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Building Information Modelling (BIM): Industry Trends, Benefits and Challenges
 9781685079673, 9798886970708, 9781685077419, 9781685076092, 9781685074135, 9781685075767, 9781536196290, 9781536198225

Table of contents :
Contents
Preface
Chapter 1
Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps: An Extensive Review
Abstract
Barriers against BIM
BIM Movements in the World
BIM Implementation Roadmaps
Countries with Compulsory BIM
Finland
Canada
Singapore
France
South Korea
Spain
Britain
Indonesia
Countries with Optional BIM
United States
Hong Kong
Mongolia
Germany
Portugal
Malaysia
Ireland
Saudi Arabia
Brazil
Slovenia
Pakistan
Nepal
Ethiopia
Costa Rica
Egypt
Iran
Algeria
Discussion and Conclusion
References
Chapter 2
Mind the Gap: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Usage in Africa, the Case of Ghana
Abstract
Introduction
Bim Usage, Implementation and Barriers
Research Methodology
Results and Discussion
Readiness of Building Designers in Ghana to Adopt BIM
Stages at which BIM Was Used
Challenges Faced during BIM Projects
Readiness of the Current Technology to Use BIM
Conclusion
References
Chapter 3
Energy Efficient Ski Lodge Design: The Case of Erzurum
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Climatic and Topographic Values for Ski Tourism of Erzurum Province
The Ski Lodge Design in Erzurum Province
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
References
Chapter 4
Professional Training Courses in BIM Contributing to the Dissemination of the Methodology in the Construction Industry
Abstract
Introduction
BIM Education
Professional Course
Introduction to BIM
BIM in Construction
BIM in Structural Design
HBIM Concept and Practice
Conclusion
References
Bibliography
Index
Blank Page

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Civil Engineering and Architecture

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Civil Engineering and Architecture Advances in Sustainable Materials and Technology Abhishek Kanoungo, PhD (Editor) Sandeep Singh, PhD (Editor) Er. Shristi Kanoungo, M.E. (Editor) Ajay Goyal, PhD (Editor) 2022. ISBN: 978-1-68507-967-3 (Hardcover) 2022. ISBN: 979-8-88697-070-8 (eBook) Recent Advances in Structural Health Monitoring Research in Australia Hong Guan (Editor) Tommy H. T. Chan (Editor) Jianchun Li (Editor) 2022. ISBN: 978-1-68507-741-9 (Hardcover) 2022. ISBN: 978-1-68507-609-2 (eBook) Computer Aided Bridge Engineering (Detail Design of Pre-Stressed Concrete I-Girder / Box-Girder Bridges) Sandipan Goswami (Author) 2022. ISBN: 978-1-68507-413-5 (Hardcover) 2022. ISBN: 978-1-68507-576-7 (eBook) Advanced Techniques for the Design of Zero Energy Buildings Sassan Mohasseb (Editor) Niloufar Ghazanfari (Editor) 2021. ISBN: 978-1-53619-629-0 (Hardcover) 2021. ISBN: 978-1-53619-822-5 (eBook)

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Julie W. Daniels Editor

Building Information Modelling (BIM) Industry Trends, Benefits and Challenges

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Copyright © 2023 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. We have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to make it easy for you to obtain permissions to reuse content from this publication. Please visit copyright.com and search by Title, ISBN, or ISSN. For further questions about using the service on copyright.com, please contact:

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NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regards to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ISBN:  H%RRN

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. † New York

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Contents

Preface

.......................................................................................... vii

Chapter 1

Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps: An Extensive Review ...............................................................1 Foad Zahedi and Javad Majrouhi Sardroud

Chapter 2

Mind the Gap: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Usage in Africa, the Case of Ghana ....................33 M. N. Addy, T. E. Kwofie and D. A. T. Gyansah

Chapter 3

Energy Efficient Ski Lodge Design: The Case of Erzurum ......................................................51 Figen Balo, Lutfu S. Sua and Hazal Boydak

Chapter 4

Professional Training Courses in BIM Contributing to the Dissemination of the Methodology in the Construction Industry ...................71 A. Zita Sampaio

Bibliography

...........................................................................................91

Index

.........................................................................................213

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Preface

This book contains four selected chapters on building information modeling (BIM). Chapter One is an extensive review of global BIM implementation roadmaps. Chapter Two reviews the usage of BIM in Africa through a case study of Ghana. Chapter Three examines energy efficient ski lodge design via the case of Erzurum. Chapter Four looks at how professional training courses in BIM contribute to the dissemination of the methodology through the construction industry. Chapter 1 - Nowadays, Building Information Modeling (BIM) facilitates project management with the help of interdisciplinary intelligent tools and technologies in an nD environment not only in the engineering phase but also in the construction phase. Also, automation in construction provides a trustworthy bedrock in the pre-construction phase to explore reliable quantity surveys and to prepare an accurate time and cost estimate. In the construction phase, BIM enhances communication and enables project teams to control cost and time efficiently, also BIM helps to avoid clashes in both engineering and construction phases, which will result in cost and time reduction. In the postconstruction phase, BIM is a powerful tool to assist maintenance by presenting on-model technical specifications and inventory control for continuous performance. Although this technology will improve all achievements, and since various case studies reveal its positive effects, some countries showed a lack of progression, which is generally due to a lack of clients’ demand, high initial investments, cultural impediments, and absence of efficient education. In between, some countries implement BIM in their industries, they published a time-based practical implementation roadmap, as well as they approved related rules, regulations, guidelines, and specifications. Some countries took more significant steps and mandated BIM in their projects. More than three decades required for BIM to become mandated in 2007. Finland and Denmark were the pioneer countries that mandated BIM. Meanwhile, Singapore and South Korea were the first countries that published their BIM adoption

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Julie W. Daniels

roadmap. In this chapter, approved and proposed roadmaps of 24 countries and impediments against BIM are discussed. For better consideration, countries are divided into two categories; the first category consists of countries in which BIM is required even partially, and the second category belongs to countries whose roadmaps are approved or proposed but BIM is not mandated. Chapter 2 - The adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the delivery of construction projects has gained popularity in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. BIM has revolutionized the way building projects are planned, designed, constructed and managed. Despite its numerous benefits, there is a low uptake of BIM for the delivery of projects in Ghana and the sub-Sharan Africa at large. This study provides insight into the level of usage of BIM among Ghanaian building designers and paves way for the regularization of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry. The study employed the qualitative (exploratory) research approach, where face-to-face interviews were conducted with eight (8) building designers in Ghana. The qualitative data was then analyzed using the thematic matrix analysis. The findings of the study reveal that, building designers are aware of BIM and are using BIM to some extent (3D modelling). However, they face the major challenge of sharing project information on a common platform, and hence could not use BIM collaboratively. Moreover, BIM is used mostly during the design stage of construction projects. The findings also indicate that quite a majority of designers in the Ghanaian construction industry show interest in embracing the BIM technology. To drive the full uptake of BIM among building designers and in the Ghanaian construction industry, there is the need for technological capacity building. This can also be achieved through the enactment of construction policies for effective BIM implementation and modification of construction procurement processes to encourage the usage of BIM. This study provides empirical data on the usage of BIM within a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa for organizations and policy to be better positioned for an active adoption of BIM. It also contributes to understanding the dynamics of the uptake of BIM technologies and processes, at the project, organization, and industry levels. Chapter 3 - The building design process is currently experiencing some significant adjustments. Buildings that are more environmentally friendly are being promoted all around the world as a way to combat climate change. Furthermore, the concept of Building Information Modelling (BIM) is replacing stand-alone design methodologies. Many benefits have been documented as a result of BIM adoption, ranging from time savings to energy

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Preface

ix

and cost savings. Upon finalization of the plan with all of its material specifications and components, the accuracy of the performed analysis is critical for sustainability in energy efficient planning. There are variety of methods and analytic tools that may be used to anticipate important metrics and values such as energy use, U value, and energy conservation. Building information modeling can be used in the early stages of planning to analyze the metrics and values of planning before diving into the more sensitive matters of construction’s design. In this study, a ski lodge was designed in Erzurum, where one of Turkey’s largest ski resorts is located. The building envelope of the ski lodge is planned as a sandwich wall. Different construction (bims, brick, and gas concrete) and insulation materials (phenolic foam, polyurethane, and polyisocyanure) were used in the building envelope. Basalt stone, andesite stone, and slate stone, which were extracted from Erzurum province and used as wall covering material in the building sector, were applied to all design alternatives. Considering the optimum insulation thickness in the building envelope for the region, the appropriate thickness values of the insulation materials were used in the analysis. A tile roof was considered for the roof of the building, taking into account the heavy snowfall in the region. BIM-based Green Building Studio simulation was used to identify the most energy efficient building envelope among all alternatives. In the light of the provided evaluations, it is aimed to be a study that will guide the public of the region, decision makers, engineers, and contractors working in the construction sector on energy efficient buildings. Similarly, this study is also important for being an exemplary study in terms of creating more energy efficient structures in different regions by considering the materials suitable for the regional conditions and the features of the designed building. Chapter 4 - The implementation of Building Information modelling (BIM) methodology in the construction industry has been covering a wide applicability with recognized benefits in designing, constructing and operating buildings. A recent short course organized in the University of Lisbon, actualized with the most relevant achievement based in master researches, was offered to professionals of the industry, namely, architects and civil engineers coming from diverse engineering areas, environment, construction, maintenance, consult and patrimonial enterprises and also from public organizations like city councils. The proposed action covers the areas of construction (conflict analysis, planning and materials take-off), structures (interoperability, analyses and transfer of information between software) and the most recent Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM)

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perspective. The course aims to contribute to the dissemination of the potential of BIM in the areas of designing, construction and refurbishing of historical buildings. The participants followed the course with great interest and satisfaction, formulating several questions directed to the particular activity of each of the attendees.

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Chapter 1

Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps: An Extensive Review Foad Zahedi and Javad Majrouhi Sardroud*, PhD Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract Nowadays, Building Information Modeling (BIM) facilitates project management with the help of interdisciplinary intelligent tools and technologies in an nD environment not only in the engineering phase but also in the construction phase. Also, automation in construction provides a trustworthy bedrock in the pre-construction phase to explore reliable quantity surveys and to prepare an accurate time and cost estimate. In the construction phase, BIM enhances communication and enables project teams to control cost and time efficiently, also BIM helps to avoid clashes in both engineering and construction phases, which will result in cost and time reduction. In the post-construction phase, BIM is a powerful tool to assist maintenance by presenting on-model technical specifications and inventory control for continuous performance. Although this technology will improve all achievements, and since various case studies reveal its positive effects, some countries showed a lack of progression, which is generally due to a lack of clients’ demand, high initial investments, cultural impediments, and absence of efficient education. In between, some countries implement BIM in their industries, they published a time-based practical implementation roadmap, as well as they approved related rules, regulations, guidelines, and specifications. *

Associate Professor; Corresponding Author’s Email: [email protected].

In: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Editor: Julie W. Daniels ISBN: 979-8-88697-697-7 © 2023 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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Foad Zahedi and Javad Majrouhi Sardroud Some countries took more significant steps and mandated BIM in their projects. More than three decades required for BIM to become mandated in 2007. Finland and Denmark were the pioneer countries that mandated BIM. Meanwhile, Singapore and South Korea were the first countries that published their BIM adoption roadmap. In this chapter, approved and proposed roadmaps of 24 countries and impediments against BIM are discussed. For better consideration, countries are divided into two categories; the first category consists of countries in which BIM is required even partially, and the second category belongs to countries whose roadmaps are approved or proposed but BIM is not mandated.

Keywords: BIM, construction industry, implementation roadmap

Introduction In the volatile construction market facing with increasing clients’ demands, all players are competing to provide better deliverables. To achieve quality deliverables, communication plays a significant role in connecting different co-located or virtual teams (Clough et al., 2008). Its advantages could be enumerated into three categories of the project life-cycle. First, in the preconstruction phase, which points to precise engineering based on team capabilities; perfect planning for construction sequences and procurement timing; and accurate cost estimation (CIC Group, 2010; Azhar et al., 2011; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015; BorjeGhale et al., 2016a; Majrouhi Sardroud et al., 2016; Sardroud, Mehranpour, et al., 2020)(CIC Group, 2010; Azhar et al., 2011; Barlish et al., 2012; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015). Second, the construction phase benefits from as-built construction, clash elimination, communication enhancement, teams’ cooperation improvement, better cost control, real-time time tracking, exact resource management, waste and loss reduction, and HSE risk decline (CIC Group, 2010; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015; BorjeGhale et al., 2016a; Majrouhi Sardroud et al., 2016). The post-construction which includes maintenance will improve with better facility and asset management, standards documentation, building systems analysis, crisis management, building components’ life-cycle management, continuous maintenance, and efficiency increase (CIC Group, 2010; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015) (Majrouhi Sardroud et al., 2016). Several studies reported numerous BIM benefits to projects, as presented in Table 1.

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Table 1. BIM advantages Phase BIM Advantage

Reference (CIC Group, 2010; Azhar et al., 2011; Barlish et al., 2012; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015; BorjeGhale et al., 2016a, 2016b; Majrouhi Sardroud et al., 2016; Sardroud, Mehranpour, et al., 2020)

Construction

Resource control and management Communication improvement Cost and cash flow tracking Shop drawing and erection drawing enhancement Waste management Rework reduction HSE risk declination

(CIC Group, 2010; Barlish et al., 2012; Bennett et al., 2013; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015; BorjeGhale et al., 2016a; Majrouhi Sardroud et al., 2016)

Facility and asset management Maintenance improvement and standards archive MEC equipment analysis Crisis management Component lifetime tracking

(CIC Group, 2010; Latiffi et al., 2013; Shou et al., 2015; Kameli et al., 2020)

Post-construction

Pre-construction

Accuracy when modeling current state and documenting in programming Accurate planning and preliminary cost estimation More efficient and faster engineering Engineering problem solving Ease of redesign and review due to a three-dimensional model Clash detection Project sequencing Physical resource management

Despite all the mentioned advantages, few countries illustrated different levels of efforts, from publishing required rules and regulations or approving roadmap, to mandating BIM in their projects. On the other hand, academics performed comprehensive studies to propose adoption roadmaps.

Barriers against BIM Several studies have been performed to explore BIM states in different countries independently, and some papers present the current world situation. Based on (Zahedi et al., 2022), which recently reviewed the world’s current state by investigating every country’s situation, generally, the most critical barriers against BIM are lack of efficient education, which has resulted in those trained experts being rare, and this causes the higher salary of the experts; also, clients refuse to adopt BIM in their projects which causes cost and time increase. Lack of knowledge results in resistance to technological changes (Zahedi et al., 2022).

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Another significant impediment is financial issues, such as high initial costs of BIM and resources required to prepare related software (Zahedi et al., 2022). The ten most significant barriers are presented in Figure 1. While lack of training with 6.45% has the lowest impact among the ten most important impediments, clearly there is a direct relation between lack of experts and lack of awareness standing in the first level with 13.98%. On the other hand, efficient training can avoid the fourth to the eighth level of significant barriers consisting of lack of rules and regulations, lack of employer interest, lack of knowledge, lack of support, and resistance to change. Also, with a comprehensive awareness, employers will demand BIM in their projects. In addition to required education, economic issues are hindering BIM widespread; in this regard, in case of providing required education will bring to light that all the expenditures will be returned by BIM financial benefits and cost savings during the project. Also, employers’ demand could lead them to allocate some encouragement to accelerate BIM adoption. Some of these incentives could be tax exemption or extra technical rate in the tender process.

Figure 1. The most significant barriers against BIM adoption.

BIM Movements in the World The first sign of enforcing BIM implementation emerged in 2007 when Finland mandated BIM (Bolpagni, 2013; Cheng et al., 2015), who was the

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building automation inventor since the 1970s (Smith, 2014b), and in 2014, Finish BIM implementation roadmap has presented (BuildingSmart Finland, 2014). In 2008, Denmark mandated 3D BIM in projects with more than 40 million DKK estimations (Jensen et al., 2013). Also, the United States and Canada joined this movement and required BIM in their projects (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016), and Canada represented its BIM roadmap in 2014 (BuildingSMART, 2014). In 2010, a big step was taken to adopt BIM. Singapore published its first version of the BIM implementation roadmap (Building and Construction Authority, 2011), which was revised later in 2014 (Fatt, 2017). Since 2016, all the projects which have a minimum value of 50 million US dollar are required BIM (Mustaffa et al., 2017), as well as South Korea, approved its BIM implementation roadmap when in 2016, BIM became mandatory partially (Bolpagni, 2013). Also, Norway BuildingSMART, which plays a significant role in the country’s construction sector, mandated BIM in 25% of the industry (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). In the following years, in any single year an improvement could be measured in the world. In 2011, the Netherlands mandated BIM in public projects worth more than 10 million euros but still didn’t publish any roadmap (Bolpagni, 2013); and also, the United States published its first version of the BIM adoption plan and in 2012, published the second version (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2011; Bentley Systems Inc., 2012). In 2014, Dubai, the BIM pioneer country in the middle east, mandated BIM in towers with at least 40 floors or an area of more than 300,000 square feet. As well as, BIM is required in government buildings construction (Mehran, 2016). Also, in this year, Hong Kong introduced its roadmap (Asma et al., 2015), but this country is still immatur regarding BIM (Mustaffa et al., 2017). Meanwhile, Malaysia approved its implementation roadmap and mandated BIM in 2018 (CIDB, 2014). In 2015, Spain unveiled its BIM implementation roadmap, and from 2020, BIM has become compulsory in public projects with a more than 2 million euro budget (Panteli et al., 2020). Although in this year, Germany legislated

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and Mongolia proposed their roadmaps, BIM is not required to adopt (Federal Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, 2015; Ismail et al., 2017). German industry welcomes BIM, so that 90% of its companies are using BIM spontaneously (Bhatti et al., 2018). There are still no approval requirements in Luxembourg and Sweden, but since 2015 BIM has been required in these countries (Charef et al., 2019). Since 2016, BIM has been required in all British and Swiss public projects (Travaglini et al., 2014; João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). In 2016, (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016) proposed a roadmap to adopt BIM in the Portuguese construction industry. In 2017, France approved its BIM roadmap and mandated it (Panteli et al., 2020). Also, Ireland published its roadmaps (GCCC, 2017). As well as Indonesia, BIM implementation has started simultaneously with BIM implementation roadmap approval (Sopaheluwakan et al., 2020). In 2018, the Brazilian BIM adoption roadmap was published (Comite estrategico do BIM, 2017). Also, a BIM adoption roadmap was proposed for the Saudi Arabian construction industry (Alhumayn, 2018). In 2019, Cambridge university presented a BIM implementation roadmap (Enzer et al., 2019), while another framework was proposed previously in 2012 (Khosrowshahi et al., 2012). Although the Slovenian BIM implementation roadmap is approved, BIM is not mandated yet (EUBIM Taskgroup, 2019). Also, in 2019, Nepal unveiled its roadmap based on (Marasini, 2019) study, as well as Ethiopian BIM implementation roadmap was approved (Ethiopian Construction Project Management Institute, 2019). In 2020, a BIM adoption roadmap was proposed for Iran’s construction industry (Sardroud, Safari, et al., 2020). Based on successful international experiences, the Egyptian BIM adoption roadmap has been published (Abdallah et al., 2020); also, a proposed BIM roadmap is represented by (Zúñiga et al., 2020) for the Costa Rican construction projects. Meanwhile, in Slovakia, BIM mandated partially in some public projects, and BIM mandated in new high-value and complex public projects in Lithuania (EUBIM Taskgroup, 2019). An implementation roadmap is proposed for Pakistan construction, too (Girginkaya Akdag et al., 2020). (Bouguerra, Yaik-Wah, et al., 2020) proposed a roadmap to implement BIM in Algeria. A trend line is provided in Figure 2 to illustrate the movements regarding BIM.

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Algeria BIM implementation roadmap

Malaysia BIM implementation roadmap South Korea mandating BIM

Finland BIM implementation roadmap

South Korea BIM implementation roadmap

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Denmark Mandating some part of BIM Canada Mandating BIM United States Mandating BIM

Hong Kong BIM implementation roadmap USA 2nd BIM implementation roadmap

2009 2010

2011

Netherlands Mandating BIM United States 1st BIM implementation roadmap

Singapore Mandating BIM in large projects

Saudi Arabia BIM implementation roadmap

Britain Mandating BIM

Brazil BIM implementation roadmap

Canda BIM implementation roadmap

2012

2013

2014

2015

Spain BIM implementation roadmap Mongolia BIM implementation roadmap Sweden Mandating BIM Luxembourg Mandating BIM

Germany BIM implementation roadmap

Figure 2. BIM global movements trendline.

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Pakistan BIM implementation roadmap

Portugal BIM implementation roadmap

Singapore 2nd BIM implementation roadmap

Singapore 1st BIM implementation roadmap

Finland Mandating BIM

Switzerland Mandating BIM

Dubai Mandating BIM

Norway Mandating BIM in 25% of the Construction Industry

Spain Mandating BIM Lithuania Mandating BIM Slovakia Mandating BIM

2016

2017

Ireland BIM implementation roadmap Indonesia BIM implementation roadmap France BIM implementation roadmap France Mandating BIM

Costa Rica BIM implementation roadmap

Egypt BIM implementation roadmap Iran BIM implementation roadmap

2018

2019

Britain BIM implementation roadmap

Slovenia BIM implementation roadmap Nepal BIM implementation roadmap

Ethiopian BIM implementation roadmap

2020

2021 2022

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BIM Implementation Roadmaps Different countries adopt further strategies and allocate different levels of effort to execute automation in construction. But the first step to achieving a comprehensive BIM in the construction industry is to approve a precise and practical roadmap with a realistic time-line to facilitate the implementation process. For ease of assessment, countries have been divided into two different categories. The first category includes countries that have either an approved roadmap and BIM is compulsory to implement in their projects even partially. In contrast the other group only has an approved or proposed roadmap.

Countries with Compulsory BIM Finland In the 1970’s, Finland innovated a new technology in construction to apply digitalization in construction (Smith, 2014b). The first signs of a serious BIM movement in Finland were recorded in 2001, when some pilot projects were defined to examine its effectiveness (Bolpagni, 2013). After a couple of decades, in 2007, Finland was the first country required BIM for the construction projects (Bolpagni, 2013). On the other hand, a 21.7 million euros supportive budget has spent in a 4-year period ending in 2014 to promote BIM (Tahrani et al., 2015); as a result, it is estimated that in 2016, BIM was used in 99% of construction projects (European Sector Construction Observatory, 2016). The Finnish BIM implementation roadmap approved in late 2014, which consists of 5 main pillars. It is anticipated that in 2025, Finland will succeed in implementing BIM in all construction and infrastructure projects (BuildingSmart Finland, 2014). 2015 research highlighted the Finnish BIM challenges as lack of demand, high initial costs, and unclear ROI, lack of efficient education and resistance to change, technological barriers, and, hardware and software issues (Tulenheimo, 2015).

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Canada In 2008, since the Canadian BIM council established, BIM became compulsory in public sector construction projects (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). In 2014, Building smart published the Canada BIM implementation roadmap, which was based on six main principles. It was anticipated six years was required to implement BIM entirley in Canada (BuildingSMART, 2014). Based on the (Bhatti et al., 2018) survey, in 2018, BIM was used by 67% of Canadian companies. A 2018 questionnaire-based investigation around BIM benefits and barriers revealed that overlooking BIM advantages, trained staff shortage, as well as the absence of efficient training, resistance to change the working procedures, and software inappropriate performance to data exchange are the main obstacles to adopting BIM in Canada (Cao et al., 2018). Singapore Despite the countries assessed previously, Singapore approved the BIM adoption roadmap prior to its compulsion. In 2010 and 2014, the first and second editions of Singapore BIM implementation have published by Building and Construction Authority (Building and Construction Authority, 2011) (Fatt, 2017). The second roadmap had five stages, and four years allocated to adopt it (Fatt, 2017). The first roadmap was supposed to involve 80% of Singapore firms within a 5-year plan (Building and Construction Authority, 2011). Also, a required budget was allocated to the program for efficient training and providing suitable hardware and software in 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively (Building and Construction Authority, 2015). All these efforts eluded to an increased BIM penetration rate from 20% to 65% form 2009 to 2014 (Rakib et al., 2018). Since 2016, Singapore Public Procurement Office has forced BIM to all projects with a minimum of 50 million US dollar value (Mustaffa et al., 2017). However, there are some obstacles against BIM, such as a lack of coordination between contractors and consultants; also, foreigners are primarily responsible for maintenance, and 2D drawings are commonly used in construction projects, while BIM or 3D drawings are rare (Kaneta et al., 2016).

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France In 2017, France either published its BIM implementation roadmap and mandated it (Panteli et al., 2020). A 20 million euros had allocated to prepare the French BIM adoption roadmap (Tahrani et al., 2015). The roadmap publication has increased the usage of BIM from 39% to 71% in a 2-year period ending to 2015 (Gerges et al., 2017); surveys revealed in this year France, with its accelerated progression, could be a worldwide leading country (Smith, 2017). Also, it is forecasted a 10 million euros required for a digital transition (Panteli et al., 2020). One of the main challenges France faces in adopting BIM widespread is Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs), which make up 96% of all French companies. SMEs should adapt to new technologies before being surprised by the technological innovation influx, which requires a comprehensive education program (Tranchant et al., 2017). South Korea Late in the 2000s, a movement toward BIM was started in South Korea; the goal of the movement was to develop BIM gradually in the construction industry (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). In 2010, the South Korean BIM implementation roadmap has approved by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT). Since 2016, Public Procurement Service had required BIM in all public sector projects and projects with a value of more than 50 million US dollars (Bolpagni, 2013). Although South Korea is one of the countries that stepped forward toward BIM and benefited from advanced technologies, the BIM development rate is very slow (Smith, 2014a). Spain Like Singapore, Spain approved its BIM adoption roadmap in 2014 and later mandated BIM in the construction industry in 2020. In 2014, Spain published a set of regulations, and one year later, in 2015, published its roadmap and precisely followed to implement BIM. In the latest action toward a comprehensive BIM implementation, Spain mandated BIM in public sector projects worth more than 2 million euros (Panteli et al., 2020). Issues hindering BIM in Spain are immaturity, which points out intellectual property issues, and efficient training which avoids self-learning (Vivas et al., 2017).

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Britain With 3.8 million pounds of funds in the public sector to support BIM, Britain is the most active European country regarding BIM (Travaglini et al., 2014; Tahrani et al., 2015). Although Britain has fast-paced BIM adoption and BIM causes sustainable deliverables, insisting on using CAD is impeding companies for adopting BIM extensively (Khosrowshahi et al., 2012; Mustaffa et al., 2017). In 2011, the British government approved a set of BIM rules, regulations, and requirements, and legislated to adopt BIM level 2 from 2016 in all public infrastructure projects with a budget of more than 5 million pounds (Cheng et al., 2015; Malleson, 2015; João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). In 2012, (Khosrowshahi et al., 2012) proposed a BIM adoption roadmap for the UK construction industry. In 2018, A 5-pillar BIM implementation roadmap published by Cambridge University with a 2-year proposed schedule for execution (Enzer et al., 2019). Due to immature BIM in Britain, a comprehensive plan has been approved to adopt BIM by an investment by the “BIM2050” community, to roll out efficient training, and to define influential working groups (Blackwell, 2012; Awwad, 2020). Despite all, Britain’s BIM industry is hindered by lack of familiarity, opposition against new procedures and education, lack of awareness, as well as cost-benefit obscurity, intangible achievements, insufficient profitability, and impressive initial funding (Khosrowshahi et al., 2012). Indonesia Although in 2012, the Indonesian BIM strategy has published, the initial serious BIM movements were measured in 2017 (Telaga, 2018), and in 2018, the Indonesian BIM implementation roadmap was published (BIM PUPR et al., 2018). Investigations revealed in 2020, 70% of the Indonesian construction projects adopted BIM level 1 (Van Roy et al., 2020). Although relying on engineers’ efforts, BIM is used widely in pre-construction and construction phases, BIM is rarely used in maintenance, and the government body is not demanding BIM widely (Rakib et al., 2018). Since 2018, by the approved obligations, BIM has been mandated in all public sectors with more than 2000 square meters and 2 floors (Sopaheluwakan et al., 2020). Based on a survey, main barriers against BIM in Indonesia includes BIM experts shortage, opposition to change, and unawareness around BIM benefits (Utomo et al., 2019). BIM implementaion roadmap pillars of the first group are presented in Table 2.

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Table 2. BIM implementation roadmap in the first category countries

Enabling technology

Services created through open data

Collaborative modelbased processes

Comprehensive information management knowhow

Desire State

Research & Development

BIM for Facility Management & Smart City

New Training programmes at all levels

BIM for Design for Manufacturing & Assembly

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(Fatt, 2017)

Drive BIM collaboration throughout Virtual Design and construction

Approach

Governance

Commons

Enablers

Change

(Enzer et al., 2019) Britain

Current State

Singapore

Sustain Evaluate Deploy Education Develop Engage Canada

(BuildingSmart Finland, 2014) (BuildingSMART, 2014)

Standards and guidelines for the whole life-cycle

Finland

Reference Pillars Country name

Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps

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Countries with Optional BIM United States The United States of America is a leading country in BIM that perform BIM tools and technologies in the construction industry (Smith, 2014b; Mustaffa et al., 2017). Since 2008, Public Service Administration mandated BIM in public sector projects (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016), which resulted in an impressive 75% growth in using BIM from 2007 to 2009; in a way in 2009, 50% of the industry was using BIM . In 2011, the US Army Corps of Engineers published the first edition of the US BM implementation roadmap (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2011); in 2012, a supplementary to the roadmap was published (Bentley Systems Inc., 2012). (Vandezande, 2019) measured BIM obstacles as old-fashioned tools, exclusive software, working-teams busy schedule, as well as local governments, unsupportive government to mandate BIM, and training shortage, therefore despite all advancements in the United States, BIM is not required nationally. Hong Kong Although the construction industry is developed and has a high turnover, BIM is in its early stage (Mustaffa et al., 2017). To extend BIM, some pilot projects have been defined since 2006 (Bolpagni, 2013), and the public sector has an active role while publishing several rules and regulations (Bolpagni, 2013; Cheng et al., 2015). In 2014, the strategic BIM implementation roadmap has been published. This table-form roadmap includes nine stages, but no timeline is predicted (CIC, 2014). BIM adoption obstacles in Hong Kong could be enumerated as opposition to change, unsupportive organization charts against BIM, useless software, as well as the absence of rules and regulations, BIM impact measurement difficulty, and lack of BIM status reports (Chan et al., 2019). Mongolia In 2015, the movement toward BIM was started by Invest Mongolia Agency to emphasize BIM advantages and, in this regard, legislated a roadmap consisting of three main pillars. Buildingsmart Mongolia, which is a nongovernmental organization (NGO), planned to implement BIM in cooperation with the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development, the National Research Institute for Construction. Also, for a successful achievement,

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Buildingsmart Mongolia communicates with prospering experiences internationally (Ismail et al., 2017).

Germany Three time-stages are defined to implement BIM in Germany. From 2015 to 2017 is allocated to preparation; from 2017 to 2020, Germany planned to execute pilot projects with a 3.8 million euro funding to identify requirements, and from 2020, to adopt the BIM level one in all public projects (Galić et al., 2017). In 2014, the first German BIM guideline published. In 2015, the German BIM implementation roadmap, titled “Roadmap for digital design and construction” was published (Federal Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, 2015). In 2018, based on research, 90% of German enterprises used BIM (Bhatti et al., 2018). BIM strategy hasalso been approved in 2019 (DB AG, 2019). Portugal Although there is no official legislation toward compulsory BIM adoption nor any approved roadmap (Charef et al., 2019), a BIM implementation roadmap has been proposed through a research that consists of 3 stages (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). Likewise, BIM was supposed to become mandatory from 2020 (Charef et al., 2019). Firms to implement BIM are facing some obstacles, such as lack of employers’ request, conventional 2D and 3D drafting approaches, as well as lack of efficient training, and lack of experts (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). Malaysia In 2000, the Malaysian private sector collaborated with BIM in their projects, and the first BIM-based project, the National Cancer Center, was executed in 2010 (Abdullah et al., 2017; Mustaffa et al., 2017). Despite all measured BIM advantages, BIM has not been mandated yet, but a 7-pillar roadmap is published (CIDB, 2014). BIM advantages have been identified as safety improvements, waste reduction, clash detection, scheduling enhancement, and communication improvement (Latiffi et al., 2013). (Othman et al., 2021) revealed despite all the Malaysian construction industry efforts to promote BIM and to cooperate with CIDB (Construction Industry Development Board), acceptable BIM level could not be measured. One of the hinderings is the lack of knowledge among players about the connection between stakeholders; also, BIM is used dispersedly, which would not result in an extensive model; meanwhile industry requires a

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Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps

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comprehensive training program to assist professionals in adopting BIM widely.

Ireland Irish BIM strategy and implementation roadmap was published in 2017, and it was planned that BIM would be widely implemented over a 3-year period ending 2021. The roadmap includes four main pillars (GCCC, 2017). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Irish firms tend to apply virtual infrastructures, and now the Irish construction industry is positively ready for BIM to be mandated (McAuley et al., 2020). Although, since 2017, Ireland has been experiencing development toward BIM and achieved some predefined goals, to achieve other targets and keep to competition internationally, incentives are vital to energizing the industry (McAuley et al., 2019). (Abdullah et al., 2017) revealed there are some barriers against BIM in Ireland, such as lack of trained staff, lack of decision makers’ support, ROI ambiguity, as well as opposition to change. Saudi Arabia Although Saudi Arabia is one of the leading countries in BIM usage among the middle east countries, its implementation roadmap is not approved yet (Gerges et al., 2017). (Alhumayn, 2018) proposed a nine-pillar road map to adopt BIM in the construction company. The construction industry in Saudi Arabia has several challenges to achieving an acceptable level of BIM adoption, such as trained experts inaccessibility, high initial costs, unawareness of BIM advantages, opposition to change, as well as knowledge shortage, lack of demand, absence of incentives, ambiguous ROI, unequipped ICT infrastructure and employers, absence of competition in the market, and lack of rules and regulations (Aljobaly et al., 2019). But (Al-Yami et al., 2021) claimed that the most significant challenge against BIM is project re-engineering to facilitate transition unto BIM. Brazil The Brazilian private sector instituted BIM in 2006 and motivated the public sector to use it in 2011 (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016). To support the industry, significant scientific steps have been taken, so that in 2010 and 2011, Brazil registered the second grade of researches and published papers (Carneiro et al., 2012). In 2018, the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and

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Foreign Trade approved an 8-pillar BIM implementation roadmap with a 10year schedule starting in 2018 (CREA-SP, 2018). The Brazilian construction industry is required to remove barriers, such as the absence of necessary rules and regulations, inefficient information management, shifting design issues to the construction phase, lack of cooperation, and unstructured BIM usage, as well as traditional construction management approaches in engineering and construction integration (Aline et al., 2021).

