Bulgarian basic course. Units 1-15. Vol. 1

Table of contents :
Title Page
Table of Contents
Unit 1 - Getting Around; Greetings and General Phrases
Basic Sentences
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Hints on Pronunciation
1.3 Vowels
1.4 Pitch and Stress
1.5 Styles of Speech
1.6 Negative of the Verb
1.7 The Alphabet
Grammatical Drill (GD) 1.3 Vowels
GD 1.6 Verb: Negative
Listening In
Unit 2 - Meeting People
Basic Sentences
2.1 Pronunciation of Consonants
2.1.1 Bulgarian /t d n/
2.1.2 Bulgarian /h/
2.1.3 Bulgarian /r/
2.1.4 Consonant groups (clusters)
2.1.5 Syllable division and consonant clusters
2.1.6 Words as units
2.2 The suffixed article /-әt/, /-ta/ /-to/
2.2.1 Variation of /-ət/ and /-ə/
2.2.2 Variation of consonants before /-ət/
2.3 /a/ verbs
2.4 Verb 'am, is' etc
2.5 Subjects and Objects
2.6 Questions
GD 2.2 The Article
GD 2.2.1 Masculine Nouns
GD 2.2.3 Neuter Nouns
GD 2.3 /a/ verbs
GD 2.4 Verb 'to be'
GD 2.5 Subjects and Objects
GD 2.6 Questions
GD 2.6.1 Questions with /li/
GD 2.6.2 Other Question Words
Listening In
Free Conversation
Unit 3 - Seeing the Sights
Basic Sentences
3.1 Vowels, Dipthongs
3.2 The Alphabet
3.3 Noun Plurals; Article Plurals /-te/, /-ta/
3.4 Adjectives
3.5 /po/ and /nay/
3.6 Verbs with /i/ in Present-Dependent
3.7 Verbs with /e/ in Present-Dependent
3.8 Verbs: Review
3.9 Verb: Negative (review)
3.10 Verbs: /šte/
3.11 Prepositions в, с
GD 3.1 Vowels, Dipthongs
GD 3.3 Article
GD 3.3.1 Noun plurals (masculine and feminine)
GD 3.3.2 Noun plurals (neuter)
GD 3.3.3 Completion Drill
GD 3.4 Adjectives
GD 3.5
GD 3.5.1 Comparison of Adverbs
GD 3.5.2 Comparison of adjectives
GD 3.5.3 Completion Drill
GD 3.6 i Verbs
GD 3.6.1 Completion Drill
GD 3.7 e Verbs
GD 3.7.1 Completion Drill
GD 3.8 Verb: Review - New /a/ verbs
GD 3.9 Verb: Negative
GD 3.10 Verb: šte
GD 3.10.1 Completion Drill
Listening In
Unit 4 - What's Your Trade?
Basic Sentences
4.1 Verbs: Perfective and Imperfective
4.2 Verbs: Past
4.2.1 Perfective Past
4.2.2 Imperfective Past
4.2.3 Verbs having both Perfective and Imperfective Pasts
4.2.4 Indefinite Past
4.3 Impersonal Verbs
4.3.1 може, трябва
4.3.2 има, ияма
4.4 Verbs: Defective - боли
4.5 Pronouns
4.5.1 Subject Pronouns
4.5.2 Short Accusative Pronouns
4.5.3 Short Dative Pronouns
4.5.4 /na/ plus noun/pronoun replaceable by short dative
4.5.5 Pronoun Summary
Additional Numbers
GD 4.1, 4.2 Verbs: Imperfective and Perfective; Past
GD 4.3 Verbs: Impersonal Verbs
GD 4.4 Defective Verbs
GD 4.5 Pronouns: Personal Pronouns
GD 4.5.1 Subject Pronouns
GD 4.5.2 Short Accusative (Direct Object) Pronouns
GD 4.5.3 and 4 Short Dative (Indirect Object) Pronouns
GD 4.5.5 Pronouns: Review
Listening In
Unit 5 - Let's Talk About the Weather
Basic Sentences
5.1 Consonants: Voiced and Voiceless
5.2 Verb: Imperative
5.3 Pronominal Adjectives: този, тази, това, тези
5.4 Pronominal Adjectives
5.5 Verb: вали
5.6 če
GD 5.2 Verb: Imperative
GD 5.3 Pronominal Adjectives: този, тази, това, тези
GD 5.4 Pronominal Adjectives: мой, твой, etc.
GD 5.5 Verb: вали
GD 5.6 че
Listening In
Unit 6 - Review
Unit 7 - Getting a Room
Basic Sentences
7.1 Prepositions
7.2 Verbs: Relations of Perfective and Imperfective Stems
GD 7.1 Prepositions
GD 7.1.1 Prepositions
GD 7.1.1 Completion Drill
GD 7.2 Verbs: Perfective and Imperfective Pairs
GD 7.2.1 Verbs: Perfective and Imperfective Pairs
