Automotive Service: Inspection, Maintenance, Repair Book [6 ed.] 2018967867, 9781337794039

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Automotive Service: Inspection, Maintenance, Repair Book [6 ed.]
 2018967867, 9781337794039

Table of contents :
Cover
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Features of the Text
Section 1: The Automobile Industry
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Automobile
Introduction
Body and Chassis
Engine Parts and Operation
Engine Support Systems
The Powertrain
Accessory Systems
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 2: Automotive Careers and Technician Certification
Introduction
Automotive Career Opportunities
Technician Certification and Licensing
Technician Skill Levels and Pay
Other Areas of Specialization
Other Automotive Careers
On the Job as an Automotive Technician
Summary
Review Questions
Section 2: Shop Procedures, Safety, Tools, and Equipment
Chapter 3: Shop Safety
Introduction
General Personal Safety
Fire Safety
Evacuation Plan
Fire Extinguishers
Flammable Materials
Fuel Fires
Electrical Fires
Shop Habits
Electrical Safety Precautions
Cooling Fan Safety
Coolant Burns
General Hand Tool Safety
Puller Safety
Machinery Safety
Electric Drill Safety
Grinder Safety
Wire Wheel Safety
Compressed Air Safety
Impact Wrench Safety
Air Chisel Safety
Die Grinder/Air Drill Safety
Press Safety
General Lifting Safety
Hydraulic Floor Jack (Service Jack) Safety
Shop Crane (Engine Hoist) Safety
Transmission Jack Safety
Battery Safety
Refrigerant Safety
General Safety around Automobiles
Hot Tank Safety Precautions
Hazardous Materials and Environmental Safety
Hazardous Communication Standards
Safety Data Sheets
Hazardous Materials Common to the Automotive Industry
Cleaning Solvent Safety Precautions
Skin Care Safety Precautions
Breathing Safety
Welding Safety
Safety Test
Chapter 4: Shop Management, Service Records, and Parts
Introduction
Customer Relations
Service Records
Keep the Car Clean
Linen Service
Wholesale and Retail Distribution of Auto Parts
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 5: Locating Service Information and Specifications
Introduction
Service Literature
Manufacturers' Service Information
Generic Service Manuals
Lubrication and Maintenance Service Specifications
Owner's Manual
Owners' Workshop Manuals
Electronic Service Information
Technical Service Bulletins
Hotline Services
Trade Magazines and Internet
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 6: Measuring Tools and Systems
Introduction
Metric System
Measuring Tools
Precision Measuring Tools
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Micrometer Practice
Chapter 7: Hardware, Fasteners, Drills, and Thread Repair
Introduction
Characteristics of Fasteners
Fastener Failures
Drill Bits
Taps and Threads
Dies
Repairing Broken Fasteners
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 8: Shop Tools
Introduction
Tools of the Trade
Pullers
Air Tools
Special Service Tools
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 9: General Shop Equipment
Shop Equipment
Hydraulic Equipment
Shop Electric Machinery
Other Electric Equipment
Other Shop Equipment
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 10: Cleaning Equipment and Methods
Introduction
General Shop Housekeeping Practices
Cleaning Methods
Cleaning the Outside of the Engine
Environmental Concerns with Engine Cleaning
Cleaning Internal Parts
Chemical Cleaning
Thermal Cleaning
Vibratory Parts Cleaners
Other Cleaning Methods
Marking Clean Parts
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 11: Lifting Equipment and Air Compressors
Introduction
Lift Types
Frame-Contact Lifts
Wheel-Contact Lifts
Wheel-Free Jacks
In-Ground Lifts
Surface Mount Lifts
Lift Safety
Air Compressors
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 3: Vehicle Inspection (Lubrication/Safety Check)
Chapter 12: Engine Lubrication
Introduction
Engine Oil
Engine Oil Licensing and Certification
Oil Additives
Changing Engine Oil
Oil Filter
Changing the Oil Filter
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 13: Underhood and Body Inspection (Vehicle on Ground)
Introduction
Brake System Inspection
On-Ground Steering and Suspension Checks
Fuel System Inspection
Cooling System Inspection
Belt Inspection
Electrical System Inspection
Check Operation of Lights
Visibility Checks
Other Safety Checks and Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 14: Undercar Inspection and Service
Introduction
Tire Visual Inspection
Undercar Brake Checks
Exhaust System Inspection
Chassis Lubrication
Suspension and Steering Checks
Driveline Checks
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 4: Engine Operation
Chapter 15: Introduction to the Engine
Introduction
Basic Engine Operation
Four-Stroke Engine Operation
Engine Upper End
Valve Train
Cylinder Head
Engine Front
Cylinder Block Assembly (Lower End)
Short Block and Long Block
Summary
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 16: Engine Classifications and Types
Introduction
Engine Classifications
Cylinder Arrangement
