Aëtiana V: An Edition of the Reconstructed Text of the Placita with a Commentary and a Collection of Related Texts, Part 4. English Translation, Bibliography, Indices 9789004428379

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Aëtiana V: An Edition of the Reconstructed Text of the Placita with a Commentary and a Collection of Related Texts, Part 4. English Translation, Bibliography, Indices

Table of contents :
‎Aetius Placita English Translation
‎User’s Guide to the English Translation
‎Book 1 The Principles of Nature
‎Book 2 Cosmology
‎Book 3 Meteorology and the Earth
‎Book 4 Psychology
‎Book 5 Physiology
‎Appendix. List of Chapter Headings in the Translation of Qusṭā ibn Lūqā
‎Index of Primary and Secondary Witnesses
‎Index of Name-Labels and Other Names
‎Index of Fragment Collections and Extant Sources
‎Index of Ancient and Modern Names

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Aëtiana V Part 4

Philosophia Antiqua A Series of Studies on Ancient Philosophy

Editorial Board F.A.J. de Haas (Leiden) K.A. Algra (Utrecht) J. Mansfeld (Utrecht) C.J. Rowe (Durham) D.T. Runia (Melbourne) Ch. Wildberg (Princeton)

Previous Editors J.H. Waszink† W.J. Verdenius† J.C.M. Van Winden †

volume 153/4

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/pha

Aëtiana V An Edition of the Reconstructed Text of the Placita with a Commentary and a Collection of Related Texts part 4 English Translation Bibliography Indices

Edited by

Jaap Mansfeld David T. Runia


The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available online at http://catalog.loc.gov LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/96042463

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download: brill.com/brill‑typeface. ISSN 0079-1687 ISBN 978-90-04-42838-6 (hardback, set) ISBN 978-90-04-42840-9 (e-book) ISBN 978-90-04-42834-8 (hardback, part 1)

ISBN 978-90-04-42835-5 (hardback, part 2) ISBN 978-90-04-42836-2 (hardback, part 3) ISBN 978-90-04-42837-9 (hardback, part 4)

Copyright 2020 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Hes & De Graaf, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Rodopi, Brill Sense, Hotei Publishing, mentis Verlag, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh and Wilhelm Fink Verlag. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Requests for re-use and/or translations must be addressed to Koninklijke Brill NV via brill.com or copyright.com. This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.

Contents Part 1 Preface ix Sigla and Abbreviations General Introduction

xii 1

Book 1 The Principles of Nature: Text and Commentary


Part 2 Sigla and Abbreviations


User’s Guide to the Edition and Commentary


Book 2 Cosmology: Text and Commentary


Book 3 Meteorology and the Earth: Text and Commentary

Part 3 Sigla and Abbreviations


User’s Guide to the Edition and Commentary


Book 4 Psychology: Text and Commentary


Book 5 Physiology: Text and Commentary


Part 4 English Translation of the Placita 2059 User’s Guide to the English Translation 2061 Book 1 The Principles of Nature 2063


vi Book Book Book Book


2 3 4 5

Cosmology 2089 Meteorology and the Earth Psychology 2120 Physiology 2137


Appendix: List of Chapter Headings in the Translation of Qusṭā ibn Lūqā 2153 Bibliography 2158 Index of Primary and Secondary Witnesses 2283 Index of Name-Labels and Other Names 2291 Index of Fragment Collections and Extant Sources 2296 Index of Ancient and Modern Names 2309

Aetius Placita English Translation

User’s Guide to the English Translation The aim of this user’s guide is to assist the reader who wishes to consult and make use of the English translation of the Placita that we have prepared. It essentially repeats what was said in section 6.6 of the General Introduction. As we explained in the General Introduction, section 6.1, it was not possible on practical grounds to place the translation beside the Greek text of the edition. We decided to place it in Volume Four, which has two advantages, (1) that it can be collected together, and (2) that it can be consulted while the text and its apparatuses are being studied. The translation aims to give an accurate picture of the original Greek. It thus tends towards the literal side, while trying to avoid veering towards language that is artificial or unidiomatic. It is important that users of the translation note the following conventions and practices: (1) Words and phrases that have to be supplied in the Greek, when translated, are placed in parentheses. (2) Name-labels are rendered in the usual Latinate forms of the names. For collective names, e.g. schools and groups, we aim at a uniform translation. A footnote will be added when this is not possible. Note the following translations of standard Greek phrases: οἱ ἀπό τινος the successors of X τις καὶ οἱ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ X and his successors οἱ περί τινα X and his followers. For multiple name-labels we follow the Greek and preserve all cases of asundeta, i.e. not using commas and only translating conjunctions when present in the original. This of course is quite unnatural in English, but helpfully conveys the telegram style of the Placita. (3) Conjectural additions to the transmitted text, when translated, are placed in angle brackets (just like in the text itself). Braces are also taken over from the text, indicating that we suspect that the text is not authentic or uncertain. An obelus (†) indicates a crux in the text, three asterisks a lacuna. (4) Although we aim as far as possible to achieve consistent one for one renderings of Greek terms in English, this is not always possible because of the polyvalent meanings of certain words in both languages. Occasionally we add an asterisked footnote to explain a particular case. (5) On some occasions it is best to use a transliterated equivalent of the Greek term. In such cases an English rendering of the term is added in parentheses, unless this is not needed, as in the case of the term pneuma.

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_157


user’s guide to the english translation

(6) Only on rare occasions are alternative renderings supplied. These are placed in square brackets. (7) Similarly, transliterated equivalents of Greek terms, indicated in parentheses, are usually only given for etymologies or plays on words. (8) Greek adjectives with the suffix –ειδής are usually translated by the phrase ‘like a’ or with the suffix ‘-like’, e.g. σφαιροειδής ‘like a ball’, πυροειδής ‘firelike’. (9) Passages which are only preserved in the Arabic translation of Qusṭā ibn Lūqā are printed in italics. These are confined to chs. 1.21.2α and 5.27 & 29. As announced in the General Introduction, section 6.7, the authors are committed to producing an editio minor of the new reconstructed text as soon as will be practically possible. Its main feature will be the Greek text and English translation on facing pages, allowing quick and convenient consultation.

Book 1 The Principles of Nature AËTIUS ON THE VIEWS (OF THE PHILOSOPHERS) BOOK 1 in which the following chapter headings (are found):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

[Proem] What ‘nature’ is In what way a principle and elements differ On principles, what they are How the cosmos was constituted Whether the All is unique From where human beings obtained a conception of gods Who the deity (is) On demons and heroes On matter On (the) idea On causes On bodies On minimal bodies On shapes On colours On cutting of bodies On mixing and blending On void On place On space On time On the substance of time On movement On coming to be and passing away On necessity On the substance of necessity On fate On the substance of fate On chance On nature

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_158


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[Proem] §1 Since our objective is to teach [or: hand down] the physical theory [or: theory of physics, account of nature], we believe it to be necessary to divide up the discipline of philosophy directly at the beginning, so that we may know what philosophy is and where in the order of its parts the detailed account of physics comes. (P1) §2 Now the Stoics said that wisdom is the knowledge of divine and human matters, while philosophy is the practice of an appropriate technique. There is (they say) just one virtue that is appropriate and supreme, while (below this) there are three virtues that are most generic, namely physical, ethical and logical (virtue). For this reason philosophy too consists of three parts: physics, ethics and logic. Physics is when we do research on the cosmos and the things within the cosmos, while ethics is the part that is thoroughly occupied with human life, and logic is the part concerned with discourse (logos), which they also call dialectic. (P2) §3 Aristotle and Theophrastus and almost all the Peripatetics divided philosophy as follows: the perfect man [or: complete human being] should both theorise about the things that are and perform the acts that must be done. This can also be understood from these considerations as well: when research takes place on whether the sun is a living being or not a living being, whether it is ⟨fire, whether it is just as large⟩ as it is seen to be, the person who does this research is theorising, for what is theorised about is nothing more than what is. Similarly research is done on whether the cosmos is infinite and whether there is anything outside the cosmos, for all these subjects are theoretical. On the other hand research is done on how one should live one’s life and look after one’s children and how to rule and how to legislate. All these matters are researched with a view to conduct, and the person who does this is a man of action. (P3)


What ‘Nature’ Is (P)

§1 Since our proposal is to study what belongs to nature, I consider it necessary to make clear what in fact nature is. For it is absurd to attempt to speak on the subject of nature but not to know this very thing, the meaning of ‘nature’. (P1) §2 Now according to Aristotle nature is the principle (arche) of movement and rest for the object in which it exists primarily and not incidentally. For all things that are visible, which are not the result of chance or necessity, are not divine and do not have such a (sc. divine) cause, are called ‘natural’ and have their own particular nature. Examples are earth, fire, water, air, plants, living beings. In addition there are also these occurrences: rains, hailstorms, thun-

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derclaps, tornadoes, winds. These phenomena have a certain origin (arche), for each of them does not exist from everlasting, but comes to be from a certain origin (arche). They too, just like living beings and plants, have a beginning (arche) of generation. In these objects, therefore, nature is the principle (archê) ⟨and⟩ what is primary (proton). It is the principle (arche) of movement, and not only of movement, but also of rest, for all objects that have obtained a beginning (arche) of movement can also obtain an end. For this reason, therefore, nature is the principle (arche) of movement and of rest. (P2)


In What Way a Principle and Elements Differ (P,S)

§1 Aristotle and Plato and their followers believe that a principle and elements differ (from each other). (P1,S1) §2 Thales of Miletus regards a principle and elements as the same thing. But there is an enormous difference between the two. For we say that the elements are composite, but that the principles are neither composites nor products. For example, we apply the term elements to earth, water, air and fire. But we speak of principles for this reason, (namely) that there is nothing prior (to them) from which they originate, since not this would then be a principle, but that from which it had originated. In the case of earth and water there is something from which they come to be, namely matter which is without shape or form, and also form which we call ‘entelechy’ and ‘privation’. Thales is therefore mistaken when he says that water is (both) an element and a principle. (P2,S2)


On Principles, What They Are (P,cf.S)

§1 Thales the Milesian declared water to be (the) principle of the things that exist—this man appears to have commenced (the pursuit of) philosophy and from him the Ionic school of thought took its name, for there have been quite a number of Successions of philosophy; after practising philosophy in Egypt, he came to Miletus as a senior person—; he is the one who says that all things take their existence from water and all things are dissolved into water. He supposes this firstly from the fact that semen is the principle of all living beings and is moist. Hence it is likely that all things also have their principle from what is moist. Secondly (he supposes this) because it is by moisture that all the plants are nourished and bear fruit, while if they lack moisture they dry out. Thirdly * On the translation of multiple name-labels see the User’s guide to the translation.


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(he supposes this) because the fire of the sun itself and of the heavenly bodies is also nourished by the exhalations of the waters, and this applies to the cosmos too. For this reason Homer too assumes this view on (the subject of) water (when he writes) Ocean, who was (the) origin for all things. (P1,S2) §2 Anaximander, the son of Praxiades, the Milesian says that the unlimited is the principle of the things that exist. For from this all things come into being and (back) to this all things perish. For this reason unlimited worlds are begotten and again perish (back) to that from which they originate. He also states the reason why it is without limit, namely that the underlying (process of) generation will never fail. He goes astray, therefore, when he declares matter (to be the principle), but neglects the efficient cause. For the unlimited is nothing else than matter. But the matter cannot be in a state of being actualised, unless the efficient (cause) has been postulated. (P2,S3) §3 Anaximenes, the son of Eurystratus, the Milesian declared air to be (the) principle of the things that exist, for from this all things come to be and (back) to it they are dissolved again. ‘Just as’, he says, ‘our soul, which is air, holds us together and dominates us, so also pneuma and air contain the entire cosmos’. (Air and pneuma are used synonymously). But this man too goes astray when he appears to compose the living beings out of simple and uniform air and pneuma, for it is impossible for matter to subsist as the single principle of the things that exist. Rather it is necessary also to postulate the efficient cause. For example, silver is not sufficient for the generation of the drinking cup, unless there is also the efficient (cause), namely the silversmith. And similarly in the case of bronze and wood and other (kinds of) matter. (P3,S6) §4 Anaxagoras, the son of Hegesibulus, from Clazomenae declared the homoiomereiai (‘things with like parts’, ‘uniform parts’) to be principles of the things that exist. For it seemed to him most puzzling how anything could come to be from the non-existent and perish (back) to the non-existent. For instance, we consume simple and uniform food such as the bread of Demeter, and when we drink water. From this food the nourishment occurs of hair, veins, arteries, flesh, tendons, bones and the remaining parts (of the body). Since this (nourishment) occurs, it must be agreed that all the things (that result) are (already) present in the food we consume; and from the things that are present all things will grow and in that food there are particles that generate blood and tendons and bones and the other (parts), particles that are (only) observable by reason. For it is not necessary to refer everything to sense-perception in saying that bread and water produce these things, but in them the particles observable by reason are present. Therefore from the presence in the food of particles

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similar to what is produced he called them homoiomereiai (‘things with like parts’) and declared them to be the principles of the things that exist. And the homoiomereiai are matter, while the efficient cause is the Intellect which brought all things to order. He begins (his treatise) as follows: ‘Together were all things, but Intellect divided and ordered them’, by ‘things’ meaning the realities (that exist). It must be admitted, therefore, that he coupled the artificer with the matter. (P4,S7) §5 Archelaus, the son of Apollodorus, the Athenian (says the principle of the things that exist) is unlimited air and the density and rarefaction associated with it; of these the one is fire and the other water. (P5,S8) §6 These are the men, therefore, who followed each other and comprised the above-mentioned Ionic philosophy (starting) from Thales. (P6,cf.S9) §7 We next have another beginning: Pythagoras son of Mnesarchus from Samos, the first to call philosophy by this name, (declared) that the numbers and the relationships between them, which he also calls harmonies, are the principles, while the compounds from each of these, the so-called geometricals, are the elements. [54] On the other hand (he places) the Monad and the Undeterminate Dyad among the principles. Of his principles, the one strives towards the efficient and formal cause, which is God the Intellect, the other towards the passive and material (cause), which is the visible cosmos. [62] As for the nature of number, (he says) it is the decad; for all the Greeks and all the barbarians count up to the ten, and when they reach it they return back to the monad. And again, as for the number ten, he says, its power consists in the four and the tetrad. The cause is that, if one departing from the monad were to posit the numbers by addition, by advancing to the four one completes the number ten. (If, however, one goes beyond the number of the tetrad, one will also fall outside the ten.) For instance, if one were to posit one and two and to add three, and four to those, one will complete the number ten. The result is that number according to the Monad (is located) within the ten, but according to its (generative) power within the four. For this reason the Pythagoreans made the following pronouncement, regarding the tetrad as their strongest oath: No, by him, who bestows on our soul the tetraktys, possessing the fount of ever-flowing nature and its root. [74] Our soul too, he says, is composed of the tetrad. For there are intellect, knowledge, opinion and sense-perception; from these every skill and every science originates, and (through them) we ourselves are rational. Now Intellect is


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the Monad. Intellect contemplates in terms of the Monad. For example, if you take the numerous human beings, the individuals cannot (all) be perceived or grasped and are unlimited (in number), but this very thing is what we intelligize, the single human being only, which no one (fully) resembles. Similarly we intelligize the single horse only, but the individual (horses) are unlimited (in number). All of these are the forms and genera in accordance with the monads. Hence in the case of each of these, they also formulate the definition and speak of a rational living being or a living being that neighs. For this reason, therefore, the Intellect, by which we intelligize these things, is the Monad, and the Indeterminate Dyad is knowledge, and this is quite likely. After all, every demonstration and every proof involving knowledge, and in addition every syllogism, deduces what is in dispute and effortlessly demonstrates something else from agreed premises. Knowledge is the understanding of these (factors) and so could be (equated with) the Dyad. Opinion, taking its starting point from understanding, is the triad, and this is quite reasonable too, because opinion deals with multiplicity. The triad is plurality, as in the case of the ‘thrice-blessed Danaans’. For this reason, therefore, he includes the triad. *** (P7,S12) §8 The school of thought of these men has been named ‘Italic’ because Pythagoras taught in Italy, for he moved away from his native land Samos after he became displeased with the tyranny of Polycrates. (P14) §9 Heraclitus and Hippasus from Metapontum (say that the) principle of all things is fire, for they state that all things originate from fire and all things terminate in fire; and when it is quenched, all things are formed into the cosmos. First its densest part is concentrated and becomes earth; then the earth is loosened by fire and naturally produces water, which (in turn) evaporates and becomes air. And then the cosmos and all the bodies (within it) are consumed again by fire in the conflagration. Principle (of the things that exist) therefore is fire, because all things (originate) from it; and it is the end as well, because all things are dissolved into it. (P8,S13) §10 But Diogenes of Apollonia (says that the principle of the things that exist) is unlimited air. (S15) §11 Xenophanes (says that the) principle of all things is the earth; for he writes in the work On Nature: From earth all things (come) and in earth all things terminate. (S5) §12 Philolaus the Pythagorean (says that the principles of the things that exist) are the limit and the unlimited. (S10) §13 Leucippus the Milesian (says that the) principles and elements (of the things that exist) are the full and the void. (S17)

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§14 Democritus (says that the principles of the things that exist) are the solids and the void. (S18,Tiv) §15 Metrodorus, the son of Theocritus, from Chios (says that the principles of the things that exist) are the undivisibles and the void. (S14,Tv) §16 Epicurus, the son of Neocles, the Athenian, who philosophised in the line of Democritus, said that the principles of the things that exist are bodies that are observable by reason, not containing any void, ungenerated, indestructible, unable to be crushed or have its parts modified or be qualitatively altered. These bodies are observable by reason; and they move with the void and throughout the void. The void itself is unlimited (in size), and the bodies are unlimited (in number). The bodies possess these three (characteristics), shape, size, weight. Democritus stated that there were two, size and shape, but Epicurus added to these a third, weight. ‘For it is necessary’, he says, ‘that the bodies are moved by the blow caused by weight, since they will not be moved (sc. otherwise)’. The shapes of the atoms are incomprehensibly many, but not unlimited in number. They cannot have the form of a hook or a trident or a bracelet, for these shapes are easily crushed, whereas atoms are impassible and unable to be crushed. They have their individual shapes, which are observable by reason. The term ‘atom’ is used, not because it is a smallest particle, but because it cannot be cut, being as it is impassible and not containing any void. As a result, when he speaks of an atom, he means what is uncrushable and impassible, not containing any void. That there is such as thing as an atom is clear. For there are elements that always exist, that is to say figures ⟨without void⟩, and the unit. (P9,S19, cf. Tvi) §17 Ecphantus of Syracuse, one of the Pythagoreans, (says that the principles) of all things are the indivisible bodies and the void, for this man was the first to declare that the Pythagorean monads were corporeal. (S20,Tvii) §18 Diodorus, with the surname Cronus, (says that the principles are) the unlimited partless bodies, those that are also called the least in size. They are unlimited in number, but bounded in size. (S23) §19 Empedocles, the son of Meton, from Agrigentum says that (there are) four elements, fire air water earth, and two principal powers, Love and Strife, of which the former is unifying, the latter divisive. He speaks as follows: Hear first about the four foundational roots of all things, clear-bright Zeus and life-bearing Hera and Aidoneus, and Nestis, who with her tears dampens the mortal wellspring. By ‘Zeus’ he means the seething heat and the ether, by ‘life-bearing Hera’ the air, by ‘Aidoneus’ the earth, and by ‘Nestis’ and the ‘mortal wellspring’ for example semen and water. (P10,cf.S1)


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§20 Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus, the Athenian and Plato, the son of Aristo, the Athenian—after all, the opinions of each of them are the same on every matter—say that there are three principles: god, matter, idea, (these being equivalent to) by whom, out of which, towards which. The god is the Intellect of the cosmos, matter the primary substrate for generation and destruction, while (the) idea is an incorporeal substance in the conceptions and the perceptions of the god. (P11,S21,Tviii) §21 But Aristotle, the son of Nicomachus, from Stagira (says that the) principles are entelecheia or form, matter, privation, and the elements are four, but there is (also) a fifth which is an etherial and unchangeable body. The elements of generated things are, in terms of their qualities, hot, cold, wet, dry, while in terms of their essential natures, in which and concerning which these qualities exist, they are the four (sc. above-mentioned). (P12,S22,Tix) §22 Xenocrates (says that) the universe is constituted from the One and the ever-flowing [or: ‘negating unity’], with (the term) ever-flowing hinting at matter on account of its multiplicity. (S4,Tx) §23 Zeno, the son of Mnaseas, from Citium (says that the) principles are the god and matter, of which the former is the cause of action, the latter of passivity, while (the) elements are four (in number). (P13,S16,Txi) §24 Strato says (the) elements are ⟨(the) hot⟩ and (the) cold. (S11)


How the Cosmos Was Constituted (P)

§1 The cosmos therefore was constituted, configured with a curved shape, in the following manner. Since the indivisible bodies have a non-providential and random movement and are continually and at great speed moving towards the same place, many bodies manifesting a diversity of both shapes and sizes were for this reason collected together. As these bodies gathered together in the same place, those that were larger and heaviest settled down completely. But those that were small and round and smooth and mobile were squeezed out as the bodies collided and were carried upwards to the higher region. As then the force of the shock that had lifted them upwards lessened, the shock no longer bore them towards the higher region, but they were prevented from moving downwards and were pushed towards the places that were able to receive them. These places were on the periphery and it was against them that the mass of bodies were bent around. Entangling with each other in accordance with this bending, they gave rise to the heaven. The indivisibles that had the same nature were diverse, as has been said, and on being pushed out towards the higher region they produced the nature of the heav-

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enly bodies. But the mass of bodies that rose up in exhalations struck the air and compressed it. This then through its motion turned into wind and, taking up the heavenly bodies it led them along in its course, thereby preserving their present revolution on high. Then from the bodies that sunk downwards the earth arose, while from those that rose upwards the heaven, fire and air were formed. Since a considerable amount of matter was still contained within the earth and it was compacted by the pounding of the winds and the fiery rays (emanating) from the stars, the entire configuration of this matter with its small particles was compressed and produced the nature that is moist. Being in a fluid state, this matter travelled down to the places that were hollow and able to contain and hold it, or the water, deposited on its own, hollowed out the areas beneath it. (P1) §2 In this manner the most important parts of the cosmos were produced. (P2)


Whether the All Is Unique (P,S)

§1 The (philosophers) from the Stoa declared the cosmos to be unique, which, they said, is also (to be identified with) the All that is corporeal. (P1,S2) §2 Empedocles (says that) the cosmos is unique; (he says), however, that the cosmos is not all (that is material), but a small part of this ‘All’, the remainder being unworked matter. (P2,S1) §3 Plato bases his belief that the cosmos and the All are unique on three considerations: (1) from the fact that it would not be complete, if it did not contain all things (within itself); (2) from the fact that it would not be similar to the model, if it were not alone in its sort; (3) from the fact that it would not be indescructible, if there were anything exterior to it. But against Plato it must be stated (1) that the cosmos is not complete, and it need not be so even if it did contain all things; after all, the human being is complete (i.e. full-grown), but he does not contain all things. There are moreover many models, as in the case of statues and buildings and paintings. (2) How could he say ‘there is nothing outside it’, for (if that were the case) it could not be whirling around? (3) Moreover, it is not indestructible and cannot be so, since it has come into being. (P3,S4) §4 Metrodorus, the teacher of Epicurus, says that it is (equally) absurd that a single stalk should have sprung up on a large plain and that a single cosmos should have done the same in the Infinite. That the kosmoi are infinite in their multiplicity is clear from the fact that the causes are infinite in number. For if the cosmos is limited, while all the causes from which the cosmos originated are infinitely many, then necessarily (the kosmoi) are infinitely many. After all,


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where the causes are without limit, there the products [or: effects] are (infinite in number or without limit) also. (These) causes are either the atoms or the elements. (P4,S3)


From Where Did Human Beings Obtain a Conception of Gods (P)

§1 The Stoics define the substance of the divine as follows: it is an intelligent and fiery breath, which does not have a (specific) form, but changes to whatever things it wishes and assimilates itself to all things. [5] They obtained a conception of this (divine being) in the first place by taking as their starting-point the beauty of what becomes visible (in it). For nothing that is beautiful originates at random and by chance, but with the aid of a skill that works as a craftsman. The heaven is beautiful. This is evident from its shape, its colour, its size, and the variety of the heavenly bodies that adorn it. For heaven is spherical, (a shape) which takes the first place among all shapes, for it alone corresponds to its own parts, since it is round and so are its parts. (This is the reason according to Plato that the most sacred component (sc. of the human being), the intellect, has been established in the head.) Its (sc. the heaven’s) colour is beautiful too, for it has been coloured with blueness, which is darker than purple but still has the quality of brightness, and it is for this reason that with its intense colour it traverses so great a body of air and is visible at such large distances. It is also beautiful because of its size, for with all entities of a same species what surpasses them is beautiful, as with a living being or a plant. The following visible signs also contribute to bringing the beauty of the sky to perfection, for the ecliptic circle in heaven is decorated with a variety of graphic pictures [i.e. constellations]: In it there is Cancer, followed by Leo, and after it Virgo, and then the Claws and (after it) Scorpio himself, and Sagittarius and Capricorn, and after Capricorn Aquarius, and following him the two starry Pisces, and after them Aries, and next Taurus and Gemini. Countless other features he has created corresponding to similar twistings of the cosmos. Hence Euripides too says: and the star-faced brilliance of heaven, a beautiful embroidery of time, (the work) of a wise builder.

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[29] We also obtained a conception of God from the following: it is not the case that the sun and the moon and the remaining heavenly bodies, after pursuing their course under the earth, fail to rise again with the same colours, not varying in their sizes, in the same places, and at the same times. [33] Hence those people who have transmitted reverence for the gods have done so by means of three kinds of exposition, firstly through that of natural philosophy, secondly through the mythical (kind), and thirdly through the kind that takes its evidence from the laws [or: customs]. Natural philosophy is taught by the philosophers, the mythical kind by the poets, while what is lawful [or: customary] is established each time by the particular city. [38] The entire teaching (on the gods) is divided into seven kinds. The first is based on the visible signs and heavenly occurrences. They obtained a conception of God from the visible heavenly bodies, observing that these are the cause of a mighty harmony and have brought about the ordered state of day and night and winter and summer, risings and settings, as well as the births of living beings and plants produced by the earth. Hence it seemed to them that heaven had the role of father and earth that of mother. The former was father through the outpourings of rain that had the role of seeds, while the earth was mother by receiving these (seeds) and giving birth. When they saw that the heavenly bodies always followed their courses (aei theontas) and that the sun and moon were the cause of our ability to contemplate (theôrein), they called them ‘gods’ (theous). They divided the gods into a second and third category, namely that which harms and that which assists. Those who assist are Zeus, Hera, Hermes and Demeter, while those who cause harm are the Avengers, the Erinyes and Ares, whom they regard as holy even though they are responsible for hardship and violence. The fourth and fifth kinds they applied to states of affairs and feelings, such as (for the former) Eros, Aphrodite and Desire, and for states of affairs Hope [sic], Justice and Good Order. As a sixth category were added the fictions of the poets. For example, Hesiod wanted to create gods as fathers of the beings that came into existence and so introduced the following as their begetters, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus. [57] For this reason the category is also called ‘mythical’. The seventh and final kind (of gods) was the one which was especially honoured for the beneficent contributions to the public good, but was born in human form, such as Heracles, such as the Dioscuri and such as Dionysus. The reason that they said that these (gods) were of human form is that the divine is the most excellent of all beings and the human being the most beautiful of living beings, and,


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adorned as he is with virtue especially through the formation of his intellect, also the most capable. Similarly they thought, therefore, that it was good ⟨to attribute the greatest beauty⟩ to those who excelled with the highest ability. (P1)


Who the Deity Is (P,S)

§1 Some of the philosophers, such as Diagoras of Melos and Theodore of Cyrene and Euhemerus of Tegea say that the gods do not exist at all. Euhemerus is also hinted at by Callimachus of Cyrene when he writes in his Iambi: Come hither to the temple in front of the wall, where the old man who fabricated the ancient bronze Zan scribbles his unrighteous books like the charlatan he is. These (books) are the ones on the subject that the gods do not exist. Euripides too, the tragic poet, though he did not wish to disclose this view for fear of the Areopagus, did make his position known in the following way. He introduced the character of Sisyphus as defender of this opinion, and so pleaded his cause by means of this man’s judgment: For there was a time, he says, when human life was disordered, beast-like, and at the mercy of violence. Then, he says, the lawlessness was dissolved through the introduction of laws. Since, however, the law was able to curb overt acts of injustice but many people continued to practise them in secret, at that point a wise man ordained that it was necessary ‘to blind the truth with a false account’ and persuade mankind how there is a deity flourishing with imperishable life, who hears and sees and takes good note of these (deeds). Let such poetic nonsense be done away with, he says, together with the words of Callimachus: if you recognize God, be aware that for the deity it is possible to achieve everything. For not even God can do everything. If the divinity indeed exists, let him then make snow black, fire cold, what is sedentary upright and vice versa.

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[27] And when the grandiloquent Plato says that ‘God formed the cosmos by looking at himself as model’, he reeks of archaic moonstruck nonsense, to use the language of the ancient comic poets. For how did he create while looking to himself? And how can he (Plato) say the deity is spherical in shape, humbler in status than man? Anaxagoras says that at the beginning the bodies were at rest, but the Intellect of God gave them an orderly arrangement, and brought about the births of all things. Plato on the other hand supposed that the primary bodies were not at rest, but moving in a disorderly fashion. Therefore, he says, the deity, ordaining that order is better than disorder, gave them an orderly arrangement. Both thinkers thus have this mistake in common, namely that they made the deity pay attention to human affairs or even have him create the cosmos for this reason. After all, the blessed and indestructible living being, who is replete with all good things and not receptive of any evil, being wholly focused on the maintenance of his felicity and indestructibility, is not involved with human concerns, for otherwise he would be wretched in the manner of a workman and a builder, burdened with care and fretting about the construction of the cosmos. [47] Another argument is that the god of whom they speak either did not exist in the previous age when the bodies were either at rest or in disorderly movement, or he was asleep or he was awake, or neither of these. The first option is unacceptable, for the deity is eternal. The second too is unacceptable. If God were sleeping from eternity, he would be dead, since eternal sleep is (tantamount to) death. But God is also not receptive of sleep, for God’s immortality and a state close to death are separated by a great distance. If, however, God was awake, either there was a deficiency in his felicity or he was wholly fulfilled in his blessedness. But neither according to the first option is he blessed, because a deficiency in felicity is incompatible with blessedness, nor (is he blessed) according to the second option, because then, though in no way deficient in happiness, he would embark on deeds that were to no purpose. [52] How does it happen then, if the deity indeed does exist and human affairs are administered through his forethought, that what is fraudulent flourishes and what is noble suffers the opposite fate? Agamemnon, for example, was both an excellent king and a mighty warrior, but he was overpowered and murdered by an adulterer and an adulteress. And this man’s relative, Heracles, who had cleaned up many of the evils that infest human life, fell prey to the sorcery of Deïanira and was murdered. (P1,T:bits from P)


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§2 Thales (says that) the deity is the Intellect of the cosmos, and that the universe is ensouled and at the same time full of demons. In addition the divine power also pervades the elementary moist (substance) and causes it to move. (P2,S1) §3 Anaximander (says that) the unlimited [or: infinitely many] heavens are gods. (P3,S2) §4 Anaximenes (says that the deity is) the air. Statements such as these [sc. as those of Anaximenes] should be understood as referring to the powers that pervade through all parts of the elements or the bodies. (S3) §5 Archelaus (says that) the deity is air and Intellect, but the Intellect does not make the cosmos. (S4) §6 Anaxagoras (says that) the deity is an Intellect that makes the cosmos. (S5) §7 Democritus (says that) the deity is an Intellect that resides in fire with spherical form. (P4,S6) §8 Diogenes and Cleanthes and Oenopides (say that the deity is) the soul of the cosmos. (S7) §9 Pythagoras (says that) of the principles, the Monad is the deity and the Good, which is the nature of the One and identical to the Intellect, but the Undetermined Dyad is a daemon and what is evil, around which the plurality of matter resides, and is also the visible cosmos. (P5,S8) §10 Posidonius (says that the deity is) an intelligent and fiery Spirit, which does not have (a single) form, but changes into what it wishes and assimilates itself to all things. (S9) §11 Speusippus (says that the deity is) the Intellect, which is not identical to either the One or the Good, but has a nature of its own. (S10) §12 Critolaus and Diodorus of Tyre (say that the deity is) an Intellect (derived) from impassive ether. (S11) §13 Heraclitus (says that the deity is) the (eternally) recurrent everlasting fire, while fate is reason (logos), producer of the things that exist by turning in contrary directions. (S12) §14 Zeno the Stoic (says that the deity is the) fiery Intellect of the cosmos. (S13) §15 Mnesarchus (says that the deity is) the cosmos, which derives its primary existence from spirit. (S14) §16 Boethus (says that) the ether is God. (S15) §17 Parmenides (says that the deity is) the unmoved and limited spherical (being). (S16) §18 Melissus and Zeno (say that the deity is) the One and All and solely everlasting and unlimited. (S17)

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§19 ⟨Empedocles (says that) the elements and the principles and⟩ the One (are gods), and that the One is necessity, but that its matter is the four elements, while its forms are Strife and Love. He also calls the elements gods, and the mixture of these the ⟨Sphere⟩, and (says that) the ⟨cosmos⟩ will be dissolved into this uniform entity. He also thinks that the souls are divine, and that those ‘pure ones’ who share in them ‘purely’ are divine as well. (S18) §20 Polemon (says that) the cosmos is God. (S19) §21 Xenocrates the son of Agathenor from Chalcedon (says that) the Monad and the Dyad are gods, the former as male having the rank of Father and ruling in heaven, which he also calls Zan and odd and Intellect, who for him is the first god, the latter as female having the role of Mother of the gods, presiding over the region under the heaven, who for him is the soul of the universe [?]. He says too that the heaven is a god and that the fiery stars are Olympian gods, as well as other sublunary demons, which are invisible. It is also his view that there are divine powers, and that these penetrate the material elements. Of these the one which passes through the invisible (aeides) air he calls ‘Hades’, the one which passes through the moist (substance) ‘Poseidon’, and the one that passes through the earth ‘plant-sowing Demeter’. These doctrines he bequeathed to the Stoics, but the views (described) earlier he took from Plato and reformulated. (S20) §22 Socrates and Plato (say that the deity is) the One, the single-natured, the monadic, the true Being, the Good. All such names immediately refer to the Intellect. The deity, then, is an Intellect, (that is,) a separate Form; by ‘separate’ let that be understood which is free of all matter, not entwined with any of the bodily entities, and also not sharing affection with anything in nature that is passible [or: subject to affection]. Of this (God) as Father and Maker the other intelligible divine beings (the so-called intelligible cosmos) are the descendants, and they are the models for the visible cosmos. In addition to these there are ethereal powers (these are incorporeal logoi), and powers that inhere both in air and in water, as well as the sense-perceptible descendants of the first god, sun, moon, stars, earth and the all-embracing heaven. (P6,S21) §23 Aristotle (says that) the highest god is a separate form, mounted on the sphere of the universe, which is the ethereal body, also called by him the fifth (element). This body is divided into spheres that are contiguous in reality but separated by reason. Each of these spheres he regards as a living being composed of body and soul. Of these the body is ethereal and moves in a circular fashion, whereas the soul is unmoved reason and cause of movement in actuality. (P7,S22) §24 The Stoics declare that God is intelligent, a designing fire which proceeds methodically to the generation of the cosmos, encompassing all the seminal logoi according to which each thing comes to be in accordance with fate. It