GD 7.2.2 Imperfective Verbs with Imperfective and Perfective Pasts
Listening In
Unit 8 - By Car
Basic Sentences
8.1 Nouns with Numbers
8.2 Verbs: Reflexive and Impersonal with се
8.3 Verbs: Types
8.3.1 e/a verbs
8.3.2 e/ya verbs
8.3.3 e/zero verbs
8.4 Verbs: New Verbs
GD 8.1 Nouns with Numbers
GD 8.2 Verbs without се
GD 8.2.1 Personal Reflexive
GD 8.2.2 Impersonal Reflexive
GD 8.2.3
GD 8.3 e/a and e/ya Verbs
GD 8.3.1 e/a verbs
GD 8.3.2 e/ya verbs
GD 8.3.3 e/zero verbs
GD 8.4 New Aspect Pairs
Listening In
Unit 9 - Dinner
Basic Sentences
9.1 Question words and suffix -то
9.1.1 ли
9.1.2 Question element /k-/
9.1.3 Question words with /-to/
9.2 Noun: Vocative
9.3 Verb: дам, ям, дойда, отида
9.3.1 Verb: дам, ям (e/o/zero verbs)
9.3.2 дойда, отида (e/o verbs)
9.3.3 бъда
9.4 Verbs: New Verbs
GD 9.1 Question words with /-to/
GD 9.1.3 Question words with /-to/
GD 9.1.3 Completion Drill
GD 9.2 Noun: Vocative
GD 9.3 Verbs: дам, ям, дойда, отида
GD 9.3.1 Verbs: дам, ям
GD 9.3.2 Verbs: дойда, отида
GD 9.3.3 бъда
GD 9.4 Verbs: New Verbs
Listening In
Unit 10 - Shopping
Basic Sentences
10.1 Pronoun
10.1.1 Short Pronoun Order
10.1.2 Pronouns: Stressed Accusative Forms
10.1.3 Pronouns: Review
10.2 Question words: Prefixes /nya-/ and /ni-/
10.3 Verb: некa
10.4 Verbs: New Verbs
GD 10.1 Pronouns
GD 10.1.1 Short Pronoun Order
GD 10.1.2 Pronouns: Stressed Accusative Forms
GD 10.1.3 Pronoun: Review
GD 10.2 Prefixes nya-, ni- : ня-, ни-
GD 10.3 Verb: нека
GD 10.4 New Verbs
Listening In
Unit 11 - Letter Writing
Basic Sentences
11.1 Noun: Gender and General Review
11.1.1 Gender
11.1.2 The Article
11.1.3 Noun Endings
11.2 Verb: Past Passive Participle
11.3 Verb: Impersonal Reflexive with Dative
11.4 Verbs: New Verbs
GD 11.1 Nouns
GD 11.1.3 Masculine Nouns
GD 11.1.3 Feminine Nouns
GD 11.1.3 Neuter Nouns
GD 11.2 Verb: Past Passive Participle
GD 11.3 Verb: Impersonal Reflexive with Dative
GD 11.4 Verbs: New Verbs
Listening In
Unit 12 - Review
True - False Statements
Conversation 1
Conversation 2
Conversation 3
Conversation 4
Conversation 5
Conversation 6
Conversation 7
Conversation 8
Unit 13 - Stepping Out
Basic Sentences
13.1 Sound Changes and Alternations
13.1.1 Phonetic Variation
13.1.2 Loss
13.1.3 Change of Position
13.1.4 Replacement /ya/ varying with /e/ Voiced-Voiceless Replacements Vowel Replacement in Roots Y - Replacements I, E Replacements
13.2 Verbal Nouns in /-ne/
13.3 Nouns in /-nia/
13.4 Formulae: честито!
13.5 Verbs: New Verbs
GD 13.3 Nouns in /-nie/
GD 13.4 Formulae: честито!
GD 13.5 Verbs:New Verbs
Listening In
Reading Selection - Четиво
Unit 14 - Discussing the Play
Basic Sentences
14.1 Verb: Compunds with /l/ participle
14.1.1 The Perfect
14.1.2 The Future Perfect
14.1.3 The Pluperfect (Past Perfect)
14.1.4 Conditional
14.2 Verb: Use of the Preposition with Verbs
14.3 Verbs: New Verbs
GD 14.1 /l/ Participle
GD 14.1.1 The Perfect
GD 14.1.2 The Future Perfect
GD 14.1.3 The Pluperfect (Past Perfect)
GD 14.2 Verb: Use of Prepositions with Verbs
GD 14.3 Verbs: New Verbs
Listening In
Reading Selection - Четиво
Лродължение 2
Unit 15 - Post Office
Basic Sentences
15.1 Verb: Conditional Sentences with /ako/
GD 15.1 Verb: Conditional Sentences with /ako/
GD 15.1.1 Sample Drill
GD 15.1.2 Transformation Drill
GD 15.1.3 Substitution Drill
GD 15.1.4 Translation Drill
GD 15.2 Verb: New Verbs
Listening In
Reading Selection - Четиво
Лродължение 3

