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Учебное пособие содержит тексты, лексические и функционально-смысловые таблицы, лексико-грамматические упражнения для са
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Учебное пособие содержит тексты, лексические и функционально-смысловые таблицы, лексико-грамматические упражнения для са
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BUSINESS ENGLISH FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Учебно-методическое пособие
Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Сибирский федеральный университет
BUSINESS ENGLISH FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Учебно-методическое пособие
Красноярск СФУ 2021
УДК 811.111(07) ББК 81.432.1я73+65.291.3я73 B97
Business English for University Students : учеб.-метод. пособие / сост.: Н. А. Грищенко, Е. О. Ершова, М. А. Старшева. – Красноярск : Сиб. федер. ун-т, 2021. – 108 с.
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие к практическим занятиям является одной из частей учебно-методического комплекса, состоящего из учебнометодического пособия для практических занятий; учебно-методического пособия для самостоятельной работы студентов; книги для учителя. Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов бакалавриата следующих направлений подготовки: 38.03.02 «Менеджмент», 38.03.03 «Бизнес-информатика».
УДК 811.111(07) ББК 81.432.1я73+65.291.3я73 Электронный вариант издания см.: http://catalog.sfu-kras.ru © Сибирский федеральный университет, 2021
CONTENT Unit 1. SMART WORLD ................................................................................... 5 Part 1 « S.M.A.R.T. (1)» ....................................................................................... 5 Part 2 « S.M.A.R.T. (2)» ..................................................................................... 10 Part 3 « S.M.A.R.T. (3)» ..................................................................................... 19 Part 4 « S.M.A.R.T. (4)» ..................................................................................... 27 Part 5 « S.M.A.R.T. (5)» .................................................................................... 31 Unit 2. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ................................... 36 Part 1 « CSR (1)» ................................................................................................ 36 Part 2 « CSR (2)» ................................................................................................ 50 UNIT 3. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT ........................................... 61 Part 1 « L. vs. M. (1)» ......................................................................................... 61 Part 2 «LEADERSHIP (1)» ................................................................................ 71 Part 3 «LEADERSHIP (2)» ................................................................................ 76 Part 4 «LEADERSHIP (3)» ................................................................................ 84 Part 5 «LEADERSHIP (4)» ................................................................................ 86 Контрольно-измерительные материалы .................................................... 97 Библиографический список ........................................................................ 107
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Учебно-методическое пособие разработано в соответствие с программой СФУ «Иностранный язык» для направлений подготовки «Менеджмент» и «Бизнес-информатика» и включает следующие разделы: Мир «умных» технологий; Корпоративная социальная ответственность; Лидерство и управление. В основе издания лежит идея взаимосвязанного изучения лексики и одновременного развития всех коммуникативных навыков: чтения, говорения, аудирования и письма. Это определило структуру и содержание учебно-методического пособия. Разделы учебно-методического пособия построены по единой схеме. Вначале каждой темы идут предтекстовые задания, направленные на введение новой темы; далее следует текст для изучающего чтения и перевода; завершают тему послетекстовые упражнения. Тексты определяют темы и содержат лексический и информационный материал, подлежащий активному усвоению и использованию в ситуациях учебно-речевого общения. Послетекстовые упражнения дифференцируются на две категории: упражнения для работы с лексикой, и задания по развитию навыков устной речи и письма. Работа с лексикой направлена на активизацию и расширение словарного запаса по теме. Каждый раздел содержит упражнения на подстановку, формирование синонимических и антонимических пар, перевод с русского на английский язык. Задания на развитие навыков устной речи, аудирования и письма включают упражнения на контроль понимания текста, учебно-речевые ситуации, диалоги, упражнения, нацеленные на передачу содержания текста на английском языке. Для создания прочной лексической базы и развития коммуникативных навыков рекомендуется выполнять все упражнения в той последовательности, в которой они представлены в издании.
UNIT 1. SMART WORLD Part 1 S.M.A.R.T. (1) 1. Discuss the following questions. What electronic devices do you use: desktop computers, laptops, tablets, mobile phones, smartphones, portable video game units, camera…? How often do you use them? What purpose do you use them for? What does SMART mean for you? How can you decipher the term: S.M.A.R.T. technology? 2. Before reading the text, check the translation of some terms, using your electronic devices. Match the terms with the translations. proprietary technology standard
mainframe drive / mainframe
запатентованный технологический стандарт
выходить за пределы допустимого
оповещения о безопасности
to move out of tolerance
показатели качества жизни
рационализация работы городских систем
streamlining city operations
3. Read the article; give the main idea of every paragraph. A S.M.A.R.T. History Most gadgets that exhibit intelligent features or functionalities are referenced as smart devices. The term ‘SMART’ goes a long way back. It started as a proprietary technology standard from IBM a few decades ago. This is the Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology or S.M.A.R.T. S.M.A.R.T. gave warnings to mainframe drives for possible failures in the system. It analyzed the mechanical aspects of the system for discrepancies and recommended replacements once the hard drive moved out of tolerance. S.M.A.R.T. technology evolved beyond desktop computers and is now used for appliances, smartphones and other devices that can be connected to a network. Now technology is being entered more directly into the lives of residents. Smartphones have become the keys to the city, putting instant information about traffic, transit, health services, safety alerts, and community news into millions of hands. Now technology can deliver a better quality of life and our cities are being turned into Smart cities. But «Smartness» is not just about installing digital interfaces in traditional infrastructure or streamlining city operations. It is also about using technology and data purposefully to make better decisions and deliver a better quality of life. Quality of life has many dimensions, from the air residents breathe to how safe they feel walking the streets. Cities can use smart technologies to improve some key quality-of-life indicators (public safety, traffic, healthcare, ecological situation, social connectedness…) by 10 to 30 percent. 4. Explain the words in bold, given in the text.
5. Match the words with its definition. intelligent features
the person, who lives in the certain place
the importable device
the devices in the kitchen
the abilities to process the data
to tell about the certain danger
the set of functions
the system connected with the health of people
the system of roads
6. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: instant information / health services / data / to move out of / hard drive / discrepancy / functionalities / to streamline / to exhibit / to warn / appliances / safety alert / quality-of-life indicators / to evolve / hard drive a) These projects should be delivered on time, within budget and with the expected (1). b) The new counter-terrorism legislation, currently awaiting approval by the Council of Ministers, will (2) the process of freezing assets. c) The decline in public (3) had disadvantaged the poor. d) During the Games, Singaporean youth will also have the opportunity (4) what they have learned about the world culture. e) It promotes transparency and accessibility by providing (5) to users worldwide on the proceedings of open United Nations meetings. f) This control device shall (6) the driver when detecting any event and/or fault. g) Heating and water-heating (7) and refrigerators shall be connected to a duct for evacuating gases (воздуховод) into the open air.
h) After I saw your text message, I went into the (8) and pulled the photo from your (9). i) The aim of the group is to propose a new Regulation based on audible (10) of vulnerable road users. j) That (11) raised questions about the effectiveness of the law. k) The upward trend in social justice and (12) also placed Peru among the leading countries in the region. l) He suggested that robots might naturally (13). m) We need to (14) our comfort zone. n) We release random (15) anyone can access. 7. Translate from Russian into English. a) Своевременный сбор данных и их обработка необходимы для эффективной работы нашей компании. b) Для того чтобы фирма не прогорела, ему просто необходимо модернизировать систему доставки товара. c) Рационализация работы городских систем является приоритетным направлением в развитии нашего региона. d) Эта программа устанавливает наличие вирусов в системе, уничтожает их, при необходимости рекомендует замену поврежденных системных элементов. e) Бизнесмену необходимо следить за доходом компании, прибылью и издержками и не выходить за пределы допустимого. f) За последние пять лет резко упали показатели качества жизни. g) Во многих развивающихся странах услуги здравоохранения и образования доступны далеко не всем. h) Сматрфон – электронное устройство с высоким уровнем функционирования. i) Я предупреждала его в начале семестре, что он должен посещать все занятия. j) Многие не представляют жизнь без стиральной машины, плиты и других современных бытовых приборов, которые очень облегчают нам жизнь.
k) Если студентам необходимо набрать и распечатать документы, или использовать интернет они могут воспользоваться стационарными компьютерами в библиотеке. l) Если вам нужно воспользоваться услугами здравоохранения, вы можете записаться на прием к врачу на сайте гос. услуг. m) Тот факт, что частный предприниматель принимает все решения, является значимым. n) Высококвалифицированный программист поменял жесткий диск в компьютере и установил новое программное обеспечение. 8. One-minute speech. Do electronic devices make your life easier or more complicated? Did you benefit anything from our society being smart? 9. Agree or disagree with the following quotations (10 sentences for explanation): Necessity is a mother of invention. There is no science without patience. Experience is the mother of science. «The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom». Isaac Asimov «I don’t think necessity is the mother of invention. Invention . . . arises directly from idleness, possibly also from laziness. To save oneself trouble». Agatha Christie «Progress is made by lazy men looking for easier ways to do things». Robert A. Heinlein «Scientists may have sophisticated laboratories, But never forget ‘eureka’ was inspired in a bathtub». Toba Beta «You can’t control innovation! You can’t structure how people invent! That’s not how any of this shit works! Making and inventing is an ugly, stupid, random, dangerous process – just like humanity itself». Robert Jackson Bennett.
10. Discuss these issues in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). There is no doubt that we live in the age of technology, and it has become an essential part of everyday life and is constantly improving. How does technology affect you / people around you? Positive affect: Negative affect: Part 2 S.M.A.R.T. (2) 11. Discuss the following questions. How can a city be smart? 12. Read the article, answering the questions in brackets, and choose the most suitable heading for each part of the article (explain your choice, not less than 5 sentences). Smart Transportation Smart Energy Smart Data Too reliant on technology The layers of the Smart City Smart Infrastructure Personal privacy violations The definition of the Smart city A New Framework: The Smart City (1) So, what exactly is a smart city? Smart cities put data and digital technology to work to make better decisions and improve the quality of life. Real-time data gives agencies the ability to watch events as they unfold, understand how demand patterns are changing, and respond with faster and lower-cost solutions. (2) Three layers work together to make a smart city hum. First is the technology base, which includes a critical mass of smartphones and sensors connected by high-speed communication networks. The second layer consists of 10
specific applications. Translating raw data into alerts and action requires the right tools, and this is where technology providers and app developers come in. The third layer is usage by cities, companies, and the public. Many applications succeed only if they are widely adopted and manage to change behavior. They encourage people to use transit during off-hours, to change routes, to use less energy and water and to do so at different times of day, and to reduce strains on the healthcare system through preventive self-care. So what are some of the crucial components of the future smart city? Here is what you should know. (3) As stated above, data will be the beating heart of the smart city, collecting data from residents, the vehicles, and remaining infrastructure in the city. The goal will always be to improve living standards for the citizens. In the smart city, you will get notifications on the best times to travel, your own personal energy usage, the safest times to travel, improve your eating habits etc. In the smart city, you will have everything you need to know about the city, in real time, all in the palm of your hand. Even more so, this same data could be used to better plan cities in the future for residents, creating the framework of smart cities that constantly get more efficient over time. (4) You have probably seen a lot of companies create vehicles that they believe will play a major role in the coming age of the smart city. From Toyota to Renault, these companies have showcased fully autonomous vehicles, cars capable of understanding their surrounding environment to make decisions. You might not ever drive in the smart city. You will step into a smart vehicle that communicates with the other surrounding vehicles to ensure that you get from point A to point B both as quickly as possible and as efficiently as possible. (5) The idea of having a zero emission city is not too far away from becoming reality. The future smart city will include a host of clean energy sources to power its city. Smart cities will use less energy because of the constant real-time data collection and analysis. These «smart grids» will constantly communicate with itself, sending energy to areas in the city that may need even more power, while conserving energy in places of the city that might not need it. Solar and wind energy could be collected throughout the day and sent to the appropriate area. Solar energy itself will be as common as ever, fully integrated into the roads, buildings and residential areas. Further developments 11
in smart grid technology, as well as solutions in clean energy, will help bring the smart city into actualization. (6) As hinted on above, the large collection and analysis of data will play a big role in the planning of more smart cities. With the data collected, city planners and architects could create buildings that are optimized for people based on previous data. City areas or technologies that were nonexistent can be tested on citizens to ensure that they truly benefit citizens. Even more so, smart infrastructure can be used for the prevention of public health issues, potentially stopping airborne illnesses or water contaminations before they even happen. (7) However, smart cities also come with their drawbacks. One argument against the implementation of smart cities is that it will cause people to become even more reliant on technology and oblivious to their surroundings. It’s quite common these days to have a person walking down the street, staring into their smart phone, unaware of their surroundings. These people cross the street at a red light, bump into strangers or even fall! The implementation of technologies, which requires even less human effort, could mean that we forget how to do basic tasks – like parking or finding our car in a crowded area. If this technology were to somehow go offline for several hours or days, it could cause mass confusion and disorder. (8) Another argument against smart cities is data and security protection. With so many sensor-infused devices, there is no limit to the surveillance that could take place. Your personal data, payment information, whereabouts, spending and travelling habits are all pieces of data that can be collected, processed and analysed for any number of reasons. This could lead to personal privacy violations and easier payment theft. 13. Find the translation of the terms in the text. данные поступающие в реальном времени, оперативные данные (1) разворачиваться (о событиях) (1) закономерности, модели спроса (1) отвечать, реагировать (1) решения, которые помогут снизить расходы (1) работать энергично (2) 12
высокоскоростные сети передачи данных (2) необработанные данные, исходные, первичные (2) требовать (2) поставщики технологических решений (2) принимать, заимствовать, усыновлять (2) использовать городской транспорт в нерабочее время (2) уменьшить напряжение на… (2) профилактика (2) общая схема, структура (3) эффективный (3) демонстрировать, показывать (4) беспилотный автомобиль, робомобиль (4) город с нулевым уровнем выбросов (5) множество, большое количество (5) питать, снабжать электроэнергией (5) сбор данных в режиме реального времени (5) технология интеллектуальных сетей (5) как говорилось выше (6) болезни, передающиеся воздушно-капельным путем (6) внедрение (7) зависимый от (7) не обращающий внимание на (7) сенсорные устройства (8) наблюдение, надзор (8) нарушения конфиденциальности (8) 14. Explain the words in English in a written form. digital technology app developers to succeed in to encourage vehicles to get notifications on to ensure 13
surrounding environment previous data nonexistent water contaminations 15. Match the synonyms: unfold events
to reach the goal
to succeed in
to be widely adopted
to use transit
to be used by many people
to use the public transport
to get profit
to provide, guarantee
16. Match the antonyms: to reduce
a zero emission city
a host of
a polluted city
17. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: Real-time data (RTD) / transit / Fully Autonomous Vehicles / a host of / app / the framework / to ensure / to require / digital technology / lower-cost solution / efficient / to succeed in / to showcase / notification / contamination / preventive self-care / to respond a) The development of new electronic products has strengthened the company’s position as the leader in (1). b) He installed several new (2) on his smartphone. c) It’s hard (3) the business world. It’s a jungle out there. d) (4) show business celebrities have pledged their support. e) The main aim of the exhibition is (5) British design. f) These new ideas are penetrating into (6) of society. g) We’ll use (7) to get from the airport to the hotel. h) You will be sent a written (8). i) We will (9) equal opportunities for all. j) Swimming in the lake is banned until the (10) is identified and neutralized. k) (11) is information that is delivered immediately after collection. l) Would anyone care (12) to the last question? m) Decentralized wastewater management systems provide an appropriate and (13) to the wastewater problem in many situations. n) The project will (14) a great amount of time and money. o) We have to define the functional responsibilities of family doctors and family nurses to provide treatment and (15). p) Certain herbs are very (16) against headaches. q) (17) developed by Google are already navigating around the roads of California with humans to support testing.