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is also a Spirit which pervades the whole cosmos, taking on the names that correspond to the alterations of the matter through which it has passed. In addition (they regard as) gods the cosmos, the heavenly beings, and the earth, and the Intellect in the aether at the summit of everything is a god, too. (P8,S23) §25 Epicurus (says that) the gods are human in form, and are all observable by reason (only) because of the fine particles of which the nature of their images consists. The same (philosopher says there are) four other classes of natures that are indestructible: the indivisibles, the void, the infinite, and the similarities; these (natures) are called homoiomereiai (‘having similar parts’) and elements. (P9,S24)


On Demons and Heroes (P)

§1 Appended to the account ‘On the gods’ we must record the one ‘On demons and heroes’. (P1) §2 Thales Pythagoras Plato the Stoics (say that) demons are psychic beings; (they also say that) the heroes too are souls that have been separated from their bodies; and they (sc. the demons) are good if (the souls are) good, but wicked if (the souls are) wicked. (P2) §3 But Epicurus admits none of these (as demonic). (P3)


On Matter (P,S)

§1 Matter is the substrate for all generation and destruction and the other (kinds of) changes. (P1,S1) §2 The successors of Thales and Pythagoras, I mean those [sc. philosophers] going down to the Stoics together with Heraclitus, (say that) matter is wholly and completely changeable and alterable and mutable and fluid. (P2,S2,T1) §3 The successors of Democritus (say that) the first things are impassible, i.e. the atom and the incorporeal void. (P3,S3,T2) §4 Plato (says that) matter is body-like, without figure, ‘without form’, fully shapeless, without quality as far as its own nature is concerned, but by receiving the forms it became like a ‘nurse’ and a ‘mould’ and a ‘mother’. (P4,S4,T3) §5 But Aristotle (says that it is) corporeal. (P4,T4) §6 But those who state that matter is water or fire or air or earth no longer regard it as without figure, but as body, (P5,S5) §7 whereas those who say it is the partless (particles) and the atoms (say that it is) without figure. (P6,S6) §8 (But) the Stoics declare matter to be body. (S7,T5)

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On (the) Idea (P,S)

§1 The idea is an incorporeal substance. It is itself the cause that makes things (to be) such as they are and the model of the existence of the natural senseperceptibles. It exists by itself, but makes the formless materials into images (of itself) and becomes a cause of their arrangement, occupying a father’s position towards the sense-perceptibles. (P1,S1) §2 Socrates and Plato understand the ideas as substances separate from matter, existing in the conceptions and perceptions of God, that is to say, the intellect. (P2) §3 Pythagoras placed the so-called forms and the ideas in the numbers and their harmonies and what are named the geometricals, (regarding them as) inseparable from the bodies. (S2) §4 Aristotle preserved the forms and ideas, but as not in fact separated from matter, (thereby) placing himself outside (the view that they) are (put into matter) by God. (P3) §5 The Stoics who were the successors of Zeno (say) that the ideas are our own conceptions. (P4)


On Causes (P,S)

§1 A cause is (that) through which the effect (is completed) or through which something occurs; for a descriptive definition suffices. (P1,S1) §2 Plato (understands) the cause in three ways, for he says ‘by which’, ‘out of which’, ‘towards which’. But more properly (he regards) the ‘by which’ (as the cause). This is the agent, i.e. Intellect. (P2,S2) §3 Pythagoras Aristotle (say that) that there are first causes which are incorporeal, and there are causes by participation in or as property of the corporeal subsistence, with the result that the cosmos is body. (P3,S3) §4 The Peripatetics (say that) of the causes some are sensible and others intelligible. (S6) §5 The Stoics (say that) all the causes are corporeal, for they are pneumata [i.e. currents of warm air]. (P4) §6 Thales and his successors declared that the first cause is unmoved/unchanging. (S4) §7 The Stoics defined the first cause as movable/changing. (S5)

2080 1.12

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On Bodies (P,S)

§1 A body is that which extends in three directions, width, depth and length. Or it is a mass that of itself is resistant. Or it is that which occupies a place. (P1,S1) §2 Plato (says that body) is something neither heavy nor light by nature when it in fact exists in the place proper to it. But when it has come to be in an alien place, then it obtains inclination, and from this inclination there is a turning either to heaviness or lightness. (P2,S2) §3 Aristotle (says that) earth is the heaviest (body) in absolute terms, and fire is the lightest, while air and water differ (in weight) according to circumstances. (He also says that) fire by nature never moves in a circular fashion, but (that) only the fifth body (does this). (P3,S3) §4 The Stoics (say that) two of the four elements are light, fire and air, and that two are heavy, water and earth. For light by nature is that which inclines away from the own centre (sc. of the cosmos), whereas heavy is that which moves to (the) centre. In addition the light (sc. of the sun etc.) on earth moves in a straight line, whereas the etherial (variety) moves in a circle. (P4,S4) §5 Epicurus (says that) the bodies are inconceivably many [or: inconceivable (in number)], and that the first (bodies), which are simple, as well as all the bodies that are composites of these, possess heaviness. (He also says that) the atoms at one time move perpendicularly, at another time with a swerve. But (the bodies that) move upwards do so through impact or rebounding. (P5,S5) §6 Democritus says that the first bodies (these are the solid bodies) do not have heaviness, but move by reciprocal impact in the infinite (space). (He also says that) it is possible that an atom of cosmic proportions exists [or: (that) it is ⟨absurd⟩ that one of cosmic proportions exists]. (S6) §7 Strato (says that) natural heaviness attaches to bodies, and that the lighter ones float on the surface of the heavier ones, like stones (in fruit) that are squeezed out. (S7)


On Minimal Bodies (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) prior to the four elements (there are) minimal fragments, like elements before elements, (which elements are) homoiomere (i.e. things with similar parts), i.e. ‘round’. (P1,S1) §2 Heraclitus, as some believe, introduces little filings prior to the one (sc. element). (P2,S2)

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§3 Xenocrates and Diodorus defined the minima as partless (entities). (S3) §4 (But) Heraclides (defined them as) fragments. (S4)


On Shapes (P,S)

§1 A shape is a surface and an outline and a limit of a body. (P1,S1) §2 Pythagoras and his followers (say that) the shapes of the four elements are spherical, and that only the very highest (element,) fire, is cone-like. (P2,S2) §3 Anaxagoras (says that) the homoiomere (‘things with like parts’) are of many shapes. (S3) §4 The successors of Leucippus (say that) the atoms are of many shapes. (S4) §5 Cleanthes alone of the Stoics declared that the (element) fire is cone-like. (S5)


On Colours (P,S)

§1 Colour is the quality of a body that is primarily visible. (P1,S1) §2 The Pythagoreans called colour the surface of the body. (P2,S2a) §3 Empedocles declared colour to be what is fitting for the passages of sight. And there are four, equal in number to the elements: white, black, red, ochre [i.e. yellow]. (P3,S3) §4 Plato (says that colour is) a flame (emanating) from the bodies, which has particles commensurate with (the organ of) sight. (P4,S4) §5 Aristarchus of Samos the astronomer, disciple of Strato, (says that) colour is light falling on what it falls upon. (S5) §6 Zeno the Stoic (says that) the colours are first configurations of matter. (P5,S6) §7 The successors of Pythagoras (say that) the kinds of the colours are white and black, red, ochre [i.e. yellow]. The differences between the colours (come) from the qualitative blendings of the elements, and those of the living beings from the variations of the foodstuffs and the airs (they breathe). (P6,S2b) §8 Democritus (says that) no colour exists by nature, for the elements are without quality, being the solids [i.e., atoms] and the void. But the compounds formed from these are coloured by ‘inter-contact’, by ‘rhythm’ and by ‘turning’, of which the first results in order, the next shape and the last position. For it is on the basis of these that the impressions (on the senses arise). Of these col-


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ours that relate to the impression (on the senses) there are four differentiations: white, black, red, ochre [i.e. yellow]. (S7) §9 Epicurus and Aristarchus (say that) the bodies in the dark do not have colour. (S8) §10 Aristotle (says that colour is) a limit in bounded transparency, that the transparent is filtered matter that is pure and unmixed, and that colour exists as that which moves this (matter). In the dark bodies have colour potentially, but never actually. There is, however, a great difference between not having (colour) and (colour) not being seen. (S9) §11 Other (thinkers say that) the elements are naturally coloured, (S10) §12 others (say) that the primary homoiomere (‘things with like parts’) participate in quality, (S11) §13 and yet others (say) that all the atoms taken together are without colour, and they indicate that the visible qualities arise from (entities) without quality that are observable by reason. (S12)


On Cutting of Bodies (P,S)

§1 The successors of Thales and Pythagoras (say that) the bodies are passible and divisible to infinity. And all (of the following) are continuous: line, surface, solid [i.e. three-dimensional] body, place, time. (P1,S3) §2 Those thinkers who introduce the atoms (say that) the cutting stops at the partless (entities) and that there is no cutting to infinity. (P2,S2) §3 Aristotle (says that the cutting of bodies occurs) potentially to infinity, but in actuality never. (P3,S1)


On Mixing and Blending (P,S)

§1 Thales and those following him (say that) the mixings of the elements occur through alteration. (P1,S1) §2 Anaxagoras and Democritus and their successors (say that they occur) through juxtaposition. (P2,S2) §3 Empedocles and Xenocrates combine the elements out of smaller masses, which are least in size and as it were elements of elements. (P3,S3) §4 Plato (says that) the three bodies—for he does not wish them to be or be called elements in the proper sense—are convertible to each other, namely fire, air and water, but that earth cannot be changed to any of these. (P4,S4)

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On Void (P,S)

§1 All physicists from Thales up to and including Plato rejected the void in the real sense of the word. (P1,S1) §2 Empedocles: ‘and of the All nothing is empty or superfluous’. (P2,S2,T2) §3 Leucippus Democritus Demetrius Metrodorus Epicurus (say that) the atoms are infinite in number, and the void infinite in size. (P3,S3,T1) §4 Strato (says that) there is no void outside the cosmos, but that it is possible for it to occur inside. (S4,T4) §5 Zeno and his successors (say that) inside the cosmos there is no void at all, but outside it (sc. the cosmos) it is infinite. (P4,S6,T3) §6 Aristotle (says that) that the void outside the cosmos is exactly large enough for the heavens to breathe into it; for inside there is a fiery place. (P5, cf.S5)


On Place (P,S)

§1 Plato (says place is) what partakes of the forms, like a sort of ‘wet-nurse’ and ‘recipient’. (By this) he has metaphorically denoted matter. (P1,S2) §2 Aristotle (says it is) the outermost of what surrounds that connects with what is surrounded. (P2) §3 Strato (says it is) the interval between what surrounds and what is surrounded. (S1)


On Space (P,S)

§1 Zeno and his successors (say) that void, place (and) space differ; thus void is vacancy of body, place what is occupied by a body, space what is partially occupied, as in the case of a jar of wine. (P1,S1) §2 Epicurus (says that) all these terms are to be used interchangeably: void, place, space. (S2)


On Time (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras (says that time is) the sphere of that which encompasses. (P1,S1) §2 Plato (says that time is) a moving image of eternity, or the dimension of the motion of the cosmos. (P2,S3)


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§2α Aristotle (says that time is) the number of the motion of the heavenly sphere. (PQ3) §3 Eratosthenes (says that time is) the course of the sun. (P3,S2)


On the Substance of Time (P,S)

§1 Plato (says that the) substance of time is the motion of the heaven. (P1,S9) §2 The Stoics (say that it is) motion itself. (P2,S1) §3 Xenocrates (says it is) a measure of what is generated, and (also) everlasting motion. (S3) §4 Hestiaeus of Perinthus, the natural philosopher, (says it is the) motion of the heavenly bodies in relation to each other. (S4) §5 Strato (says it is) the quantitative in motion and rest. (S5) §6 Epicurus (says it is) a concomitant, that is an accompaniment of motions [or: changes]. (S6) §7 Antiphon and Critolaus (say that) time is a concept or measure, and not something that exists on its own. (S7) §8 And the majority (of philosophers say that) time is ungenerated, (P3,S2) §9 But Plato (says that it is) generated in thought. (P4,S8)


On Motion (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras Plato: motion is a difference or alteration in matter qua matter. This is the shared definition of every (form of) motion. (P1,S1) §2 Aristotle: (motion is) entelechy of the movable. (P2,S10) §3 Democritus: (there is) one kind of motion, that which (occurs) through vibration. (P3,S2) §4 Epicurus (says there are) two kinds of motion, that which (occurs) perpendicularly and that which (occurs) through deviation. (P4,S3) [a lemma on three kinds of motion seems to have fallen out] §5 But there are some who introduce a fourth kind, that which (occurs) substantially, i.e. that which (occurs) in terms of coming to be. (S4) §6 Yet others add intellectual (motion) as well, so in fact they have advanced up to the (number) five. (S5) §7 Diodorus Cronus (says that) things have moved to some extent, but that nothing is moving (sc. in actuality). (S6) §8 Heraclitus removed rest and standing still from the whole of things, for this belongs to corpses; to everlasting things he assigned everlasting motion and to perishable things (he assigned) perishable (motion). (P6,S7)

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§9 Herophilus (says that there is) motion that is observable by reason and (there is) motion that is sense-perceptible. (P5,S8) §10 (But) Asclepiades declared that all motion is sense-perceptible. (S9)


On Coming To Be and Passing Away (P,S)

§1 Parmenides Melissus Zeno abolished coming to be and passing away because they held that the All is unmoved. (P1,S1) §2 Empedocles Anaxagoras Democritus Epicurus and all those who make a cosmos through aggregation of bodies composed of fine particles introduce combinations and separations, but not comings to be and perishings in the true sense. For these do not come to be according to quality from alteration, but according to quantity from aggregation. (P2,S2) §3 Pythagoras and all those who assume that matter is passive (say that) coming to be and passing away occur in the true sense. For through (qualitative) alteration of the elements and (their) turning and dissolution there takes place coming to be and passing away, juxtaposition and mixing, blending and fusion. (P3,S3)


On Necessity (P,S)

§1 Thales: necessity is the strongest (of all things), for it rules over the universe. (P1,S1) §2 Pythagoras said that necessity embraces the cosmos. (P2,S2,T2) §3 Parmenides and Democritus (say that) all things (happen) in accordance with necessity and that it is the same as fate and justice and providence and that which makes the cosmos. (P3,S3,T1,3) §4 Leucippus (says that) all things (happen) in accordance with necessity and that it is the same as fate. For he states in the On Intellect, ‘nothing happens at random, but all things (happen) both for a reason and by necessity.’ (S4) §5 Plato ascribes some things to providence, other things to necessity. (P4,S5b)


On the Substance of Necessity (P)

§1 Empedocles (says that) the substance of necessity (is) a cause that is able to make use of the principles and the elements. (P1, S2)


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§2 Democritus (says that the substance of necessity is) the resistance and motion and blow of matter. (P2) §3 Plato (says that the substance of necessity is) sometimes matter and sometimes the disposition of the maker towards matter. (P3,S1)


On Fate (P,S)

§1 Heraclitus (says that) all things (occur) in accordance with fate, and that it (fate) and necessity are the same. Indeed he writes, ‘for it (sc. necessity) is fate in every respect’. (P1,S2b,T1) §2 Plato recognises (the role of) fate in relation to human souls and lives, but along with it he also introduces the cause that relates to us. (P2) §3 The Stoics, agreeing with Plato, say that necessity is an invincible and compelling cause, while fate is an ordered nexus of causes. In this nexus there is also the element that relates to us, so that some things are fated (for us) and others not fated. (P3) §4 Chrysippus (says that) what has been necessitated does not differ from is fated, and that is an everlasting, continuous and ordered movement in accordance with an articulated nexus of its parts. (S1,T2) §5 Zeno the Stoic (says) in his On Nature (that fate is) a force that moves matter in the same respect and in the same way. It makes no difference (he adds) to call it providence and nature. (S5,T3) §6 Antipater the Stoic declared that fate is a god. (S6)


On the Substance of Fate (P)

§1 Heraclitus (says that) the substance of fate is the logos that passes through the being of the All. It is the etherial body, seed of the coming-to-be of the All and measure of (its) ordered revolution. (P1,S2a) §2 Plato (says that it is) everlasting logos and everlasting law of the nature of the All. (P2,S3) §3 Chrysippus (says that it is) a pneumatic force that is administrative for the ordering of the All. And again in On Definitions: ‘fate is the logos of the cosmos, or logos of what is administered by providence in the cosmos, or logos in accordance with which what has happened happened, what is happening happens, and what will happen will happen’. (P3,S7,T4) §4 The other Stoics (say that it is) a concatenation of causes, that is an inviolable ordering and linking together. (P4,T5)

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§5 Posidonius (says that it is) third in line from Zeus; for first (he says there is) is Zeus, second (there is nature), third (there is) fate. (P5,S4)


On Chance (P,S)

§1 Plato (says that chance is) an accidental cause in the realm of the voluntary, as well as an adventitious consequence and fortuitous event, and it is a substituted attitude of the voluntary with regard to the envisaged purpose. (P1,S2,T1) §2 Aristotle (says that chance is) an accidental cause that is unclear and unstable in the realm of what occurs according to an impulse towards some end.—There is a difference, (he says) between chance and the spontaneous. For what occurs by chance and (also) spontaneously are (both) certainly in the realm of action, but what is spontaneous (only) does not occur by chance, for it is in the realm outside action. In addition chance belongs to rational beings (only), whereas the spontaneous occurs in the case of rational and irrational living beings and unsouled bodies. Also chance occurs through the exercise of will, the spontaneous without it; and the former occurs when there is somebody (who has decided), but the latter (occurs) without the intervention of reason, without anything having been decided externally. (P2,S3–S1,T2) §3 Epicurus (says that chance is) a cause that is unstable in relation to persons, times and places, ⟨and that all things occur⟩ by necessity, through choice, and by chance. (P3,S4–S5) §4 Anaxagoras and Democritus and the Stoics (says that chance is) a cause that is unclear to human reasoning. For (they say) there are things (that occur) by necessity, (that occur) by fate, (that occur) by chance and (that occur) spontaneously. (P4,S6,T3)


On Nature (P,cf.S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) there is no such thing as nature (physis), but (only) mixing and separation of the elements. For in the first book of the Physics [i.e. physical poem] he writes as follows: But I shall tell you something more: there is no nature of all that is mortal, nor is there an end consisting of wretched death, but only mixing and separation of what has been mixed, and ‘nature’ is what it is called by human beings. (P1)


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§2 In the same way Anaxagoras (says that) nature is a combination and separation, which is coming-to-be and passing away. (P2)

Book 2 Cosmology AËTIUS ON THE VIEWS (OF THE PHILOSOPHERS) BOOK 2 in which the following headings (are found):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ⟨5a. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

[Proem] On the cosmos On the shape of the cosmos Whether the cosmos is ensouled and administered by providence Whether the cosmos is indestructible Where the cosmos obtains its nourishment from Where the cosmos has its regent part⟩ From what kind of first element the god began to make the cosmos On the order of the cosmos What the cause of the cosmos having been tilted is On what is outside the cosmos, whether there is a void What the right (parts) of the cosmos are and what the left On the heaven, what its substance is On the division of heaven, into how many circles it is divided What the substance of the heavenly bodies is, (both) planets and fixed stars On the shapes of the stars On the ordering of the heavenly bodies On the conveyance and movement of the heavenly bodies From where the heavenly bodies obtain their illumination On the stars called the Dioscuri On signs of the seasons produced by the heavenly bodies On the substance of the sun On the size of the sun On the shape of the sun On the turnings of the sun On the eclipse of the sun On the substance of the moon On the size of the moon On the shape of the moon On the illuminations of the moon

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_159

2090 29. 30. 31. 32.

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On the eclipse of the moon On its appearance and why it appears (to be) earthy On the distances of the moon On the year, how great the time of (the revolution of) each of the planets is, and what the Great year is

[Proem] Having thus completed my account of the principles and elements and what is closely associated with them, I shall turn to the account concerned with the products, starting with the most comprehensive of all things. (P)


On the Cosmos (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras was the first to call the container of all things ‘cosmos’ on the basis of the order present in it. (P1,S5) §2 Thales Pythagoras Empedocles Ecphantus Parmenides Melissus Heraclitus Anaxagoras Plato Aristotle Zeno (say that) the cosmos is unique. (P2,S6,T1) §3 Anaximander Anaximenes Archelaus Xenophanes Diogenes Leucippus Democritus Epicurus and his teacher Metrodorus (say that there are) infinite kosmoi in the infinite space throughout the entire surrounding area. (P3,S7,T2) §4 Of those that declare there to be infinite kosmoi, Anaximander (says that) they are at an equal distance from each other, (S8) §5 whereas Epicurus (says that) the distance between the kosmoi is unequal. (S9) §6 Empedocles (says that) the revolution of the sun is the perimeter of the cosmos’ limit. (P4,S1) §7 Seleucus from the Red Sea and Heraclides from Pontus (say that) the cosmos is infinite. (P5,S2) §8 Diogenes and Melissus (say that) the universe is infinite, but the cosmos is limited. (P6,S3) §9 The Stoics (say that) the universe and the whole differ, for the universe is the cosmos together with the infinite void, whereas the whole is the cosmos apart from the void; as a result the whole and the cosmos amount to the same. (P7,S4) * On the translation of multiple name-labels see the User’s guide to the translation.

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On the Shape of the Cosmos (P,cf.S)

§1 The Stoics (say that) the cosmos is like a ball [i.e. spherical], (P1,S1,T1) §2 but others (say that it is) like a cone, (P2,cf.T2) §3 while yet others (say that it is) like an egg [i.e. ovoid]. (P3,cf.T2) §4 Leucippus and Democritus (say that) the cosmos is like a ball. (S2,T2) §5 Epicurus, however, (says that) it is possible that the kosmoi are like a ball, but that it is possible that they make use of other shapes as well. (P4)


Whether the Cosmos Is Ensouled and Administered by Providence (P,S)

§1 All other (philosophers say that) the cosmos is ensouled and administered by providence. (P1,S1,T1) §2 But Leucippus and Democritus and Epicurus (say that) it is constituted out of atoms by an unreasoning natural force. (P2,S2,T2) §3 Ecphantus (says that) the cosmos is constituted out of atoms, but is (nevertheless) administered by providence. (S3) §4 Aristotle (says that the cosmos is) neither ensouled through and through, nor is it endowed with sense-perception or rational or intellective or administered by providence. For the heavenly realm shares in all these (characteristics), as it contains ensouled spheres which are endowed with life. The earthly realm, however, shares in none of them, but shares in its well-ordered state contingently, not primarily. (P3,S4)


Whether the Cosmos Is Indestructible (P)

§1 Pythagoras Heraclitus (say that) the cosmos is generated in thought, but not in time. (S10–11,T1) §2 The Stoics (say that) ⟨the cosmos has come into being⟩ through the agency of God. (P1) §3 Epidicus (says that) the cosmos has come into being through the agency of nature. (S12) §4 Archelaus (says that) the cosmos was constituted through the agency of warmth and ensoulment. (S13) §5 Xenophanes Parmenides Melissus (say that) the cosmos is ungenerated and everlasting and indestructible. (P3,S3,T2,4) §6 But there are those who say that its ordering is eternal, yet (also) say that there are periodic times in accordance with which all things come into being in


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exactly the same way and preserve the same disposition and ordering of the cosmos. (S4) §7 Anaximander Anaximenes Anaxagoras Archelaus Diogenes Leucippus (say that) the cosmos is destructible. (S5,T3) §8 The Stoics too (say that) the cosmos is destructible, but (this occurs) in the conflagration. (S6,cf.P1) §9 Plato (says that) the cosmos is destructible as far as its nature is concerned, for it is sense-perceptible—since it is also corporeal—, but that through the providence and supervision of God it will certainly not be destroyed. (P1,S1) §10 Aristotle (says that) the part of the cosmos below the moon is passible, in which also the things on earth perish. (P4,S2) §11 Empedocles (says that) the cosmos is destroyed in accordance with the successive dominance of Strife and Love. (S7) §12 Democritus (says that) the cosmos is destroyed when the larger (one) overcomes the smaller one. (S8) §13 Epicurus (says that) the cosmos is destroyed in a multitude of ways, for example as an animal and as a plant and in numerous other ways. (P2,S9)


Where the Cosmos Obtains Its Nourishment from (P,S)

§1 Aristotle: if the cosmos obtains nourishment, it will also be subject to destruction; but it is certainly not in need of any nourishment; for this reason it is everlasting as well. (P1,S2) §2 Plato (says that) the cosmos itself provides nourishment for itself from that which perishes through transformation. (P2) §3 Philolaus (says that) there is a double (form of) destruction, in the one case from heavenly fire that has rushed (down), in the other case from moonwater that has been poured forth by the conversion of the air; and the exhalations of these are nourishment for the cosmos. (P3,S1,3)


Where the Cosmos Has Its Ruling Part⟩ (S)

§1 Plato (says) the ruling part of the cosmos in the heaven. (S1) §2 Cleanthes the Stoic (says it is) in the sun. (S3) §3 Archedemus (says it is) in the earth. (S4) §4 Philolaus (says it is) in the innermost fire, which the craftsman god first set under the sphere of the universe like a keel. (S2)

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From What Kind of First Element the God Began to Make the Cosmos (P)

§1 The physicists and the Stoics (say that) the genesis of the cosmos started from the earth as from the centre; the starting-point of a sphere is (its) centre. (P1,S1) §2 Pythagoras (says that the genesis of the cosmos started) from fire and the fifth element. (P2,S2) §3 Empedocles (says that) first the ether was separated out, second fire and after it the earth. When the earth was excessively constricted by the rush of its revolution, water spouted forth. From it the air was exhaled and the heaven came into being from the ether, the sun from fire, while the earthly regions were condensed from the other (elements). (P3) §4 Plato (says that) the visible cosmos came into being in relation to the model of the intelligible cosmos. But of the visible cosmos the soul is prior, and after it there is the corporeal part, consisting of fire and earth first, of water and air second. (P4,S4) §5 Pythagoras says that, since there are five solid shapes, which are also called ‘mathematical,’ the earth came into being from the cube, fire from the pyramid, air from the octahedron, water from the icosahedron, and the sphere of the universe from the dodecahedron. (P5,S3) §6 Plato pythagorizes in these matters too. (P6)


On the Order of the Cosmos (P,S)

§1 Parmenides says there are bands interwoven one around another, the one made up of the rare, the other of the dense, while others between these are mixed from light and darkness. And that which surrounds them all is solid in the manner of a wall, below which there is a fiery band. And the most central (part) is also (solid), around which there is again a fiery band. Of the mixed bands the most central is both the ⟨origin⟩ and the ⟨cause⟩ of all motion and coming into being for all the others, which he also calls ‘governing daimon’, ‘holder of the lots’, ‘Justice’ and ‘Necessity’. And air is a secretion from the earth which is vaporized through the earth’s stronger condensation, while the sun and the Milky Way are the exhalation of fire. The moon is a mixture of both air and fire. The ether encircles above everything else, below which the fiery (part) which we call heaven is disposed, and below it again the earthly regions have their place. (P1,S2) §2 Leucippus and Democritus stretch around the cosmos in a circle a cloak and a membrane woven together by means of hook-shaped atoms. (P2,S5)


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§3 Epicurus (says that) of some kosmoi the limit is rare but of others it is dense, and of these (limits) some are in motion, while others are unmoved. (P3,S6) §4 Plato (says that there is) first fire, then ether, followed by air, after which there is water, and earth is last. But sometimes he connects ether with fire. (P4) §5 Aristotle (says that) impassible ether is first, which is indeed a fifth body. After it (follow) the passible (elements) fire, air, water, and earth is last. And of these circular motion is given to the heavenly (regions), whereas in the case of the (elements) below them, upward (motion is given) to the light ones and downward (motion) to the heavy ones. (P5,S3) §6 Philolaus (says that there is) fire in the middle around the centre, which he calls the universe’s hearth and Zeus’ house and the gods’ mother, altar and continuity, and measure of nature. And again there is another highest fire, that which surrounds (the universe). The centre is first by nature, and around this ten divine bodies dance: the heaven, the ⟨five⟩ planets, after them the sun, under it the moon, under it the earth, under it the counter-earth, and after all of them there is fire, which has the position of the hearth in relation to the centres. Moreover, he calls the highest part of the surrounding (region) Olympus, in which he says the purity of the elements exists, while the (region) under the orbit of Olympus, in which the five planets together with the sun and the moon are positioned, (he calls) Kosmos. The sublunary and earthly part below these, in which the (realm) of change-loving generation (is located), (he calls) Heaven. In addition, (he says that) wisdom arises concerning what is ordered in the regions on high, whereas virtue arises concerning the disorder of what comes into being, the former being complete, but the latter incomplete. (S4) §7 Empedocles (says that) the locations of the elements are not completely fixed or determined, but all share in the locations of each other. (P6,S1)


What the Cause of the Cosmos Having Been Tilted Is (P)

§1 Diogenes Anaxagoras (say that) after the cosmos had been formed and had produced the animals from the earth, the cosmos somehow of its own accord was tilted towards its mid-day region; (this occurred) perhaps through the agency of providence, so that some of the cosmos’ parts are uninhabitable but others are habitable in virtue of chilling and excessive heating and a temperate climate. (P1,S1) §2 Empedocles (says that), when the air gave way through the onrush of the sun, the (north and south) poles were tilted, and the northern parts were lifted

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up but the southern parts were lowered, in accordance with which the entire cosmos was tilted as well. (P2,S2)


On What Is Outside the Cosmos, Whether There Is a Void (P)

§1 Pythagoras and his successors (say that) there exists a void outside the cosmos, into which and from which the cosmos breathes. (P1,S1) §2 But the Stoics (say that) there exists a void into which the cosmos dissolves at the conflagration, (and it is) infinite. (P2,S2) §3 Posidonius (says that it is) not infinite, but (is present only) to the extent (that is) sufficient for the (cosmos’) dissolution. (P3,S3) §4 Plato Aristotle (say that) there is no void either outside the cosmos or inside it. (PEQ4,S4)


What the Right (Parts) of the Cosmos Are and What the Left (P)

§1 Pythagoras Plato Aristotle (say that) the right parts of the cosmos are the eastern regions, from which the movement has its origin, while the western regions are its left parts. {But they say that the cosmos has neither height nor depth in the sense that height is said to be the dimension upwards from below and depth is the dimension downwards from above. For, (they say), none of the dimensions understood in this way are relevant to the cosmos because it is established around its own centre, from which it is the same (distance) to every (part) and towards which it is the same from every (part).} (P1,S2) §2 Empedocles (says that) the regions at the summer solstice are the right parts (of the cosmos), whereas the regions at the winter solstice are the left parts. (P2,S1)


On Heaven, What Its Substance Is (P,S)

§1 Anaximenes and Parmenides (say that) the outermost periphery is of earth. (P1,S1) §2 Empedocles (says that) the heaven is solid, consisting of air that has been compacted together by fire in crystalline fashion, containing the fiery (element) and the airy (element) in each of the hemispheres. (P2,S2)


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§3 Anaximander (says that the heaven consists) of a hot and cold mixture. (P3,S3) §4 Parmenides Heraclitus Strato Zeno (say) that the heaven is fiery. (P3,S4) §5 Aristotle (says that the heaven consists) of a fifth body. (P3,S5)


On the Division of Heaven, into How Many Zones It Is Divided (P,S)

§1 Thales, Pythagoras and his successors (say that) the sphere of the entire heaven has been divided into five circles, to which they give the name ‘zones’. Of these (the first) is called ‘the arctic and always appearing’, (the second) ‘the summer tropic’, (the third) ‘the equatorial’, (the fourth) ‘the winter tropic’, and (the last) ‘the antarctic and invisible’. In relation to the three middle (circles) the so-called zodiac (circle) has been placed as a diagonal, touching the three of them. But the meridian cuts all of them at right angles from the arctic (regions) to its opposite. (P1,S1) §2 Pythagoras is said to have been the first to have recognized the tilting of the zodiac circle, which Oenopides of Chios appropriates as his own idea. (P2,S2)


What the Substance of the Heavenly Bodies Is, (Both) Planets and Fixed Stars (P,S)

§1 Thales (says that) the heavenly bodies are earthy but inflamed. (P1,S1,T1) §2 Empedocles (says that they are) fiery, (made) from fire-like (material), which the air enfolded within itself and squeezed out in the first separation. (P2,S2a) §3 Anaxagoras (says that) the surrounding ether is fiery in substance, but through the vigour of the whirling movement it snatched up rocks from the earth, ignited these and made them into heavenly bodies. (P3,S3,T2) §4 Diogenes (says that) the heavenly bodies are sponge-like, and he considers them to be the respiratory vents of the cosmos; they are also inflamed. (P4a,S4a,T4) §5 Democritus (says that they are) rocks. (S5,T3) §6 Archelaus (says that they are) clumps of iron, but inflamed. (S6) §7 Anaximander (says that they are) wheel-like condensations of air, filled with fire, partly expelling flames from vents. (S7,T5) §8 Parmenides and Heraclitus (says that they are) condensations of fire. (S8)

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§9 Anaximenes (says that) the nature of the heavenly bodies is fiery, but that it also includes some earthy bodies which are borne around with these and are invisible. (S9) §10 Diogenes, however, (says that) stones that are invisible and in addition nameless are borne around together with the visible heavenly bodies, but that often they fall to the earth and are quenched, just as in the case of the heavenly body in the form of a rock (i.e. meteorite) that descended in a fire-like manner at Aegospotami. (P4b,S4b,T6) §11 Empedocles (says that) the fixed heavenly bodies were stuck to the crystalline (heaven), but the planets were released. (P5,S2b) §12 Plato (says that the heavenly bodies are) for the most part fiery, but also partake in the other elements in the manner of glue. (P6,S10,T7) §13 Aristotle (says that they are made) from the fifth body. (S11,T8) §14 Xenophanes (says that they consist) of incandescent clouds, and that every day they are extinguished and (then) flare up again at night, just like coals; for the risings and settings (of the heavenly bodies) are (in fact) kindlings and quenchings. (P7,S12,T9) §15 Heraclides and the Pythagoreans (say that) each of the heavenly bodies exists as a cosmos which includes an earth, air and ether in the unlimited ether. These doctrines are reported in the Orphic (writings), for they (too) make each of the heavenly bodies into a cosmos. (P8,S13,T10) §16 Epicurus does not reject any of these (views), holding fast to what is possible. (P9,S14)


On the Shapes of the Stars (P,S)

§1 The Stoics (say that) the stars are spherical, just like the cosmos, the sun and the moon. (P1,S2,T1) §2 Cleanthes (says that they are) like a cone. (P2,S3,T2) §3 Anaximenes (says that they) have been affixed to the crystalline (heaven) in the manner of studs. (P3,S1) §4 But some (say that they) are fiery leaves, like pictures. (P4)


On the Order of the Heavenly Bodies (P)

§1 Xenocrates thinks that the stars lie on a single plane. (P1,S5) §2 But the others, the Stoics, (say that) the ones are placed in front of the others in height and depth. (P2,S6)


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§3 Democritus (orders) the fixed stars first, then after them the planets, followed by the sun, the light-bringer (i.e. Venus) and the moon. (P3,S1) §4 Plato after the placement of the fixed stars (arranges) first the star of Kronos called ‘the Shining one,’ second the star of Zeus (called) ‘the Radiant one,’ third the star of Ares (called) ‘the Fiery one,’ fourth the star of Aphrodite (called) ‘Dawn-bringer,’ fifth the star of Hermes (called) the ‘Gleaming one,’ sixth the sun, and seventh the moon. (P4,S4) §5 Of the astronomers* some (order the heavenly bodies) as Plato does, others (place) the sun in the middle of all (the planets). (P5,S7) §6 Anaximander and Metrodorus of Chios and Crates (say that) the sun has been ordered highest of all (the heavenly bodies), but after it the moon, and below them the fixed stars and the planets. (P6,S2–3) §7 Parmenides orders the Dawn-star, which is considered by him to be identical with the Evening-star, as first in the ether; after it the sun, beneath which he places the heavenly bodies [i.e. stars] in the fiery region, which he calls ‘heaven.’ (S8)


On the Conveyance and Movement of the Heavenly Bodies (P,cf.S)

§1 Anaxagoras Democritus Cleanthes (say that) all the heavenly bodies are borne from east to west. (P1,S1) §2 Alcmaeon and the astronomers* (say that) the planets are borne in an opposite direction to the fixed stars from west to east. (P2,S4) §3 Aristotle (says that the heavenly bodies are borne) by the spheres on which each of them is situated, (S5) §4 Anaximander (says that the heavenly bodies) are borne by the circles and the spheres on which each of them has mounted. (P3,S6) §5 Anaximenes (says that) the heavenly bodies whirl not beneath the earth but around it. (P4,S2) §6 Plato and the astronomers* (say that) the ‘gleamer’ [i.e. Mercury] experiences the same as the ‘dawn-bringer’ [i.e. Venus], and that they run a course equal to the sun and revolve together with it; and at one time it [i.e. Venus] appears when rising as the ‘dawn-bringer’, while at another time when setting it is called the ‘evening (star)’. (P5,S3) §7 Apollodorus in the second (book) of his On the Gods (says that) the view that the ‘light-bringer’ and the ‘evening (star)’ are the same (heavenly body) is Pythagorean. (S7) * The term here is μαθηματικοί, which can also be translated as ‘mathematicians’ or ‘scientists’ depending on the context; also in chs. 2.16, 2.29–31.

