Atlas of Uveitis: Diagnosis and Treatment 9811537259, 9789811537257

This Atlas provides cutting-edge information on uveitis, which represents a major achievement in clinical studies on uve

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Atlas of Uveitis: Diagnosis and Treatment
 9811537259, 9789811537257

Table of contents :
Foreword by Quan Dong Nguyen
Foreword by Aize Kijlstra
Foreword by Shigeaki Ohno
Foreword by Manfred Zierhut
Foreword by Amod Gupta
Preface
Contents
Part I: Overview
1: Anatomy and Physiology of Uveitis
1.1 Anatomy of the Eyeball
1.2 Eye Content
1.3 The Cornea
1.4 The Sclera
1.5 The Uveal Tract
1.6 The Retina
1.7 The Aqueous Humor
1.8 The Lens
1.9 The Vitreous
References
2: Classification of Uveitis
2.1 Classification of Uveitis
2.2 Anatomic Classification
2.3 Classification Based on Course
2.4 Classification Based on Clinical and Pathological Features
2.5 Classification Based on Causative Agents
References
Part II: Diagnosis of Uveitis
3: History-Taking in Uveitis Patients
3.1 Overview
3.2 Geographical and Racial Distribution of Uveitis
3.3 Age at Onset of Uveitis
3.4 Sex Distribution in Uveitis
3.5 Unilateral or Bilateral Involvement
3.6 Family History
3.7 Personal History
3.8 Systemic Manifestations (Systemic Disorders)
References
4: Ocular Examinations
4.1 The Purposes of Ocular Examinations in Uveitis Patients
4.2 Visual Acuity
4.3 Lid Changes May Be Associated with the Following Entities of Uveitis
4.4 Conjunctival Changes May Be Seen in the Following Uveitis Entities
4.5 Episcleritis
4.6 Scleritis
4.7 Red Reflex Through the Sclera
4.8 Corneal Changes
4.9 Ciliary Injection
4.10 Keratic Precipitates (KPs)
4.11 Anterior Chamber Alterations
4.12 Changes in the Iris and Pupil
4.13 Changes of the Anterior Chamber Angle
4.14 Changes of the Lens
4.15 Changes of the Vitreous
4.16 The Fundus Changes in Uveitis
References
5: Auxiliary Ocular Examinations
5.1 Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM)
5.1.1 Overview
5.1.2 The Changes Disclosed by UBM in Uveitis Patients
5.2 Ultrasonography
5.2.1 Overview
5.2.2 The Changes Detected by Ultrasonography in Uveitis Patients
5.3 Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)
5.3.1 Overview
5.3.2 The Changes Detected by FFA in Uveitis Patients
5.4 Indocyanine Green Angiography (ICGA)
5.4.1 Overview
5.4.2 The Changes Detected by ICGA in Uveitis Patients
5.5 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging
5.5.1 Overview
5.5.2 The Changes Disclosed by OCT in Uveitis Patients
References
6: Systemic Imaging and Laboratory Investigations
6.1 X-ray
6.2 Computed Tomography (CT)
6.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
6.4 Laboratory Investigations
References
Part III: Treatment of Uveitis
7: Ideology, Fundamental Principles, and Strategies in Management of Uveitis
7.1 Ideology in Uveitis Management
7.2 Fundamental Principles
7.3 Strategies
References
8: Corticosteroids
8.1 Overview
8.2 Topical Corticosteroids
8.3 Periocular Corticosteroids
8.4 Intravitreal Corticosteroids
8.5 Systemic Corticosteroids
References
9: Steroid-sparing Immunosuppressive Agents
9.1 Overview
9.2 Cyclophosphamide
9.3 Chlorambucil
9.4 Cyclosporine A (CsA)
9.5 FK506
9.6 Methotrexate
9.7 Azathioprine
9.8 Mycophenolate Mofetil
9.9 Biological Agents
References
10: Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
10.1 Overview
10.2 Topical NSAIDs
10.3 Systemic NSAIDs
References
11: Complications and Their Management
11.1 Overview
11.2 Cataract
11.3 Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma
11.4 Macular Edema
References
Part IV: Specific Uveitis Entities, Scleritis and Episcleritis
12: Acute Anterior Uveitis
12.1 Definition
12.2 Epidemiology
12.3 Common Entities
12.4 Less Common Entities
12.5 Symptoms
12.6 Signs
12.7 Complications
