Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries

Fascinating, comprehensive text describes ancient Egypt's vast resources and the processes that incorporated them i

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Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries

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--GOVEil.N~IEWr OF I NDf.\.


CENTRAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL LIBRARY Clu\,_ _ _ _ _ __ __ t",\L.L ~0.

11.Q.A 1?

609. 32.


Luc r







A. LUCAS O,B.B.,, l',S,A. r.o,.l{UU

Dll.lct'OI cnnc,eu; DUA&YN.U.."1', ILOTrTj 110:-.:9,:uy .Jj:l}

~ A,, T".m



CHAPTER I A.D1twv.&s (Albumin: llca_wax: Chy: Glue: Gwn: Gypsum: N=n: Rain: Solder: Search: S:tlt: Unidmtified Adhaives)


CffAl'TER II A1.00r1D1.Jl) 0-U(llcuaod Brewing: Win.eaod Wlnc:MJ1king: Dhtillcd Spiria): Su~


CHAPTER lit A,mw, Paouurn (Bane: Feathcts: Gui: H.oir: Hom 1 Tvory: ;Lc:ufu:rc: llfoilu:r 0£ Pearl: Ostrich Egg-did!: Parduneru: Totioi&Nhcll: Mlll'ine and Fresh Wotcr ~Shells)


CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V 8"11.u1N1>> (Bridu ffld Bride MalC?ity.



C. C:uon,'11ioml!"'" and E. V/. Gordoc,; T~r Oum F,ywlff, p. -p. • H. funk23• • T1ktt !tad p,:oh>blr i..a, • pm,ou, "'""" ci North GIid Sou1h brough1 by a a,nqv< rcdynutio l.allO l'mlynoltic • I >nd ti

Old Kingdom


New K'mgdom oc £mprn, [ Peril)(! o£ whlch little ls>,'1'1'1-' \ .. • u1c E!J1P'WI Pctiod Pcmtt1• • •

~nr~>. Anh


000 lO





)400 to ~ LC.

XI and x1r XlJJ "'XVII XVUJ X1X

:gliaro2900-.c. >9'» ro >750 a.c. "750 IO ~75 1,.c,. "17, 10 "6o •.c. 216o ,o ,788 1.c. i,'88 to 158n a.c. I 58o 10 1350 •.•• t35J> u, QPO u .


·- to 1"9')•.C.


l'int lnlamedarc Period . Middle Kingdom • • Saiond lntumcdlllre Pc:riod'

App,wm1•"' DiJJ< Undarcd Pih(y cndttl 2&out 50ClO


V llOd VI VU u> X


UllJc: tuctio1l for both nitrog,,n and sulphur wl1t11 n:sung the .1dbesivc used ID Ult.en ;imltn1 Egyptiau gCild 11::!f to pla~tcr (g,;s,o), and, thcicforc, cqn.ludcd that the :idhai•'C (Jllploycd was egg nlbumlll.' Ritrhic: 3lso tcsttd the ndhe&1vc used for funng jllld li:af on pLulcr

(gcsso) J.Od found t.lm when examined spa:i=p1,oilly dietc was evidence Cdmcni of p;iant n:fcrn:d It> b)' Spurrdl, tlw. \\rCTC 1101 acted Qll by water, nuy ·lurvc t'OnllWlcd albwnlo, it should nOl be fwgottcn tmt bccaw~x and rcsa,, both of which were ccrminly smncumes UJCd dunng tht: EigbtccoU\ Dyrumy fat covc:ring rornb p~inrlng$. would :WO have been unJclcd upon. by water. With ..,f.,.eru:e !D l.:iurie'• Wtk, here .again dienitro.i;cnou• org,aniinablc, as .gust' an~ duck> were 11bundaot. Thc on¢n of the pttXSIWA}' b:amy,ml (owl ~ lht lndiitll jllllglc row! (Gnllb.t ~nciva), 1

Ritthic, while wggcsttng ch,1




• liqw1"1 Can,r. An Our.icon dc:picoinf • ~ J,mgfe,Fo..·I, /o,rrind o) F.rtptiao tlrrltut>fogy, 9 (lgi>,JJ, Pi"'-+ · • s.., PP. ,..,,...,.. 'Set P. 3i7·

'.\t. :R~::tdf:. _., Ltr,,, ~ ;,.


T.&i,.J Cn1,,r7, B,C., p.


' Set p. J90. • Sec p. 0.54. 'S.., p.,,6. • Aual1kd Ii)' me. • F. C. j Sptlt'ldl. Tri/ ,1 ,t,.,,mut, W, M. F. Ptrr>r. pp. :;-,..S. 1 • H. £. Wfn.l(>ck. Tl,r. Tre.1Nrr 6/ f!J f.d ,,,,, pp. 63, 7i·



\Lie of beeswax wu for curling lllld plaiting wigs, wblch. will be cb.nbcd in co11oaion wnh hair.' ll doc1 not~ to have been the cust0tn ro place bce,wu in tombs o.nd .no record uf me finding of it can be traced, but •L "El Amarn• a pio:c of becs1•1u was fourul in a'


Tu u~ of day Ill mQffllr with Jun-dried briw will be deoh with in a,nn,:JClon with building m:ircrials.• Gura Tbis moteml I, one of the carlie&t. bc&t known and most reliable of ~ivC$1 cspccfally for wood. It ls made by extracting ctrtain animal product< conmlniog gelatine, ruch a. bones, skins, cartilage and u:nclc)ns, with boiling water, c:onoentr:Ulng the liquid by ev:aporalion ond then pouring it inco moulds, in which, when cold, it tctS inro • 50Jid mou. Glue ..;.. U)(cl in •ncicnt Egypt for many diffi:rc.n t purposes, ruuncly, (.a) 10 f'imen wood rogecher 2nd to fix cbon1· and ivory inlay in plllce; (h) for mixing with whiting to make l,od, planet md • sropping '; (¢) p~bly to lli•ten coarse woven hncn Iiibric to wood and to plaAtct- and co futen gold foll to pluu:r; (d) prob:ibly as 11 ming material for ~nc and 1~•s1rr ,urflaces before p.ain1ing; and (f May,,,,1,.... a Tk,b(~, Fl'- 16, 18, n. • •L f_ Winlodc, op.tit,. r, 44. • A.1.-, op, o,., f'!' 166-7• • No.. J.fJlrm-Urt14-



