Arabic in South India: Papers in Honour of Prof. S. E. A. Nadvi

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Arabic in South India: Papers in Honour of Prof. S. E. A. Nadvi

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arabic in south india(papers in honour of Prof.S.E.A.Nadvi). editor: Dr.E.K.Ahmed Kutty. published by: department of arabic, university of Calicut first edition: january 2003. cover design:view finders, calicut-4 type setting: arabn~t, calicut-4, ph: 2725762 printing: a-one offset prints, ramanattukara price rs:200/rights reserved

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(Papers in honour of Prof. S.E.A.Nadvi)

EDITOR: Prof. Dr.E.K.Ahmed Kutty

DEPARTMENT OF ARABIC UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT I

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Prof.Dr.K.M.Mohamed Dr.K.V.Veeran Moideen ,

Dr.A. I. Rahmathullah



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'Io Prof.S.E.A.Nadvi Formerly Professor and Head, Department of Arabic, · University of Calicut.

'.By His Colleagues, Students and Admirers .

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Prof.Dr.Syed Ehthisham Ahmed Nadvi \

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OUR VICE-CHANCELLOR





PROF.SYED IQBAL HASNAIN

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

Universitv of Calicut PROF.SYED IQBAL HASNAIN

CALICUT UNIVERSITY P.0 THENHIPAI Ml MALAPPURAM KERLALM73S35 SJNDIA

VICE-CHANCELLOR

January 6,2003

MESSAGE It gives me great pleasure to ~ow that the Department of Arabic is to bring out a felicitation volume in honour of its former head, Prof. S.E.A.Nadvi. An eminent scholar not only in Arabic, but in Urdu and Persian too, Prof.S.E.A. Nadvi devoted his life to the devolopment and progress of the department. And it was during the period of his headship, I understand, that the department scaled more heights. • I congratulate the Arabic faculty members for selecting a historically and culturally relevant topic, Arabic in South India, for the proposed volume. Though it was the trade and commerce that initially linked the Arab countries with South India, especially Kerala, the geographical adjacency and social perception later caused it to proliferate into religious and cultural associations. The contributions of the South Indian scholars and writers to the Arabic language and literature validate the soundness and centuries-old continuity of the relationship between two great cultures and peoples. The initiative of the Arabic department to document and evaluate the .South Indian Arabic \vriters and their works by compiling a dedicatory volume will surely be useful for· scholars and researchers to get a comprehensive and historical view on the subject. I wish this venture all success. VICE-CHANCELLOR Phone: (olfi) 04!H-4002J.l'il .J

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few Aral::ic Depa-: .e: es r. :· e co·J t' J' lllhere Arabic is f"l".ade en c• . iSr.T.- as !'le 11elui11 of ilSblWJion and c • :•!~S!O'i a~ also tor wrilStg M..Phl • taliols and P! 1 D. t! ezs In nition IN-. ... ,. and Pl LO. piUSJ&IWILOS in AratilC, the depattr11e1i is diet i IQ de tolowing COUIM>S which are des·gseci to it~ m 1he studenls the lolOUTJtcdge of ptacticaJ axi fu dOB I $B of Arabic in order to eqe t181 I for S£O.# i IQ jobs OL• ·cte the coe•lby especiait,· ., !tle Arab CD•tbies. 1) Diploma in Colrunerc;at Arabic (will Arabic Type writing) 2) Post· Gradtme Diploma in Trmslntion and Secretarial Pradice .



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3) Cet tilicate a.•se in spoken Arabic

Now the Computer has been i1lroOOced as one of the s.qects in 1he sylabus of MA Arabic Sel1'8Ster COOIM>.

In the field cA reseatch. Ph.D. and MPhil are offered in dlis Deparbtatt So far, about 50 research scholars have obtained the Degteo of Ph.D. At present about 60 research scholars are working in the Department for doctoral degree. 2 scholars haw completed post-doctoral research. About 35 students have been award MPhil Degree in Arabic.



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Every year a good number of students of this department have been qualifying themselves for the award of the UGC's Junior Research Fellowship. The Department has conducted 7 seminars on the following topics out of which 6 were UGC' sponsored seminars

1) Contribution of South India to Arabic literature" (1976) UGC Sponsored

2) "Influence of Languages" (1977) UGC

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3) " lmpad of Modem literary movements Arabic literature" (1988) UGC · . .

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4) "Social life in modem Arabic fiction with special reference to Najeeb Mahfouz (1989 (UGC) 5) " The Development of Arabic studies in Kerala" (1996) . 6) " Modem Arabic literary aiticism" (1999) UGC 7) Anticolonial Literature in Arabic in Kerala (2000) UGC In collaboration with the Academic staff college, University of Calicut, the department has conducted 8 refresher courses in Arabic. A large number of Arabic teachers of colleges and universities from various parts of the country participated in these refresher courses and got themselves benefitted and enriched aca demically. The teachers of the Department have been actively engaged in research, publication and extension activities thereby contributing greatly to the promotion of Arabic language and literature, not only in the state of Kerala, but in the whole country at large.

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It may be specially noted that a Chair for Islamic studies and research instituted by the Federation of Muslim colleges under the University of Calicut has been working under this department since January 1988. Many programmes including seminars, symposia and publication of pamphlets on various topics related . to Islamic culture, philosophy and history especially in relation to kerala have been conducted by the Chair.

Arabic colleges A special feature of the Arabic education in Kerala is the presence of the University affiliated educational institutions called Arabic colleges which are imparting higher and intensive education in Arabic language and literature and Islamic studies. These colleges equip the students for a five . year course which was formerty called 'Afzal ul Ulama and recently restructured and renamed as BA Afzal ul Ulama". As mentioned earlier the Oars - Madrasa· education system prevalent in Kerala was quite archaic, unscientific and defective, unable to cater to the edu cational and academic needs of the community and to face the modem challenges against Islam. It was in order to change this state of affairs and to impart Arabic and Islamic education to the Muslim youth in a modem and scientific manner that the idea of establishing 'Arabic Colleges' was conceived by some enlightened scholars and reformers of the community. The pioneering role played by such scholars as the late Abussabah Ahmad Ali Moulavi , K.M. Moulavi, and M.C.C Abdul Rahman Moulavi in ushering in this movement deserves special mention.

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At present there are 11 Arabic colleges in Kerala which are affili ated to University. Of them the otdest is Darul Uloom Arabic college at Vazhakkad. It is originally the ·vazhakkad Madrasa' founded in 1871 and later developed into a modem Arabic and Islamic educational institution and renamed as 'Darul Uloom' by the late Moulana Chalilakkath Kunhaharnmad Haji, as we have already mentioned. After Chalilakath, this Arabic college achieved much progress during the period in which the late M.C.C Abdurahman Moulavi . was its principal. It was in these days, the college was granted affiliation to the University of Madras in 1947. But unfortunately after the resignation of MCC Abdurahman Moulavi from the principalship the college was deprived of its university affiliation. It was after many years, in 1973, that it got itself affiliated to the University of Calicut. Though Darul Uloom' at Vazhakkad is the oldest Arabic college, the credit of being the first university affiliated Arabic college goes to Rouzathul Uloom Arabic College Feroke. This Arabic college was established by the late Moulana Abussabah Ahmad Ali in 1942 at Anakkayam in the present Malappuram District, and was later shifted to Manjeri in 1944. The University of Madras granted affiliation to it in 1945. It was in 1948 that it was shifted to its permanent site in the present Farook college campus. The other Arabic colleges affiliated to University are: 1) Madeenathul Uloom Arabic College, Pulikkal 2) sullamussalam Arabic College, Areacode 3) Ansar Arabic College, Valavannur

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4) Anwarul Islam Women's Arabic Mongam • · 5) Anwarul Islam Arabic College, Kuniyil

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6) Sunniyya Arabic College, Chennamangallur • •



· 7) Darunnajath Arabic College, Karuvarakkundu 8) Nusrathul Islam Arabic College, Kadavathur •

9) Darul lrshad Arabic College, ParaI

. Of these eleven Arabic colleges, the last · · mentioned two are affiliated to Kannur University and all. the other . 9 Arabic colleges are ·affiliated to Calicut University. . •

As already mentioned these Arabic colleges are offering a five year Afzal ul Ulama course whtch has, as its contents the Arabic language and literature, Islamic history and culture, and various Islamic sciences. In the light of the report submitted by an expert committee • appointed by the University of Calicut, the old Afzal ul Ulama syllabus was thor~ughly ·revised in 1980 introducing in it the study of English language and also updating the Arabic contents, so as to make it equivalent to BA Degree course in Arabic. This restructured course was implemented though a bit late in 1990 after being approved by the state Government. It consists of two stages, namely Afzal ul ulama preliminary of 2 years duration and Afzal ul ulama final of 3 years duration. its structure is as follows: Part I Arabic language and literature Part II English Part Ill Different subjects in Arabic

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The qualification and eligibility for admission to th~ course and other procedures are the same as followed for the Degree course in the Arts and science colleges. The university has since issued orders approrving the course as equivalent to BA Arabic course and renamed it as BA Afzal ul ulama course. Formerly there were no facilities for higher studies in Arabic language and literature and Islamic studies • after passing Afzal ul Ulama course. To solve this problem, a 2 year Post Afzal UI Ulama course has been introduced with effed from 1984 under the University of calicut. The syllabus of this course was later revised with a view to making it equal to MA Degree course in Arabic. This restructur~ course has been approved by the University of Calicut as equivalent to MA Arabic course and renamed as MA Post Afzal UI Ulama course' from 1995 admission onwards. At present 4 Arabic colleges are offering this course, namely Rouzathul Ullom Arabic College, Feroke, Madeenathul Uloom Arabic Collage Pulikkal, Sullamussalam Arabic College· Areacode, and Darul Uloom Arabic College Vazhakkad. •

Unrecognised Arabic Colleges: A part from these official and University affiliated Arabic colleges there is a large number of institutions for higher studias in Arabic and Islamic sciences which are working independently without University affiliation and government aid. These unrecognized institutions are run by such religious and cultural organizations as Samastha Kerala Jamiyyathul Ulama, Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen and Jamaat - e- lslami. The most important Arabic - Islamic educational institution established and

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managed by the Samastha is " Jamia Nooriyya Arab iyyah" situated at Pattikkad, near Perinthalmanna in Malappuram district. The following are some of the other prominent unrecognized Arabic colleges run by the Samsatha: Darussalam Arabic College (Nandi) Rahmaniyyah Arabic College (Kadameri), Markazut tharbiyyathil lslamiyyah (Valanchery), Darul Huda Islamic Academy (Chemmad) and Malik Dinar Islamic Complex Arabic College (Deshamangalam ). The A.P. faction of Samastha has also established their own Arabic Islamic educational centres the most prominent of which is Markazut thaqafathi Ssunniyya Arabic College at Karanthur in Kozhikode district. The most important unrecognized Arabic Islamic institution established and managed by Mujahid group is Jamia salafiyyah at Pulikkal in Malappuram district. The names of some other institution established and controlled by them are given below: Jamia Nadviyyah (Edavanna) Mujahideen Arabic College, (Parali) Busthanul Uloom Arabic College (Kaipamangalam), Salafiyyah Arabic College (Meppa yyoor), Salafiyyah Arabic College (Karinganad) and K.M.M.O Arabic College (Tirurangadi). (It may be noted here that most of the University affiliated Arabic colleges which are already mentioned are founded and managed by the Mujahids) The important institutions of Arabic and Islamic education established and controlled by the Kerala Jama-at-e-lslami Include: lslamiya College (shanthapuram), lslahiyya Colle ge (Chendamangallur), llahiyya College (Tirurkad),

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lslamiya College (Kuttiadi), lslamlya College (Vadana ppally), and lslamiya women's college (Vandoor). A special feature of those Arabic colleges is that they are offering an ·integrated course called 'Islamic ·and Arts course' which combines in itself the Arabic Islamic studies and the arts subjects taught in the arts and science colleges. Some higher centres of Arabic Islamic education . has been working in the southern parts of Kerala also. Among them, mention may be made of 'Jamia Mannaniyya' at Varkala Shivagiri, 'Jamia Hasaniyya' at Aluwayi, and 'Hidayathul lsram Arabic College' at Poon thura. Most of these institutions are run by the Islamic organization called 'Dakshlna Kerala jamiyyathul Ulama•30. To sum up, the Study of Arabic language and lite rature occupies a prominent place in the general educational set up of Kerala. The teachers and students and the lovers of Arabk; language ate proud of these achievements and they rightly believe that greater achievements are in store for them. References 1. For the discussion of ·the subject, see Prof. Syed Mohideen Shah, Islam In Kera/a (The Muslim Educational Association, Trlchur) pp. 1-16 2. Kerala MusUm Directory (Kerala Publications, Cochin, 1960) pp. 127-128 3. Kerala Society Papers • series 6 (published by Kerala Society, Trivandrum) p. 323, quoted by Prof. Syed Mohideen· Shah n Islam In Kera/a, pp. 12, 13 .

4. See Rihlatu lbn - ·Batuta, (Travel Acoounts of lbn Batuta) (Dar Sadir, Beirut, 1963) pp. 561, 564, 566, 568

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78 5. There is difference of opinion about the number of these mosques. See Prof. Syed Mohideen Shah, Islam in Kera/a pp. 9-11 6. Syed Mohideen Shah, op.cit. p. 43 7. Prof. K.V. Abdul Rahiman, "Ponnani - A Brief Historical Account, MES. Ponnani College souvenir, 1969, pp. 174-175

8. Kerala Muslim Directory, p. 305 9. Ibid, p. 311 1O. For the life and works of Kunhahammad Haji, See, CA Muhammad Moulavi, ,.Moulana Chalilakathu Kunhahammad Hajf, Tirurangadi Yatheem Khana Silver Jubilee Souvenir, 1970, pp. 4148 11. Ibid, p. 46 12. Syed Mohideen Shah, op.cit, p 51 13.~ C.A.

Muhammad Moulavi, op.cit, p. 46

14. Abdullakutty " Sambhavabahulamaya Jeevitham", K.M. Moulavi Smaraka Grandham (Tirurangadi), p. n 15. Ibid

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16. Ibid 17. Kerala Muslim Directory, p. 306 · 18. Ibid ,·p. 309

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19. Karuvally Muhammad Moulavi, "Arabic Text Books in Kerala" (unpublished) a paper presented in the UGC sponsored Arabic Seminar held at the University of Calicut in January 1976 20. Ibid 21. M. Mohammad Kannu, "Samudayothayjakai'

aya Vakkom Moulavi" Tirurangadi Yatheem Khana silver ' jubilee souvenir, 1970, p.113 22. Ibid. Also see Kerala Muslim Directory, pp. 309, 586 .

.

23. M. Mohammad Kannu, op.cit , p. 114

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24. Ibid, p. 115 25. Ibid 26. & 27 Ibid. Karuvally Moha11mad Maulavi, op.cit 28. Kerala Muslim Directory, pp. 314-315 •

29. Karuvally Muhammad Moulavi, op.cit 30. Most of the infoe111ations given in this artide regarding the Arabic institutions run by various Islamic organisations are based on personal interviews and correspondences with Prof. P. Mohamed Kuttasseri (former Principal, R.U.A. College, Feroke), Prof. M. Mohamed Madani (former Principal M.U.A. College, PuUkkal) Shri 0. Abdurahrnan (Chennamangdur) and Dr. N. A. Mohamed Abdul Kadir (Chelan)

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Contribution of Kerala to Arabic Literature (Prose) Prof. Dr. K.M. Mohamed Kerala has made remarkable contribution to Arabic language and literature. Arabic scholars of Kerala produced large number of works both in prose and poetry. Kerala could also contribute good number of scholars in Arabic who worked as teachers in Arab Universities and in literary and journalistic fields. Kerala had the unique advantage of getting this language direct from the Arabs in the ancient days, which was started with trade and then spread to social and religious fields.