18. Translate from Russian into English. a) После двух лет дебатов конгресс наконец-то принял этот закон. b) Современные, интеллектуальные умные города, в соответствии с текущими тенденциями, будут двигаться в направлении городов с нулевым уровнем выбросов. c) Даже в случае массового внедрения беспилотные автомобили не решат транспортных и экологических проблем. d) Умные сети – модернизированные сети электроснабжения, которые используют информационные и коммуникационные сети и технологии для сбора информации об энергопроизводстве и энергопотреблении. e) Привлечение инвалидов к участию во временных работах позволяет снизить напряженность на рынке труда. f) В данной книге даются общие принципы (основа, структура) для понимания современной политики. g) Едва ли нужно говорить, что он не тот человек, у которого работа кипит. h) Город увеличивает субсидии на проезд в общественном транспорте. i) Нужно ли мне приобретать страховку на мой автомобиль? j) Вы должны получить уведомление о результатах в течение недели. k) Компания пытается снизить издержки и повысить производительность. l) Мы хотим обеспечить (гарантировать) равные условия для всех. m) Иногда в загрязнении водоёмов виноваты пестициды. n) Они заметили в полученных данных некоторые закономерности. o) Первоначально высокоскоростные сети передачи данных предназначались только для передачи информации между основными серверами. p) При этом эконометрические модели зависят от высококачественных исходных данных, получить которые бывает нелегко.
19. Read the text and use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the gap. There are four factors that (contribution) to the transformation of a community into a smart city. First is the (to apply) of electronic and digital technologies over a wide range. Next is the use of ICT or Information and Communication Technology to transform the quality of life and working conditions of the citizens. The application of these ICT to (to govern) processes is also vital as a third factor. Lastly, the interconnection of the citizens is crucial to help facilitate community (to discuss). There is a (various) of ways that the Internet of Things can help power the (to succeed) of a smart city. Government transactions are more (to manage) when there is a digital payment platform. Some cities use smart parking apps that allow people to find the most convenient (to park) slot in the city. This is possible through data (to collect) from lampposts with sensors that analyze areas for parking. When it comes to transportation, smart apps have made it possible to meet the demands of public transportation from ride-sharing apps and volume management in public transit systems. Traffic lights with sensors can also adjust their (to perform) if they can assess that roads are becoming congested with vehicles. A smart city is not solely about technology. It is about people and how their (to qualify) of living can be improved by using ICT and smart devices. 20. Answer the questions (10 sentences for explanation). What is the main aim of Smart City system? What are three layers that make a smart city hum? What are functionalities of fully autonomous vehicles? What is the main role of «smart grids» in smart cities? 21. Fill in the gaps and recollect the situations from the text (5 sentences / each situation): strains on / illnesses / to use transit / vehicles / personal energy / app / data collection / communication networks / notifications on / solar and wind / self-care / lower-cost / technology / environment real-time …
to reduce …
… during off-hours
to get …
smart grid …
fully autonomous vehicles…
22. Discuss these issues in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). «The Internet is the bloodstream». How do you understand this phrase? Do you agree with this phrase or not? What is your overall opinion on the speed of technology development? Is it too fast or too slow? Do you consider Krasnoyarsk to be a Smart City? «Smart cities… will cause people to become even more reliant on technology and oblivious to their surroundings». Do you agree with this phrase or not? 23. Prepare the dialogues «The interview with…»: Minister of construction, housing and communal services of the Russian Federation Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation Minister of Transport of the Russian Federation Minister of Energy of the Russian Federation 24. Group work. Project on the topic (not less than 30 sentences from the group of 3). You are developing a Smart city. Write a description of what it consists of, concerning all spheres of the life: Medicine / Education / Transport / Economics / Labor market / Entertainment / … Be creative and imaginative, but down-to-earth and reasonable at the same time! You have to be able to give reasonable explanation and possible technological background for all the innovations you are offering.
Part 3 S.M.A.R.T. (3) 25. Find the information about: What is IoT? 26. Discuss the following questions. How often do you use digital payment platform? Have you ever used ride-sharing apps? 27. Find the translation of the terms. Give the definition of the terms. Term
remote access gateway hubs wall-mounted terminals energy consumption meters motion sensor parking slot water supply networks power grids waste disposal law enforcement 28. Put the verbs into the correct tense form and voice form. The Internet of Things (IoT): The Evolution of Automation Smart home technology (to become) accessible to households now. Home automation (to enable) the remote access of devices inside a household. It is now possible to monitor and adjust various controls from a distance such as temperature, lighting systems, domestic appliances, and home theatre packages, just to name a few. The Internet (to be) the bloodstream that allows home automation. Smart gadgets (to connect) to gateway hubs such as wallmounted terminals, computers, website interfaces or smartphone apps. People can then access these devices through these gateway hubs online. Because of the reliance of this system on the World Wide Web, a term (to form) to describe this 19
interconnectivity: the Internet of Things (IoT). The Internet of Things is a concept that (to expand) the functions of the Internet beyond usual computing. It (to provide) a platform for devices to communicate and interact with each other. More useful functions for users (to create) by this interconnectivity. With the help of the Internet of Things, several aspects of a household can (to connect) online. These (to include) home security monitoring systems, smoke detectors, refrigerators, door locks, laundry machines, domestic cleaning robots, and energy consumption meters. Home automation (to gain) popularity among consumers. 29. Work with the collocations: a. find the proper translation of each one; b. discuss the significance of each system / app / gauge for different categories of citizens. ride-sharing apps home theatre bundles wireless security systems smart parking apps programmable thermostats wireless home audio systems lighting control gauges digital payment platform 30. Read the text below and decide which word (A.B.C.D) best fits each space. In 2012, the National Association of Home Builders compiled data on the preferred (1) of consumers. Here were the leading vote-getters: Wireless security systems: 50% Programmable thermostats: 47% Security cameras: 40% Wireless home audio systems and lighting control gauges: 39% Home theatre bundles: 37%. Home automation began with features designed to save time and effort. The first (2) of these smart devices started with wireless technology with a 20
proxy server. This has since evolved into devices that can be (3) by artificial intelligence such as Amazon’s Alexa. The next frontier is the exploration of (4) usage such as Roomba and Rovio. The Internet of Things is continually growing. Beyond (5) access and interconnectivity, the IoT can collect data about the usage of these devices. These data can be (6) out to create digital trends that can help guide users and manufacturers about features that work or that need improvement. Efficiency is also one of the (7) benefits of using home automation. Devices that can be self-contained or regulated can have more energy savings because it can turn itself (8) when not used. The Internet of Things has also been applied for automated assistance for people with disabilities or elders needing care. Home systems can (9) to the needs of users with particular disabilities. Persons with disabilities who may have sight limitations can be guided with voice control. There are also motions sensing capabilities for accident emergencies. These features would not be effective without the Internet of Things. The early returns are encouraging; the IoT can significantly improve the (10) of life of people. 1. clever home devices / smart house devices/ smart home devices/smart home gadgets 2. device / garget /generation /element 3. helped /controlled / ruled / invented 4. machine / robot / gadget / mechanism 5. far / fast / remote / speedy 6. mapped / planed / organized / written 7. most / very/ core / better 8. on / off / down / up 9. adapt / add / adopt / addict 10. length / quantity / width / quality 31. Match the words in Column A with the words in Column B to create collocations. remote
32. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate collocation formed in the exercise above. a) The popularity of comfort control equipment, which can include enhanced filtration, (…), zoning and humidification, in today’s homes and business offices is increasing. b) This payment can be done online at the moment of booking through secure (…), or leave it for later and do it by bank or charged to your Visa, MasterCard or American Express. c) (…) are payment machine for accepting cash payments for mobile operators. d) Get Wi-Fi (…) to track your electric power consumption, this device will help you eliminate energy waste and lower electricity bill. e) We have (…) to the database. f) Give your house best care with this (…). g) In a growing number of cities, new urban planning and innovative business concepts, include car-free housing, using of (…), short-term car rentals which will have positive influence on ecology of the urban arias.
h) (…) are used to control the lights inside buildings and they are used to control and manage outdoor lighting too. i) For the first time, during the Asiada, 56 (…) provided video surveillance at the sporting facilities in Almaty via the 3G network. j) The guest area includes a spacious reception room, with kitchen and dining room, (…) for entertainment and a billiards room. k) (…) implies removal, destruction or storing of damaged, used or other unwanted domestic, agricultural or industrial products. l) With (…) your phone can alert you to available spaces on the parking and guide you to the exact location. 33. Discuss the necessity (strongly necessary / slightly necessary / I do not care / slightly unnecessary / strongly unnecessary) of the certain electronic devices for your home / public places in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 10 sentences on each point). Programmable thermostats Security cameras Wireless home audio systems Lighting control gauges 34. Read the text and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some of the lines have an extra incorrect word that should not be there. Cross out the odd word. When various smart homes live together in a neighborhood, it can to create a synergy (взаимодействие) within the community. Various devices are being connected into a network to provide boosts in daily city operations. When applied to a larger scale, the possibilities of the Internet of Things are immense. The synergy of devices can help to manage city resources more efficiently such as water supply networks, power grids, waste disposal, law enforcement, school databases and the hospital management. With an overall system which that embraces all these functions, it is easier to spot problems. Smart technology through information and communication (ICT) can however help improve the interaction between politicians and the people. Data collection systems can analyze how the population is been using different types 23
of technology. Analysis of this information will help the city to react more efficiently to the needs of the people. They can also anticipate what direction the city is taking. For example, with the help of IoT data, it is now possible to study it if a city is becoming more environmentally responsible as a whole. 35. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. a) Коттедж оборудован современной бытовой техникой, удобной мебелью для отдыха с комфортом: домашним кинотеатром с большим выбором DVD фильмов. b) Полиция оборудовала комнаты для допросов в центральном управлении полиции камерами наблюдения. c) В городе продолжаются работы по установке приборов учета энергоносителей. d) Если вы хотите избежать непредвиденных расходов и неприятных последствий, выберите беспроводную систему безопасности для охраны вашего дома. e) Программируемые комнатные термостаты – цифровые устройства, предназначенные для управления температурой воздуха в помещении. f) Выбор аудиосистемы для современного смартфона или планшетного компьютера можно сравнить с походом на экзотический фруктовый базар: обилие форм, размеров и красок поражает воображение. g) Датчики движения, срабатывают, когда кто-то проходит рядом, но это же и недостаток – нужно предусмотреть возможность его отключения днём. h) Датчики освещенности включают свет, когда на улице темнеет, имеют один недостаток – бесполезный расход электроэнергии при освещении, когда рядом нет людей. i) В современных городах скоро появятся парковки, оборудованные экранами, где будут показаны номера свободных парковочных мест. j) Если применять решения для совместных поездок в крупных городах, ежедневный транспортный поток вполне реально сократить на 20−25%, что уменьшит время в пути. k) Это приложение для парковки, специально разработанное для определения местоположения припаркованного автомобиля. 24
36. Find the definition of the terms. Apps / Cloud computing /Artificial intelligence / Information and communications technology (ICT) / Infrastructure /Autonomous vehicles / Data set / Connected devices / Platform as a service (PaaS) / Connectivity / Privacy / Interoperability (совместимость) / Platform / Electric vehicles / Sustainability / Open data / Shared transportation / Smart city / Sensors / Smart infrastructure / Real-time / Smart parking / Smart meters / ?
computer programs designed to perform a group of integrated activities for the benefit of the user.
intelligence exhibited by machines, rather than humans or other animals.
vehicles capable of sensing their environment and navigating without human input.
an information technology (IT) model for enabling ubiquitous (повсеместный) access to shared pools of data and computing resources, typically over the internet.
an electronic device, generally connected to other devices or networks, that can operate to some extent interactively and autonomously.
the ability of individuals and devices to connect to communications networks or the internet and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web
a collection of data.
vehicles completely rely on one or more electric motors for propulsion (движение).
Technology refers to the integration of telecommunications, computers, and associated enterprise software, middleware (промежуточное программное обеспечение), storage, and audio-visual systems that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate info.
fundamental facilities and systems serving a city, country, or other area including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
a characteristic of a product or system whose interfaces are able to work with a defined set of other products or systems.
data that is freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without copyright, patent, or other restrictions.
the environment within which a piece of software is executed.
a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications.
the ability of an individual or group to control the types, amounts, and recipients of data about themselves.
hardware and software systems that are able to respond very rapidly to continuously occurring external events.
electronic component, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment.
a demand-driven vehicle-sharing arrangement (соглашение о совместном использовании транспортных средств) in which travelers share a vehicle either on-demand or over time.
city uses information and communications technology (ICT) to enhance livability (благоустроенность), workability, and sustainability.
the integration of smart technologies into the fundamental facilities and systems serving a city, country, or other area including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
electronic device that records consumption of electricity in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information back to the utility for monitoring and billing.
a vehicle parking system that helps drivers find a vacant spot using sensors and communications networks.
maintaining and enhancing ecological, social, and economic health.
