Astronomical diaries and related texts from Babylonia 5 : Lunar and planetary texts. 9783700130284, 3700130287

327 99 25MB

English Pages [464] Year 2001

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Astronomical diaries and related texts from Babylonia 5 : Lunar and planetary texts.
 9783700130284, 3700130287

Citation preview

ERRATA Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia Volume V: Lunar and Planetary Texts Edited by Hermann Hunger· Including Materials by Abraham J. Sachs · With an Appendix by John M. Steele Hunger, Hermann (ed.) On p. 392, footnote 4: Add: A similar explanation was proposed by D. Brown, Mesopotamian Planetary Astronomy-Astrology (Groningen 2000) p. 205f. The figures 1 and 2 mentioned in the first paragraph of p. 392 were erroneously left out in printing. Very similar ones can be found in the article listed on p. 391 footnote 1.

ASTRON02\1JCAL DIA RIE S AND REL ATE D TEXTN FRO M BAB YLO NIA

\'olunw \' Lunar and PlanN ary T months, the 14th. morning watl'h. it madP (an Pl'iips1·) . . . . , •••• J 1 11 2,10. Year l. Month VL !the I jlf>th • it made (an el'lipsP) • It lwgan in thbrual'y ti.

No. 2

'Obv. I J'



:r

1,50. Year I of Mukin-zPri, month I, (eclip1,1e) which was omitted. At l ,0° after 1mnri1,1e.

Lunar T«·xt:II 1·

!) ( H',1 );"j rid

n

:r

Y2 HAB F;('

inn :W

a1111

F;(' MIiia,(

111 :t

l'-t- 1 , .... , Tl Lad sC inn :m+I XI

:r

(lE(i ana ZALAC

I'

;'i (ll'4

IY 1·

(onl~· lowPr part of a wrtieal WP( . .1 ''" · 1hf · ' lf• on y t 111 I . 1s . e1 la • m on nl m A p ui ' th of Ph ili . • , .. W· 19 loo 1 1>e an ' I B1 i /1(1 I 1:? I M111: ;\ 11 ~1 (hlank)

1:t 1:r 14'

I~, a I (j' Ii' 18' 19' 20'

21'

DIR-NE 15 A lTL(T ki TAB i11a 15 gab N( :?I t R TA K l'R ana zA LAG ki TAB i na 1n G Eti ana :VJ AR ZALAG 55' GAR IR u ZIALAGI 14 SI ina Hll RiN la [CLl'I ad AN-Kl'w-.~u :M[AR 1] sa ana CLlT fal-[pu GINJ ina :37 IGE 6 GIN] (blank) 2[7 .... ]

IV' 1·

[x] 1 x 1 [ .... ] (blank)

2'

45 BAR lO+[x .... ] ana KUR samas rx 1 TA rx, [.... ] sa I r.... ]

:r 4'

5'

[ .... ]

n

Comments For dates of the eclipses see Appendix. Obv. I' 2': The first preserved sign is most likely KAM, certainly not MU. In other instances in this text where year numbers are written, they are also not preceded by MU. Nor are royal names preceded by vertical wedges. I am therefore inclined to read "(Year) 1 of Bel-ibni", but have to admit that I do not know what is written before it. II' I: This line begins the eclipse report for -685 Apr 22. After the destruction of Babylon by Sennacherib, there was no king in Babylonia. In analogy to line 5' below, one eould restore "3" at the beginning of the line. Thereafter, a king's name or its equivalent is expected, but I could not find a suitable reading. A possible reading bar-tu "revolt" is unlikely. JI' 5': "(Year) 5" seems to be counted from the conquest of Babylon by Sennacherib.

15 IO'

11 · 12·

I:l' 14·

15·

ur 17' IH' l!l'

20'

21'

Month \'II, tlw t:Uh. (P!'lipi-P) whid1 w11i- omittPd. At 12° 1 aftPr i-u nri:,,P. Month XII:?. thP lflth. wlwn it hPgan on tlw :·m11th Hidl'. in 1fJ0 all Wl:\H l'O\'Prl'd. 21 ° maximal pha:,w. \\1wn it hPgan to (·lt·ar from tlH' MHt. it rleared in 19° of night to t lw \\'l'Ht. 55°' om1et. maximal phase. and ('lt'aring. 14 fingers in front of a LihraP it was edipsPd. (In) its Pelipi-P. tlw w!Pi-t' wind I whieh waR Rlanted to tlw south IhlPw. I At 37° IaftN sun:,,et.] (Year) 2[7 ..... ]

IV'

l .... ]



[ .... ] ....

2· 4·

(Year) 45, month I, the IO+lxth ..... 1 to i,;unrise .... [ .... ] from .... [ .... ]



.... [ .... ]



Lunar TPxts

16

No.4 Int :l22:l4 (= ~+ 7G-1 I-17.l!Hi1) Li/StPd a;; LBAT *I.J.l!l Photo: Pl. 2

ReJHHts of lunar eelipses and eelipst> possibilities. arTangc·d in 18-.Y · (•(! · .J · Curtis (London 1997) l 7-2fl. '()by.' 1·

,.

I 17 KIN"



[ ....

:r

xJ+4 1 iR [ .... T]A KUR ana ~1AR [ZALAG .... ] GECJ [ .... ] IGI 1 [ .... iB.T]AG 4 [ .... GECJ GI]N?

4· 5· 6'

7· 8'

l ]4! A I

K]VR1 ina 20

1....

II' I'



AB]SIN 1 [ina] 30 ana [ ....

su samas

(blank) 3· 4· 5·

14 NiG.DU KIN sa DIB KI KUR samas (blank)

6'

7'

[S]E 14 sa DIB [x]rx1?ME 1 NIM? 1

III' I'

2'

:r 4' fi' 6'

7' 8' O' JO'

[SE .... J lxJ 'x x ina1 [x] [TA] KUR ana SI ZALAG UL(J UIN 1 KOS ina WI RJN ad GENNA ina MASK UR AN 2 KUA ina IUI 81 4 ina 1,30 UE 0 GIN

32 NlG.IHJ KIN sa DIB

No. 4

17

No.4

'Obv.' I' 1·

2· 3· 4· 5· 6'

7' 8'

[Year 17 (of Nabopolassar). month YI. tlw J ]4th [ .... ] .... in 20° [ .... x]+4° 1 maximal phaRe: [ .... it cleared from] east to west [ .... ] night [ .... ] Was ViRib)e [ .... re ]mainder 1 [.... after sun ]set'.