Historic Background: The extensive· sea coast and the availability of spices attracted foreign traders to the Kerala coast from very early times. The Bible and the early Greek and Roman writers bear testimony to this. fact. Ratering to Solomon's period the Old Testament says that in his period gold was obtained from OPHIR (Beypore) and once in three years came the navy of THARSHIS bringing gold, silver, Ivory, apes and peacock1. Accor ding to Sardar K.M. Panikkar from very early times Ker ala had been in contact with the Arabian coast and traders especially from Muscat and other centres of the Arabian Peninsula used to frequent Malabar ports2. Till the birth of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) (571 AD) the

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Arab contact with Kerala was limited to the field of trade and commerce. When Islam swept over Arabia its influence was felt immediately in Kerala also. The Muslim Arabs took up missionary work and strengthened their contact with the people of Kerala which led to the propagation of their faith, culture and language. Islam was making headway quite peacefully and without adopting jingoistic methods3. Thus religion of Islam played a significant role in the development of Arabic language in Kerala. Islam began to spread in Malabar from very early times both by proselytisation and by settlement of Arab traders. A Muslim inscription in PANDALAYINI KOLLAM in north Malabar dated 166 A.H.n52 AD is sufficient evidence for it. With the growth of Arab commercial activity under the Caliphs, Malabar ports became popular among the traders of Muslim capitals. Numerous Arabian travellers, most notable among whom are lbn Khurdadhbeh (256-272 AH./869-885 AD) • . and Abu Zayd of Zirag (303 AH./ 916 AD) speak of Malabar ports in their works4. The reasons mentioned by the famous historian Ahmad al-Baladhuri (279AH/892 AD) for the conquest of Sind in 91 AHn10 AD by Muhammad lbn Qasim point to the fact that Arab Mslims had settled in Malabar during that period5. The presence of Muslim groups in different port towns of Kerala has been further attested by the TARISAPPALLI COPPER PLATES (849 AD)6. The converson of a Keralite king to Islam and the settlement of the Arab family of Malik ibn Dinar in Malabar accelerated the propagation of Islam and through them the spread of Arabic language in the land of Kerala1. Subsequently

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mosques were constructed at KodungaHur, Southern Kollam, Pandalayini Kollam, Chaliyam, Dharmadam, Sreekandapuram, Ezhumala, Kasaragode, Mangal9re and Pakanur; and qadis were appointed in all these mosques8. During the ear1y centuries of Hijra Muslim community was confined to the coastal towns. Their contact was mainly with the rulers of the two cities (Cannanore and Calicut) whose prosperity depended mostly on the export of pepper and spices. This has been attested by all authorities. lbn Battuta (779 AH/1378 AD) declares that the moors of Malabar were extremely rich so that one of their leading merchants could purchase the whole freightage of such vessels as put in there and fit. qut others like them9. The MAMMALIS and KOYA MUSAS whom the Portuguese encountered in the coast were merchant princes for whom Cairo and Damascus were as familiar as Calicut and Cannanore 1O. In those days proselytization by Muslim traders and settlers was not regarded as a challenge by the Hindu Rajas who imposed no restriction pn convertion to Islam 11 . On the other hand cultural and political reasons encouraged conversion to Islam. By embracing Islam a low caste untouchable Hindu was given honour and respect and all of a sudden was elevated to such a social status as was much higher than his original one. Conversion from lower classes of Hindus was not only permitted but in some cases enjoined unde~ the Zamorine Rajas of Calicut, who, in order to man their navies directed that one or more male members of the families of Hindu fishermen should be brought up as

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Muslims12. The upper class Hindus who violated the rigid cast rules of Hiduism and who are declared outacstes, found reguge in Islam. The Muslims of Malabar lived in great comfort and tranquility, says Ahmad Zayn al-Din13. But the advent of the Portuguese marked the beginning of a hard time for the Muslims. The Portuguese idea was to root out the trade of the Muslims and to destroy the Muslims as a race. Where ever a Muslim was captured, the most barbarious type of tortures were inflicted on him and he was either killed or made a slave14. Under the Dutch who overthrew the Portuguese and under the English who followed them, Muslims could not regain their hold in foreign trade. Development of Arabic Language: Since ninth century A.D Muslims carried in preaching and propagating Islam along with their trade. The multiplying number of converted Muslims necessitated arrangements for teaching the religious dogmas. Following the foot prints of Malik lbn Dinar and family a number of scholars from Yemen and other places made their way to Kerala and settled there. Under their patronage new centres of Arabic devel oped and flourished. Local Muslims had instructions in Arabic and Islamic studies in those centres. Muslims had to study Arabic language for studying their religion. · The two families viz., the Qadis of Calicut and the Makhdums of Ponnani deserve special mention in this context. From 9th to 14th century Hijra they were the torch bearers of literary activity in Arabic. They produced good number of scholars who imparted knowledge and proudced large number of works in

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Arabic. The Ba Alavis of Mampuram and the Bukharis . of Chawghat are the two other Arab families who settled here and made their contributions to Arabic literature. Gradually a good number of sub centres also developed and flourished in different parts of the state. During the first half of 14th century Hijra, Kerala scholars made their way to BSA College, Vellore and had their higher studies there. Those who passed out from Vellore could • make remarkable contribution to Arabic literature. Qadis of Calicut One of the mosques built by Malik ibn Dinar was at Chaliyam near Calicut. In those days Chaliyam was the head quarters of Calicut. The Qadis of Calicut were descended from Malik ibn Habib. The earliest Arabic book composed in Kerala about which information is available is Umdat al'Ashab wa Nuzhat al 'Ahbab of Qadi Zayn al-Din Ramadan ibn Qadi Musa al-Shaliyati (D.899 AH) 15. This book in four chapters deals with dogmatic philosophy, prayers and hymns, reasons for prosperity and poverty and spiritual deeds. Qadi Abu Bakr ibn Qadi Ramadan al-Shaliyati: He was born at Chaliyam in about 845 AH. His most important work is a Mukhammas of Qaseedatu Banat Su'ad, which was completed in 885 AH16. He has also composed a · treatise entitled Silsilat alFakhriyyah in about 890 AH. He has prepared a syllabus for the dars in Masajid which is said to have been followed in the Oars in Ponnani Juma Masjid which is based on Tadarruj (Step by step teaching). Qadi Muhammad ibn Qadi Abdul Aziz:

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He is the most famous among the Qadis of Calicut and one of the great Arabic scholars and writers of Kerala. He has more than fifty works to his credit both big and small. His works belong to different desciplines, like grammar, Tajwid, Tasawwuf, fiqh etc. Most of them are in verse 17. The most important among them is Fath al Mubin which describes the condition of Muslims under the Zamorine Rajas of Calicut and instigates Muslims to fight against the Portuguese. His works in prose are very few. Among them are: Maqasid al-Nikah, Zabd al-Mafakhir fi Manaqibi al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir, Al-Fasihah fil Wa'di wa al-Nasiha, Nasihat al- 'lkhwan, Mudkhil al-Jinan, Sirat al-Nabi etc. He is said to be the author of the popular poem in Arabi -Malayalam known as MUHYADHIN MALA which celebrates the miracles • of al-Shykh Muhy al-Din 18. In Maqasid al-Nikah he gives the directions to be followed in marriage and warns the faithful against violating any of them. A sharah of this work is available in the library of Ahmad Koya at Chaliyam. The original work has been translated into Tamil by Habib lbn Muhammad of Kayalpattanam in TamilNadu. Qad~

Muhyaddln lbn 'All (1266 AH)

Qadi Muhyaddin ibn 'Ali is another scholar belonging to the Qadi family who has compsed two poems and a treatise in prose entitled: Qawl al Haqq wa al-Salamah dealing with the disciplines to be observed in 'Adhan19.

Qadl 'Abu Bakr lbn Qadl Muhy al Din (d. 1301 AH) Qadi 'Abu Bakr ibn Qadi Muhy al Din who is popular as Abu Bakr Kunhi Qadi, is another celebrated

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Arabic scholar of this family. Even though as per seniority in age his brother 'Ali was to be the Qadi, being a scholar in Arabic and having good personality, Abu Bakr Kunhi was made the qadi of Calicut. But certain comments made by him while sending the allowance to his brother, being the genuine heir to the office, offended his brother 'Ali. On this issue Muslims of Calicut were divided and the group supporting 'Ali instituted Jumu'a in Mithqal palli. It was on this issue that the two Qadi system was started in Calicut20. Qadi 'Abu Bakr has eighteen treatises to his credit. But out of them seven are poems. Those dealing with other subject are: Tanbih a lkhwan fi 'Ahkam al-Zaman (in admonition), Ma'arij al-Salik (in tasawwuf), Mawani al'Awqaf (dealing with rules of waqf to be observed while ·reciting Qura'an) and Tanwir al-Fu'ad21 (mentioning the necessity for honouring the Prohpet), are the important works among them. There are certain other scholars in Calicut who do not belong to the Qadi family but had their education under them. They are (1) Ahmad ibn Muhammad al Kalikuti (1287) who has a treatise entitled: Kashf al Ghamamah bi Marifati al-Adhani wa al-'lqamah. (2) Muhy al-Din ibn 'Ali (1305) who has a collection of fatwas written by himself and (3) Ali ibn Muhammad alKalikuti (1334). He has composed a number of poems and Mukhmmas of many others22. The Ba' Alavis: The traditional Qadis of Calicut had their origin from Malik ibn Habib. There is another family known as the Ba'Alavis who first came to Calicut from Yamen and then shifted their residence to Mampuram near

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Tirurangadi. They also have composed a good number of works in Arabic23. Shaykh ibn Muhammad al-JHri (1222 AH) is the first member of Ba'Alavi family who came to Calicut in 1159 AH. Sayyid 'Alavi ibn Jifri (Mampuram Thangal) and Sayyid Fadl ibn 'Alavi (1318 AH) belong to this family. Shaykh ibn Muhammad al Jifri (d. 1222) has composed seven works both in prose and in verse. The · most important among them is :Kanz al-Barahin written in 1199 AH. It is divided into three main sedions. The first section is an invocation to the Muslims in general and to the 'Ahl al -Bayth in particular. The second section is a biograhpy of the prophet and the 'Ahl alBayth. The last is devoted to tasawwuf. In tasawwuf he has three other treatise. They are Bayanul Faqih, Bayan al Tasawwuf and a sharah of Razzanat24. He has composed a few poems also. Another member of Ba'Alavi family is sayyid Fadl ibn 'Alavi who was born at Mampuram in 1240 AH. Sayyid Fadl was a great scholar and freedom fighter. He composed a treatise entitled: Al-Sayful Battar (meaning cutting sword) and publishered it in 1306 AH instigating Muslims to fight against the British regime as it is their religious duty. He had illustrated his statements with quotations from the Quran, Hadith and works of later scholars. He took a leading role in the CHERUR REVOLT and because of that he was banished to lstambul in 1270 AH. He had gone to Egypt during the reign of Abbas Pasha but returned to lstambool. He died there in 1318 AH. Apart from AlSayful Battar he has fifteen works to his credit. They are (1) 'lqd al-Fara'id (Dealing with the necessity for

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modesty in women), (2) Hulalul 'lhsan Ii Tazyin al-lnsan {which is an abridged form of 'Adab al-Din wa al-Dunya of Imam Mawardi (423 AH), (3) Bawariqul Fatana Ii Taqwiyati al-Bitanah {describing the qualities that a good friend should have) and (4) 'Uddat al-'Umara'i walHukkam'i Ii lhanati al-Kafrati wa 'abadati al-suiban are the important among them. The Makhdums: The illustrious family of the Makhdums of Ponnani occupies a very distinguished position among the Arabic scholars of Kerala. They are reputed for their erudition, piety, dedication and commitment to the cause of Islam. They have earned the recognition of the British rulers for their prudence and commitment for knowledge. They have made an indelible impression in the history of Arabic in Kerala. That Ponnani the centre established by them was known as the Small Mecca speaks well of its importance. This centre was established by Shaykh Zayn al-Din ibn 'Ali who was given the tilte: Makhdum. The members of this family who became Qadis of this centre were given the title MAKHDUM25. Shaykh Zayn al-Din ibn Ali was born in Kochi in 871 AH. His forefathers who came from Yemen had first settled in Ma'bar in the Coromondel coast. His father shifted their residence to Kochi. Later the family shifted to Ponnani. He had his higher education under the eminent scholars of the day like Oadi Abu Bakr ibn Ramadan al-Shaliyati, Qadi Abd al-Rahman 'Adami alMisri, Al-Shaykh Jalil Kwaja Qutbuddin and Kwaja 'lzzuddin, Shamsu al Din al-Jawahiri and Zakariyya alAnsari. He died at Ponnani in 928 AH. He has

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seventeen works to his credit. He wrote a long poem; Tahridu •Ahl al-Iman •Alajihadi •Abadat al-Sulban26, instigating Muslims to fight against the Portuguese. His most important work is Hidayatul •Adhkiya'i •11a Tariqatil •Awliya'i in Tasawwuf. Two commentaries on this work were published from Egypt and another one from Kera1a27. Murshidu al-Tullab, Siraj al Qulub, •1khttsaru Minhajil •Abidin, Dhikr al-Mawt and Shams al-Huda are his other works in Tasawwuf. In grammar he has two works. Sharah •Alfiyyah ibn Malik and Sharah Tuhafh ibn al-Wardi. Tashil al-Kafiyah Ii ibn al Hajib and Al Safa Min al Shifa are his works in Fiqh and Shu'b al-'lman in scholastic theology28. Another scholar of Makhdum family is •Ahmad Zayn al-Din ibn Muhammad al-Ghazzali. His book Tuhfatul Mujahidin earned for him international fame. It deals with the history of Kerala from the time of Portuguese arrival in Kerala in 1498 AD upto 1583 AD covering about eighty five years. It also deals with the importance of Jihad, history of the advent of Islam in Kerala and the condintion of Muslims and the local people at that time. The fact that this work was translated into English by Lieut. Rowlandson in 1833 A.O. speaks well of its importance. Rowlandson has attested the authenticity and credibility of this work29. It was translated into English by others like Dr. S.M.H. Nainar. It has a number of translations in Malayalam. Muhammad al-Ghazzali, son of Zayn al-Din ibn Ali had married from VALIYAKATH KARAKKATTIL family at Chombal near Mahie and settled there. •Ahmad Zayn al-Din was born at Chombal. His father died when he was only six years old. After his father's death he was

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taken to Ponnani where he had his ear1y education. He had his higher education at different places including Mecca. Shihabuddin 'Ahmad ibn al-Haitami, 'Abdul 'Aziz al-Zamzami and 'Abdul Rahman ibn Ziyad are some of his teachers30. The exact date of his death is not known. Most probably he died in 1028 AH. He was Makhdum of Ponnani in 994 AH. His second important work is Qurrat al 'ayn with its Sharah Fath al Mu'in (982 AH). It is a popular text book in Shafi 'i fiqh followed through out Kerala and even in Arab countries. Two commentaries of this book have been published. The first one is 'l'anat al-Talibin written by Sayyid Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Dimyati Mecca (1300 AH) and the second work is Tarshih al-Mustafidin by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Ali (1347 AH). Other works composed by 'Ahmad Zayn al-Din are 'lrshad al-'lbad in tasawwuf, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, al-Ajwibat al-'Ajibah, 'Ahkamu 'lhkamu al-Nikah and al-Manhaj al-Wadih, all in fiqh31. Another scholar of this family is 'Abdul 'Aziz 1Ma'bari son of Zayn al-Din lbn 'Ali (994 AH). He was a good schoar and a poet. He completed the sharah of 'Alfiyyat ibn Malik which was left incomplete by his father. He wrote a commenatry on his father's work Hidayat al-Adhkiya entitled Maslak al-'Atqiya and , abridged the same with the title 'lrshad al-'Alibba. He has composed a few poems also32. ",:... Shaykh 'Uthman ibn Jamal al-Din al Ma'bari (991 AH) is the son-in -low of Zayan al-Din ibn 'Ali. He has written a Sharah on 'Ayn al-Huda with the title Qatar alNada, in Grammar33. 'Ahmad Zayn al-Din al Juba'i (1314 AH) is a linear descendant of the Makhdum family. He has composed

