Biology: The Dynamic Science [4 ed.] 9781305389892, 9781305655911, 1305389891

Russell/Hertz/McMillan, BIOLOGY: THE DYNAMIC SCIENCE 4e and MindTap teach Biology the way scientists practice it by emph

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Biology: The Dynamic Science [4 ed.]
 9781305389892, 9781305655911, 1305389891

Table of contents :
Brief Contents......Page 7
Preface......Page 9
New to This Edition......Page 13
Acknowledgments......Page 24
Unanswered Questions Contributors......Page 30
Contents......Page 32
Ch 1: Introduction to Biological Concepts and Research......Page 43
1.1: What is Life? Characteristics of Living Organisms......Page 44
1.2: Biological Evolution......Page 49
1.3: Biodiversity and the Tree of Life......Page 51
1.4: Biological Research......Page 56
Review Key Concepts......Page 63
Test Your Knowledge......Page 64
2.1: The Organization of Matter: Elements and Atoms......Page 66
2.2: Atomic Structure......Page 68
2.3: Chemical Bonds and Chemical Reactions......Page 72
2.4: Hydrogen Bonds and the Properties of Water......Page 77
2.5: Water Ionization and Acids, Bases, and Buffers......Page 80
Test Your Knowledge......Page 84
Ch 3: Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds of Life......Page 86
3.1: Formation and Modification of Biological Molecules......Page 87
3.2: Carbohydrates......Page 91
3.3: Lipids......Page 94
3.4: Proteins......Page 99
3.5: Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids......Page 107
Review Key Concepts......Page 112
Test Your Knowledge......Page 113
Ch 4: Cells......Page 115
4.1: Basic Features of Cell Structure and Function......Page 116
4.2: Prokaryotic Cells......Page 120
4.3: Eukaryotic Cells......Page 121
4.4: Specialized Structures of Plant Cells......Page 137
4.5: The Animal Cell Surface......Page 140
Review Key Concepts......Page 142
Test Your Knowledge......Page 143
Ch 5: Membranes and Transport......Page 146
5.1: Membrane Structure and Function......Page 147
5.2: Functions of Membranes in Transport: Passive Transport......Page 153
5.3: Passive Water Transport and Osmosis......Page 156
5.4: Active Transport......Page 158
5.5: Exocytosis and Endocytosis......Page 161
Review Key Concepts......Page 165
Test Your Knowledge......Page 166
Ch 6: Energy, Enzymes, and Biological Reactions......Page 168
6.1: Energy, Life, and the Laws of Thermodynamics......Page 169
6.2: Free Energy and Spontaneous Reactions......Page 171
6.3: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): The Energy Currency of the Cell......Page 173
6.4: Role of Enzymes in Biological Reactions......Page 175
6.5: Conditions and Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity......Page 178
6.6: RNA-Based Biological Catalysts: Ribozymes......Page 182
Review Key Concepts......Page 184
Test Your Knowledge......Page 185
Ch 7: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy......Page 188
7.1: Overview of Cellular Respiration......Page 189
7.2: Glycolysis: Splitting the Sugar in Half......Page 193
7.3: Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle......Page 195
7.4: Oxidative Phosphorylation: The Electron Transfer System and Chemiosmosis......Page 197
7.5: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation......Page 203
7.6: Interrelationships of Catabolic and Anabolic Pathways......Page 205
Review Key Concepts......Page 208
Test Your Knowledge......Page 209
Ch 8: Photosynthesis......Page 211
8.1: Photosynthesis: An Overview......Page 212
8.2: The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis......Page 214
8.3: The Light-Independent Reactions of Photosynthesis......Page 222
8.4: Photorespiration and Alternative Processes of Carbon Fixation......Page 225
8.5: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Compared......Page 229
Review Key Concepts......Page 231
Test Your Knowledge......Page 232
Ch 9: Cell Communication......Page 234