Slovenia Although Slovenia maintains the public and academic movements toward BIM development and the government has approved required instructions, inertia is measured through BIM, and the government does not demand BIM (Bolpagni, 2013; Galić et al., 2017). Despite the published Slovenian BIM implementation roadmap, it not only is not mandated yet to adopt BIM but also no plan has adjusted toward this (Charef et al., 2019; EUBIM Taskgroup, 2019). The Slovenian construction industry is an excellent example of successful BIM implementation. BIM Association Slovenia (siBIM) has been performing different events for BIM since its establishment. The outcome of its efforts energized the society to define new ambitious goals, such as National BIM investigation projects, establishing teams to approve required rules and regulations, BIM-based pilot projects, and growing representatives in BuildingSMART (Galić et al., 2017). Pakistan In 2020, a comprehensive BIM adoption roadmap was proposed, which has eight pillars and is anticipated to perform entirely in a 10-year schedule and 2 steps (Girginkaya Akdag et al., 2020). Pakistan, to achieve BIM maturity, needs to eliminate challenges such as initial heavy funding, lack of awareness, opposition to change, absence of support, lack of knowledge, rules and regulations shortage, as well as lack of demand, training costs, and complicated software (Farooq et al., 2020). Nepal The only recorded movement about BIM in Nepal is a 7-pillar proposed BIM implementation roadmap (Marasini, 2019).

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Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps

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To facilitate improvement, there are some barriers to remove such as initial investment issues, lack of training, as well as software disabilities (Marasini, 2019).

Ethiopia Based on (Nuramo et al., 2016) survey, awareness about BIM in the Ethiopian construction industry is deficient. A 2020 survey reported although BIM awareness in Ethiopia is acceptable, implementation is in the early steps (Desbalo et al., 2020). There is not reported BIM progression in Ethiopia, but in 2019, the Ethiopian Construction Project Management Institute unveiled a BIM implementation roadmap with nine pillars. No timetable is defined for the roadmap (Ethiopian Construction Project Management Institute, 2019). (Belay et al., 2021) enumerated the BIM impediments as insufficient collaboration, absence of legal and contractual platforms, complicated software, and cultural, governmental and organizational problems. To develop BIM, it has suggested to approve rules and regulations and enhance international connections; meanwhile, it is vital to develop project-based codes, and establish assessment tools; also, efficient training is required for awareness enhancement and cultural improvement, as well as employing financial aids through government, developing educational programs in the institute and defining research projects, and performing Public-Private Partnership (PPP) construction-based policies (Belay et al., 2021). Costa Rica In 2020, (Zúñiga et al., 2020) proposed a high-level roadmap to implementing BIM in Costa Rica in 3 pillars and envisaged a 6- to 9-year period to adopt BIM. Also, (Zúñiga et al., 2020) explored barriers against BIM as lack of knowledge in the public sector, lack of research projects, as well as lack of coordination between different decision-makers, meanwhile educational programs should be approved. Also, government should enhance its knowledge to compete with the private sector, while required rules and regulations should be legislated, the communication between public sector organizations should be enhance. Egypt The Egyptian government stepped toward BIM implementation and, by 2020, succeeded in encouraging 19% of companies to adopt BIM. Abdallah et al. proposed a strategic BIM implementation roadmap in 6 pillars. It is expected

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with the help of BIM, design, construction, and maintenance costs will reduce by 50%, 33%, and 20%, respectively (Abdallah et al., 2020). Barriers against BIM implementation in Egypt have been identified as unawareness of BIM benefits, heavy initial funding, as well as the absence of required rules and regulations, lack of employer demand, likewise lack of decision makers support, and lack of efficient training (Durdyev et al., 2021).

Iran Iran still is at the lowest level of BIM implementation in practical works while it is not mandated (Mousavi zare et al., 2020). Since Iran has an oil-dependent economy, a roadmap to implement BIM has been proposed for the petrochemical buildings relying on three main areas (Fakhimi et al., 2020). Also, a BIM implementation roadmap in the construction industry is proposed in 6 pillars, and a 3-year expected period is required to execute (Sardroud, Safari, et al., 2020). Different studies are performed to find the barriers against BIM in the Iranian construction industry and they are figured out them as lack of trained experts, lack of awareness and knowledge, absence of rules and regulations, non-supportive environment, as well as expensive software and hardware, ambiguous ROI, likewise lack of motivations, unprepared infrastructures, and time-consuming design process (Hosseini et al., 2015, 2016; Marefat et al., 2019; Nemati et al., 2020). Algeria Algeria does not publish reliable information about BIM-based projects (Gerges et al., 2017). But based on a survey, 35% of architects have sufficient understanding, which is the highest rate. On the other hand, 25% of engineers and 23% of contractors are aware of BIM. To motivate the construction industry players to use BIM, Bouguerra et al. proposed a 4-pillar framework (Bouguerra, Yaik-Wah, et al., 2020). Based on (Bouguerra, Lim, et al., 2020), Algeria encounters some BIM adoption barriers such as heavy initial funding, lack of demand, lack of BIM knowledge, as well as the absence of rules and regulations, lack of legislated policies, likewise opposition to change, and unclear BIM perspective. BIM implementaion roadmap pillars of the second group is presented in Table 3.

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Table 3. BIM implementation roadmap in the second category countries Country

Pillars

Reference

Global Competitiveness

Risk Management

Sufficient Digital Capability and Vendor Support

Promotion and Education

Information Sharing and Handover

Legal and Insurance

Standard and Common Practice

Incentive and Proven Benefits

Collaboration

Hong Kong Mongolia

(Ismail et al., 2017)

Portugal

Preparation

The Implementation of the Program

Preparatory Phase

Extended Pilot Phase (Level 1)

BIM Performance Level 1 for New Projects

Removing Impediments

Building BIM Capability and Capacity

Incentivizing BIM Adaptors

Desire State

Current State

Germany

Developing the Program

(Federal Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, 2015) (João Falcão Silva et al., 2016)

Research and Development

Special Interest Group

BIM Guideline and Legal Issues

National BIM Library

Education and Awareness

Collaboration and Incentives

Standard and Accreditation

Malaysia

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(Construction industry council, 2013)

CIDB, 2014)

Table 3. (Continued)

(GCCC, 2017)

Ireland

Develop BIM Task Group

Set Foundation for Bim Adoption and Implementation

Cultural Change

Education

Investment by Government and Construction Companies

Implementation of BIM

Performance Measurement

Identify and Address Challenges

Review of National Strategy

(Alhumayn, 2018)

Saudi Arabia

Current State

Governance

Infrastructure Technology and Innovation

Legal Framework

Technical Regulation

Investments

Capacity

Induction by the Federal Government

Communication

Desire State

(Comite estrategico do BIM, 2017)

Brazil

Pakistan

Establishment of Task Group and Develop Policy Documents

Engagement with Stakeholders

Development of Roadmap

Education and Training

Development of Pilot Projects/ Case Studies

Investment in Software and Hardware Infrastructure

Development of Collaborative Working Culture and Assurance of Long-Term Commitment

(Marasini, 2019)

Nepal

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(Girginkaya Akdag et al., 2020) Policies Making Cooperation with International Organizations Guidelines and Regulations for BIM Implementation Awareness Toward Sustainability via BIM Solutions for Environmental and Energy Crises Impact of BIM on XL And L Scale Projects Impact of BIM on XL, L, M, S Scale Projects Private-and Government Based Organizations

Procurement Education &Training Standards Leadership

Reference Pillars Country

Country

Pillars

(Abdallah et al., 2020)

Desire State

Policy 2

Sustainability

Politics

(Ethiopian Construction Project Management Institute, 2019)

Adaption & Promotion

Evaluation

Costa Rica

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Create and Expand

Education and Training

Standardization and Development

Leadership and Collaboration

Iran

Technology

Process

Regional Competitiveness

Policy 1

Measurement & Evaluation

Risk Management

Collborative Worldwide Projects

Sufficient Digital Capability and Vendor Support

Current State

Algeria

Technology

Promotion and Education

Egypt

Prepare BIM Training & Education Guidelines

Information Sharing and Handover

Legal and Insurance

Standards and Common Practices

Incentive and Proven Benefits

Collaboration

Ethiopia

Government Engagement

Reference

Process

(Bouguerra, Yaik-Wah, et al., 2020)

(Sardroud, Safari, et al., 2020)

(Zúñiga et al., 2020)

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Foad Zahedi and Javad Majrouhi Sardroud

To explore the main barriers against BIM, Error! Not a valid bookmark self-reference.reports obstacles in the pioneer countries in which BIM implementation roadmap has been approved. As presented, the main barrier in the pioneer countries is resistance to changing the working procedures and flows; due to this reason, public and private sectors are not interested in cultural transformation. Table 4. BIM barriers in the pioneer countries



















  

 

   



 

14.3%



 

 







10.7%  

 8.9%  5.4% 

5.4%



5.4%

  

5.4% 3.6% 3.6%



1.8% 



Percentage

 

 

Ethiopia



Brazil





Ireland

  

Malaysia

 

Hong Kong



United States

Indonesia

Britain

Spain

France

Canada

Resistance to change Lack of education Software issues Lack of rules and regulations Lack of awareness Lack of Trained staff Unclear ROI Lack of interest High initial Costs Lack of knowledge Lack of Support Hardware issues Lack of cooperation Lack of Coordination Outsourcing Intellectual Property issues Intangible benefits Cultural issues Insufficient Profitability

Finland

Barrier

Singapore

Country

1.8% 1.8%   3.6%



1.8%



1.8% 1.8%

 

1.8%



 1.8% 1.8%

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Global BIM Implementation Roadmaps Percentage

Ethiopia

Brazil

Ireland

Malaysia

Hong Kong

United States

Indonesia

Britain

Spain

France

Canada

Local government Working-teams busy schedule Organization charts Impact measurement difficulty Lack of status reports Dispersed use Lack of knowledge about the process Inefficient information management Shifting design issues to the construction phase Unstructured BIM usage

Finland

Barrier

Singapore

Country

23



1.8%



1.8% 

1.8%



1.8%



1.8%  

1.8% 1.8%



1.8%



1.8%



1.8%

The second issue is the lack of proper education; therefore, graduates have limited knowledge of BIM and its advantages; on the other hand, the construction market is unable to recruit qualified personnel, so complementary training courses will be required for the engineers to get familiar with BIM. Several software issues have been enumerated in reports such as exclusive software with limited choices; meanwhile, software is complicated to use, and software applications are not progressing. Another obstacle is the lack of approved rules and regulations; relying on platforms not only facilitates the progression but also motivates the industry to move and clarify national and international needs. Employers are also not aware of BIM application, which could be the result of insufficient education, and opposition to change which causes resisting to innovation and sticking to conventional approaches.

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To accelerate and burgeon BIM in the AEC industry, it is required to train personnel; it is also vital to provide accessible, cost-effective, and efficient training. While BIM is new to the industry, it is not clear how much time is required to return the initial investment; meanwhile, it is reported the initial BIM investment is not tolerable to many firms. Other issues such as heavy initial investment to prepare hardware, software, and infrastructure, and to provide a qualified team, as well as lack of demand among employers’ bodies, are hindering BIM’s success. In a word, education has a significant impact on extensive BIM implementation and energizes the public and the private sector to implement BIM to achieve financial outcomes.

Discussion and Conclusion Although BIM renovates construction management science and dedicates impressive benefits to the industry, a minority of countries recorded extensive movements toward this technology, as discussed, only 13 countries approved their implementation roadmaps. Academics endeavors derived proposed roadmap in 12 countries. The main barrier to achieving an acceptable outcome is the opposition to changing working procedures and transforming conventional methods into modern approaches. Another identified obstacle is lack of academic education and postgraduate training, which is addressed in most of the explored roadmaps; this problem emerged effectively in the lack of qualified experts in the construction industry. Another task that is considered in the roadmaps is to motivate the private sector by defining incentives. On the other hand, it is vital to provide required rules and regulations, guidelines, recommendations and code of practices, which facilitate the process. One of the significant tasks which is contemplated in roadmaps is to perform pilot projects to clarify BIM benefits to enhance decision-makers’ awareness, while non-supportive decision-makers are one of the recorded challenges. An essential action from the governments is to support the private sector to overcome the initial required funds to implement BIM. Also, extensive investment through ROI clarification is needed to ensure firms about investments.

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As a result, prosperity in BIM implementation depends on a triangle of cooperation between the public-private sector and academia. Each one should tolerate its share to handle the process. Governments should provide authoritative support to other parties and enforce the industry to welcome innovations. Academia should prepare required material about rules and regulations, roadmap preparation support shoulder to shoulder with the government, adopt required education based on international developments, and extend the knowledge by publishing papers and holding events. The private sector should refurbish its body for BIM implementation. Clearly, each party’s responsibilities are not limited to the summarised list.

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Countries with a Review on Iran,’ Proceeding of 3rd international conference of building information modelling, pp. 1–12. Mustaffa, N. E., Salleh, R. M. and Ariffin, H. L. binti T. (2017) ‘Experiences of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Adoption in Various Countries,’ Proceeding of International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS). IEEE, pp. 1–7. Nemati, B., Zandi, S., Aminnejad, B., Davarazar, M., Sheikhnejad, Y., Jahanianfard, D. and Mostafaie, A. (2020) ‘Building information modelling execution in administrative and commercial spaces in iran – a fuzzy-delphi criteria prioritization,’ Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning, 2020(Special issue 6), pp. 17–27. doi: 10.24193/JSSPSI.2020.6.03. Nuramo, D. A. and Haupt, T. C. (2016) ‘BIM for infrastructure sustainability in developing countries: The case of Ethiopia,’ Proceedings the 20th CIB World Building Congress, pp. 236–247. Othman, I., Al-Ashmori, Y. Y., Rahmawati, Y., Mugahed Amran, Y. H. and Al-Bared, M. A. M. (2021) ‘The level of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Implementation in Malaysia,’ Ain Shams Engineering Journal. Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 12(1), pp. 455–463. doi: 10.1016/j.asej.2020. 04.007. Panteli, C., Polycarpou, K., Morsink-Georgalli, F. Z., Stasiuliene, L., Pupeikis, D., Jurelionis, A. and Fokaides, P. A. (2020) ‘Overview of BIM integration into the Construction Sector in European Member States and European Union Acquis,’ Proceeding of IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/410/1/012073. Rakib, M. F. H., Howlader, S. and Rahman, M. (2018) ‘Factors Affecting the Bim Adoption in the Construction Industry of Bangladesh,’ Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering (ICACE 2018), 2018(December), p. 7. Available at: www.cuet.ac.bd. Van Roy, A. F. and Firdaus, A. (2020) ‘Building Information Modelling in Indonesia: Knowledge, Implementation and Barriers,’ Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 25(2), pp. 199–217. doi: 10.21315/jcdc2020.25.2.8. Sardroud, J. M., Safari, S. and Zahedi, F. (2020) Building Information Modelling(BIM) Implementation Roadmap. Tehran, Iran: Fadak Isatis Press. Sardroud, J. M., Mehranpour, H., Arzanloo, A., Majrouhi Sardroud, J., Mohajeri, R., Kameli, M., Sardroud, J. M., Mohajeri, R., … Sardroud, J. M. (2020) ‘An Investigation into the Integration of Building Information Modeling with PreConstruction Industry in the Developed Countries and Iran,’ Proceeding of the Creative Construction e-Conference. Budapest, Hungary, pp. 651–655. Shou, W., Wang, J., Wang, X. and Chong, H. Y. (2015) ‘A Comparative Review of Building Information Modelling Implementation in Building and Infrastructure Industries,’ Journal of Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 22(2), pp. 291–308. doi: 10.1007/s11831-014-9125-9. Smith, P. (2014a) ‘BIM implementation- Global Startegies,’ Proceeding of Creative Construction Conference, 85, pp. 482–492. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.575. Smith, P. (2014b) ‘BIM implementation- global strategies,’ Proceeding of Creative Construction Conference, 85, pp. 482–492. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.575.

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Smith, P. (2017) ‘BIM implementation strategies- global comparison,’ Proceeding of 9th ICEC world congress, pp. 1–9. Sopaheluwakan, M. P. and Adi, T. J. W. (2020) ‘Adoption and implementation of building information modeling (BIM) by the government in the Indonesian construction industry,’ Proceeding of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 930(1). doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/930/1/012020. Tahrani, S., Poirier, E. A., Aksenova, G. and Forgues, D. (2015) ‘Canadian AECO industry,’ Proceeding of 5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference. Telaga, A. S. (2018) ‘A review of BIM (Building Information Modeling) implementation in Indonesia construction industry,’ Proceeding of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 352(012030). doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/352/1/012030. Tranchant, A., Beladjine, D. and Beddiar, K. (2017) ‘BIM in French SMES : from innovation to necessity,’ WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, 169, pp. 135– 142. doi: 10.2495/BIM170131. Travaglini, A., Radujkovic, M. and Mancini, M. (2014) ‘Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Project Management: a Stakeholders Perspective,’ Organization, technology and management in construction: An international journal, 6(2), pp. 1058–1065. doi: 10.5592/otmcj.2014.2.8. Tulenheimo, R. (2015) ‘Challenges of implementing new technologies in the world of BIM – Case study from construction engineering industry in Finland,’ Proceeding of 8th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization. Elsevier B.V., 21, pp. 469–477. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00201-4. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (2011) Building Information Modeling (BIM) Roadmap Supplement 2 – BIM Implementation Plan for Military Construction Projects, Bentley Platform, US Army Crops of Engineers -Engineer research and development center. The US Army Corps of Engineers. Utomo, F. R. and Rohman, M. A. (2019) ‘The Barrier and Driver Factors of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Adoption in Indonesia: A Preliminary Survey,’ Proceeding of The 1st International Conference on Business and Management of Technology (IConBMT), 5, pp. 133–139. doi: 10.12962/j23546026.y2019i5.6291. Vandezande, J. (2019) Status of BIM Adoption in the US. Vivas, M. D., Solar, P. Del, Peña, A. D. la and Andrés, S. (2017) ‘Implementation of BIM in Spanish construction industry,’ Journal of Building and Management, 1, pp. 1–8. doi: 10.20868/bma.2017.1.3519. Zahedi, F., Sardroud, J. M. and Kazemi, S. (2022) ‘Global BIM adoption movements and challenges: An Extensive literature Review,’ Proceeding of CCC2022. Zúñiga, M. C. and Abdelnour, E. M. (2020) ‘Proposal for the implementation of BIM methodology in public works projects of Costa Rica,’ Journal of Métodos & Materiales, 10, pp. 35–47.

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Chapter 2

Mind the Gap: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Usage in Africa, the Case of Ghana M. N. Addy1,, PhD T. E. Kwofie2,3, PhD and D. A. T. Gyansah1 1Department

of Construction Technology and Management, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana 2Department of Architecture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana 3Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Envionment, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract The adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the delivery of construction projects has gained popularity in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. BIM has revolutionized the way building projects are planned, designed, constructed and managed. Despite its numerous benefits, there is a low uptake of BIM for the delivery of projects in Ghana and the sub-Sharan Africa at large. This study provides insight into the level of usage of BIM among Ghanaian building designers and paves way for the regularization of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry. The study employed the qualitative (exploratory) research approach, where face-to-face interviews were 

Corresponding Author’s Email: [email protected].

In: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Editor: Julie W. Daniels ISBN: 979-8-88697-697-7 © 2023 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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M. N. Addy, T. E. Kwofie and D. A. T. Gyansah conducted with eight (8) building designers in Ghana. The qualitative data was then analyzed using the thematic matrix analysis. The findings of the study reveal that, building designers are aware of BIM and are using BIM to some extent (3D modelling). However, they face the major challenge of sharing project information on a common platform, and hence could not use BIM collaboratively. Moreover, BIM is used mostly during the design stage of construction projects. The findings also indicate that quite a majority of designers in the Ghanaian construction industry show interest in embracing the BIM technology. To drive the full uptake of BIM among building designers and in the Ghanaian construction industry, there is the need for technological capacity building. This can also be achieved through the enactment of construction policies for effective BIM implementation and modification of construction procurement processes to encourage the usage of BIM. This study provides empirical data on the usage of BIM within a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa for organizations and policy to be better positioned for an active adoption of BIM. It also contributes to understanding the dynamics of the uptake of BIM technologies and processes, at the project, organization, and industry levels.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, awareness, readiness, designers, architects, structural engineers

Introduction The adoption and implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the delivery of construction projects has gained popularity in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. BIM is a computerized process that is used to design, understand and demonstrate the key physical and functional characteristics of a construction project on a virtual computerized model basis (Barnes and Davies, 2014). The resulting model is a data-rich, object-oriented, intelligent and parametric digital representation of the facility, from which views and data appropriate to various users’ needs can be extracted and analyzed to generate information that can be used to make decisions and to improve the process of delivering the facility (Khoshfetrat et al., 2020). BIM has revolutionized the way building projects are planned, designed, constructed and managed. The AEC highlights BIM as a powerful tool having several benefits over the building’s lifecycle. The construction industry faces numerous challenges such as lack of collaboration between project team, building element clash, inefficient information flow, of

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which BIM provides solutions to (Kong et al., 2020). BIM provides a common platform which enhances the effective collaboration of project participants, and hence ensures the efficient flow of information (Olanrewaju et al., 2020). BIM has enhanced communication and exchange of project information between various disciplines working on a project. Olanrewaju et al., (2020) asserted that, the adoption of BIM for the delivery of construction projects could improve project performance in terms of quality, time and cost. In spite of the numerous benefits associated with BIM, most construction firms and professionals in the Ghanaian construction industry have not adopted BIM for the delivery of their construction projects. Several studies have identified barriers hindering the adoption of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry (Acquah et al., 2018; Addy et al., 2018; Armah 2015). Acquah et al., (2018) asserted that, there is not enough research on BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry. The slow adoption and implementation of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry can be attributed to the lack of awareness, technical difficulties and lack of interoperability between the various software that are being used by building designers (Armah, 2015). Furthermore, Acquah et al., (2018) revealed that the unsuitability of projects, lack of collaborative framework, resistance to change at operational levels, low quality data at design stage, unsupportive government, changing work process and lack of BIM awareness are the main barriers to the adoption of BIM in Ghana. In comparison with other countries where BIM has gained some momentum (Sinenko et al., 2020; Bui et al., 2016; Ali et al., 2013), BIM is yet to gain grounds in the Ghanaian construction industry (Asiedu, 2017) more so with Ghanaian building designers (Architects and Structural Engineers). In view of this, this study sought to explore the usage of BIM among building designers in Ghana by determining their level of knowledge and usage of BIM, and whether they are ready to incorporate BIM into their daily activities. For BIM to be fully implemented in the Ghanaian construction industry, designers and other professionals in the industry need to be fully aware of BIM and be ready to adopt it in their project design and construction activities.

Bim Usage, Implementation and Barriers According to Babatunde et al., (2020), the construction industry has experienced some transformation derived from the usage of BIM, as projects

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are being delivered on time, at a reduced cost, and of the best quality. The dimensions of the BIM technology-enabled process have advanced from the fundamental 3D (traditional modelling) and 4D (scheduling) dimensions to 5D (costing), 6D (sustainability assessment) and 7D (operation and management) dimensions, which are applicable depending on the stage of the project (Panteli et al., 2020). BIM as Building Modeling and Management occurs throughout the building lifecycle, including planning, designing, construction, and operation phases or stages in various capacities to be able to achieve the best results. The usage of BIM throughout these stages yields substantial benefits including improved design quality, easiness to implement, information sharing ability, reduction of construction costs and design errors, faster work and shortening the construction time, enhancing energy efficiency and supporting construction and project managements (Doumbouya et al., 2016). Nevertheless, Olanrewaju et al., (2020) indicated that BIM is mostly used in the design stage of projects by Architects and Engineers to produce drawings. The usage of BIM brings a lot of benefits but its implementation in the construction industry is still in the early stages (Babatunde et al., 2020; Manderson et al., 2015). According to Doumbouya et al., (2016), BIM has been used in the construction industry for more than 20 years now nevertheless, awareness of its benefits is now being realized especially among project clients. In view of this, Doumbouya et al., (2016) further asserted that project clients are pushing for the usage of BIM by designers (Architects, Structural engineers, among others) and construction firms in all the stages of construction projects. According to Moreno et al., (2019), the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry uses BIM for 3D visualization, 4D/scheduling, environmental/LEED analysis, creating shop drawings and facility management. Saxon (2013) pointed out the common uses of BIM and grouped them into four major categories or stages: (i) Planning; (ii) Designing; (iii) Construction; and (iv) Operation. BIM provides updated and accessible information for each of the four major stages which are further sub-divided. The planning stage uses of BIM includes preparation of cost estimates, generation of quantity take-offs directly from a 3D project model, identification of schedule sequences or phasing issues (Latiffi et al., 2013). Panteli et al., (2020) asserted that, the design stage uses of BIM go beyond the traditional 2D drafting and 3D modelling to include other dimensions such as costing (5D) and sustainability assessment (6D). Moreover, the usage of BIM at the design stage includes building simulation, data management and checking the operations of a building (Kiprotich, 2014). The application of BIM is more evident in the design stage than it is in the construction and

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operation stages of a project lifecycle, mainly because most of the key decisions are made during the design stage (Panteli et al., 2020; Latiffi et al., 2013). During the construction stage, the applications of BIM employ the time (4D), cost (5D) and sustainability assessment dimensions (6D), as well as health and safety issues (Panteli et al., 2020). Precisely, the usage of BIM at the construction stage has demonstrated to be valuable in organizing construction site tasks, persons, and materials to limit clashes and decrease construction interruptions, which results in larger construction proficiencies (National Research Council of Canada, 2011). At the construction stage, adequate sequencing and scheduling of construction works can be achieved using BIM. Traditionally, the mainstream data on building is kept as paper documents and the structure, as the final product, is handed over as boxes and loads of client guarantees and instructions (Teicholz, 2013). One of the major hitches in dealing with end-of-project data is the massive quantity of papers clients are left to deal with (Harden, 2009). Several complications develop once as-built drawings do not cup tie with the real building and engineering modifications (Wang et al., 2013). Nonetheless, BIM allows one simulation pool that keeps documents about a building and its schemes, modules, and spaces (Akcamete et al., 2010). The usage of BIM brings a lot of benefits however, its implementation in the construction industry is still in the early stages (Babatunde et al., 2020; Manderson et al., 2015). According to Gu and London (2010), the adoption of BIM requires a lot of modern work practices. Ibrahim and Abdullahi (2016) postulated that, BIM adoption involves acquiring software, training and upgrading software, which makes it far more than just substituting a 2D or 3D CAD environment with a building model system. Though BIM is a technological process which the construction professional would like to adopt and use, there are certain issues that prevent this technology from being implemented. The relevant issues include the fragmented nature of the construction industry, the resistance of a certain construction culture, lack of technical know-how on BIM, legal issue and the cost of setting up BIM for usage. Lymath (2014) identified the top five barriers to BIM adoption as: (i) cost; (ii) no client demand; (iii) BIM not always relevant to projects worked on; (iv) projects worked on regarded as too small; and (v) lack of in-house expertise. Ismail et al., (2017) revealed that the main barriers to BIM adoption were cultural resistance, longer processes, high investment cost, lack of awareness and demand and uncertainly about the return on investment (ROI), by examining the adoption of BIM across Asia. Aibinu and Vankatesh (2013) in a study to investigate the status and BIM experience of cost consultants

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indicated that, cost of implementation, learning time, consultants attitude and aversion are the significant barriers to the adoption of BIM among cost consultants. After critically reviewing extant literature, Son et al., (2014) summarized the barriers to the adoption of BIM by Architects as management support, technical support, BIM compatibility, software skills, and organizational culture. Chan (2014) and BuildingSMART (2011) also identified the lack of trained and skilled personnel as one of the barriers to adoption and implementation of BIM. Furthermore, according to Saka and Chan (2019), developed countries are far ahead of developing countries with the adoption and implementation of BIM; the implementation of BIM in Africa has been slow. Unavailability of technological capacity has been a major barrier inhibiting BIM adoption in Nigeria (Isa, 2015). Similarly, Abubakar et al., (2014) identified interruptive supply of electricity and poor internet connectivity as barriers, since BIM requires full internet connection and constant power supply to function efficiently. Musa et al., (2019) also identified a number of technical (i.e., technology) and non-technical (i.e., human and organizational culture) barriers as affecting the implementation of BIM. Governmental policies or interventions in most developing countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa meant to encourage the adoption of BIM are lacking, which discourages other private investors from taking such an initiative (Olanrewaju et al., 2020). The interoperability of different software has been emphasized by a number of studies as a major barrier impeding the usage of BIM (Olanrewaju et al., 2020; Azmi et al., 2018). McCartney (2010) defined interoperability as the capability of an individual BIM package to be able to access and make changes to BIM models produced in other software without the loss of any of the data built in that model. The issue of interoperability affects the arrangement of production drawings for projects, thereby limiting the usage of BIM (Babatunde et al., 2020).

Research Methodology Philosophical concerns are imperatives in research as they influence the choice of research instruments (Creswell, 2014). Considering the various philosophical paradigms, the study was positioned within the appropriate ontological and epistemological perspective (Collis and Hussey, 2013; Creswell, 2014; Dainty, 2007). The interpretive approach is adopted for this study and capitalizes on in-depth interviews of building designers to explore

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BIM usage in Ghana. For this study, the interpretive research seeks to explore the construed realities that guide the ascription of meaning and account for how BIM is adopted and used within the Ghanaian construction industry. Consequently, the adoption of this research approach leads to the use of relatively small samples selected purposefully as against quantitative methods which focus on larger samples selected randomly (Patton, 2001). However, as argued by Patton (2002) information rich cases found in qualitative studies provides the opportunity to glean a lot of issues central to the research inquiry. Exploratory studies of such nature are also necessary when there is a paucity of knowledge about a subject (Labaree, 2017). The technique employed to draw the sample was purposive and snowball sampling. The criterion used in the purposive sampling technique were: building designers who have been engaged in the usage of BIM for at least a period of 6 months; who possess some requisite level of expertise in BIM; and were also willing to partake in the study. Designers who were known to have used BIM were initially contacted and assessed based on the criteria provided and consulted for further recommendation of other BIM users. This approach led to the identification of 20 BIM users with 8 requests being honored for the interview. There are many participants in the building value chain who are users of BIM. Panteli et al., (2020) posit that BIM application is more evident in the design stage than in the construction stage. Following from this and the low uptake of BIM in developing countries, building designers formed the focus of the study since they are the early adopters and pioneers of BIM use. Interviews were carried out face-to-face with the respondents. Each interview lasted for about 30 minutes. The background information of the respondents (i.e., their profession of job title, highest level of education, and years of working experience) were initially sought to enhance the reliability and confidence of the data gathered (Ahadzie, 2007). To achieve the purpose of this study, questions were centered around: challenges faced when using BIM; stages at which BIM was used; the readiness of Ghanaian designers to adopt BIM; and the readiness of construction firms to adopt BIM in terms of their technological capacity. The qualitative data collected was analyzed using the thematic matrix analysis.

Results and Discussion Table 1 below presents a summary of the professional background information of the respondents including their professions, academic qualifications, and

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years of practical or working experience. Out of the eight (8) respondents, five (5) were Architects and three (3) were Structural Engineers. All the respondents had a minimum qualification of a bachelor’s degree. In addition, the interviews had enough experience in construction derived from their years of working experience ranging from 3-12 years. Table 1. Professional background of respondents ID STA 1 STA 2 STA 3 STA 4 IND 1 IND 2 TRA AMA

Profession Architect Architect Architect Architect Structural Engineer Structural Engineer Architect Structural Engineer

Education Masters Masters Masters Masters BSc BSc Masters Masters

Working Experience 7 years 5 years 3 years 6 years 3 years 5 years 12 years 11 years

Readiness of Building Designers in Ghana to Adopt BIM The opinions of the respondents were sought on whether BIM will be accepted by the majority of designers in the future. Respondents were hopeful and optimistic about BIM being accepted and adopted by building designers in Ghana. They indicated that, Ghanaian building designers are gradually moving away from the traditional or less advanced way of designing to a more model-based approach. Also, Ghanaians are gradually showing interest in the use of BIM for the delivery of construction projects. However, some were of the view that the adoption and implementation of BIM was going to take a little bit of time. Some of the responses are stated as follows: “Technological advancement is gaining grounds in every aspect of our Ghanaian society including the construction sector. Designers are gradually moving away from the less advanced way of designing to a more modelbased approach. Yea so I believe our majority of Ghanaians will soon come to realize the importance of it. It is just a matter of time.” IND 1 “Yes. They have no option. Because it is an effective tool and it’s a new order in the world now. Let me give you an example; when CAD was introduced, drawings boards became extinct and now CAD is dying out because of the introduction of BIM.” TRA

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“Yes, from my professional experience right, I have realized designers are inching away from our traditional ways of construction. In the future, say 5-10 years’ time, I believe designers will be ready to use BIM in their projects.” AMA

Barnes and Davies (2014) asserted that, professionals will be ready to adopt BIM and its collaborative features when they acquire the requisite new skill sets by the development of some curricula that would revolutionize the existing practices and boundaries among different professions. A study conducted by Tong et al., (2015) using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) revealed that professionals’ readiness to use any technological tool or software is dependent on professionals’ mental attitudes and intentions; these factors are relevant in determining professionals’ behaviors when it comes to software adoption. Furthermore, top management support, compatibility, subjective norm and computer self-efficacy are critical factors influencing architects’ behavioral intentions to adopt BIM (Son et al., 2015). The adoption of the BIM software would be enhanced when firms provide the right training and support for their employees (Tong et al., 2015). Addy et al. (2018) asserted that when the necessary training, software support and technological tools are provided, professionals in Ghana would be sensitized to use BIM. Therefore, Ghanaian building designers need to be adequately trained on the use of BIM before they can adopt it.

Stages at which BIM Was Used The respondents were asked to identify the stages of building projects where BIM was mostly used. Most of the respondents claimed that they used BIM from the inception of projects till the time of completion. However, some of them stated that BIM is used mostly during the design stage. Below are some of the responses: “BIM was used throughout the life cycle of the projects right from the inception to the completion of the projects.” STA 1 “BIM was used throughout the project from the inception stage to the completion stage. Right from the schematic model, rendering to the design itself and then through to the completion stage.” STA 2 “BIM was used throughout the lifecycle of the project from the conceptual stage, documentation, production drawings through to the completion of the project.” STA 4

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M. N. Addy, T. E. Kwofie and D. A. T. Gyansah “Well, I have used BIM in almost all the stages except the operations and end of use phase. Well, you know in Ghana once a project is handed over to a client that becomes the end. The maintenance is left in the hands of clients.” TRA “BIM is used mostly during the conceptual stage through to design stage. I mostly used the Revit for my designs and a few times Graphisoft ArchiCAD.” IND 1 “BIM was used in the design stage mostly. I mostly access the architectural design from the BIM platform and then carry out my structural designs.” IND 2

Generally, the adoption of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry is at the preliminary stages (rendering, perspectives and conceptual development). BIM is mostly used in the design stage of projects by Architects and Engineers to produce drawings, despite the fact that its benefits such as cutting capital cost on construction projects, mitigating the occurrence of risks and delivering sustainable construction projects, cut across all stages of a project life cycle. (Olanrewaju et al., 2020; Banawi, 2017; Onungwa and Uduma-Olugu, 2016). Moreover, according to Panteli et al., (2020), BIM impacts the design stage more than any other stage of a project lifecycle, mainly because most of the key decisions are made during the design stage.