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six works. They are Dhakha'ir al·'lkhwan fi Mawa'izi Shahr Ramadan (1307 AH), Tabshir al-Wa'iz (1312 AH), Tuhfat al-Wa'izin, Faid al-Hafaz (all in tasawwuf), Maghanim al-'lkhwan fi Bayani al-'Adwiyati wa alHayawan (a treatise in mecicine), and a manaqib on Ibrahim al'Adham. He has written a few elegies on his relatives34. 'Abdul 'Aziz ibn 'Abdulla (1322 AH) also was a good scholar of the Makhdum family. He has throe works to his credit35. They are 'Umdat al-Ta'rif Nazm Mukhtasir al-Tasrif Ii al-Zanjani (a versified form of the book), al-Bahjatu al-Saniyyah (a versified form of the book on Metaphor by al Zamarqandi) and a poem describing the earth quake of 1317 AH36. Makhdum 'Ibrahim ibn Zayn al-Din (1323 AH) was a famous writer of his age. He mostly wrote in ArabiMalayalam. His works in Arabic are: Hashiyah 'Ala Qasidati al-Tathabbut Iii 'Iman al-Suyuti and a commentary on it and Risalafi Masa'ili al-Dhabh. He has ·composed Manaqibs on a number of great personalities like Nafeesat al-Misriyyah, Fatimat alZuhra, Ashab al-Kahf etc37. The light of knowledge emitted from Ponnani enlightened a number of scholars who contributed to Arabic literature. The most important among them is Qadi ·umar ibn 'Ali of Veliankode (1273 AH), Muhammad Alias Bambichi Musliar (1349 AH) Tunnamveotil Muhammad lbn 'Ali (1343 AH), 'Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Shirazi (1326 AH) etc. Qadi 'Umar ibn 'Ali (1273 AH) is popularly known as 'Umar Qadi. He is one of the great Arabic poets that

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Kerala had produced. He corresponded with his friends and collegeues in poetry and he is famous for his quick wittedness. The poem he recited at the Rauda Sharief in Mecca earned for him international reputation. He was born in 1179 AH in KAKKATHARA house at VELIANKODE a village about four miles south of Ponnani. After his early education he went to Ponnani, the seat of higher education at that time. He was against foreign rule and opposed the British authorities. He refused to pay land tax and directed others to fo11ow suit. This led to his imprisonment which led to public protest. Subsequently he was released. He has composed a few books in Fiqh and a number of poems. His works are Maqasid al-Nikah (dealing with the rules governing marriage), Kitab alDhabh wal'lstiyad (about slaughtering of animals), Nafai's al-Durar (in scholastic theology) and a good number of poems. He died in 1273 AH at Veliankode38.

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Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Shirazi (1326 AH) is another product of Ponnani who studied under Zayn alDin al-'Akhir (1305 AH). He has composed seven works. Of them three are commentaries on 'Alfiyyat ibn ·Malik, Taftazi.ani 'Ala al-Zanjani and Qatar al-Nadha. He has written a sharah on Fath al-Mu'in in Fiqh and a Manaqib on Shykh Rifa'i and two poems.

The Bukharis: 'Ahmad Jalaluddin Al-Bukhari came to Baliya pattam and settled there in 798 AH. A few scholars belo nging to this family had established a centre of Arabic at KADAPPURAM near Chawghat. Sayyid Hamid ibn Muhammad (1352 AH) belongs to this family. His most

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important work is: Matali al-Huda bi Matami'i al- 'lhtida'. It deals with the history of Sadat with special emphasis on the Bhukharis. His other works are Al Bundaq 'Ala 'Ahl al -Zayn wal Zandaq (warning against those who go astray), Mablagh al-'Amal min al-Mura'ati Ii' 'Adab al'akl (on table manners) and a few Manaqib on Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Sayyid Ahmad al-Bhukhari and Malik ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi and a collection of Fatwas on different topics39. Sayyid Muhammad ibn Mustafa al Bukhari and his son Muhammad al-Bukhari also have a few treatises to their credit. ·

Other Scholars: There are a good number of scholars in Kerala who established centres of Arabic in different parts of the state and produced a number of works in Arabic. They are many in number. All of them cannot be enlisted in a small paper like this. Eight important scholars among them have been given here in chronological order. 1) Shaykh 'Abdul Rahman ibn 'Ali (1322 AH) was born in Mahie in 1257 AH. He had his education at Tirurangadi, and at Ponnani. He worked as Mudarris at Waliyakulangara Masjid at Tanur. Afterwards he established a separate masjid and shfited his centre to that place and continued there till his death in 1322 AH. His works are: 'lrshad al 'lbad fi Dhikri al-Mawti wa alM'act40, Sharah Tuhfatul Mursla, Al'lfadatul Qudsiyya fl 'lkhtilafi Turuqi al Sufiyya, 'Asrar al-Muhaqqiqin fi Ma'rifati Rabb al-'Alamin (all in tasawwuf) and a hashiya of 'Allafa al Alif entitled 'Awarif al-M' arif

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2) 'Ahmad al-Faruri (1331 AH). He was bom at Punnayurkulamin Trichur district in 1293 ·AH. He was a good scholar and orator. He died while working as Mudarris at Ayirur in Malappuram district. He has composed fifteen works out of which six are poems41. Being a gifted poet he prefered to compose his works in different disciplines in verse and not in prose. His works are: 'Alfiyyah fi 'lstilahati al-Hadith, explaining the technical terms in Hadith), 'Afiyya fi al-Lughah (a specialised dictionary where words are arranged subject wise), Hadiyyat al- 'lkhwan (in Rhetoric), Ma'din al Falah and Ma'din al-Fu'ad (both in tasawwuf), 'Alfiyyah fi al-Fara'id (dealing with inheritance), Jami'atul Fu'ad (in scholasitc theology), a few elegies and a few welcome poems. 3) Ahmad Koya al-Shaliyati (1347 AH): Here is a scholar who took pains to collect important and rare works in Arabic and to preserve copies of the same in his personal library. While other scholars left every thing unrecorded, Ahmad Koya took special interest in recording all available informantion. He was teamed in diffrent disciplines. The Nizam of Hyderabad nominated him as one of his Muftis and sanctioned him a monthly pension of Rs. 100/-42. He was bom at Chaliyam in Calicut District in 1302 AH. After early education in his home town he went .to Lathifiyya Madrasa at Vellore for his higher studies. After completing his studies there he worked as a teacher in the same institution for a few years. Then he taught in Riyad al-Jinan in Tirunelveli for five years. Afterwards he worked in Lathifiyyah and Vattamkulam in Tamil Nadu and Kodiyathur in Kerala. Then he

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returned to ChaJiyam and continued there till his death in 1374 AH. He has composed thirty seven works43. Most of them are small treatise. The important among them are Al-Fatawa al-'Azhariyya (a collection of 159 fatwas big and small, issued by him, classified under appropriate heads), Al-'Awa'id al Diniyyah fi Talkhisi alFawa'idi aJ-Madaniyyah (dealing with adhkar mentioned in the Qura'n). Some of his works are poems and a few others are Manaqib. 4) 'Abdul Qadir al-Fadfari (1385 AH). Here is another distinguished personality who collected a number of poems composed by himself and others and published them along with letters including a few written by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and speeches dilivered by the author and others. It also contains certain materials related to the spread of Islam in Kerala. The name of this collection is Jawahir al-'Ash'ar. 'Abdul Qadir aJ-Fadfari was born at Pallippuram near Mankada in Malappuram District in 1313 AH. After his early education in the centres of Arabic near his native place he had his higher education at BSA College, Vellore44. He has worked as Mudarris in Qasimiyya and Qadiriyya Madrasas in Tamil Nadu and also at Tirurangadi, Pallippuram and Mannarghat. He died in 1363 AH. Apart form Jawahirul 'Ash'ar he has compiled a collection of du'as given in Qur'an and Hadith entitled: .. Khayrul Darayn. His other works are: Majma'ul Fu'ad (in Tasawwuf), Sharah Tadhhibul Kalam (in logic), Sharah 'Aynul Huda (in grammar) Majma'al Fatawa (a collection of Fatwas) and a number of poems. 5) 'Ahmad Nuruddin (1365 AH). He played a significant role in spearheading and consolidating of

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"Samastha Kerala Jamiyyatul Ulama" after the split in "Kerala Jamiyyatul Ulama". A good scholar and speaker 'Ahmad Nuruddin was born at PANG near Kolathur south of Malappuram by eight Kilometres. After completing early education in local centres of Arabic he had his higher studies at BSA college, Vellore. He has worked as Mudarris in various madrasas at Mannarghat, Pang and Tanur. He died in 1365 AH. His treatise Al-Nahj al Qawim (dealing with the earlier verdicts of Imam Shafi in matters of Friday Khutba) was published from Egypt in 1354 AH. This treatise mentions twenty three works composed by him. The important among them are: Al-Bayan al Shafi fi 'I Imai al 'Arudi wal Qawafi (in poetics), T anqih al-Mantiq fi Sharhi Tasrih al-Mantiq (in logic), Nazm 'Alaqat Majaz Mursal (in rhetoric), Taj al Wasa'il (on Prophet and Sahabas) a few manaqib and a number of poems45. · 6) Muhammad 'Abdul Bari (1385): He had distinguished himself as a mufti, a multi-linguist and a good writer in Malayalam. He ,was the president of "Samastha Kerala Jam'iyyatul Ulama" from 1362 to 1385AH. He was born at WALAKULAM near Edarikode in Malappuram district. After early education in local centres of Arabic, He had his higher education at BSA College, Vellore. He constructed a mosque and started Oars there. He made a good library also. He died in 1385 AH. The following are his important works. Sihah al Shaykhyn (in hadith), Jam'al -Bari (dealing with the different aspects of the religion viz., Qur'an, Hadith, Fiqh, Scholasitc theology, Tasawwuf etc), Al-Mutafarrid, al-Absar (both dealing with articles of Islamic. faith), Al Wasilat al-'Uzamai bi Asma'il Husna (praising the·

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participants of Sadar) and a Manaqib on Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). 7) Muhy al-Din al-Aluwayi (1417). He has the rare distinction of being the first Keralite to take a Doctorate Degree in Arabic that also from a reputed Arab· University Viz. 'Al-Azhar. He earned credit for Mala yalam language by translating the famous Malayalam novel 'CHEMMEEN' (Prawn) into Arabic. He was bom at Veliyathu Nadu near Aluwayi in 1344 AH. After completing classes at the local dars he had his higher studies at BSA College, Vellore. He passed Afdal al 'Ulama title examination under Madras University. Then he had his higher studies in Al-Azhar and passed 'Alamiyya (1370 to 1373 AH) and Ph.D ; (1383 to 1391 AH). He was awarded Doctorate Degree on the thesis on "Islamic Call and its Development in the Sub-continent of India". He has worked as lecturer in Arabic in the Medical Faculty of Al-Azhar and in AlAzhar Girls College. He was a regular contributor of articles to periodicals like: Al-Azhar, Minar al-Islam, AlRisala and Sawt al-Sharq all published from Egypt.· After returning to Kerala he worked as the principal of Da'wa college at Silver Hills, Calicut and after wards in Azharul 'Uloom College in Aluwayi. He died in 1417 AH. His important works are: 'Adab al-Hindi al-Mu'asir (a Survey of the literary history of the languages recognised by Indian constitution), al-lslamu wal Qadaya al-lnsaniyyah (it is the 52nd work in a series of books published from Cairo in 1386 AH), Al-Da'watul lslamiyya wa Tatawwuruha fi shibhi Oarratil Hind, and Al-lslamu wa Tatawwurat al Alam (both in Islamic Culture)46.

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8) 'Abdul Rahman al 'ldarusi (a living s~olar): He is another graduate from al-Azhar and the present president of "Samastha Kerala Jamiyyathul Ulama". After completing the studies under KARINGAPARA MUHAMMAD MUSLIYAR he joined BSA College, Vellur for his higher studies. Then he joined lslamiya University in Libiya as a teacher. He has also worked in Ma'hadul Mu'allimin in Saudi Arabia. His important works are: Al-' Arabu Wal 'Arabiyyah (Published from Egypt in 1384 AH). It deals with the Arabs and Arabic language and literature. Tarikha al-Nahwi wa Tatawwuruhu (dealing with the history and development of Arabic language and literature)47. Scholars like K.M.Moulavi, Chalilakath Kunhaham mad Haji, Kaipatta Muhammad Kutty Musaliyar, Muha mmad ibn Hassan, Hydar ibn Muhammad, Ibrahim ibn Muhy al-Din, 'Ali ibn Farid etc. who have contributed to Arabic literature are many in number. But all of them can not be included in a small paper like this. Not being included in this paper does not under value either their importance or the importance of their works .

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References; 1. CA.Innes, Malabar District Gazatteer,Vol.l(Madras, 1951) P. 26 2. Sardar K.M. Panikkar: A History of Kerala, Chapter I, (Annamala University, 1959) p. 32 3. Sayed Sulaiman Nadvi, Religious RelatiOns of India with the Arabs, (an artide in Islamic Culture VIII. 1934- Reprint Newyork, 1967) p. 204 4. Sardar K.M. Panikar. op.cit. P.9

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altab ak (M n. Ed lat , ldM Bu altuh Fu rt, hu lad Ba al d ma 5. Ah Tij aiy ya al Kubra Egypt. 1932) p. 423, 424 . 7. VVlllan Logan, A Mannual of Malabar (Madras-1951 ), p.193 yalam 8.Sahykh 'Ahmad Za yn al-Din, Tl.tffatul Mu jM idn (Mala Translation), p.13. 9. s. da r K.M . Panikkar. op.cit, p.15. 10. Wlliam Logan Ibid, p.15 p.3 ut) alic (C s 'ftb Ma of ilas pp Ma ya, Ko d me ha Mo . S.M . Or . 11 12. Lo gM , op .ci t, p. 197 13. Shaykh 'Ahmad Zayn ?'·Din op .cit, p.13

14. Ibid . p.1 S, MS rl lba Ma nu ya 'A' ) AH 47 (13 ., hm Ra l du 'Ab lbn i 15.'Al 18. Ibid iyyah, 17. Qadl Abu Bakr Kunhl, Al-Masabtaul Kawakibu al Dhurr MSS. p.1 18. 'Ali lbn 'Abdul Rahman. op.cit, p.2 nvnad 19. The 11111usaipt of the treatise is available with N.MtJ\a Koya. Qadi of Calicut 20. Reported by N. Mu h•1 1m ad Koya, Qadi of Calicut 21 . Available with N. Muha111tlad Koya, Qadi of C&licut 22. 'Ali ibn 'Abdul Rahman. Ibid p.3,4 23. Ibid, p.1,8 24. Ibid, p.8 ni ma Po of on icle art tis n, ma rah du Ab . 25.Prof. K.V published in Al·lslah (Magazine) Ponnani. 1968 1,2 28.'Abdul 'Aziz a' Ma'bart, Maslakul 'Atqiya, (Ponnani 1585)p. 27. Ibid 28. Ibid. e, tur era Lit ic ab Ar to ia Ind of n tio ibu ntr Co G, M. d ma Ah 29. Zubaid Panjab, p.144 p.8,9 il ma Po n, Ed AH 13 13 'in Mu al th Fa , Din alyn Za ad hm .'A 30 31 . Prof. K.V. Abdurahman, op .ci t 32 . 'All lbn 'Abdu Ra hm al, Ibid 33. Ibid p.934 . Ibid p.8 35. Ibid p.10

