Arabic Grammar in Its Formative Age: Kitāb Al-ʻAyn and Its Attribution to Ḫalīl B. Aḥmad 9004108122, 9789004108127

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Arabic Grammar in Its Formative Age: Kitāb Al-ʻAyn and Its Attribution to Ḫalīl B. Aḥmad
 9004108122, 9789004108127

Table of contents :
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Introduction
I. Critical reading of Ḫalīl's biography
1. Personal details
2. Ḫalīl's scholarly relations
3. Ḫalīl's achievements
4. Ḫalīl's talents
5. Ḫalīl's creed
6. Ḫalīl's appreciated and criticized
7. Authorities in the Ḫalīl's accounts
8. General conclusions about Ḫalīl's image in the biographical literature
Appendix A: Ḫalīl's poetical verses
Appendix B: Ḫalīl's sayings
II. The attribution to Ḫalīl's of Kitāb al-˓Ayn
1. Survey of the state of the art
2. Medieval sources on the attribution to Ḫalīl's and Layṯ of K. al-˓Ayn - further observations
3. Ḫalīl's image in the biographical literature compared with material from K. al-˓Ayn
4. Conclusions
III. The grammatical teaching of K. al-˓Ayn
1. A general and integral concept of grammatical study
2. Phonetics
3. Parts of speech classification
4. Morphology
5. Syntax
IV. The grammatical material in K. al-˓Ayn - its position in early Arabic grammar
1. The scope
2. Ḫalīl's role in writing K. al-˓Ayn
3. Excerpts of alleged Ḫalīlian teaching in later sources
4. K. al-˓Ayn and the early grammar: Comparison with other early works
5. K. al-˓Ayn and the early grammatical theory of the Old Iraqi School
6. Reconsideration of the relations between the phonetic theories in the Kitāb and K. al-˓Ayn
V. Appendix One: Grammatical citations from K. al-˓Ayn (in Arabic)
VI. Appendix Two: Indices of grammatical terminology in K. al-˓Ayn
Alphabetical index of Grammatical terminology
Supplementary Index I: Language patology
Supplementary Index II: Distributional expressions
Supplementary Index III: Normative attitude
Bibliographical references
A) Primary sources
B) Secondary sources
STUDIES IN SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS

Citation preview

ARABIC GRAMMAR IN ITS FORMATNE AGE

STUDIES IN SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS EDITED BY

T. MURAOKA AND C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

xxv ARABIC GRAMMAR IN ITS FORMATIVE AGE

ARABIC GRAMMAR IN ITS FORMATIVE AGE Kitiib

al-~yn

and its Attribution to ljalfl b. A~mad BY

RAFAEL TAlMON

BRILL LEIDEN . NEW YORK· KOLN 1997

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Talmon, Rafael. Arabic grammar in its formative age: Kitab al-'Ayn and its attribution to IJalil b. Al]mad / by Rafael Talmon p. cm. - (Studies in Semitic languages and linguistics, ISSN 0081-8461 ; 25) Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 9004108122 (alk. paper) I. Khalil ibn Al]mad, 718-786? 'Ayn. 2. Arabic language - Grammar - Theory, etc. I. Tide. II. Series. PJ6620.K47T35 1997 492.7'5'0902-dc21 97-8571

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Die Deutsche Bibliothek-CIP-Einheitsaufnahtne Tabnon, Rafael: Arabic grammar in its formative age: Kitab al-'Ayn and its attribution to IJalil b. AJ;unad / by Rafael Talmon. - Leiden ; New York; Koln : Brill, 1997 (Studies in Semitic languages and linguistics ; 25) ISBN 90-04-10812-2

ISSN 0081-8461 ISBN 9004 10812 2

© Copyright 1997 by Koninklijke Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands

All rights reserved. No part if this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission .from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

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CONTENTS Introduction......................................................................... IX I. Critical reading of ljalH's biography 1. Personal details.... .... ...... .... .... ....... .... ...... .... ...... .... .......

2. Ijalil's scholarly relations. ... .... .... ... ...... .... ... ..... ... ..... ... .... 3. Ijalil's achievements ..................................................... 4. ljalH's talents ............................................................. 5. Ijalil's creed. ..... .................... ......... ... .... ............ ........ 6. ljalH appreciated and criticized......................................... 7. Authorities in the Ijalil accounts....................................... 8. General conclusions about Ijalil's image in the biographical literature................................................................. Appendix A: Ijalil's poetical verses............................. Appendix B: Ijalil's sayings.......................................

2 20 31 44 52 68 74 79 82 86

II. The attribution to Ijalil of Kitdb al-CAyn .......... ......................... 91 1. Survey of the state ofthe art......................................... 91 2. Medieval sources on the attribution to Ijalil and Lay! of K. alCAyn - further observations............................................ 96 3. Ijalil's image in the biographical literature compared with material from K. al-CAyn ............................................... ... 108 4. Conclusions............................................................. 125 III. The grammatical teaching of K. al-CAyn.................................. 127 1. A general and integral concept of grammatical study........... 127 2. Phonetics................................................................ 129 3. Parts of speech classification.......................................... 146 4. Morphology............................................................ 160 5. Syntax................................................................... 194 IV. The grammatical material in K. al-CAyn - its position in early Arabic grammar .............................................................. 215 1. The scope ............................................................... 215 2. Ijalil's role in writing K. al-CAyn ................................ ...... 215 3. Excerpts of alleged Ijalilian teaching in later sources............ 259 4. K. al-CAyn and the early grammar: Comparison with other early works............................................................... 265

VIII

CONIENTS

5. K. al-CAyn and the early grammatical theory of the Old Iraqi School. .................................................................. 278 6. Reconsideration of the relations between the phonetic theories in the Kitiib and K. al-'Ayn.................................... 283

V. Appendix One: Grammatical citations from K. al-'Ayn (in Arabic)........................................................................

288

VI. Appendix Two: Indices of grammatical terminology in K. al-CAyn. 373 Alphabetical index of Grammatical terminology........ 373 Supplementary Index I: Language patology......... ... 422 Supplementary Index II: Distributional expressions... 422 Supplementary Index III: Normative attitude ............ 424 Bibliographical references....................................................... 427 A) Primary sources ......................................................... 427 B) Secondary sources..................................................... 431

INTRODUCTION

After almost three decades of intensive study conducted by Western and Arab scholars of the early history of Arabic grammar a specialist reader may acquire a much clearer view of the development of this scientific branch than students could aspire to during, say, the 1960s. Although several fundamental questions still await more profound study we are richer in information about Sibawayh's grammatical teaching and about the history of his Kitiib in the Middle Ages; the identity of the Kiifan grammar and its relations with its Ba~ran counterpart have been re-examined on the basis of a study of the early sources; early B~ran treatises other than the Kitiib have been analyzed and an integral view of the grammatical theory of that era has been gradually developed by various scholars, based on a study of all the recognized works of early grammarians. This book was originally intended to constitute a chapter of a large study, which is still in preparation, of the origins of Sibawayh's grammar and its development from an earlier theory shared by Kiifan and Ba~ran linguists, which I tentatively identify as the teaching of "the Old Iraqi School". My original plan was to include in this chapter a study of several linguistic treatises, which are either attributed to early grammarians or identified as later but whose teaching nevertheless includes elements recognized in earlier chapters of my study as typical of the pre-Sibawayhian era of Arabic grammar. K. al-CAyn is definitely included in the first category. Its attribution to ijalil was doubted from the early stages of historical interest in the growth of linguistic disciplines in Islam. An intensive study of its relations with recognized early treatises is called for; the book includes numerous passages of grammatical teaching, which make this study of relations no less important than the study of its place in the history of Arabic lexicography. However, after re-consideration of the pros and cons I decided (a) to treat the status of K. al-CAyn as an independent issue and (b) to publish it even before the completion of the comprehensive study of the growth of early Arabic grammar. An explanation of the first decision is relevant in this introductory part. The grammatical material of K. al-CAyn outweighs the equivalent substance of all the other treatises of early attribution or possible early provenance. Moreover, its attribution to ijalil makes it a key source in any attempt to revise the long established conception of the early development of Arabic grammar, which gives the grammatical teaching of al-Kitiib a pivotal status. K. al-CAyn is the only counterpart of Sibawayh's Kitiib in its frequent citations and alleged documentation of grammatical material which is said to go back to ijalil. My

x

INTRODUCTION

goal to shed light on the relations between K. al-CAyn and ijalil was coupled with a desire to understand the origins of the abundant information about ijalil, which literary sources provide, mostly from the 10th century on. Here again K. al-CAyn plays a central role. Since Sibawayh's book hardly treats any relevant details this early dictionary is the only reservoir of a plethora of references which may indicate the ultimate origin of later abbiir about ijalil's person. It was my assumption that only the study of both aspects would ultimately yield the desired results in our search for a well-established answer regarding the attribution to ijalil of the composition of K. al-CAyn: on the one hand, comparison of its teaching with the earliest reliable source about ijalil's grammatical teaching and several other contemporary treatises of Arabic grammar; and on the other, confrontation of later, non-contemporary information about him with possible clues to the author's identity in K. al-CAyn. This book consists of four chapters which faithfully follow the general scheme of our study. Chapters One ("Critical Reading of ijalil's Biography") and Two ("The Attribution to ijalil of K. al-CAyn") examine the relations of the relevant material documented in later literature with established facts and premises based on critical criteria about the historical ijalil. Chapter Three ("The Grammatical Teaching of K. al-CAyn") provides the necessary database for the study of compatibility of ijalil'S grammatical teaching and its equivalent in the early dictionary, which constitutes Chapter Four ("The Grammatical Material of K. al-CAyn - Its Position in Early Arabic Grammar"). The unique status of K. al_cAyn among grammatical sources of declared early origin or later writings with seeming vestiges of early teaching was mentioned above, with indication of the quantity of grammatical passages in

it. Owing to the importance of this material it is treated in our book from three complementary angles: presentation of the Arabic text of all the grammatical passages in K. al- cAyn (Appendix I), indices of the grammatical material of K. al-CAyn (Appendix II), and a detailed description of its grammatical teaching (Chapter Three, as given above). It is a pleasure to acknowledge with gratitude the help extended by many colleagues throughout the preparation of this book. Special thanks are due to Michael G. Carter, who gave me a manuscript of his "Another ijalil" and to Karen Ryding, who sent me other studies prepared for a (yet unpublished) volume on ijalil b. AQ.mad. The sympathizing attitude of the faculty and stuff at the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at Princeton University during a summer stay as a Visiting Professor (1995) was especially encouraging for completion of this volume.

Haifa, December 1996

CHAPTER ONE

CRITICAL READING OF ijALlL'S BIOGRAPHY' • The following is a list of the 79 medieval sources, biographical, grammatical and adab collections, which include details about ijalil and which were used in the course of our study in Chapter I: 8th century (one source): Sibawayh (d. 177n93), Kittib. 9th century (13 sources): Agfas (d. 199/815), K. al-Qawtifi; idem, K. al-CAruq; Abu Zayd (d. 215/830), Nawtidir; GumaQi (d. 230/845), Tabaqtit al-sli'arti'; Abu I:Iamid AQmad b. MUQammad b. Sayban al-Yazidi (d. c 250/864) in an untitled treatise, GaQi~ (d. 255/869), !fayawtin; idem, ai-Baytin wal-tabyin; Bugari (d. 256/870), Ta>riy; Ibn Qutayba (d. 275/889), Mdtirij, idem, CUyun al-aybtir, idem, Sicr; Mubarrad (d. 285/898), al-Ktimil, idem, al-Ftiqil. 10th century (21 sources): Ibn al-MuCtazz (d. 295/908), Waki C (d. 306/919), Aybtir al-quqtih; Tabaqtit al-sucara'; Tabari (d. 309/923), Ta'riy; Ibn Durayd (d. 321/933), al-lStiqaq; Ibn Abi cAwn (d. 322/934), al-Agwiba al-muskita; Ibn Abi I:Iatim al-Razi (d. 327/939), al-Gar/:l wal-taCdil; Ibn cAbd Rabbihi (d. 328/940), al-Cfqd al-farid; Azdi (d. 334/945), Ta'riy Maw~il; Zaggagi (d. 337/948), Maglis al-culama'; Mascudi (d. 344/956), Murug; Abu I-Farag al-I~fahani (d. 350/967), Agtini; Lugawi (d. 351/962), Maratib al-na/:lwiyyin; Qali (d. 356/967), Amtili; I:Iamza al-I~bahani (d. 360/971), Tanbih; Sirafi (d. 368/979), Ta>riy; Azhari (d. 369/980), Taht},ib al-Iuga; Ibn Gulgul (the book was written in 377/988), Tabaqat al-aribbti' wal-/:lukama'; Ibn Nadim (d. 377/988), Fihrist; Zubaydi (d. 379/989), Tabaqat, cAskari (d. 382/992), Awa'i/; Marzubani (d. 384/995), Nur al-qabas; idem, Muyttir. 11th century (8 sources): TawQidi (d. 413/1023), Ma!alib al-wazirayn; idem, Ba~ti'ir, Tacalibi (d. 429/1038), Timtir al-qulub; Sarif al-Murta~a (d. 436/1045), Amali; Tanugi (d. 442/1050), Td'riy al-culamti' al-na/:lwiyyin min al-ba~riyyin wal-kufiyyin wa-gayrihima; Dani (d. 444/1052), Mu/:lkam; Ibn I:Iazm (d. 455/1064), Gamharat anstib al-cArab; Ibn cAbd aI-Barr (d. 463/1072), Adab al-mugalasa; Bakri (487/1094), Tanbih. 12th century (5 sources): Qasani (d. 501/1108), Ra's mtil al-nadim; Samcani (d. 562/1166), Ansab; Ibn I:Iamdun (d. 562/1166), al-Tat},kira al-/:lamduniyya; NiSwan al-I:Iimyari (d. 573/1178), al-!fur al-cin; Ibn Anbari (d. 577/1182), Nuzhat al-alibbti'.

2

CHAPTER ONE

13th century (10 sources): Ibn al-Gawzi (d. 597/1202), al-Munta~am; Sarisi (d. 619/1222), SarJ:z; Yaqiit (d. 626/1229), Irsad al-arib; idem, al-Muqtat;lab; idem, mLfgam al-buldan; Ibn al-A!ir (d. 630/1233), al-Lubab; idem, al-Kamil ft l-ta'rilt; Qifti (d. 646/1248), Inbah al-ruwah; Nawawi (d. 676/1278), Tahejib al-asmt?; Ibn lJallikan (d. 681/1282), Wafayat. 14th century (8 sources): Mizzi (d. 742/1341), Tahejib al-kamal; Yamaru (d. 743/1342), /Sarat al-ta"yin ft taragim al-nuJ:zat wal-lugawiyyin; Qahabi (d. 748/1347), Ta'rilt ai-Islam; idem, Sirat aClam al-nubala'; idem, - and an etymology of their name are discussed in FarriP'sMacani I-Quran vol. I p. 4761. 13: kama qilali-awlad

ijALIL'S BIOGRAPHY

7

adopted by the Azdite clans. The narrator then mentions the relations between Ualil and Sibawayh and argues that their common origin was the reason for the special treatment of the disciple at the master's hands. 33 The fact that the pro-Persian accounts are not unanimous in their treatment of the Farahid, who are considered both Arab (CAskari and Lugawi) and non-Arab (l:Iamza apud Yaqut), suggests the existence of more than one view in the anti-Arab camp. A major point of difference between this claim of Ualil's Persian origin and the customary treatment of ijalil in the Arabic literature as an Arab is the identification of the Farahid in the present account as a non-Arab group.34 It is important to consider whatever evidence there is to establish a relative chronology for the two contradictory accounts. The earlier date of the sources which consider the Farahid an organic part of Azd does not necessarily indicate the earlier origin of their contents. We have noted that Lugawi's emphasis on ijalil's Arab extraction is earlier than l:Iamza's and cAskari's and yet it reflects an Arabophile response to the pro-Persian argument, for which we have no express documentation. Theoretically the Persophile assertion could go back to the 8th-9th century and explain the meticulous study of the Azdi Origin and etymology of the Farahid/FRHWD name of this community, which could be interpreted as part of an attempt to strengthen the argument for Arab descent. On the other hand the distribution of two different accounts of Ualil's Persian origin, one of which reportedly considers the Farahid an Arab clan, suggests that the Sucubi allegation was framed after consideration of an already existing attribution of pure Arab origin to the Farahld community.35 ahl Faris allaljina saqarit ila I-Yamanfa-sammaw ljarariyyahum 'al-abna" Ii-anna ummahatihim min gayr gins abii>ihim. 33 The story is cited from l;Iamza in Yaqut, Irsiid (ed. Il;tsan cAbbas; on the considerable additions in this edition in comparison with the two others, read the editor's introduction). Yaqut sides with this view and seems to count on Marzubani's testimony about the unknown nasab of ijalil (see above)! 34 I could not find any clue of a Persian name similar to FRHWD in Justi's study of 1895 (rep. 1963). The fact that several dictionaries of Persian include the entry FRHWD (e. g. F. Steingass, A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary. London 19302 : s.v. farhad, furhud; Jean-Jacques-Pierre Desmaisons Dictionnaire PersanFran"ais. Roma 1910: farahid a ferahid) indicates the extent of borrowing from the Arabic lexicon, not a Persian origin of this item.

35 A similar debate exists on Yunus' origin. See Ibn Nadim, Fihrist (ed. Tehran) p. 47: qiila $iilJib Mafiibir al-CAgam: innahu aCgami l-a$f min ahl al-Gabal yafIJuru bi-ljiilika. On Gabal as Clriiq ai-Furs see EI2 S.V. CJr~; but the matter is debated (GAL I p. 99; Braunlich p. 64 n. 3 refers to this place while arguing Yunus' non-Arab origin). Hugel p. 37 identifies Gabbul (following Ibn ijallikan) as a small town between Bagdad and Wasi~ (also Qif~i vol. 4 p. 68 and the editor's note from yaqut).

8

CHAPTER ONE

1.4 Farahid's genealogy

To further our study of Ijalil's origin we analyze the various accounts of the Farahid's Arab genealogy?6 The sources present at least nine different versions. We noted above that some of the earliest accounts on Ijalil from as early as the first decades of the 9th century relate this group with Azd, and later in that century with its YaJ:!mad branch. These short versions are then followed by two longer genealogical lists in which the Fariihid are located at the end and are preceded by six and 15 ancestors. 37 We may assume that these long lists constitute later attempts to synthesize the details given in Ijalil's biographical entries in the earlier sources and genealogical data collected from available works on nasab. However Lugawi, who first presents the seven-figure list (i.e., Fariihid+6), attributes its transmission to Mubarrad, whose sources include mid-9th-century scholars, namely Tawagi, Mazini and Ziyadi. 38 We noted above that Lugawl's report on Mubarrad's authority conM. Lecker from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem kindly provided me with an unpublished study on Tamim, where he mentions Abii cAmr's inclusion in the genealogy of the Mazin with a perfect Arab pedigree but also the existence of one passage (in Nilr al-qabas) in which he appears to dispute accusations that he was a non-Arab claiming Arab descent. When the book was in the final stages of preparation for printing I fell upon an interesting note in G. Hoffmann, De Hermeneuticis apud Syros Aristoteleis. Leipzig 1873 p. 153. In his study of the name Bazwadfabziid he mentions the relations of Farhiid, Afrha~ and Afridiin. In his detailed 'Frahata' entry (pp. IOlff.) in lranisches Namenbuch (Marburg 1895), F. lusti does not relate this name to any of the two others. 36 A general view of nasab may be sought in Ei s.v. Nasab (F. Rosenthal). Our earliest source, Hisam al-Kalbi's Nasab Macadd ... , is mentioned there; Rosenthal doubts if it is the alleged lost first part of Gamhara (both sources are quoted in n. 40 below). 37 Lugawi's list (p. 28) of six includes: (Farahid) - Malik - Fahm _ C Abdallah Malik - Na~r - Azd. It is followed by C Askari p. 377, Marzubani, Nilr p. 56, Sarisi vol. 4 p. 382, Yaqiit p. 1260 (with MUQar instead of Na~r; Similarly in the last three sources of the present list), Qif~i vol. I p. 341 (with an additional al-Gaw! following Azd), ~afadi vol. 13 p. 388, SuyiiWs Bugya p. 559 and Taskoprtizade p. 108. The list of 15 ancestors is given by Niswan p. 112. It includes the following: (FRHWD) Sabban - Malik - Fahm (the last two are repeated mistakenly; Fahm is identified as Gagima's brother)- Ganam - Daws - C Adnan (Kalbi: cUd!an [see Caskel, plate 210]) C Abdallah _ Zahran - Ka'b - al-f,lari! - Kacb - C Abdallah - Miilik - NaQr - Azd/Asd. This list follows with the utmost punctuality the earliest known list preserved by Hisam al-Kalbi (Caskel, plates 210-211). For Magribi's list of 23 ancestors (in a nasab work, not in ijalil's biography) see n. 42 below. 38 Mazini (d. 248/862) is mentioned by GAS vol. 8 p. 92 and vol. 9 p. 76 (also p.

ljALIL'S BIOGRAPHY

9

ceming the etymology of "Farahid" is not recorded in Mubarrad's relevant extant works; the same applies to Lugawl's list. It is therefore advisable to treat this report cautiously. The longer list is recorded only by Niswan. It comprises all the seven figures included in Lugawi, with three significant modifications: 39 (a) Farahid is replaced by FRHWD; (b) their father is said to be Sabban whereas Malik is presented as FRHWD's grandfather instead of Fahm, who precedes Malik in the two lists, and is identified as Ga~Hma's brother; (c) eight (mistakenly presented as ten) additional ancestors are inserted between Fahm and cAbdallah, Lugawfs third and fourth figures, in full agreement with such a detailed list as Hisam al-Kalbi's.40 We may recall that Qif!i (d. 1248) distinguished the variation Farahid/FRHWD in accordance with two different initial names in the line of parentage. Now NiSwan (d. 1178) introduces the clan's name as FRHWD (his father's name, Sabban, recorded by NiSwan, is a corruption of "Subaba"). A solution to this disaccord may be sought in HiSam al-Kalbl's list. Furhiid is listed as Subaba's immediate descendent, with Malik coming next in the parentage line. This seems to indicate that Lugawfs list missed the original father. Followers of this incomplete list probably derived their information from such biographical works as Lugawi's and not from nasab studies. Another genealogical riddle is presented by Ibn I:Iazm (d. 1064) who equates Farahid with Zayd b. Subaba in the seven-figure list. 41 This equation is partly explained by HiSam al-Kalbl's list, in which 13), where his lost K. al-Abbar is discussed which may have been Mubarrad's source. Ziyadi's biography (d. 249/863) occurs in GAS vol. 9 p. 58. and vol. 8 pp. 92f., where Mubarrad is identified as one of his students. On Tawagi=Tawwazi see GAS vol. 8 pp. 89-90, where his death date is given as 230/845 or a little later. 39 In accordance with this list it turns out that the nasab Farahid b. l:Iari!, mentioned by Fliigel p. 37 in his description of the Azdi-cUmani background is a short notation of a full list (I:Iiiri! is the 5th forefather from Azd). 40 His Gamhara (ed. Caskel) plate 210; also Nasab Macadd wal-Yaman al-kablr (ed. Damascus 1988) pp. 199, 206 and 209. The last is, according to the editor's description, the second part of K. al-Nasab al-kablr in an Escorial ms. (cf. GAS vol. 1 p. 269). The occurrence of lJalil's name in square brackets on p. 209 II. 3-4 (wal-ljaill b. Al;mad al-Cariujl min al-Farahld, following the other famous person of the tribe, l:Iurr b. l:Iurr) seems to be a later addition. The editor gives an insufficient explanation of such notations as square brackets (see his introduction, p. !). A general description of later modifications in the text of the Gamhara is given in MJ. Kister and M. Plessner, "Notes on Caskel's Gamharat al-Nasab", Oriens 25-26 (1976) pp. 48-68=M.J. Kister, Society and Religion from lahiliyya to Islam. Hampshire 1990. It might be that the inserted part (inserted by a medieval writer? by the modern editor?) takes after a passage of Ibn Durayd, lStiqaq (ed. Hariin) p. 499, in which both the knight l:Iurr b. l:Iurr and lJalil are presented. 41 Ibn lJazm, Gamhara p. 380.

10

CHAPTER ONE

Zayd b. Subaba is identified as Furhud's brother.42 1.5 Biihilite connection?

In Samc iini,43 ijalil's affiliation with the Fariihid is specifically associated with a Biihilite origin. Two later sources, Mizzi and CAsqaliini's Tahtjib,44 present this "Biihili" attribution as an alternative to "Fariihidi", presumably because the Azdi-Fariihidi connection was unknown to these scholars. In the genealogical literature we find no traces of a relationship between the two tribes. Could it be that the Biihili reference originates from information about the descent of ijalil's mother? We may note that during the Islamic conquest families of the two tribes settled in B~ra.45 It is well known that A~ma'i is considered of Biihili origin.46 In the sources I have not come across any 42 The longest genealogical list I have found is that of Ibn Sacid al-Magribi. See Manfred Kropp Die Geschichte der "reinen Araber" von Stamme Qa/:ztan. Aus dem Kitab naswat at-tarab fi ta'ril; gahiliyyat al-cArab des Ibn Sacid al-Magribi. Frankfurt 1982. The author lived in the 13th century (d. 672/1274). In Tafel 2 Kahlan [22-23 figures, beginning with the oldest]: Kahlan - Tayyi' (=Udad) - Malik - Nabat al-Gaw! - Dira' (=al-Azd) - Na~r - Malik - cAbdallah - Kacb - al-1:Iari! - Azd Samra Kacb - Wahzan - cAbdallah - cUd!an - Daws - Ganm - Fahm - Malik - Sulayma Gah4am (Farahid) (Tumala). A comparison of this chain with the equivalent list of HiSam al-Kalbi/Niswiin indicates several minor differences which may be explained as errors caused in the course of the transmission and two major discrepancies: Whereas Magribi considers Fariihid as an offspring of Gah4am-Sulayma, these persons in Kalbi's tree are brothers of Subaba, the alleged father of Furhud. No offspring are reported for Gah4am in Kalbi's list. The other significant discrepancy is that in Magribi's list an ancestor named Azd Sanii'a is inserted between al-1:Iiiri! and Ka"b. We may recall that Magribi identifies (the other) Azd with Dira'. Note the author's emphasis on p. 157, that the two offspring of Gah4am, Farahid and Tumiila, are the clans of Ijalil and Mubarrad. An editor's note no. 590 on p. 450 refers to a parallel in Abu Bakr b. Abi cU!miin CUgalat al-mubtadi' wa-fu4alat al-muntahi fi I-nasab (ed. CAbd Gannun) Cairo 1965 p. 43. 43 Samcani vol. 10 p. 166. 44

Mizzi vol. 8 p. 326; CAsqaliini, Taht}ib vol. 3 p. 163. This attribution is not

repeated in Ijalil's entry in his Taqrib al-taht}ib vol. 1 p. 228. 4S Pellat, milieu p. 186f. characterizes political affiliations of ethical groups and mentions Bahila as Qays and anti-Sfa. The Yemeni Azd and their allies Rabfa are pro-SiCa.

46 On A~maci's Bahilite origin see EP (B. Lewin). Lewin indicates this tribe's ill-reputation and refers to a certain satirical poem in which this nisba of A~maci was lampooned. On this tribe see EP (W. Caskel). Sezgin (GAS vol. 8, p. 71f.) suffices with mention of his Bahilite origin.

ijALiL'S BIOGRAPHY

11

attempt to assert a common descent for the two scholars. 1.6 Farah/d's location - Yemen? cUman?47 Ba~ra?

When Braunlich analyzed the reports about ijalil's Yemenite origin he contented himself with the references to this scholar in Yaqut's geographical dictionary, where he stands as an authority on the identification of several sites in that region.48 ijalil's Yemenite origin is associated with that of the Farahid in Lugawi's account, which refers to the authority of Abu I:Iatim. 49 It is clear enough that this authority meant that ijalil grew up in Yemen. Lugawi is the only source which connects this clan expressly with Yemen. Lugawi and I:Iamza (apud Yaquty;o are unique in their linking of the Farahid to Yemen. NiSwan locates them in cUman51 whereas Marzubani (followed by Yaqut)52 mentions this region as ijalil's early dwelling place before he moved to Ba~ra, without reference to Farahid whatsoever. Other associations of the Farahid include their location in Ba~ra and Sarat. 53 It is remarkable that according to Mubarrad's Ftit;lil, ijalil considered the people of Azd Sarat the most eloquent Arabs. 54 The isnad may be fabricated and it is doubtful if its attribution to ijalil is correct. There are no indications that this account was ever utilized as an indication of ijalil's alleged Azdi origin. Braunlich investigated the information about the association of Farahid with cUman and concluded that a philological note made by Ibn Durayd about the meaning of "Farahid" in the language of Azd cUman (or the language of Azd Sanu' a, 47 The Farahid settlement in cUman is described in Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition in Oman p. 77; reference by van Ess (p. 220 n. 37). whose other sources are Ibn Nadim and Ibn J:Iazm. Gamhara. Wilkinson does not support his arguments on this

particular point with source references. 48 Braunlich p. 60 citing Yaqiit (ed. F. Wtistenfeld 1854) in two loci. For further discussion of citation of Yemenite material in K. al_cAyn see Chapter II. pp. 11Of. 49 Lugawi. Maratib p. 28: wa-kiina Abu /fatim yaqulu.· al-(jalil b. AJ:unad al-FarhUdi min al-Farahid min al-faman. 50 Yaqiit's citation of J:Iarnza mentioned above. Note that unlike Lugawi J:Iamza does not consider this group an Arab clan. 51 NiSwan p. 112: wa-FRHWD I}.ayy min al-Azd bi-cUman. 52 Marzubani. Nur p. 56. He is followed by Yaqiit (ed. C Abbas) p. 1260.

53 Ibn J:Iazm p. 380 (wa-wuld Sababa b. Malik b. Fahm hum bil-Ba$ra wal-Sarah. fa-wuld Sabiiba ... : Zayd b. Sabiiba wa-hum al-Farahid ... ).

54 Mubarrad, al-Ftu/.il p. 113: CAli b. Na$r ... samftu l-(jali/ b. Al;mad yaqu/u: af$al; a/-cArab Azd a/-Sarah.

12

CHAPTER ONE

according to Ibn .!jallikan)55 is the only independent testimony we possess about these relations. Early association of .!jalil's identity as "Farahidi" with membership in "aVAtik" is made by Tabari. 56 Yaqut identifies "al-CAtik" with Azd cUmiin, but Braunlich cautiously speculates that this identification may have originated from Ibn Durayd's philological note mentioned above. 57 Another account identifies CAtik as a Yemenite eponym whereas "al-cAtik" is said to be (wa-qila) a branch of Azd. 58 Strenziok confirms that this clan is part of the 'Umiini sub-group of Azd. 59 .!jalil's cUmiini roots without reference to Fariihid are further discussed below. 1.7 Conclusions: Attempts at synthesis It is doubtful if information about the Farahid or other Azdi clans in the discussion of .!jalil's extraction in sources from the 9th century on is independent of considerations which aim to synthesize this scholar's personal details with genealogical facts about branches of Azd and their geographical location. A late 8th-century genealogical work is HiSam b. MUQammad al-Kalbi's (d. 204/819) Nasab Mdadd wa-l-Yaman al-kabir.60 He identifies Furhud as one

55 Ibn ijallikiin p. 19; GAL I p. 159 mentions the Fariihid's affiliation as Azd Saml'a. According to Braunlich p. 59 n. 2 the reference to Azd cUmiin in Wiistenfeld's edition of Ibn Durayd's Kitiib al-lStiqiiq (p. 292 n. y) was made by Ibn Durayd. This is not clear to me because the note is not part of the text of K. al-lStiqiiq, its author is not identified, and the specific statement is also anonymous. On the other hand, it is interesting that another anonymous attribution cited in the late Tiig al-carus (s.v. FRHD) attributes this saying expressly to \:laW in answer to A~maci: ruwiya can al-A~maci annahu qiila: sa'altu I-/jali/ b. A/:tmad mimman huwa fa-qiila: min Azd cUmiin min Fariihid. qultu: mii Fariihid? qiila: garw I-asad bi-Iugat cUmiin. The spurious character of this account is clear. 56 Tabari pp. 2531-32. 57 Yiiqiit ed. Wiistenfeld (see full title n. 26; s.v. Ma'rib): wa-carafa clmriin b cAmr Muzayqiyii> b. cAmir Mii'al-Samii'mufiiriqan /i-abihi wa-qawmihi na/:twa cUmiin wa-qad kana nqararja bihii min Tasm wa-Gadis ibnay Arimfa-nazalahii wa-awfanahii wa-hum Azd cUmiin wa-hum al-CAtik iii al-Muhallab wa-gayruhum. Braunlich (p. 59 n. 2) mentions Tabari III 253lf., where Fariihid is associated with cAUk (on the authority of Hisiim b. MuJ:!ammad al-Kalbi) and concludes: "Diese sind nach Jac ... IV 386, !Off die Azd cUmiin. Aber die Nachricht ist ganz vereinzelt und vielleicht auch nur aus der oben angeftirten lexikalischen Notiz erschlossen". 58 Ibn Man=?iir, Lisiin al-cArab s.v. Note the occurrence of CAtik in CAyn 1 195: CAtik: qabila min al-Yaman. 59 s.v. Azd p. 811 r. 60 Ibn al-Kalbi. Nasab Macadd wal-Yaman al-kabir pp. 206, 209. It is identified above in notes 37 and 41.

Er

tlALIL'S BIOGRAPHY

13

of the three sons of SUbaba b. Malik b. Fahm. The other sons are Zayd and cAbd. We may recall that for an unspecified reason Ibn l:Iazm identified Fariihid with Zayd b. Subaba. It is now clear that the independent discussion of the Fariihid took place in Arabic literature. It is more difficult to indicate independent study of their location, especially since the question of geographical distribution of the Azd branches is so complicated. In a detailed entry in Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed., s.v.) Strenziok suggests that the Yemenite origin which appears in later reports is an attempt to bridge a "pre-histOrical" gap between two tribal groupings with the same name from the highlands of CAsir (part of the Sarat mountains which ends at the northern border of Yemen) and cUman, which united in Ba~ra and ljuriisan. 61 Although Strenziok tends to regard the name 'Azd Sanii'a' as genealogical rather than geographical he considers it obscure and describes its current explanation in a detailed genealogical chain as "obviously erroneous". His information about the Azd cUman grouping is clearer. According to his collected material, Farahid, Yabmad and al-CAtik are all situated in cUman. 62 They are considered descendents of three respective fathers: Malik b. Fahm, Na~r b. Zahran and clmran b. CAmr Muzayqiya>. It turns out that association of Farahid with Yabmad (Mubarrad's Kdmil citing Abfas)63 and CAtik (Tabari)64 in Ijalil's reported genealogy reflects fusion of three independent branches of Azd cUman. 65 We may conclude this study of Ijalil's genealogical roots by confirmation that attribution of Azdi-Fariihidi origin appears in the earliest accounts, including Gumabi, whose personal relations with Sibawayh and Yiinus make his information on this point most reliable. 66 Other details concerning his parentage cannot be established beyond doubt. However, Ijalil's parentage is generally identified in one of the clans of the Azd cUman grouping. I consider the identification of a non-Arab extraction of Farahid a SU'iibi attempt to deprive their pro-Arab rivals of this pillar of national pride. 61 See also Wilkinson's criticism of the tendentious line of Ibn al-Kalbi's study of 'macro'-genealogies, on p. 75. 62 But see Ibn I:Iazm p. 380 on Farahid in Ba~ra and al-Sarat. 63 Mubarrad, al-Kamil p. 1256. 64 Tabari, ibid. 65 Wilkinson pp. 76-77 treats each of these three tribes as belonging to a distinct group which settled in a distinct region of cUman, but nevertheless mixture of these groups with each other did occur in respect of Malik b. Fahm and the grouping which included CAUk.

66 Sezgin, GAS vol. 9 emphasizes his status as the earliest biographer, without however due mention of his special personal relations with Sibawayh and Yiinus reflected in several anecdotes in the early part of his book.

14

CHAPTER ONE

1.8 His birth place We observed above that one may conclude from the account by the 12thcentury Niswan, who located Farahid in cUman and mentioned ijalil's affiliation to this tribe, that he was born and bred in this area. There are several other reports about his growing up in cUman, albeit without consideration of genealogical aspects. Marzubant7 (repeated by Yaqut)68 couples his cUmani origin with a reference to sedentary life (wa-kiina min ahl rUmiin [Yaqut: wa-huwa min aCmiilCUmiin] min qarya min quriihii wa-ntaqala itii l-Ba~ra). It is possible that the next sentence in his ijaHl biography, which reports his past affiliation with the ~ufriyya sect, is the basis of the foregoing account. Other sources which mention his arrival at B~ra from cUman are the later Yatici (d. 768/1367)69 and Ibn cImad (d. 1089/1679).70 The context is an anecdote about ijalil's exemplary conduct when he decided to pay his respects to Abu cArnr's status as a venerated scholar in B~ra and refrained from commenting on his teaching. It seems impossible to rely on these late sources in a reconstruction of ijalB's birthplace. Nor can we give much credibility to the 14th-century report in Ibn Nubata (d. 768/1367fl according to which ijaHl was born in Ba~ra and grew up there.72 1.9 His father's name

Nothing is mentioned in the abbiir about ijalil's father except the originality of his name AJ:lmad, which according to the sources was not used by any person after the Prophet. This information may reflect conclusions drawn by genealogists out to indicate intricacies of onomastic history which could be incorporated into their critical apparatus as an ante quem non term. In fact the earliest account of this expression of primacy is given by Mubarrad's Kiimit on the authority of a certain Abu I-Basan (AUfas ?), who in turn mentions the nassiibiln as his source of information?3 In later days Qiftt14 makes use of 67 68 69 70 71

Marzubiini, Nur p. 56. Yaqut (ed. CAbbas) p. 1260. Yiiffi vol. 1 p. 367. Ibn 'Imad vol. 1-2 p. 277. Ibn Nubata p. 268.

72 Pellat, Milieu p. 214 mentions Rabie b l:Iabib b. eAmr (2nd cent H) a1-Azdi al-Farahidi a1-Ba~ri, whose origin is al-Batina in "Vman, who came to study in Ba~ra. See also van Ess, Theologie vol. 2 p. 220. and in detail pp. 198-201 (more information about this Rabie, see n. 83 below). 73 Mubarrad, al-Kamil (ed. Wright) p. 231. It is doubtful if Ibn Abi 1jay!ama who is the authority of Ibn Nadim (pp. 69f.) concerning this detail (Ibn 1jallikan p. 18: Al)mad b. Abi 1jay!ama on the authority of Marzubani, Muqtabas and repeated by

ijALlL'S BIOGRAPHY

15

this detail and criticizes the infonnation given by yal:tya b. Ma'in75 according to which "AQmad" was the name of (the earlier) Abu l-Sa'r's father. Qifti offers the correction "y al:tmad". This detail of ijalil's biography enjoyed popularity among writers throughout the middle ages?6 It seems that beside its claim of originality it was interpreted as one of ijalil's merits. In Marzubani's Nur it is presented immediately after his note on the absence of personal details in ijalil's biography other than his father's name, and is preceded by the attribution "wa-yaqulu l-Ba$riyyun". In later literature this detail is found among others which glorify ijalH's orthodoxy. 77 1.10 His retarded son

This detail in ijalil's biography demonstrates a tendency among biographers to reassess the data that they import into their own work from previous accounts, and to complement them with untruths which they consider a contribution to the literary level at which this biography should be presented. The story is invariably narrated as the social background against which a certain witty verse attributed to ijalil recommending humane conduct, forgiveness and understanding was composed. In its earliest documented version, Marzubani's Nur,78 ijalil's brother overheard ijalil exercise his carut! theory with the taqtf technique and concluded that the scholar had lost his sanity. The first mention of his son in this role of listener was made by the 12th-century Yafiei vol. 1 pp. '365f.; Abu Bakr b. Abi Ijay!ama in Mizzi vol. 8 p. 327) can be counted as one of the early genealogists. GAS vol. 9 p. 166 mentions him among Ta'ribi's (d. 330/942) sources, together with Mubarrad and Abu l-CAyna" in his Tabaqat al-nal;wiyyin (also p. 16). 74 Qifti vol. 1 p. 344: wa-tjakara I-nassabima annahum la yacrijuna ... 75 On him see Juynboll p. 238, where his death date is given as 233/847. 76 It is mentioned in the following sources: Ibn Nadim pp. 69f., Zubaydi p. 47, Marzubani, Nur p. 56, Ibn Gawzi vol. 7 p. 279, YaqUI (ed. CAbbas) p. 1260, Nawawi p. 178, Ibn Ijallikan p. 18, Mizzi vol. 8 p. 327, ~afadi vol. 13 p. 391, Yafici vol. 1 p. 365f., Ibn Gazari vol. 1 p. 275, Suyu~i, Bugya p. 559, Taskopriizade p. 107 and Ibn cImad vols. 1-2 p. 276. The detail is also mentioned by Samcani vol. 10 p. 167, who cites a note on margin of a copy of Abu Sulayman al-Ijitabi's Garib al-lfadi! to the same effect. 77 Nawawi places this detail between two virtues, but he still appends it with information about the existence of six persons with the name al-Ijalil b. AQmad. See further $afadi, Yafici, Taskopriizade and Ibn cImad. 78 Marzubani, Nur p. 58.

16

CHAPTER ONE

Ibn Anbari. 79 It was repeated by Yaqut 80 and Ibn Tagribirdi. 81 It seems that the switch from brother to son reflects a change in ijalil's image; his composition was no longer ascribed to his early life but to a later stage, and accordingly the biographers assigned him the role of a family man. Only Ibn ijallikan82 stretched this image further, and stated that the son was retarded, so that the verse became an expression of compassion as well. We may conclude that the personal details attached to the verse involving an alleged brother or son are fictitious. Their sole purpose was to provide a proper literary linkage between the description of ijalil's personality and a selection of his alleged poetical and prose production. 1.11 His dwelling place

Variations in the information about his dwelling place include mention of as his home town, as against other possible accounts which locate it elsewhere, reports of an estate in the neighbourhood of ijurayba,83 and on the other hand his poor hut. 84 As a rule this information constitutes the background to didactic accounts of ijalil's modest life style and preference for spiritual and devotional occupations. It is therefore reasonable that these details i IJ-I J..J.;LI Ju.J 5 4.o.i.t UJ' 4! y)Ja!1 ~.J ~ ~I I~! ~~I ~ .,.;lJ A.l1 JJI ISj-U ..la.ll Ga~i?:, ijayawiin vol. 3 p. 491

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87

APPENDIX B TO CHAPTER ONE

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IJALIL'S SAYINGS

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r

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APPENDIX B TO CHAPTER ONE

89

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I:;IALIL'S SAYINGS

90

,4...P 1~ JaJI u-> !",!,WJ

,~l.i:•••:~1 ~ ~I 'iFI u+.";~ t') 56 Qifp: vol. 1 p. 347 .~I ~ J"wl C:';""J ,~L.tl ~ ¥ «jli» iJ~ ,«I.!.Jl.:.!,&'» ~I :~.)I .pi Jl.i.i 'O~~ ~..J" ~! t.jl ~~J 57 Ibn Nubata p. 270 .~"% .:r )I! ~i .I~ L. :~I Jl.i.i ' p ~)I a l-ta'lif min awwal a, b, t, ! /i-anna l-alif /:tarf muCtall fa-lamma fatahu l-/:tarf al-awwal kariha an yabtadi>a bit-rani - wa-huwa l-ba'... fa-wagada mutJrag al-kalam kullihi min al-/:talq fa-$ayyara awlaha bi/-ibtida> adtJal/:tarfminhafi l-/:talq. This explanation is somewhat different from Ibn Kaysan's, which he attributes to Ijalil (... can al-ljalU annahu qala: lam abda' ... ).

THE ATI'RIBUTION TO tJALiL OF K. AL-'AYN

93

a. Whereas Sirafi argues that it was }jaliJ who composed the first part of the book, most of the scholars deny any participation of }jam in it. Azhari represents the latter group with his story about the burning of K. al-'Ayn and Layrs attempt to reproduce its contents. Lugawi's account includes Ta'lab's explanation of the recurrent mistakes in the book, which attest that }jam only conceived its structure (rasamahu). b. A citation of Ibn Ginni's Jja~iPil includes his reservations about attributing this faulty book to the perfect scholar }jam. Nevertheless he mentions several points which indicate that }jam played some role in its creation. c. A lengthy citation of Zubaydi which opens with all explanation that his criticism does not aim to belittle the great achievement of }jam. Zubaydi repeats Taclab's above-mentioned explanation and lists several arguments against attribution of the book to }jaW. These are: (1) citations of persons younger than }jam; their attribution to him is anachronistic; (2) Qali's testimony that when the book was introduced from }jurasan (into Iraq; no destination is mentioned expressly) (c 250) Abu I:!atim al-Sigistiini and his circle rejected its attribution to }jalil; (3) absence of citation of the book by contemporary scholars; (4) its Kufan formulation of grammatical issues. The medieval arguments against attribution of K. al-'Ayn to }jam are summarized by Braunlich under seven points;9 the first of these is given by Yaqut, the others by Suyuti and his sources. Yaqut gives Naqr's testimony which denies attribution of the book to }jam and his defense of this denial against a counter-argument that the book could have been written by }jaW after Naqr left for }juriisiin. Naqr answers that he left Baghdad after }jalil's death. Braunlich rejects five arguments and considers the other two relevant. They accord with his conclusion that a later editorial effort completed }jam's work on the book.1O The rejected arguments include two dogmatic assumptions: that }jalil could not finish his book with the presumptuous words hdrjii dbir kaldm al-'Arab, knowing that only prophets could exhaust the full range of Arabic (Ibn Fans), and that }jaW could not make the mistakes found in the book (Zubaydi and Ibn Ginni apud Suyu~i). Mention of younger persons in the book does not rule out the possibility that }jam took part in the composition of earlier parts of it. Another argument which he deems irrelevant concerns the existence in K. al-'Ayn of grammatical elements which are recognized as Kiifan. Following Weil's study of the two schools, Braunlich argues that the two schools did not yet exist in }jaHl's days. Last, Naqr's testimony appears only in Yaqut and looks tendentious in its support of the rejection of }jam's participation in the 8

The text in its original is found in Ibn Ginni, lja~ii}i~ vol. 3 p. 288 (cited by

Karim p. 83). 9 Braunlich pp. 87-89. 10 Braunlich p. 95.

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composition of K. al-CAyn. The two arguments which Braunlich considers relevant are circumstantial: Abu ijiitim's rejection of its attribution to ijalil and absence of citations from the book in the writings of ijalil's disciples. We shall consider below Braunlich's own viewpoint, which is supportive of the two accepted medieval arguments against attribution to ijalil of the writing of K. al-CAyn. Mme Graf-de la Salle's article (1948)11 is a survey of the medieval biographers' treatment of the question of attribution with special emphasis on the arguments collected by Suyuti. It does not contribute to our critical understanding of the subject. Braunlich's approach to the question of attribution is exemplary in many respects. We have noted his critical treatment of Nagr's alleged testimony in Yaqut and his application of Weil's theory about the formation of the grammatical schools in the discussion of the medieval observation that the grammatical teaching of K. al-CAyn is Kiifan, not Ba~ran. Braunlich's methodology includes a comprehensive analysis of textual evidence in the text. He draws several significant conclusions about the editorial status of the book. He takes the phrase ral}imahu llah, which follows ijalil's name, as an indication that the edition was made after ijalil's death; 12 he considers such expressions as wa-qala marratan as an indication that the material was collected by someone else;13 he sets out six points which support the identification of the introductory part of K. al-CAyn as ijalil's.14 These include a comparison between the phonetical system described in Sibawayh's al-Kitab and the systems presented in this book. Another methodological aspect which Braunlich does not neglect is comparison between the material provided in the text of K. al_CAyn and parallel and similar details in philological and biographical medieval works. Braunlich argues that the formulaic expression "if he says ... , then you say ... ",15 which occurs in the book, may support the account that ijalil dictated his teaching to Lay! when he was sick; the alleged ijuriisiinian origin of the book made Braunlich indicate that the author of K. al-CAyn introduces a Persian equivalent of carar in order to explain this Arabic entry.16 Of special interest are the sample tests made by Braunlich in comparison of the material in K. al-CAyn and eqUivalents in later dictionaries. One equivalent supports an assumption that classical dictionaries such as Lisan af-C Arab quoted the material of K. 11 M"'e Graf-de la Salle (1948) pp. 37-41. 12 Braunlich p. 68. \3 14

Ibid. Ibid. pp. 71-74.

15 Ibid. p. 75. The text is located in the printed edition in 1 69, where fa-qui is substituted for qila. 16 Ibid. p. 87. See K. al-CAyn 1 86,455 (and see my criticism in p. ll3 below).

THE ATIRIBUTION TO IjALiL OFK. AL-una ... (3 385). It implies vaguely that his ijurasanian experience was an interim between two periods of stay elsewhere, presumably in Iraq. In the entry Suhayl it is identified as "a star which can be observed in Iraq but not in ijurasan". 99 This could be an indication of the writer's personal experience in the two regions. My impression is that from the way this material from the east is presented nothing can be inferred about the author's remoteness from that region at the time of writing. Needless to say, the references to Persian words and Persian etymology of Arabic loan-words have no bearing on the question of ijaHl's roots, at least as long as See Ch. I n. 54. K. al-CAyn 2195. In ms. sin the variantal-'Atfk occurs. 97 See Chapter I n. 83. 98 The sum total of occurrences of "Ba~ra" or parts of it in this book (29 times): 1 60,65 (the foundations of its mosque), 66, 341 (use of a rare expression by a Ba~ran qiiIJacju bi/-qiyds wa-innamd nanfuru mil sammathu l-cArabfa-natbaCuhu. The author's interest in the question is not related directly to the discussion in K. al-CAyn, but it certainly reflects similar interest in linguists' circles of that time. AUfas gives a similar formulation in the beginning of hisK. al-cAriuf. (ed. Dii'im p. 126=ed. B$awi p. 143): Hdg.a bdb tafsfr al-carUt! wa-kayfa wUf/fat wal-i/:ttigdg cald man IJdlafa abniyat al-cArab ... wa-hticjd I-bind' al-mu>allaf min al-kaldm huwa llacjf tusammfhi 1-cArab si'ran fa-mil wdfaqa htig.a I-bind' ... Ji Cadad /:turufihi ... fa-huwa si'r, wa-mil IJdlafahu ... fa-laysa smuhu sicran li'anna I-asmii' Iii tuqiisu wa-innamd tusammf mil summiya bi/-ism allacjf wat;lacu calayhi ... Interestingly, this topic is not included in the discussions of the spirit of language by later Muslim thinkers, which are studied in detail by H. Loucel, "L'origine du langage d'apres les grammairiens arabes" Arabica vols. 10 (1963) and 11 (1964). 114 Karim, al-Qawl al-fa:;1 p. 88 considers Lay!'s wa-qulnd as one of Azhari's arguments against attribution to ljalil of K. al-CAyn. I could not locate such an argument in Azhari vol. 8 p. 310 S.v. D-Q-S, where he cites Lay! and Abu Duqays and then gives the opinions of several philologists, including Ibn Durayd's citation of Abu l:Iatim. 115 See Sezgin vol. 8 on the following informants: Abu Duqays p. 29, Abu ljayra p. 28, C Arram p. 48, Mugahid p. 22, Za'ida al-Bakri p. 40, Abu Layla I-A"rabi p. 41. Sezgin does not mention I;)arir, whose name occurs 33 times in six non-consecutive volumes. Other figures mentioned in K. al_cAyn as informants are: Abu Al)mad (3

THE ATTRIBUTION TO ijALlL OF K. AL-cAYN

117

3.5 /jali/'s achievements in prosody In K. al-CAyn there are 38 loci in which prosodic matters are discussed. In 16 of them the material is metrical. ll6 The rest treat separate topics from the domain of rhyme. I I? One of the metrical entries is presented on two consecutively identical levels, the second of which is identified as ijalil's explanation to Lay!. ll8 It could well be that all the other entries are citations of ijaliTs teaching, although no reference is made to it. The metrical entries treat rather subtle distinctions in Carfu! studies, such as muvallac, avram, alJat}.t}. and mutasa CC i!.119 They represent various deviations from normal metrical structures. The last two items are described by use of the famous feet device patterned with F -I root. Other terms employed in the description of these entries are watad and watad magmil. Structural topics in rhyme theory include identification of the units rawi (including a simplistic definition), ~ilalwa:il and Vurug. Another structural set includes rass and ta'sis. The couple muqayyad and murda! are also mentioned. Several terms distinguish various defects: iq.gaCand ikja', sinad and ifa' (also muq.amman).120 Another defect is related to deviation from the norms of the times in 2 volumes; but Wild p. 18 n. 55 counts him six times, and see end of the present paragraph), Abu CAbdallah (7 times in 3 volumes; see n. 87 above), Qasim (5 times in 3 volumes), Abu Farwa (once), Abu Ijayra (5 times in 3 volumes; see p. 99), Ibn al-Qurrayya (once), Abu Sacid (7 times in 2 volumes), I;Iammas (7 times in 3 volumes), Muzal)im (7 times in 4 volumes), Mubtakir (twice in one volume), Musa (twice, 2 volumes), SugaC (4 times, 2 volumes), Riific (once), 'Utaybi (once) and CAbdallah (once). It is noteworthy that Abu Al)mad occurs in 3 203 as a linguistic interpreter of the etymology of /:zabbar:}ii and may therefore be a scholar rather than an informant in the strict sense of the term. Several ambiguous expressions refer to authorities on language matters in K. al-CAyn: gayr al-ljalU, qiila and yuqiilu and bac guhum. Note that in other contexts these expressions refer to occasional native speakers or whole communities of them. 116 K. al-CAyn 1 245; 3 139, 385; 4 158,208,260,279; 5 283, 328; 6 12, 163; 7 127,130,218; 817,264. ll7 K. al-CAyn 1 119.212,214,251,275,299; 3 67, 233,345,384; 472,79; 5 35, 222,283,415; 6 64, 241; 751,223,229,468. ll8 K. al- CAyn 1 119: wal-muljal/d min al-sicr: garb min al-basit... qultu lil-ljalU miiljii taqUlufi l-muljal/a C? qiila: ... ll9 Modem description of the following terms may be conveniently looked up in YaCqub's al-Mu cgam al-mufa$$al: a/:zaljlj (p. 18), abram (p. 20), muljal/d (p. 398-99) and mutasacci! (p. 410 s.v. musacca!). In his review of DarwiS's edition of K. al-CAyn (RAAD vol. 46, p. 81), Siimirra'i offers a correction of mutasacci! for musacca! (wa-huwa min i$tiliil:ziit al- Cariirf) , but in his and Mabzumi's edition no change is made! 120 Mu4amman is mentioned by Abu Zayd as Ijalil's innovation: wa-hiir:}ii C ayb fi

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above-mentioned ta'sis.