Challenges Faced during BIM Projects Bringing any new technology on board comes with so many challenges and BIM is no exception. In order to successfully implement BIM, there is the need for a better understanding of how resources such as hardware, software and technical skills need to work harmoniously with each other (Succar et al., 2012). Respondents were asked if they faced any challenges using BIM in their projects. This is how the respondents responded: “Fellow consultants and contractors on the project did not use BIM or were not on the BIM platform. This made sending out information about the project to other consultants and contractors difficult. In the case of Revit, we had to export to AutoCAD before the others could gain access to the designs. Hence, we had to resort to providing hard documentation for them. This defeated the purpose of using BIM.” STA 1 “Our major challenge was the difficulty sending project information to the other consultants and contractors. So, let’s say not the entire project

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stakeholders used BIM’. For the other consultants to have access to our architectural designs, we had to convert them to a format that would make it easily accessible to them.” STA 2 “In summary fellow, consultants and contractors on the project did not use BIM or were not on the BIM platform. So basically, we had to add static sheets and hard copies. This defeated the purpose of using BIM.” STA 4 “Yes. First of all, I am a BIM trainer and responsible for the training programs done in a few firms around including STA (name withheld). I would say the challenge I have faced as an Architect using BIM is that, not every project stakeholder is BIM educated and hence it makes the collaboration aspect of BIM difficult to achieve. The contractors especially are used to the traditional means of construction where they are handed hard copies of designs.” TRA “No, I haven’t faced any challenges using BIM or BIM related project. This is because BIM is used mostly during the design stage and for design work mostly.” IND 2

The predominant challenge respondents faced while using BIM was the difficulty in sharing project information on a common platform, and difficulty in working collaboratively in the design stage. This finding is consistent with Kerosuo et al., (2015) who revealed that the main challenge between designers was the collaborative use of BIM during the design process; designers lacked the ability to co-design using an integrated model. Some of the respondents indicated that they had to export their drawings to other software applications or print hard copies of the drawings before others could get access to them. This act on its own defeats the purpose of using BIM. On the BIM maturity model, this use of BIM would be ranked at Level 0 which relates to unmanaged CAD in 2D with paper or electronic exchange (Barnes and Davies, 2014). Moreover, the responses obtained from the respondents indicate that, project stakeholders were used to the traditional methods of project delivery, hence designers could not use BIM effectively. Ali et al., (2013) asserted that the traditional method of preparing designs does not allow for proper and efficient collaboration among disciplines involved in a project, making sharing of project information tedious. Professionals who demand printed shop drawings and stick to the archaic ways of doing things are not helpful to the project or growth of the industry (Barnes and Davies, 2014). To ensure efficient collaboration between stakeholders on a project, firms must invest in training their employees on the use of BIM and invest in the right hardware and software.

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Readiness of the Current Technology to Use BIM Respondents were also asked their opinion as to whether the current technology being used for design works is ready to integrate BIM and why? The respondents’ responses are stated as follows: “Yes, because design processes haven’t changed even after the evolution of computers. By design processes, I mean the primary design methods.” TRA “Yeah. I invested quite an amount to acquire the equipment and tools I use for my design. My equipment and tools are quite advanced.” IND 2 “Yes, I believe so. Operating BIM software is a little more advanced than the CAD software that was used previously. We use BIM for design, rendering etc. and you know this software need higher specification machines to function properly. So, once we are able to do that then I agree that my firm’s current technology is ready to use BIM. In fact, it is being now.” STA 3 “Yes. I believe Ghana is advanced enough to handle the BIM technology. Because the current software used by most designers mostly runon high specification computers. These computers are no different from the ones that can incorporate the BIM technology.” STA 2

The responses from the respondents indicate that the current technology used either by firms or individual designers is ready to integrate BIM. Moreover, it could be observed from the responses that all the respondents were already using the BIM. According to Tulenheimo (2015), to implement an existing technology, the tool must have the ability to do what is expected for current and future needs. Also, companies must invest in new software and hardware, and the cost of the investment is not justified by the potential savings that may be earned at this stage (Barnes and Davies, 2014). Most relevant modeling software are expensive and their cost may be thrice the value of the traditional 2D CAD software (Tulenheimo, 2015). Due to this, some professionals resort to using pirated versions of BIM software and sometimes use fake software licenses (Bui et al., 2016). To get efficient BIM authoring software, organizations must be willing to invest in the right software and the right licenses. Slaughter (2000) proposed a systematic approach to implement, as the use of new technologies becomes available in the market place. Without the use of up-to-date technological tools and equipment, it becomes difficult using BIM effectively to undertake projects.

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Advancements in the current technology has the potential to improve design and productivity substantially (Ramilo and Embi, 2014).

Conclusion The purpose of the study was to assess the usage of BIM among building designers in Ghana. The adoption of BIM in construction projects has a lot of advantages over using the traditional 2D design and construction methods. The adoption and implementation of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry comes with benefits such as enhanced work efficiency and project performance, reduced wasted effort, and improved collaboration among stakeholders. The findings of the study reveal that, building designers are aware of BIM and are using BIM to some extent. Furthermore, the number of building designers in Ghana using BIM and that are involved in BIM projects is just a fraction of the population of the professionals in the construction industry. These building designers already using BIM understand the need to acquire modern technologies such as upgraded computers to be able to integrate BIM into their professional activities. Even though they are already using BIM, they still encountered some challenges. One major challenge is the difficulty in sharing project information between different designers due to the fact that some professionals are not knowledgeable in the use of BIM. BIM has become a necessary technology that cannot be avoided. It is gradually taking over the traditional ways of designing, constructing and delivering construction projects. The findings of the study also show that quite a majority of designers in the Ghanaian construction industry have shown interest in embracing the BIM technology. The study revealed that the level of knowledge and awareness of BIM in the Ghanaian construction industry is inadequate. For BIM to be fully adopted in the Ghanaian construction industry, the relevant stakeholders especially building designers need to be highly sensitized on the importance and advantages of BIM as this would enhance the adoption and implementation of BIM in the industry. The awareness and knowledge of BIM could be created among construction project stakeholders through conferences and seminars. Also, there is the need to organize BIM software training programs to equip professionals with the requisite skills set for the effective and collaborative usage of BIM, as well as provision of incentives to BIM software users. Steps could also be taken to integrate BIM education into the built environment curricular of Ghanaian tertiary institutions. Furthermore, construction

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procurement processes should be modified to involve the use of the BIM technology-enabled processes as it facilitates the timely delivery of projects, reducing project lifecycle costs substantially, and improves upon the quality of construction. Government should also enact construction policies that would encourage the usage of BIM for the delivery of construction projects in Ghana. This study’s recommendations are reflected in its practical implications which are summarized as: stakeholder sensitization or enlightenment; training and development of the skill sets of professionals to use BIM; Ghanaian tertiary institutions curricular reforms; modification of construction procurement processes; and enactment of construction policies by government to push for BIM regularization in the construction industry.

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Sinenko, S., Hanitsch, P., Aliev, S. and Volovik, M. (2020). The implementation of BIM in construction projects. In E3S Web of Conferences, Vol. 164, 08002. EDP Sciences. Slaughter, E. S. (2000). “Implementation of construction innovations.” Building Research and Information. 28(1). pp.2-17. Son, H., Lee, S. and Kim, C. (2015). What drives the adoption of building information modeling in design organizations? An empirical investigation of the antecedents affecting architects’ behavioral intentions. Automation in construction, 49, 92-99. Succar, B., Sher, W. and Williams, A. (2012). Measuring BIM performance: Five metrics. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 8(2), 120-142. Teicholz, P. (2013). BIM for facility managers. John Wiley and Sons. Tong, C., Wong, A. and Lee, W. (2015). Barriers to software adoption. Journal of Management Research, 15(3), 179-194. Tulenheimo, R. (2015). Challenges of implementing new technologies in the world of BIM–Case study from construction engineering industry in Finland. Procedia Economics and Finance, 21, 469-477. Wang, L. J., Zheng, R. Y. and Jian, X. S. (2013). The Application of BIM in the Completion Phase. In 2013 Fourth International Conference on Digital Manufacturing and Automation, 1392-1395. IEEE.

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Chapter 3

Energy Efficient Ski Lodge Design: The Case of Erzurum Figen Balo1, Lutfu S. Sua2 and Hazal Boydak3 of METE, Firat University, Elazığ, Turkey of Management and Marketing, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA, USA 3Department of Architecture, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey 1Department 2Department

Abstract The building design process is currently experiencing some significant adjustments. Buildings that are more environmentally friendly are being promoted all around the world as a way to combat climate change. Furthermore, the concept of Building Information Modelling (BIM) is replacing stand-alone design methodologies. Many benefits have been documented as a result of BIM adoption, ranging from time savings to energy and cost savings. Upon finalization of the plan with all of its material specifications and components, the accuracy of the performed analysis is critical for sustainability in energy efficient planning. There are variety of methods and analytic tools that may be used to anticipate important metrics and values such as energy use, U value, and energy conservation. Building information modeling can be used in the early stages of planning to analyze the metrics and values of planning before diving into the more sensitive matters of construction’s design. In this study, a ski lodge was designed in Erzurum, where one of Turkey’s largest ski resorts is located. The building envelope of the ski 

Corresponding Author’s Email: [email protected].

In: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Editor: Julie W. Daniels ISBN: 979-8-88697-697-7 © 2023 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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Figen Balo, Lutfu S. Sua and Hazal Boydak lodge is planned as a sandwich wall. Different construction (bims, brick, and gas concrete) and insulation materials (phenolic foam, polyurethane, and polyisocyanure) were used in the building envelope. Basalt stone, andesite stone, and slate stone, which were extracted from Erzurum province and used as wall covering material in the building sector, were applied to all design alternatives. Considering the optimum insulation thickness in the building envelope for the region, the appropriate thickness values of the insulation materials were used in the analysis. A tile roof was considered for the roof of the building, taking into account the heavy snowfall in the region. BIM-based Green Building Studio simulation was used to identify the most energy efficient building envelope among all alternatives. In the light of the provided evaluations, it is aimed to be a study that will guide the public of the region, decision makers, engineers, and contractors working in the construction sector on energy efficient buildings. Similarly, this study is also important for being an exemplary study in terms of creating more energy efficient structures in different regions by considering the materials suitable for the regional conditions and the features of the designed building.

Keywords: BIM, green buildings studio, energy efficiency, building envelope, insulation materials, natural stone

Introduction The carbon-dioxide emissions have quickly risen as big-scale technological advancements began in early eighteenth century, resulting in global warming and disturbing the planetary carbon-cycle [1]. Global warming has elevated the earth surface heat by about 0.9°C over the last 45 years, and this tendency is anticipated to continue in the upcoming decades [2]. Furthermore, the global population has begun to use about four times as much biomass, twelve times as much fossil-based energy sources, twenty-seven times as much minerals, and thirty-four times as much resources, over the last century [3, 4]. In consequence, feedstock demand is likely to rise even more due to world population expansion, the fast-expanding middle-class in growing countries, and the implementation of novel industries that need specialized feed stocks. Raw material extraction and consumption not only has a severe influence on the natural sources and environment, but also contributes significantly to energy consumption and pollution. As a result, there is a pressing need to address these unpleasant consequences of our contemporary way of life in order to protect and extend the life-support systems of earth [5].

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Buildings account for around one-third of energy usage in climatic zones like the ones in Turkey. Because of the growing threat of global warming, there is a pressing demand for energy-efficient building design in the construction industry. Building codes around the world are being pushed to develop more strict design provisions and power evaluation criteria as part of a long-term aim of net-zero energy constructions. Building Information Modeling is a feasible option in the design, construction industries, and engineering because it can manage and integrate data across entire life-cycle of a building. Building Information Modeling can be used for both geometrical modelling of a construction’s energy-efficiency and construction project management [6]. For example, before the building was completed on site, Froese used Building Information Modeling to model the whole structure and practically build it by simulation software [7]. Both academia and industry are paying close attention to how BIM might help create a green building environment [8]. However, in order to account for the effects of numerous elements like location, external and internal configurations, and interconstruction impacts, a multicomponent power evaluation of the structure is required, which has only been examined in the literature. A complete energy analysis of a building’s functional form and structured environment can help better understand how much energy it uses. Through utilizing the Building Information Modelling capabilities in the course of the notional plan process, a multicomponent energy assessment is done in this research to analyze the responsiveness of alternative external and internal designs of a structure. Building information modelling is a procedure standardized that can be utilized to examine constructions and is regarded a systematic process and advanced technology that aids to convert building designs, constructions, and management more innovatively [9]. Because of the increased need in the construction sector, building information modelling has been legislated in most developed nations [10]. According to Fan and Wong, Building information modelling is a computer simulation information model capable of evaluating a building plan and analyzing building performances and constructions of both novel and restored or updated structures [11]. Building information modelling enhances the entire structure operation through allowing for the different techniques’ evaluation for decision making [12]. According to Kymmell, utilizing Building information modelling for construction efficiency investigation would advantage overall stakeholders because it will save time and money whilist generating a shared network and

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strong communication among the stakeholders [13]. Facility managers and building owners are more involved with adapting Building information modelling with sustainable plans and green buildings since it has been meaningfully addressed during the last years as an updated industry generated from the newest conversions of data industry advancements [11]. As a result, Carter and Motawa demonstrated that “Building information modelling” plays an important role in increasing the green buildings’ performance [14]. As a result, “Greener Building information modelling” is a widespread idea in the building build business today [15]. “Greener Building information modelling” is defined as the “Building information modelling” use to offer information for sustainability studies and energy performance [16]. The significance of “Greener Building information modelling” with the assessment of green and sustainable policies has been importantly known through the building industry not only due to the capability of making efficient determinations but also to strive energy optimizations and the capability of construction energy modelling so that develop the energy performance together with construction practices and sustainable designs [17]. Furthermore, is defined as an operation integrated that is depend on “Building information modelling,” a green construction authentication system, and ecologically friendly practice and designs [18]. “Greener Building information modelling” has been noted as a developing tendency for more maintainable viewpoints by Ilhan and Yaman [19]. The collaboration and integration of “Building information modelling” with green concepts leads to the development of ecologically sound and maintainable constructions whilist assuring the avoidance of negatory ecological results. “Greener Building information modelling” industry may be utilized not only for construction and building design, but also for building maintenance and operation. Though the green building idea is becoming more popular, the usage of “Greener Building information modelling” has been confined to novel green construction developments, regardless of the fact that there is a significant potency to optimize the power utilize of present green constructions using “Greener Building information modelling” [20]. Lin et al. highlighted that there is still the probability of doing further “Greener building information modelling” studies for building power use [21]. In Malaysia, one of the research on “Greener building information modelling” indicated that building owners still encounter several obstacles that can be avoided by using “Greener building information modelling” [22]. Reychav and Maskil-Leitan have said that there is a require to undertake interferences to support the usage of “Greener building information modelling” in green building projects [23]. In consequence, the primary goal of this project is to investigate the

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applicability of “Greener building information modelling” technology to constructions. Chong et al. did a hybrid evaluation to establish the modern state-of-the-art “Building information modelling” improvement for maintainability [24]. The findings show that, whilist there has been comprehensive research and improvement on the utilize of “Building information modelling” throughout diverse design stages, a few research has been done on how it may be implemented in demolition and refurbishment while addressing sustainability standards. Shadram et al. proposed a “Building information modelling”-sourced methodology that encourages plan determinations and allows for the evaluation of the tangible energy correlate with the construction materials supply-chain depend on ecological produce declaration providers [25]. Ahmad et al. have created a notional system for a realistic “Building information modelling”-sourced “Design iteration” (DIT) simulation for choosing process, system, methodology, and material combinations with an emphasis on maintainability [26]. The opinion demonstrates that the choosing process, system, methodology, and material integration choice technique for the “Building information modelling”-DIT simulation will provide determination producers with exact information of potential alternatives for completely maintainable construction designs. With respect to more latest scientific study, BIM’s capacity to help achieve green construction authentication has also been proved. Biswas et al., for example, have created a software that incorporates “Building information modelling” industry into the certification and grading of greener constructions in order to analyze the ecological effects of plan determinations [27]. According to Castro-Lacouture and Barnes, one requirement and 13 credits in the LEED evaluation framework may be obtained simply by utilizing Autodesk Revit [28]. Azhar et al. discovered that 2 prerequisites and 17 credits may be evaluated through using “Building information modelling” simulation such as IES Virtual-Environment or Autodesk Revit [29]. Same way, Jupp and Gandhi investigated the possibility of using “Building information modelling” for “Green-star construction documentation” in Australia [30]. In Hong Kong, Kuan and Wong have also investigated the possibilities for using “Building information modelling” to facilitate the BEAMPlus greener authentication [31]. With the respect to this research, the documentation created by Revit “Building information modelling” simulation may be utilized to grant 80 points’ 26 credits out in this authentication. Furthermore, Azhar et al. proposed a notional system establishing the link between BIM-based sustainability assessments and the LEED authentication operation [29]. Issa and Wu have suggested a BIM-based online serve as the data basis for enabling LEED

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authentication [32]. In addition, Yaman and Ilhan investigated the ability of 3dimensions analysis methods to know the ecological evaluation of constructions created digitally using “Building information modelling” for LEED evaluation using a case study [33]. In this study, an energy efficient ski lodge was designed in Erzurum. Energy performances were evaluated by using different construction and insulation materials in the shell of the designed building. In addition, if some natural stones extracted in the region are used as coating material in the building envelope, their contribution to the energy performance of the building has been investigated. Revit simulation supported by “Building information modeling” was used for all analyzes. The analysis results obtained were evaluated comparatively and the most energy efficient building envelope was tried to be determined.

Method Climatic and Topographic Values for Ski Tourism of Erzurum Province Erzurum province in Turkey is located between 39 North-41 East longitudes. Palandöken Ski Center is a ski resort located at the Palandöken mountains in the Palandöken district of Erzurum province. Palandöken mountains, covering an area of 70 kilometers long and 25 kilometers wide in Erzurum, was declared a Winter Tourism Center in 1993. In this center; there are 3 ski resorts consisting of Erzurum (Hınıs) Strait, Konaklı and Gez Plateau. Erzurum Strait is also known as Palandoken Ski Center which has two tracks registered by the International Ski Federation for slalom and giant slalom competitions. Located in the south of Erzurum, at an altitude of 3 thousand 176 meters, Palandöken is one of the most important ski centers in the world with its structure suitable for skiing for 5 months, snow quality and long tracks. Hosting the 25th World Universities Winter Games in 2011, Erzurum has become one of the new attraction centers of Turkey and the world winter tourism. The tracks in Palandöken, which allows even the winter Olympics to be organized, are among the longest and steepest tracks in the world. Palandoken was ranked 18th among 41 ski resorts in the world determined by the New York Times Newspaper.

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In Erzurum, where snowfall manifests itself in October-November, the ski season starts from November and lasts until the end of April. Palandöken Mountain maintains its “powder snow” feature that allows skiing throughout the whole ski season due to its climate. Chairlifts, teleskis, baby lifts and gondola lifts provide service on the slopes of the Palandöken Ski Center, located between 2000-3176 meters. While reaching Ejder Hill with a 1000meter climb with the gondola lift, in Palandöken; There are 7 easy, 8 medium, professional (hard) and 4 scenic tracks. On all tracks, approximately 12 thousand people are offered the opportunity to ski at the same time. Palandoken Ski Center; While it offers extremely suitable tracks for alpine skiing and snowboarding, it also creates an alternative for different types of tourism such as paragliding, mountaineering, snowtube and paintball, apart from skiing. Palandöken Ski Center, which has avalanche prevention and artificial snow systems, has a structure that can serve skiers of all levels [34]. Erzurum province has a harsh continental climate, which is one of the rarest climates in Turkey, due to its altitude. Physical (mechanical) dissolution is high due to temperature difference. Erzurum’s rainiest season is late spring and early summer. Most of these precipitations occur as convectional or forty afternoon precipitation. A wet day is one with at least 0.1 mm (approximately 0.1 l) precipitation per m2. This could be snow, rain, dew or hail. In warmer places, humidity is an indicator of well-being determined from dew point, relative humidity and air temperature. Humidity is roughly associated with the sensation of warmth. Sweating removes heat from the body at high temperatures. High humidity causes discomfort as the ambient air can only absorb a small amount of sweat. A nice index is between 20 and 29. The person feels restless and sees excessive humidity as suffocating. December is the rainiest month in Erzurum with an average humidity of 62.9 percent. Nearly the area has a greater absolute humidity during the warmer months. At 25°C, air can absorb more than 23 g of water per m3. It weighs only 17.30 g at 20°C. At 25°C, a relative humidity of 40% is equivalent to 9.2 grams of absolute humidity of water. Humans perceive the air as humid at a percentage of about 13.5 g. The driest season of Erzurum is winter. There is snow about 150 days of the year. The precipitation regime is irregular. The average temperature is 18.4 during the summer months. It is one of the cities with the lowest average summer temperature in the country. The average temperature in January is 7°C and the annual average temperature is around 5°C. The average annual precipitation of Erzurum is 480 mm. The sunshine duration is over 1700 hours. This annual average corresponds to more than 71 days and 8 hours per day.

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Figure 1. The climatic values in Erzurum province.

The Ski Lodge Design in Erzurum Province Because Turkey is reliant on foreign countries for energy, energy conservation is a critical issue. The cost of energy in Turkey rises in lockstep with the global market. According to data from the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey, building heating accounts for 36-41 percent of total energy consumption in Turkey. This high proportion demonstrates the significance of passive energy systems in the country. The rapid consumption of conventional energy sources in building heating, as well as the associated

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costs and problems (such as environmental pollution), highlight the importance of energy conservation. As a result, it is recommended that selected building design parameters minimize conventional energy use. The control of the building’s interior surrounding conditions is an important point for saving energy depending on the exterior surrounding conditions. For a cold region, the designers proposed parameters such as building shape, building orientation, and building-insulation materials to provide interior comfort conditions in a building [35]. In cold climates, the larger the external surface of the building, the more energy that can be used for heating; therefore, the optimum form of the building should have the smallest external surface [36]. A ski lodge, also known as a day lodge, is a building located in a ski area that provides skiers and snowboarders with amenities like beverages, food, restrooms, seating areas, and locker areas. Likewise, the more energy efficient the wall layers are, the less energy resources will be used to meet the building’s energy. Therefore, less polluting emissions will be released to the environment. For these purposes, a ski lodge was designed in the Palandoken district of Erzurum province. The main structure of the building envelope of the designed ski lodge is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The structural elements of the ski lodge envelope with insulation.

The materials analyzed for the building envelope of the designed ski house and the thermal and physical properties of these materials are given in Table 1. The data in Table 1 is used as input in the Revit simulation.

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Table 1. Thermal and physical properties of building and insulation materials used in the analysis of ski lodge design Building materials Bims block Brick Gas concrete Wall coating Erzurum Basalt Stone Erzurum Andesit Stone Erzurum Kayrak Stone Insulation materials Phenolic Foam Polyurethane Polyisocyanurate Roof Material Broken tile roof

Thermal condictivity 0.1900 W/(m·K) 0.3300 W/(m·K) 0.1100 W/(m·K) Thermal condictivity 1.513 W/(m·K) 1.94 W/(m·K) 2.2 W/(m·K) Thermal condictivity 0.021 W/(m·K) 0.031 W/(m·K) 0.023 W/(m·K) U value (W/m2K) 0,33 W/m2K

Density 600.00 kg/m³ 600.00 kg/m³ 350.00 kg/m³ Density 2800 kg/m³ 2670 kg/m³ 2400 kg/m³ Density 100 kg/m³ 30 kg/m³ 38 kg/m³

Results and Discussion Energy utilization in constructions primarily results from cooling, heating, ventilation, and lighting. Degradation of energy utilization arising from hot water utilization and spacing heating in constructions is a matter of concern, necessitating available technics, like active and passive measures [37, 38]. In this study, a minimal ski house was designed in Erzurum province. The design is visualized in the Lumion program as shown in Figure 3. The outer walls of the ski house are configured as sandwich walls. Three different building materials (pumice block, brick and gas concrete), three different insulation materials (Phenolic Foam, Polyurethane, Polyisocyanurate), and three different wall covering materials (Erzurum Basalt Stone, Erzurum Andesit Stone, Erzurum Kayrak Stone) were used along with broken tile roof as the roofing material in the building envelope. Twenty-seven different types of building envelopes are designed for these materials. All building envelope types have been analyzed by Revit simulation. Building envelope types designed by building, insulation and coating materials used in the analysis of ski lodge design are displayed in Table 2.

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Figure 3. The design in the Lumion program of minimal ski house in Erzurum city.

Annual heating and cooling energies obtained by the analysis of ski lodge design are displayed in Figure 4. Annual total energies obtained by the analysis of ski lodge design are shown in Figure 5. Annual cooling energy values were changed between 118 and 127 kWh. The minimum annual heating energy value was obtained as 49648 kWh with Type 25 and Type 8. The highest annual heating energy value was found to be 50895 kWh for Type 15. The highest annual total energy consumption value

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Table 2. Building envelope types designed by building, insulation and coating materials used in the analysis of ski lodge design Type Type-1 Type-2 Type-3 Type-4 Type-5 Type-6 Type-7 Type-8 Type-9 Type-10 Type-11 Type-12

Wall covering material Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm)

Wall (sandwich wall) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00)

Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00)

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Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Phenolic Foam (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00)

Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00)

Roof type Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00)

Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andezit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andezit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm)

Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof

Type Type-13 Type-14 Type-15 Type-16 Type-17 Type-18 Type-19 Type-20 Type-21 Type-22 Type-23 Type-24 Type-25 Type-26 Type-27

Wall covering material Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andezit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andezit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm)

Wall (sandwich wall) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00)

Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00)

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Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyurethane (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00) Polyisocyanurate (8.00)

Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Bimsb lock (10.00) Bims block (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Brick (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00) Gas Concrete (10.00)

Roof type Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00) Plaster (2.00)

Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andezit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Basalt Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Andesit Stone (3 cm) Erzurum Kayrak Stone (3 cm)

Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof Broken tile roof

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Figure 4. Annual heating and cooling energies obtained by the analysis of ski lodge design.

was determined as 89802 kWh for Type 15. The lowest annual total energy consumption value was found as 88575 kWh for Type 25 and Type 8. In Type 15, “Brick” as building material, “Polyurethane” as insulation material, and “Erzurum Slate Stone” as building coating material were used in the building envelope, where the highest energy consumption is obtained. The lowest annual total energy consumption was found for Type 8 and Type 25. In Type 8, “Gas Concrete” as building material, “Phenolic foam” as insulation material, and “Erzurum Andesit Stone” as building coating material were used in the building envelope, where the highest energy consumption is obtained.

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In Type 25, “Gas Concrete” as building material, “Polyisocyanurate” as insulation material, and “Erzurum Basalt Stone” as building coating material were used in the building envelope, where the highest energy consumption is obtained.

Figure 5. Annual total energies obtained by the analysis of ski lodge design.

Conclusion Environmental problems and energy crisis motive various investigation policies to decrease CO2 emissions, diminish stress on power substructure, and as a result, raise energy performance. In this study, the most energy efficient combination was investigated by considering the materials that make up the building envelope for a ski house planned for cold climate regions during the design phase. For this analysis, Type 8 and Type 25 were obtained as the most energy efficient building envelope combination as a result of the analysis made by the “Building information modeling” based Revit simulation. According to the results obtained, building envelopes using natural stone showed better energy

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performance than unused building envelopes. In terms of energy performance, the most suitable building material, insulation materials and natural stones were determined as Gas Concrete, Phenolic foam- Polyisocyanurate and Erzurum Andesit Stone- Erzurum Basalt Stone respectively. The annual energy consumption for a ski lodge designed in Erzurum province with a wall shell consisting of the most energy-performing components was found to be Gas Concrete- Phenolic foam- Erzurum Andesit Stone and Gas ConcretePolyisocyanurate- Erzurum Basalt Stone. The external wall attributes of a ski lodge building design alternative were investigated. As a result of the research, the ski lodge building will save money on electricity and emit less CO2. In consequence, the research seems to display that creating a ski lodge construction is good for the environment and the nature. Furthermore, numerous elements of maintainability may be examined with the aid of this maintainable plan implementation by the probability of generating plan options. Building efficiency analysis for a ski lodge in the same region reveals that the efficient building saves on annual energy costs when compared to the conventional building. In addition, the annual CO2 emissions for a ski lodge building have been decreased when compared to conventional buildings. Diverse plan parameters can be combined to generate self-sustaining constructions that emits less Carbon and consumes lower energy.

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Inalli, M. (2006). Impacts of some building passive design parameters on heating demand for a cold region. Building and Environment, 12(41), 1742-1754. Anju Ebrahim, Dr Abhaykumar S. Wayal, BIM Based Building Performance Analysis Of A Green Office Building, Internatıonal Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Volume 8, Issue 08, 566-573, August 2019. Y. Li, G. Huang, Development of an integrated low-carbon heating system for outdoor swimming pools for winter application, 13th REHVA World Congress (CLIMA 2019), EDP Sci. (2019) 03031. M. Inalli, Impacts of some building passive design parameters on heating demand for a cold region, Build. Environ. 41 (12) (2006) 1742-1754.

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Chapter 4

Professional Training Courses in BIM Contributing to the Dissemination of the Methodology in the Construction Industry A. Zita Sampaio, PhD Department of Civil Engineering, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Abstract The implementation of Building Information modelling (BIM) methodology in the construction industry has been covering a wide applicability with recognized benefits in designing, constructing and operating buildings. A recent short course organized in the University of Lisbon, actualized with the most relevant achievement based in master researches, was offered to professionals of the industry, namely, architects and civil engineers coming from diverse engineering areas, environment, construction, maintenance, consult and patrimonial enterprises and also from public organizations like city councils. The proposed action covers the areas of construction (conflict analysis, planning and materials take-off), structures (interoperability, analyses and transfer of information between software) and the most recent Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) perspective. The course aims to contribute to the dissemination of the potential of BIM in the areas of designing, construction and refurbishing of historical buildings. The participants followed the course with great interest and satisfaction, formulating several questions directed to the particular activity of each of the attendees.



Corresponding Author’s Email: [email protected].

In: Building Information Modelling (BIM) Editor: Julie W. Daniels ISBN: 979-8-88697-697-7 © 2023 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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Keywords: BIM, training course, up-to-date information, improve professional skills

Introduction The Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology is currently the main digital platform applied in the construction activity. A BIM project is developed over a technological platform, in which all experts create, manipulate and add the information that is required and generated in the context of the work of each professional involved (Sacks et al., 2018). In this process, the methodology supports the development of different components of the project, allows adequate interoperability between specific systems related to various types of analysis or simulation, facilitates the tasks of budgeting, construction, maintenance and management, and also controls the procedure for a possible demolition (Volk et al., 2014). The BIM concept began to be implemented in the construction industry at the beginning of this century as an immersive innovation in the sector. Its benefits were quickly recognised, reflected in the quality of the projects developed, based on effective process integration and clear collaboration between partners related to the different specialties intrinsic to construction (Lu et al., 2014). BIM computational tools are a strong support for the development of the different disciplines of the project, enabling their parametric modelling and easy access to all the information concentrated in the BIM model created in the progress of the project. In all areas of construction, the construction owner, designers, builders and managers have verified the benefits of adopting BIM methodology. This fact has led to its growing acceptance, at a global level and in an exponential way, leading government entities to establish rules of action and mandatory implementation dates in public construction (Sampaio, 2021). In addition, the school has the mission, essential in society, to train future engineers with the fundamental teachings related to different themes in the field of construction, and should also be attentive to the technological innovations applicable to the sector. Naturally, construction-related companies follow this perspective, encouraging professionals to seek training actions that can add to professionals the knowledge, in the BIM context, required in a globalized industrial world, increasingly competitive. A short course, presented in March of 2022, included the methodological concepts and a wide range of the applicability sectors inherent to the

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development of projects in BIM. This text reflects the contents of the course and the main objectives. The organizational structure of the course introduces the underlying fundaments of the methodology, such as parametric modelling and interoperability, and presents the scope of the applicability of BIM.

BIM Education The attention of Civil Engineering education is oriented to BIM, and it is up to the school, as the main trainer of the future engineer, to introduce this theme, as a concept that should be transmitted, contributing to support all new subjects, included in the curriculum, on a BIM-based digital support. The requirement of BIM skills in the sector has imposed an educational maturity of alert in relation to the need in society, which has led to a progressive adaptation of the curricula taught (Sampaio, 2021a). The schools have been contributing positively to the updating of knowledge of professionals in the sector, through the organization of BIM training courses, in accordance with the interest and expectation expressed by the offices and public entities. Industry and the school are partners in finding the best strategy for establishing effective ways of teaching useful to the community. In Europe, BIM training has been essentially introduced into postgraduate studies as curricular modules, disciplines or specialization courses. In reference universities, in Spain, Switzerland, Portugal and Italy, the curricular research points to a relatively rapid assimilation in engineering training. •

The Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos of the Polytechnic University of Madrid offers two curricular actions (Lozano-Díez et al., 2018): a discipline of specialization, within the framework of the Master's degree in construction and management of facilities, with the aim of training professionals in the application of the BIM methodology, covering the entire life cycle of a building (project, execution and operation of the building), and the use of software required in modelling and information management; an advanced discipline of BIM methodology, in the master course of project management, with a more specific and detailed programmatic content (concept and applicability, BIM model management,

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collision detection, collaborative workflow, conservation and exploitation of infrastructures); At the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, the study plan identifies the introduction of BIM at master’s level through a discipline of introduction and application of BIM, covering the teaching of concepts (interoperability, IFC standard and LOD levels), the generation of parametric models and conflict detection, the transfer of information between systems, the estimation of costs (5D) and, construction monitoring (4D); At the Instituto Superior Técnico of the University of Lisbon, at the level of the 1st cycle of teaching, the curriculum of the discipline of Technical Design includes an introduction to BIM, where the procedure on parametric modelling is transmitted, using BIM-based tools; The curriculum, of the Collegio di Ingegneria Civile, at Polytechnic University of Turin, offers in the 2nd cycle of education, a master’s course in BIM applied to infrastructure, which includes aspects related to modelling and computer content, interoperability and formats, collision detection, structural dimensioning and real case analysis (bridges, tunnels, stations, schools and hospitals).

In addition, the construction industry has demanded from schools an offer aimed at the specificity of the profession, focusing on different perspectives. Engineers and architects recognize that in a globalized world, in the pursuit of their activity, the use of BIM platforms, leads to the achievement of better products and the establishment of more competitive projects. The constant demonstration of the benefit inherent to the use of the BIM methodology, which has been registered in the various sectors, motivates designers and managers to acquire knowledge related to the concept and scope of its applicability. Professionals from all sectors are interested in knowing the BIM concept and the scope of its applicability and technical schools organise BIM training activities to help to add knowledge and competitiveness to industry professionals.