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Prof. K.V. Abdurahiman, Ibid. 8,9 'Ali lbn 'Abdu Rahman, Ibid, p.8,9 M.V. Umer Moulavi, Umar Qadi (Ponnani, 1955}p.31 'Ali lbn 'Abudl Rahman, p.11 40. Ibid, p.9 41. Reported by his son Muhammad al-Faruri 42. Reported by P. Abubahr Musaliyar. a nephew of the author and the in-charge of his library at Chaliyam 43. Ibid 44. 'Abdul Qadir al-Fadfar, Jawahirul 'Ash'ar, (Edava, 1939) 45. 'Ahmad Nuruddin, Al-Nahj al-Qawim, (Egypt.1935) 46. Reported by the author 47. Reported by the author

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Arabic Poetry in Kerala Dr. K.V. Veeran Moideen Poetry is an enchanting lingua medium for emotions to go very swiftly deep into human mind and it helps the waves of those emotions last for several years intact in the mind. It can be noticed that this medium in Arabic language had been used since very ancient times for eulogizing friends and satirizing foes. Literary critics are of the opinion that poetry has been more preserved across the bygone centuries than prose though human . beings had originally begun communicating each other in prose medium. In fact we observe in a real poem the reader getting a perception of him self being dissolved into the very poet who succeeds in ascending with him to a magical horizon of inexplicable sensual experience. Virtually this is the important factor that forms the basis of poetic enchantment. And for the fullest enjoyment of a poem, it should essentially contain this element. The valuable contributions of eminent luminaries of Kerala Arabic poetry who had helped blossom the unfading flowers of enchanting poetic frequency and

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colours, are still unfamiliar to many noted experts in the field of Arabic learning as well as teaching, to day. In fact we did not make any serious and scientific attempt yet in this regard. · Historians claim that Arabic Language had been the familiar trade medium of Kerala coastal area even before the holy Prophet's period. Inspired by the preachings of the veteran Islamic missionary Shaikh Malik bin Deenar who arrived in Kerala in the early centuries of Islam's emergence, a large number of Keralites embraced Islam and learned Arabic language inevitably for the proper performance of their religious rituals. But no literary writing in Arabic had appeared in Kerala until the advent of Qadi Aboobacker bin Ramadan, the renowned Islamic scholar, the first author and poet in Arabic, whose lineage has been traced out recently in a manuscript document preserved in the library of Kozhikode Qadi going back to Habeeb bin Malik al Madeeni. It was in the 15th century A.D, when the entire Malayaloe society had not been influenced by any sort of poetry or any other form of literature, Qadi Aboobacker had been able to compose, in tune with the ancient Arabic poems the 'Mukhammas' for the universally reputed Arabic poems 'Banath Suad' and 'Burdah'. Of two the 'Mukhammas' of 'Burdah' is more splendid. This might be presumed to be an original poetic output, had any one unaware of Imam Boosoori's 'Burdah' happened to have seen this first. •

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they were e>q:>eded to be an exercise d tis expertise i'1 lrg.istic oommand. Indian and foreign Arabic authors and poets have opted for this method and this might have attracted him to compose similar poems, says Abdaurahman Al ldarussi. His famous poem "Sallal ilah" is heart touching for any human being. It is a heartbreaking cry of a grand son. We can see in the poet who was denied permission to visit the grave of his grandfather. He recited at ~~ '· 0 .JJI when he was denied permission to visit it.

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The valuable poetic contribution of Aburahman Muhammad al Fai'ee Nellikkuthu who entered this field in the early 20th century has been kept like a treasure of gold by his beloved son Rahmathullah. As his opinion, it is true that, this is undoubtedly a valuable collection. From among the kerala Arabic poetry this is the only poetic collection which is being kept neatly

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without being lost. Janab PV Mohammad Moulavi known as Aboo Laila of Pulikkal, Abdullah al Noorani and Mohmmed al Falaki of Vilathur are other three great Arabic poets who entered this field almost in the same period. In the beginning of twentieth century they flourished in the field of Arabic Poetry. They started composing poems from their young ages. Falaki while he was a student at Jamaliya college of Madras and Noorani in Arakkel Mosque of Kumaranellur and later in Darus Salam of Umarabad were sending letters to each other in poems. No correspondence is seen made by PV to them. PV had beer1 active in teaching, Journalism, politics and later he engaged himself in politics giving up all other activities as well as his job. He went to Tirurangadi Orphanage where he opened the door way to the world of poems. His poems were the sharp edge of Al Murshid magazine the waling sword of the Al lslahi movement. He wrote.

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This poem of Jamaludheen moulavi is available only in the collection of Aboo Laila. Students who are familiar with the satirical poems of 'Jarir'. 'Farazdaq' and Akhtal will get surprised when they come to see the eulogical poems of PV, Jamaludheen moulavi and Falaki. An elegy about Mohammed ali Jinnah is the only available poem of PV who shifted to Pakistan following the partition of India, whereas almost all poems of Falaki are available. But he breathed last before fulfilling his desire to get them published. "Snakes will bite on revenge' might be an absurd belief but if a poet has been disturbed he will take revenge on opportunity, the poems of Falaki prove this. He wrote a poem welcoming the Al Bushra Arabic monthly which was published by Kerala Arabic Teachers Federation under the leadership of Karuvally Mohmmed Moulavi. He said. \

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than five hundred lines written on the festive occasion of 15th Century of Hijra describing the life of Prophet after Nubwath till Hijra, is a valuable literary contribution of Kerala. We can see N.K.Ahmed Moulavi too in this group of great poets. He composed more than fifty poems, all of them keep good style of poetry. Moosa Ayirur who was thinking in line with the modem Arabic poets like Abushadi in his themes, Nanmanda Aboobaker Moulavi who translated the famous Malayalam poetical work "W eenapoovu" into Arabic verses and some other poems and Isa Madani are still serving in this field with modem themes, techniques, imagination and sensation of modemArabic poetry. The poets like C.P. Aboobacker Moulavi, Mohammed Abussalah, T. Mohammed Sahib and K.uttiyadi Moidu Moulavi are also reputed for their poems in Arabic. This Kerala branch of Arabic poetry is almost getting lost. Hence they should be protected; otherwise we may lose the works of more than 120 poets of Kerala forever.

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Professor Kokan in his book 'Arabic and Persian . in Camatic' writes "Shaik Sadaqatullah had attained proficiency in all the branches of sci ences especially in Arabic language and literature. He seems to have fully grasped the vocabulary, idioms, phrases and proverbs used in the Maqamat of Hamdani and Hariri".

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He had command on Arabic language. So when he visited Makkah many people studied under him and got the knowlege specially in mysticism. He was teaching the Islamic sciences to his students in India. He has contributed a lot to the Arabic poetry. Kaab bin Zuhair wrote a poem in praise of the Prophet (sal) which consists of 64 verses. It is named as ,-,;4 i 'J·A .l~.

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ISi He wrote a poem of 54 lines in praise of Shaik Abdul Qadir Jeelani (Rah) which is famous as ~J1L.i. In addition to above he wrote the following master pieces.

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The then ruler Aurengazeb offered him the post of chief justice for the districts of Tamilnadu. He declined this offer. When the king compelled him he recommended the name of his son Shaik Mohammed Labbai Aalim for the post. Shaik Sadaqatullah Appa died on 6th Muharram 1115 AH and was buried at Palayamkottai. MOUl '.NA BAQIR AGAH: Moulana Baqir Agah was bom In Vellore on 14 Muharram 1158 AH. He was taught by MouM Muhammed Habeobullah, Syed Shah Abul Hasan Qurbi and Moulvi W aleeullah. He travelled to Trichirapalli and stayed there for some years. His Arabic books are as follows:

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He wrote il..\i.. on the style of Hariri like

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Nawab Walajah invited him to Madras and appointed him as Principal of Madrasa -e- Kalan and awarded him the title of Bahrul Uloom. He wrote several books in Arabic and Persian. The Arabic books written by him are as follows:

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He was born on 7th Ramadan in the year 1166 AH. He studied Arabic in Arcot. His grandfather Qazi Nizamuddin Ahmed taught him Arabic. He was then sent to Siagangai in Ramanad district. Moulvi Ameenuddin was -t he famous Arabic Scholar there. He studied under him. After the death of Moulvi to Trichy and continued Ameenuddin he migrated . studies under Moulvi Waliullah. He returned to Madras and worked under Nawab of Arcot. When Moulana • Abdul Ali Bahrul Uloom started classes for Arabic and he jojned the class as a student. Islamic studies .

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He was appointed as a tutor to Nawab Azeemuddin. After some days he went to Hyderabad in search of some suitable job but was not successful. He returned to Madras and wrote a Muqama Q/,TQ~ ™LGhR in Arabic. He spent the rest of his life in teaching and writing books. He died on 11 Safar 1238 AH. The books written by him are as follows:

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He was born on 5/1/1211 AH. First he studied under his father. Then he went to Moulana Bahrul Uloom Abdul Ali and Moulana Alauddin Ahmed and other teachers to study Arabic language, grammar and Islamic studies. Prof. Kokan writes about him "He was an intelligent and genius student. He tried to collect or copy the important Arabic and Persian works". He served Nawab Gulam Ghouse Khan as the Chief Judge of the state for a period of 34 years. He spent his life as a teacher and as a writer. He passed away on 25 Muharram in the year 1280 AH. The Arabic works are:

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Dr. V ABDUR RAHEEM AL AZHARI: Dr. V. Abdur Raheem Azhari is from Vaniyambadi. He was bom on 7n/1923. He is working in Saudi Arabia and has written Arabic text books for non-Arab people. This book is very useful for Arabic education and it has been introduced in the University of Madras at degree level. The name of the book is ~ ~~' ~' OA.J..F' • • • ~,j_,W_il, . '''~u .. Dr. ZIAUR RAHMAN: He was bom in Uttar Pradesh, studied in Jamia Darussalam (Oomerabad). He went for higher education in lslamiah University Madeena. He became exP0rt in Hadeeth. He is a Professor of Hadeeth in Maooena University. He did research on the Hadeeth of Hazrath Abu Hurairah. These are the learned and eminent scholars who were educat ing the people all over Tamilnadu in their houses or Khanqhas or in the Mosques or in Madrasas. Their syllabus were Quran, Hadeeth, Tafseer, Usool Al Tafseer, Usool Al Hadeeth etc. The people of Tamilnadu studied Arabic language, because it was Quranic language and the language of Hadeeth. So they started Madrasas. Then the Arabic scholars started many institutions to educate the people in Arabic language and Islamic studies. I like to mention some of the institutions here which developed the Arabic language. AL MADRASA AL AROOSIYAH (1267 AH) Syed Muhammed Aalim established this Madrasa in 1267 AH. A number of students got admission in this

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Madrasa. This is the first institution which provided free meals to its students. BAQIYATH-AL- SALIHAT: Moulvi Abdul Wahab son of Moulvi Abdul Qadir established a Madrasa in Vellore and named it as ul,,U · J;94l\ . His forefather was from Tanjavur and they migrated to Aatur in Salem district. Abdul Wahab was born on 15/4/1198 AH. 4

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He studied Islamic sciences and Arabic language in Aatur itself. He was sent to Vellore for further studies under Moulvi Hakeem Zainulabideen. Then he came to Madras to study under Moulvi Gulam Qadir, a student of Qazi lrtaza Ali Khan. Again he went to Vellore to study under Syed Shah Abdul Latheef. He studied from Moulana Rahmatullah Sahib, founder of Ajil~\at Mecca. He went to Hijaz achieved some more knowledge and returned to Vellore and established this college in 1301 AH. He devoted his whole life to promote Arabic language and education and could not pay attention to write or compile any book exept one or two. This Madrasa was looked after by his son Moulana Ziauddin after his death in the year 1919. Ziauddin appointed Moulana Abdul Jabbar as the Principal of Baqiyath. He died in 1934 AD. Then Moulana Abdur Raheem Sahib became the Principal, followed by Moulvi Mufti Shaik Aadam, who died in 1960. Moulana Abdus Samad Bat and Moulana Syed Sibgatullah were the famous teachers of Baqiyath . The old students of this great institution are engaged in propagating the Arabic education in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, AndhraPradesh, Kamataka and Srilanka and few in Malaysia and Singapore. They have pub

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lished many books about Islam and Arabic language in · Tamil, Arabic and Malayalam languages. They also started a number of institutions in several parts of the country. They are 1) Misbahul Huda by Moulana Abdul Kareem. 2) Al Madrasa Al Noor Al Muhammadi by Moulana A/Kareem 3) Riyadul Jinan Fi Uloom Al Adyan by peer Md Ro wther 4) Manbaul Uloom by Abu Bakr Mou/vi

These institutions are developing Arabic education by publishing books, by teaching and by starting Madrasas. DARUL ULOOM LATHIFIA (1302 AH) A family migrated from Bijapur to Arcot and then to Vellore and settled near the fort of Vellore. This family established a Khankha there and constructed a Mosque. Syed Shah Ruknuddin Mohammed son of Syed Shah Abdul Latheef changed this Khankha into Madrasa. He was one of the membe:-s of this family who migrated to Vellore. Moulana Mohammed Taqi of Lucknow was appointed as its first Principal. Many great scholars worked there as teachers and served for the education of Arabic Language and many students got educated in Arabic language and Islamic studies there.

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AL MADRASA • AL MUHAMMADIA (MADRAS): Moulvi Abdul Wahab and his brother Qazi Badruddawlah were teaching Arabic and Islamic sciences to their students in Dewan Sahib Bagh, which was purchased by their father Moulvi Md. Ghouse. Several Muslim youth from city and from far off places used to attend the classes to achieve the knowledge. As the teaching and teaming was continued by great scholars, the people of Madras encouraged and insisted Shaik Tarazish Khan to start a Madrasa to regularize the education of Arabic. He was kind enough to accept this suggestion. Then Madrasa-e- Muhamm adia was started on 26 Rajab 1303 (26/2/1892AD). The family members of Qazi Badruddoulah served as teachers for many years without any rumuneration. Thus it contributed a lot to the Arabic language. JAMALIA ARABIC · MADRAS):

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Jamal Mohyuddin established a Madrasa in 1900 AD. Moulana Madar Sahib of Dindigul was appointed as its first Principal. This is a college which teaches the students in Arabic medium. Many visiting professors from Al-Azar University worked here to teach Arabic language. The main aim of this institution and the founder was to impart Arabic and Islamic education to the students of modem age and to teach English and other modem subjects to the students of Madrasa. It became successful to a certain extent.