3.6 /jaW's grammatical teaching The data which concern ijalil's grammatical teaching will be discussed separately in Chapters III and IV.

3.7 /jaW's formulation of orthographic rules A rather lengthy discussion of the orthographic rules of hamza in the final part of K. al_CAynl21 cannot be considered the basis ofthe allegation that ijalH composed a book dedicated to certain aspects of orthography. I have collected 22 others in which the author refers to Qur'anic (once Biblical) reading l22 and its characteristics but without specific teaching of or reference to orthographic rules. It stands to reason that Sibawayh's testimony in his Kitab was the source of inspiration in this case (for details see Ch. I n. 268).

3.8 Music There are eleven references in K. al-CAyn which treat musical notions and terms. 123 Most of them can be classified as a layman's vocabulary. Only three loci present definitions and notions whose generalizations seem to disclose an expert's observations. In 5 306 the term sakt is identified as fundamental for the formation of music (min u$ul al-alban). It is described as follows: tanaffus bayna nagmatayni min gayr tanaffus yuridu bi-t}alika fa$la rna baynahuma "inhaling of air between two portions of melody, without intention to separate between the two". 124 A more technical formulation is given in 6 48, where the term $awt mugassad is explained as (ay) marqum ala mibna wa-nagmat. The saying is explicitly identified as ijalil's.125 The most significant passage in this respect is found in 6 3-4 (s.v. 6-8-8). It is preceded by the expression qala 1-/jaW. This is a whole passage of theoretical generalization about the character C

I-si'r cinda /jaW wa-yusammihi I-muq.amman wa-galika an yakima tarnam al-macnafi I-bayt al-!ani (Nawadir p. 534. see Chapter I n. 227). 121 K. al_cAyn 8 306-311 S.v. R·'-Y. 122 1 151, 155.225.237,238.266.271; 279. 3l3; 3 120,194,211,317.349,388; 441,127; 5159.306; 7226; 8 1l3. 369. 123 1 89.139; 3 229, 230; 5 306; 6 3, 48; 7 41,51.146; 8243. 124 Lane's discussion of sakt (vol. 4 p. 1389) includes the sentence "A division [or pause] between two musical sounds. or notes, without breathing", which echoes our passage. In LA (s.v.) the problematic tanaffus ... min gayr tanaffus is modified as sibh

tanaffus ... min gayr tanaffus.

THE ATIRIBUTION TO ijALIL OF K. AL- cAYN

119

of the three vocal elements which constitute melodies: al-a$wat allan tU$agu minha l-allJan !alata: al-agass $awt min al-ra's yabrugu min al-bayasim,fihi gila~ wa-buMa. fa-yutbaCu bi-badar maw(ju c cala galika l-$awt bi-caynihi yuqalu lahu l-wasy, !umma yuCadu tjalika l-$awt bi.faynihi, !umma yutbdu bi-wasy mi!/a l-awwal fa-hiya $iyagatuhu, fa-haga l-$awt al-agass. 126 The fact that GaI:li~ credits ijaIil with writing a book of musicology is a strong indication that the later information about this aspect of ijaIB's talents and his literary harvest in it does not derive entirely from these passages of K. al-CAyn. 3.9 /jali/'s talents

The versatility of ijaIil's talents, which is a leading topic in the biographical literature, may have drawn in part on the material of K. al'arir (209/824) and Abii Talib al-Makfiif (Kisa'i's student). Further, cf. Troupeau (1985) pp. 146f. He also mentions such a book by the Ba~ran Abii CUbayda and by Taclab.

THE ATfRIBUTION TO IjALIL OF K. AL- cAYN

121

not located this division in the published editions of K. al-CAyn. In addition to the encyclopaedic breadth of his knowledge ijalil's shrewdness is brought out in two anecdotes documented in the dictionary. These may well have contributed to the formation of the man's image which is reflected in the many sayings attributed to him. One of these anecdotes,132 which is later reproduced by Zaggagi in his Magalis, displays ijalil's ingenuity in his defense of a grammatical argument with an analogy taken from the sphere of juristic discussions. In the other he polemically rejects the metrical status of certain types of ragaz as poetical. 133 As with the first case, he imports arguments from another, typically Islamic domain, this time from early theological discussions about the Prophet's alleged use of pseudo-metred sayings. Lay! concludes this anecdote by expressing general admiration of ijalil's brilliant argument. Among the dicta attributed to ijalil in the biographical literature we have recorded a considerable number of classificatory generalizations. I have noted several similar sayings in K. al-CAyn: In 1 350, four types of women are presented (al-nisiP arbd); in 2 123, the names of ten classes of ages spanning from ten to 100 years; three types of drunkenness (5 309); four types of heresy (5 356).134 Somewhat similar is the list of ten types of darts in 8 139. I could not find any clear indication in K. aPAyn of the origins of the story about ijalil's incredible knowledge of pharmacology. The book abounds with names of diseases (28 altogether) and medications (17 items). The author mentions once "a pharmacist's medicine"135 and elsewhere "the Ba~ran doctors".136 He describes the treatment of rabies at considerable length (5 375) and mentions an eye part (8 175). In another passage he even specifies the two ingredients of a certain medication. 137 But all these data cannot constitute a solid basis for his ingenious identification of 15 ingredients of a medication in the story recorded by the biographers. I tend to speculate, however, that the growth of such a story does not need any solid background in the sphere of medicine. I have found similar difficulties in locating in K. al-CAyn the origins of his rare mastery of decipherment of mucamma and foreign languages. It is noteworthy that the word mucamma is absent in the entry c_M_y.138 However ijaHl's scrutiny of incompatibility rules in consonantal combinations of pure Arabic words in K. al-CAyn (see the following) may have been the origination 131 See Ch. I n. 281 (item 19"). This reference is given in Carter's unpublished study of tralil (see n. 34 there). 132 K. al-CAyn 1 246. 133 K. al-CAyn 6 64-66.

134 K. al-"Ayn 5356 and cf. Farra', Maciinivol. 1 p. 144. 135

K. alfAyn 352.

136

K. al-CAyn 4255.

137

K. al-CAyn 1 155.

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of Ibn Mu"tazz's citation that ijalil used to "turn to Arabic as a proof for other languages". Another significant point is ijalil's remark in the introduction to K. al-'Ayn 139 that the word tannur occurs in "every language" (bi-kulllisiin).I40 It is less clear what the author means when he explains the entry "gaIJmatii l-asad" as: cayniihu bi-kullluga 3 88, which probably refers to Arabic vernaculars. It is noteworthy that the dictionary abounds with non-Arabic words identified according to their alleged tongues. These include: Persian (both kaliim al-'agam and al-Fiirisiyya), Abyssinian (al-/jabasiyya), Sindi, Coptic, Nabatian, Karmamyya, Hebrew (C /briiniyya and lugat al-Yahud) , Syriac, Greek (al-Rumiyya), Indian and Canaanite. 141

3.10 /jaW's Arabophile sentiments Several passages in K. al-'Ayn present ijalil's undisputed anti-Su'Ubite position.142 My conjecture is that these passages constitute the ultimate historical basis for all the later accounts which describe ijalil as a warrior in the cause of Arab and Arabic superiority, and for counter-accounts which represent the Su'Ubi, anti-Arab position scrutinized in detail in Chapter 1,5.6. ijalil's campaign against the Su'Ubi movement is brought out explicitly in the Introduction to K. al-'Ayn, where he exposes the effort made by "some knowledgeable (philologists) among them" who "sometimes introduce nonArabic words as pure Arabic out of their desire to mislead people and make them fail" (ja-inna l-nabar!r minhum rubbamii adlJalU 'alii l-niis mii laysa min kaliim al-'Arab iriidata I-labs wal-ta'annut).143 In the same passage and elsewhere in the dictionary ijalil lays down clear incompatibility rules (see previous paragraph; for full description see Ch. III, 2.5) which are applied successfully for identification of non-Arabic words. Another aspect of an anti-Sucubi camK. al-CAyn 2 266f. 139 K. al-CAyn 1 53. It is repeated in 8 114. Therefore it is doubtful if this passage in the Introduction of K. al-CAyn is part of Abii Al).mad l;Iamza b. Zurca's teaching, as the proximity of this person's name in the immediately preceding passage might infer. 140 tannuris discussed in L. Kopf "Religious Influences on Medieval Arabic Philology", in: idem, Studies in Arabic and Hebrew Lexicography (ed. M. H. Goshen-Gottstein). Jerusalem 1976, 19-45 (originally published in Studia Islamica V [1956] 33-59). The discussion is found on p. 29, where the occurrences of tannur in Q XI 40 and XXIII 27 are discussed with reference to two loci in Muzhir. 141 Persian: see above; Abyssinian: 3 347; Coptic: 4 48; Nabatian: 4 25, 4 156; Karmiiniyya: 4 59; Hebrew: 2 130,3401,489,6 114; Syriac: 2 296,5256; Greek: 4 89, 5 282, 6 245; Indian: 4 22,7 347; Canaanite: 1 205. I cannot relocate the passage in which Sindi is mentioned. 142 For a bibliographical reference about the SuCiibiyya, see Chapter I n. 27. 138

THE AlTRIBUTION TO ijALlL OF K. AL- cAYN

123

paign is characteristically apologetic. Two passages include rejection of implied arguments in which Arabophile scholars are attacked for superficial enrichment of the structure of Arabic presumably in order to support their claim of its superiority. In the first ijaHl emphasizes the uniqueness of Arabic, which exhibits the aqdiid phenomenon_ l44 In the other passage he draws a general conclusion from the anomalous agreement of the feminine attribute, which does not take the -at morpheme in siit samln-a siil)l) (instead of siibb-a). "This is one of the cases", he explains, "which serve the argumentation that this is how the Arabs spoke and that we do not introduce anything new into it" (qiila I-ifalll: hiigii mimmii yul)taggu bihi, innahu qawl al-Carab fa-Iii nabtadiCu sayan fihl). 145 This passage may refer to an accusation aimed at philologists, or particularly at the grammarians among them, for excessive employment of qiyiis in their linguistic studies. Although this interpretation may be immediately associated with the account reported by Zubaydi that ijalil rejected qiyds, the existence of another passage in K. al-CAyn in which ijalil's rejection is brought out more expressly (see the discussion of c-K-S above) gives preference to its choice as the possible historical core of this account. A retrospect based on later etymologies of the place-name "CIraq" suggests that ijalil's own etymology in 1 153, "siiWal-bal)r", may be an Arab reaction to another Suciibi attempt to indicate a Persian origin of names of central geographical sites. J:famza I~bahiini ridiculed scholarly etymologies, which he exemplified with the etymology of "c Iraq ". He supported the counter-view that it was originally the Persian irdh "coast".146 143

K. al-CAyn 1 53.

144 K. al-CAyn 1 263. The contrastive senses of this root are studied somewhat differently and in more detail in the final part (p. 105) of N61deke's "Worter mit Gegensinn" in NBSS, Strassburg 1910 pp. 67-108. 145 ·K. alJAyn 3 16. For a possible reference to a similar conception see Farra', Mac[mi vol. 1 p. 147 (wa-hiicja min sacat al-CArabiyya llati yu/:ltaggu bi-saCatihii) and vol. 2 p. 259 C. .. /lati tasma Cu bihii). 146 J:Iamza, Tanbih p. 178. This author provides interesting information derived from Ibn Qutayba's Adab al-Katib about A~maci's problems with the etymology of "Bagdad". Much information is found in Yaqut, Mu cgam al-Buldiin (s.vv.) about J:Iarnza's studies of the etymology of Samirra', Sigistan and I~bahan (note "Ibn J:Iarnza's" ridicule of Persian etymology of the latter and the story about cu~fur, etc.) in his K. al-Muwazana. Yaqut documents another testimony of alleged Ijalilian etymological studies. In the entry al-Ijawarnaq he cites a passage, whose source is identified as Ibn Ginni's K. al-Nawadir al-mumt{a, in which Ijalil offers the following etymology: yanbagi an yakuna mustaqqan min al-birniq al-~agir min al-aranib. It is followed by A~maci's ridicule (wa-lam ya~naC say'an innama huwa min al-burnqah ... ydni mawtj{ al-akl wal-surb bil-Farisiyyafa-Carrabathu I-CArab) and Ibn Ginni's defense ofljalil. Interestingly, the entry al-Ijawarnaq in K. al-CAyn 4 321 gives only a Persian etymology

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CHAPTER TWO

3.11 Ijalil's religious affiliation

The few relevant entries in K. al-CAyn which treat the ijawarig do not provide any indication of sentiments, nor do they expose previous personal involvement with this group. Contrary to his otherwise neutral treatment of the ijawang 147 he once characterizes their inquisitory test which he describes sarcastically as follows: "He who fails in it is put to death and he who passes it is led astray from the right way" (wa-fi $ifat al-/faruriyya: 148 anna lahum miJ:matan man abta~aha qatalathu wa-man a$abahti aq,allathu). 149 The Si"i claim that ijalil was a latent adherent to their creed does not coincide with any relevant information in K. al-CAyn. Citations as well as descriptions of the four early Caliphs seem to meet the norms of their treatment in early orthodox literature. 150 A single passage (2 42) which explains Abu ralib's status as an unbeliever (kafir) is the only clear manifestation of the author's religious affiliation as a non-Sicite in K. al-CAyn. l5l Two passages amplify the author's piety: he describes playing dice (8 22 s. v. nard) as eqUivalent to touching swine's meat (man laCiba bil-nardfa-ka>annama gamasa yadayhi bi-lal;m al-banzir); when he mentions the name of one of Hell's gates (8 367 s. v. wayl) he ceremonially expresses terror (nacuq.u bi-llahi minha).152 There are only few and insignificant indications of the author's respect for the ascetic life-style. Interestingly the famous verses addressed to the ruler Sulayman are quoted in the book (4 289) and are attributed there to "al-ijalH b. Al)mad"! The two verses are introduced as sahid in the entry S-Ij-W because

147 K. al-CAyn 2 318; 3 25,67; 6 85,283; 7 70. This practice among the ijiirigites is mentioned by Wellhausen in his book The Religio-Political Fractions, p. 21: "They put every doubtful customer to the test with a most painful trial (imti~ujn)"; also p. 23, where the political character of their religion is discussed: "The most stringent testing (mil;na) and judging of the position of belief is prescribed" . 149 K. al-CAyn 3253. 150 K. al-'Ayn 1 60,73,2 341; 35,318; 524,243,318,348; 7 444, 452. 151 Other occurrences of relevant material in K. al-CAyn: 1 249; 2217,247; 346, 179; 4 288; 5 171, 432; 7 235, 278, 442; 8 55, 86. 152 Van Ess's suspicion about his studies with Ayyub is related to his observation that ijalil did not excel in l;Iadit or Fiqh. As a reservation he mentions (van Ess vol. 2 p. 220 n. 42) the definition of nasl.J in K. al_cAyn, which he cites from Tusi, Tibyiin vol. I p. 393,2ff. (under the title wa-qiila $iil;ib "al- CAyn"). The original is located in K. al-CAyn 4 201: ...!umma tansal.Juhu bi-I;iidi! gayrihi kal-iiyah tunzaluJi amr !umma yul.Jaffafu fa-tunsal.Ju bi-ul.Jrii fal-ulii mansul.Ja wal-!iiniya niisil.Ja. The concentration of theological material in M. N. Khan's published dissertation gives a better indication of the extent of the author's understanding in this field. 148

THE ATrRIBUTION TO fjALlL OF K. AL- eAYN

125

the second verse begins with the expression sablJii bi-nafsiya annL

4_ Conclusions Our comparison of the material of K. al-CAyn with the data about ijaliJ collected from the various sources of medieval Islamic literature and presented under numerous headings in this chapter and in Chapter I indicates that much of the description of later sources on ijalil's biography is recognizable in this book In the majority of cases it is a well-judged consideration to make the relevant material in K. al-CAyn the basis for the later formulation of details about ijaliJ in the medieval literature. In the sphere of personal details these cases include ijalil's nick-names, his Yemenite origin and mention of his quarter and town. The indications of a ijurasanian connection in the book are not clearly interpretable as relevant to ijalil. This may explain why in most of the anecdotes the eastern background concerns Lay!, not ijalil. On the other hand, the personal details about Lay!'s partentage mentioned in K. al-CAyn are very general. The alleged relations between the two persons are reflected very clearly in the book. Similarly, ijalH's alleged friendship with Abu Duqays can be inferred, according to one interpretation, from K. al-CAyn. Attribution to ijaUl of certain talents by later writers, including interest in astronomy, mathematics, chess, witty and wise sayings and even pharmacology and deciphering of foreign languages, may have been inspired by various passages in the dictionary. Description of an anti-SuCUbite position and rejection of qiyiis may have also resulted from careful reading of K. aVAyn. We assumed earlier that several details documented by the mid-9th-century Gabi~ are most probably genuine. The testimony of K. al-CAyn supports Gabi~'s description of ijalil's achievements in the field of prosody and his interest in music. I have not identified any elements of anti-Qadarite attitude in K. al-CAyn. In a way this confirms our information about the independent origin of Giibi~'s sources_ Comparison of the personal data which are reflected from the material of K. al-CAyn with the few details from early 9th-century biographical and literary sources (Gumabi, Abu J:Iiimid and Gabi~) hardly furthers us in our attempt to examine ijalil's alleged participation in the composition of K. al-CAyn. We have noted the problematic fact that no personal attitude is reflected in the entries of the dictionary which mention the Azd and Fariihid clans. It seems that an alternative route may yield far more substantial results, namely the study of the linguistic data of early corpora, including K. alJAyn and other early sources. I have not collected material of lexical relevance. This should certainly be done, and the material should be checked against the impact of the critical saying attributed to the early 9th-century Abu J:Iatim that none of ijalil's (known) students quoted from K. al-CAyn in their (lexical)

126

CHAPTER TWO

writings. On the other hand, I have located an impressive quantity of grammatical material in this dictionary, whose analysis and comparison with the teaching of other early grammatical treatises is, to my mind, the ultimate criterion for the identification of lJali1's role in the writing or instruction of K. al-CAyn. Chapters III and IV will treat this question in detail.

CHAPTER THREE

THE GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN As stated in the Introduction, this chapter provides a database for a comprehensive study of the compatibility of grammatical theorems attributed to ijaHl in sources other than K. al-CAyn and their equivalent teaching in this early dictionary. The organization of material of scattered character as an integral whole is rightly suspected as superimposed and superficial. Its justification lies, however, in the proper caution exercised with this problem throughout the collection and classification of the material. Section 1 presents only one aspect of our emphatic consciousness of the problem. The fourfold division of the grammatical domains includes a practical distinction between morphology and the parts-of-speech division. For similar practical conSiderations, partly dictated by the above mentioned character of the book, I have occasionally introduced modem terminology and categories in the classification of the data. It is recommended to tum to Appendix I to complement the reading of specific (often incomplete) references given in this chapter.

1. A general and integral concept of grammatical study 1.1 Awareness of a scholarly tradition of an independent discipline

Mention of grammarians and their conception as collectivity: ~I

J..ou..

j~ f"""'~1

• wi l$i)1 j.~

.:r ...Ai> ..:.a.:.ll

:.:.uJ~

273;

.y

~b ~~

..;

j.iJ

tJ":J j'YSJJJ

3 302.

Mention of the invention of grammar:

JLi.i ~..rJ1 t~J ~J ~."....~I loti .) l.:.ALJ

1~ ~ ... I~I :IJ"'WJ 3 302. Grammar is a distinct discipline: iJ)~ commentators) 2 200-;

~I

~.J."aJI.J ~I ~J.,b.

j.i.J (contrasted to Qur'an

(gins as a classifying category in

the two disciplines) 6 55; grammar (al-CArabiyya) borrows from Islamic jurisprudence (jiqh) the notion of istibsan as a judgement criterion complementing qiyas 3 94. It is less clear what the term ahl al-CArabiyya means in 273-.

128

CHAPTER THREE

Grammar's characteristic reasoning: ·~I.J""" ~lS' V"'~I ~ I:?~I 259; ~I c}.)~ ~1

.u.-

).J 1

c} ~ (definition of saliqi) 577.

Allusions to grammatical controversies: different views (Ju.J

... Ju....J ... ~ ) of derivation ofi)~: ~ ....i1::>1 ~.lI.J 2 215; ~ Ju.J ... "~l;llzi,." iJ.i. :..is' :~~I 4 297; ~I ~ ~ ....i1::>1.J (the derivation of say') 6 295; ~.J-'~1 J~ "u.J (special distinction between mat/4a and amat/4a) 7 18. Restricted usage of the abstract -iyya suffixes for the terms ismiyya and wa$fiyya 2 52- , 5 166.

1.2 Grammar conceived as a system of rules (with normative applications) The common expression used by the ciimma 4iL.~ J~i ~"'jJ is illicit according to grammatical rules: J~ .r.&- ~I c} 1.a.J 898; ($uruj) al-na/:lw is the term which denotes the system of grammatical rules 8 406. The following terms and frequently used expressions indicate the existence of systematic procedures of grammatical thinking. The list does not include terms which are specific of a certain domain, e.g. tamakkana and i C talla from morphology and taqdir of the study of etymology (references to text will be looked up in the Index of Grammatical Terms): a. i/:ltagga and /:lugga, daUl and bayiin. b. a list of terms from the sphere of analogical reasoning, including: /:ladd, qiyiis, /:lagw, /:lamala calii, alJraga, riwiiya and lam asmaC(as the opposites of qiyiis), sabbaha bi-, mu!!arid, !ariqa, kamii and ka-qawlika, wagh and giha. c. a list of judgement terms, most of which are normatively motivated: mu/:liil and musta/:lil, istaqba/:la, kariM, libs, CArabiyya ma/:l4,a.

1.3 Integral vocabulary of grammatical terms The following is a survey of terms which are shared by at least two of the three main domains of grammatical deSCription, namely phonetics, morphology and syntax. (references to text will be looked up in the Index of Grammatical Terms): bada'a l-kaliim (morph., synt.), tab{a (morph., synt.), /:laka (morph., synt.), /:lawwala (morph., synt.), asrakalistaraka (phon., morph., synt.), at/marala-;hara (morph., synt.), !ar/:l (morph., synt.), farraqa (phon., morph.), gallaba (phon., morph., synt.), istagnii (phon., morph.), fa$lIitti$iil (phon., morph.),

129

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

faq.l (morph., synt.), mqjul (morph., synt.), qabillmustaqbil (morph., synt.), qaddama (morph., synt.), qat (morph., synt.), qalb (phon., morph., synt.?), qawiya (phon., morph.), iktafa (morph., synt.), kamfn (morph., synt.), makan (morph., synt.), alqa (morph., synt.), nar (morph., synt.), naqi$ (morph., synt.), wa$l (phon., morph., synt.), waqf(phon., morph., synt.), tawkfd (morph., synt.), wahm (morph., synt.).

2. Phonetics 2.1 Consonant characterization 2.1.1 The organs (inside first) Langs (4;)1 ~) 5 68; Larynx ir ~).J 4JjljS'.J .lkIl "J...~ i r ~'J J 1..1.1 I

227

"a similar situation" for [s] vs.

[~,z]

1 53-.

Phonetical order from inside towards outside is presented in terms of elevation: beginning with J.>~i and thenti).i ti) 1 47,48- (within presentation of the whole consonantal set).

2.2 The essence of articulated sounds 2.2.1 General principle, an experimental technique Generation of consonants by "sounding": .;,..,..all ~ .,. I~! ~ ~.;> ~.J ..

t.;lSi 5 386. Isolation of individual consonants

(::.,! 'yD 1 47.

2.2.2 Key-terms [2.2.2.1] gars (also: gars and fliss): In faint man's senses do not recognize $awt and J:ziss 1 129; l...?

J-

:':-"!~

~ ~ 251; 'L..? 'J.J 1.-.dl..::.a- L.. :JlA....J 3 15; ~ I.,)"? 3 341; ~.J.).I.J

4Jl> t.P ~..,::a .,.!> u-l! c:~ 'J ~.JT.'-I ~ Cl-.:a.ll 3 352;~;' :~ r~1 I.,)".? :JlA....J r~1 3391; creation of J:zikaya: ~..,; L.. t.P ~ "j.5 iJ'J ';$.;> V- .J i 4...A; I.,)".? UJ' 4 107; .;,~ 'J.J I.!J~ :~ 4 133; • ULII.,)"?, ~I I.,)"? UJ' c:i\..oi 4 146; i;:..i ..,...; I.,)"JN. 'J JS 4 240; I.,)"? :~I ••• r')I.S:J I 4 426; :r')I.S:J I ":-,?,.J .;.....li .;,..,..all I.,)".)..I.J 'I.,)".Jr.J.1 .;,..,..all .;..I..:a.e 1.,)".)..1

».

••. 1.,)".?'J.J

4J ';'.J-4 'J J A-I i."')W I ~.J.).I.J ..;,..,..all 4...A; : ~.).11.,)",?,.J. •• ~ ~

651 (s.v.). [2.2.2.2] ~

nagma:

,~3 341·, u i. -L-._". • ~ 4...A;..,ts' I.,)".r.

·U-I.J;.....li...l..o: W-I .;u 4251·, 'F ';.r-

~

•.. r')I.S:Jl I.,)".? :~I 4426; the wordJ'''').J-4 is an onomatopoeic expression of birds as a proximity of i.3.J-4 t..si ~I 5 60; as an element in music theory:

.;,L.A;.J ~

t.P r.,J.,. \:fi ~~.J-4 :~I Ju

648.

133

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K.AL_cAYN

[2.2.2.3] na/as: j p l l r ~I ~';"'J 3 48; ~~ ~I ~I;'! 3 158; ~..,..!.> ~I.;;J.,..., 3 327; (t.a..l.i> ~.a..l.i) ~ • 4J1., o..u • L::JI 3 348; ~.;... ul! J~ 'w.; JL... ..;.+II ir ";J • 4J1 3349; .;;J.,-II I~ 4-A.i (;.i :.1.. ,01 4 104; "";";"1 v.o ~I (.,;. :~ 7 271. [2.2.2.4]

bikiiya:

J-i...:. :J..:o: mu!aqqal=madd vs.

mu ) .;;J.,.."JI r}IJ :~ 3353; ,"",WI .;;J.,.."JI :J~I 3 389; ~I ~ 4.7J~

r

l+. 4.7.,..., ~ ~ J~ I~! rAJl ~ ~ 4449; 4J.,..., ":"';J :o."A.:J I

4 165; Q XLI 26 1.,Al1: j')I5J~ .;;J.,.."JI I~J .;;JJ~ 6 173; description of voice tone in

134

CHAPTER THREE

prayer: ~~ AlII ul! ~I.,....i I~ft ~i 278; u...,-JI ~J~ 6~l ab\'; 878.

ibid.; ~L..:. 6~

4 u...,-JI

~J 6

~L..... :~,j> i"j.5 3 345; ~I u...,-JI :~ 460; u...,-JI ~i 4313;

... rJ :,j> u~

~llliJ i"j.5 ~ • 411 ~ u~

with ~

and.J~ ~~

7366. vs. u...,-JI

~ft ~

4239 (comp. 8

167: i~ vs. ~).

u...,-JI.....J....:,::....,-JII.SJ.,.l 423. . . 2.2.4 Nuances 0/ human/animate voicing [2.2.4.1] prolonging: 4Atl; I~! 4J~ tiii: 1173; i~1 ~ u~ :~ 2 119; ~J 6~ :.1-"" ~ ~ 2 270; 4J~..LC..J ~ 4 369; .J~ .~ :...."j.5 .h.o 7 408; 4&.~J :~l...J)1 ~ ~I

c) 6)...,......IJ JJ..J..I ~I..,.. ~ 8319.

[2.2.4.2] adara l-$awt: L,:tPJ ~Le> c) (/:::..,LJI=) [2.2.4.3]

6ftJJ u~ 7354.

($awtal-}$adr

6J..I.J c) ~ llJ :JUI 3 358. 2.2.5 Comparative - description o/voicing in terms o/music theory

U"'i)1 u.o u~ ~~I :~')I.; ~U.~I ~ t.L.a3 ~I ul~~1 :J.JlL1 Ju f .~"ll .J J~ ~ u...,-Jll!.lH ~ ~..,.. J~ ~ ~J JaU ~ .~~I ~~I u.,,-jl lo4i .ci~ # JJ~I J!..~.Y. ~ f .~ u...,-Jll!.lI~ l~ 6 3- [on agassin a poem (~i~) see 1 135]; i~~ I$i ~ u~ :J.JlL1 Ju uw';J ~ ~ 6 48.

u.o l::~

2.3 Vowel characterization 2.3.1 Long-short vowel relations Derivation of long vowels from their short cognates: ~I u.o ~ JI"l!., .. i~1 ~ • LeJI2 273; .. ~I

u.o

~ JI"lI.. 8

195. Implication of cognate relations in structural analysis: u.o ~IJ 8297-; [a] and [a]: ~ "i i~lj .. iJWI ...A.l~1 :il.~

JI"l1 ~ ~

1 100, also 3 354-.

135

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

2.3.2 Short vowel characterization The contrastive pairs magzum-mutaJ:zarrik (6 267) and magzum-mu!aqqal (7 28), which mark whether the consonant is followed by a vowel or not, are convenient notations, not a practical application in detailed grammatical analysis of a coherent theory about the function of vowels. However, elements of such a theory are discussed and significantly practiced in several passages of the grammatical teaching of K. al-CAyn, see 4.1.2.9. The meaning of ~ (possibly characterized by articulator): ~..,.-al w.s:J1

~~I )".II~!

'-f;y4

~;. 7 136.

[u]-[i] relations: ... ~I-"" ~ l.::S'.;o.:.I.J ~i ~I.J i~I':;'J"-7 214. 2.3.3 The nature of matres lectionis and their treatment [2.3.3.1 ] Characterization by articulatory criterion - non-buccal articulation: a. gu/, gawf ,JA c.;u If;~ Li~ ':"':'-.J i.;.o.+ll.J ~I ~~I.J • ~I.J .JI)I c,/iJ :..J~I ..JJ.).I (~I =) iJlS'J . ..J~I ~! 4! ~ ~ ~

rl.i .I.,.JI ~ ~Jl. c,/i

Le! ... ..J~1

.• I.,.JI ~ If;i I$i ~I..,. • ~I.J JI)IJ ~I ~~I : 1,# J~ 1 57-; J.J....:a,. :IJ"'..".+I

l.Ai :..J.).I IJ"'j':J .~ ~ :r')ISJl '::-j':.J .~ .:;,..,-11 :IJ"'..".+IJ 'IJ"'.J~I .:;,..,-11 .~I ~~IJ • ~IJ JI)I c,/iJ '1J"'j': ~J I+' ':;'y4 ~ ..J~I ~')I.!JI ..JJ.).IJ ..:;,..,-11 L...JT.'o" ..JJ.).I )L...J 651 (s.v. G-R-S); ..J~i )p ~I ..J.).I .~I ..JJ.).I 3 352-. [gawf and agwafin non-technical sense: .:;,~I ..J~I C;'..J :4.l:WJ1 219; an

obscure explanation of the Qur. $amad: ..J~~ ~ 1$.lJ1 ..:....all ..,. :Jl.i..J 7 104]. b. extra-buccal pronunciation (hawa»: (.~ )i ~ ~~ I~! : ~1;A.l1 w) .I.,.JI ~ ~l. :~I ~~14 95; :..J~I..J.J.).I

4.ul. c,/i Le! ... ..J~I ,JA c.;u If;~ Li~ ':"':'-J i.;.+lIJ ~I ~~IJ • ~IJ JI)I c,/iJ ~I ~~I : 1,# J~ (~I =) iJlS'J ...J~I ~! 4! ~ ~ ~ .I.,.JI ~ .I.,.JI ~ If;i I$i ~I..,. • ~I.J .JI)I.J 1 57-, also 8 91.

rl.i

[2.3.3.2] Characterization of physical features: a. voicelessness: L...JT.'o" ..JJ.).I )L...J '1J"'j': ~.J 1+'':;'y4 ~ ..J~I ~')I.!JI..JJ.).IJ 651.

b. layyin: ..J~i ).;. ~I..J.).I. .. ~I..J.J.).I

3 352-; and see the characterization of

[I] in contrast with [Y] in 4293 (see 2.3.3.4). c. bawar: *muzdayat is avoided because (in contrast with consonants) i)p • ~I

136

CHAPTER THREE

JI..u1 ~ ~ ";',.\,e.';&.u 4 243; i)";' i";'J i~ 4 250; .~ ~I.J i.HI.,;,~ v.o..\:O.!.l L..J

J.S' ,; ~.J i.J~J :;;.

4 302; J."tII .,;,~ ).,;.

4303.

[2.3.3.3]

Length characterization (madd): 456; the contrast of [h] vs. [y] is described in terms of ~ vs. J.orespectively 3348.

..;.+l~ .,;,~."....I!I~I.,;,I..\l1 :J..e.llI.17

[2.3.3.4] Contrast with consonants: a. Termedll:a.. vs. c.l-.JI J?~I , see 2.1.3 above; alifs status as J.::a..o determines the opening by cayn of the so-called "ljalil's phonetical consonantal order" 1 47. in comparison with consonants: ~! C\.::.:.l! ~ 4-.JT.'-! ~ c.l-.JI J.J;l-I.J If.I1.> ~ I.l.l"""'; ~ 3 352; Presentation of JA-II!I~I J.J;l-1 as "voiceless":

lf.I .,;,~ ~ ... 651; the shiftt > h in pause of hanat is explained with apparent reference to the matres lectionis group c.l-.JI J.J;l-1 ~i .If.I1. .. 3354-. b. "Softened" [Y] is contrasted implicitly to [Y] as a normal consonant: The shift J:,~>~ (also J:,).... ) is presented as "softening" of [Y]: • ~I I~ ~.J~ J.J;l-1 )L....J 'V".T: ~.J

(J:,~) ,;

W'. The next sentence .JI."JI iJ~.J • ~I iJ~ :iJL:S'L... c.Pu) suggests the following shift-process: mabYW!> mabY! (elision of

la".:.:J

(QUI [W]» ma!:JiY! (with "softened" [V]) 4293. c. Focus on the hass characteristic of h in relation with "softness" of matres lectionis: hass means soft in non-technical language: a fruit's core (?) is described as hass layyin rabw 1 63; chewing: b ~ ,; iJ~ 3 196; in the hom ~ .}J> 4 300; i.J~J ~.~

J.S' :~ 3 343.

d. hass in description of h: .If.I1 v.o.}J>i J? J.J;l-1 ,; ~ ~.J ... c.l-.JI J.J;l-1 ~i .If.I1 iJ~ :~> ..a ~ .If.I1 iJ~ 3 355; ~ ~ J? :.la , it may take the place of alifof qa( 4 102. 2.3.4 Characterization of individual long vowels [2.3.4.1] Variations of alif. I",,rai vs. J.o in iL.:. vs .• L.:. respectively 4 69; ~ """i 3 317,4281; both variations (viz.

~~/4JL.!

) in the pronunciation of the letter la 4 103; the

imiila is treated separately in2.4.3.4.

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

137

The status of hamza: uu,.,.:... o')l!ll ul..l.ll :~I 7 456; the process of talyin is described in some detail in 8 248- of which the following excerpt is worth mention here: '-"1 ~~ ~ ~.; LC1 itw:.Jl-, • ~I ~ l+' .J» 'i l+i~ .~I ~ i.;.+ll ~ LClJ L:.::lli ..A.I~I-, -,1)1-, .l::J1 ; for characteristics of hamza see 2.1.4. [2.3.4.2]

.;.+I~

2.4 Phonetic behaviour 2.4.1 General restrictions Consonantal clusters (~WI • Li::.l1ft.~1) are unacceptable 2 194,4293,

8 434; proximate articulation (t:>,;..11 y) ) is restrictive of compatibility rules 1 60-. This rule explains the vocalization of particles in word-final consonants, hence ~~ > ~~ 2 194. 2.4.2 Incompatibility rules [2.4.2.1] Incompatible consonantal combinations: a. limited distribution of [']+,..P] with a specific list of words 2215. b. no [']+[J:i] 1 60. c. n+[IJ] 196. d. no [h]+[g] 1 110, and see 3 e. [h]+['] only with due separation~ 'i! ~b 'i .. :i,H) 359.

(rj'i 1 105.

f. [h] followed by [>] only in word-opening position or g. no sequence oftwo hamzas separated by another consonant 4 103. .1~*(>.1)..../~) 4293. hence JjI.J.J*(~.JI)1 • lA..J1 ~I)") >J;I) 8 367. (raJ:tayiyy> ral}awiyy) .;.,1. LeJI.li.o.Il

~I)"

d. no [W]+[W] e. no [Y]+[Y]

7 142.

2.4.3 Phonetic shifts not conditioned by morphological constraints [2.4.3.1] Terminology: ~ .~ .J.,:I-/J~ 'r-'-~I .",,;,.b. .~w .J~ see Index q.vv; [2.4.3.2] Consonant transformation: a. [']>['] 1 66. b. ['] > [1:1] ~ > ('"f- in the dialect of Tamim 7 186. c. ['] > ['] (Tamim)l 91, 123. d. [k] > [s] (RabiCa) 1 91. e. [t] > [d] in initial position (~) 433. f. [tg] > [dd] and similarly [zt] >

[zd] 4 243 (the latter is conditioned by immediate proximity and loses its effect by separation, hence .;.,bjA but ,- • -1jA ). g. [g] > [d] (J~) of originally non-Arabic words 4 76, 295. h. [gt] > [dd] (,,;,'~I) 4 243 of i. [s] >

which see above ad loco [t] >

[~]

being a variant (1lI) 7210-.

mconditioned by the shift [~] > [s] t.,.:..-/4b-

j.

7220 k. [z] > [s] in ~IJj interpreted in terms of proximity (4~) 7 227. 1. [s] > [z]. m. [s] > [~] as a variant in Ja.e....:a.. 7 210. n. [~tl > [ttl (~I) 8 152 but see the implication by )hl to the opposite 8 167. [2.4.3.3] Vowel and "weak consonant" transformation: a. ['] > [Ii] (iAI ~.. :i\.ij) and defence of the primacy of this form over i~ in terms of preference of phonetic combination 5 239. b. ['] > {~,

[W] in words which include originally two hamzas separated by alif layyina ~~>~I.J~ 8 202 and the discussion of ,UJ in 8307-[309], "softening" of hamza (~) in word-final position (in .:;..) is contrasted to "conversion"

(j....,:I-) of hamza into W 8 248-.

C.

['V'C] > PVC] exemplified by

~! and formulated as follows: ~ I~I i~~1 ~ l.:.i:J1 I~! ~AI ~~ ~ 8398-, also (in""";! > J"""'l!D 8 297-. d. "softening" (~) of hamza testified in wi > ~i, with the explanation cA ~ y.".J1 ~ ~i "i! iAI ~ ~ .LeJI~.J i;..+ll and.l:...n >.l.e-o.n; theformer in each pair is

139

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

c. [Wii] > ['ii] (\J-'..i,J1 t~~ l.f;~J :.)JjS') 5

rendered "bad" 8429.

397; the shift ..1.11J ) ..1.11! is identified as Tamimi without further comment 5 194. f. [Wu] (=0) > ['u] in .;J.)j (plural of ).), transformed from ';J'.)j) is explained as follows: ~J

Jrall ~ ~U I!Jjl ~.JA cj (~j) cj

u.;L.:,

4-l-i u-I! .).J 8 58, but elsewhere the original (J,..:.i) form is defended in y~i

g. [W] > ['] h. [uY] > [1]

8 247 (for a full discussion of the rule see 4.1.2.9) prevents sequence of two [W]: J;IJJ* > J;I) 8 367. .. JI)I

t.P

~ ·LeJl .) r.i- .J~l,j :~Jw, 773.

1. [uY] > [ii] in).~

(~ ») explained as follows: l.o l.~ ~J"'~ ..YI.t ," •OJ ~ QL... • LeJI iJ ~ J~ cj 1JIJ l.~ l.f4j with due mention of other cases in which "attraction" favours [I] and finally with analysis of the rejected ~ 7 210.. [citation from j. [uY] > [i]/[ii] in ~/ '-"~: IJ"'~I ~ 1..,J,aj L.. \iJ 7 210... Azhari]. k. [iW]+[a] > [iY]+[a]

('='""'.;)

1. imiila Wi]

> [1]): see next.

[2.4.3.4]

4Jl.o! Wi] > [I]):

2 87, [iW]+[C] > [i+[C]

-;,;'.i:* > ~

4313.

m. tar!Jfm: see 2.4.4.6.

Conditioned (in particles) by the merger of two particles into one~c.! (i..l>IJ WS'~) 8238, but~! does not undergo imiila

~ VA If'~ 8

352; 4Jl.o! of the noun C~ conditioned by its part of speech identity, being either adjective (and imiila .. less) or personal noun 3 9;

- (UJ~I)

i,.l;"j

4Jl.o!:(UJ~I4Jl.o!l UJ~I i,.~ l. 4103; 4Jl.( UJi in the case ofil..r 1 100;.lot 4Jl.( is identified in I.S.)~ .J'!i 4327. Note that the entry M-Y-L does not treat the grammatical term. The expression

W .) :cjt,Al1 cj

t~~IJ (1 212

s.v.) is not clear to me. The non-technical .~I.:..il..&. is paraphrased by....a...j

2 17;

~-

J;L.. for shoulder's position 4 79.

[2.4.3.5] Dissimilation presented by abdala: l.ol.o ) l..f.o: JillII ~ ... I).l.fi 3 358. [2.4.3.6]

Haplology presented in terms of assimilation (dagm):

[2.4.3.7]

Reciprocal transformation:

..\i.,..)~~: loS?~I cj Vi." WII.S..I>! ~.) .. 5 197.

[s] preceding [q] 5 61 and similarly 1 129 (and qv. 2.4.2.1k on 1 128); [2.4.3.9] Consonant assimilation (idgam): Marked by reduplication (j~~~1 "4A"':k -,-!~IJ) 1 49-; [ [ttl (~I) 1

280; [nr] > [IT] C~I) 1 299, [td] > [dd] (J~) 2 29. The noun ~~ is derived from~.r- vi "u.r- i!l.o~~1 4395. '

:r

[2.4.3.10] Vowel and "weak consonant" assimilation: a. [WY] > [YY]: 2 270. [WYv] > [YYv](~) 4105, [yWl > [yYl (j4il 8433; [2.4.3.11]

Metathesis (without noted conditions, frequently marked as

fuga): ~/yJ.:.: is presented as a sample and as a substitute of a term ~/~) 2 345, ~/~ 1 282, ~J/~ 2199; otherwise the term qa/b is used:

~I~ .,.;~/t.jJ~ 2173, ~ 'IJ"~/~ and~/Ja.i 7456, /c..~

c..~ 2310. Other cases of metathesis: C~";'/J>";' 3 91, J>T/Ii~~ 3281,

~/~ 4 163, il~/il~ 4 335,J~i/~i 5220; the termtabwil is employed in the case of ~i (cp. 7210- for its formation from impf.) 7 331; although the relations' of Jj / JIJ are not marked as metathetic, it is

implied by the explanation Jj ~I';'I ,.;WI 4a... vi ~A ~ 8 359. It is uncertain if the phrase y).A.o j":J.S (s.v. Q-L-B 5 171) refers to this phenomenon. [2.4.3.12] [>l in «",.

Elision (only of hamza!):

l.;i ~J) ",. L:S:JJ and «~! JJIJ) ~

6 178-; due to~L... .l.i:.Il

8 434; in word-final position L,.i.r" d,.1» :~>~~ (i.;.+ll ~J Iib·1I j... 8 248-, Jw (from jJjJ): L,.i.l> u-- L. i.;.+ll J')l::&.1 ~)J 8355.

in' ji Ii~>r Ii~>j~

[2.4.3.13] Vowel elision (as a result of assimilation): babUbatja>babbatja ~WI vi d}JI • L:JI ~~i..; I~ ~ ~i :~i ~

Ii Ju

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

141

2.4.4 Other features of phonetic behaviour [2.4.4.1] ~: perfonnance by people of I:Iim~: (..b» Jiw,. 3 22, definition of-: r')I.S:Jl cJ'ls"

~~I~!~.;!. 4142 and cJ~ ...A;'JI ~ vi J.,At ~~I ~~.; ~ u~ u-o 4348-, in \Ii 8 352; ~ "';J..,).I J..!i cJ?1 :~I 4 348-.

...A;'JI ~ [2.4.4.2]

~:

vi

definiton of-: JI)I t!~ ~ ~iJ .~ r')I.S:Jl tf)b .~ r')I.S:Jl ~J 4281, emphatic t (vs. flat t) characterized as-: ~~i 7 107; also 8 168, and see 4.4.2 ad finem for the identification of a as w in i~ 7 153; also 3 317; (~'JI) ;..~: ~'JI ;..~ l. is contrasted with ~'JI ~Lo! 4 103.

[2.4.4.3]

t.~!:

cAli's reading of Q I 5 ~ according to I:Iadi!'k~! cJ?1 tfJ ~ 5 171; status of supplative win 1 201 JS'~ explained as [2.4.4.4]

-4S'.".::lI ~~ ~I ~

; v-L:.ail

rW!:

vi 1!lJ.,AS' li..,> uS'WI "';..,).1 ~ )

.....u

:cJW')!J

u-o

~I in the following problematic

J.",iJ ,ul~'J1 u-o ~I I!lJ.lS'J" .r.!.11 u-o ~IJ

:JLy 'r":JJ1 ~..;I-J ~I ~ (~) ~J ,4S'..,).1 r":JJ1 rW~ (~ :~4:J1 ~

J-y- c.s:> ~ "';~)I t~ 'i ~ u~

[2.4.4.5]

..

vi ~ 6 224, in ~...J~ and .J~ 8 13 and 92- respectively, and

consider the related tenn ul~'J1 passage: hL.J)

is

1 131.

definition of-:..:..5..-;J (J..-l1 I~) 4.....4J1

. 'r":JJ LoW! ~

for the regular v-L....:...l1

I~

u-o

751-.

yip!:

non-technical sense (s.v.): .;,."J

u-o ypi .u cJ."J :ylp~IJ 6 258; in deSCription u-o 4.1 yiP! 'i II t" IJ u ~ I ~ v-+' IJ

of phonetic features: 'iJ J..w.ll u ~

.,-J lS' t" I u-o V-J..,>;~ and ~ as murabbam 2 348[esp. 350];. ~I w....... :~ ,also ~ 4 222; ~~ > J.J~ and > J,.;-j

JL.j: ~.rJ1

JAJ 7 97; the non-technical origin ("soft") is collected in the

following passages: • WI ~

vi

~ Ii:I :t.l>)IJ ">J ~i ..r:o> :rl>)IJ

142

CHAPTER THREE

..:J~I ~ :~iJ ~J ~J 4260; r.tA! iiJ'"1 :..:J~I ~J 4 428; the hen's protection of its eggs ~.rU ~I ~ a :~i 529. 2.4.5 Phonetic shifts conditioned by morphological constraints [2.4.5.1] Consonant transfonnation: a. [w] > [t] in verba primae infirmae and derived nominals: 4 242, 298, 317,

5 207- ([~JJ >1 ~.,,; > J~)' 239, 398, 422 (~),~.,,; 'ri.,,; and the observation~~1 w.).1 rJ) ~~I ..::....) 8424. In the case of 4A:i. tis stable throughout the inflectional paradigm except"»~ 3 193. b. [>] > [h]: d >..:JLA 480, 8 146. c. [t] > [h]: the feminine morpheme when preceded by vocalized consonant; demonstrated by ~ [hanaH] in pausal- vs. ~ [hanl1 in non-pausal position 3 354-; similarly 4$ > .:;..$ 5 398. [2.4.5.2] Consonantal assimilation: a. [ds] > [ttl in the numeral ~ 7 186. b. [yw] > [yy] in the nominal pattern ~: details 4.2.1.9-19). c. [t] > [d]: ~ > t"~ explains tJ~.,;.o 1 353.

8 140 (and see

[2.4.5.3] Metathesis: a. ['l]>[l']: :....J..i.o in 2 326. b. ['1]>[1(')] in ~ (see 2.4.5.4a) 5380-. c. in diminutive fonns of the letter-names JIJ and. lot : ~ 4:.....JJ » ~i (~~ 8444, see 2.4.5.7b.

.L...."i

[2.4.5.4] Elision (only of hamza!): a. unconditioned: ['] in maPak>malak 5 380-. b. conditioned: inyu'ajilu>yifilu 8245; inflialii' (.T~>.I.,..) 8289; in:JLI 7 301; in~! ~>.l.:..o 8 192; in/deal with quadriliteral roots: j./j.l>Jw 8 355;

in/a'il / /ii'ila: )L..>JL..

!~6.>~6.

2210 (and in one view 1ol1iL.:. > ~L.:. 5

270); the word ~j : ~...J.;.o.+! 5 93. [2.4.5.5]

Phonetic condition on geminate (F_C_C) vs. quadriliteral (F_c_F_C)

fonnation: Different patterns of the inflected bi-literal

t:.

(>~) and

t"

(>~)

are

attributed to [b),s stronger "sonority" wi • ~I V".i':J' The geminate fonn is

143

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·'AYN

tenned ~, the quadriliteralll&.l.;a.. and the plain, bi-literal ~ ~6. ~ 4 146.

[2.4.5.6]

Restricted distribution:

a. word-opening [w] in a limited list which includes

4u 'IJ'*'J

319. b. [']+... [>]: only ~~ ,~! ,i)~ 2215. c. irregularity of consonant composition in ~ as against

F

,J.J 'C:'J 3

2 274.

d. combination of [h] and [Q] only in the compound word~ 35. •• 1 e. p exhibits a unique case of CwV in word-final position: !J1J



~I ~J

l.a~ ~~I;.i ~ (I) .:J~"';?..\A.t ~~ 2259. [2.4.5.7] Hamza as separative/ preventive of unacceptable consonantal sequences: a. in verbal fonns of the adjective ~~'~ (derived from the "imitation" [see

4.t~ 3.1.3.5a] of ~~): ~~i~ 891.

'

b. in a past participial fonn of the letter JIJ: 'ti},...

explained as follows: ..:..I~ LJIJ

(~) ; the process is

..:..1},11 JL..:a;1 4A1.I.. IJ~ Ill". Similarly, an

alternative fonn is analyzed- ..:..C.."... (~) -which exhibits a shift of alif into ycr (presumably: muwaAWdh>muwafYdh; aA=A) and adds: J 1.,.1 1 ~i ~

41 ~~ "';.f"'o! ~).I ~~ ...• It 8444. Short and long vowel shifts: [2.4.5.8] Conditioned transfonnations:

[2.4.5.8.1] Conditioned by morphological pattern! fonn: a. [iw] > [iy] in verba tertiae infirmae: ~>~ 2 87, .J~I r-~IJ"~ 4 286; in the case of ty- the explanation goes as follows: ~ lJ.1 •..,-!

":"jI':

"uJ

JI)I 4313. b. [w] > P] in theftilul pattern, where Rr=~: ~~;...; background infonnation: if R3 :;t:R4, then R2 is either [n] or [>] 2337 (fucla /?). c. [vy]> [a] in nisba nouns: .~>~.J6. 3 289. d. [w]>[i] in active participle ~f;erba mediae/ tertiae wdw:

~6. 'lij~ 3 317.

e. final [h]>[y] in .JJiJJ>I.SJJiJJ; explained on the grounds of phonetic proximity:

• 4J~

~ "';J).I y.;i •~I

and related to prosodical rules: t.S~.JL.:..:Jla VAJ

1.l>IJ ~IIiJ.J ~ ~ 4JIJ ~)tIJ Jt,JIJ ~ LJI3 348.

144

CHAPTER THREE

f. [a»[i) in faciI: identified as a standard variant - if R2 is guttural (JJJ>' ..I>i JU-I), whereas the non-conditioned variant is reportedly peripheral and "base"

(. ~ 1lI) 3 398, 7 175, 316- (in the speech of.,.-!JI ~iJ ~I v.o I,)"'li). g. [y»[w) in verba tertiae yiP innisba nouns: ~J >~.J >:S~.J 7 142. #

~

h. ['»[w): J~and the variant~ 8248-.