37. Agree or disagree with the following quotation (10 sentences for explanation): George Bernard Shaw once wrote: ‘The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.’ 38. Work in groups. Find the Information on the topics (not less than 10 sentences). Use the information from additional sources. Amazon’s Alexa Roomba and Robot Rovio Hutch and Modsy The other examples of robot usage. 39. Discuss these issues in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). There are many pros and cons of using high-technology by students and employees (in your classroom, work). Find pros and cons of using high-tech. Examples: generation f laziness, social interaction, better production… Part 4 S.M.A.R.T. (4) 40. Read the article and choose the most suitable heading for each part of the article (explain your choice, not less than 5 sentences). Smart Home Display Devices Smart Wardrobes and Mirrors Smart Bathrooms Monitoring the Elderly Smart Bedrooms Smart Kitchens Open Source Furniture / Interior Design Software Smart Home Control Hubs Facebook Screen
(1) Smart speakers are just one of the devices that can be linked to a home network. Today, the living room is being transformed into a central hub. Lighting controls, thermostats, and door locks can also be integrated into this overall system. Homeowners can control and monitor these devices with the touch of a smartphone. (2) Display devices may see innovation as well with the possibilities of screens that can roll up when not needed or high-definition projectors that can convert walls into makeshift yet powerful displays. (3) Open source furniture is also available already. You can be your own interior designer; if you are envisioning a certain furniture design for your home; you can visualize it into existence with the help of online platforms and apps such as Hutch and Modsy. (4) If you feel alone in your living room, Facebook is currently developing a smart camera for living rooms that will make you feel as if you are sitting face-to-face with a loved one. (5) Beyond these exciting functionalities, living room hubs can also be a safety measure at home. Elderly parents can be monitored with the help of security cameras. Smartphones can have access to the video footage at any given time. There are also motion sensors that can alert people if anyone at home is experiencing seizures or similar cases. (6) In the kitchen, smart ovens have digital thermometers to regulate the heat of your dish when you are cooking. This is a feature to ensure that you won’t be overcooking your meal. It is also an added safety feature to protect against fire incidents. Smart refrigerators can alert people if any of the produce inside may be going bad. It can also provide cooking recipes and instructions if you need them at a moment’s notice. 3D food printers are now available to help create all types of food ingredients that you can imagine. The sky is the limit! (7) In the bedroom, there are a variety of smart devices designed to provide you with a good night’s sleep. Smart thermostats can regulate the temperature according to your preferences. Smart mattresses have sleep trackers to monitor the quality of your sleep, allowing you to chart your daily sleep hours and attempt to make improvements. There are smart alarm clocks that can provide you with weather updates and news headlines every time you wake up. There is also an alarm system that can give you a gentle wake-up call with the 28
use of aromatherapy. This system takes note of your sleeping cycle and releases a scent of your choice to wake up your senses. (8) If you feel your wardrobe needs an update, you can shop for clothes online, and Amazon allows you to adjust these clothes with a smart patented mirror. If it’s just a matter of color choices, there are now smart clothes that can change their tints, depending on your mood. (9) The bathroom is also a part of the smart home revolution. Smart shower systems such as U by Moen can prepare your preferred water temperature. There are tubs from Toto that can generate relaxing brain waves as you take a shower. Aromatherapy can be available with apps such as Olfinity. 41. Find the translation of the terms. Give the definition of the terms. Term
open source furniture central hub display devices video footage sleep trackers smart ovens updates a smart patented mirror relaxing brain waves 42. Find the translation of the words in the text. Learn the words. представлять себе, рисовать в своем воображении (3) импровизированный (2) предупреждать об опасности (5) отрегулировать, приспосабливать, выверять (8) наметить (7) в любой момент (6)
43. Read the text and use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the gap. The smart home may seem ‘normal’ nowadays, but its fundamental ideas were just fictional (to imagine) a few decades back. The tablet was just a gizmo from 2001: A Space Odyssey. The movie trilogy Back to the Future predicted (to wear) technology such as smart eyewear, similar to today’s Oculus Rift. Star Trek blazed the trail (проложить путь) for wrist devices that work like smartphones. Disney even has the film (1999) Smart House (to feature) a robot named PAT (short for Personal Applied Technology). This device efficiently runs the house through voice commands and (to master) memorizes the habits and tendencies of its (to occupy). Science starts with an idea. With the way technology is progressing, it is not far-fetched to think that these ideas can become (to fix) of the future soon enough. It begs the question: if we have smart homes now, what can we expect in the coming decades such as the 2030s and the 2040s? 44. Fill in the gaps and recollect the situations from the text (5 sentences / each situation): be integrated into / convert walls into / open source / face-to- / be monitored with / protect against / provide cooking / to monitor the / gentle / shop for … fire incidents
…this overall system
… powerful displays
… security cameras
… quality of your sleep
… clothes online
… wake-up call
45. One-minute speech. Do you consider your home to be a Smart Home? 46. Discuss the necessity (strongly necessary / slightly necessary / I do not care / slightly unnecessary / strongly unnecessary) of such innovations (not less than 10 sentences on each point). open source furniture sleep trackers 30
smart ovens a smart mirror smart refrigerator motion sensors display service (high-definition projector) thermostat smart shower system relaxing brain waves system Part 5 S.M.A.R.T. (5) 47. Read the article and offer the most suitable heading for each part of the article (explain your choice, not less than 5 sentences). Answer the questions in the brackets. (1) While technology trends will change at a moment’s notice, we can safely predict that people will always have homes. This stability is a good assurance for tech companies; you can be sure they will continue to innovate these smart home devices. The research and advisory company Gartner released predictions that a typical household may have more than 500 smart devices in the year 2022. (What do you think about this prediction? Do you agree or disagree?) (2) While smart homes let you experience luxury and convenience with the touch of a finger, it is not immune to challenges. One of the biggest obstacles is connectivity. The potential of the Internet of Things (IoT) is immense. But different devices of different tech companies have their own network interfaces, and rival brands may even make it difficult for their respective devices to work together. (Can you give the example of the lack of Interoperability of the devices?) (3) The reliability of the Internet is also a compelling touchpoint. Without an active online connection, these smart devices will not function together in a network. It may be hard to imagine living in a developed country, but there are still places that have a low Internet connection. There are at least 35 countries with less than 20% Internet access such as Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua because of the absence of infrastructure. (How do you estimate the quality of 31
online connection in Krasnoyarsk? Is it enough for implementation of Smart Home conception?) (4) Expert minds are hard at work to find solutions to connectivity. There are ideas for unified controllers so that smart devices can work efficiently together in a home. It will be a huge convenience for people if there is a single app or interface to manage IoT products for temperature control, lighting, security cameras and power consumption. Once these connectivity problems are resolved, smart home technology and the Internet of Things will become integral aspects of daily life – not just a luxury for some households that can afford it. (5) There are still concerns about privacy issues and data breaches, especially with online networks connected to homes. But tech companies are wasting no time to address challenges as they come. (What kind of privacy issues can people face in their Smart homes?) (6) Like any new concept, there will never be an immediate consensus on the success of smart homes. There will be doubts and criticisms. There will also be excitement and results, especially from users who are experiencing its benefits already. Statistics also show that despite these issues, users appreciate the convenience that smart homes bring to the table. It is clear: smart homes will be a global trend for years and even decades to come. As far as trends go, the Internet of Things is being embraced by the world. (Do you support the idea of the Internet of Things world-wide success in the future?) 48. Match the words with its definition central hub
devices that monitor everything from your heart rate and oxygen consumption while you are sleeping
on some laptop computers, a device like a miniature joystick with a rubber tip, manipulated with a finger to move the screen pointer, the point of contact
the device that can facilitate proper cooking and ensure that a dish is does not burn
a smart patented mirror
the place where all the projects and initiatives come together
any time 32
something which can be used with something else
at a moment’s notice
the device which combines reflected images with artificially transmitted images – like a t-shirt you’re contemplating to buy – into a single mirror display
49. Match the synonyms: to envision
to convert, to tune
the problems with being compatible
to include in the plan
50. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate word or collocation: video footage / to adjust / compatible / to update / to chart / to alert / respond / rival / makeshift a) Most antivirus software (…) automatically when you connect to the web. b) She wanted (…) her own career path. c) The rock served as a (…) hammer. d) The governor (…) island residents that a hurricane was coming. e) He was a spy planted in the office by a (…) company. f) We’re in a good position to monitor and (…) to customer concerns. g) Some visitors find it difficult (…) to the city’s high altitude. h) This printer is (…) with most PCs. i) Police had viewed (…) of the four suspects together at London King’s Cross.
51. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. a) Обновления можно скачать бесплатно. b) Новое программное обеспечение совместимо с IBM. c) После нашего импровизированного обеда я угощу вас моим фирменным десертом. d) Она представляла себе лучшую жизнь. e) Каждая команда несла ответственность за принятие собственных решений и построение собственного курса. f) Преподаватель предупредил студентов, что на следующий день будут выданы тестовые задания. g) Банк ещё не ответил на наше письмо. h) Мы должны приспособиться к плохой экономической ситуации. i) Он уважал своих соперников /конкурентов/. j) Эти кадры были неоднократно показаны по телевидению. 52. Read the text and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some of the lines have an extra incorrect word that should not be there. Cross out the odd word. (7 odd words) Smart home experts are bold with their predictions. By the 2030s in, they expect the population of the world to have ballooned to 8.5 billion people. Smart homes are primed to offer solutions to overcrowding by is making the prospect of co-living as an ideal. Shared living spaces can even be mobile with the idea of private dwelling pods. Mental health will may also be at the forefront during this decade. The 2040s may have be advanced enough to integrate robots into societies, as we usually see it in science fiction movies today. The artificial intelligence of robotic beings may become advanced to the point that they can be co-exist with people, or even outnumber in them. There will be ethical issues that must be resolved first, but the hope is that robots will work to improve the quality of lives of the humans. 53. One-minute speech. Don’t you think that the implementation of Smart Home Technology in can negatively affect the mental health of people? What do you think about the idea of mobile shared living spaces with the private dwelling pods? 34
54. Discuss these issues in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). What everyday activities which we have to do now by ourselves, might only be done for fun in the future? (Ex: hunting for food in the past / hunting for fun at present) What addition smart devices should be invented to make our home as Smart as possible? Use your imagination. 55. Agree or disagree with the following quotations (10 sentences for explanation): «It’s really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don’t know what they want until you show it to them». S. Jobs «Learning and innovation go hand in hand. The arrogance of success is to think that what you did yesterday will be sufficient for tomorrow». William Pollard «Vulnerability is the birthplace of innovation, creativity and change». Brene Brown «Originality is the fine art of remembering what you hear but forgetting where you heard it». Laurence J. Peter 56. Debates «Pro and Con of Smart Homes» (not less than 5 ideas with explanations from the group) Group #1: Think about ideas to support Optimistic point of view on Smart Home Technology issue. Group #2: Think about ideas to support Pessimistic point of view on Smart Home Technology issue. 57. Project work on the Unit «SMART World». Write an article / Prepare the speech (presentation) on the topics (not less than 30 sentences). Smart Technology in Krasnoyarsk: Present and Future in Medicine Education / Transport / Economics / Smart Technology in Labor market … (your ideas) The Influence of Smart Technology on quality of life. Smart Homes Threats and opportunities of Smart Technologies Strengths and weaknesses of Smart Technologies
UNIT 2. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Part 1 CSR (1) 58. Discuss the following questions. What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? «The main objective of the business is to get profit» – do you agree with this idea or not. Do you agree that the companies should be people-oriented (take care of employees and clients)? 59. Before reading the text, check the translation of some terms, using your electronic devices. Match the terms with the translations. be socially accountable
corporate social responsibility
занять активную позицию
в отношении к, что касается, относительно
приверженность принципам устойчивого развития
to have impact on
получивший широкую огласку
подразумевать, влечь за собой
a proactive attitude
корпоративная социальная ответственность
to adopt a proactive attitude
иметь влияние на
with regard to
commitment to sustainability
основной этап, момент, рубеж
система социального обеспечения
быть социально ответственным
60. Read the article; give the main idea of every paragraph. CSR – a global strategy Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a self-regulating business model that helps a company be socially accountable – to itself, its stakeholders, and the public. By practicing corporate social responsibility companies can be conscious of the kind of impact they are having on all aspects of society, including economic, social, and environmental. Corporate Social Responsibility entails that companies take on the responsibility for social problems. Examples of this include: air pollution, climate change, labour conditions or ageing. The company makes conscious choices to find a balance between People, Planet and Profit. Companies can take this one step further and focus on new market opportunities, growth and innovation that benefit people, society and the environment. Triple P Three key terms are central in CSR: People, Planet and Profit (Triple P). People represent the care for employees in the company, but also for society as whole. Examples include: good labour relations and working conditions, the opportunities to develop, human rights. CSR activities can help create a stronger bond between employees and corporations; boost morale; and help both employees and employers feel more connected with the world around them. Planet represents a proactive attitude with regard to the natural environment and contributing to solving environmental problems. Profit is not only regarding the company’s financial achievements, but is also regarding the economic effects of the business activities on the environment. An organisation is profit-oriented to secure the organisation’s future, given the fact that profit forms the financial basis for the enterprise. Thus, CSR is primarily a strategy of large corporations. Also, the more visible and successful a corporation is, the more responsibility it has to set standards of ethical behavior for its peers, competition, and industry. Small-andmid-sized businesses also create social responsibility programs, although their initiatives are not often as well-publicized as larger corporations. Example of Corporate Social Responsibility: Starbucks is known for its keen sense of corporate social responsibility, and commitment to sustainability 37
and community welfare. Starbucks has achieved many of its CSR milestones since it opened its doors. As per its 2018 «Global Social Impact Report,» these milestones include «reaching 99% of ethically sourced coffee, creating a global network of farmers, pioneering green building throughout its stores, contributing millions of hours of community service, creating a groundbreaking college program for its partners/employees». Starbucks’ goals for 2020 and beyond include hiring 10,000 refugees across 75 countries, reducing the environmental impact of its cups, and engaging its employees in environmental leadership. 61. Explain the words, given in the table. corporate social responsibility stakeholders to be conscious to have impact on to entail proactive well-publicized community welfare milestone groundbreaking 62. Find the translation of the terms. Give the factual information about Starbucks (in details). Term
ethically sourced coffee to create a global network of farmers green building throughout its stores to contribute hours of community service 38
With regard to Starbucks
to create a groundbreaking college program for partners/employees environmental leadership 63. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below: groundbreaking \ with regard \ stakeholders \ entail\ well-publicized\ proactive attitude \ corporate social responsibility \ conscious \ impact \ commitment \ milestone \ entails \ community service \ welfare system a) She was honored for her (1) work in nuclear physics. b) In addition, adhering to the principle of (2), the Company invested RUB44 million in the construction, renovation and acquisition of various equipment for the development of social spheres. c) The Partnership incorporates several (3) from United Nations agencies, regional media associations and local civil society actors. d) In some cases, it might be a (4) choice, a decision to avoid taxes and other obligations. e) A recent study on HIV / AIDS highlighted the need for UNESCO to concentrate on the (5) of the disease rather than the spread of the disease itself. f) A change in the citizenship of one spouse does not (6) a change in the citizenship of the other. g) Since June 2010, Israel has prohibited any pharmaceutical, dairy or meat products from the West Bank from entering East Jerusalem, which (7) up to $48 million in losses annually for the Palestinian economy. h) The project helped local farmers who normally expect direct financial help from institutions to adopt a more (8). i) (9) to your request, no decision has been made. j) One (10) case involves Ahmed Ghailani, a person arrested in July 2004 for his alleged part in the 1998 bombings of two United States Embassies in East Africa. k) Are you ready to make a long-term (11)? l) Greenland has a modern and well-functioning (12) providing free health care and education.
m) The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has passed a long-feared (13). n) If she pleads, we’ll recommend probation plus (14). 64. Translate from Russian into English. a) В соответствии с уголовным законодательством «обязательные работы» являются разновидностью наказания. b) Это новаторский проект призван содействовать устойчивому развитию и уменьшению масштабов нищеты на основе налаживания партнерских отношений, обмена знаниями и ресурсами. c) Организация экономического сотрудничества и развития выступила организатором региональной конференции, на которой обсуждались преимущества корпоративной социальной ответственности для правительств и деловых кругов. d) Документы будут разосланы заинтересованным сторонам по электронной почте. e) Хотя Комитет осознает вызовы, связанные с экономическим кризисом, он выражает обеспокоенность по поводу возможных негативных последствий сокращения бюджета для учреждений, занимающихся вопросами защиты прав человека. f) Первые военные успехи американцев получили широкий резонанс во Франции, а французское правительство открыто поддержало революционеров. g) Эти действия усугубят ухудшение почвы, воздуха, воды и биологических ресурсов и, таким образом, негативно повлияют на достижение ряда экономических и социальных целей. h) Тихоокеанский субрегион подтверждает свою политическую приверженность устойчивому развитию, используя подход «зеленая экономика в голубом мире», которая может также помочь Тихоокеанскому субрегиону адаптироваться к последствиям изменения климата. i) У меня было много финансовых обязательств. j) Это соглашение было вехой в истории американо-советских отношений. k) Любое нарушение этих правил может привести к дисциплинарным санкциям вплоть до увольнения. 40
l) Наша единственная забота – благополучие детей. m) Для получения гранта студент должен не только учиться на «хорошо» и «отлично», но и иметь активную жизненную позицию: принимать активное участие в научной и общественной работе. 65. Read the text and use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the gap. In 2010, the International Organization for Standardization / ISO released a set of voluntary (добровольные) standards meant to help companies (implementation) corporate social responsibility. Unlike other ISO standards, ISO 26000 provides guidance rather than (to require) because the nature of CSR is more (quality) than (quantity), and its standards cannot be (certification). Instead, ISO 26000 clarifies what social responsibility is and helps organizations (translation) CSR principles into practical actions. The standard is aimed at all types of organizations, regardless of their activity, size, or location. And, because many key stakeholders from around the world contributed to (to develop) ISO 26000, this standard represents an international consensus. 66. One-minute speech. When you apply for a job, will you take into consideration the fact that the company should have CSR as a primarily strategy, or this fact is not important for you? Do you usually adopt a proactive attitude in life? 67. Discuss these quotations in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). «What the public thinks of your company is critical to its success», Schmidt told Business News Daily. «By building a positive image that you believe in, you can make a name for your company as being socially conscious». «A robust CSR program is an opportunity for companies to demonstrate their good corporate citizenship … which is extremely important nowadays» said Jen Boynton, CEO of B Targeted Marketing Co.
