Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style

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An Introducbon to the L,iterary Style


John Okell SOA€, University of London

wi lh assistance front

U Saw Tun and \),nv Khin Mya


Southeast Asian Language Text Series

Series Editor: Grant /\. Cbon Copy Editor: David A. Tvlullikin (ij

1994 Norl.hern Illinois Urllvcrsity Center fClr Southeast f\~iilll Studies



BURMESE An Introciuction to the Literary Style


John.Okell SO AS, University of London with assistance


U Saw Tun and I)aw I(hin Mya Swe

Parallel with this courSl': Burmese: An Introduction to the- Spoken Language, Book 1 Burmese: An Introduction to the Spoken Language, Book 2 Burmese: An Introduction to the Script






........... .....---....:.-............. ~... -..- . -""' ..... ~- .......-.~ .•.....•..-.- ...

Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style







Part 1 SENTENCES Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6

Subject, location and verb Questions using "which?" To and from Possessive

8 9 10 11

[noun] and his/her group Marking the verb fo; a plural subject

13 14 15

Vocabulary used for the Sentences


INTERLUDE: wedding invitations TEXTS from the school Reader for Standard 1 Section 7 About myself Section 8 Maung Ni the carpenter Section 9 Our school Section 10 Nyc1ung~bin-tha Village

source * Reader Re21der Reader Feader

1 p. 37 1 p. 41 1 pp. 77-/13 1 PF' ie; I ';:1


INTE1\T ,UDE: obituary notices Section 11 RmmlJig races Section 12 Shwe W,) the cat Section 13 Travel Section 14 The old man ,mel his three sons

26 29 32

Reader Reader Reader Reade,.

1 pp. 'ISA6 1 p. :lei 1 pp '1 C)-51\ 1 pp. 71-77

REF ERENCE SECTIUN Cwmmar: an index to tllC main grammar words used in P,ut 1


51 54



Part 2 SENTENCES Section 15

Sentences: relative clauses

TEXTS from school Readers on the theme "Model children" source' Section 16 Be polite (p. 1) Reader 2 pp. 43-44 Section 17 Be polite (p. 2) Reader 2 pp. 43-'14



69 73

f-'art 1: introductlcm

INTERLUDE: notices (prohibitions) Section 18 Treat all property with respect Section 19 The school library (p. 1) Section 20 The school library (p. 2)

79 83 88

Reader 2 pp. 36-37 Reader 4 pp. 38-39 Reader 4 pp. 38-39


INTERLUDE: notices (requests) Section 21 Section 22 Section 23

Ma Pu Kywe and the little snail (p. 1) Ma Pu Kywe and the little snail (p. 2) Ma Pu Kywe and the little snail (p. 3)


Reader 3 pp. 37-39 Reader 3 pp. 37-39 Reader 3 pp. 37-39

97 102

Part 3 TEXTS from school Readers on themes of nationalism and independence

source ,. Section Section Section Section

24 Independence Day (shorter version) 25 26 27

Independence Day (longer version) p. 1 Independence Day (longer version) p. 2 National day

Reader Reader Reader Reader

2 (1987) pp. 3 (1976) pp. 3 (1976) pp. 3 (1988) pp.

51-52 5-6


5-6 5-6

114 119


INTERLUDE: Our Main National Causes Section 28 Section 29 Section 30

Union Day p. 1 Union Day p. 2 The Panglong spirit •

Reader 4 (1987) pp 5-6 Reader 4 (1987) pp. 5-6 Reader 3 (1976) pp. 91-92

31 32 33 34

Our benefactors, our uncles (the peasants) Peasants' Day p 1 Peaszmts' Day p. 2 Our flag

127 130 134


INTERLUDE: Human Rights Day Section Section Section Section


Reader 2 Reader 3 Reader::l Reader 2

(1987) P 27 (1976) pp. 72-73 (1976) pp. 72-73 (1987) pp. 5-6

143 147 151


REFERENCE SECTION Keys to the Exercises Grammar: an index to the main grammar words used in Parts ']-3 Vocabulary: a cumulated list of the words used in Parts 1-3