Gum it obtawd Qt ~ pracllt day largely rrom various spcciOI of ac;1,:i:t 1h.i1 gro,v in 1hc S~, but a$ the ac:aciA aw grow• in Egypt ~ of the 11:&rch of the gnin, not P"'viow!y :acted upoo, into UU1.ltose :trul dc:inrio; (b) boiling the $0lutlno amcttd from the gr.tin with hops, so as 10 Raw:,ur it, and (i$1CDed with wotCT 11nd cxpmcd to the aiT for ~ time, ;mer whicll, while mil rnolsr, il u

cnuhcd. 5. 'the loaves. an: broken up and put into 3 vessel with w:itcr and r.he crushed moist wheat ~d«d : the mixlurc ferments oo llCCOunt of the ye1st pr=t in the b,; (1m). 1'1'· SM. • A""I'-' " ' ~ai,d U-5• • J a ll,QW:d, """'"' R,,a,,-J, •I Bt,I", • (lnilc:s). p. \ilS. 1 A. l!nnffl, T i u ~ o/ 1A,- "-""'"' Hti#dt:ttJ, IPl,s; A. llbdrrn•o • W M. F. l'cmc, Supplirt daJ De/,•~, in A•dmt r!UPI:, 1g,ti, p. 16. ' J H. llta1tst111Ccs for their beet, mud1 a$ ru)fn 1trc nflw employed, and that tlwt .includc:d lupin'; ikirrerJ (Si11m .ri.(,,-rum); the root of on Assyftlln plllllt'; 11.lC'• '; saffiowc:,;'• •;111,md(~ fruit'; birrcr otllngc pc;cl • :u1d rqw.' but the cvidcnec (much of which i! of very late dnre) is umacisfuctory and in some iost.wect almost ecrainly refers to the we o( beer :is o ,·c.bldc for mcilil:inc and not to the flAvouring tlf bur n.s a beverage. One authoril)' oflCII qUOlcd h the Ronum ~gri· ailtural writer Colwncll2, wlu) $11ys• • • • • the Egypti.'lns m~ the sWfflish tam of thc:ir Pdusian beer more ~fat11blc by ;ddmg: 10 n 1 J.C. Wilkinson,

TAt ,l•rknt E1yp111ta1, 189, 1, p, s+ >.f:i. Schul.,.lld:sc. Bier u. Bitt'-n111•f bd h• Vo/,tm, hr Undr, i, ~ /o,,la, # , Jr,ptn, Gdt>IWdf (mm crushed dntcs w:1$ added to lhc ~_. Although the cvidcnec for thu is very illght, such no .addmon might have been made, not to perfume the beer, .u auggotcd by Montc:t, but ui rwec1tn It, m the same mannu •• ~ fflgat {gl1J1X>$C) Is added 10motimcs by m()clcm Englbh brT.\4.'.Cn ro the: fcm:icntcd Wort, the opcr•t1on being tctru.C!I • pnming.'

Naturally none or me nocicnt bc:cr has rcm.,iocd to the ·ptCJCDI day GJid thcttforc it lu, not hom po61blt 10 examine it, but dried residues from bca j:m'· ,, '· ' and ilia the dried and cxh2Ulted ' mashing ' ' (i.e. mu~don in watu) b~vc been ducovcrcd. A numbcfof ~ c m of the foancr, rnnging in date from the fll°c:dy!Wlk period to the Eighrcauh Oynuty1 h:m: been cumined by Dr. f. Gniss, of lkclln,••. " who found them to coru!.i or >lllrch gr;aio• &vm the com

• I, P /un(lld, (Jr,1111110/ History· •I Beu, p. 117. • H. Oat1thlc,. u """' /Jborltr••'I"'" th /'.,ji(1 Raut l!r,11plogi4ar, ltl (190'!), pp. ,-ts,

ro•r,- 11'/iJl;•••tinr, In 1 W. R: '?a-,, Tiu- S•W"""- Ql./1,_,I Didi '11/u Sf'I/J'mM, m foam•/ o/ tA,

Rot.ii A,,.,.,. .'iomry, '9"], P.P· ~ • I, U..U,-6, 3:i;.

1 P.

Mao1t1, "I'• a,, p. •So·

• W. 111. P. P,rib, Arri, SNn, p. '7• • W• .M, I'. eurlc. C,u6 ••rl Rifd, p. 23, " I, ()riht, T•,.,.,.,.•r fl., Browm, .x,r., {t9('11). pp. ru3-41 ,;,;v,1 (f9:l9). Pr,- ~ 517, m-42: ~nw (, jlp. 98, 771~r ll.J!.; TAc Toor;o/ 14"'f'l-Alff•• ., T4tl:a, pp. 31-3-




wed (which wau nai bittier, but ir kind of whcit known aa Enuru,r. Ll!c ohly whaat gmwn in Egypi until ~ !are dm); yeast cells; rnould,; b.utcrla .:md {rmill pooportions of ~·.uious lmpuritia. The )'Cl.Cl was -priocip.11ly a variety o( wild ywi. pn:viou'1y unknown, which Dr. Gniu mmcd Satt-h11romycn lrlnfOt'ti after Mr. H. I;. Winliodt, wl,., ,upplicd t1ie nutetW for c.uminarion. The Eigbt.c:cruh Dy~ yea$! w:1~ founJ to ha,•t c,:ll.\ oppmxim•ung in siz-c to i:Iµ: modern }'a>t anti \0 be of a rrunc uniform ma:pc and freer li:om moultk ,ind bacteria tli2n rhc ClltHc,r yct>!t, fct.Nn which Dr. Criiss ooncludes r.b.'l.l the :mcl~1 Egypu.:m bn:wcr bild antldp.itcd die mot:km bn:wcr by mrudng a pi=, uralmcm pure. )'Cilstculturc.1 Du, cviilcnc:c, howc.·cr, -sttnu in.:idcquuc IO support •ucb lL wide conclu&ion. It may be mentioned d,ar yc.ut b ; uni-1QfC$tOr P. W. 011,•cr, w:bo reported Wt I The prinOfl"I !3ll'lf!C W.U a ffllDlJ fotm ffl 2-r(m•e(! ba.dcy