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From Where the Heavenly Bodies Obtain Their Illumination (P)

§1 Metrodorus (says that) all the fixed stars are shone upon by the sun. (P1,S4) §2 Strato too (says that) the stars are illuminated by the sun. (S5) §3 Diotimus of Tyre, the follower of Democritus, introduced the same opinion as these men. (P2,S1) §4 Heraclitus and the Stoics (say that) the heavenly bodies are nourished from the earthly exhalation. (P2,S1) §5 Aristotle (says that) the heavenly beings have no need of nourishment, for they are not perishable but everlasting. (P3,S3) §6 Plato (says that) the whole cosmos and the stars jointly obtain their nourishment from themselves. (P4,S2)


On the Stars Called the Dioscuri (P)

§1 Xenophanes (says that) that the star-like appearances on ships are cloudlets that light up according to the kind of movement that they have. (P1,S1) §2 Metrodorus (says that) they (i.e. the Dioscuri) are the flashing of eyes that gaze with fear and consternation. (P2)


On Signs of the Seasons Produced by the Heavenly Bodies (P,S)

§1 Plato (says that) the signs relating to winter and summer occur in accordance with the risings and settings of the heavenly bodies, namely the sun and the moon and the other planets and fixed stars. (P1,S2) §2 Anaximenes, however, (says that) through these (other heavenly bodies) none of these (signs occur), but through the sun only. (P2,S1) §3 Eudoxus Aratus (say that they occur) jointly through all the heavenly bodies, in (the verses in) which he (i.e. the latter) says: For he himself (i.e. Zeus) fixed the signs in heaven, marking out the constellations; and for the year he devised (those) heavenly bodies which especially would indicate the happenings ahead. (P3S3)

2100 2.20

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On the Substance of the Sun (P,S)

§1 Anaximander (says there) is a circle twenty-eight times the earth, similar to a chariot wheel with a hollow rim, filled with fire, revealing the fire in a particular part through an opening as through a blowtorch, and this is the sun. (P1,S3) §2 Xenophanes (says that the sun is formed) from incandescent clouds. (S1,T1,cf.P2b) §3 Anaximenes Parmenides (say that the substance of the sun is) fiery. (S4+5) §4 Antiphon (says that it is) fire encroaching on the moist air around the earth, and producing sunrises and sunsets by continually leaving the burning air (behind it) and in turn clamping onto the slightly dampened air (before it). (S6) §5 Xenophanes, ⟨as⟩ Theophrastus has written in his Physics, (says that it is formed) from firelets that are gathered together out of the moist exhalation and so gather together the sun. (P2,S2) §6 Heraclitus Hecataeus Cleanthes (say that the sun is) an intelligent ignited mass (formed) from the sea. (P3,S7+16) §7 Plato (says that it consists) of fire for the most part, but also has a share of the other elements. (P4,T6) §8 Anaxagoras, Democritus and Metrodorus (say that it is) an fiery clump or rock. (P5,S8+15(+4),T2) §9 Thales (says that it is) earthy. (S9,T3) §10 Diogenes (says that it is) pumice-like, and that rays from the ether fix themselves into it. (S10,T4) §11 Aristotle (says that it is) a sphere (made up) of the fifth body. (P6,T5) §12 Philolaus the Pythagorean (says that it is) glass-like, on the one hand receiving the reflection of the fire in the cosmos, on the other hand pushing the light and the heat through towards us, so that in a way there are two suns, both the fiery one in the heaven and the one derived from it which is fire-like through being mirror-like, unless someone will say that there is also a third, the beam spread out towards us from the mirror through reflection; for it is this which we call the sun, like an image of an image. (P7,S11,T7) §13 Empedocles (says that there are) two suns: (one) the original, which is fire in the one hemisphere of the cosmos and fills the hemisphere, always stationed opposite its own reflection; (the other) the visible sun, which is its reflection in the other hemisphere, namely the one filled with air mixed with heat, arising from the circular earth through a reflection onto the crystal-like Olympus [i.e. heaven], and revolving together with the motion of the fiery (element); to sum up briefly, the sun is a reflection of the fire around the earth. (P8,S12)

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§14 Epicurus (says that it is) an earthy concentration inflamed by the fire in its cavities in the manner of a pumice-stone or sponge. (P9,S13) §15 Heraclitus (says that it is) an ignited mass, which is kindled in the east and extinguished in the west. (PG7) §16 Parmenides (says that) the sun and the moon have been separated off from the circle of the Milky Way, the former from the more rarefied mixture which is hot, the latter from the denser (mixture) which is cold. (S14)


On the Size of the Sun (P,S,T)

§1 Anaximander (says that) the sun is equal to the earth (in size), and that the circle from which it has its vent and by which it is moved, is twenty-seven times the earth. (P1,S1,T1) §2 But Empedocles (says that it), namely the (sun) that appears in virtue of the reflection, (is) equal to the earth (in size). (S1,Tb2) §3 Anaxagoras (says that it is) many times (the size of) the Peloponnese. (P2,Ta2b3) §4 Heraclitus (says that it is) the breadth of a human foot. (P3,S2,Ta3b4) §5 Epicurus (says that it is) the size that it appears, or a just little larger or smaller. (P4,S4)


On the Shape of the Sun (P,S,T)

§1 Anaximenes and Alcmaeon (say that) the sun is flat, like a leaf. (P1,S1,3) §2 Heraclitus (says that it is) bowl-like, somewhat convex. (P2,S2,T2) §3 The Pythagoreans ⟨and⟩ the Stoics (say that it is) like a ball, like the cosmos and the stars. (P3,S4,T1) §4 Epicurus (says that) all the above-mentioned (shapes) are possible. (P4)


On the Turnings of the Sun (P,S)

§1 Anaximenes (says that) the heavenly bodies are pushed off course by condensed and resistant air. (P1,S1) §2 Anaxagoras (says that the turnings are caused) by the repulsion of the northern air, which it (the sun) by pushing makes strong as the result of the condensation (that occurs). (P2,S2)


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§3 Diogenes (says that) the sun is quenched by the cold that collides with the heat. (P4,S3) §4 Empedocles (says that the turnings are caused) by the sphere that surrounds it (the sun) and prevents it from continuing its course in a straight line, and by the solstitial circles. (P3,S4) §5 Democritus (says that they are caused) as the result of the whirling that carries it (the sun) around. (S5) §6 The Stoics (say that) the sun’s course is determined by the distance covered in accordance with the food available to it. This is the ocean or the earth, from which it consumes the exhalation. And (they say) the sun as it moves produces a concomitant spiral on the sphere, from the equinoctial (circle) to both the northern and the southern (tropics), which are the limits of the spiral. (P5,S6) §7 But others (say) that its movement makes a spiral in a straight line by doing this not on a sphere, but on a cylinder. (S7) §8 Plato Pythagoras Aristotle (say that they result) from the tilting of the zodiac circle, through which the sun moves with an oblique course, and in accordance with the guardianship of the solstitial circles. All these matters the sphere also demonstrates. (P6)


On the Eclipse of the Sun (P,S)

§1 Thales was the first to say that the sun undergoes an eclipse when the moon with its earthy nature proceeds perpendicularly in between (it and the earth); this is visible by means of reflection when the disc (of a mirror) is placed beneath. (P1,S5) §2 The Pythagoreans Empedocles ⟨hold a similar view⟩. (S4,6) §3 Anaximander (says that the sun is eclipsed) when the mouth through which the outpouring of fire occurs is blocked. (P2,S2) §4 Heraclitus (says that it undergoes an eclipse) in accordance with the turning of its bowl-like shape, so that the hollow aspect faces upwards and the convex aspect faces downwards in the direction of our vision. (P3,S3) §5 Xenophanes (says that it undergoes an eclipse) through quenching. And another sun occurs in the east. He has also recounted that there was an eclipse [i.e. failure] of the sun for an entire month, and moreover that a total eclipse took place, so that the day appeared as night. (P4,S1) §6 Some (thinkers say that it is) a concentration of clouds invisibly passing in front of the (sun’s) disk. (P5)

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§7 Aristarchus makes the sun stand still together with the fixed stars, while he moves the earth in the circle of the sun and (says that) it (the sun) is cast in shadow in accordance with the tiltings of this body [i.e. the earth]. (P6,S7) §8 Xenophanes says that there are many suns and moons in accordance with the latitudes of the earth and its sections and zones. But at a certain moment the (sun’s) disk falls into a section of the earth that is not inhabited by us, and in this way, as if treading on emptiness, discloses an eclipse. The same (thinker) says that the sun advances indefinitely, but seems to go in a circle because of the distance (away from us). (P7,S8)


On the Substance of the Moon (P,S)

§1 Anaximander (says that the moon is) a circle nineteen times the earth, resembling a chariot wheel, having a hollow rim and full of fire, like the (circle) of the sun, lying tilted, as that one [i.e. circle] does too, with a single blowhole, like a blowtorch; and it undergoes eclipse in accordance with the turnings of the wheel. (P1,S1) §2 Anaximenes Parmenides Heraclitus (say that) the moon is fiery. (S2– 3,T3) §3 Xenophanes (says that it is) an incandescent compressed cloud, (P2,S4,T1) §4 but Cleanthes (says that it is) fire-like. (P3,S14) §5 Posidonius and most of the Stoics, however, (say that it is) mixed out of fire and air. (S15) §6 Empedocles (says that it is) cloud-like compacted air, fixed by fire so that it forms a compound. (S12) §7 Plato (says that it is formed) for the most part from the fiery (material). (P4,S13) §8 Aristotle (says that it is formed) ⟨from the fifth body⟩. (cf. S13a) §9 Thales (says that it is) earthy. (S5,T2) §10 Anaxagoras Democritus (say that it is) an inflamed solid mass, which has in it plains and mountains and ravines. (P5,S6,T4) §11 Diogenes (says that it is) a sponge-like ignited mass. (S7) §12 Ion (says that it is) a body that is partly glass-like and transparent, partly opaque. (S8) §13 Berossus (says that it is) a half-inflamed sphere. (S9) §14 Heraclides and Ocellus (say that it is) earth surrounded by mist. (P6,S10,T6) §15 Pythagoras (says that it is) a mirror-like body. (P7,S11,T5)

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On the Size of the Moon (P,S)

§1 The Stoics (say that the moon is) larger than the earth, as the sun is also. (P1,S3,T1) §2 Parmenides (says that it is) equal to the sun (in size), and indeed that it is illuminated by it. (P2,S1,T2) §3 Aristotle (says that it is) smaller (in size) than the earth, (S2,T3) §4 But others (say that it) has the diameter of a span. (T4)


On the Shape of the Moon (P,S)

§1 The Stoics (say that the moon) is like a ball [i.e. spherical], just like the sun. (P1,S5) §2 And it is shaped in many different ways, for it becomes full-moon and half-moon and gibbous and moon-like [i.e. crescent-shaped]. (S6) §3 Heraclitus (says that it is) bowl-like. (P2,S1) §4 Cleanthes (says that it is) hat-like. (S4) §5 Empedocles (says that it is) disc-like. (P3,S2) §6 But others (say that it is) cylinder-like. (P4,S3)


On the Illuminations of the Moon (P,S)

§1 Anaximander Xenophanes Berossus (say that) the moon has its own light. (P1,S1) §2 Aristotle (says that it has) its own (light), but it is somewhat thinner. (S2) §3 The Stoics (say that its light is) dim in appearance, for it is air-like. (S3) §4 Antiphon (says that) the moon has its own gleam, and the gleam that is hidden around it is dimmed by the approach of the sun, since it is natural for the stronger fire to make the weaker one dim, which indeed also occurs in the case of the other heavenly bodies. (P2,S4) §5 Thales was the first to say that it is illuminated by the sun. (P3,S5) §6 Pythagoras Parmenides Empedocles Anaxagoras Metrodorus (say) likewise. (S6) §7 Heraclitus (says that) the sun and the moon undergo the same experience: since they are heavenly bodies that are bowl-like in their shapes and receive their radiance from the moist exhalation, they light up in their appear-

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ance (towards us), the sun doing so more brightly because it moves in air that is purer, whereas the moon moves in murkier (air) and for this reason appears dimmer. (P4,S7)


On the Eclipse of the Moon (P,S,T)

§1 Anaximander (says that the moon is eclipsed) when the orifice on the wheel (of fire) is obstructed. (P1,S1) §2 Berossus (says that it is eclipsed) in accordance with the turning of the uninflamed part (of the moon) towards us. (P2,S2) §3 Alcmaeon Heraclitus Antiphon (say that it is eclipsed) in accordance with the turning of the bowl-like (shape of the moon) and its lateral motions. (P3,S3) §4 Some of the Pythagoreans according to the research of Aristotle and the assertion of Philip of Opus (say that it is eclipsed) through reflection and obstruction, sometimes of the earth and sometimes of the counter-earth. (P4,S4) §5 But among more recent thinkers there are some who are of the opinion (that an eclipse takes place) in accordance with the dissemination of a flame that slowly catches alight in an orderly manner until it produces the complete full moon, and (then) analogously diminishes again until the conjunction (with the sun), when it is completely extinguished. (P5,S5) §6 Xenophanes (says that) the monthly concealment too (takes place) by quenching. (S6) §7 Thales Anaxagoras Plato Aristotle the Stoics (and) the astronomers* agree in unison that it (the moon) produces the monthly concealments by travelling together with the sun and being illuminated by it, whereas it produces the eclipses by descending into the shadow of the earth which interposes itself between the two heavenly bodies, or rather when the moon is obstructed (by the earth). (P6,S7) §8 Anaxagoras, as Theophrastus says, (says that it is eclipsed) also when it happens that bodies (in the space) below the moon interpose themselves. (S8)

* On the term μαθηματικοί see the note to the translation of ch. 2.15.

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On Its Appearance and Why It Appears (To Be) Earthy (P,S)

§1 Some of the Pythagoreans, of whom Philolaus is one, (say that) its earthy appearance is caused by the fact that the moon is inhabited, just like our earth, (but) with animals and plants that are larger and more beautiful. For (they say that) the animals on it are fifteen-fold in power and do not discharge any excrement, and that the day is the same in length [i.e. fifteen-fold]. (P1,S1) §2 But others (say that) the appearance in the moon is a reflection of the sea inhabited by us (which is located) beyond the circle of the Torrid zone. (S2) §3 Anaxagoras (says that it is caused by) unevenness of its composition on account of cold being mixed in together with the earthy (component), the moon having some parts that are high, others that are low, and others that are hollow. {Moreover, (he says that) the dark (component) has been mixed in with the fire-like (component), the effect of which causes the shadowy (colouring) to appear; for this reason the heavenly body is called ‘falsely appearing’.} (P2,S3) §4 Democritus (says that it is caused by) the shadow effects of the high areas in it; for it has glens and vales. (S4) §5 Parmenides (says that it occurs) on account of the dark (component) having been mixed in with the fire-like (component) in it; for this reason the heavenly body is called ‘falsely appearing’. (S5) §6 The Stoics (say that) on account of the air mixed in the substance its composition is not unblemished. (P3,S6) §7 Aristotle (says that) its composition is not unblemished because the ether, which he calls the fifth body, becomes aerated close to the earth. (S7) §8 The successors of the astronomers* regard its compositional unevenness as the cause. Just as in the case of clouds illuminated by the sun the thinner parts are brighter and the thicker parts are darker, so it happens in the case of the moon, which resembles a cloud-like compressed body and is illuminated by the sun. (S8) §9 Xenophanes (says that) the sun is useful for the generation and administration of the cosmos and the living beings in it, but the moon is redundant. (S9)


On the Distances of the Moon (P,S,cf.T)

§1 Empedocles (says that) the moon is double the distance from the sun that it is from the earth. (P1,S1,T1)

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§2 But the successors of the astronomers* (say that it is) eighteen times. (P2,S2) §3 Eratosthenes (says that) the sun is distant four hundred and eight myriads of stades from the earth, and that the moon is distant seventy-eight myriads of stades from the earth. (P3,S3,T2) §4 Empedocles (says that) the distension (of the heaven) in its breadth is greater than the height from the earth to heaven, which is its extension from us, the increased extent of the heaven having occurred for the reason that the cosmos is lying (on its side) in the manner similar to an egg. (S4) §5 But Boethus understands the extent as a matter of appearance, not of reality. (S5)


On the Year, How Great the Time of (the Revolution of) Each of the Planets Is, and What the Great Year Is (P,cf.S)

§1 A year for Saturn is a period of thirty years, for Jupiter it is twelve (years), for Mars two (years), for the Sun twelve months; and the same (months are the period) for Mercury and Venus, for they move at the same speed. (The period) of the moon is thirty days, for this is the complete month from its appearance to the conjunction (with the sun). (P1,S1) §2 But (they say that) the so-called Great year occurs whenever (the planets) reach the (same) locations from which they commenced their motion. (S2) §3 But as far as the Great year is concerned, some (thinkers) place it in the eighth year, (P2,S3) §4 others in the nineteenth year, (P3,S4) §5 others in the years that are a fourfold [i.e. in the 76th year], (S5) §6 yet others in the 60th year minus one, among whom are Oenopides and Pythagoras. (P4,S6) §7 But there are others who place it in the so-called starting-point of time, and this is the return of the seven planets on the same day of their movement from the beginning. (S7) §8 Heraclitus (says that the Great year consists) of 18000 solar years. (P5,S8) §9 Diogenes the Stoic (says that the Great year consists) of 365 years times what the (Great) year was according to Heraclitus. (P6,S9) §10 But others (say that the Great year occurs) every 7777 (years). (P7) * On the term μαθηματικοί see the note to the previous chapter.

Book 3 Meteorology and the Earth AËTIUS ON THE VIEWS (OF THE PHILOSOPHERS) BOOK 3 in which the following chapter headings (are found):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5a. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

[Proem] On the circle of the Milky Way On comets and shooting stars and beams On thunders, lightnings, thunderbolts, firewinds and typhoons On clouds, mist, rains, dew, snow, hoar-frost, hail On the rainbow [formerly 18] On the halo On rods On winds On winter and summer On the earth, and what its substance is and how many there are On the shape of the earth On the location of the earth On the inclination of the earth Whether the earth is at rest or moves On the division of the earth, how many zones there are On earthquakes On the sea, how it came to be and how bitter it is How low and high tides occur

[Proem] §1 Having in the previous (Books) systematically and by way of an epitome gone through the account of the things in the heavens—of which the moon is the boundary—, I shall turn in the third (Book) to the things on high. These are situated from the orbit of the moon down to the position of the earth, which they believe to occupy the place of the centre in the circumference of the sphere. I shall begin from there [i.e. from the circumference]. (P)

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_160

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On the Circle of the Milky Way (P,S)

§1 It is a cloud-like circle in the air, continually visible, called Milky Way because of its white colour. (P1,S1) §2 Some of the Pythagoreans said (that it) is the (result of the) scorching by a heavenly body which departed from its proper place, and the region through which it moved, this it burned in a circle at the time of the conflagration caused by Phaethon. (P2,S2) §3 But others (of the Pythagoreans) said that originally the sun’s orbit followed this route. (S3) §4 Some say, however, that it is an appearance, as in a mirror, of the sun, which bends back [i.e. reflects] its rays against the heaven, just as what happens both in the case of the rainbow and in that of the clouds. (S4) §5 Metrodorus (says that it occurred) through the passage of the sun, for this is the circle of the sun. (P3,S5) §6 Parmenides (says that) the whitish colour is the result of the mixture of the dense and the rare (element). (P4,S6) §7 Anaxagoras (says) that the shadow of the earth rests upon this section of the heaven (namely, where the Milky Way is visible), when the sun, having arrived under the earth, no longer illuminates everything. (P5,S7) §8 Democritus (says it is) the combined illumination of numerous and small and contiguous stars giving off light together, because of the density. (P4,S6) §9 Aristotle (says it is) an ignition of a large and continuous (portion) of the dry exhalation; thus (we have) a head of hair [i.e. the tail of a comet] (consisting) of fire, underneath the aether, lower than the planets. (P7,S9) §10 The Stoics (say it is) a loose-textured form of the aetherial fire, higher than the planets. (PG7) §11 Posidonius (says it is) a solid structure (consisting) of a fire that is rarer than a star but denser than the brightest light. (P8,S10)


On Comets and Shooting Stars and Beams (P,S)

§1 Some of the successors of Pythagoras* say that the comet is one of those stars which are not always visible, but at a certain time they periodically appear above the horizon. (P1,S1) §2 But other (successors of Pythagoras say that) it is the reflection of our vision upon the sun, similar to the images that are reflected in mirrors. (P2,S2)


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§3 Anaxagoras Democritus (say that) it is a conjunction of two or even more stars according to their giving off light together. (P3,S3) §4 Aristotle (says that) it is a fiery structure consisting of the dry exhalation from the earth. (P4,S4) §5 Strato (says that) it is the light of a star enclosed in a compact cloud, as is the case (with fire) in lanterns. (P5,S5) §6 Heraclides of Pontus (says that) it is a cloud high in the sky illuminated by a light high in the sky. He provides the same causal explanation for bearded star, halo, beam, pillar, and their ilk, just as of course all the Peripatetics do, namely that these (phenomena) arise according to the configurations of the clouds. (P6,S6) §7 Epigenes (says that) it is the ascent of inflamed pneuma mixed with earth. (P7,S7) §8 Boethus (says that) it is an appearance of ignited air. (P8,S8) §9 Diogenes (says that) the comets are stars. (P9,S9) §10 Anaxagoras (says) that the (phenomena) called shooting stars fall down from the aether like sparks, which is why they are also immediately extinguished. (P10,S10) §11 Metrodorus (says that) that a violent immission into the clouds of (the light of) the sun in the manner of a projectile often causes the emission of sparks. (P11,S11) §12 Xenophanes (says that) that all these (phenomena) are combinations or movements of ignited clouds. (P12,S12)


On Thunders, Lightnings, Thunderbolts, Firewinds (Presteres) and Typhoons (P,S)

§1 Anaximander (says that) all these [sc. five] result from the pneuma. For when air surrounded by a thick cloud bursts out, having forced its way owing to its being constituted of small particles and of its lightness, then the breaking forth produces the noise and the contrast with the blackness of the cloud the piercing brightness. (P1,S1) §2 Anaximenes agrees with him, citing in addition what occurs in the case of the sea, which flashes when split by the oars. (S2) §3 Metrodorus (says that) when pneuma falls upon a cloud, which has become frozen through its density, it produces the noise by breaking it up, flashes

* On the translation of multiple name-labels see the User’s guide to the translation.

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through the impact and the splitting, and throws off a thunderbolt through the velocity of its movement, also making use of the sun’s heat. But if the (resultant) thunderbolt is weak, it converts it into a firewind (prester). (P2,S3) §4 Anaxagoras (says that) when the hot falls onto the cold (that is, an aetherial portion into an air-like one), it produces thunder by its noise and lightning by its colour as set off against the blackness of the cloud; by the mass and size of its light (it produces) the thunderbolt; by fire containing a greater multitude of corpuscles the typhon; by fire mingled with a cloud the firewind. (P3,S4) §5 Archelaus says the same, citing in addition the effect of inflamed stones being submerged in cold water. (S5) §6 Xenophanes (says that) lightning arises when clouds start to shine forth because of their movement. (S6) §7 Empedocles (speaks of) light falling upon a cloud, shutting out the resisting air. Its quenching and destruction produce the crash and its flash the lightning. The thunderbolt is the lightning’s intensity. (S7) §8 Diogenes (speaks of) fire falling upon a wet cloud. By its quenching it produces thunder, by its flashing lightning. He also adduces the pneuma as an accessory cause. (S8) §9 Heraclitus (says that) thunder (results) from gatherings of winds and clouds and impacts of pneumata upon the clouds, lightnings when what is evaporated catches fire, and firewinds through the burnings and quenchings of clouds. (S9) §10 Leucippus (says that) the powerful escape of fire cut off inside very dense clouds produces thunder. (S10) §11 Democritus (says that) thunder results from a compound of uneven composition, which forces its way out of the cloud containing it in a downward motion. Lightning is a collision of clouds because of which the fireengendering particles are filtered through their quite empty interstices and are pushed through togethe while rubbing against each other. A thunderbolt occurs whenever the motion forces its way that is generated from fireengendering particles that are purer and finer, more even and ‘close-fitted’, as he writes himself. A firewind arises whenever compounds of fire containing much void, detained in quite empty places, assume a bodily form in the envelopes of their own membranes, and being composed of many ingredients acquire an impulse towards heaviness. (S11) §12 Chrysippus (says) lightning is the ignition of clouds being rubbed and ruptured by pneuma, and thunder is the sound of these. Thunder and lightning both arise in the air at the same time, but we apprehend the lightning sooner on account of vision being sharper than hearing. Whenever the pneuma’s motion becomes stronger and fiery, a thunderbolt is produced; whenever the pneuma


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escapes all together and is less inflamed, a firewind arises; and whenever the pneuma is even is less inflamed, a typhon. (S12) §13 Aristotle (says) that such things too result from the dry exhalation. When it encounters the moist (exhalation), it forces its way out, and the noise of the thunder is produced by the friction and the bursting, while the ignition of the dry (ingredient) brings about the lightning flash. (P5a,S13) §14 Strato (says that such things occur) whenever hot yields to cold, when it happens that it is forced out: thunder through the bursting out, the lightning flash through the light, the thunderbolt through the speed, firewinds and typhons through the excessive quantity of matter which each of them draws to itself, hotter (matter) in the case of the firewind, denser in that of the typhon. (P5b,S14) §15 The Stoics (say that) thunder (is a) collision of clouds, lightning an ignition through friction, thunderbolt a stronger flash, firewind a slower one. (P4, S15)


On Clouds, Mist, Rains, Dew, Snow, Hoar-Frost, Hail (P,S)

§1 Anaximenes (says that) clouds occur when air becomes more condensed, and (that) the rains are squeezed out when it becomes even more compacted; and hail (occurs) when water freezes during its downward course, and snow when a pneumatic ingredient is amalgamated with the moisture. (P1,S1) §2 Anaxagoras (says that) clouds and snow occur similarly (sc. as according to Anaximenes), but (that) hail is formed whenever some particles are ejected from the frozen clouds towards the earth, which form into balls as they become cold in their downward movement. (S2) §3 Metrodorus (says that) clouds are formed by the air from the watery updraught. (P2,S3) §4 Xenophanes (says that) atmospheric phenomena result from the heat of the sun as the preliminary cause. For when moisture is drawn up from the sea and its fresh part is separated off because of its fine-grained consistency, clouds accumulate as it becomes misty, rain is shed owing to condensation, and winds arise owing to evaporation. For he literally writes ‘source of water is the sea.’ (S4) §5 Epicurus (says that they accumulate) from atoms; and that hail is formed in round figures and rain gradually acquires its form in its lengthy descent. (P3,S5) §6 *** and that it (?) produces a pneuma by pushing the clouds to one side, rain by liquefying (them), hail by compressing (them), and snow by incorporating a bit of airy substance. (S6)

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On the Rainbow (P,S)

§1 Meteorological phenomena are of two sorts. Some, such as rain and hail, have a real subsistence, others (exist) only in appearance and do not have a separate subsistence. To give an example: when we are sailing the land appears to be in motion. The rainbow thus exists in appearance only. (P1,S1) §2 Plato says that human beings provided the rainbow with a descent from Thaumas, because they admired (thaumasai) it. Homer: ‘as he extends for mortals a lurid rainbow’. For this reason some also told the story that it has a head like a bull, by which it swallows up rivers. (P2,S2) §3 How, then, does the rainbow occur? We in fact look along lines that are straight or that are bent or that are refracted, lines that are hidden and (only) visible to reason and incorporeal. Looking along straight lines we see what is in the air and (what can be seen through) transparent stones and horn, for all these bodies have very fine particles. Bent lines we see occurring in water, for the visual ray is bent because the matter of water is denser. This is of course why from afar we see the oar bending in the sea. The third way of seeing (involves) what is reflected, such as images in mirrors. (P3,S3) §4 Well, the condition of the rainbow is of the last-mentioned sort. We should assume that the moist exhalation changes into a cloud, and in a short time from this (cloud) into small and moist droplets. When the sun is in the west, it will necessarily follow that the rainbow appears opposite to the sun, when the visual ray, impacting upon the droplets, is reflected, so that the rainbow occurs. (P4,S4) §5 The droplets are forms not of shape but of colour. The first (part) has a dark red, the second a sea-violet and purple, the third a dark blue and light green (colour). Possibly this dark red colour (comes about) because the splendor of the sun, falling upon (these droplets), and the sudden refraction of its brilliance produce the colour red and dark red. The second part, becoming turbid and more loosened from the brilliance because of the droplets, becomes sea-violet, for this is a looser form of the (colour) red. The outer (part), becoming even more turbid, changes into the (colour) green. (P5,S5) §6 Now this can be tested by experiment. If one, standing opposite the sun, takes water in one’s mouth and spits it out, and the droplets take on a reflection towards the sun, he will find that a rainbow occurs. Patients suffering from ophthalmitis have the same experience when they look into the lamplight. (P6,S6) §7 Anaximenes (says that) the rainbow occurs through the mirroring of the sun’s light upon a dense, thick, and black cloud, on account of the inability of the rays to collect together and penetrate to the other side. (P7)


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§8 Anaxagoras (says that the rainbow is) a reflection of the sun’s radiance from a dense cloud, and that it is situated directly opposite to the heavenly body that shows itself as in a mirror. He gives a similar causal explanation of the so-called mock-suns (parhelia), which occur around the Black Sea. (P8) §9 Metrodorus (says that) when the sun shines through the clouds the cloud becomes bluish-grey and the beams turn red. (P9)

3.5a [Formerly 18]

On the Halo (P,S)

§1 The halo is produced in the following way: between the moon or another heavenly body and (our organ of) vision there is situated a thick and misty (mass of) air. Then, when our vision is refracted and broadened in this (air) and next in this condition falls upon the orb of the heavenly body at its outer circumference, a circle seems to appear around the heavenly body (this apparent circle is called ‘halo’ because it resembles a ‘halos’ (‘round threshing-floor’)); the apparition seems to come to be in the place where the modification of our vision happened to occur. (P1)


On Rods (P,S)

§1 The phenomena that happen in the case of rods and counter-suns exist through a mixture of real subsistence and mere appearance, because what is seen are really clouds, not however with their own colour but with another one that shines forth through reflection. With all phenomena of this kind the properties (are) similar, both those that are according to nature and those that are acquired. (P1)


On Winds (P,S)

§1 Anaximander (says that) wind is a flow of air, the sun putting into motion or melting its subtlest and moistest parts. (P1) §2 The Stoics (say that) each draught (pneuma) is a flow of air, which however changes its appellation according to the differences of the places (from which it blows). Thus the Zephyr is named from the darkness and the west, the Apeliotes from the east and the sun, the Boreas from the north, and the Lips from the southern regions. (P2)

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§3 Metrodorus (says that) from a moist exhalation heated by the sun an onset of summer winds occurs. And the Etesian winds blow when the air that is more compacted in the north flows together with the sun when it recedes at the summer solstice. (P3) §4 Aristotle (says that) wind is the first updraught of the dry exhalation. There sometimes occurs a mixing of the dry exhalation with the wet. (S1)


On Winter and Summer (P)

§1 Empedocles and the Stoics (say) that winter occurs when the air prevails by its thickness and presses the sun upwards; and summer-time because fire (prevails), when it presses the sun downwards. (P1,S1) §2 Now I have described the things on high, the account will proceed to the things on earth. (P2)


On the Earth, and What Its Substance Is and How Many There Are (P,S)

§1 Thales and his successors (say) there is (only) one earth. (P1) §2 Hicetas the Pythagorean (says that) there are two, this one and the counter-earth. (P2) §3 The Stoics (say that) there is one earth, and that it is finite. (P3) §4 Xenophanes (says that) it is rooted ‘towards infinity’ on its nether part; and that it has been compounded from air and fire. (P4) §5 Metrodorus (says that) the earth is a sediment and dregs of the water, but the sun (is the same) of the air. (P5)


On the Shape of the Earth (P,S)

§1 Thales and the Stoics (say that) the earth is like a ball [i.e. spherical]. (P1) §2 Anaximander (says that) the earth resembles a column drum, ⟨with curved surfaces⟩. §3 Anaximenes (says that it is) like a slab. (P3) §4 Leucippus (says that it is) like a (kettle-)drum. (P4) §5 Democritus (says that it is) like a disk in breadth, but hollow at the centre. (P5)

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On the Placement of the Earth (P,S)

§1 The successors of Thales (say) the earth (is) in the middle. (P1) §2 Xenophanes (says it is) first, for it is rooted in infinity. (P2) §3 Philolaus the Pythagorean (says that) the fire is in the middle (for this is the ‘hearth’ of the universe), that the counter-earth is second, and third the earth we inhabit, situated opposite the counter-earth and circulating along with it, which is why those in that one are not seen by those in this one. (P3)


On the Tilting of the Earth (P)

§1 Leucippus (says that) the earth slopes down towards the southern parts because of the loose texture in its southern (parts), since the northern (parts) are congealed because refrigerated by the frost, whereas the opposite (parts) have been ignited. (P1) §2 Democritus (says that) because the southern part of what is around it is weaker the earth becomes larger and is tilted in that direction; for the north is unmixed while the south is mixed; for this reason (the earth) has become heavy in that direction, where there is more of it because of the fruits (of the earth) and their increase. (P2)


Whether the Earth Is at Rest or Moves (P,S)

§1 The others (say that) the earth is at rest. (P1) §2 But Philolaus the Pythagorean (says that) it moves about the fire in an oblique circle in the same [or: a similar] way as sun and moon. (P2) §3 Heraclides of Pontus and Ecphantus the Pythagorean cause the earth to move, though not from one place to another, but by revolution in the manner of a wheel upon an axle, from west to east about its own centre. (P3) §4 Democritus (says that) the earth originally wandered around because of its small size and lightness, but having become denser and heavier in time it came to a halt. (P4)


On the Division of the Earth, How Many Are Its Zones (P)

§1 Pythagoras (says that) the earth, in analogy to the sphere of the {whole} heaven, is divided into five zones: artic, antarctic, summer (tropic), winter

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(tropic), equatorial, of which that in between the summer and winter (zone) delimits the middle (part) of the earth, which for that reason [sc. because it occupies the middle section] is called scorched (zone); the inhabitable (zone) is ⟨the summer (tropic)⟩, which is one that is temperate. (P1) §2 Parmenides was the first to define the inhabited zones of the earth under the two tropic zones. (P2 = P3.11.4)


On Earthquakes (P,S)

§1 Thales and Democritus assign the cause of earthquakes to water, (P1) §2 whereas the Stoics say an earthquake is the moisture in the earth that is separated and bursts out into the air. (P2) §3 Anaximenes (says that) the dryness and wetness of the earth are the cause of earthquakes, the former of which is produced by droughts, the latter by heavy rains. (P3) §4 Anaxagoras (says that they are caused) by the striving of the air to get out, which when it hits the compactness of the surface is not able find a way out and so shakes what surrounds it with a tremor. (P4) §5 Aristotle (says that they are caused) by the enclosing from all sides ⟨of the hot⟩ by the cold, which presses on it both from below and from above; for the hot strives to get higher up, as it is light; for this reason, the dry exhalation, having become imprisoned, is agitated because of the obstruction and the convolutions. (P5) §6 Metrodorus (says that) no body which is in its proper place moves, unless one actually pushes it forward or drags it down; therefore the earth does not (move) either, as it is located in its natural place, though some places are collapsing because of the trembling. (P6) §7 Parmenides Democritus (say that the earth) remains in equilibrium because it is equidistant on all sides (sc. from the surrounding heavens); it has no ground for moving this way rather than that; because of this it is merely shaken, but it does not move. (P7) §8 Anaximenes (says it does not move) because of its broad surface being carried upon the air. (P8) §9 Others believe (that it is carried) upon the water, as boards and broad planks on waters [i.e. watery surfaces], and for this reason it moves. (P9) §10 Plato (says that) there are six directions of motion in all: up and down, to the right and to the left, forwards and backwards; it is not possible that the earth should be moved in any of these modes, for it is located at the most equal distance (sc. from the surrounding heavens); it remains immobile, since it does


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not have any preference causing it to incline in any direction more (than in any other); but it has places that shake because of its thinness. (P10,S1) §11 Epicurus (says) that it is possible that the earth moves when it is thrown upwards and as it were struck from beneath by thick and humid air that lies beneath it; but it is also possible that, as it is full of holes in its nether parts, it is shaken by the wind which is dispersed through its cavernous hollows. (P11)


On the Sea, How It Came To Be and How Bitter It Is (P,S)

§1 Anaximander says that the sea is the remainder of the primal moisture; the greatest part of which the fire dried up, and what is left altered its quality [i.e. became bitter] because of the great heat. (P1) §2 Anaxagoras (says that), when in the beginning water existed as a standing pool, it was scorched by the movement of the sun about it and the fattish part of the water was exhaled, (then) what was left turned to saltiness and bitterness. (P2) §3 Empedocles (says that the sea is) ‘sweat of the earth’ heated by the sun because of the greater compression [or: its closeness to the surface]. (P3) §4 Antiphon (says that the sea is) sweat of the hot, from which the moist remainder was separated, becoming salty by drying out, as happens with all sweat. (P4) §5 Metrodorus (says that the sea) by being strained through the earth acquired some part of its density, just as is the case with what is filtered through ashes. (P5) §6 The successors of Plato (say that) of the elemental water the part that comes together by cooling from air becomes sweet, but (the part) that is exhaled from the earth through heating and burning (becomes) salty. (P6)


How Do Low and High Tides Occur (P,S)

§1 Aristotle Heraclides (say the tides are caused) by the sun, which moves the majority of the winds and whirls them about; as these throw themselves upon the Atlantic sea, this is thrust forward and swells and produces the high tide; when they are ceasing the sea pulls back and subsides, which is the low tide. (P1,S1) §2 ⟨Dicaearchus⟩ of Messene, too, attributes the cause to the sun, which instigates flooding in whatever regions of the earth it reaches, but gradually

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draws them away with itself in whatever regions it happens to recede from. These events take place in relation to the morning and afternoon shifts. (S2) §3 Pytheas of Marseille (says that) the high tides occur through the waxing of the moon, the low tides through its waning. (P2,S3) §4 Posidonius (says) the winds are moved by the moon, and the seas in turn by these (winds), in which [i.e. the seas] the aforesaid effects [i.e. the tides] take place. (S4) §5 Plato attributes them to the oscillation of the waters. For there is a sort of natural oscillation that through a tunnel in the earth moves the reflux hither and thither; and by this reflux the seas surge back. (P3,S5) §6 Timaeus of Taormina gives as the cause those rivers that fall from the mountains of Celtic Gaul into the Atlantic. Upon their entering upon that sea, they violently press upon it, and so cause the high tide; but when they withdraw by their resting they produce the low tides as well. (P4,S6) §7 Crates the grammarian gives as the cause the reciprocal push and pull of the sea. (S7) §8 Apollodorus of Corcyra (gives as the cause) the refluxes from the Ocean. (S8) §9 Seleucus the astronomer*, who wrote against Crates (and) who, too, moves the earth, says that the revolution of the moon hinders its rotation (i.e. of the earth); as the wind between these two bodies (the earth and the moon) withdraws from or falls upon the Atlantic Ocean, correspondingly the sea produces its waves. (P5,S9) * On the term μαθηματικός here see the note to the translation of ch. 2.15.

