From a June 2019 international conference in Marseilles, 15 original research papers (two in French) connect arithmetic

*221*
*96*
*3MB*

*English*
*Pages 303
[322]*
*Year 2021*

- Author / Uploaded
- Stephane Ballet (editor)
- Gaetan Bisson (editor)
- Irene Bouw (editor)

**Commentary**- decrypted from 4A2E756D7C131A64FECD256561224F0D source file

*Table of contents : CoverTitle pageContentsPrefaceA new upper bound for the largest complete \boldmath(𝑘,𝑛)-arc in \boldmath\PG(2,𝑞) 1. Introduction 2. Some basic equations 3. Non-existence of some \boldmath(𝑘,𝑛)-arcs in \boldmath\PG(2,𝑞) 4. New largest bound 5. Application of Theorem 4.1 Acknowledgment ReferencesBounds on the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes defined over some families of surfaces 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. The minimum distance of codes over some families of algebraic surfaces 4. Four improvements 5. An example: surfaces in \boldmathℙ³ Acknowledgments. ReferencesOn the number of effective divisors in algebraic function fields defined over a finite field 1. Introduction 2. Contents 3. Non-asymptotical case 4. Asymptotical case Appendix A. ReferencesThe absolute discriminant of the endomorphism ring of most reductions of a non-CM elliptic curve is close to maximal 1. Introduction 2. Proof of the main theorem Acknowledgments ReferencesToward good families of codes from towers of surfaces Introduction 1. Codes from surfaces 2. Infinite étale towers of surfaces 3. Open problems Acknowledgments References Appendix A. On the étale site of marked schemes, \normalfont by Alexander Schmidt Acknowledgment ReferencesSato–Tate groups of abelian threefolds: a preview of the classification 1. Introduction 2. Background on Sato–Tate groups 3. Classification: an overview 4. Realization ReferencesArithmetic, Geometry, and Coding Theory: Homage to Gilles Lachaud 1. Gilles Lachaud’s early works 2. Gilles Lachaud: friend and mathematician 3. A Tribute to Gilles Lachaud 4. Gilles Lachaud’s work ReferencesElliptic curves with large Tate–Shafarevich groups over \boldmath𝔽_{𝕢}(𝕥) Introduction 1. Invariants of elliptic curves over function fields 2. The elliptic curves \boldmath𝐸_{𝛾,𝑎} 3. Preliminaries on character sums 4. The \boldmath𝐿-function of \boldmath𝐸_{𝛾,𝑎} 5. Non-vanishing of \boldmath𝐿(𝐸_{𝛾,𝑎},𝑇) at the central point and consequences 6. Distribution of the Kloosterman sums \Kloosnᵧ(𝑣) 7. Estimates of the central value 𝐿(𝐸_{𝛾,𝑎},𝑞⁻¹) 8. Proof of Theorem C Acknowledgments ReferencesOn Sato–Tate distributions, extremal traces, and real multiplication in genus 2 1. Introduction 2. Background and notation 3. Weyl integration formula 4. Taylor expansions for the trace function 5. On results of Lachaud 6. Distribution of extremal traces in families 7. Conclusion Acknowledgments ReferencesLa trace et le deltoïde de \boldmath\SU(3) 1. Introduction 2. Le groupe unitaire 3. Le deltoïde 4. Loi du caractère standard 5. Loi de la longueur de la trace 6. Loi de la norme de la trace 7. Loi du caractère de la représentation adjointe 8. Loi de la partie réelle du caractère standard 9. Loi de la partie imaginaire du caractère standard \frenchrefnameStable models of plane quartics with hyperelliptic reduction 1. Introduction and main result 2. Link with theta constants 3. A Riemann model providing a good \PHM 4. Bitangents of a smooth plane quartic 5. The algorithm and an example Acknowledgment ReferencesCourbes de genre \boldmath3 avec \boldmath𝑆₃ comme groupe d’automorphismes 1. Introduction 2. Caractéristique différente de 2 et 3 3. Le cas de caractéristique 3 \frenchrefnameBornes sur le nombre de points rationnels des courbes : en quête d’uniformité 1. Introduction 2. Comptage euclidien 3. Variante de Lang-Silverman Appendice A. Corrigendum à “Minorations des hauteurs normalisées des sous-variétés de variétés abéliennes II” par Sinnou David et Patrice Philippon \frenchrefnameThe quadratic hull of a code and the geometric view on multiplication algorithms 1. Introduction 2. Multiplication reductions 3. An example in dimension 2 4. The canonical point 5. The quadratic hull 6. Application to geometric realizations 7. Experimental results 8. Further properties of the quadratic hull Acknowledgments ReferencesSerre’s genus fifty example 1. Introduction 2. The elliptic curve 3. Constructing the curve via Artin-Schreier extensions 4. More equations and intermediate curves Acknowledgment ReferencesBack Cover*

770

Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory 17th International Conference Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory June 10–14, 2019 Centre International de Rencontres Mathématiques, Marseilles, France

Stéphane Ballet Gaetan Bisson Irene Bouw Editors

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory 17th International Conference Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory June 10–14, 2019 Centre International de Rencontres Mathématiques, Marseilles, France

Stéphane Ballet Gaetan Bisson Irene Bouw Editors

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

770

Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory 17th International Conference Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory June 10–14, 2019 Centre International de Rencontres Mathématiques, Marseilles, France

Stéphane Ballet Gaetan Bisson Irene Bouw Editors

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Dennis DeTurck, Managing Editor Michael Loss

Kailash Misra

Catherine Yan

2020 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. Primary 11G10, 11G20, 11G25, 11G30, 11T71, 14H45, 14K15, 20C33, 51E20, 94B27.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: International Conference on Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory (17th : 2019 : Marseille, France). | Ballet, St´ephane, 1971– editor. Title: Arithmetic, geometry, cryptography and coding theory : 17th International Conference on Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography and Coding Theory, June 10–14, 2019, Centre International de Rencontres Math´ematiques, Marseille, France / St´ ephane Ballet, Gaetan Bisson, Irene Bouw, editors. Description: Providence, Rhode Island : American Mathematical Society, [2021] | Series: Contemporary mathematics, 0271-4132 ; volume 770 | Includes bibliographical references. Identiﬁers: LCCN 2020043187 | ISBN 9781470454265 (paperback) | ISBN 9781470464264 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Coding theory–Congresses. | Geometry, Algebraic–Congresses. | Cryptography– Congresses. | Number theory–Congresses. | AMS: Number theory – Arithmetic algebraic geometry (Diophantine geometry) [See also 11Dxx, 14Gxx, 14Kxx] – Abelian varieties of dimension > 1 [See also 14Kxx]. | Number theory – Arithmetic algebraic geometry (Diophantine geometry) [See also 11Dxx, 14Gxx, 14Kxx] – Curves over ﬁnite and local ﬁelds [See also 14H25]. | Number theory – Arithmetic algebraic geometry (Diophantine geometry) [See also 11Dxx, 14Gxx, 14Kxx] – Varieties over ﬁnite and local ﬁelds [See also 14G15, 14G20]. | Number theory – Arithmetic algebraic geometry (Diophantine geometry) [See also 11Dxx, 14Gxx, 14Kxx] – Curves of arbitrary genus or genus = 1 over global ﬁelds [See also 14H25]. | Number theory – Finite ﬁelds and commutative rings (number-theoretic aspects) – Algebraic coding theory; cryptography. | Algebraic geometry – Curves – Special curves and curves of low genus. | Algebraic geometry – Abelian varieties and schemes – Arithmetic ground ﬁelds [See also 11Dxx, 11Fxx, 11G10, 14Gxx]. | Group theory and generalizations – Representation theory of groups [See also 19A22 (for representation rings and Burnside rings)] – Representations of ﬁnite groups of Lie type. | Geometry For algebraic geometry, see 14-XX – Finite geometry and special incidence structures – Combinatorial structures in ﬁnite projective spaces [See also 05Bxx]. | Information and communication, circuits – Theory of error-correcting codes and error-detecting codes – Geometric methods (including applications of algebraic geometry) [See also 11T71, 14G50]. Classiﬁcation: LCC QA268 .I57 2019 | DDC 510–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020043187 Contemporary Mathematics ISSN: 0271-4132 (print); ISSN: 1098-3627 (online) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1090/conm/770

Color graphic policy. Any graphics created in color will be rendered in grayscale for the printed version unless color printing is authorized by the Publisher. In general, color graphics will appear in color in the online version. Copying and reprinting. Individual readers of this publication, and nonproﬁt libraries acting for them, are permitted to make fair use of the material, such as to copy select pages for use in teaching or research. Permission is granted to quote brief passages from this publication in reviews, provided the customary acknowledgment of the source is given. Republication, systematic copying, or multiple reproduction of any material in this publication is permitted only under license from the American Mathematical Society. Requests for permission to reuse portions of AMS publication content are handled by the Copyright Clearance Center. For more information, please visit www.ams.org/publications/pubpermissions. Send requests for translation rights and licensed reprints to [email protected]. c 2021 by the American Mathematical Society. All rights reserved. The American Mathematical Society retains all rights except those granted to the United States Government. Printed in the United States of America. ∞ The paper used in this book is acid-free and falls within the guidelines

established to ensure permanence and durability. Visit the AMS home page at https://www.ams.org/ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

26 25 24 23 22 21 20 21

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

In memory of Gilles Lachaud.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Contents

Preface

ix

List of Participants

xi

A new upper bound for the largest complete (k, n)-arc in PG(2, q) Salam A. F. Alabdullah and James W. P. Hirschfeld

1

Bounds on the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes deﬁned over some families of surfaces Yves Aubry, Elena Berardini, Fabien Herbaut, and Marc Perret

11

On the number of eﬀective divisors in algebraic function ﬁelds deﬁned over a ﬁnite ﬁeld St´ ephane Ballet, Gilles Lachaud, and Robert Rolland

29

The absolute discriminant of the endomorphism ring of most reductions of a non-CM elliptic curve is close to maximal Alina Carmen Cojocaru and Matthew Fitzpatrick

51

Toward good families of codes from towers of surfaces (with an appendix by Alexander Schmidt) Alain Couvreur, Philippe Lebacque, and Marc Perret

59

Sato–Tate groups of abelian threefolds: a preview of the classiﬁcation Francesc Fit´ e, Kiran S. Kedlaya, and Andrew V. Sutherland

103

Arithmetic, geometry, and coding theory: Homage to Gilles Lachaud Sudhir R. Ghorpade, Christophe Ritzenthaler, Franc ¸ ois Rodier, and Michael A. Tsfasman 131 Elliptic curves with large Tate–Shafarevich groups over Fq (t) Richard Griffon and Guus de Wit

151

On Sato–Tate distributions, extremal traces, and real multiplication in genus 2 David Kohel and Yih-Dar Shieh

185

La trace et le delto¨ıde de SU(3) Gilles Lachaud

205

vii Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

viii

CONTENTS

Stable models of plane quartics with hyperelliptic reduction Reynald Lercier, Elisa Lorenzo Garc´ıa, and Christophe Ritzenthaler

223

Courbes de genre 3 avec S3 comme groupe d’automorphismes Jean-Franc ¸ ois Mestre

239

Bornes sur le nombre de points rationnels des courbes : en quˆete d’uniformit´e (with an appendix by Sinnou David and Patrice Philippon) Fabien Pazuki 253 The quadratic hull of a code and the geometric view on multiplication algorithms Hugues Randriambololona

267

Serre’s genus ﬁfty example Jaap Top

297

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Preface Since 1987, the international conference Arithmetic, Geometry, Cryptography, and Coding Theory (AGC2 T) has been held biennially at the Centre International de Rencontres Math´ematiques in Marseille, France. It brings together the world’s best experts on arithmetic and algebraic geometry to foster interactions between pure mathematics and computer science and information theory, speciﬁcally errorcorrecting codes, cryptography and algorithmic complexity. This volume contains the proceedings of this event’s 17th edition, held 10–14 June 2019. It is composed of original research articles which reﬂect recent developments on a wide range of topics. All share the common goal of connecting arithmetic and algebraic geometry, through explicit aspects, to its many ﬁelds of applications. AGC2 T-17 welcomed a hundred participants from around the world and we would like to pay special tribute to the speakers: Yves Aubry, Alp Bassa (plenary), Elena Berardini, Frits Beukers, Nils Bruin, Alina Bucur (plenary), Xavier Caruso (plenary), Alain Couvreur, John Cremona (plenary), Iwan Duursma, Bas Edixhoven, Sudhir Ghorpade, Alejandro Giangreco, Richard Griﬀon, Annamaria Iezzi, Sorina Ionica, Kiran Kedlaya (plenary), Jean Kieﬀer, Dmitrii Koshelev, Elisa Lorenzo Garc´ıa, Jade Nardi, Fabien Pazuki, Ruud Pellikaan (plenary), Matthieu Rambaud, Hugues Randriambololona, Christophe Ritzenthaler, Sergey Rybakov, Jean-Pierre Serre (plenary), Ben Smith, Andrew Sutherland, Michael Tsfasman, Christelle Vincent, Bianca Viray (plenary), and Serge Vladuts; as well as the chairmen: Peter Beelen, Jean-Marc Couveignes, Marc Hindry, James Hirschfeld, David Kohel, Ruud Pellikaan, Christophe Ritzenthaler, Ren´e Schoof, and Serge Vladuts. The topics of the talks ranged from algebraic number theory to Diophantine geometry, and from curves and abelian varieties over ﬁnite ﬁelds to applications to codes and cryptography. They highlighted the impact of the most recent advances in computational algebraic geometry as well as algorithmic number theory. This conference was exceptional in more ways than one. First, it was dedicated to the memory of Gilles Lachaud, one of the founding fathers of the AGC2 T series, who passed away in 2018 at the age of seventy. It was an opportunity to celebrate his brilliant career as well as his latest work, with the present volume containing Gilles’ last paper. We were also honored by the presence of Jean-Pierre Serre, who presented his latest book extending the notes from his acclaimed Harvard course Algebraic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds. Finally, we want to pay tribute to our close friend Alexey Zykin, tragically deceased in 2017, while he was a member of the AGC2 T organizing committee. We are grateful to a great number of colleagues for making this conference a successful event. In particular we wish to acknowledge the members of the Steering ix Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

x

PREFACE

Committee, our colleagues in the Program Committee, the many reviewers who carefully evaluated submissions, and most of all the authors for submitting highquality papers. We are also indebted to the staﬀ of CIRM (Olivia Barbarroux, Muriel Milton, and Laure Stefanini) and of the Institut de Math´ematiques de Marseille (Jessica Bouanane, Eric Lozingot and Corinne Roux) for their remarkable professionalism and invaluable help in organizing this conference. Special thanks are also due to Christine Thivierge from American Mathematical Society, who helped us to publish the present volume in the Contemporary Mathematics series. Last but not least, we are grateful to the sponsors of AGC2 T-17, namely AixMarseille University (AMU), the Institute of Mathematics of Marseille (I2M), the LABEX Archim`ede, the GAATI Laboratory of the University of French Polynesia, and the city of Marseille. St´ephane Ballet Gaetan Bisson Irene Bouw

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

List of Participants Samuele Anni Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Mireille Car Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Yves Aubry Aix-Marseille & Toulon Universit´e

Xavier Caruso CNRS & Universit´e de Bordeaux

Christine Bachoc Universit´e de Bordeaux

Leonardo Col`o Aix-Marseille Universit´e

St´ephane Ballet Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Jean-Marc Couveignes Universit´e de Bordeaux

Alp Bassa Bogazici University

Alain Couvreur ´ INRIA & Ecole Polytechnique

Peter Beelen Technical University of Denmark

John Cremona University of Warwick

Jean-Robert Belliard Universit´e de Franche-Comt´e

Thanh-Hung Dang Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Elena Berardini Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Luca De Feo Universit´e de Versailles Saint Quentin

Frits Beukers Utrecht University

Bogdan Dina Universit¨ at Ulm

Gaetan Bisson Universit´e de la Polyn´esie

Iwan Duursma University of Illinois

R´egis Blache Universit´e des Antilles-Guyane

Bas Edixhoven University of Leiden

Alexis Bonnecaze Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Elie Eid Universit´e de Rennes

Irene Bouw Universit¨ at Ulm

Daniel Fiorilli CNRS & Universit´e d’Orsay

Nils Bruin Simon Fraser University

Francesc Fit´e Institute for Advanced Study

Alina Bucur University of California, San Diego

Sudhir Ghorpade IIT Bombay xi

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

xii

PARTICIPANTS

Alejandro Giangreco Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Philippe Lebacque Universit´e de Franche-Comt´e

Heidi Goodson Brooklyn College (CUNY)

Reynald Lercier Universit´e de Rennes

Richard Griﬀon University of Basel

Elisa Lorenzo Garc´ıa Universit´e de Rennes

Emmanuel Hallouin Universit´e Toulouse

St´ephane Louboutin Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Johan P. Hansen Aarhus University

David Lubicz Universit´e de Rennes

Thierry Henocq Universit´e Toulouse

Jean-Fran¸cois Mestre Universit´e Paris-Diderot

Marc Hindry Universit´e Paris-Diderot

Fabien Narbonne Universit´e de Rennes

James Hirschfeld University of Sussex

Jade Nardi Universit´e Paul Sabatier

Annamaria Iezzi University of South Florida Sorina Ionica Universit´e de Picardie Jules Verne Valentijn Karemaker University of Pennsylvania Kiran Kedlaya University of California, San Diego Jean Kieﬀer INRIA & Universit´e de Bordeaux Pinar Kilicer University of Groningen David Kohel Aix-Marseille Universit´e Julien Koperecz Universit´e de Franche-Comt´e

Alessandro Neri University of Zurich Anca Nitulescu Aarhus University Roger Oyono Universit´e de la Polyn´esie Bastien Paciﬁco Aix-Marseille Universit´e Isabella Panaccione ´ INRIA & Ecole Polytechnique Fabien Pazuki University of Copenhagen Ruud Pellikaan Technical University Eindhoven Marc Perret Universit´e de Toulouse

Dmitrii Koshelev Universit´e de Versailles Saint Quentin

Julia Pieltant Conservatoire National des Arts et M´etiers

Philippe Langevin Universit´e de Toulon

Ivan Pogildiakov Universit´e de la Polyn´esie

Julien Lavauzelle Universit´e de Rennes

Bjorn Poonen MIT

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

PARTICIPANTS

Matthieu Rambaud T´el´ecom ParisTech

Bianca Viray University of Washington

Hugues Randriambololona T´el´ecom ParisTech

Serge Vladuts Aix-Marseille Universit´e

Christophe Ritzenthaler Universit´e de Rennes

Jose Felipe Voloch University of Canterbury

Fran¸cois Rodier CNRS & Aix-Marseille Universit´e Robert Rolland Aix-Marseille Universit´e Xavier Roulleau Aix-Marseille Universit´e Edouard Rousseau T´el´ecom ParisTech Sergey Rybakov IITP & NRU HSE, Moscow Ren´e Schoof University Roma Tor Vergata Jean-Pierre Serre Coll`ege de France Kaloyan Slavov ETH Zurich Benjamin Smith ´ INRIA & Ecole Polytechnique Patrick Sol´e CNRS & T´el´ecom ParisTech Katherine Stange University of Colorado, Boulder Peter Stevenhagen University of Leiden Andrew Sutherland MIT Jaap Top University of Groningen Michael Tsfasman CNRS & IITP & IUM Christelle Vincent University of Vermont

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

xiii

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Contemporary Mathematics Volume 770, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1090/conm/770/15427

A new upper bound for the largest complete (k, n)-arc in PG(2, q) Salam A. F. Alabdullah and James W. P. Hirschfeld Abstract. The non-existence of some (k, n)-arcs in PG(2, q) is proved for q = 19 and q = 23 when n > 12 (q + 3). Also, a new largest bound is proved and applied to PG(2, 47).