(Hor/1«,m tf)r1frltum~'

Wine uw.illy ~ th.c fermented 1uicc: of lioh gmpcJ, llnd th1s 1hc pril)dp:il wine of the ,1QCicnr Em-pnnn$, IMllgh tru:y had abo otru:r ·,, namely, palm wine: date wine; :icronllng IO 11llny' a lnrtbcr lund ffllldt: uom the my.f!I fruu and '"" liui: dalC occ,uionally pomcgr.anatc wirtc, all of which auy 1111\0 be conoidcral • J. c,.,., op. nt , uvu (1.909). pp. 681....1. 1 Wlll

II. llruy=. Lr, Jo,u/ln Jr

/'rlt (tQJ7~ p. Un.


d Mim,,~ (t9?~19jj), t SIii '


La " ' " " ~ ~


24 Gt0pe lltj1tr

Wine, meaning gr.ape wine, is referred to frcqumtly in the 11ocient Egypti:tn rcmrds, '· • the e"11fcn rcrefe"ncc known 111 me being one of the Thlnl Oyn;uty.' thuugb the wine-press blcroglypb was wed in the Firn D)·nlUt)·.' !tom which pcciQC:! wine 7nn JI~ Dtt km,wn, Wmc iJ mentioned as hc:ing used for divine, olfcring, for C~\:lling o!ImJlg, for fc:nt o.tfcring. for morruary offa-ing, foe obhdon, as a oo·cr.igc and JS being reaeived as tributcc.. Vint:ige ~cues .ire ofic.11 depicted upon tomb. w.ills, thus to toke a few ~JT\pk:$, in a Firth Dyn:ury tomb at S:lqq~r.1•; in a Sixth Dynasty tomb~t Snqqara'; in a Twclrth Dyn~sty tomb at li.l Bcnhd1': in ~'cr111 torrt~of the same period gtBcm H.uan 1; in mJlay othc,sof Eigb\CCDth and Nlndtenth Dyru•ty dates rcspc:cm-dy in the Thclxm nc:cmpolli. • " ~nd ln a 1wnb of the Saitc period'1 the gnt.w:riag, trodtng ot pressing of grapes, OT .,ll three of 1.h= 11pcratinru, .uc shown." 1'.hc prqim1ion of willc i$ a comp:ararivcly simple matter, ,all th3t i, DCCC$$l1Cf being to auih the grapes in onla- «> free: the: j ~ which ts scpar:u:cd fcom the ~s. ,kms and stones Dnd then allowed to ferment; which it does narur.,lh•. chiefly Ii)• ml!3ns of the wild )'C3StS (principally 5,r«Ju,romyea tllipsnitlem but ,1"° S. apiculnttu) preural IUIO las,;c pottery jm, whtrc it fermented; but thliny lUlo mentions ll.ll .Egyplinn wln~ wt be s12.1u produttd muo::arriagc.' Alhal.,cu• qootcs Bcll:wclu fur thc ~ c n t thJa1 the ~ was fim ditcovcn:d io Egypt,' ~cl he quo«:a Dio as .aying Wl>t lhc EgyVU3os we~ fond of wil\( ~od lnbulo1U,1 11nd be him,idf calls them wineb , ~ : he itau,s, • roo, thru ' The \'.utc .is •s abund:utt In the Nile ~-allcv asitswau:n coplo13, and the pcruli:l.r dllfcn:n«s of the wines =!, Yll.t)'ing with colour a.iid Wtc': he sap ;wo• dw. u1~ vine ,vu ahundanr in the MIII"CO!ic rcg!ou In the ncighboudlOCld or JJexandtl.& and th:n ics grapes wc-e ' ,-ay good 10 cat' : be mc.nJiOJU ~ina, • nRmcly die Mru"- \(,Jiot,,J,_ ,n Ralc 10111/111'1 t,.,,..1,.m1~ di Sp,c,,:~ t Lattrt. i.a_ xrzy, 1~;, :abo Dr1t'lttJthrt G,.. tld A/t»Wtno iii$ $;mn,a, pm,o rn ;1.,mJa ,~ S"lm, there is.Ill) r=n to rhiuk that it WJU other· wise ;1J1cimtly. Dilk Win,.


DJte wine is roentioned 0e01sionally in the ancient Egypruin for ugh J,c st.ates thiir ic was maclc into cues. Some p:lrt of the ttec, probably the fruit, ,~ identified by Nc}vbcrry from the>m.111 ccmcn:ry at ~Wllfil,' and thick layers of the laves were found by '0 SdJwdnf1111h, TA, Hmn o/ Alrw, 1, p. t.99, • , . H. a,c:uud, .,. n't., 1, Jj6. • 1 .L l!un:kllud~ op =. p. r4;. • ~m :


' I'. E. Newbctrf, io H_u,;w,w,

• 11Ut: 9; JUV : c9. • Ori< Bild, o,. 6. ' Enq,ury ;,m, Pla,m rv : 1, to.. B!.~111w otl AmRCU', W. "f. P: Perriind, thcn:fore, dfd not lcnbw di&dllcd spir!.u . When and w!u:n., thc disa:wcry of cfutillation took pba: lbw: is no evidence lo show, but the lint mentiot1 of it that an be tra«d it by Ari~dc in the foJJrth ccnnu:y 11.c., who descrlbcs the lonnltion of mm21ld mm' (which .m: causc:JI WAl~ mi,dilic:d. by a =in 3dmixrurc, the natun: of which thd.r flavour.' Evidently Arul!>tle, :dthough he had cfudlled wine Md m:1cit, dilu1c alcohol, did not rccogniu: ii as anythingoihcr dLtn. water• modified by a ocmln ~dmixturc,' the nature: of which cL:tcrtnincd itJ R~vour,