..

..

i. [aya»[a) is presented impliCitly and in a reconstructed form: Since the plural J;"~ derives from the singular ~'~ , the other plural Jl.!~i must derive

from the non-occurrent (~'~» JI~ 8 197-.

j.

4.lL.!

(~+iJl»

is restricted to original single words and is avoided therefore in ~!

8 352.

k. fi;al [ay»[a) infdcal:

... ~.l.:..t ~ k.-a 8

~ r-~I.;.i ~ rfA"% ~ ~ rl··· ([""";.J'! ~] ~)

112.

1. [a»[i) in the impf.Jacila (>/fila) and its coalescence with the non-conditioned variant ofjZCi/ mentioned in 2.4.5.8.lf above 7 316-. m. Shift is avoided due to morphological constraints: the plural (~ does not undergo the shift [awa»[a) in order to maintain distinction from the singular i~ 2 259. In the case of i~ (contrasted with 4.Jl; ), which has no similar singular form, the analysis isk.-a ~ u~li JI-"'I I..~i ~ ...• ~I IJ~

'wi uJL.ai .WI

8 98-.

"Auxiliary" [y»[') in the derivation of verbal forms from the nominal ~ is iJWI ; the shift is interpreted as follows: ';'1) ~L..&. ~ •../.- ~ • LeJI iJ~ D.

JW~I 579. See the discussion of "auxiliary" ('imiid) in 4.1.2.4.

o. Duplication of R4 in "plain" quadriliteral nouns triggers [a) > [i) shift in 2286. R I, hence~ p. Duplicated verbs as mentioned in 0 are preceded by laryngeal consonant

>;'" '!

2326. q. nomina tertiae wiiw exhibit [w) > [y] shift of R3 in fli Iii pattern, hence ~ ~ ~ although 1S."...ai also exists 5 187. I

,

[2.4.5.8.2]

Conditioned by neighbouring consonant:

a. If Rt=[n), then RI+[u) (+[n)) in i~, whereas ifR2:4:n), then RI+[a]/[i?] (+R0:

i)';. 1 304.

b. If R3 =[w] in the singularfucWah, then V=[u] in R I +V+R2 ···offu cii (>1,$)

iJ~~ against~':'; >J)) 8 195. ,

"

145

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

[2.4.5.8.3] Conditioned by word length: a. [w]>[y] in verba tertiae waw: iJ~ 2188. b. [w]>[y] in nomina tertiae waw: ~1 against

iH 3 259 (with the comment

that "it is better than i~i because of the word's length" [?!]). c. The formation of I,-hoho,

('ana!na!atuha) is avoided because of "word's

length" 2 15. [2.4.5.8.4] Conditioned by identity as part of speech: a. 4.lL.! in the faccal pattern [a] in cases of word-final elision does not affect) which is a particle (ibi J?), vs. j > lJ and j..tt > 4 8 143-. [2.4.5.9] Unconditioned but unique shift: [u]>[i] infayc-V-lan: iJ~ (in all other words: V=[aMu) ); this shift is explained on grounds of the close similarity between the vowels [u] and [i] and their frequently attested mutual substitution (~i ~I.J i.,...s:J1 uJL..:. ...

i,;$ ~I.,.. ~ L:.S',PI.J) 7 214. [2.4.5.10]

Vowel assimilation:

[uwY]>[uwW] in ~ > i'.; (and termed jli.~I) 5236. [2.4.5.11] Vowel elision: a. Elision of non-radical [y] in masculine sound plural:

-

~

>

.

iJ~

2

.

201-; the opposite is proposed in ..;;5

c.":JJ >e:G .J.,AS 3 233. c. Elision of either [w] or [y] in the 1st stem past participle of verba mediae /Ja.;-), where the rule ofiJL:S'l.... ~I is mentioned 4293.

yiP (.J:,~

[2.4.5.12] Other phonetical observations with consideration of morphological constraints: a. Rarity of the vowel-order 'opening [u] ... final [aJ' in original Arabic words, unless in status of tarbim 2348-. b. Vocalized vs. non-vocalized V2 in variants of the nominal iJ? are conditioned by V J: If VJ=[a], then V 2 is identical (;;y..), whereas the other variant evinces

146

CHAPTER THREE

the order [u]-[0] (4)";.) 3 160.

c. The form • LA.!. contains a latent madda ~~~ ll>~

iJ..o .1.i..!J1 ~ ~ 5

184. 2.5 Puristic approach supported by phonetical considerations

(See separate discussion of the concept and terminology of purism in K. al-CAyn in Ch. II, 3.10) a. No pure quadriliteral Vl...;) and quinqueliteral ~L.» roots unless one of the consonants belongs to the L....,..i.!./~~ group 1 52-, 2 286, 345; alternatively presence of [C] or [q] or both. In nouns either [s] or [d] is additionally necessary 1 53-; and note the concession that quadriliteral roots may be formed as "(systematically) construed imitation" (llJj.a 4.t~) 1 54-. b. No opening [nar-] with a radical [n] in a pure Arabic word, hence :J.o.;J 1

L......,... ~Ju 5265. c. In Arabic, if R2 =R3 , then they should be separated; e.g.

..::-.eJ

~

. Therefore

5 425. d. R J=R2 only in proper nouns 6289,8356,396-,409. c. t4.Y' may be identified as a term which refers to this word class; in the definition of J); cited above, the rest of the paragraph runs as follows:

u!

•.;eAl t4.Y' "'.1 ~ L1 J); .;~ ~I; t4.Y' is further contrasted to 1'"'" and is one of the distinctive senses of such word forms as

JaA.o

along with the

~ ~,which entails the clarification that the attribute in J~ ~) is in plural, seems to support our observation made here; la...:..Y') W.J ~! iJ~ ~ ~~ 2 222. ma$dar 5 363, 6 165,256. The note t41"l1

[3.1.3.4]

Particle (il~j ,..J.;»:

a. definition of- (s.v. J.;»: ~ ""WI

U.".i::J ~')ISJI ,.; i...;!. il.)j ~ 4..1S' J5.J

J.a.I.J J..J jJI.J ~ J!.o .. J.i.;> 3 210-. b. use of the term..J.;> in the sense of "particle": ~..T.'-! ~1»~.lJ1la....? ~1 (~.lJ1

is J.;>

~

260

~

, less certain are 1 89,95. Note that in the above-

mentioned definition, the two senses of I:zaif are employed Simultaneously .rs-i ~.f"ol l.j~':"lS' .:,,!.J (U.;>~ .. )

"i

c. 'Obi: ~libi~.J 8 135, ~')ISJI.:..I.J.)i V-" iJl.i.;> V-".J~.J 8 375 and 3 309-. d. il.)i J.;>: il.)i J.;>...A.$ 5 414. '

148 [3.1.3.5]

CHAPTER THREE

Onomatopoeic expressions (ul~i • [u~l i..t~):

a. Imitation of physical (non-linguistic) sounds is described as ~ t..?o ~ ~ 251 and u.."...all i..t~ (where [ii)ll ~).J) imitates the interjection b

4L..J 8 366, also the description as ~I ,;r Y;4 i..t ~ of.u

3 341. b. i..t~ presented together with uI~i and ?oj as an integral morphological group with characteristic jCrab rules shared by the particles 'i voJl ub,)~I)

(...&...,-:;JI vi ~ 3 204, 309-. c. Such expressions are described further in 1 81, 2 185 and 7 84; the derivation of verbs from onomatopoeic expressions is discussed mainly in 1 54-,3341,4104,107,5 101 and 784. d. A different use of the term i..t ~ is displayed in 1J.o.J ::;. which responds to

1J.o.J ~i.) 8 390. [3.1. 3.6] Other, more general terms: a. 4...IS seems to be a neutral term which is used whenever the author avoids commitment to specific word-classes: ~ is yL.- ~ ~l!.o ~.J 4...IS

~I 7 5, ony~: see 8 258. b . .,.!> and~ etc. (e.g. s.v . .,.!>: ~ ~ 'i 1$.111 ~I :i~1 ,;r..,..:..L1 3 261) may be more aptly classified as sentence functionals; they also occur (namely,.,.!> .~ .Jl,l.) in the discussion of the phrase WS'JI ~i 4449. 3.1.4 Binary contrasts [3.1.4.1] naCt vs. ism: ~L... may occur as either the firstJ6.

(L:...; or the latter (r-'i11oS..r:u 1oS.r:J i~1

vi ~)

vi

.J~)

3 124; transformation from one category to the other is expressed as ......jU r-'il ~ ll-II ~ ~ «~» 1 64; J~i is an attribute inJ~i .)...4 but may be used as an appellative of this bird ( ...;...au 'L-I -.:5..; I~!J) with distinct plural 6 79-, and consider the contrastive plurals u')(.j (naCt) vs. u~ (noun) 1 290,4 180; also the distinction between ~ and Ja.i.o as noun and adjective, respectively in 5 18; the proper noun c:~ undergoes imaia, whereas the same word in na't position does not 3 9; other occurrences of this contrastive pair in 2 73, 103, 255 (note in 2 330 .. ~ I~! •...1.,.,~I • L.....i ,;r .. where asma' is "names",

not the grammatical category); it is not certain if this contrast is to be inferred from the analysis of the attribute in i~ 1.)") where i~ ("quick") is defined as J.aj ......

~

'i ij'i .., r-I 4246. See 3.1.4.4 on naCt as ism (vs.

149

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

verb); further, the pair (JJ.

- (.1:J. exhibits transformation of nisba into ism

ldzim 4 136, whereas ". • .::"-1. • .:. is a contrastive ism·nisba pair 3 98-. [3.1.4.2] na't vs. taCaggub: the latter seems to denote the superlative which is demonstrated in .)'!lNllolJ)11 and is distinguished from the former by

the restriction formulated as follows: .. ~ ~

4J'J

o~1 j~ ~ (whereas

the naCt may take the indefinite form in VA .r.S'i) 5 362. [3.1.4.3]

ma~dar as non-ism (Le. as verb): 1~

identified as follows: t....1 ~ ~J

TJ..I..a,o

~

4J'J

as against

01..1

~ is

252 and Similarly 337;

ijalH reportedly answers a question about the status of ~ and says: "It is ism, not ma~dar" 5 166; termed If! and contrasted to ism in paradigms of verb derivatives 2 145, 183,3 40, 171, 173 (ma~dar), 267, 364,4 27 and consider the dichotomy (s.v. ty) of .J~I el.,; 1$.111 ;.:.. ~j')IJII"""~1 and J~I

2 184; distinction made according to sound morphological considerations: J~i the noun takes the plural Jl~i , whereas the naCt's is ~ 6 79-, and consider the following observations: .J~"'I""" ~IJ J~IJ 8 259, • ~ is noun, whereas. Lili is ma~dar which, in contrast to nouns, has no derivative forms of plural and diminutive 8 229 and (the interpretation of the ma~dar ~I..t'I instead of the "expected" ~~) 1"""1.". Le! •..;-.. J~ ~ 4J'J 8 415. The following passage is problematic: IolJlJi ~J" :~J j&- 4111

Jli '~J ..I>IJ :~I

J~~ ~ 4J'J ~ ~ "... ~I l:; 4 191. I prefer reading J~~ ~ "He (Le. God) used the ma~dar as noun". [3.1.4.4]

.

na't as ism vs. verb in participial forms: lulJ is contrasted to JIJ

in the following analysis: 1.lAo ~J 'I"""~I J~I.::.a.;J1 1.lAo ~IJ ~IJJ cl .JJJ

I$JIJ .". :cllllll.:-o..r.S- VA J.U.l1 ~J .:Jl) I~~ .j".lll ..:.a.i ~ .l+/I .;,).>~ ~I .~I 1.lAo 8 311 (llIl.:-o is the distinctive feature of stem IV in a I /IV-stems doublet of the "sJJ root 8 312), the feminine y~ may take the qualifier .J""'lS" (instead of o.J""'15) according to the following explanation: J.U.l1 .J'J .l+/I I~~ ~l&

5 307, and cf. the doublet J~/.)'! 8 259.

[3.1.4.5]

noun vs. particle: transformation of particles ()

.~)

into nouns

by morphological modifications discussed in 3 352- and 8 143-; in the latter locus distinction between the particle) and the nominal.,; yields the following statement: I"""~ ~J

obi J.;> ... )

... ; consider also the interjection Jl which

150

CHAPTER THREE

may take tanwin and turn into a nominal (4.1

J..J .AI"; 4.1~ '1.....1 ~ IJ"J .. ) 8

410; noun is contrasted to individual particles: to

(Ji

':'-"j/ ~j)

~i 1

365,.r.S- is either nominal or exceptive in the sense of~! 4 444, Lo is either nominal or one of the following (particles): a., 'r~ ,~ 8 434, implication ofthe above in the definition of the two functions of

•YJ~ , 1~~J [3.1.4.6]

rs-: ~~

,J&-

4.IL...

..J?

5286.

adverbial vs. noun: rLoi : \"",",1 vs. rLoi :ll..:. 8 429 and similarly

~ in 243, the locative .1:...J, termed ~J'I' is contrasted to ..h:..J , the ism 7

279; note, however, that iJ..v and J~

are presented as nominals where the

category ism is contrasted to ma~dar in the study of .l,A1j 8 229.

[3.1.4.7]

adverbial

(~ifa)

vs. adjective (naCt): in the study of iJ.J~ the two

options are presented as follows:

"l:.a.i ~J ll..:. iJ~ 8 72.

[3.1.4.8] onomatopoeic sound vs. noun: Ji :J~ 'tiJl.i";:";"; I~~ ... :Ji 4.1 :.AI"; 4.1~ ~ IJ"J 8 410; also the emphasis on absence of regularity in iCriib, which is characteristic of such sounds discussed in 3.1.3.5 (in reference to 3 309-) above; and consider the dichotomy in the pair ~/ ~

J..J

of which the vocalized form is /Jikiiya, whereas the other is either naCt or 1 320.

ma~dar

3.2 Noun sub-division 3.2.1 Generalization and contrast

a. Two general sub-groups: rls. • L....i.J .J~.J J....? ~ •L....i ~.J ~ • L...."JI.J ~J.J )~.J ...,..) J.!.e 7 375; the term ism bii~~ is probably contrasted with ism in the discussion of the otherwise ungrammatical R,=R2 in ~~ 5 13; I am less confident about the classification of laqab (contrasted with ism) in the analysis of eft 3 38-.

b. nisba vs. ism liizim ~ cli

Loj~

L....I

~I ~ I~~:~

eLoJ

4136

and nisba vs. ism in d. • .:'/d ••.:., respectively 3 98- (on ism liizim see 3.2.2i below).

c. e~"J1 • L....i vs. JI..&"JI • L....i 3 99. d. proper noun vs. ism ciimil 3 113. e. proper noun vs. appellative in the study of uJ'l'.r--

3 103 (see 3.2.4b

151

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

below)_

3.2.2 Sub-classificationlidentification by semantic criteria a. ma~dar without verbal derivatives (related to the adjectival forms / p,i .Ip,) described as I!J~~ ~) jj~ 8 160. In a similar case of the ma~dar

lJ."aJ:., lack of verbal forms is explained by lack of tabawwul

7 428 (Another

case of "verbless ma~dar is ~).) 7 245; J~ is related directly to ~ , but the verb ~ is then mentioned 6142). b. identification of nominall.o as ~~\'I ~

vi I.SJI:'-I.I"""'I 8 434.

c. temporal noun (ism iii-zaman) and votive particle

(r-i 4.t ~IJ! J?) as two

distinct meanings of ~".;&. 2 193- (see also 3.2.Sa). d. collective noun (ism gamf) and nomen unitatis in. L.&./i. L.&.

2 266, ism

gami' also in 3 92 and ~I ~ t"~ 1"""'1 ~IJ in 6 49; nomen unitatis also in 7 453 where ~ is presented in relation to ~ as:

4.:.0 ~1.

c. ~! ~.,-A.o 1"""'1 : seems to indicate specific (temporal) noun in non-nunated ~ (~) which is contrasted (?) to 1..,-. 3 135.

f. ism camm seems to indicate nomen generis, either by reference to property in .)1,.,.t.1 ul)~ I$i ....aJaJ1 .:r ..r.> .)l.L.1 : I)u yl)..ul 1"""'1 I~ I~!J 3 212 or not

o..r5J!

U ~I..ul jL.J11""'"~I 8 13. g. ism !Ja~~ may be the opposite of ism amm, although no explicit contrast is mentioned 4339. h. ism mawq,i;{: occurs five times and seems to denote a substantive noun which is derived from (de)verbal forms but nevertheless behaves like a pure substantive;)".l.II.:r~""1"""'1 :)"~ 5 327, w,)I.:r~""1"""'1 :~I.~)1757, ~.,.. .:..a.:J1 VA t""1 :'~.J 8 214, ~)I VA ~.,.. t""1 :~ 8 247, t""1 :i:..ei ~i .:r ~.,.. 8 388. Similarly, the following cases treat nouns which have transformed from another category: .;"'-";' t....1 t4) J.,,-;: 3 136 and >. L'"')I.: 4.1')1.: 8 214. In several other collocations of the W_p_c root, the conventional C

character of the items is brought forward: ~I yU ~ J)? 4 73, '1.'1. ' ~ I.... ••• l~ ~) ~:~

~

,

t4)

loose ~.rJ1

7 5;

III I t ' ~ I.... iwoua...lJ~) ~

..f 8 "1 :u'';' 307-, J? :~ -

8387, and similarly in music 3230,63; and consider the rather .$':) ~ attributed

to Abu l-Aswad 3 302.

1. ism lazim (see 3.1.4.1 infine, reference to 4136) seems to indicate the transference of adjectives into the category of substantives; consider the contrast laziml badi! in 8 160 above and the description of ~)..JI as il..!J11"""'1 ~~)..JI

4198.

152

CHAPTER THREE

j. 'ism yu~afu bihi' occurs probably in a non-technical sense in f"""1

:~I

• UIJ yb.-JIJ ~I i.,rs' ~.......,~ 5351.

k. the identification of!LI2; as ,.,..~I ~.,.. ~ ~J f"""1 8 155. l. for asmii> al-asbti/:l, -al-acmtil, nisba, see 3.2.1b and c; for pronouns cf. 3.2.3, proper nouns are discussed in 3.2.4. m. The discussion of the collocative relations of the expression l~i l.o involves the

distinction~1

(~)

vs. ~I

terminological phraseology by (..:J~I VA) ..:J~I VA ~

R

(~)

,which are described in

l.o '.J~~I .5.JJj ~U; ~ vs .

l.o respectively, 2266.

n. It is questionable if

r.a is conceived as a noun. Its inflectional behaviour

only "takes after the verb's" (J.aA.lI ...A......,..aJ

~ ~,.,J..-..)

4 56. I have classified

it arbitrarily as a particle. o. The term kalima mustaqqa denotes the word Jljj in 7 350, which is presented as ~j)J \....1 ~ (probably conceived as ism ma~dar, see 3.2.6c). I could not find any other occurrences ofthis seemingly fundamental category. p. asmti' mdrifalmdtirifdenote proper nouns. The term is employed mainly when the grammatical feature of diptosy characteristic of this category is discussed, Animals' appellation by asmti' mactirif is discussed in 8 198, with the note. WIJ J~)I ..s.r:wo 4-iJ~. 3.2.3 Pronoun a. termed asmd' mw;imara 1 168 and ism . . y-,.".;atl f"""1.JlSJl.i :~~ 8 440-. b. contrasted with overt nouns .::......,.." ~4! :..:J.i l.J# .r.&- J..o-I ("'!,Mj ..:J~) I~~ 8440-. c. the third person ~ - ". are called 4WIJ .,r.S'.l.:J1 ~l.:S' 4 105; k-n-y is also

employed in the discussion of ~: .JL....;~I f"""1 l+t ~ 4 91. The term is not mentioned in the entry K-N-Y (5 411). d. demonstratives termed asmti' makniyytit 8 208-. 3.2.4 Proper noun a. termed ism 1 190; termed al4ltim wal-kunti 8 390. b. derived from an appellative ~ ~..::..:- ~ 1..1>IJ \....1 ~ .;,l-.I :..:J,y..ri~13

103.

153

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

3.2.5 Sub-classificationlidentification by morphological criteria a. The two distinct meanings of tiP-;" (see 3.2.2c) are further marked by capability (of ism ai-zaman) vs. incapability to have the tanwin tennination 2 193-. b. compound (proper-) nouns described as 1.1>1., L....I ~ iJL....1 : y~J.AA 2 217, uY'.r- 3 103. c. distinctive morphological patterns of otherwise homonymous ism and nisba (see ~in 3.2.1b ad3 98-).

d. ~i as an example of semi-nisba adjectives of the Jaji pattern with an added -iyysuffix:

4-i dS' ~:.,wi J.&. ~I ir I~ ~ y.rJl.,

3294.

3.2.6 Verb derivative nouns masdar: a. definition: JW~I ~ .;Jw2j ~.lJ1 WS".JI J-i .;~I., 7 96 (and cf. the addition

from Azhari quoted there). b. ism lil-/i'/: t WLI 1 124 (probably in reference to ism al-mw;dar discussed below, but cf. 5 140, where ~ is presented as ism fic I of ~). c. ma$dar vs. ism (al-ma$dar): ~u, described as ~U,~I

o.;..L.Ao iJ~

U 1"""'12

209, 3 259 (i~~1 1"""'1 ~~I.,), 3 407 (~ :J..:.j L....I ~ 15~ .. ~I);

JS'., ·4..; yb) J!.. .;~ ~I 1"""'1 .;..L.Ao i~l., I"""'I~., '~I~ y.ia.t y~ :J.".A;., .. Uu~I.;~UI., .. Jui :J!.. Jw O.;..L.Ao I"""'u further b.,"\'( Jaj~ iJlS' 15!

.;..L.Ao

~.l...i .;~I., .;~I 4 302,

I""'"~I UUa.lI., UUaJI ir

.;..L.Ao

.;I)a.;..~I.;~ 1"""'1 i.;.,~7 7,4314,7 208 (I"""'I ~.;..L.Ao

J,.,laJI., 5 193; also

..,..,L......,). The unexpected

.;..L.Ao 5 147 (Similarly 4 in relation to identification of U) as JI.,..ti~1 y~1 6 147) seems to mean "the nominal fonn from which all the related

verbal fonns (represented by the ma$dar fonn) are derived". d. ma$dar presented as ism: il.r""~1 I""'"~I., ... :~)I i.r""i., 7 121. e. noun may substitute ma$dar: Jj.; :.;~I J.&. 1::.?i 1"""'1 5 89; the relation between .I~ and the verbal ~~ lS~i is fonnulated as follows: JaAJI ~ ~

~~ lS~i 883. nomen vicis (0.1>1)1 i)l): 1115,142,166,3267,4292,7201,8 145i.l>I., ~ 15!

(llaJ • ~ ul! U~.;.

41S' .;~UI iJ~ .. )

154

CHAPTER THREE

nomen vicisl nomen speciei: .)I~ .~IJ ~I :J.!.o JaJI VA Y;4 ~J i..l>l)l i)1 ~ .)I~ ~ :~JI ~ L:..o

tf 7 465; J.a.i.l1 VA Y;4

IJ 4W are further contrasted in 2 25.

3.2.7 ldentifcation by syntactic criteria the status of an as ni~fism: ~ l!ll.i.liJ oJi -l~"'J...i.t I..oUJ ~I ~ 1..1>IJ LI oJl.r.J.1 8 396-.

::ii»

)

3.3 Adjective (naCt) 3.3.1 Contrastive relations a. see 3.1.1, 3.1.3.2, 3.1.4.la (vs. ism), 3.1.4.2 (vs. taCaggub), 3.1.4.4 (ndt is ism, vs. the participle), 3.1.4.7 (vs. the locative ~ifa). b. naCtl ficl in non-terminological, common usage:""'; ~ A Ja.iJ ~ JS'

-lWJI (s.v.~) 7 255. 3.3.2 Derivation a. of verb, from naCt:

:I$i JaiJ Ja.i .u :JlA.t oJ i VA

..:,,~I VA

J.::.I.i.II ~! 'Wai -l~ 7 435. b. of ism maw(iil', shared by numeralia and the naCt category:

(~ ~ oJ'J .LI ~ b

J.:-l JS' ~ ~J ~

> .1..:...-

J....'JI ~ oJlS'J .. ~~1 ilj! ~I I.~ji ~ ..

~.,.. v-ll,:r ~I • L;........J), and likewise 4;')I.! > .l:')I.! 8 214. 3.3.3 Sub-division a. ndt wiigib as a sub-division?:

Jw ~ ~IJ .;...;

:IJ"'I.".:..J 6 229, also 4 229;

note that wugub is applied to the adjectival identity of i.)l> ,which is opposed to its verbal sense in l.:.o.)l> oJ. and 1~ L:....o.)l> oJ., respectively 4 235. b. The noun with nisba ending (among its many occurrences [see Index], this term is used, for example, in 4 195, in the discussion of optional -yyending to oJL...I';' ) is rendered naCt as the identification of:)W as ~I ~! .;...; proves 6 141.

155

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-eAYN

3.4 Verb sub-division 3.4.1 Sub-classification/identification by semantic criteria

Tenninology: a. eiliig ~ ~ r:..':J..&. JjAll 1 132; non-technically in 1 229, 305.

b. /:ziidi! characterizes deverbal adjective and ma$dar and is contrasted to ltizim, see 3.2.2i. c. passive voice is identified as ~ If.W ~~." I.f! J~.~ 1 150. 3.4.2 Tenses [3.4.2.1] Tenninology: a. al-miit/,i 2 200-,4 72. b. future tense is al-gabir in 166

~,

8245 and elsewhere (see what follows),

and al-qiibi/l 146 (variant of the above-mentioned 166

~).

The literal sense

of giibiris ~~I 4414. c. future tense is also tenned al-mustaqbal 7 385

JI..~ l.o ~I), 8423.

(~

cJ)~

~

: .. J..J l.o

-

d. present tense is al-/:ziitjir (identifying J~): 8 196. The tenn al-/:zal is defined as ~

.;:.;i

1$.111 ~)I 3 299. It is not used in grammatical analysis in K.

al-CAyn. e. non-tenninological reference by 1..\i. to future tense: 1 243,4235,5 101.

f. non-tenninological reference by JI,p 'i to durative action: JI,p 'i ~

oi..... l."

~.J+i 4105.

g. al-giibir is used fonnally in reference to the imperfect verb J..j

r;" ".lAJl Jaill ..I> ~ 4-'-" Jaill ~ l....U ~ ..u 8 321.

~

:r1."

h. the obscure Cawiimil may refer to imperfect aspect. The dubitative qad is defined as follows: "..uJ~ iJ~ ..u" :J.oI.".J1 ~ .;:.;lS' I~! 5 16.

[3.4.2.2] Contrast and complementation: a. al-mii{ii vs. al-giibir 8 307- (311): This contrastive pair is employed non-technically in the discussion of past and present nations 1~ .J.rS-

J;" J!.o I:?..u..:d.b '1~

2215- (no semantic distinction between

the two tenns can be drawn from the references discussed in what follows). c. L~I d! ~lAJl ~ j.J~ J.Ai ~b 3 107. [3.4.3.2] Stems and their mutual relationship in respect of transitivity: a. lazim vs. mutaCaddin: stems VI II 1 21O,lazim vs. mugawiz: stems VIII I 1 292, 3 133; VIlli I 427; stems II, IV are transitive (mutaCaddin) in relation to stem I r;:-.?I- ,~~! vs. tr-' 2 185. b. murawl: stem VII in relation to I J..aj ~.Jlk.. JL.a,i;'JI.J 7 126, stem VIII in relation to I j.AAJ1 ~.JUa... ~ ~'>Li :J~ 'J.J ,~.li 'l;')U ..:J~,> :Jp.J 7410. c. reciprocity (?) in stem; VI, VIII:

I.!.l~

It ~lH ~.~ JS.J

:I~I.J 1~\Jaj

.. JL..:i'Jb ~U::JI ~ j~ ~ ~')I.&lAJl 2 16. d. characterization of stem VI with respect to reciprocity! distributivity ~ ~ .,..; ~~ ..I>I.J JS ~ ~j j~...J ~ ~ ..I>I.J JS JAi ~ ~')l::JI.J 2 142. e. reflexivity of t-stem: ~llz.e..!J1 J6. d! J...:..o J..~ 4.i~ ~..:.1l I~!J .. 4 321. f. both transitivity and intransitivity in stem I: no notification of morphological distinction ~l...."........ j.J~I.J rj )IJI. . ...A5 5283,. L.. 7 327; different ma$dar J"';.J jJJ.J for intr.1 tr. respectively 5 223; vocalized vs. non-vocalized R2 in the stem I ma$dar indicates intransitive vs. transitive opposition ~ ~ 1 166. g. stem III expressing semi-reciprocity and stem VI, iterativity according to 3292. [3.4.3.3] Passive verb presentation: a. tenninology and related expressions: J~I c;~I.l.:.t 7 215-,J~ (vs. J.JJ"'") 8 307-, J~ J,.,-.A.o ~ 7 385,;.W J~ 7 210-, ~lAJl ~ I,;! 2224.

157

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

b. semi-definition: ~J ~ 4-Wv-o 1150.

,." lfI J~'cr o!lH iJ'J v-1p u~J ~

'PJ

..

up

"uJ

[3.4.3.4] Mode of notification of paradigmatic relations: theffl-fiYil-mafulset: .. "-1 J.,.,aIJ .. j&.UJIJ ,JJ....... ~IJ 5412. [3.4.3.5] Interference in paradigmatic relations: a. non-paradigmatic ma~dar jA.:.ilj~L.:a.o UJ~ l.o I.aJ 'JI?'Jlj~ u.)JIJ 5 147. b. syntagmatic relation involving stem I ma~dar following stem II verb is :~IJ conditioned by the existence of correlative stem I verb: 1.l.Ij.l..

,d:M JAi ~ 'J ..w iJ'J ,~ :j..\.4.J) J~ 'JJ ~ ~ J".iJ 'JJ ~ ~ :J".iJ d.i'J 2 23.

..

J.:.'15 j~ ~b ..: lA...

c. ~ 'c.s-s- termedffl niiqi~ for absence of conjugational forms other than the perfect 2 200-. [3.4.3.6] Weak: verb terminology: verba tertiae yii': .. 4.SJ..4 • ~ ~ iJ~ ~I ~..,A.:l1 v-o j~ JS'J 7 142; a great majority of the occurrences of the root N-Q-$ in terminological usage refers to ""IJ as R 3• e.g.: 2 205, 5202. 3.5 Particle sub-division 3.5.1 Terminology/definition: see 3.1.3.

3.5.2 Typical i"riibi situation a. related to the particles' characteristic feature formulated as Iii tatamakkanu fi I-ta~rif 3 309-, where its present feature is shared by the class of a~wiit, I)ikayiit, zagr 6 134. b. described as either free variation of any of the three vowel terminations (y,p) 3 309-, or: I . variation, in ~ and similar interjections of the zagr ,

.

function with vowel-less termination 3345, or vowel-less (gazm) termination following a vocalized consonant .. ~I ~~ ~ d .•~'J rJ.r:c-o JAJ :~ 6 134, or na~b in the case that the previous consonant is vowel-less J~ ...A.? iJL:S"L.. ~ ')W t;SWI. ~I v-o 1)) • UJI I..~J ibi 5414.

c. for discussion of $ilalfat;ll, see 4.1.2.3.

158

CHAPTER THREE

3.5.3 friibi effect

.~ ("""'~I r!J'- r!)J il"i :~ 3285.

3.5.4 Particles and their distinctive functions •')I.. :Jl> c} 1.L:.....: ~f 320 4

.~ ir ~"""'I ~ ~ ~~ ~.)u

tf

352 8 ~~ ' •. ~ L,;is r~1 .loU.t~ ~ (~i> ~J .. ~ :Jl> c}J .1~...i ~! 1~i ~i.) L. :~.,AS' •• l:!.::...1 :~! \li (~)J ~ (~i) ~ :~ ~f

r~1 ..J? r~1 : ~f

:rf

352 8 ~I ~Jt; ... (~=) •..IS'~'cr-' ~~! ~J 435 8 r~1 ~ r~1 ~is ~I ,; ~ .41) ~ : ~-f 435 ' 8 .,..~I "-! ~.Y- ~ J.e!.,; L,;!L~I. L.I. cl.i I~!L~

·435 8 • UJ~ ~I~J r~1 JJi y~~ ~ r":JS JS' ~? . ..J? :4iJ~ .~b -4358 V'...,..i ir .~ ~ .)~I 1·4.L : ~!J .. ~1 ~V!i irJ h ..4S' :1.L:..... ;..if -396 8(L.) 4i~ ""-:J .1~1 c} ilj~

is~ \....!...) .).r~IJ r~1 ~ ~ ~I ~WI r~ ~~ .. : ~~I 3998 ~ ",fi.JJ ... "-4i L. ~ .~ L. "-! ~ ~ ..J? :.J f 4048 ..::$.......,J

.;.I ~··(ri> 440 8

:~f

)~ ~.r'; (Ji) ~J .. (~) ~ ()) ",fi.JJ .. (..L!) Clz:i~IJ ll..:Jl! ~I ,; J>,.\j :1/1 -438 8 41) ~ ,A..":JS 4418 ~ AJ~ :.)4f 440 8 ~l-.lJ ~ •• I.,I,j :(~f) ~f 404 8 ~~I ir ~J :Utf 3878 r-.iU ~J ..J?

r~~1 (..L!) "'~J

..

:~

146 4 .~~ Y~11 ~

Jl,ij WS'

:e.

~,; "'~J .(~) ~ :~J .• (~i> ~ WS' :41, 435 8 ~ ..LftJ 3408 .. c,;; ..J? ~ r~1 yl~ (~) L.iJ :~ 554 (t.")

84 8 ~ ~ :Jli"J .~ ~

y..L:.t:"

5 3 ~:~ (~:JA):~ 2623 .l:!.::...1 WS':Ul. 304 3",~1 :~"AJ ~:~ 316 3 ~~J ~

159

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·eAYN

345 3 ..:J.,s:...JJ jl:j WS' :.... - W:ai .:r y~ "';.,o>:~ -2002 M.Ja.. WS' ~.J (JaJ) ~~ •. :~ ~ ..:..:S'.. JL. ..v.,j ~ :..:JLAJ

.:r .IS') ~lS:.i ~ ~I ..:J.IS'.J.J ~ ~ .•. :.;,J 321 8 ~j:I: .,rlLAJI JalII :~ -350 8 ~ .~ r' ) [:.~] :~"J 4:-o i "';.,o>:"J 3508 "i ';'W.J ~4oJ1 ~] ~W:.)'I- 4 - LeJI.J ~W:.)'I ~"i ~')UI .l.i."i .;,~~ ~li.,o> WS' ;.,ooeJ 135 8 ~I~.J ~I il~i ~.J 351 8 [~I ~"i :yrJl 3007

.r.i- ~ I.S.I':'-I.

'1..... 1 ';'~.J .. 4J- ~.J

~.,-:

L.j:I: ';'~.J ..1~ .;,~

"';.,0> :l.. 434 8 ~~~I 358 3 #.J jl:j :.... 95 1 -c.r-'I

~! -c.r-'I ~"';.,o> :~ 3583 -1.)..1 "';.J.,o>/-I.)..I La

~~)'I ~ .;,)~ j~1 j.i.J :(~) ~ 103 4 ~.;,~ ~.JJl .~.J 102 4 ~ I.;.. ... ~.JWI ~ J-.:-.t"';.,o> :.~.J"'~ :~ ~ 1034

160

CHAPTER THREE

pi] ~ :~

-352 3 i~I..J.r- : ~

(~.Jl.a)J •.:"ts:...U :tJllaJ la

370 8 ~ :.'1;...

56 4.~ ~! i~,) 4...1S" :~J [~')I.&.i ~ 934 ,-:",...J; :~J (la) I.J-A ~i

190 2 .:;-; :.J ~ ~...J .~ ,:".,N 4...1S" :';.J 443 8 ~~ ..J.r- : '.J .106 4. I.;,! .. :40 3327 c.')I..;;..,buCt'"='-'"":U"U -442 8 J....."JI us-

4. Morphology 4.1 General concepts, principles and techniques 4.1.1 Terminology [4.1.1.1] Students of morphology: u....."..a:J1 yl-.:.i as specialists in the study of morphology (analysis of >~L... )L...) 2 210; ~I

JAi (also I$~I) studying morphological issues

1 259,2

200; ~~I ~ analyzing the identity of .:"LiLla> 4 297.

[4.1.1.2] Selective list of tenns denoting morphological structure (see Index): J-i ., LJIJ JI)I ~~ .J:-alIJ ~I ',="",U-IJ ~LJIJ ~~I .~i •.:"jJ ., ~ (J.;:aiJ) il.,p • ..I.iljJ [4.1.1.3] Selective list of tenns denoting inflectional behaviour (see Index): . ~ . J ..JJ""'J..J.r- • (J....:.'1I) 4 1.~~ '.;I.J.A; 'IS?IJ IS?' ~ •..JJ"'" .u..~ .~

(JYiJ ) ...A&.Wa..J.....w..... •..::J"":>J

[4.1.1.4 J

~I .~,;.i

Selective list of tenns denoting derivation: ',)J 'JJJ.4J JJ..4.0

.~b-

[4.1.1.5] Semi-tenns: Jaj used as an abstraction of nominal and verbal patterns, e.g.: • ~ ~ .. -ti

..::JlS'.r- 6~ Jaj 4319-, '\1.) j,'1 I.J-A ~ 7452, j.aAJ1.;I.J.A; J....:.i c} .:,,(S:j~

J.U..o .llIJ

5 387; neglect of abstractJaj : ~WI

IJ"'Y

J!.o

1"""1

f~1

4 241, ~ ~~

1 69; ['] used to distinguish ['] from its long vowel counterpart,

e.g.: ~ ':"j.1'l/'JJ 8 354; 'X's syndrome':

-4J

y~

J!.o

e.g.: 3 333 (6 96);

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

161

and see 4.1.2.1.1 and 4.1.3.3. 4.1.2 Concepts [4.1.2.1] General concepts: [4.1.2.1.1] Variational observations (luga and other): morphological variations explained by the notion of luga [ef. Index s.v.] - the metathesis ~ - y~ (also: ~ - ~ ) is classified as.:>L:.AI , without indication of dialectal orientation 2 345; tribal distribution (fugat Tamim as well as the vernacular of an unidentified group) is attributed to the variant ficil «faciT) 3 398. The fuga notion is employed further for the characterization of the variantfaCa ( [>] JW~I ';'IJi .)~ ~ .U/- ~ .411 iJ'J 579; the ,

- -

anomalous situation of one-letter words is regulated by the introduction of auxiliary elements in pausal forms 2 273 (~), 8 141- (4J), 442 (~ .~ ~

~ J!~)' as well as in certain words without'restriction ofpause conditioning 8406 (. La) I.)~ ~ r:11 iJ'J ... :~), 440- (J~ I.)~ "lot!" iJ~ :o.!Jlot!) and

164

CHAPTER THREE

probably 444-, in which Halil's formulation of a rule for diminutive forms of eM words from the alph~bet (.~ Js. ~ ~ •~I c} ..A.liJ • ~ JS' ~~J

• 4J1 d! ~..,ra::J1 c} r::J!

u.~

) is not bound to pausal (viz. yiP, ~iP etc.) vs.

non-pausal conditioning. The function of rimad in the structure of the diminutive of cr'1 is discussed in 4.1.3.2. Non-technical rimad explains the word .~.;: l~J'J w.l.t 1:?.lIi .~ ~~ 8 7; the word di"am has a similar non-technical sense in r~..\.t ~.l:ti .~I ~ 60.

.;,i

2

[ 4.1.2.5] Inflectional behaviour - ta~rif, tamakkun and their mutual relationship: [4.1.2.5.1] What is ta~rif: Ta~rif is the study of morphological units as is inferred by the following: ... "c.~~1 • L.....i" ~..,ra::J1 c} Jl.i...J 3 99. However, in the majority of cases,

the term refers particularly to the inflectional behaviour of words. This is brought forward by the identification of the word (s.v.): .:;l.i..!.1 :~..,ra::JIJ ~ ~ ~

7 109- (with possible overtone on derivation, see 4.4 below).

The plethora of loci which exhibit this term do not support an interpretation of this locus as inference to "the study of inflectional behaviour" (but rather, the study of another branch of scholars' morphological interest, namely: derivation [see 4.4 below]). Note, however, the passage in 5 256 where ta~rif denotes 'the sphere of inflectional behaviour'. In spite of its non-Arabic etymology,.;Uaa is rendered Arabic (sc. taking the iCrab), due to its denominal

J..,; Js.~?-- ~..,ra::J1 c}J "In the sphere of inflectional behaviour, its (viz. qintar's) construction is according to ... ". Two significant passages are 5 65 and 7 296, in which two pairs of respective verbs and nouns are described as equal in their inflection: ~ and ~~

counterpart~: ... yrll

inflect identically to J~ and stem VIII, while.;~ and~: c}

L..I~

..I>IJ ~..,ra::J1. [4.1.2.5.2] What is tamakkun: Observations concerning nominal inflection relate ta~rifto nouns' "solidity" (~) which, by contrast, is non-existent in particles, e.g.: c} ~ ~ ~IJ~~I ~..,ra::J1 3 309- and the deSCription of

14-. Onomatopoeic expressions

(~~)

.u and .hi as ~..,ra::J1 c}

may have inflection after their trans-

formation into nominal/verbal patterns, e.g.: ~lSJ.1 ~~ ~~

~ ~ 5

r!

.~I ~ y;4 ~~ :~

3341; further 1 54-,251,522-. In a rather circular

165

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

reasoning, the noun's "solidity" is expressed by its inflection into such fonns as the dual, plural and diminutive: ~I is non-inflected ~ ~ "i ':''J .~ 4! J~ "iJ J.,r:&! "iJ ~ "iJ ~ "iJ ~ ')I.j u.,~1 8404.

Similarly, absence of iCrabi markers in ~1 results from lack of tamakkun 2 194.

[4.1.2.5.3] Some distributional notes on ta~rif: a. Nominal ta~rif includes the fonns specified in 8 404 above; also the diminutive and broken plural in 7 186. Verbal inflection is hardly discussed in explicit tenns: Inflected (sc. " .I~ .~ ) "takes verbal inflection" (J..aAl1

u.,~

J.)

r.a

4 56. Participles (including Jai

) are verbal inflected

are described as ~IJ J..aAl1 ~ fonns: the fonns ~ - ~ , . u.,~1 J~I 1 326 (Is it because the passive participle

~

has no verb? cf. 2 225);

Similarly 5 281-: ~I~! J:UJI ~ u.,~IJ where the j&.l.i pattern seems to denote the verbal, whereas J..:.-j, the nominal fonn. b. Inflection is inherent in nouns and verbs. The author of K. al-CAyn believes that its absence in certain lexical items deserves note and is sometimes explained by such expressions a';"~ 4i: .1~ occurs only in collocation with.1l::-o 4 76; also: 1169-(lf)...,....,i ~iJ .L....'JI VA ,.;.-.1. .. :iJ.H), 2 40 (~14i .i"iJJ.&, :A.l J~~..,..~! ~ ... :~J..\AJIJ)' 48 (:~~~/h~ J.a.iJ1 ~ 4 i ~J )w ~ iJ~ ~i ~J)' 200- (J..aAl1 ~ J-:.-t :~ J.a.iJ1 .p.J VA .1.,... L.. 4iJ ... ~UI), 247 (.I.dl,,;.,... J.a.iJ1 1.1. t;L..iJ :JlaJ), 215 (according to one opinion, the word i)~ is built according to the patternficlalwah:

..w 4 i J..:t'JIJ ... ),

3 215 (J..aAl1 4 i

:'l.e>J'" which refers

to the verb governing the ma~dar), 424 (The root •.;~ is used only in certain expressions with the fonn :~~:..w 1..;L..i), 80 (JS" 1..;L..i y...-JI ~J ... :..::..L. J'"'JI ~ "..::..L." "i!

4-W VA

.j,), 149 (.:;.....).1 denotes "cold wind": ..;;.j,?

l.fjl5' J..,.aAlIJ ~ j&.l.iJ1 1..;L..i) , 5 168 (~ J.a.iJ1 ~i JjJ .;~ ("""I "'J :J~), 8 196 (".;,.4" VA J~I.::,.jL..i Jj y...-JIJ :".;,.4" ). Note the description of:;'1: 4.1S' ~i Jj 7 330; The inflectional possibilities of the noun i).~j are presented as limited (.p.J ~ liJ..r""" "iJ "l,.JAA.o "iJ ~l.i ~ t- i ~J ... Jai ~ J.;A! "iJ ). Simultaneously, it is noted that there are only three other nouns of the same pattern 1 352; further, the word azaz (of the expression j) r+'-" 4,1) is not inflected to plural and does not have verbal derivatives 397.

(Jai

~ ~

"i) 7

166

CHAPTER THREE

[4.1.2.6] Inflectional behaviour - deviation from regular iCrab and nunation: The central position of iCrab and nunation in this branch of morphology is indicated by the fact that the term w~ of the same $-R-F root as ta~rif

denotes full trabi inflection: V'~~ lAj1.r.-! ws:Jl w~.J

7 109- (s.v.); also,

probably, 741 (s.v.,.,....,) ~t; ls'~ ~lS' I~! w';'l w~

..:;J,.,....,i. But~arf

may indicate non-icrabi vocalization, such as in the case of w';'l w~ :v-)I

~WJ ..;J~I ~ 1,$.lJ17 190. It seems, however, that the ~arf concept reflected in K. al-CAyn renders the (nominal) iCrab an external marker which corresponds to the extent of inflection as characterized above. A typical example is 6 134: '"""..ra=JI ~ ~ 'i ";~[.J] ... r.J~ jA.J ... :~. No less significant in this respect is the use of ~arf for the denotation of a transformational process in which one morphological form is presented as a "deviation" from another, regular form. While this concept involves the analysis of structures on the syntactic level (cf. 5.1.3.7), there are several cases in which the concept is applied to pure morphological forms. Consider the discussion of rl.l> in 3 204: ~ IA ~.J'" ~I.J ti)1 t:4.r ~ y..,.JI 4J.r."~W" ul! w~ Wj ....... ~~ ~.J ,~ ~ J.J..IA,.t .!.i";" ..:..ai .,;~ r~1 w~ ... w.J';'1 ';'1) ..:;J.;-5. In this passage, ~arfis both "regular inflectional rules" in r~1 w~ and a synonym of (~ ~) J.J..IA,.t. The latter concept of "deviation" involves an anomalous state of i'rab markers in the transformed item. I have noted only one more occurrence of the concept with its trabi implications expressed by ~ ~ 4JI..\a.i'i 6 295- (where the feminine patterns: ')\.Aj and ~ are discussed). The technical expression ul! w';:' also

>

occurs in 5 195, where~.J is described as w~.J J~I ~ .)tr. J..e...j .J.l> J..e...j ul! without, of course, iCrabi implications involved (see next paragraph). [4.1.2.7] Inflectional behaviour - non-icrabi anomalies: Subsequent to the concept that nouns and verbs are normally inflected with complete paradigms, such groups and individual items which fail to follow this norm are carefully identified and classified in accordance with their anomalies. a. absence of derived verbs: Absence of derived verbal forms (including participials) characterizes a restricted group of nouns with shades of verbal sense and/or typical verbal noun forms: ~ t-i ~.J ... 'i! ;lJa.i 4J ~.J jU ~ w,;A! 'i.J ... :o)~jl.J

'.JI':.J ~ li.J~ 'i.J 'i.,.aA.t ~.J ')i.&.li 1 352; J.aA.e ~ [,~ Jli:..!.'il ~ jA.J :JjU ~ ~ ~.J ... 2 62 and 180 (:J..eAJ 1041 jU J-;w..l ).J ...• I~ o~.J

167

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

I,!.lH ~ e-i ~J .~i ~ ~ ~). b. absence of full verbal inflection: The verbs ~ and ~ are recognized by "the grammarians" as naqi$, due to their restricted inflection (no ~* or ~

IJ"'~

*) 2200-.

c. total absence of ta$rif: The case of .1~ is discussed in 4.2.1.9-9. d. absence of the singular: Similar observations concern the following pluralis tan tum nouns: .;~i in the expression ~I.;~i 3 74-, ~ in 3 98, ~I in 3 395, i~ in 4 26, ~I in 4

306. The lexical item i"""'; is introduced as ..JruJ V'" ~ .1>1.1

~ 7

303.

[4.1.2.8] Inflectional behaviour - morphological shifts and their respective terminology: The majority of such shifts in which phonetic features play clearly a leading role have been described in 2.4.5. Among these note JI~! of [w] > [t] in

verba primae infirmae and

~.}

(2.4.4.6) as an elision ("curtailment") of

the word's final consonant(s). The term qalb denotes transposition. Its occurrences involve a fairly monolitic process of R2 w/y > R3W/Y e.g.: ~~ > ~~ 2 173, 209 and 8 433, although the transposition of ~i into ~i (R 2 > R 1 ) is also termed qalb. (The same transposition is presented in 7 461 without specific terminology). Ta!JwU is employed in reference to transposition in hamzata verbs: ~ > ~i 7 331. It is doubtful if this occurrence justifies the claim that the term is synonymous with qalb. The other occurrences of ta!JwU indicate its similarity to ibdal: •..?

> .I..? 8 248- and ~i.;

>"::"'.J

8 307- (and see next paragraph).

The term ~I refers to the doubly weak root (R 2w, RJ}') but its etymology is said to be ~

= ri-JJ (iJS- >if): t.)~ ~~I .L:)I ~ JI)I.;4J;! I).i!:w..u

~ t.~~iJ.~ 2270. The term Cala I-tamam denotes a non-shifted form with a weak radical which otherwise may exhibit a shift:.. ~'.:. (i~) instead of '. _,~' 6292.

[4.1.2.9] A remarkable methodology in the analysis of weak radicals: In two proximate entries in the dictionary, Ij-W-F 4 312 and )-lj-W 4 319, the author develops a remarkable theory of morphological shifts based on an integrated abstraction of sound features and their dynamics. Several other locutions, in which certain aspects of the theory are practised, prove its consistent status in his theoretical model. In the two above-mentioned passages the author formulates the theory on the basis of three elements: !Jar! wa-$ar!

168

CHAPTER THREE

wa-.yawt. The /:larf is any of the consonantal letters, which has its own sound termed gars. The matres lectionis have neither gars nor .yawt 6 51 (see 2.3.3.2). In contrast to them, the consonantal letters (.yi/:la/:l) are independently pronounced 4Jl> ~ ,J).;:J.J ~ '-"! ~~ "i 3 352-. The .yaiffeature is the consonant's option of "moving", whereas .yawt is the physical-acoustical expression of this option. A note on the nature of .yarf is made by the author in the entry /)-M-R: ~l.i 'lS'~ ~lS' 15! w.).1 wr" u~i 7 41. Accordingly, the shift ya!Jwafu > ya!Jafu is explained as follows: w, the /:laif, is omitted, but its .yarf and .yawt remain. Its .yarf substitutes it, so its .yawt joins the .yaif, namely, the a+alif (a) is a combination of .yaif+.yawt of the omitted w GI)I wr" ~ u,.,-JI I.J...I..;;.&.I ). The shift !Jawifa > !Jafa is a case of omission of both /:laif and .yarf The remaining element is .yawt, which by joining the a vowel of the preceding consonant lj, turns into "soft alif' (u,.,-JI l~i.J 4lAJi L,.:.. Jl-i .l.;I.l ~ ~ u,.,-JI I.J...I..;;.&.I.J). A similar process is suggested in the case of aIJaw > a!J+jC rab vowel: Omission of both /:larf and .yaif moves its .yawt to join the preceding vowel and create with it a "soft alif'. A rule motivated by "quest of alleviation" (isti!Jfa/) forces omission of this alif so that the preceding consonant remains and its vowel marks the {rab (wuguh al-na/:lw): ~ Lo -;5.;> ~ u,.,-JI ...I..;;.&.u u,.,-JI L,.:.. l~i.J • ~I.J .JI."JI l.,AJi 4;

.

..

4 WI If.... u,.,-JI J~ ~ -;5.).1 .;.;lS' 15~ ~ .l.;I.l ,- }} "u~II..iJ~1 l.,AJi ~ ... l>i :4 'wi If.... Jl-i ~ ~ t~1 f"'"'""il ."..all ~I O~.J ~ u r.oJ Lp'.;> . I have collected four passages in K.

.JI.J u~ ...I..;;.&.u ... ~';';lS' 15~

al-CAyn, in which analysis of the process affecting defective words takes into

account the .yarf element. In the case of adOur (of the pattern aful, pI. of dar), the autor explains why the original alif (cf. sing. form) turns into hamza; since it takes a vowel, it has to take the .yaiffeature. This cannot happen as long as it is a mater lectionis, so it turns into hamza: 1..iJ~1 iJ ~ i.;...+ll u.~.J

~J!~.J ~ w..,-]I ~ ~l.i,J)jI.~.,.. t} "~i" t} u.)~ ).1.11 ~.;.;lS' ~I u.;.+iu

4J,..:.i

'-"! 8 58 (the relation between matres lectionis and hamza is

implied in the statement.;...+l~ uu,~ ..!.t')W1 ul.ul.J 8 91). The other loci are: 8 247

(y)i. The author argues that dar can have the same plural, namely

.)~~i, and retain its original alif [-..L:.i '-"! 1..iJ~1 ~JI" .J. He explains that this

• original alifhas various realizations in the word's inflected forms), 8248- (?'