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When Professor Ahmed Sharqawi came to this institution, it got name and fame. Many people got benefited from this institution. JAMIA DARUSSALAM (OOMERABAD): Kaka Muhammed Oomer was a businessman. He had export business. He was the owner of Roshan company. He was from Malabar, migrated to Tamilnadu. On one hand he developed trade and on the other he wanted to gain some profit for the life hereafter. Whenever he visted North India he used to spend his leisure time with Ulama. By listening to their l~ures he made up his mind to establish a Madrasa. He was a resident of Kailashgiri (Gadambur). He purchased a vast land and constructed a house and in one of its room he started a Madrasa which flourished day by day, so he decided to construct a big building for accommodation of the students. He started this Madrasa in the year 1924. This Madrasa served in the development of Arabic education. Its students are serving all over the world. They are in the field of teaching, preaching, writing and publishing in Arabic language.It has several ins titutions. •

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Bharatidasan University at Trichy does not have Arabic department. But Jamal Mohammed College has Arabic department which is affiliated to the Bharathidasan University. Jamal Mohammed College provides B.A and M.A in Arabic. Prof. Abdul Rahman from Kerala was the head and now Prof. Abdul Majeed is heading this department. W akf Board College affiliated to Madurai Kamaraj University is having Arabic language. •

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Manonmanian Sundaranar University does not have Arabic department but one of its affiliated college Sadaqatullah Appa College is having Arabic as found ation course. . Now let us briefly look into the role The New College (Affiliated to University of Madras) played in the development of Arabic language. THE NEW COLLEGE (MADRAS): This college was started in the year 1950 by the Muslim Educational Association of Southern India. The main objective of this association is to promote Arabic, Persian and Urdu. This association resolved to start a New college. The resolution was moved by Alhaj A. Md. Ubaidullah sahib and was accepted by all. The management started department of Arabic at post Graduate level. Many students got MA (Arabic) from this college and are serving this language in various fields. Afzal UI Ulama Moulana Abdul Wahab Bukhari Sahib was the first head of the department. Other Arabic scholars like Moulana Azamathullah Umari and Moulana Md Yousuf Kokan Sahib Umari were serving the department as visiting professors. Dr. Syed Ali was the Head of the Department who · toiled the soil and advanced the department in quality and quantity. His book "Arabic for Beginners" is very famous. He is an active member of Arabic family particularly in Madras and generally in India. After his retirement his own student Mr. N.Ahmed Basha of Ambur took the Charge. The Arabic

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department got affiliation for M.Phil in 1993 and is now trying for Ph.D affiliation. . Finally, let me mention briefly about some of the constraints of Arabic education in Tamilnadu which held back the development of Arabic language. First we did not have series of text books. When a book is published the authorities prescribe it for all courses. Lack of proper text books compelled the authorities to go for such books. Kerala Readers ..vere prescribed in the schools for a long time, which were not available easily for Tamilnadu students. Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmed the present H.O.D of Arabic, Urdu and Persian, University of Madras was appointed by the text book society, Government of Tamilnadu as the Chairman for Arabic text books. Some scholars wrote the text books for std VIII to XII under his chairmanship. Another point which we have to focus on is "How we can advance Arabic education in future?". Writing in Arabic and talking in Arabic is a must for the students to get deep knowledge about the Arabic language. We have to make a syllabus based on all these factors. ·~

BIBLIOGRAPHY: ENGLISH: 1) •Arabic and Persian in Carantic" by Prof. Mohammed

Yousuf Kokan. 2) '"Centres of Islamic leafing in India· by Dr. Ziauddin. 3) '"Origin and Development of Arab Tamil in Tamilnadu· by

Prof. H. Abdw Raheem.

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4) "Arabi Arawi and Persian in Sarandib and Tamilnadu· by Dr. Takya Shuayb Aalim. 5) "Mullah Bahrul Uloom" by Prof N. Ahmed Basha. 6) "Diamond Jubliee celebration of Department of Arabic Persian and Urdu" Souvnier 7) "The Jamal· (Magazine).

ARABIC: 1) "Tuhfathul Mujahideen· by Shaik Zainuddeen. 2) "Nuzhatul Khawatir" by Moulana Syed Abdul Hai. 3) "Al-Dirasatul Arabia Wal lslamia Fi Tamilnadu" by Dr. Md Sulaiman Umari. 4) "Al-Baqiyath" Majallah Al Miaviyah. 5) "Al-Jamaliyah· Saban 1391 . URDU: 1) "Khanwada Qazi Badruddawlah" by Prof. Kokan. 2) "Arab-0-Hind ke Taalluquat" by Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadvi 3) "Golden Jubilee Magazines" Sahifa 4) "Darussalam" 1968/1971 .

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ALLISANUL ARAWIYYU Prof. Dr. P. Nisar Ahmed "Allisanul Arawiyyu" is nothing but Tamil written in Arabic script with slight modifications in Arabic alphabets. Indians, particularly the people of southern Peninsula had their trade and matrimonial contacts with Arabs from the days prior to emergence of Islam in Arabia. The language, the culture and the way of life of the Arabs even before Islam was attractive to native Indians and they liked Arabs very much. Emergence of Islam added to this. The monotheistic belief, good manners, simplicity and honesty of Arabs in the matter of trade, etc., impressed the Indians of the southern Peninsula very much and some of them embraced Islam. Arabs wanted to learn Tamil and Indians wanted to learn Arabic but it was very difficult for them to learn the scripts of the respective language but Indians particularly people of South India and more specially Tamil speaking Muslims succeeded in learning Arabic language and also started writing their own Tamil language in Arabic script. Dr.Shuaib Alim quoting so many scholars says about the origin and development . of this language and literature: "This new language, in course of time, became the mother tongue of the Muslim community of Sarandib (the present Srilanka)

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and Tamil Nadu and consequently, it developed to be the medium, not only of thier religious instrucions but also for their day-to-day affairs including business, property dealings, correspondence and all other social transactions. The Muslim community of Sarandib and TamilNadu were able in due course, to use this new language as an effective shield for the preservation of their cultural identity. Thus the Arwi speaking Muslims were able to safeguard their culture without sacrificing their religion. It is surprising to note that more than eighty percent of Arwi Muslims both men and women became literate solely and wholly due to Arwi. This is indeed an astonishing and great achievement". In this manner Allisanul Arwi (Arwi language) has amply served the Arwi speaking Muslim community in protecting and preserving their culture against the powerful political onslaught of alien influences both in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu. It is the testimony of history that, had it not been for Lisanul Arwi, Muslims in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu would probably have been swept away by rival cultural currents as the Muslims constituted a mere seven percent of the total population. It has also saved the Arwi Muslim masses from the necessity of relying on literature not in accord with their religious values and from the time consuming process of learning a totally new language-Arabic. The position of Muslims in Burma, China and Thailand clearly establishes that due to the absence of a similar separate language they have lost their identity as a religious community. The British Goverment soon after the annexatin of Kamatic (Parts of the present Tamil Nadu, Kerala and

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Kamataka) bestowed on Nawwab Azeem Jah (d. 1290 A.H/1873 AD) son of Nawwab Azeemuddawlah, the title of Prince of Arcot. During that period as the colonial rulers were very particular about Arwi and its impact on the local Muslims and their cultural and their religious life, through the Government of Bengal, the Prince was requested to engage some intellectuals like Said Aslami, Baqir Hussain Raiq and others to probe into the language and other aspects. Under the supervision of Qadi Badruddawlah a book entitled 'Sirajut Tawarikh' (also known as Jami'ul Ashya) meaning a torch into the histories and collections of various aspects was prepared in 1246 AH/1830 AD translated into Persian and presented to the Government. The major caption was Tarjuma-e-Tarikh-e-Arwi, while it also dealt with subjects such as horticulture, archaeology, religion, tobacco and tanbak etc. Arwi language in course of time developed to the extent of acquiring the capability of being the medium of literary expression •both in poetry and prose. In fact, Arwi is one of the most phonetic of all the languages known to the world. Broadly speaking anybody who has mastered Arwi can pronounce any word of any language without any flaw. Further it is possible that western powers like Britain must have drawn inspiration from the success which has been achieved by Arwi when they later introduced the Roman script in their colonial territories like India, Malaya and East Africa for the local languages. (Arabic, Arwi and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu: pp 90-93).

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The works produced both in prose and poetry in this language deal with the following subjects: 1) Architecture: 2) Arithmetic: 3) Astronomy: 4) Aqaid (creed); 5) Biography and Auto-Biograhy; 6) Commentary on Hadith; 7) Dictionary; 8) Eulogy; 9) Etymology; 10) Elegy; 11) Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence); 12) Faraid (Law of Inheritance); 13) Fiction; 14) History; 15) Horticulture; 16) lstisqa; (Prayer for Rain); 17) Mantiq (togic); 18) llm-ul-marifa; 19) Medicine; 20) Moral Science; 21) Munajat; 22) Satire; 23) Sports; 24) Tafsir; 25) Tajwid; 26) Tasawwuf; 27) Voyage and Travels; 28) Maghazi; 29) Yogas and 30) General literature. Thus Arabic language had its impact on Tamir Language in such a way that it became a new language and its scholars produced thousands of works in this language on the subjects mentioned above. A number of books in this language are still available in the libraries of Srilanka and Tamil Nadu in places like Adiramapattinam, Beruwela, Galle, Jaffna, Weligama, Kayalpattinam and Kilakarai etc. The libraries of Madrasatul Bari in Weligama in Srilanka are the centres whic have hundres of books on this subject. As already mentioned this language is rich in all aspects. Apart from the religious literature, we find novels, short stories, poetry and dictionaries etc., in this language. Following are some of the important religious and literary works in Arwi. 1) jji) JJ"';; L,.Ji ~ ~)' ~ is the first work on jjill ..»4Vritten by Shaikh Mustafa Wali (1252-1305 AH/ 1836-1887) son of Adam Bawa of Beruwala in Sarandib.

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2) ~4.;J ~.J:l"'" 4.-?J'"r. entitled as ~.) ~ ,.. a which is more concise than ~ ~..fl and this work mainly deals with mystical aspects of Quranic teachings. In the field of Hadith literature we find very good works in this language and some of them are as follows. 1) Priya Hadith Manikka Malai: This work contains translation of one thousand one hundred and nineteen selected traditions of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). 2) Chinna Hadith Malai: This work contains six hundred and eight Ahadith. 3) lmamul Arus, the famous Arabic scholar of Tamil Nadu of Aurangzeb's period has composed two poetical works on Hadith. The first one is titled as ~' ..lia.OLJI ~jl J lne 1_,.J1. This work contains 380 verses each one having the gist of a hadith. This was compiled in the year 1290 AH/1873 AD and the other work by the same author is ";.,, • A. t;.il • ., ~.....,;.. A. t;r=,.. It is a Qasidah of 53 verses and it was published in the year in 1951 by Dr. Shuaib Alim. This work is also on the subject of Hadith. Other famous works on the subject are the following.

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1)ul..J'J\ '. ,•.!. by Kamaluddin Alim Pulavar. This is based on the original Arabic work of AbuBakr Ahmed lbnul Hasanul Baihaqi (d. 458 AH/1065 AD). 2) 'J·,1 ~ , .. 'J,> ~ 'J? J\ &' This was written by Nuh Alim's son who was called Nuh, the Junior. This work contains one thousand and seventy seven Ahadith. In the field of Aqaid ( .lalic.) also there are important works found in this language.

.lali..ll

c-LJ=.j ~ .lat

_,a

c-U:.c. is famous work on this

subject written by Mahmud Tibi and it was published in the year 1911 AD in Majidiyyah Press .at Madras. Other important works are: ~,, y ~ ~.)al\ c:: \..;a-a ~W\ c:: '-fl.. It is an Arwi translati9n of Imam Ghazzali's work dealing with the laws of Shafiyyi school of Jurisprudence. ~\... .,, ~ ~ ~4)' &All is a work on Hanafi Fiqh. Its translator is Mohammed Ibrahim lbnu Hasan Labbai. This was published in the year 1921 AD. '-'~ il 4-tyJ\ ~W\ ~.,. y compiled by Moulvi Mohammed Ibrahim lbnu Husain Labbai and this was published in the year 1917 AD. The first ever Arwi Encyclopaedia entitled e-' yJ\ J:j ~ e-w'i\ ol.,..j was also published by the same author. This work contains 666 pages.

u-ab.:JI ~.l.o "Madinatun Nuhas" (meaning 'copper town') is the firstever Novel written in Arwi language by lmamul Arus in 1858 AD. Dr. Shuaib Alim says about this novel: " This novel quite possible belongs to the early period of the author's literary activity. Even though this novel has a very strong moral base, the Allamah stopped writing novels in later years. It may be due to his spiritual maturity. This novel is based on the Arabic original of a Persian writer Baquir Yazed lbnu Malik AtTai. It is a historical adventure having the Umayyah rule as its base. It describes an expedition which Amir Musa (probably a reference to the famous general Musa bin

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Nusayr) undertook as per the command of Caliph Abdul Malik. Though a novel, it is not written in any light vein. It reminds its reader that man is mortal, however great or powerful he may be" (pp. 785-786 Arabic, Arwi and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu). Later on so many works of the type were written. Dr. Shuaib Alim Sahib, who is one of the descendants of this great community says about the influence of Arabic and Arabs on the local people in all respects: "The Arwi Muslim community of Sarandib and Tamil Nadu should be considered more perfect and accurate in pronouncing the Arabic letters than the average layman of North India whose pronunciation of the Arabic letters is influenced by the Farsi (Parsian) language. The Arwi Muslim's Arabic pronunciation is much closer to that of the inhabitants of Hijaz where the Holy Quran was revealed. This is on account of two factors. Firstly Arwi, the mother tongue of the Muslims of the coastal belt in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu is based on Arabic and secondly, they have not been influenced by any one of the North Indian languages". He says further: "Generally Arabic scholars of the Arwi region have been more proficient in Arabic and speak the Arabic language more eloquently than most of their counterparts in North India. Original works in Arabic produced by the Arwi savants are more voluminous in proportion to their numerical strength than the works of other writers in the northern regions. Their strength in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu hardly exceeds ten million, whereas Muslims speaking other languages in the Indian sub-continent constitute about three hundred and fifty millions.

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The Arwi Ulama in both Sarandib and Tamil Nadu concentrated mostly on producing original works in Arabic and Arwi on various themes like tenets or creed (Aqaid), Jurisprudence (Fiqh) and panegyric (mawalid) on the Holy Prophet (P) and saints (awliya) and their Biographies" (pp. 53-54 Arabic, Arwi and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu). In this way we find that the impact of Arabic language on the people of Tamil Nadu and Sarandib was so much that it changed every thing of this community, that is, not only the language, the literature, the culture but the whole life of these noble saintly business community changed completely. They not only learnt Arabic but also adopted the Arabic script for their own language Tamil and changed the name of thier language also and named it as "Lisanul Arwi" also known as "Arab-Tamil".

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ARABIC INSTITUTIONS OF KARNATAKA Dr. Syed Qudrathullah Baqawi From very early days wherever the Muslims went they built a mosque which invariably had a Maktab which provided primary and lower secondary education. Although intended for Muslims, here all children irrespective of their caste and creed were taught to read and write. The curriculum had the learning of the Quran as the main object, but it also provided for the study of the other prevalent languages. Persian having been the official language of India during the Muslim rule special emphasis was laid on its study. But as the study of Persian required an elementary knowledge of Arabic also, it may be inferred that the majority of the students learnt Arabic as a second language. Many of them tumed out to be very eminent scholars of Arabic as is witnessed by the history of Arabic literature in India. The next institutions of higher Arabic studies, in the words of Dr. Yousuff Husain Khan, was the Madrasah "Essentially a school of theology with corollary linguistic studies". The Maktabs were run by private enterprise while the Madrasahs were endowed by the State and the munificent nobility. Khwaja Hali in his Musaddas

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reminds us of the great tradition of the famous centres of learning of Baghdad and other Muslim cities which acted as the torch bearers of learning when Europe was steeped in darkness. As a famous writer has remarked the history of Arabic literaturehas been the history of the patronage of learning by royalty and nobles. We consequently find the centres of learning shifting from one place to another. In our country also we find this to be true about the Madrasas established by the rulers and nobility and manned by the most learned teachers of the time. A case in point which may be mentioned here is that about 1000 learned men from Shiraz alone are reported to have visited the court of Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur. So also the court of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq and the subsequent shifting of the capital to Daulatabad had very extensive results. These Madrasahs were to be found throughout the length and breadth of the country. According to Qalqashandi there were 1000 educational institutions in Delhi alone during the Tughlaq rule (Subhul Aasha). History records that the Madrasahs of Delhi, Jaunpur, etc. turned out personages like Sikander Lodhi, Sher sha suri and several others. With the spread of Muslim rule these institutions were developed in Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Malva, Khandesh and the Deccan. In the South as historical circumstances would. have it, barring the coastal areas like Kerala, Konkan etc. where there were contacts with Arabs from very early times the spread of Arabic and Persian was a later development. Among the great centres of learning in

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Deccan patronage of Mahmud Shah Bahmani attracted the most accomplished scholars to his capital. T ariq-eFarishta records that he opened special schools, among other places at Gulbarga, Bidar, Elahipur etc. The pride of place among these Madrsahs of the Karnataka region goes to the famous Madrasah of Mahmood Gawan the great Bahmani Wazir (d. 1451 ). It is recorded that he invited Maulana Abdur Rahman Jami to accept the principalship of the Madrasah. But Jami could not accept because of his advanced age. So Sheikh Ibrahim Multani, the great savant and scholar, was choosen as the Principal. Gulam Yazdani in his monograph on Bidar has given details of this monumental institution of Arabic learning. "It is an imposing building ofthe Bahmani period, which is a unique monument of its kind in India" as Prof. Yousuf Husain Khan observes in his "Medieval Indian culture". It has an open courtyard in the middle with four sides in which the lecture rooms, the prayer halls, the library containing 35000 volumes and the teachers and students rooms are built. It is a grand and beautiful building. The date of its foundation is given in a chronogram as 877H/ 1472 AD. The curriculum of these Madrasas, besides the study of Quran, Hadith and Arabic language, included under "Manqulat', a number of subjects called Maiqulat or the rational sciences or studies. The bias towards rational sciences increased and was given further stimulus during Akbar's reign by Mir Fathullah Shirazi. Here it may be noted that Mir Fathullah Shirazi left Shiraz for the Deccan at the earnest solicitation of Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur. He was the disciple of Mir

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Ghiyasuddin Mansur of Shiraz. After the death of Ali Adi Shah he was invited by Akbar to be the Sadr. Besides the duties of the Sadr he was associated with Raja Todar Mall in a major way in reorganizing the financial system of the Empire. Shirazi's scholarship in these sciences gave a new slant and orientation to Arabic studies in the Madrasahs and led to a basic change of the charader of education making it more secular, in conformity with other changes desired by Akbar. It was this transformed syllabus which according to some learned scholars culminated in the Dars-eNizamia attributed to Mulla Nizamuddin of Farangi Mahal, which became the most acceptable syllabus of Arabic studies in most of the Indian Madrasahs. Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith described the Dars-e-Nizami in Akhbar-al-Akhyar as a secular system of education as out of eleven or 15 subjects taught Quran and Hadith are only two and that too were not studied in great detail. During the reign of Aurangzeb the network of Madrasahs was spread throughout the length and breadth of the country. Stipends were paid genenously to teachers and students to encourage Arabic and Islamic learning. These stipends gave a great stimulus to the revival of Arabic studies and their advancement. It may be remembered thatAurangzeb made copies of the Quran and personally supervised the Fatawai Alamgiri- the most comprehensive digest of Muslim jurisprudence of his time. Aurangzeb's prolonged stay in Deccan was thus another factor in promotion of Islamic studies in seve·ral parts of the south.