9.1: Cell Communication: An Overview......Page 235
9.2: Cell Communication Systems with Surface Receptors......Page 239
9.3: Signaling Pathways Triggered by Surface Receptors......Page 241
9.4: Signaling Pathways Triggered by Internal Receptors......Page 248
9.5: Integration of Cell Communication Pathways......Page 251
Review Key Concepts......Page 253
Test Your Knowledge......Page 254
Ch 10: Cell Division and Mitosis......Page 256
10.1: The Cycle of Cell Growth and Division: An Overview......Page 257
10.2: The Mitotic Cell Cycle......Page 258
10.3: Formation and Action of the Mitotic Spindle......Page 264
10.4: Cell Cycle Regulation......Page 268
10.5: Cell Division in Bacteria......Page 274
Review Key Concepts......Page 276
Test Your Knowledge......Page 277
Ch 11: Meiosis: The Cellular Basis of Sexual Reproduction......Page 279
11.1: The Mechanisms of Meiosis......Page 280
11.2: Mechanisms That Generate Genetic Variability......Page 286
11.3: The Time and Place of Meiosis in Organismal Life Cycles......Page 288
Review Key Concepts......Page 290
Test Your Knowledge......Page 291
Ch 12: Mendel, Genes, and Inheritance......Page 293
12.1: The Beginnings of Genetics: Mendel's Garden Peas......Page 294
12.2: Later Modifications and Additions to Mendel's Principles......Page 306
Review Key Concepts......Page 313
Test Your Knowledge......Page 314
Ch 13: Genes, Chromosomes, and Human Genetics......Page 316
13.1: Genetic Linkage and Recombination......Page 317
13.2: Sex-Linked Genes......Page 321
13.3: Chromosomal Mutations That Affect Inheritance......Page 327
13.4: Human Genetic Traits, Pedigree Analysis, and Genetic Counseling......Page 332
13.5: Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance......Page 335
Review Key Concepts......Page 339
Test Your Knowledge......Page 340
Ch 14: DNA Structure and Replication......Page 342
14.1: Establishing DNA as the Hereditary Molecule......Page 343
14.2: DNA Structure......Page 346
14.3: DNA Replication......Page 348
14.4: Repair of Errors in DNA......Page 360
Review Key Concepts......Page 362
Test Your Knowledge......Page 363
Ch 15: From DNA to Protein......Page 365
15.1: The Connection between DNA, RNA, and Protein......Page 366
15.2: Transcription: DNA-Directed RNA Synthesis......Page 371
15.3: Production of mRNAs in Eukaryotes......Page 373
15.4: Translation: mRNA-Directed Polypeptide Synthesis......Page 378
15.5: Genetic Changes That Affect Protein Structure and Function......Page 387
Review Key Concepts......Page 393
Test Your Knowledge......Page 394
Ch 16: Regulation of Gene Expression......Page 396
16.1: Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes......Page 397
16.2: Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes......Page 403
16.3: Posttranscriptional, Translational, and Posttranslational Regulation......Page 409
16.4: Genetic and Molecular Regulation of Development......Page 412
16.5: The Genetics and Genomics of Cancer......Page 419
Review Key Concepts......Page 424
Test Your Knowledge......Page 425
Ch 17: Bacterial and Viral Genetics......Page 427
17.1: Gene Transfer and Genetic Recombination in Bacteria......Page 428
17.2: Viruses and Viral Genetics......Page 435
17.3: Viroids and Prions, Infectious Agents Lacking Protein Coats......Page 444
Review Key Concepts......Page 446
Test Your Knowledge......Page 447
Ch 18: DNA Technologies: Making and Using Genetically Altered Organisms, and Other Applications......Page 449
18.1: Key DNA Technologies for Making Genetically Altered Organisms......Page 450
18.2: Applications of Genetically Altered Organisms......Page 457
18.3: Other Applications of DNA Technologies......Page 467
Review Key Concepts......Page 471
Test Your Knowledge......Page 472
Ch 19: Genomes and Proteomes......Page 474
19.1: Genomics: An Overview......Page 475
19.2: Genome Sequence Determination and Annotation......Page 476