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Professional Course The professional course, BIM methodology: construction, structures and HBIM, included within the activities of the Department of the Civil Engineering, of the University of Lisbon, was the most recent event offered to professionals of the construction industry. The range of professional englobes architects and civil engineers coming from consult enterprises and public organizations. The objective in attending the course was to improve their skills in order to increase competences in each particular domain of activity in construction. The program in presented in Table 1. Table 1. Professional course BIM methodology: construction, structures and HBIM Building Information Modelling (BIM) • Concept, applicability and implementation; • Parametric modelling, interoperability, and centralization; • BIM tool practice in generating model structures. BIM in the construction • Conflict analysis; • Adding parameters to objects; • Construction planning; • Quantification of materials. BIM in structural design • Interoperability; • Transfer and consistency check; • Graphic documentation and information centralization. Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) • Concept and collection of information; • Digital capture of images (photogrammetry, scanner and drones); • Generation of specific families of parametric objects; • Documentation file (as-built); • Practical case: reconversion of a heritage building.

Introduction to BIM The introduction of the main fundaments of BIM started with the principal concept, the range of applicability and the state-of-the-art of its implementation. The central BIM notion is the generation of a centralized digital model of all construction-related information. BIM is frequently defined as a digital representation of the building or infrastructure, strongly

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supported by parametric modelling and standard formats of data. Collaborative projects are developed over the model, requiring the use of advanced technologies and a high level of interoperability.

Figure 1. Modeling columns and beams.

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Figure 2. Table of columns extracted from the model.

A practical lesson concerning the use of BIM-based tool, introduces the concept of parametric modelling, essential, to the understanding of the development of multitasking. In the modelling process, the first step is to define the base settings (work units, elevation levels, and alignments), followed by the selection and adaptation of parametric objects, associated to physical properties (Araújo, 2016). As an example of how to handle with a BIM-based tools, a structural BIM model was created (Figure 1). After, there were obtained several tables of take-off of materials and elements from the generated BIM model (Sampaio and Antunes, 2020) (Figure 2).

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BIM in Construction An analysis of the detection of conflicts between projects was also exposed to the audience. The BIM modelling tools allow the overlap of the three disciplines (architecture, structures and mechanic) and support the definition of each component by direct analysis of conflicts, identified by the system with the issuance of inconsistency messages. There are several software programs with conflict analysis-oriented capabilities, namely, Tekla BIMsight, Navisworks, and Solibri Model Checker tools. After running any of these systems, the modeller adjusts each conflict situation over the BIM model. In the study case show in the course, the models of MEP and structures were overlaid and an analysis of inconsistency was applied. Using Navisworks and Tekla BIMsight a set of conflicts were listed and visualized (Figure 3). The conflicts detected were after adjusted accordingly in order to obtain correct situations (Figure 4).

Figure 3. Analyses of conflicts between models.

The course illustrates how to generate a 4D BIM model, relating to the construction process of a buildings (Mota and Sampaio, 2016). First, the complete 3D BIM model of the structural project must be defined and after the constructive sequence planning (phases and periods of implementation or placement) and allocated human resources must be established in the form of a Gant map (Figure 5).

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Figure 4. Changes were performed in a BIM modeler software.

Figure 5. 3D BIM model of a structural project and the respective Gant map.

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Figure 6. BIM 4D model generation.

Figure 7. Simulation of the construction process.

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The 4D model is then created in the Navisworks software. The BIM model representing the structural project is exported from the modeling system to a BIM viewer, performed in the native format. Also, the construction planning (Gantt map) file is transferred from the Ms Project system to the Navisworks. Next, it is necessary to associate the elements of the imported model, forming groups (sets), according to the activities of the schedule (Figure 6). The 4D model allows to visually simulating the planned construction (Figure 7).

BIM in Structural Design Throughout the development of a project and later construction and use, several processes transferring data between software, are normally performed, and for that, a high level of interoperability is required. In a structural design, the transposition of models between BIM modelling and structural analysis tools is essential. Concerning the structural design, the interoperability capacity, the transfer and verification of consistencies and the centralization of information and graphic documentation were performed (Oliveira and Sampaio, 2019). In the course, the process of transposition of structural models between modeling and calculation systems (two-way flow) was analyzed in several situations involving ArchiCAD, Revit and AECOsim modeling tools and SAP, Robot and ETABS structural dimensioning tools (Sampaio et al., 2021). The transposition of models between systems is supported: in the native format, when the software belongs to the same manufacturer; by recourse to the universal data transfer standard, the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. The interoperability capability analysis, verified in each model transposition process, is evaluated over several case studies of distinct volume and use (Figure 8). First, the BIM models were transferred from the modeler system to the analyses software and the geometric consistency was evaluated. Several inconsistencies were observed: stair elements were not recognized (remodeled as sloped slabs in the analyses system); the foundations were not transposed (considered as supports). However, the structural elements (columns, beams and slabs), grids and material, concrete C30/37 and A500 NR SD steel were correctly transposed, but the analytical axis of some linear finite elements and rigid connections were redefined (Figure 9).

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Figure 8. Structural BIM models of distinct buildings.

Figure 9. Structural BIM models transferred to analyses software.

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The level of interoperability between BIM-based modeling and calculation systems was assessed and it was found that:    

There are advantages of using Revit/Robot integrated platforms; The data flow modeling/calculation can be done with confidence, while the reverse flow is inefficient; The advantages are essentially related to the easy initial modeling, with some ability to transfer information post-calculation; It is appropriate to perform the detailing of reinforcements in the calculation system, as it allows a high capacity for the production of 3D designs and, subsequently, the inaccuracies are easily adjusted.

HBIM Concept and Practice A recent implementation perspective the Historic or Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is directed towards properties of historical value or heritage relevance. Recent research related to HBIM addresses (Sampaio et al., 2021a): 

 

The standardization of architectural configurations and creation parametric objects representative of applicable and reusable forms in the old construction; The analysis of constructive techniques used in order to identify the materials used and the solutions applied; The archive of registration documents, studies carried out or previous interventions, and their availability for consultation by experts involved in the project.

It is required to understand geometric rules, in parametric terms, from the books of architectural patterns to the HBIM modeling process. Sets of specific parametric object must be generated to allow the generation of old buildings with accuracy (Figure 10). The registered documentary information provides data concerning the characterization of the construction (historical epoch and traditional construction systems), the registration of refurbishing interventions and local

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Figure 10. Architectural configurations and creation parametric objects.

inspection reports. In addition, the documentary collection, along with municipal archives, composed of drawings of plants, elevations and cut, referring to different dates and with yellows and reds, bring a complete description of the old building. The stratigraphic analysis covers the study of

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the constructive steps, which are represented through different colors, leading to a clear visual perception. In an HBIM process, it is also frequently necessary to establish a station of laser devices, properly positioned, so that, later, the points obtained can be unified, in a single cloud of space points (Figure 11).

Figure 11. Antique drawings of building, stratigraphic representation and a drone.

A practical case of reconversion of a building of heritage value was presented (Sampaio et al., 2021b). A proposal for the adaptation of an old building, located in Lisbon, requiring the reorganization of internal compartmentalization, but preserving their architectural characteristics, illustrated an application of HBIM (Figure 12).

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Figure 12. (Continued)

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Figure 12. Building of heritage value, old drawing and BIM model of the proposal.

Within HBIM, the creation of families of specific parametric objects was required for the rigorous representation of a building of patrimonial value. As a basis for modeling, it was requested to collect the existing documentation in the Municipal Archive of Lisbon, to obtain photographs from outside and inside of the building and the registration of detailed sketches. In addition, to allow a correct geometry represented in the form of parametric objects, it was necessary to add the material type and adjust the physical and mechanical properties, in order to respect the ancestral techniques of construction. The work contributes to empowering the HBIM library of parametric objects of building components.

Conclusion A one-day course, BIM methodology: construction, structures and HBIM, was offered, at the University of Lisbon, to professionals of the construction industry. The contents of the training action were organized in order to cover a wide range of the applicability of BIM in the sector, and with the most recent achievements. The participants demonstrated a global interest in all topics presented, formulating questions oriented to their particular expertise. The global satisfaction of the attendance was good.

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The main purpose of the course was to transmit the main concepts, the strategies of working in each type of BIM application and the reference to the main benefits and limitations. All parts of the course, including practice, construction, structures and HBIM, were essentially illustrated with study cases selected in accordance with the audience. Industry professionals feel the need to update themselves in the BIM context and the course contributes in a positive way to this learning. An in it the school and the industry collaborated in order to establish an interesting and useful program.

References Araújo, L. (2016) Development of a wall library in BIM methodology, Master’s thesis in construction, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. Lozano-Díez, R.V., López-Zaldívar, O., Herrero del Cura, S. & Mayor, P.L. (2018) First experiences in the rule of the BIM environment: The case of the degree in Building of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Advances in Building Education: Educative Innovation in buildings, 2 (1), 109-121, http://polired.upm.es/index.php/abe/ article/view /4233. Lu, W., Fung, A., Peng, Y., Liang, C. & Rowlinson, S. (2014), Cost-benefit analysis of Building Information Modeling implementation in building projects through demystification of time-effort distribution curves, Building and Environment, Vol. 82, pgs. 317-327, ISSN 0360-1323, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.08.030, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132314002893). Mota, C. & Sampaio, A.Z. (2016) BIM model of structures used in construction planning, National Meeting of Structural Concrete, Coimbra, Portugal, 10 pgs,. http://be2016. dec.uc.pt/. Oliveira, J.D. & Sampaio, A.Z. (2019) BIM in structures: analysis of interoperability, ICSAAM2019 - International Conference on Structural Analysis of Advanced Materials, Ischia, Italy. https://aip.scitation.org/toc/apc/2196/1. Sacks, R., Eastman, C., Lee, G. & Teicholz, P. (2018) BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Designers, Engineers, Contractors, and Facility Managers, Third Edition, Print ISBN:9781119287537, |Online ISBN:9781119287568 |DOI:10.1002/9781119287568, © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sampaio A.Z. & Antunes, B. G. (2020) Quantity Take-Off Process Supported by Building Information Modeling (BIM) Methodology, book: Sustainability and Automation in Smart Constructions, Ch. 4, pp 21-28, Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation, Springer, Cham, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35533-3_4. Sampaio, A. Z., Gomes, A.M. Lite, A.S., Zulueta, P. & González-Gaya, C. (2021a) Analysis of BIM methodology applied to practical cases in the preservation of heritage Buildings, MDPI - Journal Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Sustainability 2021, vol. 13(6), https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063129.

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Professional Training Course in BIM Contributing to the Dissemination … 89 Sampaio, A. Z., Pinto, A.M., Gomes, A.M. & Lite, A. S. (2021b) Generation of a HBIM library regarding a palace of the 19th Century in Lisbon, MDPI - Applied Sciences, special session: Novel Approaches and Technologies for Conservation of Heritage Buildings, ISSN 2076-3417, Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ app11157020. Sampaio, A.Z. (2021) Maturity of BIM Implementation in the Construction Industry: Governmental Policies, IJETT- International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, ISSN: 2231-5381, Vol. 69 (7), pgs. 92-100, doi:10.14445/2231538 1/IJETT-V69I7P214 ©2021 Seventh Sense Research Group®, .http://www.Ijett journal.org/archive/ijett-v69i7p214. Sampaio, A.Z. (2021a) BIM education required in construction, book: Sustainability and Automation in Smart Constructions, Ch. 1, pp. 3-9, Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation, Springer, Cham, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35533-3_1. Sampaio, A.Z., Gomes, Augusto M. & Farinha, T. (2021) BIM methodology applied in structural design: Analysis of interoperability in ArchiCAD/ETABS process, JSEA Journal of Software Engineering and Applications. ISSN Print: 1945-3116, ISSN Online: 1945-3124, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2021.146012, IF 2.23. Volk, R., Stengel, J. & Schultmann, F. (2014) Building Information Modeling (BIM) for existing buildings - Literature review and future needs, Automation in Construction, vol. 38, pp. 109 – 127, ISBN 0926-5805, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2013. 10.023, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science /article/pii/S092658051300 191X.

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Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2018 International Workshops, Tallinn, Estonia, June 11-15, 2018, Proceedings LCCN 2019759670 Type of material Book Main title Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2018 International Workshops, Tallinn, Estonia, June 11-15, 2018, Proceedings / edited by Raimundas Matulevičius, Remco Dijkman. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (IX, 279 pages 98 illustrations) PDF ISBN 9783319928982 Related names Dijkman, Remco. editor. Matulevičius, Raimundas. editor. Summary This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of six international workshops held in Tallinn, Estonia, in conjunction with the 30th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, CAiSE 2018, in June 2018. These workshops were: - The 5th Workshop on Advances in Services DEsign based on the Notion of Capability (ASDENCA) - The 1st Workshop on Business Data Analytics: Techniques and Applications (BDA) - The 1st Workshop on Blockchains for Inter-Organizational Collaboration (BIOC) - The 6thWorkshop on Cognitive Aspects

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of Information Systems Engineering (COGNISE) The 2nd Workshop on Enterprise Modeling - The 1st Workshop on Flexible Advanced Information Systems (FAiSE) Two more workshops decided to produce their own, independent proceedings. The 22 full papers presented here were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 49 submissions. ASDENCA - Advances in Services DEsign based on the Notion of Capability - Validation of Capability Modeling Concepts: A Dialogical Approach - Towards Improving Adaptability of Capability Driven Development Methodology in Complex Environment - Using Open Data to Support Organizational Capabilities in Dynamic Business Contexts - Capability Management in the Cloud: Model and Environment - BDA - Business Data Analytics: Techniques and Applications. Using BPM Frameworks for Identifying Customer Feedback about Process Performance - Increasing Trust in (Big) Data Analytics - Building Payment Classification Models From Rules and Crowdsourced Labels: A Case Study - BIOC Blockchains for Inter-Organizational Collaboration - Towards a Design Space for Blockchain-based System Reengineering - Ensuring Resource Trust and Integrity in Web Browsers using Blockchain Technology Combining Artifact-driven Monitoring with Blockchain: Analysis and Solutions - Towards Collaborative and Reproducible Scientific Experiments on Blockchain - Document Management System based on a Private Blockchain for the Support of the Judicial Embargoes Process in Colombia COGNISE - Cognitive Aspects of Information Systems Engineering - The Origin and Evolution of Syntax Errors in Simple Sequence Flow Models in BPMN - Mining Developers' Workflows from IDE Usage - Designing for Information Quality in the

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Era of Repurposable Crowdsourced UserGenerated Content - Test First, Code Later: Educating for Test Driven Development Workshop on Enterprise Modeling - An Application Design for Reference Enterprise Architecture Models - The "What" Facet of the Zachman Framework - a Linked Data-driven Interpretation - Towards an Agile and Ontologyaided Modeling Environment for DSML Adaptation - Towards a Risk-aware Business Process Modelling Tool Using the ADOxx Platform - FAiSE - Flexible Advanced Information Systems - A Reference Framework for Advanced Flexible Information Systems - Integrating IoT Devices into Business Processes. Application software. Management information systems. Software engineering. Information Systems Applications (incl. Internet). Business Information Systems. Computer Appl. in Administrative Data Processing. Enterprise Architecture. Software Engineering. Print version: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops. 9783319928975 (DLC) 2018944435 Printed edition: 9783319928975 Printed edition: 9783319928999 Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 1865-1348; 316 Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 1865-1348; 316

Advances in Dependability Engineering of Complex Systems: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, July 2 - 6, 2017, Brunów, Poland LCCN 2019763132

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Book Advances in Dependability Engineering of Complex Systems: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, July 2 6, 2017, Brunów, Poland / edited by Wojciech Zamojski, Jacek Mazurkiewicz, Jarosław Sugier, Tomasz Walkowiak, Janusz Kacprzyk. 1st ed. 2018. Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. 1 online resource (XVI, 488 pages 201 illustrations) PDF 9783319594156 Kacprzyk, Janusz, editor. Mazurkiewicz, Jacek, editor. Sugier, Jarosław, editor. Walkowiak, Tomasz, editor. Zamojski, Wojciech, editor. This book gathers the proceedings of the 2017 DepCoS-RELCOMEX, an annual conference series that has been organized by the Department of Computer Engineering at the Faculty of Electronics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, since 2006. Its mission is to continue the heritage of the other two cycles of events - the RELCOMEX conferences (1977-89) and Microcomputer Schools (1985-95) - so this year we can celebrate the 40th anniversary of its origins. In contrast to those preceding series, which were focused on conventional reliability analysis, the goal of DepCoS is to promote a more comprehensive approach to system performability, which is now commonly called dependability. This innovative research area provides answers to the latest challenges in reliability evaluation for contemporary complex systems. Its novelty is based on a multi-disciplinary approach to system

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theory, technology and maintenance of systems operating in real environments. Dependability analyses concentrate on the efficient completion of tasks, services and jobs by a system considered as a combination of technical, information and human assets, in contrast to "classical" reliability, which is generally limited to the analysis of technical resources and associated components and structures. The selection of papers for this volume illustrates the diversity of topics that need to be considered, from mathematical models and design methodologies through software engineering and data security issues, to practical engineering problems in technical systems. In addition, this edition of the conference hosted the 7th CrISSDESSERT Workshop, which was devoted to the analysis and assurance of safety and cyber security in critical infrastructure and computer systems. 1.Detection of network attacks using hybrid ARIMA-GARCH model- 2.Towards mixed-mode risk management - a concept; Andrzej Bialas and Barbara Flisiuk - 3.Software support of the Common Criteria vulnerability assessment - 4.On the performance of some C# constructions - 5.Deep Stacking Convex Neuro-Fuzzy System and its Online Learning - 6.Fault tolerant ASIC/ULA-based computing systems testing via FPGA prototyping with fault injection - 7.Critical Energy Infrastructure Safety Assurance Strategies Considering Emergent Interaction Risk 8.Modelling an Optimal Capital Structure of the Telecommunication Company - 9.Specification of constraints in a System-of-Systems configuration; Dariusz Caban and Tomasz Walkowiak - 10.A Methodological Framework for Model-based SelfManagement of Services and Components in Dependable Cyber-Physical Systems 11.Maintenance of wind turbine scheduling based on output power data and wind forecast -

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12.Deadlock detection in distributed systems using the IMDS formalism and Petri nets.- 13.Scheduling tasks in embedded systems based on NoC architecture using Simulated Annealing 14.Adaptation of Ant Colony Algorithm for CAD of complex systems with higher degree of dependability - 15.Context-Aware Anomaly Detection in Embedded Systems;Fatemeh EhsaniBesheli and Hamid R. Zarandi - 16.Comparative analysis of calculations in cryptographic protocols using a combination of different bases of finite fields 17.Dynamic Redundancy in Communication Network of Air Traffic Management System - 18.Availability models and maintenance strategies for smart building automation systems considering attacks on component vulnerabilities - 19.Concept of multicriteria evaluation of the airport security control process - 20.Extending Continuous Integration with post-mortem debug automation of unhandled exceptions occurred in kernel or user mode applications - 21.The Methodology of Studying of Active Traffic Management Module SelfOscillation Regime - 22.Effectiveness examination of a multi-channel CSMA/CA detector - 23.IaaS vs. traditional hosting for web applications - cost effectiveness analysis for a local market - 24.High quality stabilization of an inverted pendulum using the controller based on trigonometric function 25.The application of RFID technology in supporting the process of reliable identification of objects in video surveillance systems - 26.Aspectoriented management of service requests for assurance of high performance and dependability 27.Process of mobile application development from the security perspective - 28.Managing and Enhancing Performance Benchmarks;Jakub Maleszewski and Janusz Sosnowski 29.Reliability Optimization for Controller

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Placement in Software-Defined Networks 30.Agent Approach to Network Systems Experimental Analysis in Case of Critical Situations - 31.RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIVING SYSTEMS OF CITY BUSES;Marek M³yñczak - 32.Testing the significance of parameters of models estimating execution time of parallel program loops according to the Open MPI standard - 33.On application of regime-switching models for short-term traffic flow forecasting 34.Critical information infrastructure protection model and methodology - 35.The method of creating players in the marketing strategy;Henryk Piech - 36.Principles of mobile walking robot control in scope of technical monitoring tasks 37.Computer Systems - Simple - 38.Improving FPGA Implementations of BLAKE and BLAKE2 Algorithms with Memory Resources 39.Assurance Case Patterns On-line Catalogue;Monika Szczygielska and Aleksander Jarzêbowicz - 40.Information system as a cause of cargo handling process disruption in intermodal terminal - 42.Stability Enhancement Against Fluctuations in Complex Networks by Optimal Bandwidth Allocation - 43.The scope of the collected data for a holistic risk assessment performance in the road freight transport companies - 44.Language Processing Modelling Notation - orchestration of NLP microservices 45.Type Variety Principle and the Algorithm of Strategic Planning of Diversified Portfolio of Electricity Generation Sources. Artificial intelligence. Computational complexity. Computational intelligence. Computational Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence. Complexity.

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Print version: Dependability problems and complex systems. 9783319594149 (DLC) 2017940846 Printed edition: 9783319594149 Printed edition: 9783319594163 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2194-5357; 582 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2194-5357; 582

Advances in Informatics and Computing in Civil and Construction Engineering: Proceedings of the 35th CIB W78 2018 Conference: IT in Design, Construction, and Management LCCN 2019736428 Type of material Book Main title Advances in Informatics and Computing in Civil and Construction Engineering: Proceedings of the 35th CIB W78 2018 Conference: IT in Design, Construction, and Management / edited by Ivan Mutis, Timo Hartmann. Edition 1st ed. 2019. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2019. Description 1 online resource (XVIII, 914 pages 392 illustrations, 293 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783030002206 Related names Hartmann, Timo. editor. Mutis, Ivan. editor. Summary This proceedings volume chronicles the papers presented at the 35th CIB W78 2018 Conference: IT in Design, Construction, and Management, held in Chicago, IL, USA, in October 2018. The theme of the conference focused on fostering, encouraging, and promoting research and development in the application of integrated information technology (IT) throughout the lifecycle of the design, construction, and occupancy of buildings and related facilities. The CIB International Council for Research and Innovation

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in Building Construction - was established in 1953 as an association whose objectives were to stimulate and facilitate international cooperation and information exchange between governmental research institutes in the building and construction sector, with an emphasis on those institutes engaged in technical fields of research. The conference brought together more than 200 scholars from 40 countries, who presented the innovative concepts and methods featured in this collection of papers. Some of the papers' topics included the following: Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality Visualization and simulation Communication and collaboration informatics Sensor data interpretation Situation awareness and sensing technologies Mobile computing Geometric and parametric modeling Building information modeling (BIM) 4-D/n-D modeling Computerenhanced engineering design Design and decision support systems Ontologies and reasoning for civil and construction engineering Semantic modeling in the AEC industry Product and process modeling Data acquisition, analysis, and storage. Computing and Innovations for Design Sustainable Buildings and Infrastructure - Thermal Performance Assessment of Curtain Walls of Fully Operational Buildings Using Infrared Thermography and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles BIM and Lean-Business Process Reengineering for Energy Management Optimization of Existing Buildings - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based visual analytics framework for highway project performance evaluation - Usage of Interface Management in adaptive reuse of buildings Semantic Enrichment of As-is BIMs for Building Energy Simulation - Proof of Concept for a BIMbased Material Passport - Learning from ClassImbalanced Bridge and Weather Data for Supporting Bridge Deterioration Prediction -

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Machine-Learning-Based Model for Supporting Energy Performance Benchmarking for Office Buildings - Occupants Behavior-based Design Study Using BIM-GIS Integration: An Alternative Design Approach for Architects - Standardisation of Whole Life Cost estimation for early design decision-making utilising Building Information Modelling - Data Model Centered Road Maintenance Support System Using Mobile Device - Ontology-based Semantic Modeling of Disaster Resilient Construction Operations: Towards a Knowledge-based Decision Support System - A methodology for real-time 3D visualization of asphalt thermal behavior during road construction Eliminating Building and Construction Waste with Computer-Aided Manufacturing and Prefabrication - A methodological proposal for risk analysis in the construction of tunnels - Technology Alternatives for Workplace Safety Risk Mitigation in Construction: Exploratory Study - Part 7. Education, Training, and Learning with Technologies - BIM4VET, towards BIM training recommendation for AEC professionals - Teaching effective collaborative information delivery and management in response to a BIM mandate - A Story of Online Construction Masters' Project: Is An Active Online Independent Study Course Possible? - Lessons learned from a multi-year initiative to integrate data-d. Part. I. Information Integration and Informatics Barriers of Automated BIM Use: Examining Factors of Project Delivery - Simulation of construction processes as a link between BIM models and construction progression on-site - In search of sustainable design patterns: Combining data mining and semantic analysis on disparate building data - The role of Knowledge-based Information on BIM for Built Heritage - Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM): A review

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of published case studies - Next generation of transportation infrastructure management: Fusion of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) - Blockchain in the construction sector: a socio-technical systems framework for the construction industry Formalized Knowledge Representation to Support Integrated Planning of Highway Projects - An Automated Layer Classification Method for Converting CAD drawings to 3D BIM Models Defining Levels of Development for 4D Simulation of Major Capital Construction Projects Modularized BIM Data Validation Framework Integrating Visual Programming Language with LegalRuleML - Coupling between a Building Spatial Design Optimisation Toolbox and BouwConnect BIM - Reusability and Its Limitations of Modules of Existing BIM Data Exchange Requirements for New MVDs Employment of Semantic Web technologies for capturing comprehensive parametric building models - BIM Coordination oriented to Facility Management - OpenBIM Based IVE Ontology: an ontological approach to improve interoperability for Virtual Reality Applications - BIM and Through-Life Information Management: A Systems Engineering Perspective - A lean design management process based on planning the Level of Detail in BIM-based design - Part 2. CyberHuman-Systems - The BIMbot A Cognitive Assistant in the BIM room - Perceived Productivity Effects of Mobile ICT in Construction Projects Mobile EEG-based Workers' Stress Recognition by Applying Deep Neural Network - Feasibility of Wearable Electromyography (EMG) to Assess Construction Workers' Muscle Fatigue - Tacit knowledge: how can we capture it? - Inside the Collective Mind: Features Extraction to Support Automated Design Space Explorations - Detecting

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falls-from-height with wearable sensors and reducing consequences of occupational fall accidents leveraging IoT - Using Augmented Reality to Facilitate Construction Site Activities Semantic frame-based information extraction from utility regulatory documents to support compliance checking - Ontology-based Semantic Retrieval of Energy Consumption Management - Visualisation of risk information in BIM to support risk mitigation and communication: case studies - Team interactions in digitally-mediated design meetings User perceptions of and needs for smart home technology in South Africa - Seamless integration of multi-touch table and immersive VR for collaborative design - a real-world case of designing healthcare environments - Development and Usability Testing of a Panoramic Augmented Reality Environment for Fall Hazard Safety Training - The Negative Effects of Mobile ICT on Productivity in Indian Construction Projects Augmented reality combined with location-based management system to improve the construction process, quality control and information flow Workflow in Virtual Reality too Development for AEC Industry - Implementation of Augmented Reality Throughout the Lifecycle of Construction Projects - Challenges around integrating collaborative immersive technologies into a large infrastructure engineering project - Part 3. Computer Support in Design and Construction Cyber Security Management Framework for a Cloud- based BIM Computing Model - A System for Early Detection of Maintainability Issues using BIM - Towards automated analysis of ambiguity in modular construction contract documents (a qualitative and quantitative study) - Adopting Parametric Construction Analysis in Integrated Design Teams - Integrating BIM, Optimization and a multi-criteria decision-making method in

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Building Design Process - A BIM-based decision support system for building maintenance Structural behaviour analysis and optimisation, integrating MATLAB with Autodesk Robot - An Assessment of BIM-CAREM against the Selected BIM Capability Assessment Models - Towards a BIM-agile method in architectural design: assessment of a pedagogical experiment - A Generalized Adaptive Framework for Automating Design Review Process: Technical Principles - An integrated simulation-based approach for considering effects of weather on formwork removal time - Exploring Future Stakeholder Feedback on Performance-based Design across the Virtuality Continuum - A BIM Based Simulation Framework for Fire Evacuation Planning - Do We Look? An Eye-Tracking Study of Architectural Features in Building Design - Developing a Framework of a Multi-objective and Multi- Criteria Based Approach for Integration of LCA-LCC and Dynamic Analysis in Industrialized Multi-Storey Timber Construction - Collective decision-making with 4D BIM: Collaboration group persona study Post-Occupancy Evaluation parameters in MultiObjective Optimization-based design process Social Paradigms in Contemporary Airport Design - A method for facilitating 4D modeling by automating task information generation and mapping - Part 4. Intelligent Autonomous Systems - An autonomous Thermal Scanning System with which to Obtain 3D Thermal Models of Buildings - Productivity Improvement in the Construction Industry: A Case Study of Mechanization in Singapore - Automated Building Information Models Reconstruction using 2D Mechanical Drawings - Architectural Symmetry Detection from 3D Urban Point Clouds: A Derivative-Free Optimization (DFO) approach - Sequential Pattern Analyses of Damages on Bridge Elements for

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Preventive Maintenance - Sound Event Recognition-Based Classification Model for Automated Emergency Detection in Indoor Environment - Improved Window Detection in Facade Images - Path Planning of LiDAR-equipped UAV for Bridge Inspection Considering Potential Locations of Defects - Automatic Annotation of Web Images for Domain-Specific Crack Classification - A Machine Learning Approach for Compliance Checking-Specific Semantic Role Labeling of Building Code Sentences Requirement Text Detection from Contract Packages to Support Project Definition Determination - In Search of Open and Practical Language-Driven BIM-based Automated Rule Checking Systems - Image-based Localization for Facilitating Construction Field Reporting on Mobile Devices - Towards an Automated Asphalt Paving Construction Inspection Operation Computer vision and deep learning for real-time pavement distress detection - A Flight Simulator for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flights Over Construction Job Sites - Bridge Inspection using Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) - Part 5. Cyber-Physical-Systems - Comparison Between Current Methods of Indoor Network Analysis for Emergency Response Through BIM-GIS Integration - Instrumentation and Data Collection Methodology to Enhance Productivity in Construction Sites Using Embedded Systems and IoT Technologies - A cyber-physical middleware platform for buildings in smart cities - A Framework for CPS-based Real-time Mobile Crane Operations - Drive towards real-time reasoning of building performance: Development of a live, cloud-based system - Bayesian Network Modeling of Airport Runway Incursion Occurring Processes for Predictive Accident Control - A Low Cost

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System For Monitoring Tower Crane Productivity Cycles Combining Inertial Measurement Units, Load Cells and Lora Networks - The interface of a BIM-IoT prototype for Energy Consumption Monitoring - Predicting Energy Consumption of Office Buildings: A Hybrid Machine LearningBased Approach - Part 6. Building repair. Building. Buildings--Design and construction. Buildings--Repair and reconstruction. Building--Superintendence. Computer-aided engineering. Construction industry--Management. Construction. Data mining. Engineering, Architectural. Light construction. Lightweight construction. Steel construction. Building Construction and Design. Building Repair and Maintenance. Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD, CAE) and Design. Construction Management. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Light Construction, Steel Construction, Timber Construction. Print version: Advances in informatics and computing in civil and construction engineering. 9783030002190 (DLC) 2018953319 Printed edition: 9783030002190 Printed edition: 9783030002213 Printed edition: 9783030130930

Advances in Panel Data Analysis in Applied Economic Research: 2017 International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE) LCCN 2019753096 Type of material Book

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Advances in Panel Data Analysis in Applied Economic Research: 2017 International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE) / edited by Nicholas Tsounis, Aspasia Vlachvei. 1st ed. 2018. Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. 1 online resource (XV, 705 pages 135 illustrations, 104 illustrations in color.) PDF 9783319700557 Tsounis, Nicholas. editor. Vlachvei, Aspasia. editor. This proceedings volume presents new methods and applications in applied economic research with an emphasis on advances in panel data analysis. Featuring papers presented at the 2017 International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE) held at Coventry University, this volume provides current research on econometric panel data methodologies as they are applied in microeconomics, macroeconomics, financial economics and agricultural economics. International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE) is an annual conference that started in 2008 designed to bring together economists from different fields of applied economic research in order to share methods and ideas. Applied economics is a rapidly growing field of economics that combines economic theory with econometrics to analyse economic problems of the real world usually with economic policy interest. In addition, there is growing interest in the field for panel data estimation methods, tests and techniques. This volume makes a contribution in the field of applied economic research in this area. Featuring country specific studies, this book will be of interest to academics, students, researchers, practitioners, and

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policy makers in applied economics and economic policy. Chapter 1: Spatial Analysis of ResearchProductivity Nexus: A Case of Thai Rice Sector Chapter 2: Application of Thermodynamics Entropy Concept in Financial Markets - Chapter 3: Economic and Business Cycle of India: Evidence from ICT Sector - Chapter 4: Patents and R&D Cartels - Chapter 5: A mean-variance analysis of the Global Minimum Variance Portfolio Constructed using the CARBS indices.-Chapter 6: Univariate and Multivariate GARCH Models Applied to the CARBS Indices - Chapter 7: ValueAt-Risk Forecasting of the CARBS Indices Chapter 8: A vector error correction model (VECM) of FTSE/JSE SA Listed Property Index and FTSE/JSE SA Capped Property Index Chapter 9: Liquidity Proxies Based on Intraday Data: The Case of the Polish Order-Driven Stock Market - Chapter 10: Measuring Dynamics of Financial Integration on the Euro Area Stock Markets, 2000 - 2016 - Chapter 11: The effect of inflation targeting policy on economic growth in AEC countries - Chapter 12: Economics, Marketing and Performances of U.S. Classical Music: journeyin' together to the promise land Chapter 13: Investigation of the essence of the categories "efficiency", "efficiency of the investment project" - Chapter 14: An Analysis of ICT Sectors and Economic Growth: Evidence from ASEAN Countries - Chapter 15: FDI spillover effects in China's manufacturing sector: New evidence from forward and backward linkages Chapter 16: Environmental Kuznets Curve and Turkey: An ARDL Approach - Chapter 17: Selected Aspects of Managerial Success Perception: The Case of Polish Born Globals Chapter 18: CSR communication on social networks - Chapter 19: Tax bonus versus Tax

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allowance in Slovak and Czech Republic - Chapter 20: The Application of Nonparametric Methods in Nonprofit Sector - Chapter 21: Why You Should Use High Frequency Data to Test the Impact of Exchange Rate on Trade - Chapter 22: On the radio spectrum value for telecommunication market participants - Chapter 23: Real Options Games Between Asymmetric Firms on a Competitive Market - Chapter 24: The Dynamic effect of Bank size on Earnings volatility in Iranian banking system - Chapter 25: The selection of human resources in Slovak companies - Chapter 26: The issue of investment decision making of leveraged projects - Chapter 27: Volatility modelling of agricultural commodities: Application of selected GARCH models - Chapter 28: Increase the standard of living of regions by increasing the quality of the business environment - Chapter 29: Building a sustainable brand - Chapter 30: Facility management as a tool for optimizing business costs - Chapter 31: The Brand Value and Factors Affecting It - Chapter 32: Does The Fall in Crude Oil Prices Really Affect The Malaysian Ringgit? Chapter 33: The Impact of Exchange Rate Regimes on Economic Growth - Chapter 34: Utilization the Process BIM - Building Information Modeling in Facility Management - Chapter 35: Modeling and Forecasting of British pound/U.S.dollar Exchange Rate: An empirical analysis - Chapter 36: Modelling and Forecasting of US Health Expenditures Using Arima Models - Chapter 37: Industry competitiveness using firm-level data: A case study of the Nigerian insurance sector Chapter 38: Business Cysles Transmission From BRICs to developing countries, "Some New Evidence" - Chapter 39: Assessment of Financial Risks in the Insurance Sector Using the Sensitivity Analysis - Chapter 40: Calculation of Tax Shields Using the Method of Adjusted Present Value -

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Chapter 41: Some Remarks on the Quantification of the Company Financial Health - Chapter 42: Measuring the Globalization Degree of Foreign Direct Investments from 2001-2012: First Interpretations - Chapter 43: Gender Barriers in Employment and their Policy implications in Transition Economies Chapter 44: Intergenerational Persistence of Child Labor in Brazil - Chapter 45: Consequences of External Macroeconomic Shocks Transmission through International Trade Channel: The Case of the Central and Eastern European Countries - Chapter 46: Investment and Economic Growth - Chapter 47: Does Financial Regulation influence bank efficiency? - A study on UAE banking sector Chapter 48: Competitiveness Index. Agricultural economics. Econometrics. Industrial organization. Macroeconomics. Econometrics. Agricultural Economics. Industrial Organization. Macroeconomics/Monetary Economics//Financial Economics. Print version: Advances in panel data analysis in applied economic research: 2017 International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE) 9783319700540 (DLC) 2018932521 Printed edition: 9783030099299 Printed edition: 9783319700540 Printed edition: 9783319700564 Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, 2198-7246 Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, 2198-7246

Airport building information modelling LCCN 2019018145

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Book Koseoglu, Ozan, author. Airport building information modelling / Ozan Koseoglu and Yusuf Arayici. London; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. ix, 83 pages: color illustrations; 26 cm 9781138329331 (hardback) (ebook) TL725.3.B8 K67 2020 Arayici, Yusuf, author. "This book details how Building Information Modelling is being successfully deployed in the planning, design, construction and future operation of the Istanbul New Airport, a mega-scale construction project incorporating a varying mix of infrastructures including terminals, runways, passenger gates, car parks, railways and roads. The book demonstrates how Airport Building Information Modelling (ABIM) is being used to: facilitate collaboration, cooperation and integrated project delivery - manage subcontractors and eliminate cost over-runs - reduce waste on site and enhance overall quality - connect people in a virtual environment to encourage collaborative working provide clients with an effective interface for lifecycle management including: design development, construction documentation, construction phases and BIM and Big Data Integration for future facilities management The book presents a best practice BIM project, demonstrating concurrent engineering, lean processes, collaborative design and construction, and effective construction management. Moreover, the book provides a visionary exemplar for the further use of BIM technologies in civil engineering projects including highways, railways and others on the way towards the Smart City vision. It is essential reading for all Built

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Environment and Engineering stakeholders"-Provided by publisher. Airport design and construction - Airport building information modelling - Concurrent design and construction with BIM - Mobile BIM for the airport construction - Key learnings about ABIM and paving the way for the airport operations. Airports--Turkey--Istanbul--Design and construction. Airport buildings--Turkey--Istanbul--Design and construction. Building information modeling--Turkey--Istanbul. Includes bibliographical references and index.