12.8 Diagnosis
12.9 Differential Diagnosis
12.10 Treatment
12.11 Prognosis
References
13: Intermediate Uveitis
13.1 Definition
13.2 Epidemiology
13.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
13.4 Clinical Manifestations
13.4.1 Symptoms
13.4.2 Signs
13.5 Complications
13.6 Diagnosis
13.7 Differential Diagnosis
13.8 Treatment
13.9 Prognosis
References
14: Posterior Uveitis
14.1 Definition
14.2 Epidemiology
14.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
14.4 Entities of Posterior Uveitis
14.5 Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
14.6 Treatment
14.7 Prognosis
References
15: Uveitis Associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis
15.1 Definition
15.2 Epidemiology
15.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
15.4 Systemic Manifestations
15.5 Ocular Manifestations
15.6 Complications
15.7 Diagnosis
15.8 Differential Diagnosis
15.9 Treatment
15.10 Prognosis
References
16: Uveitis Associated with Reactive Arthritis
16.1 Definition
16.2 Epidemiology
16.3 Systemic Manifestations
16.4 Ocular Manifestations
16.5 Diagnosis
16.6 Differential Diagnosis
16.7 Treatment
16.8 Prognosis
References
17: Uveitis Associated with Psoriasis
17.1 Definition
17.2 Epidemiology
17.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
17.4 Systemic Manifestations
17.5 Ocular Manifestations
17.6 Complications
17.7 Diagnosis
17.8 Differential Diagnosis
17.9 Treatment
17.10 Prognosis
References
18: Uveitis Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
18.1 Definition
18.2 Epidemiology
18.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
18.4 Systemic Manifestations
18.5 Ocular Manifestations
18.6 Complications
18.7 Diagnosis
18.8 Differential Diagnosis
18.9 Treatment
18.10 Prognosis
References
19: Anterior Uveitis Associated with Herpesviruses
19.1 Definition
19.2 Epidemiology
19.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
19.4 Clinical Manifestations
19.5 Complications
19.6 Diagnosis
19.7 Differential Diagnosis
19.8 Treatment
19.9 Prognosis
References
20: Fuchs Syndrome
20.1 Definition
20.2 Epidemiology
20.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
20.4 Clinical Manifestations
20.5 Complications
20.6 Diagnosis
20.7 Differential Diagnosis
20.8 Treatment
20.9 Prognosis
References
21: Posner–Schlossman Syndrome
21.1 Definition
21.2 Epidemiology
21.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
21.4 Clinical Manifestations
21.5 Complications
21.6 Diagnosis
21.7 Differential Diagnosis
21.8 Treatment
21.9 Prognosis
References
22: Uveitis in Children
22.1 Definition
22.2 Epidemiology
22.3 Specific Concerns About Uveitis in Children
22.4 Complications
22.5 Diagnosis
22.6 Treatment
22.7 Prognosis
References
23: Uveitis-associated with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
23.1 Definition
23.2 Epidemiology
23.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
23.4 Systemic Manifestations
23.5 Ocular Manifestations
23.6 Complications
23.7 Diagnosis
23.8 Differential Diagnosis
23.9 Treatment
23.10 Prognosis
References
24: Blau Syndrome
24.1 Definition
24.2 Etiology and Pathogenesis
24.3 Systemic Manifestations
24.4 Ocular Manifestations
24.5 Complications
24.6 Diagnosis
24.7 Differential Diagnosis
24.8 Treatment
24.9 Prognosis
References
25: Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis Syndrome
25.1 Definition
25.2 Epidemiology
25.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
25.4 Clinical Manifestations
25.5 Diagnosis
25.6 Differential Diagnosis
25.7 Treatment
25.8 Prognosis
References
26: Behcet’s Disease
26.1 Definition
26.2 Epidemiology
26.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
26.4 Ocular Lesions
26.5 Extraocular Manifestations
26.6 Ocular Complications
26.7 Diagnosis
26.8 Diagnostic Criteria
26.9 Differential Diagnosis