1. Introduction In PG(2, q), the projective plane over the ﬁeld Fq of q elements, a (k, n)-arc is a set K of k points with at most n points on any line of the plane but containing n points on some line. An (s, t)-blocking set B in Π = PG(2, q) is a set of s points meeting every line in at least t points; B is also called a t-fold blocking set. A blocking set is minimal or irreducible if B \{P } is not a blocking set for every P ∈ B. The smallest blocking sets are just the lines and any blocking set containing a line is trivial. For more details see [11, Chapter 12]. An (s, t)-blocking set B is the complement of a (k, n)-arc K in with t = q +1−n and s = q 2 + q + 1 − k. Blocking sets have been ﬁrst studied in 1969 by Di Paola [8], where the author has calculated the minimum size of a non-trivial blocking set in PG(2, q), for q = 4, 5, 7, 8, 9. The major challenge was ﬁnding the minimum size of a blocking set. √ In 1970, Bruen [5, 6] proved that |B| ≥ q + q + 1 for any non-trivial blocking set B in PG(2, q). In Lemma 13.6 of [11], it is shown that, when q is odd, there is a blocking set, the projective triangle, with size 3(q + 1)/2, while for even q there is a blocking set, the projective triad, with size (3q + 2)/2. Hill and Mason studied multiple blocking sets in PG(2, q); in [9], it is shown that, for even q, there are 2-blocking sets of size 3q and 3-blocking sets of size 4q. From Ball [1], the (78, 8)-arcs and (90, 9)-arcs are the largest complete arcs in PG(2, 11). For PG(2, 13), there exists no (106, 9)-arc, (110, 10)-arc, (134, 11)-arc. For a triple blocking set in PG(2, q), a lower bound has been found for q < 11 by Ball [3]. For a double blocking set in PG(2, q), Ball and Blokhuis [4] established a new lower bound for q ≥ 11. Daskalov [7] investigated PG(2, 17), and found the largest complete (k, n)-arc for n = 11, . . . , 16. The main purpose of this paper is to ﬁnd the upper bound mn (2, q) for k of a (k, n)-arc in PG(2, q) in the case that q is prime and 12 (q + 3) < n < q − 1. c 2021 American Mathematical Society

1

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

2

SALAM A. F. ALABDULLAH AND JAMES W. P. HIRSCHFELD

2. Some basic equations Theorem 2.1 (Ball [1]). Let K be (k, r)-arc in PG(2, p), where p is prime. (1) If r ≤ (p + 1)/2, then k ≤ (r − 1)p + 1. (2) If r ≥ (p + 3)/2, then k ≤ (r − 1)p + r − (p + 1)/2. Theorem 2.2 (Ball [2]). Let B be t-fold blocking set in PG(2, p), p prime and p > 3. (1) If t < p/2, then |B| ≥ (t + 12 )(p + 1). (2) If t > p/2, then |B| ≥ (t + 1)p. Theorem 2.3 (Ball [2]). Let B be a t-fold blocking set in PG(2, q) that contains a line. (1) If (t − 1, q) = 1, then |B| ≥ q(t + 1). (2) If (t − 1, q) > 1 and t ≤ q/2 + 1, then |B| ≥ tq + q − t + 2. (3) If (t − 1, q) > 1 and t ≥ q/2 + 1, then |B| ≥ t(q + 1). Definition 2.4. [1] A polynomial in Fq [x] is fully reducible if it factors completely into linear factors over Fq . If in the sequence of coeﬃcients of a polynomial a long run of zeros occurs, this polynomial is lacunary. Theorem 2.5 (Ball [2]). Let f ∈ Fq [x] be fully reducible, and suppose that f has the form f (x) = xq v(x) + w(x), where v and w have no common factor. Let m < q be the maximum of the degrees of v and w. Let e be maximal such that f and hence also v and w are pe -th powers. Then one of the following holds: (1) e = h and m = 0; (2) e ≥ h/2 and m ≥ pe ; (3) e < h/2 and m ≥ pe [(ph−e + 1)/(pe + 1)]; (4) e = 0, m = 1 and f (x) = a(xq − x). Theorem 2.6 gives a slight improvement of Theorem 2.5. Theorem 2.6 (Daskalov [7]). Let B be an (l, t)-blocking set in PG(2, p), p prime. (1) If t < p/2, and p > 3, then l ≥ n(p + 1) + (p + 1)/2. (2) If l = t(p + 1) + (p + 1)/2, then (a) through each point of B there are exactly (p + 3)/2 lines that are not t-secants; (b) through each point of B there are exactly (p − 1)/2 lines that are t-secants; (c) the total number of t-secants is μ = l(p − 1)/(2t). Lemma 2.7 (Chaper 12 [11]). For any set K of k points in PG(2, q), with τi the number of i-secants, the following hold: q+1

(2.1)

τi

= q 2 + q + 1;

i=0 q+1

(2.2)

iτi

= k(q + 1);

i(i − 1)τi

= k(k − 1).

i=1

(2.3)

q+1 i=2

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

A NEW UPPER BOUND

3

3. Non-existence of some (k, n)-arcs in PG(2, q) In this section, the non-existence of (k, n)-arcs in PG(2, q) is proved for q=19, 23 and n > 12 (q + 3). 3.1. Non-existence of some arcs in PG(2, 19). Theorem 3.1. (1) There exists no (211, 12)-arc in PG(2, 19); so m12 (2, 19) ≤ 210. (2) There exists no (231, 13)-arc in PG(2, 19); so m13 (2, 19) ≤ 230. (3) There exists no (291, 16)-arc in PG(2, 19); so m16 (2, 19) ≤ 290. Proof. (1) Finding a maximum (k, 12)-arc in PG(2, 19) is equivalent to ﬁnding a minimum 8-fold blocking set. Theorem 2.2 implies that B must have at least 170 points. Theorem 2.6 gives that the total number of 8-secants is (170 ∗ 18)/16, which is not an integer. Therefore a (211, 12)-arc does not exist and m12 (2, 19) ≤ 210.

The other bounds are proved in the same way. (1) (2) (3) (4)

Theorem 3.2. There exists no (251, 14)-arc There exists no (271, 15)-arc There exists no (311, 17)-arc There exists no (331, 18)-arc

in in in in

PG(2, 19); PG(2, 19); PG(2, 19); PG(2, 19);

so so so so

m14 (2, 19) ≤ 250. m15 (2, 19) ≤ 270. m17 (2, 19) ≤ 310. m18 (2, 19) ≤ 330.

Proof. (1) Finding a maximum (251, 14)-arc is equivalent to ﬁnding a (130, 6)blocking set B. Theorem 2.6 implies that the total number of 6-secants is 195. Let r be the length of the longest secant. If r = 20, then B contains a line and Theorem 2.3 implies that |B| ≥ 133, a contradiction. If 16 < r ≤ 19, then considering lines through a point on the longest secant but not in B, so B must have at least 6∗19+r points. This contradicts that |B| = 130. Consider the intersection of the 6-secants through P ∈ / B with the longest secant. So, τ6 ≥ 9r + (20 − r)(19 − i).

(3.1)

The values of τ6 are calculated from (3.1) for i ≤ 8, and give Table 1. Table 1. The values of τ6 for i ≤ 8

r

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

i

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

τ6 ≥

220 225 228 229 228 225 220 213 204

This shows that all values of τ6 for r = 8, . . . , 16 give contradictions. This is because the total number of 6-secants is 195. For r = 6, 7, Lemma 2.7 gives the

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

4

SALAM A. F. ALABDULLAH AND JAMES W. P. HIRSCHFELD

following: τ6 + τ7 6τ6 + 7τ7 3τ6 + 42τ7

= 381, = 2600, = 16770.

There is no solution for this system. Therefore, no 130-point 6-blocking set exists and hence no (251, 14)-arc exists. The remaining cases are proved similarly. 3.2. Non-existence of some arcs in PG(2, 23). (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Theorem 3.3. There exists no (301, 14)-arc There exists no (325, 15)-arc There exists no (349, 16)-arc There exists no (373, 17)-arc There exists no (421, 19)-arc

in in in in in

PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23);

so so so so so

m14 (2, 23) ≤ 300. m15 (2, 23) ≤ 324. m16 (2, 23) ≤ 348. m17 (2, 23) ≤ 372. m19 (2, 23) ≤ 420.

Proof. (1) Finding a maximum (k, 14)-arc in PG(2, 23) is equivalent to ﬁnding a minimum 10-fold blocking set. Theorem 2.2 implies, since 23 is prime, that such a set must have at least 252 points. Theorem 2.6 shows that the total number of 10-secants is (252 ∗ 22)/20, which is not an integer. Therefore there exists no (301, 14)-arc in PG(2, 23) and m14 (2, 23) ≤ 300. The other bounds are shown in the same way. (1) (2) (3) (4)

Theorem 3.4. There exists no (397, 18)-arc There exists no (445, 20)-arc There exists no (469, 21)-arc There exists no (493, 22)-arc

in in in in

PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23); PG(2, 23);

so so so so

m18 (2, 23) ≤ 396. m20 (2, 23) ≤ 444. m21 (2, 23) ≤ 468. m22 (2, 23) ≤ 492.

Proof. (1) Finding a maximum (397, 18)-arc is equivalent to ﬁnding a (156, 6)blocking set B. Theorem 2.6 implies that the total number of 6-secants is 286. Let r be the length of the longest secant. If r = 24, then B contains a line and Theorem 2.3 can be applied. It follows from Theorem 2.3 that |B| ≥ 161, a contradiction. If 18 < r ≤ 23 then consider lines through a point on the longest secant but not in B. Since B must have at least 6 ∗ 23 + r points, then the values 18 < r ≤ 23 do not give |B|. Consider the intersection of the 6-secants through P ∈ / B with the longest secant. So, (3.2)

τ6 ≥ 11r + (24 − r)(23 − i).

The values of τ6 are calculated from (3.2) for i = 0, . . . , 10, and give Table 2. This shows that all values of τ6 for r = 8, . . . , 18 give contradictions; this is because the total number of 6-secants is 286. For r = 6, 7, Lemma 2.7 gives τ6 + τ7 6τ6 + 7τ7

= 553, = 3744,

3τ6 + 42τ7

= 24180.

There is no solution for this system. So, no 156-point 6-blocking set exists and hence no (397, 18)-arc exists.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

A NEW UPPER BOUND

5

Table 2. The values of τ6 for i ≤ 10

r

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

i

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

τ6 ≥ 336

341 344 345 344 341 336 329 320 309

296

The proof of the remaining cases is similar.

4. New largest bound Theorem 4.1. For 12 (q + 3) < n < q, with q prime, mn (2, q) ≤

(q + 1)(2n − 3) . 2

Proof. From Theorem 2.1, a (k, n)-arc satisﬁes k ≤ (q + 1)(n − 32 ) + 1. Suppose that there exists a ((q + 1)(n − 32 ) + 1, n)-arc K. Let B be an (l, t)-blocking set that is the complement of K. Since l = q 2 +q+1−k and t = q + 1 − n, so l ≥ (q + 1)(q − n + 32 ). This implies that B is a ((q + 1)(q − n + 32 ), q + 1 − n)-blocking set, and |B| = t(q + 1) + 12 (q + 1) = (q + 1)(q − n + 32 ).

(4.1)

Let T be the total number of t-secants of B. From Theorem 2.5, f (x) = xq v(x) + w(x). Since |B| = (q + 1)( 21 + t), then the lacunary polynomial from a point of B is xv(x) ∗ qw(x) which satisﬁes f (x) = (vx + w)(v1 w − w1 v). This implies that the number of diﬀerent factors in f (x) is precisely (q + 3)/2. So, the number of t-secants through each point of B is precisely (q −1)/2. Then, counting {(x, L)}, where x is in B and L is a t-secant, shows that T t = |B|(q − 1)/2; so T = |B|(q − 1)/(2t). Hence (4.2) (4.3)

T

= (q + 1)(t + 12 )(q − 1)/(2t) = (q 2 − 1)(2t + 1)/(4t).

If μ = (q 2 − 1)(2t + 1)/(4t) is not an integer, this implies that there exists no ((q + 1)(n − 32 ) + 1, n) − arc. So mn (2, q) ≤ (q + 1)(n − 32 ). Suppose that μ is an integer. Let L be an r-secant and P ∈ L\B, where r is the largest number of points of B on any line through P . If there are s lines that are

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

6

SALAM A. F. ALABDULLAH AND JAMES W. P. HIRSCHFELD

t-secants to B, and si lines through P that are (t + i)-secants, for 1 ≤ i ≤ m, then |B|

= = = =

st + s1 (t + 1) + s2 (t + 2) + · · · + sm (t + m) + r, st + s1 (t + 1) + s2 (t + 1) + s2 + · · · + sm (t + 1) + (m − 1)sm + r st + (s1 + s2 + · · · + sm )(t + 1) + s2 + 2s3 + · · · + (m − 1)sm + r st + s (t + 1) + s + r,

where s + s = q, s = s1 + s2 + · · · + sm , s = s2 + 2s3 + · · · + (m − 1)sm . So, st + (q − s)(t + 1) + r ≤ |B|. This implies that s ≥ q(t + 1) + r − |B|. Since |B| = t(q + 1) + (q + 1)/2 = (t + 12 )(q + 1), so s (4.4)

≥ r + q(t + 1) − (t + 12 )(q + 1) ≥ (q − 1)/2 + r − t.

Now, the number of t-secants is at least s(q + 1 − r) + r(q − 1)/2. So l(q − 1)/(2t) ≥ r(q − 1)/2 + ( 21 (q − 1) + r − t)(q + 1 − r)

(4.5)

≥ (q 2 − 1)/2 + (r − t)(q + 1 − r).

(4.6)

So, the inequality (4.6) becomes r 2 − r(q + 1 + t) + t(q + 1) − (q 2 − 1)/(4t) ≥ 0.

(4.7)

To solve (4.7) for r = t, t + 1, . . . , q + 1, the values of r can be divided into the following cases. (1) When r = q + 1, then B contains a line and Theorem 2.3 implies that |B| ≥ q(t + 1), a contradiction. (2) When 12 (q + 1) + t < r ≤ q, then consider lines through a point on the longest secant but not on B. So B must have at least qt + r points. This contradicts that |B| = (t + 12 )(q + 1). (3) When t + 2 ≤ r ≤ 12 (q + 1) + t, then, since t = q + 1 − n, so n > 12 (q + 3) and q > 2t + 1. Let f (r) = r 2 − (q + 1 + t)r + t(q + 1) + (q 2 − 1)/(4t); so f (r) > r 2 − (3t + 2)r + (2t + 1)(t + 1), > r 2 − (3t + 2)r + (( 21 (3t + 2))2 − (( 21 (3t + 2))2 + (2t + 1)(t + 1), > (r − 12 (3t + 2))2 − t2 /4. Here, f (r) is positive for some values of t and negative for others. Therefore (4.7) is not true for t + 2 ≤ r ≤ 12 (q + 1) + t. (4) When t ≤ r ≤ t + 1, according to Lemma 2.7, (4.8) (4.9) (4.10)

τt + τt+1 tτt + (t + 1)τt+1 t(t − 1)τt + t(t + 1)τt+1

= = =

q 2 + q + 1; |B|(q + 1); |B|(|B| − 1).

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

A NEW UPPER BOUND

7

Multiplying equation (4.8) by t and subtracting equation (4.9) gives τt+1 (4.11) τt (4.12)

= |B|(q + 1) − t(q 2 + q + 1) = 12 (q 2 + 2q + 2qt + 1); = q 2 + q + 1 + t(q 2 + q + 1) − |B|(q + 1) = 12 (q 2 − 2qt + 1).

Substituting the values of τt and τt+1 in (4.10) implies that t(t − 1)τt + t(t + 1)τ + t + 1 = =

tq + t2 (q 2 + 3q + 1) |B|(|B| − 1).