Firing Order
Engine Cooling
Valve Location
Camshaft Location
Other Cylinder Head Variations
Combustion Chamber Designs
Spark and Compression Ignition
Alternate Engines
Summary
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 17: Engine Size and Measurements
Introduction
Engine Size Measurements
Compression Ratio
Physical Principles of Work
Torque
Horsepower
Dynamometer
Dynamometer Safety Concerns
Engine Efficiency
Mean Effective Pressure
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 18: Engine Upper End
Introduction
Cylinder Head Construction
Valve Guides
Valve Guide Seals
Valves
Retainers and Valve Locks
Valve Springs
Pushrods and Rocker Arms
Camshaft
Number of Cams and Lobes
Camshaft Performance
Valve Lifters and Lash Adjusters
Roller Cam and Lifters
Hydraulic Lifters
Camshaft Drives
Valve Timing
Variable Valve Timing
Electric Cam Phasers
Active Fuel Management
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 19: Engine Lower End and Lubrication System Theory
Introduction
Cylinder Block Construction
Core Plugs
Cylinder Bore
Cylinder Sleeves
Main Bearing Caps
Lifter Bores
Crankshaft Design
Crankshaft End Thrust
Direction of Crankshaft Rotation
Vibration Damper
Crankshaft Hardness
Bearings
Connecting Rods
Pistons
Piston Head
Piston Ring Grooves
Heat Transfer
Cast and Forged Pistons
Piston Skirt
Piston Pin Offset
Piston Pins
Piston Rings
Compression Rings
Compression Ring Design
Oil Control Rings
Engine Balancing
The Lubrication System
Oil Pumps
Pressure Relief Valve
Oil Pump Screen By-Pass Valve
Oil Pressure
Windage Tray and Baffles
Dry Sump Lubrication Systems
Semi-Dry Sump
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 5: Cooling System, Belts, Hoses, and Plumbing
Chapter 20: Cooling System Theory
Introduction
Liquid and Air Cooling
Liquid Cooling System Parts
Cooling System Circulation
Coolant
Racing Coolants
Heat-Transferability of Water and Coolant
Cooling System Pressure Cap
Coolant Recovery System
Radiator
Thermostat
Temperature Warning Light or Gauge
Fans
Fan Clutch
Radiator Shroud
Heater Core
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 21: Cooling System Service
Introduction
Diagnosing Cooling System Problems
Radiator Cap
Coolant Service
Testing Coolant Condition and Strength
Thermostat Service
Locating Leaks
External Leaks
Internal Leaks
Recovery Tank Service
Cooling System Repairs
Water Pump Service
Electric Cooling Fan Service
Heater Core Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 22: Automotive Belts
Introduction
Belt Material
V-Ribbed Belts
Serpentine Belt Drive
Stretch Belts
Timing Belts
Drive Belt Service
Belt Inspection and Adjustment
Replacing Belts
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 23: Automotive Hoses
Introduction
Hose Construction
Hose Size
Unreinforced Hose
Radiator Hose
Hose Types
Hose Clamps
Hoses
Hose Inspection and Service
Replacing Hoses
High-Performance Hoses and Fittings
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 24: Automotive Plumbing: Tubing and Pipe
Introduction
Tubing
Flared Connections
Compression Fittings
Pipe Fittings
Shutoff Valves
Tubing Service
Installing Tubing
Transmission Oil Cooler Line Repairs
Nylon Fuel Injection Tubing
Pipe Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 6: Electrical System Theory and Service
Chapter 25: Basic Electrical System Theory and Repairs
Introduction
Electron Flow
Basic Automotive Electrical System
Electrical Terms
Circuitry and Ohm's Law
Magnetic Fields
Capacitors
Automotive Electronics
Basic Electrical Tests
Voltage Drop Testing
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 26: Battery Fundamentals
Introduction
Battery Parts and Operation
Battery Recharging and Discharging
Battery Capacity Ratings
Battery Types
Battery Plate Size
Battery Selection
Battery Service Life
Battery Cables
Battery Holddowns
Reasons for Battery Failure
Electric Vehicle Battery Types
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 27: Battery Service
Introduction
Battery Inspection
Battery Service
Replacing a Battery
Battery Testing: Measuring Battery State of Charge (SOC)
Battery Charging
Battery Chargers
Storing a Vehicle
Battery Capacity Tests
Battery Testing Using an Amp Clamp
Battery Drain Test/Parasitic Load
Battery Jump-Starting
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 28: Starting System Fundamentals
Introduction
Starter Motor
Starter Motor Fundamentals
Starter Drives
Starter Electrical Circuit
Gear Reduction Starters
Brushless DC Motors
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 29: Starting System Service
Introduction
Starting System Service
Starting System Tests
Cranking Voltage and Amperage Test
Circuit Resistance Test
No-Crank Tests
Solenoid Problems
Starter Repair
Starter Disassembly
Starter Drive Service
Starter Reassembly
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 30: Charging System Fundamentals
Introduction
Charging System
AC Generator/Alternator
Alternator Pulleys
AC Generator Bearings
AC Generator Fan
Voltage Regulator
Computer-Controlled Voltage Regulation
Charging System Indicators