16() 235 239


Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Funds from the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at Northem'Illinois University, part of a grant made to them by the Henry Luce Foundation, allowed me to, take time away from my normal duties in order to make a start on writing new courses for beginners in Burmese. During this time the School of Oriental and African Studies in the University of London kindly allowed me to continue to use its equipment and facilities (room, computers, printers, xeroxing, recording, photography, telephone, mail, fax, stationery and so on), A visit to Burma was funded by money from both the Center and SO AS, and supplemented by a grClnt from the British Academy. I am particularly grateful to Dr. Michael Aung-Thwin, director of the Center, who successfully applied for the grant, and chose me to write the book; and to Dr. Haig D. Roop, coauthor of Beginning Burmese, the standard textbook for 25 years, for his encouragement. I would also like to acknowledge the part played by my colleague at SOAS, Mrs. Anna

Allott, who heroically shouldered a heavy load of teaching and other duties for part of the time I had arranged to be away; and the contribution of my wife SUE, who generously and without complaint took on more than her share of the care of the ho .lse and family so that I could make progress with writing. I received valuable comments on parts of the draft from U Saw Tun, of Ncrthem Illinois University, and from Daw Khin Mya Swe and Daw

San San Me in London. at SOAS under the Technician Jahan Latif, Daw Yi Yi Mya, Daw Saw Naing.

The recordings were made superviSIOn of the and the speakers were Yu Win, and Ko Aung

Prototype versions of the course were used by the beginners classes at SOAS in the fOllr years from 1990/91 to 1993/94, and at the SEASSls held at Cornell University in 1CJC)() ilnd at the University of Washington In 19SJ2. l'v'lcmhcrs of all th('~;e classes made many helpful comrnents, as well now (lit. = colI. 3d'f or 'f) ucx)0m{: > 1st Standard, 1st Grade G c:


'r.:u ~ ~ ~: -----------------





> exerCIse G0.?~C;: = exerCIse, practise + ~{: = section, chapter) G3d0chul [noun] > the [noun] below, the following [noun] ("below-contain-[nounJ") G0:§{: > question "{P: in [noun]-"{P: > [noun]s (indicating plural: lit. = call. -Goa II Most often used with nonunique items: G0:§~:"{P: "questions," GCY.(p8:"{P: "schools" and so on. Compare G0.?~c;:~'1':


Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style

[nounJ-J? ' which is used for, both nonunique and unique items.) [noun]-o? > (the suffix marks [noun] as the obiect of th~ following verb: G very much, very 1~::Drf)- > to be pleased with, enjoy G80~~l(l ... ~::D~ > (Maung Ni has ... : see Section.7) 0;( > hammer

mf and G!. mG!. written fO) saw


1~ in [nounl}-1~ [noun2] > [nOlml] and [noun2] (Ii t. = coIl. -~. ) ~ > stool, bench, table, desk ~3f00~ > bookshelf c c c G(yy)C:±~ = G(yy)C:- to be good '{(l in [verbJ-'{(l > [verbJ-Iy, (makes adverb from [verb]; here G(yy)~:'3~'{(l = be good-Iy = well; lit.: usually equivalent to colI. [verb-verb]: G(yy)~ :G(yy)~: "well," "iJc0"iJc0 "loudly") mdS in [verbJ-mdS- > to know how to [verb], be good at [verb ]-ing :::lr? > he, she, it Jj( cy0OYJ:GJY.J QY)3f00~ > the bookshelf he made ("he-make-put-attributivebookshelf." The formula [verb]-G::D':l [noun]

o~ > (girl's name) > him, her, it

is properly introduced in Part 2. For now we can leave it without examining the parts.) C\f- > to be pretty, attractive 10 > younger sister (of male) 3dCf(,d':J in [noun]-3dCf(,d':J > for [noun]




ma:ks the object of a

verb) o-;(~- > to help c


---------------- GC\?rt:lJq ""4': ----------------0(yy):c\>: / @ncy~:/ > word :d? > words (Note how [nounJ-d?' is used here to mark the plural of non-unique items, just like [nounJ-"{P: in GO:'B~:"{P: "questions" in Question 2 below. In this meaning both [nounJ-"{P: and [noLlnJ--c? correspond to colI. [noun]-GCf(,1I An alternative meaning of lit. [nounJ-d? is that of "group plura!," as in ~~d? "Ni Ni and her friends/ famil y / or other associates," and in this meaning the coli. equivalent is also [nollnJ-07.11 see Section 5 above.) C +w C • "iJro-rm- > to memonze