Therefore, there exists no ((q + 1)(n − 32 ) + 1, n)-arc in PG(2, q) for n > (q + 3)/2. Hence mn (2, q) ≤ (q + 1)(n − 32 ) for n > 12 (q + 3). 5. Application of Theorem 4.1 Case I : Bounds for complete (k, n)-arcs when μ is a non-integer. Theorem 5.1. In PG(2, 47), there exists no (k, n)-arc for the following values of k, giving corresponding upper bounds for mn (2, 47). Table 3. The values of n when μ is not an integer

k n

1177 1225 1273 1321 1369 1417 1465 26

27

28

29

30

31

32

mn (2, 47) ≤

1176 1224 1272 1320 1368 1416 1464

k

1561 1609 1705 1753 1801 1897 1993

n mn (2, 47) ≤

34

35

37

38

39

41

1513 33 1512

43

1560 1608 1704 1752 1800 1896 1992

Proof. Since k = 1177 and n = 26, then l=1080, t=22; |B| = t(q + 1) + 12 (q + 1) = 22 ∗ 48 + 44 = 1080. This implies that |B| = l. Assume that the total number of t-secants is T . Then, from (4.3), T

= |B|(q − 1)/2t = (1080 ∗ 46)/44.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

8

SALAM A. F. ALABDULLAH AND JAMES W. P. HIRSCHFELD

As μ = (1080 ∗ 46)/24 is not an integer, then there exists no (1177, 26)-arc. So m26 (2, 47) ≤ 1176.

The remaining cases are proved similarly. Case II: Bounds for complete (k, n)-arcs when T is integer.

Theorem 5.2. In PG(2, 47), there exists no (k, n)-arc for the following values of k. Hence the upper bound for mn (2, 47) is established in the corresponding cases. Table 4. The values of n when μ is integer

k

1657 1849 1945 2041 2089 2137

n

36

40

42

44

45

46

mn (2, 47) ≤ 1656 1848 1944 2040 2088 2136

Proof. Finding a (1657, 36)-arc is equivalent to ﬁnding a (600, 12)-blocking set B. The total number of 12-secants is 1150. Let r be the length of the longest secant. If r = 48, then B contains a line and |B| ≥ 611, a contradiction. If 35 ≤ r ≤ 47, considering lines through a point on the longest secant but not in B, then B must have at least 12 ∗ 47 + r points. This contradicts that |B| = 600. Now, consider the intersection of the 12-secants through P ∈ / B with the longest secant. Then (4.7) becomes τ12 ≥ (r − 12)(48 − r).

(5.1)

The lower bounds for τ12 are calculated according to (5.1) as shown in Table 5. Table 5. The values of 14 ≤ r ≤ 36

r

36

35

34

33

32

τ12 ≥ 288 299 308 315 320 r

24

23

22

21

20

τ12 ≥ 288 275 260 243 224

31

30

29

28

27

26

25

323 324 323 320 315 308 299 19

18

17

16

15

14

203 180 155 128

99

68

This shows that all values of r for r = 14, . . . , 36 give a contradiction. This is because the total number of 12-secants is 46. However, for r = 12 and r = 13, Equations (2.1), (2.2), (2.3) of Lemma 2.7 become the following: τ12 + τ13 12τ12 + 13τ13 132τ12 + 156τ13

= = =

2257, 28800, 359400.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

A NEW UPPER BOUND

9

As there is no solution of this system, so no (600, 12)-blocking set exists and hence no (1657, 36)-arc exists. The other bounds are established similarly. Acknowledgment Salam Alabdullah’s PhD studentship is funded by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientiﬁc Research of the Government of Iraq via the University of Basra. He thanks Professor S. Ball for his support. References [1] S. Ball, On sets of points in ﬁnite planes. PhD thesis, University of Sussex, 1994. S. Ball, [2] Simeon Ball, Multiple blocking sets and arcs in ﬁnite planes, J. London Math. Soc. (2) 54 (1996), no. 3, 581–593, DOI 10.1112/jlms/54.3.581. MR1413900 S. Ball, [3] Simeon Ball, On the size of a triple blocking set in PG(2, q), European J. Combin. 17 (1996), no. 5, 427–435, DOI 10.1006/eujc.1996.0036. MR1397150 S. Ball, A. Blokhuis, [4] Simeon Ball and Aart Blokhuis, On the size of a double blocking set in PG(2, q), Finite Fields Appl. 2 (1996), no. 2, 125–137, DOI 10.1006/ﬀta.1996.9999. MR1384155 A.A. Bruen, [5] A. Bruen, Baer subplanes and blocking sets, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 76 (1970), 342–344, DOI 10.1090/S0002-9904-1970-12470-3. MR251629 A.A. Bruen, [6] A. Bruen, Blocking sets in ﬁnite projective planes, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 21 (1971), 380–392, DOI 10.1137/0121041. MR303406 [7] R. Daskalov, On the existence and the non-existence of some (k, r)-arcs in PG(2, 17), Ninth International Workshop on Algebraic Combinatorial Coding Theory (19-25 June, 2004), 95–100. J.W. Di Paola, [8] Jane W. Di Paola, On minimum blocking coalitions in small projective plane games, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 17 (1969), 378–392, DOI 10.1137/0117036. MR247879 R. Hill and J.R.M. Mason, On (k, n)-arcs and the falsity [9] R. Hill and J. R. M. Mason, On (k, n)-arcs and the falsity of the Lunelli-Sce conjecture, Finite geometries and designs (Proc. Conf., Chelwood Gate, 1980), London Math. Soc. Lecture Note Ser., vol. 49, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge-New York, 1981, pp. 153–168. MR627497 J.W.P. Hirschfeld, [10] J. W. P. Hirschfeld, Projective geometries over ﬁnite ﬁelds, The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, New York, 1979. Oxford Mathematical Monographs. MR554919 J.W.P. Hirschfeld, [11] J. W. P. Hirschfeld, Projective geometries over ﬁnite ﬁelds, 2nd ed., Oxford Mathematical Monographs, The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998. MR1612570 Salam A. F. Alabdullah, College of Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq Email address: [email protected] James W. P. Hirschfeld, Department of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, United Kingdom Email address: [email protected]

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Contemporary Mathematics Volume 770, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1090/conm/770/15428

Bounds on the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes deﬁned over some families of surfaces Yves Aubry, Elena Berardini, Fabien Herbaut, and Marc Perret To the memory of Gilles Lachaud. Abstract. We prove lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes over surfaces whose canonical divisor is either nef or anti-strictly nef and over surfaces without irreducible curves of small genus. We sharpen these lower bounds for surfaces whose arithmetic Picard number equals one, surfaces without curves with small self-intersection and ﬁbered surfaces. Finally we specify our bounds to the case of surfaces of degree d ≥ 3 embedded in P3 .

1. Introduction The construction of Goppa codes over algebraic curves ([8]) has enabled Tsfasman, Vl˘ adut¸ and Zink to beat the Gilbert-Varshamov bound ([19]). Since then, algebraic geometry codes over curves have been largely studied. Even though the same construction holds on varieties of higher dimension, the literature is less abundant in this context. However one can consult [15] for a survey of Little and [12] for an extensive use of intersection theory involving the Seshadri constant proposed by S. H. Hansen. Some work has also been undertaken in the direction of surfaces. Rational surfaces yielding to good codes were constructed by Couvreur in [7] from some blow-ups of the plane and by Blache et al. in [5] from Del Pezzo surfaces. Codes from cubic surfaces where studied by Voloch and Zarzar in [20], from toric surfaces by J. P. Hansen in [11], from Hirzebruch surfaces by Nardi in [16], from ruled surfaces by one of the authors in [1] and from abelian surfaces by Haloui in [10] in the speciﬁc case of simple Jacobians of genus 2 curves, and by the authors in [2] for general abelian surfaces. Furthermore Voloch and Zarzar ([20], [21]) and Little and Schenck ([14]) have studied surfaces whose arithmetic Picard number is one. The aim of this paper is to provide a study of the minimum distance d(X, rH, S) of the algebraic geometry code C(X, rH, S) constructed from an algebraic surface X, a set S of rational points on X, a rational eﬀective ample divisor H on X avoiding S and an integer r > 0. 2020 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. 14J99, 14G15, 14G50. Funded by ANR grant ANR-15-CE39-0013-01 “Manta”. c 2021 American Mathematical Society

11

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

12

AUBRY ET AL.

We prove in Section 3 lower bounds for the minimum distance d(X, rH, S) under some speciﬁc assumptions on the geometry of the surface itself. Two quite wide families of surfaces are studied. The ﬁrst one is that of surfaces whose canonical divisor is either nef or anti-strictly nef. The second one consists of surfaces which do not contain irreducible curves of low genus. We obtain the following theorem, where we denote, as in the whole paper, the ﬁnite ﬁeld with q elements by Fq and √ the virtual arithmetic genus of a divisor D by πD , and where we set m := 2 q . Theorem. (Theorem 3.2 and Theorem 3.4) Let X be an absolutely irreducible smooth projective algebraic surface deﬁned over Fq whose canonical divisor is denoted by KX . Consider a set S of rational points on X, a rational eﬀective ample divisor H avoiding S, and a positive integer r. In order to compare the following bounds, we set d∗ (X, rH, S) := S − rH 2 (q + 1 + m) − m(πrH − 1). 1)

(i) If KX is nef, then d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S). (ii) If −KX is strictly nef, then d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S) + mr(πH − 1).

2) If there exists an integer > 0 such that any Fq -irreducible curve lying on X and deﬁned over Fq has arithmetic genus strictly greater than , then πrH − 1 d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S) + rH 2 − (q + 1 + m). Inside both families, adding some extra geometric assumptions on the surface yields in Section 4 to some improvements for these lower bounds. This is the case for surfaces whose arithmetic Picard number is one, for surfaces without irreducible curves deﬁned over Fq with small self-intersection, so as for ﬁbered surfaces. Theorems 4.8 and 4.9 (that hold for ﬁbered surfaces) improve the bounds of Theorems 3.2 and 3.4 (that hold for the whole wide families). Indeed the bound on the minimum distance d(X, rH, S) is increased by the non-negative defect δ(B) = q + 1 + mgB − B(Fq ) of the base curve B. Finally in Section 5 we specify our bounds to the case of surfaces of degree d ≥ 3 embedded in P3 . Characterizing surfaces that yield good codes seems to be a complex question. It is not the goal of our paper to produce good codes: we aim to give theoretical bounds on the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes on general surfaces. However one can derive from our work one or two heuristics. Indeed, Theorem 3.4 suggests to look for surfaces with no curves of small genus and ﬁbered surfaces provide natural examples of such surfaces (see Theorem 4.9). 2. Background Codes from algebraic surfaces are deﬁned in the same way as on algebraic curves: we evaluate some functions with prescribed poles on some sets of rational points. Whereas the key tool for the study of the minimum distance in the 1dimensional case is the mere fact that a function has as many zeroes as poles, in the 2-dimensional case most of the proofs rest on intersection theory. We sum up in this section the few results on intersection theory we need. Following the authors cited in the Introduction we recall the deﬁnition of the algebraic

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

13

geometry codes. We also recall quickly how the dimension of the code can be bounded from below under the assumption of the injectivity of the evaluation map. Then we prove a lemma that will be used in the course of the paper to bound from below the minimum distance of the code for several families of surfaces. Finally, we recall some results on the number of rational points on curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds. 2.1. Intersection theory. Intersection theory has almost become a mainstream tool to study codes over surfaces (see [1], [12], [20], [21], [14], [2]) and it is also central in our proofs. We do not recall here the classical deﬁnitions of the diﬀerent equivalent classes of divisors and we refer the reader to [13, §V] for a presentation. We denote by NS(X) the arithmetic N´eron-Severi group of a smooth surface X deﬁned over Fq whose rank is called the arithmetic Picard number of X, or Picard number for short. Recall that a divisor D on X is said to be nef (respectively strictly nef ) if D.C ≥ 0 (respectively D.C > 0) for any irreducible curve C on X. A divisor D is said to be anti-ample if −D is ample, anti-nef if −D is nef and anti-strictly nef if −D is strictly nef. Let us emphasize three classical results we will use in this paper. The ﬁrst one is (a generalisation of) the adjunction formula (see [13, §V, Exercise 1.3]). For any Fq -irreducible curve D on X of arithmetic genus πD , we have (1)

D.(D + KX ) = 2πD − 2

where KX is the canonical divisor on X. This formula allows us to deﬁne the virtual arithmetic genus of any divisor D on X. The second one is the corollary of the Hodge index theorem stating that if H and D are two divisors on X with H ample, then (2)

H 2 D2 ≤ (H.D)2 ,

where equality holds if and only if H and D are numerically proportional. The last one is a simple outcome of B´ezout’s theorem in projective spaces (and the trivial part of the Nakai-Moishezon criterion). It ensures that for any ample divisor H on X and for any irreducible curve C on X, we have H 2 > 0 and H.C > 0. 2.2. Algebraic geometry codes. 2.2.1. Deﬁnition of AG codes. We study, as in the non-exhaustive list of papers [1], [20], [7], [12], [21], [10], [14] and [2], the generalisation of Goppa algebraic geometry codes from curves to surfaces. In the whole paper we consider an absolutely irreducible smooth projective algebraic surface X deﬁned over Fq and a set S of rational points on X. Given a rational eﬀective ample divisor G on X avoiding S, the algebraic geometry code, or AG code for short, is deﬁned by evaluating the elements of the Riemann-Roch space L(G) at the points of S. Precisely we deﬁne the linear code C(X, G, S) as the image of the evaluation map ev : L(G) −→ FS q . 2.2.2. Length and dimension of AG codes. From the very deﬁnition, the length of the code is S. As soon as the morphism ev is injective - see (7) for a suﬃcient condition - the dimension of the code equals (G) = dimFq L(G) which can be easily bounded from below using standard algebraic geometry tools as follows. By Riemann-Roch theorem (see [13, V, §1]), we have (G) − s(G) + (KX − G) =

1 G.(G − KX ) + 1 + pa (X) 2

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

14

AUBRY ET AL.

where pa (X) is the arithmetic genus of X, and where the so-called superabundance s(G) of G in X is non-negative (as it is the dimension of some vector space). Now, under the assumption that (3)

KX .A < G.A,

for some ample divisor A, we have from [13, V, Lemma 1.7] that (KX − G) = 0. Thus, if the evaluation map ev is injective and under assumption (3), we get the lower bound 1 (4) dim C(X, G, S) = (G) ≥ G.(G − KX ) + 1 + pa (X) 2 for the dimension of the code C(X, G, S). 2.2.3. Toward the minimum distance of AG codes. It follows that the diﬃculty lies in the estimation of the minimum distance d(X, G, S) of the code. For any non-zero f ∈ L(G), we introduce the number N (f ) of rational points of the divisor of zeroes of f . The Hamming weight w(ev(f )) of the codeword ev(f ) satisﬁes w(ev(f )) ≥ S − N (f ),

(5) from which it follows that (6)

d(X, G, S) ≥ S −

max

f ∈L(G)\{0}

N (f ).

We also deduce from (5) that (7)

ev is injective if

max

f ∈L(G)\{0}

N (f ) < S.

We now broadly follow the way of [10]. We associate to any non-zero function f ∈ L(G) the rational eﬀective divisor (8)

Df := G + (f ) =

k

ni Di ≥ 0,

i=1

where (f ) is the principal divisor deﬁned by f , the ni are positive integers and each Di is a reduced Fq -irreducible curve. Note that in this setting, the integer k and the curves Di ’s depend on f ∈ L(G). Several lower bounds for the minimum distance d(X, G, S) in this paper will follow from the key lemma below. Lemma 2.1. Let X be a smooth projective surface deﬁned over Fq , let S be a set of rational points on X and let G be a rational eﬀective divisor on X avoiding S. √ Set m = 2 q and keep the notations introduced in (8). If there exist non-negative real numbers a, b1 , b2 , c, such that for any non-zero f ∈ L(G) the three following assumptions are satisﬁed (1) k ≤ a, k (2) i=1 πDi ≤ b1 + kb2 and (3) for any 1 ≤ i ≤ k we have Di (Fq ) ≤ c + mπDi then the minimum distance d(X, G, S) of C(X, G, S) satisﬁes d(X, G, S) ≥ S − a(c + mb2 ) − mb1 . Proof. Let us write the principal divisor (f ) = (f )0 − (f )∞ as the diﬀerence of its eﬀective divisor of zeroes minus its eﬀective divisor of poles. Since G is

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

15

eﬀective and f belongs to L(G), we have (f )∞ ≤ G. Hence, formula (8) reads k G + (f )0 − (f )∞ = i=1 ni Di , that is (f )0 =

k

ni Di + (f )∞ − G ≤

i=1

k

ni Di .

i=1

This means that any Fq -rational point of (f )0 lies in some Di so N (f ) ≤

(9)

k

Di (Fq ).

i=1

Then it follows successively from the assumptions of the lemma that N (f ) ≤

k

(c + mπDi ) ≤ kc + m(b1 + kb2 ) ≤ mb1 + a(c + mb2 ).

i=1

Finally Lemma 2.1 follows from (6).

Remark 2.2. In several papers, the point of departure to estimate the minimum distance is a bound on the number of components k, which corresponds to the condition (1) of Lemma 2.1 above. In the special case where NS(S) = ZH and G = rH, for H an ample divisor on X, Voloch and Zarzar have proven in [20] that k ≤ r. In the present paper we obtain a bound on k in a more general context, that is when the N´eron-Severi group has rank greater than one (see for example Lemma 3.1, point (1) of Lemma 3.3 and point (1) of Lemma 4.5). 2.3. Two upper bounds for the number of rational points on curves. We manage to fulﬁll assumption (3) in Lemma 2.1 using the bounds on the number of rational points given in Theorem 2.3 and Proposition 2.4 below. Point (2) of Theorem 2.3 appears in the proof of Theorem 3.3 of Little and Schenck in [14] within a more restrictive context, whereas point (1) follows from [3]. We state a general theorem and give here the full proof for the sake of completeness following [14]. Theorem 2.3 (Aubry-Perret [3] and Little-Schenck [14]). Let D be an Fq irreducible curve of arithmetic genus πD lying on a smooth projective algebraic surface. Then, (1) we have D(Fq ) ≤ q + 1 + mπD . (2) (Little-Schenck) If moreover D is not absolutely irreducible, we have D(Fq ) ≤ πD + 1. Proof. We ﬁrst prove the second item, following the proof of [14, Th. 3.3]. Since D is Fq -irreducible, the Galois group Gal(Fq /Fq ) acts transitively on the set of its r¯ ≥ 1 absolutely irreducible components D1 , . . . , Dr¯. Since a Fq -rational point on D is stable under the action of Gal(Fq /Fq ), it lies in the intersection ∩1≤i≤¯r Di . Under the assumption that D is not absolutely irreducible, that is r¯ ≥ 2, it follows that D(Fq ) ≤ (Di ∩ Dj )(Fq ) ≤ Di .Dj for every couple (i, j) with i = j. r¯ As a divisor, D can be written over Fq as D = i=1 ai Di . By transitivity of the Galois action, we have a1 = · · · = ar¯ = a. Now since D can be assumed to be

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

16

AUBRY ET AL.