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Among the Bahmanis Sultan Mahmud Shah Bin Hasan Bahmani fixed high salaries for scholars engaged in the study of Traditions and paid his respects to them. He himself has been said to be a very good speaker in Arabic according to Nuzhat-ul-Khwatir. Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur engaged Ulema for Hadith studies at Asar shareef and Jami Masjid. He also made very elaborate arrangements for the boarding of the inmates and feeding them lavishly and sumptuously. Besides, a few books and pocket money were also generously distributed, according to Ibrahim Zubairi in . Bustanus Salateen. F'urther, examinations were conducted and successful candidates given prizes and employment. Hasan Gangu Bahmani had in his court the great astronomer and mathematician Sadar sharif and the great engineer Mulla Tahir who was first with . khwaja Jahan and later at Ahmednagar as the teacher of Burhan Nizamshah. Firishta narrates that Feroz Shah Bahmani was himself a teacher of Mathematics to students. All these illustrations from historcal accounts prove that Arabic studies were widely prevalent and studied intensively in the south and parts of Kamataka. To Bijapur goes the credit of the fact that a host of very illustrious Arabic, Persian and Islamic scholars were either born here or migrated from here to the adjoining states of TamilNadu and Andhra Pradesh. e.g, the founders of the Madrasahs of Vellore and some of the very outstanding scholars and saints of Hyderabad, Madras etc. Coming to more recent times we find that Tippu Sultan planned the Jame-ul-uloom or Jame-ul-Umur as

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a centre of all learning. Great scholars from various parts of the country and abroad converged at Seringapatanom. But with the fall of seringa patonam this great projectwas shattered. Records reveal that at his court there were great scholars extremely well versed in Arabic and Islamic lore. In spite of this devastating tragedy the tradition of learning continued although to a limited extent. In the beginning of twentieth century there were a number of Madrasahs scattered in the state at places like Mysore, Bangalore, Gulbarga, Bellary, Raichur, etc... Besides these there was a Training college for Arabic and Persian Teachers at Mysore which had on its staff some of the greatest scholars of the state as well as from other parts of India. The University of Mysore had ever since its inception the department of Persian, Urdu & Arabic, which had a few years ago celebrated its diamond Jubilee. The colleges in the Dept. of Collegiate Education have Arabic at the undergraduate level. The Kamataka University and the Bangalore University also have Arabic as one of the languages or as an optional, at the degree level. Mysore University has a postgraduate Department of Middle Eastern Studies which has made a beginning with an elementary study of Arabic and Persian. Besides these Universities, institutions and colleges there are a number of Madrasahs. Among them special mention may be made of Sabeel-ur-rashad, Quwat-ullslam, Madrasa-e-Alia, Madrasa-e-Siddiqia, etc. With the growing population as well as the cooperation of our country and the Arab lands there is great demand for learning Arabic from all sections of people and I hope the great traditions of the past will

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serve as a guide and Arabic studies will be revived lnsha Allah in this part of our country in a befitting manner. The great role of public enterprise will, I hope, be continued and our institutions will become self sufficient and cater to the needs of the students especially and the public as well for the betterment of our mutual welfare and that of the world community.

Bibliography: Books on History of India. Qadeem lslami Darasgahen - By Abul Hasan Nadvi. lslami Nizarne Ta'leem o Tarbeat - Maulana Manazir Ahsan Geelani Architecture of Bijapur - Gulam Yazdani Matvnood Gawan - Azeez Mirza Sheikh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith - Akhbarul Akhyar History of the Sultans of Bijapur. etc.

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INFLUENCE OF ARABIC ON KANNADA Mir Mahmood Husain Arabic, the language of the Holy Qur'an and the Holy Prophet of Islam has carried considerable influence on the languages of the east and the west through the religion of Islam, Islamic culture, Islamic sciences, arts, architecture, trade and commerce. It was the impact of Arabic which transformed Pahlawi into the Arabicised Persian which brought into existence the great Indian language Urdu in India, and which exerted considerable influence on most of the Indian languages like Marathi, Punjabi, Bengali, Kashmiri, Kannada etc. Arabic directly influenced the languages of the west coast of India without the mediation of Persian and this influence is evident in Sindhi, Malayalam and Konkani. The influence of Persian on other Indian languages includes and implies the Arabic element also as Persian carries a deep impact of Arabic. Kannada is the state language of Kamataka which is spoken by more than twenty five millions of the people. It is a very important South Indian language

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belonging to the Dravidian family of languages like Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam. It is a well established language the history of which is spread over a long period of more than two thousand years. At first Kannada had its own pure and simple style. But since the nineth century it came under considerable influence of Sanskritand Prakrit which have enriched its vocabulary and literature. It is rightly said that Sanskrit has served Kannada as fostermother. Next to Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic have carried the largest influence on Kannada. Since the middle of the last century the influence of English on Kannada has overshadowed all other influences. Kannada is a living language and the Kannada speaking people of Kamataka have had political, cultural and commercial contacts with peoples speaking other languages. Hence the foreign influences on their language. Arabic had no direct contact with Kannada and the Arabic elements which are found in it have entered it through Persian. It is true that trade and commerce existed between Arabia and other Arab countries and the western parts of Karnataka which lie on the west coast of India like Mangalore, South Kanara etc. lbn Batuta who passed through South Kanara in 1324 A.O. found some Arab merchants from Yaman at Mangalore and stated that Arab merchants controlled the maritime trade. The European travellers also who had come to south Kanara in the sixteenth century have confirmed the presence of Arab merchants in South Canara. Notwithstanding all these historical facts it cannot be assumed that Arabic had much to do with Kannada. At

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the most a few Arabic terms might have penetrated into the language of Kamataka. Arabs did not settle or rule in Kamataka and Arabic did not exist as a spoken or written language in this region. Arabs had very little commercial relations with the people speaking Kannada, and the trade which existed on the west coast carried little Arabic influence on Kannada. But it is not the case with Persian. It was the court language of the Turks, Khiljis and Mughals at Delhi and the rulers of Kamataka had political contacts with them. At first Sufis, traders and artisans who spoke Persian entered Kamataka and settled here. They were followed by Persian speaking sepoys who were employed by the rulers of this region. Malik Kafur and Muhammad ibn Tughlaq came to Karnataka in 1310 AD and 1327 AD respectively. Later the Bahaminids of Gulbarga, the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, the Qutb Shahis of Golcunda and the Barid Shahis of Bidar ruled over the Northern and Westemparts of Karnataka from 1347 to 1686 for about three and a half centuries. Then the Mughals appeared in the sixteenth century and they held sway for a small period. From 1761 AD to 1799 AD. Hyder Ali Khan and Tipu Sultan ruled over the whole of Kamataka. The court language of all the above Muslim invaders and rulers was Persian. Thus Persian carried considerable influence on Kannada the language of this region and Persian elements continued to enter into it during the long course of about six centuries. The Arabic elements found a way into Kannada through Persian. Muslims brought new objects, new ideas, a new religion, culture and social institutions, a new form of administration and justice, new methods of transaction, trade and commerce, a new system of medicine, and new styles

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of art and architecture. They became rulers and gained supremacy in every walk of life. Court correspondence was done ·and official records were maintained in Persian written in the Arabic script which in itself carried a deep impact of Arabic. The obvious result was that Persian and Arabic terms were readily adopted in Kannada without any hesitation or hinderance even if there were native equivalents available. These terms have been established firmly and have become part and parcel of Kannada. They have become Kannada and the language has adopted them. They are not generally considered to be foreign and the Kannada speakers and writers did not look at them as alien. In fact they have enriched Kannada. It must be noted that the influence of Persian and Arabic on South Indian languages seems to be greater in the case of Kannada than the others. A large majority of the Arabic and Persian words which have migrated into Kannada are terms pertaining to Administration and Justice. It was the result of the long Muslim rule. The same administrative system was continued even after the close of the Muslim period and hence these terms were retained. Their use continues even today in the Administration, Judiciary, and other fields of life and the people of Karnataka still use them freely in their conversation, correspondences and writings. It is said that the first Arabic word to be used in Kannada was"rapu" the Kannadized form of "rafw" which means mending or darning. It is found in the Vachanas of Basaveswara dated about 1150.. It might have come direct from Arabic or through Persian. Thus the influence of Arabic on Kannada commenced in the middle of the twelfth century. It developed rapidly

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through Persian with the passage of time and reached its zenith in the nineteenth century at the end of the Muslim rule. During the rule of the Maharajas in the nineteenth century the Persian and Arabic words were retained and fully used in Kannada. At one time during the thirteenth century some Kannada writers attempted to avoid the use of Sanskrit words but there has been no inclination at all hitherto to alienate the Persian and Arabic words. A movement had appeared in the early decades of the twentieth century in Marathi to remove all Persian, Arabic and even English words from its vocabulary, but it did not succeed as languages cannot be turned away from their natural course of development. But the people speaking Kannada have never even thought of anything like it and there has been no such hostile attitude towards Persian and Arabic words in Kamataka. The influence of Arabic on Kannada cannot be dealt with independently, as it has taken place through Persian. There has been no direct Arabic influence as I have said earlier. I shall try to confine myself to the Arabic elements found in Kannada. More than five hundred Arabic words are used in Kannada writings. They are broadly speaking terms pertaining to religion, army and warfare, administration, arts and architecture, medicine, trade and commerce, social habits, articles of daily usage, food and drinks, court practices etc. As the pure Arabic sounds Tha, Ha, Kha, Dhal, Za, Sad, Zad, Ta, Za, Agn, Ghyn, Fa, Oaf have no corresponding letters in Kannada, they change into the nearest Kannada sound when used in Kannada eg. Tha, Sad, Sin merge into Sa, ha becomes ha, dhal,

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199

za, zad and za all of them are pronounced as ja, ta changes to ta, ayn and hamza are changed into a, i, u, ghyn is used as ga, fa as pa and qaf as ka, kha is pronounced as ka and kha. Sometimes vaw changes into ba. Words in Kannada end with a vowel. Hence the vowel sound a, i, e or u is added to the borrowed Arabic words which end with a consonant. In case an Arabic word has a vowel at the end it is generally retained and sometimes they also change e.g. Gharib Gariba Masidi Masjid Akal a aql Zulm Julme Karsi Karsi Dava Dava, Dave lrada lrade Dhakhira Jakire Sometimes long vowels are shortened and short vowels become long e.g. Arabic Kannada •• idha IJa hisab isabu Tanqih Tanaki Taraddud Taradudu Marammat Maramat Va'da Vayide .

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200

The vowel sounds in the beginning, in the middle and at the end of Arabic words undergo many varied changes in the same way. In some cases single letters become germinated and in some others double letters tum single ones e.g. Khat

khattu

rad

raddu

haq awal

hakku aval,

avaludukkan

dukan

qassab

kasaba

Besides these and some other phonetic changes, Arabic words undergo semantic changes also when used in Kannada. They are not used in their original Arabic sense but in the sense in which they are used in the Indian Persian. Sometimes new meanings are attributed to them in Kannada e.g. Arabic •

Kannada •

words

meaning

meaning

asl

orgin, root

pure

hikmat

wisdom

cunning, trick

aval hadm -

first

best

digestion

misappropriation

ghaliz

thick ·

dirty

Some Arabic words have changed in Kannada to such an extent that they do not seem to be Arabic at all eg. for musawwadah masude kavatu

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201

Generally silent letters in the Arabic words become active when used in Kannada eg. 'aql akalu naql Most of the Arabic borrowed in Kannada adjectives are in a lesser are changed into verbs in suffixes eg. jam'a badal jabr

nakalu words, as well as Persian, are nouns. Adverbs and number. Some Arabic nouns Kannada by adding Kannada

janiaisu badlaisu jabaraisu The conjunction va and particles like ya'ni and siva and the prefixes ghair and bighair also are used in Kannada. There are many Arabic words with Persian affixes and suffixes also which are commonly used in Persian like Jurmana, galam dani, be warith, faujdar, halal khor, salahkar, beadab, vakalat nama, radi nama, be waquf, be dakhal etc.. Arabic words are combined with Kannada words and thus new terms are coined eg. Jaib jebukatta pick pocket jaib jebu gadgara pocket watch Arabic compounds also are used in Kannada eg. Farigh Khatti parikattu partition deed ghair wajib gair wajibi unnecessary 'alal hisab 'alal hisab according to hadir jawab hajar jabab ready response

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202

Kannada suffix ati is added to Arabic nouns to fom adjectives eg. in'am inamati pertaining to the in'am hawala hawalte charge vusul vusulate collection I present a classified list of Arabic words used in Kannada with the phonetic and semantic changes wherever necessary. 1) words pertaining to Administration ARABIC KANNADA Meaning Meaning in in Arabic Kannada Diwan Diwan register Chief Minister, agent at a Hindu monastery •

in'am

1namu

blessing

mablagh mobalagu money amount sanad

sanadu

certificate, letter of confirmation





trustee

an officer

am1n

am1na

khizana

khajane

treasury

ah sham

ahashamu

troops

khal'at

khillatu

robe of honour

mahal

mahal

munshi

muns1

Vasila

Vasile



palace

palace writer, Secretary

cause, means

mediator,

recommendor fannan

pharmana

order

naqd

nagadu

cash

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qasba Taqawi

kasaba Takavi

Amil

Amila

ra'iyyat MahiIla

ryot Mohalla

Dabita jabite kai-fiyyat kaipettu

people

condition

jarib jaribu muhtasib mutasiba Dill' a taalluq ma'mul hudur sultan tahsil hukm mu'amala qaul ya'ni qarar Tamama Zam in

jilla side Taluk connection mamulu hujur presence sultana tahasilu hukumu mamale • kavlu saying yane kararu firmness Tamamu complete Jaminu