:.?- >, explained as 1$1)1 ~ l.f.ir" ..::J$-), 8406 (0,) >,): ..::..L.-.J .... 4J1 ..::J.l> 4....A.i '-"! ~I w.Jr" .JI."JI u~u .).o1.J ~I.J tiJI ~ .JI."JI).

In Azhari Talujib p. 28:

t} u,.,-JI r+i .,HJ V"'.).ol Loi 'V"'.?.J wr" L,.:.. W';> ~

w.).1 -;5.;> .,HJ w..,-]I Lo i.J .w.).1 ~"s:....

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

169

4.1.3 Principles and techniques [4.1.3.1] Detecting the underlying word-structure: a. In a multitude of passages in which morphological matters are discussed, the author offers a variety of solutions on how to break through certain opaque surface word-structures in order to reveal their underlying consonantal composition. About half of the collected passages exhibit entries in which the underlying structure is first presented and then the linguistic analysis is introduced by d~.h.J/ ~~I.J (5387,7300,8423) or ~/[I.!.lJ~l ':'~J (7 186, 256, 385, 8 208-). The passage in 8 247 deserves quotation: J....~I ~ U!J

J..aAJ1 ~l..i:..!.1 ~ . The expression r';"'" J ,:,~ (probably: "It is explicable as ... ") is documented in the study of the origin ofthe middle y of y.J 1$.M.o: .~ .~I.J .JI.,JI V'" r';"'" J,:,~ 2217. b. ta~rif as a tool of detection: It is postulated that inflectional forms may exhibit original underlying elements which do not occur in the surface structure of the given word. Note the use of the verb t?-JI. to denote this effect of ta~rif 7 304, 396. An exhaustive list of examples of the use of ta~rif as such a tool will be presented in the Derivation Section 4.4 below. In what follows we shall attach several illustrations to the explanation of modes of this technique. c. Reconstruction of incomplete surface structures: The plural and diminutive forms indicate the existence and identity of the third consonant of r-i and..l.! 1 50-. d. Reconstruction of ambiguous underlying structures: The compound structure of ~ «lJ""!i+~ is reflected in the saying ~ io.! ~I

~.J lJ"'!i ~ 7 300. The madd (vs. qi$ar) feature of alifin l.i..!. comes to light with the form i-,l.i..!. : '0,)-,.411 • L-~I ~ ,:,I~ Ut -,I)IJ • ~I ,:,~ •...AJ~~ ll>~ D..u .\..i..!J1 ~ ~J 5

184. e. Distinction of a~li from non-a~li consonants: See the cases of i)~ and

iLiS.,;... 4.1.3.3a (infine). f. In one case, two optional underlying word-structures, of a Qur'anic word which derives from;;"'" Q II 259, are presented in reference to the two respective readings without attempting defense of any of them according to principles of ta~rif: If the underlying structure of;;"'" is S-N-H, then: ~ ~ ; if it is S-N-W, then: ~ ~ 4 8. g. Syntactic considerations: The pattern of ,:,15:... is rna/aI, not fdal. Its response to the iCrabi rules of

170

CHAPTER THREE

locatives proves that it takes the pattern of the so-called ism makiin: J.,J..I.II-,

~~~! "1.lS"-, 1.lS" ~~ ~~" J.",iJ ~ yrJl) ... 5387. h. Distributional considerations: The pattern of t-~ is maf ai, not faCyal. This conclusion results from the following consideration: The latter pattern is absent in Arabic, which attests only to the patternfiCyal (~ .~~) 2 170; the word C.;, is identified elsewhere (2 283) as a neologism (i..l.l,.,..

~).

[4.1.3.2] Division of word-structure into three components: Within the introductory discussion of word-structure (al-CAyn's Introduction), ijalil puts forward the following formulaic division of tri-consonantal nouns: ~~ J?-, Ws:J1 4..! ~ J?-, 4..! i~ J? :J?i ";.J'"j.j 4r Jii ~~ ~ r'""~1 ~ 1 49-. He complements this formula with the observation that (nonconsonantal) y in the middle position is not counted (viz. as regular I:zasw): I.f! ~ ~ llJ..... • ~l.i ~-' ~...i LoU (for other occurrences of c_L_Q with reference to the secondary status of [t(, w, y] in comparison with consonants, see Index q.v.~; 1 57- is irrelevant in the present context). Another set of three terms, which is employed in the study of word-structure in the Introduction (1 56), comprises al-fwj111 wa-I-dgaz wa-~-~udur. The following (J-,,,I..40"-,) ••• ~ ~ ~-'

puts into question the full equivalence of the three members of this

set and the above-mentioned division. It seems that 4..! i~ J? and JJ...4 are basically identical, as are ~ ~..t! J~ and~ (and see what follows). The fact that the latter set is employed in the description of quadriliteral words of the R J R 2R JR 2 type seems to have dictated the author's inclusion of fu~ul (sing. fa~/) with the two other elements, since certain rules are formulated there in which separation (sc. fa~l) conditions the selection of consonantal groups that participate in the formation of sub-classes of quadriliteral words. The terms ~ (in the sense of middle-position consonant in word-structure) and ~

are rarely employed in other morphological discussions. The first

occurs in the discussi on of the difference between R2 of alJ (>a!JA Wam) and dam (>damani; also yad) 4 320; no Arabic word exhibits the sequence R2R2 (Ws:J1 ~ J'"~I

vi

1.j.lJ1 ~~ is laconic. In the other passage, its non-declined character

is described as ~~I .J,r> ~ IA ~. Then its anomalous iCrabi behaviour as an adjective is related to its identification as a deviation from the regular fiicila pattern: L..~l> If'.J .~.:r J.J...w.!.ij..o ~ J,j~ ~~I.J,r> ~ IA ~ .... Accordingly, this deviation has resulted in a change of its ending. No reason is given for this change, but the choice of the non-declined -i is explained as that of regular endings of feminine (pronouns), such as .~i

~! .~. Another interpretation c;.i J~ ~.J) assumes that the deviation from fiicila entails a change in status from the part-of-speech point of view, namely thatfaCiili resembles(~~) the class of .r.-Yb .::..4~1.J .::..I..,.....~L Subsequently, it takes this class' rul~s of word-termination: Unlike ~i, whose penultimate letter is vocalizedfaciili's unvocalized alif, similar to its equivalents in ~ and ~, forces the vocalization of the word-final letter. It seems that this interpretation, notwithstanding its particular application for adjectival 199- cited above.

Jw, underlies the formulation in 3 4

Indeclinable particles with !Zl ending: "is.;>

~ O~~~ ~.J~ ~.J :~

...A..~I vi ~ ~ J,j~.J ~I 6 134. 5 ~/Aa is diptotic o!J;.t 4i.,....("""'Il..f.i~ 3 354-. 6 Distinction of verb vs. adjective in the ending-mark ofJ...!. ~: The ending ~ ~ is described as~ ~ ~ J'"~I ~y.~.J J,j~ .«jl..!J ~» ~ whereas the ending ~ is identified as naCt 6218.

J.!.

vi,

7 The u ending of .l;.. « ~! u-o) is explained as ~ WI ~.,J ~ ..:;..ajJ.J 8 192 (for details about its derivation, see 4.4). 8 as the plural of i')l.j taken the tan win (l+1>~ -1+11 ~ ~~ I~! ..:,.-....,;..:dl) 3 119.

:,w

9 The distinction of pronunciation vs. noun as two optional manners of appellation of alphabetical letters has a clear declensional aspect: Only the noun is mucrab (I~!-i yl,! ~ JallJI ll...J'" - U. :J.,.i3 W' .....~ ~ I~! : U.

~.J U .ll.~

J..::.o-.rh 10

L...,..s:... - U. t.a

:J.,.i3 .("""'~I yl,!S'

J..::.o-.r i

L....I ';.r.4.J ~.J

7464; also y..r"-! ~ ~I.J.J';> u-o.J.;> :- WI 8 141-.

~I~~.J); :~i 7325.

174

CHAPTER THREE

[4.2.1.2]

Definition: A proper noun which is definite intrinsically is distinct from a substantive noun in that it (a) does not take the article, (b) has no inflection: Beside the form ~I , the optional intrinSically definite ~ is introduced 1

by 4j,j.ro

~J

4350; the feminine porcupine is called~. This name's

features are given as follows:"';~ ~ u.ro 'r ~J ...AJi ~ 357; similarly iJ~ in 437; the two options of the noun J~ are presented in more detail: :Jli"J

c) iJlS' I~!J "';~I

J.>

c) ~...I.:s. «J~» iJ'J 'J~ ~J :J~ ~J ... )~ ~ I$i J~

V"l.:Jl ,;r IJ~ ~C :Jp

i~1 J.> 390; also:.;..., 5 75. The dichotomy lJadd al-macrifa vs.lJadd al-nakira is employed in 4 390. [4.2.1.3]

1

"';,r>

Gender identification: and ~ are two adjectives that substitute the respective masculine

and feminine acts which they qualify _..,-11 ~

'iJ~ iJ~ :~IJ

_..,-1IJ

~~ ~IJ J~'JI ,;r)'.ll.I La; 7 327. If its sex is unknown, y~ is treated as feminine 1 181-; the plural 2 of ~ VII (in the group of stars comprising the Great Bear) is ~ u~, not (~) .y-!; the latter plural is specifically of human beings, not even of animates in general (hence two-year male camels are correctly called u~ 1 259. CP'V"r ~I-V"r u~ 1 329; the quantifier ~ turns~! into masculine 311-; the gender of~! is debated (ibid.): Those arguing masculinity note the absence of feminine morpheme (~WI 4-.":k ~ ~), whereas

iJ~)

supporters of its feminine identification suggest an analogy with paired body members ( ... VI~IJ ~I J!.o u"); neutralization of masculine and feminine in the adjectival Jw.. ~'JIJ j.lll ~ ..s~ u~1 ,.) .. . . .Jw . . JS'J) 542; similarly, with additional neutralization of number distinction, in the use of ":""...) 5 154 (see 4.2.1.9-5).

c) «;,I.l>>> ~ :J~ ,WS' If;'J ~iJ ... ;,1.1>

3

In the meta-language:

~.f-,&.

3 199-; alphabetical letter names may be either feminine or masculine:

";.).1 ~,,; ~ )'~ ,;rJ ,ws:J1 ~,,; ~ ~i ~

expressing the fact that a noun is feminine,

~j.t/~j.t

7303; two modes of ,are conditioned by

two different senses. The text is somewhat vague: It seems that ~j.t expresses the result of a speech act which treats an object as feminine, whereas

~j.t

indicates that the object can be referred to as feminine. In the beginning, the author refers to the fact that the word ~j.t is masculine, expressing (lit.

175

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-'AYN

J!.> vi ~~). The rest of the text runs as follows: ~li I.!.j~ :cli I~!i Iii;1 :J!.o I.l+l~ ~li 14!ij; .~ cli I~!i I.!.jjA.J 4!ijA :~.,AS' ",l.. ~ I~)I J!.o 8244. "with the shape") a feminine (ui'i

The feminine gender of j.i!.o

4

sexes) is explained as [4.2.1.4]

~I ~ ~

(in spite of its reference to the two

5137.

Plural noun:

[4.2.1.4.1] Singular and plural - anomalous inflection: 1 The singular form J;' of the plural JI;.i in the sense of "finger" is used only in the construct state with t:"""! (e.g.:~! Jp' .;L.:.i) 7414. 2

~I

4Wi as the plural of ~li: .)\; 1ollJ..U'.J

vi ~ t-'! ~.J

.?T ~~

iWl •.a u. ~ 1l!J

... I.S~.J ~,.\ji.J 898-. A similar case of anomalous

plural form of verba mediae infirmae is i~

(N. B.: not i~ ), which is

compared with ~ ibid. 3 No plural of ma$dar and, subsequently, no plural of nouns with ma$dar sense; exemplified by r')lJ;, which, according to a citation of K.

al-CAyn in Tahtjib, takes after .)1.,... and 4

The word

i)~

vP~

8 163.

is plural without any regularity (I,)"le.i

..d-

~)

3

73-. [4.2.1.4.2] The plural- patterns and their relations: 1 The plural ~1J.e vs . .J.t La.. : The hamza in the first plural replaces the non-radical ycF of the Singular, whereas the occurrence of yO' in both ~ and its plural results from its position as an integral part of the word ( ... ;....f3 ~i • ~I i>~ .J.t WI • lot;....f3~.J liJ.Jlj. ~I i>~) 853. 2 Derivation of Jwi and ~i from corresponding singular forms: Jwi derives from ~i and is distinct from it, lest the difference between plural and adjectival singular is indistinguishable (~~ ~~); ~i takes the u-vowel in order to distinguish it from either the naCt ~i or the imperative J-.;i 8 197-. From the detailed analysis of the previous paragraph in K. al-CAyn (see no. 8 below), we conclude that the underlying pattern denotes the cadad-, not the gamC type of plural. 3 An anomalous form i~ which derives from the pattern ~ 8 98(see above and 2.4.S.8.1m). 4 - at as an optional plural of non-human masculine: I~.l.o i>\S' ~I JS'.J

176

CHAPTER THREE

... ~lH j~ ~I o!JL;! ..&iJ ~ iJ-> I~! ~ IJ"WI ~ 4 303. 5 Rare distribution of tJas the plural of J~ and~ (~.J J~ ~

[~i .~ 'i~i .~jl ~.)~I J.P'~I •.a r.i- ~ ~~) 5227.

6

4l:;J as the plural of J.&.u (examples: ll..J •i)...) is discussed in 3 98

where ~ is presented as an exception (no ~6.). :.;.; as the plural of i~: see 4.2.1.1-8. 7

~~ vs. ~i explained as 'plural' vs. 'counted noun' (~ vs. ~~;

the latter is termed also

~..u..I1

,the [later] so-called lllli

~)

1 211; other

examples of this dichotomy: 2 29 (iJ";M; : [!] ~~ ~I.J i~i ~~.J), 3 289 (i..r.!5 • 6.).J,.c.) o!J~.J)' 3 402 (..::..4-f..!. : I)U l.,,!l.t I~!J •• lA..!J1 ~I). 8 J4~i vs. Jy-~ as cadad vs. gimif: In a rather intricate manner, the relations of the singular ~) and the two plural forms are explained; accordingly, two of the three forms are conceived as modifications of original forms: The original singular should have undergone the shift J,;'~ > JI~; the actual form ~'~ does not differ substantially from the expected JI~ since they both exhibit

a (shifted) non-vocalized ("soft") letter (and so does the noun [J) >] Ju ). The second modified form is J4~i, which represents the cadad type of plural. Its initial hamza is characteristic of an 'adad pattern; its alif is not counted among the original elements of the form (which are 'af'Vl; V=[short] vowel). The introduction of alif prevents confusion of this plural with the adjectival ~i 8 197- (see detailed discussion no. 2 above). 9 Plurals of il.!: The short alif of il.! is lengthened when the plural form

• L.:.

derives from the singular 4 69; the plural apparently derives its long

vowel from that of the plural .l.! (!): .l.!J1 iJ.o ,J" J.:.a.i.ll I~ 10

r+l! ...

ibid.

The only case in which the plural of ..wi is Jw : J~ - ~i

1

234. 11

Plural patterns with singular equivalents (e.g.: Jw in J4-> and.;l.»

and syntactical applications 6 57 (see 4.1.2.1.4). [4.2.1.4.3] Plurals of nouns vs. adjectives: The plurals of • ~ : ~ for the adjective (~) alone, therefore the

1

plural of .I..-is 1.5.;l-." (~~ ;.;~) 3 114. 2

Distinction of adjectival (~) di..J vs. nominal «("""'I)..::..~ as plural

of 4f.:i. Note the appended observation that this distinction does not apply to nomina mediae waw - ..::..Ij~ 4 180.

177

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

3

Plural patterns of Jaji : j:J as adjective (~), ~lJi as noun G-I) 6

71-. 4

Pluralis sanus vs. pluralis Jractus respecting noun vs. adjective

(~):

~J~ and .IJ.A.... 1 322; r> ul.,......, not (jl.J&-~1 ~ ~ [,;.h ulJIr> 3 229. 5 Disappearance of verbal vs. adjectival distinction in the plural fonn ~~ : The regular plural of the act part (~U ) is ~I.".i, so the expected fonn is yl.."'!. However, it is assumed that the singular fonn has undergone a shift into a ~ pattern (llai ~! llilJ v-o I...)J ) whose adjectival status, as we are instructed, is between llilJ and J.ea.i (lliUJI ~ uJ~ l;;".; •.:•.ilS' I~! 4W.I1 ~~ .. J.:a.i.IIJ )_ Furthennore, in the inflectional process, Jaj approximates J.ea.i (J.:a.i.I1~! JaA.lI ~ ~~IJ)

6

5281-.

Plural fonns which are specific to humans:)) and u~) (~! J~ ~J

~ L.J V"'WI v-o~) 8 370.

7 8

For the presentation and discussion of pluralis tantum, see 4.1.2.7 d. Neutralization of number (and gender) in 'r'..) 5 154 (see 4.2.1.9-5);

uninflected J.Jo! (vs. the preferred 285; also:

i;'>

~I

4 301; (~IJ ..1>1)1

WJI] inflected ... J.Jo!

Js. [:~)

~

.~I)lt .)It)

6 86; ~ 6 259; jj-4

(jj-4 J~ :~J J~lt ~ ~~) 7 172; J"""J 7 241; J~ 2 38; J~I.:;..";'

9

8

Js. ... ~

3 83.

The tenn

~~I

~~

explains such fonns as a-;iifir (a-;fiir is

mentioned as the plural of -;ifr) 5 87. [4.2.1.5] Compounded nouns: 1 no distinct tenninology, but note the identification of u.,..~ as ~L.....I 1..1>IJ 1....1 ~ 3 103; also 1..1>IJ ·L.....I ~I I~ for y~.AAIo 2 217; the iCriibi rules are specified in the latter reference; compound expressions of the type ~ ~ take na$b 3 269; discussion of creation of compounds: ~ and~.~«~I¥) 35.

2

The onomatopoeic imitation of opening gate pivots ~

[4.2.1.6]

~

2 348.

The dual- the phenomenon tenned tagllb:

The dual fonn which gathers 4-.), andu.; is ~l.::..o), 7424. [4.2.1. 7] Diminutive: The diminutive ( # .~): Its various senses 8 141-; oftwo fonns of

178

CHAPTER THREE

diminutive in letter-names exemplified by 4L.J~ and ~ 8 199; of demonstratives and of allagi 8208-. A more detailed analysis of the latter's demonstrative form is presented in 8 142- (and see 4.1.3.2). [4.2.1.8] Nominal patterns - nouns: Jw.; and Jw; as noun vs. ma~dar 8 229. 1

-

2

The alphabetical letters: mode of naming of the letter! - undeclinable U, which is virtually its pronunciation, and. u" which is its proper name and is capable of being qualified, e.g.: 4L~ L...,.s:... : u, a.a 7464. ~ and the restricted group of words with R J =w (+R2=Y): ~ ~

3

J.w IJ"""'.JJ c;'.J~! Yrll~":J,5

rU

3319 (see2.4.S.6a). Doublets: ~ ("fruit") are distinguished semantically: R L.. vs. ~ L.. (in shell?) or: according to others (J~ ~J): ~j~ vs. ~~ 324l.

....JJ

J-I

4

5 J,;l (IJ""JJl .C;;"') as a rare pattern Vt.a ..r.:&- J.,-.; ~~I ~ ~J 3 152. 6 J.a.i..o - its three senses: .:,L..;I11,r ~J - t'"=',.,.JJ 1""""1 - .)~ (exemplified by ~.l.o) 44l. 7 jJ..,.J : its usage for either plural noun of singular ma~dar 8 296. 8 J~: ~~ (compared with ~Q) 8376. 9 Only three words of the pattern Jaj 8 85. 10 Only one word of the pattern J..T (Jj~) 2 249-. 11 Only three words ofthe pattern • ~,.,u.. (olio~ " ~~ ,.I~) 2 238. 12 The suggestion by some anonymous authority of a shift ~ > J.a.i..o ' is considered "not serious" (.~ ~ 1 320. 13 Quadri-literal patterns: ~,~ 4 321; ~~U;4 233-; ~ > ~ 2286; 2326. 14 Quinque-literal patterns: IJJ~.;&- (~~ ~~) ,IJJ.;&-) 1 199; 3 129; ~..r (J..JJ...i) 2331; the onomatopoeic~ is compared with as ,whose basically tri-literal structure is suffixed by ardiif 2 348; see

c:---

'.

?

4.1.3.3b. [4.2.1.9] Nominal patterns - adjectives: J.,-.; in the sense of passive participle (J,.,u.. u'- c.lJ 8 389. 1 2 3

The shift ..k-l>~: see2.4.S.8.lf. The gemi~ate adj~ctives (~) of the patterns (~)

t-l and ~

179

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN (

I _

-&-

)

1__

: their derivation from different verbal forms (J:aA-) and ~ (JAA.t), respectively 8 211-. 4 ~ in the sense of J~ : Their relations are expressed in terms of c} • iJ'J. J~~.,.. and~ IJ'.'I .,~J J:,a.i.t 3 6,andmoreclearly: (~~=) jAAll ~

~~! ~.ft...JS' (Jfo=) J.,...uIJ (.:;JJa..=) j.JlIJ 68=5363; also 4t ~I.ft. :...b.eiJ

~ ~! ,J.r4J J.,...ul 5 195; ~ 4141 and 6156 (~ ~ :~ .~ J~). See also 4.1.2.6 in fine.

5

Uninflected 1.:""..) (with neutralization of gender and number) exhibits

transition of syntactical function: ~~b uii~IJ )".i.l1 ~ ..;~ "'j.,,~ iJ~ ~IJ 5154.

6 JW: An intensified adjective (..:..a.i): /::~I in the sense of ~I ~I 3 9. Its conditioned response to imiila (ibid.) is discussed in 2.4.3.4; the intensification sense may be referred to by the term na't wiigib, which describes IJ""I...,.:. in 6 229 (see 3.3.3a); quadri-literal ;J;J yields the form Jw of the Jw pattern, whereas similar derivation is disallowed in other quadri-literal nouns (exemplified by the non-existent IJ""L- from r--' ). It is argued that the unique Jw owes its existence to the weakness of its second hamza (~ol>

... lfjol> V- L. i;.+ll ~I 'J)J .Jw ~ rl.i.::....1 d'> i';'~I i;.+ll) 8355. 7 Jw as an intensifying pattern related to ("derived from") ~ : llliJ

«~» ~ /::.;... .~ :~ ~J ~ 6 18; ijalil compares JW with ~ and defines the first: ~I .l> jJ~ 1 235. 8

J Was an adjective (Lo:..; mal'ak > ma/ak 5

~I ~ .l,I.l ~ L.S' ..• ~I t} JI..v1 1~~iJ ...

. .. I*"" I$i ~ .;,.;5 :iJ)~ 6

•J.A.., t} • 4J1.J 7 186. iJ~ as the only word oftheiJ~ pattern (otherwise iJ~

and

iJ~ are in use) 7214. ilJ""' as the only (tertiae infirmae) word of the a..; pattern 7288. 7 iJl..,-i and i..,-i as plural nouns which have no singular of the same root

181

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-'AYN

(.JaA.I i.Y' -.J ..I>I.J "J) 7 303.

8 Analysis by means of a barf wa-fjarf wa-fjawt device of the shift in ~i 4319- (see 4.1.2.9). 9 J:,~ is uninflectable 476 (see 4.1.2.7).

'Ci

.).) and the transfonnation into a regular nominal pattern 8 91 (see

10

2.4.5.7). 11 Inflection of the demonstrative a; / lJ and t~/ I~ : dual and diminutive; plural and diminutive of ~I 8 141-.

.l.:.o is composed of ~!+i.Y'. The changes are explained as follows: L..1.i o..l>l.J WS"~.J l.f;..;..A"':'>';' r'%Jl c,I ~ 8 192 (and see4.2.1.1b-7, the discussion of its ending mark ). 13 .J~ is tenned ~L; t""1 8 207. 14 ~/ ri is studied in the book's Introduction within ijalil's defense of the minimal three-radic~1 structure of nouns. It seems that Lay! is re~ponsible for the fonnulation J.;>I ;J'j,J ~ l.L:.......J l+olC.J ~.;> ~ 41UJ •L.....I .~ ..u.J ... uS'1..,.... .;.,. ~ l.f..ii ll...l ..!Jl!J1 ~~ 1l!.J 'ri.J r.).J -'! J!.o . At the end of this paragraph, the same scholar argues as follows:..::.ilS' ,~I"'; :~ rAJ 1,- _·t I~jj .J1)1 rAJ 1i.Y' ~1..u11!l..lJ . This view is appended with ijalH's disagreement: Jli 12

W

~ I~! ,t..~ t~ tU Ja.i.l1.J ,tl~i ~I.J

IS.} W' «t..,.i» .J...:.i

rAJ I ~

:~I

r')ISJJ 1 50. Its underlying structure is t~ (rAJ I • ~ J-i :0.,..") 4 95; various variations of its declension 8 207; a detailed description of its declensional behaviour: ~I.J ti)1 ~ .J1)1 cl-.J l.,;.! i.Y'. 4-/1~.,k. .t.,A./1 ~~ J-i :rAJ I ~~ 1l!.J .• LiJI o~ l.f..iis .:JJLa.i L,.-A; ~! ~I J.Jr:' .J1)1.:J,?-u ..J..I.J .J1)1.J • ~I ~'J ,.l.ilJ I.)~ ~ rJl ~jj ~ ~ I~! L.i .. uL.;,"~1 c,I MI 1.1. "J! 'rJ~ .LiJI.:JJ..Aj (!) ~ JT'-! t""1 ~~ ~i I.,.,..f..i 'u--...,.;;JI ~ ~ ...4.I'JI.J W.J :~ «u».J ... ~ ~ ~~ .)1.)1~! ~ ..u .rUJ1) 8406. 15 ~ is undeclinable (J~ "J) 8 243. 16 JJd;~ : inflected vs. uninflected variants 8 285. 17 Derivation of Jw from the quadri-literal j.lj.l is exceptional (vs. non-existent I.I"'L..... from~) 8355 (see4.2.1.9-6). 18 J4; : of the pattern J~ 8 376. 19 L;i : its short and long variations are discussed (...4.1'11 J.,k. ,~l.:AI ~.

t:r

... ::.w ~i :~ ~ ~ I~!.J ,J";)I c,I ~ ~i ~~ v--i.J ,a;L;!.J) 8

399-. 20

l. "take!" has an anomalous inflection

(~l.

- rjl. - L.jl. ) which

182

CHAPTER THREE

substitutes the use of ~l;J.1 .JlS' ( ... W"l.) 4 102.

4.2.2 Verbs [4.2.2.1] Derivate nouns (participles, ma~dar): Derivate nouns and tense signification: different patterns of adjectives and verbs (?): .;,L.!Ju. vs. 1..\&. ~~ 1 243; neutralization of tense signification

1

in naet: ~UlS' ~I

t} J'lW1.J 4413.

Conditions of the morphological shift ~Li

2

> J.al in verba tertiae

infirmae 8 92-. 3 Jjl 4

Jla.i

with jussive sense, without a distinctive term: J!.t

~ Jlj 3

102; also 199- (,..~I

..,.;-1

:I,$i .;W-

t} 1/1I1 r~ .;;/~); see 4.2.1.1 b~3.

Semantic distinction of the active and passive participles: .;,lS' I~! ~...-Jh

,.P t'p'.;.i ~ ) ~

.;,lS' l~tJ t.;JJll/lI t).)

J!.t ~Li ,.P t'p'.;.i .u .,. .~I

(';'~,.\.o/.;,~) J~ 486. 5

Active participle with passive participle meaning: ..I..4li .;....)0 'uJu .)1;;

~l... 1 136-; i";~ (iL!.) ,.J.;~

J"'i, and the explanation ,.P ~lAJl

Ip.)i 4.J.J

~)I ~~ ..I.>I.J o.:-~ t~ I~! J.".u11 2 65; J!.t ~Li ,~."..;.;JlS' ..:.oAi Jjlll.l.J

••. ~.J ~l... ~.J uJLi J!.t ,J~ 6 43; ~l... .;....)0 '.~l... ':P" 'rL!. ~ (.;~ ~.,. UtJ) 1 251. 6

Ja.&.o as both.;J..At

and ~.,..; the ~.J is expressed by the pattern ~ ,

which also gives the sense of manner (? - ~.J :..:... ~A 1/1I1 ~)I :~..,..!JI ) 6 256. The regular ma~dar of verbs of the pattern is ~ and therefore 7

Ja:i

(~

~) is allowed, although~ and ~are in use 358; the ,

vocalization of R2 in the pattern

Ja.i

"

of the ma~dar (stem I) is conditioned

syntactically: If the verb is transitive, then R2=0; otherwise, R:z=a 1 166,2 25. 8 Jla.i3 as ma~dar (vs. the nominal JL..i.;) 8 229 (see 3.1.4.3). 9

Regularity in pattern relations: if

corresponding ism ma~dar is

JW!

(ma~dar of stem IV), then the

JW 4 302.

[4.2.2.2] Irregular inflection -- deficient systems: 1 No stem I imperfect of~, which is substituted by stem IV form (I~tJ

~ : I)li J.a.i.l1 u1! I.J-"'!'';); similarly, no '..s;"'1 J;'" perfect forms of I,$.J-! ~here stem III 1,$.Jl... takes over 7 326; on ;he deficiency of ~, see also 5

183

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·eAYN

355 (~.J ,~ ~.J ..... i ~ ~.J 'J'llAJl ~ ~ ~ ,ll) ~~.J ,IJ~! ~~i.J J.L..a..).

2

No verbal inflection of the adjective .1J:i.! and the ma$dar

fo.;

its

absence is interpreted in relation to the static character of this ma$dar (1,j'J .!J,)~ ~.J rj~)

3

8 160.

ut.: Two views about its derivation: a. from

u'~

- u't. b. a shift of

P] > [h) and a subsequent neglect of the other verbai forms V . 4.11 ~ :JI.i....J ~ «~t.» ~! l+W ir .~ JS' I.,,;l..i Yrll~.J 'c.I'-x uii ir ~'JI ~ t4.,..

.....'11) 480,8 146 (~'JI ~. 4.11 cl>..u ,j.&.u ~ «uI» ~ ~). 4 ~ as semi-verb: Beside the non-inflected form (~ ;.$"wI.J '.~..'e;t.JI .1-""" ), a variant (luga) attributed to Banu Sdd is inflected verbally ~~

... I.".J.A, L..t. :J..A.II ...A..~ ~

I,j~

4 56.

[4.2.2.3] The stems: 1 The shiftJ..j> J..,i 7316-(see2.4.5.8.lf). 2

Irregular (il.!.) sy~tactical behaviour of~:~) as a transitive verb

3215. 3 Extensiveness and intensiveness as senses of stem II (exemplified by )li..): ll)~I.J i~ ~ j.i!.i 8 158.

J"';C~ is testified in the I:ligazi vernacular 744. 5 Gramm~ans' preference (\J.J"fll J~ ».J) of stem I to stem IV in CA-l ~i /~ 7 18 (note that A~ma"i reportedly prefers r-is. to r-is.i 1 4

185). 6 Distinction between ldzim (intransitive?) and non-ldzim in ~,) vs. ~,)

815.

Stem IV exhibits occasional preservation of alif in such forms as iLi:j.o (~l; Jaji ...;.Ii I.,s'.; 4..> ~.J) 8245, and may shift this alifinto h in c:'..At 3 291 and in JI~ 3 349 (also in 5 209, in which the explanation ~.;...tl y."iJ occurs). 8 Stem XI signifies "accidental" actions (~.;&-) 7 113-. 7

9

Stem XII (j.&."ail ): used typically with uncommon verbs

(~~

I~!.J

j.&."ail ~ l+W ~.;.... l.. I..,$'J ~I) 6 83; ISJ.J.;&-I is exceptional as transitive 2 233. [4.2.2.4] Relations between various stems: 1 The ma$dar of stem III in?t. is substituted for i~ ; it is noted that

184

CHAPTER THREE

the process is of some regularity in the relations of stems VIII and VI (UiJ

~ ~l.i; ~ Jl.ci'lll VA iJ~ ~ ~WI l.a iJ~) 5 291. 2 Stem VIII substitutes stem III (llilA.o ~Y' ~ Jl.cil) 1 168. Different views about the non-causative mate of ~): Against the view that it is stem VII, I;)arir argues in favour of stem I 1 217. 3 The relations between ¥ and JuJu.:see 2.2.2.4. [4.2.2.5] Weak verbs: [4.2.2.5.1] Verba geminata: 1 Inflection of Jj;, according to the I:ligazians, is~, etc. 8 149; also

..::...........>

~

7208.

t'i and (~) ~ from the ..., .. corresponding verbials (J.....i.!) ~ and (J.A.i.!) &- 8 211- (see 4.2.1.9-3).

2

Derivation of the adjectival (~)

3

The different imper~tive forms ~I and~ are described as,Al;~

...

and ~.)..I ~J.a, respectively 8 398-. The shift ~ > (I~)~ is explained by Abu Al).mad 3203.

~I ~.r-

4

[4.2.2.5.2] Verba primae hamzatae: 1 The three verbs JS'i ,.1>i ,. . . i: Imperative JS'

,.1> '. . . (,.1>j1 ,. . . j1

4; ":-,.,,.Jb

.J~i 8

58.

2

exhibits the shift [iw]>[iy] - see 2.4.S.8.la; the nominal i,r (plural:

iJ;,r) is included GIJ If;L-i.iJ ) 2205. 3 stem XI of ~ is inflected as a sound verb:

-

.

I:?~I

2 266; The shift of

[w] into [y] in ~~ as the act part of I:?J>: I:?jWI A,s' i.;-5 JI)I u.J~ 3 317. 4 Pausal forms which may take the - h ending: In the study of the jussive ! and its pausal equivalent~! (q.v. W-)-Y) , the following generalization is made: iJ!J '~...J J.>.A.I...J ~J'- ~ 1!.lJ~ ~,; Ju. 8 442. 5

I

LiJi )

IJIJ) • 40;.1 iJlS' I~! rJJI:'-A jS' I!.lJ.lS'J

The dual form of perf. 3rd fern and its relations with 3rd sing fern (l;ji

instead of l;lji): .;;,5~ W,j :

w ~~I..h.i.....:a "uji"J ....:J»... 4J J~ i~I)1 ...

186

CHAPTER THREE

"L;I~".J "l;A;." l.fj~ UJ~IIJJ.? ) V"l.elll ~ .:,lS' "L;~".J "L;lJ:U," ~~ ~ • WI ~ 4.t 1.J.) "L;lJ:U," ~ .:,lS'.J .UJ~I C;. l."..jU ~I)I JAi ~ ~ d:·""I~~.J J.).I I."..lii ~ .!o.i;ll .L; 'J5.;> ~! I.,~.J U JJI ¥ y,i Jli .~u V"l.elll I.l. .IJJ~ ) V"l.ellI.:,lS'.J .~ 4297. 6 The shift ~ > ~ (e.g.: ;:A >~) 5 230 (see 4.1.2.1.1). ......

-"

7 The relations of the act part and ma~dar of verba tertiae wdwlyd': Whenever the ma~dar takes the pattern exemplified by JJ.4 and JJ,j, the act

part (referred to as .::.a.i) takes the shorter pattern J..:i (V"'..,A.:.11 ~

.J,j.J .

J.4

.)J..A.o

JS".J

~ ~~ ~u IS~I.J 1S..L..aIi • ~ ~ ~ ~I) 7 142. Probably

more accurate is the formulation in 8 92", which conditions the shorter pattern by the existence of a JAi perfect form (JS".J ... :S.J~ lS.JoN.. IS.J~ j....iJ1.J

... .....w.... ....:... ~I.:,!:i 1.)..,.....s:... ;.;,.. j....iJ1.:,.,>....J •.)..,.....s:... .:SJ,j.J :S.J~ ~ -:~

8

~ - its formation by a chain of shifts: ma>lak> maPak

).

> malak 5

380-. 9 The dominance of y over w in the "heavy stems" is discussed in 5421; the two options in stem I ~...r./':;"'.JJ! 8 286. Doubly (and triply) weak verbs: iii.) - synopsis of grammatical and related points, studied s.v.: 1. LJ.) does not have plural. 2. its variant with talyin (of hamza) - L..J'> 3. the shift ~i.) ) ~...) is defined J,....,..a (and so is L..J.) > L...)). 4. the form ::'::, and its distribution in Q XCVI 10. 5. the non-shifted (with ifbat) forms ':i'r/JW.J..C . 6. the expression ]JWI .;:.,i). 7.~...) meaning~. 8. the transformation into .1.), termed~. 9. the variants -;1.)/"f.J. 10. survey of the forms with elision including discussion of the variants ;../.;... 11. the variants. \;.)/. L...) and comparison with ~h (> ~I.J~)' which evinces disinclination to accept the cluster oftwo hamzas with an intermediate ali/(4;:?:,.A ~ UJj ~ ~I.?). 12. the variants ~~i/~). 13. interpretation of the hamza elision of::'::' (see [4.2.2.5.~]

1

4 above) as

anal~gy ~ith .. IS.) 'IS). 14. the passive~ in the sense of J;.

15. the solecism ~i.) (instead of ~.)), which is defined as V"l.elll ~ ~, since the impf. form is unanimously used with the passive IS) ~I.J";'- ~ ~I.J

2

JAi ~ "i~ J!WI~.J u.J;U ~UI)

The Jussive of lSi.J:

~!/! 8442. S"ee 4.1.2.4.

V

8307-11.

;~ ~

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K.

4.2.3 Particles The short

1

;J «ll) and ~ have ~ and ~

AL-cAYN

187

as variants 8 321.

2 ~l:.!: its con'traction int~ one w~rd 0~ ..J.f"'~1 .~,;. I~ 1l~.J ... ~ I.!.ll u~; l.o ~ ~ WS' ~ Io.it! l.,;.T ~ «~» Jl..aj !lli!.o AiUI 4Sf:'J' ~ I; J.Uu ~l.o! :~ '~J'"I ~ ~) ~ ~ ~ r"j.$) 8351; similarly, the implicit expression ~ ~!J in ~ ~!J (1.1;J .;,II) is a shorthand of J.l.; ~!J (... ) t..l.i 1.1;J.1t is noted that the implicit variant is preferable (..r- i ~YI ~.J) ..

..

_ Jill!"

..

ibid. 4.3 The treatment of affixation 4.3.1 PrefIXes 1 The mlm of;J~ ~ is ziPida, hence this phrase is equal to ~

~

(whereas views differ about the pattern of the non-negated ;J~) 3 243. 2

l. in the demonstratives

t~-I~

is described as ziPida and $ila. Its

function is defined as tanblh (see also 3.5.4). 3 Prefixed 'raj (i) (cf. ~) is discerned from its original (J-i)

~ WS' .~ ~.J J'"~I.J """'J~I J!.o ~~I ~ ..J.f"'i ~')U~.fi.; ~i~! 4.J-i ~~ ~r4J) 8268. counterpart (cf. J'"i '''''''') according to the following rule:

4

Two opinions are presented about the identity of the initial h element of

ul.: It is either $ila or ~I ~i t4.J-" ~ 480.

S

Discussion ofretention of the '- prefix of the J.Ui stem in ilAS;..

8

245. 4.3.2 Infixes 1 The terms sabbaca/asbaca ("fill full") are employed for the denotation of the following infixes: sin V"l....;..jl (where its function is defined as ~.,n

1 131; win JS'~ 5201. 2 It is disputed whether the status of n in J.lw. is original ~i ) or affixed (iJoilj). The first view is based on the assumption that the adjective Jl» derives from the quadriliteral J.lw. ,the n radical of which is elided b~cause "it is the lightest letter" (..J.J;l-1 u>i 4-i~ CPl~ ~i ~.J crL.J • L:.:JI) 3 197. 3 The n in i)J.:.i is non-original (iJoilj), whereas the w is termed "conjunction" (a.,; for the relations between the two terms cf. 4.1.2.3.3), and hence the original root is i"u . A rather circular reasoning motivates the following test: ~ ~

r' l.J.j ,~",; ~\S.J ~!)J.:.i ..laAJ ~ • ~ ~ r' Io.i~ ~I.J

188

CHAPTER THREE

U_ '0",,1''.) VY" "'1'V i ~

4

~

..

.....i.. vY -E--.

.l:.JII.a 5 195. •

is characterized as an (original) triliteral which is appended to

the quinqueliteral words ~u.~ .:;J.i ~"j.,J) 6 54. 5

The hamza of the J,:W pattern contrasts the ytP of a similar pattern in

such a pair as V:I..\.o vs . ..;....l....o

. It is argued that the ytP of the first is zii'ida

(viz. and therefore it is changeable), whereas in the last it isa$liyya 853. The intricate discussion of the formation of diminutive forms for the demonstratives l;-I~ involves the status of the infixed y£1 J • For details see 6

4.1.3.2. 7 An otiose -n- which precedes the suffixed 1st person pronoun due to prosodic considerations: ~ ) ~ 1 242. 4.3.3 Suffixes [4.3.3.1] "feminine" endings: a. indicating feminine sex: 1 noted as 'iJ,~ in Ijam's instruction which mentions the three suffixes ~P.J ~

2

vi' ~b .1.,,- vi i..ul.J Wu vi' 4.11)

Transformation of -ah into _£1

J

(~"j.,J

1 311-. ) .\J"j.,J !i:.-> )

.~)

is regulated

as categorial transformation in which an original adjective (na't, numeralia [Cadad] included) becomes a substantive (v-:l-I iY' 1"""'1 '~.J ~ i:.-> iJ'J ... ~Y')

8214. Discussion of the peculiarities of the quasi-pronoun feminine

t:. (its pausal variants ~/~ and its rejection of nunation) triggers the

formulation of a rule which postulates an original -t morpheme for the feminine -ah (. WI ~ ~~ J-i ~WI .lA.J) and the observation that the transformation -t > -h in nominals yields a distinction between verbal ~ and nominalllAi 3 354- (and briefly 4 91). 3 the formation of..::.>i analyzed: Jal:J+U+ah (diminutive ~i taken as evidence; U=case marker) > *JUI:J+ah (the obligatory a vowel preceding the feminine suffix forces the U marker to take the front position) > Jul:Jt (u.J~.J

w.s:J1 J-i iY' ~ts' .l; .4.11). This analysis is a summary of discussion in the following passages: 4296,319,320. 4 optional omission of the same ending:

r!!1;

ii..... 1 which may take the

form WI; in poetry 3 63; y p ul;: l+~~.J L...".l.L.1 iY' • 4.11 iJ~";"""u.J 3 237 (also 3 47). 5 The pausal variants ~I~/~I~ are discussed in 8 207-. 6

omission of the -ah ending of exclusively feminine attributes: 1) The

189

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

attributive Jw.. (which is introduced as ..!Ili~":"";) 1 181-. 2) The suffixed fonn is verbal/feminine in contrast to the non-suffixed fonn which is adjectival/feminine: 1~ lllll,.J ~ll, ~ 1..)IJ, ~ ii)l.J 5 101; the contrast of .u1.J and i.ul.J is explained similarly: ~ ~.J I~~ • ~ ~ .u)1 4J~ .u1.J J~ U!.J ~ "J )'.lJ1 4J~ i.uI.J. Then a rule is fonnulated according to which "J ..:....; ~

• 4.11 ~i Ja.i.ll..::.o~) 4J~ 'f'""""JI..::.o~) I~!. 4.11 ~ ..!IL:tJ ~ )'.lJ14.!J~ 8 31. This seems to be the meaning of the following rule: • WI ..:....; ~ ~I)I.J y~".u •4.11 ~ ~i 4.> 4269 (where ~IJ iirl is discussed; for ~I.J ..:....;, see 3.3.3a). A similar clear fonnulation concerns the omission of -ah in .~L..:., in which the attribute's endurance is argued (~lS" r.J» 7 414.

till,

3) This rule is modified whenever the two sexes share the same attributes see section c below. 7 the adjective [L... instead of ~L... in the expression [L... ~ il.:. is considered by Ijalil a test case for the genuineness of the corpus analyzed by the scholars of Arabic 3 16. b. attributes shared by both sexes - conditions of retention and omission of -ah: 1 absence of the -ah ending: The J.::.ai pattern with the sense of J."..Lo (both masculine and feminine) 3 6 and 6 8, where ~~.

~~

has the sense of

The reader's attention is called to this anomalous coalescence of J.::.ai

and the strong verbs J..-All ..;..~ ~ .AUI ..A)L;JI J"aAl1 ~

J.::.ai

'~.,J)

(J..-AlI.J. Similarly, ~.lJ1 ~i in the sense of J,/Lo ("eaten by the wolf') for the two sexes vs. the (m.+f.) suffixed ~.lJIll.$i "the wolfs prey" 5 408. 2

retention of -ah in both masculine and feminine attributes (e.g. 4...,JIJ)

...::....;) which contrast with identical fonns with virtual verbal/temporal sense (~ J..j ,J 4JlS:.. ~ 1.a.J). inheres with penn anent attributes (..I

rj'Y.

~I.J

Absence of an equivalent verbal sense conditions the absence of -ah in both masculine and feminine attributes (e.g. ~IJ iirl/ ~J) 4 269. The case of

4...,JIJ is also discussed in 8 311; similarly, the discussion of Jj~ 7370. 3

The non-suffixed attribute in J""lS"

y~ (y~

llli( /~)

is feminine) is related to

the parallel phrase with a masculine substantive ..:....?; the shift -ah > -t is explained as I,l,. ~ 4.$J 4.$ : I)~ .:,i I.~IJ I..,.i.i.>J ~pi (sc. in order to avoid occurrence of a pausal fonn in non-pausal position) 5 398. Similarly, the fonnation of ~ is discussed, in which the variant W is testified and an argument that the t segment is non-suffixed is polemically refuted 7 182-. as the plural of i')W 3 119. 4 nunated 5 transfonnation of suffixed -iyyah into -it and its subsequent change in and the position into an a$fi element: ~ > ~J. and the derivatives u ft'" plural ~..)I..r.. The case of ~..P is also mentioned 8 118. 6 u'i (with 4WI .~) is irregular as a pausal fonn (where .'i is expected), and it is retained following Qur'anic orthography 8 369-. is testified 8 218. 7 the variant ..:::J (with 4WI.~; for the regular

uW

r)

8 suffixed and non-suffixed noun variations: "J...;:j/~ "camel's saddle". Although the non-suffixed variant is more widespread (~i), existence of the suffixed fonn explains the suffixed diminutive fonn ".• 'J 5 131. [4.3.3.2] sound plurals: a. masculine: study of the contrast -ana vs. -AWna indicates the respective non-original (zii'ida) vs. original (a$liyya) yiP of the singular (-ana is exemplified by ~ > .:,~and i~,r > ':';,r) 1100,2201-; also 5 307 and 8370. b. "feminine" (-at): It is not feminine, but (according to ijalil) a convenient resort whenever the other plural fonns cannot be produced

rr,

~.

The case in point are plurals

of other, "broken" plurals (u\;~ .u'i~J). Another rule indicates that any non-human masculine noun may have -at suffix as its plural 4 303. c. both suffixes (?): A general rule considers each substantive and adjective noun which signifies a human capable of taking either (masculine) -n or (feminine) -t as its plural. It is not certain that -n indicates the -una suffix of masculine plural because

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

191

this rule immediately follows the sample phrases ~4J i~ and .;:..I.J~ i~ 8 364. [4.3.3.3] dual suffix: omission of the -ni element and retention of -a- alone is suggested by an anonymous grammarian as an explanation of the form lJU». which he 1

supports with 1.lUland i~1 ~I 4297. 2

~I,P is identified as ~ originally dual iJ:Il,P which has lost its on,

owing to its placement in annexion, similar to .J~ and)) 3 298. 3

with the variants

lJl.J~/ lJl~

omission (Jol» and retention

~LC!)

, interest focuses on the conditions of

of w 8 207-. The study ofthe difference

in word-structure between ti and ~ includes observations concerning their different dual forms 4 320. [4.3.3.4] the -iyy (nisba) suffix: ofi~l: :SJ~ instead of I.S~, according to the following process: ~I)j 'wi .;:..}.~ • ~I'~ I.S~ 3 289. 1

2

high

distributio~ among adjectives: the pattern;;.;i (e.g. ~i) 3

294, ieJ~ (UL;) 6 141. 3

omission of -yy: i:-o.M' > ~.M' (described as 4.~.......1I .lq~I;'~) 4 117, 5

199 (in the plural of 1$";;:": 4J.J~ where the verb ~ refers to the omission). 4 I$.J~~ demonstrates all the nisba forms of nouns which pertain to the patterns ')\.,..i-~ (e.g. 5

la~ ,~)

875.

Identity of noun and its nisba: The tribe name ~ ~ ... ~! ~I.J

.Ja.iJ) 1 234. 6

7

The pattern:)W is defined as ~I ""! ~ 6 141. Two specific nisba inflections: from. W' : ~W' and I$.JW'

5 392;

three optional forms from ~L....I;': C;L....I;' ,,=,,,,"1;' ,'=""";. 4 195. is identified as a non-plural nisba (it is not 8 The -yy ending of~..J~ "[several] CAbqari carpets"). Although the rejection of such formation of plurals is formulated in general terms, it is effective "especially in quadri-literal nouns" 2 298. 9 an irregular (non-qiyasi) derivation of the nisba: ~ (a sward) from

~i (its first designer) 3 248. [4.3.3.5]

{rab endings: See4.2.1.1 and 5.1.1.

192

CHAPTER THREE

[4.3.3.6] verbal suffixes: the energeticus -(a)n is represented by the preceding vowel in ~A ~, which is cited from poetry 5 175. [4.3.3.7] miscellany: the -n suffix of ~ is identified as a substitute (J..v) of an original >a-

I

(e.g.~) > ~J) 1255-. 2 pausal h in the imperative ~ is ~~ - see 4.1.2.4. 3 the -m suffix in ~ - see 4.2.1.10-14. 4 the w in iJiJ.:.i is termed,l'ila - see 4.1.2.3.3. 5 a nunated variant of (~I)~)~ is interpreted as the result of a change in status of the alif, which is rendered quasi-original (~i ~~I ~ r+\s) 8 181. 6 The various phenomena sharing the term tarljim - see 2.4.4.6. 4.4 The study of derivation The theoretical premises of the specific cases of derivation presented here are discussed in 4.1.3

[4.4.1] Terminology: Abstraction is a characteristic of the study of ta,l'rif. J.s. ...&.~I .) ~ ~;;.; 1 246. Key-terms (for specific locations cf. Index): qiyiis - istiqiiq - taqdir - wazn mabniilbinii> - uljriga Calii - f i ci - ta>sis - dalil - bayiin, tabayyana

[4.4.2]

Derivational analysis:

lj-z-r as the origin of ljanzir explained as JJ rj'J dH and exemplified in a

verse without n 4 207 (however, this note is introduced by the editors from Ibn Sida's Mubkam!); r~ and the i~lj elements in it 4 330; ~ is presented as secondary 5 3l3, 387 and 410; argument against an anonymous derivation of u~ as Jw 7 182-; ~."...j is located in ~j, but the author notes that n is zii>ida 7 358; the w radical of i~IA is detected in the

J..:oi of r~' in accordance with o~ 4~

discussion of.:;.t~

LW

...&.~I.) e:::.J 4AJU ~~ ~ :J."Ai d.;i

wW

~JIJ

8 64;

~~

is

8 89 (no reference is made to the

forms] in 15!); #

~b VA jAJ :~lAll ~~I ~~I .lA.J. L::JI ~ ~ l/ WS' J.S' .!lJ.lS'"J" .U:;LJ ~.J 'Ji •L::JI ~! 4 457; identification of secondary and

193

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K.AL_cAYN

derivation from makiin, which is abstracted as mara I: ~ tJ?i ... ~ JlJ •.u

fl

ud

.r.i-

~ :I."JLU .JWJI ..sJl':l-" u..~15 387, also 410; 1"""'1 is

located in S-M-W. Its diminutive is ~ 7318. Similar considerations in the case of ~ and r.i in 1 50- and the S-D-S origin of::"'" 7 186; further: > ~W! .;,~! in

7 304, ..slj from Z-Y-Y 7396, the identification of the demonstrative's

base as tj 8 208-, ~ > yl.; 8 247, i~ > ~ 8363, R3

423; the $ila status of -hii in ~i

of~

is y, not w 8

is argued against its identification as the

feminine morpheme. A rule of non-duplication is implied: the feminine ~i cannot exhibit a sequence of two feminine morphemes 4 108; an argument from the sphere of syntax proves that.;,~ is abstracted as j.U.o, not as JW: its stable locative function (with na$b) in I.lS'J 1.lS' ~~ ~ ~ 5 387; the bi-aspectual gender of.;,W

is provided by the two cadad-plural forms: the

feminine v-'i and the masculine ~i 7 256; the non-passive status of J....J L.o is indicated by the impf. yAziilu (not: yUziilu) 385; the derivation of t=+'" is

debated as either J,:;,J or j.U.o. Only the latter is correct since the first pattern is not found in Arabic (only fIcyal, with t!~ and ~ muwallad form) 2 170; the existence of the form

identity of n in Jla.:> 3 197; the alif of i"'Y--

; t;lahyad [2283] is a

Jb

indicates the zii'id

is originally w. The dual and

plural forms testify to it 7 153; the compound construction of.l:.o (according to one view) is proved by the expression (1ollJ""; i.Y')min itj 8 192. Derivation without analysis: ~ is ",""u.~ ~i c.}':JJ 6 54; ~Jj is presented in relation to ~Ij as ~Ijl ~L- 7 377; isJ,J'" is presented as b) ~L- 7 382; :;~ is explained as .;,L.a.i.:.ll ~ 8103; a view (Jl.i...J) that ~ is derived from i~ 8 171; an anonymous ';')""'.J suggests that ~lk..1 is derived (.;..i.:..!.1 ) from t;' 2 210; two anonymous ( ... Jl.i...J ... ~ JUJ) derivations ofi)~: the first, from .I~ ,while the latter identifies the abstraction i).W and states that it is unknown if it is derived from ..s~ or I~ "and therefore it is debated" (1ollJ.lJ.i [4.4.3]

~ U1.:>~

2 215.

[4.4.4] Abstention from explanation: yU> in If-N-B 4278; eJ""..,! is placed s.v. K-W-S 5 393; U"""~J~ is presented

as is 7 234; presentation of two forms a~ and

~

1 99.

194

CHAPTER THREE

[4.4.5] Abstractions and their analysis (or optional presentation): til- is abstracted as tlW, but according to another view (Jilt): lla.i.. ~ Jot

t"";4 is eitherJ~

3243;

orJ~Li

4311; an optional (Ju.j) analysis of

iJlS',) as Jw 5274; 4iCls" is, according to the author,~"')W , but an optional •

analysis offers tlW

276;

1

1



is either iJ~ or, according to one view

iJ~

(Ju.j), iJLeW 7 155; the abstraction ~..\.ij) of JL:;J is JWJ , but according to ' an unspecified view (Ju.j), it is J')W 8 147. [4.4.6]

Abstractions without analysis: 4 319; ~T as tI~Li is presented as a Tayy vernacular ibid.; - -." , , ,. l.!ll::..#isJW 5 303; JS.,s'is~""; ofK-T-L 349; (n ;;U ~ D,P.'.,,>16185;

uil>T is ~wi

iJ~is J ¥ of S-T-N 237; ~ is ~ 7 149; 4i1.,J-i istll...,..;i 216; tI~Li 332; ~ is tI~ 2 246.

W

is

5. Syntax 5.1 Governmant(Carnal) and iCrab 5.1.1 frabi and non-l'rabi Vowel Terminology The following analysis is based on 128 selected occurrences of vowel terminology. First, two cross-sections are presented: An analysis based on three basic vowel positions known from later grammars with two sets of vowel terminology which contrast according to iCrabi vs. non-icrabi functions (5.1.1.1). Then follows a synopsis of the complementary view with the two sets of vowel terminology at its centre and the three positions filling the slots (5.1.1.2). Finally, there is a discussion of etymological clues of certain items (5.1.1.3). [5.1.1]

a.

[Crab markers: the conventional terms referring to case markers: r:!~

1 281,4297

(dual-ani); ~ for ~')IJ 0-...,.:.; ~ ~) 1 247, lJalil is cited specifying syntactic functions marked by ~ 4 209, ~ marks ~ in contrast to ~ 7 328, ~ is utilized in the study of the non-inflected discussion of the inflected J~ 8 207-; JJ..r;r-o (listing the h. 171;

~I';J..P')

I~

5 48, J!.

, but follOWing the 8 204-;

252-,5 166,199 (sound m. pl.).

the conventional terms referring to (mood) impf. verb markers:

r.iJ:

8 305,321,434,442.

.;w.

r:!J

5

195

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

.

c. individual non-conventional terms: \).,,;.t> J"-s'" :.Jl 8 92-, and see 2.4.4.4 (6224,892-). d. sets of conventional terms: r!J-~ presented as a contrastive pair in iCrab 7 135, ~-r!"; ~I ~.,..

8 429;

r.--~

c} iJ.Jr,J1 refers to the

signifies the phonetic actualization

3 263 (sound m. pl.), 4 308 bis,

iCrab of the sound f. pI. -at. iJ.JT.'-"

7 182-;

~I

(~.,..)

indicates the

,

syntactic position of the object pronoun in ~ and ~US',which are contrasted to the

~

.

position of..u.J

....

~

5 14- [for the endings in ,:h.i/:h.i see

(,,:-»

3.5.4 s.v.]; r!r r.- 5 286; ~-r!rr.- 5415,8 406; r!r~-~ 8 390; the undeclined variant0"i1 is described as follows:.)..1 c} ~ y.;oaJl.J r!)I.J ~I.J 8 404. e. sets of non-conventional terms:

~-r;:J-~

.::.5-; in the discussion of ismam of J.....II (1.1.)

are all contrasted to

6224.

f. mixed sets of conventional and non-conventional terms: r}J (~.,..) and (~If) ~ in the analysis of~i > .;..;.i . The first term marks the position and the last, its phonetic actualization disregarding this position 4 320;r}r~ 873. g. combined discussion of ;Crab markers and vowels of non-final position: vocalization of R J conditioned by the iCrab marker - ~ (both vowels termed r;:J) vs .•~/~ (the iCrab markers are~/r}J and the initial vowel is~) 1281; similarly Abu cAmr (b. al-cAla') instructs that a choice of a/u quality of the initial vowel of \)~ is conditioned by its ;Crab:

~ triggers a ([0).1 ,1;;'] :.~), whereas ~""'-J"-s'" yields u ( •."......). The form ""l> with the suffixed pronoun is analogous to r.- G.JT.'-" dS) and affects the J:z with u (\).,.:.)1

i~

la • Y.I I."......) 3 160-; \)lS:....! describes the

non-final letter, whereas ~-J"-s'" are the terms utilized for the study of iCrab 8 92-; ~-r.- signify the frabmarkers, r}r~-~I signify vowels

8 141-; in the study of the particles ~)-~1 and their relations with the following nouns, the (rab marks are termed r}r~ , of non-final position

whereas the vocalization of the particles' hamza is described as ~-~ and ~.,:A..-iJ"-s'" 8 396-; the study of

4) involves its syntactic position and the

vocalization of the initial hamza. The terms .)..I.J r})1 the first issue and ~-~, for the last 8 440-.

~.,..

are utilized for

196

CHAPTER THREE

[5.1.1.2] Non-icrabi vowels in word-endings: a. nouns with conventional iCrabi tenninology: ~ for 6~ ~ ~ ~...p) 1 247; JJ.T.'J' for the Jw pattern 1 103,3 103, 199- where the

jI:

of

;,1.1> is explained according to its equivalence to the i~ of the imperative verb, JJ.T.'J' for j~ jl> 4210 and 5 226; ~ and i~ for ~l.&. ~l.&. andrl.&. rl.&. (the last is explained as ~)I !""y uk) 2 185; similarly, jI: and~.J in the study of shepherds' call: tl~ tI~

tiJ

1 81; ~.J~ (~) 3 347, ~is i.J~

6 134; ~/~ as J.J.T.'J'I 5 14-; ~ I~ 5 414; jI: vs. ~ in J..!. ~ when categorized as quasi-imperative and as an adjective 6218; the pronunciation: 11 is defined as ':oAr! ~ -.:o:.o~ 7 467; ~ identifies the undeclined ending of ~'JI 8404 (see also 4.1.2.5.2). b. 367. c.

nouns with regular vowel tenninology:.;-S denotes the i of Jljoi 7 sets of regular vowel tenninology:

..;1 may take each of the three

vowels as its ending which are tenned ~-~.;-S with the addition \,)'...p ~ 8410. d. verbs with conventional iCrabi tenninology: The a vowel preceding an omitted n ofthe energetic6.A « ::;,A) is tenned ~ 5175; The imperative's ending is tenned i~ 3 199- (see above ad loc), i.J~ 8 398-. e. combined discussion of non-icrabi and i crabi vowels: rl.1> is vocalized IZJ

with jI: in

~

and ~J (sc. as well as in jI:

)

positions. Then the i and IZJ

variants of il.1> are tenned';-s and i~ respectively 3 204; vocalization of pausal fonns in the Ragaz metre is ~~ without tanwin 3345; ..;1 may take each of the three vowels as its ending, which are tenned ~-I""""'-.;-S with the addition \,)'...p

"'-:"-v-'

~.

When tanwin is added, the tenninology changes to

y J'" 8 410. f. combined discussion of non-{rabi vowels in word-endings and non-word-final vowels: jI: and.;-S respectively - the variant ~.J :.,- (JIJ W)

~ is described as • L.L.I A

V'"~.J ... JI';U.J ~~ ~ V'"~.J 3'15.

[5.1.1.3] Vowels in non-word-final position: a. regular vowel tenns: 1 sets of regular vowel tenns: I""""'-.;-S 2 216,5 203, 6 66; 3 160,76,8 6; I.,..s:....j/~.;....-.;-S-~

69,7 326; 1""""'-.;-S-~ 7 214.

~-I"""'"

339,

4 245; ~-u~....i 4412; ~-.;-S

197

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

conventional iCrabi

2

tenns:~.J

2 224,4 249, 7 50,8 50; y.,-:..o

144, ~ 4379,5252 and five other occurrences;

4

1271,5 113 and

1 285,290,2 49 and many other occurrences.

i~

3

i.J~

2

sets of conventional iCrabi tenns: ~-~.J 1 150; ~-i.J.JJ'!'04 4 279. mixed sets ofregular and iCrabi tenns: ~-~ 2203,314,579,

268,8 335,359-,396-, 440-; ~-~-~.J

2 246; ~-.r:-~

670;

~.r.J~ 4 278; ~-~.J 7273,8 428; ~-~-~.J 7 334-.

5

peculiar tenninology: ...w...

~

7279.

for unvocalized letters is contrasted to

b. The i'rabi set: case

impf.

+

na~b

+ +

garr

+

!Ja14 gazm

+

rat

non-word-final

non-icrabi ending (NN)

+ +

notdocum.

+ (~.A)

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+

+ +

c. The non-icrabi set: case impf. markers 1 (in set) 1 (in set) + (and in set) 1 (in set) +

4amm latIJ kasr iskiin waqf

non-icrabi ending (N) 1 (in set) 1 (in set) + (and in set)

non-word-final

+ + + +

d. Other significant occurrences of this tenninology: 1 Synonyms in regular, non-technical language: ~ and~j 1 212; Jjl.o/ ~

vs.

~

4 79; ~ and ~ in the interpretation of the last,

which means "to tight-fist the hand" 6 106; of ~)o

"lowering of the eyes" 6 300;

~ and ~ in

~.J and.;-;

the interpretation

"to lift". Earlier in this

entry we find: AI :i~~ ~I 8 269. 2 ~.).I

Physical sense: Jjl.o/ ~ vs. ~ 4 79;~.,>- interpreted as ylA~ 5 312;

~.J associated

with

~

in the explanation of ~ (s.v):

~ Wl..i ~ ~ cl,.;.J 7 136; explanation of Jr- by WI..i y~"il

229.

8

198

3

CHAPTER THREE

Contrastive presentation: The statement ~I

~

ti)IJ is based on

citation of a saying 2 125; opposition of voice intonation - see below; physical opposition JjLo/ ~ vs. ~ 4 79; ~ interpreted as ylA~ 4S',).1 5 312. 4

o..,...aJ1

Voice intonation: an opposition of ~l>-o..,...aJ1 tilJ 4165,239;~ r'%.1l ~ ti)IJ

3 353; ~

4281;r~ as a term of Qur'an

recitation: J+oJ .;.,~ ~ ~I.,... ~ ..JJ,).I t:4"'; .t.~ r'%.1l r~ .;.,i :~ I.)JI .:;.oJ 673; 4J-""",, r}.;1 L.~ l.JS'is ijaUl's explanation in Azhari Tahtj/b, which the editors of al-CAyn cite in the entry

~

5

r}J for calling the donkey's attention 5

Tongue's position: .;.,L...UI ..J):.

7 136.

51 (anqat;lta bil-/:Iimiir... ). 6 J': in the sense of attraction in phonetic observation - the shift > ~ 4>

ll".,> is explained as JI)I

• ULI i..;-S OJ': 4 313; ~I-J': for vocalic harm~ny

7210-. 7 Interpretation of grammatical terms: .;.i ~ 1~1 ..J,).I :r~IJ 673; y~)'1 ~ r})1 ..w. ~IJ 7 135; 8 Indication of usage: : Uds described as yl,1 ~ ~~ 7 467. 5.1.2 The Carnal Concept Terminology: 1 A single, uncertain occurrence of mdmul fihi in the sense of "governed": JAi ~ 1~ ) ~ ~.,..- ~ )11 .;.,~ )I «~». Another possibility is to interpret this expression in its locative sense "in which (viz. its time-space) s.th. is done" 2 43; the use of the verbs ~ .r}J is demonstrated below. 2 mutual government in N+N sentences: the semantical identity in di.; ~iJ "the upper part of you(r body) is your head" (cf. below), is presented as

the reason for the raf mark in J'; (in contrast to the adverbial J,;). However, this reason is supported by one of mutual government y.~

l...f.:..

..I>IJ

JS'

.::...atJ

5224.

The verb's government: I~ affects the following noun with rat (l~~ J.....i l~ :J..,iJ • 4-I.::...atJ [l~+~] ~J) 3 32; government with na$b effect of a covert verb is attributed to ijalil in the analysis of\:...r (~l) .jaAJl 4J:.5 ~ ... ~ ~ ~ «r-li» ) «Jjil» 3 215; this seems to be the explanation

3

199

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

of na$b in .uJltli.,l-o which is formulated as «~)I ~ ~ ~ 3 231. It is less clear if the expression 4laj ~ J.."...,... ()..I...:u j.j~) indicates the verb's government in such reconstructions as \.i... ~-:J.j ~ > ~"j.JJ \.i... 8 110, but consider the discussion of the variant Lii which reads: ~ ~IJ Lii ~i :J..,.a; 1.!1;'is' ~I ~ 8 410. The rqi effect of the verb on its following subject (agent or patient) is inferred in the study of which

r5

functions as an object. The text reads ~I 1....\.A.t 4 tilJ J.ai ~ ~!J, whereas al-Azhari offers: 1....\.A.t l.o til.> I consider the text's reading rather hesitantly as an indication of such an effect 5 286. 4 Words affecting nouns with rat: ~ is defined as ti.r.. ti)J ibi Y'J ~..\.A.t r-"~I 3 285; even more conspicuous is the formulation of the effect

r5 exercises on the following noun_ When it has the sense of the

which

non-interrogative particles YJ and U..) it affects the following noun with garr or raf, respectively (.;:...jJ « u..)) l+. ~~!J ,1....\.A.t l.o .::JjI: «YJ» l+. ~ ~~) 5 286; the particles ~! and ~i affect nouns with na$b, whereas) has raj effect 8 396-_ 5.1.3 Treatment ofI crab [5.1.3.1] Terminology: 1 yl~! as a general term of interest in changeable endings:..w" ~IJ

c.} ti)1 7 135; dH c.} Y'J ,~I~! .a~ ~I c.} .J? e-I I c.} ~ ~ 5 77. yl~11

2

~ l.o :r'%..lI.;r ~IJ

~..,.. as a distinct position of an iCrab-marked nominal:

II

4!» ~ ~J

... 1~.JJ ~4! :JWf J.,AS" ~.,5.; vfJJ ,.)..IJ ti)f ~..,.. c.} ... 8440-. 3 Terminology indicating linguistic shift (no certainty that syntax is intended): expressed by JL-: ~J ~ JJ> l.o r~1 .;r JWfJ 3 298; expressed

by J..~: the uninflected~...) (cf.~...) ~ ,~...) ~ etc.) is described as ~~ ~'-' ,).)JIJ ~~IJ .?'.lll ~ I$~ ':J..~ 5 154; expressed by~: ~IJ l ~~ 171. Note the regular use of the verblSjl:i y..,u.. r'j$J '4.P.J ~ for triptotic- and I$jf ~ for diptotic declension (see Index).

°cr

[5.1.3.2] General principles of iCrab determination: 1 syntactic aspects of tamakkun: The function of~i as "oath word"

G-i) seems to determine its status as uninflected (.......~I subsequently as vowelless

(yl~!

.r.&-

~

c.}

~ ~) and

J-,t). Accordingly absence of

200

CHAPTER THREE

tanwin in ~~ is explained as r-i-'I ";JI!'-A!.ij':IJ.. 2 193-.

2 In the introductory part of the book, an argument is made which suggests that tanwin is (part of the) frab. Ibn Zurca objects there to this view

1 51. [5.1.3.3] Analysis of rat in nominals: The phrases ~ VA-~ VA are identified as~! ').,...aA.o .J~~. This

function explains the rar mark. Otherwise, the two words are $ifa, and the ending subsequently ch:mges into na$b. According to tIalilj the gaya function prevents the tanwin of .AA.t , and this function is shared by::W 2 52 (and cf. the treatment of the na$b variant ); repetition of the main points are found in 5 166 (and see below). The meaning of qa$d is not clear. Note the following possibly parallel occurrences: ;J 1..L...ai !.ii .)..I..:all ~ l~~1 :t.-.... 3 111 and ~! ').,...aA.o t"" 1 :T'-'

3 135.

[5.1. 3.4] Analysis of na$b in nominals: A view of the centrality of na:jb (functions) in syntactic studies is followed by an attempt to sketch all functions of nominal man:jubat: ~I :~I Ju

JY-I

cj ~IJ

O)I\.... VA

.;!S'i

F'-'

~ ~.,.u

!.ii

y~1 4i1;' i~IJ .~I 4i1j>

ulA...alI.)L..4!J Ul)IJ 4 209. Regarding the effect of verbs (mostly elided) on the corre~ponding ma:jdars, see5.7.3. [5.1.3.5] A semantic non-identity concept: The locative predicate (o~ J);":''1 ~.J:A.IJ o~ '1.a...;...J"" ~H) 2

43; the locatives ~-J"'; take the na:jb as :jifa, but they may change function and become pure nouns (L....,I ~~) marked by u, whose semantic relations with the predicate are defined as identity, so that in ~j.) I!li"'; "your upper part is your head", he states: ~ ....... i)1 jA

..:.'1 lau.

·W.).)L.:o 5224 (the

mutual Carnal effect is discussed above); non-identity is again expressed in 8 157 where the na$b of the locative (~j) I!1l\.;. is explained as ~ U J); ..:.'1

0.r.AJ ~.J"" ~J. [5.1.3.6] A possible concept of adverbial case: In the analysis of the contrast ~-~ VA (also: :.w.-~ VA), the na$b

is explained as ll..:aJ1 ~.J"" ~J 151, which is exemplified in the structure ~ ~ ~,)U .J.Jj. It is possible that u..., is conceived here merely as a preposition 2

201

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-cAYN

52; the locative $ifa is more likely to be an adverb in the analysis of ~lf.:J1 1.1.

u-o 4.1

which is accordingly ll..a.Il ~ .;If.:J1 ~.J, presumably in opposition to the corresponding marjrl nominal 7 384. ~

I~,

[5.1.3.7] A catel!orial shift is marked by na$b: "LA.-...J ", ~¥ are shifted ~J~ ,J.J..r""") from verbal forms similar to

4>J'" (.«...u.....i.J...u1 o~i» :~.J.J'" ~.J ir- u.J..r""" /LA.-...J 1~)) :y~1 J..,.i.i.J ... J6. u1! J6. u-o J~ d H ~ J.J.;oAlI.J) 252; however, observations concerning categorial shift do not necessarily impose na$b marking. The relations of ~ u-o and ~ are presented as a categorial shift (J~) from 4Lo.J (of ~) to ~I (~ [+u-0 1) ibid.;...ul ~~ takes the na$b, according to one view, for this reason (... J"..aI1 ~ ... ~ :JI.i.oJ

),

although the preferred

view is that it substitutes a verb ...u ~ ~ :J..J ... J..j t4~ ~ ~.J )

3 151. The expression ~I~ ~.J (J"..aI1 ~ ... ~) is rather obscure. I consider it the author's view in favour of the other interpretation; the unchanged a ending of~.J is explained as follows: ~)I u-o ~.;~ .;...I..a11 ~j'!'J' I$~ J,j'J .. 4!~i Lo,:).J~4!~~~.J~~lt.-_j~~ 3281. [5.1.3.8] -un vs. -an: An opposition of -un vs. -an resulting from an opposition of noun vs. ma$dar (relations with the above categorial shift concept are uncertain): the opposition.,J 1~-.,J •~ 2 54,337 (and 5.7.3 below); "Wu...o ~I 0.1. is

contrasted to ~ ~,and

w-... is identified as ma$dar (L:,...:a; ~I

~

.,J l,1•.a.i :I$i .;...I..a11 ~ 1~~1) 3 111 (similarly 329: Uo!I ",. - 1;. ~ VII ",. c::J ~, which is not analyzed or explained). IJalil decides that the last member

of the idiom ,'I(i ~i ) ..::.;i ...A.$ takes the u ending (~ ) because it is a noun, not ma$dar:...A.$ :",. U! ,~I.J .l.4iJlS' .;~ ~.J ~I

o~

4

~.J ~I )

J,j'J

l~,.,;J'" 01)

5 166; an express formulation of a general contrast to this effect is yl.r~1 ~ ti)1 .w. ~I.J 7 135. In a unique passage, the structure with ma$dar man$ub in .,J 1.; is contrasted to another ..::.;i

with ism marfiic (theoretically: .,J as follows: ~ Lo

u1!

•~), whose syntactic relations are expressed

1~ '\....,1 ~ (~.J)' It seems that the text could be

better read... 1~ '\....,I.J '\....,1 ...

T-B-B: ~ Lo u1! ,~ '\....,1 ~ ~.J'

8 110; but see the reading of LA s.v.

202

CHAPTER THREE na~b is characteristic of affective sentences: The reading ~}JI.J ..::"I."......ll ~.l.t (Q VI 101) is recognized as ~ 2

[5.1.3.9]

54; the u ending in the opposition ~-~

is interpreted according to the

noun distinction (see above), the a - ~ • ~JJI ~

337; jussive sentences

whose verb is elided promote a man~ub noun to a focal position y')\SJiJ) ...

~ r~

) J"~I ~L.:a.I ~ :e~

...

«"HI ~ 5 361;.JA ll! ~ ~

:ii.,...

• ~.).J ~ 7 328. [5.1.3.10]

qat c :

~I ~ ~ (see 5.1.3.4 above): in the structure 1J .l> ~I"::"~ 8 94-. [5.1.3.11] na~b may occur as a result of omission of the preposition in prepositional phrases: ~i VA > ~i. The omission is ~J, 6 178. It is not

too plausible that this is the analysis which certain exegetes suggested in Q ..u1.J: "..::,,~lS''' ~..J 8 130. LXX 17 ·lJ~ ...

Hi

[5.1.3.12]

Attraction:

therhymet~ intheverset~ ~

:,1_.) jS'is explained asJlS::J1

~

tJ.".....s:.r.1 2 189.

5.2 The phrase 5.2.1 Annexion construction [5.2.1.1] Terminology: The possessed noun is Jl4.o 1 162; the possessor is Jl4.o (?) - the structure

J.!.o yl:5 is described as J.JT.'"" Jl4.o 5 48, also ~) rL.. which is .r.&- Jl4.o J.J~. The notion J.J~ .r.&- is clarified by the illustrated plural inflection ~) rl.,... 7 119; an impersonal construction with a finite verb~! refers to the part-and-whole relation in 4.1

~

~i

1 162.

Classification of nouns which typically take the possessed-noun position: iJ:!.lI.,:o- > :)1.,:0- is compared with .J~ and..,J.,i 3 298. [5.2.1.2] Structures: An adverbial VAj is annexed to sentences (41S' ~i r')\SJll.a ~!: ft"i

uW,1 1 ~ I..i!-i

r')\SJl ~

r~1 ~j 8 204-. , • Several features of YJ constructions are discussed: Its f unction.));

v--J) ~ .... ) ~

203

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-'AYN

(~ u-o 1..\>1.J. the semantics of the following noun ~ ~ ..\>I.J ~ ~) (~I and the variant L.::..J 8 258.

.

YJl.#

YJl.#

The structures..l.l.j and t.v.j are juxtaposed without analysis or description 3 124. Unacceptable structure: The possessed noun cannot be annexed to an adjective. hence no ~~I ~. only ~~I

~I

1 240;

~I

5 233; no grammatical discussion follows the presentation of the

~I ~.)

is. therefore (?). paraphrased by

utl~.)

phrase r~1 J,~j/J,~ 2 11. [5.2.1. 3 ] Semantico-syntactical observations: 4..,ll and the phenomenon of inalienibility relations in 7 328 - see below;

animate vs. inanimate opposition regulates intricate rules of complementary relations between annexion construction and head+attribute - the attribute •.,... qualifies the human ~J ; therefore. the annexion construction with an indefinite possessed (!) •.,... head is definite (•.,...)1

~)I).

~J

has a head+attribute equivalent when the

whereas no •.,...)1 J-JI is paired off with

~

•.,.... and vice versa. J..L..:> is not an attribute of ~J ; therefore. the construction

J.L.AII ~)I is unacceptable as the definite equivalent of J.l..:o ~J but such a construction is attested with the inanimate J..,i (J..I..4I1 J.,AJI) 7 328. [5.2.1.4] Anomalies: Ellipsis of the possessed noun:

J~ .J~ ~"j..j

>

J~ ~"j..j

followed by an

obscure note about "a compensation" for this ellipsis (.JL4l1 .J-l>

~ I~l&.)

1 162; an irregular ~,..\>.J ~ instead of the preferred o~.J ~ 3281; the inflection of number (dual suffix) is affixed to the p ~.)~ ~I 4327. which is left uninflected (o"';.J""'!

r')

According to the Ba~rans (.~I

~i). the irregular ~ is an annexion

construction similar to..l.l.j ~ and..l.lJ ~. in which ~edial n is identified as .)~ (earlier in that passage the verb 1S'..,i describes the function of that n) 5 14-; an "improper" number agreement in

4"1.,... ,4P

(inalienibility

relations) is formulated as ~ ~ ~ u-o L... ~ u-o ~ I.J.)I) I~! y~l.J ... 4..,ll : I)ll ...• ~I 7 328; the fowl whose proper name is ~ ~'j..,. takes the plural form

~

~~'j..,.

in one dialectal variant (UI). When an

undefined plural is used. it takes the form ~j

8 150.

~~'j..,. in the same luga

204

CHAPTER THREE

5.2.2 Head+attribute [5.2.2.1] Terminology: The word i:1> is explained (q.v.) as ~J I~! ~)I ~J ~ 3 296.

[5.2.2.2] Anomalies: JlA..!J1 j'"!~~1 should have been j'"!~~IJlA..!J1. This anomaly is explained according to the latitude of the Arabic language ~...,.JI 4a... 1 250. [5.2.2.3] Classes of irregular attributes: a. nominals expressing totality: ~i and eS'i are discussed in 1 195. The former's particular function is described as "corroboration" (i...."iJ; viz. of the preceding nominal), whereas the latter's characteristic of redundantly following another nominal of totality is brought forward with the epithet 4-! ~~ J.T". Their common function is described as ~y ; the non-inflected )I..s'

is a

synonym of ~ in such sentences as)l..s' JUI ~i. It is emphasized that this nominal is neither ma$dar nor an adjective (~) 5 397; .~ follows another adverbial, ~ . The latter's relation with ~ is expressed with a $ila notion, which frequently denotes redundancy: 4~

~y

8 124.

b. redundant nominals as semi-appositions: discussion of eS'i and ~ - see above; nonsensical words rhyming with preceding nominals and creating with them rhythmical pairs: ~J (..r.Ai ) is';J ~ ~ ~ 5 207, Vo-I (U--) is termed

t Y-!

7 272 and

~

is ll..:. 8 172. The second part of the

(lla»

.1ll... is not nonsensical and may appear (as the masculine [noun]~) independently 5 101. Other occurrences of rhyming

coordinated phrase

.1l~

pairs: ~ ~ 3 35; ~ ~ 8 125; ~ and jJ in jJ ~J ~ I!D L.o 8261. The phrase ;.lNl ~).ll (sing. I!.lll~ has no undefined equivalent because

AI

it is not an adjective, but an expression of adoration

c..,. Le!

~ ~

~) 5 362; paronomastic construction: J.'.L!. ~ I!D.,AS" )cIJ .;

...

cy...J :J".iJJ

".L!. ~J 8 366. c. Interrelations of attributes (in head+attribute construction) and possessors (of annexion construction): juxtaposition of ~ ~ and ~ ~ 5 217 (the last is uw,,! ')l.); the semantico-

.

syntactical relaions of."..,



~J

,

and •.,...J1

~)I

5.2.1.3 above; the rule according to which t"~1 discussed in 5.2.1.2 above.

(ad 7 328) are discussed in ~

is deemed illicit is

205

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL·cAYN

5.2.3 Phrases with particles and their like [S . 2.3.1 ] Redundant elements: Lo is termed $ila: in the exemplificatory Qur'anic structure ~~ ~ ~ Q IV 155 8 434; the same structure is discussed in 1 283 (see below); in the compound ~(.! 8 238, in (.! 435-, in 4i 440 and 440-. ~

is reported to behave similarly to the redundant Lo (it is termed J-J) in

1 283. The given text fails to provide further details. In Lisan al-cArab (q.v.) a Qur'anic example (Q XL 28) is quoted from al-CAyn (with the characteristic formulaic qala I-Lay!), which clarifies this observation: '\J~L." ~lS' ~!J ...

.;.lJ1 ~ ~ The literal "some of his prophecy" is interpreted as "(virtually) alL ...

~~

[S.2.3.2] "emphasizing" rna: It suffixes optionally all the conditional words (.1.).-1 JJ~) c.? • ~i

L.A,$ • Lo

.l...+t

3 358; its infinitive function ("any") in Lo l,;,,- • Lo Lo.,t! (also in the

nudba expression of a poetic verse ~I,J ~i) is misinterpreted as "affirmation and emphasis" (J...:!"';,J Y~,J) 8 235. [S.2.3.3] an: ~i is "half a noun" which is "accomplished" by a verb: 4.oLC,J ,.....1 ~ ~ ~i

L......I ~1.r.11 t} «I.lH.iJi»,J «~i» .;L..ai .1.!.l.l.i.I ~i :.;i I.!.ll.i.li ~i ~i :1.llJ."AS' ~ 101.> I,J 8 396-. 5.2.4 prepositional phrases [S.2.4.1] Terminology: The term il/.afa applied to the construction of a preposition and its suffixed (pro)noun: 4.iL411 ·4 ·41I,J 4.iL411 r ":1 r~I ... 8 351. The verb~,)

:J

describes their relations: l,;,)