¯ reduced, we have a = 1, so that ﬁnally D = ri=1 Di . Using the adjonction formula (1) for D and each Di , and taking into account that πDi ≥ 0 for any i, we get 2πD − 2 = (KX + D).D =

r¯

(KX + Di ).Di +

i=1

=

r¯

Di .Dj

i=j

(2πDi − 2) +

i=1

≥ −2¯ r+

Di .Dj

i=j

Di .Dj .

i=j

Since there are r¯(¯ r − 1) pairs (i, j) with i = j, we deduce that for at least one such pair (i0 , j0 ), we have 2(πD − 1 + r¯) . Di0 .Dj0 ≤ r¯(¯ r − 1) It is then easily checked that the left hand side of the former inequality is a decreasing function of r¯ ≥ 2, so that we obtain D(Fq ) ≤ Di0 .Dj0 ≤

2(πD − 1 + 2) = πD + 1 2(2 − 1)

and the second item is proved. The ﬁrst item follows from Aubry-Perret’s bound in [3] in case D is absolutely irreducible, that is in case r¯ = 1, and from the second item in case D is not absolutely irreducible since πD + 1 ≤ q + 1 + mπD . The following bound will be useful in Subsection 4.3 for the study of codes from ﬁbered surfaces. Proposition 2.4 (Aubry-Perret [4]). Let C be a smooth projective absolutely irreducible curve of genus gC over Fq and D be an Fq -irreducible curve having r¯ absolutely irreducible components D1 , . . . , Dr¯. Suppose there exists a regular map D → C in which none absolutely irreducible component maps onto a point. Then |D(Fq ) − C(Fq )| ≤ (r − 1)q + m(πD − gC ). Proof. Since C is smooth and none geometric component of D maps onto a point, the map D → C is ﬂat. Hence by [4, Th.14] we have r gDi − gC + ΔD |D(Fq ) − C(Fq )| ≤ (r − 1)(q − 1) + m i=1

˜ q ) − D(Fq ) with D ˜ the normalization of D. The result follows where ΔD = D(F r from [4, Lemma 2] where it is proved that m i=1 gDi + ΔD − r¯ + 1 ≤ mπD . 3. The minimum distance of codes over some families of algebraic surfaces We are unfortunately unable to fulﬁll simultaneously assumptions (1) and (2) of Lemma 2.1 for general surfaces. So we focus on two families of algebraic surfaces where we do succeed. To begin with, let us ﬁx some common notations.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

17

We consider a rational eﬀective ample divisor H on the surface X avoiding a set S of rational points on X and for a positive integer r we consider G = rH. We study, in accordance to Section 2.2, the evaluation code C(X, rH, S) and we denote by d(X, rH, S) its minimum distance. 3.1. Surfaces whose canonical divisor is either nef or anti-strictly nef. We study in this section codes deﬁned over surfaces such that either the canonical divisor KX is nef, or its opposite −KX is strictly nef. This family is quite large. It contains, for instance: - surfaces whose canonical divisor KX is anti-ample. - Minimal surfaces of Kodaira dimension 0, for which the canonical divisor is numerically zero, hence nef. These are abelian surfaces, K3 surfaces, Enriques surfaces and hyperelliptic or quasi-hyperelliptic surfaces (see [6]). - Minimal surfaces of Kodaira dimension 2. These are the so called minimal surfaces of general type. For instance, surfaces in P3 of degree d ≥ 4, without curves C with C 2 = −1, are minimal of general type. - Surfaces whose arithmetic Picard number is one. - Surfaces of degree 3 embedded in P3 . The main theorem of this section (Theorem 3.2) rests mainly on the next lemma designed to fulﬁll assumptions (1) and (2) of Lemma 2.1. Lemma 3.1. Let D = ki=1 ni Di be the decomposition as a sum of Fq -irreducible and reduced curves of an eﬀective divisor D linearly equivalent to rH. Then we have: (1) k ≤ rH 2 ; k (2) (i) if KX is nef, then i=1 πDi ≤ πrH − 1 + k; (ii) if −KX is strictly nef, then ki=1 πDi ≤ πrH − 1 − 12 rH.KX + 12 k. Proof. Using that D is numerically equivalent to rH, that ni > 0 and Di .H > 0 for every i = 1, . . . , k since H is ample, we prove item (1): rH.H = D.H =

k

ni Di .H ≥

i=1

k

Di .H ≥ k.

i=1

Now we apply inequality (2) to H and Di for every i, to get Di2 H 2 ≤ (Di .H)2 . We thus have, together with adjunction formula (1) and inequality H 2 > 0, πDi − 1 ≤ (Di .H)2 /2H 2 + Di .KX /2.

(10)

To prove point (i) of item (2) we sum from i = 1 to k and thus obtain k i=1

(11)

k k 1 1 2 (D .H) + Di .KX i 2H 2 i=1 2 i=1 2 k k 1 1 ≤ n D .H + ni Di .KX i i 2H 2 i=1 2 i=1

πDi − k ≤

(rH.H)2 rH.KX + 2 2H 2 = πrH − 1,

≤

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

18

AUBRY ET AL.

where we use the positivity of the coeﬃcients ni , the numeric equivalence between D and ki=1 ni Di , the fact that H is ample and the hypothesis taken on KX . Under the hypothesis of point (ii) we have Di .KX ≤ −1. Replacing in the ﬁrst k k 1 k 2 line of (11) gives i=1 πDi − k ≤ 2H 2 i=1 (Di .H) − 2 . We conclude in the same way. Theorem 3.2. Let H be a rational eﬀective ample divisor on a surface X avoiding a set S of rational points and let r be a positive integer. We set (12)

d∗ (X, rH, S) := S − rH 2 (q + 1 + m) − m(πrH − 1). (i) If KX is nef, then d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S). (ii) If −KX is strictly nef, then d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S) + mr(πH − 1).

Proof. The theorem follows from Lemma 2.1 for which assumptions (1) and (2) hold from Lemma 3.1 and assumption (3) holds from Theorem 2.3. 3.2. Surfaces without irreducible curves of small genus. We consider in this section surfaces X with the property that there exists an integer ≥ 1 such that any Fq -irreducible curve D lying on X and deﬁned over Fq has arithmetic genus πD ≥ + 1. It turns out that under this hypothesis, we can fulﬁll assumptions (1) and (2) of Lemma 2.1 without any hypothesis on KX contrary to the setting of Section 3.1. Examples of surfaces with this property do exist. For instance: - simple abelian surfaces satisfy this property for = 1 (see [2] for abelian surfaces with this property for = 2). - Fibered surfaces on a smooth base curve B of genus gB ≥ 1 and generic ﬁber of arithmetic genus π0 ≥ 1, and whose singular ﬁbers are Fq -irreducible, do satisfy this property for = min(gB , π0 ) − 1. - Smooth surfaces in P3 of degree d whose arithmetic Picard group is generated by the class of an hyperplane section do satisfy this property for − 1 (see Lemma 5.2). = (d−1)(d−2) 2 Lemma 3.3. Let X be a surface without Fq -irreducible curves of arithmetic genus less than or equal to for a positive integer. Consider a rational eﬀective ample divisor H on X and a positive integer r. Let D = ki=1 ni Di be the decomposition as a sum of Fq -irreducible and reduced curves of an eﬀective divisor D linearly equivalent to rH. Then we have (1) k ≤ πrH −1 ; k (2) i=1 πDi ≤ πrH − 1 + k. In case X falls in both families of Section 3.1 and of this Section 3.2, the present new bound of the ﬁrst item for k is better than the one of Lemma 3.1 if and only r X if πrH − 1 < rH 2 , that is if and only if > H.K 2H 2 + 2 . In the general setting, this inequality sometimes holds true, sometimes not. As a matter of example, supposed KX to be ample and let us consider H = KX . In this setting the inequality holds if and only if r < 2 − 1.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

19

Proof. By assumption, we have 0 ≤ ≤ πDi − 1 and ni ≥ 1 for any 1 ≤ i ≤ k, hence using adjunction formula (1), we have 2k ≤ 2

k

(πDi − 1) ≤ 2

i=1

k

ni (πDi − 1) =

i=1

k

ni Di2 +

i=1

k

ni Di .KX .

i=1

Moreover using (2) and (8), we get k k k 2 (Di .H)2 2 (Di .H) 2k ≤ ni + n D ≤ n + rH.KX . .K i i X i H2 H2 i=1 i=1 i=1 Since H is ample, we obtain k

( (Di .H)(Dj .H) 2k ≤ ni nj + rH.KX = 2 H i,j=1

k i,=1

ni Di .H)2 H2

+ rH.KX .

By (8), we conclude that (rH.H)2 + rH.KX = 2(πrH − 1), H2 and both items of Lemma 3.3 follow. 2k ≤

Theorem 3.4. Let X be a surface without Fq -irreducible curves of arithmetic genus less than or equal to for a positive integer. Consider a rational eﬀective ample divisor H on X avoiding a ﬁnite set S of rational points and let r be a positive integer. Then we have πrH − 1 ∗ 2 d(X, rH, S) ≥ d (X, rH, S) + rH − (q + 1 + m). Proof. The theorem follows from Lemma 2.1, for which items (1) and (2) hold from Lemma 3.3 and item (3) holds from Theorem 2.3. 4. Four improvements In this section we manage to obtain better parameters for conditions (1), (2) or (3) of Lemma 2.1 in four cases: for surfaces of arithmetic Picard number one, for surfaces which do not contain Fq -irreducible curves of small self-intersection and whose canonical divisor is either nef or anti-nef, for ﬁbered surfaces with nef canonical divisor, and for ﬁbered surfaces whose singular ﬁbers are Fq -irreducible curves. 4.1. Surfaces with Picard number one. As mentioned in the Introduction, the case of surfaces X whose arithmetic Picard number equals one has already attracted some interest (see [21], [20], [14] and [5]). We prove in this subsection Lemma 4.1 and Theorem 4.3 which improve, under this rank one assumption, the bounds of Lemma 3.1 and Theorem 3.2. These new bounds depend on the sign of 3H 2 + H.KX , where H is the ample generator of NS(X). Lemma 4.1. Let X be a smooth projective surface of arithmetic Picard number one. Let H be the ample generator of NS(X) and let r be a positive integer. For k any non-zero function f ∈ L (rH) consider the decomposition Df = i=1 ni Di into Fq -irreducible and reduced curves Di with positive integer coeﬃcients ni as in

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

20

AUBRY ET AL.

(8). Then the sum of the arithmetic genera of the curves Di satisﬁes: k (i) πDi ≤ (k − 1)πH + π(r−k+1)H if 3H 2 + H.KX ≥ 0; i=1 k 2 2 2 2 (ii) i=1 πDi ≤ H (r − k) /2 + H (r − 2k) + k if 3H + H.KX < 0. Remark 4.2. Note that the condition 3H 2 + H.KX ≥ 0 is satisﬁed as soon as H.KX ≥ 0. It is also satisﬁed in the special case where KX = −H which corresponds to Del Pezzo surfaces. Proof. In order to prove the ﬁrst item, we consider a non-zero function f ∈ L (rH) and we keep the notation already introduced in (8), namely Df = k i=1 ni Di . As NS(X) = ZH, for all i we have Di = ai H and we know by Lemma 2.2 in [21] that k ≤ r. Intersecting with the ample divisor H enables to prove k to get an upper that for all i we have ai ≥ 1 and that i=1 ni ai = r. Thus k k k 2 2 bound for i=1 πDi = i=1 πai H , we are reduced to bounding i=1 ai H /2 + k k i=1 ai H.KX /2 + k under the constraint i=1 ai ni = r. Our strategy is based on the two following arguments. First, the condition 3H 2 + H.KX ≥ 0 guarantees that a → πaH is an increasing sequence. Indeed, for integers a > a ≥ 1 we have πa H ≥ πaH if and only if (a + a )H 2 ≥ −H.KX , which is true under the condition above because a + a ≥ 3. As a consequence, if we ﬁx an index i between 1 and k and if we consider that the product ni ai is constant, then the value of πai H is maximum when ai is, that is when ai = ni ai and ni = 1. Secondly, assume that all the ni equal 1 and that ki=1 ai = r. We are now k reduced to bounding i=1 a2i . We can prove that the maximum is reached when all the ai equal 1 except one which equals r − k + 1. Otherwise, suppose for example that 2 ≤ a1 ≤ a2 . Then a21 +a22 < (a1 −1)2 +(a2 +1)2 and ki=1 a2i is not maximum, and the ﬁrst item is thus proved. For the second item, using the adjonction formula we get k

πDi − k ≤

i=1

k k 1 1 2 (D .H) + Di .KX . i 2H 2 i=1 2 i=1

Again as NS(X) = ZH, for all i we have Di = ai H. Thus we get k

k k 1 2 2 2 1 a (H ) + ai H.KX . 2H 2 i=1 i 2 i=1 i=1 k Now using that H.KX ≤ −3H 2 by hypothesis, that i=1 ai ≥ k since every ai is positive and that since ki=1 ai ≤ r we can prove again that ki=1 a2i ≤ (r − k + 1)2 + (k − 1), we get k i=1

πDi − k ≤

πDi − k ≤

H2 3H 2 ((r − k + 1)2 + (k − 1)) − k. 2 2

Some easy calculation shows that this is equivalent to our second statement.

Theorem 4.3. Let X be a smooth projective surface of arithmetic Picard number one. Let H be the ample generator of NS(X) and S a ﬁnite set of rational points avoiding H. For any positive integer r, the minimum distanced(X, rH, S) of

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

21

the code C(X, rH, S) satisﬁes: (i) if 3H 2 + H.KX ≥ 0, then

S − (q + 1 + mπrH ) if r > 2(q + 1 + m)/mH 2 , d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − r(q + 1 + mπH ) otherwise. (ii) If 3H 2 + H.KX < 0, then

S − (q + 1 + m) − mH 2 (r 2 − 3)/2 if r > 2(q + 1 + m)/mH 2 − 3, d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − r(q + 1 + m − mH 2 ) otherwise. Proof. For any non-zero f ∈ L(rH), we have by (9) and by point (1) of Theorem 2.3 the following inequality N (f ) ≤ k(q + 1) + m

k

πDi .

i=1

k We apply Lemma 4.1 to bound i=1 πDi . We get in the ﬁrst case N (f ) ≤ φ(k) where φ(k) := mπ(r−k+1)H + k(q + 1 + mπH ) − mπH . Remark that π(r−k+1)H is quadratic in k and so φ(k) is a quadratic function with positive leading coeﬃcient. In [20, Lemma 2.2] Voloch and Zarzar proved that if X has arithmetic Picard number one then k ≤ r. Thus φ(k) attends its maximum for k = 1 or for k = r and N (f ) ≤ max{φ(1), φ(r)}. A simple calculus shows that φ(1) − φ(r) > 0 if and only if r > 2(q + 1 + m)/mH 2 . Since we have d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − maxf ∈L(rH)\{0} N (f ), part (i) of the theorem is proved. The treatment of part (ii) is the same, except that we use Lemma 4.1 to bound k i=1 πDi . Remark 4.4. Little and Schenck have given bounds in [14, §3] for the minimum distance of codes deﬁned over algebraic surfaces of Picard number one. In particular, they obtain (if we keep the notations of Theorem 4.3): d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − (q + 1 + mπH ) for r = 1 ([14, Th. 3.3]) and d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − r(q + 1 + mπH ) for r > 1 and q large ([14, Th. 3.5]). Comparing their bounds with Theorem 4.3, one can see that when 3H 2 + H.KX ≥ 0 we get the same bound for r = 1 and also for r > 1 without any hypothesis on q. Moreover, when 3H 2 + H.KX < 0, our bounds improve the ones given by Little and Schenck, again without assuming large enough q when r > 1. 4.2. Surfaces without irreducible curves over Fq with small self-intersection and whose canonical divisor is either nef or anti-nef. We consider in this section surfaces X such that there exists some integer β ≥ 0 for which any Fq -irreducible curve D lying on X and deﬁned over Fq has self-intersection D2 ≥ β. We prove in this case Lemma 4.5 below, from which we can tackle assumption (1) in Lemma 2.1 in case β > 0. Unfortunately, Lemma 4.5 enables to fulﬁll assumption (2) of Lemma 2.1 only in case the intersection of the canonical divisor with Fq -irreducible curves has constant sign, that is for surfaces of Section 3.1. The lower bound for the minimum distance we get is better than the one given in Theorem 3.2. Let us propose some examples of surfaces with this property: - simple abelian surfaces satisfy this property for β = 2.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

22

AUBRY ET AL.

- Surfaces whose arithmetic Picard number is one. Indeed consider a curve D deﬁned over Fq on X, and assume that NS(X) = ZH with H ample. Then we have that D = aH for some integer a. Since H is ample we get 1 ≤ D.H = aH 2 hence a ≥ 1 and D2 = a2 H 2 ≥ H 2 . - Surfaces whose canonical divisor is anti-nef and without irreducible curves of arithmetic genus less or equal to > 0. Indeed the adjunction formula gives D2 = 2πD − 2 − D.KX ≥ 2πD − 2 ≥ 2. Lemma 4.5. Let X be a surface on which any Fq -irreducible curve has selfintersection at least β ≥ 0. Assume that H is a rational eﬀective ample divisor on k X and let r be a positive integer. Let D = i=1 ni Di be the decomposition as a sum of Fq -irreducible and reduced curves of an eﬀective divisor D linearly equivalent to rH. Then we have 2 (1) if β > 0 then k ≤ r Hβ ; k (2) i=1 (2πDi − 2 − Di .KX ) ≤ ϕ(k), with (13)

√ 2 ϕ(k) := (k − 1)β + r H 2 − (k − 1) β .