Book 4 Psychology AËTIUS ON THE VIEWS (OF THE PHILOSOPHERS) BOOK 4 in which the following chapter headings (are found):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ⟨7a. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

[Proem] On the rising of the Nile On the soul Whether the soul is a body and what its substance is On the parts of soul On the regent part and in which (part of the body) it is found On the motion of soul On the indestructibility of soul On intellect⟩ On sensation and sense-objects Whether sensations and impressions are true How many senses there are How the sensation and the conception and the reason [or: speech] that is internally placed occur In what respect impression, impressor, imagination, figment are different On sight, how we see On reflections in mirrors Whether darkness is visible On hearing On smelling On tasting On voice Whether voice is incorporeal and how echo occurs How the soul comes to be sentient and what its regent part is On respiration On bodily affections and whether the soul experiences pain along with these

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_161

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[Proem] §1 The parts of the cosmos having now been treated systematically, I shall continue in the direction of the particular phenomena. (P)


On the Rising of the Nile (P)

§1 Thales believes that the Etesian (i.e., north-west) winds blowing opposite Egypt swell the volume of the Nile because its outflows are beaten back by the swelling of the sea that outflanks it. (P1) §2 Euthymenes of Massilia (is of the opinion) that the river is filled from the Ocean and from the outer sea, which according to him is sweet. (P2) §3 Anaxagoras (believes it is filled) from the snow in Aethiopia, which melts in summer but cools in winter. (P3) §4 Democritus (believes that), when the snow in the northern parts (of the earth) melts and dissolves at the times of the summer solstice, clouds are formed by compression from the (moist) vapours; and that these, when driven towards the south and †Egypt† by the Etesian winds, produce torrential rains, by which the pools and the river Nile are filled. (P4) §5 Herodotus the prose writer (says that the river) is borne from its springs in equal measure in winter and in summer, but seems to be less in winter because in that season the sun comes closer to Egypt and draws the streams up as vapour. (P5) §6 Ephorus the historian says that in the summer the whole of Egypt grows slack and as it were is sweating out the large stream. Arabia and Libya also contribute because of their loose-textured and rather sandy nature. (P6) §7 Eudoxus says that the priests state that (the cause of the flood is) rainwater corresponding to the reciprocal change of the seasons. For when it is summer for us who live under the summer solstice, then it is winter for those who live on the other side of the meridian under the winter solstice, which is from where the floodwater rushes down. (P7)


On the Soul (P,S,T)

§1 Thales was the first to declare that the soul is a nature that is ever-moving, or rather self-moved. (P1,S1,T1) §2 Alcmaeon (says that it is) a nature that is self-moved according to everlasting motion, and for this reason he assumes that it is immortal and resembles the divine beings. (S4,T2)


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§3 Pythagoras (says that it is) a number moving itself; he takes number as denoting Intellect, (P2,S2,T3) §4 and similarly Xenocrates (says this) as well. (S3,T4) §5 Plato (says that it is) an intelligible substance, moved of itself, in motion according to a numerical harmony. (P3,T5) §6 Aristotle (says that it is) the first entelechy [i.e. ‘actuality’] of a body that is natural, organic, and potentially possessing life; and this entelechy must be understood to denote form and activity. (P4,S7,T6) §7 Dicaearchus (says that it is) a harmony of the four elements. (P5,S5,T7) §8 Asclepiades the doctor (says that it is) a common exercising of the senses. (P6,S6)


Whether the Soul Is a Body and What Its Substance Is (P)

§1 All those arrayed previously assume that the soul is incorporeal, saying that it is self-moved, and an intelligible substance, and the actuality of the natural organic (entity) which has life. (P1) §2 Anaximenes Anaximander Anaxagoras Archelaus Diogenes said that it is air-like and a body. (P2,S1,T1) §3 The Stoics (say that) it is an intelligent warm pneuma. (P3,S2,T2) §4 Parmenides and Hippasus and Heraclitus (say that) it is fire-like. (S3,T3) §5 Democritus (say that) it is a fiery compound of things which are observable by reason, having forms that are spherical but with the potency of fire; which is a body. (P4,S4) §6 Heraclides defined the soul as light-like. (S5,T5) §7 Leucippus (says that) the soul (consists) of fire. (S6) §8 Diogenes of Apollonia (says that) the soul (consists) of air. (S7) §9 Hippo (says that) the soul (consists) of water. (S8) §10 Xenarchus the Peripatetic and certain others of the same School (say that it is) the completion and entelechy [i.e. actuality] with respect to the form, existing per se while simultaneously being conjoined with the body. (S9) §11 Epicurus (says that it is) a mixture of four ingredients, (namely) of a fiery quality, an aerial quality, a pneumatic quality, and of a fourth quality that is nameless; this (last-mentioned), for him, is the perceptive part. Of these the pneuma brings about movement, the air rest, the warm (component) the per-

* On the translation of multiple name-labels see the User’s guide to the translation.

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ceptible warmth of the body, while the anonymous (component) brings about the perception in us (humans), for perception is not present in any of the elements that have names. (P5,S10,T5) §12 Empedocles (says that it is) a blend of an aetherial and an aerial ⟨and a watery and an earthy⟩ substance. (T6) §13 Critias said that it is (a blend) of blood and [or: that is,] of moisture. (T7) §14 Heraclitus (says that) the Soul of the cosmos (is) an exhalation from the moistures (that are) in it (sc. in the cosmos), and (that) the soul in living beings (derives) from the exterior exhalation as well as from that which is within them (sc. the living beings), (and is) of the same kind. (P6)


On the Parts of Soul (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras Plato according to their most general definition (say that) the soul is bipartite, for it has a rational (part) on the one hand and an irrational on the other. But according to what is proximate and precise it is tripartite, for they divide the irrational into the spirited and the concupiscible. (P1,T1) §2 Xenocrates (says that) one (part) of the soul is perceiving, and the other rational. (T2) §3 Aristotle (said) there are five activities (of soul), the appetitive, the nurturing, the perceiving, the locomotive, the cogitating. (T3) §4 The Stoics say the soul consists of eight parts: five perceiving parts, (viz.) seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching; as sixth the speaking (part); as seventh the seminal (part); as eighth the regent (part) itself, from which all these (other parts) are extended through their own organs, similarly to the tentacles of an octopus. (P2,T4) §5 Apollophanes ⟨says that the soul consists of nine parts⟩. (S1) §6 The Successors of Pythagoras, positing that the body is a blend of five elements—for to the four they added the aetherial (element)—, said the powers of the soul too are in respect of this accession [or: addition] equal in number, and these they called intelligence and understanding and knowledge and opinion and sensation. (T5) §7 Democritus Epicurus (say) that the soul is bipartite, having the rational (part) established in the breast, and the irrational (part) diffused through the whole compound of the body. (P3) §8 But Democritus says that all things participate in a sort of soul, even dead bodies, because they patently continue to participate in something warm and perceptive, though most (of this) is expired out of them. (P4,S2)

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What Is the Regent Part and in Which (Part of the Body) Is It Found (P,T)

§1 Plato Democritus (say it is) in the whole head. (P1,T1b) §2 Hippocrates (says it is) in the brain. (T1a) §3 Strato (says it is) in the part of the forehead between the eyebrows. (P2,T2) §4 Erasistratus (says it is) in the membrane enveloping the brain, which he calls epikranis (‘on the skull’). (P3,T3) §5 Herophilus (says it is) in the ventricle of the brain, which is also its basis (‘base’). (P4,T4) §6 Parmenides (says it is) in the whole chest; as also does Epicurus. (P5,T5) §7 Aristotle (and) all the Stoics (say it is) in the whole heart, or in the pneuma about the heart. (P6,T6) §8 Diogenes (says it is) in the arterial ventricle of the heart, which is pneumatic. (P7,T7) §9 Empedocles (says it is) in the compound of the blood. (P8,T6) §10 Some people (say it is) in the neck of the heart, (P9) §11 But others in the pericardium, (P10,T8) §12 And yet others in the midriff. (P11,T9) §13 Some of the later thinkers (say) that it extends from the head to the midriff. (P12) §14 Pythagoras (says that) the life-sustaining (part is) in the region of the heart, the rational and intelligent in the region of the head. (P13)


On the Motion of Soul (P,S)

§1 Plato (says that) the soul is ever-moving, but that the mind is unmoved with regard to locomotion. (P1,S2) §2 Aristotle (says that) the soul is unmoved because it is prior to all motion, but it does partake of accidental motion, just as do the shapes and boundaries and absolutely all the formal aspects that relate to bodies. (P2,S1)


On the Indestructibility of Soul (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras Anaxagoras Diogenes Plato Empedocles Xenocrates (say that) the soul is indestructible. (P1a,S1,T1)

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§2 Heraclitus (says that) on departing from the body it returns to the Soul of the universe, i.e. to what is of the same kind. (P1b,T2) §3 The Stoics (say that) on departing from the bodies it is not yet destroyed; the weaker (soul), that is, that of the uneducated, ⟨is destroyed⟩ together with the compounds; but the stronger, such as the one attributable to the wise, lasts right up to the total conflagration of the universe. (P2,T3) §4 Epicurus Democritus Aristotle (say that) the soul is mortal, perishing together with the body. (P3,T4) §5 Plato Pythagoras (say that) the rational part is indestructible; for though the soul is not a god, it is the product of the everlasting God; but the irrational part is destructible. (P4,T5)


On Intellect (S)

§1 Pythagoras Anaxagoras Plato Xenocrates Cleanthes (say that) the intellect enters from outside [sc. as a separate component]. (S1,T1) §2 Parmenides and Empedocles and Democritus (say that) intellect and soul are the same thing. According to them no living being could be without reason in the true sense of the word. (S2)


On Sensation and Sense-Objects (P,S)

§1 The Stoics define sensation as follows: ‘sensation is perception or cognition via a sensor (sense organ)’—‘sensation’ is spoken of in several senses, for it is a condition as well as a faculty and an activity—; and the cognitive impression occurs via a sensor in the regent part; moreover, sensors also denote the intellectual breaths, stretched from the regent part from which they arise to the organs. (P1,S1) §2 Epicurus: ‘sense/sensation is the (bodily) part which is the faculty, and the sensory recognition which is the activity’; so it is spoken of by him in two ways: sense as the faculty, sensory recognition as the activity. (P2,S2) §3 Plato declares (that) sensation is the commonality of soul and body with regard to what is outside; for the faculty belongs to the soul, the organ to the body; together they are capable of apprehending what is outside via impression. (P3,S3) §4 According to the Peripatetics (sensation occurs) in four ways: from which is the regent part, through which the organ, that is, sense-organ, according to which the activity, and because of which the sense-object. (S4)


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§5 Leucippus and Democritus (say) that the sensations and the thoughtprocesses are alterations of the body. (S5) §6 Aristotle (says) that sensation is an alteration of the sensing (part of the soul), and a mean (between the extreme properties) ⟨of the sense-object⟩; the sensus communis is the judge of the compounded forms. Towards it all the simple (senses) each (on its own) contribute their particular ⟨impressions⟩; (the sensus communis) in which (is located) the changeover from one form to the other, such as of shape and movement of a body; (which is) in between the rational and the non-rational, partaking of memory and intellect, extending even toward the non-rational animals insofar as these possess a certain amount of what is analogous to understanding. Common to sight and touch are: form, to sight and hearing: distance, and to all: motion and size and number. (S6) §7 ⟨The⟩ Stoics call this sensus communis ‘inner touch’, according to which we also perceive ourselves. (S7) §8 The Stoics (say) that sensations are of bodies. (S11) §9 The successors of the ancients (say that sensations are) of the incorporeal logoi about the bodies, which they at the same time call shapes. (S12) §10 Leucippus Democritus Epicurus (say) that sensation and thought arise from images that approach from outside, for neither of these can occur to anyone without the image falling upon him. (P4,S13) §11 Others (say that sensation and thought arise) through alteration of forms or shapes, or through imprinting in the soul; in any case through effluences rather than through images. (S14) §12 The Stoics (say) that each sensation is an assent and a cognition. (S15) §13 ⟨The⟩ Academics (say) that the sensations are neither cognitions nor assents. (S16) §14 The Peripatetics (say) that the sensations are not without assent, but are themselves not assents. (S17)


Whether Sensations and Impressions Are True (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras Empedocles Xenophanes Parmenides Zeno Melissus Anaxagoras Democritus Metrodorus Protagoras Plato (say that) the sensations are false. (S1) §2 The successors of the Academy (say) that (the sensations) are sound, because they believe that by means of them they grasp true impressions, though these are not precise. (S2) §3 Aristotle (says) that sensation does not err with regard to its proper object, but (it does err) with regard to what is incidental. (S3)

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§4 The Stoics (say) that the sensations are true, but that of the impressions some are true and some false. (P1,S4) §5 Epicurus (says) that every sensation and every impression is true, but of the opinions some are true and some false; and the sensation gives us a false picture in one respect only, namely with regard to objects of thought; but the impression does so in two respects, for there is impression of both sense objects and objects of thought. (P2,S5) §6 Parmenides Empedocles Anaxagoras Democritus Epicurus Heraclides (say) that the particular sensations of their particular object occur in accordance with the matching-sizes of the pores, each of the sense objects corresponding to each sense. (P3,S6) §7 The Peripatetics (say that the particular sensations of their own objects come about) in relation to the faculties of the sense organs. (S7) §8 The others say that sense objects exist by nature. (S8) §9 But Leucippus Democritus Diogenes (say that they exist) by convention, that is because of our opinion and conditions; that nothing is real/ true or cognitive apart from the primary elements, i.e. the atoms and the void; for only these exist by nature, and those things which derive from them, differing from each other in position and order and shape, are incidental. (S9) §10 Those (who posit) the atoms and those (who posit) the homoiomere (‘things with like parts’) and those (who posit) the things without parts and those (who posit) the infinitesimals (say) that all sense objects are mixed in all (others), and that none of these (objects) exists in a pure state, and that they are called such or such in relation to what predominates and to the varieties of glittering. (S10) §11 Pythagoras Plato (say) that each of the sense objects proceeding (to us) from each element is pure [i.e., unmixed]. The aetherial is attuned to sight, and the pneumatic to hearing, and the fiery to smell, and the wet to taste, and the earthy to touch. (S11) §12 Epicurus (says) that the pleasures and pains actually belong with the sense objects. (S12) §13 The Peripatetics (say) that they belong with the objects of thought; for the same things do not appear pleasant or painful to all people the way that white and black things do. (S13) §14 Chrysippus (says) that the generic pleasant is an object of thought, but the individual and experienced is in fact a sense object. (S14) §15 Empedocles (says) that the pleasures come about for what is similar from what is similar, but in accordance with what is lacking for the fulfilment, so that the desire for the similar comes about through what is lacking; the pains


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come about through what is dissimilar, for foreign to each other is what is different as to composition and the blend of the elements. (S15) §16 Anaxagoras (says) that each sensation occurs accompanied by stress. (S16) §17 ⟨The⟩ others (say) that pleasure, or stress, are supervenient and do not come about together (with the sensation). (S17) §18 The Stoics (say) the wise man can be grasped by sensation from his individual appearance by way of inference from a sign, (S18) §19 the Academics (that he) is knowable by reason, (S19) §20 Epicurus that the wise man (is knowable only) to (another) wise man. (S20)


How Many Senses Are There? (P,S)

§1 The Stoics (say) that there are five individual senses: sight hearing smell taste touch. (P1,S4) §2 Aristotle does not speak of a sixth (sense), but (mentions) the sensus communis, (which is) the judge of the compounded forms, (the sensus communis) towards which all the simple (sensations) each assemble their particular impressions; (the sensus communis) in which the act of moving from one to the other, as with shape and motion (occurs). (P2,S5) §3 †Pelles (says) that there are more (sc. than five) senses among the nonrational animals.† (S1) §4 Democritus (says) that there are more (sc. than five) senses among the non-rational animals and among the wise and among the gods. (P3, S6) §5 Democritus (says) that there are more senses than (kinds of) sense objects, but that this is hidden because the (number of the) sense objects fails to correspond with the greater number (of the senses). (S2) §6 But the others say that (the senses are) equally balanced (in number to the sense objects). (S6)


How the Sensation and the Conception and the Reason [or: Speech] That Is Internally Placed Occurs (P)

§1 The Stoics say: when a man is born he has the regent part of his soul like a sheet of papyrus well-prepared for making a transcript. On this he transcribes for himself each single one of his conceptions.

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[6] The first [or: primary] manner of registration is through the senses. Suppose it is of a white something; when it has gone away, they have a memory of it. [8] But when many memories of the same sort have occurred, then we say that they have an experience. For an experience is nothing but the multitude of impressions of the same sort. [10] Some of these conceptions arise naturally in the aforesaid ways, and without technical elaboration; others are in the end produced by our teaching and instruction. The latter are just called conceptions, the former also preconceptions. [14] And [sc. interior] reason [or: speech], which entitles us to be called rational, is said to be completed from preconceptions at the age of seven years. [16] A conception is an apparition (phantasma) in the thinking faculty of a rational animal; for the apparition is only then called a conception (ennoëma) when it occurs in a rational soul, deriving its name from the mind (nous). [19] Accordingly, all the apparitions that occur to non-rational animals ⟨are merely apparitions⟩. But those that occur to the gods and to us are apparitions as to genus and conceptions as to species. Just as denarii and staters, if you consider them in themselves, are simply denarii and staters. But if you use them to pay for a boat trip they are not only called denarii, but a ‘boat fare’ as well. (P1)


In What Respect Impression, Impressor, Imagination, Figment Are Different (P,cf.S)

§1 Chrysippus says that these four are different from one another. An impression is an affection coming about in the soul, which within itself reveals also what produced it (i.e. its cause). Like when through sight we observe something white, the affection is what has come about in the soul through seeing; and it is ⟨on account of⟩ this affection that we are able to say that there is a white object that affects us. And similarly (when we are affected) through touch and smell. [9] The word impression (pha-ntasia) derives from ‘light’ (pha-os/phôs); just as light reveals itself and all the other things that are embraced in it, so too the impression reveals itself and what produced it [i.e. its cause]. [12] An impressor is what causes [or: produces] the impression, like the white or the cold or whatever is capable of affecting the soul, this is an impressor. [14] Imagination is an empty reflex, an affection in the soul that does not arise from any impressor, as when someone shadow-boxes or strikes his hand against thin air; for an impression has some impressor as its object, but the imagination has none.


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[18] A figment is that to which we are attracted in an empty reflex of the imagination; it occurs in people who are melancholic and mad. When the tragic hero Orestes says Mother, I beg you, don’t urge upon me Those bloody-faced, snakelike maidens! Here they come leaping toward me, he says this because he is mad, and he sees nothing but only believes (that he does). That is why Electra also says to him Poor man, keep still in your bed! You don’t actually see anything you think you see! [28] Just as Theoclymenus in Homer. (P1)


On Vision, How We See (P,S)

§1 Leucippus Democritus Epicurus believe that the visual sensation is the result of the penetration of images. (P1,S1) §2 Timagoras, one of those who debased the Epicurean school on many issues, employs effluences instead of images. (S2) §3 Strato (says that) that colours travel from bodies and give their colour to the intermediate air. (S3) §4 Aristarchus (says that it is) shapes which (travel from bodies and) somehow give the air the same form as themselves. (S4) §5 Hipparchus (says that) rays stretching from each of the eyes deliver apprehension of external bodies to the visual faculty by fastening onto them with their extremities like the touch of hands. (P3,S5) §6 Some ascribe this doxa to Pythagoras as well, since he is an authority for mathematics, and in addition to him to Parmenides who shows this through his verses. (S6) §7 Plato (says that we see) through co-illumination, the light from the eyes streaming out over a certain distance into the congeneric air, while the light travelling from bodies is borne in the contrary direction, and the light in the air in between, which (sc. air) is easily diffused and flexible, extends itself together with the fiery element of vision. This is called Platonic co-illumination. (P4,S7) §8 Alcmaeon (says that we see) through the perception of the transparent. (S8)

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§9 Aristotle (says) that we see according to the movement of what is actually transparent. (S9) §10 Some of the Academics (say that we see) through the effusion of certain ⟨rays⟩ that turn around again to the visual faculty after their contact with the underlying object. (S10) §11 Posidonius calls it (sc. this manner of seeing) a natural fusion of light rays. (S11) §12 Empedocles provides evidence both with regard to (the view that we see) through rays and with regard to (the view that we see) through images; but more in relation to the latter, for he accepts the effluences. (P2a,S12) §13 Hestiaeus of Perinthos combined the rays with the images, calling the result by synthesis ‘ray-image’. (P2b,S13)


On Reflections in Mirrors (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says they come about) by the effluences that come together on the surface of the mirror and are compacted by the fiery stuff discharged from the mirror, which transports across with itself the air lying before it towards which the streams travel. (P1,S1) §2 Leucippus Democritus Epicurus (say) the reflections in mirrors come about through the manifestations of the images, which move away from us but come to be on the mirror which sends them back. (P2,S2) §3 The successors of Pythagoras and of the mathematicians* (say they come about) by backwards reflections of vision. For (they say that) the visual beam is carried along and extends towards the bronze (mirror), but turns back on itself when it encounters a dense and smooth object and is repulsed, undergoing something akin to one’s stretching out a hand and then bending it back to the shoulder. (P3,S3) §4 One can apply all these summary statements to the question of how we see. (P4,S4)


Whether Darkness Is Visible (P)

§1 Sphaerus the Stoic (says that) darkness is visible, since a sort of beam of light is poured into it from the visual faculty. And the visual faculty does not * Here in contrast to elsewhere, e.g. in ch. 2.15, the term μαθηματικός should be translated ‘mathematician’ or perhaps ‘scientist’.


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err, for in very truth it is seen that there is darkness. Misty rays proceed from the organ of vision; darkness somehow compacts and compresses and dulls our sight, while light delates our sight and guides it through the (intervening) air that is in between towards the things that are seen. This is why we do not see in the dark but only darkness itself. (P1,S1+G2) §2 Chrysippus (says) we see by the tension of the intervening air, when it is pierced by the visual pneuma that extends from the regent part to the pupil, and through projection towards the surrounding air stretches it (sc. the visual pneuma) in the shape of a cone, whenever the air is of the same kind as it. Fiery rays are poured forth from the visual faculty, not black and misty ones; which is why darkness is visible. (P2,S3)


On Hearing (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) hearing occurs when pneuma falls against the cartilaginous body which he says is suspended inside the ear, and hangs and is struck in the manner of a ‘bell’. (P1,S1) §2 Alcmaeon (says) that we hear by means of the empty space which is inside the ear. For this is what reverberates when pneuma enters; for all hollow spaces reverberate. (P2,S2) §3 Diogenes (says that we hear) when the air in the head is struck and moved by the sound. (P3,S3) §4 Plato and his successors (say that) the air in the head receives a blow, and this (air) is reflected [i.e. bent back] onto the ruling parts, and so the perception of hearing arises. (P4,S4)


On Smelling (P,S)

§1 Alcmaeon (says that) the ruling part is in the brain; one then smells with this part when it draws in the odours through inhalation. (P1,S1) §2 Empedocles (says that) the odour is introduced together with the inhalations of the lung. But when breathing becomes heavy, one no longer smells due to hoarseness, as happens in the case of those who have colds. (P2,S2)


On Tasting (P,S)

§1 Alcmaeon (says) the flavours are distinguished by the moisture and warmth in the tongue as well as by its softness. (P1)

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§2 Diogenes (of Apollonia says that) through the porousness of the tongue and its softness, and because the veins from the body are connected to it the flavours are diffused and attracted to the perceptive faculty and [or: i.e.] the ruling part, as from a sponge. (P2)


On Voice (P,S)

§1 Plato defines voice/sound as a pneuma (breath) directed from the intellect through the mouth, and as a blow by air through ears and brain and blood as far as the soul. (P1a,S1a) §2 The word ‘voice’ is used analogically of animals without reason and inanimate things, designating for example neighs and noises. (P1b,S1b) §3 But in its proper sense it is articulate (voice), as it illuminates what is thought. (P1c,S1c) §4 Epicurus (says) voice/sound is a stream sent out from things which speak, reverberate, or make noises. This stream is broken up into small particles of the same shape. Globular figures are called ‘of the same shape’ as globular figures, and irregular and triangular figures as figures of the same kind. When these fall upon the ears, the perception of voice results. This is clear from (a comparison with) the skins that let out (water) and the fullers who blow air into in garments. (P2) §5 Democritus says that the air too is broken up into corpuscles of the same shape, and these roll along with the small particles of voice/sound, ‘for jackdaw sits beside jackdaw’ and ‘God always brings like to like.’ Thus on beaches the same pebbles are seen in the same spots, the round ones in one place and the long ones in another. Also in the case of people using sieves similarly shaped things gather together to the same place, so that beans and lentils are separate.—But one could say in response to those (who hold this opinion): how do a few particles of breath fill a theatre that seats tens of thousands of men? (P3) §6 The Stoics say that the air is not composed of small particles but, having no empty space, is wholly continuous. Whenever it is struck by breath, it undulates endlessly in concentric circles until it fills the surrounding air, as whena diving-pool is struck by a stone. However, the diving-pool moves in circles whereas the air moves in spheres. (P4) §7 Anaxagoras (says) voice/sound occurs when breath encounters solid air and, reverberating because of the impact, is carried to the ears; in this manner the so-called echo also occurs. (P5)

2134 4.20

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Whether Voice Is Incorporeal and How Echo Occurs (P,S)

§1 Pythagoras Plato Aristotle (say voice/sound is) incorporeal. For not the air but the shape around the air and its surface becomes voice/sound through a certain sort of striking. Every surface is incorporeal, for it moves together with the bodies, though it itself remains wholly incorporeal, just as when a cane is bent the surface is not affected, but it is the matter that is bent. (P1) §2 The Stoics say voice/sound is body. For everything that acts and causes is corporeal and the voice/sound causes and acts. For we hear it and perceive it hitting our hearing and moulding it like a ring (pressed) into wax. Moreover, everything that moves [sc. something else] and distresses is body, and good music moves us while bad music distresses us. Again, everything that is moved is body; the voice is moved and when encountering smooth places reverberates, like a ball thrown against a wall. Indeed in the pyramids in Egypt a single voice/sound released inside produces four to five echoes. (P2)


How the Soul Comes To Be Sentient and What Is Its Regent Part (P,S)

§1 The Stoics say that the soul’s highest part is its regent part, that which causes impressions, agreements, sensations and impulses, and this they call the power of reasoning. The soul has seven [sc. further] parts, which grow from the ruling part and stretch out towards the body like tentacles from an octopus. Of the seven parts of the soul five are sense organs: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch; [9] of these sight is pneuma extending from the ruling part to the eyes, hearing pneuma extending from the ruling part to the ears, smell pneuma extending from the ruling part to the nostrils, taste pneuma extending from the ruling part to the tongue, and touch pneuma extending from the ruling part to the (body’s) surface for sensitive touching of things which encounter it. [15] Of the remaining parts one is called seminal, which is itself also pneuma stretching from the ruling part to the testicles; the other, called the ‘vocal’ (part) by Zeno and which they also call speaking (part), is pneuma stretching from the ruling part to the trachea and tongue and its appropriate organs. [20] The ruling part itself, just as ⟨the god in the spherical⟩ heaven, dwells in our spherical head. (P1)

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On Respiration (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) the first breath of the first living being took place as the moisture that is in newborns was excreted and the outside air entered into the (slightly) opened vessels to fill the void. Right after this, as the innate heat squeezed up the air from below by rushing to the outside, the exhalation (took place), and its corresponding returning inside provided a complementary entrance to the air, the inhalation. As for the breathing that prevails now, when the blood moves towards the surface and forces the air up through the nostrils by its influxes, the exhalation occurs through the departure of the air, and when (the blood) runs back and the air enters in turn into the gaps left by it, the inhalation. He illustrates this in the passage with the example of the clepsydra (‘water clock’). (P1) §2 Asclepiades constructs the lung in the manner of a funnel. He supposes that the cause of respiration is the filter in the chest, towards which air flows in from outside, and which is cleaned because it is thick. It is pushed back again when the chest is unable to receive more or to sustain it. A small amount of fineness always remains in the chest (for it is not all excreted) and it is towards this, which remains inside, that ⟨the⟩ weighty mass from outside is brought back in again. He likens the process to what happens with cupping-glasses. Voluntary respiration he says takes place when the finest pores in the lung are contracted and the bronchial passages narrowed. For these obey our will. (P2) §3 Herophilus admits motor capacities for bodies in the nerves, arteries and muscles. He thus thinks that only the lung has a natural tendency for dilation and contraction, and the other parts (have this tendency) as a consequence. The drawing in of pneuma from outside, he says, is accordingly the activity of the lung, and it draws it in through the filling process, which occurs from without. Next, because of a second (natural) tendency, the thorax diverts the breath to itself, and when it is full and can no longer draw it in, it lets the excess flow back again into the lung, through which what is excreted passes outwards. The parts of the body are thus affected inversely to one another [i.e. one accepts air as the other emits it]. For now a dilation, ⟨then a contraction⟩ of the lung occurs, since filling up and emptying occur through reciprocal exchange, so that there are in fact four movements that occur in the lung: the first is the one by which it accepts air from outside, the second that by which the pneuma, which it has received from outside, changes its flow internally towards the thorax; the third that by which it receives again into itself the contracted pneuma from the thorax, the fourth the one by which it evacuates to the outside that which is in it after the turn-around. Of these motions, he says, two are dilations, one from the outside and one from the thorax, and two contractions,


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namely one when the thorax draws the pneumatic substance to itself, the other when the lung itself excretes (pneuma) into the external air. Only two motions, you see, occur in the thorax: dilation when it draws in (pneuma) from the lung, contraction when it delivers it back again to the lung. (P3)


On Bodily Affections and Whether the Soul Experiences Pain along with These (P,S)

§1 The Stoics (say that) the affections (are) in the places that have been affected, but the sensations (of them) are in the ruling part. (P1) §2 Epicurus (says that) both the affections and the sensations are in the places that have been affected, for the ruling part is free from affection. (P2) §3 Strato (says that) both the affections and the sensations exist together in the ruling part, not in the affected places. For in this place steadfastness is situated, just as in the case of terrible and painful circumstances, and just as in the case of brave and cowardly actions. (P3)

Book 5 Physiology AËTIUS ON THE VIEWS (OF THE PHILOSOPHERS) BOOK 5 in which the following chapter headings (are found): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

On divination How dreams occur What the substance of the semen is Whether the semen is a body Whether females too release semen How the conceptions occur How males and females are engendered How monstrosities occur Why a woman, although frequently having intercourse, does not conceive How twins and triplets occur Where resemblances to parents or ancestors come from How it occurs that those who are born resemble others and not their parents How it happens that women are infertile and men without offspring Why female mules are infertile Whether the embryo is a living being How embryos are nourished What is fully formed first in the womb Why seven-month babies are viable On the birth of living beings, how they were born as living beings and whether they are perishable How many kinds of living beings there are and whether they all possess sense-perception and reason In what length of time living beings are formed when they are in the womb Out of what elements each of the generic parts in us consists When and how a human being commences maturity How sleep and death occur Whether sleep and death pertain to the soul or the body How plants grew and whether they are living beings On nourishment and growth From where the appetites arise in living beings, and also pleasures

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_162


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29. How fever occurs and whether it is an after-symptom 30. On health and disease and old age


On Divination (P)

§1 Plato and the Stoics admit divination in that it is sent by a god, which is its visionary (i.e. prophetic) element, and also because of the divinity of the soul, which is the element of divine possession; they also admit the interpretation of dreams, the divination of the stars, the inspection of birds and the inspection of sacrificial victims. These (latter thinkers [i.e. Stoics]) include the most parts of divination. (P1) §2 Xenophanes and Epicurus reject divination. (P2) §3 But Pythagoras excludes only the sacrificial aspect (as part of divination). (P3) §4 Aristotle and Dicaearchus introduce only the aspect of divine possession and dreams (as parts of divination), not regarding the soul as immortal, but as sharing in something of the divine. (P4)


How Dreams Occur (P)

§1 Democritus (says that) dreams occur through the manifestations of eidola (images). (P1) §2 Strato (says that they occur) by an irrational nature in the mind when during sleep it somehow becomes more sensitive, and through this very fact is affected by the cognitive element. (P2) §3 Herophilus (says that) of the (various kinds of) dreams those that are divinely inspired occur of necessity, whereas those that are natural occur when the soul forms an image of what is advantageous for itself and will subsequently happen, but those that are mixed occur spontaneously through the impact of images, whenever we see what we wish, as occurs in the case of those who see their lovers while sleeping. (P3)


What Is the Substance of the Semen (P)

§1 Aristotle: semen is that which is able within itself to move to the production of such a thing as that from which it was itself secreted. (P1) §2 Pythagoras (says that) the semen is foam from the most useful (kind of) blood, a residue of food, like blood and marrow. (P2)

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§3 Alcmaeon (says that it is) a part of the brain. (P3) §4 Plato (says that it is) an effluence from the marrow in the backbone. (P4) §5 Epicurus (says that it is) a fragment of soul and body. (P5) §6 Democritus (says that) it comes from the bodies in their entirety and their most important parts, such as bones, tissues and sinews. (P6)


Whether the Semen Is a Body (P)

§1 Leucippus and Zeno (say that it is) a body, for (they say) it is a fragment of soul. (P1) §2 Pythagoras Plato Aristotle (say that) the power of the semen is incorporeal just like the mind that sets it in motion, but that the matter that is ejaculated is corporeal. (P2) §3 Strato and Democritus (say that) the power (of the semen) is a body as well, for it is pneumatic. (P3)


Whether Females Too Release Semen (P)

§1 Pythagoras and Epicurus and Democritus (say that) the female releases semen as well (as the male), for she has concealed testicles. For this reason she too has desire for sexual intercourse. (P1) §2 Aristotle and Zeno (say that) she releases moist matter just like sweat from doing exercise, but not semen that results from concoction. (P2) §3 Hippo (says that) females release semen no less than males. However, (he says), this (semen) does not contribute to conception of life because it falls outside the womb. Hence some females often release seed apart from males, and it is especially widows who do this. (P3a) §4 *** and the bones derive from the male but the flesh from the female. (P3b)


How the Conceptions Occur (P,cf.S)

§1 Aristotle (says that) the conceptions occur when the womb has been drawn forward through the (process of) purification [i.e. menstruation], and the men-

* On the translation of multiple name-labels see the User’s guide to the translation.