~~~ ~U~

[S .2.4.2] Ellipsis of preposition: This phenomenon (termed ~lA..:J1

ibid.

.;Lw.!) is included in a selective list of

syntactic processes and functions which condition the occurrence of na$b markers in nominals 4209. Various occurrences and distinct terms: l...~ cl.ii > l...j.' cl.ii is described in

y,. "

as J~

,r.A.t; ~i V-- > ~i (with an optional ellipsis of min:~!J

~;,~) 6 178; ~i t} ~b > ~i ~I,J described as ll..aJ1 289;)! t} > )! (with ll..aJ1 ~U) 8 237.

t?

6

206

CHAPTER THREE

[5.2.4.3] Added preposition: Redundant: it is identified as $ila in

')Jl ~ ~

8 28.

Not redundant: the double ka- in (W:S and) .Nfl is interpreted as J.!.o ~.J .N..)

8245.

Optional: • L:JI ')Ij characterizes the added preposition in the expressions ~~! ,))~

4J

and~.I.l~ ~ (Q

XXIII 20) ",,,,,; the added li- in the expression

r

: ~l> (ll..aJ1 "i ~! ~ 4;., • ~I WS') 3 262. Identified. as a neologism (I have !lot found daljil as a synomym of zii'id, etc.): ~~I :.1.:- .J.::>,) •L:JI '4.! ~~I 2230. [5.2.4.4]

Alternative preposition:

r-A.J,)., ~I rli (sc. r-A.J~ ... ) presented without comment 3 7. 5.3 The syntax o/verbs 5.3.1 Terminology: Distinction between muta'addin( [1.1.l~ 1~ .,~] ~) vs. mugawiz Y.r4)

([1~ .,~] is cited in 3.4.3.1 above. Nevertheless (.~ ~! jAiJl) I.SJ.. occurs with the general signification of transitivity in 4 319.

ti) 'ti., denote transitivity: the verb tr'i is transitive, although its object is not expressed 4.! J."al-o ,.p 1~ .1.:- ~ 1330. Elsewhere, I.,~i and 1..,.i:S"1

are used 3 121; the fact that I"""j may take the particle ~i instead of a

substantive noun, is expressed as \""",,"il~,) «iJi» ,.p I"""yl ti.J3 iJi 1 365. rj'J is "intransitive" and is opposed implicitly to "transitive" 4 13. 5.3.2 Transitivity and elision of complement: The imperative jL.. may be either transitive (~C jL..) or intransitive

:JlA.t .,i)

(V"i)1 .J~ )'~ ~ .:.5..-.--, jL.. 7 394; in the case of v-i ,it is noted J,.,.iJII.,~i (other verbs there include the above-mentioned tJ""i) 3 121. 5.3.3 Collocative considerations: 4.i.... and ~ may be followed by an acc. complement which is exclusively

:JlA.t "i., ...

49; the acceptability of the expressed ~i.J l!.!. seems to have been disputed: ~i.J l!.!. J~i "i : (n Jli and the ~ : 4J~ "i., I.N..) ~

subsequent approval of ~C ~)Il!.!. (in the sense of..l...oJi) 6277.

207

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-eAYN

5.3.4 Elision of the transitive verb: The acc. ~))I in a poetic verse is analyzed as ~ ~

4 •.&.)1 ~

3 112;

ijalil's analysis of~J'" assumes a covert verb. His formulation is: ~ ~

J.a.i.l1 3215 with a subsequent (ijalil's?) reconstruction of an imperative /Jyi rii described as J.a.i.l1 ~i ~I)I .L:.a.. J,r L..I.i .~ ~ ~ ibid; the answer1~ for ~ I~l... and the variant~ are discussed in 3.1.3.5d;

i)""

~~. It is characteristic of the I:Iigazi dialects J-i llI) its distribution includes proper names, indefinite nouns and pronouns

1..\1.j is defined as (j~I;

8390. 5.3.5 I have not understood the analysis of l..-.J

:

J}~I

c.P 1.)".,,>--

j...J 3

319. 5.4 Sentence concept 5.4.1 kaliim and gumla gumla as part ofthe Qufan 6 154; ~I~ iJJ~ ~ r~1 ~ :'i) 8345;

r~IJ yUI ~ ~iJ 6 143; the shift of (. - -Y-! J.".it) ~ to .~! ~L.... is explained as ~ :J,.,A3 ~! :~.".i ~! ul...;:,1 1 ~ i)"" lP.-,;.iJ 8 204llo.+l

i)""

[205]. 5.4.2 ibtada'a, iftataba ijalil analyzes iJls:...J as a compositum of ~J , and the other part, which he

introduces by ~IJ

is"u.; ~ 8 442- [443], ~ is presented as c.P J.".i)IJ .I~'il

Jr- 2273.

Otiose words (#Ia) in the beginning of an utterance: ilia, situated r~1 8 352; Ii!: Cbi'iIJ ll..:a.IlS' ~I

.I~~

vi J>>> 8 440.

5.4.3 Judgement of grammaticality of sentences The terms ~ - Jt.- are discussed (s.v.) in 3298. They might denote structural irregularity. 5.4.4 Compound structure of protasis and apodosis In two passages, it is inferred that a concept of two-clause sentences is not alien to the author of K. al-CAyn: In the structure with ..\I.JJ' he introduces the complementary apodotical clause with ~.j~ 863. The term

yl~

is employed

in the analysis of 'i) (cited above): ~I~ iJJ~ ~ r~1 ~ 8 348.

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CHAPTER THREE

5.5 Sentence-types 5.5.1 Synoptic classified list of terms Assertive: (~) y~!/~) .~I)I (yl..P.') .~ Interrogative: ~L,...U...I

~L... (with y~j for "answer"). Affective: •• ~~ •• I~! .~ ~~

r-l

.~

and

.. I...v

'CJ.. .~J.i .~ .~ Nonsensical (?): ~ .Jl-o .

5.5.2 Identity of individual types a. Assertive: ~ contrasts with ~L... in the study of

~L,...U...I

rS

5286 and with

(where the use of Ji is surveyed) 8 438-; ~I)I yl..P.' is contrasted

implicitly with negation

(~vs.~)

2 162 and uncertainty (two senses of

~ ) 200. Non-technical L...P.'J ~J is an equivalent of~ 3 6; y~! is "affirmation" of an act presented by the energetic form of the impf. verb 8 200. It is uncertain if an 'assertive' sense is intended in 435- where C.i is discussed. Its definition there is ... ~~I

J) y~~ ~ ~"j.5 J.S' ~?,

which may mean "and you [sc. the speaker] determine ... ". However, its proximity to the particle Lo! of alternative choice lends credibility to the 'assertive' interpretation. "Affirmation" is the sense of (..\.:$"';J) interpretation of a suffixed -ma in the lamentational sure how to classify the expression paraphrased by b. c.

~J

~I

~I

Y..P.'J in the

8 235. I am not

yJ5, in which the verb is

~

5 347-.

Interrogative: cf. the Assertive paragraph above. Affective: • 1J.i is identified with vocative structures with a set of typical

particles 1 203,2 247, 8 440, but it applies to the imperative sense of the facali pattern 6 71; • ~~ is both a synonym of .1J.i (in .;,Ua.il..lot 5 101, which is termed .1J.i in 1 203), and the supplicatory r+l'1 once referred to with the expression I..! occurrence with ~ o.)~

ibid. 6; on

r-i -

7 418; the vocative

~

see 2 193-,8 207-. ~

is

7 210, and in another

8 196 which otherwise characterizes the ~

lot

optative.)~

"i

applies to a variety of

morphological items which exhibit modes of intensity; included are facula 2 27 and the broken pluralJ'llS'i 5 362. It denotes exclamation in the na~b variant of the Qur'anic,jll.)~IJ ul."....J1 ~..I.t

2 54; exhortation (.I~! ) is

CJ.., see 8426 where the idiom ~ ~i "i is discussed .....

is discussed in 5.34; for ·li~ ... ~i

5.1. 3 .11; for the locative interpretation of 1../~ , see 5.7.1 d.

~I.J see

212

CHAPTER THREE

5.7.4 Particles [5.7.4.1] coordinative: wa- as a particle of selection

(~)

which intermediates the species and

J'" ~.., t,Su ~

the selected items, e. g. Q LV 68: ~l.o

3 381.

[5.7.4.2] interrogative: tautology of ~i is explained as ))a.4I, due to non-existence of interrogation by two particles (jl+A.:.... 1viT'-i ~)') 3 352-.

[5.7.4.3] negative: 1 the construction j?+r

is discussed in 3.5.4. It is considered a

derivative of J.a,i+)' (cf.: ..u.J [,}- )' :oL:.u UiJ), which for some unspecified reason is rejected by the speakers J.aAJ11~ j'%Jl vi AUlII.a I~u)

(J'!LAJI • ~~. The construction with repetitive J.a,i+)' (cf.: ~ )'J ~~ ')U) is called for, presumably as a corroboration of this thesis 832l. 2 otiose ($ita, zihda) )' in r-ii )' (Q XC 1) see 4.1.2.3.3, and the discussion of..;J- )'.., ~.J'!i ~~kll.., ~ -.lll J"""'J ~JI. ~lS' l.o 8 349-. 3 omission of tii: ... I.!L.."..,i -.lll.., ... :L."":,, i.,/"'" y..rJ1 4>~..u.., 8349-. [5.7.4.4] hypothetical condition: ,.j~ (see 3.5.4). It may open either a simple or a compound ) is 4:-oi sentence with protasis and apodosis (yl~). It is explained that in the simple sentence, the sense of the apodosis is already implied by the explicit statement (~I~ ~ ~.., )'! .~ )' ) ... ) 8 348. [5.7.4.5] constructions with exceptional particles: optional phrases with I~: ~+ I~ l.o and the omission of l.o which results in ~+I~

(with the sense of loS,.,...,) 2213.

l..!.l> is defined as • ~I WS with a variant J "j.#. affects the following noun with either "j.#. l.o, only

na~b

~l>

na~b

3 262.

or garr, whereas in the phrase

occurs because of the verbal status of"j.#. there. The phrase

~i "j.#. is paraphrased by ~i)'! 4308. [5.7.4.6] prepositions: a. the particle wa- may replace bi- (i.l>l.., 1I~ ..,1)1.., • L:JI), as the following examples demonstrate: ~Jl..,.r.llli

jU

..u and

l.a 4~..,.;.;i 37.

213

GRAMMATICAL TEACHING OF K. AL-eAYN

b. wa- of oath: its elision indll is attested in the speech of Arabs C .. y~1 J.,.c.;.J) 490. the prepositional the rat case

~

(~WI

may change its function into ~ ~ and subsequently take

c.; y~1 w.; ..u.J)

2246-.

c. enunciative ~i: it opens an enunciative

(~)

sentence in the dialect of Yemen 8435.

d. confirmative C .. J ... ) (.i: see 3.5.4. e. disjunctive): see 3.5.4. f. the function of CI:

".

see 4.1.2.4.

5.7.5 Exclamatory and other affective expressions a. Exhortative ,AJ-J (AJ-J by some people) is defined as .1.,;.1

demonstrated by y~1

.

~"j.j AJ-J

.

4 106.

and

b. Distinction is drawn between metaphorical and physical blindness. The expression o~i l.o applies only to the first 2266. c.

The na$b in the Qur'anic phrase (Q II 117) ul"....J1 ~~ is explained

as~I~~254.

d.

Variants of "How good is this!" include: '4.t ~i ,~i ,I..l. ~i l.o

~i 7461; Other loci introduce the patternfaeula as well:

'i.).

4.t ~!i 1 296 and ... ~ :~I notation of ~ as an exception) 227.

e.

:I:?i ~~ ~

IlfJ

~ ~ ~ i..i! :~i l.o (and

When I~+==- become a compound, they affect the following noun

with rat (J...J I~ :J.,.c.;

,4. ..:.dj ..::.L..J

I~~)

3 32. Its sense is equal to the

(exclamatory) I~ ~i 3203.

f.

.

..;~

~j

I..l. (the structure is discussed further in 5.2.1.3) is

equivalent in sense to y. ~)I ~ 5 56. g. Reconstruction of elided verbs: ~}.'I which is defined as ~ Jaj

3 112; Similarly in ... dI~

(li"l- dI~)

~ is reconstructed 3231.

h.

may express warning (J.e.&..J)

JoJ-Jj

is affected by the latent l"Ali ,

li"l-

the verb

and create a distinct syntactic

construction in which it is devoid of tan win and needs an apodosis as a complement (~ ~.J~.J Uo''''';; ~ ~). Otherwise it is adverbial and takes tanwin 863.

214 i.

CHAPTER THREE

The structures L."')U ~..\I and L."')U ~ are defined as .I~! 8 70 (also

~.J~

872).

j.

The preventative ~! (r.,L.!) has two variants: ayyii-liyyii-. Those using

any of them are reported to do so in order to distinguish it from the element termed C imiid, which conjoins the objective pronoun with a transitive verb 8 440-. k. An aspect of intensivity (i;s') is expressed in the repetitive structure Le! 4W4W~5

369.

CHAPTER FOUR THE GRAMMATICAL MATERIAL IN K. AL-cAYN - ITS POSITION IN EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

1. The scope Comparison ofthe grammatical material in K. al-CAyn with early grammatical works is an ultimate test of the traditional attribution of the whole corpus to an early Islamic era. This comparison is expected to yield the following results: first, clarification of the role played by Ijali:l in its writing, second, well-founded criteria for assessing of the theoretical portions of this material against their supposed historical setting. Our study of ijalil's role will be based primarily on the texts of K. aVAyn and Sibawayh's Kitiib. In addition we shall discuss several excerpts of later works which are attributed to Ijalil, and consider their relevance to the study of the identity of the grammatical material of K. al-CAyn. For the analysis of the theoretical elements we shall compare the material, in addition to Sibawayh's book, also with the grammatical teaching of three early Qur>an commentaries, Abu CUbayda's Magiiz al-Quf'iin and Farra>'s and Abfas's Mdiini l-Quf'iin and several other sources which include information about early Arabic grammar. To facilitate following the intricate comparison among the various sources I have attached the relevant excerpts of the Arabic text immediately after each of the discussed items and not as a separate appendix.

2. /jaW's role in writing K. al-CAyn 2.1 A comparison with Sibawayh's Kitab The following comparison is based on the study of 72 items which exhibit intersection of the grammatical teaching of the Kitiib with similar passages in the text of K. al-CAyn. The list is not exhaustive. It could be supplemented by a few dozens other items. However, it includes all the significant parallels I could collect, whereas the rest indicate mainly similarity in less significant aspects such as the shift citdiin > ciddiin and the assimilation in (igtama Cu » igdamacu.! It is obvious that existence of such items in the two texts does not ! al-CAyn 2 29, al-Kitab vol. 2 466,6 and 479,20 Oddan); AI-CAyn 1 353, al-Kitab vol. 2477,24 (igdama.1 .:,y "';.1.;> ~.1 uL..,..... ~W ;.1 H "-: ~ ~ t.~ "::"u.1 I~~ u..,...a1.l J.l>i~.1 L,..;..o [J~ t"".1 i "';.1,).1 iAI ~Y c) •.;.j ~ ~ l-.:.....I:I:-.1 I~! u.,-JI ~~ t.~ ~ .:;l>~.1 ~i ~I ~j.1~.1 ~.1 lyJ.J I.,..JJ; 1!ll..,l1!ll~.1 I!ll~ V'*"" u..l:l:-.1 ~ I~!.J ~J ~iJ J~ ~ ~i ~I ~j.1 'Wi .1 1)1 ~ I~ lyJ.1 I.,..JJ; I)l.i I!ll.l.l ... iAI v-o ...AJ~I y..,AJ;.+i .. ~J L.aJ!.u..1'.~ Item 3: The relations between vowels and consonants Sibawayh reports ijalil's theoretical view of the vowels. ijalil makes two points: first, the vowels are appended to consonants and make them participate in speech (li-yu~ala ilii l·takallum bihi). Therefore, only the consonants are the foundations (wal-binii' huwa al-siikin allar}f Iii ziyiidata fihi). Second, the vowels are parts of their respective matres lectionis. Sibawayh himself adopts this theory3 about the origin of vowels but it seems that he does not make use of the observation made by ijaHl in the first part of this theorem. We noted in Chapter III (4.1.2.9) the consistent employment of ijaHl's view in his theory about the three elements of each consonant and its appended vowel (/Jar! wa-~ar! wa-~awt), and its application in the theory of weak roots. This view is certainly commensurate with Sibawayh's report about ijaHl's theory. We 3

See Troupeau (1989). p. 35-36. See further item 57.

218

CHAPTER FOUR

may wonder which part of the whole theory was unknown to Sibawayh and which part he simply ignored. ~

Jl..ai .IJI.I ~ ~ ~.,..:aJII.J..L...:&.I.J ... J.,> .~.J ,J~ : l)u.J ... :3124

... 41.iJi ~~.J ~1.Jj ~I.J i~l.J ~I.:"i ~1~.i.J :Y\ r!.Y " ~ yL:S:J1 ...lI\t11JA ~u ~ i~\"J "J 1$..iJ1 ~WI J" • ~I.J ~ ~I u-11 J-~ J).I " ~ yL:S:J1 ~ ~~~ l.( .~ i~b ~ .J1)1 IJA ~I.J .l.Jl IJA i~l.J IJA) J..-> ~ ~ "J.J ~~ JS" c}.:,,~ U+l~ ;j~1 J..->~Il.ot: \ rAt. JS" ~.J .1.0 Js:.l ~ t~1 c} V+Jp J~ ~1.JjllJA .~ ~ ~ ... ~ "V· "~yL:S:J11~1.J IoSJ'!'-O IJ'..?,i y).i:J1 lool. IJ'J\..i;.J ~I.,>i ~ Wi ... ";$..-> ...lI~1 IJA ~lS').1 LC!J ...lI~1 J".J y.~ ~ 1oS..iJ1 J).I IJA I~ :" . .:,,1 I!.b.,..., ~,} .;.;t J.J.).I -I?! ~~) I~~: f. £. Of. " ~ yL:S:J1 .J1)1.J .l.Jl.J ~i~':"!J ~ ~ 4.J i ..L1b~IJ.J~~

4:S>

Item 4: The relations of y and h The statement that h is the closest consonant to y documented in K. al-CAyn in the entry D-H (-D-H) and exemplified in the shift yudahdihu > yudahdi is supported by a description of their similarity in phonetic terms, namely, y's madd and h's nafas. Another expression of their proximity is mentioned by the author, their interchangeability in rawi position of verses. He does not neglect to mention that y shares this characteristic with the two other matres lectionis. In the Kitab Sibawayh twice treats the above-mentioned shift of d-h-d-h and in both he mentions that the phonetic explanation is ijallI's. Minor differences between the two texts deserve mention: first, in K. al-CAyn the shift is from d-h-d-h to d-h-d-y and in the imperfect, whereas in the Kitab it is vice versa and in the perfect form. Second, Sibawayh's description of the phonetic features is expressed by the couple biffa and bafd'. Note that Sibawayh utilizes the observation about the proximity of the two letters in his description of the shift hdrji > hdrjih; elsewhere he includes alif as another counterpart of h with the same phonetic characterization of y .

• l.Jl.:"i

loS,}

"Ji '.414·~ J.J).I y.,;i .l.Jl.:,,~ ,.4 i;:"J1.411

J.,

:3483

.

~I IoS.JJ ~ • 411.J ...lI~I.J .J1)1.J -l.JlIoSJ'!'-O JI- I!1Jla IJA.J ,~ • 411.J i.l.o - ... I~I.J c} ·414 ~ .l.Jl.:,,~ ~I ~j ~ ~~~ ·41!1J.lS"":£. rA\ "~yL:S:J1 " ~ yL:S:Jl= • 41lS' .l.Jl ~Jl..ai ~~~ ~."i 1!1J~ ~ ~...uI.J 4'W-.J ~ J~i -.;5J.J .:At:..->~ iI~ ~~~ ~I ~j ~ ~ ~~~ .:"i L.S" •• :" !.Y"

219

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

=

c.si .l::J I ir .;J~i.t l.~ u.L I.J • Lal c.si

l+! ~ • 4J I ir .l::J I i~1 ~~I~jl L.S': w. .l::J1 .:J.)I.)jl i~1 ,: )~ I~~:" "" L Y ~ ,:,,~I ~.1.) iJ:!i 4A.o i~1 ~.J 4Iw.... l+! "';.J"';'Irs-i rf".r ir It? 4-il>:... t,J~i.t t.1.

4-i i.J

4-i~ 4-iw..J ~ .4J~..dJ~ l."w U!J ... :'" "'Y'" Y ~ ,:,,~I= (1$.1. > ,"",~I ~

Part-of-speech classification Item 5: min bacd The principle that a locative (termed ~ifa) may change its part-of-speech classification and become a noun is recognized in K. a/-CAyn, where it is explained as a result of introduction of a preposition before it. In fact this formulation does not describe accurately the reasoning behind this rule and at the same time it is misleading because the part-of-speech class of prepositions is also ~ifa. Therefore, the rule is that two ~ifas cannot succeed each other. This is exactly how this rule is formulated in two different passages (entries bacda and qab/a): Iii tagtam{u ~ifatiini. In the two passages it is attributed to ijalil. With the exception of negligible differences they are literally equal with due change of bacda andqabla. We are unable to judge if one of the two loci was copied from the other or that both indicate copying from another text. Sibawayh attributes to ijalil the identification of can as a noun. ijalil's reasoning in this passage is that the phrase min can indicates the noun classification of can because the preposition min can only affect nouns. My contention is that the two views of K. al-CAyn and Sibawayh's book are based on one rule formulated by ijalil. The question is which of them is the original rule and which is a modification of it. If the formulation of the two passages of K. al-CAyn is the original, it indicates that ijalil's terminology and theoretical framework were conSiderably different from Sibawayh's because they included the term and concept of ~ifa, which is traditionally considered part of the Kiifan grammar (see discussion below). This could also be an instructive case of modifications made by Sibawayh to his master's views and the extent of Sibawayh's originality. On the other hand, if we consider the possibility that the formulation of K. al-CAyn is a modification and that the Kitiib's passage is the genuine ijalilian formulation we may wonder why the author took such a long route in his modification of ijaIH's view allegedly formulated as an original in the Kitiib. It seems less plausible to assume that the two formulations represent different stages in ijaIH's history as a grammarian. I do not see how any of the other possibilities can be maintained, namely that the two views do not belong together and that one of the attributions to ijalil is fictitious.