«Consumers deserve to share in the good feelings associated with doing the right thing, and many surveys have found that consumers are inclined to purchase a sustainable product over a conventional alternative». «Nearly 90% of the consumers surveyed said they would purchase a sustainable product of higher price rather than less expensive conventional alternatives. More importantly, 75% will refuse to buy from a company if they learn it supports an issue contrary to their own beliefs». 68. Debates. Debates «Advantages and Disadvantages of CSR» (not less than 5 ideas with explanations from the group) Group #1: Think about ideas to support Optimistic point of view on CSR. Group #2: Think about ideas to support Pessimistic point of view on CSR. CSR (2) 69. Discuss the following questions in pairs. Are you environmentally-friendly and socially responsible? Are you ready to do / have you already done certain activities: Hold an annual tree-planting event. Set up recycling bins throughout your facilities. Minimize your amount of paper waste. Switch from incandescent light bulbs to energy-saving LED bulbs. Make socially and environmentally conscious investments. Take part in volunteering. 70. Read the article; give the main idea of every paragraph. Answer the questions in brackets. Building a socially responsible business 1. Although being socially responsible isn’t free – it can cost time, money and resources – it is important to remember that every little bit can help the environment. You can start making an impact on society by donating a small portion of your sales to a cause you care about. «Even 5%, though it might not sound like a lot, can add up to make a difference», said Schmidt. «When thinking of ways to donate and give back, start local and then move from there». 42
(Do you agree with this opinion?) Recognizing how important socially responsible efforts are to their customers, employees and stakeholders, many companies now focus on a few broad CSR categories: 2. Environmental efforts: One primary focus of corporate social responsibility is the environment. Businesses, regardless of size, have large carbon footprints. Any steps they can take to reduce those footprints are considered good for both the company and society. Here are some ways socially responsible companies can help the environment. Hold an annual tree-planting event; Set up recycling bins throughout your facilities; Minimize your amount of paper waste; Permit remote work to reduce the negative impact of traffic; Switch from incandescent light bulbs to energy-saving LED bulbs; Make socially and environmentally conscious investments. 3. Philanthropy: Businesses can practice social responsibility by donating money, products or services to social causes and nonprofits. Larger companies tend to have a lot of resources that can benefit charities and local community programs. It is best to consult with these organizations about their specific needs before donating. The example of such philanthropy is Bosch corporation policy. With over $100 million donated in 2017 alone, the Robert Bosch Stiftung Foundation is one of the largest and most active philanthropic organizations in the EU. This year, Bosch is focusing on peace, integration, inclusion, and dialogue, through a variety of initiatives including supporting schools, funding community projects, and training health professionals such as nursing. 4. Ethical labor practices: By treating employees fairly and ethically, companies can demonstrate their social responsibility. Nowadays job applicants aren’t eager to apply for positions that offer the bare minimum compensation. Conversely, employees deserve to be generously reimbursed for the time and work they dedicate to their company. Brands that improve working conditions and well-being for all employees can see big returns in the form of a happy and productive workforce. For example, Netflix offers their employees 52 weeks of paid parental leave, which applies to both parents. Within that time, employees have the option of going back to work and then resuming their paid leave as it suits them. No matter how they choose to take their leave of absence, they 43
receive their full salary for its duration. Netflix also offers unlimited vacation time to their workers, as does LinkedIn. (What do you think about this initiative?) However, you don’t need to make grand gestures like these to improve employee morale. Introducing more natural lighting, soft seating and plants into the workplace can boost energy and attitudes around the office. (Do you agree that the working place environment – more natural lighting, soft seating and plants into the workplace – has the impact to the productivity?) 5. Volunteering: Attending volunteer events says a lot about a company’s sincerity. By doing good deeds without expecting anything in return, companies can express their concern for specific issues and commitment to certain organizations. 6. Companies have various reasons for engaging in CSR. In practice, it is always the case that multiple motives play a role. Why do companies choose the strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility?) 7. CSR is advantageous (financially). CSR contributes to the company’s financial achievements, particularly in the long term. The market plays an encouraging role as the demand for sustainable products and services is rising. Saving on energy use or the use of raw materials could be lucrative. Engaged companies have more motivated employees, which can lead to increased labour productivity. (Do you agree that CSR is financially advantageous?) 8. (Can companies be forced to engage in CSR?) Companies engage in CSR because it’s obligatory. This usually occurs under pressure of large purchasers, such as the government, large companies, consumer boycotts, media scandals or strikes. If companies don’t adhere to the minimal societal standards, they can lose their license to operate. 9. In addition to the fact that financial considerations or external pressure play a role in CSR, many companies engage in CSR because they wish to conduct business in a decent manner. They wish to contribute to society, pay attention to the satisfaction of their personnel and don’t want to be too straining on the environment. Participation in CSR follows logically, as they believe it is the right thing to do. (Can it be the reason of company’s strategy?)
71. Find the translation of the terms in the text. вне зависимости от (2) углеродные следы (2) уменьшить (2) ежегодный (2) мусорные баки (для сортировки мусора и дальнейшей его переработки) (2) удаленная работа (2) лампы накаливания (2) энергосберегающие лампы (2) некоммерческие организации (3) принести пользу (3) соискатели (4) наоборот (4) заслуживать (4) получать возмещение за (4) посвящать (4) оплачиваемый отпуск по уходу за ребенком (4) возобновить, получить обратно (4) улучшить боевой дух (4) обращаться с кем-то справедливо (4) искренность, честность (5) проявлять обеспокоенность (5) конкретные вопросы (5) устойчивые продукты (7) прибыльный (7) сырье (7) придерживаться (8) штат (9) 72. Give the detailed explanation of the terms: carbon footprints sustainable products social causes nonprofits
73. Match the synonyms: rubbish bins
community / public problems
to cheer up
to get profit
to devote to
to treat fairly
to benefit from
to get (money) back
to take care of
to stick to, follow
to be reimbursed for
to communicate with the person in a decent way
paid parental leave
to profit, to assist, to make useful
to improve morale
74. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: lucrative / personnel / express concerns / resumed / adhere to / energy-saving LED bulbs / raw materials / paid parental leave / regardless of / annual / carbon footprints / specific issues / dedicate / the recycling bins / to treat / sustainable production / benefit / to be reimbursed for / deserve / remote work a) Children have full rights to health services (1) their residence status. b) Many initiatives, both at the EU and global level, have been deployed for identifying (2) of transport services. c) The (3) had been quite bright, so that you could even read by them. d) The Workshop consisted of eight technical sessions, each focusing on (4). e) The company management decided to increase its (5). 46
f) However, the businessman must (6) professional rules and a code of ethics. g) I (7) this film to the memory of their relatives who were killed or went missing during the Second World War, as well as the memory of the six million victims of the Holocaust. h) In Sweden, (8) exists for both men and women. i) Chief, we’ve had a report of some hippy types messing with (9) at the supermarket. j) Britain is heavily dependent on imports for its (10). k) Please ask them (11) us like human beings. l) Kim signed a (12) contract as the Sony Beta Movie Spokesperson where she appeared in posters and television advertisements. m) The speaker mentioned that (13) practices – and compliance with international norms – were becoming increasingly relevant for large emerging economies. n) Those who have returned continue to (14) about the security situation, including the level of crime, and the need for support in rebuilding housing. o) Shall I expect (15) the costs of hotel? p) Some people describe him as «selfish», but he doesn’t (16) that label. q) Did you (17) from your holiday? r) After the rain stopped, the teams (18) play. s) The school trip has become an (19) event. t) (20), working from home arrangements and working at flexible hours becomes possible and more common. 75. Translate from Russian into English. a) Все граждане Российской Федерации обладают равными правами, вне зависимости от национальной или расовой принадлежности. b) Ежегодный отпуск работников, работающих на условиях неполного рабочего времени, не сокращается. c) Едва ли она заслуживает увольнения. d) Мирные переговоры возобновятся завтра. e) У полиции не хватает ни элементарного снаряжения, ни личного состава. f) Новый план может принести пользу многим студентам. 47
g) Я ищу удаленную работу в области 3D графики, музыки и звука, веб дизайна. h) В 2008 году прессе вице-президент компании признал, что в то время как компания поддерживает политику корпоративной социальной ответственности, ни одна из чашек компании не является полностью перерабатываемой, в магазинах нет сборников для перерабатываемых отходов. i) В Украине на государственном уровне рассматривается вопрос использования ламп накаливания и замену их на современные энергосберегающие лампы. j) Использование таких систем позволяет уменьшить «углеродный след», бороться с обезлесением и создавать рабочие места и возможности для получения дохода. k) Помимо квоты отцов в оплачиваемом отпуске по уходу за ребенком, отцы также имеют право на двухнедельный неоплачиваемый отпуск в связи с рождением ребенка. l) Ты должен посвятить мне немного времени. m) Все расходы будут вам возмещены. n) Партнеров можно было бы подключать к технической работе и к координации деятельности по конкретным вопросам. o) Мы должны придерживаться правил, установленных органами местного самоуправления. p) Стоимость сырья значительно возросла. q) Он унаследовал прибыльный бизнес своего отца. r) Переход на устойчивое производство может способствовать созданию достойных рабочих мест, а также совершенствованию рынков труда. s) Комитет приветствует существование телефонной линии помощи, которой могут пользоваться дети для получения поддержки или изложения своих проблем и жалоб. t) Она обращается со мной, как с членом семьи. u) Её задача заключалась в улучшении морального климата в коллективе.
76. Fill in the gaps and recollect the situations from the text (5 sentences / each situation): decent / to loose / raw / paid / good / to boost / to donate / to treat / to reduce / annual / to permit / to benefit / a variety of / to be reimbursed for …money
… carbon footprints
… tree-planting event
… remote work
… parental leave
… the time and work
77. Discuss the following questions in pairs. What do you think about advantages and disadvantages of remote work? Are you ready to take part in such community initiative as annual cleaning? Do you use incandescent light bulbs or energy-saving LED bulbs at home? What are the ways to improve employee morale you consider to be the most effective? Do you buy sustainable products? 78. Discuss the necessity (strongly necessary / slightly necessary / I do not care / slightly unnecessary / strongly unnecessary) of CSR categories on behalf of the employers, employees and clients of the company. Environmental efforts Volunteering Ethical labor practices Philanthropy Give the examples of these CSR categories with regard to both foreign and Russian companies.
Part 2 CSR (2) 79. One-minute speech. Are you ready to sort your rubbish and use recycling bins? Are you ready to refuse from usage of plastic bags and use more environmentally-friendly bags «green bags», sold in the shops? 80. Discuss the following question in pair, if you do not know the exact meaning, try to guess. What is «Greenwashing»? 81. Before reading the text, check the translation of some terms, using your electronic devices. Match the terms with the translations. to become concerned
waste disposal practices
методы утилизации отходов
to be committed to sustainable development
to reduce expenses
извлечь выгоду из, заработать на
быть приверженным, стремиться к устойчивому развитию
вводящий в заблуждение, обманчивый
to capitalize on
82. Read the article; give the main idea to every paragraph. 1. Green marketing is the marketing of environmentally friendly products and services. It is becoming more popular as more people become concerned with environmental issues and decide that they want to spend their money in a way that is kinder to the planet. Green marketing can involve a number of different things, such as creating an eco-friendly product, using eco-friendly packaging, adopting sustainable business practices, or focusing marketing efforts on messages that communicate a product’s green benefits. 2. This type of marketing can be more expensive, but it can also be profitable due to the increasing demand. For example, products made locally in North America tend to be more expensive than those made overseas using cheap labor, but they have a much smaller carbon footprint because they don’t have to fly across the globe to get here. For some consumers and business owners, the environmental benefit outweighs the price difference. 3. Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly or produced in an environmentally friendly way, such as: Not containing toxic materials or ozone-depleting substances; Able to be recycled and/or is produced from recycled materials; Being made from renewable materials (such as bamboo, etc.); Not making use of excessive packaging; Being designed to be repairable and not «throwaway»; Beyond making an environmentally friendly product, business owners can do other things as part of their green marketing efforts. The following can all be part of a green marketing strategy: Using eco-friendly paper and inks for print marketing materials; Skipping the printed materials altogether and option for electronic marketing; Having a recycling program and responsible waste disposal practices; Using eco-friendly product packaging; Using efficient packing and shipping methods; Using eco-friendly power sources; Taking steps to offset environmental impact. 51
4. Green marketing is typically practiced by companies that are committed to sustainable development and corporate social responsibility. More organizations are making an effort to implement sustainable business practices as they recognize that in doing so they can make their products more attractive to consumers and also reduce expenses, including packaging, transportation, energy/water usage, etc. Businesses are increasingly discovering that demonstrating a high level of social responsibility can increase brand loyalty among socially conscious consumers; green marketing can help them do that. 5. The obvious assumption of green marketing is that potential consumers will view a product or service’s «greenness» as a benefit and base their buying decision accordingly. The not-so-obvious assumption is that consumers will be willing to pay more for green products than they would for a less-green comparable alternative product. Is this true? Apparently, yes. The 2014 Nielsen Global Survey on Corporate Social Responsibility polled 30,000 consumers from 60 countries to determine statistics on consumer preferences for sustainable purchasing, and found that: 55% of consumers were willing to pay extra for products and services from companies committed to positive social and environmental impact (up from 45% in 2011); 52% made at least one purchase in the past six months from at least one socially responsible company; 52% check product packaging to ensure sustainable impact. Interestingly, consumers in the Asia-Pacific region, Latin America, and the Middle East/Africa showed a higher preference (64%, 63%, 63%) to pay extra, whereas the preference in North America and Europe was lower (42% and 40%). 6. Some marketers try to capitalize on the growing number of green consumers by simply taking a green marketing approach to products that might not otherwise be considered green. An example of this is when a company uses the color green in their packaging, or the word green somewhere in their messaging, when there isn’t anything particularly eco-friendly about their product, nor it’s not more eco-friendly than competing products. It is not only misleading, but it can also be damaging to a company’s reputation.