High-Voltage Charging Systems
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 31: Charging System Service
Introduction
Charging System Service
Preliminary Charging System Tests
Testing the Charging System
Charging System Output Tests
Regulated Voltage Test
Diode Tests
Charging System Voltage Drops
AC Generator Service and Repair
AC Generator Reassembly
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 32: Lighting and Wiring Fundamentals
Introduction
Wire and Cable
Circuit Protection Devices
Lighting
Headlamps
Taillights
Incandescent Light Bulb Identification
Turn Signals
Signal Flasher Operation
Hazard Flashers
Back-Up Lights
Electrical Instrumentation and Instrument Panel
Miscellaneous Gauges
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 33: Lighting and Wiring Service
Analyzing Electrical Problems
Wiring Service
Trim Removal
Crimp Terminals
Selecting Replacement Wire
Adding Electrical Accessories
Soldering
Broken or Damaged Ground Straps
Wiring for a Trailer or RV Tow Car
Circuit Testing and Service
Finding Grounds
Fuse Testing and Service
Fuse Link Service
Headlamp Service
Headlamp Aiming
Tail Lamp and Park Light Service
LED Service
Stoplight Switch Service
Back-Up Lights
Turn Signal Switch
Signal Flasher/Relay
Locating a Signal Flasher
Windshield Washer Service
Horn Service
Gauge Testing
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 34: Safety, Security, Comfort Systems, and Electrical Accessories
Introduction
Supplemental Restraint Systems
Active and Passive Restraints
Restraint System Service
Security, Navigation, and Electrical Accessories
Security Systems
GPS Vehicle Tracking/Navigation Systems
Other Comfort Systems
Vehicle Audio Systems
Cruise Control
Body Electronic System Testing and Service
Precollision/Collision Avoidance Systems
Lane Departure Warning System
Autonomous Driving Vehicles
The Future of Autonomous Vehicles
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 7: Heating and Air Conditioning
Chapter 35: Heating and Air-Conditioning Fundamentals
Introduction
Sources of Heat
Ventilation
Heating
Air Distribution System
Air Conditioning
Air-Conditioning Principles
Heat Transfer
Humidity
States of Matter
Latent Heat
Air-Conditioning System Operation
Reducing Humidity
Compressing the Refrigerant
Transferring Refrigerant Heat to Outside Air
Flow Control Devices
Air-Conditioning Compressors
Compressor Lubrication
Muffler
Accumulator or Receiver/Dryer
Evaporator Icing Control
System Switches
Heating and Air-Conditioning Controls
Automatic Air-Conditioning Sensors
Refrigerants and the Environment
Temperature and Pressure
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 36: Heating and Air-Conditioning Service
Heater Service
Air-Conditioning Service
Air-Conditioning System Service and Diagnosis
System Performance Test
Pressure Testing
Static Pressure Reading
Diagnosing HVAC Electronic Problems
Air Distribution System Diagnosis
Leak Detection
Common Air-Conditioning Component Problems
Refrigerant Oil
Evaporator Problems
Thermal Expansion Valve or Orifice Tube Problems
Compressor Service
Evacuating a System
Evacuate the System
Air-Conditioning Service Equipment
Refrigerant Charging
Follow-Up
Refrigerant Storage
R-1234YF Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 8: Engine Performance Diagnosis: Theory and Service
Chapter 37: Ignition System Fundamentals
Introduction
Basic Ignition System
Primary Circuit
Secondary Ignition Parts
Spark Plugs
Electronic Ignitions
Electronic Ignition Variations
Ignition Modules
Ignition Timing
Detonation Sensor
Distributorless Ignition
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 38: Ignition System Service
Ignition System Service and Repairs
Spark Plug Service
Spark Plug Diagnosis
Installing Spark Plugs
Repairing Damaged Spark Plug Threads
Spark Plug Cable Service
Ignition Timing
Electronic Ignition Distributor Service
Static Timing
Electronic Ignition System Service
Lab Scope Testing
Types of Scope Patterns
Other Scope Tests
Other Diagnostic Instruments
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 39: Petroleum Fuels and Alternative Fuel Technologies
Introduction
Crude Oil
Diesel Engines and Diesel Fuel
Gasoline
Air-Fuel Mixture
Spark Knocks, Carbon Noise, and Abnormal Combustion
Abnormal Combustion
Excessive Carbon Buildup
Regular versus Premium Fuels
Octane Standards
Gasoline Additives
Reformulated Gasolines
Oxygenated Fuels/Alcohols
Alternative Fuels
Natural Gas
Compressed Natural Gas
Refueling CNG
Liquified Natural Gas
Engine Rebuilding Concerns with Alternative Fuel Engines
Hydrogen
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 40: Fuel System Fundamentals, Gasoline and Diesel
Introduction
Fuel System
Fuel Tanks
Fuel Lines, Hoses, and Fittings
Fuel Pumps
Fuel Filters
Fuel Injection and Carburetion
Pressure Regulator Operation
Electronic Fuel System Operation
Airflow Measurement
Idle Speed Control
Fuel Pump Control Module
Computer-Controlled Fuel Systems
Feedback Fuel Systems
Diesel Fuel Systems
Diesel Fuel Subsystem
Diesel Fuel Filters
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 41: Fuel System Service