Part 1: Texts: Section 8

Translation The little carpenter Maung Ni Maung Ni greatly enjoys carpentry work. Maung Nihas a hammer and a saw. Maung Ni knows how to make little benches (or tables) and bookSh~lves ~el1. The little bookshelf he , .. . . I;, made is very nice looking. He made a seat (or desk) for his little sister. His little sister Ma Yi helps him.


Exercises for Section 8: Maung Ni the carpenter Exercises printed at the end of the text in the Reader: Section 8, Exercise 1. You will no doubt want to memorize more words than the ones listed here. Section 8, Exercise 2. Write your answers in literary-style Burmese, and in full sentences. Additional exercises: Section 8, Exercise 3. Translate the following into literary-style Burmese: 1. Ma Aye (I)G3d:) has a younger brother. 2. His name is Maung Pyu (G00~~ll)1I 3. Ma Aye knows how to make benches and bookshelves. 4. She likes carpentry. 5. She made a bench for her brother. 6. The bench is very pretty. 7. Maung Pyu is very pleased with the bench.

Section 8, Exercise 4. The following sentences are split into two halves, and the second halves have been placed on the wrong lines. Choose the most appropriate second half for each first half. .

:)11 ~









G00 C'1' ::D 2:": CD m::D 00: 3d C\( 0 0( CG C' 0 G00 C'1' ::D 2:": 'rl:lr:o( C'G C' G C G00 C'1' ::D 2:": I)G[3d0(5m 'rm'r CG 0 G C G00C'1'o( I) G[::D2:": -




C\( 0 GO; ::D 2:": II G


Of? 2:":::D 2:": II C'



til)::D m::D 2:": II C'





Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style












~ro school --------------------para 1 -------------------o~- > to enter

:Go8 > entrance [place)-:Go~ > entrance to [place] ~ C' Gc-qpC:Ol'f: > schoo1 room, classroom ~±o 'f:C' ' O':lJw> to b e WI'd e, spacIous O':lJ05o~:~ > (The suffix -~ has several possible translations in English: you can choose between "The classrooms are spacious and "," or "After the class~ooms are spacious "," or "The classrooms are spacious so "," (="Because the classrooms are spacious", "), Which seems to you to be most appropriate?) GC'0 > air C' C' ' GC'0G(y'y)C:GC'0JJ'f. > f res h aIr JJ~.- > to be clean ")- > to get, obtain @m8:GulrrS 1u3~:GtY)rrSl > window ~ C' :GC'0C:GGpc > I'Ig h t


G")§oo > cup ("water-cup") G0 in [verb]-G0- > to make sth [verb], cause sth to be [verb] ")~ in [verb)-")~ > to [verb], in order to [verb] G'f.02 > daily G~:- > to wash :G~rrS > rubbish ~: > bin, bucket 10-1 > to put in -G"): > (makes abstract noun from [verb): JJ ~.Ij[~ :G"): = cleaning, cle~nliness)


--------------------para 3 -------------------OY.)6~07rrS > library ("text-look at-building") o~: > enclosure, grounds oo06~ in [noun]-oo06~ > inside [noun] OOOY.):06~: > playground ("play-open area") o C' 0 C' OCOOtjJl:OlC: > garden ( "plant-nurture-plot") C'0~: in [noun]-C'0~: > [noun] also, [noun] as

well, [noun) too (attached both to nouns and other phrases; in colI. often written [noun]-

cD II)

--------------------para --------------------para 2 -------------------:[email protected] > always JJ~.1j[8:- > to be clean and neat GOY.lrrSG")~: > pot of drinking water ("drinkwater-pot") o C' G'f.o?c: > every day G~:±G§- > to wash, clean out ~ ~ - > to fill, refill :G~: > lid, cover

4 --------------------

G'f.C'005 > midday 3'd'):C'00~~ > break, recess ("be free-be freetime") :G"tl in [noun)-:G some [noun] (lit. == colI.

m~JL OY.)