'N do 0.Dl•ia, T.b Rot~ T~mb, pf SA"*.h Sail, p. + • Na. 86/ 191j. 'k S. Htlllr, T~, Ory,~yµr/11,, P•pyr,, v111, p- "I'· • Jl \II. T. Gunth.r, Tire Gow,l ffrr'J,,.d L and in one insc.mrc pigeon fc:atb~rs.' O~h fe31hcts were us.:d lugdy for &Mand o.s a hc:id oronment, thw l?iankhl (Twmiy,fifch Dynany) the rubmi'5ioo oi 'all the chicl's who won: the fc,uhcr •• (probabi? osukh fc:ulien); the goddci1 M.aat, Vllriolli gods o.nd ch!trlot bo=s .uc oficn dc,piet«l wc:iring ostrich fe:athcrs; l1l !he M'iddlc Kingdom Egyptian colony at Kem'" in the Sudo.n ostrich feathers were uMXI foe making both mm and rugs.• &th chi, w:irer-fowl feathers and the pigeon fcathen referred u, wc,e employed 11> uulf cU!Sbion• Although the ostrith is not now found in.Egypt, it 1v:u f:ilily comman unlll a w:zy l:t1I: period in bath the c:uti:m and wc,ncm dcscru and in the Elght«nth Dynasty It cvidc:nrly cmtcd u far nonh as Hcliopolu, Slllcc,on the handle of a Inn from the tomb llf Tut.o.nkhornu11 the king Is shawo shooting ostriches witli-a haw o.nd wow o.nd o.n imcrlption statca that the hunt took place in • the e:aAtcrn desert of Boliopo!is.' •• On the other ~ of the liin the king hos a bunVCTS

employed.for mnldng wigi, though tl1csc wc:re auo.,*)mctimes mlldc of vcgd:abk fibre, but !here it no cvida,cc of honcbair or wool lumng l,ccn employed for t!m pllrp05'C despite the statements in dtc Htcr:lwrc to this dfca.' I ha•c owlc i u n ~ cr:amioadon of the fibre of all the wlgi in the Cairo Mwcum (fif=n ;tloogctbcr}, die remlis of the cumlo~tlon of fowtcco of whkh ~ been publuhed.' Sa-en of tbcoe=largcCC{aUODinl wig5of thcJlncstl of the Twenty· first Dynasty; dtcy 2rc covc:rcd with a ~ of sruall cotkscrew cur.Ii ffld have loog narrow platu h1U1ging down bcb.ind. Although they 1have been &saibcd as consistlog of horsehair,' ·uc ~II of hwollO hair of ~ brown or cbrk brown ml11ur when cle:nml, though appcarlng blad: bclo.e cleaning, mid ;arc sarlf.d (C\'iclcntly for the s:ikc of ccoD0121y) with fii>Ta limn the TCddisb-brown fabric-like Dtllm'U that JUmnlllds the base of ch.! br:anchC$ of tbc date ~ . A further wig. 1'=ribed as from the :same 1ur.;c au the p.n:¥IOUS seven, u much smaller 4Ild consists of small light brown cwis withou, a.DJ' pblts and without muling. Thh, too, i, human hair. Alll>lhcr nwf Qf lwf (un&tccl), prqb:ihly at Ol1C time .ll wig, is very ~lmilor, though dllrkcr in colour, ;and Balso hum:m h;ur. Two otlttt brgc wig• (undmd) arc very tlmilu IQ the KVtll al.-eady mentioned, but without 5Ulffing, .ind ~ of diirk brown human luir. The wig of Queen lsimkheb (f.wcnty-lirst Dyn3$t)'}. whkh !us been dc:senl>cd' ill ' boor mixed with the wool of " bind< ~ • is of very lar~ me and is mvcrccl with mwl cuili :uu1 b:u. long n.urow plai.ta behind, but .no stuffing: l, co111im cniudy Qf humon hair, mostly of a cbrk btown colour.

Yuyo's ccn:monul wig (Eighteenth l>yniun,) which hns been des, cribcd llt' Wl>Ollcn,'' 1t similar to tlw Q( Queen lrunlcl,,:b and coruisr, cntltdy of human ~ir of ;a very dark brown colour. iwo funher wl~ of sm.all corkscrew curls on a ploitcd b.:isc. both pmbahly of Romm dttc, eotuist of vegetable fihte, one being ccrmlnly date palm fibre and the other prohably grau. On ;all the hair wigs without ac:cpti(tn :ind on ~nc of !he fibre wigs thc:,c i,, bc:csw:ax, of which ~ rmiol'Cd by mc:om of :, ,olvcru and identified h)•i~ p ~ , particularly by the melting- point Th~ prcocnt drab mlotir of many of the curl. oncl plalu is due ro dutt and



din lluat hJl'C adlu:ml to the wu. A, bccswu would be such ;Ill emm, clllly ,uilabk 1!L1lUUll to Clllt1n: the pmnanenq or the Cll{b and plai11 there can be little doubt Wt it Wllf (or thu purpo,c dut it .wu cmplorcd ,ind thuL its presence is llO( r.o be explained by any :anointing. w.hidi

would only be poiiaibk with • liquid oi~ or a tOlid fitr liquefied by hear. before uic, . were found by Winlock at Thcbts,' but thcnarurc of thch:tir is not .-..a. A pica of eu11d-luir tOtd of Third or .,.,1y Fourth Dyruasty date u known., Cloth made of goat hair i, mcotioned in. I.g rolllll'll; ~ti or chain 1Illd srool$; forwriting upo.n, which ;was ,·er, common,• J1lld fur vwo1a other pur· poses. The largest piece of lcathcr work that bas IWVived h the funcnl Wtl en Quc,cn !Jimkhcb (fwcnty•Mt Dynnty). QOW in tru.- Cairo Ml,acwn. Leather appliq~ work In coloun 1111d leather cut into 1w network known, ladia W:tS frcquaidy d)'Cd, dle coloun ~ ml, yellow or green, At what period lc111h« dyeing Wll'" first pa~ ls unc,crt:1in, but the red oolour; which appears 10 b;i,,c hccn wed bdbic either bf the ochc:r rwo, is known from the F.l=nth Dyn:8ry'' o.nd abo rmm ' ~ ' gn,·cs." Th,: JllllUtt of the dyes hu JIOl been d.etumllkd, bul the n: G. llii:uta lw never thQroughly been invcstlgiatcd, but Tbcophra- (fourth to