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a big village Supporting ad vanceloansto cultivators Administrative Officer of a taluk cultivators locality or ward of town rule account, explanation a linear measure officer observing people's conduct District a part of a district usage title of respect king a revenue division

order affair, transaction • promise thal is pledge all surety

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hal ah val Takid

halu condition ahavalu account Takidi,Takidu emphasis strict order vusul vasulu, vasuli receipt collection bab door item babu • • ivad substitute compensation IVaJU zira'at jirayati agriculture la'iq layaku fit muqarrar mokaruru fixed Tafariqu tapariku divident • main above sadr sadari kayede, rule qa'ida vajib vajibi necessary proper entry dakhl dakhal interference dakhila dakhile entry dakhalu • • • currency custom r1WaJU rawaJ balance baqi baki fa'ida payede advantage nuqsan nuqsana deficiency loss sabiq sabaku former sivasivayi Oama) except, besides, extra mapu forgiven mu'af • maram atu repairs marammat hesitation taraddud tardudu effort change instead, badal badalu substitute

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tarikh sanah isawi ardi hadrat salamat izzat athar afiyat ijarah Darur sharh kifayat kul mahsul taqada Shahid shawahid sawal jawab

mal madi hadir gha'ib

adab

tariku san isavi

date year christian era •• al)I petition hajaratu respected salamatu may live long! ijjatu honour asara symbol aphiyyatu (baphiyyatu) happiness rent ijare necessarily jarur need settlement sharavu detail kipayatu sufficiency profit all kullu tax mahasulu demand tagade witness sayidi shawaidi witness sawalu question jababu, javabu answer maluwealth property, possession .. past ma11 hazaru present gayabu absent, absconding • adabu respect adaba respects

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206

Mr. real facts truth right poor sight kindness alias till cover enclosed • province nawab minister fort subordinate inheritance estate sending forwarding caste, class, religion rahmu mercy rahm draft musawwada Masuda law qanun kanunu bill masude kanunu janab janabu,Janaba respectful address tapsili details tafsil bin son of ibn jaride proclamation jarida faraghat paragati leisure, rest sahib haqiqat haq gharib nazar urf lighayat lifafa malfuf suba nawwab • vaz1r qil'ah tabi mirath irsal dhat

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saheba hakikatu hakku gariba • na1aru uruf lagayitu lipape malpupe sube navaba •• va11ra kille Tabe • m1rasa irsala jati

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207

amal ghair bighair ghulam mihnat adavat biqalami radi amanat kharab qadr

amalu gair(ll~ar)

bagar gulama menat adavatu bikkalam •• ra11 amanatu karabu khadar

boy

rule non, not without servant labour enmity in the hand of agreeing deposit uncultivable value

WORDS PERTAINING TO JUDICIARY

adalat adalatu court adl adalu justice sadr adalat sadar adalatu chief court • ayn a1nu original asl asalu root, origin capital nafe nafa profit • • asama asam1 names,persons person inkar inkari refusal,denial ishtihar istihara publicity i'lam elama announcement auction kitaba katabe writing written aggrement khat khattu line letterqabul kabulu acceptance khas kasa own • qaid kaidu prison khair khairu good

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208

dabt

japti

confiscation

jabr

jabaru

compulsion



jari

issue, current

jahiru

publicity

jahiratu

proof

did

jiddu

spite

dhimma

jimme

charge

takrar

takararu

repetetion

taqsir

taksiru

shortcoming offence

himayat

himaiti

support



Jan Zahir

taghayyur tagairu tajviz tajiviju tanqih

quarrel

change

dismissal

proposal

arrangement inquiry

tanaki

Tamassuktamasuku

bond pubishment

tanbih

tambi

tahqiq

tahakiku

takid

takiti

dafah

dapha

time, tum

dava

dava,dave claim.suit

enmity.suit

vada

vaide

period

shart vakil

sarattu ,sharattu vakila

lawyer

vakalat

vakalatu

pleading

naql

nakalu disruption plot

copyfutur pituri

vali

vali

protector

varith

varasu haddu

heritate

had

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warning

verification emphasis

promise

direction

condition

limit

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209

havala nasihat salah mahdar muddai mudda'a alyhi rad. ruju ruju'at harakat

havale,hawalti nasiyattu advice salahe mahajaru muddai muddaiyale

charge chastisement advice deed complainant defendant

raddu ruju to return rejuatee harakata movement

cancellation signature proof stopping, obstacle supervisor dead one, death accepted argument will, desire deputy dishonour dicision settlement purpose demand help forbidding through, authority

nazir taut manzur hujat mardi na'ib namus faisala

najaru pavuti manjuru hujattu proof marji nayab namusi honour paisalu paisale matalabu matlab talab talabu madad madattu man'a manna marifat mariphattu varidat · varadi ma'lum malumu

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report

knowledge

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210

sham ii

samil mijaju mizaj cisposition mulaqat milakattu

inclusion airs and affection meeting,

interview period muddatu etcetra vaghaira vagaire commission · rusumu rusum hasii hasalu outcome kalamu kalam talk Hasalu kalamu hasilul essence kalami hairan hairanu bewildennent ruin name, person isam name ism khabar khabaru information, muddat

Taraf taraphu side Muqaddama mukaddame mulki mulki majburi mujuvari hisse hissa tasdiq tasdiku confirmation

knowledge part

sun native inability portion

allowance judge

sukkan raqam

sukani rakamu kisamu

Tafavut

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helm

quantityqism kind deficit

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

211 • gain nuksana loss naphe profit dalaH broker deficiency kasaru maUma directing officer vajani weight • jinasu graans Jlns baqqal bakala green grocer shop keeper sahih signature sahi correct hisab hisabu account malik malika owner rabita rapti connection custom vaja making deduction vaz'a sarraf sarapha cashier sadr sadaru issued Thanl sani fellow, companion minha . minahi deduction Word• pedllning to mllltarv & warfare: banduq banduku gun sinan sanlnu spearhead bayonet • fauj army p&UJU ahsham ahashamu irregular anny khandaq kandaka moat burj buruju tower risala risalu cavalry qanat kanatu tent wall musta'ld mustaide provisions

fa'ida nuqsan naf'a dallal kasar mu'allim vazn

payide

..

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...

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212

qatl khalal sulh • am1r umara qal'a ghanim ghanimat fath dhakhira

kattala kalalu Salle • am1ra umarava kille • gan1ma

killing • ruin

disorder

treaty

plunder

pata

jakire Words pertaining to Religion: Islam lslama Quran kuran Muslim Muslim Din Dinu Muhammad Mummada Masjid Masidi, Masiti Alla Allah Maulavi Maulvi Muila Mulla Muqri Mukri Qaba kapayi • jumu'ah 1umma khutba kutubi Ramadan ramjanu jakat zakat taxMuharramMoharam jalali jalali

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noble plural of amir fort enemy valuable conqest store

Muslim priest garment friday

sennon month of fasting alms first lunar month fancy joker

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213

baqar 'id haj haji sunnat nikah Qadi dafn fathiha Ta'widh jama'at Tabut hijri qabr naqara faqir barakat

Mecca Madina Arab mash'al Shaikh salib shaitan Milad

bakrid hafiu

festival pilgrimage haji pilgrim • • • c1rcumc1saon tradition sunati • mamage nikaw • khaji qaZJ daphana burial first chapter ceremony pateha of the Qura'an amulet tayite congregation jamat box moharram ritual Tabutu hijri Muslim era kabara grave • drum nagan mendicant, phakira beggar barakattu blessing macca Madina Arabu torch Mashalu sheku silube cross devil saitana miladu Birthday of the Prophet

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214

'Urs

Urus

anniversary of the

dead Unani hakim 'ilaj dava tabi'at kahl kasl hadm 'araq

unan1• hakima wiseman ilaju treatment dave tabiyattu kahile kasale hajam digestion arka (arrack)

Greek Unanl physician way medicine health

depression sickness misappropriation juice, mixture,

liquor jam murabba murabba syrup sherabat sharabattu leaf, gold leaf varaku varaq Arabi Arab horse Arabi stable Tavila Tabele horse shoe nala na'I stirrup rikapu rikab lagam Iijam bridle phasalu disconnecting harvest fasl perfume itr attaru nightingale bulbul bulbul pen qalam kalamu inkpot davati, dabati dava tarjuma tarjume translation daftar daptara register,

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215

class, position chemise, shirt Camphor surgeon barber • drink wane • • 1mpress1on map picture joke fun, Comic building pillar, Tower Room, Hall drum smoothness reservoir Artisan who uses to see the straight ness etc pocket jebu ljara shorts rapu darning burake, burki veiled gannent takya pillow sabunu soap dimaku brain pride sholru, shoki liking enjoyment • wave Merry making rnOJU masala, masale spices

bundledarja • qamas kamisu karpura kafur hajjam hajama sharab sharabu naqsh nakase taswir tasabira tamazuh tamashe imarat imarati • Minara m1nar Hujra Hajara tabal tabala sapays• safa'i haud hauju mistari mestari

jaib lzar Rafw Burqa Takya sabun clmagh showq mauj masalih

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216

Haram halwa kursi

Kise

abuse sweets Chair Table Pocket

mawje

plantain

hararna halwa Kurchi

Meju mouz

potato intoxication nasha aphimu opium afyun emptied kalasu khalas relief, deliverance khulasa khulase brief sona makki senna. senna sana mecci of mecca Madhaq majaku taste fun taifa tape party of singers mile mil maili, mailu trust, confidence itabari,hitavari i'tibar silah salahu Yl98POO Mulahaz.a Mulaju, Mulaje obligation idea Khayal khyalu Khayali khyali mad zulm julmi force empty, only khali khali beginning shuru suru bilkul at all bilkul ahkhiri end akhir rida raja agreement leave batata

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217

ashraf

ashrapa

hali . mushkil ta'zim ittila ishara irada idafa ghalat jila lkhteyar mukhtar mukhtari maskhari mo'tabar maqam munasib mauquf qaum qadam qadim qimat qist khairiyyat fadihat

aibu kandilu hali, halu mushkilu tajimu ittile ishare irade ijaphe galattu jilevu ekatyaru mukataru moktiyari maskiri matubari mukkam munasabu mokhupu komu kadamu kadimu kimmatu kistu khairiyattu phajiti, phajitu

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good (satirically, bad) defect, faultqindil lantern present difficulty respect report hint purpose increase wrong, mistake shining authority, choice man of authority right fun respectability stay, place, camp proper stopped caste step old cost instalment welfare insult, trouble

Original from

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

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" " " " "- - --

218

farari

...

pharari

fursat purasattu timeilaqah ilakhe tufan tupani, tupanu istakabulu istiqbal madbut majabutu tabdil tabdil majlis majalisu alqab alkabu tarbiyat tarabetu, tarabiyate dahshat dhashattu kasrat kasarattu writing tahrir tahariru khidmat khijamattu umda umada daulat daulattu adna khadim tabaq • n1zam vilayat vilayati

adna kadima tabaka •• n11ama vilayattu vilayati

sohbat hammal thabit

sobati hamala sabatu

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fixed

espaped, absconding leisure, department typhoon reception strong change dancing party titles training fear, dread gymnastic • • penn1ss1on • service noble rule, wealth,power ordinary, low servant tray order, system England, Europe European, Afghan company bearer, cooly firm, proved

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219 •

ghurur hararat

gurun hararatu

rahat adat fasila •• 11ara inayat kasab qassab qa'im kitab ghalita jawahir tam'a taslimat taqat ta'rif Ta'lim

rahati rest adatu pasile •• 1.tare inayatu kasabu kasaba, kasayi khayamu kitap, kitabu galita jawahiru gems tamata tasalimat takattu tariphu Talimu instruction

warmth

Turra tu ray tanati Ta'ayyunat dinar dinara 'ud uda, Udu fikr pikiru thought fatwa pithve verdit phalani punishment fulan fadii phajil, phazal

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vanity warmth, worry, lablour rest habit distance , contract favour, kindness profession butcher permanent book blow jewellery greedy salutes strength • praise placewhere gymn . astics are taught plume assignment gold coin • incense worry order of so and so excess

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220

fihrist pheristu madhkur majakuru martaba martabe malamat malamatu, malamate • ·mauzi'a mavu1e place mathalan masala mu'amala maaile mutamarridi mutamurdi mutabiq mutabaku •

musafir ratl ri'aayat ru'qa hujamat shararat san sabab sahulat sat saiqal sikka had hammam halak halal hava fana

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musaphara ratal riyayati rokka hajamatu surgery shararatu san sababu savalattu saphu sikala sikke haddu hamam halaku halalu hava,have fana

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list mentioned rank abuse village forexmaple transaction arrogance corresponding with traveller a weight • concession chit gainless work mischief year reason facility clean polish • coin limit bath ruined man legal • air • ruin Original from

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221

Arabic literature carries little or no influence on Kannada literature. Arabic writers and po0ts are generally unknown irf Kannada. For the first time articles on them are -being included in · the Kannada encyclopaedia being compiled and published by the Institute of Kannada studies, University of Mysore. The Holy Qur'an was for the first time translated into Kannadaby Sri Kesari of Mysore published as "pavitra Quran" by the late M. Valiullah MP from Bangalore. The thirteeth part of the Holy Quran was translated and published in Kannada with a long introduction and detailed commentary by the Islamic Publishing House, Bangalore. The proposal to publish the full translation by that institute did not materalize. Efforts to bring out a full authentic translation of the Holy Book in Kannada are ahead and other organizations are engaged in it at present.

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PROMINENT ARABIC INSTITUTIONS OF ANDHRA PRADESH Dr. Syed Jahangir

..

It is well known to the academic circles that Hyderabad has played a great role in developing the Islamic knowledge and spreading the Islamic culture through various methods, such as architecture and institutions. Moreover, it is reliably known that Hydera bad is the place of origin of Urdu language, and Mohd. Quli Qutab Shah the Ruler of Qutub Shahi dynasty was the first Urdu poet, who has a collection of poems to his credit. And it is also known that Urdu is the combination of Arabic and Persian languages. Hence, we can understand the contributions of Hyederabad to the spread and development of Arabic language. In addition to this, after the collapse of Qutub Shahi dynasty, and taking over of the reins of power by Mllghals and transferring the same to one of their Army General known as Mir Qameeruddin Ali Khan, who became the first Nizam of Deccan, he made Persian as his court language. Under the patronage of all the rulers of

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Nizam's dynasty Arabic language had been given the privilege of being the language ·of the Holy Quran. When Indian Anny invaded Hyderabad and took over the rein of power, following which Andhra Pradesh was formed on the basis of language in 1951 the Arabic was already being taught in several colleges and private Madrasas. OSMANIA UNIVERSITY The government of Andhra Pradesh has not disturbed the places where t'1e Arabic language was being taught, or where research workwas being done. Such was the case with the Osmania University, where the Dept. of Arabic was established in 1919 under the headship of Professor Abdul Sattar Siddiqui. In the beginning Arabic was offered at the lntennediate and Graduation levels and M.A. and Ph.D. Programmes started in 1923 and 1935 respectively. The first Ph.D. was awarded in 1942. The department so far awarded 100 M.phil and 55 Ph.D degrees. Sharh Lamiyatul - Arab, Lamiyatud-Deccan, Arabic poets of Golconda, Excellence of Jahiz, AlShura-UI Mohammadoon, three eminent poets of Asif jahi Dynasty, Tadhkira Muhaddiseen-e-Deccan, Taree kh-e-Adabiyat-e-Arabi are some of the worth mention ing and outstanding published works of eminent teache rs and scholars of the Department. Further, in recognition of the meritorious serevices rendered for the promotion of Arabic language· and literature in India, six teachers of the Department were honored with "Certificate of Honour" by the President of India.