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ses have brought along from the entire mass (of the body) a part consisting of pure blood, which the male seed (then) encounters. But (he says that) pregnancies fail to occur from the lack of purification of the womb [i.e. cessation of menstruation] or its inflation or fear or pain or through weakness of the women or through lack of condition of the men. (P1)


How Males and Females Are Engendered* (P,cf.S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) males and females come into being in relation to heat and cold. Hence it is recounted that the first males were born from the earth more in the east and the south, whereas the (first) females were born in the north. (P1) §2 Parmenides (has it) the other way around: the males grew in the north, for they share more in the dense element, the females in the south on account of their lightness. (P2) §3 Hippo (says that males and females are engendered) from the compacted and strong seed ⟨or⟩ from the fluid and weaker seed. (P3) §4 Anaxagoras Parmenides (say that males are engendered) when the seed from the right parts [i.e. testicle] is deposited on the right side of the womb and the seed from the left parts is deposited on the left side; but if the deposition is reversed, (then) females come into being. (P4) §5 Leophanes, who is mentioned by Aristotle, (says that) males (are engendered with seed) from the right testicle, females (with seed) from the left testicle. (P5) §6 Leucippus (says that males and females are engendered) through the differentiation of the parts, in accordance with which the male has a penis and the female has a womb. This is all that he says (on the subject). (P6) §7 Democritus (says that) the parts (held by males and females) in common derive from either (kind) as it happens, but the parts that are specific (to the two sexes) through dominance. (P7) §8 Hippo (says that) if the seed dominates, a male (is engendered), if the womb dominates, a female (is engendered). (P8)

* We translate γεννᾶται in the chapter heading with ‘is engendered’ since in English this verb can be used for both sexes, in contrast to ‘beget’ and ‘conceive’. In the text the verb is used only in the chapter heading (but understood in other lemmata). In §§1&4 the verb is γίνεσθαι, translated ‘come into being’.

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How Monstrous Births Occur (P,cf.S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) monstrous births occur from excess of semen or from lack (of semen) or from the disturbance of movement (of the semen) or from the division into more (parts) or from the inclining away (of the womb). In this way he plainly anticipates almost all the causes (that can be given). (P1) §2 Strato (says that they occur) from addition (to the semen) or subtraction (from the semen) or transposition or inflation (of the womb). (P2) §3 Some of the doctors (say that they occur) from the womb twisting sometimes when it is inflated. (P3)


Why a Woman, Although Frequently Having Intercourse, Does Not Conceive (P,cf.S)

§1 Diocles the doctor (says that it occurs) because some women do not release any semen at all or less than is required, or because the semen is such that it is not productive of life, or through a lack of heating or cooling or moistening or dryness or through paralysis of the (bodily) parts. (P1) §2 But the Stoics (say that it occurs) through a slanting of the penis, which is unable to project the seed in a straight line, or from the disproportion of the parts (i.e. testicles) in relation to the distance of the womb. (P2) §3 Erasistratus (says that it occurs) because of the womb, whenever it has tumors or fleshy growths or is feebler or smaller than what is natural. (P3)


How Twins and Triplets Occur (P,S)

§1 Empedocles thinks that twins and triplets occur as the result of multiplication and division of the semen. (P1) §2 Asclepiades (says that they occur) from the difference of the semen, as in the case of barley with double and triple stalks. For (he says) there are highly productive kinds of semen. (P2) §3 Erasistratus (says that they occur) through superfetations, as occurs in the case of the irrational animals. For (he says) that whenever the womb is in a state of having been purified, then it admits superfetation. (P3) §4 The Stoics (say that they occur) on account of the locations in the womb; for whenever semen settles in a first and a second (location), then (they say) additional conceptions occur and [or: i.e.] twins and triplets. (P4)

2142 5.11

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Where Does Resemblance to Parents and Ancestors Comes from (P,cf.S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) similarity occurs in accordance with dominance of the seminal seeds, but that dissimilarity (occurs) when the heat in the semen has vaporised. (P1) §2 Parmenides (says that), whenever the seed is separated out from the right part of the womb, (resemblance) to the fathers (occurs), but whenever this happens from the left (part), (resemblance) to the mothers (occurs). (P2) §3 The Stoics (say that) the semen is conveyed from the entire body and the soul, and that the homoiomereiai (‘things with like parts’) form the outlines and the markings from the same kinds, as when a painter (forms) an image of what is seen from similar colours. But (they say that) the woman too releases semen; and if the semen of the woman dominates, the child that is born is similar to the mother, but if the semen of the man (dominates), (it is similar) to the father. (P3)


How It Occurs That Those Who Are Born Resemble Others and Not Their Parents (P,cf.S)

§1 The majority of the doctors (say that it occurs) by chance and spontaneously, whenever the seed—both that of the man and that of the woman— has become chilled, that the (resultant) children become dissimilar (to their parents). (P1) §2 Empedocles (says that) the babies are shaped by the imagination of the woman during conception. For often women fell in love with statues and images, and they gave birth to children who resemble these. (P2) §3 The Stoics (say that) the similarities to others occur by co-affection of the mind in accordance with penetrations of streams and rays ⟨or indeed⟩ of eidola. (P3)


How It Occurs That Women Are Infertile and Men without Offspring (P,cf.S)

§1 The doctors (say that) infertility occurs in women because of the womb, either from it being denser or lighter or rougher or from (having formed) calluses or fleshy growths, or from being small in size or from lack of nourishment or from being in poor condition or from its shape being twisted or through distension. (P1)

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§2 Diocles (says that) men do not have offspring from the fact that some of them do not emit seed at all or less than is required, or from the infertility of their seed or from the paralysis of the organs or from the slanting of the penis, which is unable to offer the seed straight passage, or from the disproportion of the (bodily) parts in relation to the distance of the womb. (P2) §3 The Stoics determine as cause the incompatibility of the powers and qualities of each of the partners with each other; when it happens that they (sc. women) have been separated from their partner and joined up with others (sc. men) with whom they are compatible, (then) the natural process has prevailed and a fetus is brought to completion. (P3)


Why Female Mules Are Infertile (P,cf.S)

§1 Alcmaeon (says that) of the mules the males are infertile because of the thinness of the ‘sperm’ (thore), i.e. of the semen, and its coldness. In the case of the females it is from the wombs not ‘gaping wide’ (anachaskein), which means opening up their entrance. For this is how he himself has spoken of it. (P1) §2 Empedocles (says that it occurs) through the small size and low position and narrowness of the womb, which has reversed and grown next to the belly, with the result that neither does the seed have a direct passage to it, nor, even if it were to reach it, does the womb accept it. (P2) §3 But Diocles bears witness to him [i.e. the view of Empedocles] when he says: ‘in the dissections we have often observed the womb of mules like this’; and (he adds that) it is possible that women too are infertile for reasons of such a kind. (P3)


Whether the Embryo Is a Living Being (P,S)

§1 Plato (says that) the embryo is a living being. For (he says) it both moves in the womb and is nourished and grows. (P1) §2 The Stoics (say that) it is a part of the womb, not a living being. For (they say) just as fruits are parts of plants and when they have ripened they fall off, so the same happens with the embryo. (P2) §3 Empedocles (says that) the embryo is not a living being but exists without breathing in the womb. The living being’s first breath occurs (he says) at the time of the birth, when the moisture in the new-born babies* is excreted * βρέφος in Greek can mean both ‘fetus’ and ‘new-born baby’


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and in the space (thus) vacated entry of the external air occurs in the vessels that have opened up. (P3) §4 Diogenes (says that) that the new-born babies are conceived without life, but do possess heat. For this reason, when the new-born baby is delivered, the innate heat draws the cold into the lung. (P4) §5 Herophilus grants the fetuses natural movement, but not movement that is pneumatic. The tendons are the causes of (their) movement. They become living beings at the moment when they are delivered and take in some of the air. (P5)


How Embryos Are Nourished (P,cf.S)

§1 Democritus and Epicurus (say that) the embryo is nourished in the womb through the mouth. For this reason as soon as it is born it moves with its mouth to the breast. For (they say) in the womb too there are nipples and mouths through which it is fed. (P1) §2 The Stoics (say that the embryo is nourished) through the placenta and the navel. For this reason the midwives immediately bind it up and open up the (baby’s) mouth, so that another method of nourishment may occur. (P2) §3 Alcmaeon (says that the embryo) is nourished from the body in its entirety. For (he says) it takes up the nourishing elements from the food, just like a sponge does. (P3)


What Is Fully Formed First in the Womb (P,S)

§1 The Stoics (say that) it occurs all together as a whole. (P1) §2 Aristotle (says that) the loins (are) first (formed) like the keel of a ship. (P2) §3 Alcmaeon (says that) the head (is first formed), in which the ruling part resides. (P3) §4 The doctors (say that) the heart (is first formed), in which the veins and the arteries (have their source). (P4) §5 But others (say that) the large toe of the foot (is first formed). (P5) §6 And yet others (say that) the navel (is first formed). (P6)

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Why Are Seven-Month Babies Viable (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) when the human race was first generated from the earth, because of the slow movement of the sun the day was the same in length of time as ten months now. As time advanced, the day became the same in length as seven months now. For this reason both ten-month and seven-montholds are viable, the nature of the cosmos having ensured that the baby will grow to maturity (in the womb) in a single day and night of that time. (P1) §2 Timaeus says that some twelve-month-olds too are conceived beyond the cessation of the menstrual periods that occurred before the conception. And seven-month-olds may be considered in the same way, not really (in fact) being seven-month-olds. For even after the conception a number of purgings take place. (P2) §3 Polybus Diocles the Empiricists say that the eighth-month-old can be viable too, but is less viable somehow on account of many of them perishing through their poor condition. In general terms, (he says,) no one wishes to rear the eight-month-olds, but (nevertheless) many eight-month-olds have become full-grown men. (P3) §4 Aristotle and Hippocrates and their followers say that, if the womb reaches its full term in seven months, then those (babies) that emerge and are born are viable. But if it (the baby) emerges but is not nourished, because the umbilical cord had grown weak on account of its secretion having become difficult, then as embryo it is malnourished. But if it remains the (full) nine months in the womb, then it emerges as a complete being. (P4,S1) §5 Polybus (says that) that one hundred and eighty two and a half days are required for embryos to be viable. This is a six-month period, (he says) because the sun too moves from solstice to solstice in this length of time. But they are called seven-month-olds through the addition of the remaining days of this month to make up the seven. The eight-month-olds do not live, since the baby emerges from the womb but the umbilical cord is excessively strained. It (the baby) is not nourished, since the umbilical cord is the cause of its nourishment. (P5) §6 But the astronomers* [i.e. astrologers] (say that) eight month periods are incompatible with all generation, but seven months are compatible. The incompatible zodiacal signs occur if they obtain [i.e. result in] predominant heavenly bodies [sc. that are malevolent]. For if any of these should allot the life and span (of any persons), they signify that they [i.e. those persons] will be * On the term μαθηματικός see the notes to chs. 2.15 and 4.14. Here the context points to ‘astronomers’, as in Book 2.


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unfortunate and untimely. The incompatible zodiacal signs are numbered by eight, i.e. Aries is incompatible with Scorpio, Taurus is incompatible with Sagittarius, Gemini with Capricorn, Cancer with Aquarius, Leo with Pisces, Virgo with Aries. For this reason (they say) both the seven-month and the ten-montholds are viable, but the eight-month-olds perish because of their incompatibility with the cosmos. (P6)


On the Birth of Living Beings, How They Were Born as Living Beings and Whether They Are Perishable (P,cf.S)

§1 According to those thinkers (who say that) the cosmos is generated, living beings are generated and perishable. (P1) §2 ⟨But⟩ according to those who (say that) the cosmos is ungenerated, the living beings are born as the result of change from each other. For (they say that) these are parts of the cosmos. (P2) §3 As both Anaxagoras and Euripides (have said): None of those things which come into being ever dies, but the one distinguished in relation to the other revealed different forms. (P3) §4 Anaximander (says that) the first living beings were born in the moist substance and were covered with spiky bark. But as they got older (he says), they moved away to the drier part and, when the bark had broken up, they lived a different life for a short time. (P4) §5 Democritus and Epicurus (say that) the living beings have come into being in a composition of (elements) lacking in form when the moisture first gave birth to life. (PGQ5) §6 Empedocles (says that) the first generations of the living beings and plants certainly did not occur in their complete form, but they were disjoined with their parts not grown together. The second generations, which did have parts grown together, were like dream-images, while the third generations did consist of beings that had grown as wholes. The fourth generations were no longer (generated directly) from the elements such as earth and water but now from each other, in the one case [e.g. plants] when their nourishment became solid, in another case [i.e. human beings] when the shapeliness of the women caused the seminal movement to be stimulated. The species of all the living beings were separated out according to the various kinds of mixture, the more moist ones having an impulse towards the water, others flying up to the air,

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namely those in which the fiery element predominates, while the heavier ones (went) to the earth, but those with a more balanced mixture were in harmony with all the (different) environments. (P6)


How Many Kinds of Living Beings There Are and Whether They All Possess Sense-Perception and Reason (P,S)

§1 Plato and Aristotle (say that there are) four kinds of living beings: those living on land and in the water, those that fly (in the air) and those that inhabit the heavens. In addition the heavenly bodies and the cosmos are stated to be living beings, and also the god, a living being who is endowed with reason and is immortal. (P1,S1) §2 Democritus and Epicurus ⟨do not include⟩ the heavenly beings (as living beings). (P2) §3 Anaxagoras (says that) all the living beings possess the active logos, but their equivalent of the intellect does not have the logos that gives utterance (prophorikos), the so-called interpreter of the intellect. (P3) §4 Pythagoras Plato (say that) the souls of the so-called irrational living beings are rational too, but that they do not exercise reason on account of the poor mixture of their bodies and because they do not have the ability to speak, as (we see) in the case of monkeys and dogs; for these think but do not speak. (P4) §5 Diogenes (says that) they (sc. irrational living beings) share in the intelligible and air, but because some do so with a dense nature and others with a surfeit of moisture they neither think nor perceive (properly), but their condition resembles those (human beings) who are deranged because their ruling part has stumbled. (P5)


In What Length of Time Are the Living Beings Formed When They Are in the Womb (P,cf.S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) in the case of human beings the articulation (of the parts in the womb) begins from the thirty-sixth (day) and is completed for the constituent parts from the forty-ninth day. (P1) §2 Asclepiades (says that) in the case of males because of their greater heat the articulation occurs from the twenty-sixth day, and quite often even earlier within (that period), and that for the constituent parts it is fulfilled within the fiftieth day. But in the case of the females they are articulated in a two month


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period and are not completed till the fourth month because of a lack of heat. As for the irrational living beings, however, they become complete depending on the mixtures of the elements. (P2)


Out of What Elements Does Each of the Generic Parts in Us Consist (P)

§1 Empedocles (says that) the fleshy parts are generated from the four elements in an equal mixture, but the sinews (are generated) from fire and earth with a double amount of water mixed in. The nails that living beings have are generated when the sinews insofar as they meet up with the air are cooled all around. The bones (are generated) from two parts of water, the same parts of earth and four parts of fire when these are mixed together ⟨within the earth⟩. Perspiration and tears occur when the blood melts and flows more easily from being thinned. (P1)


When and How a Human Being Commences Maturity (P)

§1 Heraclitus and the Stoics (say that) human beings commence their maturity around the second hebdomad [i.e. period of seven years], at the time that the seminal fluid starts to move. Trees by way of comparison attain maturity at the time that they begin to produce their seeds, whereas the immature ones are without both blooms and fruits. (P1) §2 But Aristotle (says that human beings commence maturity) at the first hebdomad, at the time that understanding of things both good and disgraceful originates and there is a beginning of instruction (on such things). (P2) §3 Other thinkers, however, (say that) we become mature in the third hebdomad, when we develop beards and are at full strength. (PG3)


How Sleep and Death Occur (P,S)

§1 Alcmaeon says that sleep occurs by withdrawal of the blood to the veins that flow with blood, while waking up is the pouring forth (of the blood back again); but the complete withdrawal (of the blood) is death. (P1) §2 Empedocles (says that) sleep occurs through a commensurate cooling of the heat in the blood, but if the cooling is incommensurate and total, it (sc. sleep) announces (the occurrence of) death. (P2)

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§3 Diogenes (says that), if the blood expands, it completely fills the veins and pushes the air contained in them to the breast and the stomach lying beneath it, (then) sleep will have occurred and the chest is quite warm; but if all that is airy departs from the veins, (then) this is when death takes place. (P3) §4 Strato the Stoics (say that) sleep occurs by the remission of the sensory spirit, not through a slackening, as in the case of ⟨drunkenness⟩, but when it is borne along to the regent part ⟨or⟩ what is in between the eyebrows. But when there is a total relaxation of the sensory spirit, then death has occurred. (P4)


Whether Sleep and Death Pertain to the Soul or the Body (P,S)

§1 Aristotle (says that) sleep is common to body and soul. Its cause is the moist exhalation (that rises) from the chest to the regions in the head from the nourishment located below, or the heat in the heart that has been chilled. But death (he says) is complete chilling. Death, however, is of the body only, not of the soul, for of this (latter) death does not exist. (P1) §2 Anaxagoras (says that) sleep occurs through tiredness resulting from bodily activity, for the affection is somatic and not psychic. But of the soul too there is death, namely its separation (from the body). (P2) §3 Leucippus (says that sleep) occurs not only through tiredness of the body, but (also) by a secretion of the light-particled (substance) that is greater than the influx of the psychic heat, and that the excess (of this secretion) is the cause of death. These are affections of the body and not of the soul. (P3) §4 Empedocles (says that) death has occurred (as) the separation of ⟨the earthly and the watery and airy and⟩ the fiery (elements), out of which the human composition has been established. So in accordance with this (he says) death is common to body and soul. But sleep occurs (as) separation of the fiery (element only). (P4)


How Plants Grew and Whether They Are Living Beings (i.e. Animals) (P,S)

§1 Plato Thales (say that) plants too are living beings with a soul. This is evident from the fact that they move to and fro and hold their branches extended, and also that they yield when they are gathered together and then powerfully loosen again, so that they even pull up weights. (P1,S1)


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§2 Aristotle (says that) they have souls, but are not in fact living beings [i.e. animals]. For (he says) living beings have impulses and sense-perception, and some are also endowed with reason. (P2,S2) §3 But the Stoics and Epicureans (say that) they do not have souls. For (they say that) some (living beings share in) the impulsive and desiderative soul, and some also in the rational soul. But the plants move spontaneously somehow in a way not involving soul. (P3) §4 Empedocles says that the plants, as first of the living beings, sprung up from the earth, before the sun(light) was spread around and before day and night had been separated. Because of the commensurability of their mixture (he says) they contained the structure of the male and the female (within themselves). They grow from the heat that has been separated out in the earth, so that they are parts of the earth, just like embryos in the belly too are parts of the womb. The fruits are superfluities of the water and the fire in the plants. Some have a lack of moisture, and after it has evaporated in the summer, lose their leaves, while others that have more (moisture) remain as they are and continue to be in bloom with leaves, as is the case for the laurel, the olive and the palm. But the differences in flavours (result from) the variation of the particles ⟨of earth⟩ and of the plants, which draw varieties (of flavours) from the homoiomereiai (‘things with like parts’) of that which nourishes them, as in the case of vines. For it is not the differences in the vines that make serviceable wine, but differences in the terrain that nourishes them. (P4)


On Nourishment and Growth (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) the living beings are nourished by the settling down of the moisture and they grow through the presence of heat, whereas they diminish and perish through the failure of each of these. But the present-day human beings, compared to those who were first, have the status of infants. (P1) §2 Anaxagoras (says that) the living beings are nourished through the moisture which each of them supplies to their organs through digestion and in the (process of ) nutrition. They grow when much nutrition reaches them, but they become weak and sickly when there is much in them which decomposes. (PBQ2)

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From Where the Appetites Arise In Living Beings, and Also Pleasures (P,S)

§1 Empedocles (says that) the appetites occur in the living beings in accordance with the deficiencies of the elements required to complete each of them, but that pleasures occur from moisture through the motions involving increase of things that are similar in kind, whereas annoyances occur through the combinations and mixtures of things that are opposite (in kind). (P1) §2 Parmenides Empedocles declare that the appetite arises from a deficiency of food. (S1)


On How Fever Occurs and Whether It Is an After-Symptom (P)

§1 Erasistratus defines fever as follows: fever is a motion that occurs involuntarily when blood is diverted into the vessels of the pneuma. For just as in the case of the sea it is at rest when nothing stirs it, but when a violent wind blows contrary to what naturally occurs, it is then all churned up, in the same way in the body too, when the blood has been moved, it then plunges into the vessels of the pneuma, heats up the entire body and makes it enflamed. He is also of the view that fever is an after-symptom, for it occurs as the result of a swelling, which appears in the vessels of the pneuma together with the nourishment which flows into them. (PBQ1) §2 Diocles says: the appearances are the sight of what is unclear. The appearances in which fever is seen to occur as an after-symptom are wounds, boils and swollen glands. Consequently one must unconditionally state that the fever arises from some thing (i.e. cause) or other, even if these are concealed, namely from a swelling or a ( form of ) nourishment or another hot body. (PBQ2) §3 Herophilus refuted this (view) and believed that the hot swelling does not precede the fever, but the fever precedes. This is how fever usually arises. Frequently it arises without a cause for it being apparent. Its cause triggers the movements of chronic (?) diseases and the growth of enflamed boils. (PQ3)


On Health and Disease and Old Age (P,S)

§1 Alcmaeon (says that) the sustaining (cause) of health is the equilibrium of the powers, (namely) the wet, dry, cold, hot, bitter, sweet, and the rest; but predominance among these is productive of disease, for predominance of either (opposite) produces destruction. (P1a,S4)


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§2 Herophilus (says that) diseases occur when the agent cause is an excess of heat or cold, the material cause is an abundance or lack of food, and the location where it takes place is the blood or the marrow or the brain. It can also happen through the agency of external causes, such as the (bad) quality of water, or locality or stresses or necessity or factors similar to these. But health (occurs as the) balanced mixture of qualities. (P1b,S1) §3 Diocles (says that) most diseases occur through a variability of the elements in the body and of the constitution of the air. (P2,S2) §4 Erasistratus (says that) diseases (occur) through an abundance of food, and through indigestion and corruption (of food), but health is a well-ordered regimen and sufficiency (of food). (P3,S3) §5 Parmenides (says that) old age occurs from the deficiency of heat. (S5) §6 The Stoics and the doctors are in agreement that old age has occurred on account of the insufficiency of heat; for those who have a greater amount of heat live to a more advanced old age. (P4) §7 Asclepiades says that Ethiopians become old quickly at the age of thirty years because their bodies are overheated when they are burnt by the sun. In Britain people live to the age of one hundred and twenty through their localities being chilled and the protection of the fiery element in themselves. The bodies of Ethiopians are in fact thinner because they are distended by the sun, whereas those of the dwellers in the northern regions are stockier, and so for this reason they also live longer. (P5)


List of Chapter Headings in the Translation of Qusṭā ibn Lūqā The oldest of the three mss. of Q used by Daiber in his edition, Ẓāhirīya (Damascus) 4871, dated to 1161 ce, contains a translation of the indices of the five books. Unlike in the Greek mss. all the headings have been assembled together in a single list and are not distributed at the beginning of the individual books. Daiber did not include this initial list in his edition and translation of Q, but he has kindly provided the editors with a translation, which we print in this Appendix. Dies ist das Buch des Plutarchos über die naturwissenschaftlichen Ansichten, welche die Philosophen vertraten. Es sind fünf Abhandlungen. Die erste Abhandlung. 30 Kapitel. 1. Was ist die Natur? 2. Was ist der Unterschied zwischen dem Prinzip und dem Element? 3. Über die Prinzipien und was sie sind? 4. Wie entstand die Festigkeit der Welt? 5. Ist das Ganze eins? 6. Wie tritt in die Gedanken der Menschen (das Bewusstsein um) die Existenz Gottes? 7. Was ist die Gottheit? 8. Über die hohen Kräfte, welche die Griechen „Daimones“ und „Heroes“ nennen. 9. Über die Materie. 10. Über die Form. 11. Über die Ursachen. 12. Über die Körper. 13. Über die kleinsten Dinge. 14. Über die Gestalten. 15. Über die Farben. 16. Über die Teilung der Körper. 17. Über die Zusammenballung und die Mischung. 18. Über den leeren Raum. 19. Über den Ort.

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2020 | doi:10.1163/9789004428409_163

2154 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.


Über den Raum. Über die Zeit. Über das Wesen der Zeit. Über die Bewegung. Über das Werden und das Vergehen. Über die Form. Über das Wesen der Form. Über das Geschick. Über das Wesen des Geschicks. Über den Zufall. Über die Natur.

Die zweite Abhandlung. 31 Kapitel. 1. Über die Welt. 2. Über die Gestalt der Welt. 3. Ist die Welt beseelt und durch die Führung geleitet? 4. Ist die Welt unvergänglich? 5. Wovon wird die Welt ernährt? 6. Aus welchem ersten Element begann Gott—erhaben und mächtig ist Er—die Schöpfung der Welt? 7. Über die Anordnung der Welt. 8. Was ist die Ursache, weswegen die Welt sich neigt? 9. Gibt es ausserhalb ein Vakuum? 10. Was ist die rechte und die linke Seite der Welt? 11. Über die Substanz des Himmels. 12. Über die Einteilung des Himmels. 13. Was ist die Substanz der Sterne? 14. Über die Gestalten der Sterne. 15. Über die Anordnung der Sterne. 16. Über die Fortbewegung der Sterne. 17. Woher werden die Sterne erleuchtet? 18. Über das was „Dioskoroi“ genannt wird. 19. Über die (Wetter-) Konstellationen der Jahreszeiten. 20. Über die Substanz der Sonne. 21. Über die Grösse der Sonne. 22. Über die Gestalt der Sonne. 23. Über die Sonnenwende. 24. Über die Sonnenfinsternis. 25. Über die Substanz des Mondes. 26. Über die Grösse des Mondes.

list of chapter headings in the translation of qusṭā ibn lūqā

27. 28. 29. 30. 31.


Über die Gestalt und die Erleuchtung des Mondes. Über die Mondfinsternis. Über die Erscheinung des Mondes und weshalb ⟨er⟩ erdartig ⟨erscheint⟩. Über die Entfernungen des Mondes. Über die Jahre, wie lange die Zeit jedes einzelnen von den Planeten währt.

Die dritte Abhandlung. 18 Kapitel. 1. Über die lichterfüllte Himmelssphäre. 2. Über die beschweiften Sterne. 3. Über den Blitz, den Donner, die Blitzschläge und das, was „Prester“ und „Typhon“ genannt wird. 4. Über die Wolken, Regen, Schnee und Hagel. 5. Über den Regenbogen. 6. Über das, was sich in dem „Ruten“ genannten Licht zeigt. 7. Über die Winde. 8. Über den Winter und den Sommer. 9. Über die Erde. 10. Über die Gestalt der Erde. 11. Über die Position der Erde. 12. Über die Neigung der erde. 13. Über die Bewegung der Erde. 14. Über die Einteilung der Erde. 15. Über die Erdbeben. 16. Über das Meer, wie sein Zustand ist und auf welche Weise es bitter ist. 17. Wie entstehen Flut und Ebbe? 18. Wie entsteht der Hof um den Mond? Die vierte Abhandlung. 23 Kapitel. 1. Über die Zunahme des Nils. 2. Was ist die Definition der Seele? 3. Ist die Seele ein Körper und was ist ihr Wesen? 4. Über die Teile der Seele. 5. Über den leitenden Teil unter den Seelenteilen. 6. Über die Bewegung der Seele. 7. Über das Fortleben der Seele. 8. Über die Sinnesempfindungen und die Sinnesobjekte. 9. Sind die Sinnesempfindungen und die Einbildungen wahr? 10. Wieviel Sinne gibt es? 11. Wie werden die Sinnesempfindungen, der Gedanke und die Logik des Denkens?



12. Was ist der Unterschied zwischen der Einbildung und dem Eingebildeten? 13. Wie sieht der Gesichtssinn? 14. Über die Bilder, welche in den Spiegeln gesehen werden. 15. Ist die Finsternis sichtbar? 16. Über das Hören. 17. Über das Riechen. 18. Über den Geschmack. 19. Über den Laut. 20. Ist der Laut ein Körper und wie entsteht das Echo? 21. Wie nimmt die Seele wahr und was ist ihr führender Teil? 22. Über das Atmen. 23. Über die körperlichen Affektionen und ob die Seele sie weiss? Die fünfte Abhandlung. 30 Kapitel. 1. Über die Wahrsagekunst. 2. Wie entsteht der Traum? 3. Was ist das Wesen des Samens? 4. Ist der Same ein Körper? 5. Wird aus den Weibchen ein Same hervorgeschickt? 6. Wie geschieht die Empfängnis? 7. Wie geschieht die Erzeugung des Männchens und des Weibchens? 8. Wie entstehen die (Geburts-)Geschädigten? 9. Warum wird die Frau trotz häufigen Beischlafs nicht schwanger? 10. Wie entstehen die Zwillinge und die Drillinge? 11. Wie entsteht die Ähnlichkeit mit den Vätern und Vorfahren? 12. Wie werden viele von den Geborenen anderen Leuten ähnlich und nicht ihren Vätern? 13. Wie werden die Frauen unfruchtbar und die Männer steril? 14. Warum sind die Maultiere unfruchtbar? 15. Ist der Embryo ein Lebewesen? 16. Wie ernähren sich die Embrya? 17. Was ist das erste, was im Mutterleib geschaffen wird? 18. Warum (können) die in sieben Monaten Geborenen aufgezogen werden, aber die in acht Monaten (Geborenen) nicht aufgezogen werden? 19. Über Werden und Vergehen der Lebewesen. 20. Über die Arten der Lebewesen, sind sie alle empfindsam und vernünftig? 21. In welcher Zeit werden die Lebewesen gebildet, wenn sie im Mutterleib sind? 22. Aus welchen Elementen besteht jeder der Gattungsteile, die in uns sind?

list of chapter headings in the translation of qusṭā ibn lūqā


23. Wie beginnt der Mensch mit der Vollendung? 24. Wie entsteht der Schlaf und bedeutet er einen Tod für die Seele und den Körper? 25. Ist der Schlaf ein Tod für die Seele oder für den Körper? 26. Wie werden die Pflanzen hochgezüchtet und sind sie Lebewesen? 27. Über die Ernährung und das Wachstum. 28. Wie entstehen die Begierden und Freuden in den Lebewesen? 29. Wie entsteht das Fieber und ist es eine Erzeugung? 30. Über die Gesundheit, die Krankheit und das Greisenalter.

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Index of Primary and Secondary Witnesses This index contains references to all the witnesses listed at the beginning of every chapter of the Compendium. For full details of editions referred to see the list of Sigla at the beginning of Parts 1–3 and the Bibliography elsewhere in Part 4. Achilles, De universo, ed. Di Maria 3 1.3 4 1.12, 1.14, 2.7, 3.9, 3.11, 3.15 5 1.5, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5, 2.11 6 1.10, 2.2, 2.6 7 2.6 8 1.18, 2.1, 2.9 11 2.13 12 1.14, 2.14 14 1.11 16 2.15, 2.28 18 2.32 19 2.8, 2.20, 2.22, 2.24, 2.32, 3.12 20 2.21 21 2.25, 2.27, 2.29 22 3.1 24 3.5 28 2.10, 3.11 29 3.14 31 3.14 32 3.proœm., 3.7 33 3.7 34 3.proœm., 3.2–4, 3.5a(18) 35 2.10 36 1.23 Aelius Herodianus De orthographia, ed. Lentz 2.443.10–11 1.titulus et index De prosodia Catholica, ed. Lentz 1.119.35–120.6 1.titulus et index Aratea, Commentaria in Aratum, ed. Maass Anon. I 3 2.1, 2.9 Anon. I 5 2.12 Anon. I 6 2.16 Anon. II 8 3.proœm.