rhird ccnrnry 1>.c.), .uu:r dciaibing the ~ • (pro\,;ably ,tr.,ds 11rrzbim) u an Egypti:,n tree, got1 on 10 uy that the liult is -. _pod, which ' the tllllivcs •• . use for wining hldu in$(C:UJ of gall,'' and Pliny (:6m century A.D.~ prob:ibly C0pJ'ng from lJn!:1lpbfUws, SCllca that me pods of an Eg,pti:in thorn tree (proboibly -Acano 11,.,/,i&JJ) wm: • employed fur 1.he Wile purpose .- g..U. in the prcp3mdon of lc::uhcr:• Th""" pccI, a,nt:iin about 30 per c:cnt af tannin ud ire iued in the ;ar the prt1COt day for tanning purpmca and ire :wo a.ponied, and, therefore. from thcon:tiaal Ollllffl,imtimu aloru: it is 1101 111. tlJ unlilicly shat tbcy WO"C used for n -'1miLar purp111e In andcnt ..Egypt, whillh h;u m:cndy 'V, Lon:!. Lr Fl"" pltaru01'1qur, 2D4 cdat..., (•~~ J,p. 76-7. G, A. W.tnwnght, &ubtslt, p. :a6. • ./It Iha, rime Dircdor ol du: Brimh J.athc, M>nul:octurcn' 'Rauldl .11..,...rlao. • A,Laa,, Aep. U, r, ~ in TflLTtm~ of Tut-·V-4.,,,., rt, How:rrd Canu, ' &If"'? UJlO PJ.imu, ry.:,., ,; ,v, "- 8. • xm. 91


been P""',:d hy Br.i,-o.' who bu extunincd the mattrual ( ~ lllnncd leather, ll)Ob and canning mA!Uial) from the mnains of • wmczy of prcdyna~ dJUe found 2 1 Gd>cL:in In Upper Egypt and nDW in the Turin Mwcum. The $kins wen: goat ikiiu, tbc lcalh« wu undoubtedly wmcd md the WUUDi_ agent corulstcd of podt of the alald.:I (An>$ o,abint) :itill conmining 31.6 per cent of 'tmt..' In the CII~ of the speeimms of leather, already mentioned, examined by Dr. Piw:rd, 11ltbougn ,pedal ~ wu made for both vtgcmblc nnd mincr:al tan·

ningrubmanccs, tbc results were ntgati••c. M'OTliB OF l'U1L

Mother of pcm i• the nacrou• nuncrial lining the sbo.tcos,, op.n:~pp. ,,_.&t. "G. Btw>bla, ,\lowgd,la, l'P. 29, V, ',I, •· beut, or much tbe ~e me NYC bo:o found aho in lodi.1 and Mdopot.imilt.

Maeby rcceruly found


Chanhu-daro in Iotlia 11, Q1fflplcte bciid-

In my pfnio, tlw name ii ~ n:rf ~"""lory, mcc a 1:,p may lie .. lad plu_g c:anylnJ ~ powder •nd all. such a, h wJbhlng the ifll.aior ol me lnrrcls of Sra,nu. « inn>f ~ • clll" of mctol m~ Tn • lube. 'Skit Moad •ncl 0, J:I. M~ dJ,, p. ~ · • Masaim No. ]• ., p. u; Pl. X, ("I Boll, Mn. \fv.4/ Art. N,,., y.,,.1, Br,•p,i4a &pal, 191&-,tpo, p.- J,l!, l'ii,, 11 (Tomb No ,; at ,;,,,i,..}, • N. de C, 0.>lcs. Tk J?o4 Tomlu of Cm, rl ~,.~. ~ p. "": rt. XW. • £. Vrmlcr, Biilld Dyn:uty,



lo Egypt. (aicncc bct3di d~tc from the prc-0yn~c period. With respect ro the faienc:c h:lt!ml•• 'To mue a bead, a anc, =lly tubu!ut, wu 5Cl«u:d of approximnrdy th.c wnc dwnew .u the bead ~ A pica: the lcog1h o( the bcod was cu~ o1i" this ame. lo aiomc c..scs rhis was wro -as 3 bead without"liny liuthct work on it 1n other cases it WIIJ 6ai•bed by either gnndmg or n:bcating.' · The method of making tuhulnr CU1cs ii of fGlne interest • • ffllmll glus rubu h1vc been found ••• In lhe p Eactory at Td d ~ , . • wluch. , • da~ from the XVffith dyltuty. By aamlnlng fuigQ~

1 W. M. I'. ht:rii:. An,•,:,I C,..,u of "EfYp1, pp. u1, 1,s. ' tL C. lleck, Cf,uifin,,(11• •u N..,,,,Wn•< ~I JJaJ, .,,.,, Pl'fllnt,:, pp.



menu of th=- I rune been ibk m tr:1/!c the IDdhod of their ma_nulacµ,rc, A wlp or gl2$$ of thkkncu. and wide enough to

1Wlll}' depend$ upon m1U1y liaaor,, the prlncipal of which are the cllma1t, lhc deg= of ~lion of die }'CQPlt .and lhe kinil of nutcri.1li available. Diodo.rus (first ccnnuy A.I>.) scues' ibat • They s.~y die E¥)'pdruls in ~ tuD.t$ • , • made their houses of reeds, of which there arc some markumonp the. ,hOIJ n-.-y !OJ" qu,,rf1ing and dca:slng ~oae in 411ontity did purnt bricks for tombs and p;1n of r.bc foll/lthmam of • buildingat Ntbcs~h and ~(cnnch, o{ the Nln~centh :111d Twcntic:!h Dynasties, though he 13y1 that Egyplhn bricks • were ,cry ra,dy fitt:d until the Rom:m aagc.'•