19.3: Determining the Functions of the Genes in a Genome......Page 486
19.4: Genome Evolution......Page 491
Review Key Concepts......Page 496
Test Your Knowledge......Page 497
Ch 20: Development of Evolutionary Thinking......Page 499
20.1: Recognition of Evolutionary Change......Page 500
20.2: Darwin's Journeys......Page 502
20.3: Evolutionary Biology since Darwin......Page 507
Test Your Knowledge......Page 516
Ch 21: Microevolution: Genetic Changes within Populations......Page 518
21.1: Variation in Natural Populations......Page 519
21.2: Population Genetics......Page 522
21.3: The Agents of Microevolution......Page 524
21.4: Maintaining Genetic and Phenotypic Variation......Page 534
21.5: Adaptation and Evolutionary Constraints......Page 537
Review Key Concepts......Page 540
Test Your Knowledge......Page 541
Ch 22: Speciation......Page 543
22.1: What is a Species?......Page 544
22.2: Maintaining Reproductive Isolation......Page 547
22.3: The Geography of Speciation......Page 549
22.4: Genetic Mechanisms of Speciation......Page 554
Review Key Concepts......Page 560
Test Your Knowledge......Page 561
Ch 23: Paleobiology and Macroevolution......Page 563
23.1: The Fossil Record......Page 564
23.2: Earth History......Page 569
23.3: Historical Biogeography and Convergent Biotas......Page 572
23.4: The History of Biodiversity......Page 575
23.5: Interpreting Evolutionary Lineages......Page 579
23.6: The Evolution of Morphological Novelties......Page 583
Test Your Knowledge......Page 590
Ch 24: Systematics and Phylogenetics: Revealing the Tree of Life......Page 592
24.1: Nomenclature and Classification......Page 593
24.2: Phylogenetic Trees......Page 594
24.3: Sources of Data for Phylogenetic Analyses......Page 598
24.4: Traditional Classification and Paraphyletic Groups......Page 602
24.5: The Cladistic Revolution......Page 603
24.6: Phylogenetic Trees as Research Tools......Page 609
24.7: Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses......Page 611
Test Your Knowledge......Page 616
Ch 25: The Origin of Life......Page 619
25.1: The Formation of Molecules Necessary for Life......Page 620
25.2: The Origin of Cells......Page 623
25.3: The Origins of Eukaryotic Cells......Page 629
Review Key Concepts......Page 632
Test Your Knowledge......Page 633
Ch 26: Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea......Page 635
26.1: Prokaryotic Structure and Function......Page 636
26.2: The Domain Bacteria......Page 643
26.3: The Domain Archaea......Page 651
Test Your Knowledge......Page 654
Ch 27: Protists......Page 656
27.1: What is a Protist?......Page 657
27.2: The Protist Groups......Page 660
Review Key Concepts......Page 678
Test Your Knowledge......Page 679
Ch 28: Seedless Plants......Page 681
28.1: Plant Evolution: Adaptations to Life on Land......Page 682
28.2: Bryophytes, the Nonvascular Land Plants......Page 689
28.3: Seedless Vascular Plants......Page 693
28.4: Ecological, Economic, and Research Importance of Seedless Plants......Page 698
Review Key Concepts......Page 700
Test Your Knowledge......Page 701
Ch 29: Seed Plants......Page 703
29.1: The Rise of Seed Plants......Page 704
29.2: Gymnosperms: The "Naked Seed" Plants......Page 707
29.3: Angiosperms: Flowering Plants......Page 713
29.4: Insights from Plant Genome Research......Page 719
29.5: Seed Plants and People......Page 721
Review Key Concepts......Page 723
Test Your Knowledge......Page 724
Ch 30: Fungi......Page 726
30.1: General Characteristics of Fungi......Page 727
30.2: Evolution of the Kingdom Fungi......Page 731
30.3: Fungal Associations: Lichens and Mycorrhizae......Page 741
30.4: Impacts of Fungi in Ecosystems and Society......Page 743
Review Key Concepts......Page 745
Test Your Knowledge......Page 746
Ch 31: Animal Phylogeny, Acoelomates, and Protostomes......Page 748
31.1: What is an Animal?......Page 749