√ √ Proof. Since by hypothesis we have β ≤ Di2 , we deduce that k β ≤ √ √ k k D rH.H 2 √i .H √ = r H 2 , from which i=1 ni Di . By (2), we get k β ≤ i=1 ni H 2 = H2 the ﬁrst item follows. Setting xi := 2πDi − 2 − Di .KX , we have by adjunction formula xi = Di2 ≥ √ k k 2 β. Moreover the previous inequalities ensure that i=1 xi ≤ i=1 ni Di ≤ √ k k r H 2 . Then, the maximum of i=1 (2πDi − 2 − Di .KX ) = i=1 x2i under the √ √ k reached when each but one xi equals conditions xi ≥ β and i=1 xi ≤ r H 2 is √ √ √ the minimum β, and only one is equal to r H 2 − (k − 1) β, and this concludes the proof. Theorem 4.6. Let X be a surface on which any Fq -irreducible curve has selfintersection at least β > 0. Consider a rational eﬀective ample divisor H on X avoiding a set S of rational points and let r be a positive integer. Then ⎧ H2 ⎨S − max ψ(1), ψ r H 2 −m β 2r 2β if KX is nef, d(X, rH, S) ≥ ⎩S − max ψ(1), ψ r H 2 if −KX is nef β with ψ(k) :=

m ϕ(k) + k(q + 1 + m), 2

where ϕ(k) is given by equation (13). Proof. For any non-zero f ∈ L(rH), we have by (9) and by point (1) of Theorem 2.3 that N (f ) ≤ k(q + 1) + m ki=1 πDi . Lemma 4.5 implies that N (f ) ≤ k k k(q + 1) + m i=1 Di .KX . In case KX is nef, we have i=1 Di .KX ≤ 2 2k + ϕ(k) + k k n D .K = rH.K , and in case −K is nef, we get D .K X X X X ≤ 0, and i=1 i i i=1 i the theorem follows.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

23

4.3. Fibered surfaces with nef canonical divisor. We consider in this subsection AG codes from ﬁbered surfaces whose canonical divisor is nef. We adopt the vocabulary of [18, III, §8] and we refer the reader to this text for the basic notions we recall here. A ﬁbered surface is a surjective morphism π : X → B from a smooth projective surface X to a smooth absolutely irreducible curve B. We denote by π0 the common arithmetic genus of the ﬁbers and by gB the genus of the base curve B. Elliptic surfaces are among the ﬁrst non-trivial examples of ﬁbered surfaces. For such surfaces we have π0 = 1 and the canonical divisor is always nef (see [6]). We recall that on a ﬁbered surface every divisor can be uniquely written as a sum of horizontal curves (that is mapped onto B by π) and ﬁbral curves (that is mapped onto a point by π). Lemma 4.7. Let π : X → B be a ﬁbered surface. Let H be a rational eﬀective ample divisor on X and let r be a positive integer. For any eﬀective divisor D k linearly equivalent to rH, consider its decomposition D = i=1 ni Di as a sum of reduced Fq -irreducible curves as in (8). Denote by r i the number of absolutely irreducible components of Di . Then, we have k

r i ≤ rH 2 .

i=1

ri k Di,j where the Di,j are the Proof. Write D = i=1 ni Di = i=1 ni j=1 absolutely irreducible components of Di . We use that ni > 0, that D is numerically equivalent to rH and that Di,j .H > 0 to get k

k i=1

ri ≤

ri k

Di,j .H ≤

i=1 j=1

k i=1

ni

ri

Di,j .H =

j=1

k

ni Di .H = rH.H,

i=1

which proves the lemma.

The next theorem involves the defect δ(B) of a smooth absolutely irreducible curve B deﬁned over Fq of genus gB , which is deﬁned by δ(B) := q + 1 + mgB − B(Fq ). By the Serre-Weil theorem this defect is a non-negative number. The so-called maximal curves have defect 0, and the smaller the number of rational points on B is, the greater the defect is. Theorem 4.8. Let π : X → B be a ﬁbered surface whose canonical divisor KX is nef. Assume that H is a rational eﬀective ample divisor on X having at least one horizontal component and avoiding a set S of rational points. For any positive integer r the minimum distance of C(X, rH, S) satisﬁes d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S) + δ(B) where d∗ (X, rH, S) is given by formula (12). Recall that the general bound we obtain in Theorem 3.2 in Section 3 for surfaces with nef canonical divisor is d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S), thus the bound from Theorem 4.8 is always equal or better. Actually Theorem 4.8 is surprising, since it says that the lower bound for the minimum distance is all the more large because

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

24

AUBRY ET AL.

the defect δ(B) is. Consequently it looks like considering ﬁbered surfaces on curves with few rational points and large genus could lead to potentially good codes. Proof. Recall that for any non-zero f ∈ L(rH), we have d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − N (f ), and that N (f ) ≤ ki=1 Di (Fq ) if we use the notation Df := rH + (f ) = k i=1 ni Di introduced in (8). We again denote by r i the number of absolutely irreducible components of Di . In order to introduce the Fq -irreducible components of Df , write k = h + v, where h (respectively v) is the number of horizontal curves denoted by H1 , . . . , Hh , (respectively ﬁbral curves denoted by F1 , . . . , Fv ). Then h v we get N (f ) ≤ i=1 Hi (Fq ) + i=1 Fi (Fq ). Since B is a smooth curve, the morphisms Hi → B are ﬂat. Now applying Proposition 2.4 to horizontal curves and Theorem 2.3 to ﬁbral curves gives N (f ) ≤ h(B(Fq ) − mgB ) + m

h

πHi + q

i=1

(14)

= h(B(Fq ) − mgB − q) + m

h

(ri − 1) + qv + v + m

i=1 k i=1

πDi + q

v

πFi

i=1 k

r i + v,

i=1

k where we used the fact that v ≤ i=h+1 r i . Since the canonical divisor of the ﬁbered surface is assumed to be nef, Lemma 3.1 gives a bound for ki=1 πDi . We set v = k − h and we use Lemma 4.7 with (14) to obtain N (f ) ≤ h(B(Fq ) − mgB − q) + m(πrH − 1) + mk + qrH 2 + v = h(B(Fq ) − mgB − q − 1) + m(πrH − 1) + mk + qrH 2 + k = −hδ(B) + m(πrH − 1) + mk + qrH 2 + k. Now, Df .F ≡ rH.F > 0 since F is a generic ﬁber and rH is assumed to have at least one horizontal component. Thus, Df has also at least one horizontal component, that is h ≥ 1. Moreover, again from Lemma 3.1 we have k ≤ rH 2 . As the defect δ(B) is non-negative it follows that N (f ) ≤ −δ(B) + rH 2 (q + 1 + m) + m(πrH − 1)

and the theorem is proved.

4.4. Fibered surfaces whose singular ﬁbers are irreducible. In this subsection we drop oﬀ the condition on the canonical divisor. Instead, we assume that every singular ﬁber on X is Fq -irreducible. To construct examples of such surfaces, ﬁx any d ≥ 1 and recall that the dimension of the space of degree d . Hence the space Pd of plane homogeneous polynomials in three variables is d+2 2 d+2 −1 ) ( curves of degree d is P = P 2 . Any curve B drawn in P gives rise to a ﬁbered d

d

. The surface, whose ﬁbers are plane curves of degree d, that is with π0 = (d−1)(d−2) 2 locus of singular curves being a subvariety of Pd , choosing B not contained in this singular locus yields to a ﬁbered surface with smooth generic ﬁber. As the locus of reducible curves has high codimension in Pd , choosing B avoiding this locus yields to ﬁbered surfaces without reducible ﬁbers. We consider the case where π0 and gB are both at least 2 and we set = min(π0 , gB ) − 1 ≥ 1. We recall again that every divisor on X can be uniquely written as a sum of horizontal and ﬁbral curves. If we denote by H an horizontal

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

25

curve and by V a ﬁbral curve deﬁned over Fq , we have that πH ≥ gB and πV = π0 . Therefore, in this setting, X contains no Fq -irreducible curves deﬁned over Fq of arithmetic genus smaller than or equal to . Thus Lemma 3.3 applies and gives the k same bound for i=1 πi as when KX is nef and the bound k ≤ (πrH − 1)/ for the number k of Fq -irreducible components of Df . We consider this new bound for k in the proof of Theorem 4.8 and we get instead the following result. Theorem 4.9. Let π : X → B be a ﬁbered surface. We consider a rational effective ample divisor H on X having at least one horizontal component and avoiding a set S of rational points. Let r be a positive integer. We denote by gB the genus of B and by π0 the arithmetic genus of the ﬁbers and we set = min(π0 , gB ) − 1. Suppose that every singular ﬁber is Fq -irreducible and that ≥ 1. Then the minimum distance of C(X, rH, S) satisﬁes πrH − 1 ∗ 2 d(X, rH, S) ≥ d (X, rH, S) + rH − (q + 1 + m) + δ(B), where d∗ (X, rH, S) is given by formula (12). Naturally this bound is better than the one in Theorem 4.8 if and only if πrH − 1 < rH 2 . Furthermore it improves the bound of Theorem 3.4 by the addition of the non-negative term δ(B). 5. An example: surfaces in P3 This section is devoted to the study of the minimum distance of AG codes over a surface X of degree d ≥ 3 embedded in P3 . We consider the class L of an hyperplane section of X. So L is ample, L2 = d and the canonical divisor on X is KX = (d − 4)L (see [17, p.212]). In this setting, we ﬁx a rational eﬀective ample divisor H and r a positive integer. We apply our former theorems to this context to give bounds on the minimum distance of the code C(X, rH, S). We recall that cubic surfaces are considered by Voloch and Zarzar in [20] and [21] to provide computationally good codes. In Section 4 of [14] Little and Schenck propose theoretical and experimental results for surfaces in P3 always in the prospect of ﬁnding good codes. We also contribute to this study with a view to bounding the minimum distance according to the geometry of the surface. Proposition 5.1. Let X be a surface of degree d ≥ 3 embedded in P3 . Consider a rational eﬀective ample divisor H avoiding a set S of rational points on X and let r be a positive integer. Then the minimum distance of the code C(X, rH, S) satisﬁes (1) if X is a cubic surface, then d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S) + mr(πH − 1). (2) If X has degree d ≥ 4 then d(X, rH, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rH, S), where d∗ (X, rH, S) = S − rH 2 (q + 1 + m) − m(πrH − 1) is the function deﬁned in (12).

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

26

AUBRY ET AL.

Proof. Since KX = (d − 4)L we have for cubic surfaces that KX = −L and thus the canonical divisor is anti-ample, while for surfaces of degree d ≥ 4 the canonical divisor is ample or the zero divisor, thus is nef. Hence we can apply Theorem 3.2 from which the proposition follows. 5.1. Surfaces in P3 without irreducible curves of low genus. In the complex setting, the Noether-Lefschetz theorem asserts that a general surface X of degree d ≥ 4 in P3 is such that Pic(X) = ZL, where L is the class of an hyperplane section (see [9]). Here, general means outside a countable union of proper subvarieties of the projective space parametrizing the surfaces of degree d in P3 . Even if we do not know an analog of this statement in our context, it suggests us the strong assumptions we take in this subsection, namely in Lemma 5.2 and Proposition 5.3. Lemma 5.2. Let X be a surface of degree d ≥ 4 in P3 of arithmetic Picard number one. Suppose that NS(X) is generated by the class of an hyperplane section L. Consider an Fq -irreducible curve D on X of arithmetic genus πD . Then πD ≥ (d − 1)(d − 2)/2. Proof. Let a be the integer such that D = aL in NS(X). Since D is an Fq irreducible curve and L is ample, we must have a > 0. Then, using the adjonction formula, we get 2πD − 2 = D2 + D.K = a2 L2 + aL.(d − 4)L = a2 d + ad(d − 4) ≥ d + d(d − 4), and thus πD ≥ (d − 1)(d − 2)/2.

By the previous lemma it is straightforward that in our context X does not contain any Fq -irreducible curves of arithmetic genus smaller than or equal to for = (d − 1)(d − 2)/2 − 1 = d(d − 3)/2. This allows us to apply Theorem 3.4, and get the following proposition. Proposition 5.3. Let X be a degree d ≥ 4 surface in P3 of arithmetic Picard number one whose N´eron-Severi group NS(X) is generated by the class of an hyperplane section L. Assume that S is a set of rational points avoiding L. For any positive integer r the minimum distance of the code C(X, rL, S) satisﬁes r+d−4 d(X, rL, S) ≥ d∗ (X, rL, S, L) + rd 1 − (q + 1 + m) d(d − 3) where d∗ (X, rL, S, L) = S − rd(q + 1 + m) − mrd(r + d − 4)/2. 5.2. Surfaces in P3 of arithmetic Picard number one. In this subsection we suppose that the arithmetic Picard number of X is one, but we do not take the assumption that the N´eron-Severi group is generated by an hyperplane section. Also in this case we can apply Theorem 4.3 which brings us to the following proposition. Proposition 5.4. Let X be a surface of degree d ≥ 4 in P3 . Assume that NS(X) = ZH for an ample divisor H. Consider L = hH, the class of an hyperplane section of X, for h a positive integer. Let S be a set of rational points on X

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CODES OVER SURFACES

27

avoiding H and let r be a positive integer. Then the minimum distance of the code C(X, rH, S) satisﬁes

S − (q + 1 + m) − rH 2 (r + h(d − 4))/2 if r > 2(q + 1 + m)/mH 2 , d(X, rH, S) ≥ S − r(q + 1 + m) − rH 2 (1 + h(d − 4))/2 otherwise. Proof. Since we have 3H 2 +H.KX = 3H 2 +H.(d−4)L = 3H 2 +h(d−4)H 2 = H 2 (3 + h(d − 4)) ≥ 0, we can apply point (i) of Theorem 4.3 from which the proposition follows. Acknowledgments. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for relevant observations. References [1] Y. Aubry, Algebraic geometric codes on surfaces, talk at Eurocode’92 - International symposium on coding theory and applications (1992, Udine, Italie), in Ph.D. thesis of the University of Aix-Marseille II, France (1993), hal-00979000. [2] Y. Aubry, E. Berardini, F. Herbaut, and M. Perret, Algebraic geometry codes over abelian surfaces containing no absolutely irreducible curves of low genus, Finite Fields Appl. 70 (2021), 101791, 20, DOI 10.1016/j.ﬀa.2020.101791. MR4192804 [3] Y. Aubry and M. Perret, A Weil theorem for singular curves, Arithmetic, geometry and coding theory (Luminy, 1993), de Gruyter, Berlin, 1996, pp. 1–7. MR1394921 [4] Y. Aubry and M. Perret, On the characteristic polynomials of the Frobenius endomorphism for projective curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds, Finite Fields Appl. 10 (2004), no. 3, 412–431, DOI 10.1016/j.ﬀa.2003.09.005. MR2067606 [5] R. Blache, A. Couvreur, E. Hallouin, D. Madore, J. Nardi, M. Rambaud, and H. Randriam, Anticanonical codes from del Pezzo surfaces with Picard rank one, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 373 (2020), no. 8, 5371–5393, DOI 10.1090/tran/8119. MR4127880 [6] E. Bombieri and D. Mumford, Enriques’ classiﬁcation of surfaces in char. p. III, Invent. Math. 35 (1976), 197–232, DOI 10.1007/BF01390138. MR491720 [7] A. Couvreur, Construction of rational surfaces yielding good codes, Finite Fields Appl. 17 (2011), no. 5, 424–441, DOI 10.1016/j.ﬀa.2011.02.007. MR2831703 [8] V. D. Goppa, Codes on algebraic curves (Russian), Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 259 (1981), no. 6, 1289–1290. MR628795 [9] P. Griﬃths and J. Harris, On the Noether-Lefschetz theorem and some remarks on codimension-two cycles, Math. Ann. 271 (1985), no. 1, 31–51, DOI 10.1007/BF01455794. MR779603 [10] S. Haloui, Codes from Jacobian surfaces, Arithmetic, geometry, cryptography and coding theory, Contemp. Math., vol. 686, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2017, pp. 123–135, DOI 10.1090/conm/686. MR3630612 [11] J. P. Hansen, Toric surfaces and error-correcting codes, Coding theory, cryptography and related areas (Guanajuato, 1998), Springer, Berlin, 2000, pp. 132–142. MR1749454 [12] S. H. Hansen, Error-correcting codes from higher-dimensional varieties, Finite Fields Appl. 7 (2001), no. 4, 531–552, DOI 10.1006/ﬀta.2001.0313. MR1866342 [13] R. Hartshorne, Algebraic geometry, Springer-Verlag, New York-Heidelberg, 1977. Graduate Texts in Mathematics, No. 52. MR0463157 [14] J. Little and H. Schenck, Codes from surfaces with small Picard number, SIAM J. Appl. Algebra Geom. 2 (2018), no. 2, 242–258, DOI 10.1137/17M1128277. MR3797729 [15] J. B. Little, Algebraic geometry codes from higher dimensional varieties, Advances in algebraic geometry codes, Ser. Coding Theory Cryptol., vol. 5, World Sci. Publ., Hackensack, NJ, 2008, pp. 257–293, DOI 10.1142/9789812794017 0007. MR2509126 [16] J. Nardi, Algebraic geometric codes on minimal Hirzebruch surfaces, J. Algebra 535 (2019), 556–597, DOI 10.1016/j.jalgebra.2019.06.022. MR3986402

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

28

AUBRY ET AL.