220

CHAPTER FOUR

«J.o..j .lA.! VOO» dJ."AS' .L...~I ~ ~ JL,., »VOO» ~ ~i I~~ :J..e.l;L1 :522

h \.i:.. «.lA.!» J L,., LC!J ~ 1oJ.J? VOO «VOO» IJ~ «.lA.!» ~.J ll..:, «VOO» JL.ai . . J JL,., «VOO» IJ'J. «VOOll ~.J 1Jw.... ~ 'J. J,j'J. ~'J.I~!~.J VOO ~.J ~ ~i 1~!J ... «.lA.! VOO».J «~ VOO» :J..e.l;L1 Ju :166 5= .~ r~1

JJ...t:>

~

«J.o..j ~ VOO» :dJ."i .,:N .L...~I ~ ~ JL,., «VOO» ~ J,j~ ~'J.I~!~.J VOO J~.J ((VOO» ~ 1~li.:.o «~» J~ ~ «~» ~.J ~ r~1 JJ...t:> ~ JL,., «VOOll IJ~ ((VOO»~.J 1Jw.... ~ 'J. IJ~ ((~ Uo" VOO» ~ I~! r-li «~» Loi.J J..e.l;L1 J~ :" t'f' Y ~ y~1 ll..:, «VOO» uJL.ai

• L...~I ~ 'J.! J-i 'J. «VOO» Item 6: qad The following definition of qatfs function is offered by the author of K. al-CAyn: In addition to statement of its affirmative sense (lJarfyugibu I-say» the author explains its pragmatic function of convincing by reconstruction of the plain message (lJabar) and adds that introduction of qad serves as "an emphasis for making this message credible" (tawkidan li-ta~diq galika). Sibawayh attributes to Ij:alB a similar view. He formulates it from the standpoint of the recipients of a message, who are described as expecting it (.. /i-qawm yanta;iruna l-lJabar). Note that Sibawayh's conception of the definition is more abstract. It is based on contrast with the negative counterpart of this structure and particle. It is commensurate with his contrastive study of affirmative and negative structures and particles in vol. 1 of his book (Chapter 259). On the other hand the same chapter includes one observation that Sibawayh identifies later as Ij:alil's, namely the contrast of sa (+ impf.) with Ian. 1JlS' :J,.,Ar lJi ,#I.J .1.lS".J 1.lS" 1JlS'..Ii dJ."AS' .~I ~~ oJ,roJ ((..Ii» Loi.J :16

lJi J..e.l;L1~»

J...i ..Ii Jp Ja.i.!

5

.. dJ~ -~J...a:J 1..\.::S'.,. "..Ii" J>~U 1.lS".J 1.lS" 1l~.,AJ yl~ ..Ii Loi.J :f fft Y~ y~1 ,#IIJ.J~ r.,AJ r~1 l.a

Morphological teaching Item 7: labbayka Although it is not said expressly the author of K. al-CAyn treats the form labbayka as a dual of labb. He presents the word s.v. L-B-B, mentions the form ilbab and explains that the verballabbaytu has shifted from labbabtu, similar to ta?annantu > ta?annaytu. In the Kitab Sibawayh presents two views about this word's derivation, Ij:alil's and Yiinus'. The first considers it dual, the latter says it is "one word", namely it is not derived from any other,

221

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

more basic form. It is impossible to tell if the formulation of the entry in Lay!'s dictionary reflects earlier discussions of derivation of labbayka. Sibawayh's presentation does not even imply that either of the two scholars was aware of his colleague's view. Note that in various cases Ijalil's derivation of particles and similar non-nominal entities includes identification of their conpound structure (see next item).

Item 8: Ian The negative particle Ian is derived in K. al-CAyn from a combination of la and an. This process is explained as the result of "frequency of occurrence in speech" (li-katratihifi l-kalam). Sibawayh attributes to Ijalil the same view and the same formulation of explanation (li-katratihi fi kalamihim). Interestingly, he objects to this view and bases his rejection on a lengthy sophisticated argument. It might be significant that in K. al-'Ayn Ijalil's derivation is presented without any seeming repercussions of a scholarly debate over it.

r~JI ~ ~.;sJ ~.J

.,:,i ~=J

:350

8

.;,i ~ I+i ~j ~I Loti : ~ . -, 0 r,\, , -'!' ,,=,,~I .;:..;lS' ).J' .. ~ ~ UJ'~.J i~Lj J ~ ~ d ~j o.r.&- Loi.J' "r+"')I.$' ~ .;.;sJ 1";.1> ~.J

... ~IJ~ Lo~

Item 9: ayah, gayah The derivation of words of the pattern ayah, gayah etc., is discussed in the two books. The relations between the two respective passages are hard to establish. In the entry ayah in K. al-CAyn the author presents the pattern as F'LH (jacalah? faClah?) and then quotes Ijalil's argument that the middle letter of this pattern is y. Ijalil reasons that although this word does not have verbal forms (i. e. which could indicate its exact underlying structure with middle y, in agreement with his argument), such verbal forms can be reconstructed on a theoretical basis (wa-law takallafta). He exemplifies them with ayaytu (perf.) and (ayah) mU'ayyah (pass. part.). In the entry gayah the author states a rule according to which any word exhibiting the sequence "original alif + yiJ''' is inflected with the shift alif> y, e. g. gayaytu. In contrast to the case of ayah the author provides a verbal form without qualifying it as artificial. However his identification of the alif as original (a~liyya) agrees with the thesis made in the previous passage. Sibawayh presents two different views concerning the structure of "ay, ayah and gayah". The first is presented as Ijalil's and the other is anonymous (wa-qala gayruhu). Ijalil's view does not state what pattern these words take,

222

CHAPTER FOUR

but his main argument is identical with his teaching in K. aVAyn, namely that although these nouns have no inflection their corresponding theoretical inflected forms (e. g. verbs) exhibit the virtual y. From the fact that the other view states expressly that the pattern of these words in faclah (reconstructed by assumption of the shift ayyah > ayah), we may conclude that JjalH's suggested pattern isfacalah. The comparison between the two books indicates that in both the theoretical reasoning attributed to Jjalil is the same. An attempt made by us to read the pattern mentioned in the unvocalized text of K. al-CAyn as facalah is most reasonable. Its support by the parallel passage of the Kitab is legitimate. Note, however, that there are no echoes of the other view in the two passages of K. al-CAyn.

~ ~ ... ~'JI ..k...J ~ u:J1 ,"",'JI 4J! :JJll.1 Ju .llai ~..r.!..I.i3J :~T :441 8 i.~ IJ"'Y ~ (;~I)- IJ-" 4,iw.:.1 ~ )J .. ~lAIl. .. :~.lS"J .4 ~'JI ~ ~b IJ-" ~J :~~ :4574 = ~i ..\i .4t. ~T :~ w.a...