31.2: Key Innovations in Animal Evolution......Page 750
31.3: An Overview of Animal Phylogeny and Classification......Page 753
31.4: Animals without Tissues: Parazoa......Page 755
31.5: Eumetazoans with Radial Symmetry......Page 757
31.6: Lophotrochozoan Protostomes......Page 761
31.7: Ecdysozoan Protostomes......Page 771
Review Key Concepts......Page 782
Test Your Knowledge......Page 783
Ch 32: Deuterostomes: Vertebrates and Their Closest Relatives......Page 785
32.1: Invertebrate Deuterostomes......Page 786
32.2: Overview of the Phylum Chordata......Page 789
32.3: The Origin and Diversification of Vertebrates......Page 791
32.4: "Agnathans": Hagfishes and Lampreys, Conodonts and Ostracoderms......Page 794
32.5: Gnathostomata: The Evolution of Jaws......Page 796
32.6: Tetrapoda: The Evolution of Limbs......Page 801
32.7: Amniota: The Evolution of Fully Terrestrial Vertebrates......Page 804
32.8: Living Lepidosaurs: Sphenodontids and Squamates......Page 806
32.9: Living Archelosaurs: Turtles, Corocodilians, and Birds......Page 809
32.10: Mammalia: Monotremes, Marsupials, and Placentals......Page 812
32.11: Nonhuman Primates......Page 815
32.12: The Evolution of Humans......Page 819
Review Key Concepts......Page 825
Test Your Knowledge......Page 826
Ch 33: The Plant Body......Page 828
33.1: Basic Concepts of Plant Structure and Growth......Page 829
33.2: The Three Plant Tissue Systems......Page 831
33.3: Root Systems......Page 838
33.4: Primary Shoot Systems......Page 841
33.5: Secondary Growth......Page 848
Review Key Concepts......Page 851
Test Your Knowledge......Page 852
Ch 34: Transport in Plants......Page 855
34.1: Overview of Water and Solute Movements in Plants......Page 856
34.2: Roots: Moving Water and Minerals into the Plant......Page 860
34.3: Transport of Water and Minerals in the Xylem......Page 861
34.4: Stomata: Regulating the Loss of Water by Transpiration......Page 865
34.5: Transport of Organic Substances in the Phloem......Page 868
Review Key Concepts......Page 872
Test Your Knowledge......Page 873
35.1: Plant Nutritional Requirements......Page 875
35.2: Soil......Page 879
35.3: Root Adaptations for Obtaining and Absorbing Nutrients......Page 883
Review Key Concepts......Page 891
Test Your Knowledge......Page 892
Ch 36: Reproduction and Development in Flowering Plants......Page 894
36.1: Overview of Flowering Plant Reproduction......Page 895
36.2: The Formation of Flowers and Gametes......Page 896
36.3: Pollination, Fertilization, and Germination......Page 901
36.4: Asexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants......Page 910
36.5: Early Plant Development......Page 911
Review Key Concepts......Page 920
Test Your Knowledge......Page 921
Ch 37: Plant Signals and Responses to the Environment......Page 923
37.1: Introduction to Plant Hormones......Page 924
37.2: Plant Chemical Defenses......Page 938
37.3: Plant Movements......Page 942
37.4: Plant Biological Clocks......Page 945
Review Key Concepts......Page 951
Test Your Knowledge......Page 952
Ch 38: Introduction to Animal Organization and Physiology......Page 954
38.2: Animal Tissues......Page 955
38.4: Homeostasis......Page 963
Review Key Concepts......Page 969
Test Your Knowledge......Page 970
Ch 39: Information Flow and the Neuron......Page 972
39.1: Neurons and Their Organization in Nervous Systems......Page 973
39.2: Signaling by Neurons......Page 977
39.3: Transmission across Chemical Synapses......Page 983
39.4: Integration of Incoming Signals by Neurons......Page 986
Review Key Concepts......Page 990
Test Your Knowledge......Page 991
Ch 40: Nervous Systems......Page 993
40.1: Invertebrate and Vertebrate Nervous Systems Compared......Page 994
40.2: The Peripheral Nervous System......Page 997
40.3: The Central Nervous System and Its Functions......Page 999
40.4: Memory, Learning, and Consciousness......Page 1008
Review Key Concepts......Page 1011