83. Read the article again and choose the most suitable heading for each part of the article (explain your choice, not less than 5 sentences). Not only fashionable, but also profitable What is Green Marketing? Are you ready to Pay More for Green Products? «Greenwashing» Green Marketing Methods More expansive but much better in a long run 84. Find the translation of the terms. Give the definition of the terms. Term
environmental issues eco-friendly product eco-friendly packaging adopting practices
communicate a product’s green benefits renewable materials brand loyalty sustainable purchasing green consumers sustainable agriculture compostable goods durable products 85. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: capitalize / green consumer / ozone-depleting substances / poll / packaging / sustainable agriculture / waste disposal / concerned / repairable / competing product / renewable materials / shipping / committed to / brand loyalty / eco-friendly / implemented / durable products / ensure / capitalize / comparable / sustainable business / compostable / eco-friendly / repairable / misleading / shipping / assumptions / offset / sustainable development / 53
a) People are (1) about corruption and social inequality. b) Seminars stimulate and promote the sound use of wood and other forest based products as environmentally friendly and (2). c) The Committee also stresses the importance of achieving (3) and good nutrition for population. d) The company does its best to create the positive image of the product, support product identity, and increase (4). e) TERMEX makes high quality, reliable and (5), combined with very competitive prices. f) (6) – a customer who wants to buy things that have been produced in a way that protects the natural environment. g) The fruit was ready for (7). h) A lot of consumers use their purchasing power to support corporate social and environmental responsibility and (8) practices. i) We’re using mushrooms to create an entirely new class of materials, which perform a lot like plastics during their use, but are totally (9) at the end of their lives. j) The reports of the conference will include such topics as: (10), toxic chemical products, hazardous wastes, endangered species and living modified organisms. k) A recent (11) shows a decrease in the number of teenagers who smoke. l) Special problems arise when the goods are defective but (12). m) Gradually a consumer prefers more (13) products which have no a negative influence on a crop and fauna. n) The restoration of basic public services such as electricity, water and (14) remains a fundamental task of UNMIK. o) You should (15) on every chance you get to improve your English. p) The environmental cost has often been high but may be (16) over time. q) The government (17) significant tax reforms. r) The report also contains some statistics which may be (18). s) The cargo was containerized for safe and efficient (19). t) Bacardi also produces a (20) with the same name in Puerto Rico, sold only in the United States. u) The firm was able to (21) on the mistakes made by its competitors. 54
v) This product is made from (22) materials and was wrapped in ecofriendly (23). w) Many scientific (24) about Mars were wrong. x) The planet Pluto is (25) in size to the moon. y) The overexpenditure was partly (26) by lower staff costs. z) We want to (27) equal treatment for everyone. aa) Global chemical pollution is a serious threat to (28) and livelihoods. bb) Both States and individuals must be (29) promoting and protecting human rights. 86. Translate from Russian into English. a) Меня немного беспокоит твоё здоровье. b) «Зеленые» потребители – группа потребителей, предпочитающих экологически чистые продукты. c) Приклейте на коробку транспортную этикетку. d) Расходы на транспортировку оплачиваются заранее. e) За изготовление экологически безопасных упаковочных материалов и за использование переработанных исходных материалов присуждаются экологические премии. f) Импорт веществ, разрушающих озон, требует разрешения от Государственного комитета по защите окружающей среды. g) Он сумел возместить свои транспортные расходы за счёт налогов. h) Одной из самых неотложных задач, которую необходимо выполнить до наступления зимы, является восстановление 50000 поддающихся ремонту домов. i) Применение этих технологий – один из возможных вариантов адаптации устойчивого сельского хозяйства к рыночным условиям. j) Некоторые из них не были убеждены в том, что устойчивое развитие имеет отношение к данное теме. k) Компании внедряют новые технологии, чтобы оставаться конкурентоспособными. l) Рабочая группа представила соображения относительно сокращения расходов еще на 1 млн. долл. США.
m) Эта инициатива вовсе не требуют инвестиций, но может помочь в мотивации сотрудников, повышении производительности и сокращении расходов. n) Он построен из досок и кирпича и других экологических возобновляемых материалов. o) Предположение на 2015 год заключается в том, что после задержек и месяцев политических переговоров будет сформировано правительство. p) И не забудь: надо заплатить за электричество и вывоз мусора. q) Последний опрос показал, что лидируют демократы. r) В этой рекламе присутствовали не соответствующие действительности утверждения о данном продукте. s) Археологи дают рекомендации по вопросам захоронения ядерных отходов. t) Сложность задачи заключалась в необходимости создания конкурирующего по цене устройства в сжатые сроки. u) Ты должен использовать любую возможность улучшить свой английский. v) Мы должны быть привержены диалогу культур и цивилизаций. w) Мы обеспечим равные возможности для всех. x) Пользователь получает продукт длительного пользования, устойчивый к самым неблагоприятным погодным условиям. y) В 2010 году «Trek» объединился с несколькими поставщиками, чтобы обеспечить экологически чистую продукцию. z) Главная цель этих СМИ – повышение лояльности к бренду и стимулирование покупок. aa) Эти камеры сопоставимы по цене и по функциональности. 87. Put the verbs into the correct tense form. «Greenwashing» If consumers want to be certain they indeed (to buy) a green product, they should (to look for) official certifications listed on the product packaging. For example, in 2012 a CBC Marketplace study (to find) that Dawn Antibacterial dish soap, which featured a label showing baby seals and ducklings and 56
claiming that «Dawn helps save wildlife» (to be found) to contain Triclosan which recently officially (to be declared) as being toxic to aquatic life – environmental groups have called for it to be banned. Seaworld Orlando’s introduction of its «Cup That Cares» in 2013 (to be) another sad example of green marketing gone wrong. The cup (to be marked) as environmentally friendly; each time a person (to refill) the cup at a vending machine in the park, an embedded chip (to display) how much CO2 he or she (to save). Unfortunately, the cup (to be) plastic. BDC Business Consultant Chris O’Sheasums it up well; «Green marketing (to be) about your whole company. You really have to be authentic. If you’re not, people (to accuse) you of greenwashing and your reputation (to suffer)». For green marketing to be successful, it has to fit with your brand. Having a single green product when the rest of your products are not, for instance, can make customers wonder if you’re serious about your environmental commitment, says O’Shea. 88. Discuss these questions in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences). When shoppers enter the grocery store to stock up on the week’s meals, there are typically several thoughts that cross their minds. What does the product cost? Is the product worth the cost? Are there any specials available that could change my shopping lists? Is the product environmentally friendly? Is the product organic? ??? Do you ask these questions? 89. Read the text and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some of the lines have an extra incorrect word that should not be there. Cross out the odd word. «Green» can include many things – water/land conservation, recycling, non-toxic chemicals, reduced the carbon footprint, sustainable agriculture – so 57
it’s important to identify how exactly a particular product or brand is green. Marketers must also to remember that «green benefits» compete against other factors (such as quality and price), and generally cannot be sold on their own. Effective individual product marketing will be focus on direct benefits (like health) first, adding the environmental benefits like as icing on the cake. Meanwhile, marketers must make sure that these environmental benefits do not compromise the product’s value. For example, when SunChips offered a new compostable bag, which were produced more noise (enough to interfere with television-watching), consumers rejected the product. To them, the value of eating chips from the bag without noise was as more important than the value of compostable bags. Finally, marketers must make sure that green products are being delivered to the right markets. For example, higher-priced green products are not likely to sell well in Walmart stores, where the average customer has only $65 dollars in a week for groceries. However, they may sell extraordinarily well in an upscale San Francisco neighborhood, where residents have more disposable cash in addition to a local culture which that promotes environmental consciousness. 90. Discuss these questions in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences). What is the level of environmental consciousness in Krasnoyarsk? What do you think about the situation that consumers rejected the compostable bags of SunChips? (value of eating chips from the bag without noise was as more important than the value of compostable bags). Would you do the same? What is your attitude to the Star backs initiative: «Come with your own cup and we will give you 5% discount»? Would you appreciate this offer?
91. Read the text and use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the gap. Who is ready to pay more? A majority of polls indicate that (to consume) favor green products, and are willing to pay more for them. However, the fact is that higher-priced green products have always struggled for market share. This does not mean that the majority of (to purchase) do not care about green marketing, but it does mean that they also care about other (to compete) value propositions, including quality, convenience, and cost. The National Marketing Institute estimates that about 80 percent of consumers are engaged by green marketing at some level, with about 17 percent of consumers (high) engaged. This consumer group, referred to as LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability), are those most (like) to pay a premium for green products. As a group, they are well-off and better educated than the general (popular). A related market segment, designated Naturalites, constitute an (addition) 19 percent of the population. This group (also more well-off and educated than the general population) is interested in green products as they care about their health. They are highly likely to buy organic foods, but are less (interest) in green marketing for (duration) products. Highly price-sensitive consumers are the least (to respond) to green marketing. For those with less (disposal) income, being thrifty with their money becomes a more immediate concern. Green marketing therefore faces a particular challenge in times of economic slowdown, as price becomes a bigger factor in consumers’ purchasing (to decide). 92. Discuss these options in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences). Are you: LOHAS? Naturalites? Highly price-sensitive consumers? ??? 59
93. Revise the information from the tests and exercises from the CSR (3) and answer the questions (not less than 5 sentences): What is Green Marketing and what are its elements? Is Green Marketing is more expensive than conventional one? What does «green» product mean? What «green» methods can be used in business? What is the relationship between brand loyalty and CSR? Are customers and consumers ready to support CSR strategy by paying more for «green» products? What is «Greenwashing»? 94. Project work on the Unit «CSR». Write an article / prepare the speech (presentation) on the topics (not less than 30 sentences). CSR in Russian (the main concept, causes, examples, prospects + your point of view on the question: Will this initiative die out or it will expand and become stronger?) CSR abroad (the main concept, causes, examples, prospects + your point of view on the question: Will this initiative die out or it will expand and become stronger?) Green marketing in Russian (the main concept, causes, examples, prospects + your point of view on the question: Will this initiative die out or it will expand and become stronger?) Green marketing abroad (the main concept, causes, examples, prospects + your point of view on the question: Will this initiative die out or it will expand and become stronger?)
UNIT 3. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT Part 1 L. vs. M. (1) 95. Discuss the following questions. What do you know about Maslow’s theory? 96. Before reading the text, check the translation of some terms, using your electronic devices. Match the terms with the translations. subordinate employee
повлечь за собой
to be unevenly distributed
существенный, основной, весьма важный
to be concerned with
продуктивно, разумно, эффективно
преследовать, продолжать, заниматься
содействовать, облегчать, помогать
имеющий отношение к чему-либо, занимающийся чем-либо
широко обсуждаемый, рассматривающийся
поддерживать в порядке, обслуживать.
неверно направленный, неверно адресованный
потребность в уважении
97. Read the article; give the main idea of every paragraph and answer the questions, given in the text. The most influential and widely regarded theories with regards to human relations are known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It was developed by a psychologist (Abraham Maslow) in the 1940s. He determined that our behavior was driven by what our needs were at that particular point in time. He developed a hierarchy of five different needs and basically stated that these needs must be met in order for someone to progress up the hierarchy and pursue what were termed some of the higher level needs: physiological needs, safety and security needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs. In order to progress up this hierarchy you have to have a lower level need met first. Physiological needs: it is something which is necessary to sustain life. In this case we are speaking more about survival, rather than life. If these needs have not been satisfied yet the person will not be able to shift to the other level. As soon as you have your physiological needs met you would progress to the next particular area and that is the safety and security need. We also talk about both physical and emotional safety and security, even financial safety as well. The people who are responsible for the positive atmosphere in the company (emotional safety and security of the employees), which facilitate the productivity are leaders \ managers. There are many definitions of leadership. Leadership is an interpersonal relationship in which power and influence is unevenly distributed and one person directs and controls the behaviors of others. Leadership - a power relationship which exists between the leader and the followers. Leadership is an effort to influence, the power to make subordinates submissive and to transform the organization. …Give your own definition of leadership… Leadership is the most studied and least understood area in the social sciences. However, most of the definitions are related to the trait, ability, skill, behavior and relationship. Leadership is a process that is similar to Management in many ways. Leadership involves influence, as Management does. Leadership entails working 62
with people, which Management entails as well. Leadership is concerned with effective goal accomplishment, and so is Management. But there are some differences. Management was created as a way to reduce chaos in organization, to make them run more effectively and efficiently. The primary function of Management is (first identified by Fayol 1916) planning, organizing, staffing, controlling. Management is about seeking order and stability. Leadership is about seeking adaptive and constructive changes. … If take this idea as a basis, whose activity is more important for the company, a leader or a manager?... … Who are you by nature, a leader or a manager?... But both Leadership and Management are essential as if organization has strong management without leadership – the outcome can be stifling and bureaucratic. If the organization has strong leadership without management – the outcome can be meaningless, or misdirected change for change’s sake. To be effective, organization need to nourish both competent management and skilled leadership. 98. Explain the difference. safety / security intrinsic drivers / extrinsic drivers effectiveness / efficiency 99. Match the words with its definition. to determine, to set
a thing that is absolutely necessary
to provide with necessities for life or existence
in a way that achieves maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense
having no meaning or significance
to distribute 63
discussed a lot
the way a thing turns out; a consequence
to give shares of (something); deal out
to make (an action or process) easy or easier
in a manner that is not regular or consistent
to strengthen or support physically or mentally
to provide with the food or other substances necessary for growth, health, and good condition.
to move or cause to move from one having great influence on someone or place to another, especially over a small something distance to involve (something) as a necessary or inevitable part or consequence
used to single out an individual member of a specified group or class.
