer (1967) .. .. 3.11, 17.21C, 39.33 Brown v Higgs (1803) .. .. 25.llC Brown v IRC [1965] ... . 11.21C Brown v Litton (1711) .... 32.1 Brown v Smith (1878) ... . 36.19 Brown v Smitt (1924) .. .. 13.6C, 42.3C, 42.SC Browne v Ryan [1901] ... . 15.SC Brownton Ltd v Edward Moore lnbucon Ltd [1985] .... 9.7 Bruce vTyley (1916) .... 9.10 Brunker v Perpetual Trustee Co (Ltd) (1937) .. .. 6.10, 6.13C, 6.14 Brunninghausen v Glavanics (1999) .... 11.16 Brunsden v Woolredge (1765) .... 25 .llC Brusewitz v Brown [1923] .. . . 14.10 Brychall v Bradford (1822) ... . 36.19

Cases and Materi als on Equity and Trusts

BTA Institutional Services Australia Ltd & BNY Trust (Australia) Registry Ltd [2009) ... . 2.15C Buchan v Ayre [1915) ... . 36.2 Buckley vTutty (1971) .... 3.8, 40.3C, 40.4, 40 .29 Buckmaster v Harrop (1807) .... 39.25 Bull v Bull [1955) .... 38.19C Bullock v Lloyd's Bank Ltd [1955) .. .. 14.10 Burdick v Garrick (1870) .. .. 24.6C Burke v LFOT Pty Ltd (2002) .... 20.1 Burke v State Bank of New South Wales (1994) ... . 14.10 Burkinshaw v Nicolls (1878) .. .. 32.6C Burney v Macdonald (1845) ... . 28.16C Burnham v Citizens' Bank of Emporia 40 P 912 (1895) .... 16.3C Burns Philp Trustee Co Ltd v Kwikasair Freightlines Ltd (1963) .. . . 40.19 Burns Philp Trustee Co Ltd v Kwikasair Freightlines Ltd [1964) .... 39.1 Burns Philp Trustee Co Ltd v Viney [1981) .... 3.9C Burns v Burns [1984) .... 31.14C Burns v McCormick (1922) .... 39.22, 39.25 Burr v Bloomsburg 138 A 876 (1927) .... 39.4 Burrough v Philcox (1840) ... . 24.40 Burrowes v Lock (1805) .. .. 13.6C, 18.2 Burrows v Smith [2010) .. .. 22.3 Bush v National Australia Bank Ltd (1992) .... 43.5 Business Computers Ltd v Anglo-African Leasing Ltd [1977) .. .. 38.9 Business World Computers Pty Ltd v Australian Telecommunications Commission (1988) .... 40.46C Butcher v Stapely (1685) .... 39.22 Butler v Broadhead [1974) .. .. 12.1 Butler v Broadhead [1975) .... 37.9 Butler v Butler (1877) .. . . 36.12C Butler v Carter (1868) .. . . 36.12C Butler v Fairclough (1917) .... 1.24C Butt v Kelson [1952) .... 37.4 Buttle v Saunders [1950) .... 33 .16C Buxton v Lister (1746) .... 39.lOC, 39.11, 39.16C, 39.17 Byers v Dorotea Pty Ltd (1986) .... 13.15 Byrne v Collector of Customs of Victoria and Alphapharm Pty Ltd (1987) .. .. 22.6 Bysouth v Shire of Blackburn and Mitcham (No 2) [1928) ... . 17.16

C Cadd v Cadd (1909) ... . 10.2C Cadorange Pty Ltd (in liq) vTanga Holdings Pty Ltd (1990) .. .. 18.12, 24.33 Caffoor v Commr oflncome Tax, Columbo [1961) .. .. 30.15 Caffrey v Darby (1801) ... . 36.20C Cain v Moon [1896) .... 19.3C Caird v Moss (1886) .... 43.5 Calgary Milling Co Ltd v American Surety Co of New York [1919) .. .. 18.7C Calverley v Green (1984) .... 24.33, 31.11, 31.13C, 31.14C Calverley v Green (1986) ... . 32.llC Cambridge Credit Corpn Ltd v Surfers' Paradise Forests Ltd [1977) .... 40.45 Cameron v Hogan (1934) ... . 40.27, 40.29 Cameron v Murdoch (1986) .... 11.4 Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Inc v IRC [1954) .... 30.43C Camp v King (1887) .... 7.9 Campbell Discount Co Ltd v Bridge [1961) .... 17.9C, 17.llC Campbell v Wardlaw (1883) .... 34.5C Camp bells Cash & Carry Pty Ltd v Fostif Pty Ltd (2006) .... 9.7 Canadian Aero Service Ltd v O'Malley (1973) ... . ll.3C, 11.7C Canadian Aero Service Ltd v O'Malley [1974) .. .. 11.14 Cannon v Hartley [1949) ... . 27.2, 27.9C, 27.10, 27.llC Canny Gabriel Castle Jackson Advertising Pty Ltd v Volume Sales (Finance) Pty Ltd (1974) ... . 11.13C Canson En terprises Ltd v Boughton & Co (1991) .... 1.39, 41.16 Cantv Miller (1913) .... 40.14C Capell v Winter [1907) .... 4.5C Capita Financial Group Ltd v Rothwells Ltd (1993) ... . 20 .1 Car & Universal Finance Co Ltd v Caldwell [1965) .... 42.1 Caraher v Lloyd (1905) .. .. 8.9 Cardile v LED Builders Pty Ltd (1999) .. .. 40.52 Carkeek vTate-Jones [1971) .... 31.13C Carl B Potter Ltd v1he Mercantile Bank of Canada [1980) ... . 11.37 Carl Zeiss Stiftung v Herbert Smith & Co (No 2) [1969) .... 32.4C, 32.5C, 32.6C, 32.7