1 •••.•

II' 1· 2·

3' 4'



6' 7'

Vir]go 1 [At] :10° before sunset.

[ ....

(Year) 14 of Nebukadnezar month VI, (eclipse) which was omitted. With sunrise. [Mon]th XII, the 14th, (eclipse) which was omitted. 1 .... after 1 sunrise •

III' I'

[Month XII, .... ]



[ .... ] ....



it cleared [from] east to north. The south wind blew. I cubit in front of Libra it was eclipsed. Saturn rose in Capricorn; Mars was 2 cubits in front of a Scorpii. At 1,30° after sunset.

4· 5' 6'

7' 8'

9' lff

(Year) 32 of Nebukadnezar, month VI, (eclipse) which was omitted.

Lu nnr Tl· xts

18 11 ·

i11r1 :~fl a11r1 ::=;(' .~nmn.~

(blank) 12·

~m

lil' x A'

1:1·

IX I

1 .... 1

)\"

J'

1.... 1'X 1 1.... 1 (blank)

t· :1·

Dl \ gab

rn i na 17 A K l1 R AC 28 iR



ina 20 TA Kl'R ana MAR ZA.LAG AN-Kl' 10 -s1i SA., tir GI~.KUN 1:;IUN ad ina GAR SI ina ZALAG MAR GIN ina 55 GE 6 ana ZALAG



DIR-SE 15

4· 5· 6'

i'

l----]

V' )'

2· 3'

4· 5· 6'

7'

8' 9'

JO'

ZALAG [.... ] ana (,'T1· [ .... ]

s

ad X [ .... ] (blank)

DU 6 ll+[x .... ] /:i lJAB ana TI[L x] NU TIL ad S[U] SI sci PA MAR GAR GIN 5 US ina IGI MUL-MUL rad1 ina 14 GE 6 [ana ZALAG]

2

'Rev.' ]'

I'

I.... (' ]L'r ...11 I· ana·



( .... ]

PAP 1



1-- .. ana A] (J? samas



lkiPAPNUJIGl 1

~

I

II' (hlank) 1·

Al'JN l:J in,, In DANNA



galJ

:r

'i-na 2fi TA K lT H, ,uw MA It

A(r :m t H

No. 4 I J'

Month Xll. tlw 15th 1, .... , .... 1

12'

1:r

....

Iv· r

1.... I .... 1.... J



8'

Month VII, the 13th, in 17° on the east side' all was covered; 28° maximal phase. In 20° it cleared from east to west. Its eclipse was red. Behind the rump of Aries it was eelipsPd. During onset, the north wind blPw, during clearing. the wpst wind. At 55° before r,mnrise.



Month Xll 2 , the 15th [ .... J

3· 4·

,5· 6'

7'

v· cleared[ .... ] to .... [ .... ] eclipsed .... [ .... ]



2· 3' 4·

5· 6'

7'

8' 9' IO'

Month VII, the 11 +[xth, .... ] 2 /3 of the disk to tota[Iity .... ] not total, it set eclipsed. The north wind which was set to the west side blew. 5° in front of l] Tauri it was eclipsed. At 14° before [sunrise].

'Rev.' I'

night' to'



[ .... ]

2'

[ .... ] ....



[ .... before'] sunset'.

4'

[When I watched? I did not?] see (it).

n· I'



:r

Month VII I, the 13th, in O; l.5 beru all was covered; 25° maximal phai.;e. In 25° it eleared from east to west;

19

20

Lunar Tt>:d:,;

ZALAU ~A-,l ina UAR NI li11al ZALAU l'L(' urin!,!; onRiet. tlw north wind . !during! eliearing. thP s rnth. it began on tlw ,muth side; I did not watch the maximal phase; it sl't Pelipsed. In the eclipse. Venus stoml there: the remainder of thP planets did not stand there. At 10° before sunrise.

IV' 1· 2· 3· 4'

5· 6' 7·

at 18° 1 l, ... ] 40° onset, ma[ximal phaRe. and clearing]. The "garment of thl' sky" was tlwrP. In the area of the 4 rear stars of 8agittarim, it wa,1 eelip,1e(l. 11011th VI was intcrrnlary. Month V, the 14th 1, Xerxes - hiH son killed him.



Month VIII, the 14th, 1:3° after sunset, (the moon) came out of a Gioud, one-fourth of the disk on the [ .... J and west side was covered. 8° 1 [onset' and] clearing .... l- ... ]

V' 1·

Month IX, the xth, [ .... ]

2'

' ... [ ....



1

Lunar Texts

22

No. 5 BM :~8:l57 (= 80-11-12. 2:lH) Photo: Pl. 3

This tablet is clear!~· a copy of an older exemplar (~ee the remarks "1ww '."'(•ak" i11 l{Pv. I I). It . . ,.\ I (>"th and • a few other ohsenat10ns.. but a num lwr of r·vr·11ts r onlv eontains beside ecli1>ses ,. t·t·l(:f' of Rhorter duration. The eclipses and tlw historif'al n•mark..,",,U . 19th .year exclude all reignR to date the contentR to the reign of Nahopolassar (for details. see below). 'Obv. I

..

2· 3·

4· 5·

6' 7·

s· 9· 10· ff 12· 13·

14' 15'

16'

17'

[ .... ] [.... ] SAR [.... J SAR u [.... ] AN-e i-te-rim [.... ] DIR TU TU [.... ] bi-rit SI u MAR iz-za-ku [.... ] GE 6 GIN 3 KUS e-lat [.... A]N-KU10 asAG-ME-GAR 6 SU-SI [.... ] nen-mud [.... SUJ-.SI ina IGI MULx(AB)mes EGIRmes [.... ] rx1 ,tuAPIN U4-22-KAM luDI-KUD [.... m]es KUR AN.SAR MES MES [.... ] su-nu ituGAN ituAB ituztz [ .... ] '"KJl 111 SID BAD-ANki [.... K]I u 111 GU-EN-NA (Jsmes [.... ] ituGU4 (Jsmes KUR RA [.... S]U-KU GAR-an

II 1·

2' 3' 4'

5· 6'

7'

8' 9·

JO'

II' 12·

1:r 14· 15'

16'

17'

DU r~G1~11 [x] r~AR1 1 [.... ] GE6 sa-a-su sin TUR NIGiN r i [ ] x .... SU-KU [GAR-an] , MU-16-KAM ituGu 4 U4-20- KAM [ ] D. ana U-es ME GIN itusIG U[D1 ... . .... ] 4 TA KURR ] u-~a-pu {pub-t[ ' . u .... ituKIN "'E 6-14-KAM 5 [ .... ] \x IOU~ GE6 ina MURUB - . l l 4 ti[ .... ] TAG4 sin AN-KU at- A U , ~ JO a - [a .... ] LU .:,U-im [.... ] , r~ • HA(, sa 0R6 EOIR i za [ .... ] , cl ' l ne- Ju-u .sa M[UI , ... -I ana ULU irn ma.'! 1.... 1

~o uA ,m111 .... 1

ina KI 'x' 'x' 1.... J

'x' [.... [

[.... 1

No. 5

No. 5

Obv. I 1·

[ .... J



[ .... ] .. ..