Egypt .is Ute home of working u.d po•sc«es both the oldeft ;ind largt"st stone buildings in the world. This activity In .uont on ; large =le :ind ~t -SO e:ttly a period "':I,$ due punly to the F.m of the IJ)UOtry being very dcb In none: and partly to the funha f'ru:t UlAt "1ppc:r tOQ4 for working it :were av.iilablc. The cari1C$t. examples of the use of smnc for building purpncs Wt can be dated aa:uratd) m of the first Dynasty, namely, the lining niofiag with roughly tut sLi1>,, 01 limestone of II number qf sm:ill clwnbcn In ;s tomb of thac- date at Saqqan'; lhc llma1onc poru:u!lli 'which .bow. a very high standard or the ~ n'1 crafUJ\alllhip' in the Fltot Dynany tmnh of Hc:maka at S•qqlltl!'; qnd a ~vcmcnt or roughly dr....:d gramtc sLibJ w the tomb of Den (Udimu) nt Ahydos. • Aho, 'A g=r «bl of worked limestone in large sfabs' found in the large First Dynasty ro(Utl!OJ o{ &nu at Thrkhan (about 45 miles south of Cairo),' .111d ' big llmestone slabs C'llttflilly rut and well dress.ed' wey,c wed in a Pint Dynany ccm=y at Bclwim,' Les$ d.t!cd, but culllinly o( the •rduaic period, arc die ~ural blocks of undrcsi.:d, or on!y roughly dressc:J, employed for w.ill., p:m:mcnts. &cmg work and ~ tomb dumber At Hkrako.npolu Edfu ;n Upper Egypt' a.nd me limcst.rutc li.aing ;utd 11ce>ring or!Ddyn:mic tomb ».e1r Gw., $0 in U ppcr Egypt.• Of the So:ond Dyna~)' there ~re two insa.ibcd limes=~ liotds from tombs ~l Saqqnr.i,.; • liml:$tonc room 1n the tomb of ' W, M. F, Petric, N,haAt/t aad U,fran,lt, pp, 1$, 19, 47,

s W. M F . Petric, '1igyp1i.,,: Arcllltt.cturt. p. 31 J. E. Qulbdl, Sl, an imatDCd l'l:'C:I gr:inhc doot jamb' ~nd fragments of a ,im1lur red l!nJJ•Ue dOl>t jamb or mta• Imm .i lcmple oi the same Ph3nioh nt l'Ucrakonpolis. or tl1c Sc6llld or Third Oyn.,.ty ,ire tli• rough limCftone sbbs med for rooting and fur ('llrtculli- m UW1b< at Saq,pr.,.' lo thc Tltird Dyn.i.,iy the inc~ u.e uf l,(X)DC for bulldlng IF very m11rl.~. especially in Lower J!gypi, v,,hm: it culminatea i11 the very fine buildin8) di6C;Ovcrcd ~ fow yc::rrs •.GIi '11 S:iqq>TI!. ..E'._1'lUt)plC$ of sronc wock of this dynasiy th.11 ltlllY be ruamonod arc, in Upper .Egypt. ~ limestone room tn the tomb of Nctcr-Khct (Zo-tcr) ar [kfr Kkillaf. not fr (No. 4!,1623) ui the Si.xth Oyn:ut} 1, m tl•ntdrt.d• S«tn«, vi (1~~ pp. 2l.9-3J, 'I•Ii. Bream!, op. a:., tJ, .J5. • W. l\i.. F. P• unul about the midtllc of the Eighrccn1h Pynll$t)I, wuhtone was nCd or only roughly dressed nmruial atHimkonpolii a.s ~rly '" the aTChJ1k period' and it wu emplciycd alro in the Eleventh Dynasiy for the fou.o.daliont, pcmcnu, pilla,s, architraves, roof' '1ttbs and the walls in tlu: hypostyle ball in the morruary u:mplc


"''° =

or Mcnwhotcp c,t Deir el tl.b.n.o. •

The ""'

or =dstonc on "


IICak, however, bcgu about the middle of thcEightttnth Dynasty and pncii.:ally all thc.wting lcmplcs in Upper .Egypt arc or tba material, for c:mmpk, the following-named {thcarl~l of whicli dates Imm thte Elgb1«ntb Dynasty '1Jld the 1atcSt from the Roman period), LUXOT,• I

,5« p.


• From A;wm w K•bbab•, adiilancc ol.lbouL,tO mJJcs, t1M: hill, mo£ punl.~ odict ign......- rock. ~ I,

BaJli l'iut or M1W11 CltUnltt of 14, Nik, pp. ~

• S«p. 6.j.

• Samen Cladrlc.n1 of die two IOWfT colonruado ,.n,1 oLthc ,outbrl1"' Ah•l,;,,olDfY, I (1914). PP• ~ ; .Fi. Frsufon. TA< Cm""'r o/ s.ti I ot tf"Ttl4', pp, 3, 10, tr, ,~..a, lt. l.f-1, 1

SandMOnc WlO! also employed. lull pn,t,..blf onlJ (0, lll>cr •dcl!Jlom. •ho :l$1'f temple atDeir el Bal,ui(thc prindl'31 example of the cwicr use of undnonc). judging from 11.1 colour and teXUJrc, woi not from these quurics. !rs place origin, howcve., i$ unknown, though .uggefflcma ha,·c beet! made tbnt 1t was from Aswan,' bat though i.anrut011c (l(CUrt it A~wan;• I have oot been able 10 find there the parncuLu qmdli;y med in the Mcntu!iottp temple. Othrr Jndcnt s:antlsume qu:11Ttc$ ;ue .it Sirog' obout twcntv milts south of Ec:lfi1 and ar Qinru, in Nubia, about twenty-Jive miles -south. of /\$Wan, which latter '1! ihown by juripdons in w quarry, was wor~cd Imm about the Thirtieth Dyna.ty until Roman times, chicB)' for the >tODC usci in the con•trucl.lOn nf the temples ot Qhtts JJ1d the ccmplcs of P ~• •. J\f El ~b m~ of me ~ndstone 1!mplovcd for the temples was quarried in th, about tcVtn o, cigh1 fCC1 111 boi;llt, Im,•, roan~ of Jlmnitr ., H,l'Clllotul wit 1rulr detcrihcd.' \\', M. f. P1UT', I),