26.10 Treatment
26.11 Prognosis
References
27: Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease
27.1 Definition
27.2 Epidemiology
27.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
27.4 Clinical Manifestations
27.4.1 Ocular Manifestations [1, 11]
27.4.2 Extraocular Manifestations [1–4]
27.4.3 Manifestations in Different Stages [1, 4, 12]
27.5 Complications
27.6 Auxiliary Examinations
27.7 Diagnosis
27.8 Differential Diagnosis
27.9 Treatment
27.10 Prognosis
References
28: Sympathetic Ophthalmia
28.1 Definition
28.2 Epidemiology
28.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
28.4 Ocular Manifestations
28.5 Extraocular Manifestations
28.6 Complications
28.7 Diagnosis
28.8 Differential Diagnosis
28.9 Management
28.10 Prognosis
References
29: Retinal Vasculitis
29.1 Definition
29.2 Retinal Vasculitis Associated with Systemic Vasculitis
29.3 Retinal Vasculitis Secondary to Infectious Diseases
29.4 Primary Retinal Vasculitis
29.5 Clinical Manifestation
29.5.1 Symptoms
29.5.2 Signs
29.6 Complications
29.7 Diagnosis
29.8 Differential Diagnosis
29.9 Management
29.10 Prognosis
References
30: Eales Disease
30.1 Definition
30.2 Epidemiology
30.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
30.4 Clinical Manifestations
30.4.1 Symptoms
30.4.2 Signs
30.5 Complications
30.6 Diagnosis
30.7 Differential Diagnosis
30.8 Treatment
30.9 Prognosis
References
31: Frosted Branch Angiitis
31.1 Definition
31.2 Epidemiology
31.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
31.4 Clinical Manifestations
31.5 Complications
31.6 Diagnosis
31.7 Differential Diagnosis
31.8 Treatment
31.9 Prognosis
References
32: Ocular Sarcoidosis
32.1 Definition
32.2 Epidemiology
32.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
32.4 Systemic Manifestations
32.5 Ocular Manifestations
32.6 Diagnosis and Diagnostic Criteria
32.7 Differential Diagnosis
32.8 Treatment
32.9 Prognosis
References
33: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
33.1 Definition
33.2 Epidemiology
33.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
33.4 Systemic Manifestations
33.5 Ocular Manifestations
33.6 Diagnosis
33.7 Differential Diagnosis
33.8 Treatment
33.9 Prognosis
References
34: Uveitis Associated with Relapsing Polychondritis
34.1 Definition
34.2 Epidemiology
34.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
34.4 Ocular Manifestations
34.5 Systemic Manifestations
34.6 Diagnosis
34.7 Treatment
34.8 Prognosis
References
35: Subretinal Fibrosis and Uveitis Syndrome
35.1 Definition
35.2 Epidemiology
35.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
35.4 Clinical Manifestations
35.5 Diagnosis
35.6 Differential Diagnosis
35.7 Treatment
35.8 Prognosis
References
36: Multifocal Choroiditis and Panuveitis
36.1 Definition
36.2 Epidemiology
36.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
36.4 Clinical Manifestations
36.5 Complications
36.6 Diagnosis
36.7 Differential Diagnosis
36.8 Treatment
36.9 Prognosis
References
37: Serpiginous Choroiditis
37.1 Definition
37.2 Epidemiology
37.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
37.4 Clinical Manifestations
37.5 Complications
37.6 Diagnosis
37.7 Differential Diagnosis
37.8 Treatment
37.9 Prognosis
References
38: Acute Retinal Pigment Epitheliitis
38.1 Definition
38.2 Epidemiology
38.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
38.4 Clinical Manifestations
38.5 Diagnosis
38.6 Differential Diagnosis
38.7 Treatment
38.8 Prognosis
References
39: Punctate Inner Choroidopathy
39.1 Definition
39.2 Epidemiology
39.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
39.4 Clinical Manifestations
39.5 Diagnosis
39.6 Differential Diagnosis
39.7 Treatment
39.8 Prognosis
References
40: Birdshot Chorioretinopathy
40.1 Definition
40.2 Epidemiology