Airport building information modelling LCCN 2020756411 Type of material Book Personal name Koseoglu, Ozan, author. Main title Airport building information modelling / Ozan Koseoglu and Yusuf Arayici. Published/Produced London; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. Description 1 online resource (ix, 83 pages) ISBN 9780429827112 ebook (hardback) LC classification TL725.3.B8 Related names Arayici, Yusuf, author. Summary "This book details how Building Information Modelling is being successfully deployed in the planning, design, construction and future operation of the Istanbul New Airport, a mega-scale construction project incorporating a varying mix of infrastructures including terminals, runways, passenger gates, car parks, railways and roads. The book demonstrates how Airport Building Information Modelling (ABIM) is being used to: facilitate collaboration, cooperation and integrated project delivery - manage subcontractors and eliminate cost over-runs - reduce waste on site and enhance overall quality - connect people in a virtual

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environment to encourage collaborative working provide clients with an effective interface for lifecycle management including: design development, construction documentation, construction phases and BIM and Big Data Integration for future facilities management The book presents a best practice BIM project, demonstrating concurrent engineering, lean processes, collaborative design and construction, and effective construction management. Moreover, the book provides a visionary exemplar for the further use of BIM technologies in civil engineering projects including highways, railways and others on the way towards the Smart City vision. It is essential reading for all Built Environment and Engineering stakeholders"-Provided by publisher. Airport design and construction - Airport building information modelling - Concurrent design and construction with BIM - Mobile BIM for the airport construction - Key learnings about ABIM and paving the way for the airport operations. Airports--Turkey--Istanbul--Design and construction. Airport buildings--Turkey--Istanbul--Design and construction. Building information modeling--Turkey--Istanbul. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Airport building information modelling London; Routledge, 2020. 9781138329331 (DLC) 2019018145

Application of Thermo-fluid Processes in Energy Systems: Key Issues and Recent Developments for a Sustainable Future LCCN 2019768702 Type of material Book Main title Application of Thermo-fluid Processes in Energy Systems: Key Issues and Recent Developments for a Sustainable Future / edited by M. Masud K. Khan,

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Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Nur M. Sayeed Hassan. 1st ed. 2018. Singapore: Springer Singapore: Imprint: Springer, 2018. 1 online resource (XII, 280 pages 123 illustrations) PDF 9789811006975 Chowdhury, Ashfaque Ahmed, editor. Hassan, Nur M. Sayeed, editor. Khan, M. Masud K, editor. This book provides essential information on and case studies in the fields of energy technology, clean energy, energy efficiency, sustainability and the environment relevant to academics, researchers, practicing engineers, technologists and students. The individual chapters present cutting-edge research on key issues and recent developments in thermo-fluid processes, including but not limited to: energy technologies in process industries, applications of thermo-fluid processes in mining industries, applications of electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants, biofuels, energy efficiency in building systems, et cetera Helping readers develop an intuitive understanding of the relevant concepts in and solutions for achieving sustainability in medium and large-scale industries, the book offers a valuable resource for undergraduate, honors and postgraduate research students in the field of thermo-fluid engineering. Energy Technologies - Utilization of Nanofluid in Various Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Applications - Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a compression Ignition Engine Fulled with Biodiesel-Diesel Blends.- Correlation between physicochemical properties and quality of biodiesel - A Review of Micro-algal Biofuels, Challenges and Future Directions - Performance assessment of an electrostatic precipitator of a coal fired power

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plant - A case study for collecting smaller particles - Thermofluid Process Applications - Experimental Investigation and Molecular-Based Modeling of Crude Oil Density at Pressures to 270 MPa and Temperatures to 524 K - Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Baffled Attic Shaped Space Enhanced Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modelling Methodologies for Convective Boiling - A method of three dimensional thermo-fluid simulation of the receiver of a standard parabolic trough collector Enhancement of confined air jet impingement heat transfer using perforated pin fin heat sinks Multiphase Flow in Porous Media: Cake Formation During Extreme Drilling Processes - Optimising Pyrolysis Conditions for Thermal Conversion of Beauty Leaf Tree (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) Press Cake. Energy systems. Fluid mechanics. Fluids. Energy Systems. Engineering Fluid Dynamics. Fluid- and Aerodynamics. Print version: Application of thermo-fluid processes in energy systems. 9789811006951 (DLC) 2017947862 Printed edition: 9789811006951 Printed edition: 9789811006968 Printed edition: 9789811092299 Green Energy and Technology, 1865-3529 Green Energy and Technology, 1865-3529

Buckminster Fuller's World Game and its legacy LCCN 2021008561 Type of material Book Personal name Stott, Tim, author. Main title Buckminster Fuller's World Game and its legacy / Timothy Stott.

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New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022. 1 online resource 9780367483913 (ebk) (hbk) (pbk) JA72.5 "This book studies R. Buckminster Fuller's World Game and similar world games, past and present. Proposed by Fuller in 1964 and first played in colleges and universities across North America at a time of growing ecological crisis, the World Game attempted to turn data analysis, systems modelling, scenario building, computer technology and information design to more egalitarian ends to meet human needs. It challenged players to redistribute finite planetary resources more equitably, to 'make the world work'. Criticized and lauded in equal measure, the World Game has evolved through several formats and continues today in correspondence with debates on planetary stewardship, gamification, data management, and the democratic deficit. This book looks again at how the World Game has been played, focusing on its architecture, design, and gameplay. With hindsight, the World Game might appear naïve, utopian, or technocratic, but we share its problems, if not necessarily its solutions. Such a study will be of interest to scholars working in art history, design history, game studies, media studies, architecture, and the environmental humanities"-- Provided by publisher. Aboard Spaceship Earth - The First World Game Seminar - Ecogame - Ecologies of the future World gaming. Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983--Political and social views. World Game (Game theory)--History. Political games--United States--History.

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Forecasting--Simulation methods--History. Social prediction--History. Gamification--History. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Stott, Tim. Buckminster Fuller's World Game and its legacy New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022 9780367483906 (DLC) 2021008560 Routledge focus on art history and visual studies

Buckminster Fuller's World Game and its legacy LCCN 2021008560 Type of material Book Personal name Stott, Tim, author. Main title Buckminster Fuller's World Game and its legacy / Timothy Stott. Published/Produced New York, N.Y.: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022. ISBN 9780367483906 (hbk) 9781032058399 (pbk) (ebk) LC classification JA72.5 .S76 2022 Summary "This book studies R. Buckminster Fuller's World Game and similar world games, past and present. Proposed by Fuller in 1964 and first played in colleges and universities across North America at a time of growing ecological crisis, the World Game attempted to turn data analysis, systems modelling, scenario building, computer technology and information design to more egalitarian ends to meet human needs. It challenged players to redistribute finite planetary resources more equitably, to 'make the world work'. Criticized and lauded in equal measure, the World Game has evolved through several formats and continues today in correspondence with debates on planetary stewardship, gamification, data management, and the democratic deficit. This book looks again at how the World Game has been played, focusing on

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its architecture, design, and gameplay. With hindsight, the World Game might appear naïve, utopian, or technocratic, but we share its problems, if not necessarily its solutions. Such a study will be of interest to scholars working in art history, design history, game studies, media studies, architecture, and the environmental humanities"-- Provided by publisher. Aboard Spaceship Earth - The First World Game Seminar - Ecogame - Ecologies of the future World gaming. Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983--Political and social views. World Game (Game theory)--History. Political games--United States--History. Forecasting--Simulation methods--History. Social prediction--History. Gamification--History. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Stott, Tim. Buckminster Fuller's World Game and its legacy New York, N.Y.: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022 9780367483913 (DLC) 2021008561 Routledge focus on art history and visual studies

Building information systems in the construction industry LCCN 2017958180 Type of material Book Main title Building information systems in the construction industry / editors: A. Galiano, University of Alicante, Spain, L. Mahdjoubi, University of the West of England, UK, C. A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute, UK. Published/Produced Southampton [England]; Boston: WIT Press, [2018] Description 169 pages: illustrations (some color); 27 cm ISBN 9781784662752 LC classification TH438.13 .B857 2018 Related names Galiano, A., editor.

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Mahdjoubi, L., editor. Brebbia, C. A., editor. Building information modelling in operations of maintenance at the University of Alicante / Antonio Galiano-Garrigós & María Dolores AndújarMontoya - Comparative visualization of BIM geometry and corresponding point clouds / V. Stojanovic, R. Richter, J. Döllner & M. Trapp Implementing a BIM collaborative workflow in the UK construction market / Nidaa Alazmeh, Jason Underwood & Paul Coates - Building conditions assessment of built heritage in historic building information modeling / Silvana Bruno & Fabio Fatiguso - The role of BIM for safety and security management / Fabio Garzia & Mara Lombardi Enhancing learning outcomes by introducing BIM in civil engineering studies - experiences from a university college in Norway / Ann Karina Lassen, Eilif Hjelseth & Tor Tollnes - Using BIM models for the design of large rail infrastructure projects: key factors for a successful implementation / Timothy Nuttens, Vincent De Breuck, Robby Cattoor, Kurt Decock & Isabelle Hemeryck - BIM - towards the entire lifecycle / Ralf Becker, Viktoria Falk, Sabrina Hoenen, Sören Loges, Sven Stumm, Jörg Blankenback, Sigrid Brell-Cokcan, Linda Hildebrandt & Dirk Vallée - The use of HBIM models as a tool for dissemination and public use management of historical architecture: a review / Elena Salvador García, Jorge García-Valldecabres & María José Viñals Blasco - Exploring the linkages between the adoption of BIM and design error reduction / Johnny K. W. Wong, Jason X. Zhou & Albert P. C. Chan - The awareness of integrated project delivery and building information modelling - facilitating construction projects / K. Govender, J. Nyagwachi, J. J. Smallwood & C. J. Allen - A comparative suitability study between classification systems for

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BIM in heritage / Noha Saleeb, Mohammed Marzouk & Usama Atteya - Investigating benefits and criticisms of BIM for construction scheduling in SMEs: an Italian case study / Giada Malacarne, Giovanni Toller, Carmen Marcher, Michael Riedl & Dominik T. Matt - BIM and genetic algorithm optimisation for sustainable building envelope design / Y.-W. Lim, H. A. Majid, A. A. Samah, M. H. Ahmad, D. R. Ossen, M. F. Harum & F. Shahsavari. Building information modeling. Building--Data processing. Construction industry--Information resources management. Includes bibliographical references and index.

Bursty Human Dynamics LCCN 2019747182 Type of material Book Personal name Karsai, Márton. author. Main title Bursty Human Dynamics / by Márton Karsai, Hang-Hyun Jo, Kimmo Kaski. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XVI, 121 pages 17 illustrations, 16 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783319685403 Related names Jo, Hang-Hyun. author. Kaski, Kimmo. author. Summary This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of

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human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the introduction of conceptually different modelling approaches. The authors address all of these perspectives objectively, highlight their strengths and shortcomings, and mention possible extensions to them. The fifth chapter addresses the effect of individual heterogeneous behaviour on collective dynamics. This question in particular has been investigated in various systems including spreading phenomena, random walks, and opinion formation dynamics. Here the main issues are whether burstiness speeds up or slows down the coevolving processes, and how burstiness modifies time-dependent paths in the system that determine the spreading patterns of any kind of information or influence. Finally in the sixth chapter the authors end the review with a discussion and future perspectives. It is an ideal book for researchers and students who wish to enter the field of bursty human dynamics or want to expand their knowledge on such phenomena. 1. Introduction - 2. Measures and characterisations - 3. Empirical findings in human bursty dynamics 4. Models and mechanicsms of bursty behaviour 5. Dynamical processes on bursty systems - 6. Discussion. Communication.

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Data mining. Data structures (Computer science). Econophysics. Sociophysics. Statistical physics. Data-driven Science, Modeling and Theory Building. Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Theory. Communication Studies. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Data Structures. Print version: Bursty human dynamics. 9783319685380 (DLC) 2017957209 Printed edition: 9783319685380 Printed edition: 9783319685397 SpringerBriefs in Complexity, 2191-5326 SpringerBriefs in Complexity, 2191-5326

Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues LCCN 2019771510 Type of material Book Main title Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues / edited by Elisabeth A. Lloyd, Eric Winsberg. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XXXIII, 497 pages 33 illustrations) PDF ISBN 9783319650586 Related names A. Lloyd, Elisabeth, editor. Winsberg, Eric, editor. Summary This edited collection of works by leading climate scientists and philosophers introduces readers to issues in the foundations, evaluation, confirmation, and application of climate models. It engages with important topics directly affecting public policy,

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including the role of doubt, the use of satellite data, and the robustness of models. Climate Modelling provides an early and significant contribution to the burgeoning Philosophy of Climate Science field that will help to shape our understanding of these topics in both philosophy and the wider scientific context. It offers insight into the reasons we should believe what climate models say about the world but addresses the issues that inform how reliable and well-confirmed these models are. This book will be of interest to students of climate science, philosophy of science, and of particular relevance to policy makers who depend on the models that forecast future states of the climate and ocean in order to make public policy decisions. 1. Introduction; Elisabeth A. Lloyd and Eric Winsberg - Section 1: Confirmation and Evidence - 2. The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change: How Do We Know We're Not Wrong?; Naomi Oreskes - 3. Satellite Data and Climate Models Redux - 3a. Introduction to Chapter 3: Satellite Data and Climate Models; Elisabeth A. Lloyd - Ch. 3b Fact Sheet to "Consistency of Modelled and Observed Temperature Trends in the Tropical Troposphere"; Benjamin D. Santer et al. - Ch. 3c Reprint of "Consistency of Modelled and Observed Temperature Trends in the Tropical Troposphere"; Benjamin D. Santer and others - 4. The Role of 'Complex' Empiricism in the Debates about Satellite Data and Climate Models; Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 5. Reconciling Climate Model/Data Discrepancies: The Case of the Trees That Didn't Bark; Michael Mann - 6. Downscaling of Climate Information; Linda O. Mearns and others - Section 2: Uncertainties and Robustness - 7. The Significance of Robust Model Projections; Wendy S. Parker - 8. Building Trust, Removing Doubt? Robustness Analysis and Climate Modeling; Jay Odenbaugh - Section 3: Climate Models as Guides

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to Policy - 9. Climate Model Confirmation: From Philosophy to Predicting Climate in the Real World; Reto Knutti - 10. Uncertainty in Climate Science and Climate Policy; Jonathan Rougier and Michel Crucifix - 11. Communicating Uncertainty to Policy Makers: The Ineliminable Role of Values; Eric Winsberg - 12. Modeling Climate Policies: A Critical Look at Integrated Assessment Models; Mathias Frisch - 13. Modelling Mitigation and Adaptation Policies to Predict their Effectiveness: The Limits of Randomized Controlled Trials; Alexandre Marcellesi and Nancy D. Cartwright. Climate change. Climate. Environment. Environmental geography. Philosophy and science. Climate Change. Climate, general. Environment Studies. Environmental Geography. Philosophy of Science. Print version: Climate modelling (DLC) 2017963873 Printed edition: 9783319650579 Printed edition: 9783319650593 Printed edition: 9783319879390

Compact Slot Array Antennas for Wireless Communications LCCN 2019750886 Type of material Book Personal name Sangster, Alan J, author. Main title Compact Slot Array Antennas for Wireless Communications / by Alan J. Sangster. Edition 1st ed. 2019. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2019. Description 1 online resource (XXXI, 350 pages) PDF

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9783030017538 This book describes and provides design guidelines for antennas that achieve compactness by using the slot radiator as the fundamental building block within a periodic array, rather than a phased array. It provides the basic electromagnetic tools required to design and analyse these novel antennas, with sample calculations where relevant. The book presents a focused introduction and valuable insights into the relevant antenna technology, together with an overview of the main directions in the evolving technology of compact planar arrays. While the book discusses the historical evolution of compact array antennas, its main focus is on summarising the extensive body of literature on compact antennas. With regard to the now ubiquitous slot radiator, it seeks to demonstrate how, despite significant antenna size reductions that at times even seem to defy the laws of physics, desirable radiation pattern properties can be preserved. This is supported by an examination of recent advances in frequency selective surfaces and in metamaterials, which can, if handled correctly, be used to facilitate physics-defying designs. The book offers a valuable source of information for communication systems and antenna design engineers, especially thanks to its overview of trends in compact planar arrays, yet will also be of interest to students and researchers, as it provides a focused introduction and insights into this highly relevant antenna technology. Evolution of Compact Slot Antennas Fundamentals of Electomagnetic Radiation Compact Aperture Antennas - Computational Modelling Techniques for Slot Antennas - Moment Method Models of Compact Slot Antennas Resonant and Non-resonant Linear Slot Arrays Conventional Waveguide Fed Travelling-wave Slot Arrays - Frequency Scanned and Leaky-wave

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Linear Slot Arrays - Compact Planar Reflectarrays - Compact Planar Resonator Arrays Retrodirective Compact Array Antennas. Electrodynamics. Magnetic materials. Magnetism. Metals. Microwaves. Mobile communication systems. Optical engineering. Optics. Wireless communication systems. Wireless and Mobile Communication. Classical Electrodynamics. Magnetism, Magnetic Materials. Metallic Materials. Microwaves, RF and Optical Engineering. Print version: Compact slot array antennas for wireless communications. 9783030017521 (DLC) 2018959269 Printed edition: 9783030017521 Printed edition: 9783030017545 Signals and Communication Technology, 18604862 Signals and Communication Technology, 18604862

Concrete in extreme environments LCCN 2020479554 Type of material Book Main title Concrete in extreme environments / edited by John W. Bull and Xiangming Zhou. Published/Produced Caithness, Scotland, UK: Whittles Publishing, [2018] ©2018 Description x, 230 pages: illustrations (chiefly color), color maps; 25 cm ISBN 9781849953276 hardcover 1849953279 hardcover

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TA681 .C752 2018 Bull, John W., editor. Zhou, Xiangming (Professor in civil engineering), editor. Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction / Maurice Levitt - 1.1. Background - 1.2. The chromate ion - 1.3. Micro-concrete - 1.4. The PVA admixture debacle - 1.5. Flag and kerb paper usage in manufacture - 1.6. The hardness/strength relationship - 1.7. Precision tunnel segments - 1.8. Rocket exhaust concrete enclosure - 1.9. Explosive-proof cladding and roofing - 1.10. Silage - 2. Recognising severe environments / Don Wimpenny - 2.1. Introduction - 2.2. Case studies Case Study A Hot saline environments - the coastal zone of the Arabian Peninsula - Case Study B Softwater leaching in a service reservoir - Case Study C Thaumasite sulfate attack to bridge foundations - Case Study D Acid attack to a bund at a water treatment works - Case Study E Fire - the Buncefield incident - Case Study F Abrasion in aggregate storage bins - Case Study G Algae experiences from Blackpool - Case Study H Mould growth on long-span bridges - a visual problem - 3. Effects of typical extreme environments on concrete dams / Cheng-dong Liu - 3.1. Introduction - 3.2. Analysis of the effect of the Wenchuan earthquake on a concrete dam - 3.3. Effect of extreme temperature change on concrete dams 3.4. Behaviour analysis of the safe operation of Shenwo reservoir in an extreme cold environment 3.5. Conclusions - 4. Extreme response of reinforced concrete framed buildings using static and dynamic procedures for progressive collapse analysis / D. Cicola - 4.1. Introduction - 4.2. Direct and indirect design methods - 4.3. Numerical models for progressive collapse assessment - 4.4. Reference framed structure - 4.5. Nonlinear FE simulations: results and discussion - 4.6.

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Conclusions - 5. Use of calcium aluminate cements in sewer networks submitted to H2S biogenic corrosion / Dominique Guinot - 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Stakes - 5.3. H2S biogenic corrosion principles - 5.4. Portland cement provides limited response to H2S biogenic deterioration - 5.5. Calcium aluminate resistance to H2S biogenic corrosion: historical reminder - 5.6. The science behind CAC resistance to H2S biogenic corrosion - 5.7. The challenge of testing the biogenic corrosion resistance of building materials - 5.8. Application methods and practical consideration - 5.9. Conclusions - 6. High cycle fatigue of concrete structures in harsh environments: design and monitoring / Mads K. Hovgaard - 6.1. Introduction and background - 6.2. Stress - life theory of fatigue - 6.3. Physical damage mechanism - 6.4. Inclusion of information from inspections and monitoring 6.5. Example, continued: designing the SHM system - 6.6. Conclusions and further directions Appendix A MATLAB code for probabilistic model of concrete fatigue - 7. Validation of models for prediction of chloride ingress in concrete exposed to a de-icing salt road environment / Luping Tang - 7.1. Introduction - 7.2. Models for prediction of chloride ingress - 7.3. Uncertainty in the modelling of chloride ingress - 7.4. Validation of models against long-term site data - 7.5. Conclusions and recommendations - 7A.1. Modelling of free chloride ingress - 7A.2. Calculation of total chloride content - 7A.3. Prediction of service life - 7A.4. Consideration of uncertainty - 7A.5. Equations for the parameters related to the concrete - 7A.6. Suggested parameters for the Swedish road environment - 8. Evolution of corrosion parameters in a buried pilot nuclear waste container in El Cabril / F. Jimenez 8.1. Introduction - 8.2. Pilot container and its instrumentation - 8.3. Techniques - 8.4. Results -

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8.5. Discussion - 8.6. Conclusions Acknowledgements - 9. Reactions of cements in geothermal wells / Neil B. Milestone - 9.1. Introduction - 9.2. Effects of temperature on cement hydration - 9.3. Durability - 9.4. Mechanism of carbonation - 9.5. Mechanism of corrosion - 9.6. The role of silica and its different forms in hydrothermal curing - 9.7. Discussion 9.8. Concluding remarks. Concrete construction. Extreme environments. Includes bibliographical references and index.

Conformance Checking: Relating Processes and Models LCCN 2019742414 Type of material Book Personal name Carmona, Josep. author. Main title Conformance Checking: Relating Processes and Models / by Josep Carmona, Boudewijn van Dongen, Andreas Solti, Matthias Weidlich. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XIV, 270 pages 164 illustrations, 63 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783319994147 Related names Solti, Andreas. author. van Dongen, Boudewijn. author. Weidlich, Matthias. author. Summary This book introduces readers to the field of conformance checking as a whole and outlines the fundamental relation between modelled and recorded behaviour. Conformance checking interrelates the modelled and recorded behaviour of a given process and provides techniques and methods for comparing and analysing observed instances of a process in the presence of a model, independent of the model's origin. Its goal is to

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provide an overview of the essential techniques and methods in this field at an intuitive level, together with precise formalisations of its underlying principles. The book is divided into three parts, that are meant to cover different perspectives of the field of conformance checking. Part I presents a comprehensive yet accessible overview of the essential concepts used to interrelate modelled and recorded behaviour. It also serves as a reference for assessing how conformance checking efforts could be applied in specific domains. Next, Part II provides readers with detailed insights into algorithms for conformance checking, including the most commonly used formal notions and their instantiation for specific analysis questions. Lastly, Part III highlights applications that help to make sense of conformance checking results, thereby providing a necessary next step to increase the value of a given process model. They help to interpret the outcomes of conformance checking and incorporate them by means of enhancement and repair techniques. Providing the core building blocks of conformance checking and describing its main applications, this book mainly addresses students specializing in business process management, researchers entering process mining and conformance checking for the first time, and advanced professionals whose work involves process evaluation, modelling and optimization. 1 Introduction to Conformance Checking - 2 The Basics of Processes and Models - 3 Quality Dimensions for Relating Processes and Models - 4 A First Take on Conformance Checking - 5 Preliminaries to Conformance Checking - 6 Preparation - 7 Aligning Event Data and Process Models - 8 Interpreting Alignments - 9 Advanced Alignment Techniques - 10 Understanding Processes - 11 Improving Processes Using Conformance Checking - 12 Conformance

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Checking Software - 13 Epilogue - References Index. Application software. Big data. Data mining. Industrial management. Management information systems. Information Systems Applications (incl. Internet). Big Data/Analytics. Business Process Management. Computer Appl. in Administrative Data Processing. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Print version: Conformance checking: relating processes and models 9783319994130 (DLC) 2018956267 Printed edition: 9783319994130 Printed edition: 9783319994154

Construction Safety Informatics LCCN 2019744006 Type of material Book Personal name Li, Rita Yi Man. author. Main title Construction Safety Informatics / by Rita Yi Man Li. Edition 1st ed. 2019. Published/Produced Singapore: Springer Singapore: Imprint: Springer, 2019. Description 1 online resource (XII, 144 pages 40 illustrations, 34 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9789811357619 Summary This book examines construction safety from the perspective of informatics and econometrics. It demonstrates the potential of employing various information technology approaches to share construction safety knowledge. In addition, it presents the application of econometrics in construction safety studies, such as an analytic

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hierarchy process used to create a construction safety index. It also discusses structure equation and dynamic panel models for the analysis of construction safety claims. Lastly, it describes the use of mathematical and econometric models to investigate construction practitioners' safety. Construction safety artificial intelligence chatbot Knowledge sharing by IoT and Web 2.0: a machine learning approach - Leading indicators and informatics for construction safety - Construction safety index: an AHP approach - Application of structural equation modelling in studying construction safety - Mathematical modelling for analysing construction safey - Construction near misses reporting. Artificial intelligence. Building--Superintendence. Construction industry--Management. Industrial safety. Quality control. Reliability. Risk management. Construction Management. Artificial Intelligence. Quality Control, Reliability, Safety and Risk. Risk Management. Print version: Construction safety informatics. 9789811357602 (DLC) 2019931516 Printed edition: 9789811357602 Printed edition: 9789811357626 chain management revisited: concepts and case 2020000730 Book Construction supply chain management Construction supply chain management revisited: concepts and case studies / edited by Stephen Pryke, Professor of Supply Chain and Project

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Networks, Bartlett School of Construction and Project Management, University College London. Second edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2020. 9781119450689 (hardback) (adobe pdf) (epub) TH438 .C6425 2020 Pryke, Stephen, editor. "This book provides a unique appraisal of supply chain management (SCM) concepts brought together with lessons from industry and analysis gathered from extensive research on how supply chains are managed in the construction industry. The research from leading international academics has been drawn together with the experience from some of the industry's foremost SCM practitioners to provide both the experienced researcher and the industry practitioner a thorough grounding in its principles as well as an illustration of SCM as a methodology for enhancing construction industry project success. The second edition responds to the continued interest both academically and practically in SCM. It provides the opportunity to build upon the interest created by the first edition and to bring the material up to date. The new book will incorporate chapters dealing with Building Information Modelling, sustainability, the 'Demand Chain' in projects, the link between self-organising networks and supply chains, decision-making, 'Lean', mega-projects, risk transfer and allocation, behaviours, innovation, trust, supply chain design, alliances and knowledge transfer. Supply Chain Management (SCM) techniques have been used successfully in various industries, such as manufacturing and food processing, for decades. The supply chain in these industries encompasses all the activities associated with procuring and processing raw materials to completion of the end

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product. It is usually focused on repeatedly manufactured products, so to use the term 'Supply Chain Management' in the context of the construction industry suggests that it is possible to adopt those practices without significantly adapting them to reflect the particular nature of the construction industry and its culture"-- Provided by publisher. The digital supply chain: Mobilising supply chain management philosophy to reconceptualise digital technologies and building information modelling (BIM) / Eleni Papadonikolaki - At the interface: When social network analysis and supply chain management meet / Huda Almadhoob - Green supply chain management in construction: A systematic review / Niamh Murtagh and Sulafa Badi. Construction industry--Management--Case studies. Business logistics--Case studies. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Construction supply chain management revisited Second edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2020. 9781119450559 (DLC) 2020000731 chain management revisited: concepts and case 2020000731 Book Construction supply chain management Construction supply chain management revisited: concepts and case studies / edited by Stephen Pryke, Professor of Supply Chain and Project Networks, Bartlett School of Construction and Project Management, University College London. Second edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2020. 1 online resource 9781119450542 (epub) 9781119450559 (adobe pdf)

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(hardback) TH438 Pryke, Stephen, editor. "This book provides a unique appraisal of supply chain management (SCM) concepts brought together with lessons from industry and analysis gathered from extensive research on how supply chains are managed in the construction industry. The research from leading international academics has been drawn together with the experience from some of the industry's foremost SCM practitioners to provide both the experienced researcher and the industry practitioner a thorough grounding in its principles as well as an illustration of SCM as a methodology for enhancing construction industry project success. The second edition responds to the continued interest both academically and practically in SCM. It provides the opportunity to build upon the interest created by the first edition and to bring the material up to date. The new book will incorporate chapters dealing with Building Information Modelling, sustainability, the 'Demand Chain' in projects, the link between self-organising networks and supply chains, decision-making, 'Lean', mega-projects, risk transfer and allocation, behaviours, innovation, trust, supply chain design, alliances and knowledge transfer. Supply Chain Management (SCM) techniques have been used successfully in various industries, such as manufacturing and food processing, for decades. The supply chain in these industries encompasses all the activities associated with procuring and processing raw materials to completion of the end product. It is usually focused on repeatedly manufactured products, so to use the term 'Supply Chain Management' in the context of the construction industry suggests that it is possible to adopt those practices without significantly adapting them to reflect the particular nature of the

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construction industry and its culture"-- Provided by publisher. The digital supply chain: Mobilising supply chain management philosophy to reconceptualise digital technologies and building information modelling (BIM) / Eleni Papadonikolaki - At the interface: When social network analysis and supply chain management meet / Huda Almadhoob - Green supply chain management in construction: A systematic review / Niamh Murtagh and Sulafa Badi. Construction industry--Management--Case studies. Business logistics--Case studies. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Construction supply chain management Construction supply chain management revisited Second edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2020. 9781119450689 (DLC) 2020000730

Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 15th International Conference, CDVE 2018, Hangzhou, China, October 2124, 2018, Proceedings LCCN 2019751584 Type of material Book Main title Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 15th International Conference, CDVE 2018, Hangzhou, China, October 21-24, 2018, Proceedings / edited by Yuhua Luo. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XIII, 340 pages 136 illustrations) PDF ISBN 9783030005603 Related names Luo, Yuhua. editor. Summary This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering, CDVE 2018, held in Hangzhou, China, in October 2018.