xxxii

Tab le of Ca ses

Carlton & United Breweries (NSW) Pty Ltd v Bond Brewing NSW Ltd (1988) .... 40.45 Carly v Farrelly [1975) .... 31.14C, 32.8 Carne v Long (1860) .... 26.9C Carpenters Estates Ltd v Davies [1940) .... 39.28, 40.23C Carr v JA Berriman Pty Ltd (1953) .... 39.40C Carreras Rothmans Ltd v Freeman Matthews Treasure Ltd [1985) .... 24.12, 24.13C, 24.14 Carrigan v Redwood (1910) ... . 26.5 Casborne v Scarfe (1738) .. .. 3.26C Castellain v Preston (1883) .... 6.18, 21.1 Castlemaine Tooheys Ltd v South Australia (1986) .. .. 40.5, 40.44C, 40.45 Castlereagh Motels Ltd v Davies-Roe [1966) .... 1.12C, 1.20E Cathels v Commr of Stamp Duties [1962) ... . 39.14C Catt v Marac Australia Ltd (1986) .. .. 11.14, 11.33, 22.21, 41.1 Cavalier v Pope [1906) .. .. 24.20C Cave v Cave (1880) .. .. 3.26C, 3.27, 3.29 Cayne v Global Natural Resources Plc [1984) .... 40.44C CBS Songs Ltd v Amstrad Consumer Electronics plc [1988) .... 40.36 CBS United Kingdom Ltd v Lambert [1983) .. . . 40.S0C Cecil v Butcher (1821) .... 27.5C Cegami Investments Ltd v AMP Financial Corpn (NZ) Ltd [1990) .... 11.14 Central Bayside General Practice Association Ltd v Commr of State Revenue (Victoria) (2006) .... 30.61 Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd [1947) .. .. 18.4, 18.5C, 18.7C Central Trust & Safe Deposit Co v Snider [1916) .. .. 1.32C, 3.11, 3.12C, 28.23C, 28 .26C CH Giles & Co Ltd v Morris [1972) .... 39.1, 39.27C, 39.28, 39.30C, 39.31 Chamberlaine v Chamberlaine (1680) .... 28.26C Chan v Cresdon Pty Ltd (1989) .... 1.32C, 1.33, 6.13C Chan v Zacharia (1984) .. . . 11 .1, 11.3C, 11.4, 11 .26 Chandler v Kerley [1978) .. .. 18.12 Chang v Registrar ofTitles (1976) .. .. 6.16, 6.17C, 6.18, 17.22

Chapman, Morsons & Co v Guardians of Auckland Union (1889) .... 41.4C Chapman v Chapman [1954) .... 33.9C, 33.10, 35.6 Chapman vWesterby [1913) .... 40.14C Chappell vTCN Channel Nine Pty Ltd (1988) .. .. 40.11 Chaproniere v Lambert [1917) .. . . 39.22 Charles v FCT .... 2.27C Charles Marshall Pty Ltd v Grimsley (1956) .... 6.13C, 31.13C, 31 .17C Chartbrook Ltd v Persimmon Homes Ltd [2009) .... 43.5 Chase Corpn Australia Pty Ltd v North Sydney Brick & Tile Co Ltd (1994) .... 16.8 Chase Manhattan Bank v Israel-British Bank [1981) .. .. 11 .17C, 11 .18, 11.37,38.7 Chattle v Brown [1993) .. .. 2. 7 Cheale v Kenward (1858) .. . . 39.16C Chellaram v Chellaram [1985) .. .. 2.15C Cheltenham & Gloucester Building Society v Ricketts [1993) .. . . 40.45 Chesterfield v Janssen (1750) .... 11.27C Chettiar v Chettiar (1946) .. .. 29.SC Chichester Diocesan Fund & Board of Finance v Simpson [1944) .... 30.46, 37.7C Chief Commr of Land Tax v Macary Manufacturing Pty Ltd (1999) .... 2.21C, 7.16 Chief Commr of Stamp Duties (NSW) v Buckle (1998) ... . 36.2 Chief Commr of Stamp Duties v ISPT Pty Ltd (1998) .... 3.11 Chillingworth v Chambers [1896) .. .. 36.12C, 36.14 Chioggia (1he) [1898) .... 16.SC Christ's Hospital v Grainger (1849) .. .. 30.59 Church of the New Faith v1he Commr of Pay-roll Tax (Victoria) (The) (1983) ... . 30.34C Ciaglia v Ciaglia [2010) .... 10.3 Ciavarella v Balmer (1983) .. .. 17.22 CIBC Mortgages Pty Ltd v Pitt [1994) ... . 14.2, 14.10 Citicorp Australia Ltd v Hendry (1985) .... 17.6, 17.llC, 17.12 Citicorp Australia Ltd v McLoughney (1984) .... 1.22C City of Hawthorn v Victorian Welfare Association [1970) ... . 30.25 City of Lincoln v Morrison (1902) ... . 38.20 City of Melbourne v Hamas (1987) ... . 40.5