[ .... ] .. ..

4'

[ .... ]

5' 6'

7'

s· 9· 10·

11·

12· 13· 14'

15· 16'

17'

covered the sky r... -1 clouds? .... [ .... ] cleared between north and west [ .... ] after sunset, 3 cubits above [.... ] eclipse, ,Jupiter 6 fingers [ .... ] was stationary. [ .... ) fingers in front of the rear stars [ .... ) .... Month VIII, the 22nd, the judge f.... ] Assyria manyl [ .... ] their [ .... J Months IX, X, XI [ .... ], the administrator of Der, [ .... ], and the governor of Nippur died. [ .... ) month II they died .... f.... ) there was famine.

II 1·

2· 3· 4·



6' 7'

8' 9·

HJ' II'

12·

1::r 14'

rn·

went!. Behind .... [ .... ] That night, the moon was surrounded by a halo, .... [ .... ) [ .... there was] famine. Year 16, month II, the 20th[ .... ) went in order to do battle. Month III, [ .... ) captives from the land Rui;iapu [ .... ] Month VI, night of the 14th, 5 [ .... ] 10° of night in the middle (watch)[ .... ] remained, lunar eclipse; more than f.... ] on the south side was covered 1.... ] beginning of the night, aft.Pr .... [ .... J the hrigh t star of [ .... 1 to the ,muth, .... [ .... I 10° night[ .... ] in .... f .... 1

If\'

.... 1.... 1

17'

.... 1.... 1

23

·g(,,._· )'

1 XX X X 1

:!'

i11a :\'L\]ki(ljl{ kin .... I

:1·

a11a l'( ,'l' x a11a I'', 'kl i ... . I



ituKl:\'-DII{ ituAPII:\' .... 1 .. . l'I -' I ~ l' I X• 1 I.... I lJU-fl

;)'

,

~H'-19-IC.\'.\I itul----1 l'4 -IO+lx .... ]

8'

IX I 1 .... 1

tr

II

IO

[.... be]-pi d-ku TA AK-'Kl'w 1 1----1 [ .... be]-p1 rs-su GIN I "2h DAXKA G[En xi 1.... be ]-p1, es-su t cli?al-bat-a-nu u di dele-bat 1 [ .... b]e-pi e.~-su u c1sAG-ME-GAR EGTR GIR [ .... I !Je-pi es-su UC-LA KUR 8 ana mu 1LCUAL [ .... b,e-pi] es-su ina AN-KU 10-su sit-tu c1UDC.TIL 111" 1 1 [ .... ] x inaAN-Kl\ 0 NIM-GiR GU [ .... ] dJM A.AN [ .... ] tum sa qi-it mi-i?ir [ .... ] 1 x 1 bir tum r x 1 [ x] r x 1

11

[ .... ] mes I x 1

2 3 4

5

6 7

8 9

12

es

1

[ .... ] x

1

[ .... ]

[ .... ]

Comments Obv. I 7'f.: I do not know above what the moon was during the eclipse, nor what was 6 fingers from ,Jupiter. II 12': since what happened to the "bright star of constellation [ .... ]" is not preserved one cannot guess which star it is. Rev. I 3': I do not understand the signs after UGU; they may all be one place name. II: the first six lines begin (in their preserved part) with the word "new break" which indicate that the original from which this tablet was copied, was damaged here. It is difficult to eAtimate the size of the gaps, but some considerations can be offered. Of the description of the moon only lines 1 and 2 are left. 1 2 /3 beru could be the time of the eclipse, i.e. of its beginning. If GE 6 is read correctly, it should be followed (in the break) by either GIN or ana ZALAG, i.e. resulting in either "after sunset" or "before sunrise". 3: Mars and Venus must have been visible or have become visible during the eelipse; the appropriate words are lost in the left part of line 4. 4f.: the only star near the ecliptic called a "foot" is the "rear foot of the Lion", PVirginis. This leads to a restoration lar ,§a nmlURJ-GU-LA in the following line. The following word. KUR, here probably means "to rise". 80 one could assume that Jupiter rose behind PVir. What however i1,1 to he made of the following "8° to Regulus" ? If Jupiter is close to PVir, it cannot be 8° from Regulmi. What is at approximately this distance from Rt~gulus is the moon (11. J0:{ 0 ). It is however unusual to give an indication of the moon's position among the planetH. If these words do refer to the moon, the word lost iu the break was . ,,.IH war-, ee 1IJHmc · I" . prn l,a l >I y ai11,r

No. 5

25

Rev. I 1·

.... , .... ,



in Elam .... j •..• 1 I agairn~t .... to Babylon I -.. -1 Month V1 2. Month VIJ I 1.... 1 I the fortref-ls not .... 1- ... I

:r 4·

5· 6'

Year 19. month

7'

.... 1.... ]

8'

.... , .... J

1-··· 1

11

9

from the eelipsp 1.... ] j .... J new break went, l 2/:i beru of night 1 .... 1 new break ..... '.Viars and \'enus j .... ] new break and ,Jupiter behind the foot j .... ] new break [Lijon 1 rose. 8° to a Lennis [ .... ] new break during its eclipse, the rPmainder of tlw planets [ .... ] new Ibreak] [did not stand there .... ] .... during the eelipRe, lightning. thunder. rain [ .... ] of the end of the border 1

IO

[ .... ] ... .

ll

, .... J

12

r.... 1.... 1.... 1

2

a 4

.5 6

7 8

[ .... ]

... .