a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority
100. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: unevenly / distributed / influential / maintaining / submissive / to facilitate / accomplishments / widely regarded / misdirected / meaningless / to pursue / concerned with / essential / particular / efficiently / unevenly / subordinate / entail / determines / sustained / to nourish a) The allowance covers the basic costs of … a child b) Voters were ... to the wrong polling place. c) Milo was lying on his back, breathing…. d) He is leaving the company … his own business interests. e) She uses her … friends to get jobs. f) He was … rail safety. 64
g) The action seems to discriminate against a ... group of companies. h) Opportunities to get bail out were … spread around the country. i) Information leaflets are being ... to hotels and guest houses. j) They had to … their own needs to the needs of the group. k) She didn’t buy into the propaganda of her day that women had to be soft and… . l) The project will … considerable expense. m) These laws were … as too strict. n) Her family is proud of all her academic… . o) Demand … the price. p) The moderator’s role is … the discussion by asking appropriate questions. q) She just bought a new computer that should enable her to work more.. . r) National boundaries are becoming increasingly … in the global economy. s) She alone … her family. t) Free speech is an … right of citizenship. u) Vitamins are added to the shampoo … the hair. 101. Discuss these issues in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). What level of Maslow’s pyramid can you refer this situation to? If you were working on a job and for somehow you found out that your company was beginning to downsize, so there is the risk for you to lose the job. What level are you on / your parents / the majority of people of the country? Is it possible to skip some of the Maslow’s pyramid stages and reach the top of it. 102. Agree or disagree with the following quotations (10 sentences for explanation): «The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it». Theodore Roosevelt 65
To facilitate the productivity of the employees the extrinsic drivers are needed. Extrinsic drivers (material drivers of motivation: bonuses, raises) are more important than intrinsic drivers (it comes from within: you interest at your work). L. vs. M. (2) 103. Discuss in pairs and give your ideas on the points: «The difference between a leader and a manager is that manager is somebody who maintains what exists. They just keep the current things going. A leader is someone who creates what could be. They make something new possible that did not exist before. The job of a leader is to create a future». «You manage things; you lead people». Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper 104. You are going to read the speech of Thomas Julian Birkinshaw on Leadership vs. Management topic. Do you agree with the general conception of it? Thomas Julian Birkinshaw the professor of strategy and Entrepreneurship London Business School University of London «What do we mean by leadership? You can think of very famous leaders over the years like Winston Churchill, Richard Branson, we can think of Steve Jobs more recently. Everyone’s got their own favorite examples of leaders. What is it that makes these people leaders? Well, I’m going to give you a definition. Leadership is a process of social influence. I mean that a leader is somebody who attracts followers. Somebody who by virtue of their own skills, their own abilities, their own charisma, the things that they say, the things that they do attract people to follow them. And of course it’s possible to be a leader who is attracting followers for a very dangerous cause. But obviously we’re going to focus particularly on leaders who attract followers around worthy
causes and financially lucrative causes. That’s what leadership means in a business context. What is management? Well, here actually there’s a couple of ways of defining the term. We can go back to the original way of defining management. There was a famous framework put together by a couple of American management writers, Koontz and O’Donnell. And they had a view of management which was around planning, organizing, controlling, directing and budgeting. They focused on the functions of management because what they did was they observed managers, and they observed that managers spent a lot of time planning stuff, organizing stuff, and directing stuff. That’s not wrong. But for me it’s actually quite a limiting definition, because the trouble with it is, it focuses on what managers do, rather than why they do it in the first place. So, I actually prefer a much simpler definition, which is «Management is getting work done through other people» (what do you think about this definition of Management?). That is what, for me, management is all about. Basically management says: There are things that organizations are trying to do which you cannot do as a set of individuals. We need to gather people together to collaborate, to do something they couldn’t do on their own». Management is essentially the art of getting work done through others, getting resources and people together. And management in that respect is fundamentally different to leadership but at the same time it’s complementary. So we need leaders and we need managers. We’ve got these two different words Management and Leadership, and it’s worth just reflecting on how we ended up comparing and contrasting these two points of view about what executives do. And we have to go back 20 years or so to the leadership revolution. There are two gentlemen in particular who are worth observing here. John Kotter, a Harvard business school professor, Warren Bennis from Southern California. Both of them very much kind of gurus who kept saying we need to take leadership seriously in organizations. And they were right to do so. There’s no question that we need leaders to help our organizations perform better. But, there was a catch because by building up leadership, they did it at the expense of management. You can see here that when you look at the words that Kotter and Bennis use to describe leaders and managers, they’re playing a game. They’re playing kind of the oldest game out there which is to 67
build up X you have to knock down Y. By building up leadership, they knocked down management. A Leader
Copes with change Sets a direction Aligns people Motivate people
Cope with complexity Plans and budgeting Organize and staff Controls and problem-solves
Promotes effectiveness Is his/her own person Originates Challenges the status quo
Promotes efficiency Is a good soldier Imitates Accepts the status quo
They put all of the kind of the attractive and interesting things about the executive’s job around managing change and coping with complexity into the leadership bucket. And they put all the kind of the leftover stuff, the boring stuff, into the management package. And if you think about it, that is really not the right way to do things. Because essentially, management and leadership, as I’ve said, are really both kind of two sides of the same coin, two horses pulling the same cart. We need both of them. And I think what happened is that, because of the success of people like Kotter and Bennis, in building up leadership as a sort of a state of mind, they managed to persuade people that action management wasn’t that important. Needless to say, that is not a helpful way of looking at things. I’ll just give you one more example of exactly the same point. A chap called Andrew Sturdy; he’s a friend of mine at Warwick Business School. He did a study a few years back where he asked his executive MBA students to describe the work that they do. And these are all people who are working with, with subordinates in important professional jobs. And when they described the work they did they talked about themselves as entrepreneurs, as change agents, as accountants, as engineers. None of them used the word manager to describe themselves. And when you push them on this, saying: «Well, why, why didn’t you use the word manager»? Their answer was essentially: «We don’t like the word manager». Essentially they said: «I don’t 68
want to be seen to be a manager because most people think of management as controlling and leadership as liberating». (Do you agree with this point of view?) So we mustn’t get hung up on words. We really mustn’t because, in fact, some languages, like the Scandinavian languages, don’t even separate the words management and leadership. What we need to do is to be clear that we need leaders and managers. We need to have both. It is a false dichotomy to say that some people are leaders, and other people are managers. Essentially, what we need to do is to become better at figuring out when to be a leader, and when to be a manager. We shouldn’t pretend that somehow these are different things. We all have to think about both of these activities because I want to address the balance. I want to make sure that the whole issue around managing, about working more effectively; getting work done through others is given equal prominence». 105. Find the translation of the terms. Give the definition of the terms. Term
setting objectives scheduling of work a coach to empower your team to micromanage to align people lucrative business to collaborate in that respect at the expense of 106. Translate from Russian into English (L. vs. M. (1, 2). a) Спрос на товар определяет его цену. b) Они пытались обогатиться за счёт бедных. c) Обычно профессия писателя не очень прибыльна, но мне она принесла очень много удовлетворения. 69
d) Мы хотим поддержать обычных граждан. e) До начала проекта, необходимо спланировать четкий график работ. f) Исследователи совместно разрабатывают эту вакцину. g) Хороший наставник необходим не только при занятии спортом, но и на вашем рабочем месте. h) Выровняйте листы бумаги на столе. i) Она планирует продолжить карьеру в политике. j) Мы поставили на каждый день конкретные задачи. k) Любое (принятое) решение повлечет за собой неудобства для той или другой группы. l) Город не хочет покупать процветание ценой потери своей индивидуальности. m) Все прочие соображения должны быть подчинены нуждам семьи. n) Она занимается множеством общественных проблем. o) Мы отпраздновали достижение всех наших целей. p) Снижение налогов может способствовать восстановлению экономики. q) Чтобы работать продуктивно, придётся научиться расставлять приоритеты. r) Ему казалось, что его работа не имеет смысла. s) Пища поддерживает жизненные силы. t) В этом отношении я согласен с оратором. u) Для этой работы важнейшее значение имеет умение продавать. v) Крем содержит витамин А питающий кожу. 107. Make up creative comparisons, explain your ideas (be creative). A manager is like a …. 108. Prepare the dialogue. «The interview with Thomas Julian Birkinshaw».
109. Work in pairs. You are given the understanding of «Dimensions of Management» from the point of view of successful businessmen: Henry Fayol, Peter Drucker, Henry Mintzberg. Discuss them in pairs, choose one structure, you agree with most and give explanations of your choice (not less than 15 sentences). Henry Fayol
Forecasting and planning
Framing and scheduling
Motivating and communicating
Communicating and controlling
Leading and linking Doing and dealing
Development 110. Work in groups. You are offered the list of «A good Manager’s skills and qualities», given by Adam Bryant (New Times, March 12th 2011). Discuss them in groups. Choose the points, you agree with / disagree with, and give your explanations. What makes a good Manager? Be a good coach. Empower your team and do not micromanage. Express interest in team members’ success and personal well-being. Be productive and result-oriented. Be good communicator and listen to your team. Help your employees with career development. Have a clear vision and strategy for the team. Have key technical skills so you can help advice the team. Part 2 LEADERSHIP (1) 111. Discuss the following questions. We are going to speak about Leadership and Leader. Do you think that you have certain skills and qualities to become a leader? What «Great Man theory» is? 71
112. Read the article, answering the questions in brackets. Trait theory 1. The trait theory of leadership was one of the first systematic efforts to study the concept of leadership in the early 20th century (Northouse, 2004, 2007). The notion of this theory states that, there are some rare individuals who have the ability to revolutionize the history or bring a real change in the society. Trait theories of leadership emerged during 1920s and 1930s. According to the notion of trait theory, the traits instilled in the leaders make them different from non-leaders. Trait theories assume that leadership qualities of individuals are inherited and are a part of their personality (Allen, 1998). These qualities may be social or political in nature. According to (Northouse, 2007), some leaders from history like Mohandas Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln, Napoleon, and Hitler were studied and it was noticed that such leaders were effective due to some unique and innate leadership qualities. Therefore, different studies were carried out to find out those attributes and personal characteristics that distinguished them from others. The trait theory of leadership is known as «Great Man theory». According to Northouse (2007) the leaders possess the certain Traits. (What are they?) 2. A series of recent studies on intelligence and leadership found support for the finding that leaders tend to have higher intelligence than non-leaders. Although it is good to be bright, if the leader’s IQ is very different from that of the followers, it can have a counterproductive impact on leadership. Leaders with higher abilities may have difficulty communicating with followers because they are preoccupied or because their ideas are too advanced for their followers to accept. In a study of the relationship between intelligence and leadership in midlevel leaders from multinational companies, it was found that the optimal IQ for leadership appeared to be just above one standard deviation above the mean IQ of the group membership. It is good for leaders to be intelligent, but if the intelligence scores become too high, the benefits appear to taper off and can become negative. (Give the example of the leader for whom the intelligence was a key trait).
3. Self-confidence is another trait that helps one to be a leader. It is an ability to be certain about one’s competences and skills. It includes a sense of self-esteem, and self-assurance. (Give the example of the leader for whom the Self-confidence was a key trait). 4. Many leaders also exhibit determination. Determination is the desire to get the job done and includes characteristics such as initiative, persistence, dominance, and drive. People with determination are willing to assert themselves, are proactive, and have the capacity to persevere in the face of obstacles. Being determined includes showing dominance at times and in situations where followers need to be directed. (Give the example of the leader for whom the Determination was a key trait). 5. Integrity. Is the quality of honesty and trustworthiness? People who adhere to a strong set of principles and take responsibility for their actions are exhibiting integrity. Leaders with integrity inspire confidence in others because they can be trusted to do what they say they are going to do. They are loyal and not deceptive. Basically, integrity makes a leader believable and worthy of our trust. (Give the example of the leader for whom the Integrity was a key trait). 6. Leaders who show sociability are friendly, outgoing, tactful and diplomatic. They are sensitive to others’ needs, and show concern for their wellbeing. Social leaders create cooperative relationships with their followers. (Give the example of the leader for whom the Sociability was a key trait). 113. Find the translation of the terms in the text. Learn the new Vocabulary. прививать, внушать (1) предполагать, брать на себя ответственность(1) врожденные качества(1) качества, признаки, атрибуты (1) открытие, вывод, заключение (2) приводящий к обратным результатам(2) поглощенный мыслями, захваченный идеей (2) продвинутый, передовой, прогрессивный(2) лидеры, руководители среднего звена(2) 73
уменьшаться, сокращаться, сужаться, (2) уверенность в себе, (2) самоуважение, самооценка, чувства собственного достоинства(3) самоуверенность, самонадеянность (3) решимость, решительность(4) настойчивость, стойкость, упорство. (4) само утверждаться, завоевать признание(4) упорно продолжать что-то делать, упорно добиваться(4) честность, прямота, целостность (5) надежность, кредитоспособность, степень доверия(5) твердо придерживаться(5) обманчивый, вводящий в заблуждение (5) 114. Fill in the table with the derivatives. Verb
to instill in (into)
to adhere to
115. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: assume / attributes / preoccupied / determination /advanced / to instill / innate / self-confidence / findings / counterproductive / self-esteem / deceptive / persistence / adhere / to persevere a) The system has many … features. b) We must try… some order into the organization. c) I can only … that it was a mistake. 74
d) She has an … sense of rhythm. e) What … should a good manager possess? f) The… may shed light on the mechanisms and functions of sleep. g) Sending young offenders to prison can be… . h) He was too … with her worries to enjoy the meal. i) Is a lack of … undercutting your performance at work? j) Unemployment can cause feelings of inadequacy and low… . k) The manager confronted his work with… . l) His … in asking for a raise was finally rewarded. m) It’s not easy … with such dull work, but it has to be finished. n) You must … to the rules. o) Appearances are often… . 116. Translate from Russian into English. a) Он вроде бы счастлив, но внешность бывает обманчива. b) Мы следуем принципу, согласно которому с каждым следует обращаться по справедливости. c) Несмотря ни на что, она продолжила учёбу и закончила её одной из первых в классе. d) Её упорство было вознаграждено, когда ей предложили работу администратора. e) Он обладал твёрдой решимостью добиться успеха. f) В школе он был изгоем, и даже сегодня у него низкая самооценка. g) Уверенность в себе делала его неуязвимым для критиков. h) Он был руководителем среднего звена, но получал очень высокую зарплату. i) У него были передовые взгляды на данный вопрос. j) Вопрос о жизни после смерти занимал мысли многих философов. k) Его действия свидетельствуют о том, что ему можно доверять. l) Суровые дисциплинарные меры оказываются привели к обратному результату. m) Женщины должны заявлять о себе чаще! n) Его выводы скорее основаны на непроверенных данных, а не на результатах серьезных исследований. 75
o) Оба кандидата обладают признаками, которые мы хотим видеть в лидере. p) Дети имеют врожденную способность к изучению языка. q) Я не видел вашей машины, вот и подумал, что вы уже ушли. r) Родители пытаются привить своим детям лучшие моральные принципы. s) Влияние обесценивания рубля начало уменьшаться. 117. Discuss these issues in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). What qualities would you exclude from the list of the «Great Man theory»? What quality would you add to it? What is your opinion on the «Great Man theory»? Do you think that the person should be born with the certain set of qualities to become a Great Leader, or everyone can be train for that? Part 3 LEADERSHIP (2) 118. Discuss the following questions. Infamous Leaders, who are these people? Are their qualities and skills different from Famous Leaders? The leader should take his lead in the situation. How often do you take your lead? 119. Before reading the article, check the translation of the words. Learn new Vocabulary words
to emphasize determinants to be related to underlying assumption in this regard significant contribution to come up with 76
benevolent affiliation self-efficacy ambiguous to exert efforts Behavioral theories of leadership The trait theories concentrate on leaders’ certain personality characteristics whereas the behavioral theories focus on the behaviors of the leaders. For instance, what leaders do and how leaders act (Northouse, 2004). Behavioral theories of leadership emphasized more on studying the determinants of behavior of a leader and concluded that using these determinants, leadership style can be learned. According to Northouse (2007), the behavioral theories include two types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors. The task behaviors are related to the task accomplishment whereas the relationship behaviors motivate the followers to carry on their efforts. The underlying assumption of behavioral theories of leadership is that, it is possible to learn leadership behavior and styles through training (Allen, 1998). In this regard, Ohio and Michigan studies are considered significant contributions in the development of behavioral theories. The first contribution was from Ohio State University researchers (i.e. Stogdill, Coons, Halpin & Winer, Fleishman) who came up with some influential theories of leadership that remained popular during 1950s and 1960s (Gill, 2006). They worked on leadership behaviors in military (Stogdill & Coons, 1957) and found that leadership styles are practiced in different ways. Most of the time, they influenced their followers by initiating structure and consideration. In initiating structure, the leaders organize work, define the tasks and schedule the work activities for their followers. In consideration, they develop an atmosphere of respect and trust with the followers. The effective leaders use both initiating structure and consideration at the same time at different degrees (Stogdill & Coons, 1957). The second major contribution in development of behavioral theories is from the University of Michigan studies (researchers include Katz & Kahn). They identified ‘concern for task’ (product oriented) and ‘concern for people’ (employee oriented) behaviors as common leadership behaviors (Blake 77
& Mouton, 1994; Likert, 1967; Gill, 2006). This model of leadership behaviors was called the managerial grid (Blake & Mouton, 1994) and then renamed as leadership grid. The production-oriented behavior focuses on the technical aspects of task accomplishment. The employee-oriented behavior focuses on followers to take them as human beings, to value their individuality, and to pay particular attention to their needs. Likert (1967) classified leadership styles into four categories: exploitative autocratic, benevolent autocratic, consultative and democratic. Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973) classified the leadership styles in similar ways: autocratic, persuasive, consultative and democratic (Gill, 2006). 120. One-minute speech. What is the underlying assumption of behavioral theories of leadership? Do you support this idea? Give the examples to explain your opinion. 121. Find the definition of the terms in the text or in the other recourses of information. Give the adequate translation of the terms. Term
behavioral theories leadership style task behaviors relationship behaviors initiating structure consideration ‘concern for task’ behavior ‘concern for people’ behavior managerial grid 122. Four styles of Leadership have been mentioned in the text. Work with the collocations: a) find the proper translation of every style; b) find additional information on this point and give the definition of every style; c) discuss the certain points in group:
advantages/disadvantages of the style in which sphere it is mainly used examples of the leaders, who uses this style exploitative autocratic style benevolent autocratic style consultative style democratic style 123. You are offered one more classification of styles of the Leadership, given by Daniel Goleman. Think about possible advantages and disadvantages of these styles. Visionary (provides long term direction and vision) Coaching / caring (cares about the people and having one-on-one conversation with them and about them, not about the job: what they want from life, career, job…) Affiliative (has fun together with employees) Democratic (builds commitment through collaboration, consensus building leader) Pacesetter (does not give feedback, does not do anything the other four, just expects people to be as good as they have been or are and only give negative appraisals, never positive ones) Command-and-control leader 124. Individual task. Answer the questions (not less than 15 sentences). What leadership style would you choose for your future career? What style of leadership do you want your future Boss to have?