Arsenius, Apophthegmata, ed. Von Leutsch 8, 100c 1.10 Athenagoras, Legatio, ed. Marcovich 4.2 1.6 6.2–4 1.7 7 1.7 7.2 1.10, 2.1 16.1 1.6 18.3–4 1.3 22.1 1.3 23.2–3 1.7, 1.8 Cyril of Alexandria, Contra Julianum, ed. Riedweg 1.38–39 1.7 2.14 1.titulus et index, 2.titulus et index, 2.1 2.15 2.2–4 2.16 2.1, 2.3–4 2.22 1.titulus et index, 1.6 2.52 1.6 Epiphanius, De haeresibus, ed. Holl Vol. 3 p. 508 4.7 Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica, ed. Mras 7.11.13 1.7, 2.4, 2.20 7.12.1 1.3 14.13.9 1.titulus et index 14.14.1–6 1.3 14.15.11 1.titulus et index 14.16.1 1.7 15.22.69 1.titulus et index 15.23 2.20 15.24 2.21 15.25 2.22 15.26 2.25 15.27 2.26 15.28 2.27


index of primary and secondary witnesses

Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica, ed. Mras (cont.) 15.29 2.28 15.30 2.13 15.31 2.14 15.32 1.4 15.32.8 1.5, 1.8–9, 2.4–5, 2.8–9, 2.11 15.32.8–10 1.titulus et index 15.32.10 3.proœm., 3.8, 4.titulus et index, 4.2 15.32.6–18 2.titulus et index 15.33 1.5 15.34 2.3 15.35 2.4 15.36 2.5 15.37 2.6 15.38 2.7 15.39 2.8 15.40 2.9 15.41 2.10 15.42 2.11 15.43 1.8 15.44 1.9 15.45 1.10 15.46 2.15 15.47 2.16 15.48 2.17 15.49 2.18 15.50 2.24 15.51 2.29 15.52 2.30 15.53 2.31 15.54 2.32, 3.proœm., 3.8 15.55 3.9 15.56 3.10 15.57 3.11 15.58 3.proœm., 3.8, 3.12– 13 15.59 3.16 15.60 4.4 15.61 4.5 Hermias, Irrisio, ed. Hanson 2 4.2, 4.7a 2–3 4.3 3 4.7

6 10–16 11 18

1.24 1.3 1.7 1.5, 2.1

Ioannes Lydus, De mensibus, ed. Wuensch 2.9 1.3 3.12 2.25, 2.28, 2.31 4.81 1.25–28 4.83 3.17 4.84 5.8 4.116 3.2 4.135 5.2 De ostentis, ed. Wachsmuth 4 3.2–3, 3.15 Ioannes Stobaeus, Eclogae physicae, ed. Wachsmuth 1.1.29b 1.7 1.4.7ac 1.25–26 1.5.15 1.27–28 1.6.17ac 1.29 1.7.9a 1.29 1.8.40b,45 1.21–22 1.8.42b 3.8 1.8.42c 2.32 1.10.11a 1.3 1.10.12 1.3 1.10.14, 16ab 1.3 1.10.16b 1.2 1.11.1,3,5b 1.9 1.12.1a 1.10 1.13.1abd 1.11 1.14adfh 1.12 1.14bgi 1.16 1.14.1k 1.13 1.15.3b,6a 1.14 1.15.6b 2.2 1.15.6cd 2.8 1.15.6d 2.7 1.15.6de 2.10 1.16.1 1.15 1.17.1 1.17 1.18.1abd 1.18 1.18.1b 1.19 1.18.1d,4a 1.20 1.18.4bc 2.9 1.18.4c 1.19 1.19.1 1.23

index of primary and secondary witnesses 1.20.1ad 1.20.1cf 1.20.1g 1.21.3ab,6c 1.21.3c,6ab 1.21.6bd 1.21.6c 1.21.6cf 1.21.6de 1.22.1abde 1.22.3ad 1.22.3bcd 1.22.3f 1.23.1–2 1.23.3 1.24.1a–g,i–o 1.24.1k,2d 1.24.1eghl,2abe 1.24.1ck,2bc,5 1.24ilm,3 1.24.1n 1.24.1kl,4 1.25.1a–g,3a–g,i 1.25.1c,e–g 1.25dghi 1.25.1d,3acehi 1.25.1acgi,3bek 1.26.1a–g,k 1.26.1bhk 1.26.1cfik 1.26.2 1.26.3 1.26.4 1.26.5 1.27.1–8 1.28.1a 1.29 1.30.1a 1.31.1–5 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36.1 1.37 1.38 1.41 1.42 1.42.2

1.24 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.5a 2.7 1.5 2.1 2.6 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.9, 3.11 3.10 3.13 3.15 3.16 3.17 1.30 5.19 5.6

1.42.4 5.17 1.42.5 5.7 1.42.6 5.8 1.42.7 5.11 1.42.8 5.12 1.42.9 5.14 1.42.10 5.10 1.42.11 5.11 1.42.12 5.16 1.42.13 5.18 1.43 5.20–21 1.44 5.24–25 1.45.1–2 5.26 1.46 5.27–28 1.48.7 4.7a 1.49.1a 4.2 1.49.1b 4.3 1.49.7a 4.4 1.49.1b–c 4.6 1.49.7c 4.7 1.50.1–2a 4.8 1.50.3–6 4.8 1.50.7–9 4.10 1.50.10–16 4.8 1.50.17–24, 26–35 4.9 1.50.25 5.28 1.51.2–4 4.10 1.52.1–8, 10–13 4.13 1.52.14–16 4.14 1.52.17–18 4.15 1.53.1–4 4.16 1.54.1–2 4.17 1.55 4.18 1.57 4.19–21 1.58 4.12 1.60 4.22–23 ed. Meineke IV p. 232 4.8 Florilegium, ed. Hense 4.36.29–31 5.30 4.37.2 5.30 4.50.30 5.30 ms. Laurentianus index capitum Γ 10 5.4–5 index capitum Γ 11 5.21–23 pinax 5.9, 5.13



index of primary and secondary witnesses

Ioannes Tzetzes, Exegeseis in Iliadem, ed. Papathomopoulos 1.4.1 1.8 1.5.29 1.3 Exegeseis in Hesiodum, ed. Aa.vv., Gaisford p. 66.7–8 5.26 Isidore of Pelusium, Epistulae, ed. Évieux & MPG 2.273 2.11, 2.15, 2.27, 2.31, 3.10–11 1435 2.13 Julianus Arianista, Commentarius in Job, ed. Hagedorn p. 269 3.4–5 p. 272 3.2 pp. 272–273 3.6 p. 273 3.3 pp. 273–274 2.12 Michael Psellus, De omnifaria doctrina, ed. Westerink 15 1.7 18 2.6 19 1.6 57 1.1 82 1.2 83 1.3 84 1.10 85 1.8 86 1.9 87 1.11 88 1.14 89 1.15 90 1.17 91 1.24 92 1.12 93 1.13 102 1.21 103 1.23 104 1.25 105 1.27 106 1.29 108 4.13–14, 4.17– 19 110 5.5–6 111 5.7

112 5.9 113 5.10 114 5.11–12 115 5.15–16 116 5.2 117 5.21, 5.30 121 2.11 122 2.12 123 3.1 126 2.20 127 2.21, 2.25 128 2.24 129 2.29 131 2.13 132 2.16 133 2.14 134 2.15 135 2.17 136 2.19 137 2.32 138 2.18 139 3.2 140–141 3.4 142 3.5 143 3.5a(18) 144 3.6 146 3.7 147 3.3 149–150 3.3 151 1.4 152 1.5 153 1.18 154 1.19–20 156 2.3 157 2.4 158 2.5 159 2.7 160 2.8 162 2.10 164 3.15 166 3.16 176 4.1 Epiluseis, ed. Boissonade pp. 66–67 5.30 Philosophica minora 1, ed. Duffy 16 5.8 23 3.5–6 24 3.1–3, 3.17 26 3.15


index of primary and secondary witnesses 27–28 3.3 29 3.15 Theologica opuscula, ed. Gautier 6 1.3 61 1.3 Nemesius, De natura hominis, ed. Morani 1 4.7a, 4.19 2 1.12, 1.16, 1.27, 4.2–3, 4.6–7, 4.23 3 1.19 5 1.3, 1.17 6 4.8, 4.12, 4.16, 4.18– 19 7 3.5, 4.8, 4.13 9 4.18 10 4.16 11 4.17 12 4.12, 4.21 15 4.4, 4.10, 4.21 19 4.21 28 4.22 35 1.27 37 1.28 38 1.27–28 39 1.1, 1.25–26, 1.29 41 1.proœm. Papyrus Antinoopolis 85 & 213, ed. Barns– Zilliacus fr. 1 verso 2.23 fr. 1 recto 2.25 fr. 2 verso 3.7 fr. 2 recto 3.11 fr. 3 recto 3.15 fr. 3 verso 3.15–16 fr. 4 verso 4.8 fr. 4 recto 4.11 fr. 5 verso 4.22–23 fr. 5 recto 5.3–4 fr. 6 verso 5.1 fr. 6 recto 5.5 fr. 7 recto 5.7 fr. 7 verso 5.9–10 fr. 8 verso 5.13 fr. 8 recto 5.15 fr. 9 verso 5.20 fr. 9 recto 5.23

fr. 9a recto fr. 9b verso

5.21 5.24

Philo Alexandrinus, De providentia, ed. Aucher 1.22 (interpolatus) 1.3, 1.5 Photius, Bibliotheca c. 167, ed. Henry p. 112a36 1.25 p. 112a38 1.27 p. 112a39 1.29 p. 112a40 1.22 p. 112a42 1.2–3 p. 112b1 1.9–12 p. 112b2 1.12–14, 1.16 p. 112b3 1.14–15, 1.17– 18 p. 112b4 1.18–20, 1.23 p. 112b5 1.24, 2.1, 2.3 p. 112b6 2.3, 2.5a p. 112b7 1.5, 2.5, 2.7 p. 112b8 1.5, 2.11–14, 2.16 p. 112b9 2.13–14, 2.16, 2.19 p. 112b10 2.19–23 p. 112b11 2.23–28 p. 112b12 2.25–28 p. 112b13 2.29–30 p. 112b14 3.1–3.2 p. 112b15 3.2–3 p. 112b16 3.3, 3.5 p. 112b17 3.5–6 p. 112b17–19 3.4 p. 112b19 3.7, 3.9 p. 112b20 3.9 p. 112b21 3.10–11, 3.13 p. 112b22 3.13, 3.15–17 p. 112b23 3.17 p. 112b24–25 1.30 p. 112b25 5.19 p. 112b26 5.19–20 p. 112b27 5.20, 5.24–27 p. 112b28 5.27 p. 112b29 4.2, 4.7a–8 p. 112b30 4.8–10 p. 112b31 4.10, 4.13 p. 112b32 4.13–14, 4.16–18 p. 112b33 4.17–19 p. 112b34 4.20


index of primary and secondary witnesses

Photius, Bibliotheca c. 167, ed. Henry (cont.) p. 112b35 4.12 p. 112b36 4.22–23 Pseudo-Aristoteles, Erotapokriseis, ed. Rose p. 119 n. 1 2.11 Pseudo-Athenagoras, De resurrectione, ed. Marcovich 20 4.7 Pseudo-Clemens Romanus, Recognitiones, ed. Rehm–Paschke 8.15.1–3 1.3 Pseudo-Galenus, Historia philosopha, ed. Diels/Jas 16 1.7 19 1.11 20 1.1, 1.30 21 1.2 25 1.10 26 1.13 27 1.15 28 1.14 29 1.17 30 1.18 31 1.19 32 1.5 33 1.4 34 1.6 35 1.7 36 1.8 37 1.21 38 1.22 39 1.24 40 1.25 41 1.26 42 1.28 43 1.29 44 2.1 45 2.2 46 2.3 47 2.4 48 2.5 49 2.6 50 2.7 51 2.8

52 53 54 55 56 56a 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 67a 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32, 3.proœm. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 4.1 4.8 4.9 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17

index of primary and secondary witnesses 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.29 5.30 5.30

Pseudo-Justinus, Cohortatio ad Graecos, ed. Marcovich 3.2–4.1 1.3 5.2 1.7 5.4–6.1 1.3 6.1 1.7 6.2 4.2, 4.4, 4.6– 7 7.2 4.2–3 31.1 1.7 36.3 1.7


Pseudo-Plutarchus, Epitome, ed. Mau/ Lachenaud passim Qusṭā ibn Lūqā, translation of ps.Plutarch Epitome, ed. Daiber passim Scholia in Aratum, ed. Martin Proleg. 17 2.20, 2.21, 2.25 Proleg. 19 2.31 Proleg. 20 2.12 231 3.1 462 3.1 469 3.1 786 3.7 811 3.proœm., 3.2, 3.5a(18), 3.6 829 3.5 845 3.7 877 3.5a(18) 881 3.6 940 3.5 924 3.3 926–927 3.2 927 3.3 1091–1093 3.2 Scholia in Basilium I, ed. Pasquali 1–3 1.3 4 1.24 21 3.11 22 2.11 23 2.2 26 3.13, 3.15 Scholia in Basilium II, ed. Poljakov 4 3.9, 3.11, 3.15 5 3.13 Scholia in Platonica, ed. Greene ad Remp. 498a 2.22, 2.24 Scholion ad Ptolemei Alm. 5.1, ed. Heiberg p. 1.350 2.31


index of primary and secondary witnesses

Symeon Seth, Conspectus rerum naturalium, ed. Delatte 1 praef. 1, 4.titulus et index 1.3 3.10 1.6 3.11 1.7 3.9 2.14 3.16 2.15 3.3–4 2.17–18 3.4 2.19 3.3 2.20 3.15 2.23 3.2 2.24 3.7 2.25 3.5 2.26 3.5a(18) 3.27 2.1 3.28 2.2 3.29 2.3 3.30 2.4 3.31 2.5 3.32 2.7 3.33 2.8 3.34 2.9 3.35 2.10 3.36 2.11 3.38 2.12 3.39 2.13 3.40 2.14 3.41 2.16 3.44 2.17 3.45 2.19 3.46 2.21, 2.22 3.49 2.24 3.50 2.25, 2.27, 2.28 3.54 2.29 4.56 1.9, 4.titulus et index 4.58 1.10 4.59 1.1, 1.30 4.62 1.19 4.65 1.21 4.68 4.2

4.71 4.75 4.77 4.79 4.83

4.13 4.16 4.17 4.18–19 4.7a

Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Graecarum affectionum curatio, ed. Raeder 1.63 2.4, 4.7 1.96 2.31 1.97 2.21 2.95 1–5.titulus et index 2.112–113 1.7 3.4 1.7 4.8 2.1 4.11–12 1.3 4.14 1.18 4.15 2.1 4.16 2.2–4 4.17–20 2.13 4.20 2.14 4.21 2.20, 2.25 4.22 2.21–22 4.23 2.25–26 4.24 2.27, 2.29, 2.31 4.31 1–5.titulus et index 5.16 1–5.titulus et index 5.17–18 4.2 5.18 4.3 5.19–21 4.4 5.22 4.5 5.23–24 4.7 5.24–25 5.26 5.28 4.7a 6.3–4 1.25, 1.27, 1.29 6.6 1.7 6.13 1.25 6.13–14 1.27 6.14 1.28 6.15 1.29

Index of Name-Labels and Other Names This index primarily contains all the name-labels in the Placita. It secondarily includes other non-mythical names of persons not functioning as name-labels, indicated in each case with an added asterisk. Ethnicons used to distinguish between homonyms are placed in brackets if not explicitly indicated in the text. For expressions involving ‘followers’ and ‘successors’ see the User’s Guide to the Translation above in Part 4 under sub-section (3). A general guide to the subject matter of the doxai is provided for each author. More detailed indications can be gained by combining this index with the tables of contents of the separate books at the beginning of Parts 1–3. Numbers at the end indicate the sum total of doxai for each name-label (or descriptive category). Academics Psychology: 4.8.13, 4.9.19, 4.13.10 (3) Academy, successors of Psychology: 4.9.2 Alcmaeon Cosmology: 2.16.2, 2.22.1, 2.29.3; Psychology: 4.2.2, 4.13.8, 4.16.2, 4.17.1, 4.18.1; Physiology: 5.3.3, 5.14.1, 5.16.3, 5.17.3, 5.24.1, 5.30.1 (14) all others Cosmology: 2.3.1 (1) all who assume matter is passive Foundational Concepts: 1.24.3 (1) all who create a world through aggregation Foundational Concepts: 1.24.2 (1) all who propose atoms and void Cosmology: 2.3.2 (1) Anaxagoras Introduction: 1.3.4, 1.7.1*, 1.7.6; Foundational Concepts: 1.14.3, 1.24.2, 1.29.4, 1.30.2; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.4.7, 2.8.1, 2.13.3, 2.16.1, 2.20.8, 2.21.3, 2.23.2, 2.25.10, 2.28.6, 2.29.7, 2.29.8, 2.30.3; Meteorology: 3.1.7, 3.2.3, 3.2.10, 3.3.4, 3.4.2, 3.5.8; Earth and Sea: 3.15.4, 3.16.2; Nile: 4.1.3; Psychology: 4.3.2, 4.7.1, 4.7a.1, 4.9.1, 4.9.6, 4.19.7; Physiology: 5.7.4, 5.19.3, 5.20.3, 5.25.2, 5.27.2 (39) Anaxagoras and successors Foundational Concepts: 1.17.2 (1) Anaximander Introduction: 1.3.2, 1.7.3; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 2.4.7, 2.11.3, 2.13.7, 2.15.6, 2.16.4, 2.20.1, 2.21.1, 2.24.3, 2.25.1, 2.28.1, 2.29.1; Meteorology: 3.3.1, 3.7.1; Earth and Sea: 3.10.2, 3.16.1, Psychology: 4.3.2, 5.19.4 (21) Anaximenes Introduction: 1.3.3, 1.7.4; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.4.7, 2.11.1, 2.13.9, 2.14.3,

2.16.5, 2.19.2, 2.20.3, 2.22.1, 2.23.1, 2.25.2; Meteorology: 3.3.2, 3.4.1, 3.5.7; Earth and Sea: 3.10.3, 3.15.3, 3.15.8; Psychology: 4.3.2 (20) ancients, successors of Psychology 4.8.9 (1) anonymi Foundational Concepts: 1.15.11– 13, 1.23.5, 1.23.6; Cosmology: 2.2.2–3, 2.4.6, 2.14.4, 2.23.7, 2.24.6, 2.26.4, 2.27.6, 2.30.2, 2.32.2, 2.32.3, 2.32.4–7, 2.32.10; Meteorology: 3.1.4; Earth and Sea: 3.13.1, 3.15.9; Psychology: 4.3.1, 4.5.10– 12, 4.8.11, 4.9.8, 4.9.17, 4.10.6, 4.13.6; Physiology: 5.17.5–6, 5.19.1–2, 5.23.3 (38) Antipater Foundational Concepts: 1.27.6 (1) Antiphon Foundational Concepts: 1.22.7; Cosmology: 2.20.4, 2.28.4, 2.29.3; Earth and Sea: 3.16.4 (5) Apollodorus (the Athenian) Cosmology: 2.16.7 (1) Apollodorus the Corcyraean Earth and Sea: 3.17.8 (1) Apollophanes Psychology: 4.4.5 (1) Aratus Cosmology: 2.19.3 (1) Archedemus Cosmology: 2.5a.3 (1) Archelaus Introduction: 1.3.5, 1.7.5; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.4.4, 2.4.7, 2.13.6; Meteorology: 3.3.5; Psychology: 4.3.2 (8) Aristarchus Foundational Concepts: 1.15.5, 1.15.9; Cosmology: 2.24.7, Psychology: 4.13.4 (4) Aristotle Introduction: 1.proem. 3, 1.1.2, 1.3.21, 1.7.23; Foundational Concepts: 1.9.5, 1.10.4, 1.11.3, 1.12.3, 1.15.10, 1.16.3, 1.18.6, 1.19.2, 1.21.2a, 1.23.2, 1.29.2;


index of name-labels and other names

Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.3.4, 2.4.10, 2.5.1, 2.7.5, 2.9.4, 2.10.1, 2.11.5, 2.13.13, 2.16.3, 2.17.5, 2.20.11, 2.23.8, 2.25.8, 2.26.3, 2.28.2, 2.29.4*, 2.29.7, 2.30.7; Meteorology: 3.1.9, 3.2.4, 3.3.13, 3.7.4; Earth and Sea: 3.15.5, 3.17.1; Psychology: 4.2.6, 4.4.3, 4.5.7, 4.6.2, 4.7.4, 4.8.6, 4.9.3, 4.10.2, 4.13.9, 4.20.1; Physiology: 5.1.4, 5.3.1, 5.4.2, 5.5.2, 5.6.1, 5.7.5*, 5.17.2, 5.20.1, 5.23.2, 5.25.1, 5.26.2 (59) Aristotle and followers Introduction: 1.2.1; Physiology: 5.18.4 (2) Asclepiades Foundational Concepts: 1.23.10; Psychology: 4.2.8, 4.22.2; Physiology: 5.10.2, 5.21.2, 5.30.6 (6) astronomers (mathematikoi) Cosmology: 2.15.5, 2.16.2, 2.16.6, 2.30.8, 2.31.2; Physiology: 5.18.6 (6) atomists Foundational Concepts: 1.9.7, 1.16.2 (2) Berossus Cosmology: 2.25.13, 2.28.1, 2.29.2 (3) Boethus Introduction: 1.7.16; 2.31.5; Meteorology: 3.2.8 (3) Callimachus Introduction: 1.7.1* Chrysippus Foundational Concepts: 1.27.4, 1.28.3; Meteorology: 3.3.12; Psychology: 4.9.14, 4.12.1, 4.15.4 (6) Cleanthes Introduction: 1.7.8; Foundational Concepts: 1.14.5; Cosmology: 2.5a.2, 2.14.2, 2.16.1, 2.20.6, 2.25.4, 2.27.4; Psychology: 4.7a.1 (9) Crates Cosmology: 2.15.6; Earth and Sea: 3.17.7, 3.17.9* (2) Critias Psychology: 4.3.13 (1) Critolaus Introduction: 1.7.12; Foundational Concepts: 1.22.7 (2) Demetrius Laco Foundational Concepts: 1.18.3 (1) Democritus Introduction: 1.3.14, 1.3.16*, 1.7.7; Foundational Concepts: 1.12.6, 1.15.8, 1.18.3, 1.23.3, 1.24.2, 1.25.3, 1.26.2, 1.29.4; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.2.4, 2.3.2, 2.4.12, 2.7.2, 2.13.5, 2.15.3, 2.16.1, 2.17.3*, 2.20.8, 2.23.5, 2.25.10, 2.30.4; Meteorology: 3.1.8, 3.2.3, 3.3.11; Earth and Sea:

3.10.5, 3.12.2, 3.13.4, 3.15.1, 3.15.7; Nile: 4.1.4; Psychology: 4.3.5, 4.4.7, 4.4.8, 4.5.1, 4.7.4, 4.7a.2, 4.8.5, 4.8.10, 4.9.1, 4.9.6, 4.9.9, 4.10.4, 4.10.5, 4.13.1, 4.14.2, 4.19.5; Physiology: 5.2.1, 5.3.6, 5.4.3, 5.5.1, 5.7.7, 5.16.1, 5.19.5, 5.20.2 (56) Democritus and his successors Introduction 1.17.2 (1) Democritus, successors of Foundational Concepts: 1.9.3 (1) Diagoras of Melos Introduction: 1.7.1* Dicaearchus Earth and Sea: 3.17.2; Psychology: 4.2.7, 5.1.4 (2) Diocles Physiology: 5.9.1, 5.13.2, 5.14.3, 5.18.3, 5.29.2, 5.30.2 (6) Diodorus Cronus Introduction: 1.3.18; Foundational Concepts: 1.13.3, 1.23.7 (3) Diodorus of Tyre Introduction: 1.7.12 (1) Diogenes of Apollonia Introduction: 1.3.10, 1.7.8; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.1.8, 2.4.7, 2.8.1, 2.13.4, 2.13.10, 2.20.10, 2.23.3, 2.25.11; Meteorology: 3.2.9, 3.3.8; Psychology: 4.3.2, 4.3.8, 4.5.8, 4.7.1, 4.9.9, 4.16.3, 4.18.2; Physiology: 5.15.4, 5.20.5, 5.24.3 (23) Diogenes the Stoic Cosmology: 2.32.9 (1) Diotimus Cosmology: 2.17.3 (1) doctors Physiology: 5.8.3, 5.12.1, 5.13.1, 5.17.4, 5.30.6 (5) Ecphantus Introduction: 1.3.17; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.3.3; Earth and Sea: 3.13.3 (4) Empedocles Introduction: 1.3.19, 1.5.2, 1.7.19; Foundational Concepts: 1.13.1, 1.15.3, 1.17.3, 1.18.2, 1.24.2, 1.26.1, 1.30.1; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.1.6, 2.4.11, 2.6.3, 2.7.7, 2.8.2, 2.10.2, 2.11.2, 2.13.2, 2.13.11, 2.20.13, 2.21.2, 2.23.4, 2.24.2, 2.25.6, 2.27.5, 2.28.6, 2.31.1, 2.31.4; Meteorology: 3.3.7, 3.8.1; Earth and Sea: 3.16.3; Psychology: 4.3.12, 4.5.9, 4.7.1, 4.7a.2, 4.9.1, 4.9.6, 4.9.15, 4.13.12, 4.14.1, 4.16.1, 4.17.2, 4.22.1; Physiology: 5.7.1, 5.8.1, 5.10.1, 5.11.1, 5.12.2, 5.14.2, 5.15.3, 5.18.1, 5.19.6, 5.21.1, 5.22.1, 5.24.2, 5.25.4, 5.26.4, 5.27.1, 5.28.1, 5.28.2 (61) Empiricists Physiology: 5.18.3 (1) Ephorus Nile: 4.1.6 (1)

index of name-labels and other names


Epicureans Psychology: 4.13.2*; Physiology: 5.26.3 (1) Epicurus Introduction: 1.3.16, 1.5.4*, 1.7.25; Foundational Concepts: 1.8.3, 1.12.5, 1.15.9, 1.18.3, 1.20.2, 1.22.6, 1.23.4, 1.24.2, 1.29.3; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.1.5, 2.2.5, 2.3.2, 2.4.13, 2.7.3, 2.13.14, 2.20.14, 2.21.5, 2.22.4; Meteorology: 3.4.5; Earth and Sea: 3.15.11; Psychology: 4.3.11, 4.4.7, 4.5.6, 4.7.4, 4.8.2, 4.8.10, 4.9.5, 4.9.6, 4.9.12, 4.9.20, 4.13.1, 4.14.2, 4.19.4, 4.23.2; Physiology: 5.1.2, 5.3.5, 5.5.1, 5.16.1, 5.19.5, 5.20.2 (43) Epidicus Cosmology: 2.4.3 (1) Epigenes Meteorology: 3.2.7 (1) Erasistratus Psychology: 4.5.4; Physiology: 5.9.3, 5.10.3, 5.29.1, 5.30.3 (4) Eratosthenes Foundational Concepts: 1.21.3; Cosmology: 2.31.3 (2) Eudoxus Cosmology: 2.19.3; Nile: 4.1.7 (2) Euhemerus of Tegea Introduction: 1.7.1* Euripides Introduction: 1.7.1*; Physiology: 5.19.3 (1) Euthymenes Nile: 4.1.2 (1)

Hippo Psychology: 4.3.9; Physiology: 5.5.3, 5.7.3, 5.7.8 (4) Hippocrates Psychology: 4.5.2 (1) Hippocrates and followers Physiology: 5.19.4 (1) Homer Introduction: 1.3.1* homoiomere, those who posit Psychology: 4.9.10 (1)

Hecataeus Cosmology: 2.20.6 (1) Heraclides Foundational Concepts: 1.13.4; Cosmology: 2.1.7, 2.13.15, 2.25.14; Meteorology: 3.2.6; Earth and Sea: 3.13.3, 3.17.1; Psychology: 4.3.6, 4.9.6 (9) Heraclitus Introduction: 1.3.9, 1.7.13; Foundational Concepts: 1.9.2, 1.13.2, 1.23.8, 1.27.1, 1.28.1; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.4.1, 2.11.4, 2.13.8, 2.17.4, 2.20.6, 2.20.15, 2.21.4, 2.22.2, 2.24.4, 2.25.2, 2.27.3, 2.28.7, 2.29.3, 2.32.8, 2.32.9*; Meteorology: 3.3.9; Psychology: 4.3.4, 4.3.14, 4.7.2; Physiology: 5.23.1 (27) Herodotus Nile: 4.1.5 (1) Herophilus Foundational Concepts: 1.23.9; Psychology: 4.5.5, 4.22.3, 5.2.3, 5.15.5; Physiology: 5.29.3, 5.30.2 (7) Hestiaeus Foundational Concepts: 1.22.4; Psychology: 4.13.13 (2) Hicetas Earth and Sea: 3.9.2 (1) Hipparchus Psychology: 4.13.5 (1) Hippasus Introduction: 1.3.9; Psychology: 4.3.4 (2)

majority, the Foundational Concepts: 1.22.8 (1) materialists Foundational Concepts: 1.9.6 (1) mathematicians (mathematikoi), successors of 4.14.3 (see also astronomers) (1) Melissus Introduction: 1.7.18; Foundational Concepts: 1.24.1; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.1.8, 2.4.5; Psychology: 4.9.1 (6) Metrodorus Introduction: 1.3.15, 1.5.4; Foundational Concepts: 1.18.3; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.15.6, 2.17.1, 2.18.2, 2.20.8, 2.28.6, 3.1.5; Meteorology: 3.2.11, 3.3.3, 3.4.3, 3.5.9, 3.7.3; Earth and Sea: 3.9.5, 3.15.6, 3.16.5; Psychology: 4.9.1 (19) Mnesarchus Introduction: 1.7.15 (1) more recent thinkers Cosmology: 2.29.5; Psychology: 4.5.13 (2)

infinitesimals, those who posit Psychology: 4.9.10 (1) Ion Cosmology: 2.25.12 (1) Leophanes Physiology 5.7.5 (1) Leucippus Introduction: 1.3.13; Foundational Concepts: 1.18.3, 1.25.4; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.2.4, 2.3.2, 2.4.7, 2.7.2; Meteorology: 3.3.10; Earth and Sea: 3.10.4, 3.12.1; Psychology: 4.3.7, 4.7.1, 4.7a.1, 4.8.5, 4.8.10, 4.9.1, 4.9.9, 4.13.1, 4.14.2, 4.19.7; Physiology: 5.4.1, 5.7.6, 5.25.3, 5.20.3 (25) Leucippus, successors of Foundational Concepts: 1.14.4 (1)

Ocellus Cosmology: 2.25.14 (1) Oenopides Introduction: 1.7.8; Cosmology: 2.12.2*, 2.32.6 (2) Parmenides Introduction: 1.7.17; Foundational Concepts: 1.24.1, 1.25.3;


index of name-labels and other names

Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.4.5, 2.7.1, 2.11.1, 2.11.4, 2.13.8, 2.15.7, 2.20.3, 2.20.16, 2.25.2, 2.26.2, 2.28.6, 2.30.5; Meteorology: 3.1.6; Earth and Sea: 3.14.2, 3.15.7; Psychology: 4.3.4, 4.5.6, 4.7a.2, 4.9.1, 4.9.6, 4.13.6; Physiology: 5.7.2, 5.7.4, 5.11.2, 5.28.2, 5.30.4 (30) Peripatetics Introduction: 1.proem. 3, 1.11.4; Meteorology: 3.2.6; Psychology: 4.8.4, 4.8.14, 4.9.7, 4.9.13 (7) Philip of Opus Cosmology: 2.29.4* Philolaus Introduction: 1.3.12; Cosmology: 2.5.3, 2.5a.4, 2.7.6, 2.20.12, 2.30.1; Earth and Sea: 3.11.3, 3.13.2 (8) physicists Foundational Concepts: 1.18.1; Cosmology: 2.6.1 (2) Plato Introduction: 1.3.20, 1.5.3, 1.7.1*, 1.7.22; Foundational Concepts: 1.8.2, 1.9.4, 1.10.2, 1.11.2, 1.12.2, 1.15.4, 1.17.4, 1.18.1, 1.19.1, 1.21.2, 1.22.1, 1.22.9, 1.23.1, 1.25.5, 1.26.3, 1.27.2, 1.27.3*, 1.28.2, 1.29.1; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.4.9, 2.5.2, 2.5a.1, 2.6.4, 2.6.6, 2.7.4, 2.9.4, 2.10.1, 2.13.12, 2.15.4, 2.15.5*, 2.16.6, 2.17.6, 2.19.1, 2.20.7, 2.23.8, 2.25.7, 2.29.7; Meteorology: 3.5.2*; Earth and Sea: 3.15.10, 3.17.5; Psychology: 4.2.5, 4.4.1, 4.5.1, 4.6.1, 4.7.1, 4.7.5, 4.7a.1, 4.8.3, 4.9.1, 4.9.11, 4.13.7, 4.19.1, 4.20.1; Physiology: 5.1.1, 5.3.4, 5.4.2, 5.15.1, 5.20.1, 5.20.4, 5.26.1 (61) Plato and followers/successors Introduction: 1.2.1; Psychology: 4.16.4 (2) Plato, successors of Earth and Sea: 3.16.6 (1) Polemon Introduction: 1.7.20 (1) Polybus Physiology: 5.18.3, 5.18.5 (2) Polycrates Introduction: 1.3.8* Posidonius Introduction: 1.7.10; Foundational Concepts: 1.28.5; Cosmology: 2.9.3, 2.25.5; Earth and Sea: 3.1.11, 3.17.4; Psychology: 4.13.11 (7) Protagoras Psychology: 4.9.1 (1) Pythagoras Introduction: 1.3.7, 1.3.8*, 1.7.9; Foundational Concepts: 1.8.2, 1.10.3, 1.11.3, 1.21.1, 1.23.1, 1.24.3, 1.25.2; Cosmology: 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.4.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.5, 2.10.1, 2.12.1, 2.12.2, 2.23.8, 2.25.15, 2.28.6, 2.32.6; Earth and Sea: 3.14.1; Psychology: 4.2.3, 4.4.1, 4.5.14, 4.7.1,