Date (J. M. Steele) A year 19 is mentioned in Rev. I, 6' thus excluding reignR of shorter dmation. In year Hi of this reign, a lunar eclipse was observed in month VI. Between -750 and 100, the only reign to have lasted for at least 19 years and to have had an observable lunar eclipse in month \'I of year 16 is Nabopolassar. This is sufficient information to date the eclipse in Ohv. 11 ·. 7 ·-1 i) · to -609 September 15. Obv. I, 4'-10' contains a report of a lunar eclipRe that. from thP months listed in Obv. I, 11 '-17', must have occurred at least a year before the eelipse in Ohv. I I". T- Hi·. Given this restriction, the next preceding eclipse visible in Babylon was on -61 l Xovember ii. The observed details of the eclipse, so far as they are preserved, are in agreeme_!}t with this date and ,Jupiter was indeed stationary around that time. The eclipse described in Rev. I I. 1-7 is most likely that of -605 January 8. Jupiter rose just before the beginning of tlw el'lipse. hut was still close to the horizon when the eclipse began, and so eould well ha,·e not lwen notil'ed until later. It also rose slightly after the ·rear foot of the Lion· (~ Virgini:-) (cf. RPv. II. -l-5). All of the other planets were below the horizon at the time of the eclip;;e (l'f l{ev. I I. ti- 7) and 80 Jam unable to expla:in why Mars and Venus are mentioned in Rev. 11. :t Howevp1·. then• are no other eclipse1,1 which give a better fit within the plausible datP range for this column of the tablet (say Nahopolassar I 9, 20, or 21 ).

Lunar Texts . I " \S . , f"il(o\\' 20+1 xth, .... 1

Month VII. (the 1st of which wa;; iY. 1

,. \ , ., I - \. ·'"",}I 'A II J,l'UA L :\Ir-I-m(·lip:·w of HE 18:l \'I 11 1:{

= -128 l\' m· ,>.

( Hn·.

9

ina a-mat dEl\' u d( :ANAX-ia li.s-lim :\H'-1-me-rn-KA:\I .~a..si-i :\IC-1-rnle-1,2:1-KA:\I I 1 Ar-.sa-ka-a Ll~UAL APlN GEti 13 7 1,30 ME DIR mu.s Ix] 1ir :\1AS-MAS ziq-pi sin Al\'-KCIO A [xi ki-iTAB- 1u1 [ina 181GE 6 1 x 1 1.... ] 6 GE 6 JR ana ZAILAG ki-i TAB-u] ina 16 GEil TA KCR u 1 [ 40 GAR JR u ZALAG-ru A[N-KU 10 -su SAii] SA.5-su SCD ina SAG GAR TCR 1 j .... ]

IO

ina AN-KU 10 -su ana DIR KC 4 -ub 1

o 2 :l 4 fl

n i 8

[ .... ]

Rev. I

2 3

ina AN-Kl\,-su SI sa PA MAR GAR [GINJ ina AN-Kl: 10-su 111 li 1KAK-SI-SA [GUBJ iB-TAG4 dUDV-TIL 111 es NU [GUB 111 efi]

5

2 KUS e is le 10 1KAxMI1 in 55 GE 6 ana ZALAG

6

13 3,30 na DIR NU PAP

4

No.22 BM 45845 (= SH 81-7-6,269) Copy: LBAT 1442

Photo: Pl. 8

Report of lunar eclipse of SE 192 II 14 = -119 June 1. Vpper ed~e I ina a-mat "EN u c1UAlsAN-ia lis-li[m] Obv. I

2

:i 4 Fi

MU-1-me-28-KAM .fa ,fi-i MU-J-me-l,:l2-KAM 1Ar-sa-kam LUGAL '1" ina AN-Kl' 10 -.•ht ina GAR-in 1 111;-bi 1 ina iR u ZALAO-ru 1 1 lba -mu ]-ut' ina SAU GAR-in ~l'L-BABBAR u AN S(:me~ iB-TAG.i dt;])l'-T]L 111Pi< NV Gl:B 11W~ [ina] PA ad in 1,6 GE 1; GJN 14 3 na mus

No. 23 BM 34963 + 35198 + 35238 (= Sp. 11485 + 753 + 805) Copies: LBAT 1334 (34963), 1435 (35198), 1443 (35238); an unnumbered piece was joined to this tablet by I. L. Finkel.

Photo: Pl. 8

Eclipse reports and some lunar data, preserved for -88 to -86. The columns are numbered with the assumption that there were four columns on each side. The columns on the reverse go from right to left. 'Obv.' III' 1.

[ .... J rx 1

2'

[ .... J

.,..,

I.... ·1

4· - 5·

1.... ]

6'

[ .... J'xx 1

,.

1....

H.

, .... J Nu

rX i

J'A1 GLT wneA

IV' I' ;,· ,.

:r 4· 5·

'IZl' 1.... 1 ' a.n -Ika rn .... l 27 2:J/ I K Ultl KIN I I H KU lt4 m:uA 14- i:;(J u ,w. NU 'l'UK mus

67 II 7

8 9 JO

ll

12

in 24° of night it left. l finger to totality. 6° maximal phase. When it hegan to elear, in 24° of night it cleared from the east and north to tlw south [and we[st. 54° onst:>t. l maximal phase.\ and elcaring.

Rev. 2 3 4

5 6

7

8

Its eclipse was red. its redness was red brown. In its eelipse, during onset, it was slow, during maximal phast:> and elearing. [it was falst: in the beginning of onset, Jupiter and Mars set: the remainder of the planets did not stand there. [In] Sagittarius it was eclipsed. At 66° after sunsl't. The 14th, sunrise to moonset: 3°, measured.

No. 23 Obv. III' I'

[ .... ) ....

2'

[ .... ]

3'

[ .... ] ....

4' - 5' [ .... ]

6'

[ .... ] ....

7'

[ .... )side



[ .... ]

1

did not stand there.

IV' 1· 2·

3· 4·



Month V [ .... ] m[istl .... ] 1 The 27th, !moonrise to sunrise:] 23° Month VI, the ht (of which followed the 30th of the preeeding month, sunset to moonset:) 18°; it was bright, measured. The 14th, there was no "moorn,;et to sunrise" and '\mnrise to moonset"; measured.

Lunar TPxts

68 li'

i H'

1r

14 A:'\-Kl\ 1 sin M DIB

inn :W+lx Mil•: ND'l-a 21' 1 IG.:10Kl'R111u.~

1

,..