• 1llfl;


• J, Bal~ if Dtrmpt/oJt o/ ,A, Fir,t ur A,,.... c,,,.,,.,, •I 1M Nilr, 1901, p. 74-

, f. B. ll,..,~, 01', nd consiltf of calcium carbonate. Gc;ilogii:ally; .Egypnan llLlli;lster it calate, tbougb somdlmc:s- erroneously called :iragon11c, which uoftru: s.ime compositlQo, but of diffcrcnc;aptalllncform ond dtffiercnt specific !,travity, Whether =gooitc is found in Egypt k oilt lcoDwo, b11t iu «cum:.ncc )w not been reported and aU uic .alab.ouu cnmincd by mt hill been ca~ The name alabuu:r, thacforc, will be uled in the prcscnt book u atJw:tyl Dlc:aning c»ld!cJ 11 CO!llp;I« U}',tallinc form or calcium Clr" boo2tc, white or jdlqwub wlu1e in cqlmrr, romduccnt •n thin ,c,::o(jm :and banded. Alabastb' Wa< emplOf«I us a subsidury building m3ccrial cb,dly for p:w:igcs 3lltl room., .shriru:s, from early dynastit times toat lcana,latr :i.tllc NinetcrnthOyilllJt)', fur cx.impk, poss!hly for a dwnb:r in ~1c .icp pyramid •t&qqua• (Third Dyn:uty}; for ;a chamber in the vallcy temple of Chephn:n l Fourth Dynu;y), judging fiolJI the blocks lying qlJour, in tbc pyflllilid temple of Chcphrcn; for the. pa•·cmcnu of a corridor; a huge CIOwt and a j)Q55age rcspcctivcly in the pyramid ttmplc of at Saqqara• (Fifth Dynauy}; foe the pmcsscs II ot: Abydos (Nineteenth l>yn.uty).1

*.P. "6>

• C. 1,1.

'c; M

l'irlh, An...,1§1 ti• &n,i«, uv (1915), _pp,. JU- i11 ihc ~ = dt:tcri. where the $WIK wurked for D ihott p-1/i45, pp. 11>-:3



,r., r-,

77 A white tnosliu:nit :tbbutcr OC.CWJ' in small :un..D.) and A1bm•n1• ($c. roams; Pliny w.i:itcs in orn: place' that alab;utcr-, round in the oonity of Thcbc$ md in :mother pl:i«' that 1t w.u obtwncd fioro Abb;utron, tho position of which he refers ro elsewhere' in ;i very confused maoncr; thus after mentioning the mounwru that fonn • the boundaries of rhc prci1oiJ1CCof Thebais' he sayJ, • On p;l$Sing these we come to thcHowni of Mercury (i.e. probably Hcnnopola), Alabasuon, lhc iown of Dogs md ~ or Elcratl«. ...' If Alnb.i,uon wc:rc 11nywhlll5C-graincd thnugb gcncrnlfy QJltd bar.lit; is ~ line-gninc:d dolerite. Howc¥tr1 u the name basalr (or thit ~IQIU: h .. become cstiblisbcd II) fu.mly Ill die htcratutc oi Egyptolog) ond as ll 1s neither: mideoding oor crtt1rdy WfClllg, it~ suggC>ll!d th:i! it mould be .rc!Jlincd and ft Will be Used ID panic!~ ;


~mptoy«l l,ugi:Jy In the Old Kingolr.m

:a• ;, m'11rrinl


pavcmcm~ mus in the Th,rd Dyru,tl}' i;tep pyl'lll1lid nt S? and in I

Hut'"T "'

s,.-. ""·

'""""': ,~.

14 • V !' r I. ) Tl,c Dap11ot0pl,it11, "'· l6. • Sa: PP. ,.c,3, ..i,, • ' Sa: l'I'- "6.l ~• Tu cotaur i, brown when the ...,... ~ l''OlhcttJ ud panly dcmmpcioal. T


the large 111tnb ruljo,llling• !cw b:mlt p:aYU1g blocks were fow,d'; the p.a,•cmcol in the Founh Dy11,1R}' pyr:amW temple ,if Cheops at Giza (all chat now rem.aim of the temple) u of biualt; also p;!VCJJ!ClllS of a mun. .a C8U$C\Vlly. twQ mlllil chambers and a ,mall aJfcring pbct. in 11 Fifth Dynauf mortU11ty temple at Saqqad !Wd p;r~cnu, :and p»tibl) other p:arts of tilt buildings, in the morn=y temples of i;wo Fifth Dyn.a'}' tanplc-p~ at Abu&ir' (bcl,vccn Gin ~nd Saqqana), &sail u disaibu1cd wiJcly i11 Egypt md OCC111'S "1 Abu Za'bal, • wbkb i$ siwau:d abput miilway bctw~ Ouro and Bllbcu; to the north-WCSI of the Giza pyrumw• (bc)"Vnd Kittbs:l. in. the Abu ! uca); io the Curo-Suez d,;acn'; in the F a}'IIU'•; ,a ~ cllit:inc:c 10 die wuth-cast of Smn3lut in Opper Egypt'; 4LAs.wim'; w the B;i.haim Oun•; lo the comm d••unwd in Sfrul• ~ b:,"111 em_pll)ycd in web large qU3Jllity during the Old Kingdom in the necropolis mctehing from Giu 11> Saqcpi, Woll pro&:ibly local AAtl :ill the 2vaihblc cvi~poinu to thcl¼yum a» the llOUrcc.. Thus, in th~ l'ayum, within ea$)' ffl1Cb of thu ncaopolit, UlCK Is • 11:wlc qoorry'•• approached by a road, and, thcrd'orc, mmifcsdy wllrkcd on a lugcoc:uc and, ocir thcqUllrry, 11 :a sm;II cunplc probably of Olli Kingdom diur and there is no evidence of thcmcientqunrrying of bmh near Cairo, eu$0D wri.tcs" 'Mkro=p•c;,1 =· ination of the Fayum and ~ spccimw Jrom die F"lfib Dynany pallfflioJit et Sagq:orn illow1 them to be induanguuhablc; and althouBh • C. M, rmh ond J, E. Qwlidl, Th Sup l'ynmui, pp, 6' (,r. 1), 9.v '0. 6.LF,rtb, ,1~n•I 111 ~ . Aldy 1111d in one -pl= there 1$ " hicr~ glyphic insccipuon, as :USO nnc1cnt l'.llmp lc:iding down from the