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Prof. Mohammed Abdul Moid Khan started the first Arabic research journal namely uAl-Tanveer' in

1963. At present to meet the challenges of the 21st century and to prepare competent personnel for the field of translation, interpretation and teaching, curricu lum at MA level has been revised by introducing Bilingual Computer Training (English and Arabic) and functional Arabic as the compulsory subjects. Besides running the regular courses i.e. MA, M. Phil, Ph. D the department also runs part·time courses such as Junior Diploma and Senior Diploma. CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES The Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (CIEFL) an autonomous institution under a registered society, is a national Institute of higher education deemed to be a university. It provides for the study of English and Foreign Languages and their literature, the organization for research, the training of teachers, the production oftoaching materials, and exte nsion services, and to help improve the standards of English and Foreign languages in India. It was sot up by the Government of India in 1958 as the Central Institute of English. The scope of its activities was expanded in 1972 when it was renamed the Central Institute of Engl ish and Foreign Languages. It alsq runs Programmes in English studies for international students from Franco phone countries, Central Asian Republics and South Ea st Asia. It has Regional Centres at Shilong and Luck

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now to serve the needs of the Eastern and Northern Regions. The Institute has an excellent centre for Arabic studies which focuses attention on the Arab world including the Gulf. A large number of postgraduate, cert ificate and degree courses are offered including Ph.D Programmes from this centre. DAIRATU'L MA'ARIF- IL OSMANIA By the end of the 19th century the growing importance of oriental learning in Europe in general and in France, Italy, Germany, England, Holand, Austria, Spain and Russia in particular compelled Indian scho lars to ponder over the preservation of their valuable ori ental heritage. The very thinking of preservation of cultural heritage worked as a preface for the establish ment of Daira at Hyderabad in 1890. From the orientalist's point of view, as well as from the point of view of the lovers of the religion, art, history, culture and of various other subjects, Daira has done a remarkable work. The efforts made by the Daira in the collection, compilation and publication of a number of rare Arabic manuscripts, which were scattered all over Asia, Africa and Europe are worth appreciation. Had this task not been done by Daira, countless rare Arabic manuscripts might have been lost to the world for ever. The value of ancient Arabic heritage to the world civilization can hardly. be overlooked. Many a scientific research and literary contribution of the Arab writers have been recognized as landmarks in the development of human knowledge. The literary value of these

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writingscannot fail to inspire the intellectuals all over the world even to-day. The Daira is one of the outstanding literary research institutions of India, indeed in the world as a whole. According to a rough estimate more than four hundred standard and classical publications in Arabic covering the literature, history, philosophy, religion and sciences of the Middle Eastern countries go to Daira's credit.

JAMIA NIZAMIA When the foreign forces brought the whole country under their control the entire set up, the legislature, the judiciary and the executive had undergone a sudden change. English displaced all the vernacular languages including Persian, the then official language. The medium of instruction was also changed. The Indians had no other alternative but to learn English to serve the new masters. Those well versed themselves in this foreign language could adjust themselves in the new administration and they were assigned some or other positions in the new Government. During this turbulent period the most suffered lot was the Muslim community because they were not only thrown out of the jobs but they were deprived of their properties and positions. Their economy was shattered and they were bogged down. The religious institutions of Muslims were either closed or at the verge of closure owing to depletion of the sources and loss of patrons. These vicissitudes distanced the Muslims from their religious ethos. The slogan of communism and socialism of equal distribution of wealth and opportunities further

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weakened their faith in Islam. Consequently the Muslims mobilized their entire efforts towards bread earning. These factors were destructive to the Islamic spirit and learning. The ascetic and atheistic forces were more powerful and active casting their sombre shadow over the entire country. The revival of Islamic studies and institutions and to infuse Islamic spirit among the Muslims was a stupendous task. Hazrat Shaikhul Islam Hafiz Mohd. Anwarullah Farooqi, the tutor of Nizam VI and VII rose to the occasion to remove the pal of gloom which descended in the campus of Ulemasand the Islamic institutions. He reorganized the system of education in such a way that they could meet the challenges of the new onslaught. This is how this great institution of Islamic studies JAMIA NIZAMIA came into being in the year 1292 H. (1872 A.O.) Jamia Nizamia is now 130 years old centre of higher studies in Islamic learning, Arabic language and literature. The subjects offered for studies in this Jamia are Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh, Logic, History and Philosophy including facilities for research work (Ph.D) in Islamic studies. Besides it has a Research Centre to meet the contemporary challenges in Islamic Jurisprudence. The special feature of this Jamia Is that it imparts free education on the whole. During this span of 130 years the Jamia has produced erudite scholars. After being qualified from this Jamia they are spread all over the world and occupied important positions in the field of education and Islamic jurisprudence. Some such scholars include world renowned Dr. Hameedullah, a great Islamic

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scholar and writer, now in Paris. The former Chief Minister of Hyderabad Dr. 8. Rama Kishan Rao is also one of the alumni of this Jamia. The degrees awarded by this institution are recognized by Osmania University Hyderabad, Aligarh Muslim University and other foreign universities such as Jamia Azhar of Egypt and the Universities of Mecca Mukarrama, Medina Munawwara. (K.S.A.) and Qatar. The present strength of regular students on the roll is 973 of which 500 are residential students. The residential students are provided free boarding and lodging. Besides this, Jamia affiliates 25 full fledged schools of Islamic studies enrolling 70000 students situated in the mofussils. These students follow the syllabi of the Jamia and are examined by this Jamia and granted certificates. JAMIA ISLAMIA DARUL ULOOM, HYDERABAD Jamia lslamia Darul Uloom Hyderabad was founded by Hadhrat Moulana Hameeduddin Hussaini Aquil, the well - known Islamic Scholar of India in 1975. This centre of Islamic learning has 23 branches spreadover in urban and rural areas imparting Islamic instruction to more than 5,000 Muslim boys and girls in Andhra Pradesh. Jamia lslamia Darul Uloom Hyderabad, right from its inception, has arranged programmes for learning Arabic language and its literature. The syllabus for the discipline of Arabic language and literature has been formulated and designed on the parameters adopted by the world famous institution of Islamic studies and Arabic Nadwatul Ulema of Lucknow.

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A ·journal As-Sahwa-Al-lslamiah, for last 15 years, is being published which has earned a significant place not only in the sub-continent of India and Pakistan but also in the Arab world and ranks among the best Arabic Journals and its contribution in promoting Islamic and Arabic learning is remarkable. The students are taught to write and speak in Arabic and to eloquently express themselves through Arabic, written or spoken. Lajna-ash-shaikh-an-Nadwial- Arabiah trains them and holds essay writing and elocution Programmes weekly, monthly and yearly. Al-Maahad-al-aali-lil-lugha-til-Arabiah-wa-Adabiha has been established for higher studies in Arabic language and Literature. A selection from the Arabic source books (ancient and modem) is prescribed in these studies. The selection is representative of classical and modem Arabic literature. Many books authored by the teachers of this Darul-Uloom have been published in Egypt and Syria

eg. 1. Ar-Rawaye-Wa-alBadaye-fil-Bayan-an-Nabawi 2. Khasayes-al-Lugha-til-Arabia, yajibu-Tallumuha

W a-limaza-

3. Al-Lihan-fil-Arabiah 4. Qabas-min-Sirat-As-salaf 5. As Shaikh-an-Nadwi-fi-mehrab-il-Ulema. Alumuni of Darul Uloom Hyederabad are eligible and admitted for higher Arabic studies in the Universities of Saudi Arabia and Syria. The teaching staff of Darul Uloom, Hyderabad for Arabic language and literature have been selected from

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the alumni of Jamia-al-lmam University and Nadwat-Ul-Ulema.

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The alumni of Darul Uloom Hyderabad are contributing their mite for the benefit of the Muslim Community and Islamic cause. The wards are provided with requisite facilities, good education and training. They are involved in seminars, debates, and elocution and essay writing competitions and quiz, in and outside the campus to make them versatile and proficient in expressing themselves in various languages particularly in Arabic language. The Darul -Uloom Hyderabad aims at arousing consciousness amongst Muslims about the learning of the Holy Quran, Hadith and Islamic Jurisprudence for which proficiency in Arabic language and knowledge of 'Arabic literature is necessary. The Darul Uloom Hyderabad has also undertaken the projects of translating Islamic literature in Arabic language into various vernacular languages of India. This Islamic institution of education and learning is rendering remarkable services for promotion of Arabic language and literature. JAMIA ISLAMIA DARUL ULOOM SABEELUSSALAM,HYDERABAD The atmosphere of atheism, disbelief and repulsion to the religion has become a very dangerous issue for religious and moral values. Further more, we are living in a secular country where there is no place for religion in educational system. Thus protection and preaching of the religion in new generation has become a very difficult task. This is the state of affairs which •

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endangers religious and cultural identity and existence of Muslim nation and their relationship with Islam. In these circumstances, the far-sighted "Ulema" thought of establishing educational institutions which will keep alive the link between the young Muslim generations with faith and also be instrumental in preserving Islamic religious and moral values. The basic aim behind the establishment of these religious institutions is to maintain and strengthen relationship of Muslims with their religion and to provide a true Islamic atmosphere where Muslims could lead their lives according to the principles and the teachings of Islam. The Jamia lslamia Darul Uloom Sabeelu ssalam, Hyderabad which was established by Maulana Mohammad Rizwanul Qasmi, famous religious scholar and noted pen-man, is also among these important reli gious institutions. These Deeni Madrasas and Islamic institutions have always played an important role in cur bing anti-Islamic movements and forces for which the past century provides witness. Twenty six years have passed on the establish ment of this institution and its syllabus contains the bas ic Islamic teachings up to Daura-e-Hadeeth (Fazeelat), specialization in Fiqah wa Itta (Islamic jurisprudence and Law) and Da'wat-e-lslami (Islamic preaching & propagation). THE A.K.M. ORIENTAL POST GRADUATE ARABIC EVENING COLLEGE (A Minority Institution affiliated University Kachiguda, Hyderabad)

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A.K.M. Oriental College, Kachiguda, Hyderabad was founded and incepted in the year 1965 by Late Alhaj Syed Shah Quader Mohiuddin Quadri who had a sincere and long relationship with the field of education. He was head master, Govt Boys high school, Chaderghat, Hyderabad. Moreover he also led the Haji's group of the erstwhile Hyderabad state for about 27 consecutive years. He died on 3rd February, 1977. The A.K.M. Oriental Post Graduate Arabic evening college has the roots in an Orphanage which was formed on 20th January, 1923 by the name "Anjumane-Khadimul Muslimeen (Rifah-e-aam)". Then followed a High school about 60 years back. Later a technical education centre was also established. Finally in 1965 as aforementioned the college was founded and affiliated to the Osmania University. Two yearslater it was awarded the status of an aided college getting 100% grant-in-aid by Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Now all the said institutions are being run successfully. The A.K.M Oriental college for Boys and Girls had a strength of about 100 in the beginning and at present the strength of the college is about 500 and the results are 80 to 100°k. The courses taught in this college are Osmania Entrance one year (equivalent to S.S.C/ Matriculation), a two - year pre-degree course (equivalent to Intermediate /10+2), and a three year BA. (Languages). As far as M.A (languages) is concerned there is a great competition for admissions, hence Osmania University conducts Entrance Test for admissions into M.A (Languages) and this college has a strength of M.A (Languages) students ranging from 3042 every year. Apart from all these, in the current year the faculty of Oriental languages Osmania University

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has permitted this college to admit research scholars for Ph.D. in Arabic. The staff of this college consists of highly qualified lecturers and a reader. Dr. Mohd. Abdul Jameel Khan, Reader in Arabic of this college has already been enrolled as supervisor for Ph.D. Scholars in Arabic. He is also Chairman, Board of Studies in Arabic in the faculty of Oriental Languages, Osmania University, Hyderabad. The present secretary I Correspondent is Mr. Syed Saifuddin Quadri, who by profession is an Engineer and is the third son of the founder of this college. Under his able and efficient guidance the college is flourishing day by day. A part from the aforesaid seats of leaming and Institutions there are other seminaries that helped promoting Arabic language and literature on the fertile land of Andhra Paradesh. Among the other Institutions are Islamic College, Kamool, Nooria Arabic College and Latifia Arabic College all of them affiliated to Osmania University, and Henry Martin Institute. All of them deserve the special attention of the Arabic as well as oriental scholars and researchers.

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The influence of Arabic on Telugu Literature Dr.S.Gulam Rasool .

The influence of any language and literature on other languages may be of many types, historical, political, cultural and literary. Arabic language did not make its way to Andhra through any of the sources mentioned above. Muslims came to India speaking Turkish and Persian. No doubt Arabs came into contact with India through trade. and commerce, but this was confined to coastal areas only. Arabic gained prominence because of its religious importance. Arabic came to Andhra through religion and from the linguistic point of view it came to Andhra through Persian and so the influence of Arabic on Telugu can be traced through Persian.

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There are nearly ten crores of people speaking the Arabic language. There are 15 countries whose official language is Arabic. French and English literatures have given a new life ·to the Arabic literature. This type of impact of Arabic language, we do not find on Indian languages, particularly on the Telugu language and literature. There are the translations in Urdu of the works of Khaleel Jibran (1883-1931) and Ameer Shakeeb Arsalan (1869-1946). If there is any unifying force in the Islamic countries that is the Arabic language and that language is the language of the Holy Quran. Sayyid Jamaluddin Afgani and Muhammed Abduhu gave a religiouscolour to the Arabic literature as a whole. There are two types of words namely indigenous and foreign. The indigenous words are those which have come from the original or source language and all the others are foreign. The main reason for the accumulation of new words in a language is borrowing. A language acquires new words either from a neigh bouring language or due to political, religious and cult ural reasons. Because of Muslim rule in Andhra prad esh we find so many Arabic words in Telugu. Even before Muslims invaded Andhra during the 13th century, both the Muslims and Andhras had trade contact with each other. The famous Telugu poet by na me Tikkanna Somayaji used, Trasu (tarazu) twice in his Bharatam (Chakradhara Rao 1965.8) In 1284 Allaoddin Khilji invaded Orugallu. After wards Muhammed Bin Tuglaq also invaded the south. Kakatiya rulers also became friends of Delhi sultans.

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To save the culture of Andhras, the empire of Vijayanagara was founded in 1336. In 1347 Hasan gangu established the Bahmani kingdom. There v/Ore wars between the Bahmani kings and Vijayanagar kings. The Vijayanagar kings used to buy horses from Arabs. There was no unity among Hindu kings. Reddy kings used to join the Muslims. So the Reddis, who were appointed as ministers had to leam the Persian language, then the court language. Bendapudi Annayya matyudu the minister of Virabhadra Reddy (1420) learnt Arabic, Turkish and Persian. This is revealed by a Telugu poet Srinadhud in his poetry Bheemakhandam. By 1580 Muslims conquered Vijayanagar empire also. Some Hindus were also offered high positions in these kingdoms whose mother tongue was Telugu. So they started learning the Persian language, and words like, divan, Kotval, etc. In 1723, Nizamul Mulk Arifjah established his independent kingdom in Daccan. The Telugu, especially in the Telangana region, was very much influenced by Urdu. Muslim influence was there not only on Telugu but also on the culture of Hindus. Telugu ekimidu hastibharam

Arabic hakim ustuvar

proprietor foundation

In the 15th century itself the Persian and Arabic words were used by rulers, common people, soldiers and in judicial and legal departments. There were nearly 200 words in use. (Modekurti satya narayana, Bharati, October 1959)

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In old poetry of Telugu, near1y 900 foreign elements are there:Political words: Sultanu, Padusa, huzuru etc. words used in army : Banduku, pauj, sipay etc. Busines word: Dukanam, Trasu etc. Revenue: oqaulu, kuski etc. legal or Judicial tenns: naqalu etc, Change of Arabic words in Telugu:The Z sound of Arabic occurs as J in Telugu in the fallowing words. Arabic Telugu Zila Jilla district Zid Jiddu mischief • time zamana 1amana japtu zabt confiscate Some other Arabic words in Telugu: • qarar khararu compromise khasabu qassab butcher khabu big plate qabu maqam makam place moqarrar mokarreru fixed some of the aspirated sounds of Arabic or Parsian remain as they ae in Telugu also and a few become unaspirated:-

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