'l{,py,·

I'

:r

:r 4· 5' (j'

i' 8'

9· IO' II'

12· 1:r

'kiTAH'-l1i .... I ana Z...\LAport of Oil\',

4

5 6 i

8 9

IO 11 12 13 14

I.5

G-KA}l/ li- i :\H"-2-/me-4lri }I A K 2L2 P)1lT-1-m 1 .•• • / L Ll"GALmPs u ( A TG Ll am i-k -A -lr 1, ./ T G A S cmr; 14 / ... d15 A:\L\ . .§zfnASA~ l'L / l' ..... / si'n l.:i-i E- a 2 81 A .. ]

I/R ... l-J it I;JAB-rat D in a9 G E0 al -la sa 15 /G g 1i TA xJ u ki TA B -u in a -r AG \.L Zi a an u] 8 GE of its had statP of prpspn·ation. this frxt 011ght to lw datal,lc-: I lim·c· not suc·c·f'Pdc·d so far. LPgihlP ypar nnmh(•rs ot·ed not ht> a number either. Olw. 13·: samas is written as a raised correction. Rev. II·: The space for this column is marked on the tablet by three parallel n~rtieal linPs. On)~· the upper part of the column is inscribed. 2': 22 is written over another number. 4': The reading of the first signs is uncertain; it is based on a partial lunar edipse whieh occurred in SE 75 month VI in Pisces. 6': In the beginning one expects a month name; the traces could be those of (month XI). They do not fit month XII which had an invisible lunar eclipse in 8E 75.

ziz

No. 34 BM 34576 (= Sp II 48+955) Copies: J. N. Strassmaier, ZA 7 (1892) 198-201; ZA 8 (1893) 106-7; T. Boiy, Laatachaemenidisch en hellenistiseh Babylon, pl. 2; Th. G. Pinches: Pl. 11 Photo: Pl. ll Bibliography: Th. G. Pinches, PSBA 6,204; F. X. Kugler, SSB II 364 n. l.

'Obv.



(ten? lines missing) ldAG-NiG.D]U-[~E~ [38 ldA]G-I [7 [8 [1]Ku-ras

4'

r91

1Da-ra-mus

5'

1Da-ra-mus

6'

27 9

7'

f61



[24

1 r-tak-sat-su I,

F8 1 [I 8J

I.



1tli-li-ar-su

A

A r-tak-sat-s]u

18] [18] 1r81 1 r81 18 18

g'

[I]

11 /Ja 1-jra-mus

Ill'

19

1Da-ra-rnus

18] Jf8'

I I'

r )81

1

Ar-tak-sat-su

1rg1

No. :~4

85

II' ( Year) 7 4. month VI 1. 10° 1 lwfo1·p isumii-w, '.\ionth XII. of 22° 1 .... j .... I

2

:l

1 .... I

Y2 fingPr to j .... ] (Year) 75 1 • month \'1 1. in Pi1-1e('K ....

4

1 .... 1

1

;)

1.... 1+15

li

.... 1.... 1 .... 1 .... 1

;

(tral'PK)

1 .... ]

No. 34 The ,Julian years B.C. in the rightmo st column are added for convenience. 'Obv.

r 2·

[38 [7

If

I81 9 27 9 6 124

IJ'

111

l(j'

HJ 18

3'

4' r.'

,)

6'



II'

Nebuka d]ne[za r II Na]bon idus Cyru8 Darius I Darius I Xerxe8 Artaxer xes I Artaxer lxeH I Dal riwi 11 DariuH 11 Artaxm·xeH 11

18] [18] 18 18 18 18 18 118 I

181 18

18

567/66 549/48 531/30 513/12 495/94 477/76 459/58 44 l /40 42:l/22 40li/04 :l87 /8ti

86 I:!' 1:1· 1.f

I". ,I lti' 17'

Hr l!I'

L1111ar T1•x1i-;

A

:w

1 r-lak-.fo/-811

8 :1

1('-111a-k11.~ 1/Ja-m-11111.:i

1:-111-li-1111

:l I fl :tl I fl 11

181' 181' ISi'

is,,

I.fl

IH IH IH IH IH IH IH IH

RPY.

20· 21 · 22· 2:r

u· 25' 26' 27' 28' 29' 30' 31' 32'

l.2i l...lt> 2.:1 2.21 2.39 2.5i 3.15 3.33 Ml1 [ .... ] M(TL-M(TL

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 X [ .... ]

SIG MAS-MAS [.... ]

ar TAB[ .... ]

, s1· .... ] 2 2/:i KU[

Comments I owe the following remarks to C. B. F. Walker. The beginning of the text ist broken away, and the preserved text begins at line 1·; however. if the chronological scheme is carried back to its maximum likely extent, then the cycle would begin with the first recorded eclipse of LBAT 1413, in month XII of the accession year of NabO.-na~ir, in 747 B.C. Lines 28' to 32' are written sideways and probably contain a lunar eclipse report. Line 32' should be the last line on the tablet unless this section was written in a double column.

No. 34 12· 13 14' 15' 16' 17' 18' 19'

36 8 3 3 15 33 51 69

Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Darius III Antigonus Seleucus Seleucus Seleucus Seleucus

87

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

369/68 :351/50 333/332 :315/14 297 /96 279/i8 261 /60 24:3/42

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

225/24 207 /06 189/88 Ii I /70 1:i:1/;'i~ I :1:i/:l4 I Ii/Hi !l!l /!l8

Rev. 20· 21' 22' 23'

24' 25' 26' 27' 28' 29' 30' 31' 32'

87 105 123 141 159 177 195 213 year [.... ) Pleiades/Taurus .... below Gemini [ .... J behind .... [ .... J 2 2/3 cubits' [.... J

1.... ]

Lunar T1•xts

88

No. 35 B'.\1 :{2:rn:1 ( = ~+ iti-11-1 i .20!1/i) Li,;lt•d n:- LBAT "'l-HH Photo: 1'1. 12

YP1us and months of lmrnr 1•1·lipsth 1.... 1 lfith I 1 .... 1 27th ImoonriHe to HunriHe I: I fi 0 IV. (the I Ht of which waH identith moonHet to HunriHP: I 0 16th sunHet to moonriHP: 14° 20': dourb. I did not watch I 6th sunriHe to moonHet: I 4 ° 20' 28th moonrise to HunriHe: I 6° V, the 1st (of which followed the :mth "f thP preceding month), Hurn,et to moonHl't: 10° 14th moonrise to HUnHet: 4 ° :30· 14th moonset to sunrisP: 4° 15th sunset to moonriHe: 4° 15th sunrise to moonset: 1:3°. meaHured 27th moonrise to sunriHe: 2:3° VI, the 1st (of which followed the :Wth of thP preceding month, sunset to moomwt): I 2°. measured (despite) mist 13th moonset to sunrise: 7° :3()' 14th moonrise to sunset: I 0 14th sunrise to moonset: 8° 15th sunset to moonrise: 4° 27th moonrise to sunrise: 17°

III l' 2'

3' 4' 5' 6'

7'

IV [ .... J 14th [ 15th l 15th sunrise to moonset: 2° 20' 16th sunset to moonrise: 4° 30' 27th moonrise to sunrise: 23° V, the 1st (of which followed thP :30th of the preceding month, sunset to moonset): 1 I I 14th moonrise to sunset: 15° 14th moonset to sunrisP: 7° 30' 15th sunset to moonrise: 5° l()' 15th sunrise to moonset: I 2° 27th moonrise to sunrise: I 8° VI, the 1st (of whil'h followed thP :lOth of tht> preceding month. sum,et to moonset): 10°, mPRSUl'ed O

[ ....