4.7.5, 4.7a.1, 4.9.1, 4.9.11, 4.13.6, 4.20.1; Physiology: 5.1.3, 5.3.2, 5.4.2, 5.5.1, 5.20.4 (37) Pythagoras and followers Foundational Concepts: 1.14.2 (1) Pythagoras and successors Cosmology: 2.9.1, 2.12.1 (1) Pythagoras, successors of Foundational Concepts: 1.9.2, 1.15.7, 1.16.1; Meteorology: 3.2.1–2; Psychology: 4.4.6, 4.14.3 (7) Pythagoreans Foundational Concepts: 1.15.2; Cosmology: 2.13.15, 2.22.3, 2.24.2, 2.29.4, 2.30.1; Meteorology: 3.1.2–3 (8) Pytheas Earth and Sea: 3.17.3 (1) Seleucus Cosmology: 2.1.7; Earth and Sea: 3.17.9 (2) Socrates Introduction: 1.3.20, 1.7.22; Foundational Concepts: 1.10.2 (3) Speusippus Introduction: 1.7.11 (1) Sphaerus Psychology 4.15.1 (1) Stoics Introduction: 1.proem. 2, 1.5.1, 1.6.1, 1.7.24; Foundational Concepts: 1.8.2, 1.9.2, 1.9.8, 1.10.5, 1.11.5, 1.11.7, 1.12.4, 1.14.5*, 1.22.2, 1.27.3, 1.28.4, 1.29.4; Cosmology: 2.1.9, 2.2.1, 2.4.2, 2.4.8, 2.6.1, 2.9.2, 2.14.1, 2.15.2, 2.17.4, 2.22.3, 2.23.6, 2.25.5, 2.26.1, 2.27.1, 2.28.3, 2.29.7, 2.30.6; Meteorology: 3.1.10, 3.3.15, 3.7.2, 3.8.1; Earth and Sea: 3.9.3, 3.10.1, 3.15.2; Psychology: 4.3.3, 4.4.4, 4.5.7, 4.7.3, 4.8.1, 4.8.7, 4.8.8, 4.8.12, 4.9.4, 4.9.18, 4.10.1, 4.11.1, 4.19.6, 4.20.2, 4.21.1, 4.23.1; Physiology: 5.1.1, 5.9.2, 5.10.4, 5.11.3, 5.12.3, 5.13.3, 5.15.2, 5.16.2, 5.17.1, 5.23.1, 5.24.4, 5.26.3, 5.30.5 (68) Strato Introduction: 1.3.24; Foundational Concepts: 1.12.7, 1.15.5*, 1.18.4, 1.19.3, 1.22.5; Cosmology: 2.11.4, 2.17.2; Meteorology: 3.2.5, 3.3.14; Psychology: 4.5.3, 4.13.3, 4.23.3; Physiology: 5.2.2, 5.4.3, 5.8.2, 5.24.4 (16) Thales Introduction: 1.2.2, 1.3.1, 1.3.6*, 1.7.2; Foundational Concepts: 1.8.2, 1.11.6, 1.18.1, 1.25.1, 2.1.2, 2.12.1, 2.13.1, 2.20.9, 2.24.1, 2.25.9, 2.28.5, 2.29.7;

index of name-labels and other names Earth and Sea: 3.10.1, 3.15.1; Nile: 4.1.1; Psychology: 4.2.1; Physiology: 5.26.1 (20) Thales and his followers/successors Foundational Concepts: 1.17.1; Earth and Sea: 3.9.1 (2) Thales, successors of Foundational Concepts: 1.9.2, 1.11.6, 1.16.1; Earth and Sea: 3.11.1 (4) Theodore of Cyrene Introduction: 1.7.1* Theophrastus Introduction: 1.proem. 3, Cosmology: 2.20.5*, 2.29.8* (1) Things without parts, those who posit Foundational Concepts: 1.9.7; Psychology: 4.9.10 (2) Timaeus Earth and Sea: 3.17.6; Physiology: 5.18.2 (2) Timagoras Psychology: 4.13.2 (1) Xenarchus Psychology: 4.3.10 (1) Xenocrates Introduction: 1.3.22, 1.7.21; Foundational Concepts: 1.13.3, 1.17.3,


1.22.3; Cosmology: 2.15.1; Psychology: 4.2.4, 4.4.2, 4.7.1, 4.7a.1 (10) Xenophanes Introduction: 1.3.11; Cosmology: 2.1.3, 2.4.5, 2.13.14, 2.18.1, 2.20.2, 2.20.5, 2.24.5, 2.24.8, 2.25.3, 2.28.1, 2.29.6, 2.30.9; Meteorology: 3.2.12, 3.3.6, 3.4.4; Earth and Sea: 3.9.4, 3.11.2; Psychology: 4.9.1; Physiology: 5.1.2 (20) Zeno (the Eleatic) Introduction: 1.7.18, 1.24.1; Psychology: 4.9.1 (2) Zeno the Stoic Introduction: 1.3.23, 1.7.14; Foundational Concepts: 1.9.8*, 1.15.6, 1.27.5; Cosmology: 2.1.2, 2.11.4; Psychology: 4.21.1, 5.4.1; Physiology: 5.5.2 (9) Zeno and his successors Foundational Concepts: 1.18.5, 1.20.1 (2) Zeno, the successors of Foundational Concepts: 1.10.5 (1) †pelles Psychology: 4.10.3 (1)

Index of Fragment Collections and Extant Sources This index lists the references to fragment collections and extant writings contained in the first apparatus to the text of the Compendium. For full details of editions referred to see the Bibliography elsewhere in Part 4. Alcmaeon, ed. Diels–Kranz 24A4 2.16.2, 2.22.1, 2.29.3 24A6 4.16.2 24A8 4.17.1 24A9 4.18.1 24A10 4.13.8 24A12 4.2.2 24A13 5.3.3, 5.17.3 24A17 5.16.3 24A18 5.24.1 24B3 5.14.1 24B4 5.30.1 Anaxagoras, ed. Diels–Kranz 59A46 1.3.4 59A48 1.7.1, 1.7.6 59A51 1.14.3 59A54 1.17.2 59A63 2.1.2 59A65 1.24.2, 2.4.7 59A66 1.29.4 59A67 2.8.1 59A71 2.13.3 59A72 2.20.8, 2.21.3, 2.23.2 59A77 2.25.10, 2.28.6, 2.29.7–8, 2.30.3 59A78 2.16.1 59A80 3.1.7 59A81 3.2.1 59A82 3.2.10 59A84 3.3.4 59A85 3.4.2 59A86 3.5.8 59A89 3.15.4 59A90 3.16.2 59A91 4.1.3 59A93 4.3.2, 4.7.1, 4.7a.1 59A94 4.9.16 59A96 4.9.1 50A101 5.20.3 59A103 5.25.2

59A106 59A111 59A112 59B12 59B17

4.19.7 5.7.4 5.19.3 1.7.1 1.30.2

—, ed. Gemelli Marciano fr. 78 5.27.2 Anaximander, ed. Diels–Kranz 12A14 1.3.2 12A17 1.7.3, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 2.4.7 12A17a 2.11.3 12A18 2.13.7, 2.15.6, 2.16.4 12A20 2.20.1 12A21 2.21.1, 2.24.3 12A22 2.25.1, 2.28.1, 2.29.1 12A23 3.3.1 12A24 3.7.1 12A25 3.10.2 12A27 3.16.1 12A29 4.3.2 12A30 5.19.4 Anaximenes, ed. Diels–Kranz 13A10 1.7.4, 2.1.3 13A13 2.11.1 13A14 2.13.9, 2.14.3–4, 2.16.5, 2.19.2 13A15 2.20.3, 2.22.1, 2.23.1 13A16 2.25.2 13A17 3.3.2, 3.4.1 13A18 3.5.7 13A20 3.10.3, 3.15.8 13A21 3.15.3 13A23 4.3.2 13B2 1.3.3 13B2a 2.14.3 —, ed. Wöhrle 121



index of fragment collections and extant sources Antipater, ed. Von Arnim SVF vol. 3 35 1.27.6

Aristophanes Nub. 398

Antiphon, ed. Diels–Kranz 87B9 1.22.7 87B26 2.20.4 87B27 2.28.4 87B28 2.29.3 87B32 3.16.4

Aristotle Cael. 1.1 269a15–b6 Cael. 1.2 269a31

—, ed. Pendrick F9 F26 F27 F28 F32

1.22.7 2.20.4 2.28.4 2.29.3 3.16.4

Apollophanes, ed. Von Arnim SVF 1.405 4.4.5 Apollodorus, ed. Jacoby FrGH 244F91 2.16.7 Aratus, Phaenomena 10–12 545–549

2.19.3 1.6.1

Archedemus, ed. Von Arnim SVF vol. 3 15 2.5a.3 Archelaus, ed. Diels–Kranz 60A7 1.3.5 60A12 1.7.5 60A13 2.1.3 60A14 2.4.4, 2.4.7 60A15 2.13.6 60A17 4.3.1 60A16 3.3.5 Archytas, ed. Huffmann 25A 25B

4.14.3 4.13.5–6

Aristarchus at Strato fr. 7 Sharples 1.15.5 p. 305 Heath 2.24.7 De magnitudinibus, ed. Heath p. 352 2.30.2

Cael. 1.3 270b1–5 Cael. 1.3 270b22 Cael. 1.8 Cael. 1.9 278b23–24 Cael. 1.9 279a6–7 Cael. 1.9 279a14–15 Cael. 1.10 279b32–280a2


1.12.3 2.11.5, 2.13.13, 2.20.11, 2.25.8 2.17.5 2.7.5 2.1.2 2.9.4 2.9.4 1.21.2a

1.22.9 Cael. 2.2 2.10.1 Cael. 2.3 285a29 2.3.4 Cael. 2.3 286a9–12 2.3.4 Cael. 2.8 289b30–34 2.16.3 Cael. 2.14 297b29 2.29.7 Cael. 4.4 310b7–8 1.18.2 Cael. 4.4 311a15–b27 1.12.3 Cat. 10 12b40–41 1.7.1 de An. 1.2 404b21–24 4.4.6 de An. 1.3 405b32-–406a20 4.6.2 de An. 1.3 406b30–31 4.6.2 de An. 2.1 412a27–b 4.2.6 de An. 2.2 413a21–b10 5.26.2 de An. 2.2 413b11–13 4.4.3 de An. 2.3 414a31–32 4.4.3 de An. 2.4 415b24 4.8.6 de An. 2.6 418a11–12 4.9.3 de An. 2.7 418a31–b3 1.15.10 de An. 2.7 418a31–b10 4.13.9 de An. 2.8 419b4–420a2 4.20.1 de An. 2.11 424a4–5 4.8.6 de An. 3.1 424b22–23, 425a14–16 4.10.4 de An. 3.1 425a13–15 4.8.6 de Philosophia fr. 22 Ross 5.20.1 De Pythagoreis fr. 16 Ross 2.29.4–5 Div.Somn. 1 463b12–14 5.1.4 EE 2.1 1220a5 1.proœm. 3 EE 7.1 1235a6–9 4.19.5 EN 2.1 1103a14–15 1.proœm. 3


index of fragment collections and extant sources

Aristotle (cont.) fr. 201 Rose3 1.18.6 fr. 210 Rose3 2.29.7 fr. 738 Gigon 2.29.7 GA 1.19 727a27–30 5.5.2 GA 2.1 735a14–15 5.17.2 GA 2.3 737a7–12 5.4.2 GA 2.4 738a34–b4 5.5.2 GA 2.4 739a26 5.6.1 GA 3.11 761b23 2.30.7 GA 4.1 765a21–25 5.7.5 GA 4.1 766b12 5.3.1 GA 4.10 777b17–778a2 3.17.1 GC 1.2 316b20–23 1.16.3 GC 1.4 320a2–4 1.9.1 GC 1.5 320b23 1.9.5 GC 2.1 329a9–10 1.9.5 HA 7.1 582a33–34 5.23.3 HA 7.4 584b2 5.18.4 HA 9.2 582b11 5.6.1 Iuv. 3 469a4–7, 469a33–b1 4.5.7 Iuv. 4 469b13–20 5.25.1 Met. α.1 993b19–23 1.proœm. 3 Met. Δ.1 1012b34 1.2.1 Met. Δ.1 1013a4 5.17.2 Met. Δ.3 1014a26 1.2.1 Met. Κ.8 1065a30–1065b4 1.29.2 Met. Λ.1 1069b32–34 1.3.21 Met. Λ.4 1.11.3 Met. Λ.4 1070b23 1.2.1 Met. Λ.7 1.11.3 Met. Λ.8 2.16.3 Met. Λ.8 1073a34 2.17.5 Mete. 1.7 344a8–15 3.2.4 Mete. 1.8 345b31–346b6 3.1.9 Mete. 2.1 354a5–8 3.17.1 Mete. 2.4 360a12–13, 361b1 3.7.4 Mete. 2.8 365b21–29 3.15.5 Mete. 2.8 366a18–20 3.17.1 Mete. 2.9 369a10–b11 3.3.13 Mete. 3.2 371b18–24 3.5a.1 Mete. 3.3 373a21–22 3.5a.1 Mete. 3.4 373b32–34 3.5.4 Mete. 3.4 374a8–11 3.5.5 Mete. 3.4 374b32–375a1 3.5.5

Mete. 3.4 373b2–10 Mete. 3.4 374a22–24 PA 3.4 665b18–23 Phys. 2.1 192b8–193a8 Phys. 2.5 197a5–10 Phys. 2.6 197a33–b32 Phys. 3.2 202a7–8 Phys. 4.4 211b10–12 Phys. 4.11 219b1–2 Phys. 4.14 223b21–23 Phys. 8.5 257b8–9 Pol. 7.17 Rhet. 1.11 1371b16–17 Sens. 2 438b2–5 Sens. 3 439b11–12 Somn.Vig. 1 454a8–11 Somn.Vig. 3 456b17–29

3.5.6 3.5.6 4.5.7 1.1.2 1.29.2 1.29.2 1.23.2 1.19.2 1.21.2a 1.21.2a 1.23.2 5.23.2 4.19.5 4.13.9 1.15.10 5.25.1 5.25.1

Arius Didymus, Epitome Fr.Phys. ed. Diels fr. 9 (Aristotle) 2.3.4 fr. 32 (Aristotle) 2.23.8 Asclepiades, list Vallance ANRW p. 721 5.10.1, 5.21.2 p. 724 4.2.8, 4.22.2 p. 725 5.10.1, 5.21.2, 5.30.7 p. 726 1.23.10, 4.2.8 Berossus, ed. Jacoby FGH 680F19 2.25.13, 2.28.1, 2.29.2 —, ed. De Breucker F21

2.25.13, 2.28.1, 2.29.2

Boethus, ed. Von Arnim SVF vol. 3 2 1.7.16 9 2.31.5 Callimachus, ed. Pfeiffer 191.9–11 1.7.1 586 1.7.1 Chrysippus, ed. Von Arnim SVF 2.81 4.9.14 2.886 4.15.2 2.913 1.28.3


index of fragment collections and extant sources 2.916 2.703

1.27.4 3.3.12

Cleanthes, ed. Von Arnim SVF 1.498 1.14.5 1.499 2.5a.2 1.501 2.20.6 1.506 2.27.4 1.507 2.16.1 1.508 2.14.2, 2.23.6 1.523 4.7a.1 1.532 1.7.8 Corpus Hippocraticum Carn. 19 Morb.Sacr. 14, 17 Oct. 1–2, 10

5.18.4 4.5.2 5.18.4–5

Crates Mallotes, ed. Mette F5a 2.15.6 F7 3.17.7 —, ed. Broggiato 136


Critias, Sisyphus, ed. Diels–Kranz 88B25 1.7.1 88B25.33–34 1.6.1 —, ed. Kannicht 1.33–34 19

1.6.1 1.7.1

Critolaus, ed. Wehrli 16


Demetrius Laco, ed. De Falco 19–20 1.18.3 —, ed. Gigante test. 3


Democritus, ed. Diels–Kranz 67A29 4.13.1 67A31 4.14.2 68A46 1.3.14 68A47 1.12.6, 1.23.3 68A48 1.16.2 68A66 1.26.2

68A74 68A84 68A85 68A86 68A87 68A89 68A90 68A91 68A93 68A94 68A95 68A96 68A97 68A99 68A102 68A105 68A109 68A115 68A116 68A117 68A125 68A128 68A136 68A139 68A141 68A142 68A143 68A144 —, ed. Luria 4 23 54 68 95 187 193 214 243 341 352 353 379 385 387 403 436 437 514

1.7.7 2.4.12 2.13.5 2.15.3 2.20.8 2.23.5 2.25.10, 2.30.4 3.1.8 3.3.11 3.10.5 3.13.4 3.12.2 3.15.7 4.1.4 4.3.5 4.4.7, 4.5.1 4.7.4 4.10.5 4.10.4 4.4.8 1.15.8 4.19.5 5.2.1 5.19.5 5.3.6 5.4.3, 5.5.1 5.7.7 5.16.1

3.15.7 1.25.3, 2.3.2 4.9.1 4.8.5, 4.8.10 4.9.9 1.18.3 1.9.3 1.9.3 4.9.9 1.17.2 2.1.3 2.4.7 3.15.7 2.2.4 2.16.1 3.15.7 4.8.5, 4.8.10 4.9.6 5.19.5


index of fragment collections and extant sources

—, ed. Luria (cont.) 547 589

5.20.2 1.25.3, 2.3.2

Diagoras, ed. Winiarczyk T 47 1.7.1 Dicaearchus of Messene, ed. Wehrli 12a–c 4.2.7 13b 5.1.4 114 3.17.2 —, ed. Mirhardy 21A 30B 127

4.2.7 5.1.4 3.17.2

Diocles, ed. Van der Eijk 24 42 43 48 51 56

5.14.3 5.9.1 5.13.2 5.18.3 5.30.3 5.29.2

Diodorus Cronus, ed. Döring 117A 1.3.18 117B 1.13.3 121 1.23.7 —, ed. Giannantoni I F8 II F8 II F11

1.3.18 1.13.3 1.23.7

Diodorus of Tyre, ed. Wehrli 2 1.7.12 Diogenes of Apollonia, ed. Diels–Kranz 64A7 1.3.10 64A8 1.7.8 64A10 2.1.3, 2.1.8, 2.4.7 64A11 2.8.1 64A12 2.13.4, 2.13.10 64A13 2.20.10, 2.23.3 64A14 2.25.11 64A15 3.2.9 64A16 3.3.8 64A20 4.5.8, 4.7.1

64A21 64A22 64A23 64A28 64A29 64A30 —, ed. Laks T3b T5b T5c T9 T10 T23d T30 T31a S2 S3

4.16.3 4.18.2 4.9.9 5.15.4 5.24.3 5.20.5

1.3.10 4.3.2&8 4.7.1 4.16.3 4.18.2 2.4.7 3.2.9 3.3.8 4.5.8 4.9.9

Diogenes of Babylon, ed. Von Arnim SVF vol. 3 28 2.32.9 30 4.5.8 31 1.7.8 Diogenes Laertius, Vitae philosophorum 1.13 1.3.6 3.70 (Plato) 1.7.1 3.72 (Plato) 1.7.1 8.1 (Pythagoras) 1.3.6 8.32 (Pythagoras) 1.8.2 Diotimus of Tyre, ed. Diels–Kranz 76.1 2.17.3 Ecphantus, ed. Diels–Kranz 51.2 1.3.17 51.3 2.1.1 51.4 2.3.3 51.5 3.13.3 Empedocles, ed. Diels–Kranz 31A32 1.7.19 31A33 1.3.19 31A43 1.13.1, 1.17.3 31A44 1.24.2 31A45 1.26.1 31A47 1.5.2 31A49 2.6.3


index of fragment collections and extant sources 31A50 31A52 31A53 31A54 31A56 31A58 31A59 31A60 31A61 31A63 31A65 31A66 31A70 31A72 31A74 31A75 31A77 31A78 31A81

31A82 31A83 31A85 31A88 31A90 31A92 31A93 31A94 31A95 31A96 31A97 31B6 31B8 31B13 31B55 31B110.10

2.1.6, 2.10.2, 2.30.4 2.4.11 2.13.2 2.13.11 2.20.13, 2.21.2 2.8.2, 2.23.4 2.24.2 2.25.6, 2.27.5, 2.28.6 2.31.1 3.3.7 3.8.1 3.16.3 1.29.4. 5.26.4 5.19.6 4.22.1, 5.15.3 5.18.1 5.27.1 5.22.1 5.7.1, 5.8.1, 5.10.1, 5.11.1, 5.12.2 5.14.2 5.21.1 5.24.2, 5.25.4 4.14.1 4.9.6, 4.13.12 1.15.3 4.16.1 4172 4.9.15, 5.28.1– 2 4.7a.2 4.5.9 1.3.19 1.30.1 1.18.2 3.16.3 4.7a.1

Empirici, ed. Deichgräber fr. 133 5.18.3 Ephorus, ed. Jacoby FrGH 70F65c 4.1.6 Epicurus, ed. Usener 29

248 259 261 267 271 275 280 293 294 301 301a 302 303 305 308 309 312 315 317 318 320 321 329 330 332 336 342 343 344 345 349 350 355 361 375 380 382 386 393 395

4.9.5 4.8.2 4.9.11 1.3.16 1.20.1 1.12.5 1.12.5, 1.23.4 1.18.3 1.22.6 2.1.3 2.1.5 2.2.5 2.7.2 2.4.13 1.4.1 5.26.3 4.4.7, 4.5.6 4.3.11 4.23.2 4.13.1 4.14.2 4.18.4 5.3.5 5.5.1 5.16.1 4.7.4 5.20.2 2.20.14 2.22.4 2.21.5 3.4.5 3.15.11 1.7.25 1.7.1 1.29.3 1.29.3 2.3.2 2.7.2 1.8.3 5.1.2

Letter to Herodotus D.L. V.P. 10.49 4.9.6 D.L. V.P. 10.66 (scholion) 4.4.7 Letter to Pythocles D.L. V.P. 10.90 n. Usener




index of fragment collections and extant sources

Kuriai doxai 1


Erasistratus, ed. Garofalo 40 57 58 168 195

4.5.4 5.9.3 5.10.3 5.30.4 5.29.1

Eratosthenes, ed. Bernhardy fr. I 40 2.31.3 fr. V 6 1.21.3 Eudoxus of Cnidos, ed. Lasserre F142 2.19.3 F288 4.1.7 Euhemerus, ed. Winiarczyk T1a 1.7.1 T16 1.7.1 Euripides Orestes 255–259 fr. 839 Kannicht

4.12.1 5.19.3

Euthymenes, ed. Jacoby FGH 647F2 4.1.2 Hecataeus, ed. Diels–Kranz 73B9 2.20.6 Heraclides, ed. Wehrli 98a,d 104 112 113 114 116 117 121 122a —, ed. Schütrumpf 46A&D 62 63A,B 65B 74

4.3.6 3.13.3 2.1.7 2.13.15 2.25.14 3.2.6 3.17.1 1.13.4 4.9.6

4.3.6 1.13.4 4.9.6 3.13.3 2.1.7

75 76 77 78

2.13.15 2.25.14 3.2.6 3.17.1

Heraclitus, ed. Diels–Kranz 22A5 1.3.9 22A6 1.23.8 22A8 1.7.13, 1.27.1, 1.28.1 22A10 2.1.2, 2.4.1, 2.11.4 22A11 2.13.8, 2.17.4 22A12 2.20.6, 2.22.2, 2.24.4, 2.27.3, 2.28.7, 2.29.3 22A13 2.32.8 22A14 3.3.9 22A15 4.3.14 22A17 4.7.2 22A18 5.23.1 22B3 2.21.4 22B137 1.27.1 —, ed. Mouraviev T403–405 T410–411 T437 T446 T460 T595

1.13.2 1.9.2 2.20.15 2.25.2 4.3.4 2.20.15

Herodotus, Histories 2.24–25


Herophilus, ed. Von Staden 137a 4.5.5 142 1.22.9 143b 4.22.3 202 5.15.5 217 5.29.3 226 5.2.3 Hesiod, Theogony 134


Hestiaeus, ed. Lasserre F3 F4

1.22.4 4.13.13


index of fragment collections and extant sources Hicetas, ed. Diels–Kranz 50.2 3.9.2 Hippasus, ed. Diels–Kranz 18.7 1.3.9 18.9 4.3.4 Hippo, ed. Diels–Kranz 38A13 38A14

5.5.3 5.7.3, 5.7.8

Hippocrates, ed. Diels–Kranz 42.6 3.1.4 See also Corpus Hippocraticum Homer, Iliad 3.178–179 14.246 17.547

1.7.1 1.3.1 3.5.2

—, Odyssey 5.306 17.218 20.350–358

1.3.7 4.19.5 4.12.1

Ion, ed. Diels–Kranz 36A7


Leophanes at Arist. GA 4.1 765a21–25 5.7.5 Leucippus, ed. Diels–Kranz 67A12 1.3.13 67A15 1.18.3 67A22 2.2.4, 2.3.2, 2.4.7 67A23 2.7.2 67A24 1.4.1 67A25 3.3.10 67A26 3.10.4 67A27 3.12.1 67A28 4.3.7 67A29 4.13.1 67A30 4.8.5, 4.8.10 67A31 4.14.2 67A32 4.9.9 67A34 5.25.3 67A35 5.4.1 67A36 5.7.6

68A43 67B2

1.14.4 1.25.4

Melissus, ed. Diels–Kranz 30A9 2.1.2, 2.4.5 30A12 1.24.1 30A13 1.7.18 30A14 4.9.1 Metrodorus, ed. Diels–Kranz 70A2 1.3.15 70A6 1.5.4 70A7 2.1.3 70A9 2.15.6, 2.17.1 70A10 2.18.2 70A11 2.20.8 70A12 2.28.6 70A13 3.1.5 70A14 3.2.11 70A15 3.3.3 70A17 3.5.9 70A18 3.7.3 70A19 3.16.5 70A20 3.9.5 70A21 3.15.6 70A22 4.9.1 Ocellus, ed. Harder T9


Oenopides, ed. Diels–Kranz 41.6 1.7.8 41.7 2.12.2 41.9 2.32.6 41.10 3.1.3 Orphics, ed. Bernabé fr. 30 F


Parmenides, ed. Diels–Kranz 28A29 1.24.1 28A31 1.7.17 28A32 1.25.3 28A36 2.1.2, 2.4.5 28A37 2.7.1 28A38 2.11.4 28A39 2.13.8 28A40 2.15.7 28A41 2.20.3


index of fragment collections and extant sources

Parmenides, ed. Diels–Kranz (cont.) 28A42 2.25.2, 2.26.2, 2.28.6 28A43 2.20.16 28A43a 3.1.6 28A44 3.15.7 28A44a 3.14.2 28A45 4.3.4, 4.5.6, 4.7a.2 28A46a 5.30.5 28A47 4.9.6 28A48 4.13.6 28A49 4.9.1 28A50 5.28.2 28A53 5.7.2, 5.7.4 28A54 5.11.2 28B1.14 2.7.1 28B8.30 2.7.1 28B12.3 2.7.1 B8.14 1.25.3, 2.28.6 B12 2.7.1 B12.3 1.25.3 B21 2.30.5 Philip of Opus, ed. Tarán 10 2.29.4–5 —, ed. Lasserre F32–33


Philolaus, ed. Diels–Kranz 44A9 1.3.12 44A15 2.6.5 44A17 2.5a.4, 3.11.3 44A18 2.5.3 44A19 2.20.12 44A20 2.30.1 44A21 3.13.2 Plato Dörrie–Baltes B113.2 Dörrie–Baltes B156.1 Leg. 10.904c Lys. 214a–b Phd. 109a, 111d–e Phd. 111e–112a Phdr. 244b–c Phdr. 245b–c Phdr. 245c Phlb. 34a

Resp. 4 439d–e Sph. 263e Tht. 155d Tht. 184d Tht. 206d Tim. 28a–29a Tim. 28a–b Tim. 28b–c Tim. 29e Tim. 30a Tim. 30b Tim. 30b–c Tim. 30c Tim. 30c–31b Tim. 31a Tim. 31b–32c Tim. 33a–d Tim. 33c–d Tim. 33c Tim. 34a Tim. 34b–c Tim. 35a–36b Tim. 36e–37c Tim. 37d Tim. 38c–d Tim. 39e–40a Tim. 40a

1.3.20 4.2.4 1.27.2 4.19.5 3.15.10 3.17.5 5.1.1 4.6.1 4.2.5 4.8.3

Tim. 40b–d Tim. 40c–d Tim. 41a–b Tim. 41d Tim. 43c Tim. 44c Tim. 44d–e Tim. 44d Tim. 45b–46a Tim. 45b–c Tim. 46c–e Tim. 46c Tim. 47e–48a Tim. 48b–c Tim. 49a Tim. 49b–d Tim. 50a–d Tim. 50b–d Tim. 50c–d Tim. 52d Tim. 53a

4.4.1 4.19.2 3.5.2 4.5.2 4.19.1 1.11.2 2.6.4 2.4.9 1.7.1 1.7.1 4.7.5 1.25.5 1.7.1 1.5.3 2.1.2 2.6.4 1.5.3 2.5.2, 2.17.6 2.9.4 3.15.10 2.6.4 4.2.5 2.5a.1 1.21.2, 1.22.1 2.15.4, 2.16.6 2.23.8 2.13.12, 2.20.7, 2.25.7, 5.20.1 3.15.10 2.19.1 2.4.9 4.2.5 4.8.3 1.25.5 4.5.2 1.6.1 4.13.7 4.9.11 1.11.2 4.8.3 1.25.5, 1.26.3 1.2.1 1.9.4, 1.19.1 1.17.4 1.19.1 1.9.4 1.11.2 1.9.4 1.19.1


index of fragment collections and extant sources Tim. 53e–55c Tim. 54b–d Tim. 58a Tim. 62c–63e Tim. 65c–d, 66d, 67b Tim. 67a–c Tim. 67a–b Tim. 67b–c Tim. 67c Tim. 68e–69a Tim. 69c–e Tim. 71e Tim. 74a Tim. 77a–c Tim. 91d Polemon, ed. Gigante 121

2.6.6 1.17.4 2.9.4 1.12.2 4.9.11 4.19.2 4.16.4 4.20.1 1.15.4 1.26.3 4.7.5 5.1.1 5.3.4 5.26.1 5.15.1


Posidonius, ed. Edelstein–Kidd F 84 2.9.3 F97 2.9.3 F101 1.6.1, 1.7.10 F103 1.28.5 F122 2.25.5 F129 3.1.11 F138 3.17.4 F194 4.13.11 —, ed. Theiler 298b 301 302 317 349 364 382a 395

3.1.11 2.25.5 2.9.3 3.17, 3.17.4 1.6.1 1.6.1, 1.7.10 1.28.5 4.13.11

Ps.Aristotle, De mundo 2 392a5–b17 2 392a32–35

2.7.5 2.4.10

—, Magna moralia 2.11.2


Ps.Plato Definitiones 411c 414c

4.2.5 4.8.3

Pythagoras/Pythagoreans, ed. Diels–Kranz 14.21 2.1.1 44A18 n. 2.13.15 44A20 2.20.1 44A21 3.13.1 58B3 1.21.1 58B15 1.3.7 58B36 2.29.4–5 58B37c 3.1.4–6 58B42 1.15.2 Dörrie-Baltes B156.1 4.2.3 Pytheas, ed. Mette 2


Seleucus of Babylon, ed. Russo test. 5 2.1.7 test. 6–7 3.17.9 Socrates Dörrie-Baltes B113.2


Solon, ed. West fr. 27.5–6


Speusippus, ed. Lang 38


—, ed. Isnardi-Parente 89


—, ed. Tarán 58


Sphaerus, ed. Von Arnim SVF 1.627 4.15.1 Stoics, ed. Von Arnim SVF 2.35 2.72 2.78 2.83 2.149 2.150 2.324 2.338 2.340 2.360 2.387

1.proœm. 2 4.8.12 4.9.4 4.11.1, 4.12.1 4.11.1 4.21.1 1.9.2, 1.9.8 1.11.7 1.11.5 1.10.5 4.20.2


index of fragment collections and extant sources

Stoics, ed. Von Arnim SVF (cont.) 2.419 1.15.11 2.425 4.19.6 2.504 1.20.1 2.506 2.25.5 2.514 1.22.2 2.522 2.1.9 2.530 1.5.1 2.547 2.2.1 2.571 1.12.4 2.575 2.4.2 2.581 2.6.1 2.585 2.4.8 2.597 2.4.6 2.609 2.9.2 2.647 3.9.3 2.648 3.10.1 2.654 2.22.3 2.658 2.23.6 2.666 2.26.1 2.667 2.27.1–2 2.669 2.30.6 2.670 2.28.3 2.671 2.25.5 2.676 2.29.7 2.681 2.14.1 2.689 2.15.2 2.690 2.17.4 2.696 3.8.2 2.697 3.7.2 2.705 3.3.15 2.707 3.15.2 2.708 5.26.3 2.749 5.11.3 2.750 5.10.4 2.751 5.9.2 2.752 5.13.3 2.753 5.12.3 2.754 5.16.2 2.755 5.17.1 2.756 5.15.2 2.764 5.23.1 2.767 5.24.4 2.769 5.30.6 2.779 4.3.3 2.810 4.7.3 2.827 4.4.4 2.836 4.21.1 2.838 4.5.7

2.850 4.8.1 2.851 4.8.8 2.852 4.8.7 2.853 4.10.1 2.854 4.23.1 2.917 1.28.4 2.966 1.29.4 2.976 1.27.3 2.1009 1.6.1 2.1101 1.7.24, 1.8.2 2.1190 5.1.1 See also Chrysippus, Cleanthes, Zeno etc. Strato, ed. Wehrli 45 51 55 78 84 85 86 87 94 99 110 113 119a,b 128 130

1.3.24 1.12.7 1.18.3, 1.19.3 1.22.5 2.11.4 2.17.1 3.2.5 3.3.14 5.4.3 5.8.2 4.23.3 4.13.3 4.5.3 5.24.4 5.2.2

—, ed. Sharples 26B 33 42 43 46 50A 51 52 57 63A 64 66 68 70 74

1.18.3, 1.19.3 1.22.5 2.11.4 2.17.1 1.3.24 1.12.7 3.2.5 3.3.14 4.5.3 4.23.3 4.13.3 5.24.4 5.2.2 5.4.3 5.8.2


index of fragment collections and extant sources Thales, ed. Diels–Kranz 11A11 11A13 11A13a 11A13c 11A15 11A16 11A17a 11A22a 11A23 —, ed. Wöhrle 146 148 150 151 152 153 154 159 160 161 163 341 343 344 345 347 348 350 356 357 359 395 405 488

1.3.1 2.1.2 1.17.1 2.12.1 3.11.1 4.1.1 2.13.1, 2.20.9, 2.24.1 4.2.1 1.7.2

1.2.2 1.3.6 1.8.2 1.9.2 1.16.1 1.18.1 1.25.1 2.28.5, 2.29.7 3.9.1 3.10.1 3.15.1 1.25.1 1.2.2 1.3.6 1.2.2 1.11.6 1.16.1 1.18.1 2.25.9 2.28.5, 2.29.7 5.26.1 1.25.1 5.26.1 1.18.1

Theodore of Cyrene, ed. Winiarczyk T 35 1.7.1 Theophrastus, ed. Fortenbaugh, Huby, Sharples & Gutas 232 2.20.5 236 2.29.8 479 1.proem. 3 Timaeus, ed. Jacoby FrGH 566F73 3.17.6

Xenocrates, ed. Heinze 15 28 40 50 51 57 60 69 70 74

1.7.21 1.3.22 1.22.3 1.17.3 1.13 2.15.1 4.2.4 4.7a.1 4.4.2 4.7.1

—, ed. Isnardi Parente2 F21 F68 F71 F79 F82 F90 F125 F126 F130 F133

1.3.22 1.13.3 1.17.3 1.22.3 2.15.1 4.2.4 4.7a.1 4.4.2 4.7.1 1.7.21

Xenophanes, ed. Diels–Kranz 21A36 1.3.11 21A37 2.1.3, 2.4.5 21A38 2.13.14 21A39 2.18.1 21A40 2.20.2, 2.20.5 21A40 2.24.5 21A40a 2.24.8 21A42 2.30.9 21A43 2.25.3, 2.28.1, 2.29.6 21A44 3.2.12 21A45 3.3.6 21A46 3.4.4 21A47 3.9.4, 3.11.2 21A49 4.9.1 21A52 5.1.2 21B20.1 3.4.4 21B27 1.3.11 21B28.3 3.9.4 Zeno of Elea, ed. Diels–Kranz 29A23 4.9.1 29A30 1.7.18


index of fragment collections and extant sources

Zeno the Stoic, ed. Von Arnim SVF 1.65 1.10.5 1.85 1.3.23 1.91 1.15.6 1.95 1.20.1 1.97 2.1.2 1.101 1.12.4