125. Read the text and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some of the lines have an extra incorrect word that should not be there. Cross out (6) odd words. Contingency theories of leadership The contingency theories of leadership have studied the behavior of leaders in the era of 60-s to 70-s. The contingency theories of leadership focused on studying the behavior of leader which varies from one situation in to another. Leader needs to define one particular behavior or leadership style which could fit in varying situations. Therefore, contingency theories are proposed that there is no best leadership style in every situation. Effective and successful leaders use different leadership styles based on the situation and the followers. According to Goldsmith (2003), effective leadership is the best fit between the behavior, context and the need. In order to fully understand the effectiveness and the performance of leaders, it is necessary to understand the situation in which they lead. In contingency theories, the relationship between two variables is being measured. These two variables may be the leadership styles or some situational variables. The situational variables might include in relationship quality between leader and subordinates, structure of task, availability of information, maturity level of subordinate, unclear tasks or roles of the subordinates and the degree to which subordinates are willing to accept the decisions of the leader (Howell, Dorfman & Kerr, 1986). 126. One-minute speech in pair. Summarize the information about Contingency theories of leadership. Do you support this theory? Explain your answer. 127. You will read the information about 2 more theories of the leadership. Think about the main idea of each theory and offer the titles. The theory «????????» 1. This theory was developed in 1971 by House and later improved by House and Mitchell (1974). This theory states that the main role of leader is to help subordinates to solve their problems to achieve goals. Effective leaders always motivate their followers to understand their tasks and reach goals. 80
However, different subordinates are motivated through different factors according to their needs and preferences like need of affiliation, preference for structure, desire for control, or self-efficacy. On the other hand, if the tasks are ambiguous and unstructured, the followers will be less satisfied and less motivated (House and Mitchell, 1974). House (1971) proclaimed that leadership style and behavior of leader is flexible which allows him to adapt his leadership style according to situation. The theory «????????» 2. This theory focuses on the characteristics of the leaders, followers and the relationship between leaders and followers. The theory emphasizes that the relationship between every pair (leader and follower) varies with the other pair, and different followers may have a different relationship with the same leader (Gill, 2006; Graen, Cashman, Ginsburg & Schiemann, 1977). The underlying idea behind the theory is that the nature of the relationship between leaders and followers is based on understanding of the other (Gill, 2006). According to this theory, leadership is a process that motivates followers or subordinates to exert extra efforts (Dunnette, Hough, & Triandis, 1990). Moreover, the relationship between leaders and followers has a significant relation with followers’ degree of job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational commitment (Martin, Thomas, Charles, Epitropaki & McNamara, 2005). Further, the level of interaction between leaders and followers also matters (Kaplan & Norton, 2001). According to Krishnan (2004), when the quality of exchange between leader and follower increases, progress also begins to increase. 128. One-minute speech. Do you agree with the point: «There are many «motivational drivers», and they vary in their importance depending on the person and on the specific circumstances»? How do you prefer to be motivated at work? 129. Match the word and its definition. Definition
to give special importance or prominence to (something) in speaking or writing to try hard 81
to open to more than one interpretation; having a double meaning to be connected with smth a gift or payment to a common fund or collection annexing a factor which decisively affects the nature or outcome of smth the main suggestion to make up smth 130. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: ambiguous / to emphasize / come up /contribution / determinant / to be related / underlying assumption / benevolent / affiliation a) I don’t know what he does exactly, but I know it has something to do with computers (=… to them in some way). b) The Prime Minister … that there are no plans to raise taxes. c) Pure force of will was the main … of his success. d) Due to the … nature of the question, it was difficult to choose the right answer. e) Her plan is based on the … that the economy will improve in the near future. f) She made an outstanding … to science. g) He belonged to several … societies and charitable organizations. h) We’ve been asked to … with some new ideas. i) She has no … with the party. 131. Translate from Russian into English. a) Она прилагала героические усилия в изучении английского языка. b) Мы были озадачены неоднозначной формулировкой сообщения. c) Он посмотрел на неё с двусмысленной улыбкой. d) Чувство самоэффективности способствует повышению самооценки. e) Их группа не является частью какой-либо политической партии. 82
f) Надеюсь, вы придумаете план получше. g) Нам поступили очень щедрые пожертвования от одного благотворительного общества. h) Её вклад в проект был недооценен. i) Основным предположением о возникновении коронавируса является его переход от зараженного животного к человеку. j) Образование является важным фактором, определяющим взгляды человека на жизнь. k) Сейчас полиция считает, что эти три преступления могут быть связаны. l) В докладе подчёркивается важность повышения стандартов безопасности. 132. Discuss these quotations in pairs and give your ideas. You can agree or disagree with them (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves. Lao Tzu I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers. Ralph Nader Effective leadership is not about making speeches or being liked; leadership is defined by results not attributes. Peter Drucker A good general not only sees the way to victory; he also knows when victory is impossible. Polybius A great leader’s courage to fulfill his vision comes from passion, not position. John Maxwell A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they don’t necessarily want to go, but ought to be. Rosalynn Carter 133. Prepare the talk show in a form of Debates «Behavioral theories vs. Trait theory». Participants: the presenter 83
the supporter of «Behavioral theories» the supporter of «Trait theory» the successful leader of the corporation the famous politician 134. Elective task (choose one of the tasks and prepare the speech in a scientific style of language, not less than 20 sentences): Find more up-to-date information about different theories of leadership and styles of leadership. Work out your own theory of leadership and style of leadership. Part 4 LEADERSHIP (3) 135. How do you understand this quotation? «The person who thinks that he is leading, and has no one that following him, is only taking a walk». By John C. Maxwell «Where there is no vision, the people perish». Proverbs 136. Read the article about the levels of leadership, choose the most suitable heading for each level (explain your choice, not less than 5 sentences). Do the task given in the text. By John C. Maxwell (Founder and CEO of The John Maxwell Co.) Pinnacle level People development level Position level Production level Permission level 1. The level «????????» «The first level of leadership. At this level of leadership people follow us because they have to. The key word of this level is RIGHTS. We have the certain rights when we are on a position of a leader. Because of those privileges of rights, people follow us. They have NO choice because of different reasons: 84
to get pay check / to keep a job, – but not because you are a great leader. That is the stage of management, not leadership. The problem and the mistake of the leaders of this level is that they often value their power or their authority more than people they lead. When you do not value the people it is only the matter of time for you start to abuse people, or manipulate people, or you are doing things that help you but not people. Manipulation is always wrong for a leader, the leaders move people, but they have to move people for mutual advantage, not for personal ones». 2. The level «????????» «The second level is based on relationships. Now the people follow you not because they have to, but because they want to. People give you their energy. People give you their time. You have to have a connection with the people; you have to have a relationship with them. That is the foundation of the true leadership, as the true leadership is closely connected with the influence (not manipulation)». 3. The level «????????» «The key word on this level is RESULT. On this level people follow us because of what we have done for the organization. This is where the leader develops credibility. Your credibility does not come out of title and position, your credibility comes out of the fact that you are successful. You began to attract the better people into your company. There is the reason for that. You began to attract the better people into your company because you are the better leader. The high level of leadership you reach the better people you begin to attract to your company». 4. The level «????????» «REPRODUCTION – the key word of this level. You make the people better (professionally, financially… ), when you make them better, they are grateful. You produce the leaders. You turn from edition to multiplication. To develop leaders you have to be good at 3 things. 1. Recruitment. The leaders of this level recruit well. They understand that to develop good people, you have to recruit good people. The key is – to have a clear picture of who you are looking for. 2. The leader of this level can position people well. Put the people into right place (according to their strengths, skills…). 3. They train people well, they equipped people well». 85
5. The «Pinnacle level». Work in pair and right the paragraph describing your understanding of this level of leadership. Give the example of the leader of this level. 137. Give short characteristics of every level of Leadership. Leaders of what level do you usually can meet? 138. Do you agree or disagree. Explain your point of view. you never leave one level to go to the other level, all levels is your foundation. You are just built on the previous level. you are on different level with different people. You are on the one level with all people only if you are on the very first level of leadership. you move through levels, some people are moving with you, some are staying on the previous level. 139. Discuss these quotations, by in pairs and give your ideas (not less than 15 sentences, you will be given 15 minutes). «Don’t aim at success – the more you aim at it and make it a target, the more you are going to miss it. For success, like happiness, cannot be pursued; it must ensue, and it only does so as the unintended side effect of one’s personal dedication to a cause greater than oneself». Viktor Frankl (Holocaust Survivor and Philosopher) Before you are a leader, success is all about growing yourself. When you become a leader, success is all about growing others. Jack Welch Part 5 LEADERSHIP (4) 140. Work in pair, trying to answer the questions. What do you know about Transformational leader and Transactional leader? What is Satisficing? How do you understand this term concerning to business sphere? Are you satisfier/optimiser/maximiser?
141. Read the article. Compare your answers with the information from the text. The effective leaders use both leadership styles at various situations based on the task and the followers. According to Burns (1978), the transactional leaders focus on the followers’ self-interest through exchanging different things to motivate them. These exchanges may be of different natures like salary or bonus in exchange for some task accomplishment. In short, a transactional leader controls his followers through different types of rewards/penalties. Moreover, the transactional leaders work within systems, try to avoid risks and try to achieve the goals on already set parameters (Bass, 1985). In most of the situations, transactional leadership is preferred when the objectives are the short term. It does not support well in terms of long term objectives, especially when organizations go through some big changes. Contrary, the transformational leadership focuses on long term strategies and transformational leaders motivate their followers by convincing them that organizational goals are much more important than their personal goals or organizational goals are actually in their own benefits. In this situation, transformational leadership fits to motivate the followers to exert more efforts than they are actually required. Further, they facilitate development and change. In this technological and competitive era, organizations prefer transformational leaders to motivate and help their workforce to achieve higher goals. They make them aware and able to accomplish beyond their expectations and perceived capabilities (Palestini, 2009). The improvement in followers’ performance is the main emphasis of transformational leadership theory (Avolio, 2011). The full range leadership (FRL) model. In order to better understand the process of leadership effectiveness, Bass and Avolio (1994) developed a leadership model called the Full Range Leadership (FRL) model. This model proposes that leaders use multiple behaviors to influence their followers. This model is based on the theory of transformational and transactional leadership and incorporates both transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. The Full Range Leadership model includes three leadership styles: transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant leadership. The transforma-tional leadership style is to inspire and motivate followers through compelling vision, individual support, and, empowerment. The transactional leadership style is to exchange rewards or punishment for any positive work performance or lack of 87
satisfactory performance with followers. Passive/avoidant leadership (Laissezfaire) means the absence of leadership (Northouse, 2004). It can be defined as the most inactive and the most ineffective leadership (Avolio, 2011). It becomes evident when the leaders avoid responsibility and do not care about what happening around them. They delay different decisions, and do not make any effort to motivate and satisfy their followers’ needs. 142. Read the article again. Pay attention on the style of the scientific article. Write down: Linking words, used in the article. Introductory construction (Example: It can be defined) 143. Match the words with its translation. learn new vocabulary. new vocabulary
long term strategies
кризис в экономике
short term strategies
приверженность, преданность, обязательство перед компанией
to facilitate development
beyond the expectations
убедительное /четкое видение, дальновидность
объединять, включать, соединять
расширение прав и возможностей
передача управленческих должностей; поочерёдное пребывание в должности
результат, последствие, исход 88
условные, непредвиденные вознаграждения
crunch in the economy
144. Which types of leadership are these? (Transformational leadership/Transactional leadership) ?????
Passive leadership. The leader responds on the outcome only.
The leader works within the frame of the organizational structure.
The leader changes organizational structure, corporation culture.
The employees achieve the results, influenced by rewards and penalties.
The leader and the employees are driven by high values and moral norms.
The leader motivates followers by appealing to their own interests.
The leaders motivate their followers by convincing them that organizational goals are much more important than their personal goals or organizational goals are actually in their own benefits.
Job stress and time pressure are used to make the employees work more efficiently.
The employee gets support and attention from the leader. The leader facilitates creativity and welcomes innovational ideas.