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The 34 full papers presented in this book together with 15 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 75 submissions. The papers cover a broad range of topics in the field of cooperative visualization; cooperative design; cooperative engineering; basic theories, methods and technologies that support CDVE; and cooperative applications. TranSeVis: A Visual Analytics System for Transportation Data Sensing and Exploration ChOWDER: An Adaptive Tiled Display Wall Driver for Dynamic Remote Collaboration Usability of Information Seeking Tools in 3D Mobile Interaction with Public Displays Coordinating User Selections in Collaborative Smart-phone Large-display Multi-device Environments - Intelligent Cloud Storage Management for Layered Tiers - Some Discoveries from a Concurrency Benchmark Study of Major Cloud Storage Systems - A Cloud Architecture for Service Robots - Improving FBS Representation Model Based on Living Systems Theory for Cooperative Design - CoVim+CoEmacs: A Heterogeneous Co-Editing System as A Potential Solution to Editor War - Managing MultiSynchronous Sessions for Collaborative Editing Lean-led, Evidence-Based and Integrated Design: Toward a Collaborative Briefing Process Integrating Construction Specifications and Building Information Modeling - The Process of Collective Architectural Conception: Characterizing Cognitive Operations of Conception Specific to an Agency - PSO-based Cooperative Strategy Simulation for Climate Game Problem - Use of an Agent-based Model and Game Theory to Simulate the Behavior of Former Members of the FARC Group in the Reinsertion Process and Peace Agreement in Colombia - Joint Digital Simulation Platforms for Safety and

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Preparedness - IIS-MSP: An Intelligent Interactive System of Patrol Robot with Multi-Source Perception - Expected Time for Comfort Achievement in Human-Robot Emotion Communications - Wi-Fi based Teleoperation System of a Robot with Four Degrees of Freedom Using a computer and a smartphone - Urban Transdisciplinary Co-study in a Cooperative Multicultural Working Project - Cooperative Design in a Visual Interactive Environment Automatic Generation of Architecture in Context Designing Cooperative User Experience for Smart Locks - 3D CyberCOP: A Collaborative Platform for Cybersecurity Data Analysis and Training Conflict Coordination and Its Implementation Probability of Product Low-carbon Design Collaborative Tool for the Construction Site to Enhance Lean Project Delivery - Integrated Simulation Modeling Method for Complex Products Collaborative Design Using Engineering APP - Smart and Cooperative Visualization Framework for a Window Company Production Reduction Methods for Design Rationale Knowledge Model - SysML Extension Method Supporting Design Rationale Knowledge Model A Network Embedding Based Approach for Telecommunications Fraud Detection - Internet of Things for Epilepsy Detection in Patients - Design Rationale Knowledge Management: A Survey Providing Sustainable Workforce for Care Services Through Citizen Collaboration - Application of Apriori Algorithm in Meteorological Disaster Information Mining - Fish Swarm Based Manmachine Cooperative Photographing Location Positioning Algorithm - Designing An Anxiety Self-regulation and Education Mobile Application for High School Students - Cooperative Decision Making for Resource Allocation - Iron and Steel Enterprises Big Data Visualization Analysis Based

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on Spark - Visualization of Farm Land Use by Classifying Satellite Images - Toward a View Coordination Methodology for Collaborative Shared Large-display Environments - Spark-based Distributed Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm - Improving Word Representation Quality Trained by word2vec via A More Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Method Towards Collaborative Immersive Environments for Parametric Modelling - Reviewing the Interaction Aspects of a Line of Electronic Brainstorming Social Interfaces - Building Shared Design Rationale Knowledge Model for Collaborative Design - Achieving Cooperative Design Based on BIM Cloud Platform - Ecological Scheduling for Small Hydropower Groups Based on Grey Wolf Algorithm with Simulated Annealing - Design Rationale Knowledge-integrated MBD Model to Support Collaboration Between Design and Manufacturing. Artificial intelligence. Computer communication systems. Database management. Special purpose computers. User interfaces (Computer systems). User Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction. Artificial Intelligence. Computer Communication Networks. Database Management. Special Purpose and Application-Based Systems. Print version: Cooperative design, visualization, and engineering. 9783030005597 (DLC) 2018954067 Printed edition: 9783030005597 Printed edition: 9783030005610 Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI; 11151 Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI; 11151

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Customization 4.0: Proceedings of the 9th World Mass Customization & Personalization Conference (MCPC 2017), Aachen, Germany, November 20th-21st, 2017 LCCN 2019746024 Type of material Book Main title Customization 4.0: Proceedings of the 9th World Mass Customization & Personalization Conference (MCPC 2017), Aachen, Germany, November 20th21st, 2017 / edited by Stephan Hankammer, Kjeld Nielsen, Frank T. Piller, Günther Schuh, Ning Wang. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XVIII, 702 pages 181 illustrations, 88 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783319775562 Related names Hankammer, Stephan. editor. Nielsen, Kjeld. editor. Piller, Frank T. editor. Schuh, Günther. editor. Wang, Ning. editor. Summary This proceedings volume presents the latest research from the worldwide mass customization and personalization (MCP) community bringing together new thoughts and results from various disciplines within the field. The chapters are based on papers from the MCPC 2017. The book showcases research and practice from authors that see MCP as an opportunity to extend or even revolutionize current business models. The current trends of Industrie 4.0, digital manufacturing, and the rise of smart products allow for a fresh perspective on MCP: Customization 4.0. The book places a new set of values in the centre of the debate: a world with finite resources, global population growth, and exacerbating climate change needs smart thinking to engage the most

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effective capabilities and resources. It discusses how Customization 4.0 fosters sustainable development and creates shared value for companies, customers, consumers, and the society as a whole. The chapters of this book are contributed by a wide range of specialists, offering cutting-edge research, as well as insightful advances in industrial practice in key areas. The MCPC 2017 has a strong focus on real life MCP applications, and this proceedings volume reflects this. MCP strategies aim to profit from the fact that people are different. Their objective is to turn customer heterogeneities into opportunities, hence addressing "long tail" business models. The objective of MCP is to provide goods and services that best serve individual customers' needs with near mass production efficiency. This proceedings volume highlights the interdisciplinary work of thought leaders, technology developers, and researchers with corporate entrepreneurs putting these strategies into practice. Chapter 24 is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com. Part 1: Customization and Personalization via Smart Products and Smart Services - Chapter 1: User-centered Service Innovation for Commercial Vehicles: Plugging in the Handyman market Chapter 2: Design for Mass Individualisation: Introducing Networked Innovation Approach Chapter 3: An Exploratory Study of User Interaction with Smart Products for Customization in the Usage Stage - Chapter 4: Datamodels for PSS development and configuration: existing approaches and future research - Chapter 5: Demand Engineering in Mass Customization Using a Data Driven Approach - Chapter 6: Adapting Product-Service System methods for the digital era - requirements for Smart PSS engineering - Part 1: Digital Manufacturing and Industrie 4.0 - Chapter

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7: A Marketplace for Smart Production Ecosystems - Chapter 8: Exploring Barriers Towards the Development of Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems for Mass Customized Products: an Industrial Survey - Chapter 9: 3D Avatar Platforms -Tomorrows Gateways for Digitized Persons into Virtual Worlds - Chapter 10: Automated processing of planning modules in factory planning by means of constraint-solving using the example of production segmentation Chapter 11: A digital fabrication infrastructure enabling distributed design and production of custom furniture - Chapter 12: Mass Customization 4.0 in AEC: Additive Manufacturing for Innovative Building Systems - Chapter 13: Managing Customized and Profitable Product Portfolios using Advanced Analytics - Chapter 14: Impacts of Industry 4.0 on the specific case of mass customization through modeling and simulation approach - Part 3: Mass Customization and Sustainability - Chapter 15: Mass Customization and Personalization: a way to improve sustainability beyond a common paradox - Chapter 16: Mass customization and environmental sustainability: a large-scale empirical study Chapter 17: Opportunities and Challenges of product-service systems for sustainable mass customization - a case study on Televisions Chapter 18: Effects of Mass Customization on Sustainability - A Literature-based Analysis Chapter 19: Exploring drivers and barriers for sustainable use of resources: The case of high-tech mass customizers in the German textile industry Chapter 20: A preparatory approach to Environmental Assessment for sustainable mass customization - Part 4: Choice Navigation and Customer Interactions for MCP - Chapter 21: The Importance of Choice Navigation in Starting Configurator Projects - Chapter 22: User Interface

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Trends for Mobile Optimized Product Configurators - Chapter 23: An Evaluation Model For Web-based 3D Mass Customization Toolkit Design - Chapter 24: Front-end/Back-end Integration in Mass Customization: Challenges and Opportunities - Chapter 25: Design and development of the CEM-dashboard - a diagnostic tool to determine your current position and improvement directions in customer experience management - Chapter 26: Product Configuration in the ETO and Capital Goods Industry: A Literature Review and Challenges - Chapter 27: The Individualization of Mass Customization: Exploring the Value of Individual Thinking Style through Consumer Neuroscience - Chapter 28: User Interface Modifications in Established Product Configurators - Part 5: Solution Space Development and Variety Management - Chapter 29: Data Driven Product Family Modelling with Feedback - Chapter 30: Production Platform Development through the Four Loops of Concern Chapter 31: Integrate customer order decoupling point and mass customisation concepts: a literature review - Chapter 32: Mass Customization in Food Industries: Case and Literature Study - Chapter 33: Can the SME successfully adopt Mass Customization? - Chapter 34: Productivity, Challenges and Applying Mass Customization in the Building and Construction Industry - Chapter 35: Flexibility in Mass Customization of Houses Chapter 36: Product and service variety versus internal performance - towards new balances Chapter 37: Validation of Metrics for Mass Customization - a pre-study of validation methods - Chapter 38: Teaching solution space development: Experiences from the Hanover Knowledge-Based-Design-Lab - Part 6: Mass Customization of Textiles and Fashion Products as a Special Field of Application - Chapter 39:

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Fashion and Apparel Industry 4.0 and Smart Mass Customization Approach for Clothing Product Design - Chapter 40: Individual on-demand produced clothing - ultra fast fashion production system- - Chapter 41: myShopNET: personalized consumer goods e-commerce platform - Chapter 42: Mass Customization Practices of Malaysian SMEs Apparel Sector: An Exploratory Survey Chapter 43: Attitudes Toward Apparel Mass Customization: Canadian Consumer Segmented by LifeStyle and Demographics. Business-Data processing. Industrial management. Information technology. Management. Manufactures. Innovation/Technology Management. IT in Business. Manufacturing, Machines, Tools, Processes. Print version: Customization 4.0: Proceedings of the 9th World Mass Customization & Personalization Conference (MCPC 2017), Aachen, Germany, November 20th-21st, 2017 9783319775555 (DLC) 2018943125 Printed edition: 9783030084790 Printed edition: 9783319775555 Printed edition: 9783319775579 Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, 2198-7246 Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, 2198-7246

Design Computing and Cognition '18 LCCN 2019737144 Type of material Book Main title Design Computing and Cognition '18 / edited by John S. Gero. Edition 1st ed. 2019.

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Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2019. 1 online resource (XIV, 740 pages 405 illustrations, 186 illustrations in color.) PDF 9783030053635 Gero, John S. editor. This is the proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'18) held at the Polytecnico di Milano in Italy. This volume presents both advances in theory and applications and demonstrates the depth and breadth of design computing and design cognition. Design thinking, the label given to the acts of designing, has become a paradigmatic view that has transcended the discipline of design and is now widely used in business and elsewhere. As a consequence there is an increasing interest in design research. This volume contains papers that represent the state-of-the-art research and developments in design computing and design cognition. This book is of particular interest to researchers, developers and users of advanced computation in design and those who need to gain a better understanding of designing that can be obtained through empirical studies. Preface - List of Reviewers - New Design Methods:Towards the Rapid Design of Engineered Systems Through Deep Neural Networks, by Christopher McComb - Deep Componentbased Neural Network Energy Modelling for Early Design Stage Prediction, by Sundaravelpandian Singaravel and Philipp Geyer - Unsuccessful External Search: Using Neuroimaging to Understand Fruitless Periods of Design Ideation Involving Inspirational Stimuli, by Kosa GoucherLambert, Jarrod Moss and Jonathan Cagan - Designing With and For the Crowd: A Cognitive Study of Design Processes in NatureNet, by

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Stephen MacNeil, Sarah Abdellahi, Mary Lou Maher, Jin Goog Kim, Mohammad Mahzoon and Kazjon Grace - A Comparison of Tree Search Method for Graph Topology Design Problems, by Ada Rhodes Short, Bryony Dupont and Matt Campbell - Design Cognition - Design Approaches: Externalizing Co-Design Cognition through Immersive Retrospection, byTomás Dorta, Emmanuel Beaudry Marchand and Davide Pierini - Demystifying the Creative Qualities of Evolving Actions in Design Reasoning Processes, by Tamir ElKhouly - The Effect of Tangible Interaction on Spatial Design Tasks, by Jingoog Kim, Mary Maher and Lina Lee - Sidebyside HumanComputer Design using a Tangible User Interface, by Matt Law, Nikhil Dhawan, Hyunseung Bang, SoYeon Yoon, Daniel Selva and Guy Hoffman - Design Synthesis: Utility of Evolutionary Design in Architectural Form Finding: An Investigation into Constraint Handling Strategies, by Likai Wang, Patrick Janssen and Guohua Ji - Exploring the Feature Space to Aid Learning in Design Space Exploration, by Hyunseung Bang, Lily Shi, SoYeon Yoon, Guy Hoffman and Daniel Selva Redefining Supports: Extending Mass Customization with Digital Tools for Collaborative Residential Design, by Tian Tian Lo, Basem Eid Mohamed and Marc Aurel Schnabel - Voxel Synthesis for Generative Design, by Matvey Khokhlov, Immanuel Koh and Jeffrey Huang Design Theory: Model based abduction in designs, by Lauri Koskela and Ehud Kroll - Ekphrasis as a Basis for a Framework for Creative Design Processes, by Udo Kannengiesser and John Gero Notes for an Improvisational Specification of Design Spaces, by Alexandros Charidis - Design of Transfer Reinforcement Learning Mechanisms for Autonomous Collision Avoidance, by Xiongqing Liu and Yan Jin - Design Cognition - Design

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Behaviors: Building a Social-Cognitive Framework for Design: Personality and Design Self-Efficacy Effects on Pro-Design Behaviors, by Hristina Milojevic and Yan Jin - Cognitive Style and Field Knowledge in Complex Design Problem Solving: A Comparative Case Study of Decision Support Systems, by Yuan Ling Zi Shi, Hyunseung Bang, Guy Hoffman, Daniel Selva and SoYeon Yoon - What Do Experienced Practitioners Discuss When Designing Product/Service Systems?, by Abhijna Neramballi, Tomohiko Sakao and John Gero - Visual behaviour during perception of architectural drawings: differences between architects and non-architects, by Luis Vasconcelos, ChihChun Canan Colaco and Cengiz Acarturk Design Grammars: On John Portman's Atria: Two Exercises in Hotel Composition, by Heather Ligler and Athanassios Economou - Monitoring China's City Expansion in the UrbanRural Fringe: A Generative Grammar for Binjiang District in Hangzhou, by Ruichen Ni and Jose Duarte Composite Shape Rules, by Rudi Stouffs and Dan Hou - Shape Grammars as a Probabilistic Model for Building Type Definition and Computation of Possible Instances: The Case Study of Ancient Greek and Roman Libraries, by Myrsini Mamoli Grammars for Making Revisited, by Djordje Krstic - Design Processes: Rule-based systems in adaptation processes: a methodological framework for the adaptation of office buildings into housing, by Camilla Guerritore and Jose Duarte - Using Argumentative, Semantic Grammar for Capture of Design Rationale, by Raymond McCall Identifying Design Rationale Using Ant Colony Optimization, by Miriam Lester and Janet Burge Biased Decision Making in Realistic ExtraProcedural Nuclear Control Room Scenarios, by Emil Andersen, Igor Kozine and Anja Maier Design Modelling: Modelling Collaboration in

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Parameter Design using Multiagent Learning, by Daniel Hulse, Kagan Tumer, Christopher Hoyle and Irem Tumer - Exploring the Effect of Experience on Team Behaviour: A Computational Approach, by Marija Majda Perisic, Mario Storga and John Gero - An Exploration of the Effects of Managerial Intervention on Engineering Design Team Performance, by Joshua Gyory, Jonathan Cagan and Kenneth Kotovsky - A Study in Function Modeling Preferences and its Variation with Designer Expertise and Product Types, by Xiaoyang Mao and Chiradeep Sen - Design And Visualization: Information Visualisation for Project Management: Case Study of Bath Formula Student Project, by Nataliya Mogles, Lia Emanuel, Chris Snider, James Gopsill, Sian JoelEdgar, Kevin Robinson, Ben Hicks, David Jones and Linda Newnes - A Visualisation Tool to Investigate the Interplay of External and Internal Processes, by Mia Ardiati Tedjosaputro and Yi Teng Shih Visual Interactivity to Make Sense of Heterogeneous Streams of Design Activity Data, by Yasuhiro Yamamoto and Kumiyo Nakakoji Style-Oriented Evolutionary Design of Architectural Forms Directed by Aesthetic Measure, by Agnieszka Mars, Ewa Grabska, Grażyna Ślusarczyk and Barbara Strug - Creative Sketching Apprentice: Supporting Conceptual Shifts in Sketch Ideation, by Pegah Karimi, Kazjon Grace, Nicholas Davis and Mary Lou Maher - First Author Email Index - Author Index. Engineering design. Artificial intelligence. Cognitive psychology. Engineering Design. Artificial Intelligence. Cognitive Psychology. Printed edition: 9783030053628 Printed edition: 9783030053642

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Digital Cultural Heritage: Final Conference of the Marie SkłodowskaCurie Initial Training Network for Digital Cultural Heritage, ITNDCH 2017, Olimje, Slovenia, May 23-25, 2017, Revised Selected Papers LCCN 2019743071 Type of material Book Main title Digital Cultural Heritage: Final Conference of the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Initial Training Network for Digital Cultural Heritage, ITN-DCH 2017, Olimje, Slovenia, May 23-25, 2017, Revised Selected Papers / edited by Marinos Ioannides. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XIII, 376 pages 191 illustrations) PDF ISBN 9783319758268 Related names Ioannides, Marinos. editor. Summary This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the Final Conference of the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Initial Training Network for Digital Cultural Heritage, held in Olimje, Slovenia, in May 2017. The 29 revised full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 198 submissions. They focus on interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research concerning cutting edge cultural heritage informatics, -physics, -chemistry and -engineering and the use of technology for the representation, documentation, archiving, protection, preservation and communication of cultural heritage knowledge. Contents 3D data acquisition and modelling of complex heritage buildings - Low cost 3D surveying methodologies: colors and dimensional accuracy in the case study of the island of Procida, Italy - 3D digitization of selected collection items using photometric stereo - A DICOM-inspired metadata architecture for managing multimodal acquisitions in cultural heritage - Knowledge management using ontology on the domain of artworks

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conservation - Ontology-based data collection for heritage buildings - Linked open data as universal markers for mobile augmented reality applications in cultural heritage - Semantic representation and enrichment of cultural heritage information for fostering reinterpretation and reflection on European history - Digital cultural heritage: semantic enrichment and modelling in BIM environment - Building information modeling for cultural heritage: the management of a generative process for complex historical buildings Innovative business plans for H-BIM application related to alternative financing opportunities for cultural heritage - 3D models of Ancient Greek collection of the Perm University History Museum - Towards a digital infrastructure for illustrated handwritten archives - Anchoring unsorted esources about heritage artefacts in space and time Using innovative technologies in preservation and presentation of endangered archives - Analysis, documentation and proposal for restoration and reuse of "Chrysalis" silk factory in Goumenissa, Kilkis, Northern Greece - The loom: interactive weaving through a tangible installation with digital feedback - Design of 3D and 4D apps for cultural heritage preservation - Digital heritage and 3D printing: trans-media analysis and the display of prehistoric rock art from Valcamonica - The conservation of cultural heritage in conditions of risk with 3D printing on architectural scale - Virtual reality annotator: a tool to annotate dancers in a virtual environment - Rapid reconstruction and simulation of real characters in mixed reality environments - 3D pose estimation oriented to the initialization of an augmented reality system applied to cultural heritage - Exploring cultural heritage using virtual reality - 3D visualisation of a woman's folk costume - The VR kiosk using virtual reality to disseminate the rehabilitation project of

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the Canadian parliament buildings - Technologies of non linear storytelling for the management of cultural heritage in the digital city: the case of Thessaloniki - Minimal functionality for digital scholarly editions - Digital preservation: how to be trustworthy?. Application software. Artificial intelligence. Computer communication systems. Computer graphics. Optical data processing. Information Systems Applications (incl. Internet). Artificial Intelligence. Computer Appl. in Social and Behavioral Sciences. Computer Communication Networks. Computer Graphics. Image Processing and Computer Vision. Print version: Digital cultural heritage. 9783319758251 (DLC) 2018934337 Printed edition: 9783319758251 Printed edition: 9783319758275 Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI; 10605 Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI; 10605

Engineering Digital Transformation: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management LCCN 2019750996 Type of material Book Main title Engineering Digital Transformation: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management / edited by Ángel Ortiz, Carlos Andrés Romano, Raul Poler, José-Pedro García-Sabater. Edition 1st ed. 2019. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2019.

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1 online resource (XV, 350 pages 78 illustrations, 58 illustrations in color.) PDF 9783319960050 Andrés Romano, Carlos. editor. García-Sabater, José-Pedro. editor. Ortiz, Ángel. editor. Poler, Raul. editor. This book outlining the latest developments in engineering digital transformation gathers a selection of the best papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management (CIO 2017), held in Valencia, Spain, from July 5th to 6th, 2017. The papers discuss topics in the following areas: strategy and entrepreneurship, OR, modelling and simulation, production, logistics and supply chain management, information systems, quality and product management, knowledge and project management, service systems, and education. Chapter 1. New Perspective on Building Strategy in Public Education Institution - Chapter 2. Role Clarity and Satisfaction for Knowledge Workers Chapter 3. An Innovation Model for EPC/Turnkey Sector: the Case of Abengoa Solar New Technologies - Chapter 4. How Does Working on University-Business Collaborative Projects Foster the Industrial Doctorates' Learning Process? Chapter 5. Business Model Innovation from a Technology Perspective: A Review - Chapter 6. The Impact of Real Estate Taxations on the IinterMunicipal Migration Which Influences The Housing Construction Dynamics - Chapter 7. Developing a Pre-scale for Evaluating Supervisors' Directive Style in Continuous Improvement Environments - Chapter 8. Mandatory Convertible Bonds as an Efficient Method of Issuing Capital Chapter 9. Culture and Environment as Antecedents of Technological Entrepreneurship -

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Chapter 10. Drivers' Perception of the Major Advantages of Electric Vehicles - Chapter 11. A Study on Consumer Behaviour in the Sharing Economy - Chapter 12. Levels of Application of Public R&D&I Policy Models - Chapter 13. Limitations and Pitfalls of the Brain that Prevent us from Thinking - Chapter 14. Lessons Learned in Assessment of Technology Maturity - Chapter 15. Assessing Worldwide Research About Performance Measurement for SMEs: 2006 - 2016 - Chapter 16. Organizational Structures in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) and their Performance Measurement Systems - Chapter 17. Resilience Engineering: Concepts of the New Paradigm - Chapter 18. The Importance of Intangible Liabilities to Business Management et cetera. Computer simulation. Industrial engineering. Production engineering. Production management. Industrial and Production Engineering. Operations Management. Simulation and Modeling. Print version: Engineering digital transformation. 9783319960043 (DLC) 2018947796 Printed edition: 9783030071271 Printed edition: 9783319960043 Printed edition: 9783319960067 Lecture Notes in Management and Industrial Engineering, 2198-0772 Lecture Notes in Management and Industrial Engineering, 2198-0772

Handbook of research on challenges and opportunities in launching a technology-driven international university LCCN 2018005650 Type of material Book

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Handbook of research on challenges and opportunities in launching a technology-driven international university / Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A., [editor] Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, [2019] xxii, 420 pages: illustrations; 29 cm 9781522562559 (hardcover) LB2395.7 .H2344 2019 Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi, 1951- editor. "This book explores launching accessible technology-driven higher learning institutions that offer a transformational educational and research experience can effectively prepare future leaders with the knowledge resources and tools they need to meet the demands of the 21st century. It also offers both empirical and theoretical research focused on the effective construction of technology-driven higher learning international universities"-- Provided by publisher. Implementing technology and designed-based solutions to create an online learning environment / Terence C. Ahern - Artificial intelligence transformation in the management of open and distance learning technologies / Serap Ugur, Gülsün Kurubacak - Transformation of higher education in china: a teaching methods perspective / Victor Wang, Geraldine Torrisi-Steele Academic entrepreneurship and its challenges: a relook into indian technology university context: role of indian technological universities in academic entrepreneurship / Bhaskar Bhowmick, Rosalin Sahoo - Moocs and the challenges they pose to higher education / Victor Wang, Linda Ellington A review of academic curriculum development process for technical and engineering education programs in Ghana / Callistus Tengan, Clinton Aigbavboa - Applying universal design for learning to create a transformational and accessible learning

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framework for a technology-driven international university / Neal Shambaugh, Kimberly Floyd Challenges and opportunities in the design and management of technology infrastructure in an oncampus and distance learning / Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu - Explosion of private universities in Togo in the digital era: a failure of official educational system or digitialization boost? / Toulassi Boniface - Interactive multimedia instruction: from remote fitting to kinesthetic online synchronization / Dionysios Politis, Georgios Kyriafinis, Veljko Aleksic, Sophia Aidona, Petros Stagiopoulos, Jannis Constantinidis - Launching building information modelling based undergraduate and graduate programs: educating globally competitive construction professionals of the future / Begum Sertyesilisik - Leader's contributions to increased diversity in new global higher education institutions / Michael D. Richardson, Pamela A. Lemoine - Learning management systems in online learning / Gürhan Durak - Placing a new university model within the discourse of higher education / Mary Runté, Robert Runté - Technology complexity: opportunities and challenges in new global higher education institutions / Michael D. Richardson, Pamela A. Lemoine. Education, Higher--Effect of technological innovations on. Internet in higher education. Universities and colleges--Administration. Open learning. Includes bibliographical references and index.

Heritage building information modelling for implementing UNESCO procedures: challenges, potentialities, and issues LCCN 2020006639 Type of material Book Personal name Baik, Ahmad, author.

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Heritage building information modelling for implementing UNESCO procedures: challenges, potentialities, and issues / Ahmad Baik. London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2021. 1 online resource 9781003036548 (ebook) (hardback) CC135 "The main aim of this book is to develop and explore the value of new innovative digital content to help satisfy the UNESCO's World Heritage nomination file requirements"-- Provided by publisher. Historic preservation--Data processing. Historic sites--Conservation and restoration--Data processing. Building information modeling. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Baik, Ahmad. Heritage building information modelling for implementing UNESCO procedures Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. 9780367477981 (DLC) 2020006638

Heritage building information modelling for implementing UNESCO procedures: challenges, potentialities, and issues LCCN 2020006638 Type of material Book Personal name Baik, Ahmad, author. Main title Heritage building information modelling for implementing UNESCO procedures: challenges, potentialities, and issues / Ahmad Baik. Published/Produced Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. ISBN 9780367477981 (hardback) (ebook) LC classification CC135 .B345 2020

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"The main aim of this book is to develop and explore the value of new innovative digital content to help satisfy the UNESCO's World Heritage nomination file requirements"-- Provided by publisher. Historic preservation--Data processing. Historic sites--Conservation and restoration--Data processing. Building information modeling. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Baik, Ahmad, Heritage building information modelling for implementing UNESCO procedures Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. 9781003036548 (DLC) 2020006639

Innovating construction law: towards the digital age LCCN 2020037269 Type of material Book Personal name Mason, Jim (James Robert), author. Main title Innovating construction law: towards the digital age / Jim Mason. Published/Produced London; New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2021. Description 1 online resource ISBN 9781003009245 (ebook) (hardback) (paperback) LC classification K891.B8 Summary "Innovating Construction Law: Towards the Digital Age draws together current and emerging technologies and examines how legal practice in the construction industry can respond to the challenges to its existing arrangements"-- Provided by publisher. Contents Introduction - Limitations of the construction industry's approach - Limitations in the legal approach - The smart contract in construction Perceptions in the construction industry of smart

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contracts? - Smart contracts and the legal system New collaborative directions - Background provisions - The steps in between - Building information modelling (BIM) - Online dispute resolution - Conclusions and next steps. Building laws. Construction industry--Law and legislation. Construction contracts. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Mason, Jim (James Robert). Innovating construction law London; New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2021. 9780367443498 (DLC) 2020037268

Innovating construction law: towards the digital age LCCN 2020037268 Type of material Book Personal name Mason, Jim (James Robert), author. Main title Innovating construction law: towards the digital age / Jim Mason. Published/Produced Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2021. ISBN 9780367443498 (hardback) 9780367443528 (paperback) (ebook) LC classification K891.B8 M375 2021 Summary "Innovating Construction Law: Towards the Digital Age draws together current and emerging technologies and examines how legal practice in the construction industry can respond to the challenges to its existing arrangements"-- Provided by publisher. Contents Introduction - Limitations of the construction industry's approach - Limitations in the legal approach - The smart contract in construction Perceptions in the construction industry of smart contracts? - Smart contracts and the legal system New collaborative directions - Background provisions - The steps in between - Building

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information modelling (BIM) - Online dispute resolution - Conclusions and next steps. Building laws. Construction industry--Law and legislation. Construction contracts. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Mason, Jim. Innovating construction law Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2021 9781003009245 (DLC) 2020037269

Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas: Second International Conference, InterSol 2018, Kigali, Rwanda, March 24-25, 2018, Proceedings LCCN 2019758072 Type of material Book Main title Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas: Second International Conference, InterSol 2018, Kigali, Rwanda, March 24-25, 2018, Proceedings / edited by Cheikh M.F. Kebe, Assane Gueye, Ababacar Ndiaye, Aminata Garba. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XI, 261 pages 116 illustrations) PDF ISBN 9783319988788 Related names Garba, Aminata. editor. Gueye, Assane. editor. Kebe, Cheikh M.F. editor. Ndiaye, Ababacar. editor. Summary This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the Second International Conference on Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas, InterSol 2018, and the 7th Collogue National sur la Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications, CNRIA 2018, held in Kigali, Rwanda, in March 2018. The 23

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papers presented were selected from 56 submissions and issue the following themes: papers dealing with the evolution of performances of solar systems in Africa, papers addressing the issues is public health, telecom papers studying the business model of telecommunication, math models presenting the climatic phenomenon and finally health papers dealing with medical devices that are suitable to underserved areas. The proceedings also contain 7 papers from the co-located 7th CNRIA (Collogue National sur la Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications) focusing on network architecture and security, software engineering, data management, and signal processing. On the prevalence of Boomerang Routing in Africa: Analysis and Potential Solutions - EgoCommunity Evolution Tracking in Instant Messaging Networks - Investigation of Degradation in Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules after 10 years exposition in Senegal by Infrared (IR) and Electroluminescence (EL) Building Energy Audit in Nigeria: Some Guides for Energy Efficiency Building Regulations - ICT Performance Indicators in Formal Education at the Secondary School Level in Rwanda - The Impact of Over the Top Service Providers In The Rwandan Telecommunications Market: An Analysis of Business Models - Challenges and Opportunities in Instrumentation and Use of High-Density EEG for Underserved Regions - E-medicine: a secure transmission of electrocardiograms using chaotic oscillators synchronization - Bringing Life Where There is no Light: a low-cost movie projection and data collection solution for underserved areas - A study of the wind potential in climatic zones of Chad - Beyond participation: Welfare effects of genderdifferentiated group-based approaches under climate change in Kenya - Climate change

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signals over Senegal River Basin using Regional Climate Models of the CORDEX Africa simulations - Climate change mitigation potential in agricultural and forestry sector: The impact of expanded woody biomass co-firing on global climate stabilization - Climate Change May Result in More Water Availability in Parts of the African Sahel - Evaluation and updating of two regional design flow estimation in West Africa - the ORSTOM and CIEH methods - Statistical Downscaling of Global Climate Model MIROC_4h outputs to Precipitation in Rwanda - An Internet of Things infrastructure for rainfall monitoring in Dakar - A Parallelized Spark based version of mRMR - Multi-scenario modelling of learning RailMon: Distance, Temperature and Location Railway Monitoring using IoT Technologies - An Encoding for the Theta Model of Elliptic Curves BEDWE: a Decentralized Workflow Engine for Best-Effort Infrastructures - A Robust Process to Identify Pivots inside Subcommunities In Social Networks. Application software. Computer communication systems. Computer Communication Networks. Computer Appl. in Social and Behavioral Sciences. Information Systems Applications (incl. Internet). Print version: Innovations and interdisciplinary solutions for underserved areas. 9783319988771 (DLC) 2018950769 Printed edition: 9783319988771 Printed edition: 9783319988795 Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, 1867-8211; 249 Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, 1867-8211; 249

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Managing Data From Knowledge Bases: Querying and Extraction LCCN 2019758676 Type of material Book Personal name Zhang, Wei Emma, author. Main title Managing Data From Knowledge Bases: Querying and Extraction / by Wei Emma Zhang, Quan Z. Sheng. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XIII, 139 pages 41 illustrations, 32 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783319949352 Related names Sheng, Quan Z, author. Summary In this book, the authors first address the research issues by providing a motivating scenario, followed by the exploration of the principles and techniques of the challenging topics. Then they solve the raised research issues by developing a series of methodologies. More specifically, the authors study the query optimization and tackle the query performance prediction for knowledge retrieval. They also handle unstructured data processing, data clustering for knowledge extraction. To optimize the queries issued through interfaces against knowledge bases, the authors propose a cachebased optimization layer between consumers and the querying interface to facilitate the querying and solve the latency issue. The cache depends on a novel learning method that considers the querying patterns from individual's historical queries without having knowledge of the backing systems of the knowledge base. To predict the query performance for appropriate query scheduling, the authors examine the queries' structural and syntactical features and apply multiple widely adopted prediction models. Their feature modelling approach eschews the knowledge requirement on

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both the querying languages and system. To extract knowledge from unstructured Web sources, the authors examine two kinds of Web sources containing unstructured data: the source code from Web repositories and the posts in programming question-answering communities. They use natural language processing techniques to pre-process the source codes and obtain the natural language elements. Then they apply traditional knowledge extraction techniques to extract knowledge. For the data from programming question-answering communities, the authors make the attempt towards building programming knowledge base by starting with paraphrase identification problems and develop novel features to accurately identify duplicate posts. For domain specific knowledge extraction, the authors propose to use a clustering technique to separate knowledge into different groups. They focus on developing a new clustering algorithm that uses manifold constraints in the optimization task and achieves fast and accurate performance. For each model and approach presented in this dissertation, the authors have conducted extensive experiments to evaluate it using either public dataset or synthetic data they generated. 1 Introduction - 2 Cache Based Optimization for Querying Curated Knowledge Bases - 3 Query Performance Prediction on Knowledge Base - 4 An Efficient Knowledge Clustering Algorithm - 5 Knowledge Extraction from Unstructured Data on the Web - 6 Building Knowledge Bases from Unstructured Data on the Web - 7 Conclusion. Application software. Data mining. Information storage and retrieval. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Information Storage and Retrieval. Information Systems Applications (incl. Internet).