8' g· IO'

11 · 12·

1:r

Lunar Tt>xt,;

92 1-1-· l[i' ltr

17·

I :J 14 14 l.i

H ~(·

1. r

I :H h

ii ~IE

l.i'

H na

l (i'

14th 14th I .it h

:Hix!

'I H. 1\T PAP l :\IE l l l'Pl'ding month, sunset to moonset:) 16°. Month VII, the 1st (of which followed the :30th of tlw pre('eding month. sunsPt to 4' moonset:) 16°. The 9th, last appearance in the west in Scorpius. .... The 22nd, first appearance in tlw east in Libra. 5· [Month VIII, .... (sunset to moonset:) x J+5°. }lonth IX. tlw lst (of whid1 follmn'd tlH' 6' 30th of the preceding month, sunset to moom:et:) 21 °. [Month X, .... Month XI,] the 1st (of which followed the :30th of the pn·l·eding month. 7' sunset to moonset:) 28°. 8'

[ .... J

BRev.

2

3 4

5

6

7

8

9

IO

(Year) 13, month I, the 1st (of which followed the 30th of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 1 beru. Month II, (the 1st of which was identical with) the 30th (of the preceding month, sunset to moonset:) 27°. Month III, (the 1st of which was identical with) the :30th (of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 22°. Month IV, (the 1st of which was identical with) the :30th (of the preceding month, sunset to moonset:) 17°. The 20th, last appearance in the east in Cancer. Month V, the 1st (of which followed the 30th of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 21 °. Month VI, (the 1st of which was identical with) the 30th (of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 13°. The 25th, first appearance in the west in Libra; it was high, (ideal) fin:t appearance on the 24th. Month VII, the 1st (of which followed the :30th of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 13°. Month VIII, the 1st (of which followed the 30th of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 15°. Month IX, the 1st (of which followed the 30th of the preceding month, sunset to moonset:) 19°. Month X, (the 1st of which was identical with) the 30th (of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 15°. Month XI, the 1st (of which followed the 30th of the preceding month. 1mnset to rnoonset:) 23°. Month XII, (the 1st of which was identical with) the :30th (of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 15°. The 25th, it was 4 cubits above a Talll'i. Month XII , the 1st (of which followed the :10th of the prereding month. sunset to 2

moonset:) ....

180

A I.

HP\'.

:!"

:r .i· ri·

w i"

w w 10· 11 ·

12'

rn· 1-i· 1.5· 16'

17' 18' 19'

I 14 BAH :~ 10 I :i Iu l' 4 X X I li11al S;(' i11a :\IAA:\L..\S; S;(' 21 i11a ='-'I DI I li11al :\IAS;-:\L..\S; WI :\'DI i11a 18 llaranl'Pt·t•ding month. s1111sl't to moonset:) [.... ]

VIII CObv. 1·

[ .... ] .... [ .... ]

2'

[ .... ]



[ .... Month III,J (the 1st of which was identical with) the :mth (of the preeeding month.

y Cancri.



sunset to moonset:) 22°. The 6th, it was balaneed [nn cu]bits below[ .... ] [ .... ] it came close to a Leonis. xlonth IY, (the 1st of which was identieal with) the :{0th (of the preceding month, sunset to moonset:) [ .... ] last appearance [ .... ] in Leo 1• [ .... ] first appearance in the east; it was bright, [ .... ] first appearance[ .... ] Leo 1• [ .... ] .... a Leonis

10·

[ .... ] ... .

4· 5' 6'

7'

8'

CRev. 1·

[ .... ] ....



[ .... ] Capricorn .... 1 beru. Month XI, (the 1st of which was identical with) the 30th (of the preceding month. sunset to moonset:) 21°. The 19th, it reached the band of the fish. The 23rd, is was [x ]+ 2 /3 cubits below ~ Arietis. Month XII, (the 1st of which was identical with) the 30th (of the µreceding month.



4· 5·

6'

7'

sunset to moonset:) 16°. [The xth,] it was 1 Y2 cubits below 'Y) Tauri. [The xth,] it was balanced 2 2/a cubits above a Tauri.

cB~ 1rno 1 ListPd as LBXI' **I.J-78: from :\'ippm :

l'hot o: l'I. :!:{ L' >• . \\'• ·~. ' ,-,·· -'-• ,> .\,tmr ir . ' ·~Or·1r,t ·' · . · · I.: V ,-. ' 1 · )IJll("li c• · r ' (rn:{5) 71 n-,2:{. · g_i

Tlw text refers to the year --1-2-1-/:3. i.e. Arta xerx es I year -1-0. The left sidP of Pac·h m pa mgra ph eon ta ;ns the · Luna r Th re. Yea r 2, mo nth Tl, nig ht of tht> 12t h. in tlw midrllP wat

'

,

-

(fl/(/

11·

l" I ( IO :-, I :-, l('U ' ,, - l" ,) (' 'Il··1 , (/··\i.\LLAsa , I 8 • ·, t'• I ) t · I .-, i II (I ( ','tl''l'\I' \ l ) ' 4•. l"H-.\~ n • ,I I, l"OAL JO~I 111 a ]' r~ :. •)() I' WI ..\Pl~ Ille ~ 11 lxl ~ 'It''I 1;; 1, :\Il"L IUI

I:!'

., I CL "

1:r

.~a '

1.r

(l/'

·>i BAH

I

I . ,,

'

' .

.\LL\ Kl.i

..

( 1

Ill'



•'/ I>.\

r H M s, ~t·HrH ,,AF; -

.