145. Read the text and use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the gap. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction (to mean) the individual’s perception of his/her own work in terms of job tasks, the relationship with supervisor/colleagues, future opportunity, work environment, and compensation. The (to accept) of these factors causes job satisfaction and the unfavorable situation causes (satisfaction) with the job. Though these factors are not directly related to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. These factors include (to recognize), (to achieve), autonomy and responsibility that lead to job satisfaction. Numerous studies were conducted on the significance of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction plays a key role in the organization’s quality, (to grow) and (to perform). On the other side, job dissatisfaction can lead an organization to many issues like employee turnover, low (to grow) rate, poor (to perform) and ultimately (to fail) of the company. Numerous studies (Kuchinke, 1998; Chiok, 2001; Walumbwa, Orwa, Wang & Lawler, 2005; Elloy 2005; Abass & Yaqoob, 2009; Braun, Peus, Weisweiler & Frey, 2013) are done to examine the relationship between leadership styles and employee job satisfaction in the organizations. 146. Discuss in pairs. What are the findings of these studies? Is there the correlation of leadership style, employees’ job satisfaction and their performance? Of what kind? 147. The definitions are given in the table. Fill in the terms: empowerment /to inspire/ variables /to convince / penalties /reward/ long term /job rotation/ objective/ to incorporate/ outcome/ definition
a punishment imposed for breaking a law, rule, or contract cause (someone) to believe firmly in the truth of something a thing given in recognition of one’s service, effort, or achievement ill (someone) with the ability to do or feel something, 90
especially to do something creative occurring over or relating to a long period of time. an element, feature, or factor that is liable to vary or change a goal authority or power given to someone to do something take in or contain (something) as part of a whole; include the way a thing turns out; a consequence the practice of moving employees between different tasks to promote experience and variety 148. Fill in the gaps choosing the most suitable word from the list below. Put them into the correct form where necessary: commitment / inspire/ compelling / growth / reward / incorporates / emphasis / compelling / short term / convinced / turnover / objectives / outcome /long-term / expectations / convinced / variables/ empower/ a) … contracts are now the norm with some big companies. b) The holiday was a … for 40 years’ service with the company. c) Job-hoppers make up 39% of employee… rate. d) The company projected an annual … rate of 3%. e) Are you ready to make a … commitment? f) I would need a very … reason to leave my job. g) Gina has succeeded beyond our … . h) This book … the latest scientific information. i) We’ve set specific … for each day. j) We need someone who can … the team. k) He … me that the story was true. l) We have to cut costs in order to remain … . m) There is a lot of … on maintaining local traditions. n) There are too many … in the experiment to predict the result accurately. o) He made a … argument. p) Computers … students to become intellectual explorers. q) I am uncertain about the… . r) Her … to work is beyond question. 91
149. Read the text and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some of the lines have an extra incorrect word that should not be there. Cross out the odd word. (9 odd words) Motivation Motivation is another significant outcome of leadership. There is an old saying – ‘you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink, it will drink only if it’s thirsty’ and same is the case of the workforce in the organization. They will perform if as they want to perform or motivated to perform. Employee motivation is being considered the principal factor for any organization to perform well especially in the transition phases. The employees’ motivation is considered like a key function of any leadership position. In order to survive and succeed in the global world, a leader must to know how to motivate the employees. Motivation means to use or develop such a force in a person which that causes the person to behave in directed way. The researches (McNeese-Smith, 1999; Charbonneau, Barling & Kelloway, 2001; Clark, Hartline, & Jones, 2009; Basford, Offermann & Wirtz, 2012) show that leadership and motivation have had a significant relationship that leads to improve the individual and organizational performance. However, the different leadership styles have different impact on the employees’ motivation (Mehta, Dubinsky & Anderson cited in Chipunza, Samuel & Mariri, 2011) and different strategies can be used to motivate employees. For instance, empowering employees, involving employees in the decision making process, job rotation, changing communication patterns, and presenting as a role model to the employees are those strategies that leaders have adopt following transformational leadership styles. In transactional leadership approach, contingent rewards and management by exception techniques are used. Thus, there are different strategies that leaders can adopt in to increase or maintain motivation in their subordinates. 150. Discuss in pairs. Give a common answer (not less than 20 sentences) What is motivation? What do you think about these ways of motivation? 92
empowering employees, involving employees in the decision making process, job rotation, changing communication patterns, presenting as a role model to the employees, contingent rewards. What ways of motivation will you use as a leader? What ways would you like to be motivated with? 151. Translate from Russian into English, using new vocabulary. a) Трансформационное лидерство усиливает мотивацию, моральный дух и производительность труда с помощью различных механизмов. В данной модели лидер является образцом для подражания для его последователей. При этом лидер должен выявлять слабые и сильные стороны у своих последователей и ставить им задачи, которые могут оптимизировать их работу. Трансформационные лидеры вдохновляют последователей на выполнение поставленных задач. Лидер мотивирует последователей через его влияние (харизму), интеллектуальную стимуляцию и индивидуальное внимание. Кроме того, этот лидер призывает последователей придумывать новые способы, чтобы добиться большего успеха в работе. b) Транзакционные лидеры используют вознаграждения и наказания, добиваясь выполнения задач от своих последователей. При этом, они принимают цели, структуру и культуру существующей организации. Транзакционные лидеры готовы работать в рамках существующей системы для достижения целей организации. Тренеры спортивных команд чаще всего используют одну из форм транзакционного лидерства. Они мотивируют своих игроков путём предоставления им наград за успешные игры. Этот стиль руководства особенно эффективен в кризисных ситуациях. c) В контексте пирамиды потребностей по Маслоу, транзакционное лидерство работает с базовыми, нижними уровнями удовлетворения потребностей (в отличие от трансформационной модели лидерства, где упор делается на верхние уровни). Транзакционная модель лидерства 93
направлена на решение сиюминутных задач, а не на долгосрочное планирование. При этом вознаграждение (например, похвала) даётся, когда поставленные цели выполняются вовремя, или когда высокий темп работы держится во время всего проекта. Наказание же (например, порицание) даётся, когда качество или темп работы падает ниже производственных стандартов, или цели и задачи не выполняются вообще. 152. One-minute speech. How do you understand the term «Employee turnover»? Do we have such a problem in Russia? What can be the causes of this problem? 153. Read the text and use the word given in brackets to form a noun from a verb that fits in the gap. Turnover (To employ) turnover is one of the most critical problems organizations face (O’Connel & Chuang-Kung, 2007). In recent years, the turnover rate in many (to organize) is increased due to globalization, (to advance) in technology and crunch in the economy. According to Bodla and Hameed (2009), there are two different schools of (to think) about employee turnover: psychological school and the labor market school. The psychological school focuses on the psychological aspects i.e. job (to satisfy), job stress, organizational environment, organizational commitment and psychological well-being. The labor market school emphasizes on the supply and demand, job opportunities and job search aspects. There are some factors of turnover intentions that controllable and some are uncontrollable by organizations. For instance, satisfaction with (to compensate), satisfaction with work environment, satisfaction with (to lead) behaviors, organizational commitment, and job stress are considered controllable factors of employees’ turnover intentions. The uncontrollable factors include the job hoping and perceived alternative (to employ). However, leadership behavior is considered a potential reason of employees’ turnover intentions. According to Aggarwal, Tanner and Castleberry (2004) and Gul, Ahmad, Rehman, Shabir, and Razzaq (2012), leadership style is the main reason 94
and has direct impact on employees’ turnover intentions and the relationship between leadership styles and employees’ turnover intentions is significant. On the other hand, most of the studies (Mascall & Leithwood, 2010; Furtado, Batista & Silva, 2011; Wells & Peachey, 2011) suggest that leadership style has a mediating effect on employees’ turnover intentions. The main factors might include job dissatisfaction, job stress, compensation or organizational commitment. 154. Discuss in pairs. Give detailed answer with examples (not less than 20 sentences). What point of view do you support? 1. Leadership style is the main reason and has direct impact on employees’ turnover intentions. 2. Leadership style has a mediating effect on employees’ turnover intentions. The main factors might include job dissatisfaction, job stress, compensation or organizational commitment. 155. Work in group, discuss every option. Will you quit the job if: You do not have job satisfaction; Your job is stressful; You are dissatisfied with organizational environment; You do not feel organizational commitment; You do not see opportunity of promotion. 156. Project work. You are bloggers. Film 5-minute video on the topics: The 5 essential qualities of a great leader. 157. Prepare an inspiring speech on the topic (15 sentences, be logical, inspiring, and persuasive): We must be the best! We must be leaders! The manager is the foundation of the organization!
158. Project work. Prepare the speech (presentation) on the topic «The Leader of the … century» (not less than 20 sentences). Plan: General information Achievements Interesting quotations / mottos / principles and values Explain your choice
КОНТРОЛЬНО-ИЗМЕРИТЕЛЬНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ Контрольно-измерительные материалы (КИМ) предназначены для проверки знаний студентов в конце семестра (если дисциплина завершается только зачетом) или на экзаменационной сессии, если дисциплина завершается экзаменом. Для оценки навыков монологической речи студентов предлагается следующее: 1) список лексического минимума по каждой из пройденных тем; 2) вопросы для контроля навыков монологической речи студентов. Задания предлагаются студентам в виде отдельных билетов. Демонстрация знаний лексических единиц проводится без дополнительной временной подготовки. Что касается контроля навыков монологической речи студентов, то целесообразно давать 1-2 минуты на подготовку ответа на полученный вопрос. После выступления студента, можно задать вопросы для дополнения высказывания и корректировку лексических и грамматических ошибок. Оба задания позволяют определить, насколько студент освоил лексику, грамматику и, конечно, показывают уровень навыков монологической речи. SMART WORLD Speaking task S.M.A.R.T. technology – What do you know about it? Speak about the past present and future (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) How can a city be smart? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What do you know about the concept of a Smart Home? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) Speak about Pro and Con of S.M.A.R.T. technology implementation in our world. (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary)
CSR / GREEN MARKETING Speaking task What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? Tell about CSR and its three key terms: People, Planet and Profit (Triple P). (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) Tell about CSR categories: Environmental efforts / Volunteering / Ethical labor practices / Philanthropy (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) CSR in Russian \ abroad (the main concept, causes, examples, prospects + your point of view on the question – Will this initiative die out or it will expand and become stronger?) (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What is Green Marketing and what are its elements? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What is the relationship between brand loyalty and CSR? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) Are customers and consumers ready to support CSR strategy by paying more for «green» products? Tell about different groups of customers (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What is «Greenwashing»? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT Speaking task What do you know about Maslow’s pyramid theory? How is it connected with the working productivity? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What are Leadership and Management from the point of view of Thomas Julian Birkinshaw? Do you agree with the general conception of it? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What do you know about the Trait theory (Great Man theory)? What are the main traits which should be possessed by the leader according to the Trait theory? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary)
What is the underlying assumption of behavioral theories of leadership? Do you support this idea? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What do you know about the Levels of Leadership offered by John C. Maxwell? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What do you know about Transformational leader and Transactional leader? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) What is motivation? Speak about different methods to motivate employees: empowering employees, involving employees in the decision making process, job rotation, changing communication patterns, presenting as a role model to the employees, contingent rewards... (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) How do you understand the term «Employee turnover»? Do we have such a problem in Russia? What can be the causes of this problem? (Answer the question: 20 sentences with the new vocabulary) SMART WORLD Vocabulary (спрашивается полностью) запатентованный технологический стандарт центральный процессор жесткий диск эволюционировать, развиваться услуги здравоохранения несоответствие выходить за пределы допустимого показатели качества жизни общественные новости модернизировать оповещения о безопасности данные рационализация работы городских систем «умные» характеристики функционал 99
показывать «умные» устройства предупреждать электрические приборы, устройства стационарный компьютер жители движение мгновенное получение информации мед.услуги данные поступающие в реальном времени, оперативные данные разворачиваться (о событиях) закономерности, модели спроса отвечать, реагировать решения, которые помогут снизить расходы работать энергично высокоскоростные сети передачи данных необработанные данные, первоначальные, исходные требовать поставщики технологических решений принимать, заимствовать, усыновлять использовать городской транспорт в нерабочее время уменьшить напряжение на… профилактика общая схема, структура эффективный демонстрировать, показывать беспилотный автомобиль, робомобиль город с нулевым уровнем выбросов множество, большое количество питать, снабжать электроэнергией сбор данных в режиме реального времени технология интеллектуальных сетей как говорилось выше
болезни, передающиеся воздушно-капельным путем внедрение зависимый от не обращающий внимание на сенсорные устройства наблюдение, надзор нарушения конфиденциальности удаленный доступ сетевой шлюз – аппаратный маршрутизатор или программное обеспечение для сопряжения компьютерных сетей настенные терминалы счетчики потребления энергии беспроводные системы безопасности программируемые термостаты камеры наблюдения беспроводные домашние аудиосистемы и датчики контроля освещения домашние кинотеатры датчики обнаружения движения прокси-сервер приложения для совместного использования поездок цифровая платформа для платежей приложения «умная парковка» парковочное место водопроводные сети электросети утилизация отходов обеспечение правопорядка представлять себе, рисовать в своем воображении импровизированный предупреждать об опасности отрегулировать, приспосабливать, выверять наметить в любой момент
CSR / GREEN MARKETING Vocabulary (спрашивается полностью) быть социально ответственным корпоративная социальная ответственность заинтересованные стороны сознавать иметь влияние на подразумевать, влечь за собой активная позиция упреждающий, инициативный в отношении к, что касается, относительно предаваемый широкой огласке приверженность принципам устойчивого развития общественное благосостояние этапы, стадии, ступени новаторский вне зависимости от углеродные следы уменьшить ежегодный мусорные баки (для сортировки мусора и дальнейшей его переработки) удаленная работа лампы накаливания энергосберегающие лампы некоммерческие организации принести пользу заслуживать получать возмещение за посвящать оплачиваемый отпуск по уходу за ребенком возобновить, получить обратно улучшить боевой дух обращаться с кем-то справедливо 102
искренность, честность проявлять обеспокоенность конкретные вопросы устойчивые продукты прибыльный сырье придерживаться штат быть обеспокоенным методы утилизации отходов методы доставки компенсировать, возмещать озоноразрушающие вещества поддающийся ремонту устойчивое развитие быть приверженным, стремиться к устойчивому развитию внедрять снизить затраты предположение сопоставимая альтернатива опросить гарантировать извлечь выгоду из, заработать на конкурирующие товары вводящий в заблуждение, обманчивый экологические проблемы экологически чистый продукт экологичная упаковка принятие устойчивых методов ведения бизнеса сообщить (потребителям) о преимуществах «зеленого продукта» возобновляемые материалы приверженность бренду устойчивая покупка
потребители эко-товаров, «зеленые» потребители разлагающиеся в окружающей среде продукты длительного использования LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT Vocabulary (спрашивается полностью) повлечь за собой подчиненный (сотрудник) определить существенный, основной, весьма важный удобрять, питать распределяться неравномерно подчинять продуктивно, разумно, эффективно влиятельный покорный, безропотный достижение бессмысленный душный, удушающий преследовать, продолжать, заниматься содействовать, облегчать, помогать подкреплять, поддерживать имеющий отношение к чему-либо, занимающийся чем-либо широко обсуждаемый, рассматривающийся поддерживать в порядке, обслуживать. неверно направленный, неверно адресованный потребность в уважении прививать, внушать предполагать, брать на себя ответственность врожденные качества качества, признаки, атрибуты открытие, вывод, заключение приводящий к обратным результатам 104
поглощенный мыслями, захваченный идеей продвинутый, передовой, прогрессивный лидеры, руководители среднего звена уменьшаться, сокращаться, сужаться, уверенность в себе, самоуважение, самооценка, чувства собственного достоинства самоуверенность, самонадеянность решимость, решительность настойчивость, стойкость, упорство само утверждаться, завоевать признание упорно продолжать что-то делать, упорно добиваться честность, прямота, целостность надежность, кредитоспособность, степень доверия твердо придерживаться обманчивый, вводящий в заблуждение акцентировать определяющий фактор иметь отношение к… основное предположение в этом смысле, в этом отношении значимый вклад предлагать идею, план благотворительный, доброжелательный. присоединение, установление связи само эффективность неопределенный, двусмысленный прилагать усилия краткосрочные стратегии способствовать развитию предполагаемые способности кризис в экономике приверженность, преданность, обязательство перед компанией переменные
убеждать, уверять основной акцент убедительное /четкое видение, дальновидность объединять, включать, соединять конкурентный, конкурентоспособный превзойти ожидания штрафы расширение прав и возможностей передача управленческих должностей; поочерёдное пребывание в должности темпы роста результат, последствие, исход условные, непредвиденные вознаграждения текучесть кадров посреднический эффект вдохновлять, воодушевлять награда долгосрочные стратегии цель, задача
LITERATURE 1. https://www.smarthome.news/news/other-systems/the-future-of-smart homes 2. Smart cities: Digital solutions for a more livable future. June 2018 | ReportBy Jonathan Woetzel, Jaana Remes, Brodie Boland, Katrina Lv, Suveer Sinha, John Means, Jonathan Law, Andres Cadena, and Valerie von der Tann https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/capital-projects-and-infrastructure/ourinsights/smart-cities-digital-solutions-for-a-more-livable-future 2018 3. JAMES CHEN Updated Nov 27, 2019. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)May 2, 2018 4. Hitesh Bhasin Tagged With: Marketing management articles BY SUSAN WARD Updated June 25, 2019 5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pi86Nr9Mdms The many faces of leadership: Proposing research agenda through a review of literature Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haqa,b, Sadia Anwarb a University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign, USA bCOMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan) 6. «Managing the company of the future» (course), by Thomas Julian Birkinshaw, the professor of strategy and Entrepreneurship London Business School, University of London (on courser platform)
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