) > to read ("text-read") C'


------ --------- - GC\? 01J q G", : -- --------- -- ---G'fGp > place


Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style


, >'
















~ ..t.:


; , ..



...... I


-1- c\:;


Our1school is at the entrance to the village. The school rooms are spacious and get good clean air. As they have w~dowstheyget a good lig~t. . ";,,,;~, «~, Our school is always clean. We clean the poi of drtnkmg waterand;refiil it every day. Every day we wash the lid of the'W~ter:pofand th~);>"eak~risofas t9ke~p them clean. We put the rubbish in :'the rubbish bins . We.' ','do". school cleaning.,"1 every.day.", -',.: ". '.."i \, '..-' '.,: , ': ('.> ';,. There is a library in our school. Ahd there is a playground and gardening beds in the school grounds. At the ,midday break some pupils play in the playground, and others read in the library. ,I .,.' ...




Our school






Exercises for Section 9: Our school Exercises from the Reader: Section 9, Exercise 1. Memorizing. Section 9, Exercise 2. Give full sentence answers: not "In Seattle" but "Our


is in Seattle."

Additional exercises: Section 9, Exercise 3. Translate into literary:-~tyle Burmese: 1. The playground is at the entrance to the school grounds. 2. Some pupils read in the playground. 3. We clean the rubbish bins every day. 4. The school is very well aired. 5. The classrooms are very large. 6. The library is well lit. 7. The water pots are always clean. 8. Some pupils work in the garden in the midday break. Section 9, Exercise 4. The following sentences are split into two halves, and the second halves have been placed on the wrong lines. Choose the most appropriate second half for each first half.


Part 1: Texts: Section 9




Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style






Part 1: Texts: Section 10

Vocabulary for Section 10: Nyaung-bin-tha village 0,. ' t h ) ~CCGoy) e S tate --------------------para 1 -------------------U( in [quote]-U( > [quote)" (suffix marking the

end of a quotation, hence found before verbs meaning "say, call, ask, think" and similar. Lit. = colI. -~. ) G to call (\)~: > road

0'f60')rq] > systematically, in an orderly, organized way, soundly (0~~ = system, rq]- = to match, fit in with) G;;x:y)r6±D.(0- > to build OY): in [verbJ-exY):- > "to [verb] and place down"

= [verb]

in such a way that the outcome of the action is lasting

--------------------para 2 -------------------3dG the west Goy)~ J)r6 > the south G~r6 J)r6 > the north , , G~COC > banyan tree G G ~2:G00') > Ywa-U Pagoda (village-head-pagoda: in other words, the pagoda at the head of the village. The word :::y?6'(J: is used for pagoda as well, but while the meaning of G0~ is restricted to "pagoda," :Jjl 6'(J: is used with other meanings: it can mean "The Lord" (meaning the Buddha), or it can refer to an image of the Buddha. In the meaning of "Lord" :Jjl6'(J: is also found in terms of address and reference for monks and royalty.) :::Y?~:E3: / monk :Jjl~:E3:Grqj0~: > monastery (\)~: in [noun]-(\)~: / -cQ/ > [noun] as well, [nOlm] also :Jjl6'(J:~ / (90Y.):~/ > pagoda festival (An annual

event, celebrated with a fair) [noun]-Gcdl > (honorific suffix, attached to ,'.,

1602 > every year, annually , rq]c:o- > to celebrate

G'lm~ > pool, lake cJ? [noun] > that [noun], this [noun] (lit. = coiL ~,~~ ) 8)? .. .J.Y): in [place]-8)? [place]-J.Y): > inhabitants, ::esidents, of [place]; examples: "townspeople" G to use [here = use for washing self and