1.116 1.128 1.129 1.157 1.176 1.204

2.11.4 5.4.1 5.5.2 1.7.14 1.27.5 4.9.18

Index of Ancient and Modern Names This selective index lists the more important references to ancient writers and modern scholars as cited and discussed in the General Introduction and Commentary. Excluded are references which are covered by the other indices, namely: (1) primary and secondary witnesses to Aëtius’ compendium (see index 1); and (2) ancient thinkers whose names and views appear in the Aëtian text (see index 2). An exception to the second excluded group are ancient writers who, apart from being holders of philosophical views, also played a significant role in their transmission. So, for example, Aristotle is not indexed for his doxai and philosophical doctrines, but for the role he played in developing the method of the Placita and as a source for the structure and contents of its books and chapters. Note further the following: (1) page references may also refer to footnotes on those pages (in the General Introduction only); (2) page numbers separated by a dash may indicate references on separate pages, not necessarily a continuous discussion; (3) index entries referring to ancient authors in sections B and E of the Commentary, i.e. relating to proximate traditions and the sources, should be further pursued throughout the entire chapter in question (this does not apply to very long chapters such as Plac. 1.3 and 1.7); (4) in order to facilitate consultation, lists of references longer than about 15 items are divided into sections corresponding to the main divisions of the edition, i.e. the General Introduction (abbreviated G.I.) and the five Books (abbreviated Bk.). Abbahu see Rabbi Abel, K. 900, 1296 Achilles 108–109, 267, 1135, 1160 Adamson, P. 1637 Aelianus Tacticus 123–125 Aelius Herodianus 120 Aelius Theon 142, 735, 784 Aenesidemus 996, 1430 Aëtius (name) 120 Aëtius of Amida 1753, 1870, 1873 al-Bitriq 1155, 1161, 1226 Alberti, Leon Battista 1637 Albinus 117 Alcinous 109–110, 257, 401, 472–473, 491, 613, 737, 744, 840, 853, 934, 1626, 1693 Alexander of Aphrodisias G.I. 75, 85; Bk.1 110, 143, 453, 520, 567, 674, 705; Bk.2 737, 759, 786–787, 806, 932, 941, 994, 1008, 1015, 1099; Bk.3 1154, 1160, 1224, 1323; Bk.4 1362, 1431, 1509, 1626, 1658; Bk.5 2037 Alexander of Lycopolis 984 Alexander Philalethes 117 Alexander Polyhistor 254, 1482, 2013 Algra, K.A. 40, 579, 583, 866, 870–871 Alhacen 1098, 1223, 1626 Allan, J. 1597

Alt, K. 247–249 Ambrose of Milan 75, 109, 234, 799 Ammonius Hermeiou 140 Anatolius 1059 Anonymus Bruxellensis 1750, 1786, 1846, 1918, 1922, 1926 Anonymus Londiniensis 75, 1749, 1889, 1970–1971, 1973, 2047, 2051 Anonymus Parisinus 1476, 1750, 2037 Apollonius of Perga 124 Apollonius of Rhodes 1045 Apuleius 447, 737, 1068, 1637, 1656 Aratea 1135, 1153, 1193, 1219, 1242 Aratus 267, 351, 960, 1120 Archimedes 530, 995 Aristarchus 997, 1051 Aristo of Ceos 2048 Aristophanes of Byzantium 1839, 1846, 1908 Aristotle G.I. 23–24, 71–72, 78–82; Bk.1 110– 111, 133–134, 144, 257, 260, 387, 446, 452, 489, 500, 517, 537, 556, 584, 592, 609, 650, 705, 713; Bk.2 737, 751, 799, 821, 827, 840, 878, 887, 908, 922, 930, 941, 951, 958, 995, 1015, 1059, 1081, 1093, 1106, 1122; Bk.3 1133–1138, 1146, 1153–1161, 1173–1175, 1187–1189, 1206, 1219–1222, 1224–1226, 1237, 1243, 1248–1249,

2310 Aristotle Bk.3 (cont.) 1261–1262, 1266, 1274, 1285, 1305–1307, 1323, 1325, 1333; Bk.4 1359, 1362–1363, 1377–1378, 1398, 1401, 1405, 1429, 1434, 1458, 1478, 1496, 1498, 1507, 1509–1510, 1528, 1532, 1543, 1545, 1564, 1569, 1585, 1600, 1629, 1668, 1680, 1685, 1692, 1705, 1714, 1724, 1727; Bk.5 1743, 1749–1752, 1765, 1774, 1787, 1805, 1809, 1819–1820, 1823, 1826, 1831, 1839, 1846, 1853, 1862, 1870, 1878, 1886, 1899, 1905, 1908–1909, 1938, 1952, 1961, 1964, 1970–1973, 1980, 1983, 1992, 1994, 2001, 2012, 2047– 2048 Arius Didymus G.I. 75; Bk.1 108, 117, 120, 445, 472, 580, 629, 691–692; Bk.2 729, 734, 827, 836, 880, 930, 945, 979, 1008, 1071; Bk.3 1219, 1238, 1243; Bk.4 1362, 1630, 1675; Bk.5 1761, 1797, 2039 Arnobius of Sicca 75, 109, 144, 887, 1068 Arrian 123, 1134, 1172, 1193, 1248 Artemidorus 1776, 1779 Asclepiodotus 124 Aspasius 110, 1008 Asmis, E. 1603 Athenaeus of Attalia 1961–1962 Athenagoras 108–109 Atticus 110, 401, 505 Aucher, J.B. 53 Augustine 70, 75, 109, 234, 265, 735, 783, 1068, 1122, 1597, 1779, 1847 Aulus Gellius 1704, 1748, 1918, 1960, 1963 Avotins, I. 1657 Ax, W. 84, 1545, 1675, 1676, 1677, 1693, 1694 Babut, D. 1598 Bailey, C. 1053 Bakker, F. 773, 1072, 1083–1084, 1135, 1136, 1137, 1192, 1304, 1306 Balaudé, J.-F. 1404 Balme, D. 1839 Baltes, M. 93, 255, 400, 804, 1458, 1459, 1569, 1588, 1953 See also Dörrie–Baltes Baltussen, H. 84–85, 1044, 1400, 1404, 1545, 1570, 1627, 1635, 1676, 1724, 1956 Barhebraeus 70, 234, 268 Barnes, J. 995, 1405, 1567

index of ancient and modern names Barns, J. 45, 1842 Basil of Caesarea 75, 109, 735, 887, 1274, 1285, 1322 Bastianini, G.–Long, A.A. 1551 Baumgarten, H. 1725 Bergsträßer, G. 1136 Bernabé, A. 93 Bernadakis, G. 57 Berti, E. 1532 Betegh, G. 266, 1434 Bethe, E. 960 Beullens, P. 1377–1378 Bicknell, P. 226, 332, 1029 Bien, C.G. 1833 Bobzien, S. 607–609, 679 Bodnár, I.M. 1119–1120 Boethus the Peripatetic 1110, 1396, 1404 Boethus the Stoic 1109–1110 Boissonade, J.F. 2047 Bollack, J. 88, 880, 1193, 1879, 1889, 2016 Bonitz, H. 1189, 1224, 1507, 1544 Bottler, H. G.I. 13, 39; Bk.1 116, 119, 121–122, 235, 241, 610; Bk.2 755–756, 805, 839, 862, 880, 910, 979, 999, 1007, 1053, 1060–1061, 1081, 1105, 1117 Boudon-Millot, V. 1138 Bowen, A.C. 914 Boys-Stones, G.R. 347, 786 Bremmer, J. 16, 119 Brind’Amour, P. 925 Brinkmann, A. 1295, 1549 Brisson, L. 1887 Broggiato, M. 1337 Bühler, W. 93 Burkert, W. 256, 804, 822, 851, 899, 1029, 1119, 1158, 1286, 1399, 1433, 1458, 1511, 1657, 1953 Caelius Aurelianus 110 Calcidius G.I. 75, 77; Bk.1 109–110, 234, 267, 434, 446, 659, 681, 694, 705; Bk.2 878, 1106; Bk.3 1219, 1224; Bk.4 1435, 1476, 1626, 1637, 1665; Bk.5 1775, 1779 Callimachus 269, 1399 Callipus 1120 Canivet, P. 63 Capelle, W. 822 Carman, C.C. 1109 Carneades 1767

index of ancient and modern names Caston, V. 1406 Celsus 110, 140, 265, 1750, 1757, 2024 Censorinus G.I. 74; Bk.2 735, 1116, 1119–1122; Bk.5 1748, 1785–1786, 1805, 1819, 1845, 1853, 1857, 1892, 1898, 1905, 1917–1918, 1927, 1937, 1942, 1960, 1980, 1984 Cherniss, H. 804, 1131, 1040, 1098, 1635 Chrysippus G.I. 72; Bk.1 144, 251; Bk.2 736, 773, 930; Bk.3 1138; Bk.4 1363, 1369, 1455, 1478–1479, 1482, 1599, 1616; Bk.5 2047 Cicero G.I. 17, 22, 70, 73–74, 89; Bk.1 108, 110, 133, 139, 142, 145, 234, 250, 342, 385, 404, 503, 640, 679; Bk.2 734–735, 738, 770, 783, 799, 827, 849, 914, 930, 951, 997, 1030, 1039, 1050, 1068, 1116; Bk.3 1153, 1262, 1274, 1285; Bk.4 1364, 1398, 1400, 1426, 1476, 1482, 1506, 1564, 1570; Bk.5 1748, 1761, 1766–1767, 1774, 1952, 2000, 2047 Clearchus 1096 Cleidemus 958 Clement of Alexandria G.I. 75; Bk.1 109– 110, 342, 453; Bk.2 1059; Bk.4 1508, 1601; Bk.5 1749, 1885, 1892, 1918, 1922, 1927, 1941, 2011, 2053 Cleomedes 529, 738, 878, 934, 951, 996, 1051, 1059, 1070, 1098, 1119, 1266, 1275 Cobet, C.G. 1267 Columella 123 Congourdeau, M.-H. 1420, 1886 Copernicus, Nic. 1286 Cornford, F.M. 758 Cornutus 251 Corpus Hippocraticum G.I. 70; Bk.1 260, 541; Bk.4 1476; Bk.5 1751, 1787, 1805, 1846, 1853, 1862, 1886, 1906, 1908, 1918, 1921, 1927, 1960, 1963–1964, 1982, 2024, 2030 Corsinus, E. 1834, 1995 Couprie, D.L. 758, 778, 943–945, 983, 998, 1017, 1071, 1086, 1110 Coxon, A.H. 1567 Cronin, P. 964 Curd, P. 1953 D’Ancona, C. 1659 Damianus 1223 Daiber, H. G.I. 54–55, 57, 88; Bk.1 115–116, 606, 640; Bk.2 985, 999, 1098, 1108;

2311 Bk.3 1136, 1141, 1161, 1219, 1226; Bk.4 1349, 1367, 1542; Bk.5 1872, 1955, 2005, 2049 Damastes the doctor 1919, 1927, 1964 Daroca, J.C. 1072 David 140–141 De Breucker, G. 1044, 1055, 1073 De Lacy, P. 1825 De Nardi, M. 1378 Deichgräber, K. 1825 Delatte, A. 57 Demetrius of Phalerum 2047 Derveni papyrus 995, 999 Demetrius the Cynic 1847 Demonax 783 Des Places, E. 1507 Di Maria, G. 66 Dickey, E. 122 Diels, H. 28–34 and passim Dillon, J.M. 397, 400, 839 See also Finamore, J.F.–Dillon, J.M. Dio Chrysostom 353 Diodorus Siculus 123, 125, 900, 1941 Diodotus 146 Diogenes of Babylon 251 Diogenes Laertius G.I. 24, 73, 75, 77; Bk.1 108–110, 116, 134, 140, 445; Bk.2 734– 735, 738, 827, 930, 941, 976, 1008, 1027, 1059, 1081, 1092; Bk.3 1134, 1138, 1147, 1158, 1255, 1266; Bk.4 1361, 1363, 1528, 1594, 1602, 1695; Bk.5 1750, 1823, 2012, 2026 Diogenes of Oenoanda 109–110, 503, 738, 977, 1021 Dion of Naples 1122 Dionysius of Aegae 1749, 1786 Dionysius of Alexandria 754 Dionysius of Halicarnassus 124–125 Donini, P.-L. 1431 Dorandi, T. 61, 954, 1050, 1267, 1695 Dörrie, H. 93, 1436, 1460 Dörrie, H.–Baltes, M. 1405, 1407, 1430, 1509, 1570 Doxapatres 1918–1919 Drossaart Lulofs, H.J. 2013 Duffy, J.M. 56 Duhem, P. 1333 Dührsen, N.C. 662, 679 Dyson, H. 1598

2312 Edelstein, L. 87 Edgeworth, R.J. 1667 Effe, B. 821, 954 Elias 140–141 Elter, A. G.I. 61; Bk.1 216, 229; Bk.2 836, 1040; Bk.3 1336; Bk.4 1452, 1542, 1587; Bk.5 1798, 1805, 1920, 1940, 1962, 1972 Engberg-Pedersen, T. 1551, 1599 Epictetus 783 Epicurus G.I. 72, 74; Bk.1 353, 385; Bk.2 735, 737, 773, 964, 1015, 1020, 1027, 1072; Bk.3 1135, 1139, 1176, 1192, 1208, 1305; Bk.4 1361, 1477, 1602; Bk.5 1750, 1752, 1787, 1864, 1991 Epiphanius 75, 109, 234, 267 Eratosthenes 995, 1108 Ermerins, F.Z. 124 Euclid 530, 1224, 1635, 1655, 1666 Euctemon 964 Eudemus 388, 736, 900, 930, 1051, 1071, 1106 Eudorus 255 Eudoxus 1051, 1120 Euripides 146, 1616, 1937 Eusebius of Caesarea 124, 1141, 1146, 1368 Eutocius 506 Evans, J. 1109 Évieux, P. 69 Falcon, A. 892, 1431 Favorinus 977 Ferrari, F. 1511 Festugière, A.-J. 1361 Finamore, J.F.–Dillon, J.M. 1531 Flashar, H. 1943 Fowler, R.L. 1378 Frede, M. 13, 23, 63, 395, 1527, 1600 Funghi, M.S. 1326, 1496, 1529 Furley, D. 751, 771, 860, 1018 Galen G.I. 75; Bk.1 109–110, 142, 146, 453, 541, 630; Bk.2 735, 751, 783, 798, 867, 994, 1050, 1106; Bk.3 1138, 1224, 1267, 1274; Bk.4 1362, 1407, 1457, 1626; Bk.5 1726, 1753, 1787, 1807, 1820, 1822, 1824, 1853, 1885, 1906, 1909, 1960–1961, 1971, 2040, 2047 Ganson, T.S. 1634 Garofalo, I. 2053 Gassendi, P. 2016

index of ancient and modern names Gemelli Marciano, M.L. 33, 252 Geminus 933–934, 964, 1059, 1070, 1119, 1223, 1266, 1275, 1626, 1637, 1659 Gigon, O. 85, 1846 Gilbert, O. 924, 1267 Giussani, C. 1668 Glidden, D. 1603 Goethe, J.W. von 539, 1633, 1637, 1668 Gorgias 70, 264, 751 Gottschalk, H. 914 Goulet, R. 1110 Goulet-Cazé, M.-O. 1404, 1659 Gourinat, J.-B. 13, 120, 1527, 1632 Graham, D.W. 33, 751, 1071, 1084 Greene, G.C. 54 Gregory, A. 1188 Gregory of Nyssa 887, 1059, 1070 Grensemann, H. 1918, 1921–1922, 1925 Griesbach, J.J. 22 Groeneboom, P. 1808 Gross, N. 1376 Gundel, H. 1040, 1175 Gutas, D. 640 Guthrie, W.K.C. 839, 853, 925, 943, 1029, 1405, 2004 Haas, A.E. 1625 Hadot, P. 136 Hagedorn, D. 51 Hahm, D.E. 984, 1020, 1226, 1668 Hall, J.J. 1308 Hanson, A.E. 1922 Hanson, R.P.C. 67 Haslam, M.W. 1403, 1499 Havrda, M. 1885 Heath, T.L. 738, 1030, 1337 Heeren, A.H.L. 804, 660, 900, 1030, 1550 Hein, C. 1544 Henry, R. 61 Heraclides of Pontus 255 Heraclitus the Allegorist 75, 260, 265 Hermagoras 142, 735, 994 Hermogenes 982, 1885 Herodian see Aelius Herodianus Herodotus 1027, 1364, 1377, 2040, 2050 Heron Mechanicus 1224, 1635 Hesiod 57, 71, 435, 964–965, 1992 Hicetas 914 Hillgruber, M. 262


index of ancient and modern names Hine, H.M. 1135, 1376 Hipparchus 1051 Hippias 70, 2015 Hippocrates 1906, 1981, 2048 Hippolytus G.I. 75, 77; Bk.1 108, 260, 401; Bk.2 734, 850, 908, 930, 941, 967, 976, 1007, 1015, 1027, 1081, 1092, 1106; Bk.3 1134, 1266, 1285, 1323; Bk.5 1749, 1937, 2024 Homer 8, 57, 71, 787, 878, 934, 1459, 1750, 1992 Huffman, C.A. 821–823, 840, 853, 1086, 1096, 1099, 1889 Huna see Rabbi Hunayn ibn-Ishaq 1161 Hypatia 69 Iamblichus 75, 77, 680, 1099, 1362, 1460, 1496, 1531 ibn al-Haytham see Alhacen Ideler, I.L. 78, 1153–1154, 1192, 1219, 1237 Ilberg, J. 124 Ingenkamp, H.G. 1668, 1693 Inwood, B. 1598 Irenaeus 75, 109, 124, 1068 Isidore of Pelusium 735, 922 Isidore of Seville 75, 735 Isnardi Parente, I. 34 Isocrates 71, 260 Jaeger, W. 1613 Jas, M. G.I. 49–50, 88; Bk.2 866, 871, 999, 1050, 1053, 1059; Bk.5 1763, 1791, 1801, 1824, 1917, 2016 Jeremiah, E.T. G.I. 18, 26; Bk.1 103, 121–122; Bk.2 733; Bk.3 1134, 1152, 1172, 1190, 1248; Bk.4 1360, 1396, 1401, 1498, 1630; Bk.5 1742 Jesus 1918 Joly, R. 1918 Jones, A. 1224, 1635, 1655 Jouanna, J. 1919, 2024 Journée, G. 220, 229, 232, 242, 933 Kahn, Ch. 758, 943 Kannicht, R. 1942 Kant, I. 1337 Karpp, H. 1359 Kessels, A.H.M. 1776, 1778

Keyser, P.T. 914 Kidd, D.A. 967 Kidd, I.G. 87, 871, 1159, 1336, 1377, 1636 Kirk, G.S. 913, 925, 1029 Koenen, M. 1658 Kollesch, J. 123, 1786 Kranz, W. 32, 87, 256, 1807 Kraus, W. 960 Kraut, R. 1983 Kronenberg, A.J. 1873 Kuhrt, A. 1072 Kullmann, W. 1363, 1434, 1600 Kurfess, H. 1533 Lacaze, G. 967 Lachenaud, G. 57–59, 235, 866, 913, 960, 1098, 1716, 1954, 1974, 2036 Lachmann, K. 21, 76 Lactantius G.I. 75; Bk.1 144; Bk.2 887, 932, 1059, 1506; Bk.4 1691; Bk.5 1748, 1785, 1805, 1808, 1813, 1819, 1853, 1906, 1909, 1937 Laks, A. G.I. 88; Bk.1 254; Bk.2 755, 786– 787, 806, 913, 1017, 1086; Bk.3 1325; Bk.4 1568, 1676, 1686; Bk.5 1888–1889, 1891, 1953, 1955, 1992, 1994, 2004 Laks, A.–Most, G. 1627, 1943, 1974 Lammert, F. 1602 Laqueur, W. 124 Lebedev, A. 15, 39, 120, 449, 520, 1029 Leith, D. 2051, 2053 Lejeune, A. 1634, 1657 Lesky, E. 1787, 1789–1790, 1853–1856 Leszl, W. 235, 610, 755 Lettinck, P. 1161, 1226 Lloyd, G.E.R. 925, 1879, 1899 Long, A.A. 1594, 1598, 1694 See also Bastianini, G.–Long, A.A. Long, A.A.–Sedley, D.N. 1597, 1601 Longrigg, J. 2023 Lonie, I. 1889, 1961, 1963 Lucan, Scholia to 1774 Lucian of Samosata 75, 750, 961, 1039, 1092 Lucretius G.I. 72–73; Bk.1 109, 234, 342, 386, 640; Bk.2 735, 738, 941, 977, 1021, 1027, 1053, 1072, 1081; Bk.3 1134, 1135, 1219, 1153, 1189, 1193, 1205, 1256, 1304, 1322; Bk.4 1361, 1545, 1551, 1565, 1693, 1626, 1692; Bk.5 1750, 1752, 1805, 1834, 1839,


index of ancient and modern names

Lucretius Bk.4 (cont.) 1853, 1870, 1937, 1953, 1974, 2002, 2015, 2050 Luria, S. 773 Lydus, Ioannes 958, 1208, 1337, 1376

Nicolaus of Rhegium 42, 50, 866, 877, 1059, 1107, 1801, 1917 Nicomachus of Gerasa 1059, 1982 Numenius 401, 1779

Maass, P. 66, 1010 Macrobius 75, 735, 934, 995, 1106, 1153, 1159, 1362, 1398, 1462, 1499, 1775, 1779 Manilius 933, 960, 1134, 1153, 1160, 1268 Mansfeld, J. 21–28, 86 and passim Manuwald, A. 1603 Marcellus of Ancyra 48 Marcovich, M. 49, 65, 1050, 1982, 1985 Marcus Aurelius 783 Marius Victorinus 454, 735, 798, 1226 Martianus Rota 1362 Martin, J. 66–67 Mary 1918 Mau, J. 46, 57–58, 557, 866, 1030, 1098, 1549, 1926, 1954, 1974, 2036 Maximus of Tyre 659 McKirahan, R.D. 33, 405 Méhat, A. 1659 Meineke, A. 638, 804 Mejer, J. 930 Meno 1749, 1971 Mercuriale, Girolami 1635 Merker, A. 1225 Meton of Athens 1120 Metzler, K. 1856 Morani, M. 63, 68 Moraux, P. 786, 839, 891, 1406, 1431, 1532, 1533, 2012 Morel, A. 69 Morel, P. 1901 Moses 1918 Most, G. 88, 1086 See also Laks, A.–Most, G. Mouraviev, S.N. 1029, 1983 Mourelatos, A. 757, 914, 960, 983, 1044 Mras, K. 48, 259, 933 Mugler, Ch. 1631, 1657 Mutschmann, H. 123

O’Brien, D. 805, 853, 1071, 1085, 1636, 1920, 2025 Obbink, D. 405 Olympiodorus 75, 140–141, 1160, 1377 Oniga Farra, F. 30, 1920 Opelt, I. 1695 Oribasius 1753, 1899–1900, 1962 Origen 75, 1116, 1856

Nemesius 108–109, 268, 681, 696, 1362, 1436, 1626, 1804, 1807–1808, 1909, 2011 Newton, I. 1337 Nicolaus of Damascus 2012, 2014

Palmer, J. 332 Panaetius 136, 139, 1767 Papathomopoulos, M. 57 Parker, H.N. 1919–1923, 1927 Parroni, P. 1616 Paschke, F. 69 Pasquali, G. 65, 69, 915 Pease, A.S. 94, 1510, 1767 Pellegrin, P. 2040 Pendrick, G.J. 984, 1070 Perilli, L. 1635 Perrin, M. 1809 Petron of Aegina 2047 Petron of Himera 754 Philip of Opus 996, 1187 Philippson, R. 1457 Philistion 2047, 2051 Philo of Alexandria G.I. 74, 89; Bk.1 108, 110, 613; Bk.2 734–735, 750, 754, 783, 798–802, 819, 821, 840, 868, 878, 886–887, 908, 930, 941, 951, 954, 958, 963, 994, 1015, 1039, 1059, 1068, 1081, 1092, 1097; Bk.3 1134, 1153, 1160; Bk.4 1398, 1426, 1476, 1482; Bk.5 1748, 1886, 1909, 1937, 1940, 1954, 1980, 1983, 2000 Philodemus 72–74, 89, 109, 251, 265, 342, 385, 404–406, 738, 1767, 1775, 1778 Philoponus 140, 447, 737, 771, 878, 887, 994, 1099, 1222, 1404, 1431 Philoxenus the grammarian 1691 Photius 116, 804, 1242, 1336, 1357, 1805, 1819, 1825, 1920 Pietrobelli, A. 1138


index of ancient and modern names Plato G.I. 71; Bk.1 110, 260, 476; Bk.2 751, 823, 878, 930, 977, 1068; Bk.4 1370, 1364, 1403, 1476, 1628; Bk.5 1743, 1751, 1761, 1774, 1787, 1907, 1951–1952, 1973, 2000, 2047 Pliny the Elder Bk.1 108, 123, 125, 140; Bk.2 964, 1106; Bk.3 1134, 1193, 1248, 1266, 1274, 1309, 1324; Bk.4 1458, 1599; Bk.5 1757, 1846, 1921 Plotinus 453, 614–615, 783 Plutarch of Chaeronea G.I. 45; Bk.1 614, 714; Bk.2 735, 754, 783, 819, 823, 891, 951, 1009, 1039, 1045, 1050, 1068, 1093, 1106; Bk.3 1337; Bk.4 1616; Bk.5 1941, 1954, 1994, 2016 Podolak, P. 1479 Pohlenz, M. 1598 Polemon of Laodicea 124–125 Poljakov, Th. 69 Polybius 124–125, 1294 Porphyry G.I. 77; Bk.1 434, 452, 575; Bk.2 1106; Bk.4 1362, 1460, 1659; Bk.5 1779, 1885, 1890, 1892, 1899, 1909, 1926, 1961 Posidonius 139, 251, 342, 1107, 1133, 1193, 1248, 1336, 1765, 1775, 1778 Préaux, C. 1040, 1333 Primavesi, O. 34, 50, 88, 541, 581, 584, 871, 1636, 1761–1762, 1973, 1776–1777 Proclus 681, 827, 878, 934, 952, 964, 1137, 1924, 1962 Propertius 144 Protagoras 10 Psellus 252, 1131 ps.Alexander 518, 529, 941, 1431, 1919 ps.Archytas 254 ps.Aristotle Inund.Nili 1364, 1377 ps.Aristotle Mu. 541, 934, 1134, 1172, 1219, 1248, 1250, 2052 ps.Aristotle MXG 714 ps.Aristotle Probl. 1325, 1434, 1696, 1944 ps.Eratosthenes 960 ps.Galen An.ut. 1887, 1899 ps.Galen Def.Med. G.I. 75; Bk.4 1533, 1680; Bk.5 1748–1749, 1785–1786, 1797, 1805, 1813, 1819, 1831, 1838–1839, 1846, 1853, 1870, 1886, 1891, 1898, 1905, 1917, 1927, 1991, 2023, 2030, 2037, 2046 ps.Galen HPh 108, 123, 140, 267–268, 390, 520, 1172, 1349, 1364, 1396

ps.Galen Intro. 1750, 2037 ps.Hermagoras 142 ps.Iamblichus Theol.Ar. 840, 1962 ps.Justin 108, 265, 1397, 1425 ps.Plutarch De fato 659, 678, 694, 705 ps.Plutarch Hom. 75, 108, 260 ps.Plutarch Strom. 75, 108, 221–224, 234, 265, 267, 734, 850, 889, 976, 1263, 1481 ps.Soranus 1750, 2023, 2037 ps.Valerius Probus 75, 234 Ptolemy 930, 964, 995, 1155, 1223, 1263, 1266, 1275, 1597, 1602, 1627, 1984 Pythagoreans 234–235, 1133 Quintilian 109, 123, 133, 142, 265, 735, 783, 798, 994, 1059 Rabbi Abbahu 1918 Rabbi Huna 1918 Raeder, J. 63, 1376, 1527 Rashed, M. 759, 806, 1631, 1636, 1696, 1727 Rathmayr, R. 1846, 1848 Raven, J.E. 913, 925, 1029 Regenbogen, O. 123 Rehm, A. 1381 Rehm, B. 69 Reinhardt, K. 1336 Reinhardt, O. 1337 Reitzenstein, R. 1136 Rhazes 758 Riedweg, Chr. 48, 52, 757 Rist, J.M. 629 Robin, L. 1135, 1189, 1193, 1208, 1219, 1304, 1403 Rocca-Serra, G. 1121, 1567, 1786 Rolke, K.-J. 1599 Roller, D.W. 1337, 1380 Rose, V. 1378, 1814, 1846, 1952 Ross, W.D. 1905, 1953 Rota see Martianus Rota Royse, J.R. 61, 1734 Rudolph, U. 967 Rufinus 69 Rufus of Ephesus 1880, 1899–1900 Runia, D.T. 21–28, 86 and passim Russo, L. 758, 1338 Sassi, M.M. 126, 1326 Scalas, G. 1432

2316 Schofield, M. 913, 925, 1029 Scholten, C. 63, 1527, 2017 Schönbeck, G.L. 995 Schoonheim, P.L. 1161, 1226 Schopenhauer, A. 257 Schrijvers, P. 1361, 1400, 1778 Schröder, B.J. 123 Schubert, C. 217, 1616 Schütrumpf, E. 915 Schwabl, H. 925 Schwartz, E. 123 Scribonius Largus 123 Sedley, D.N. 602, 751, 1071, 1135, 1551 See also Long, A.A.–Sedley, D.N. Seleucus Grammaticus 1691 Seneca G.I. 75; Bk.1 108, 145, 260, 352; Bk.2 735, 738, 887, 908, 932, 958, 995; Bk.3 1133, 1135, 1138, 1146, 1153, 1173, 1176, 1193, 1205, 1208, 1219, 1226, 1237, 1242, 1248, 1256, 1274, 1304; Bk.4 1374, 1379, 1656; Bk.5 1847 Servius (incl. Auctus) 75–76, 234, 267, 798, 1116 Setaioli, A. 1193 Sextus Empiricus G.I. 25, 75–76; Bk.1 108– 109, 123, 265–267, 342, 452, 505, 517, 592, 600, 609, 640, 650; Bk.2 735, 958, 1120; Bk.3 1287; Bk.4 1528, 1594, 1602, 1695; Bk.5 1761, 1954 Sextus Pomponius 265 Sharples, R.W. G.I. 34, 67, 87; Bk.1 607, 629, 679; Bk.2 954; Bk.3 1136, 1137, 1233, 1323; Bk.4 1378, 1406, 1436, 1509, 1626, 1657; Bk.5 1765, 1778, 1909, 1995–1996 Siebert, H. 1627, 1635 Simon, G. 1628 Simplicius G.I. 29, 83; Bk.1 110, 140, 195, 592, 615, 630; Bk.2 737, 758–759, 853, 878, 930, 1061, 1099, 1106; Bk.3 1136, 1268, 1287 Smith, A.M. 1223 Socrates 1015, 1040 Solmsen, F. 110, 446, 1223, 1598 Solon 1750, 1980, 1983–1984 Sopater the rhetor 783 Soranus G.I. 75; Bk.2 1061; Bk.4 1361, 1398, 1406, 1426, 1452, 1476; Bk.5 1750, 1753, 1815, 1834–1835, 1919, 1991 Sotion 73, 227, 234, 243, 260

index of ancient and modern names Staseas the Peripatetic 1981 Steinmetz, P. 980, 984 Stoics G.I. 72, 87; Bk.1 110–111, 452; Bk.2 737; Bk.3 1134, 1158; Bk.4 1358, 1364, 1594, 1714; Bk.5 1750, 1761, 1787 Stothers, R. 1243 Strabo 770, 1138, 1294, 1333 Strato 234, 784 Strickland, L. 1588 Sturz, F.W. 805 Synesius 69 Tacitus 659 Tarán, L. 1822 Tardieu, M. 1511 Taurus, Calvenus 83, 85 Taylor, A.E. 1120 Tertullian G.I. 76; Bk.1 108; Bk.2 735, 798, 804; Bk.3 1135; Bk.4 1361, 1398, 1436, 1452, 1455, 1476, 1530; Bk.5 1748, 1774, 1886, 1891, 1980, 1983–1984, 1991 Theiler, W. 87, 1176, 1193, 1248, 1333, 1337, 1482 Themistius 76, 144, 2015 Theon of Alexandria 1295 Theon of Smyrna 827, 900, 1119, 1962–1963 Theophilus 76 Theophrastus G.I. 22, 29, 76, 82–85; Bk.1 110, 117, 125, 195–196, 257, 260, 536–538, 704, 713; Bk.2 736, 758, 799, 850, 852, 899, 931, 960, 964, 976, 984, 1015, 1071, 1106; Bk.3 1135, 1136–1137, 1153, 1173, 1187, 1192, 1206, 1219, 1238, 1249, 1262, 1305, 1323, 1326; Bk.4 1363, 1364, 1432, 1481, 1497, 1528, 1531, 1543, 1545, 1547, 1550, 1564, 1568, 1587, 1627, 1631, 1635, 1657, 1667, 1676, 1680, 1684, 1692; Bk.5 1750, 1823, 1937, 1955, 1973, 2030 Thesleff, H. 1635 Thrasyllus 269 Tieleman, T.L. 1616, 1753, 1889, 1891 Tihon, A. 1161 Timaeus Locrus 744, 840, 934 Todd, R.B. 914 Torraca, L. 59, 62, 1030, 1549, 1716, 1926, 1955 Trypho the grammarian 1694 Turba philosophorum 967 Tzetzes 109, 1920


index of ancient and modern names Usener, H. 21, 76, 78, 83, 195, 980–981, 1050, 1154, 1528, 1568, 1774 Van der Eijk, P.J. G.I. 67; Bk.4 1480; Bk.5 1787, 1839, 1843, 1873, 1879– 1881, 1909, 2023, 2037, 2039, 2052– 2053 Van der Horst, P.W. 1805, 1826, 1918 VanderWaerdt, P.A. 1457 Varro G.I. 73–74, 89; Bk.1 109, 251, 391, 434; Bk.2 734, 799, 1122; Bk.5 1748, 1774, 1786, 1808, 1813, 1819, 1853, 1906, 1918, 1960, 1963, 1980 Vassallo, Chr. 404, 852 Vegetti, M. 1457 Verde, F. 1634 Verdenius, W.J. 1631 Vergil 8, 146 Vindicianus 1786 Vítek, T. 88, 1975 Vitrac, B. 1225 Vitruvius 76, 140, 964, 1068, 1250 Von Arnim, H. G.I. 87; Bk.2 838, 924, 1015, 1110; Bk.4 1510, 1531, 1549, 1668, 1691; Bk.5 1765, 1891, 1996, 2053 Von Baer, K.A. 1808 Von Staden. H. 1775, 1778, 2039, 2051 Vottero, D. 1616 Wachsmuth, C. G.I. 60–62; Bk.1 229; Bk.2

868, 1040; Bk.3 1208, 1274, 1337; Bk.4 1400, 1452, 1496, 1506, 1542, 1543, 1584, 1585, 1654, 1658, 1694, 1714; Bk.5 1798, 1991 Walzer, R. 1953 Waszink, J.H. 1224, 1361, 1434, 1457, 1479, 1664, 1779, 1921, 1980 Webster, C. 1658 Wehrli, F. 87, 821, 954, 1096, 1778, 1995 Wellmann, M. 1879 Wendland, P. 348, 886, 1398, 1426, 1476 West, M. 754, 1460, 1631 Westerink, L.G. 56 Wigodsky, M. 403 Wildberger, J. 348, 436 Williams, G.D. 1304, 1376 Wilson, M. 821, 1136, 1188, 1206, 1222, 1225, 1249 Wöhrle, G. 33, 891, 913, 925, 983, 1027, 1071 Wolfsdorf, D. 2012, 2023–2026, 2030, 2032– 2033 Wright, M.R. 985, 1939 Wuensch, R. 53 Xenocrates 435, 853, 1092 Xenophon 71, 260, 751, 977 Zeller, E. (& Nestle, W.) 78, 226, 332, 1405, 1735 Zhmud, L. 754, 930, 1029, 1528