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Print version: Managing data from knowledge bases: querying and extraction 9783319949345 (DLC) 2018950437 Printed edition: 9783030069407 Printed edition: 9783319949345 Printed edition: 9783319949369

Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development: 6th International Conference, MODELSWARD 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, January 22-24, 2018, Revised Selected Papers LCCN 2019763251 Type of material Book Main title Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development: 6th International Conference, MODELSWARD 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, January 22-24, 2018, Revised Selected Papers / edited by Slimane Hammoudi, Luís Ferreira Pires, Bran Selic. Edition 1st ed. 2019. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2019. Description 1 online resource (XII, 496 pages 520 illustrations, 173 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783030110307 Related names Hammoudi, Slimane, editor. Pires, Luís Ferreira, editor. Selic, Bran, editor. Summary This book constitutes thoroughly revised and selected papers from the 6th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development, MODELSWARD 2018, held in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, in January 2018. The 22 thoroughly revised and extended papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 101 submissions. They contribute to the development of highly relevant research trends in model-driven engineering and software development such as innovative methods

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for MDD-based development and testing of webbased applications and user interfaces, support for development of Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs), MDD-based application development on multiprocessor platforms, advances in MDD tooling, formal semantics and behaviour modelling, and MDD-based product-line engineering. Executable Modeling for Reactive Programming A Model-Driven Method for Fast Building ConsistentWeb Services from OpenAPICompatible Models - Reuse and Customization for Code Generators: Synergy by Transformations and Templates - Model-based Programming for MultiProcessor Platforms with TTool/DIPLODOCUS and OMC - Evaluating Multi-Variant Model-ToText Transformations Realized by Generic Aspects - Definition and Visualization of Virtual Metamodel Extensions with a Facet Framework Automated Recommendation of Related Model Elements for Domain Models - An Integrated Framework to Develop Domain-Specific Languages: Extended Case Study - Technology Enhanced Support for Learning Interactive Software Systems - Interactive Measures for Mining Understandable State Machines from Embedded Software: Experiments and Case Studies - Adaptation and Implementation of the ISO42010 Standard to Software Design and Modeling Tools - Generation and Validation of Frame Conditions in Formal Models - Analysis and Evaluation of Conformance Preserving Graph Transformation Rules - Generation of Inductive Types from Ecore Metamodels - Towards Automated Defect Analysis using Execution Traces of Scenario-based Models - A Textual Notation for Modeling and Generating Code for Composite Structure - Application of a Processoriented Build Tool for Flight Controller Development along a DO-178C/DO-331 Process -

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A Methodology for Generating Tests for Evaluating User-centric Performance of Mobile Streaming Applications - Combining ModelDriven Architecture and Software Product Line Engineering: Reuse of Platform-specific Assets - A Test Specification Language for Information Systems based on Data Entities, Use Cases and State Machines - Synchronizing Heuristics for Weakly Connected Automata with Various Topologies. Computer organization. Computers. Software engineering. Software Engineering. Computer Systems Organization and Communication Networks. Computing Milieux. Theory of Computation. Print version: Model-driven engineering and software development. 9783030110291 (DLC) 2018968442 Printed edition: 9783030110291 Printed edition: 9783030110314 Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1865-0929; 991 Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1865-0929; 991

Modelling and Verification of Secure Exams LCCN 2019759896 Type of material Book Personal name Giustolisi, Rosario, author. Main title Modelling and Verification of Secure Exams / by Rosario Giustolisi. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (X, 133 pages) PDF

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9783319671079 In this book the author introduces a novel approach to securing exam systems. He provides an in-depth understanding, useful for studying the security of exams and similar systems, such as public tenders, personnel selections, project reviews, and conference management systems. After a short chapter that explains the context and objectives of the book, in Chap. 2 the author introduces terminology for exams and the foundations required to formulate their security requirements. He describes the tasks that occur during an exam, taking account of the levels of detail and abstraction of an exam specification and the threats that arise out of the different exam roles. He also presents a taxonomy that classifies exams by types and categories. Chapter 3 contains formal definitions of the authentication, privacy, and verifiability requirements for exams, a framework based on the applied pi-calculus for the specification of authentication and privacy, and a more abstract approach based on set-theory that enables the specification of verifiability. Chapter 4 describes the Huszti-Pethő protocol in detail and proposes a security enhancement. In Chap. 5 the author details Remark!, a protocol for Internetbased exams, discussing its cryptographic building blocks and some security considerations. Chapter 6 focuses on WATA, a family of computer-assisted exams that employ computer assistance while keeping face-to-face testing. The chapter also introduces formal definitions of accountability requirements and details the analysis of a WATA protocol against such definitions. In Chaps. 4, 5, and 6 the author uses the cryptographic protocol verifier ProVerif for the formal analyses. Finally, the author outlines future work in Chap. 7. The book is valuable for researchers and graduate students in the areas of information security, in

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particular for people engaged with exams or protocols. Introduction - Preliminaries and Definitions Security Requirements - The Huszti-Pethő Protocol - The Remark! Internet-Based Exam - The WATA Family - Conclusions. Application software. Computers. Data structures (Computer science). Mathematical logic. Test-taking skills. Data Structures and Information Theory. Computer Appl. in Administrative Data Processing. Information Systems and Communication Service. Mathematical Logic and Formal Languages. Revision and Exam. Print version: Modelling and verification of secure exams 9783319671062 (DLC) 2018933583 Printed edition: 9783030097899 Printed edition: 9783319671062 Printed edition: 9783319671086 Information Security and Cryptography, 16197100 Information Security and Cryptography, 16197100

New Trends in Emerging Complex Real Life Problems: ODS, Taormina, Italy, September 10-13, 2018 LCCN 2019768429 Type of material Book Main title New Trends in Emerging Complex Real Life Problems: ODS, Taormina, Italy, September 10-13, 2018 / edited by Patrizia Daniele, Laura Scrimali. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XIII, 509 pages 86 illustrations, 53 illustrations in color.)

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PDF 9783030004736 Daniele, Patrizia, editor. Scrimali, Laura, editor. This book gathers the contributions of the international conference "Optimization and Decision Science" (ODS2018), which was held at the Hotel Villa Diodoro, Taormina (Messina), Italy on September 10 to 13, 2018, and was organized by AIRO, the Italian Operations Research Society, in cooperation with the DMI (Department of Mathematics and Computer Science) of the University of Catania (Italy). The book offers stateof-the-art content on optimization, decisions science and problem solving methods, as well as their application in industrial and territorial systems. It highlights a range of real-world problems that are both challenging and worthwhile, using models and methods based on continuous and discrete optimization, network optimization, simulation and system dynamics, heuristics, metaheuristics, artificial intelligence, analytics, and multiple-criteria decision making. Given its scope of coverage, it will benefit not only researchers and practitioners working in these areas, but also the operations research community as a whole. 1 N.G. Hall, INFORMS, Analytics, Research and Challenges - 2 P.M. Pardalos, On the Limits of Computation in Non-convex Optimization - 3 M.G. Speranza, Operations research in transportation and supply chain management - 4 M. Aghelinejad, Y. Ouazene, and A. Yalaoui, Energy optimization of a speed-scalable and multi-states single machine scheduling problem - 5 A. Alfieri, G. Nicosia, A. Pacifici, and U. Pferschy, Constrained job rearrangements on a single machine - 6 R. Aringhieri, G. Bonetta, and D. Duma, Reducing overcrowding at the emergency department through a different physician and nurse shift

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organisation: a case study - 7 R. Aringhieri, D. Duma, and F. Polacchi, Integrating mental health into a primary care system: a hybrid simulation model - 8 L. Bigram, P. Hosein, and J. Earle, Cost Minimization of Library Electronic Subscriptions 9 M. E. Bruni, D. Nguyen, P. Beraldi, and A. Violi, The Mahalanobis distance for feature selection using genetic algorithms: an application to BCI - 10 V. Cacchiani, C. Contreras-Bolton, J.W. Escobar, L. M. Escobar-Falcon, R. Linfati, and P. Toth, An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for the Pollution Traveling Salesman Problem - 11 A.S. Cacciapuoti, M. Caleffi, A. Masone, A. Sforza, and C. Sterle, Data Throughput Optimization for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications - 12 A. Candelieri, I. Giordani, B.G. Galuzzi, and F. Archetti, Evaluation of cascade effects for transit networks 13 F. Carrabs, R. Cerulli, C. D'Ambrosio, and A. Raiconi, Maximizing lifetime for a zone monitoring problem through reduction to target coverage - 14 M. Casazza, A. Ceselli, and A. Taverna, Mathematical formulations for the optimal design of Resilient Shortest Paths - 15 R. Cavagnini, L. Bertazzi, and F. Maggioni, A twostage stochastic model for distribution logistics with transshipment and backordering: stochastic vs deterministic solutions - 16 M. Cavola, A. Diglio, and C. Piccolo, An Optimization Model to rationalize Public Service Facilities - 17 C. Cerrone, M. Gentili, C. D'Ambrosio, and R. Cerulli, An Efficient and Simple Approach to Solve a Distribution Problem - 18 T. Chernonoga, Firsttime interaction under revenue-sharing contract and asymmetric beliefs of supply-chain members - 19 X. Chou, L.M. Gambardella, and R. Montemanni, Monte Carlo Sampling for the Probabilistic Orienteering Problem - 20 C. Ciancio, A. De Maio, D. Lagana, F. Santoro, and A. Violi, A Genetic Algorithm Framework for the Orienteering

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Problem with Time Windows - 21 G. Colajanni and P. Daniele, A Financial Optimization Model with Short Selling and transfer of securities - 22 P. Daniele and L. Scrimali, Strong Nash Equilibria for Cybersecurity Investments with Nonlinear Budget Constraints - 23 M. De Falco, N. Mastrandrea, W. Mansoor, and L. Rarità, Situation Awareness and environmental factors: the EVO oil production - 24 A. De Maio, A. Violi, D. Lagana, and P. Beraldi, A freight adviser for a delivery logistics service emarketplace - 25 M. Di Gangi and A. Vitetta, Specification and aggregate calibration of a quantum route choice model from traffic counts 26 L. Di Puglia Pugliese, D. Zorbas, and F. Guerriero, Modeling and solving the packet routing problem in industrial IoT networks - 27 M. Gallo, L. D'Acierno, An Origin-Destination Based Parking Pricing Policy for Improving Equity in Urban Transportation - 28 B. G. Galuzzi, R. Perego, Antonio Candelieri, and Francesco Archetti, Bayesian Optimization for Full Waveform Inversion - 29 M. Gaudioso, M. F. Monaco, and M. Sammarra, A decompositionbased heuristic for the truck scheduling problem in a cross-docking terminal - 30 R. Guido, V. Solina, G. Mirabelli, and D. Conforti, Offline patient admission, room and surgery scheduling problems - 31 J. Gwinner and F.S. Winkler, Equilibria on networks with uncertain data - a comparison of different solution approaches - 32 S. Harrod, Construction of Discrete Time Graphs from Real Valued Railway Line Data - 33 S. Hulagu and H.B. Celikoglu, An Integer Linear Programming Formulation for Routing Problem of University Bus Service - 34 G. Inturri, N. Giuffrida, M. Ignaccolo, M. Le Pira, A. Pluchino and A. Rapisarda, Testing Demand Responsive Shared Transport Services Via Agent Based Simulations 35 K. Kogan and F. El Ouardighi, Production

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Control in a competitive environment with incomplete information - 36 C. Koki, S. Leonardos, and C. Melolidakis, Comparative Statics via Stochastic Orderings in a Two-Echelon Market with Upstream Demand Uncertainty - 37 G. Lancia and M. Dalpasso, Speeding-up the exploration of the 3-OPT neighborhood for the TSP - 38 G. Macrina, F. Guerriero, The Green Vehicle Routing Problem with Occasional Drivers - 39 A. Mondello and A. Troia, Using cryptography techniques as a safety mechanism applied to components in Autonomous Driving - 40 T.H. Nguyen, Simplifying the minimax disparity model for determining OWA weights in large-scale problems - 41 M. Noumbissi Tchoupo, A. Yalaoui, L. Amodeo, F. Yalaoui, and P. Flori, Fleet size and mix pickup and delivery problem with time windows: A novel approach by column generation algorithm - 42 J.W. Owsiński, J. Stańczak and S. Zadrożny, Designing the municipality typology for planning purposes: the use of reverse clustering and evolutionary algorithms - 43 E. Parra, A software for production-transportation optimization models building - 44 S.T. Pham, J. Devriendt, and P. De Causmaecker, Modelling local search in a Knowledge Base System - 45 C.Z. Rădulescu and M. Rădulescu, A hybrid method for cloud Quality of Service criteria weighting - 46 R. Rossi, P. Cappanera, M. Nonato, and F. Visintin, Cooperative policies for drug replenishment at Intensive Care Units - 47 M. Salani, G. Corbellini, and G. Corani, A hybrid metaheuristic for the optimal design of photovoltaic installations - 48 E. Salgado, C. Gentile, and L. Liberti, Perspective cuts for the ACOPF with generators - 49 L. Scrimali, Coalitional games in evolutionary supply chain networks - 50 R. Tadei, G. Perboli, and D. Manerba, A recent approach to derive the Multinomial Logit model for choice probability -

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51 A. Violi, P. Beraldi, M. Ferrara, G. Carrozzino, and M.E. Bruni, The optimal tariff definition problem for a prosumers' aggregation - 52 Y. Yaegashi, H. Yoshioka, K. Unami, and M. Fujihara, Impulse and singular stochastic control approaches for management of fish-eating bird population - 53 A. Zapata, A. M. Marmol, L. Monroy, and M. A. Caraballo, When the other matters. The battle of the sexes revisited. Computer mathematics. Computer science--Mathematics. Environmental sciences. Game theory. Management science. Mathematics--Study and teaching . Operations research. Computational Science and Engineering. Game Theory, Economics, Social and Behav. Sciences. Math Applications in Computer Science. Math. Appl. in Environmental Science. Mathematics Education. Operations Research, Management Science. Print version: New trends in emerging complex real life problems. 9783030004729 (DLC) 2018958352 Printed edition: 9783030004729 Printed edition: 9783030004743 AIRO Springer Series, 2523-7047; 1 AIRO Springer Series, 2523-7047; 1

People flow in buildings LCCN 2021010973 Type of material Book Personal name Siikonen, Marja-Liisa, author. Main title People flow in buildings / Marja-Liisa Siikonen. Published/Produced Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2021. ISBN 9781119545569 (cloth) (Adobe PDF) (ePub)

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TJ1374 .S54 2021 "In this new book, vertical transportation devices will be described more from a software than a hardware perspective. The book will describe how to plan and design transportation systems to make passenger journeys pleasant and smooth in buildings. It illustrates measured passenger traffic profiles in different types of buildings and explains how elevator control systems and modern trends of building usage affect passenger service. Methods of measuring passenger journeys and utilization of this information in traffic planning are described. There are no simple equations to calculate passenger service levels. These are usually investigated and described by traffic simulation. Building traffic simulation includes modelling of building passenger traffic using agents, behavioural models and movement vertically and horizontally, and then modelling the impact of transportation equipment with their control systems. The book also provides a starting point for selection of proper transportation equipment for new buildings and for modernization or refurbishment, as well as utilizing simulated occupant evacuation times in elevator design. Energy consumption of transportation equipment will be briefly discussed"-- Provided by publisher. Elevators--Planning. Passenger conveyors--Planning. Corridors--Planning. Queuing theory. Pedestrian traffic flow--Mathematical models. Pedestrian facilities design--Data processing. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Siikonen, Marja-Liisa. People flow in buildings First edition Hoboken: Wiley, 2021 9781119545583 (DLC) 2021010974

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People flow in buildings LCCN 2021010974 Type of material Book Personal name Siikonen, Marja-Liisa, author. Main title People flow in buildings / Marja-Liisa Siikonen. Published/Produced Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2021. Description 1 online resource ISBN 9781119545552 (ePub) 9781119545583 (Adobe PDF) (cloth) LC classification TJ1374 Summary "In this new book, vertical transportation devices will be described more from a software than a hardware perspective. The book will describe how to plan and design transportation systems to make passenger journeys pleasant and smooth in buildings. It illustrates measured passenger traffic profiles in different types of buildings and explains how elevator control systems and modern trends of building usage affect passenger service. Methods of measuring passenger journeys and utilization of this information in traffic planning are described. There are no simple equations to calculate passenger service levels. These are usually investigated and described by traffic simulation. Building traffic simulation includes modelling of building passenger traffic using agents, behavioural models and movement vertically and horizontally, and then modelling the impact of transportation equipment with their control systems. The book also provides a starting point for selection of proper transportation equipment for new buildings and for modernization or refurbishment, as well as utilizing simulated occupant evacuation times in elevator design. Energy consumption of transportation equipment will be briefly discussed"-- Provided by publisher. LC Subjects Elevators--Planning. Passenger conveyors--Planning.

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Corridors--Planning. Queuing theory. Pedestrian traffic flow--Mathematical models. Pedestrian facilities design--Data processing. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Siikonen, Marja-Liisa. People flow in buildings Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2021. 9781119545569 (DLC) 2021010973

Principles of financial modelling: model design and best practices using Excel and VBA LCCN 2018011916 Type of material Book Personal name Rees, Michael, 1964- author. Main title Principles of financial modelling: model design and best practices using Excel and VBA / by Michael Rees. Published/Produced Hoboken: Wiley, [2018] Description 1 online resource. ISBN 9781118903940 (pdf) 9781118904008 (epub) LC classification HG106 Contents Introduction to modelling, core themes and best practices - Models of models - Using models in decision support - Core competencies and best practices: meta-themes - Model design and planning - Defining sensitivity and flexibility requirements - Database versus formulae-driven approaches - Designing the workbook structure Model building, testing and auditing - Creating transparency: formula structure, flow and format Building robust and transparent formulae Choosing Excel functions for transparency, flexibility and efficiency - Dealing with circularity - Model review, auditing and validation Sensitivity and scenario analysis, simulation and optimisation - Sensitivity and scenario analysis: core techniques - Using goalseek and solver - Using VBA macros to conduct sensitivity and scenario

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analyses - Introduction to simulation and optimisation - The modelling of risk and uncertainty, and using simulation - Excel functions and functionality - Core arithmetic and logical functions - Array functions and formulae Mathematical functions - Financial functions Statistical functions - Information functions - Date and time functions - Text functions and functionality - Lookup and reference functions Filters, database functions and pivottables Selected short-cuts and other features Foundations of VBA and macros - Getting started Working with objects and ranges - Controlling execution - Writing robust code - Manipulation and analysis of data sets with VBA - User-defined functions. Microsoft Excel (Computer file) Microsoft Office. Finance--Mathematical models. Corporations--Finance--Mathematical models. Visual Basic for Applications (Computer program language) Includes index. Print version: Rees, Michael, 1964- author. Principles of financial modelling Hoboken: Wiley, [2018] 9781118904015 (DLC) 2017057631

Principles of financial modelling: model design and best practices using Excel and VBA LCCN 2017057631 Type of material Book Personal name Rees, Michael, 1964- author. Main title Principles of financial modelling: model design and best practices using Excel and VBA / by Michael Rees. Published/Produced Hoboken: Wiley, [2018] ISBN 9781118904015 (cloth) LC classification HG106 .R443 2018

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Introduction to modelling, core themes and best practices - Models of models - Using models in decision support - Core competencies and best practices: meta-themes - Model design and planning - Defining sensitivity and flexibility requirements - Database versus formulae-driven approaches - Designing the workbook structure Model building, testing and auditing - Creating transparency: formula structure, flow and format Building robust and transparent formulae Choosing Excel functions for transparency, flexibility and efficiency - Dealing with circularity - Model review, auditing and validation Sensitivity and scenario analysis, simulation and optimisation - Sensitivity and scenario analysis: core techniques - Using goalseek and solver - Using VBA macros to conduct sensitivity and scenario analyses - Introduction to simulation and optimisation - The modelling of risk and uncertainty, and using simulation - Excel functions and functionality - Core arithmetic and logical functions - Array functions and formulae Mathematical functions - Financial functions Statistical functions - Information functions - Date and time functions - Text functions and functionality - Lookup and reference functions Filters, database functions and pivottables Selected short-cuts and other features Foundations of VBA and macros - Getting started Working with objects and ranges - Controlling execution - Writing robust code - Manipulation and analysis of data sets with VBA - User-defined functions. Microsoft Excel (Computer file) Microsoft Office. Finance--Mathematical models. Corporations--Finance--Mathematical models. Visual Basic for Applications (Computer program language)

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Includes index. Online version: Rees, Michael, 1964- author. Principles of financial modelling Hoboken: Wiley, [2018] 9781118903940 (DLC) 2018011916

Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate LCCN 2019746295 Type of material Book Main title Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate / edited by K. W. Chau, Isabelle Y.S. Chan, Weisheng Lu, Chris Webster. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Singapore: Springer Singapore: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XX, 1558 pages 303 illustrations, 188 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9789811061905 Related names Chan, Isabelle Y.S. editor. Chau, K. W. editor. Lu, Weisheng. editor. Webster, Chris. editor. Summary This book presents the proceedings of CRIOCM_2016, 21st International Conference on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, sharing the latest developments in real estate and construction management around the globe. The conference was organized by the Chinese Research Institute of Construction Management (CRIOCM) working in close collaboration with the University of Hong Kong. Written by international academics and professionals, the proceedings discuss the latest achievements, research findings and advances in frontier disciplines in the field of construction management and real estate. Covering a wide range of topics, including building information

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modelling, big data, geographic information systems, housing policies, management of infrastructure projects, occupational health and safety, real estate finance and economics, urban planning, and sustainability, the discussions provide valuable insights into the implementation of advanced construction project management and the real estate market in China and abroad. The book is an outstanding reference resource for academics and professionals alike. Building Information Modelling - Application Sustainable Policies - Real Estate Market - Project, Building Performance - Knowledge Management Urban Renewal.- Carbon Emission in Construction - Big Data - Energy Consumption in China Housing Price and Research Trend in the Real Estate Sector - Housing Affordability and Building Project Performance - Partnership in Construction - Building Technology and Project Management Cloud Technology and Geographic Information System - Sustainable Construction Materials and Design - Construction Waste Management Housing for the Aging Group and the Group with Special Needs - Construction Contract and Procurement - Urbanization - Social Impacts Building Information Modelling - Carbon Footprint in China - Construction Safety I - Human Resources Management. Sustainable Construction - Urbanization - Construction Procurement Sustainable Industry - Infrastructure Project Management I - Construction Automation - R isk Management Construction Enterprise Management - Land Settlement - Construction Safety II - Performance Evaluation and Enhancement - Sustainable Development Construction Health and Safety - Infrastructure Project Management II - Real Estate and Construction Education and Industrial Performance - Conservation and Urban Planning.

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Building--Superintendence. Construction industry--Management. Real estate management. Real Estate Management. Construction Management. Print version: Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate. 9789811061899 (DLC) 2017950275 Printed edition: 9789811061899 Printed edition: 9789811061912

Semantic Applications: Methodology, Technology, Corporate Use LCCN 2019744734 Type of material Book Main title Semantic Applications: Methodology, Technology, Corporate Use / edited by Thomas Hoppe, Bernhard Humm, Anatol Reibold. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg: Imprint: Springer Vieweg, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XXV, 264 pages 130 illustrations, 114 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783662554333 Related names Hoppe, Thomas. editor. Humm, Bernhard. editor. Reibold, Anatol. editor. Summary This book describes methodologies for developing semantic applications. Semantic applications are software applications which explicitly or implicitly use the semantics, id est the meaning of a domain terminology, in order to improve usability, correctness, and completeness. An example is semantic search, where synonyms and related terms are used for enriching the results of a simple textbased search. Ontologies, thesauri or controlled vocabularies are the centerpiece of semantic applications. The book includes technological and

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architectural best practices for corporate use. The authors are experts from industry and academia with experience in developing semantic applications. The Editors Thomas Hoppe works as Data Scientist and Knowledge Engineer. He is lecturer at the Computer Science Department of the Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin University of Applied Sciences, Germany. In 2008 he founded, together with three associates, Ontonym GmbH. Furthermore, in 2014 he founded Datenlabor Berlin. Bernhard Humm is a professor at the Computer Science Department of Hochschule Darmstadt - University of Applied Sciences, Germany. He coordinates the Ph.D. programme and is the managing director of the institute of applied informatics, Darmstadt (aiDa). He is running several national and international research projects in co-operation with industry and research organizations. Anatol Reibold studied mathematics and mechanical engineering at the University of Novosibirsk. Currently he works as a supply chain analyst and business mathematician at Raiffeisen Waren-Zentrale Rhein-Main eG. He is also one of the co-founders of OntoPort and their chief data scientist. Introduction - Ontology Development Compliance using Metadata - Variety Management for Big Data - Text Mining in Economics Generation of Natural Language Texts - Sentiment Analysis - Building Concise Text Corpora from Web Contents - Ontology-Based Modelling of Web Content - Personalized Clinical Decision Support for Cancer Care - Applications of Temporal Conceptual Semantic Systems - Context-Aware Documentation in the Smart Factory - KnowledgeBased Production Planning for Industry 4.0 Information Exchange in Jurisdiction - Supporting Automated License Clearing - Managing cultural assets: Implementing typical cultural heritage

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archive's usage scenarios via Semantic Web technologies - Semantic Applications for Process Management - Domain-Specific Semantic Search Applications. Application software. Artificial intelligence. Computer science. Data mining. Information storage and retrieval. Management information systems. Information Systems Applications (incl. Internet). Artificial Intelligence. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Information Storage and Retrieval. Management of Computing and Information Systems. Print version: Semantic applications. 9783662554326 (DLC) 2018936133 Printed edition: 9783662554326 Printed edition: 9783662554340 Printed edition: 9783662585566

Solidification Processing of Metallic Alloys Under External Fields LCCN 2019767706 Type of material Book Main title Solidification Processing of Metallic Alloys Under External Fields / edited by Dmitry G. Eskin, Jiawei Mi. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (VIII, 320 pages 199 illustrations, 115 illustrations in color.) PDF ISBN 9783319948423 Related names Eskin, Dmitry G, editor. Mi, Jiawei, editor. Summary This book explores the application of external physical fields to the solidification processing of

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metallic alloys. Leading academics from around the world present comprehensive and critical reviews on state-of-the-art research and discuss possible future directions. Major physical fields, including electromagnetic, electric, acoustic, and thermal, are considered. In addition, the most advanced synchrotron X-ray based real-time and in-situ studies and numerical modeling methodologies are reviewed and discussed, with a special emphasis on their applications to the solidification processes. Throughout, all chapters are illustrated with both historical and very recent research cases, including typical examples of in-situ studies, modeling, and simulation. This book contains essential knowledge and information suitable for a wide audience, from undergraduate and postgraduate students to academics, practicing researchers, and engineers in materials, metallurgy, and manufacturing. Presents state-of-the-art research in an important and fastgrowing field Covers fundamental theory, real-time characterization, modeling, and applications Features a combination of original results and systematic review of published literature by the leading researchers in the world Represents a comprehensive reference for researchers and engineers working in materials processing. List of Contributors - 1 Basics of solidification processing of metallic alloys - 2 In-situ studies of the dynamics of metal solidification - 3 Magnetohydrodynamics processing and modelling - 4 Electromagnetic stirring and low frequency electromagnetic vibration - 5 High-frequency vibration and ultrasonic processing - 6 High magnetic fields processing of metal alloys - 7 Pulse external fields processing of metal alloys - 8 Thermal melt processing of metallic alloys - Index. Engineering--Materials. Manufactures. Materials science.

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Metals. Phase transitions (Statistical physics). Building materials. Metallic Materials. Characterization and Evaluation of Materials. Manufacturing, Machines, Tools, Processes. Materials Engineering. Phase Transitions and Multiphase Systems. Structural Materials. Print version: Solidification processing of metallic alloys under external fields 9783319948416 (DLC) 2018952472 Printed edition: 9783030069247 Printed edition: 9783319948416 Printed edition: 9783319948430 Springer Series in Materials Science, 0933-033X; 273 Springer Series in Materials Science, 273 0933033X;

Sustainability and megaproject development LCCN 2022014950 Type of material Book Main title Sustainability and megaproject development / edited by Franca Cantoni and Edoardo Favari. Published/Produced London; New York: Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group, 2022. ISBN 9781032305776 (hardback) 9781032305783 (paperback) (ebook) LC classification HD69.P75 S855 2022 Related names Cantoni, Franca, editor. Favari, Edoardo, editor. Summary "Megaprojects, also referred to in the literature as Large Engineering Projects or Major Projects, are generally defined as large-scale investment initiatives worth 1b€/$ or more and, facing similar problems independent of the country where they are implemented and the industry they belong to.

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The common feature of most megaprojects is that they are difficult to design and manage so that their realization and completion is always extremely expensive, often over budget and delivery deadlines also are not met. In the worst-case scenario, they remain unfinished. This book, through its multidisciplinary approach, offers food for thought and alternative interpretations for the complex world of megaprojects. While much research has been conducted and differing approaches have been developed over the last 20 years, there is still a lot of debate surrounding the topic, and a holistic approach for effectively managing these initiatives is still missing. What is clear to all researchers and experts in the field is that a traditional-linear management approach is simply not sufficient, as at many stages of a megaproject, iterative and feedback effect occurs due to stakeholder involvement and increasing and continuous interaction between them. The book promotes the debate among all categories of stakeholders involved in the megaproject's supply chain, in order to increase the awareness of complex phenomena relating to the critical issues and common problems they face, all over the world, and to seek performance improvement across the whole life cycle of a megaproject, including the selection, design, construction, operation and de- commissioning. The multidisciplinary approach cultivated in the book conveys an innovative way to study megaprojects and their inherent complexities"-- Provided by publisher. The human side of megaprojects: leadership style and traits to face growing levels of complexity and uncertainty / Roberta Virtuani, Barbara Barabaschi, Franca Cantoni - Proposing a sustainabilitycentered approach to overcome critical issues in megaprojects / Andrea Caccialanza, Franca

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Cantoni, Edoardo Favari, Costanza Mariani - Use and misuse of input-output and SAM multipliers: where are we standing? / Raffaele Colaizzo, Jérôme Massiani - Infrastructural investments and their impact on SDGS / Francesco Timpano, Silvia Platoni - Post pandemic green tax policies: how to make megaprojects sustainable / Marco Allena The relevance and limits of taxation as an aid to foster megaprojects / Paolo Arginelli Megaprojects contracts and pandemics: from law to private autonomy / Francesco Zecchin - Insights into the cost-benefit analysis of an intermodal logistic terminal / Antonio Dallara - Forecasting the success of hyperloop technology on Italian routes: a broad feasibility study / Roberto Maja, Edoardo Favari, Costanza Mariani - Bridge or tunnel? A study of the spillover effects on Strait of Messina Metropolitan Area / Domenico Marino, Giuseppe Quattrone, Domenico Tebala, Francesco Timpano - Project management and building information modelling interactions in large building projects. The Galliera Hospital case study / Enea Sermasi, Barbara Frascari. Project management. Sustainable development. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Sustainability and megaproject development London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022 9781003305750 (DLC) 2022014951 Routledge-giappichelli studies in business and management

Sustainability and Megaproject Development LCCN 2022014951 Type of material Book Main title Sustainability and Megaproject Development / edited by Franca Cantoni and Edoardo Favari.

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Published/Produced Description ISBN

LC classification Related names Summary

187

London; New York: Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group, 2022. 1 online resource 9781003305750 (ebook) (hardback) (paperback) HD69.P75 Cantoni, Franca, editor. Favari, Edoardo, editor. "Megaprojects, also referred to in the literature as Large Engineering Projects or Major Projects, are generally defined as large-scale investment initiatives worth 1b€/$ or more and, facing similar problems independent of the country where they are implemented and the industry they belong to. The common feature of most megaprojects is that they are difficult to design and manage so that their realization and completion is always extremely expensive, often over budget and delivery deadlines also are not met. In the worst-case scenario, they remain unfinished. This book, through its multidisciplinary approach, offers food for thought and alternative interpretations for the complex world of megaprojects. While much research has been conducted and differing approaches have been developed over the last 20 years, there is still a lot of debate surrounding the topic, and a holistic approach for effectively managing these initiatives is still missing. What is clear to all researchers and experts in the field is that a traditional-linear management approach is simply not sufficient, as at many stages of a megaproject, iterative and feedback effect occurs due to stakeholder involvement and increasing and continuous interaction between them. The book promotes the debate among all categories of stakeholders involved in the megaproject's supply chain, in order to increase the awareness of complex phenomena relating to the critical issues

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and common problems they face, all over the world, and to seek performance improvement across the whole life cycle of a megaproject, including the selection, design, construction, operation and de- commissioning. The multidisciplinary approach cultivated in the book conveys an innovative way to study megaprojects and their inherent complexities"-- Provided by publisher. The human side of megaprojects: leadership style and traits to face growing levels of complexity and uncertainty / Roberta Virtuani, Barbara Barabaschi, Franca Cantoni - Proposing a sustainabilitycentered approach to overcome critical issues in megaprojects / Andrea Caccialanza, Franca Cantoni, Edoardo Favari, Costanza Mariani - Use and misuse of input-output and SAM multipliers: where are we standing? / Raffaele Colaizzo, Jérôme Massiani - Infrastructural investments and their impact on SDGS / Francesco Timpano, Silvia Platoni - Post pandemic green tax policies: how to make megaprojects sustainable / Marco Allena The relevance and limits of taxation as an aid to foster megaprojects / Paolo Arginelli Megaprojects contracts and pandemics: from law to private autonomy / Francesco Zecchin - Insights into the cost-benefit analysis of an intermodal logistic terminal / Antonio Dallara - Forecasting the success of hyperloop technology on Italian routes: a broad feasibility study / Roberto Maja, Edoardo Favari, Costanza Mariani - Bridge or tunnel? A study of the spillover effects on Strait of Messina Metropolitan Area / Domenico Marino, Giuseppe Quattrone, Domenico Tebala, Francesco Timpano - Project management and building information modelling interactions in large building projects. The Galliera Hospital case study / Enea Sermasi, Barbara Frascari. Project management.