~ 4JlS" 4J!" ~ J.t.o 4.:..0 clai 4J i ~.~ l.o y4 1.1.

~~~ ... ~LJ 000)

:~ H'~ ~ ~ ,,:,~I

I.aJ ~TJ ~~J ~T ~ J.t.o 4W) ~ i'%Jl cj.~ llJ"'(i'%Jl cj ~ W' ~~ I.aJ ~'JI ~ ~ I.S~J ~JJ ~ 4J~ ~ 4W 4J'J .)~ ~ l.o ~J

J.MII,J~.~":'w cj l.a.i..:..t ~J cll y4 cj J~J t.-'JJ .)~ ~ ~J J.j ~iJ ~i ~ U! D~ JUJ JJll.1 J~ I.aJ Ja.i..J ~ cj ~ 4J~~

fi

I.,.!..l:U .;,IJI)I .~ L.S' .;,t. 4~ ~4~ ...lI~1 ~~ 1)~iJ • L:JI 1.r.U l.oiJ J~ I.aJ •..;.+11 ~I.f JI)I I)~U ~IJ~ I)u W'J 4J1.~1 I)u W' ,"",'JI • ~ ~ I)u W' 4.t ~ ~ ~ 4J!" J.:a.o 4W 4J i ~ • ~ J~ 4J~ JJll.1 ~'JI ~ 4W 4Jls' Item 10: Wi c > lOCi and Wi c > laC The author of K. al-CAyn gives two deviating forms of the act. part. of verba mediae w/y in stem I: tii'i c > Wi (~u, > ~u,) and W;C > tff (> tu, ~u,).

Exponents of the latter are presented by the general expression wa-yuqalu.

It seems reasonable to assume that the first deviating form is adopted by the author or that it is his own view. Both deviations are analysed briefly: (aciis presented as the result of permutation (qalb) between R2 and R 3, whereas the other view maintains that the attested form exhibits ellipsis of y. So far the two scholarly views seem to disagree about the existence of two language forms. Sibawayh acknowledges the existence of both forms and notes that the distribution of the second is larger. He also accepts the interpretation of qalb for the first. Now the relevant point is that in another passage of K. alJAyn it

223

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

is inferred that this process of qalb affects the act. part. of ga'a. In the Kitab Si:bawayh discusses this view of ga'[ (henceforth, following Si:bawayh, ga'l'). He identifies its exponent as ljaIn (although in a subsequent passage he prefers the anonymous qawl man zaCama) and accepts ljaIn's interpretation of the shift in ga'i' as similar to the process attested in !acL All in all, Si:bawayh's testimony confirms that the inference in K. al-CAyn to the shift in ga'i' goes back to ljaIn, even though its author does not make any mention of this fact (and see discussion of oa!a'j> > oaraya in Item 39).

,~I.lA.t ~.lA.t rlJ ,)L..,i .L.:JI c;' ~ :Jll...J"'~ t'l1 ~I) :c.r l1 :2092 ... ~~~.,i J.!.o ~ ~N"'~U» ~i 4U»J :292 4 t.l1:~ Le! :Y\ \,..£. Y ~ y~' ~ ~ ~l) Lo ~ y~ l.a 1'''1'

:, \,..\

Y~ y~1

L.iJ :23-12174 4J,;.a ~ J~ 4.i~ (,"",),I,;.i ~ ~i )'! ~J ('""'I 4U» ~.lS'J ~J :11. '\ £. \, Y ~ y~1 . :wi 4u».;.1 ~ ~~i ·4 I.nU ~~ 4U»

,j.j4~ rl.;.+ll ~~ 4U»~.r. l.a I~ rlJ'~~.r. ~Li,j ~ .::J~~ Lo ":"'$i ~1,j.j4..,a" L,;,;.a ~l) ~ 4U» l..iJ .... L...IS~ 1.1. '-!?~ ~I L..~J • l..:.J • ~~.,i ~i ~~ ~\S'.j ~I LoiJ : \Y ....a;~,,11 4Ua..1S~ i.;.+ll ~I~ ~~ I.,,;l) ~! ~ ~;'IJ l.a ~~ I"..ji :JuJ 4..,u.. ~ j')Ul ~. ~ lS?i Le!J :£. £. y. y ~ y~1 ~l..:.J.!J)' ~)~ y.,-JI fiiJ ... i.l>I..,11 -. ... '0.;.+11 ~I~ JI)II,,-:li ~ •.!J)' IS~ y).i.. d ~j ~ J.,i Item 11: diptotic asya' The printed text of K. al-CAyn includes three interpretations of the diptotic character of asya'. Two of them appear in the manuscripts and the third is quoted from Azharl's Tahtjib, where it is presented as ljaIn's view. The last interpretation, which maintains that the original form was saya' (of the diptotic pattern/acla'), which shifted to the currentasyii' (described in terms ofpermutation as la/a'), is presented by Si:bawayh in the Kitab and is attributed there to ljaIn. It is advisable, then, to consider Azharl's citation as a possible borrowing, either direct or indirect, from the Kitab. The first interpretation seems to be the author's favourite. Not only is the second interpretation preceded by the title wa-qala qawm fi "asya''', but the author also introduces the two interpretations after the remark "People who are ignorant in grammar disagree about it". Now this first interpretation, which assumes a contraction of the original singular form sayyP to say, maintains that the same process occurs for the plural: asyPa' > asya'. It is interesting to realize that this is exactly Sibawayh's implied explanation of the origin of the plural asyii'. He discusses its position as the counted noun after numerals of the group 3-10 and observes that it behaves as if it were of the pattern ajal, which derives from the singular /aci. We note this as a case

224

CHAPTER FOUR

of agreement between the two texts, more precisely, between the authors of the two books, and refer to it again as Item 46. But one conclusion is particularly significant: Sibawayh's specification of Ijalil's view indicates that the first interpretation mentioned in K. al-CAyn is not Ijalil's. It should rather be identified as the author's (Lay!?)!

.:,f ~..J ,.~f (!) ,J~ 'i y,....JfJ ,.~'if ..I>b .crJf ::~i :-2956 • ~ l~f.:,lS" Lif ,p.;Jf k ~ ...ll::>IJ .' LeJIJ .,; ..I> ~ ~'i ,uJ"'-'':'~ ~ f~1 W' ~f ~ yli f~f ~J ,~ ':'JY. .~ :.~ ~.)'if t""f YOJ l.W..o .~f .:,lS" LJL.~I f# W'J .(~) ~ :f),A ~J ,4JI..I>J ~ W' ,~4 ~ ,.)I..aj ~ ~ ,J1.;l.1 V'" ~.r.i-J J...,.>..1.l"';~1 ~jj ,.)l..ajf,; V.N.j W' ,hL.j o';''if o.uIJ " ~f :u5JJ " ~f

a';'f I"""'f JS"J ,.l-~J • f,.\a..,fJ • f,.,- O.M J!.t YOJ ,lA';'f ,; o.uf "L!.~ ~ UJ...,.> o.uf a.aJ ,0.J..; 'iJ;.;....... ,;,J~ 'i ~u ,4Wf ~f~"'; . • Jli .1.._- ·1·1f,w'i lif . "L!.')Wf UJ~ .WI clJ.lS" ~WI "" i~ :J ~ "" ..... ~ "" J_ :~ JliJ .~f:~ Jw ,.crJf ~ ~ ~f U y,....Jf.:,f :(.~I) o~fj O.M

'~J ,a~J ·LeJfJ .~ u..~ ~ ~ ~ UJ 'ISJl.!.1 :~ JliJ ,vIJl.!.1 ISJl.!.f f)li U ~f IS.;S 'if clJ.lJ ..J~ IJJ.;SJ ,a..l> ~ ~ .u ~f ~ .~ • 4 1# W' ~ ,( ~ W.M • L::JIJ ) JIJ .~f ~ .:,lS" ~I .:,~I vfJl.!.IJ ,~ 1"""" :. ~f :~f JliJ- :~4:J1 ~.b] .~fJ ~I

.)I..aj :AJ.....,f .:,lS"

("W) I:~ ,WSjI JJI ~f '~J'if oAf ~ ,.:,U"Af cl.i!:o:....u ,.~

... ~ : I.,JW L.)"J~ :I~ L.5J . (~I) : I.,JW (..;.,.;1) I~ L.5 " L....iJ ) Jwi ~r. .~i f~ ~~ f)W :~i ~')IJ LoiJ :,'\ ,,,. "~yw:J1

J~ ~J .:,~ ~J ~')IJ ~.,i clJ~ J!.tJ Jwi V'" ~~ J~J ~ ~ 'J..-s' .Ja.i.I ~ yo 1$.lJ1 f41 jJ clJ~ ~ i..).i.o • ~i .:,i ~I ~jJ J~) V'" ~~ ~ Jw ~L....o ~ -.:.lLJ :, £..", "~yw:Jf ..I>f)1 ~ ~ ~J ..1>1)1 .:,lS"J ... L.)"J.,i ~i LiiJ ~ y.,lAlf V'" clJ~ .r.Ja.iJ ISJl.!.iJ • ~i clJ.lS"J i..).i.o ~i ISJl.!.i clJ.lS"J Jf)1 V'" a.f Lo J!.t oAI t' ~ fyo}J • ~ • ~i ~i 4l.!.i Item 12: feminine l)iPiej, rilliq In K. al-CAyn there is a clear, consistent explanation of the anomalous agreement rule for such adjectives as !:til'iej "menstruating" and tilliq "divorced" which are typical of females and still lack the -ah feminine ending. These adjectives are considered remote from their verbal counterparts and therefore they do not respond to the rule which we call "agreement". The author expresses their characteristic in two modes: he contrasts such an adjective

225

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

with an identical fonn which has an agreement morpheme and indicates the verbal sense of the latter as a futural act (hiya (aliqatun gadan "she will be divorced tomorrow"). In other passages the author uses expressions of stability, wagib, luzum kal-{abFa, which are characteristic of this group and differentiate its members from their verbal counterparts. Sibawayh's treatment of this phenomenon of disagreement offers two explanations. One of them assumes an underlying reference by these adjectives to a more abstract entity, which in Arabic is expressed by the masculine say. The other is similar to the explanation given by the author of K. al-CAyn. It is even more explicit in its fonnulation of the distinction drawn between this group and the "verbal" adjectives (.. fa-innahu lam yuvrighu cala I-f{/ "It is not construed upon the verbal model", see what folIows). Sibawayh names Ijalil as the exponent of this explanation. It seems that the fonnulation lam yuvrighu refers to Ijalil's interpretation of the language process, not to the speaker's perfonnance. On the other hand, the first explanation mentioned by Sibawayh is attributed to a person to whom he refers by the verb fa-zacama. This may be a reference to Ijalil. Troupeau so identified this locus (with some hesitation?).4 If this was also Ijalil's view about this group of adjectives it has no traces in K. al-CAyn, whereas Sibawayh's unequivocal testimony to the other view confinns identification of the unnamed theorem in K. al-CAyn as Ijalil's. :269 ~lS' rJY :4147=) 1-1i llIU,J Jlu, # 'u)lJ, ~ ii)IJ :101 5 ~J I~~ .~ ~ JoI)I) :JoIIJ 8 :31.WI.::....; iJ'" ~I)I :c:.o lJ it... 1 4 iJolIJ #

~ .:,i .t.1J~J d.r> ~j.ll ~ )'.lll ~ I~! l.l1;i ~IJ : Y y. y ~ y~1 W' ~j.ll ~ u...,J i)'1o l+~ uL&..:J1 o.a J~ U! d ~j ... ) vA'~ ~J .) ~ .) l..LJ ...A.-J ..!.ij.ll l.a ,jls:J .. ~ .kJ' ...!.i-.H ..?'.lll ....L:o..n .. ~j.ll A.t ';"'&""J ,..: vA'l> I.l. .::..U ~.~ .~ u...,J ..?'.lll JS'J"~ ii..... 1.t.1J..,J .t.1J~J ~j)1 A.t u...,.Jot 1)'10 .:,~ L.. y~ l.a :,,, All Y ~ y~1

.c.r-

.c.r-

.c.r-

~» .. 'vA'l> l.a I)U r+ls:J )'10 ·~b ~ d ~. 'vA'l> 4:1:~ r' t!1~ Ju ~ d W' j.AAJ1 ~ 4:1:~ r' I..i~ vA'l> I)U I~! r+i ~I 'I-li ~l> o.a J..,AJJ

... ~ ul~. 'if'J~ Ju I..i'ls'J

:.w ~

Item 13: qulubuhuma The anomalous construct structure represented by quLUbuhuma (instead of the "correct" qalbiihuma) is fonnulated in K. al-CAyn as a rule: this structure 4 Troupeau (1976) p. 229 ad vol. 2 exceptionally mentions p. 20 twice (viz. 20,3; 20,7 [instead of 20,3,7]). Since the second occurrence includes an explicit mention of

Ijalil's name it seems that the first was introduced as a second thought.

226

CHAPTER FOUR

is licit if the annexed dual constitutes a body part of the entity to which it is annexed (i. e. the hearts belong to the two persons). Sibawayh describes the same formulation as ijalil's answer to his own question. 5 According to the Kitab ijalil had an important addition to this rule, namely that dual is plural (and therefore this construction is not as anomalous as it looks). The cooccurrence of the expression sayayni min say~ayni in the two books confirms the ijalilian identity of the explanation in K. al-CAyn. On the other hand, the fact that ijalil's theorem of "dual as plural" is quoted by Sibawayh in the exact context and from a very personal standpoint gives special credibility to his report and this fact indicates that one should not expect full agreement between the two sources even on topics which are undoubtedly quoted from ijalil by both.

~ .~I ~ ~ U1.> iT' t... ~ iT' ~ l.Jll) ... :4.,.li :3287 ~I.J~I

~~I ~'J :Jlii ~'p-.J u-- i l...:r J.J.;LI ~L.J :'A \Y. 0 , ~ y~1 1lfo ~~ l.. ~ l.,l~) l.Jll) ~.J l.:W ~ ~~I J.,lll~ lola.J ~ 1.Sj':"A o.J..P.'l.; ~I) ;j.) .l.o-J! 4Jl» ~.J l)u.J ...• ~ iT' 1;..!. ~~ l.. ~J ~iT'~

Item 14: )avawah > )uVt Sibawayh's report that tIalil instructed that )UVt is derived from the pattern facal (i. e. )avawah > )UVt) is commensurate with the teaching of K. alJAyn on that subject. The fact that Sibawayh mentions in this context Yunus' information about the attested plural ava) (of the singular facal) indicates probably that thisfacalah derivation was common knowledge among scholars and Sibawayh may simply refer to tIalil's teaching as a matter of formality.

..,.

.

.

,.

.1.. u.j\j.J..::.>1 :t~1 ~\j.J :~I >..::.>1 :319

4

~'\H,).&. clI~ J.aj..::.>i ~i W' ~ ~I.J ~ ~i ) ~j.J : "'" VA " ~ y~1 y~1 ~ ~ 1-4J.1>1 ..,..;~ ~j ~ y...-JI ~ J.,l.J ~i.J ~l>i.J ~,;.i l.. ~.Jlft r+i ~I ~t.J1 • \j ~ ~lS' l.. # y~ l.la '('VA:" ' " 0 " ~ ... ~ ~ ~.J ~i ..::.>i ~ clI.,l clI~.J" .~'JI uo'! ~t.J1 • \j ~ ~lS'

Item 15: balJrani The relative noun balJraniis reported in the two works. In K. al-CAyn the author reports an inflected (dual) performance of the place name: nom. BalJran vs. (acc./) gen. BalJrayn. This may be what Sibawayh attributes to ijalil in 5

Blau (1989), pp. 16f.

227

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

the discussion of the relative baIJrani, when he says: wa-zacarna l-!jalil annahurn banaw "al-baIJr" cala faclan. It is still uncertain if according to Sibawayh's testimony ijalil actually reported or constructed the form BaIJran or that he derived the relative from a theoretical noun. The second possibility is supported by the text: wa-innarna kana l-qiyas an yaqulU "baIJriyy". If this possibility is considered tenable, we may consider the information of K. al-CAyn about the optional inflection of the place-name as a misunderstanding on the part of its author of ijalH's teaching of this particular issue.

t..."... .~I~I o.aJ V"~I~!

4i1

:JlA.t :""I..P'-! :220 3

~;w ~ ~II~ r+i ~1~.i.J :Y

'0 Y~ y~1

Syntactic teaching Item 16: rna afala Sibawayh formulates the restrictions imposed on the distribution of rna aJala structure of fascination. The formulated rule states clearly enough that the more nominal a property the less it deserves to be included in this structure. Therefore colours and physical defects are not included. Then he mentions ijaIH's view which puts the above-mentioned observation of remoteness from nominal features in a more straightforward manner; ijalH concentrates on defects and compares the physical ones with body parts. This comparison helps him demonstrate why mental defects, exemplified by "stupidity", are legitimate candidates for inclusion in this construction. In principle, the formulation of the rule in K. al-CAyn is similar to Sibawayh's and ijalil's in the Kitab. It contrasts the licit "How blind is he!", aimed at one's mental blindness, to the unacceptable same structure which intends to mean the physical disability. The latter is characterized as rna tudrikuhu l-ab~ar "what the eyes can watch". The recurring focus in the Kitab on lawn wa-bilqa does not appear here. On the other hand, the passage in K. al-'Ayn includes a different concept of the restrictions imposed on distribution of the structure. The author presents its exponents by yuqalu and describes its more permissive attitude, which rejects only adjectives derived from stem IX. Again, we tend to consider the first view as the author's position. We may conclude that there is some correlation between ijaHl's view in the Kitab and the author's position in K. al-CAyn. It seems of special significance that Sibawayh's description of ijaIH's view includes an analogical procedure which considers body parts the outstanding representatives of a class whose features are shared by the studied class by analogy. This is a procedure which characterizes the Kitab as is typical of both Sibawayh and his teacher (although it is not uniquely theirs). Could its absence in K. al-CAyn indicate that the author was less aware of the methodological roots and the central role of this procedure? The fact that Sibawayh does not mention the other view documented in K.

228

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al_CAyn may indicate that the author of the latter work collected other theorems than Ijalil's and that this collection is not based entirely on Ijalil's sources . ..::-; .}j D~i L.......a.:J1

c.rs-

J~ ~.J 'D~i L.. :J~ ~I 1.1.~.J :2662 ~ iJfi...- ..::-; ~ ,Al; L...J u..,..-;JI iJ-O ~ ~ j~ :Jll...J 'J~'Ji .$JJj .... U; .,-I.J .)..:01 J.!.o JaAJI l..\.!..o ~I ~i iJlS' L.. ~~.J ..wiL.. ~ j~ ~ L.. y~ 1.1. 'I'It. :,. ",,, " ~ 1o:"LzS:J1 • ~I 1.1. iJi ~~ '-"! ~~l Le!.J .. D~i L.. L!.aJ1 ,; ~.J" ll1> .Ji l;) iJlS'.J ~j.J ... JaAJI ~J La1 ll..aJ 1,; J,j.;5.J • L....'1 I ,; ,clj 1,$'; ~ i JaAJI ,; ~ b ~I 4.lF. ~~ JL... 1.1. iJ'J ..wi L.. D.1. ,; I)~ iJ i iJ-O ~ Le! 1*'i ~I D~ ,; ll1> ~.J iJ.,lt ~ 1.1. iJ'J ... ",-i L.. ~'11 ,; ~.,l L..i.J" .~)I.J iJ-O

Item 17: inna mal}allan wa-inna murtal}alan ... Ijalil's analysis of the structure inna+indefinite noun in the entry I}-l-l of K. al-CAyn is described as his private instruction of the disciple Lay!. Ijalil clarifies to Lay! that there is no contradiction between his teaching that a sentence-opening noun cannot be indefinite and the structure of Nsa's verse inna mal}allan wa-inna murtal}alan ... . The expression extracted from the verse, he explains, is a citation by A'Sa of another person. Ijalil cites the earlier verse, which says: "Do you remember the stay in Tanammu~, when you mentioned to me the proverb (saying: ... )". It turns out that Ijalil's interpretation of A'Sa's verse is "There is a time for wandering, there is a time for settling down". Several lines later the author explains the verse's murtal}al and ma/:lall as the ma$dar forms irti/:liil and /:lulu!. The same verse is cited by Slbawayh in his chapter on omission of locatives in inna structures. I cannot provide references to Ijalil's express formulation of this rule in the Kitiib, nor can I show a passage in which he restricts sentence-opening nouns to definite nominals. This is explained in some detail by Slbawayh himself in an early part of the syntactic chapters of his book. But we may conclude that the numerous citations of ljalH's analysis of such structures indicate that Layt's description of his teaching is genuine, and that the testimony of the Kitiib is commensurate with that of K. al-CAyn.

y.,...,1 iJi ~:; ~i :~ clj " ...~.;A iJ!J ~ iJ!" :~'JI Ju :26 3 ~~J -"..vI ~ iJ! :J~ ~.J i..,s:..J~ i.A; ~ -"..vI ~ ~J iJ! :J~ ~ L...;WI ~ iJ!" :~J iJ-O ~J If-... ~~ iJ-O 1.1. .J~ c.. \J"'Le.i ~ 1.1. ~ :Ju '-" y~ ~! ~ ~ ~I ~j; j." :J~ ~ ~~ ~~..J~.;A iJ!.J ll.aJ1 ..,.....,t; ~.;A ~ iJi.J ~ ~ ) ll) :~ Ju.J :... )u.. l+. t~u ~~ iJ!J ~~-"~! J.J...r.. ~.;I' iJ!J ~ iJ! :~'JI Ju ... :J.e~')b :~J :208=

229

K.AL-CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

J?~I o.a

c.si

.:"."s:...J1 ~ ~ Lo ylt l.a

\I"V

-'!'

y~1

Lo 1!J)....~'1

~I

:-H YH ,

~ ~I -I.a ~.J .I,j~i ) ~"".J 4J 1~ ~

~J" ~!J )t,.... ~! :~~I JU.J" .1..u.J ~ ~! '" 1..u.J ~!J ~Lo ~! ~~.J ~I "i.J iA d..I.:.J1 oW ~.J .Ji r-b. ~lS" ~ ~~ :,,, 'V , -'!' y~' ~ ... .JI'.J

~.ro ~~I ~ J.rt. li..lJlt l.a ~.J ~I ir ~~I ~ ~i ~ ~ ylt I.,...,k) I.JI'~ u..,all

Item 18: zamanA l-ljaggiigu amlrun The structure zamanA l-ljaggiigu amlrun is conceived by the two authors as a secondary structure, in which the time word zaman (and similar words of a stock of concrete time indicators, such as siica, Casiyya, sana, etc.) substitutes the original it}. In K. al-CAyn discussion of this structure follows a detailed analysis of the difference in syntactical status between the clause in (1) ... Casiyyata->it}in banu Fuliinin yaqulUna and (2) ...casiyyata 'itj banu Fuliinin yaqulUna. The first is an independent sentence and is termed babar, whereas the other is dependent on the time word in annexion construction and is termed $ila. This latter structure is also analyzed by ijalil in response to Sibawayh's question. An interesting difference is observed in the formulation made in the two texts of this clause. The author of K. al-CAyn uses the expression (hiit}ii 1-) kaliim agmd which seems to have terminological status similar to gumla mentioned several lines earlier. In the Kitiib the expression is mii qad Camila bd{luhu fi bd{lin. This formulation is commensurate with Sibawayh's general terminology of clause structure. 6 Since we think that in the two texts the discussion is genuinely made by ijalil, it is possible to conclude that Sibawayh's reluctance to use the term gumla or an equivalent expression made him modify his teacher's formulation to fit his own scholarly style.

r~1 l.a

'-"'1 uL.:..'1 1 ~

4.i~ r~1 ~ ~ :J'!""i [~I v-oj :204 8 (~! '4&.1.-1 ~L...) ... v-oj : I)u -.1S' ~i

u :JwJ'!""i ..LI....i::,..jl!Jl~~lS"~j~Ir)4.l.,iir;..:JL.J :,,,

..u L. c.# ~! ~.P~

W- ~ r) ~ ~

£,."

-,!,y~1

..u Lo '-"'1 L..,iL.:..i ~1 tf- r) .;;lS" 4.i

.". .J..r.Ai. I.J ~

'="

...,....

.~

I.~

Item 19: sanad and musnad ilayhi The study of the early history of the pair of terms musnad and musnad ilayhi, revived in recent years by Levin and others, has not neglected mention 6

See Talmon (l988b), p. 85; idem (1992), p. 819.

230

CHAPTER FOUR

of its occurrence in K. al-eAyn? The fact that the author employs the term sanad as an equivalent of Sibawayh's musnad to indicate the topic (Sibawayh's mubtada') was interpreted variously. It may be significant that the two sources do not term this syntactic unit musnad ilayhi as all the later grammarians do. In Sibawayh's Kitab ]jalil's name is associated with the employment of the expression lam yusnad ita musnad. ]jalil analyzes the status of such phrases as bayrun minka, which occupy a topic position (as proper names) and reasons that the prepositional phrase is part of the preceding nominal (bi-manzilat say min ai-ism). He emphasizes their dependent status by contrasting it with the predicate. He employs the expression il:ztagta hiihuna ita I-babar and the above-mentioned lam yusnad ita musnad. A similar discussion is found in K. al-CAyn. The author analyzes the status of the prepositional phrase in the optative structure tabban lahu. He points out that this is not a predicate, first by identifying the structure as ma$dar which is in non-topic position, because it depends on its own finite verb (I:zumila cala jflihl), and then by direct indication that the nominal and the prepositional phrase do not constitute subjecHpredicate (sc. in contrast to tabbUn lahu). Unfortunately, the passage is copied incorrectly in the manuscripts. Instead of wa-Iam yugmaC isman musnadan ila ma qablahu I suggest reading: wa-Iam yugmd isman MUSNADAN WA-musnadan ita ma qablahu (Lisan al-cArab s.v. reads: wa-Iam yugcal isman musnadan ila ... ). All considered, this passage is another item, which confirms the fact that even such grammatical passages in K. al-CAyn, which are not identified expressly as ]jalil's, are actually taken from his own teaching and linguistic parlance . ..:.~ ~ ,~\J.J :110

8 ... ~.,.if

~.J ~ r~l.J :~.J ~ :2287

~ l.o '-"1 1~ t.....1 ~ ~.J' . ·iJ"j,AJ \,.i... :J~ W' 4.W ~ J- J~ YJw,~ 1~1~i.,;.; ~i ... :-\ ,,\ Y ~ (no, !Y\A!' \~) ,:"w:J1

~ ~1 ~I W' ~I '-"1 lata ~I r~1 :S~ ~i.J ~ ~.Pt.. ) ~J JW' }'~.J ~ '-"1 ~ ~ d ~ 1"""~14Y' .~ 4J~ ~.J YJw,.J ~.J~.,l "'I"""~I b. Disagreement of the material of K. al-CAyn and the passages attributed to ]jalil in the Kitab Morphological teaching Item 20: gagaba/gabaga It seems that in K. al-CAyn the pair of synonymous verbs gagaba/gabaga is a stock example for any case of metathetic pairs of words belonging to any 7

Levin (1981), Talmon (1987), Goldenberg (1988).

231

K.AL·CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

word-class. Metathesis is termed qalb. In the Kittib Sibawayh attributes to ijalil the observation that this particular pair does not exhibit metathesis. The specific sentence ends a paragraph, and Sibawayh's concluding words are wa-gamf Muja qawl al-Ijalil. ijalil reasons that qalb results from phonetic disaccord, whereas in the case of gatjabalgabatja each of the pair behaves normally (the expression he uses is Ii-anna tjalika yartaridu jihima). This observation deems ijalil's teaching, according to the Kitab, more accurate than the conception of metathesis by the author of K. al-CAyn.

t...,.u.. ~., y~ J.!.o .~l:.:Al .•• ~., ... ~W~I ~ :282 1 4:.. .1>1., JS., ~ y ~ .~., u~., ~~ l.oi., :- \ f. f. Y\ Y~ y~1 J.:,IJLI J.,; 1.1. ~., ... ~ JS ,j L.+.-i ~..1t ~ ~ }.j ';.1> ~ Iterm 21: mawyitlsawyid The derivation of tri-literal nominals with a middle -ayyi- (e.g. sayyid) is not discussed in K. al-CAyn. The author mentions briefly, on several occasions, that they are of the pattern FycL, which can be eitherfayci/ orfaycal. According to the recension of I:Iiitimi and Zawzani 8 mayyit is derived from mawyitlsawyid, whereas another recension, attributed to one Mutahhar, reads maywit etc., which is in agreement with the derivation of other nominals of the same structure in K. al-CAyn. Later sources, such as al-Macarri, identify the mawyit option as Kiifan.9 In the Kitab ijalil maintains that sayyid derives fromfay"il whereas the Kiifans (mentioned expressly as a group!)10 derive it from the patternfay"al. Their theoretical considerations supporting this derivation are based on the observation that Arabic does not exhibit the pattern fayCil in words with sound roots, which are the only legitimate cases according to which word patterns can be established. As the most similar sound pattern they indicate fatal. It may be significant that the long and highly theoretical discussion in the Kitab has no echo at all in K. alfAyn. ~~

. .

.

8

il-,,"I., i.r-~~.J :\S..,>11lI,j., :-92= «~...t'::""".J) u..J"e""/'::"''''''' :~ :140 ~~ ~"'1'"""I;"""., :1497 (~.,~~ -,., .1."'''' !\'" .I.\Y !Y\ 1.\\ Y~y~1

Item 22: mana ya fata The structure man+noun, uttered in response to an interlocutor's information, with various modes of agreement with the same noun's position in the interlocutor's original sentence, is studied exhaustively in the Kitab and in g

See Wild (1965), p. 21.

Macarri p. 170 (reference in cUmar,al-Ba1;! al-Iugawl Cinda I-CArab). 10 This fact escaped Baalbaki's notice in his otherwise excellent study (1981a).

9

232

CHAPTER FOUR

some detail in K. al-CAyn. A conspicuous case of disagreement between the teaching of this topic in the two texts is exhibited in the structure mana ya fata ("Whom, 0 man?"), which the author of K. al-CAyn presents as a response to ra'aytu ragulan. Against this Sibawayh reports that ijalil instructed that such an agreement (in number, gender and case) with the interlocutor's sentence can occur only in pausal forms, whereas non-pausal man takes always the neutral man form. The other details mentioned in K. al-'Ayn agree with the teaching of ijalil and Sibawayh in the Kitab. An insignificant difference may be noted concerning the poetical verse which exhibits the non-pausal manuna antum. Sibawayh emphasizes its uniqueness. Nothing is said about its rare distribution in K. al-'Ayn. My impression is that the author quotes representative excerpts of ijalil's teaching on this topic but he may have failed to observe all its intricacies.

1~.J ~iJ :Ju 151j~1 J-i llJ c} ~I~IJ ~IJ i~~1 ~ ~J :390 8 15 1 ~IJ ~I ~ J-""J'~ lot I;.. :cll ~J ~C :Ju 15iJ ,1~..J .:r :Ju ~J ,I;.. :cll ~Jl ~J~ :Ju ~iJ ~)I I;.. :cll i"; } ~J ir ~I :Ju ,~ ~";"'J ~')U ~I;..J ,.b.1)J .,;...: tiJ 1c} J-""J J~)I ~J ~)I (L..)IJ; I~ :cll ~I : I)W r i ~.,;... :clii I$JL; 1..,;1

yy,:,,,

~ I!l.ii ~I i.f..; ir ~ .::.-;5 151 .:r y~ l.a ,"0 L , ~ y~1 • •• J • J J • ,.b.1)1 ~I 1'1 ... ~.,;... ~ .. .:,1;.. :.,..i.::.i ••• ~ :.,..i.::.i ••• ~J ~IJ cll 151 .:r

• J'

~jJ ... ~ ....,;... ~ ~J c;b"1 ~..; ~5J tiJIJ ..J..I ~Y'

c) ~., Io!I

.;J~

1~1 J-"" I!l.ii ~~J ~ ll..aJ1 c} l.a JS~J ~J ~I;..J ~J ~) ~I I~! J-"" W' ~ 4 ~ ~J ) ~J) ~i;"1 ) ii~1 Ji ~~J ) : w ~iJ Ju J-"" ~ ...Ai) 1c}.,;... J-"" I!l.ii ~~ c.P ~J.lI) ~jJ ~ lot .:r ~J ~C Ju • • J ",,. ,. J-)I c} :~J ~J ~ ~ ~I c.P w ~ ~lS' 4.i~ ""';.J'!. L..IJ ... ~ lot .:r Ju .J!.. •.lA.t C;--! r-' ~ ~ c} i~ ';U ,rl.! J..; ..,Js. l.a j~ LCiJ·· ....Ai)IJ ....;')\.::>I y~ l.a n ... :' A '" ~ y~1 ... ~I I)W r i ~.,;... clii ... 1~1 ~)~ j~1 J-i ) ~I ~ ~ ~I 151~lAJl"";Jr11 r"'1'1 c} yr/I r-' ~ L..iJ... ~..J .:r I)u ~.J.! ~J..;A Ju 15iJ 1~.J .:r ·I~.J ~C ~JI Ju

0' ,



~..,.iJI~i "'JJb.JS c.P~~~

Item 23: mata ma, ma of tawkid According to the author of K. al-CAyn the particle ma functions as a fortifying particle (tawkid) for conditional words. The same rule is formulated by Sibawayh, who exemplifies such a compound with mata ma, which is one of the three examples given in K. al-CAyn. However, Sibawayh adds to the tawkid identity of this ma another feature, which indicates its redundant

233

K.AL-CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

character, namely lagw_Il Significantly, in the main passage in which the function of particles is discussed Sibawayh cites Ijalil's answer to his own question about mahma which the teacher defines as lagw. He goes on to compare it with its status in (bi-manzilatiha maCa) mata mao Although there is considerable similarity between the two texts one would expect Ijalil's teaching in K. al-CAyn to include an observation about the lagw feature of this appended mao

d

I.l.Ul,)s.

~..I,II.J .I....A.$.J L.~.J ~j ~

J.!.o .1.)..1 J.J')' JwJ~ .)1.; L..J

~!

:L. :3583

.1.)..1 J.J? u-o.~ ~

1.,aJ L. 4- ci>.)j L. uA Jw l...f.o ir ~I.::JL.J :\Y '('It.o , ~-yl.:S:Jl 1JwJ.,; ~~.J : 0 '(''(''(' Y- ~ yl.:S:Jl ... ~i ~b L. ~ ..:.li Il! ~ t- 4-oJ~ ... ~i ~b L. ~ 1.l.U.,i 1.l.U~.J 1.,aJ Item 24: waJ:zdahu A more fundamental disagreement between the two texts seems to reside in their treatment of the na$b of waJ:zdahu. Sibawayh twice reports Ijalil's view. In one of them this view is contrasted with Yiinus'. Whereas the latter conceives of the na$b in structural terms (ellipsis of preposition: cala J:ziyal > waJ:zdahu), Ijalil seems to confine his analysis to semantic analogy and compares the phrase waJ:zdahu to other definitional expressions, including faqar and IJu$u$an. In K. al-CAyn the explanation of na$b is formulated as IJarig min al-wa$f The expression was interpreted in Chapter III (5.1.3.7), where it was translated as "it shifts from its (original) category", and was classified in a list of early syntactic rules which are based on a conception that na$b indicates and marks deviation/shift from some sort of other original syntactic relationsY We shall later discuss reference to other early sources which utilize the same concept and consider its significance for the establishment of the status of K. al-CAyn in the early history of Arabic grammar. Sibawayh's testimony may indicate that this part of the grammatical teaching in the dictionary does not belong to Ijalil.

(D..I.>.J~) ... ~ ~ ~.J"'~ ~ "';""')1 u-o ~J~ :t..l.>.J :281 3 , ~ yl.:S:Jl ~.).)j=..bU=~')IJ=D..I.>.J :ljalil:", '\ 'oV , ~ yl.:S:Jl /I...J.=~/D..I.>.J :ljalil ",)s." ~;. .4JLe> ,)s.=D..I.>.J :Yiinus:O '0\ 11 For this sense in Sibawayh's Kitiib see Troupeau (1976) S.Y. Farril"s usage is indicated in Kinberg (1996) S.Y. 12 See Talmon (1993), pp. 105f. and idem in History of the Language Sciences (forthcoming). Kinberg (1996) seems to find this sense in the same expression used by Farra' (s.y. !f-R-G).

234

CHAPTER FOUR

Item 25: Ii-UaJi Quraysin The interpretation of the problematic Ii- opening Q CVI 1 Ii-Uaft Quraysin in K. al-CAyn is given by the paraphrase kay and itis definitely" Ii- of purpose". In the Kitab ijalil (the double occurrence of qala [namely, ijalil] in the two consecutive lines is ignored by Troupeau) draws an analogy between this Ii and the omitted Ii of Q XXIII 52. It is certain that in the latter case it is the resultative "because". In the case of Q CVI 1 he seems to maintain the same view. This can mean that ijalil's interpretation here is different from the interpretation given in K. al-CAyn. It is less convincing to read his Ii-tjalika Jal-ydbudit with li- of intention, "In order that Qurays will be safe ... ", as the author of K. al-CAyn does. The question if the two senses of li- are conceived grammatically as one is irrelevant in the present discussion of the relations between the material of the two books. J~ ~ .,.

u!



~.,:. VA

r '"

:JW .. i..l>IJ A.... I ~I Iol. ~IJ"

... IJ~ ~.11.,.

u! J,j'; J.."} J~1

:V.

:J....} 0

J~1 :3368

£., \" , ~ y~1

~~ JUJ' .ool. ~'J .. .('~I

c. Agreement of the material of K. al-CAyn and Slbawayh's teaching in the Kitab General Item 26: Zayd and cAmr The fact that the names Zayd and CAmr occur in K. alJ Ayn in exemplificatory sentences several times indicates that its author shared with Sibawayh a school tradition. However, since we do not possess information about other early grammarians who borrowed names for their self-construed examples it is impossible to draw any further conclusions about this point of agreement. 375

7= J~J~...i

:884

Phonetic teaching Item 27: hams-gahr Various studies noted that the phonetic teaching of Slbawayh is different from that attributed to ijaIH in K. al-CAyn. The new view we have acquired about the phonetic theory of this book, which is based not only on its Introduction but also on the relevant passages scattered throughout this dictionary, includes two small but significant loci about the words hams-gahr and/or their derivatives (see Chapter III 2.1.3). These loci suggest that the author of K. al-CAyn knew about the contrastive consonantal features maghitr-mahmits, which Sibawayh describes so aptly in his studies.

235

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

c} i.)~ ~.1 .)~I (;J..,...,. V" 4.1 yl""':'! "i II ~I c) (;J..,-JI ~ :v-+'I :10 4 .;":J-.1 I..o~ .~ :388 3.,-)lS" ~I c) r"% ~.1 ~I :.)#,1.1" .J~ :1./1 .~

\J"""'"

(;J..,...,..1

.~ r"%.1···~ .;.I~ ~I.1"

·"·I..h

~ l.tJ I (;J..,-J I

~I.,.tl ~

(;JL;!

c}) ... ~~~ i~li i~1 L.U :,'\ Lor -, ~ y~1 (' W'\ 1J"J4-il1 jlJ~ ~ ~

Item 28: imiila of !faggiig The two sources indicate that imiila affects the personal name !faggiig, not the adjective (Kitiib: $ifa, CAyn: naCt). The latter's formulation generalizes the shift a > imiila to all personal names of the pattern Id ciil.13 Sibawayh, who extensively studies imiila, considers this phenomenon in the proper name an exception and irregular, as the title of the chapter introducing it suggests: Hiiq,ii biib mii umUa calii gayr qiyiis wa-innamii huwa siiq,q.. This irregularity is evident when we realize Sibawayh's remarkable accuracy in establishment of the conditioning rules of imiila in the several relevant chapters of his book and in other occasional notes. The nature of K. al-CAyn seems to dictate the random manner of its grammatical observations. We should not expect, then, a detailed study of imiila. But the short passage about imiila of !faggiig is significant because on the one hand it is based on current grammatical studies, as the comparison with the Kitiib shows. On the other hand, his formulation of the rule is disconnected from the scholarly orientation represented by Sibawayh's study. The author of K. al-CAyn says that the word-class shift results in imala (ja-ifjii $ayyartahu sman yatal:/awwal can /:tiil al-naCt la-tadl;uluhu l-imiila). We shall abstain from pushing the text too far, and therefore we shall not argue that the author suggests that the transition itself is the reason for this phenomenon. What we can safely say is that the gap between the two texts in their treatment of imiila of this proper name can be interpreted as indication of the ignorance exhibited by the author of K. al_cAyn of Sibawayh's achievements in the study of imiila.

Cfo ~~ Jw ~ ..::....; JS'.1 .~L.!.r.&- V" ~~ ~I ~I ~)J Jl.i.....J :9 3 ... ~L.)'I A!>,.I;;j ~I Jl> ~ J~ 1......1.;~ I~~ .~~I ~~.1 ~l.!. .Y' LC!.J IJ"~ .r.&- ~ ~i L. y~ lolA tV, : 0 "It.o " ~ y~1 IJ"~I ~ ,j,j.1T.'! ll..:o 0lS" I~! ~~ ~i ~"i.1" .~) t ..... 10lS' I~! ~~I

13

On Sibawayh's testimony and several later references, see Levin (1978), p. 178

and note 27.

236

CHAPTER FOUR

Part-of-speech classification Item 29: (la- ) calla In K. al-CAyn the explanation of the particle calla (short fonn of la-Calla) focuses on two complementing senses: the fact that fulfilment of the predicative message of the sentence is within reach (yuqarribu min qat/iP al-J:uiga) and stimulation of the listener to this fact (wa-yutamm(u). Sibawayh seems to know of the same explanation. He uses one word: tamC (in the pair tamC wa-isfaq. I consider the latter an explanation of casa, which follows la-Calla.).

~.J ~U.I • Waj VA ..;.;... ';l.i.!!J ~~.J

Ja.l:n

:J. :89 1

ffll "~"r'w:J1

Morphological teaching Item 30: ai-ism cala falafat aJ:truf .. The categorical fonnulation according to which there are no nouns construed of less than three "letters" is shared almost literally by the two sources (Kitab:

laysafi l-dunya smun aqalla cadadan min ism cala falalat aJ:truf, CAyn: ai-ism la yakimu aqalla min lalafat aJ:truf>. The latter fonnulation is attributed to ijalil. The next paragraph in Sibawayh's book explains why one-letter nouns do not exist. There is no equivalent in K. al-CAyn, although the introductory discussion of word structure goes on and covers other topics, which are partly treated by Sibawayh as well (see next item).

Jj"i ~~ VA ~i iJ~ ~ f"""'~1 :~I Jll.J :49 1 Jj"i ~~ ~ f"""'1 VA t~"I.&. Jii f"""'1 4,;.u1 ~ ~ ,;'J .. :, 0 oV " ~ "r'w:J1 ....¢LI iJ'J 1~i Jj" ~ fo f"""'1 iJ~~ .;i ~I.J : W ff' " ~ "r'w:J1 ... JJ"'o! ~~ cJ! J-.1'!~.J'~ ~ ~~.J'~ ~~.J o~ ~

Item 31:fam The two books discuss the derivation offam and are unanimous about the original FWH. They both discuss the irregular dualfamawayhima attested in a poetic verse. Their viewpoints concerning its distribution seem, however, to be different. Sibawayh appends the poetical verse with an explanation of how this fonn occurs in language, based on analogical rules. He uses the expression qalit, which may be a reference to infonnation about its distribution. In K. al-"Ayn the discussion is attributed to ijalil, who points out that this occurrence results from the poet's mistaken view that the m is a root consonant and therefore the missing root letter is R3 , whereas the truth is that m is not an original root consonant but a "supportive" element, which is added to f after the ellipsiS of its R2R3 root letters wand h. .. '1Jo'~1 ~..I! :Jll :51= 0'; ~i riJl ~ :50

1

237

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

:,,, y"

y -l!'~w:JI=.:';

=.!,..,...:" r,

r"", y -l!'~w:J1 'Y£.!£. '.r !L...,.."""';

y -l!'~w:JI!Y

(diminutive)"

Item 32: laww The discussion of transfoonation of bi-literal particles to nominals and its morphological implication, which necessitates duplication of the second letter, is discussed equally by ijalil in the introduction to K. al-CAyn and by Sibawayh, in two separate passages. The two grammarians cite a verse which includes the foon laww as a demonstration. It is almost certain that Sibawayh quotes ijalH, whose teaching on the proper names inna-anna he writes down in the preceding passage and to which he refers in the present discussion.

:,J •.a :.:J..ii ...\.i...I..!.::.l1 ~ ci>.)i 'L.... I )J J.J ...u J!.o ";l.:.!.ll .::J;'-':'~ :50 1 ,:,!.J .. 'I$~ ~ ~UaJI ~J vii J.,AS' ..:JWI ....;.,J.IJ ..-.~ ~ •.aJ ,;"..,:5..0 LI~~«I)).)~ .. .1) l:.;S'L... L...,.i ~iJ ~ L.iJ ... (~i ~ ~J ~ ~I ..:JLJ) :" r. Y -l!' ~w:J1 L 1 ~ i.1> IJ JS" .::JJ L...:. 15 ~ is'~ 'u..o> ~ .1> IJ JS" .;.1 ~ ,:,'1 .p IJ'J 1 l!lJi ")11 ,:,!.J ~ La.iS' "";1.ra''')I1 oJ).J.J "";1.ra''')IIJ .r.S'l::.IIJ 4WI '-" ~

JIJ •.;.1 r-I y..-aJ1 j"j,S ~ ~ .;'1 ~5J Ji .. ; ~.pr 1JIJ ~ .,; l!lJi ~.; ")Ii : y. rr, Y -l!' ~w:JI .. :(,.I ,:,!.J .. 'I$~ ~ :~L.:JI Ju ~ ,-litLI [~~J:y Ill.~J:;'~~

"";..0>

44i

Item 33: Du'i/ The tribe's name Du'il exhibits an irregular and unique usage of the otherwise unattested nominal pattemfucil. The author of K. al-CAyn says it expressly. Sibawayh twice notes the non-existence of nominalfucil, without mention of the above exception. The tribe's name is discussed in another context, when Sibawayh reports its relative foon dU'all as the teaching of cIs a and Yiinus.

JAi :j;.)

:250

2

~j.) :,,, ' " Y -l!' ~w:J1

-

. y. r£.r=\\ r"'=JJ

Item 34: Ijurdsdni etc. The three variants of the relative noun of Ijurdsdn appear in the two books.

~L...I'p ',="",I'p ''='''''.p :95 4 W' J.k .")I.k ~J I$JJ..o>~.,.. ~J .IJJ? ~ I)UJ :0 'H Y -l!' ~w:J1 1lI ,="",1.pJ i c;L...I'pJ ,="",.p ,:,L...I'p ~ I)U

rs-

238

CHAPTER FOUR

Item 35: saytan The author of K. al-CAyn derives the word saytan as a tri-literal word (s-!-n) on the pattemfayCal. Sibawayh maintains the same view. However, he points out that this particular word (and dihqan) is different from other tri-literal words with similar affixes because it inflects as if the affixed elements are original in it, e. g. the verbal tasaytana. Sibawayh is not only more accurate, but his discussion is characterized by theoretical considerations of the detection techniques of identifying affixed elements (consider the expression laysa calayhima tabt).

Item 36: masastu > mastu The two books mention the non-geminate variant (masastu > mastu).14 ~>..::...... :2087

..:-..:. .~i :, L"·

Y ~ yl:S:J1

Item 37: zila and zala The variant zila of the modifying verb zala is discussed by the two authors. In K. al-CAyn the author emphasizes that this form is not in passive voice. As evidence he adduces the act. impf. used by the same speakers: yazalu. His discussion of the morpho-phonetic shift is short and implicative: fa-kasaru l-zay ma a l-ytr. As expected, Sibawayh is much more accurate in his analysis. He puts this phenomenon in its larger context, and argues an analogical extension of the modifying verbs zala, kada in accord with the variants lJifa, bra « lJafa, baca). Contrary to K. al-CAyn he does not take note of the possible misapprehension of this form. Interestingly, he mentions Abu l-Ijattab as his source of information about this variant.

J.ai ~ ~

~ ••• J....i L.o :t+'.,i.J :3857 ~~J .' ~I t" \ojl;ll I.J~ J.o...i J.:f ~).,At y..,..ll ,;r \...U ~i yUa;L.1 ..Hi W.l>.J :, Y Y~ yl:S:J1 ... .) IS".J JIj iJ.jJ.o...;l. I!J 1~ Ja.i.! J.o...i J....i L.o.J .)I."~.J .J~ J~ ~ ~

.)IJ!

•.. ~~

JaAt

14

For its estimated distribution, see Rabin p. 163.

f'"

239

K.AL·CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

Item 38: bagal and gayri The two authors discuss the phenomenon of nouns without triptotic declension and give a similar explanation based on analogy with typical classes of undeclined words from the domain of onomatopoeic utterances. In K. al-CAyn they are identified as al-a:jwiit wal-bikiiyiit wal-zagr and in the Kitiib the term al-a:jwiit is employed. The examples given by the two authors show that they have enlarged the scope to particles in general. They both complete the explanation and describe the basic word-end structure of this class as vowel-less (CAyn: bagal, agal, Kitiib: hal, bal, agal, naCam). Such exceptions as gayri (the two books) and basbu (CAyn) are easily explained as cases in which an original cluster of two vowel-less consonants must be resolved. The fascinating thing about this similarity is that the explanation given in K. al-CAyn is considered by the author a view of (an)other scholar(s) (wa-fihi qawl iilJar, yuqiilu ... ). For the sake of accuracy we should mention that the two authors use different terminology in their discussion of the same class, which they both compare with the a:jwiit etc. (CAyn: adawiit, Kitiib: buruj, mii laysa bi-sm wa-lii 'far!). But it is possible that in K. al-CAyn we read a description of Sibawayh's explanation or of his sources (for further discussion of this early concept see 5.1 pp. 280f.).

ut~'J1 ylr-! ~ J- ~ ~ "';.r"" Ll :J~ :.;.1 J.,.i ~J" 'rl.i> :204 3 ~.;.I .::.5.;> .r.i-'JI ~ IijJl",;';'1 i.f.- Ll :J~ ...1JJT.'-" ~y>UJ .P-'YIJ ultlSj.lJ "~" :~.,.iS' ~~ .r.i-'JI i.f.-J .;."'JI "';';'1 ~ "';';'1 I!J~ I;!.J ,i~ ~'J .. :309= .~IJ u:-JI ~~ .::.5';>J ';'~I u~.r.>:J ~ l.oiJ ."~i"J crJl uIJ~'J1 ~.lS'J jj'J ylr-! .r.&- ~ 1.';'1) I!J~ ultlSj.lJ ul..,.....'JIJ .P-'Yl ... ...&.-..-::JI ~ ~ 'J ~ ~ .r.&- ~ ..:..ilS' Ll ~~iJ "';J';'I ~4i :, Y ~ ,:,~I I.. ~~L... ~li.;> 4.:... .~ ~ c.P 1 I~~ ...;); 'JJ r-~ ~ I.:..J ul~'J~ ~iJ J..J JA I)u W" ~~I'lS'~ ';'~I ~ IijJl "';';'1 ~lS' ~!.J 4:-0 f i l ~li.;> ~ ')W ~~.rJ ~ l)uJ ~J

,s>

£.,

Item 39: lJarii'i' > lJariiyii Some correlation exists in the two works' description of the shift lJarii'i' > lJa{iiyii. They both indicate that this shift takes after the model of plurals without hamza. In K. al-CAyn yatiimii and {ahiirii are mentioned, whereas Sibawayh prefers to analogize lJatiiyii to the pluralis tertiae y/w matiiyii. The two scholars discuss this shift in context with the shift ga'P > gii'i (> • ~ ~~

.

). The notion that in lJa{ii'P the first hamza (of the pattemjaca>il) is

affixed (zii'id) is mentioned by the author of K. al-CAyn as an argument for its ellipsis and, so it seems, in contrast to gii'i', which preserves one of the two

240

CHAPTER FOUR

hamzas after the shift. Sibawayh also contrasts the two shifts but he is clearer about the essence of this contrast; it is manifest in the comparison of yatii'i' with the derived form(s) of gii'i', e. g. guyii jn (. , ~ ) of the patternfucii'il.

Here, he argues, it is not an affixed-hamza, but a root-hamza. Sibawayh repeats this argument several times, using, with reference to yarii'r, the expression hamza taCritju fi l-gamC "(affixed) hamza which interposes in the plural". I consider his argument clearer than that of K. al-CAyn because he contrasts barii'r with the derivatives of gii'i', not only to this form itself. It is hard to say if there is any connection between Sibawayh's deeper observation and his conclusion that the analogical shift takes after the defective plural matiiyii, not the sound pattern (al-asmii' al-~a/fi/fa, e. g. yatiimii), as the author of K. af- ficil is discussed in the two books. Both scholars mention the conditioning that R2 is a gutteral. They also agree on its distribution as a Tamimi variant, although the author of K. al-CAyn adds that it is also used by "Sufla Mu iJ'..)~U ~ ~ Ju Ju JJts' ~j ~ (~ ~.J ~I) LC~ «~"j$ J.Jj ~ ~ ~J~ ~.J 'w..... .,..J.l1 ""oJ uoal.&. "".;1 I""'i» Jw "-4i 1$.lIi ~I cj uoal.&. ~~ 01.;1 ~j '~.J;' (~ ~.J j~ uoal.&. cJ.&. ~) ~.r.. I""'.J ~ ~ ~ ,.;; JJj cJ.&. ~ ).J"'«" .~!.J yw:J1 uoal.&. cJ.&. ~ ~ I""' JJ~ I.S) ~ ~ ~~ ~lS' ~)I I.l. '-"!.J . .1~.J 1...1..> ...• 1.&.J.l1.r.i- cj .. :, Y ,rr , ~ ~

Item 55: huwa bnu Camm-in la/:l/:l-un ... The author of K. al-CAyn gives a short reference, with only faint grammatical characterization, to the structure huwa bnu C amm-in laM-un, which he identifies as nakira, and its counterpart, the macrifa, huwa bnu camm-i la/:l/:l-An. In another locus he paraphrases diny-an in the sentence huwa bnu Camm-ihi diny-an with laM-an. A parallel discussion of the structure huwa bnu amm-l diny-an in the Kitdb opens Sibawayh's discussion (Chapter 128) of a syntactic category marked by nmjb which he terms /:ldl, but several of its structures, including the above-mentioned, are classified by later grammarians as tamyiz. 19 Although Sibawayh does not contrast the definite variant of the structure (namely, camm-i, camm-ihi etc.) with the indefinite, he concludes the discussion in this chapter with a slightly different contrast of the pair (hdfjd dirham un) sawd'-an and sawd'un. In light of this comparison between the two texts we may assume that the presentation of the contrastive pair in K. al-CAyn reflects knowledge of the current conception of grammatical relations in each sentence and that between the two sentences. It seems that he saved his reader the grammatical discussion and made do with this reference. C

19 The general outlines of Sibawayh's treatment of similar structures is surveyed by Owens (1991), pp. 107ff. This survey is based on Carter's classical study cisruna

dirhaman (1972).

249

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

iJll Y. :75

8 = u.;oall ~ '\;. cr iJll y.J i~1 ~ ~ ~ iJll Y.

:J.".i!J :29

'\;.I$i ~~J L::.i~

y. y. 'iJ

4i

La r-I

u-o ~ ...~ ~

La y~ I.l.

HI. : H'

3

4.,&.

Yfo , ~ ~,"",:s:J1

... 4;~ cr iJoll y. dJ."i dJ;J

Item 56: subJ:ziin-a lliihi The expression subJ:ziin-a lliihi is analyzed in K. aVAyn as a substitute of the ma~dar "tasblJ:z-an". Its na~b ending is explained as the effect of a covert verb (turidu "tasbiJ:zan li-lliihin). This is exactly how Sibawayh treats this expression and others similar to it in Chapter 66 of the Kitiib. Sibawayh characterizes this type of ma~dar as a "frozen phrase", whose syntactic location is restricted to one place (wuejiCat mawejiCan wiiJ:zidan), in contrast to other ma~dars, which can participate in a variety of syntactic relations. The author of K. al_CAyn mentions a different explanation of the na~b mark of this phrase. Exponents of this view are not identified (cf. wa-yuqiilu). The author expresses strong reservations about it but does not reject it entirely (wa-laysa bi-fjiilika wal-awwal [namely, the above-mentioned explanation] agwad). This is an application of the same syntactic ~aiftheory mentioned above (Item 54; see Chapter III 5.1. 3.7). The parallel discussion in the Kitiib seems to clarify why this theory was suggested in this case. The equivalent morphological theory, which Sibawayh accepts and utilizes intensively in his work, draws correlative lines between restrictions on inflectional behaviour of word classes and their restricted end-marking. This could be the reasoning for the identification of subJ:ziin-a lliihi as a case of ~aif. As with the case of bucdan (Item 54), we can only speculate if Sibawayh introduced his description of this structure with background information about this theory and its application on subJ:ziin and if any of the pOints made in his own description of this structure includes latent polemics with this theory.

~ JwJ «JJJI t ..~» d- ~ J..i ~y ~ ~J :JJJI ~~ :151 3 ~~i JJ~IJ .I!ll~ ~J ....;~I ~ «JJJI ~~» ~ :Jli...J ... JJJ~

t.)4J;! I!lJ.rJ.1 jaAJl.)Lw:.~ ~ .)~l..:a.I.l u-o y~

u-o

L;..f; La ....;~ i')ISJl ~ ....;~ 'i l.~IJ

dJ."i dJ;J

I.l. '\'\ :,

la..:.y

'fo , ~ ,,:,l:s:J1

~J .)~l-o ~J

4-ii ~~J .)~l..:a.I.l ~ Jli JJJI ~~ Jli ~ ...ts' ... JJJI ;lA..J JJJI ~~

i~IJ ..;J~I L,.l>Jw..J tiJIJ.)..1 ~y ~ ~

250

CHAPTER FOUR

d. Disagreement of the material of K. al-CAyn and Sibawayh's teaching in the Kitab Phonetic teaching Item 57: vowels and matres lectionis The two grammarians recognize the relations between the vowels and the matres lectionis. Two separate notes made by the author of K. al-CAyn indicate that he considered the vowels an origin of their corresponding matres lectionis. The two notes treat u-w (twice) and i-y and do not mention a-alif. Sibawayh maintains an opposite view, namely that the vowels derive from the matres lectionis (see item 3 above). He mentions the three letters. The unique reference to this issue in his book makes it hard to judge if this is a matter of principle or an ad hoc formulation, which in this case serves well his explanation of the a vocalization in the environment of back consonants. On the other hand, it is demonstrable that a similar formulation is made by the author of K. al-CAyn, whose explanation of the shift 'u'kul > 'uwkul > kul includes the neutral formulation of the relations between u and w as wal-(iamma min gins al-waw. .;,-o~.,I.,1I :195 8= ~I~ ~-".,JI., .. i~1 ~.LJI

:2732 .,1)1 ~ ~ ~I., :- 297 8 :~I .,1)1.,. LJ'-' ~~I ~ ulS',.).1 LC!J :Y· YV. Y~ ,:,,~I

Part-of-speech classification Item 58: /:laif The third part of speech in Sibawayh's tripartite division is never termed /:larf. It is /:larf gira Ii-mac nan, ma gii'a li-macnan, etc. The word /:larfis used independently in a looser sense of "word".20 It refers on many occasions to particles but does not denote "particle". Assumption of an early date of the book as a reason why its vocabulary does not include a convenient and specific denotation of "particle" and estimation about how the term /:larf originated from the Sibawayhian compound expression mentioned above do not meet, so it seems, the fact that the author of K. al-CAyn employs the term /:larf explicitly as a denotation of "particle". A similar explicit use is attested in AUfas's Macani I-QUr'an?1 Another interesting point of disagreement con20 A survey of scholars' interpretations of the term and the expression ga'a /i-macnan is given in Talmon (1984), pp. 49-52. A later contribution was written by Fischer (1989). 21 AUfas (d. 199/815), MaC ani p. 509 identifies rna in Q XLI 48 as ... hahuna /:larf wa-laysa hi-sm. AUfas's passage proves that /:larfwas used as a term with the sense of "particle" at this early stage of Arabic grammar.

251

K.AL-'AYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

cerns the definition of the particle's function according to the two works. Sibawayh considers it "a word of meaning", namely, it has a (grammatical) meaning, not a 'thing' or an action as the noun and verb have, respectively.22 The author of K. al-CAyn considers it "a particle which differentiates between meanings". His selection of various particles following this statement (/:lattii, hal, bal, la-Calla) implies that for him the particles mark the sentence by their typical meanings of negation, interrogation, etc.

;';.).::.1 r~1 ~ i....)~ il~i ,- _'J WS' JS'.J .• ~I ";.J? ~ ";.).1 :-210 3 .JaJ.J J..J j..J ~ J!.o fii ) ~.f"'o! l.j~':'lS' .:,!J ,u? ~ ~WI Morphological teaching Item 59: cisitna and Mitsitna The two authors have contradictory views about the plural of the proper names cisii and Mitsii. The author of K. al-CAyn states that it is cisitna and Mitsitna and that the final a of the singular forms are not present in these plural forms. Sibawayh says expressly that these two forms are wrong (!Jata» and that the correct forms are cisawna and Mitsawna. The presentation of the "correct forms" according to the two works is supported by morphological considerations. In K. al-CAyn a rule is formulated whereby the alif maq$ura bi-$itrat yii> (termed alif mumiila) of the patterns fflii-fuclii loses its final a vowel (jat/:la) when inflected to plural. Sibawayh's considerations are, of course, different. He maintains that the status of these proper names is similar to the feminine noun /:lublii, whose final -ay ending is attested in its plural /:lublayiit. Therefore, the three forms do not lose the final a when they function as proper names: Ifublawna, cisawna, Mitsawna. Even though the two authors treat these nouns in different context they seem to recycle an independent issue. It is possible, though, that only Sibawayh reacts to a current view, which he rejects.

. , • 4-11 ..:..0 ..h.i....; ,.:,y..,.

,~WI ~"iI.J

1

.il...;aJ1 :U""..,.. ~ :100 ,~i .;.;lS' ).J .~...:.a ~ "i ,i..IJlj 4-i~ ~.J"

J!.o r"":- ;.; uLJ.J uW ~ U""""'.J ~ • ~ J!.o ~lt • ~ JS'.J ,.:,~ :~.,.iS' , 307 5 ,210 2= ':';"'..,...J ~ :J~ ,~ ~ ~ ~"i ,.r... ~i

1,.'

, w.~""'.J':'~.J"'~""'':'~ :'V H Y~y~ 0,

0,

'-",

Item 60: (sir/:liin > ) sir/:l In K. al-CAyn there is a passage in which ijalil teaches Lay! about a mode of contracting final syllables. He exemplifies it by the forms (maniizil » 22 See the summary of Diem's study on this point in Talmon's article, p. 51 mentioned in n. 20 above.

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CHAPTER FOUR

mana and (sir/:!an » sir/:!. The latter form explains Layfs query about the irregular plural form saraJ:zi for "wolves". Accordingly, this plural does not derive from the singular sirJ:zan but from the contracted sirJ:z. Sibawayh's short reference to sirJ:zan and its diminutive does not refer to the matter, nor does he mention the issue and such forms as mana « manazi/) in his book (and see next item). We may also mention that Abu Bakr b. Anbari, who mentions the plural siraJ:z, does not discuss its putative derivation?3 A chapter on ma yaCriquj'i I-s{r min al-sawarjrj in the short treatise of Ibn Kaysan's on ijalil's metrical teaching (ed. Wright p. 63) mentions the contraction of manazil in Labid's verse Darasa I-mana bi-mutaliCinfa-abani, exactly as it occurs in our passage. 24 This is a nice indication from a later source about the authenticity of the attribution of this teaching to ijalil in K. al-CAyn. On the other hand, we recall Sibawayh's introductory chapter (Chapter 7), in which J:zarjf ma la yuJ:zrjafu is included among the various poetical licentiae mentioned. The point made in this item is significant only if the forms sirJ:z-sariiJ:zi are attested in non-poetical language as ijalil's words to Lay! "wal-cArab taqulu rjiilika katiran" may be interpreted. Jjl.;..) l.;..

.:,l>.J"") (.J"" ) ... ~I~I Lo :~ cli ~I Jll :172

~-J"" cli 1~!.:,l>.J""...AJi J..\.t .:,~ ~I • ~.HS :"

y" 0

,

1

~ y~1

Item 61: tarljJm It is apparent that Sibawayh conceives the term tar!Jim differently from the author of K. al-CAyn, who seems to employ it in non-vocative positions and in a looser manner than Sibawayh, in reference to "softened" pronunciation of certain word-final syllables. 25 Interestingly, Marzubani (in the Mu!Jta~ar p. 148) reports that ijalil explained to A~maci the etymology of this term as "a woman's soft (voice in her) speech" (imra'ah ra!Jimat al-kaliim). This expression is documented in the entry R-lj-M in K. al-CAyn. The following demonstration given in Marzubani's passage is the vocative (yii sayyidf) > yii sayyid.

4.lJ1 ~J 4.lJ1 ¥J r-e»1 ¥J ~)I ¥

J:.o r""1

~~

vi

J~J :2632

. .J..,.. . J:.o (!) ...

~

23

Abu Bakr b. Anbiiri, p. 84. Later he mentions Kisa'i's view of the fern. sg. form

(p.98). 24 Ibn Kaysan, p. 63 1. 10. 25

Sibawayh's concept of tarQim has later become canonical in grammar books. A

sketch of this concept is given in Wright vol. 2 pp. 88f.

253

K. AL·cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

Item 62: a-ralJubakum Sibawayh emphasizes that the stem I fonn let ula is never transitive. The author of K. al·cAyn quotes one example, from a saying of the chieftain Na~r b. Sayyar, a putative grandfather of Lay!: a-ralJubakum. Occasional notes about unique usage of certain rare grammatical fonns are attested in the Kitiib. This one is not included.

~) :2153 \~ ;~l:i r~1 c} ~,J :, '\ H'\ 1\ H'o " ~ yL:S:J1 Item 63: l'Crawrii, {fawwata The author of K. al-CAyn notes that only one verb of the stem if'awcala is transitive: iCrawrii. Sibawayh adds another: jC[awwata. I.l..,r.&. j,J~ ~""';I ~ r-l,J It...". 4.; :1J"',)./1"::"'''),J.,rI,J :2332

t...". 4.; 1~1:,w1 "::"'..),J.,rI,J (£J"" ~ 4.; I~! ~#I,J : '" ...~ 1J'"i ~ "::"'..),J.,rI,J.".w1 ~'w.,rl :, \

"0 V " ~ yL:S:J1 "0 1\ ~I ~.lS',J

Item 64: halumma The two authors mention the verbally inflected variant of the non-verb halumma. Its attribution is different. Sibawayh identifies it as a vernacular of Tamim, whereas in K. al-CAyn it is attributed to the tribe of Sacd. The same difference recurs in the attribution of the shift mdhum> malJlJum. ~:168

" ~ yL:S:JI!' \ ,'\, "~yL:S:J1

I ••

7

ta :564

~ ~ ~ J."l : £. '\ f " ~ yL:S:J1 ~:n £.'\"

Item 65:fi cil: ibil While Sibawayh twice mentions a unique word of the Inl: ibil, in K. al-CAyn there are two other words: lJirib and nikilJ.

~ I~ I~! :~ :85

8

J.a.i c.P ~I,J f"""1 • L.....\'1 VA • ~ "u,J :, '1\0 " ~ yL:S:J1 ~UI,J .L.....~I vi ~ "J JJ.i JI',J~! ~ f""""J1 vi ~ iJ~J :\\ f£.f= ~! JI',J ili.. ~ r-l

l.,r.&. Item 66: 'u'mur etc. The prescriptive teaching of K. al·cAyn in the discussion of the imperative of amara, akala. alJat;!.a does not accept a variant 'u'mur etc., which is the

254

CHAPTER FOUR

expected form according to the rules of regular, non-defective forms. Sibawayh is descriptive and therefore he does not hesitate to report such a variant in )u'kul. :-2978 .;A~~ .I-Uot)ll

~ JS'jl J~ y",aJ1 ~J

: \.

\"rY Y~ y~1

Item 67: Casiyy > Casigg The fronted, alveo-palatal variation of the -iyy morpheme of relative nouns is reported by the two scholars. They both exemplify it with a poetical item: Casigg « Casiyy), to which Sibawayh adds several other examples. The two scholars differ in the attribution of this phenomenon. According to Sibawayh it is a vernacular form of "people from the Sacd tribe". The author of K. al-CAyn identifies it as lugat Rabfa.

~i ~ 4'yll • ~I.;,~ :~.; lll ... ~I :~I ..I.o..,r. ... :337

5

~ • ~I .;,lS:.... ~I .;,)~ I*'~ .M...w ",... iJ-O V"li L.iJ : \ ~ \"\ f., Y~ y~1 I*'i ~ji c,,;~IJ ~~ ..I.o..,r. ... .;,)~ ~ iJ-O ,,;J-»J" '~::A> 4-'~ ...Ai) I loW •J.Lo!.ii Item 68: *faCyal, majula' The author of K. al-CAyn discusses the patternfryal and notes that the pattern Jayal does not exist in Arabic. This note is not reported by l:Iadi!i in her extensive survey of Sibawayh's analysis of morphological patterns in vol. 2 of the Kitab. 26 From the information drawn from the same reference book, in his discussion of the three unique words of the pattern majula', Sibawayh identifies them according to their word classes (noun: maCyura', adjective: maClUga', masyufJa'). This distinction is absent in K. al-CAyn.

,r:J> :~) tJz>i .ill ~ Ju iJ-OJ .(J...i.o) ~ Ju :te+' :1702 ~ ;p ~~.) :. i~ :284 4= .l>~ "~).A.. .. I.)~ :,)I".u :238 2 (~

W V"Syntactic teaching Item 69: bac q, and i~bac The two scholars mention the problem of gender of the word bacq, in relation with the word i$bd. But except for this coincidence their arguments are different (not necessarily contradictory!). Sibawayh's attention is drawn 26

l;Iadi!i, p. 168.

255

K.AL-CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

to the attraction in q.ahabat bdt! a$iibicihi (for q.ahaba), whereas the author of K. al-CAyn maintains that in such a construction it is bact! that exhibits dominance and changes, so to speak, the gender of i~bd. t...,s'~ ~J"!';J.! ~~IJ :311=..,s'.l.o ~ :283

1

..!.;i U!.J ~L.:.i ~ 4~ i~1 ~ ~ I)u 4.JJ :,. '" , ~ ,,:,~I ~.,. ~.,.. ul! .uL.;..i ~'J ~I Item 70: "yii Na~ru na~ran na$rii" Ru'ba's verse including the vocative "yii Na$ru na~ran na$rii" is interpreted differently by the two scholars. Sibawayh considers the double na$r-an a repetition of the proper name Na~r and subsequently categorizes them as cat! bayiin. 27 The author of K. al-CAyn considers it ma~dar and a cry for help. A possible interpretation of this difference is that if the quotation of Ru)ba's verse and its explanation in K. al-CAyn reflects ijalil's teaching, Sibawayh's conception of the category cat! bayiin is not inspired by ijalil's teaching but is his own invention.

.YW-, ~ ,,:,~I

~~I ~ ~ ... )Ja...iJ~! :210 7

dS' ~J iJ~ ~ 1~ ~ d

-

~ 4.UJ J..,i

l..iJ :,,,

J~J ~.J ~ J.,.&;J 1~ ~ ~ ~ .I...!..:.t ~J" .1~.J ~.J ~ .J..,i c.P ... ~'J Item 71: huwa minni makan-A ... A sophisticated argument made by the author of K. al-CAyn is intended to define the correct derivation of the word makiin with combination of morphological and syntactic considerations (see Chapter III 4.4.2). The author states that in the structure huwa minni maktin-X ... ,X=a without exception. Sibawayh reports that a raj variant is in use. However, his testimony concerns the words mar'a-n and masmac-un; it is reasonable to argue that the author of K. al-CAyn had the specific word makiin in mind, not the whole pattern of locative words.

'J! I.lS"J 1.lS" iJlS;.. c.;-- .,. :J.,.&;'J y....-JI iJ i

:JaA.o iJ~1 ) c.P ~..uIJ

:387

5

~4

~'J ."';J U~ t--J ~i..,••

c.;-- .;.;i y....-JI J..,i l..iJ:,. 'Vo , ~ ,,:,~I ~..} c.;-- .;.; i ~..,i ~r. J L.:. ~ JJ'J I .,. •~

27 Sibawayh's analysis of the verse is quoted and studied in Talmon (1981), p. 282, where qad (surirna) should be omitted.

256

CHAPTER FOUR

Item 72: bucdan In the syntactic teaching Sibawayh develops in the Kitab the theory of syntactical $arf is totally ignored. Instead, he maintains the Camal effect of the verb or nominals with varying degrees of verbal power to exhibit na$b effect. The K. al-'Ayn - Kitab dichotomy regarding the na$b in bucdan is exemplary. Earlier (Item 56; a discussion of the theory according to K. al-CAyn is offered in Chapter III 5. 1. 3.7) we pointed out that despite his emphatic utilization of $aifin analysis of this structure, the author of K. al-CAyn does not neglect the conception of this form as ma$dar. A comparative study of the Kitab and Macani I-Qur>an of Farra> provides a possible indication that Sibawayh was not unaware of the theory of syntactic $arf and that his silence regarding this theory might have resulted from its total rejection by this grammarian. Space does not allow full discussion of the relevant references in the two books. We should emphasize that so far the conclusions drawn from this comparison are hypothetical. Their potential significance for the present discussion is that the $arftheory seems to represent an early stage of grammatical thinking and practice that died out after the Kitab became influential and largely accepted. The exponent of the syntactic $arf theory in K. al-CAyn, whether it is Ijalil or not, still represents the views of this earlier stage. Another point of difference between the two texts concerns the identification of the speakers using the variant bucdUn. The author of K. al-CAyn identifies a large and well-known geographical group, the l:ligazian; in the Kitab it is identified as an occasional variant of poetical use. Full citations are provided in item 54. 2.2 Conclusions

The analysis of points of agreement and disagreement between the texts of K. al-CAyn and Sibawayh's Kitab has indicated how equivocal the testimony of various items may be. The generally identical teaching of Ijalil in the Kitab and of the author of K. al-CAyn concerning the structure of qulubuhuma etc. (Item 13) includes a significant point of dissimilarity; on the other hand, Item 23 demonstrates how disagreement of the texts concerning the definition of ma's function in conditionals (e. g., mata ma) involves, nontheless, a common identification of this particle as lagw. Our conclusions will have to take such variations into account. In the beginning of this section we noted that the most important group of items for our study of authenticity of attribution to Ijalil of participation in writing K. al-CAyn are Items 1-25 (with the possible inclusion of Item 32). Items 1-19 present the positive side of the comparison, the agreement of grammatical teaching of K. al_cAyn and excerpts of the Kitab, which Sibawayh

K.AL·CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

257

explicitly identifies as ijalil's. Especially interesting among these are the five items which mention ijalil's name not only in the Kitab but also in K. al-CAyn. These are Items 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9 (possibly 32 also, if we assume that ijalil is quoted there). Even this core group does not demonstrate full agreement between the two texts. Full identity is demonstrable in Items 7 (labbayka), 8 (Ian), 10 (Wf > raci, raC), 12 (lJii'iif) and 32 (laww). Item 17 (inna ma/:lOl/an and unacceptability of indefinite sentence-opening noun) may be included with the reservation that I have not located express quotation of ijaHl's teaching in the Kitab on this point. I have cautioned that Item 11 (asya' < say' a') may have been taken from the Kitab. Shades of dissimilarity between the two texts include the following: (1) Differences in conception: Items 2 (features of hamza), 3 (a theoretical view of the relation between consonants and their vowels) and 18 (the status of the sequence following zaman-a etc. in zaman-a l-/faggagu amirun).

(2) Difference in terminology: Items 4 (h and i; Kitab: lJiffa-lJafa', CAyn: madd-nafas), 5 (min bacd-min can; Kitab never uses CAyn's ~ifa as a denotation of either locative or preposition. The question concerns principle but it is conveniently summarized by terminology.) and 19 (Kitab: musnad, CAyn: sanad).

(3) Formulation: 6 (one of qad's functions). (4) K. al-CAyn seems to summarize ijalil's teaching whereas the Kitab cites it in detail: Items 9 (ayah-gayah), 13 (qulubuhuma), 14 CalJawah > 'ulJt) and 16 (restrictions on ma ojala). (5) The author of K. al-CAyn may have quoted ijaHl's teaching wrongly in Item 15 (babran-babrayn). None of the six items exhibiting disagreement between the two texts includes an express citation of ijalil in K. al-CAyn. The following are cases of contradictory information: Items 20 (garjaba/gabarja, a case of metathesis?), 22 (non-pausal inflected man), 24 (the na~b of wabdahu) and 25 (li- of li-ilafi Quraysin). In several cases I venture to suggest that the disagreement results from either inaccurate citations by the author of K. al-CAyn or because the material is not part of ijaHl's teaching. The following items belong to the first category: Items 20 (garjaba/gabarja) and 22 (non-pausal inflected man). The analysis of the na~b of wabdAhu (Item 24) as a result of categorial shift is commensurate with the author's explanation of na$b in bucdan (Item 71). According to my interpretation of the early history of syntactic theory (see details in the next section) I tend to consider this theorem a syntactic element that both IJaHl and Sibawayh neglected. In the study of Item 11 (asya') the possibility was considered that ijaHl's view, which Sibawayh reports in his book, was not included in K. al-CAyn. It seems equally possible that excerpts of non-IJalilian grammatical teaching were included in the dictionary and

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that Item 24 is one of them. The other 46 items of comparison are divided into 31 items exhibiting agreement between the two texts and 15 with points of disagreement. Only one ofthese items includes reference to ijalil's teaching in K. al-CAyn (but not in the Kitiib). This is Item 31 (jam1amawiim). The general notion of agreement between the texts includes, to be sure, significant nuances of disaccord. I offer a classification of these nuances: (1) Sibawayh and the author of K. al-CAyn know each other's teaching but prefer to ignore it (note that "each other's teaching" here does not mean reciprocally and personally!): Items 43 (morphological cimiid; Sibawayh does not make use of this theorem), 27 (hams-gahr; it is not integrated in the phonetical teaching of K. al-CAyn), 51 (an as "half noun"; the study of inna/anna in K. alJAyn ignores this aspect of syntactical teaching, contrary to Sibawayh's focus) and 53 (ragul "perfect [man]"; the grammatical aspects are ignored in K. al-CAyn). (2) The author of K. al-CAyn cuts short long grammatical discussions: Items 28 (imiila in /faggiig), 48 (ellipsis of tanwfn in poetical wa-lii cjiikirA lliiha), 55 (na Ct vs. /:ziil in ibn camm-int batiiyii), 45 (facU for feminine), 50 (inna/anna) and 52 (am-aw). (4) Sibawayh is descriptive, whereas the author of K. al-CAyn is prescriptive: Items 37 (active zUa) and 49 (Alliihi). (5) Different contexts of discussion: Item 41 (Cabsaml). (6) The material in K. alJAyn is more comprehensive than in the Kitiib: Items 38 (bagal, gayri) and 40 (fdll > fnf). The 16 cases of disagreement are divided according to the following categories: (1) Disagreement about the language facts: Item 59 (Kitiib: cfsawna, CAyn: Cfsuna) is the only clear case. I heSitantly include the following items here, because they seem to indicate ignorance or neglect of items which may have been discussed in contemporary scholarly circles: Items 62 (a-ra/:zubaku111: is a case of transitivefacula; Sibawayh does not know any verb) and 63 (the author of K. al-CAyn does not know about another transitive of ijawcala). Item 71 (huwa minni makiin-X) might also be included. (2) Disagreement about distribution in the speaking community: Items 64 (halumma; Kitiib: Tamim, CAyn: Sacd, and similarly in the case of macahum > maJ:zJ:zum), 67 (Casiyy > Casigg; Kitiib: Sacd, CAyn: RabiCa) and 72 (buCdUn; Kitiib: occasional poetical variant, CAyn: f.ligaz). (3) Different interpretation of a verse: Item 70 (yii Na~ru na~ran

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

259

(4) Disagreement on theoretical concept: Items 72 (na~b of bucdan; Kitab: ma~dar, CAyn: mark of categorial shift. But note Item 56 [sub~ana] in which the author rejects this interpretation) and 61 (tar!J.im; Kitab: only in vocative and contraction of word-end, CAyn: non-vocative and in denotation of imala)_ Less definite is the classification of Item 57 (relations of vowels and matres lectionis). Item 58 presents disagreement in the concept of particle's function, as well as in terminology_ A possible explanation is that Sibawayh deliberately refrains from using the term ~arf, which the author of K. al-CAyn and AUfas have adopted. (5) Lacunae (cf. I above): Item 63 (another transitive of ifawala is unknown to K. al-CAyn); Items which do not occur in the Kitab: 62 (the transitive fa c ula) , 65 (two additional nouns of the pattern fici/) and 68 (the non-original pattern fdyal; complementary details about malu/a> in the two works). (6) A contrast descriptive (the Kitab) and prescriptive (K. al-CAyn): Item 66 (the imperative 'u7nur). (7) In spite of the emphatic expressions of disagreement in the items comprising the present group, the following indicate growth from one scholarly tradition: Items 69 (discussion of gender in a combination of baCt/. and i~ba') and 71 (analysis of the structure huwa minni makan-X... ). To conclude, the comparison brings out the points of agreement, especially in the few cases in which the two texts cite !jam expressly_ These items justify crediting the grammatical material in K. alJAyn with a !jalilian descent. Many of the points of disagreement are classifiable as modifications of what may be !jalH's teaching (documented by Sibawayh) adapted to the scope and potential reader of the dictionary K. al-CAyn. Other points of disagreement, smaller in number, have been interpreted here as cases of misinterpretation of the original teaching from which they are quoted or mistakes in transmission. Even fewer items are possible cases of inclusion of non-!jalilian teaching in the book.