Introduction
Fuel Supply System Service
Fuel Filter Service
Throttle Linkage
Fuel System Problems and Service
Exhaust Gas Analysis
Fuel Injection Diagnosis and Service
EFI Computer Self-Diagnostics (OBD)
Air-Fuel Mixture Problems
Injector Problems
Throttle Plate Service
EFI Adjustments
Sensor Service
Throttle Position Sensor
Oxygen Sensor Service
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Inlet Air Temperature Sensor
Map Sensor Diagnosis
Mass Airflow (MAF) Sensor Diagnosis
Testing Other Sensors
Computer Service
Mechanical Injection
Carbon Deposit Service
Diesel Engine Fuel Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 42: Intake and Exhaust Systems/Turbochargers and Superchargers
Introduction
Intake System Fundamentals
Manifolds
Intake Manifolds
Exhaust System Fundamentals
Exhaust Manifolds
Exhaust Tubing
Exhaust System Service
Turbochargers and Superchargers
Turbochargers
Aftercooler/Intercooler
Belt-Driven Superchargers/Blowers
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 43: Emission Control System Fundamentals, Gasoline and Diesel
Introduction
Air Pollution
Automotive Emissions
Pollution Control
Automobile Emission Control Systems
Crankcase Ventilation
PCV Valve Testing
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EGR System Operation
Computer-Controlled EGR Systems
Catalytic Converter
Types of Catalytic Converters
Evaporative Controls
Other Parts of the Fuel Tank System
On-Board Diagnostics
Engine Emission Modifications
Diesel Engine Emission Control
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 44: Emission Control System Service
Introduction
Inspecting Emission Control Systems
Computer-Controlled Emission Service
Crankcase Ventilation System Service
Evaporative Control System Service
Evaporative System Maintenance
Evaporative System Problem Diagnosis
EGR System Service
Air Injection System Service
Catalytic Converter Service
Converter Testing
Catalytic Converter Replacement
Analyzing Exhaust Emissions
Emission Analyzers
Hydrocarbons
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen (O2)
Oxides of Nitrogen
Catalytic Converter Tests
Diesel Emission Control Service
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Service
Diesel Particulate Filter Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 45: Electronics and Computer Systems Fundamentals
Introduction
Semiconductors
Diodes
Transistors
Electronic Instrument Displays
Automotive Computer Systems
Parts of a Computer System
On-Board Computer
Information Processing
Computer Memory
Communication Rate
Sensors and Actuators
Types of Sensors
Thermistors
Voltage Dividers
Piezoelectric and Piezoresistive Sensors
Heated Resistive Sensors
Variable DC Frequency Sensors
Voltage Generators
Wheatstone Bridges
Switches
Types of Actuators
Solenoid Actuators
Relay Actuators
Motor Actuators
Actuator Switches/Modules
Adaptive Strategy
Ignition Advance
Knock Sensor
Electronic Throttle Control/Drive-By-Wire
On-Board Diagnostics
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Computer Self-Diagnostics
Multiplexing
Network Sizes and Types
CAN Systems
Supplemental Data Bus Networks
Telematics
Wireless Networks
DSRC
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 46: Electronics and Computer Systems Service
Introduction
Inspection Sequence
Perform Diagnostic Tests
On-Board Diagnostics
Reading Trouble Codes
Scan Tools
Breakout Box
Retrieving Trouble Codes
Working with Codes
Erasing Trouble Codes
Scan Tool Snapshot
Closed Loop
Fuel Trim Diagnosis
Digital Waveforms
Logic Probe
Sensor and Actuator Testing
Diagnosing Sensor Problems
Sensor Tests
Oxygen Sensor
Load Sensors
Map Sensor
Baro Sensors
Vacuum Sensors
Throttle Position Sensor
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Air Temperature Sensors
Airflow Sensor Service
Knock Sensor Service
Actuator Service
Repair the Problem
Computer Wiring Service
Static Electricity
Electrical Damage to a Circuit
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 47: Advanced Emissions and On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)
Introduction
History of On-Board Diagnostics
OBD II Operation
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standards
Trouble Codes and the Malfunction Indicator Lamp
OBD II Codes
OBD II Diagnostic Testing
Emission Testing Programs
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 48: Diagnosing Engine Performance Problems
Introduction
Visual Checks
Ignition System Checks
Engine Performance Testing
Compression Loss
Vacuum Testing
Other Vacuum Tests
Compression Problems
Cylinder Leakage Test
Carbon-Related Problems
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 9: Automotive Engine Service and Repair
Chapter 49: Diagnosing Engine Mechanical Problems
Introduction
Diagnosing Problems before a Repair
Oil Consumption
Causes of Oil Consumption
Testing for Oil Leaks
Engine Performance and Compression Loss
Engine Noises
Engine Knocks
Oil Pressure Problems
Cooling System Problems
Internal Engine Leakage
Seized Engine
Electronic Failures/Engine Damage
Engine Performance and Fuel Mixture Problems