,:t. :.,-,

J ,_ -1 • I . ,)1

I,

I>

•• .• I ' I I - (' ~ l. H t . I{ ~l c\ , I ' -

J-t-~ , a11a,

,•

1-t- ~·

I ;)-·

nr rn· 20·

II I )'

2· 3· 4'



6'

l .... ] rx1

[ .... ]



[x GiJR 1ar 1 6 CA~ 1? Cana SC LlAL .... ] 1x XX x1 4+x C SC1 5 1 e l, ... J • ' I SIi 1 x x IZI 8 SIG RIN §a ULC 10· ·xx l rx MtL e1 sa SAG GiR-TAB x Ci ana SU LAL 10 e [SI 4 ] 11 KUS 61 C r29? e sil PA? 6 U i ana NIM DIB APIN 27 SIG SI MAS 2 2 /3? KUS AB 15 ina rMAS 1 SU

ar



34 SIG 1 ina SAG MAS-MAS IGI KUR 25 1 nae rMUL

9'

sa se-pit MAS-MAS Y2 KUS AN V2 KUS ana NIM DIB SU 20 SIG MAS-MAS ar 2 2 /3 KUS IZI 10 SIG MDL IGI sa ALLA sa SI 2 CAN 2 U ana NIM DIB 17 e MUL ar sa ALLA sa ULU Y:i KUS KIN 21 e LUGAL 10 SI LAL DU 6 3 e MDL TUR sa ar LUGAL Y:i KUS APIN 11 e GiR ar sa A Yi KUS GAN 10 SIG DELE sa IGI ABSIN 6 U ziz 1 2 1/:i KUS e SA4 sa ABSIN Y:i KUS ana SU LAL US SE 9 ana ME E 23 ana SU ina LAL-su e DELE rsa1 [IGI ABS]IN rx 1

10· 11 · 12'

13' 14' 15' 16'

17'

1

No. 61

s· 9· 10·

IJ'

12· 13· 14· 15' 16'

17' 18' 19'

20·

225

(Year) 27. month I. tlw 7th', it was 2 Y/ [ fingPrs al)()\'!' 11 Geminorum. The xth, it was 5 fingers [above[ ~l UPminornrn. Jlonth VI I. around until the l ltl/, when it beeame stationary to tlw past. [it lu·t·,rnw stationar.1· [ cubit .... [ .... J

III 1·

r.... 1.... r.... 1



6'

6 fingers [.... ] ~ Virgin is. }Ian, being l I finger haek to the \l'Pst [.... [ .... fingers. Month IV, the 5tl/, it was[ .... [ above[ .... ] 1 .... Month V, the 8th, it was 10 fingers' below a Lihrae .... x fingers .... WScorpii, being a little haek to tlw west. The IOth. it was l euhit li' fingprs above [a Scorpii.] The 29th?, it was 6 fingers above{} Ophiuchi, having passed a little to thP east. :\lonth

7'

VIII, the 27th, it was 2

3· 4· 5·

I

2

/:i' cubits below~ Capricorni. :\lonth X. the 15th. Ja:;;t appParan· e MlJJ 'l'lTf-' I/ K, ,., ] ,

' "

/Z

U...; AN

I.... 1

.... J

227

No. fil

ff I"

1.... J



:r

[~/0] Scorpii J.... ] J.... J-OOphiuchiJ .... J

-r

J(Year) 39, .... ] the 14th' ..... J.... J

5'

[ .... ]

tr , tr

J .... ] .... J .... ]

[.... ]xcubits[ .... ] [.... ] .... [ .... ]



r.... 1 ... .

10'

l .... ] 4 fingers below y Capricorni. :\lonth \'I I. .... .... 5! fingers ....

I I'

12· 13'

14· 15' 16'

Ii' 18' 19'

20· 21· 22' 23' 24'

25'

26'

27'

....

1.... J

1 .... J

(Year) 40, month I, the 9th, it was 2 cubits below BTauri. The llith • it wa,-; 2 2 /3 cubits above l; Tauri. The 27th. it was Ix] fingPrH ahm·p 11 Geminorum. Month lJ, the 1st, it wa;,; Ix I finger,; abm·e µ Gemi[norum.] The 23rd, it was 4 cubit;,; below a GPminorttlll. :\lonth 111. tlw 2:frd. last appearance in Cancer: I did not wateh. :\Jonth \T tlw 22nd'. fir:-;t appt·arn11t·t• 8° 1

behind BVirginis. lMonth VII, the xth,] it was 20 fingers below y \'irginis. :\Jars having Ipm,HPd I 2 fingn,-; to the east. [The xth,] it was 1 Yi cubits above a Virginis. :\Ion th \'I I I. [the xth, it was] 2 fingers Iabove a Lib lrae. :\Jon th 1X. the 21st. it was Ix I fingPrs lwlm1· B [Scorpii,] Mars being 2 fingers back to the west. Month X. the 4th. it was 1.... I a hove a Scorpii. [The xth,] it was 1 cubit above ,0 Ophiuchi. :\lonth XJL the 21st, it was 8 fingers below [B Caprieorni.l l\-lonth XII~. the 15th'. it was[ .... ] above y [Capricorni. The x ]+7th. it wa;,; 1.... J above 0 Capricorni. (Year) 41, month IV?, [ .... J until the 14+[xth, .... ] Pis[cium? .... ]

28'

.... [ .... ]

29'

[ .... ] ... .

30'

[ .... ] ... .

31'

[ .... ]

back

V

'l

I'

.... [ ...



The 24th, it was J .... J below J .... J Month XI I, the 9th 1, while moving back to the ea;,;t. J .... J The 20th, .... the balance 1 of Gemini 1.... J Month XIJ 2 , the 17th, it was J .... J above 111/-6 Ca1wri .... 1 The 22nd, it wai; J .... J below y Can Icri .... J

:r 4'

5' 6'

7' H'

(Year) 46, month I, the 18th, it was J .... J below E LP011iH J .... :\lonth II. .... I The 15th 1, it wai,; '/2 cubit ahovi, Q L!•oniH, Man, li!'ing 1 .... 1

228 - - -r,rs -•H . , "'--=:__------:l IZI

Jx. X· J. ' x ' J x x x K J l " ~ 8 t · ~ :::, t · ' Io, I s I • , Ll'UAL 2/:1 Kt'°S EX 2i r111r1:,..; 1\1 /.-1 l:,.; ( ·, •• . ' \ ' ~ • I ' l ·1 •.\.P. ,c\B ..j. rwa :,.;t 1110 ,,..,. d l l r· , ""LI ·.i:J Kl'~ 1·t'S8larlling G fingpr:,; haek to t lw m•st. :\Ion th I\'. jtlw xth. j it was I r·u bit Ibl'iow I y \"irgin is. Tlw 20th. it was [ .... J above a \'irginis. [:\Ion th\". thP xth. [ it wa:,; 1 l'ubit below a Libra!:'. The 2(ith. it was x fingers below b 8corpii, ha,·ing pmised G fingers to the east. :Vlonth YI. the 2nd, it was x cubits abow a Scorpii. The 12th, it was [ .... j below j .... :\lonth IX,/ the 2nd. last appearance in the WPst in Nagittarius. 1 The 3rd. first appearanee in the east in Nagittarius. ;\lonth X • the xth. / .... /having passed .... to the east. Month XL the 18th, it was [ .... J abovey Capricorni [ .... / it was 1 cubit [above J b Capricorni [ .... ] (Year) 28 Month V, the 30th, last appearance in the east in Virgo .... [ .... / (erasure)