Citation preview



This work was compiled and published with the support of the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States of America.












These volumes comprise an introduction to the Bulgarian language. No previous knowledge of Bulgarian or any other Slavic language is assumed. The course as it now stands was prepared under an agreement with the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and fJ elfare, under tl,e National Defense Education Act. The original core, of which some sets of Basic Sentences and a few grammatical notes remain, was done by Carleton T. Hodge as a fellow of the American Council of Leamed Societies. Further work was done as a regular part of the work of the Foreign Service Institute before the Institute entered into an agreement with the Office of Education. The linguist in charge of the project has been Carleton T. Hodge, Head of the Department of Near East and African Languages, Foreign Service Institute. A number of Bulgarian speakers have been involved in its preparation over the years, though the present Bulgarian staff is responsible for its present form. Deep appreciation is expressed to all those engaged in the work for their assistance


the project.

D. Lee Hamilton Acting Dean School of Languages Foreign Service Institute



Foreword Each unit of this parts:

Basic Sent ences ,

reading passage. memorized. eli vided

course, aside from Notes,


The Basic Sentences are

'!he Notes explain the

roughly into

review units, is divided Units 13 on have

17, 19-23)


part, a

grammatical structure of the language and are

three phases.

The first


of the most frequent patterns. overall treatments

has a

(Units 1-S, 7-11) to give

the student a

The secoM phase

treats fewer granrnatical features per unit.

gives more

a fourth

normal dialogue material, meant to be

great deal of granmatical material per unit, in order working knowledge

into three

(Units 13-

'!he third phase

of selected features.

The index


to the

grammatical notes gives ready reference to all features discussed. Use of This Course These units are accompanying drills.

designed for use with a native speaker of Bulgarian.

tapes include

(Drills such

the Basic Sentences of each un1 t



as those with blanks to be filled and translation drills

are omitted, as are all reviews.) not substitute for it.

and nearly


These are meant to supplement classroom work,

Suggested proceedure for study is:

The instructor reads the Bulgarian of the Basic Sentences item by i tam,

repeating each for

each member of the class.