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 50: Engine Removal and Disassembly
Introduction
Engine Removal
Engine Disassembly
Engines with Pushrods
Overhead Cam Cylinder Head Removal
Cylinder Block Disassembly
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 51: Engine Sealing, Gaskets, Fastener Torque
Introduction
Clamping Force
Torque and Friction
Torque Wrenches
Torque-to-Yield
Torque by Degrees
Fastener Clamping Load
Gaskets and Seals
Cleaning the Head
Head Gasket Installation
Other Engine Gaskets
Valve Cover, Timing Cover, and Oil Pan Service
Gasket Sealers
Silicone RTV Sealant
Seals
Rear Main Seals
Transmission Front Pump Seal
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 52: Engine Diagnosis and Service: Cylinder Head and Valve Train
Introduction
Head Disassembly
Carbon Removal
Cylinder Head Inspection
Resurfacing by Grinding, Cutting, or Sanding
Straightening Cylinder Heads
Crack Inspection
Crack Repair
Checking Valve Springs
Checking Valve Stems
Valve Guide Service
Guide Repair
Grinding Valves
Grinding Valve Seats
Checking Valve Stem Installed Height
Solvent Testing the Valve and Seat
Reassembling the Head
Valve Guide Seal Installation
Install the Valve and Spring Assembly
Pushrod Engine Rocker Arm Service
Inspect Pushrods
Inspect OHC Camshaft
Reassembling OHC Heads
Camshaft Service
Lifter Service
Cam and Lifter Break-In
Timing Chain and Belt Service
Timing Belt Service
Timing Belt Replacement
Timing Chain Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 53: Engine Diagnosis and Service: Block, Crankshaft, Bearings, and Lubrication System
Introduction
Cleaning the Block
Oil and Water Plug Removal
Oil Gallery Plug Installation
Inspect and Clean Lifter Bores
Checking Main Bearing Bore Alignment
Check the Deck Surface for Flatness
Clean All Threaded Holes
Inspecting Cylinder Bores
Measuring the Bore
Deglazing the Cylinder Bore
Clean the Block of Grit
Boring for Oversized Pistons
Block Distortion
Honing after Boring
Sleeves
Cam Bearing Installation (Cam-in-Block Engines)
Front Cam Bearing Installation
Checking Crankshaft Condition
Crankshaft and Bearing Wear
Crankshaft Journal Tolerance
Regrinding the Crankshaft
Measuring Bearing Clearance with Plastigage
Lubrication System Service
Checking Oil Pumps for Wear
Oil Pump Screen Service
Oil Pump Failure
Installing the Oil Pump
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 54: Engine Diagnosis and Service: Piston, Piston Rings, Connecting Rod, Engine Balancing
Introduction
Piston Service
Piston Ring Service
Installing Pins in Connecting Rods
Installing Rings on Pistons
Oil Ring Installation
Connecting Rod Service
Engine Balancing Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 55: Ordering Parts, Short and Long Blocks, Engine Assembly
Introduction
Ordering Parts
Engine Kits
Determining Part Sizes
Types of Engine Rebuilds
Selecting the Correct Replacement Engine
Warranty
Reassembly
Begin Reassembly
Prepare the Crankshaft for Installation
Install the Crank
Install the Cylinder Heads
Install OHC Heads
Install the Cam Drive (Pushrod Engines)
Install the Oil Pump
Install the Timing Cover
Install the Crankshaft Damper/Pulley
Install the Oil Pan
Install the Intake Manifold
Install the Thermostat and Water Outlet Housing
Completing the Assembly
Install Exhaust Manifold(s)
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 56: Engine Installation, Break-in, and In-Chassis Repairs
Introduction
Engine Installation
Install Engine Mounts
Install the Engine
Priming the Lubrication System
Pressure Priming
Install Valve Covers
Ignition System Installation and Timing
Engine Starting and Initial Break-in
Valve Clearance Adjustment
Road Test and Break-in
Final Inspection
Returning the Car to the Customer
Engine Repair-Engine in the Vehicle
Valve Job or Head Gasket Repair
Valve Job or Complete Engine Overhaul
Head Gasket Problems
In-Chassis Lower End Repairs
Removing the Oil Pan
Remove the Piston and Rod Assembly
Remove the Timing Cover
Freewheeling and Interference Engines
Replace the Timing Components
Crankshaft Seal Replacement
Flywheel Ring Gear Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Section 10: Brakes and Tires
Chapter 57: Brake Fundamentals
Introduction
Brake Linings
Drum and Disc Brakes
Hydraulic Brake System Operation
Hydraulic Brake Fluid
Brake Hose
Brake Tubing
Hydraulic System Operation
Low Brake Pedal
Split Hydraulic System
Quick Take-Up Master Cylinder
Drum Brakes
Drum Brake Adjustment
Disc Brakes
Hydraulic System Valves and Switches
Power Brakes
Parking Brake
Types of Parking Brakes
Stoplight Switches
Brake Pedal Position Sensor
Antilock Brakes
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 58: Brake Service
Introduction
Brake Inspection
Check Brake Pedal Feel
Master Cylinder Inspection
Brake Diagnosis
Undercar Checks
Disc Brake Inspection
Inspecting Drum Brake Assemblies
Brake Fluid Service
Routine Brake Fluid Replacement
Brake Fluid Testing
Bleeding Brakes
Brake Bleeding Methods
Drum Brake Adjustment
Master Cylinder Service
Master Cylinder Removal
Master Cylinder Disassembly