xxxiii

Cases and Materi als on Equity and Trusts

Cityland and Property (Holdings) Ltd v Dabrah [1968] .... 15.7 Clarion Ltd v National Provident Institution [2000] .... 12.12 Clark Boyce v Mouat [1994] .... 11.18 Clarke v Dickson (1858) .... 42.2C, 42.3C, 42.6 Clarke v Price (1819) .... 17.17C Clarke v Ramuz [1891] .... 41.2C Clarke vTurner (1694) .... 25.llC Classic International Pty Ltd v Lagos (2004) .... 12.10 Clausen v Denson [1958] .... 28.20 Clavering v Ellison (1859) .... 24.29C, 25 .12 Clay v Clay (2001) .... 24.3, 25.2 Clayton v Ramsden [1943] .... 25 .12 Cleaver v Mutual Reserve Fund Life Assoc [1892] .. .. 39.14C Clegg v Edmondson (1857) .... 11.3C Clegg v Fish wick (1849) .... ll.3C Clegg v Wilson (1932) .. . . 29.2 Clerk v Wright (1737) .. . . 39.25 Cleveland Investments Global Ltd v Evans [2010] .... 22.10 Clifford vTurrell (1841) .... 39.17 Clifford Davis Management Ltd v WEA Records Ltd [1975] .... 14.10 Clough v Lambert (1839) .... 27.SC Clough Mill Ltd v Martin [1984] .... 24.24, 38.9 Clydebank Engineering and Shipbuilding Co v Don Jose Ramos Yzquierdo y Castaneda [1905] .. .. 17.5C Coad v Wellness Pursuit Pty Ltd (in liq) (2009) .... 24.31 Coatsworth v Johnson (1886) .... 39.33 Cobbe v Yeoman's Row Management Ltd [2008] ... . 18.12 Cochrane v Cochrane (1985) .. .. 20.15 Cochrane v Moore (1890) ... . 5.9 Cochrane v Willis (1865) .... 12.9C Cocks v Manners (1871) .... 26.9C, 30.19C, 30.33C Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] ... . 3.17C, 22.1, 22.2C, 22.7C, 22.13, 22.15, 22.16C Codelfa Construction Pty Ltd v State Rail Authority of New South Wales (1982) ... . 1.38C Cogent v Gibson (1864) .... 39.17 Cohen v Cohen (1929) .. .. 24.5, 24.6C, 24.7 Cohen v Peko-Wallsend Ltd (1986) .... 40.44C Cohen v Roche [1927] .. . . 39.9

Colbeam Palmer Ltd v Stock Affiliates Pty Ltd (1968) .... 3.7C Colchester Borough Council v Smith [1991] .... 18.8 Cole v Wellington Dairy Farmers Co-operative Assoc [1917] .... 9.10 Coleman v Myers [1977] .... 11 .16, 41.12, 41.16 Coles Supermarkets Australia Pty Ltd v FKP Ltd [2008] .... 22.18 Coles v Trecothick (1804) .. .. 39.36 Collier v Mason (1858) ... . 1.38C Collin v Holden [1989] ... . 18.7C, 18.8 Collins v Wayne Iron Works (1910) .... 40.1 Collinson v Lister (1855) .... 36.5C Collinson v Pattrick (1838) .... 25.5C Collyer v Isaacs (1881) .... 8.14C, 8.15, 27.3C Colt v Woolaston (1723) ... . 13.6C Colyear v Countess ofMulgrave (1836) .... 27.3C, 27.5C, 28.26C Colyton Investments Pty Ltd v McSorley (1962) .... 39.33 Combe v Combe [1951] .... 18.4, 18.5C, 18.7C Combe v Lord Swaythling [1947] ... . 24.32C Comiskey v Bowring-Hanbury [1905] ... . 25.6 Commerce Capital Trust Co v Berk (1989) .... 41.16 Commercial and General Insurance Co Ltd v Government Insurance Office (NSW) (1973) .... 20.12C, 21 .7 Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd v Amadio (1983) .. .. 14.2, 14.10, 31.14C Commerzbank Aktiengesellschaft v IMB Morgan Pie [2004] ... . 38.28 Commonwealth v A E Goodwin Ltd [1961] .. . . 1.13, 1.15 Commonwealth v Clark [1994] .. .. 18.8 Commonwealth v John Fairfax & Sons Ltd (1980) .... 22.5, 22.6, 22 .llC, 22.12, 22.18, 40.2,40.36 Commonwealth v Scituate Savings Bank (1884) ... . 18.SC Commonwealth v Verwayen (1990) .... 3.29, 14.10, 18.1, 18.3, 18.4, 18.7C, 18.8, 18.10, 18.12, 18.14 Commonwealth v Walsh (1980) .... 22.6 Commonwealth v WMC Resources Ltd (1998) .... 3.23 Commonwealth Bank of Australia v Smith (1991) .... 11.22, 36.21, 41.14, 41.16 Commonwealth Bank of Australia v The Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd [1970] .... 16.2C, 16.4, 16.6, 16.8