Gt.8)? Gt.J.Y);

clothes] --------------------para 3 -------------------(\)030'6~: > paddy field ("field-open area") ~:3d the rainy season ("rain-time") 00l: > rice (as plant or grain; rice as husked grain ready for cooking =;;o{ and rice as cooked grain ready for eating = CX)"'~: ) o , 0 . (.lmp Iant-nurture ) OCmqJl:> to cu 1tlvate G;;X:Y)~:3do>l > cold season 0, 0, 'loo±::D",:- > to reap, harvest Goy)oo~: > woods ("forest, jungle-line, strip") Gi\3d hot season J,)~ > wood ol: > bamboo J,)~ol: > wood and bamboo , '(0')- > to chop, cut J.Y)0Y.)- > to be pleasant, delightful C\jl in [verb]-C\jl- > to [verb] very much, be very [verb] ('


---------------- GC\f CI.lJ ~ Q.,: -----------------

nouns with sacred, royal or (less commonly) state connections: oo6'(J:Gcdl the holy

o;sm(\)o > gap, blan space

doctrine, ~ { ; Gcdl the royal palace,

@~- > to fill in





Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style

Translat'ion Nyaung-bin-tha Village 1.

Our village is called Nyaung-bin-tha. The village roads are clean. The houses are built in an orderly way. 2. To the east of the village there is a big banyan tree. Also there are the Ywa-U Pagoda and the monastery. We celebrate the Ywa-U Pagoda festival every year. South of the village there is a large pond. The villagers use the water from this pond for drinking and washing. 3. West qf the village there are paddy fields. The villagers plant rice there in the rainy season. In the cool season they reap the rice. North of the village there is a wood. In the hot season the villagers cut wood and bamboo there. Our village is very delightful.

Exercises for Section 10: Nyaung-bin-tha village Exercises from the Reader: Section 10, Exercise 1. Memorizing. Section 10, Exercise 2. Use the reading text to find answers to the questions.

Additional exercises: Section 10, Exercise 3. Using information from the reading text, write down in literary Burmese the words needed to fill the gaps in the following sentences. (J) ~:3dOll~ ?p~(sx)J'):"tP:::D~



G~3dOll ~ ?p~?p:)Y.):"tP:::D~

Part 1: Texts: Section 10

Section 10, Exercise 4. The following sentences are split into two halves, and the second halves have been placed on the wrong lines. Choose the most appropriate second half for each first half.

Section 10, Exercise 6. Answer the following questions in colloquial-style Burmese: :J 1\


Dates ofDeath Funeral

in Burmese

in English

Time of funeral Funeral leaves from Funeral goes to TI1e note at bottom says that cars will leave the Taung Okkalapa hou.se at 12 noon.


Part 1: Interlude: Obituary notices

Obituary notices: classified vocabulary Relatives 8Q~

/ -oU




[email protected]:

> numing

@8- > to compete §8: in [verb]-§8: > (makes abstract noun from


[verb]: for example C 3dC\(uC C\(uto wor k : - 3dC\(0 C\(0§8: working, doing a job; cOb . . uqc::to e mtlmate: . - q8:~:§8: being intimace;

Part 1: Texts: Seclionl1


QY) J.)C - to study: - QY) J.)~§~: studying, pursuing studies More freq in lit. than in colI. Sometimes corresponds to coll: [verb)-Q'Y) ) --------------------- Text --------------------G~~:3Y.):4J~ > playtime, break ("school-be " c .COC:. . f ree-tlme ; compare G"'.(\)(.D3Y.):(\)U~~ m

Section 9) 3Y.):±ru0- > to bE> free (3d)qj~ > time G~~:J.)0: > student, pupil 0§Qcu) / -Q"f?/ > often c J.)"f- > to be strong 3d-[verb) J.)~-- > to be good at [verb)-ing 3Y.):mQY): > sport ("strength-play")

~t~ > competition o~ ±GcyXD- [verb] > enter and [verb] CY2~c- > to compete (coil. usually (Slc-) ucc\,) > first


> prize c:xJ~ in [verb)-c:iJ~ / cymU > if [verb], when [verb] See ref list] (lit. = colI. [verb]--G")c )