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1012
Ch 41: Sensory Systems......Page 1014
41.1: Overview of Sensory Receptors and Pathways......Page 1015
41.2: Mechanoreceptors and the Tactile and Spatial Senses......Page 1016
41.3: Mechanoreceptors and Hearing......Page 1019
41.4: Photoreceptors and Vision......Page 1022
41.5: Chemoreceptors......Page 1027
41.6: Thermoreceptors and Nociceptors......Page 1030
41.7: Magnetoreceptors and Electroreceptors......Page 1031
Review Key Concepts......Page 1033
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1034
Ch 42: The Endocrine System......Page 1036
42.1: Hormones and Their Secretion......Page 1037
42.2: Mechanisms of Hormone Action......Page 1039
42.3: The Hypothalamus and Pituitary......Page 1043
42.4: Other Major Endocrine Glands of Vertebrates......Page 1047
42.5: Endocrine Systems in Invertebrates......Page 1053
Review Key Concepts......Page 1055
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1056
Ch 43: Muscles, Bones, and Body Movements......Page 1058
43.1: Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Function......Page 1059
43.2: Skeletal Systems......Page 1065
43.3: Vertebrate Movement: The Interactions between Muscles and Bones......Page 1067
Review Key Concepts......Page 1070
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1071
Ch 44: The Circulatory System......Page 1073
44.1: Animal Circulatory Systems: An Introduction......Page 1074
44.2: Blood and Its Components......Page 1077
44.3: The Heart......Page 1080
44.4: Blood Vessels of the Circulatory System......Page 1084
44.5: Maintaining Blood Flow and Pressure......Page 1087
44.6: The Lymphatic System......Page 1088
Review Key Concepts......Page 1091
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1092
Ch 45: Defenses against Disease......Page 1094
45.1: Three Lines of Defense against Pathogens......Page 1095
45.2: Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses......Page 1096
45.3: Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses......Page 1099
45.4: Malfunctions and Failures of the Immune System......Page 1109
45.5: Evolved Defenses against Pathogens in Other Animals......Page 1112
Review Key Concepts......Page 1113
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1114
Ch 46: Gas Exchange: The Respiratory System......Page 1116
46.1: The Function of Gas Exchange......Page 1117
46.2: Evolutionary Adaptations for Respiration......Page 1119
46.3: The Mammalian Respiratory System......Page 1122
46.4: Mechanisms of Gas Exchange and Transport......Page 1125
46.5: Respiration at High Altitudes and in Ocean Depths......Page 1128
Review Key Concepts......Page 1132
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1133
Ch 47: Animal Nutrition......Page 1135
47.1: Feeding and Nutrition......Page 1136
47.2: Digestive Processes......Page 1138
47.3: Digestion in Humans and Other Mammals......Page 1140
47.4: Regulation of the Digestive Process......Page 1151
47.5: Digestive Specializations in Vertebrates......Page 1152
Review Key Concepts......Page 1156
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1158
Ch 48: Regulating the Internal Environment......Page 1160
48.1: Introduction to Osmoregulation and Excretion......Page 1161
48.2: Osmoregulation and Excretion in Invertebrates......Page 1163
48.3: Osmoregulation and Excretion in Mammals......Page 1165
48.4: Regulation of Mammalian Kidney Function......Page 1170
48.5: Kidney Function in Nonmammalian Vertebrates......Page 1173
48.6: Introduction to Thermoregulation......Page 1174
48.7: Ectothermy......Page 1178
48.8: Endothermy......Page 1179
Review Key Concepts......Page 1183
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1184
Ch 49: Animal Reproduction......Page 1186
49.1: Animal Reproductive Modes: Asexual and Sexual Reproduction......Page 1187
49.2: Cellular Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction......Page 1189