xxxiv

Tab le of Cases

Commonwealth Oil Refineries Ltd v Hollins Conservative and Unionist Central Office [1956] .... 39.22 v Burrell (Inspector ofTaxes) [1982] Commr for Special Purposes oflncome Tax .. .. 26.14C v Pemsel [1891] ... . 30.3, 30.4C, 30.8C, Consul Development Pty Ltd v DPC Estates 30.24C Pty Ltd [1974] .... 32.4C, 32.6C, 32.7 Commr for the New Towns v Cooper (Great Consul Development Pty Ltd v DPC Estates Britain) Ltd [1995] .... 43.5 Pty Ltd (1975) .... 11.3C, 11.8C, 11.l0C Commr of Australian Federal Police v Cornwell Contrast Spratt v IRC [1964] .... 8.7 (1990) .... 36.2 Cooden Engineering Co Ltd v Stanford [1953] Commr of Stamp Duties (NSW) v Buckle .... 17.9C (1998) .... 21.12 Cook Industries Inc v Galliher [1979] .... 2.13 Commr of Stamp Duties (NSW) v Carlenka Cook v Deeks [1916] .... 32.4C Pty Ltd (1995) .... 43.5 Cook v Fountain (1676) .... 1.3E, 23.2, 25.SC Commr of Stamp Duties (NSW) v Perpetual Cook v Rodgers (1946) ... . 39.6C, 39.7, 39.8C Trustee Co Ltd [1943] .... 24.14 Cooke v Clayworth (1811) .... 14.9C Commr of Stamp Duties (Q!d) v Jolliffe (1920) Cooke v Football Assoc [1972] .... 40.4 .... 6.21, 24.21, 25 .3, 25.SC, 25.6 Cooke v Head [1972] .... 31.12C Commr of Stamp Duties (Q!d) v Livingston Cooke vTombs (1794) .... 39.25 [1965] .. .. 2.7, 2.19C, 2.20, 2.23C, 2.24, 2.25, Cookes v Mascall (1690) .... 39.20 2.26, 2.27C, 3.23, 24.34, 25.12, 37.9, 38.7 Cookson v Harewood [1932] .... 40.28C Commr of State Taxation v Cyril Henschke Pty Cooney v Burns (1922) .. .. 39.22, 39.24C, Ltd (2010) .... 2.20 39.25, 40.36 Commr of State Taxation v Merifield Cooksey Cooney v Ku-ring-gai Council (1963) Holdings (1994) .... 2.26 .. .. 40.34C Commr ofTaxation v American Express Cooper v Chitty (1756) .... 40.21C Wholesale Currency Services Pty Ltd Cooper v Fynmore (1814) .. .. 4.8C (2010) .... 3.23 Cooper v Micklefield Coal & Lime Co Ltd Commr ofTaxes (Q!d) v Camphin (1937) (1912) .... 9.10 .... 3.12C,3.13, 7.6C Cooper v Phibbs (1867) .... 12.1, 12.2, 12.8C, Compagnie Francaise de Chemins de Fer 12.9C, 12.llC, 12.14 Paris-Orleans v Leeston Shipping Co Ltd Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll (1919) .... 13.12C Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] Compania Colombiana de Seguros v Pacific .... 39.27C, 39.28 Steam Navigation Co [1965] .... 9.4C, 9.5 Cope v Keene (1968) .. .. 6.13C, 6.15 Competitive Insurance Co Ltd v Davies Corin v Patton (1990) .... 1.40E, 1.41, 6.10, Investment Ltd [1975] .... 32.SC 6.llC, 6.13C, 6.14, 6.21, 7.16, 7.19 Comptroller of Stamps (Vic) v Howard-Smith Cornfoot v Holdenson [1932] .... 20.7C (1936) .... 6.2, 7.2, 7.3C, 7.9, 7.11, 7.16 Cornish v Midland Bank pie [1985] Concept Television Productions Pty Ltd .... 14.10 v Australian Broadcasting Corporation Coroneo v Australian Provincial Assurance (1988) .... 22.21, 41.3 Association Ltd (1935) .... 1.llC, l.20E, Concrete Pty Ltd v Parramatta Design 1.21C &Developments Pty Ltd (2006) Corporation of the Director of Aboriginal , .... 11.14 Islanders Advancement v Peinkinna (1978) Congregational Union ofNSW .... 30.3 v 1histlethwayte'(1952) .... 29.1, 30.45, Corser v Cartwright (1875) ... . 32.6C 30.60 Corumo Holdings Pty Ltd v C Itoh Ltd (1991) Congresbury Motors Case [1971] .... 21.6C .... 7.16 Conmar Products Corpn v Universal Slide Corvisy v Corvisy [1982] .... 40. 7 Fastener Co (1949) .. .. 22.20 Cory Bros & Co Ltd v Owners ofTurkish Connell v Bond Corpn Pty Ltd (1992) Steamship Mecca (The Mecca) [1897] .... 2.7, 2.26 .... 38.14 XXXV