21·

(Year) 29, month I, the 4th, it was[ .... ] below~ Tauri [.... ] 1 Y2 cubits [ .... J The 16th, it was[ .... ] above [ .... J The 19th?, it was[ .... ] above b [Cancri .... / Month IV, the 13th 1, [last appearance] in the west in the end [of Cancer .... ]

22·

.... [ .... ]

18' 19' 2()'

Lower edge I

.... [ .... ]

2

above 1 [ .... ]

3

.... [ .... /

Comments cont. Rev. I JO: unfortunately, the signs do not look like sur GIGIR M. NI. 14: in the beginning of the line, a passing of a Leonis is expeeted. II 3: note the deHignation "the middle star of the Bristle" for l'] Tauri: mmally only the constellation name "Bristle" is used for its brightest star. 5: Venus' latitude was almost as high as that of ~ Tauri, so slw r·oulcl 25th, it wa:-; [ .... ] bPlow ~ [Librae ..... ] it was I cubit 4 fingen, [ .... b] Hcorpii. [ .... ] when it became stationary to the eaRt, [it hecanw Htationar~'I I cuhit 8 fingt:>rs

22·

r.... J

3' 4'



(two lines broken)

PlarH'lnry 'l\·xts

1.... 1:w

1

1.... 111'11

:ff

1.... 11 XI 2,) ~ I (;

:!!I

F; i :\I l-:\1 .-\ lj 8 1 l' .-\ '.'\ 8 l' 1 (///(/ '.'\ DI I) I B Z i Z (i :-; IC lxl x x 17 NIoniH. Month IX, night

:W2 '/ 'I \(' :\Il"L-BABB:\H (' ,xu.\L Kl'

..

IH l!I

:!II :!I

lhlll \ J> .._,I. Antioch us and Relt•u(·us'. his son'. lwing kings\ .... \ ( .... ] 3 '/2 cubits [helcnv ri\ Piscium \ .... \ ( .... cuh]its 1• Month 11, night of tlw 4th'. last \part of tlw night. ... [ .... ] last part of the night. Venus was \ .... \ he low \ .... \ [.... ] last part of the night, Venus was \ .... \ al,on·' \ .... \ [ .... ] Cancer' [ .... ] f .... ] the rear star of \ .... ]

ll'

[ .... ] .... [ .... 1

5' 6' 7

s'

II' I'

.... [ .... ]

2'

above a Scorpii [ .... ] Month XI, night of the 6th. last [part of the night ..... \ Capricorni [ .... ] I cubit 8 fingers( .... ] intheea[stl .... ] below[ .... ] above[ .... ]

3' 4'

5' 6'

7'

s'

'Rev.·?

I' 1'

2'

3' 4'

5' 6'

7'

s' 9'

the 13th 1, [ .... ] Month IV, the lO?+lxth, .... ] Month VI, around the 20th, Mercury's[ .... ) Month IX, the 8th, Mercury's L.... ] in L.... ] Month X, the 8th, Mercury's [ .... j in the ea[st 1 ....1 1 1h cubits. Around the 18th 1 L.... ] first appearance f .... ] in Aries; clouds, I did not watch[ .... ] Month XII 2 , night[ .... ] on .... [ .... ]

381

:l82 11' I

, .... k Ii P:\ p N l'

:.?

, ....

:1

j .... Ll'll!AL""'' ~H:

4

, ....

.'i

j .... j 'EN 11 .'l AN a11a N 1:\1 ki l 'S-11

ti

j .... 1 1 AN 1 ann

;

j .... I



j .... j 1 x 1 in i AN ina AS(' APIN in

9

1.... 1



j .... AJN e Ml'L IGI s IO+lxth .... I Month IX, the 14th, [first appearance\ in the east in 8agittarius: 1.... 1 (ideal) first appearance on the l l th. Night of the :mth. last part of the night. it was [.... ] above -0 [Ophiuchi' .... ] IO fingers. The 27th, last appearance in the east in tlw beginning of ( 'apri('Ol"ll .... \ .... I Month XII, the 26th, [ .... \ in the west in Aries.

15'

Year 6, month I, first appearance of Mercury l omitte of -602 May :3 or an f'l'lipse a multiple of 22:3 months earlier. It should be noted that the 8-7-8-7-8 arrangement could equally well he written 7-8-7-8-8, 8-8-7-8-7, etc. This would simply mean that Wt' have to ehange our definition of the beginning of the scheme. Thus, the layout of text 6 could also. for example. he deserihed as following an 8-8-7-8-7 distribution starting with the eclipse possibility on -6oti ,July 1.5. or a multiple of 223 months earlier. These schemes are idt>ntieal. Text 6 waH probably d in tlw otlwr P('lips figure. I have ahm outlined the parts of tlw lated to the magnitude of the eclipse calculated by 1mme simple scheme similar to that found on an ~ 4

1'0 111ave space, date11 in the table are given in the ,Julian calendar. This will he diKcussed further elsewhere.

Appendix

393

Achaemenid list of solar eclipse possibilities that haH become known as text 8." Whatever the meaning of these numbers, the arrangement of the eclipse possibilities in text :lf> follows the same pa.ttern as that found on text 6 and in the large compilation. Texts A, B, and C contain simply a list of the years and months of eclip:.;e possibilities, together with detailH of intercalary months, and the remark 5 ITU noting the occurrence of a five-month interval in the prPdiction scheme. All three texts follow the same arrangement of five-month intervab within the 8aros, which I shall call the Saros Canon scheme, and wlwn complete would probably have covered the period from - 526 to - 256. Interestingly, this Haros Canon schemP. whilst still having the expected 8-7-8-7-8 distribution of eclipse possihilities,(j differs from that implied b_v frxt 6 and the large compilation as it begins with a different eclipse possibility.; Thus in the 8aros Canon scheme the five month intervals appear before different eclipse possihilitiPs than in tlw earlier scheme from text 6. Clearly, therefore, the Saros Canon cannot be seen as a guidP to the t·xt origi nail y