Bench Bleeding a Master Cylinder
Brake Job
Drum Brake Lining Removal
Reassembling a Wheel Cylinder
Removing Wheel Cylinders
Replacing Drum Brake Shoes
Adjusting Drum Brake Clearance
Drum and Rotor Service
Drum Service
Rotor Service
On-Vehicle Rotor Machining
Disc Brake Service
Rear Disc Pad Installation
Rebuilt Calipers
Disc Caliper Rebuilding
Selecting Brake Linings
Disc Brake Noise
Parking Brake Cable Service
Vacuum Power Brake Service
Brake Warning Lamp Diagnosis
Antilock Brake System (ABS) Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 59: Antilock Brakes, Traction, and Stability Control
Introduction
Antilock Brakes
Parts of an Antilock Brake System
Types of Antilock Brake Systems
Antilock Brake System Operation
Traction Control System
Antilock Brake (ABS) Service
ABS Brake Fluid Service
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 60: Bearings, Seals, and Greases
Introduction
Plain Bearings
Frictionless Bearings
Bearing Loads
Ball Bearings
Roller Bearings
Wheel Bearings
Greases
Wheel Bearing Seals
Seal Materials and Design
Seal Tolerance
Wheel Bearing Diagnosis and Service
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Disc Brake Caliper Removal
Repacking Wheel Bearings
Bearing Inspection and Diagnosis
Diagnosing Wheel Bearing Noise
Replacing Bearing Races
Servicing Front-Wheel-Drive Bearings
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 61: Tire and Wheel Theory
Introduction
Tire Construction
Tubeless Tires
Tire Tread
Tire Tread Material
Tire Cord
Tire Ply Design
Tire Sidewall Markings
Euro-Metric Commercial Tires
Load Rating
Tire Life and Age
All-Season Tires
Snow Tires
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
Uniform Tire Quality Grading
Changing Tire Size
Wheels
Custom Wheels
Lug Studs
Lug Nuts
Tire Valve Stems
Review Questions
ASE-Style Review Questions
Chapter 62: Tire and Wheel Service
Introduction
Tire Inflation
Checking Air Pressure
Adjusting Tire Pressure
Tire Wear
Sidewall Checks
Tire Age
Tire Rotation
Removing and Tightening Lug Nuts
Tire Rotation with TPMS
Repairing Wheel Studs
Removing and Mounting Tires on Rims
Inspecting the Tire and Wheel
Valve Stem Service
Rubber Lubricant
Install the Tire
Mounting High-Performance Tires
Bead Roller Tire Changer
Installing the Valve Core
Tire Runout
Tire Repair
Repairing a Tire
Preparing a Tire for Repair
Patching a Tire
Tire and Wheel Balance
Types of Wheel Balance
Couple Imbalance
Dynamic Balance
Using a Computer Balancer
Centering the Wheel on the Balancer
Match Mounting
Force Variation
Installing the Wheel
Tire Pressure Monitoring System Service
TPMS Service
TPMS Service
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Section 11: Suspension, Steering, Alignment
Chapter 63: Suspension Fundamentals
Introduction
Suspension
Frame and Suspension Designs
Springs
Suspension Construction
Independent and Solid Axle Suspensions
Suspension Types
High-Performance Suspensions
Shock Absorbers
Hydraulic Shock Absorber Operation
Compression and Rebound Resistance
Bump Stops and Limiters
Gas Shocks
Other Front End Parts
Stabilizer Bar
Air Shocks/Leveling Devices
Suspension Leveling Systems
Active Suspensions
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Chapter 64: Suspension System Service
Introduction
Diagnosing Suspension System Problems
Shock Absorber Service
Testing Shock Absorbers
Macpherson Strut Service
Inspect the Upper Strut Bearing
Install the Coil Spring
Reinstall the Strut Assembly
Suspension Bushing Service
Strut Rod Bushing Service
Stabilizer Bar Service
Spindle Service
Ball Joint Service
Measuring Ball Joint Wear
Separating Tapered Connections
Replacing a Ball Joint
Coil Spring Service
Adjusting Spring Height
Coil Spring Replacement
SLA Coil Spring Replacement
Wheel Alignment
Electronic Suspension Service
Electronically Controlled Shock Absorbers
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Chapter 65: Steering Fundamentals
Steering Systems
Steering Gears
Recirculating Ball and Nut Steering Gear
Rack-and-Pinion Steering
Steering Linkage
Parallelogram Steering Linkage
Ball Sockets
Tie-Rods
Steering Arm
Rack-and-Pinion Steering Linkage
Steering Column
Power Steering
Power Steering Pump
Types of Power Steering
Electronically Controlled Variable Effort Power Steering
Electronically Controlled Steering Systems
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Chapter 66: Steering System Service
Introduction
Fluid Level Checks
Type of Fluid
Diagnosing Steering Problems
Noise Diagnosis
Hard Steering
Tire Wear
Steering Part Inspection
Steering Linkage Inspection
Steering Gear Looseness
Parallelogram Steering Inspection
Rack-and-Pinion Steering Linkage Inspection
Steering Linkage Repairs
Idler Arm Replacement
Pitman Arm Replacement
Tie-Rod End Replacement
Rack-and-Pinion Tie-Rods
Steering Wheel, Column, and Air Bag Service
Air Bag Service
Steering Wheel Service
Steering Column Service
Steering Gear Service
Rack-and-Pinion Service
Rack-and-Pinion Steering Looseness
Power Steering System Service
Power Steering System Flushing
Bleeding Air from the Hydraulic System