0iJc§~- > to be fast (colI. usually §~-) ~05c\)05-- > to be agile ~ in [verbl)-~ [verb2] (lit.) > You saw • C' C' (' (' .....S c' m S9 (G~c:Q"f: rr.:tJm0"f:~ G(\)G(fY.)C: G")J.)~ & @mc:Gul rA"lr: ~~ 3d(\)c:G'r c G")J.)~) that [verbl]-~ [verb2) can be translated either (a) "[verb1) so [verb2]" or (b) "[verb1) and [verb2]." Which transiati(ll\ is more appropriate here? 3dGv) @~c- > to have good stamina Gv)- > to be tired 3dGlf) > tiredness ~- > to experience, withstand, tolerate o c m - [ ver b] -ctC-0 C to b e a bl e to [ver.b] (d~ in [verb]-(d~ > will [verb] (lit. = coiL

/ Goa.!

-003 )

Translation Running races There is a playground at our school. The schoolchildren play there at break time. They often run races ("compete at running"). Maung Htway is a strong runner. Maung Htway takes part in the sports competitions. He got first prize in the running race. If you run in races you will be fast and nimble and you will become strong ("will be able to withstand fatigue").

Exercises for Section 11: Running races Exercises from the Reader: Section 11, Exercise 1. Memorizing. Section 11, Exercise 2. Select words to fill in the gaps. Additional exercises: Section 11, Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences: C C c: c: ( :) ) Gv)CGcg:J.)~ J.)"fJ.)~1I C







( ~_)




O>ct CU I J.)2:: II mc C 6tCJ.)2::11


Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style


Part 1: Texts: Section 12





GO?mJ9d~~ ('\


G!JO')mUI0m,)~(()~fdl')gm L lJ L


mlmfdO)Ul1i lJ J

!JO~ ~ II Gdl~~ II o1~G,?1I !JOG~,)~ II

c;;§ II

(\)~~G(\)J')J; II

V ocabulary for Section 12: Shwe Wa the cat --- ------ ---- -- --- - head i ng - -- --------- ---- --G(~f > cat mGC\.): in [now,]-mGw: > little [noWl] G~ol > Golden Yellow (name of cat) --------------------para 1 -------------------~ ... ~ in [person]-~ [noun] ~- > [person] has a [noun]; here: r16J~0~ G&6 ~ol)J~1I == I have a cat. GCYY)6 in [number]-GCYY)6 > (count word for animals; here G&f mGCYY)6 == one cat, a ca t) c:x?-[noun] > this/that [noun] (lit. == colI.


--------------------parcl 2 -------------------GGT- > to call, call I)U t lY( in "X"-lY( > (marks end of quoted words; lit. == colI. -~. ) c;;(J6 in [verb]-C;;(J6 /0:.Jw6/ > if [verb], when [verb] (lit. == cotl. .-E>(6) See the list of

common lit. wo,ds. c c. . G~CG~,)c > mlaow, ffilaow 0;(:- > to respond, answer a call @t-[verb] > [verb] back, [verb] in reply m~ in [verb]-m~-· > 1. to be in the habit of [verb]-ing, usuaUy [verb] 2. to know how to [verb], be skilled at [verb ]-ing [email protected]: > tail


Burrnese: An Introduction to the Literary Style




C)?u- > to shake, wave

E~:- > to hear

c)[email protected]

G~r,y)~ in [verbJ-G:J'l)~ >

> to shake and show, Here::: wave as a

way of communicating ~( > he, she, it JjI. ;; his, her, its GOll~: /Gnl~:I > head 07:G9. - > to butt, rub, nuzzle 'ijJi0P GO'Y:l~:- > to be lovable, delightful 3dC'(3,\, > very 23dOll > at night-time ("night-time") 3dG'f0~c:DO(S~ > in the dark ("darkness-inside~

in") ~~- > to see o ~'[ 0 ~ bJ 'fc m ver bJ -'fc> can [ver

G~ / ~/ > foot, leg G~::D > sound of footsteps


Su (}

example: G::)yxnG"l:Y? :).)/f.Ej)C:G,\,G3d')C c;,n ~



U'dt [verb] (for 0

'("7 to wash the water

pots so that they are clean; c ~ " ~ l I en~ \5\=~ GC0GO'Y:lCGC0::))/f. (,1';;JY1Cc r',~cncG() to open the window so dS :0 get fresh air; G§::D 0E:P:G3dJ~G0';(J)(DcncD- to be able to walk so that you don't hear his footsteps) 0)0: G~d.;- / GWd.;/ > t·, walk E3d.; > mouse, rat G'W~:- > to lie in wait for to catch a?G§:)~ > therefore, for that reason [email protected]:- > to run away ("go ',lut-run")