Ca ses and Materials on Equity and Tru sts

Cosnahan v Grice (1862) .... 19.4C Costa and Duppe Properties Pty Ltd v Duppe [1986) .... 2.26,2.27C Costa Rica Railway Co Ltd v Forwood [1901) .... 32.4C Costin v Costin (1997) .... 6.14 Corrington v Fletcher (1740) .... 29.SC Coulls v Bagot's Executor &Trustee Co Ltd (1967) ... . 24.17, 24.18, 39.14C, 39.15C, 39.17, 40.5, 40.22 Countess ofBective v FCT (1932) .... 24.14, 24.23, 24.27C, 24.30, 25.6 County Hotel and Wine Co Ltd v London and North Western Railway Co [1918) .... 9.4C Cowan v Scargill [1985) .... 33.6, 33.16C, 33.17 Cowan de Groot Properties Ltd v Eagle Trust plc [1992) .... 32.7 Cowcher v Cowcher [1972) .... 7.11, 31.12C, 32.9C, 39.1 Cowell v Rosehill Racecourse Co Ltd (1937) .... 40.21C, 40.23C, 40.24 Cowley v Cowley [1901) .... 40.5 Cox v Barnard (1850) ... . 27.6 Cox v Bishop (1857) .... 1.32C CPT Custodian Pry Ltd v Commr of State Revenue (2005) ... . 2.7, 2.9, 2.21C, 2.26, 2.27C, 7.15C, 36.2, 37.4, 37.SC Crabb v Arun District Council [1976) .... 18.3, 18.5C, 18.6, 18.7C, 18.10, 18.llC, 18.12 Crace-Calvert Case (1882) .. .. 11 .15C Craddock Bros v Hunt [1923) .. . . 43.4C Crane v Hegeman-Harris Co Inc [1939) .... 43 .2C, 43.3C Craney v Bugg [1971) .... 1.5 Cranleigh Precision Engineering Co Ltd v Bryant [1964) .... 1.21C Crawley v Short (2009) .... 11.16 Craythorne v Swinburne (1807) .... 20.7C, 21.1, 21.9C Creation Records Ltd v News Group Newspapers Ltd (1997) .... 22.15 Crescendo Management Pry Ltd v Westpac Banking Corpn (1988) .. .. 14.1, 14.10 Cretanor Maritime Co Ltd v Irish Marine Management Ltd [1978) ... . 40.48 Crichton v Crichton (1930) .... 6.21, 7.21C Crisp v Mullings [1976) .... 31.13C Crittall Windows Ltd v Stormseal (UVPC) Window Systems Ltd [1991) .... 17.16 Crosse v Smith (1806) .... 1.16C

Croudace v Zobel [1899) .... 40.5 Crowley v O'Sullivan [1900) .... 39.25 Crowther v Brophy [1992) .... 30.20 Crump v Reynell (1909) .... 15.7 Crystal Palace Trustees v Minister ofTown & Country Planning [1950) ... . 30.26C CTN Cash and Carry Ltd v Gallaher Ltd [1994) .... 14.1 Cuckmere Brick Co Ltd v Mutual Finance Ltd [1971) .... 1.22C Cud v Rutter (1719) .... 39.17 Cuddon vTite (1858) .... 6.16 Cullen v A-G for Ireland (1866) ... . 28.4, 28.lOC Cullingv Sansui Securities Ltd (1974) ... . 11.4 Cummings v Lewis (1993) .... 20.1 Cunnack v Edwards [1896) .... 31.8C Cunningham v Harrison [1973) .. .. 32.10 Cunningham-Reid v Public Trustee [1944) ... . 20.4C Curnick v Tucker (1874) .... 25.4C Curro v Beyond Productions Pry Ltd (1993) .. .. 40.15 Curtice Bros Co v Catts 66 A 935 (1907) .. . . 39.11 Curtis v Perry (1802) .... 29.5C Curwen v Yan Yean Land Co Ltd (1891) .... ll.32C Custom Credit Corpn Ltd v Ravi Nominees Pry Ltd (1992) .... 36.6