Power Steering Pump Replacement
Repairing Power Steering Pump Oil Leaks
Power Steering Pressure Diagnosis
Power Steering Pump Service
Power Steering Hoses
Refilling the Power Steering System
Power Steering Gear Service
Replacing Rack-and-Pinion Units
Variable Power Steering Service
Electronically Controlled Power Steering System Service
Review Questions
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Chapter 67: Wheel Alignment Fundamentals
Introduction
Wheel Alignment Angles
Toe
Camber
Caster
Steering Axis Inclination
Scrub Radius
Turning Radius
Geometric Centerline and Thrust Angle
Tracking
Setback
Special Handling Characteristics
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Chapter 68: Wheel Alignment Service
Introduction
Prealignment Inspection
Tire Wear Inspection
Ride Height Check
Toe Change
Torque Steer
Suspension Looseness
Test Drive
Tire Checks
Inspection Checklist
Wheel Alignment Procedures
Measuring Alignment
Measuring Camber
Measuring Caster
Road Crown and Pull
Measuring Steering Axis Inclination
Measuring Toe
Adjusting Toe
Centering a Steering Wheel
Recalibrating Steering Position
Checking for Toe Change
Measuring Turning Radius
General Wheel Alignment Rules
Four-Wheel Alignment
Performing a Four-Wheel Alignment
Compensating the Alignment Heads
Measuring Caster and Camber
Adjusting Rear-Wheel Alignment
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Section 12: Drivetrain
Chapter 69: Clutch Fundamentals
Introduction
Clutch Parts and Operation
Clutch Disc
Pressure Plate
Types of Clutch Covers
Coil Spring Clutch
Diaphragm Clutch
Pilot Bearing or Bushing
Release Bearing
Clutch Fork
Clutch Release Methods
Clutch Cable
Hydraulic Clutch Operation
Clutch Free Travel
Dual Clutch Transmissions
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Chapter 70: Clutch Diagnosis and Service
Introduction
Diagnosis of Clutch Problem
Clutch Noises
Transmission Noise
Pedal Problems
Slipping Clutch
Dragging Clutch
Oily Clutch Facings
Damaged Friction Surfaces
Chattering or Grabbing Clutch
Clutch Service
Servicing Hydraulic Components
Clutch Replacement
Removing a Transmission or Transaxle
Clutch Removal
Flywheel Removal
Flywheel Starter Ring Gear Replacement
Flywheel Installation
Inspect New Parts
Pilot Bearing and Bushing Service
Clutch Disc Service
Clutch Cover/Pressure Plate Service
Clutch Installation
Release Bearing Service
Clutch Housing Installation
Review Questions
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Chapter 71: Manual Transmission Fundamentals
Introduction
Purpose of a Transmission
Using Gears to Increase Torque
Gear Ratio
Transmission Gear Ranges
Fifth Gear
Overdrive
Final Drive Ratio
Gear Types and Operation
Spur Gears
Helical Gears
Idler Gears
Transmission Parts
Transmission Lubrication
Transmission Bearings
Transmission Gears and Shafts
Synchronizer Assembly
Gear Shift Mechanisms
Shift Patterns
Transmission Power Flow
Four-Speed Transmission Power Flow
Five-Speed Transmission
Speedometer Output
Switches and Sensors
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Chapter 72: Manual Transmission Diagnosis and Repair
Introduction
Transmission Diagnosis
Lubricant Checks
Transmission Removal
Transmission Disassembly
Disassemble the Mainshaft Assembly
Synchronizer Service
Synchronizer Inspection
Inspect Blocker Rings
Inspect Input Shaft and Mainshaft
Replace Worn Bearings
Reassemble the Transmission
Reassemble the Synchronizers
Reassemble the Mainshaft
End Play
Needle Bearing Installation
Install New Gaskets
Complete the Transmission Reassembly
Install the Transmission
Add Lubricant
Test Drive
Review Questions
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Chapter 73: Automatic Transmission Fundamentals
Introduction
Automatic Transmission Parts
Power Transmission
Flexplate
Torque Converter
Torque Multiplication
Torque Converter Operation
Stator Clutch Operation
Stall Speed
Lock-Up Torque Converters
Planetary Gears
Simple Planetary Gearset
Simple Planetary Operation
Simpson Compound Planetary Operation
Driving and Holding Devices
Clutches
Clutch Operation
One-Way Clutches
Dog Clutches
Accumulator
Hydraulic System
Fluid Pump
Types of Pumps
Transmission Valves
Pressure Regulator
Hydraulic Valve Body
Transmission Automatic Shift Selection
Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF)
Automatic Transmission Cooling
Auxiliary Cooler/Heat Exchanger
Park Pawl
Electronic Automatic Transmissions
Electronic Automatic Transmission Operation
Electronic Torque Converter Control
Electronic Pressure Control
Transmission Shift Control
Continuously Variable Transmission
Hybrid Planetary Transmission Operation
Review Questions
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Chapter 74: Automatic Transmission Diagnosis and Service
Introduction
Automatic Transmission Identification
Automatic Transmission Maintenance
Transmission Fluid Service
Fluid Level
Check Fluid Condition
Changing Transmission Fluid
Transmission Filter Service
Remove and Replace the Filter
Refill the Transmission
Diagnosing and Repairing Leaks
Leaks from the Converter Housing
Pump Bushing Replacement