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Sustainable development. Includes bibliographical references and index. Print version: Sustainability and megaproject development London; New York: Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group, 2022 9781032305776 (DLC) 2022014950 Routledge-giappichelli studies in business and management

Sustainable construction materials: recycled aggregates LCCN 2021443033 Type of material Book Personal name Dhir, Ravindra K., author. Main title Sustainable construction materials: recycled aggregates / Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, Jorge de Brito, Rui V. Silva, Chao Qun Lye. Published/Produced Kidlington, United Kingdom: Woodhead Publishing, [2019] ©2019 Description xiv,635 pages: illustrations, charts (some color); 23 cm ISBN 0081009852 9780081009857 LC classification TA403.6 .D488 2019 Related names Brito, Jorge de, author. Silva, Rui V., author. Lye, Chao Qun, author. Summary Sustainable Construction Materials: Recycled Aggregate focuses on the massive systematic need that is necessary to encourage the uptake of recycled and secondary materials (RSM) in the construction industry. This book is the fifth and the last of the series on sustainable construction materials and like the previous four, it is also different to the norm. Its uniqueness lies in using the newly developed, Analytical Systemisation Method, in building the data-matrix sourced from 1413 publications, contributed by 2213 authors from 965 institutions in 67 countries, from 1977 to

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2018, on the subject of recycled aggregate as a construction material, and systematically analysing, evaluating and modelling this information for use of the material as an aggregate concrete and mortar, geotechnics and road pavement applications. Environmental issues, case studies and standards are also discussed. The work establishes what is already known and can be used to further progress the use of sustainable construction materials. It can also help to avoid repetitive research and save valuable resources. The book is structured in an incisive and easy to digest manner and is particularly suited for researchers, academics, design engineers, specifiers, contractors, and government bodies dealing with construction works. 1. Introduction - 1.1. Background - 1.2. Sustainable Construction Materials - 1.3. Recycled Aggregates - 1.4. Layout and Contents - References - 2. Methodology - 2.1. Introduction - 2.2. Literature Search and Appraisal - 2.3. Building the Data Matrix - 2.4. Analysis, Evaluation and Modelling of Data - 2.5. Dissemination - 2.6. Conclusions References - 3. Availability of Recycled Aggregates - 3.1. Introduction - 3.2. Sources of Construction and Demolition Waste - 3.3. Generation of Construction and Demolition Waste - 3.4. Barriers to Recycling Waste in the Construction Industry - 3.5. Conclusions References - 4. Processing of Recycled Aggregates - 4.1. Introduction - 4.2. Benefits of Selective Demolition - 4.3. Environmental Impact of CDW Processing - 4.4. Production and Collection of CDW - 4.5. CDW Recycling Plants - 4.6. Conclusions - References - 5. Properties and Composition of Recycled Aggregates - 5.1. Introduction - 5.2. Types of Recycled Aggregate 5.3. Contamination in Recycled Aggregates - 5.4. Size and Shape of Recycled Aggregates - 5.5. Main

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Physical Properties of Recycled Aggregates - 5.6. Chemical Composition of Recycled Aggregates 5.7. Standards and Specifications of Recycled Aggregates - 5.8. Methodology for the Classification of Recycled Aggregates - 5.9. Conclusions - References - 6. Use of Recycled Aggregates in Mortar - 6.1. Introduction - 6.2. Fresh Mortar Properties - 6.3. Hardened Mortar Properties - 6.4. Conclusions - References - 7. Fresh Concrete Properties - 7.1. Introduction - 7.2. Consistence (Workability) - 7.3. Rheology - 7.4. Stability - 7.5. Air Content - 7.6. Fresh Density 7.7. Conclusions - References - 8. Strength Development of Concrete - 8.1. Introduction - 8.2. Compressive Strength - 8.3. Tensile and Flexural Strength - 8.4. Impact Loading - 8.5. Resistance to High Temperatures - 8.6. Conclusions - References - 9. Deformation of Concrete Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate - 9.1. Introduction - 9.2. Elastic Deformation - 9.3. Creep Deformation - 9.4. Shrinkage Deformation - 9.5. Estimation of Deformation of Concrete Using Existing Models 9.6. Authors' Proposed Models for Estimating Deformation of Concrete - 9.7. Conclusions References - 10. Recycled Aggregate Concrete: Durability Properties - 10.1. Introduction - 10.2. Permeability and Sorptivity - 10.3. Carbonation 10.4. Chloride Ion Penetration - 10.5. Internal and External Chemical Attack - 10.6. Freeze - Thaw Resistance - 10.7. Resistance to Abrasion - 10.8. Conclusions - References - 11. Use of Recycled Aggregates in Geotechnical Applications - 11.1. Introduction - 11.2. General Information - 11.3. The Material - 11.4. Compactability - 11.5. Shear Strength - 11.6. Unconfined Compressive Strength - 11.7. Resilient Modulus - 11.8. Hydraulic Conductivity - 11.9. Sulphate Soundness - 11.10. Freeze - Thaw Resistance - 11.11. Environmental Impact - 11.12. Case Studies - 11.13. Conclusions

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- References - 12. Use of Recycled Aggregates in Road Pavement Applications - 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Unbound Applications - 12.3. Hydraulically Bound Applications: Hydraulically Bound Mixtures 12.4. Hydraulically Bound Applications: Concrete Pavements - 12.5. Bituminous Bound Applications - 12.6. Environmental Impact - 12.7. Case Studies - 12.8. Conclusions - References - 13. Environmental Impact, Case Studies and Standards and Specifications - 13.1. Introduction - 13.2. Environmental Impact - 13.3. Case Studies - 13.4. Standards and Specifications - 13.5. Conclusions References - 14. Potential for the Recycled Aggregate Market - 14.1. Introduction - 14.2. Life Cycle of Construction and Demolition Waste 14.3. Economic Viability of Recycling CDW 14.4. Certification of Recycled Aggregates - 14.5. Conclusions - References - 15. Epilogue References. Building materials--Environmental aspects. Building materials--Recycling. Sustainable construction. Building materials--Environmental aspects. Building materials--Recycling. Sustainable construction. Includes bibliographical references and index. ebook version: 9780081009918 Woodhead Publishing series in civil and structural engineering Woodhead Publishing series in civil and structural engineering.

Sustainable Future for Human Security: Society, Cities and Governance LCCN 2019747099 Type of material Book

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Sustainable Future for Human Security: Society, Cities and Governance / edited by Benjamin McLellan. 1st ed. 2018. Singapore: Springer Singapore: Imprint: Springer, 2018. 1 online resource (IX, 384 pages 80 illustrations, 47 illustrations in color.) PDF 9789811054334 McLellan, Benjamin. editor. This book focuses on the human and societal aspects of sustainable development. Three major perspectives are considered: governance and its influence on sustainable development; urban environments and their broader human and environmental impacts; and disaster management. Each of these elements is critical in considering the current and prospective development of societies towards a sustainable future in which human security is guaranteed. This 2-volume set discusses a wide range of topics concerning sustainability and human security in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia. The individual chapters have been contributed by authors from various fields, and due to the breadth of the material are separated into two thematic volumes. The set offers a valuable resource for professionals and researchers in the urban planning industry, postgraduates, policymakers, government officials and natural resources managers. In addition, it can be used in courses on Environmental Engineering, Agriculture and Forestry, Public Policy and Earth Science. Preface.- PART I: GOVERNANCE TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.1. Myanmar's Worsening Rohingya Crisis: A Call for Responsibility to Protect and ASEAN's Response; A. Trihartono, The University of Jember - Center

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for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (CRiSSH), Keywords: Rohingya, ethnic violence, atrocity crimes, RtoP, Myanmar, ASEAN - 2. Village Government Capacity in the Implementation of Village Law No. 6 of 2015; Novri Susan, MA. Dr. Tuti Budirahayu, Airlangga University, Keywords: Village government, Governance, Corruption, Political capacity - 3. Surviving in the Globalized World through Local Perspectives: Pesantrens and Sustainable Development; Himawan Bayu Patriadi, The University of Jember - Center for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (C-RiSSH), Keywords: sustainable development, globalization, pesantren - 4. The Concerns and Sustainability of ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR); Abubakar Eby Hara, The University of Jember - Center for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (C-RiSSH), Keywords: ASEAN; AICHR; human rights; role of NGOs; sustainability - 5. Development of the Photovoltaic Industry and Its Technology in Indonesia: A Multi-Level Perspective.;Anugerah Yuka Asmara, Pappiptek LIPI, Keywords: photovoltaic, industry, multi-level perspective, Indonesia.- 6. The West Papua Imagined Community: A Bondless Plural Society; Nino Viartasiwi, A.Trihartono, Hary Yuswadi, Ritsumeikan University, The University of Jember - Center for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (C-RiSSH), The University of Jember, Keywords: West Papua; plural society; ethnicity.PART II: URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND MORPHOLOGY.- 7. Structural Model of Formation Factors of Tourism Policy in Nganjuk Regency: Tourists` Perspective; Ismu Rini Dwi Ari, Kartika Eka Sari, Achmad Wicaksono, Lupi Harisanti, Brawijaya University, Keywords: tourism; formation factors - 8. Good or Bad of

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Greening Effects on High-Density Urban Housing Air Quality; Chairul Maulidi, A. Wahid Hasyim, Brawijaya University, Keywords: photosynthesis; urban structure; air quality; testing; modelling - 9. The Framework of Sustainable Temporary Public Open Space Concept (Case study: Paseban Kampong, Jakarta, Indonesia); Siti Sujatini, Tresna P Soemardi, Abimanyu T.Alamsyah, Linda Darmajanti, University of Indonesia, Keywords: concept, public open space, function, temporary 10. Ethnic differences in satisfaction with the attractiveness of tropical urban parks.- Huda Farhana Mohamad Muslim, Noor Azlin Yahya, Shinya Numata, and Tetsuro Hosaka; Tokyo Metropolitan University, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, FRIM, Keywords: urban parks, attractiveness, ethnicity, tropical, environmental 11. Identifying Slum Area Spread Based on Multitemporal Imagery Data; A. Wahid Hasyim, Chairul Maulidi, Eko Armando Maha, Brawijaya University, Keywords: Slum spreading, multitemporal imagery, paser regency - 12. Sustainable Well-being Objective Indicators: Basic Necessities, Complementary Needs and Desired Opportunities; Aisyah Abu Bakar, Mariana Mohamed Osman, Syahriah Bachok, Mansor Ibrahim, Alias Abdullah, International Islamic University Malaysia, Keywords: Subjective Sustainable Well-being, Human Interdependency 13. Assessing Disparities in the Urban-Rural Service: A case of Public Bus Services in Peninsular Malaysia; Zakiah Ponrahono, Syahriah Bachok, Mansor Ibrahim, Mariana Mohamed Osman, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia, Keywords: urban; rural; public transport; level-of-service.PART III: BUILDING SCIENCE.- 14. The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Material using Thermal Methods;

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Suharman Hamzah, Evi Aprianti, Hasanuddin University, Keywords: Cementitious Material, Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), Thermal, Curing - 15. Optimizing the Use of Rainwater Harvesting at Flats as Effort to Realize Energy-Efficient Buildings: Case Study at Rental Flats in Yogyakarta Jarwa Prasetya Sih Handoko, Indonesia Islamic University, Keywords: Rainwater Harvesting, Flats, Energy Efficient Buildings - 16. Thermo Adaptive Psychological Thermal Comfort Index of PMVtapsem: Development of a PMVtap Index Based on the SEM Approach; Sugini, Jaka Nugraha, UII Yogyakarta, Keywords: Thermal Comfort of Thermo-Adaptive-Psychological Para-digms; PMVtapsem Index; Thermal Lifestyle; Temporary Room Comfort; Social Conditions - 17. A Review on the Values of the Islamic Garden in response to a Garden Design in Malaysia.- Haza Hanurhaza Binti Md Jani, Nor Zalina Harun, Mazlina Mansor, Ismawi Zen, International Islamic University Malaysia, Keywords: garden design; values; religion.- PART IV: SOCIO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.- 18. The Potential of Cacao Pod Rind Waste (Theobroma Cacao) to Adsorb Heavy Metal (Pb and Cd) in Water; Anita Dewi Moelyaningrum, The University of Jember, Keywords: Theobroma cacao, pod rinds waste, heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), water - 19. Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Poly (Lactic Acid) and Soda-Treated Sugarcane Bagasse Pulp; Lisman Suryanegara, Yudhi Dwi Kurniawan, Firda Aulya Syamani, Yeyen Nurhamiyah, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Keywords: sugarcane; bagasse; composite materials - 20. Modeling indoor PM2.5 air pollution, estimating exposure, and problems associated with rural Indonesian households using

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wood fuel; Haryono S Huboyo, Puji Lestari, Susumu Tohno, Diponegoro University, Keywords: biomass fuel, cooking, rural household, relative risk, ventilation - 21. Sustainable Wellbeing Subjective Indicators: Human Interdependence with other Humans and with the Environment; Aisyah Abu Bakar, Mariana Mohamed Osman, Syahriah Bachok, Mansor Ibrahim, International Islamic University Malaysia, Keywords: Subjective Sustainable Well-being, Human Interdependency - 22. Low resource usehigh yield concept in climate-smart community empowerment; Santoso, Arzyana Sunkar, Bogor Agricultural University, Keywords: Climate-smart community; empowerment; livelihood strategy; resource use efficiency; social capital.- PART V: SUSTAINABLE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION.- 23. Preference for Information during Flood Disasters: A Study of Thailand and Indonesia; Natt Leelawat, Abdul Mahari, Mongkonkorn Srivichai, Anawat Suppasri, Fumihiko Imamura, Jeremy D. Bricker, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Tohoku University, Keywords: 2011 Thailand flood; 2013 Jakarta flood; disaster management; in-formation needs; Southeast Asia; survey - 24. Socio-ecological aspects informing community resilience in a disaster-prone area: a case study of the traditional Koa community, in the East Nusa Tenggara Province of Indonesia; Dame Manalu, Tri Budhi Soesilo, Francisia SSE Seda, University of Indonesia, Keywords: Socioecological; community resilience; disaster risk; volcanic hazard - 25. Tsunami Resilient Preparedness Index (TRPI) as a Key Step for Effective Disaster Reduction Intervention; Wignyo Adiyoso, Hidehiko Kanegae, National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS),

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Ritsumeikan University, Keywords: tsunami, disaster, preparedness, index, measurement. Environmental management. Environmental policy. Regional planning. Sociology, Urban. Sustainable architecture. Sustainable development. Urban planning. Sustainable Development. Environmental Management. Environmental Policy. Landscape/Regional and Urban Planning. Sustainable Architecture/Green Buildings. Urban Studies/Sociology. Print version: Sustainable future for human security: society, cities and governance 9789811054327 (DLC) 2017953415 Printed edition: 9789811054327 Printed edition: 9789811054341 Printed edition: 9789811353963

The first stones: Penywyrlod, Gwernvale and the Black Mountains Neolithic long cairns of south-east Wales LCCN 2022944598 Type of material Book Main title The first stones: Penywyrlod, Gwernvale and the Black Mountains Neolithic long cairns of southeast Wales / William Britnell, Alasdair Whittle. Edition Paperback. Published/Produced Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2022. ISBN 9781789257397 (paperback) (epub) (mobi) (pdf) Related names Britnell, William, editor. Whittle, Alasdair, editor. Summary "This book brings together the results of recent research on the Neolithic long cairns lying in the

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shadow of the Black Mountains in south-east Wales, focusing upon Penywyrlod and Gwernvale, the two best known tombs within the group, previously excavated in the 1970s. Important results lie in both new site detail and reassessment of the wider context. Small-scale excavation, geophysical survey and geological assessment at Penywyrlod - the largest of the Welsh long cairns gave further information about the distinctive external and internal architecture of the monument. In turn, this opened the opportunity to reassess the pre-monument sequence at Gwernvale, with reexamination of both Mesolithic and Neolithic occupations, including timber structures and middens, lithic and pottery assemblages, and cereal remains. The frame for wider reassessment is given by fresh chronological modelling both of the monuments themselves, suggesting a sequence from Penywyrlod and Pipton to Ty Isaf and Gwernvale, probably spanning the 38th to 36th centuries cal BC, and of early Neolithic activity in south Wales and the Marches across the same sort of period. A detailed study of the major assemblages of human remains from the Black Mountains tombs includes evidence for diet, trauma and lifestyles of the populations represented. Recent isotope analysis of human remains from the tombs is also reviewed, implying social mobility and migration within local populations during the early Neolithic. This book makes a significant contribution to the study of tomb building, treatment of the dead, place making, and Neolithisation in western Britain. Viewed in the context of tombs within the Cotswold-Severn tradition as a whole, it leads to an appreciation of the local and regional distinctiveness of architecture and mortuary practice exhibited by the tombs in this area of south-east Wales, emerging as part of the intake of a significant inland area in the

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early centuries of the Neolithic"-- Provided by publisher. The Role of Laboratory Work in Improving Physics Teaching and Learning LCCN 2019751822 Type of material Book Main title The Role of Laboratory Work in Improving Physics Teaching and Learning / edited by Dagmara Sokołowska, Marisa Michelini. Edition 1st ed. 2018. Published/Produced Cham: Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer, 2018. Description 1 online resource (XI, 278 pages) PDF ISBN 9783319961842 Related names Michelini, Marisa. editor. Sokołowska, Dagmara. editor. Summary This book explores in detail the role of laboratory work in physics teaching and learning. Compelling recent research work is presented on the value of experimentation in the learning process, with description of important research-based proposals on how to achieve improvements in both teaching and learning. The book comprises a rigorously chosen selection of papers from a conference organized by the International Research Group on Physics Teaching (GIREP), an organization that promotes enhancement of the quality of physics teaching and learning at all educational levels and in all contexts. The topics covered are wide ranging. Examples include the roles of open inquiry experiments and advanced lab experiments, the value of computer modeling in physics teaching, the use of web-based interactive video activities and smartphones in the lab, the effectiveness of low-cost experiments, and assessment for learning through experimentation. The presented research-

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based proposals will be of interest to all who seek to improve physics teaching and learning. Introduction - Part 1 Background Aspects Empowering the Engines of Knowing and Creativity: Learning from Experiments - Labs in Building a Modern Physics Way of Thinking - The Impact and Promise of Open-Source Computational Material for Physics Teaching Research Validated Distance Learning Labs for Introductory Physics Using IOLab - The Value of Solving Experimental Problems in Groups Formative Assessment in Physics Teaching and Learning - Part 2 Experimental Lab - Integrating NOS in Lab Work - Open Inquiry Experiments in Physics Laboratory Courses - Educational Lab on Optical Diffraction to Bridge from Classical to Modern Physics - Advanced Lab Experiments: Linking Undergraduate Labs and Research - Part 3 Lab work and Multimedia - Computer modelling in Physics Teaching - Preparing Preservice Science Teachers to Develop Inquiry Based Activities - The Role of Information in Inquiry-Based Learning in a Remote Lab on Optical Spectrometry - Web-Based Interactive Video Activities for Undergraduate Advanced Laboratories - Smartphones as Measuring Instruments in the Physics Classroom What Do Students Think? - Part 4 Concepts and Lab - Addressing Some Common Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Energy in High School Teaching - Learning Sequences Using Low-Cost Experiments Aimed at Understanding of Concepts of Electricity - Part 5 Assessment for Learning Through Experimentation - Inquiry Based Learning of Contemporary Physics Topics and Gifted Students - The Development and Pilot Testing of the Measurement Tool of Skills Level Development in the Lower Secondary Physics Classroom - Assessing Student's Conceptual Understanding in a Laboratory on the Measurement

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of the Planck Constant - Part 6 Low-cost Experiments and Inquiry - Effectiveness of learning through inquiry - A Non-Classical Acoustics Teaching Lab Supported by BYOD and Inquiry-Based Learning Quantitative measurements of RGB and CMYK colours with a homemade spectrophotometer. Educational technology. Education--Research. Science education. Science--Social aspects. Teaching. Societal Aspects of Physics, Outreach and Education. Research Methods in Education. Science Education. Teaching and Teacher Education. Technology and Digital Education. Print version: The role of laboratory work in improving physics teaching and learning 9783319961835 (DLC) 2018960223 Printed edition: 9783319961835 Printed edition: 9783319961859

Understanding BIM: the past, present and future LCCN 2020005132 Type of material Book Personal name Ingram, Jonathan, 1952- author. Main title Understanding BIM: the past, present and future / Jonathan Ingram. Published/Produced Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. ISBN 9780367244187 (pbk) 9780367244132 (hbk) (ebk) LC classification TH438.13 .I54 2020 Summary "Understanding BIM presents the story of Building Information Modelling, an ever evolving and disruptive technology that has transformed the

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methodologies of the global construction industry"- Provided by publisher. Building information modeling. Includes bibliographical references and index. Online version: Ingram, Jonathan, 1952Understanding bim Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. 9780429282300 (DLC) 2020005133

Understanding BIM: the past, present and future LCCN 2020005133 Type of material Book Personal name Ingram, Jonathan, 1952- author. Main title Understanding BIM: the past, present and future / Jonathan Ingram. Published/Produced London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2020. ©2020 Description 1 online resource ISBN 9780429282300 (ebk) (hbk) (pbk) LC classification TH438.13 Summary "Understanding BIM presents the story of Building Information Modelling, an ever evolving and disruptive technology that has transformed the methodologies of the global construction industry"- Provided by publisher. LC Subjects Building information modeling. Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. Additional formats Print version: Ingram, Jonathan, 1952Understanding BIM London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2020. 9780367244187 (DLC) 2020005132 Urban Wind Environment: Integrated Climate-Sensitive Planning and Design LCCN 2019747262 Type of material Book

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Yuan, Chao. author. Urban Wind Environment: Integrated ClimateSensitive Planning and Design / by Chao Yuan. 1st ed. 2018. Singapore: Springer Singapore: Imprint: Springer, 2018. 1 online resource (XXXIX, 171 pages 106 illustrations, 93 illustrations in color.) PDF 9789811054518 In the context of urbanization and compact urban living, conventional experience-based planning and design often cannot adequately address the serious environmental issues, such as thermal comfort and air quality. The ultimate goal of this book is to facilitate a paradigm shift from the conventional experience-based ways to a more scientific, evidence-based process of decision making in both urban planning and architectural design stage. This book introduces novel yet practical modelling and mapping methods, and provides scientific understandings of the urban typologies and wind environment from the urban to building scale through real examples and case studies. The tools provided in this book aid a systematic implementation of environmental information from urban planning to building design by making wind information more accessible to both urban planners and architects, and significantly increasing the impact of urban climate information on the practical urban planning and design. This book is a useful reference book to architectural postgraduates, design practitioners and planners, urban climate researchers, as well as policy makers for developing future livable and sustainable cities. Introduction - Methodology - Wind Environment in Urban Planning - Wind Environment in Mater Planning - Wind Environment in Architectural

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Design - Air Quality in Architectural Design and Urban Planning - Integrated Implementation in Planning and Design. Building. Buildings--Design and construction. Computer-aided engineering. Construction. Engineering, Architectural. Fluid mechanics. Mechanics, Applied. Mechanics. Regional planning. Building materials. Urban planning. Building Construction and Design. Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD, CAE) and Design. Engineering Fluid Dynamics. Landscape/Regional and Urban Planning. Solid Mechanics. Structural Materials. Print version: Urban wind environment. 9789811054501 (DLC) 2017964239 Printed edition: 9789811054501 Printed edition: 9789811054525 SpringerBriefs in Architectural Design and Technology, 2199-580X SpringerBriefs in Architectural Design and Technology, 2199-580X

Using Excel for business and financial modelling: a practical guide LCCN 2019010808 Type of material Book Personal name Fairhurst, Danielle Stein, author. Uniform title Using Excel for business analysis. Main title Using Excel for business and financial modelling: a practical guide / Danielle Stein Fairhurst. Edition Third edition. Published/Produced Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2019.

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1 online resource. 9781119520344 (ePub) 9781119520375 (ePDF) HF5548.4.M523 "A hands-on guide to using Excel in the business context First published in 2012, Using Excel for Business and Financial Modelling contains stepby-step instructions of how to solve common business problems using financial models, including downloadable Excel templates, a list of shortcuts and tons of practical tips and techniques you can apply straight away. Whilst there are many hundreds of tools, features and functions in Excel, this book focuses on the topics most relevant to finance professionals. It covers these features in detail from a practical perspective, but also puts them in context by applying them to practical examples in the real world. Learn to create financial models to help make business decisions whilst applying modelling best practice methodology, tools and techniques. Provides the perfect mix of practice and theory; Helps you become a DIY Excel modelling specialist; Includes updates for Excel 2019/365 and Excel for Mac; May be used as an accompaniment to the author’s online and face-toface training courses Many people are often overwhelmed by the hundreds of tools in Excel, and this book gives clarity to the ones you need to know in order to perform your job more efficiently. This book also demystifies the technical, design, logic and financial skills you need for business and financial modelling"-- Provided by publisher. Machine generated contents note: Chapter 1: What is Financial Modelling? What's the Difference Between a Spreadsheet and a Financial Model? Types and Purposes of Financial Models Tool Selection What Skills Do You Need to Be a Good Financial Modeller? The "Ideal" Financial Modeller Summary Chapter 2: Building a Model

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Model Design The Golden Rules for Product Design Design Issues The Workbook Anatomy of a Model Project Planning Your Model Model Layout Flowcharting Steps to Building a Model Information Requests Version-Control Documentation Summary Chapter 3: Best-Practice Principles of Modelling Document Your Assumptions Linking, Not Hardcoding Enter Data Only Once Avoid Bad Habits Use Consistent Formulas Format and Label Clearly Methods and Tools of Assumptions Documentation Linked Dynamic Text Assumptions Documentation What Makes a Good Model? Summary Chapter 4: Financial Modelling Techniques The Problem with Excel Error Avoidance Strategies How Long Should a Formula Be? Linking to External Files Building Error Checks Circular References Summary Chapter 5: Using Excel in Financial Modelling Formulas and Functions in Excel Excel Versions Handy Excel Shortcuts Cell Referencing Best Practices Named Ranges Basic Excel Functions Logical Functions Nesting Logical Functions Summary Chapter 6: Functions for Financial Modelling Aggregation Functions LOOKUP Functions Nesting Index and Matching OFFSET Function Regression Analysis Choose Function Working with Dates Financial Project Evaluation Functions Loan Calculations Summary Chapter 7: Tools for Model Display Basic Formatting Custom Formatting Conditional Formatting Sparklines Bulletproofing Your Model Customising the Display Settings Form Controls Summary Chapter 8: Tools for Financial Modelling Hiding Sections of a Model Array Formulas Goal Seeking Structured Reference Tables PivotTables Macros Summary Chapter 9: Common Uses of Tools in Financial Modelling Escalation Methods for Modelling Understanding Nominal and Effective (Real) Rates Calculating a Cumulative

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Sum (Running Totals) How to Calculate a Payback Period Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) Building a Tiering Table Modelling Depreciation Methods Break-Even Analysis Summary Chapter 10: Model Review Rebuilding an Inherited Model Improving Model Performance Auditing a Financial Model Summary Appendix: QA Log Chapter 11: Stress Testing, Scenarios, and Sensitivity Analysis in Financial Modelling What are the Differences Between Scenario, Sensitivity, and What-If Analyses? Overview of Scenario Analysis Tools and Methods Advanced Conditional Formatting Comparing Scenario Methods Adding Probability to a Data Table Summary Chapter 12: Presenting Model Output Preparing an Oral Presentation for Model Results Preparing a Graphic or Written Presentation for Model Results Chart Types Working with Charts Handy Charting Hints Dynamic Named Ranges Charting with Two Different Axes and Chart Types Bubble Charts Creating a Dynamic Chart Waterfall Charts Summary Index. Microsoft Excel (Computer file) Corporations--Finance. Corporations--Finance--Computer programs. Business & Economics / Finance. Revised edition of the author's Using Excel for business analysis, 2012. Includes index. Print version: Fairhurst, Danielle Stein, author. Using Excel for business and financial modelling Third edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2019 9781119520382 (DLC) 2019000634 Wiley finance

Using Excel for business and financial modelling: a practical guide LCCN 2019000634 Type of material Book Personal name Fairhurst, Danielle Stein, author.

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Uniform title Main title Edition Published/Produced ISBN LC classification Summary

209

Using Excel for business analysis. Using Excel for business and financial modelling: a practical guide / Danielle Stein Fairhurst. Third edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2019. 9781119520382 (paperback) HF5548.4.M523 F35 2019 "A hands-on guide to using Excel in the business context First published in 2012, Using Excel for Business and Financial Modelling contains stepby-step instructions of how to solve common business problems using financial models, including downloadable Excel templates, a list of shortcuts and tons of practical tips and techniques you can apply straight away. Whilst there are many hundreds of tools, features and functions in Excel, this book focuses on the topics most relevant to finance professionals. It covers these features in detail from a practical perspective, but also puts them in context by applying them to practical examples in the real world. Learn to create financial models to help make business decisions whilst applying modelling best practice methodology, tools and techniques. Provides the perfect mix of practice and theory; Helps you become a DIY Excel modelling specialist; Includes updates for Excel 2019/365 and Excel for Mac; May be used as an accompaniment to the author’s online and face-toface training courses Many people are often overwhelmed by the hundreds of tools in Excel, and this book gives clarity to the ones you need to know in order to perform your job more efficiently. This book also demystifies the technical, design, logic and financial skills you need for business and financial modelling"-- Provided by publisher. "The book is a very hands-on guide to the use of Excel in a business context. First published in 2012, it contains step-by-step instructions of how to solve common business problems using financial models,

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210

Contents

Bibliography

including downloadable Excel templates as well as other supplementary content; a list of shortcuts and jam-packed with practical tips and techniques the reader can pick up and apply straight away to their work. Readers purchase the book for their own learning and it is also used as an accompaniment to the author's online and face to face training courses. Whilst there are many hundreds of tools, features and functions in Excel, this book focusses more on topics relevant to finance professionals. It covers these features in detail from a practical perspective, but also puts them in context by applying them to practical examples in the real world. Readers are often overwhelmed by the hundreds of tools in Excel and this book gives them clarity by showing them only the ones that they really need to know in order to perform their job more efficiently"-Provided by publisher. Chapter 1: What is Financial Modelling? What's the Difference Between a Spreadsheet and a Financial Model? Types and Purposes of Financial Models Tool Selection What Skills Do You Need to Be a Good Financial Modeller? The "Ideal" Financial Modeller Summary Chapter 2: Building a Model Model Design The Golden Rules for Product Design Design Issues The Workbook Anatomy of a Model Project Planning Your Model Model Layout Flowcharting Steps to Building a Model Information Requests Version-Control Documentation Summary Chapter 3: Best-Practice Principles of Modelling Document Your Assumptions Linking, Not Hardcoding Enter Data Only Once Avoid Bad Habits Use Consistent Formulas Format and Label Clearly Methods and Tools of Assumptions Documentation Linked Dynamic Text Assumptions Documentation What Makes a Good Model? Summary Chapter 4: Financial Modelling Techniques The Problem with Excel Error Avoidance Strategies How Long

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Bibliography

211

Should a Formula Be? Linking to External Files Building Error Checks Circular References Summary Chapter 5: Using Excel in Financial Modelling Formulas and Functions in Excel Excel Versions Handy Excel Shortcuts Cell Referencing Best Practices Named Ranges Basic Excel Functions Logical Functions Nesting Logical Functions Summary Chapter 6: Functions for Financial Modelling Aggregation Functions LOOKUP Functions Nesting Index and Matching OFFSET Function Regression Analysis Choose Function Working with Dates Financial Project Evaluation Functions Loan Calculations Summary Chapter 7: Tools for Model Display Basic Formatting Custom Formatting Conditional Formatting Sparklines Bulletproofing Your Model Customising the Display Settings Form Controls Summary Chapter 8: Tools for Financial Modelling Hiding Sections of a Model Array Formulas Goal Seeking Structured Reference Tables PivotTables Macros Summary Chapter 9: Common Uses of Tools in Financial Modelling Escalation Methods for Modelling Understanding Nominal and Effective (Real) Rates Calculating a Cumulative Sum (Running Totals) How to Calculate a Payback Period Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) Building a Tiering Table Modelling Depreciation Methods Break-Even Analysis Summary Chapter 10: Model Review Rebuilding an Inherited Model Improving Model Performance Auditing a Financial Model Summary Appendix: QA Log Chapter 11: Stress Testing, Scenarios, and Sensitivity Analysis in Financial Modelling What are the Differences Between Scenario, Sensitivity, and What-If Analyses? Overview of Scenario Analysis Tools and Methods Advanced Conditional Formatting Comparing Scenario Methods Adding Probability to a Data Table Summary Chapter 12: Presenting Model Output

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212

LC Subjects

Other Subjects Notes

Additional formats

Series

Bibliography

Preparing an Oral Presentation for Model Results Preparing a Graphic or Written Presentation for Model Results Chart Types Working with Charts Handy Charting Hints Dynamic Named Ranges Charting with Two Different Axes and Chart Types Bubble Charts Creating a Dynamic Chart Waterfall Charts Summary Index. Microsoft Excel (Computer file) Corporations--Finance. Corporations--Finance--Computer programs. Business & Economics / Finance. Revised edition of the author's Using Excel for business analysis, 2012. Includes index. Online version: Fairhurst, Danielle Stein, author. Using Excel for business and financial modelling Third edition. Hoboken: Wiley, 2019 9781119520344 (DLC) 2019010808 Wiley finance

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Index

69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 88, 89, 99, 100, 108, 110, 111, 112, 118, 133, 135, 136, 149, 157, 158, 202, 203

# 2D drafting, 36 3D BIM model, 78, 79, 101 3D modelling, viii, 34, 36 4D BIM model, 78

A Algeria, 6, 18, 21 architects, ix, 18, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42, 49, 71, 74, 100, 146, 204 Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC), viii, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34, 36, 46, 47, 48, 99, 100, 102, 107, 141 as-built construction, 2 awareness, 4, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 34, 35, 36, 37, 45, 46, 99, 118, 170, 185, 187

B barriers against BIM, 3, 4, 11, 15, 17, 18, 22 better cost control, 2 BIM-based Green Building Studio simulation, ix, 52 Brazil, 15, 20, 22, 25, 27, 109 Britain, 11, 12, 22, 199 building envelope, ix, 51, 52, 56, 59, 60, 64, 65, 119 Building Information Modeling (BIM), vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 55, 66, 67, 68,

C Canada, 5, 9, 12, 22, 27, 37, 48 civil engineering, 1, 28, 29, 30, 47, 48, 68, 71, 73, 74, 110, 112, 118, 126 clash elimination, 2 communication enhancement, 2 construction, v, vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 56, 66, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 78, 80, 81, 83, 87, 88,89, 98, 100, 105, 110, 111, 112, 117, 118, 119, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 142, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 170, 178, 179, 180, 185, 188, 189, 190, 192, 203, 205 construction industry, v, vii, viii, ix, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 53, 67, 71, 72, 74, 87, 89, 101, 117, 132, 134, 142, 156, 157, 189, 190, 203 Costa Rica, 6, 17, 21, 31

D Denmark, vii, 1, 5, 29 designers, viii, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 59, 72, 74, 88 designing, ix, 36, 40, 45, 71, 92, 102, 127, 137, 144, 171, 175, 177

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214

Index

E

M

Egypt, 17, 18, 21 energy efficiency, 36, 52, 113, 159 Erzurum, v, vii, ix, 51, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 Ethiopia, 17, 21, 22, 27, 30 exact resource management, 2

Malaysia, 5, 14, 19, 22, 27, 30, 47, 54, 68, 195 Mongolia, 6, 13, 19

F Finland, vii, 1, 4, 8, 12, 22, 26, 27, 28, 31, 49

N natural stone, 52, 56, 65 Navisworks, 78, 81 Nepal, 6, 16, 20, 29

O

G

operation, 36, 37, 53, 54, 73, 104, 110, 111, 126, 181, 185, 188

Germany, 5, 14, 19, 28, 139, 143, 181 Ghana, v, vii, viii, 33, 35, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 153 green buildings studio, 52

P

H Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM), ix, 71, 74, 75, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89, 100, 118 Hong Kong, 5, 13, 19, 25, 27, 47, 55, 178 HSE risk decline, 2

I implementation roadmap, v, vii, 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 24, 30 improve professional skills, 71 Indonesia, 6, 11, 22, 30, 31, 194 insulation materials, ix, 52, 56, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66 Iran, 1, 6, 18, 21, 28, 30 Ireland, 6, 15, 20, 22, 29

Pakistan, 6, 16, 20, 26, 28 planning, ix, 2, 3, 27, 30, 36, 46, 51, 67, 68, 71, 75, 78, 81, 88, 97, 101, 110, 111, 141, 171, 173, 174, 175, 177, 179, 181, 193, 197, 198, 203, 204, 205, 207, 210 Portugal, 14, 19, 29, 71, 73, 88, 163 post-construction, vii, 1, 2 pre-construction, vii, 1, 11, 30

R readiness, 29, 34, 39, 40, 41, 44, 46 real-time time tracking, 2

S Saudi Arabia, 6, 15, 20, 25, 47 Singapore, vii, 2, 5, 9, 10, 12, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 67, 103, 113, 130, 178, 193, 204 Slovenia, 16, 28, 148 Solibri Model Checker, 78 South Korea, vii, 2, 5, 10 Spain, 5, 10, 22, 73, 117, 151 structural design, 42, 75, 81, 89 structural engineers, 34, 35, 40

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Index structures, ix, 52, 53, 71, 74, 75, 78, 87, 88, 95, 121, 127, 152, 167, 199

T Tekla BIMsight, 78 training course, v, vii, 23, 71, 73, 206, 209, 210 Turkey, ix, 51, 53, 56, 57, 58, 107, 111, 112

215

U United States of America (USA), 5, 9, 10, 13, 26, 31, 51, 98, 108, 172, 174, 175 up-to-date information, 71

W waste and loss reduction, 2

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