D D M Gordon [1963) ... . 18.4 Dalgety Wine Estates Pry Ltd v Rizzon (1979) ... . 40.19 Dalton v Ellis (2005) .... 24.17 Dalton v NSW Crime Commission (2006) .... 3.10 Daly v Sydney Stock Exchange Ltd (1986) .... 11.4, 11.22, 32.llC, 32.12C Daniels vTrefusis [1914) .... 39.25 Dann v Spurrier (1802) .... 18.10 Dansk Rekylriffel Syndikat Aktieselskab v Snell [1908) .... 32.llC Darbey v Whitaker (1857) .... 39.33 Darlington Borough Council v Wiltshire Northern Ltd [1995) ... . 24.17 Davenport v Bishopp (1843) .... 27.4, 27.SC David v Frowd (1833) ... . 37.7C David Jones Ltd v Lunn (1969) .... 9.10 David Securities Pry Ltd v Commonwealth Bank of Australia (1992) .... 12.2, 33.19, 37.9

xxxvi

Table of Ca ses

Davies v Humphreys (1840) .. . . 20.3C Davies v Littlejohn (1923) .. .. 24.32C Davies v Perpetual Trustee Co (Ltd) [1959) .. .. 30.17 Davies v Sharples [2006) ... . 37.9 Davies vTaylor [1974) .... 40.SlC Davies v1homas [1900) .... 24.32C Davis v Foreman [1894) .. . . 40.13C, 40.14C Davis v Hutchings [1907) ... . 36.25 Davis v Symons [1934) .... 15.7 Davis vTurning Properties Pry Ltd (2005) .... 40.52 Dawkins v Antrobus (1881) .... 40.26C, 40.28C Dawson v Great Northern and City Railway Co [1905) ... . 9.4C Day v Brownrigg (1878) ... . 40.5 Dayv Mead [1987) .... 1.41, 11.14, ll.36C, 11.37, 41.17 Day v Newman (1788) .... 39.34C Day v Pinglen Pty Ltd (1981) .... 40.39 De Bussche v Alt (1878) .... 36.SC De Francesco v Barnum (1890) .... 39.31 De Maudsley v Palumbo [1996) .... 22.3 De Rivafinoli v Cossetti 4 Paige 264 (1883) .... 39.31 Dean v Cole (1921) .... 25.6 Dean v MacDowell (1878) .. .. 11.lOC, 11.25C Dean v Prince [1953) .... 1.38C Dearle v Hall (1828) .... 4.7, 4.8C, 4.9, 4.lOC, 4.11, 6.6 Deeley v Lloyd's Bank Ltd [1912) ... . 38.14 Defries v Milne [1913) .... 9.4C Del Casale v Artedomus (Aust) Pty Ltd (2007) .... 22.4, 22.8, 22 .13, 22 .19 Delaforce v Simpson-Cook [2010) .... 18.12, 28.25 Dempsey v Piper [1921) .... 12.1 Denne v Light (1857) .... 39.36 Denny v Jensen [1977) .... 18.9 Denpro Pty Ltd v Centrepoint Freeholds Pty Ltd (1983) .. .. 40.9 Derby & Co Ltd v Weldon [1990) .... 40.52 Dering v Earl ofWinchelsea (1787) .... 20.2C, 20.3C, 20. 7C, 21.9C, 39.33 Derry v Peek (1889) ... . 11.27C, 41.11 Deschamps v Miller [1908) .... 2.13 Deta Nominees Pry Ltd v Viscount Plastic Products Pty Ltd [1979) .... 22.4, 22.19 Deutsche Morgan Grenfell Group plc v IRC [2007) .... 12.2