Each stlXient

repeats inmediately

after the instructor, imitating his or her pronunciation as exactly as possible. (This type of drill is basic and is to be done wi. th Listening In sections also.) Wrong pronunciations including wrong intonations, are corrected.

the Grammatical Drills and on the part of

the student,

This correction consists of repeti-

tion at normal speed of

the i tern mispronounced, with

the student


If' a linguist is present

he may give a tecl:mical explanation, with the instruc-

tor again furnishing the model for the student to itr.i tate. 2.

The student goes over

the same material by listening to

the tape and

repeating, doing this until he knows the dialogue by heart. 3.

The instructor repeats each

sentence for the student, again correcting iv


pronunciation. Repetition is continued until the students can say the sentence. smoothly and naturally. 4.

Variation drills are made with

the Basic Sentences.

These may be

straight substitution drills, cue substitution drills, question and


drills, etc. In straight substitution drills the instructor

makes the substitution and

the student repeats the changed sentence. Sentence:

IVlaket spira vet Soliya./

Instructor says: (am student repeats)

/peter i zena mu spirat vel Soliya./

ITe spirat vat Sofi1'a./


In cue substitution drills the instructor says the sentence to be changed,

then gives the item to be substituted.

The student gives the altered sentence:

IVlaket spira ve! Sotiya./


IPetar/ /Petar spira vet Sofiya./


Question and answer drills should include, where possible vocabulary-wise, a variety ot types of answers: Question:

ISpira 1i vlakat vet Soliyail

Short aftirmative answer:

/Da./ or ,IDa, spira./

Short negative answer:

/Ne.1 or /Ne, ne spira./

Long attirmative answer:

/Da, vIakat spira vet Soli1'a./

Long negative answer:

/Ne, vlakat ne spira vel Soli1'a./

Expamed altirmati ve answer: Expanded negative answer:

,IDa, vlakat spira vet Soliya i vel Varna./ /Ne, vlakat ne spira vel Sotiya, no spira vet Varna./


Study ot the Grammatical Notes. The Notes should be studied at home and discussed in class (wi th linguist) only' when necessary. 6.

Grannatical Drill.

'!he grammatical drills, being nearly all 'sample'


drills (examples ot the torms under consideration), are to be repeated atter the instructor as in point 1 above. '!bey should also be made the subject of variation drill (see point 4 above), aimed at thoroughly drilling the new 'VD cabula17 of the unit (or ot the reading ot the preceding unit) by using this "IOcabu1ary' as substitutions. Other variation drill should be aimed at giving the stuienta practice in repeating grammatical structures in which they happen to be weak, or with which they are haVing difrieulty. ']he students should listen to the tapes before looking at the text.


will lessen the teo:lency to read a word rather than imitate it by sound. It wil:l also facilitate the reading of the cyrillic, as the student will be more familiar with the lIOrdS he is to read. Occasional new words are introduced into the drills (including the Listening In). These are glossed in the text, but the student shou1d listen to the tapes several times before looking at the text, identifying them. by related known words or by context i f possible. 7.


']he Listening In should be drilled by repetition atter

the instructor and by tape drill until the students are able to act out the situations naturally. Free (or at least treer) conversation may then be held among the students, the instructor participating as advisable. These should go rapidly, with no one taking time to think ot what to say next. A briet, ordinary sentence said naturally is far preterable to a painfully constructed one. ']he latter process is a waste of class time. Reviews. 'lbe re'View un:1 t8 (6, 12, 18, 24, 30) are not meant to be as much comprehensive reviews as breaks in the routine. A thorough classroom and/or tape review may be made at the same time. Several of the reviews ofter a quite dirterent type of exercise than is found in the substantive units.



Table of Contents

Volume I

Unit 1

Getting A round; Greetings and General Phrases

Unit 2

Meeting People


Unit 3

Seeing the Sights


Unit 4

What's your Trade?

Unit 5

Let's Talk About the Weather


Unit 6



Unit 7

Getting a Room


Unit 8

By Car


Unit 9



Unit 10



Unit 11

Letter Writing


Unit 12



Unit 13

Stepping Out


Unit 14

Discussing the Play


Unit 15

The Post Office




For Vocabulary see Volume II, page 874 For Index to Grammatical Notes see Volume II, page 939