[17] I. R. Shafarevich, Basic algebraic geometry. 1, second ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994, Varieties in projective space, Translated from the 1988 Russian edition and with notes by Miles Reid. MR1328833 [18] J. H. Silverman, Advanced topics in the arithmetic of elliptic curves, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, vol. 151, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4612-0851-8. MR1312368 [19] M. A. Tsfasman, S. G. Vl˘ adut¸, and Th. Zink, Modular curves, Shimura curves, and Goppa codes, better than Varshamov-Gilbert bound, Math. Nachr. 109 (1982), 21–28, DOI 10.1002/mana.19821090103. MR705893 [20] J. F. Voloch and M. Zarzar, Algebraic geometric codes on surfaces (English, with English and French summaries), Arithmetics, geometry, and coding theory (AGCT 2005), S´emin. Congr., vol. 21, Soc. Math. France, Paris, 2010, pp. 211–216. MR2856569 [21] M. Zarzar, Error-correcting codes on low rank surfaces, Finite Fields Appl. 13 (2007), no. 4, 727–737, DOI 10.1016/j.ﬀa.2007.05.001. MR2359313

Yves Aubry, Institut de Math´ ematiques de Toulon - IMATH, Universit´ e de Toulon and Institut de Math´ ematiques de Marseille - I2M, Aix Marseille Universit´ e, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, UMR 7373, France Email address: [email protected] Elena Berardini, Institut de Math´ ematiques de Marseille - I2M, Aix Marseille Universit´ e, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, UMR 7373, France Email address: elena [email protected] ´ Co ˆ te d’Azur, Institut de Math´ Fabien Herbaut, INSPE Nice-Toulon, Universite ematiques de Toulon - IMATH, Universit´ e de Toulon, France Email address: [email protected] ´matiques de Toulouse, UMR 5219, Universit´ Marc Perret, Institut de Mathe e de Toulouse, CNRS, UT2J, F-31058 Toulouse, France Email address: [email protected]

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Contemporary Mathematics Volume 770, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1090/conm/770/15429

On the number of eﬀective divisors in algebraic function ﬁelds deﬁned over a ﬁnite ﬁeld St´ephane Ballet, Gilles Lachaud, and Robert Rolland Abstract. We study the number of eﬀective divisors of a given degree of an algebraic function ﬁeld deﬁned over a ﬁnite ﬁeld. We ﬁrst give somme lower bounds and upper bounds when the function ﬁeld, the degree and the underlying ﬁnite ﬁeld are ﬁxed. Then we study the behavior of the number of eﬀective divisors when some of the parameters, namely the underlying ﬁnite ﬁeld, the degree of the eﬀective divisors, the algebraic function ﬁeld can be variable.

1. Introduction The algebraic properties of algebraic function ﬁelds deﬁned over a ﬁnite ﬁeld is somehow reﬂected by their numerical properties, namely their numerical invariants such as the number of places of degree one over a given ground ﬁeld extension, the number of classes of its Picard group, the number of eﬀective divisors of a given degree and so on. In this paper, we are interested in the study of the number of eﬀective divisors of a given degree and in the asymptotic behavior of this number under various assumptions. The context of our study is as follows. We consider a function ﬁeld F/Fq of genus g over the ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq with q elements. Sometimes we will use the dual language of curves. We will denote by X an irreducible smooth curve deﬁned over Fq , having F/Fq for algebraic function ﬁeld over Fq and by X(Fq ) the set of Fq rational points of X, corresponding to the set of places of degree one of F/Fq . Throughout this article, curve will mean irreducible smooth curve. For any integer n ≥ 0, let An (F/Fq ) be the number of eﬀective divisors of degree n of F/Fq , h(F/Fq ) its class number and Bn = Bn (F/Fq ) its number of places of degree n. If there is no ambiguity we will set An = An (F/Fq ), h = h(F/Fq ) and Bn = Bn (F/Fq ). In the study of the quantity An , we need distinguish the two following cases: (a) n ≤ g − 1; (b) arbitrary n. 2020 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. Primary 11G30; Secondary 14H05. Our friend Gilles Lachaud passed away on February 21, 2018 while this work was almost in its ﬁnal version. c 2021 American Mathematical Society

29

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

30

BALLET ET AL.

Indeed, in the ﬁrst case the quantity An is linked to the functional equation (1) involving several fundamental invariants, in particular the class number of the algebraic function ﬁeld and the following S(F/Fq ) and R(F/Fq ) quantities: S(F/Fq ) =

g−1

An +

n=0

g−2

q

g−1−n

An

and

R(F/Fq ) =

n=0

g i=1

1 , | 1 − αi |2

where (αi , αi )1≤i≤g are the reciprocal roots of the numerator of the zeta-function Z(F/Fq , T ) of F/Fq . By a result due to G. Lachaud and M. Martin-Deschamps [8], we know that (1)

S(F/Fq ) = hR(F/Fq ). Let us also recall that the zeta-funtion of F/Fq is given by: Z(t) =

where L(t) =

2g

+∞

A m tm =

m=0

i=1 (1

− αi t) =

2g i=0

L(t) (1 − t)(1 − qt)

ai ti is in Z[t].

2. Contents The paper is organized in the following way. In Section 3 the study is done when the ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq and the algebraic function ﬁeld F/Fq are ﬁxed. We ﬁrst give in Subsection 3.1 general results and general formulae on the numbers An for any positive n. Then in Subsection 3.2 we present some lower bounds on An for any positive n and ﬁnally in Subsection 3.3 we give when 1 ≤ n ≤ g − 1 some upper An . bounds on h Next in Section 4 we study the asymptotic behavior of An (F/Fq ) when some of the parameters n, F, q are variable. More precisely, in Subsection 4.1 we study the case of a ﬁxed curve curve X, a ﬁxed degree n for the eﬀective divisors and q growing to inﬁnity, namely, starting from a ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq1 we consider a sequence of extensions Fqi of Fq1 where qi is growing to inﬁnity. In Subsection 4.2 we suppose that the ﬁeld Fq is ﬁxed and we consider a sequence of curves (Xk )k of genus gk = g(Xk ) growing to inﬁnity. For each curve Xk we ﬁx a degree dk . In this case we study the behavior of the sequence Adk (Fk /Fq ) k where Fk /Fq is the algebraic function ﬁeld associated with the curve Xk and where dk is linked to gk in some way. 3. Non-asymptotical case 3.1. General results. In this section, we consider the case where the degree n is an arbitrary integer. Let us set Δ = {i ∈ N | 1 ≤ i ≤ g − 1 and Bi ≥ 1} .

Un = b = (bi )i∈Δ | bi ≥ 0 and ibi = n . i∈Δ

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

31

Note ﬁrst that if Bi ≥ 1 and bi ≥ 0, the number of solutions of the equation n1 + n2 + · · · + nBi = bi with integers ≥ 0 is: Bi + bi − 1 Bi + bi − 1 (2) . = bi Bi − 1 Then the number of eﬀective divisors of degree n is given by the following result, introduced by S. Vl˘adut¸ in [13] and already mentioned in [12], [3] and [4]: Proposition 3.1. The number of eﬀective divisors of degree n of an algebraic function ﬁeld F/Fq is: Bi + bi − 1 An = . bi b∈Un

i∈Δ

Proof. It is suﬃcient to consider that in the formula, bi is the sum of coefﬁcients that are applied to the places of degree i. So, the sum of the terms ibi is the degree n of the divisor. The number of ways to get a divisor of degree ibi with some places of degree i is given by the binomial coeﬃcient (2). For a given b , the product of the second member is the number of eﬀective divisors for which the weight corresponding to the places of degree i is ibi . Then it remains to compute the sum over all possible b to get the number of eﬀective divisors. Proposition 3.2. Let F/Fq be a function ﬁeld of genus g and let L(t) = 2g i i=0 ai t be the numerator of its zeta-function. Moreover, let us set ai = 0 for any integer i > 2g. Then, for any integer n ≥ 0, we have: n q n−i+1 − 1 ai (3) An = q−1 i=0 and δn = An+1 − An =

(4)

n+1

q n−i+1 ai .

i=0

In particular, if B1 > 0, we have δn ≥ 0. Proof. The zeta-function can be written as 2g +∞ i L(t) n i=0 ai t Z(t) = An t = = . (1 − t)(1 − qt) (1 − t)(1 − qt) n=0 H G −1 1 = + where H = and G = From the equality (1 − t)(1 − qt) 1−t 1 − qt q−1 q , and the power series expansions q−1 1 = 1 + t + t2 + ... + tk + ... 1−t and 1 = 1 + qt + q 2 t2 + ... + q k tk + ..., 1 − qt we obtain: ∞ ∞ ∞ n n n An t = (H + q G)t a n tn . × n=0

n=0

n=0

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

32

BALLET ET AL.

Hence, An =

(H + q j G)ai =

i+j=n

Then, we have: An =

−1 q j+1 + ai . q−1 q−1 i+j=n

n n−i+1 q −1 i=0

q−1

ai .

The value of δn follows. If B1 > 0, let P be a place of degree one. The map φP from the set of eﬀective divisors of degree n to the set of eﬀective divisors of degree n + 1 deﬁned by φP (D) = D + P is injective. Hence An+1 ≥ An . 3.2. Lower bounds on An . From Proposition 3.1 we obtain in the next proposition a lower bound on the number of eﬀective divisors of degree n containing in their support only places of some ﬁxed distinct degrees r1 , r2 , ..., rk ≥ 1. Proposition 3.3. Let (rμ )μ=1,...,p be a family of distinct integers ≥ 1 such that Brμ > 0 and n be an integer > 0. Suppose that B1 > 0. Then p B1 + srμ (n) − 1 Brμ + mrμ (n) − 1 (5) An ≥ Br μ − 1 B1 − 1 μ=1

where mrμ (n) and srμ (n) are respectively the quotient and the remainder of the Euclidean division of n by rμ , namely mrμ (n) is the integer part of n/rμ . Proof. For any integer rμ , let aμ = (aμ,i )i∈Δ ∈ Un such that aμ,i = 0 for i ∈ Δ \ {1, rμ }, aμ,1 = srμ (n) and aμ,rμ = mrμ (n). Then by Proposition (3.1), we have: p Bi + bi − 1 Bi + aμ,i − 1 ≥ = An = bi aμ,i μ=1 i∈Δ

b∈Un i∈Δ

p B1 + srμ (n) − 1 Brμ + mrμ (n) − 1 . Br μ − 1 B1 − 1

μ=1

In particular, if p = 1 and r1 = 1 we obtain: B1 + n − 1 B1 + n − 1 An ≥ . = n B1 − 1 Moreover, if the degrees rμ are > 1 and divide n, we do not need the assumption of the existence of places of degree one. Proposition 3.4. Let n be an integer > 0. Let (rμ )μ=1,...,p be a family of distinct integers ≥ 1 dividing n. Suppose that Brμ > 0 for any μ = 1, ..., p. Then p Brμ + mrμ (n) − 1 (6) An ≥ Br μ − 1 μ=1

where mr (n) is the quotient of the Euclidean division of n by rμ .

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

33

Proof. For any integer rμ , let aμ = (aμ i )i∈Δ ∈ Un such that aμ,i = 0 for i ∈ Δ \ {rμ } and aμ,rμ = mrμ (n). Then by Proposition (3.1), we have: p Bi + bi − 1 Bi + a μ i − 1 An = ≥ = bi aμ i μ=1 i∈Δ

b∈Un i∈Δ

p Brμ + mrμ (n) − 1 . Br μ − 1

μ=1

Proposition 3.5. Let (rμ )μ=1,...,p be a family of distinct integers > 1 such that Brμ > 0 and n be an integer > 0. Suppose that B1 ≥ 1. Let m = (mrμ )μ=1,...,p be a family of integers ≥ 0 such that p

mrμ rμ ≤ n.

μ=1

Then An ≥

(7) Proof. Let

B1 + n − 1 B1

p Br μ + m r μ + . Br μ μ=1

b = (brμ )μ=1,...,p | brμ ≥ 0,

Vn =

p

rμ brμ ≤ n .

μ=1

As B1 ≥ 1 the following holds: p Bi + bi − 1 Brμ + brμ − 1 An = ≥ . bi brμ b∈Un

Let Cn =

i∈Δ

p

b∈Vn

μ=1

μ=1 {0, .., mrμ }.

Then Cn ⊂ Vn , hence p Brμ + brμ − 1 An ≥ . brμ b∈Cn

But b∈Cn

μ=1

rμ p p m Brμ + brμ − 1 Brμ + brμ − 1 = brμ brμ

μ=1

μ=1 brμ =0

p Br μ + m r μ = . mr μ μ=1

In the previous estimate, we did not take into account the eﬀective divisors built only with places of degree one. Hence, the result is obtained by adding the number of such divisors.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

34

BALLET ET AL.

Example 3.6. Let us suppose that rμ = μ + 1 for any 1 ≤ μ ≤ p and that we only know the value of B1 and that Bμ+1 ≥ 1. Then the mi are such that p+1 i=2 imi ≤ n and p+1 B1 + n − 1 (1 + mi ). An ≥ + B1 i=2

Let us set xi = 1 + mi . Then p+1

ixi ≤

i=2

(p + 1)(p + 2) − 1 + n. 2

p+1 To optimize the choice of the mi , we will optimize the product i=2 xi under the p+1 − 1 + n. This is done by the method constraint i=1 ixi = K where K = (p+1)(p+2) 2 of Lagrange’s multipliers. Let us introduce the following function: p+1 p+1 xi − λ ixi − K . L(x2 , · · · , xp+1 , λ) = i=2

i=2

Let us denote by πj the incomplete product: x2 x3 · · · xj−1 xj+1 · · · xp+1 . We have to solve the system: ⎧ ∂L(x2 ,··· ,xp+1 ,λ) ⎪ ⎪ ∂x2 ⎪ ⎪ .. ⎨ . ∂L(x2 ,··· ,xp+1 ,λ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎩ ∂L(x2 ,···p+1 ,xp+1 ,λ) ∂λ

Hence xi = 2i x2 . Hence

p+1

= .. . = =

π2 − 2λ .. . πp+1 − (p + 1)λ p+1 i=2 ixi − K

= 0, .. .. . . = 0, = 0.

ixi = 2px2 = K.

i=2

This gives a value for x2 and then for the xi . These values are not always integers. Then we have to choose the best way to give to each xi a integer value near the computed value, in order to obtain an optimal solution for the mi = xi − 1. For example if p = 3 and n = 9, then K = 18. We conclude that x2 = 3, x3 = 2, x4 = 3/2. Then we can try m2 = 3, m3 = 1 and m4 = 0. or m2 = 1, m3 = 1 and m4 = 1 or m2 = 2, m3 = 0 and m4 = 1. The two ﬁrst solutions give the maximum 8 for the product (1 + m2 )(1 + m3 )(1 + m4 ) (it is impossible to do better). 3.3. Upper bounds in the case n ≤ g − 1. Proposition 3.7. Let F/Fq be a function ﬁeld of genus g and let L(t) = 2g i i=0 ai t be the numerator of its zeta-function. Then g−k g+k−1 1 −k+1 q Ag−k = ai − ai . h− q−1 i=0 i=0 Proof. From Z(t) =

+∞ m=0

A m tm =

2g i L(t) i=0 ai t = (1 − t)(1 − qt) (1 − t)(1 − qt)

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

35

we deduce that for all 0 ≤ m ≤ 2g, Am =

m q m−i+1 − 1

q−1

i=0

ai .

In particular, (q − 1)Ag−k =

g−k

(q g−k−i+1 − 1)ai .

i=0

Since ai = q i−g a2g−i , for all i = 0, . . . g, we get (q − 1)Ag−k = q

g−k+1

g−k

−i

q ai −

i=0

−k+1

g−k

g−k

Furthermore, we know that h = L(1) =

q q

a2g−i −

i=0

(a2g−i − ai ) = h −

g−k

g−k

ai .

i=0

ai + q

−k+1

i=0

2g

i=0

−i i−g

i=0

(a2g−i − ai ) −

i=0

g−k

ai = q

g−k+1

i=0

Hence (q − 1)Ag−k = q

g−k

g−k

ai .

i=0

ai , therefore

g+k−1

ai −

i=0

g−k

ai ,

i=0

which completes the proof.

Remark 3.8. For k = 1 one obtains the two following equalities in the interesting particular case of divisors of degree g − 1:

(8)

Ag−1

g−1 1 h − ag + 2 = ai . q−1 i=0 Ag−1 =

(9)

g−1

(a2g−i − ai ) .

i=0

Now we can give general bounds about the quantity Let us give diﬀerent useful bounds for R(F/Fq ).

Ad which can be of interest. h

Proposition 3.9. (10)

g R(F/Fq ) ≤ √ . ( q − 1)2

(11)

g R(F/Fq ) ≥ √ . ( q + 1)2

(12)

(13)

(14)

R(F/Fq ) ≤

1 (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 (F/Fq ) . (q − 1)2

R(F/Fq ) ≤ R(F/Fq ) ≥

1 (g + 1)(q + 1) . 2 (q − 1)

1 (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 (F/Fq ) . 2 (q + 1)

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

36

BALLET ET AL.