Devaynes v Noble (1816) .... 38.6C, 38.10, 38.13C, 38.14, 38.15, 38.16C, 38.20, 38.22, 38.23C, 38.24C, 38.26, 38.27C, 38.28, 38.29 DHN Food Distributors Ltd vTower Hamlets LBC [1976) .... 7.14, 40.24 Diagnostic X-Ray Services Pty Ltd v Jewel Food Stores Pty Ltd (2001) .... 39.28 Dickinson v Barrow [1904) .... 39.25 Dickinson v Burrell (1866) .... 3.3, 3.4C, 3.5, 3.26C, 3.29, 9.4C Dickson v Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain [1970) .... 40.3C Digital Pulse Pty Ltd v Harris [2002) .... 1.24C Dillon v Nash [1950) .... 41.3 Dillon v Public Trustee of New Zealand [1941) .... 28.23C Dillwyn v Llewelyn (1862) .. .. 17.22, 18.SC, 18.10, 18.llC, 18.12, 18.14 Dimond v Moore (1931) .... 1.32C Dimos (t/a Dimos &Associates) v Dikeakos Nominees Pty Ltd (1996) .... 21.12 Dingle v Turner [1972) .... 30.14C, 30.15, 30.25 Dipple v Codes (1853) ... . 25.5C Discount & Finance Ltd v Gehrig's NSW Wines Ltd (1940) .... 18.2 Dismorr v George (1891) .. .. 15.7 Diwell v Farnes [1959) .... 38.19C Dixon v Muclgic almost no situation could be postulated where a trustee in some circumstano ~s does not have active duties to perform by, for example, being immediately bou 1nd to transfer the trust property to the beneficiary who is absolutely entitled the '-reto ... Thus a more precise use 204

7 .18C

7.17 Does a declaration of trust of an equitable interest fall within s 23C? In the first place, if the subject matter of the declaration is an equitable interest in land, s 23C(l)(a) seems to apply because an equitable interest would be either created or disposed ofby the declaration (were it valid), ands 23C(l)(b) seems also to apply because there is a declaration of trust respecting an interest in land. An equitable interest in pure personalty poses greater problems. In the second place, ~her~ the subject matter is an equitable interest in pure personalty 1t 1s arguable (especially 111 New South Wales) that s 23C has no application (see [7.4]-[7 .7]) , especially Adamson v Hayes per Menzies J. But the better view is probably that s 23C(l)(c) extends to equitable interests in personalty or realty. In the third place, the statutory definition of 'disposition' in New South Wales and Qyeensland includes declaration of trust. But there is a strong argument that the statutory definition cannot be invoked in aid of the interpretation of s 23C(l)(c): see 7 4]. Finally, given that the above points are resolved as suggested, it appears relevant to determine whether the declarant 'disappears from the picture' or creates a new sub-trust of his or her subsisting equitable interest. If the former view is correct, there appears to be a 'disposition' within the natural meaning of that word ( Grey) and s 23C(l)(c) would therefore apply to render an oral declaration invalid. If the latter view is followed, it is arguable that the section does not apply. An oral declaration of trust of a legal interest in personalty is valid (see Chapter 6); is there any basis for treating differently a declaration of trust of an equitable interest in personalty operating as a sub-trust? It appears that the declarant has not disposed of his or her interest, but has retained it and subjected himor herself and his or her interest to new obligations.

DIRECTION TO TRANSFER LEGAL INTEREST 7.18C

Vandervell v Inland Revenue Commissioners [1967] 2 AC 291; [1967] 1 All ER 1 House of Lords

The National Provincial Bank Ltd held a parcel of shares in Vandervell Products Ltd in bare trust for the appellant. The appellant wished to make a substantial gift to the Royal College of Surgeons and to avoid surtax. To these ends, he orally directed the bank to transfer the shares to the College, with the intention of passing both the legal and equitable interests in them. The bank handed scrip and blank but executed share transfers to the

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Chapter 7 Dealings with Equitab le Interests

appellant's solicitor. The solicitor handed the documents to the College, which completed and registered the transfers and granted an option to a trustee company associated with the appellant. Vandervell Products Ltd declared large dividends and paid them to the College. Then the trustee company exercised its option and acquired the shares. There was no written disposition of the appellant's equitable interest at any stage. The appel Iant was assessed to surtax. He could challenge the assessment only by showing that the dividends were 'income from property of which the [taxpayer] has divested himself absolutely', the words 'divested absolutely' having a very restricted meaning in the taxing statute. His appeal against the assessment failed. One of the arguments against him was that the transaction fell within s 53(l)(c) of the Law of Property Act 1925 and that there being no written disposition of his equitable interest nor the appointment of an agent in writing, he had failed to divest himself of his equitable interest. The House of Lords unanimously found for the appellant on this ground. However, their Lordships held, by a bare majority, that the trustee company held the benefit of its option on a resulting trust for Vandervell, who was accordingly liable to surtax. The case is extracted only on the s 53(l)(c) point.

name as transferee in the transfer and to register it to become the full legal owner. He was also the owner in equity. On 19 November 1958, the solicitor or (Mr Robins - the case is ambiguous) on behalf of Mr Vandervell, who intended to make a gift, handed the transfer to the college which, in due course, sealed it and obtained registration of the shares in the college's name. The case should then be regarded as one in which the appellant himself has, with the intention to make a gift, put the college in a position to become the legal owner of the shares, which the college in fact became. If the appellant had died before the college had obtained registration, it is clear on the principle of Re Rose (1952] Ch 99; (1951] 2 All ER 959 that the gift would have been complete, on the basis that he had done everything in his power to transfer the legal interest, with an intention to give, to the college. No separate transfer, therefore, of the equitable interest ever came to or needed to be made and there is no room for the operation of the subsection. What the position would have been had there simply been an oral direction to the legal owner (viz the bank) to transfer the shares to the college, followed by such a transfer but without any document in writing signed by Mr Vandervell as equitable owner, is not a matter which calls for consideration here ...