Translation Shwe Wa the little cat 1,


I have a little cat. The little eat's name is Shwe Wa. When you call out "Shwe Wa" she answers1 "Miaow miaow." She Wdves her tail. She rubs me with her head. Shwe Wa is aCiorable. Shwe Wa can sec at night in the dark. And she can walk 2 so that you can't hear her footsteps. She lies in walt for] mice and catches them. For that reason, when the littie mice see Shwe V'h, tlwy run ilway. 1. "is in the habit of answering" or "knows how to answer"

2. "knows how to walk" 3. "is in the habit of lying in wait for"

Exercises for Section 12: Shwe Wa the cat Exercises from the Reader: Section 12, Exercise 1. Memorizing.


Part 1: Texts: Section 12

Section 12, Exercise 3. The phrases in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences, hnd write out your answer. To make it easier to find the right order, write out each phrase on a separate slip of paper, then tryout different arrangements of the slips in a line on the table. Using separate sEps is instructive as well as helpful: it shows you ways of arranging the phrases that you might not otherwise have thought ot. 1 0 ,~, r,;?, 0 T' JII G~OIO( C)(ut):J..)2:: - 3d~:0( - GOlIC\'{JC JII ~II

(makes noun from verb: see Section 11 the athlete) -~~-~~--~~-~~~~--~-~

para 1

~-- ~-~--~~--~-~-~~~-

G~:3dGl m > in ancient times, in the olden days

("long ago-time-marker for past time") "r068 in [verb]-"r068 > in [verb]-ing, when [verb]-ing (lit. = coIl. [verb]-o?3dGl and other expressions) G§0iJ8 1~ on foot q in [verb]-q- > to have to [verb], be able to [verb] oy~: 10:;1 > cart GOY > boat §s: in [noW1]-§S: > by means of [noW1] (lit. =coll. [noW1]-~. ) "l.P:~ > much, very much (lit. = coll. "iP:"{p: ) . "l.P:- > to be a lot, be much > to take time





OOcr3dGl > present time (lit. = coIl. (3d ),?3dGl ) . 0(~:G(§?8: > overlanQ.. ("land-route") G~GO':YS()'Y.); > (English word) G . ~: qOY.): > tram . 8: > by water ("water-route") :)")G~ 1:)..)8:GtY)1 > steamer, liner

Cl3oS~- > to be easy GqG§GOY.lG0Y.l8 > "water-earth-junglemOW1tain"

r::. C C ~(),)Gcqp- > to pass over, cross GCD().Y)2t{J


aeroplane ("air-vehicle-

flying") 005'ffCD05'ff > industry ("machine-action-handaction") oa~:()'Y.):- 1-011> to flourish, grow GOYJG§9 in [verb]-GXY.:>[email protected]?S: > because . [verb] (lit. = coIl. -

9.) .

Translation Going on a journey 1. 2.

In the old days when people went on a journey they had to go on foot. They could also go in carts and boats. For that reason, when they went on a journey it took a very long time. Nowadays people can make journeys over land quickly in cars and trains. They can make journeys over water easily by steamer. They can travel very fast in big planes over water and land, forests and mountains. Travelling is fast and easy because industry is advanced.

Exercises for Section 13: Travel Exercises from the Reader: Section 13, Exercise 1. Memorisation. Additional exercises: Section 13, Exercise 2. The phrases in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences, and write out your answer. Don't forget the slips-ofpaper game, if you find it helpful.


Burmese: An Introduction to the Literary Style


Section 13, Exercise 5. The list below contains seven different modes of transport. Which word belongs in which sentence? Note that one of them does not have the suffix _.§