49.3: Sexual Reproduction in Humans......Page 1194
49.4: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy: Contraception......Page 1202
Review Key Concepts......Page 1205
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1206
Ch 50: Animal Development......Page 1208
50.1: Mechanisms of Embryonic Development......Page 1209
50.2: Major Patterns of Cleavage and Gastrulation......Page 1211
50.3: From Gastrulation to Adult Body Structures: Organogenesis......Page 1215
50.4: Embryonic Development of Humans and Other Mammals......Page 1218
50.5: The Cellular Basis of Development......Page 1223
Review Key Concepts......Page 1232
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1233
Ch 51: Ecology and the Biosphere......Page 1235
51.1: The Science of Ecology......Page 1237
51.2: Environmental Diversity of the Biosphere......Page 1238
51.3: Organismal Responses to Environmental Variation and Climate Change......Page 1242
51.4: Terrestrial Biomes......Page 1245
51.5: Freshwater Environments......Page 1253
51.6: Marine Environments......Page 1255
Review Key Concepts......Page 1261
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1262
Ch 52: Population Ecology......Page 1264
52.1: Population Characteristics......Page 1265
52.2: Demography......Page 1268
52.3: The Evolution of Life Histories......Page 1269
52.4: Models of Population Growth......Page 1274
52.5: Population Dynamics......Page 1278
52.6: Human Population Growth......Page 1285
Review Key Concepts......Page 1290
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1291
Ch 53: Population Interactions and Community Ecology......Page 1293
53.1: Population Interactions......Page 1294
53.2: The Nature of Ecological Communities......Page 1303
53.3: Community Characteristics......Page 1305
53.4: Effects of Population Interactions of Community Characteristics......Page 1309
53.5: Effects of Disturbance on Community Characteristics......Page 1310
53.6: Ecological Succession: Responses to Disturbance......Page 1313
53.7: Variations in Species Richness among Communities......Page 1316
Review Key Concepts......Page 1322
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1323
Ch 54: Ecosystems and Global Change......Page 1325
54.1: Modeling Ecosystem Processes......Page 1327
54.2: Energy Flow and Ecosystem Energetics......Page 1329
54.3: Nutrient Cycling in Ecosystems......Page 1337
54.4: Human Activities and Anthropogenic Global Change......Page 1343
Review Key Concepts......Page 1348
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1349
Ch 55: Biodiversity and Conservation Biology......Page 1351
55.1: The Biodiversity Crisis on Land, in the Sea, and in River Systems......Page 1352
55.2: Specific Threats to Biodiversity......Page 1355
55.3: Ecosystem Services That Biodiversity Provides......Page 1360
55.4: Which Species and Ecosystems are Most Threatened by Human Activities?......Page 1362
55.5: Conservation Biology: Principles and Theory......Page 1364
55.6: Conservation Biology: Practical Strategies and Economic Tools......Page 1369
Review Key Concepts......Page 1373
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1374
Ch 56: Animal Behavior......Page 1376
56.1: Instinctive and Learned Behaviors......Page 1377
56.2: Neurophysiological and Endocrine Control of Behavior......Page 1383
56.3: Migration and Wayfinding......Page 1387
56.4: Habitat Selection and Territoriality......Page 1390
56.5: The Evolution of Communication......Page 1391
56.6: The Evolution of Reproductive Behavior and Mating Systems......Page 1394
56.7: The Evolution of Social Behavior......Page 1397
Review Key Concepts......Page 1402
Test Your Knowledge......Page 1404
Appendix A: Answers......Page 1407
Appendix B: Classification System......Page 1440
Glossary......Page 1443
Index......Page 1489

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