Lord Upjohn (Lord Pearc e concurring). [Section 53(l)(c) was] applied in Grey and Oughtred to cases where the legal estate remained outstanding in a trustee and the beneficial owner was dealing and dealing only with the equitable estate. That is understandable; the object of the section, as was the object of the old Statute of Frauds, is to prevent hidden oral transactions in equitable interests in fraud of those truly entitled, and making it difficult, if not impossible, for the trustees to ascertain who are in truth his beneficiaries. But when the beneficial owner owns the whole beneficial estate and is in a position to give directions to his bare trustee with regard to the legal as well as the equitable estate there can be no possible ground for invoking the section where the beneficial owner wants to deal with the legal estate as well as the equitable estate. I cannot agree with Diplock LJ [1966] Ch 261 at 287; (1965] 2 All ER 37 at 44 that prima facie a transfer of the legal estate carries with it the absolute beneficial interest in the property transferred; this plainly is not so, for example the transfer may be on a change of trustee; it is a matter of intention in each case. But if the intention of the beneficial owner in directing the trustee to transfer the i"egal estate to X is that X should be the beneficial owner I can see no reason for any further document or further wo1ds in the document assigning the legal estate also expressly transferring the beneficial interest; the greater includes the less. X may be wise to secure some evidence that the beneficial owner intended him to take the beneficial interest in case his beneficial title is challenged at a later date but it certainly cannot, in my opinion, be a statutory requirement that to effect its passing there must be some writing under s 53(l)(c). Counsel for the Crown admitted that where the legal and beneficial estate was vested in the legal owner and he desired to transfer the whole legal and beneficial estate to another he did not have to do more than transfer the legal estate and he did not have to comply withs 53(l)(c); and I can see no relevant difference between that case and this. ... To hold [the view I am rejecting] would make assignments unnecessarily comp I icated; if there had to be assignments in express terms of both legal and equitable interests that would make the section more productive of injustice than the supposed evils it was intended to prevent ...

Lord Wilberforce. On 14 November 1958, the appellant's solicitor received from the bank a blank transfer of the shares, executed by the bank, and the share certificate. So at this stage the appellant was the absolute master of the shares and only needed to insert his

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[Lord Reid stated without reasons that the Revenue's argument on s 53(1)(c) was unsound. Lord Donovan delivered a concurring speech.]

7.19

Notes

1. What, in Lord Upjohn's view, was the mischief which the section was designed to prevent? Is a section rendering oral transactions invalid a sensible means of preventing that mischief? 2. Was Vandervell's direction to the bank intended as (a) a revocable mandate authorising the bank to transfer his equitable interest and therefore not passing that interest until the bank acted; or (b) a direction immediately binding on him and passing the equitable interest at once? If (a), the mandate itself was not in writing and the bank had no written authority as required for agents bys 23C(l)(c) . Why was s 23C(l)(c) regarded as inapplicable? If (b), is the situation really distinguishable from Grey v IR Commrs? Further see Meagher, Gummow and Lehane, [7-115]-[7-145].

3. It is generally accepted that s 23C(l)(c) does not apply where the legal and equitable owner of property disposes of the whole of his or her legal and equitable rights simultaneously. But why? Is he or she not disposing, inter alia, of a subsisting equitable interest? It has been said that in such a case the donor 'is to be taken as having something other than and greater than a mere aggregate of the legal and beneficial estates', and that accordingly he or she has no subsisting equitable interest within the sections: Forster (1969) 6 Syd LR at 248. Does Vandervell support this view? In DKLR Holding Co (No 2) v Commr of Stamp Duties (1982) 149 CLR 431; 40 ALR 1, A Ltd executed a memorandum of transfer of land for nominal consideration in favour of B Ltd, with the intention, properly minuted, that only a bare legal title should pass to B Ltd. Just prior to the transfer, B Ltd executed a declaration of trust in favour of A Ltd. The High Court of Australia

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Chapter 7 Dea lin gs with Equitable Interests

Cases and Materia ls on Equity and Trusts

(Gibbs CJ, Stephen and Mason JJ, Aickin and Brennan JJ each dissenting as to part) held that the declaration of trust was dutiable ad vaforem and the transfer was dutiable only at a nominal rate. Counsel for the taxpayer argued that no ad vaforem duty should be levied because at all times the beneficial ownership of the land remained with A Ltd. However, each member of the court rejected this argument, broadly on the ground that the absolute ownership passed by the transfer from A Ltd to B Ltd and then the declaration of trust operated to create an equitable interest which was vested in A Ltd. Gibbs CJ (at 442; 9), Aicl