Proof. It is known by [8] that the quantity R(F/Fq ) is bounded by the following upper bound: R(F/Fq ) ≤

(15)

1 (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 (F/Fq ) . 2 (q − 1)

The inequality (12) is obtained as follows: R(F/Fq ) =

g i=1

1 1 = . (1 − αi )(1 − αi ) 1 + q − (αi + αi ) i=1 g

Multiplying the denominators by the corresponding conjugated quantities, we get: R(F/Fq ) ≤

g 1 (1 + q + αi + αi ). (q − 1)2 i=1

This last inequality associated to the following formula deduced from the Weil’s formulas: g (αi + αi ) = 1 + q − B1 (F/Fq ), i=1

gives the inequality (12). The inequality (12) cannot be improved in the general case. Remark that in the same way we can prove that 1 (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 (F/Fq ) . (16) R(F/Fq ) ≥ 2 (q + 1) Remark 3.10. Note that Bound (12) is better than Bound (10) because of the lower Weil bound. Indeed, √ B1 (F/Fq ) ≥ q + 1 − 2g q, then

1 (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 (F/Fq ) (q − 1)2 1 √ (g + 1)(q + 1) − (q + 1) + 2g q . ≤ 2 (q − 1)

and we can conclude thanks to the following equality: 1 g √ (g + 1)(q + 1) − (q + 1) + 2g q = √ . 2 (q − 1) ( q − 1)2 Moreover (13) is interesting when the number of places of degree one is unknown √ and q + 1 − 2g q < 0. Indeed in this case (13) is better than (10). On the contrary, √ if q + 1 − 2g q > 0 (10) is better than (13). Ad . h Theorem 3.11. For any function ﬁeld F/Fq of genus g deﬁned over Fq and any degree n such that 1 ≤ n ≤ g − 1, the following holds: ⎧ A if n < g − 1, ⎨ hn < g−n−11 √ 2 2q ( q−1)2 (17) ⎩ Ahn < √ 1 2 for n = g − 1. ( q−1) The following theorem gives upper bounds on

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

(18)

g An ≤ √ 2 . g−n−1 h q q−1

(19)

(g + 1)(q + 1) An ≤ g−n−1 . h q (q − 1)2

37

Proof. Inequality (17) was obtained in the proof of [2, Theorem 3.3]. We prove here inequalities (18) and (19). Note that Inequality (18) was also proved by I. Cascudo, R. Cramer, C. Xing in [5, Proposition 3.4]. Let us denote by L(t) =

g

(1 − αj t)(1 − αj t)

j=1

the numerator of the zeta-function of F/Fq . Then h = L(1) =

g

|1 − αj |2 .

j=1

The Hecke formula (see [8]) implies (20)

Ag−1 +

But by Formula (10)

g−2

g Ad 1 + q g−1−d = h

d=0

j=1

g j=1

then Ag−1 +

g−2 d=0

1 . |1 − αj |2

1 g ≤ √ , 2 |1 − αj | ( q − 1)2 gh Ad 1 + q g−1−d ≤ √ , ( q − 1)2

hence for any n such that 1 ≤ n ≤ g − 1 the following holds: gh An q g−1−n ≤ √ . ( q − 1)2 From this last inequality we get (18). Replacing Formula (10) by Formula (13) we obtain (19). Remark 3.12. If the algebraic function ﬁeld F/Fq of genus g ≥ 1 is ordinary then by [2, Proposition 4.3] there exists a non-special divisor of degree g − 1. Hence Ag−1 < h which improves for q = 2 or 3 the second part of Formula 17. If B1 ≥ 1 inequalities (18) and (19) can be improved. by the following proposition: Proposition 3.13. Let F/Fq be a function ﬁeld of genus g deﬁned over Fq and n an integer such that 1 ≤ n < g − 1. Suppose that B1 ≥ 1. Then the following holds: (21)

(22)

1 An ≤ √ √ 1 h 2 2( q − 1) 2 + q

. √ g−n−1 q −1 √ q−1

(g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 An ≤ . h (q − 1) [(q − 1)(g − n) + q (q g−n−1 − 1)]

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

38

BALLET ET AL.

Proof. In order to prove Formula (21) we use the following inequality established in [2, Formula (6)]: 2

g−2 d=0

h q (g−1−d)/2 Ad + Ag−1 ≤ √ . ( q − 1)2

Then, as B1 ≥ 1, we know by Proposition 3.2 that An+1 ≥ An . Hence 2An

g−2 d=n

h q (g−1−d)/2 + An ≤ √ , ( q − 1)2

from which we deduce (21). To prove Formula (22), ﬁrst we can replace inequalities (10) and (13) by the better inequality (12). Next we know by Proposition 3.2 that An+1 ≥ An . Hence we can deduce from formula (20) the following ones: g−2 h g−d−1 An (g − n) + (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 , q ≤ 2 (q − 1) An

d=n

q q g−n−1 − 1 h ≤ (g + 1)(q + 1) − B1 . (g − n) + 2 (q − 1) (q − 1)

This last inequality leads to the result.

If we compare Inequalities (17), (18) and (19) we can see that each of them can be better than the other depending on the parameters. A complete study is done in Annexe A. We can also obtain bounds concerning directly the quantity An from bounds An by using the Weil bounds [14] [15]: on h √ √ (23) ( q − 1)2g ≤ h ≤ ( q + 1)2g . A better upper bound for h than the Weil bound, due to P. Lebacque and A. Zykin [9] can be used if we know upper bounds for the number of rational points of the curve X(Fqk ) over the ﬁelds Fqk for 1 ≤ k ≤ N where N is an integer ≥ 1 :

(24)

N N 2g 1 1 + q −k + √ h ≤ q exp | X(F ) | − k q N k kq k ( q − 1)(N + 1)q 2 k=1 k=1 g

Moreover, in the special case n = g −1, the estimates for Let us introduce s 1 Br + k − 1 Qr,s = . rk k 2 k=0 q

Ag−1 h

Qr,s =

r

q2 r 2 q −1

Br

− Br

Br + s Br

0

1 r q2

(

1 r q2

− t)s

(1 − t)Br +s+1

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

.

can be improved.

Lemma 3.14.

dt.

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

39

Proof. Let us set ∞ s Br + k − 1 Br + k − 1 k k X X Sr (X) = , Tr (X, s) = , k k k=0

∞

and Rr (X, s) =

X

k

k=s+1

Let us remark that

Qr,s = Tr

1 r ,s q2

k=0

Br + k − 1 k

and

Sr (X) =

.

1 (1 − X)Br

which converges for |X| < 1 and moreover Sr (X) = Tr (X, s) + Rr (X, s). By the Taylor Formula, we get

Rr (X, s) = Br Then

Qr,s =

r

q2 r 2 q −1

Br + s Br

Br

X

0

Br + s Br

− Br

(X − t)s dt. (1 − t)Br +s+1

(

1 r q2

0

− t)s

1 r q2

dt.

(1 − t)Br +s+1

Lemma 3.15. Let F/Fq be a function ﬁeld of genus g deﬁned over Fq . Let let m = (mr )r∈Δ be a ﬁnite sequence of integers such that mr ≥ 0 and r∈Δ rmr ≤ g − 2. Then the following inequality holds: g−2 Ak k=0

q

≥

k 2

Qr,mr .

r∈Δ

Proof. By Proposition 3.1 we know that Bi + bi − 1 . Ak = bi b∈Uk

If one set V =

g−2

i∈Δ

b = (br )r∈Δ | br ≥ 0 and

Uk =

rbr ≤ g − 2

r∈Δ

k=0

the following holds: g−2 Ak k

k=0

q2

=

1

b∈V r∈Δ

q

rbr 2

Br + br − 1 br

.

Let C be the subset of V deﬁned by {0, · · · , mr }. C= r∈Δ

Then

g−2 Ak k

k=0

q2

≥

b∈C r∈Δ

1 q

rbr 2

Br + br − 1 br

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

=

40

BALLET ET AL.

mr 1 Br + k − 1 Qr,mr . = rk k 2 r∈Δ k=0 q r∈Δ Proposition 3.16. Let F/Fq be a function ﬁeld of genus g deﬁned over Fq . Let m = (mr )r∈Δ be a ﬁnite sequence of integers such that mr ≥ 0 and r∈Δ rmr ≤ g − 2. Then the following inequalities holds: (25)

g−1 h − 2q 2 Qr,mr , Ag−1 ≤ √ 2 ( q − 1)

r∈Δ

(26)

√ g−1 ( q + 1)2g Ag−1 ≤ √ − 2q 2 Qr,mr , 2 ( q − 1) r∈Δ

where for any r ≥ 1 and s ≥ 0 the following holds: Br 1r r ( 1r2 − t)s q2 Br + s q q2 Qr,s = − Br dt. r B 2 (1 − t)Br +s+1 q −1 r 0 Proof. Let us recall the following inequality established in [2, Formula (6)]: 2q

(g−1)/2

g−2 Ad h + Ag−1 ≤ √ . d/2 ( q − 1)2 q d=0

We know by Proposition 3.15 that g−2 Ak k=0

q

k 2

≥

Qr,mr .

r∈Δ

Then the inequality (25) holds. The inequality (26) directly follows from the inequality (25) and from the upper Weil bound. Finally, Lemma 3.14 gives the last equality. Remark 3.17. The inequality (26) can be improved by using, if possible, the upper bound (24). Theorem 3.18. For any curve X of genus g deﬁned over Fq . If 1 ≤ d ≤ g − 1 the following holds: √ 2g g q+1 (27) Ad ≤ √ 2 . q g−d−1 q−1 Proof. From (18) and (23) we obtain (27). As previously remarked, if possible, we can use (24) instead of (23) and get the bound: N N 1+q−k 2g 1 | X(F k ) | − + gq g exp N q √ k=1 kq k k=1 k ( q−1)(N +1)q 2 (28) Ad ≤ . √ 2 q g−d−1 q−1

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

41

4. Asymptotical case The study of the asymptotic behavior of certain quantities associated to curves or function ﬁelds can be done from many point of view depending on the parameter tending to inﬁnity. The simpler cases are described by the two following situations: • Increasing the size of the deﬁnition function ﬁeld of one ﬁxed curve. The ﬁrst case corresponds to the situation of a unique ﬁxed curve X0 of genus g and a ﬁxed degree d0 . Let us remark that if the curve X0 is deﬁned on the ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq1 , it is also deﬁned on any extension Fq of Fq1 , and then we can study the asymptotic behavior of quantities related to the curve X0 when q is growing to inﬁnity. In particular in section 4.1 we will study the asymptotic behaviour of Ad0 (F0 /Fq ) h(F0 /Fq ) when q is growing to inﬁnity, where d0 is a ﬁxed degree and F0 /Fq , the function ﬁeld over Fq associated to the curve X0 . • Case of a family of curves deﬁned over the same ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq . Let (Xk )k≥1 be a family of curves deﬁned over Fq . We study the sequence of function ﬁelds (Fk /Fq )k . Let us denote by gk = g(Xk ) the genus of the curve Xk . We will suppose in the following that the genus sequence (gk )k is growing to inﬁnity. In section 4.2 we will study the asymptotic behaviour of many interesting quantities when k (and then gk ) is growing to inﬁnity, and when the degree d is linked to gk by a relation. We will study in particular the case where d is a linear function of gk . Some asymptotic behaviours are deduced from absolute formulae, namely true for any value of the variables (g(X), q, d). Many such formulae exist, each of them being mainly adapted to a particular asymptotic study. We can consider this point of view by using the results obtained in the section 3. 4.1. Case of a ﬁxed curve and a ﬁxed degree. In this section the curve X of genus g is ﬁxed and d is a ﬁxed integer such that d ≤ g − 1. Let us recall that Ad (F/Fq ) is the number of degree d eﬀective divisors of F/Fq and that h(F/Fq ) is its class number. We give here the asymptotic behaviour of the quotient Ad (F/Fq ) . h(F/Fq ) Theorem 4.1. Let us suppose that g ≥ 1 and d ≤ g − 1. Then when q is growing to inﬁnity, the following holds: Ad (F/Fq ) 1 1 = g−d 1 + O , h(F/Fq ) q q where the O Landau function depends on X and d. This theorem is a consequence of the two following lemmata. Let us denote by Wd0 the following set: Wd0 = {[D] ∈ Picd (X) | dim(D) > 0}. If d ≤ g − 1, the elements of Wd0 are special divisor classes. |X(Fq )| = q + 1 − trace (π).

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

42

BALLET ET AL.

Lemma 4.2. If g ≥ 1 and d ≤ g then when q tends to inﬁnity 0 Wd (Fq ) = q d − q d−1 trace (π) + O(q d−1 ). Proof. The restriction of the projection Π : Div d (X) → Picd (X) gives a surjective morphism 0 Π : Div + d (X) → Wd .

The scheme Wd0 is a dimension d irreducible normal sub-variety of Picd (X) deﬁned over Fq (see [1, p. 190], [10, Prop. 5.1, p. 182]). The Albanese variety of Wd0 is J ac(X) (see [10, Prop. 5.3, p. 183]). We conclude by [6, Cor. 11.4]. Lemma 4.3. If g ≥ 1 and d ≤ g − 1 then when q tends to inﬁnity Ad (F/Fq ) = Wd0 (Fq ) + O(q d−1 ). Proof. Recall that

Ad (F/Fq ) =

[D]∈Picd (Fq )

q dim(D) − 1 . q−1

The dimension of included varieties Wdr = {[D] ∈ Picd (Fq ) | dim(D) ≥ r + 1} is the Brill-Noether number (see [1, p. 180]) ρ(r) = g − (r + 1)(g − d + r), and = ∅ if r > d/2 by the Cliﬀord’s theorem. When q is growing to inﬁnity the following holds: Wdr

+∞ l q − 1 l−1 Wd (Fq ) − Wdl (Fq ) , Ad (F/Fq ) = q−1 l=1

Ad (F/Fq ) =

+∞ l−1

q i Wdl−1 (Fq ) − Wdl (Fq ) ,

l=1 i=0

Ad (F/Fq ) =

+∞ l

+∞ l−1 q i Wdl (Fq ) − q i Wdl (Fq ) ,

l=0 i=0

l=1 i=0

Ad (F/Fq ) = Wd0 (Fq ) +

+∞

q l Wdl (Fq ) ,

l=1

Ad (F/Fq ) ≤ Wd0 (Fq ) +

+∞

q l+ρ(l) 1 + O(q −1/2 ) ,

l=1

Ad (F/Fq ) ≤ Wd0 (Fq ) + q d

+∞

2 q −l q −(g−d)l 1 + O(q −1/2 ) .

l=1

But when q tends to inﬁnity +∞

q −l ∼ q −1 2

l=1

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

43

hence

Ad (F/Fq ) ≤ Wd0 (Fq ) + O(q d−1 ). On the other hand Ad (F/Fq ) ≥ Wd0 (Fq ), then Ad (F/Fq ) = Wd0 (Fq ) + O(q d−1 ).

Proof of Theorem 4.1. Let us remark that h(F/Fq ) = |Picd (Fq )| = q g − q g−1 trace (π) + O(q g−1 ). Then we deduce the result from Lemma 4.2 and Lemma 4.3. 4.2. Case of a ﬁxed ﬁnite ﬁeld. 4.2.1. Introduction. When, for a given ﬁnite ground ﬁeld, the sequence of the genus of a sequence of algebraic function ﬁelds tends to inﬁnity, there exist asymptotic formulae for diﬀerent numerical invariants. In this section, we are interested by the asymptotic study with respect to the genus g of the number of eﬀective divisors of certain degrees. Let (Xk )k be a sequence of smooth irreducible curves deﬁned over the ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq . We denote by F/Fq = (Fk /Fq )k the corresponding sequence of algebraic function ﬁelds deﬁned over Fq . We denote by gk the genus of Xk and we suppose that the sequence (gk )k is growing to inﬁnity. For any integer k, let dk be an integer. We denote by Adk ,k the number Adk (Fk /Fq ) of degree dk eﬀective divisors of Fk /Fq and by hk its class number. In this case, the problem was ﬁrst studied by M. Tsfasman in the article [11, pp 184–185]. Next, M. Tsfasman and S. Vladut mainly give in [12], for asymptotically exact families two kind of estimates: • the ﬁrst one is the “exponentiel estimate” which computes the asymptotic 1/g value of Adk ,kk (see Theorem 4.1 in [12]); • the second one is the “linear estimate” which computes for Adk ,k /hk a more precise estimate (see Theorem 5.1 in [12]). More speciﬁcally, under some assumption on the behaviour of dgkk when k is growing to inﬁnity, the following asymptotic estimate holds when the family F/Fq = (Fk /Fq )k is an asymptotically exact family: q Adk ,k 1 1 + o(1) . (29) = g −d hk q k k q−1 Remark 4.4. The assumption done in [12, Teorem 5.1] is made precise in [12, Lemma 5.1]. It turns out that it is veriﬁed if there is an > 0 dk and an integer k0 ≥ 1 such that for all k ≥ k0 the inequality ≥ 2λ + gk holds, where λ is the unique root of the equation H1+ √1q (x) = 0 on [0, 1], Hy (x) being the entropy function deﬁned by Hy (x) = x logy (y − 1) − x logy (x) − (1 − x) logy (1 − x). Remark 4.5. If the family is a tower, by [7] it is asymptotically exact. If moreover this tower is ordinary then for any k, Agk −1,k < hk by Remark 3.12. Then for q = 2 one can deduce from Formula (29) that A limk gkh−1,k = 1 and that this limit is reached by lower values. k

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

44

BALLET ET AL.

4.2.2. General sequences. In this section, we consider general sequences of algebraic function ﬁelds namely which are not necessarily asymptotically exact. Then, we obtain a result in two parts which respectively follows from formulae (17) and (18) or (19) of Section 3. Theorem 4.6. Let (dk )k be a sequence of integers such that 1 ≤ dk ≤ gk − 1. Let us set dk = gk − φ(gk ) where φ is a function with integer values.

(30)

• If there is an integer k0 such that for any k ≥ k0 the inequality dk < gk −1 holds then √ φ(gk ) q Ad ,k q− 2 , 0 ≤ lim sup k ≤ lim sup √ 2 hk k→+∞ k→+∞ 2( q − 1) • else 0 ≤ lim sup

(31)

k→+∞

Adk ,k 1 ≤ √ . hk ( q − 1)2

Proof. These inequalities follow from Formulae (17). Theorem 4.7. Let us suppose that the following limit exists δ = limk→+∞ and satisﬁes 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1, then 1 Adk ,k gk 1 (32) lim sup ≤ 1−δ . hk q k→+∞ Proof. This inequality follows from Formula (18) or from Formula (19).

dk gk

Corollary 4.8. Let us set dk = gk − φ(gk ) where φ is a function with integer values. If limk→+∞ φ(gk ) = +∞, then we have (33)

lim

k→+∞

Adk ,k = 0. hk

Proof. The result is a straightforward consequence of formula (30). For asymptotically exact sequences it is also a direct consequence of Formula (29). Remark 4.9. Formula (29) for asymptotically exact sequences gives a more accurate asymptotic estimation than Formula (30). But this last formula is valid for any sequence, not only for asymptotically exact sequences and without condition on dk /gk . Appendix A A.1. Comparison of bounds. Let us denote by K17 , K18 and K19 the respective second members of the inequalities (17), (18) and (19). In Remark 3.10 1 √ we proved that K18 ≤ K19 if and only if g ≤ 2 q + √1q . In the following we compare K17 to K18 and to K19 . (1) Case d = g − 1. 1 g (g + 1)(q + 1) K17 = √ ,K = √ ,K = . ( q − 1)2 18 ( q − 1)2 19 (q − 1)2 We remark that in this case K17 ≤ K18 .