40.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
40.4 Clinical Manifestations
40.5 Complications
40.6 Diagnosis
40.7 Differential Diagnosis
40.8 Treatment
40.9 Prognosis
References
41: Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy
41.1 Definition
41.2 Epidemiology
41.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
41.4 Clinical Manifestations
41.5 Diagnosis
41.6 Differential Diagnosis
41.7 Treatment
41.8 Prognosis
References
42: Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome
42.1 Definition
42.2 Epidemiology
42.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
42.4 Clinical Manifestations
42.5 Diagnosis
42.6 Differential Diagnosis
42.7 Treatment and Prognosis
References
43: Ocular Tuberculosis
43.1 Definition
43.2 Epidemiology
43.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
43.4 Clinical Manifestations
43.5 Complications
43.6 Diagnosis
43.7 Differential Diagnosis
43.8 Treatment
43.9 Prognosis
References
44: Syphilitic Uveitis
44.1 Definition
44.2 Epidemiology
44.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
44.4 Phasing of Syphilis
44.5 Ocular Manifestations
44.6 Complications
44.7 Diagnosis
44.8 Differential Diagnosis
44.9 Treatment
44.10 Prognosis
References
45: Ocular Toxoplasmosis
45.1 Definition
45.2 Epidemiology
45.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
45.4 Systemic Manifestations
45.5 Ocular Manifestations
45.6 Manifestations in Immunocompromised Individuals
45.7 Complications
45.8 Diagnosis
45.9 Auxiliary Examinations
45.10 Differential Diagnosis
45.11 Treatment
45.12 Prognosis
References
46: Ocular Toxocariasis
46.1 Definition
46.2 Epidemiology
46.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
46.4 Clinical Manifestations
46.5 Diagnosis
46.6 Treatment
46.7 Prognosis
References
47: Uveitis Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
47.1 Definition
47.2 Epidemiology
47.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
47.4 Systemic Manifestations
47.5 Ocular Disease
47.6 Diagnosis
47.7 Differential Diagnosis
47.8 Treatment
References
48: Cytomegalovirus Retinitis
48.1 Definition
48.2 Epidemiology
48.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
48.4 Systemic Diseases
48.5 Ocular Manifestations
48.6 Diagnosis
48.7 Differential Diagnosis
48.8 Treatment
48.9 Prognosis
References
49: Acute Retinal Necrosis Syndrome
49.1 Definition
49.2 Epidemiology
49.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
49.4 Clinical Manifestation
49.5 Complications
49.6 Diagnosis
49.7 Differential Diagnosis
49.8 Treatment
49.9 Prognosis
References
50: Masquerade Syndrome
50.1 Overview
50.2 Intraocular Lymphoma
50.2.1 Definition
50.2.2 Epidemiology
50.2.3 Clinical Manifestations
50.2.4 Diagnosis
50.2.5 Differential Diagnosis
50.2.6 Treatment
50.2.7 Prognosis
50.3 Retinoblastoma (Rb)
50.3.1 Definition
50.3.2 Epidemiology
50.3.3 Clinical Manifestations
50.3.4 Diagnosis
50.3.5 Differential Diagnosis
50.3.6 Treatment
50.3.7 Prognosis
50.4 Leukemia
50.4.1 Definition
50.4.2 Clinical Manifestations
50.4.3 Diagnosis
50.4.4 Treatment
50.5 Uveal Melanoma
50.6 Metastasis to the Eye
50.6.1 Definition
50.6.2 Epidemiology
50.6.3 Clinical Manifestations
50.6.4 Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
50.6.5 Treatment
References
51: Scleritis
51.1 Definition
51.2 Epidemiology
51.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
51.4 Anterior Scleritis
51.5 Posterior Scleritis
51.6 Panscleritis
51.7 Complications
51.8 Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
51.9 Treatment
51.10 Prognosis
References
52: Episcleritis
52.1 Definition
52.2 Epidemiology
52.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis
52.4 Clinical Manifestations
52.5 Treatment
52.6 Prognosis
References

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