Reinstalling the Transmission
Rear Oil Seal and Bushing Replacement
Automatic Transmission Problem Diagnosis
Test-Drive
Slippage
Transmission Drainback
Noises
Flexplate
Transmission Tests
Valve Body Removal
Electronic Transmission Service
More Tests before Transmission Removal
Hybrid Automatic Transmission Service
Remanufactured Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles
Transmission Rebuilding
Transmission Reassembly
Review Questions
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Chapter 75: Driveline Operation
Introduction
Driveshaft (RWD)
Slip Yoke
Universal Joints
Two-Piece Driveshaft
Driveshaft Angle
Constant Velocity Joints
Differential
Differential Construction
Differential Housing
Differential Operation
Differential Gears
Gearsets
Axle Ratio
Limited-Slip Differential
Types of Limited-Slip Differentials
Viscous Coupling Differentials
Drive Axles and Bearings
Semi-Floating Axle Bearing Types
Independent Rear Suspension Axles
Gear Oils
Four-Wheel Drive
Four-Wheel-Drive Axle Assembly
Transfer Case
Locking Hubs
All-Wheel Drive
Review Questions
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Chapter 76: Driveline Diagnosis and Service
Introduction
Driveshaft Diagnosis
Universal Joint Diagnosis and Service
Driveshaft Service
Universal Joint Disassembly
Universal Joint Reassembly
Driveshaft Installation
Two-Piece Driveshaft Service
Differential and Axle Diagnosis and Service
Problem Diagnosis
Axle Bearing Diagnosis
Axle Bearing Service
Removing a Bearing-Retained Axle
Axle Bearing Replacement
Axle Bearing Installation
Reinstall the Axle
Full-Floating Axle Service
Differential Pinion Seal Replacement
Differential Repair
Removing a Third Member
Disassembling a Salisbury Axle
Clean and Inspect Parts
Differential Reassembly
Adjusting a Differential
Pinion Gear Depth
Ring Gear Backlash
Side Bearing Preload
Contact Pattern
Backlash Pattern Change
Pinion Depth Pattern Change
Pinion Bearing Preload
Ring and Pinion Noise
Four-Wheel-Drive Service and Repair
Review Questions
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Chapter 77: Front-Wheel-Drive (Transaxle and CV Joint) Fundamentals
Introduction
Front-Wheel Drive
Manual Transaxles
Shift Linkage
Transaxle Differential
Transaxle Power Flow
Automatic Transaxle
Front Drive Axles
Axle Shaft Parts
CV Joint Construction
Axle Shafts
CV Joint Boots
Review Questions
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Chapter 78: Front-Wheel-Drive (Transaxle and CV Joint) Service
Introduction
Transaxle and Front-Wheel-Drive Service and Repair
Leaking CV Joint Boot
CV Joint Boot Service
Axle Inspection and Diagnosis
CV Joint Diagnosis
Axle Shaft Removal
CV Joint Replacement
Fixed Joint Disassembly and Inspection
CV Joint Boot Clamps
Servicing an Inner Tripod Joint
Double Offset Plunge Joints
Cross Groove Joint Service
Rebuilt Halfshafts
Installing the Axle
Transaxle Repair
Transaxle Removal
Manual Transaxle Repair
Automatic Transaxle Repair
Transaxle Differential Side Bearing Adjustment
Install the Transaxle
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Chapter 79: Driveline Vibration and Service
Vibration Analysis
Types of Vibrations
Vibration Test Instruments
Vibration and Frequency
Driveshaft Runout
Other Causes of Vibration
Driveshaft Balance
Driveshaft Angle
Review Questions
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Section 13: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
Chapter 80: Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fundamentals
Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles
Series and Parallel Hybrids
Hybrid Types and Levels
Battery Types: Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Others
Capacitors in Hybrid Vehicles
Supercapacitors/Ultracapacitors
Hybrid Brushless DC Motors
Hybrid Vehicle Air Conditioning
Hybrid Vehicle Brakes
Hybrid Planetary Transmission Operation
Review Questions
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Chapter 81: Hybrid Vehicle Safety and Service
Hybrid Vehicle Safety and Service
Hybrid Electrical Shock Hazard
High Voltage Precautions
Hybrid Battery Service
Hybrid High-Voltage Battery Service
High-Voltage Battery Rebuilding
Review Questions
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Chapter 82: New Vehicle Technologies: Battery Electric, Fuel Cell Electric, and Hydraulic Hybrid
Introduction to Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
Battery Electric Vehicles
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Electric Vehicle Battery Construction
Plug-in Hybrids
Energy Cost and Electric Vehicle Economy
Extended Range Electric Vehicles
Electric Vehicle Charging Systems
Standards for EV Electrical Connectors
Motor/Machine for Electric Vehicles
EV Motor Types
EV Motor Construction
Inverter/Converter/Electronic Controls
Electric Vehicle Service
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)
Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles
Review Questions
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Appendix
Glossary
Index

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