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

(a) For g ≤ hold:

1 2

√

q+

√1 q

45

: from the previous results the following inequalities K17 ≤ K18 ≤ K19 .

(b) For g ≥

1 2

√

q+

√1 q

: √ ( q + 1)2 K17 = . K19 (g + 1)(q + 1)

But

√ √ (g + 1)(q + 1) − ( q + 1)2 = gq − 2 q + g. √ The last right member is a quadratic polynomial in q which has a discriminant ≤ 0. The sign is constant and ≥ 0. We conclude that: K17 ≤ K19 ≤ K18 . (2) Case d = g − 2. In this case 1 g K17 = √ √ ,K = √ , 2 q( q − 1)2 18 q( q − 1)2 K19 = (a) For g ≤

1 2

√ q+

√1 q

(g + 1)(q + 1) . q(q − 1)2

:

√ q K17 . = K18 2g √ √ q + √1q , then the following inequalities hold: (i) If 12 q ≤ g ≤ 12 K17 ≤ K18 ≤ K19 . (ii) If g ≤

But as g ≤

1√ 2 q,

1√ 2 q

then √ √ q( q + 1)2 K17 = . K19 2(g + 1)(q + 1)

the following holds: √ √ q( q + 1)2 − 2(g + 1)(q + 1) ≥ 2gq + 2q + 2g − (2gq + 2g + 2q + 2)

and Hence K19 ≤ K17 and

√ √ q( q + 1)2 − 2(g + 1)(q + 1) ≥ 2. K18 ≤ K19 ≤ K17 .

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

46

BALLET ET AL.

(b) For g ≥

1 2

√

√

q+

√1 q

1 q+ √ q

:

2(g + 1)(q + 1) −

√ √ q( q + 1)2 ≥

(q + 1) + 2(q + 1) −

√ √ q( q + 1)2 = √ ( q + 1)2 .

Then K17 ≤ K19 and

K17 ≤ K19 ≤ K18 .

(3) Case d ≤ g − 3. (a) The case q = 2 and d = g − 3 (g ≥ 3) is the only case such that g−d−1 1 √ q+ √ >q 2 . q By a simple computation we obtain: K17 ≤ K19 ≤ K18 . (b) For q = 2 or d < g − 3 we have g−d−1

K17 q 2 = K19 2g

.

(i) If we have the following inequalities 1 √ 1 1 g−d−1 q+ √ ≤g≤ q 2 2 q 2 then K19 ≤ K18 ≤ K17 . (ii) If 1 g≤ 2 then K18 ≤ K17 , K18 ≤ K19 and

√

1 q+ √ q

,

g−d−1 √ q 2 ( q + 1)2 K17 = . K19 2(g + 1)(q + 1)

But

√ ( q + 1)2 − 2(g + 1)(q + 1) ≥ g−d √ √ q 2 (q + 2 q + 1) − (q + 1 + 2 q)(q + 1) = g−d √ (q + 2 q + 1) q 2 − (q + 1) . q

g−d−1 2

(A) If q = 2 and g − d ≥ 4 then q

g−d 2

− (q + 1) ≥ q 2 − q − 1 > 0.

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

47

(B) If q ≥ 3 (and g − d ≥ 3) then q

g−d 2

3

− (q + 1) ≥ q 2 − (q + 1) > 0.

In any cases K19 ≤ K17 . Hence K18 ≤ K19 ≤ K17 . (iii) If g≥ then K17 ≤ K18 , K19 ≤ K18 and

1 g−d−1 q 2 , 2

g−d−1 √ q 2 ( q + 1)2 K17 . = K19 2(g + 1)(q + 1)

Let us set

1 g−d−1 q 2 +a 2 where a ≥ 0. Then the sign of K17 − K19 is the sign of √ 2(g − a)( q + 1)2 − 2(g + 1)(q + 1), g=

namely the sign of

√ √ 2g q − (q + 1) − a( q + 1)2 . √ Remark that 2g q − (q + 1) is ≥ 0. Hence: (A) if √ 2g q − (q + 1) a≤ √ ( q + 1)2 then K19 ≤ K17 and K19 ≤ K17 ≤ K18 . (B) else if √ 2g q − (q + 1) a≥ √ ( q + 1)2 then K19 ≥ K17 and K17 ≤ K19 ≤ K18 . A.2. Examples. Let us give some examples where we compare bounds K17 , K18 , and K19 : (1) g and d < g − 1 are ﬁxed, q large enough, then Bound K18 is the best of the three bounds: we are in cases (2) (a) (ii) or (3) (b) (ii); (2) g is ﬁxed and d = g − 1, for any q, Bound K17 is the best one: we are in case (1); (3) q and d are ﬁxed, g large enough, then Bound K19 is the best one: we are in the case (3) (b) (i); (4) q ﬁxed, g and d large: (a) d = g − c where c is a constant, then Bound K17 is the best one; for c = 1 we are in the case (1), for c = 2 we are in the case (2) (b) and for c < 2, we are in the case (3) (a) or in the case (3) (b) (iii) (B);

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

48

BALLET ET AL.

(b) d = g(1 − ) where is a constant, then Bound K19 is the best one; we are in the case (3) (b) (i); (c) d = g − α log(g) − 1, then α g−d−1 = log(g) 2 2 (i) if α >

2 log(q)

and

q

g−d−1 2

α

=g2

log(q)

.

then we are in the case (3) (b) (i), hence the best bound is

(19). (ii) if α ≤ bound is (17).

2 log(q)

then we are in the case (3) (b) (iii) (B), hence the best

The following example is an example of the case (3) (b) (iii) (A). Set q = 4, g = 520 and d = 509. Hence (g − d − 1)/2) = 5. Then 1 g−d−1 q 2 = 512 < g. 2 We can compute 1 g−d−1 a = g − q 2 = 8. 2 Now

Hence

√ 2g q − (q + 1) 2075 . = √ 2 ( q + 1) 9 √ 2g q − (q + 1) a≤ . √ ( q + 1)2

Here the best bound is K19 . References [1] E. Arbarello, M. Cornalba, P. A. Griﬃths, and J. Harris, Geometry of algebraic curves. Vol. I, Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences], vol. 267, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4757-5323-3. MR770932 [2] S. Ballet, C. Ritzenthaler, and R. Rolland, On the existence of dimension zero divisors in algebraic function ﬁelds deﬁned over Fq , Acta Arith. 143 (2010), no. 4, 377–392, DOI 10.4064/aa143-4-4. MR2652586 [3] St´ ephane Ballet and Robert Rolland, Lower bounds on the class number of algebraic function ﬁelds deﬁned over any ﬁnite ﬁeld (English, with English and French summaries), J. Th´eor. Nombres Bordeaux 24 (2012), no. 3, 505–540. MR3010627 [4] S. Ballet, R. Rolland, and S. Tutdere, Lower bounds on the number of rational points of Jacobians over ﬁnite ﬁelds and application to algebraic function ﬁelds in towers (English, with English and Russian summaries), Mosc. Math. J. 15 (2015), no. 3, 425–433, 604, DOI 10.17323/1609-4514-2015-15-3-425-433. MR3427433 [5] Ignacio Cascudo, Ronald Cramer, and Chaoping Xing, Torsion limits and Riemann-Roch systems for function ﬁelds and applications, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 60 (2014), no. 7, 3871–3888, DOI 10.1109/TIT.2014.2314099. MR3225937 ´ [6] Sudhir R. Ghorpade and Gilles Lachaud, Etale cohomology, Lefschetz theorems and number of points of singular varieties over ﬁnite ﬁelds, Mosc. Math. J. 2 (2002), no. 3, 589–631, DOI 10.17323/1609-4514-2002-2-3-589-631. Dedicated to Yuri I. Manin on the occasion of his 65th birthday. MR1988974 [7] Takehiro Hasegawa, A note on optimal towers over ﬁnite ﬁelds, Tokyo J. Math. 30 (2007), no. 2, 477–487, DOI 10.3836/tjm/1202136690. MR2376523

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE DIVISORS

49

[8] Gilles Lachaud and Mireille Martin-Deschamps, Nombre de points des jacobiennes sur un corps ﬁni (French), Acta Arith. 56 (1990), no. 4, 329–340, DOI 10.4064/aa-56-4-329-340. MR1096346 [9] Philippe Lebacque and Alexey Zykin, On the number of rational points of Jacobians over ﬁnite ﬁelds, Acta Arith. 169 (2015), no. 4, 373–384, DOI 10.4064/aa169-4-5. MR3371766 [10] J. S. Milne, Jacobian varieties, Arithmetic geometry (Storrs, Conn., 1984), Springer, New York, 1986, pp. 167–212. MR861976 [11] Michael Tsfasman, Some remarks on the asymptotic number of points, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1518 (2006), pp. 178–192. [12] M. A. Tsfasman and S. G. Vl˘ adut¸, Asymptotic properties of zeta-functions, J. Math. Sci. (New York) 84 (1997), no. 5, 1445–1467, DOI 10.1007/BF02399198. Algebraic geometry, 7. MR1465522 [13] Serguei Vl˘ adut¸, An exhaustion bound for algebraic-geometric modular codes, Problems of Information Transmission 23 (1987), no. 1, 22–34. [14] Andr´ e Weil, Sur les courbes alg´ ebriques et les vari´ et´ es qui s’en d´ eduisent (French), Actualit´ es Sci. Ind., no. 1041 = Publ. Inst. Math. Univ. Strasbourg 7 (1945), Hermann et Cie., Paris, 1948. MR0027151 [15] Andr´ e Weil, Basic number theory, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band 144, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York, 1967. MR0234930 St´ ephane Ballet, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, I2M, Marseille, France, Case 907, 13288 MARSEILLE Cedex 9, France Email address: [email protected] Gilles Lachaud, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, I2M, Marseille, France, Case 907, 13288 MARSEILLE Cedex 9, France. Robert Rolland, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, I2M, Marseille, France, Case 907, 13288 MARSEILLE Cedex 9, France Email address: [email protected]

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

Contemporary Mathematics Volume 770, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1090/conm/770/15430

The absolute discriminant of the endomorphism ring of most reductions of a non-CM elliptic curve is close to maximal Alina Carmen Cojocaru and Matthew Fitzpatrick Abstract. Let E/Q be a non-CM elliptic curve. Assuming GRH, we prove that, for a set of primes p of density 1, the absolute discriminant of the Fp endomorphism ring of the reduction of E modulo p is close to maximal.

1. Introduction Let E/Q be an elliptic curve deﬁned over the ﬁeld of rational numbers, of conductor NE , and let p NE be a prime of good reduction for E. We denote by Ep /Fp the reduction of E modulo p and we recall that it is an elliptic curve deﬁned over the ﬁnite ﬁeld Fp with p elements, with the property that |Ep (Fp )| = √ p + 1 − ap for some integer ap satisfying |ap | < 2 p. Consequently, the polynomial √ X 2 − ap X + p has two complex conjugate roots, πp and π p , satisfying |πp | = p. Upon identifying any one of these roots, say πp , with the p-th power Frobenius endomorphism of Ep /Fp , we obtain the embeddings of imaginary quadratic orders Z[πp ] ≤ EndFp (Ep ) ≤ OQ(πp ) in the ﬁeld Q(πp ), with OQ(πp ) denoting the maximal order of Q(πp ). Focusing on the discriminants of these orders, we obtain the relation (1)

a2p − 4p = b2p Δp ,

where Δp denotes the discriminant of EndFp (Ep ) and bp denotes the unique positive integer satisfying the Z-module isomorphism EndFp (Ep )/Z[πp ] Z/bp Z. If p ≥ 5 is supersingular, then Δp ∈ {−p, −4p}, while if p is ordinary and EndQ (E) Z, then Δp equals the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic order EndQ (E). The goal of this article is to focus on the setting p ordinary and EndQ (E) Z and to investigate the growth of the absolute discriminant |Δp | as a function of p, in particular in relation to the upper bound 4p − a2p arising from (1). In this setting, it was shown in [14] that |Δp | does indeed grow with p: there exists a positive constant c(E) such that, for any prime p NE , |Δp | ≥ c(E)

(log p)2 . (log log p)4

2020 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. Primary 11G05, 11G20,11N05; Secondary 11N36, 11N37, 11N56. Key words and phrases. Elliptic curves, endomorphism rings, distribution of primes, sieve methods. The ﬁrst author was partially supported by a Collaboration Grant for Mathematicians from the Simons Foundation under Award No. 318454. c 2021 American Mathematical Society

51

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

52

ALINA CARMEN COJOCARU AND MATTHEW FITZPATRICK

Moreover, it was shown in [14] under the assumption of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH for short) that there exists a positive constant c (E) and there exist inﬁnitely many primes p such that |Δp | ≤ c (E)p 3 log p. 2

Under similar hypotheses, we will prove that, in fact, the growth of |Δp | is very close to the growth of 4p − a2p for most primes: Theorem 1. Let E/Q be an elliptic curve of conductor NE with EndQ (E) Z. Assume that GRH holds for the division ﬁelds of E. Then, for any function f : (0, ∞) −→ (0, ∞) with lim f (x) = ∞, x→∞

4p − a2p ∼ π(x), (2) # p ≤ x : p NE , |Δp | ≥ f (p) where π(x) denotes the number of primes up to x. The growth of |Δp | has also been investigated in other settings, including that of arbitrary elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds – see [13], [16], [17] – and that of ﬁnite Drinfeld modules – see [5]. √ Regarding Theorem 1, the proximity of |ap | to 2 p was studied in several papers by K. James and his co-authors, such as [11] and [8] (see also the recent follow-up [6]). In [11], it is conjectured that, when EndQ (E) Z, the number of √ primes p ≤ x with |ap | = 2 p , called extremal primes, is asymptotically equal 1

x4 to C(E) log x for some constant C(E); in [8], it is proved that this conjecture holds on average over two-parameter families of elliptic curves E/Q (the majority of which have a trivial endomorphism ring EndQ (E)). Thus extremal primes are not expected to contribute to the left hand side of (2). The proof of Theorem 1 relies on the intimate connection between the integer bp and the discriminant Δp provided by equation (1), as well as on a characterization criterion of the divisors of bp through splitting conditions on p in certain subﬁelds of the division ﬁelds of E. Thanks to these connections, we approach the study of the growth of |Δp | as a potential application of the Chebotarev Density Theorem in an inﬁnite family of number ﬁelds. As such, the assumption of GRH facilitates best possible error terms. Even under this assumption, the accumulation of all occurring error terms is overbearing. This we circumvent by resorting to an application of the Square Sieve, which, itself, incorporates another application of the Chebotarev Density Theorem. Notation. In what follows, we use the standard o, O, , , and ∼ notation: h1 (x) given suitably deﬁned real functions h1 , h2 , we say that h1 = o(h2 ) if lim = x→∞ h2 (x) 0; we say that h1 = O(h2 ) or h1 h2 if h2 is positive valued and there exists a positive constant C such that |h1 (x)| ≤ Ch2 (x) for all x in the domain of h1 and h2 ; we say that h1 h2 if h1 , h2 are positive valued and h1 h2 h1 ; we say that h1 = OD (h2 ) or h1 D h2 if h1 = O(h2 ) and the implied O-constant C depends on priorly given data D; similarly, we say that h1 D h2 if the implied constant in either one of the -bounds h1 h2 h1 depends on priorly given data D; we h1 (x) say that h1 ∼ h2 if lim = 1. x→∞ h2 (x)

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

ENDOMORPHISM RING OF MOST REDUCTIONS

53

2. Proof of the main theorem Let E/Q be an elliptic curve of conductor NE , with EndQ (E) Z. Let f : (0, ∞) −→ (0, ∞) be a function satisfying lim f (x) = ∞. Without loss of x→∞

generality, we may assume that f (x) is increasing, for we may replace f (x) with sup{f (z) : z ≤ x}. With notation as in Section 1, we observe that, thanks to (1), in order to prove (2) it is enough to prove (3) # p ≤ x : p NE , bp > f (p) = o(π(x)). This we will do by exploring the divisibility properties of bp . As usual, for a positive integer n, we denote by E[n] the group of Q-rational points of E of order dividing n and by Q(E[n]) the ﬁnite, Galois extension of Q generated by the x and y coordinates of the points of E[n]. We view the Galois group Gal(Q(E[n])/Q) as a subgroup of GL2 (Z/nZ) under the residual modulo n Galois representation of E. With this notation, the main result of [7] specialized to elliptic curves over Q states that, for any prime p nNE , the reduction modulo n of the integral matrix ap +bp δp bp 2 , bp (Δp −δp ) ap −bp δp 4

2

with δp := 0, 1 according to whether Δp ≡ 0, 1(mod a representative of 4), gives Q(E[n])/Q in Gal(Q(E[n])/Q). the conjugacy class deﬁned by the Artin symbol p Consequently, upon deﬁning Jn := {z ∈ Q(E[n]) : σ(z) = z

∀σ ∈ Gal(Q(E[n])/Q) a scalar element} ,

we obtain the criterion (4)

n | bp ⇔ p splits completely in Jn /Q.

For each prime p, there are unique positive integers rp and mp , with mp squarefree, such that b2p |Δp | = rp2 mp . Observe that we must have bp | rp , which gives bp ≤ rp . Recalling (1), observe that (5)

4p − a2p = rp2 mp ,

√ which gives rp < 2 p and (6)

mp =

4p − a2p 4p ≤ 2. 2 rp bp

Furthermore, observe that the divisibility n | bp implies that n | rp and, in particular, that n ≤ rp . Now let us proceed to bounding from above the left hand side of (3). We ﬁx an arbitrary parameter z = z(x) satisfying 0 < z < x and deﬁne g(z) := inf {f (p) : z < p ≤ x} .

Licensed to AMS. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see https://www.ams.org/publications/ebooks/terms

54

ALINA CARMEN COJOCARU AND MATTHEW FITZPATRICK

Note that f (z) ≤ g(z). We have the bounds # p ≤ x : p NE , bp > f (p) ≤ π(z) + # z < p ≤ x : p NE , bp > f (p) ≤ π(z) + # z < p ≤ x : p NE , bp > g(z) # {p ≤ x : p NE , bp = n} ≤ π(z) + √ √ g(z)