3. Excerps of alleged Ijalilian teaching in later sources

A well-known passage in the Kitab mentions that !jam's teaching of the syntactical peculiarities of iljan was transmitted in a significantly different manner from Sibawayh's by an unnamed scholar or scholars.28 It is probably less noticed that Abu 'Ubayda mentions the different version with a citation 28

al-Kitab vol. 1 p. :367 11. 4-5: .. Ja-hiic}a rna rawaw wa-arnrna rna sarnt'tu

rninhufal-awwal.

260

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of ljalil in his MagilZ I-Qur'iin. 29 This case and others taken from our study of the material identified as ljalilian in the Kitiib and in K. al-CAyn, are instructive that one should not exclude prima facie the possibility of a genuine origin of allegedly ljalilian excerpts even in later works. In what follows we shall discuss briefly two such passages, from Azhari's introduction to Taht}lb al-Luga and from I:r'fuizmi'sMafiitl~ al-cUlUm. Azharl's testimony This passage is appended to the citation from K. al-CAyn of ljalil's phonetic study. It opens with the heading "A teaching of ljalil b. AQmad transmitted by other than Ibn Mu~affar" (wa-rawii gayr ibn al-Mu?affar can al-ljalU b. A~mad).30 A study ofthis passage and its comparison with the three passages on phonetics in K. al_ cAyn was included in Wild's study of the book, with special focus on the arrangement of letters according to their particular articulation zones and articulation points. 31 Wild's contribution also includes a reference to AUfas's observation about the dichotomy mut}liq-mu~mit as a general division of consonants, which is documented in Ibn Durayd's introduction to his Gamharat al-Luga. 32 We shall concentrate the following on the differences between the texts of K. al-CAyn and this short excerpt. a. In Azhari's account the number of letters is 28. The major division of letters into "sound" (~a~I~) and "defective" (muCtall) omits alif from the latter group. Nevertheless, it is mentioned in the special discussion of the group, where the four members are presented (wiiw, yii), hamza, alif). In the introduction of K. al-'Ayn ljalil says that the number of letters is 29. Even though the passage in Azhari's account discusses alifthere is considerable significance in the difference in the given total of letters. b. The scholar excludes aliffrom the general number of letters because it does not possess the feature of ~arfwa-gars, which is shared by all of them. He identifies gars as fahm al-~awt fi sukun al-~arf; ~arf is ~arakat al-~arf. In his discussion of the "defective" group he characterizes alif as ~arf-Iess, whose gars is of a prolongedfat~a (Iii ~arf laha, innamii hiya gars madda bacdafat~a). He specifies this defect of alifin speech, when the "movements of vowels" join it, this letter is too weak to bear it and it consequently changes into one of the other "weak" letters, which are stronger (ja-it}ii waqaCat Calayha ~uruf al-~arakiit tf,acufat .. fal-alif. .. atf,c af al-~uruf al-muCtalla). c. According to the alleged ljalil in Azhari's account, the four "defective" letters have points of articulation. In the case of wiiw, yii) and alifhe uses the 29

Abu CUbayda, Magaz p. 100 (already cited in Chapter I n. 241).

30

Azhari, pp. 46,14-49,4.

31

Wild (1965), pp. 29ff. and 92ff.

32

Wild, ibid. p. 30 n. 18.

K. AL-cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

261

term mabadi> a$watiha. Hamza's articulation point is the extreme larynx (aq$a I-J:zalq), near c; that of alif is towards the upper palate; that of ya' is lower/ 3 towards the teeth; that of waw is between the lips. He describes the three "weak" letters as "related to hamza, which is the strongest of all the four (aqwaha matnan)". He uses the expression manu rat biha, which we know from ijaHl's teaching in K. al-CAyn. This relation is exemplified by the same stock of shifts in pausal position ijaIn uses (frali > ifalP etc., see Item 2), to which he adds a detailed analysis of the process. He maintains that the (characteristic) breathing of these letters stops in pause (iqa wuqifa nqataCa anfasuhunna) and therefore they take back their original articulation, which is hamza (wa-a$luhunna min cindi l-hamza .. Ja-ragdna ita a$f mabda'ihinna min cindi l-hamza). He concludes that the three have one mode of phonetic behaviour (wa-ha'ula'iJi magran waJ:zidin). This scholar does not mention the notion of al-J:zuruf al-guf, which in K. al-CAyn is central in the discussion of the three matres lectionis. Contrary to the above conception of gars, which is shared by all the "letters", including the "defective" group, the author of K. al-CAyn is clear in his denial of gars (and $awt, which is not mentioned as an element by this account in Azharl) from this group (see Chapter III 2.3.3.2a). Consequently, the conception of the "defective" group as articulated from definite and distinct articulation points (except for pause) is alien to the spirit of the teaching of K. al-CAyn, which considers the gUf letters as hawa'iyya and emphasizes that they do not have an articulation zone (lam yakun laha J:zayyiz tunsabu ilayhi; (see Chapter III 2.3.3. 1 b). It also seems that the description of nafas as a characteristic of the three matres lectionis is not part of the teaching of K. al-CAyn, in which nafas is characteristic of h, against which y is described as madd. (However, a non-technical definition of nafas in K. al-CAyn describes it as burug al-nasim min al-gawf, (see Chapter III 2.2.2.3). d. Azharl's ijaHl has a detailed and systematic sub-division of the 25 "sound" letters. They are divided into muq/iqa (6: I, n, r, b, m,j) and mU$mita (19). The latter are further sub-divided into laryngeal (5: c, J:z, h, b, g) and buccal. The final sub-division concerns the 14 buccal letters, in which the scholar distinguishes a group of "elevated" letters (mustaCliya; 5: t, 4, $, "?, q) from a group of "low" letters (mubtafi4a; 9: k, g, S, r, s, d, t, q, D. He describes the "elevated" letter's feature as "rising up" (sawabi$). This expression is clarified in his subsequent description of the points of articulation of the "defective" letters (madarig a$watiha), in which he states that alif rises up towards the concavity of the upper palate (fa-madragat al-alif sabi$a naJ:zwa 33 A comprehensive study of the concepts of "high" and "low" ("elevation" and "depression") in the medieval Arabic phonetic theory is Kinberg's (1987). His note 24 (p. 17) about a contrast in two approaches presented by Sibawayh is of some relevance

here.

262

CHAPTER FOUR

I-gar al-d 10,). In K. al-CAyn there is no similar systematic and comprehensive division like this. It is doubtful if the reference to sa'ir al-buruf al-$utm in the discussion of al-buruf al-tjulq and the combinatorial rules relating to their presence in quadri- and qUinque-literal word is a general reference to all other (non-tjulq)

letters (see Chapter III 2.5). In its entry this group is contrasted with the gutterals (see Chapter III 2.1.3). Another contrastive presentation in K. al-CAyn puts the emphatic jibam against the group of buft (see Chapter III 2.1.3). The discussion of consonants of the former includes all four emphatics, notq, whereas the latter are represented only by t. e. The major group of mutjliqa is described Similarly to the parallel passage in K. al-CAyn and so is the treatment of its characteristic presence in quadriand quinque-literal words. Azhari's scholar knows of another letter, which may be present whenever the mutjliqa are absent, namely s, which possesses the features of "lightness and silent voicing" (li-biffat ai-sin wa-hasasatihti). The comparison between the two texts in this section is most significant. The introduction of K. alfAyn is not only more detailed in its description of exceptions to the rule of combinatorial relations but there are clear indications that the scholar in Azhari's account depends on the teaching of K. al-CAyn , which he transmits incorrectly. In K. alfAyn the presence of q and C is necessary, in addition to the tjulq group; they are not mentioned in the other text. The mention of s in this text is only part of the teaching of K. al-CAyn, in which d is also mentioned, and in which s is replaced by h in quadri-literal words of the onomatopoeic type. This letter (h) is characterized by lin and hasasa. It is plausible that the text, from which this scholar composed his teaching, was the introduction of K. alfAyn, with a lacuna (a missing page?) between the introduction of d and the mention of h, of which only the features of lin(iha) wa-hasasa(tiha) were legible. f. This scholar discusses at length several morphological subsequences of the above-mentioned features of the "defective" letters, including their omission before vowel-less consonant (e. g. tju I [famama] >tjul...), assimilation into y of wy (rayy) and yw (e. g. bayy) and the madd complementation of non-nominals which become nouns, like the letter names (buruf al-higa', no exemplification is given) and particles (termed al-buruf al-mu$awwara!; exemplified by 10, > la', which is also used in the body of K. al-CAyn, and ma > ma' [al-mugazah etc.]). We may conclude that there is considerable difference between the two texts. In itself this does not indicate anything about a non-ijalilian origin of Azhari's account; yet there are two types of indications that the text is later than K. al-CAyn, that it is based on its contents, and that it attempts to create a synthesis between its teaching and a different theory, probably that of Sibawayh: (1) its modifications of the phonetic theory of K. al-CAyn on four points,

K. ALocAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

263

comprising systematization of the mu~mita counterpart of mutjliqa, failure to provide an accurate coverage of the tjulq group of K. al-CAyn, neglect of the guf and hawiPiyya conception of the matres lectionis, of which only the expressionfi magran wa/:lid is retained, and last, this scholar's modification of ijalil's description of hamza vis-a-vis the matres lectionis "mabraguhil min aq~al-/:lalq .. fa-itja ruffiha canhalanat fa-~arat al-ya' wal-waw wal-ali!' as a theory about the origin of the three and integration of their shift to hamza in this theory; (2) indications of the influence of another theory, presumably Sibawayh's, on these pOints: a modified integration of a mustaCliya group in the systematic sub-division of buccal letters, and identification of pOints of articulation of y and w. Contrary to later descriptions of the ijaIHian and Sibawayhian systems this phonetic account does not keep the two separate but it attempts to integrate them into one coherent body. This attempt is not based on pure eclecticism. It gives prominence to the role of ~arf and to the identification of the matres lectionis as ~arfless. This is basically commensurate with the /:larf wa-~arf wa-~awt theorem of K. al-CAyn, which, however, is not part of an introductory overview of the theoretical scheme and, significantly to my mind, is not included in the Introduction. In this respect (and in several others as well) this passage is similar to AUfaS's account in Ibn Durayd's introduction, which is transmitted by the person named USnandani. 34 AUfas defines alif ("the 29th letter") as gars bi-Ia ~arf, which the author (or his authority) finds difficult to explain. I tend to agree with Wild that the scholar of Azhari's passage is AUfaS. However, it is apparent, especially from his description of the appended elements of the mutjliqa set, that the theory is not a direct citation of ijaHJ's teaching but a modification of the written text of K. al-CAyn. These speculations about AUfas cannot incorporate significant conclusions about early evidence of the history of K. al-CAyn in Iraq, because AUfas's theory in Ibn Durayd's account is too brief for far-reaching conclusions about Azhari's passage.

If'arizmts evidence

The passage about the detailed set of {rab terms in ijwiirizmi's Mafati/:l al-cUlum has been studied by several scholars in recent years. 35 Its comparison with the teaching of K. al-CAyn is relevant to our attempt to establish a multi-sided view of ijalil's teaching and will be considered here briefly. Three framework terms and 20 vowel terms constitute the list of wuguh al-icrab wa-mil yatbduhil cala mil yuJ:zkil can al-ljalil b. AJ:zmad. The framework terms organize the vowels according to their location in the word: opening (~udur al-kalim), inside (awsat al-kalim) and word-final (aCgaz al-kalim). A similar division of word structure is attested in K. al-CAyn, in which the terms 34

On USnlindlini as Ibn Durayd's source, see Chapter I, bottom of p. 66.

35

Fischer (1985); Versteegh (1993), p. 17 (a short sketch).

264

CHAPTER FOUR

~adr and Caguz are regular, but the term awsar is substituted for fa~l and basw which are both rare (see Chapter III 4.1.3.2). The names of the ten iCrab and non-icrabi vowels (raj", na~b, baf4. garr, gazm, fj,amm, fatb, kasr, sukun, waqf) are all present in I:rarizmi's list (the two last terms are taskfn and tawqif) but with considerably different denotations, basically with more restricted functions; for example, raj" denotes frabi lui, but only in nouns and only with tanwfn, whereas a non-nunated termination of nouns is termed nagr, and lui in all other cases of word-final position is termed fj,amm. Three of the other ten terms are absent in K. al-CAyn. These are the terms taysir (of the pair irsal and taysfr which seem to belong to the terminology of Qur'anic readings) and tawgih and qacr. The rest occur in K. alJAyn, not always in the same sense as given in Ij'arizmi's list: (1) Nabra, which denotes hamza of word-final position, is defined in K. al-CAyn (s.v. 8 269) simply as hamza, although the example nabp is similar to tr"arizmi's. The evidence of K. al-CAyn indicates a non-grammatical, probably non-technical usage (note Sibawayh's single reference to nabra fi 1-~adr)36. (2) The term irsat, used according to Ij'arizmi for word-final hamza as in qara'(a), denotes in K. al-CAyn a short lal, in contrast to madd (and see Similarly in ~ranzmi, no. 5).31 (3) /fasw is a middle-word lui, whereas in K. al-"Ayn it is any middle-word letter, but also a "supportive element" (the sound letters are characterized as ta tabtagu ita basw; see Chapter III 2.3.3.4). (4) Tafbim is a middle-word hamza position term, which is exemplified by sa'ala. There seem to be three different senses of tafIJfm in K. al-CAyn: for the emphatic consonants, the back rounded lal and the lal without imata (see Chapter III 2.4.4.2). The latter is somewhat reminiscent of the term in Ijwarizmi's list. (5) In fact, at the end of this list the term is contrasted with imala of word-finallal, exemplified by cIsa and Musa, which end with ya>at mursala (no. (3) above). Another term employed in K. aVAyn, which is partly synonymous with imata, is tarbfm. It is not mentioned in Ijwanzmi's list. (6) Ifj,gff is the middle-word Iii, for example, in ibil. The obscure sentence in K. al-CAyn "wal-ifj,gff fi l-qawafi an tumilaha" might be related and might indicate a prosodic origin of this term (as might tawgfh and qaCr) but our evidence is very meagre in this case. (7) The last term to discuss here is ismam, which is a word-opening term in Ij'arizmi's list and is exemplified by qUila (with the explanation asamma l-fj,amm). This term occurs in K. al-CAyn in the sense of "pronunciation of a shade of a vowel" (see Chapter III 2.4.4.4). It is not restricted to any word position and although it discusses luI it says expressly that such a pronunciation of other vowels is possible. I still cannot read the crux in the discussion of

36 al-Kitiib vol. 2, p. 172,8 (cp. Troupeau [1976l s.v.). al-CAyn 2 334.

37

K. AL-eAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

265

ismiim (s.v. l)-M-N) with the added QLY from Azhao's Tahtjib. 38 It does not seem to have any relation to triirizmi's qUfla. To conclude, triirizmi's list includes many items which are equivalent to terms of K. al-eAyn. Their peculiar denotations, which are different from both K. al-eAyn's and the Kitiib's, seem to indicate that the list is a unique attempt, probably by ijaHl himself, to create a most accurate terminology of the vowel system. This set was probably neglected by the inventor himself, but was recorded by posterity as a curious attempt. It does not undermine the attribution to ijalH of the vowel terminology and related terms, although it does not support it in any significant manner.

4. K. al-c Ayn and the early grammar: Comparison with other early works The following analysis of 24 points of similarity in the grammatical teaching of K. al-eAyn and early treatises with grammatical information other than the Kitiib provides an outlook on the grammatical circles and transmitted tradition, the putative sources from which the author, possibly ijalil, collected his information. The comparison distinguishes between Kiifan and Ba~ran sources, even though our conclusions may illumine the common grammatical tradition which nourished them both. 4.1 Kufan teaching

Phonetics: Point 1: s > ~ There does not seem to be any significance in the fact that both the author of K. al- eAyn and Farrii' report the emphatic variant ~ in Q LXXXVIII 22 mu~ay!ir.

Ul~J :2107

(~L.:t.I~ ~l.:S" '\:)J~I") 0-J~ C;L...s:J1 Morphology: Point 2: mirizA '/mireizzA. The two variants miriZA'/miriZzA

i.h : ~r r ~ ';l- ,.1;&11

Hr..... - 1..Sj&......) are discussed in K.

38 The editors read (7 51-) taqulu /il-insan: qif quia bi-ismam ai-lam al-I;araka. They note that "quia" is added from Azhari's Tahgib and that "bi-ismam" replaces "bi-tasl;im" in Azhan's reading. Ibn Mall?-iir offers (s.v.I)-M-N) the following sensible option: wal-mu4amman min al-a~at an yaqula I-insan "qiffula" bi-ismam ai-lam ila I-l;araka. Lane (s.v.) cites Tag al-eArus to the same effect.

266

CHAPTER FOUR

al-CAyn and in al-Manqu$ wal-Mamdud of Farra'. The two scholars discuss the conditioning of qa$r and madd by reduplication of the final consonant. (ll.....I"".~llp.J)

J.. ~

;;'&-..1""/. I;,&-..I"" :3342

1~!.J,.,..ai ,)~ I~! :;;,&-..I"".J : '( A ".JoWI.J~..,.i:.11 •• 1.)11

Point 3: pc i/ii not /icci/ii) The author of K. al-CAyn twice discusses the structureficci/ii and emphasizes that the final vowel is "softened", namely with a shade of imiila. Farra' treats the same pattern in his treatise al-Manqu$ wal-Mumdud and states, contrary to Kisa'i, that this and similar patterns have no madd variant. This observation seems to explain why the author of K. al-CAyn considers the introduction of his note murabbamat al-yii) necessary. This point indicates the futile fact that grammarians of the two schools shared an interest in madd and qa$r variants of morphological patterns.

oJ.;>i .;,. ~ 4l!.o.J :~ :269= ~ ... ' ~I w...I"" ~ :222 4

:. ~I :,,, ".JoWI.J ~..,.i:.11 •• 1.)11 .~~! I.l. r::- d ~~I ~j.J'..AJ'J~

~ ~.J -4 I.l. .JA .~ ~ .::.J~'J

~ .w..~ ~.lS'.J Ju r.,AJ1

.JA .b-i ~ ~ :.1.)11 Ju .~~I ~ ~ .ul j~i.J .,..aiJ1.J .ul I.l.

c} ~

~~.J 1.l..JA ~ -4 y~1 Point 4: diptotic asyQ> In Item 11 a comparison was made of the analyses of asyiP in K. al-CAyn and in Sibawayh's Kitiib. A significant conclusion was drawn that the first of the two views presented in K. alJAyn and favoured by its author is not ijalil's. It was also noted that the author's favourite is Sibawayh's choice. Now, a reading in the relevant chapter of FarriP's Mdiini l-Qur'iin shows that he also accepts this view, namely that asyii) derives from the diptotic asyPii'. In the same passage Farra) criticizes a view, which he attributes to baC4 al-naJ:zwiyyina. This view takes aliil as the original form but postulates transformation by analogy to the feminine pattern/dlii), mainly because these two forms share similar plurals: asiiwii-J:zamiirii and asiiwiit-J:zamriiwiit. We recall that the author of K. al-CAyn mentions a second view which he attributes to qawm. This view is different from that criticized by Farra). Its main argument is that the diptotic character of asyQ> is determined by the multitude of its plural forms, which indicates that it does not derive from aliil.

~.J r~1

c} u.;:5 U! :~fll ~ ~ JU"U.J :fn , ~~la.. •• 1.)11

~ ~lS' ).J .. 1S.JL.:.i ~.J .1....- oJ~ ~ W" oJ~ r-1i .)W ~U Jwi

267

K.AL-CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

L:SJ." ........ r')ISJl ~..;5 I~! J.).I4J~ I./~ 4Ji l+! ~-,",I ~i 4J(S:J ~.,::.II 4JlS' i~ .~i ..la...." v.e JW .~i." ~ ~ l.S' .~i ~ ~ .~i 4Ji ... 4J~ i..;.+ll ..:...iW • ~i iJ.J5.; 4Ji 4J ~

loS.)

Point 5: lam yatasannah The variant readings of Q II 258 lam yatasannahllam yatasanna imply, according to the author of K. al-CAyn, different derivations of this verb from s-n-h and s-n-w respectively. Farra> knows only about the reading yatasannah, but he discusses the two derivations and even adds son-no In the cases of the roots without h he identifies the final h of the verb as redundant (~ila zd'ida).

~rJ/~rJ :84

~1.J.J.Al ~ rJ :.r.-A=.II. ~ «~ rJ» :oI..l..,i." :, W" , ~.;'- .• 1).11 1 • • v.e .t.L:.1 v.e .4J1 4Jfi..3." • [4Jl....l11 v.e i.)10 :~I - WI v.e ~';'L.. .~ 4J ~ •i li W I v.e ~ • L. .r.AI .t.L:.." v.e", .w."." ')/w,." ,- :; •~ L....o ~ :~..,i ~ i~lj 4Jfi..3." • [4Jl....l11 v.e i.)10 :~I - ."1.,.11.,, • 4J1 ~ ~ ~ r'i 'ii !~ ;.:.. (!) ~ ~ i~lj .4J1 ~ ~ «~.l.:il ~1-4J» oI..l..,i ~~ WI [~l c.) Ju v.e", .~ ~ ~ 4JH ul.,.:.... WI c:-I- ~i loS.} u J*" ~(" U • WL • ,"1 .::.J.I.Ii . (" ..I,) i ..J. '1.> ~ 1.!o1H I,)·lS'·1 • • 1 )-" " , . ~ ..:......;...,; • I,)Y"! _ I,)~ i:....:.... •

!-

v.e» oI..l..,i v.e ~.;.t. ~ I-,",u "u." .Ji.l1 .t.L:.i." .- .~I:z; I-,",u l.S' .uli.".:J1 .~ 4Ji loS.)." .' ~ ;.;.,,; .::.J.L.ji It ~i ..,.,.. ~.lS" ~ 4J~ .~ :.I.I-.r. «4J~ .~ i ;.1.11." '4J~ 1•.r.AJ rJ 1./i ! W 1v.e ~.;.t.

Point 6: kild Farra) and the author of K. al-CAyn agree on the derivation of kilii from kull. The latter describes the phonetic difference between them, whereas Farra) supports the logic of the general observation by an argument that the dual is on the plural side in contrast to the singular. Again it is plausible that the two scholars' agreement indicates that they share a common grammatical tradition. J.!,.i!:;,II." ~lt ~I." #:--11 4J:! l.,i') ,...¢J."

:J! > ";)S

t." "

:280

.•

5

.;,lS' L.. ~ .;,."s.... ) .l4AJ1 4JlS:,j .. J! .t.L:.i." .. WS' :, ~.;'- 1).11 ..• ~ i..l>l).I .)~) 'i.~ Point 7: masastu > mastu The irregular verbal forms of the originally geminate, such as mastu < masastu are reported not only by Sibawayh and the author of K. al-CAyn (see Item 37) but also by Farra).

268

CHAPTER FOUR

..:-- > ..::......0 :208 7

..:-- >..::......o, .. ~/.:.-- :Y\V'

~c;,-

.. I.).II

Kiifan Syntax: Point 8: ab~artu > ab~arat cayni A language feature, whose treatment could be classified in the domain of stylistics rather than syntax, is observed by Farra) and the author of K. al-CAyn. They mention indirect substitutions to the use of I st person pronun in samictu and ab~artu: samf at utjni, ab~arat Cayni. Farra)'s treatment of this phenomenon justifies its inclusion in grammatical discourse, namely in the case of irregular agreement of an adjectival predicate in kullu tji caynin nii,?iraTun. In fact, it probably indicates the common source of information of these two scholars, in grammatical discussions of the same philological tradition that they share.

u.r4-/1 •..:.-....=I.u...; #- u.r4-/1 .I.u",; c;~l.:...-... :348 ..

!~! o);I.;J);1.; ~ I$~

1\

..

J! :J.,... y.;aJI') I.S~ ~j

II!"

1

: YVV Y~ C;'- ..1.).11

..I>IJ ~~! uPJ #-~! ~p :~.,.; ~~ Point 9: ...acniiquhum ... lJiif;W iNA The author of K. al-CAyn analyzes the syntactical relations of the resumptive pronoun of Q XXVI 4 fa-,?allat dniiquhum laha lJiit/I iNA. He argues that it resumes aCniiq, but not in the literal sense of "necks", because then it should (agree with the identity of "necks" as non-person plural and) take the form lJdq.ica or IJdq.iCdt. He refers to the literal sense by the term IJd~~. He also mentions an anonymous view (wa-man qiila), according to which the pronoun in lJiiq.{-ina resumes the pronoun in aCniiqu-HUM and refers to the men themselves. He seems to consider this view acceptable. The two views are mentioned in Farra)'s Mdiini l-Qur)iin. He even discusses two interpretations of the non-literal sense and attributes one of them to Mugahid. Farra) says expressly that he favours the other explanation, which relates lJiiq.ic-ina to the suffixed pronoun of aCniiqu-HUM. He considers it more satisfactory according to the norms of grammatical analysis of the language (wa-aJ:zabbu i/ayya min hatjiiyni l-waghaynifi I-CArabiyya). We now face a chronological problem: if Farra) is the first to offer this explanation, then its mention in K. al-CAyn is later than his teaching, which took place roughly around the year 200/817. On the other hand, it is more plausible that this explanation circulated among grammarians and was therefore known to both scholars.

~~ ~lS:J L:.~ .:;~~I ~lS' )J :~~

4J ~~j ..::.l1ai

:168 1

~ .~~" ~.,; ~~ J~)I ~ ~IJ •.:;~~I ~ :Ju ,;,.oJ .ul.a.#~J

269

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

.~I~L....i U..j~ :J.i.! ~ ~ :J.jli.ll J.",y ~~)u J.a.i.l1.J :" YV' Y~ yi"- .~ 1.).11 ~lS:.i .~ 1.r.SJ1 J~)I :~~~I ~ la~ .) 41) .yl."... l.fJ5 0.Y':.J ~uH ~.J .;":~I ~~ 41 ~JI..r.S'.J r.,AJ1 VO.JJ-J r+""n-J ~ :~.,i 4.lF, la~ ~~~I i.bol.J ~ 4J"j.; ~! VO WI ~i-J :J.,.iJ L.S' .~I):zJ1 ~~~I ~ 4J i ~I ~)I.J ~~~I 4J i 4-..,-.11 c.si ~)IIJo!.a VA ~! ~i.J ~I.J ~1):zJ1 ~~~I ~ ... J~..,u «~~» ~ ~ ~~)u. J.a.i.ll ~ 4J.,......~ ~l.)j ~ Ii! Point 10: wayka'anna In K. al-CAyn the analysis of the Qur'iinic wayka'anna as a writing convention of two separate words, way and the sentence-opening ka'>anna (Jumma tabtadi>U) is attributed to Ijalil. In Mdiini l-Qur'iin Farra) discusses two views, one of which is identical with IjalH's. He accepts this view and criticizes the other, which includes far-reaching reconstructed elements. The fact that the Kitiib does not treat this structure makes K. al-CAyn the only written source which presents a formulation of the way+ka'anna analysis made before Farra). 39 Any suggestion of the latter's dependence on K. al-CAyn or citation of IjalH is, of course, hypothetical and ill-founded.

Jli :-442= .. "~is...J" I~ ~.J t4.J-" ~ ~ I..,L..J "u.J :4Jis...J :-3698 .. "4J ts'" J~ ~J.4' ~ "I./.J" J.,.iJ 4.1~ "",. :~I

~ ~~ "u.J ... -,,~ y."...ll r'% ~ «4l.I1 4Jis...J » :'"

"'H

4Jl..JS'

Y~ yi"-.~ 1.).11

4i ~! ~~I

Point 11: ... fiikihatun wa -nablun wa-rummiinun The author of K. al-CAyn mentions two adversary views about Q LV 68 fihii fiikihatun wa-nablun wa-rummiinun. He adopts the first view without identifying an authority. The other view, which is an objection to the first without a counter-analysis, is attributed to an anonymous "he who objects" (man biilafa). Implicitly, exponents of the first view do not interpret the particle w in this verse as a conjunctive. The two nominals following it are conceived as explicative members of the preceding noun. The author employs the verbal derivatives of the verbal noun takrir. He emphasizes that they are included in the group of fiikiha (wa-lam yabrugu minhum). The opponent's argument is that an included part need not be mentioned twice in the general fiikiha and independently. It is obvious that the opponent does not accept the 39

But note Ibn al-Kalbi's analysis of the same item and his identification of ka as

$ila; cf. Versteegh (1993) p. 119 and his general analysis of this category in pp. 141 ff. A consideration of this analysis is given in Talmon's review (forthcoming d).

270

CHAPTER FOUR

implicit assumption of the exponents of the first view about the different, non-conjunctive function of w. In his treatment of the same verse Farra) clarifies that the opponent is not a grammarian but an exegete. Farra>, who maintains a similar view to the first mentioned above, supports it with other Qur)anic citations. They are different from the other verse mentioned by the author of K. al-CAyn. His term aCdda, which is paraphrastic to takrir, implies that the concept was in current usage in grammarians' circles.

) :...A.ll> ir JIJ.J ... «.;,L.';.J ~.J 4.fS'\.i ~» :Ju; .;,I.)JI t}.;.J LeiJ :381 3 I.;.J L. 4.fS'li L;lS'

I~~ ..uJ .4.fS'~ ~I '1.J .;,L.)I ~ :v-""-u I ~ J~ : \" ~ L;lS'

.;,1 .;,L.)IJ ~I ~i ~ :cli .;,!-i

';l... .. 1.).11

.4.fS'li 1!1H ~ y.,.-JI ~J .~,l..

..... i ..uJ . «ul-)I .')\..aIIJ ul.,.L.::aJI ~ 1.,Jail>)) :o4.l..,iS" 1!1J~ :cli ~ 4.fS'UJI ir

~i 1!1J.lS' • 4J 1~~ .,.-.)1 ~~i ~ .ul.,.L.::aJI jS" ~ ~~~ ul.,..JI t} ir o4.l ~ J.UI .;,i .; ~i» :~I t} o4.l"; 4ll..J .~I J.-~ ~.; t} ~I J) t} ~.J~ ..uJ .« ... V"'l:JI ir .;e!5J» :JIJ ~ «.J:I.;~I t} irJ ir» o4.l~ ~I) Le1 :v-""-u I ~ JIJ ..uJ '«.J:I.;~t. .. ul.,..JI t} irD :o4.l";

.;,L.)IJ ~I

~.l.Aj V"'WI.J~ ~ .~~I « ••• t}

4.2 Kufan and Ba~ran teaching discussed together

Point 12: safiha nafsahu The author of K. al-CAyn mentions an anomalous group of transitive verbs (~abara and safiha are specified), which can take the reflexive pronoun nafsahu as their complement but not an "external" object (hence, no *safihtu Zaydan). The parallels from the two exegetical works of Farra> and AbfaS indicate that this anomaly was well known among grammarians and it was studied in a larger context. According to Abfas, Yiinus considered it a vernacular form (urdhd lugatan). Abfas interprets Yiinus' observation as an implicit report that such structures as safihtu Zaydan were used in the same vernacular. Abfas's testimony about Yiinus is important because it indicates that although Sibawayh does not mention this structure, it was already a case study in his time. It is also an indication that Sibawayh does not transmit all of Yiinus' teaching. Farra) discusses the status of the object in this structure and classifies it as a special case of the syntactic category he terms tafsir and which later grammarians call tamyiz. In contrast to the regular tafsir, this nominal is definite. It is doubtful if the author of K. al-CAyn knew of this category. There is no doubt, however, that this passage in his book reflects grammatical interest in this structure. It seems that another passage, in which the expression rasa

271

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

l-ragulu rayahu is discussed, also reflects this interest. The author's note "I do not know of 4.tC L!J, (ra'yUhu?)" indicates one of the tests early grammarians

used to make in their analysis ofthis irregular transitivity.

"i :Jli :277

6

!~ft"'" "iJ

1J.o. .,i .::..,.&...

:J~ "iJ ,~ ft"'"

:r+'.".i J.!.o :9 4

ti,.,; yrJl :VI\

, ~,;'- ,.1,))1

•..L....ii :4.tiJ ~)I 'L:J, «4.tC 'L:J,» Jri

li...,..tl c} ~J ••• li,.,... ~J «~» ~ ~

.

i.J.; r~l.;s'i c} ~IJ

",

,...-£.0 jJ~ ,i~lS'

~ ~I l.~jJ 4JrJ 4- UJ.1&' ~j>J ~j> J.!.oJ :, 1\ '(LA Y ~

,,

"=".

~

J

J

.. 4JJ,....,J 4- u~.Y'" ~ Point 13: qulubuhumii In Item 13 we noted the agreement of the Kitiib and K. aVAyn in the analysis of the annexation construction qulubuhumii. According to Farra' this rule of inalienability is not restricted to body parts and may include such nouns as "wives" and "garments" (hence: yallaytumii nisii'akumii for "you have left your two wives" etc.). Farra' explains that this note is necessary because several grammarians (min al-naJ:zwiyyina man ... ) restrict its distribution to body parts. These grammarians may have included the author of K. al-CAyn and ijalil. We may recall that Sibawayh mentions an extension of the rule in an attested form waq.acii riJ:ziilahumii "they took off (/put on) their two saddles".

~I ~ .crJl ~ c} U1> ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IJ~I). .. : 4P :328

7

-4JIJ

L..e.i

lolA ~ 'uJ ... ~W~I ~ ~



~"i~~u.f~

U!J

I;'

'{,

..1>..,.. .~ JS" : H ,

,"., , ~ ,;'- .. 1,))1

f.

Wi';'» «L.S.W ~» .. ~W~I~~~ .I.Y'" JS"J ~W~I ~ c} "i! .~ "i ~lS' ~ ~fll ~

.«~

Point 14: ibbillibbawl The singular ibbil of the plural abiibil is reported by the author of K. al-CAyn. Farra' cites Kisa'i's testimony that "the grammarians" taught about a singular ibbawl. AlJfaS mentions the two views, without, however, identifying the persons behind them. While it is possible that Kisa'i is the source of his information about ibbawl (note that Farra' did not know it from any source other than Kisa'i), the information about ibbil in K. al-CAyn is not marked as rare or uncommon among philologists.

~!~!~ ~~ :~~i :3438

e-i.:;.;S

:1." .J ~ I$.lll ~I .:r ~! 01) ~." :«.r.1L...i» :Y" ';l- ,~~I J!.o «J>I!ll ~ Jli." ~! ~~~I ..1>1." :~ Jli." «~~LlJ ... «J..e.!~ll J...) :.:uJ~ .l:......a.i.Il yrJl~." .. .'I..I>I.".J..J~ yrJl ~i r-l." «J~ll ( 0 AY :iJJli) ..1>1>1 4.1 ~ rl.i .u~~ oil..;! ~~i ~! Point 15: 'N hiiqiini la-sabirani The author of K. al-CAyn discusses the different interpretations of Q XX 63 )N hQ(jani la-sabirani. The three options discussed are: (a) in with talJfif (b) in ... la- is synonymous with in ... il/a " .. .is not...but..." (c) inna with the sense of agal. The third option is quoted as the view of an anonymous authority (wa-yuqalu). Other early sources discuss several other options. A non-declined dual is reported in the language of Banu I-Bari! by AUfas, Farra' and Abu CUbayda. Farra' offers another, non-vernacular interpretation of the indeclinable haif,ani. He identifies the second view of K. al-CAyn as Ubayy's reading. Abu CUbayda modifies the third option mentioned in K. al-CAyn. He attributes this view (or part of it) to a certain BiSr b. Hila!. Interestingly, Sibawayh does not discuss the structure. He attributes to ijalil the teaching that certain Arabs (nas min al-CArab) shift the diphthong ay to a, but he restricts this phenomenon to the prepositions with bound pronouns: ilaka, calaka, ladaka. We may conclude that the variety of views about this structure uncovers a Qur'anic reading (Ubayy's) as a source of one of the options mentioned by the author of K. al-CAyn. In comparison with the other three early exegetical works, his source is exceptional in its silence about the options offering the shift ay > a. I cannot make any contributive prediction about this fact and Sibawayh's neglect of this verse.

V!.lll ~ ~ ~ ,:,..i «iJl..,,:ooW iJl.a iJl ll 1.01." : iJ1,.f"'W iJl.a iJ!:-396 8 (iJl) ~J ,(~I) ~.,.. ~ j')Ul ~ .:r r+'""'" ,~", ~.l.i '~..rJ iJ~ J.Jr ~ ~~ iJ~1 ~I» :,;&-L.!JI Jli." 'iJ1,.f"'L... ~I iJl.a 1.0 :~ ~ ,I..b.:o:-

(~I) ~.,.. c} (iJl) [iJfol :JlA..J 0"'1\)

I«·IJ-"", (~I ~ iJ~1 iJl." c.si tL.., • 4.11 iJfo .. 4.i1 : I)li ~I l.a c.si l,.til." IHi '~J iJ"'~ :lJl ~I,;&-I iJl .r.-jl V! MIl ~ ir l.:.ALJ ... 1~.r4 I~I [.4.1 11 .h.i.....J." ,..J.,i)1 :1$1 ,4-$IJ." iJl :.r.-jl V!I Ju; ,~I ~ llli MIl

vAl

:Ju; ,......,.; .JW .~I

III ~ wl..l>! :~ ~ ...Al~L,J iJ!.I.t..l..!..o.t l.:J.I..,Ai : \","' Y ~';l- ,.1.).11

~)I." ... ...Al~~ ~." L.+.-i." 4-aiJ ~ ~~I iJ~ :~ V! I!IJY.I ~ ~ u~j ,. :t Wi ,Jaj j~ ~." A...~~ l.a .:r ...Al~1 u~." :J..,.A1 iJi ;.~I

273

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

y...-JI ~u W' !J6.

JS' c.P

JJ.P ~ l+l6.

c.P

~~ ...A.l~1 ..::.5.; roS U.,; •.. «IoFjJh)

Point 16: yabi! > fJabir The variant (! » t is cited in K. al-CAyn from a poetical verse in the word babi!. An anecdote documented by Zubaydi attributes to ijalil a spontaneous observation about this form in a discussion of the same verse with A~maci. This anecdote can hardly be considered a modification of the discussion in K. al-CAyn. Its details are documented in anecdotal style in Abu Zayd's K. alNawiidir, but it is a later addition documented probably two generations after Abu l:Iatim. It is interesting that according to this passage in Nawiidir it is possible that ijalil did not know the variant babir (with t). I cannot see what substantiated conclusions can be drawn from this difference about ijalil's role in writing the particular entry.40 J

* j)1 v.o J.el.i.II ~I ~

:Ju "IoF~)1 ~I :. ~~I

v.o ~IJ

:241

4

~i .W~~I.JAJ ~I~I~ ~J

~ [","~I] f6. J j)1

c"r.i

~ ~~I v.o

v.o J.el.i.II ~I ~

W~

~..I>J

:f£.O

J~I".; •..I.o.J..Hi

:Ji.,....J1 J,; ..w.i ~ ~I .:J..\..!.ji :Ju .~~I

~~ III o.aJ ~I ~I) ..::.W ~I L.. :J Jw ... ~I ~I ~ ~J .~ ~ 1oF';';';' ~ rli ~I J.i.! t' rli :Ju .• l; .WI v.o .;,)~

Point 17: bir cin In K. al-CAyn an optional reading al-bir al-cin is presented. Abu Zayd describes in great detail ijalil's analysis of an attraction in the same pair of the same QuI"anic verse, where ijalil introduces his typical analogical reasoning known from Sibawayh's Kitiib. However, the canonic order on which ijalil's argument is based is al-cin al-bir (Cin attests, of course, to the normal Arabic shift *uy > i). We cannot say that the suggested variant in K. al- CAyn contradicts Abu Zayd's description of ijalil's view, but we would certainly expect more agreement between this description and the dictionary, if this entry was written by ijalil.

«~ ~J» :i.l,} ~J '.)~ :~IJ'"

:288

3

.I.)~ ~ ~IJ""~ ~.;~ ~I ~I v.o 4.1'; L..iJ:ov£, J~I"'; •..I.o.J..Hi 4...,.J1 jAi JI.l> .;.;.;. I.aJ ~I ~I ~I dJJ ~I ~I v.o J~ .;,i ~ .;,l$J

.

!!Owl.! ltJ :~I Ju Y? yl.,..alb Y? ~.r-: l.a I)u W' .hJ.AJ1 J.&.I.ST.'-! 40 NOideke, Zur Grammatik p. 12 refers to Jahn on Sib. 48, but nothing is mentioned there about this linguistic item.

274

CHAPTER FOUR

~.llIJ ~ 'i \JL";' I)ll ~ I~ \Jloa I)ll I~! ~i .u;ll .:r ~ l.ii ~ loa ~J \J1.,s'.l. 4iJ \JI..I>.,.. 4iJ ..I>IJ .~ ~! Jl.AtIJ Jl.At1 \Ji ~ J}~I ..IS'J.! c;WI \JiJ \Jl!i.,;.. 4iJ \J~ 4iJ \Jl:o:A; 4~ ~I ~I .:r .J.,l L.S' JJ~I ~)I .:r ..\A.:o! ~ c,;4 ';'1 "u..:,J c;WI ~J ~I ~J vi I.i~ ... ~ ~ \J'j,j J.,.i.i Point 18: madiPin vs. maCiiyis The distinction between the pattern of madii'in (with hamza) and mdiiyis (without hamza) is discussed briefly in K. al-CAyn. The author indicates the different character of y in their singular form. It is a root consonant (a#iyya) in mdiiyis but affixed (zii'ida) in madina-madii'in. AUfas attacks Qur'anic readers who read (Q VII 10) macii'is. The fact that the two books use madii'in and maCiiyis as their examples indicates that the discussion in K. al-'Ayn reflects early grammatical teaching .

• 4.11 \J~ ~WI·4 jo.4J 'iJ .i~lj .4.11 \J~ .j.JWJI c.si jo.4J ~ i..:.tJlI :538 ~i jAJ ••

I..,AJI ~ .JM-

"uJ

ijJ4+0 ~

.4Ju

(~lA..) :yy.

';l-

.~~I

vi i~lj • 4.11 u. ~ I~! J.&.lA.o J\.!.. ~ \JlS' L. ~ U!.J i~lj! ~ 4-J~ •'~~J ~ .:rJ j.JW 4-J~ V:I~ ~ 4-J~ i~1 \J~ u=J1 JI)IJ ,"",~IJ ..1>1)1

J-~I.:r ~. 4.11 \J~ ~- r' «V!-'! \JI~» ~ V: 1Jl1

Point 19: da'dad The view that hamza is "stronger than the three other chest lettesr" (aqwii min Sii'iT al-lJ.uTuf al-gawfiyya) is integrated into the explanation of its insertion in the adjective da'dad, which is construed of three repetitive d sounds typical of music recital. The same statement is attributed in the same context to Mu'arrig al-Sadusi by the editor of his Book of Proverbs. It is difficult to speculate about this unique attribution.

JJ.).I )L... .:r lS.,li 4-J~ i~1 IJJl;,;.1

U!.J •~~i~ ~~i~ :\J)~ ... :91 8 dJ.lS' O~J 4i~1

4iAI JJ.).I)L....:r lS.,li 4-J~ i~IIJJl;,;.1

LC!.J ... :\, 1,r.:5'w& A.:.. ~~.I.At ~J .~ ~ ~ V'l ~J'! J'!i JIJ .i.raJ1

~

c.si rs-

5

,,;-,jS -~~I

Point 23: ziila zawiilAhii It is strange to realize that the early grammatical sources, with the exception of K. al-CAyn and Abfas in Maciini I-Qur'iin, have not documented the syntactically problematic verse of Nsa with the structure (hiitjii l-nahiira badii lahii min hammihii * mii biiluhii bil-Iayli) ziila zawiilAhii, which later writers cite, discuss and report from early scholarly debates. The author of K. al-CAyn himself does not state his opinion before he mentions the existence of such

276

CHAPTER FOUR

earlier debates (wa-!JtalafU fima yaCnihi) and gives details about two current views. The one reconstructs the verb as stem IV azala with God as the agent, and considers the whole sentence azala llahu zawalaha an optative "May God take her away". The other view conceives zawalaha as what later grammarians term ma.rUl mu!laq /il-tasbih and identifies a latant agent, !Jayal, so that the sentence means "The ghost disappeared like she did". A concluding remark supporting a language use of stem IV perf. without the initial )a indicates that the author sides with the first view. AbfaS seems to create a symbiosis of the two views. On the one hand he accepts the identity of the verb as original azala, but on the other he probably considers the word al-layla as the direct object, so that the sense of the sentence is "God drove away the (darkness of the) night the way he drove her". Among the various views attributed by later writers to early philologists Mubarrad follows roughly the second view (zala l-laylu kama zalat) whereas an anonymous philologist (identified by the editor as Abu CUbayda) paraphrases the first. A more sophisticated qalb solution is attributed to A~maci and Abu I:iiitim "She disappeared like the night" (in sense) > "The night disappeared as she did" (in expression).41

:~ Jw .~ ~ I'pi .ll..a.Il ~ JL,.:JI ~J : 4JIJj Jlj :384 7 .4JIJj Jl::3-1 Jlj :o~ :~ JljJ . ~ .\&..) .4JIJj 401 JI) :~ .)1) JI) :~IJ .~~I ~ yrJlJ JI) :Jlj 4.its" 4.i!-i ... « 4JIJj»

LoiJ ... ..J)aJ1 ~ JL,.:JI ~ : O£.";L....~~I 4J IJj ..kJ.I1 40 I

y'i ...:.Jlj

W- ..kJ.I1 Jlj : .)~I : WY ~~11 i,;yl.r! ~ I$~ ~ 4-..,a.!J1 ~ v"~IJ .(~)I~..) .l;jl ,:,lS'=) y).to 401 .)1) : .)1) 4.i~ : [i~ y'i :~] JW ... « 4JIJj» ~ ~ :Jw ~I IJ.. ...kJ.I1 JIJj ..:.Jlj :fl>

!y).i.. IJ.. .. :~ u4lS:..i.1 ~ ~ ,..,a_hi Jlj :Y.

,:,lS' :.rl..!..ll Jlj W-.. 'r~1

0

..I.w1I~

4JIJj

~ ~ ~I JIJj I$i ~IJj ..:.Jlj :J~ ,:,i ~ ,:,lS' .. La...) .l;jl

Point 24: aw=bal The view which the author of K. aVAyn expresses in favour of occasional synonymity of aw and the affirmative bal (re Q II 6) is attributed by AbfaS (who studies the same verse) to a general qawm. 41 This figurative category of qalb is studied briefly by Beeston in his study of Niibiga's verse wa-qad yiftu /:latta rna tazidu mayafati cala wacilin ... (Beeston's review of Diem and Wild (eds.), Studies ... [1982], p. 299).

277

K.AL-CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

J.I :I$i «':"J~...i! ) ~i 4:.. '-"'!» ~)tl

e.a ~J

.J.I ~ .:"foJ :) :4388 i..L71j ~~lJ ':""'~...i'.J :eLo-J ':""'~...i!

~)I J."lt JJJ .«J.I» 4.lF. ~ «.Ji» U! :r."J Ju JJJ :,"0 C;"- .~~I el..:.l...)>> : ~ Jl.U «..wi Ji» J.",y ~ -.I J-4! rS «1.lS"J 1.lS" '-"'! ~l~» JJ r+ii ,:"A ~ ..,..wl,:"i :I$i •«..,..WI ,.\;s. ':"J~...i! )>> :Ju rS II ..,..WI ,.\;s. ~i

4:.. '-"'!

IJ.)lj 4.3 Conclusions

The above study of similarities between the grammatical teaching of K. al-CAyn and early sources other than the Kitiib surveys 24 pOints, which are divided according to the traditional conception of the early distribution of grammatical teaching into Kiifan (mainly, Farrii"s works) and Ba~ran (the principal existing exegesies of Abu 'Ubayda and Abfas). There are 11 points of similarity with the Kiifan sources (Points 1-11), four which are common to the two schools (Points 12-15) and nine which are exclusively Ba~ran (Points 16-24). The general conclusions are as follows: 1. Four points demonstrate identity of the linguistic data presumably collected from native speakers (as distinct from literary sources, namely the Qur'an and poetry and from the comparison of identity of grammatical teaching). All these points are shared with Kiifan sources: Points 2 (mirCizii' > mirCizzii), 3 (jiccilii), 4 (asyPii' > asyd') and 7 (masastu > mastu). 2. Identity of analytical approach. All these points are shared with Kiifan sources: Points 4 (asyPii' > asyii'; also shared by Sibawayh), 6 (kull > kilii), 8 (ab~arat Caynl=ab~artu), 9 (the resumptive pronoun in ... acniiquhum ... !Jiil/fINA) , 10 (wayka>anna=way+ka'anna) and 11 (jiikihatun WAna!Jlun wa-rummiinun). 3. What can be interpreted as an expression of an existing standard Ba~ran tradition is the following set of identical items: Points 16 (!Jabi! > !Jabtt; shared by Abu Zayd), 17 (}:tlr c,n; shared by Abu Zayd), 18 (madii'in, maCiiyis; shared by Abfas), 20 (plural and dual ~inwiin; shared by Abu CUbayda), 21 (otiose Iii in Iii uqsimu; shared by Abu CUbayda, reported by Farra' as the view of "many grammarians"), 22 (the idiom kafjaba calaykum ... ; shared by Abu CUbayda and Yunus, according to Abu Mis/:lal), 23 (the poetic ziila zawiilAhii; the author surveys two views and later sources mention AbfaS and probably Abu 'Ubayda), 24 (aw=bal; shared by Abu CUbayda). Several other conclusions are much more speculative, but they deserve mention: 4. Possible circulation of the grammatical teaching collected in K. al-CAyn among early scholars was argued in the study of Points 10 (wayka>anna=way+ka'anna; Ij.aHl and Farra' are the only early known authorities

278

CHAPTER FOUR

expressing this view) and 13 (qulii.buhuma; Farra' mentions earlier discussion, which is identical with !jalH's teaching in both the Kitab and K. al-CAyn, and is different from Sibawayh's). 5. The following points may indicate an early date of K. alfAyn: Points 12 (safiha nafsahu; the structure is studied also by Abii CUbayda and Farra'. The latter's identification of this structure as tafsir is not mentioned by the two other sources. Is it because of their earlier date? Ignorance on the part of the author of K. al-CAyn of Farra"s teaching?), 15 hagani la-sal:zirani; K. alJAyn does not mention the more "sophisticated" arguments of an uninflected dual ending) and 24 (aw=bal which Abfas reports as a view expressed by

eN

qawm).

6. The other possible interpretation of Point 12 (safiha nafsahu; see preceding paragraph), that K. al-CAyn was disconnected from the (putative contemporary) teaching of Farra? (and the Kiifan tradition?), can be supported by Point 14 (singular of ababU: CAyn: ibbU, Kisa'i in Farra': ibbawl). Other points, which emphasize the identical treatment of grammatical data and point out similarity in the operation of grammatical concepts (see 1 and 2 above), weaken this argument. All in all, the grammatical material of K. al-'Ayn is integrated into the linguistic teaching of other genuinely early sources. According to our theory acknowledging the existence of a pre-Sibawayhian and pre-!jalilian old Iraqi school of grammar (see what follows), K. al-CAyn emerged from this common tradition. 5. K. al 5 Ayn and the early grammatical theory of the Old Iraqi School One of the manifestations of the unsatisfactory treatment of the grammatical material of K. al-CAyn so far was seen in the study of its relations with the Kiifan tradition. In fact, the conclusions cited by Suyiiti from the 10th-century notes of Zubaydi (see Chapter II, pp. 93f.) are the only documented attempt to treat this problem until recent years. Braunlich's reaction to these conclusions deserves reconsideration in the light of recent discoveries about the relations between the Kiifan school tradition and the earliest stage of grammatical teaching in Iraq. His argument that the grammatical material of K. al-CAyn could not be Kiifan because the two grammatical traditions did not yet exist at that time is based on Gotthold Weil's study presented in the introduction to his publication of Ibn Anbiiri's K. al-In~af Baalbaki's criticism of this study (l981a) was an important turning-point. It proved that early grammatical and other linguistically oriented works discovered and published after Weil's pioneering study of 1913 shed new light on Ibn Anbiiri's testimony by illustration of genuine theoretical disagreement (even written polemical debates) between

K. AL_eAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

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the two schools, at least as early as the middle of the 9th century.42 Actually, one crucial passage in the Kitiib, whose full significance is not discussed by Baalbaki, is indicative enough to argue that an independent comprehensive theorem of the Kiifan school is discussed and criticized by a central Bal?ran opponent in the last quarter of the 8th century (see a brief sketch in Item 21). My recent studies on the background and later history of Sibawayh's repeated criticism of the na/:lwiyyun have established a new outlook on the early developments, by indicating the relations between the na/:lwiyyun's teaching and Farr~P's. A hypothesis which argues that the early grammatical teaching of the 8th-century grammarians can be better reconstructed from Farra>'s books (mainly from his Mdiini I-Qur'iin) than from Sibawayh'sKitiib has been put to test. 43 Conveniently, this hypothesis considers the pre-Sibawayhian teaching of this group of na/:lwiyyun, which may have included practically all the early grammarians except Sibawayh and his teacher ijalil (see reservations, to follow in this section), an "Old Iraqi School of Grammar". This notion is intended to distinguish documented elements of grammatical teaching which belong to early grammarians, either identified or anonymous, from the teaching of Sibawayh and ijaHI. We should emphasize that these grammarians are not the authors whose works were written in Sibawayh's days and that the material we mention here is distinct in its contents (theoretical and practical) from the teaching of Sibawayh in his Kitiib. One immediate benefit of this hypothesis is its success in explaining reasonably how contemporary Ba~ran grammarians such as Abu CUbayda and AUfas sometimes use terminology which was until now identified as Kufan. The hypothesis considers also the manner by which Sibawayh's theory gained gradual popularity until it became the leading teaching of the Ba~ran school and took over the place of the "Old Iraqi School". This, to some extent, is a revival of Weil's theory, but only in the sense that Sibawayh's Kitiib became the gUide of grammatical studies in Ba~ra. In other respects this hypothesis does not support Weil's arguments, especially, that ijalil was the founder of Arabic grammar. A most relevant question, to which the current hypothesis about the "Old Iraqi School" is still seeking a well-founded answer, concerns ijalil's status in the formation of the full-fledged theory presented in the Kitiib. This question, in fact, is bi-aspectual. On the one hand, it is a question about details, namely, the separation of gammatical traits which ijalil conceived from those which are purely Sibawayhian. On the other hand, it is a question of credibility and authenticity. It is a question if the information provided by Sibawayh about ijalil's role can be confirmed by an independent source. Our findings about ijalil's role in the proviSion of the grammatical material of K. al-'Ayn, which 42 Ibrahim (1979) is a study of Ibn Anbari's sources. This is a significant complementation of Baalbaki's study. 43 See a first formulation of this hypothesis in Talmon (1993), pp. 72-75.

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are based on a close study of this book's relations with the Kittib, provide a positive answer to the general aspect of the question. We are aware of the limitations imposed by the circular mode of argumentation made here. However, there is no doubt that the two sources are independent of each other. Moreover, their information is checked against other sources of early grammatical teaching. The conclusions reached so far allow us to proceed to the last part of our study of the grammatical teaching in K. al-CAyn, namely the assessment of its place in the general grammatical theory of the pre-Sibawayhian era. The two poles to which we shall relate the data are the available details about the theory of the "Old Iraqi School" and Ijalil's putative innovations. 5.1 Parts of speech

Although the parts-of-speech division in K. al-"Ayn is not treated in any comprehensive manner, probably because of the book's character as nongrammatical and its given structure as a dictionary (cp. discussion in Chapter III, introductory section), there are several indications of eqUivocality, in the number of classes, in the location of items and in the terminological vocabulary. An early division into eight parts of speech, which follows Dionysius Thrax's model (with considerable modifications), is documented in Ibn Muqaffae,s Introduction to Logic. 44 This division may have inspired early grammarians of the "Old Iraqi School", including the author of K. al_ Ayn. 45 Indications of possible inspiration may be sought in the following items: a. ~ifa is a locative, a type of adverbial class, which is not only a syntactical, but to some extent also a morphological entity. b. naCt has a semi-independent status (which is also observable in the Kittib, but in a smaller degree), in its frequent contrast to ism and in discussion of its verbal features. The categories of Greek adjective and participle are called to mind. These indications are sporadic and may accept other interpretations. A tripartite division is suggested by the contrast of nouns with adwtit wa-zagr wa-a~wtit in a context which makes the verbs a third and last class (see Chapter III 3.1.2). However, this division includes a peculiar classification of man, together with min as adtih (see Chapter III 3.1.3.4c). We may also note that ma~dar is presented often as non-ism (see Chapter II13.2.6c). This identity is supported by morphological and syntactical considerations, which have survived in Sibawayh's teaching in the Kittib. The following pairs of alternative terms express an unstabilized parts-ofspeech system: ~ifa-?aif, naCt-~ifalwa~f and adtih-barf. A traditional view C

44 45

The relations between the two works are studied in Talmon (1991). A study of this inspiration is found in Talmon (forthcoming c).

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

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conceives them as Kufan vs. Ba~ran sets. In this early stage they seem to reflect not only local variations, but at least in the case of the first pair, and probably in the second (see a-b above), they reflect different conceptions of the categories they denote. An attempt to make the system more coherent is Ijalil's reported observation about the status of the two ~ifas, qabl and baCd, when preceded by a preposition (another ~ifa; see details in Item 5). Sibawayh's modification of this attempt illustrates how far he has gone in his emendations of the Old School's system. Another case, which demonstrates clearly the depth of Sibawayh's innovation, is the conception of verb division in terms of time denotation. A binary major division is expressed by the terms miir,li-gabir, never by mur,liiri" .46 A comprehensive concept of ~ar! as the core of grammatical study There are three elements which appear on all levels of grammatical analysis in several early treatises including K. alJAyn, but not in the Kitiib. Their comparison leads us to the conclusion that they reflect a primitive attempt made in the days of the "Old Iraqi School" to create a comprehensive concept of grammatical analysis. The elements are termed ~arf, a# and zii'id, and cimiid. The term ~arf occurs on the letter level in the theory of /Jar! wa-~ar! wa-~awt (see Chapter III 4.1.2.9). On the word level it denotes the various types of inflectional behaviOur, including word-ending (see Chapter III 4.1.2.5-4.1.2.8). On the syntactic level it indicates a deviation from an assigned class and has a typical word-ending mark for this (see Chapter III 5.1.3.7). I do not have evidence that the terms a~l and zii'id are used to denote a consonant and its vowel, respectively. In morphology their employment in K. al-CAyn is especially intensive. The syntactic zii'id, not included in the teaching of K. al-CAyn, is part of the teaching of Abu CUbayda, Farra> and Abfas, and also of Sibawayh. Several other terms substitute this term occasionally. Several rare loci in the grammatical literature, in which the term denotes the class of prepositions, are significant for the reconstruction of the early borrowing of the syntactical concept into Arabic.47 clmiid occurs in K. al-CAyn in all three levels of grammatical analysis. We noted that although Sibawayh refrains from using it we are confident that he knows about it, at least as far as morphological analysis is concerned (see Item 43). 46

A first attempt to interpret the absence of the mutjan' notion in an early treatise

(Farra', Macann is made in Talmon (1990), p. 271. 47 I have first given attention to the za'id notion and term in my study of the Muqaddimaji l-naJ:zw (Talmon [1990], p. 133). A reaction to an unpublished study is

found in Versteegh (1993), p. 145.

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We discussed in earlier parts of this chapter the possibility that the two loci in which ijalil (in one of them the author of K. al-CAyn) utilizes the syntactical :jar! and the other two loci in which resevation or alternative are offered to their use. The possibility arises that in this book the ijalilian views about syntactic theory go half-way, and are elaborated to an advanced stage by the author together with Sibawayh.

5.2 Early treatment oficrab and carnal concept In addition to the concept of syntactical :jarf discussed above, K. al-CAyn contains several other analytical approaches to the problem of iCrdb. These mainly concern treatment of na:jb. Included are the principle of non-identity, identification of modes of affective expressions, ellipsis of prepositions and the principle of qat C (see Chapter III 5.1.3). Several locutions indicate that the concept of governance amal) is integrated in the various modes of analysis mentioned so far. An early concept of mutual governance in nominal Subject-Predicate relations is one aspect of Camal (see Chapter III 5.1.2 2 ).48 The other two are the raj case of certain particles and an implicit concept of verbs' governance of independent ma:jdar man:jub. The term mubtada'is still conceived in pre-Sibawayhian, non-camal terms (see Chapter III 5.4.2).49 The maltiferousness of iCrdb treatment is an expression of a formative stage in which eclecticism brought together various modes of analysis, which might have alerted such scholars as ijalil himself and Sibawayh to the problematic situation, and naturally called for simplification. It is noteworthy that even in the Kitdb this process of systematization, unification and simplification is not completed. A similar state characterizes the early frab-mark system, which seems to have integrated elements of at least two different sets and exhibits a stage of pre-stabilization in their integrated usage.

e

5.3 Sentence framework As with the authors of the Kitab and the other early books, sentence concept is not a focal interest of the author of K. al-cAyn. Consequently he uses the less specific kaldm rather than any term for specific sentence frarnework 48 Integration of mutual governance in the general Carnal concept is brought forward in Talmon (1993), p. 279. A comprehensive study of camal is now given in Levin (1995). 49 This is commensurate with our conclusions in the study of the term ism mubtada> in FarriP's MaCani(Talmon [1990]. Kinberg (1996) confirmS the data about

Farra'; cf. his entries mubtada' etc. and ism mubtada>.

K. ALocAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

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(see Chapter III S.4.1}.50 Discussion of clause structure, especially in implicit contrast to a single word with the same syntactical distribution, stimulated early grammarians to introduce the term gumla. The author of K. al-CAyn was one of them (see Chapter III ibid.). According to our analysis of Item 18, Sibawayh deliberately abstained from using this term and concept in his Kitiib.

6. Reconsideration of the relations between the phonetic theories in the Kitiib and K. al-" Ayn

A comprehensive comparison of the two phonetic theories is of particular interest for students of the early history of Arabic grammar. The concentrated treatment of the subject in the two books (the introduction to K. al-'Ayn and Chapter 565 of the Kitiib) has offered an easy approach to students of the two works ever since. 51 Modem studies have been particularly interested in this part of Sibawayh's teaching, as well as in the comparison between the two theories; so we have relatively solid ground for this reconsideration, which is based on the new picture achieved after integration of hitherto unnoticed details of the phonetic teaching of K. al-CAyn. As a concluding section of this book, we should have included in it a comparative study of the theoretical premises in the fields of morphology and syntax in the two books. Unfortunately, the study of Sibawayh's theory of morphology is far less developed and therefore I prefer to refrain from engaging in a comparison of this sphere in the present book. The teaching of the syntactic theory in K. al-CAyn, on the other hand, is scattered. We shall suffice with the sketch given above, where comparison of the syntactic theory is made within the general theoretical trends of the early period discussed in the preceding section. Our reconsideration will touch the various aspects of phonetic treatment in the two books: the characterization and classification of consonants and consonants' groups, vowels, matres lectionis and their relations with the vowels, the relations of the vowels to consonants, th.e notion "voice" and the terminology of vowel sets. Most of the views expressed here are already discussed in two studies submitted recently for publication52 and in earlier parts of this book. Therefore, it is attempted to present the relevant points in a concise manner, with reference to their detailed and exhaustive study elsewhere.

See Talmon (l988b). 51 Major attempts to compare the two theories were made by VoUers, Bravmann, Wild (1965), pp. 92-94, Danecki and l;IillL 52 Talmon (forthcoming a), Talmon (forthcoming b). 50

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Characterization of consonants Among the points of difference in the treatment of the two scholars are the following: Sibawayh does not use the term J:zayyiz, he recognizes 16 articulation points (instead of nine), and he does not use the following terms which ijalil considers articulation points: lahiih and three parts of the tongue: cakada, sagara. nit. 53 The term J:zayyiz occurs in the Kitab in its phonetic denotation eight times (Troupeau s.v.). It seems that Sibawayh makes the same distinction between it and mulJrag when he describes the relations of q to s as gayr muqarib li-mulJragiha wa-ta J:zayyizihii.54 Its other denotation, of "category", occurs once in proximity to the phonetic denotation. 55 One may speculate that the multitude of articulation points in the Kitab serves Sibawayh's ultimate goal in his phonetic teaching, namely the explanation of various cases of assimilation (idgam). Integration of such criteria as identity/proximity of articulation, identity as maghitrlmahmits, identity as rilJwlsadfd may cross lines of apparent identity of articulation point. Let us consider this possibility with ijalil's pair of the uvular (lahwiyyatani) consonants q and k. which are separated into two distinct mulJrags in Sibawayh's scheme. Sibawayh's discussion of the shift s > $ focuses on the role of q as a phonetic condition of this shift and notes the difference between it and k as "ascendence" (ta$accadat ita mafawqahii min al-J:zanak al-aCla) vs. "descendence" (tanJ:zadiru ila 11am) respectively.56 Another illustration is Sibawayh's distinction ofthree zones of articulation in the larynx, which ijalil considers one zone. Preference of non-assimilated variants in the case of consecutive hand J:z is explained according to ibtitaf al-mubragayni.57 More material should be collected and analyzed from other loci of Sibawayh's phonetical observations in his morphologic discussions, which might substantiate this speculation, without, however, determining if he was conscious of ijalil's division.

6.1 Classification of consonants The only classifications of letters in groups in the introduction of K. al-CAyn, besides the division of articulation zones, are ~iJ:zaJ:z vs. muCtalla (the 53 All these points are well observed by Danecki in his study. We should emphasize that his analysis is based on the narrow corpus of the two specific passages in the two books, namely K. al·c Ayn's Introduction and the Kitab's Chapter 565 (bab al·idgam). 54 al.Kitab vol. 2, p. 479,3. Troupeau translates mu~rag as "lieu d'emission" and

I:zayyiz as "region" (s.vv.). 55 ibid. vol. 2, p. 272,11. The phonetic I:zayyiz occurs in pp. 270,20 and 271,2,3. 56 ibid. vol. 2, p. 478,5. 57 ibid. p. 462,7.

K. AL_cAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

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latter are incorporated in the division of zones as al-guj') and rjulq vs. all the others. I have expressed doubt if the tenn al-/:IuruJ al-~utm denotes all the other non-muCtall letters. In places other than the introduction, emphatics and non-emphatics are dichotomized as al-/:IuruJ al-filyim vs. al-/:IuruJ al-buJt. Sibawayh's discussion of consonantal groups is systematic and concentrated. The following groups are counted: maghura-mahmusa, sadida-ribwa, mutbaqa-munJati/:la. Other groups and dichotomized groups are mentioned elsewhere: mustacJiya-mutasafJila, /:IuruJ al-qalqala, /:Iuriif al-~afir.58 We noted (Item 27) that the notions gahr and hams occur as a contrastive pair in K. aVAyn. The passage (s.v. H-M-S) reads as follows: AI-hams: /:Iusnu I-~awt min ai-Jam mimmii Iii isriib lahu min ~awt al-~adr wa-lii gahiiratafi I-manriq wa-liikinnahu ~awt mahmusfi I-Jam kal-sirr. The passage is rather laconic (the other passage in the entry G-H-R is less

significant). It does not refer to the pair's function in consonant classification. Nevertheless, this dichotomy includes important constituents and distinctive features of Sibawayh's pair, namely characterization of hams as (/:Iusn) al-~awt fi I-Jam and its contrast with ~awt al-~adr. This passage even gives a simple solution to the identity of the musraba group in the Kitiib, namely "the consonants whose pronunciation involves enrichment of their ~awt al-fam by ~awt al-~adr" (i. e. they belong to the maghura group). The intriguing question why this pair is not incorporated into consonant classification in K. al-CAyn will not be answered here. We refer, however, to the speculation made in the preceding paragraph. Elsewhere I attempted to provide evidence to my argument that the pair al-/:IuruJ al-rjulq and the rest of the "sound letters" is modified in Sibawayh's phonetical theory as /:IuruJ ribwa vs. /:IuruJ sadida. 59 This argument is based on external data taken from Siraffs description of Farrii"s pair termed mu~awwit-abras. Sirafi interprets this pair, considering the few identified consonants in each group, as ril:Jw-sadid. Similarity of the tenninology of Farra>'s pair to its counterparts in the Greek groups (heml)phona-aphona encouraged me to consider plausible a possibility that ijaHl's rjulq group reflects a class of liquids, whose prototypical model was the above-mentioned Greek division. According to this hypothesis the three systems, of ijalH (rjulq vs. all others), Sibawayh (ribwa vs. sadida) and Farra> (mu~awwit-abras), are distinct Arabic modifications of the same model of a Greek tradition initiated by Dionysius Thrax. In the context of our present discussion this hypothesis offers a connection between two major consonant divisions in the two books, which have otherwise been considered a significant point of split between the two phonetical theories. 58 59

Cf. Shaade, p. 2. Talmon (forthcoming b), Talmon (forthcoming c).

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6.2 Vowels, matres lectionis and their functions Items 3 and 57 discuss Ijalil's view presented by Sibawayh that vowels are parts of their respective matres lectionis. My impression was that the opposite formulation in K. alJAyn (namely, that the vowels are the origin of the matres lectionis) is not contrastive in principle. A major point of difference between the two books is the status of the matres lectionis in the division of letters according to their articulation points. Whereas Sibawayh integrates them in conventional articulation zones with corresponding consonants (alif as laryngeal, with hand hamza, y as medio-palatal, with g and s and w as labial, with m and b), these three letters are identified by Ijalil as I}urut gufiyya which have no buccal articulation point and are grouped as "air letters" (I}urut hawiPiyya). Moreover, hamza is included in this group, not as a laryngeal consonant. There is no doubt that Ijam and Sibawayh disputed over the status of hamza and the matres lectionis in these respects. However, it is questionable how far their views differ. It was noted that in Chapter 565 Sibawayh groups the "soft letters" (al-I}urut al-Iayyina) and characterizes them according to the feature of "latitude of stream flow". He even names alif "al-hawl", which is certainly a cognate term of Ijalil's hawa'iyya. In one passage Sibawayh instructs (probably by Ijalil's inspiration; the preceding passage ended with wa-hiiqa qawl al-ljalU) that the matres lectionis "prolong the sound" (wa-I}urut ai-Un hiya I}urut al-madd allat! yumaddu bihii I-~awt), which may refer to the vowels' sounds. The term maddat is attributed in K. al-CAyn to Ijalil, and aspects of utilization of the madd function of this group are part of the phonetic and morphological teaching of this book. 6.3 The "sound" notion

Sibawayh's concept of "sound" is difficult to grasp. The only term he uses, namely ~awt, is applied to three different phonetical units: any consonant, the sadlda group as distinct from the mahmusa, and the vowels.60 In K. al-CAyn there is a special term, which denotes the consonants' sound: gars (see Chapter III 2.2.2.1). The same passage instructs that the three matres lectionis have no sound whatsoever (wal-I}urut al-talata I-gut la ~awt laha wa-Ia gars). The author seems to refer to the sounds of both vowels and consonants. The same view about the soundless character of the matres lectionis is expressed systematically by Sibawayh, who uses the term bata' to describe this feature. 61 Talmon (forthcoming a). 61 ibid. with reference to Troupeau (1989), pp. 33-34 (where this scholar translates the passage of al-Kitab which includes use of this term). 60

K.AL-CAYN AND EARLY ARABIC GRAMMAR

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6.4 Terminology o/vowel sets Various speculations have been made about the inconsistency of vowel terminology in early and Kiifan works with reference to linguistic problems, including pure grammatical texts. 62 This state of affairs is especially conspicuous in K. al-CAyn (see Chapter III 5.1.1). However, even the very systematic Kitiib, whose second chapter is devoted to the distinct functions and terms of jCriibi vis-a-vis non-jCriibi vowels, contains, by my reckoning, 19 cases of such inconsistency.63 I consider it a clear indication of the pioneering role of Sibawayh in the systematization of vowel terminology. This, of course, does not prove anything about the relative chronology of the two books.

62 Ma\}ziimi (1958) pp. 315f., Owens (1991), p. 159 and Versteegh (1993), pp. 17f. and pp. 125ff. and cAlliis (1993), where more bibliography of the medieval and modem Arab scholars is mentioned. A systematic presentation of the total occurrences of the non-icriibi and l'riibi denotations of the four terms ra.f, na~b, !JaN (no garr) and gazm in FarriP's terminology is given by Kinberg (1996), who marks each one of them as Xl and x2 , respectively. 63 al-Kitiib vol. I pp. 262,9; 269,4;272,7,12 (five repetative times); 287,11 (the four vowels); 295,16; 296,18; 297,15; 341,17; 363,12; 373,19; 375.20 and vol. 2 p. 474.16. cAlliis (see the previous note), p. 501 mentions the fact, without reference to its specific occurrences.

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