Q"4nying The q~rryi"g o( stone could not, and did -not, begin until it was rendered possible by die advent of meal (copper) roola. when for the

fim time the U$C of stone on • large =le (or building purpo= became pl11ciieablc. The soonc ~tl. c:irlitt for ll!ld other (l()mp:in.tivdy ,mall ohjcc~ had been procured from l,Jock.s tluu, haring been dc:tadu:J from the diffi by ""mnl p - ~ wctc c:ISily ,uxC5.liblc:, or from bulllc!ct1t fo1md in rhc anci _rcm2rhble u tntght appear at first ;,ght. Thll! the period bctwttn the two wu about 420 1= aa:ilrding ti) Brcmed' ~d abow 555 )'Can .u:cording to Pcuic.' Also, the ,uonc ..-I w.a> pdncip.:ally, tliough not cntltcly, limestone, .s!na: 11 =all amount of granite \VQ" al.,o IUCd, and lin=te>nc ·is. compar.n.ivcly ,oft ::md c:u!ly worked. Further, cwo lmporcmt frtth &cmrs "Wt:fc pmcnr, .u.mcly, ihc dcvdopmcnt of copper to0ISc :u that parucular time, nod du: plentiful ~ of llmcarolk 1n the ndghbou.rhood the capital. Memphis, whuc ihc nett! for &Om.Cthing more endurable than mud hc:rc;




l,,lck_ would ha•c been r..1, bMII.

n- Eicu,n ;a_ppc>r =iple ID ilCQ'/unt

for the lcx:al cko-clopmcnt of AOOnc working without the n«eSSlty of it IO forefgn inllw:occs. Abo, it s~puld nr.,c be forgotten that mnc wotking oo ~ miall ,ccilc WaJ .no new lhing in Egypt. u is .shown by the making of i:wnc ,·cum. nor only of sofr stOncs (1tlo~1 bneccta, limestone, rm.ri>le, scrpcntinc 2.nd-Ste:ititc). bur also of hard SI01ICS (bcisah. dior:ire. granite. gtt)'W2CU (achut) and porphr· r!rlc ri,dc), which was p ~ with great £uc.ceu Al early u the prcdynaJIUl period, .md Wt n far bacJc n lhe nco1lthk period, bawr had been made. ~ ~ready mentioned, it JCCmt highly p~c that the quarryjng of hlird lrom the rock lJWS wa, not pr~d W)til some cxmsidcnblc time aftu- the quauymg of soft IIOnC had bttomc COUUTID. but thiJt gnrutt, the &cncr:illy lls«J of the bud SIXlnet, wu still c,l,wncd. from luge haul.den (whkb arc plentiful ac .ruw2n ~t tlw: praait d.'ly and which have been UICd ln rcccn1 ume. 10 $11pply


• Tbc &ti of C.m1......, md Ho..-.,d Cam:r, p;,. Y_.,, EJtploruio,u_ ,a

r~,1,,;. P· ""

• J. H , 81tt1tal,. dncm,t E,rphan Ruord,, 1, 58. 'W. M. F. P«rit. A Hl119r, 9T8iftl, 1 (1~ pp. 7, ,S.


&TQ!:.E WO:u.t!vNnritl, Pl'- 12.t, ro6; PL 93,




$· Drllllng with a copper or atone poinr with an ~hru,vc powder. Jn a Fifth Dynmsty tomb' a dnll ii being used· in bonng a stun.c sc.:it. •' and in a Sixth Dynasty ro:mh the .driliu,g of cmcndrllll is pieturtd, • and 10 vuious other wmbs ~ drill 1' shown being nrn1tcd by mean~ of a bow for drilling bc:4ds llOd in another wmh for drilllng IOmC unknown objocc• 6. Rubbing wirh a coppc, ( ?) p,int ~th abmw~ powder, The cvldcru:e. for tbu- i5 doubdw. The unplcmcndubown in an Eightcend1 Dynasty tombl lo cooocxion with the worki11g: of hard $U)IU:$, mo auu:b wcss Is urually lard upon ~ use of dilscli, and UlOlfC who dtiJ1k !hat c11«1 Ill.Wt hn,·c l,ooi -1U«I point oUl copper Jnd broruc c:hlads, no muciu IO wh:11 cit!Glt UlC)' hue ba:n hardcnc:d by lwnrocnug, will noi cm such lwd ~ - "s &rite, granite ,ind sdun, nnd rh~t rhC'y CIIUlOl be: used with ;fl) 3b1'1$JVC powder. This IS admittm ftccJ j', Md duscli cctminly wen: not employed, c,xotpt for soft stones. But for rh~ we s;iw$ :ind drill~ 1ndmlin.g tub.uliu drills, tha~ it ample c1>idcrn:c in the math that remain 011 the nones on whkh they have ba:n wed.' ThUJ $11W inackt exut on the bet.wt or the pavement of the pyramid ran pk of Cheops'; (jll the rc,d gr:,nite s.uaipluigi of Cheops and ChcplU'Cll ~,·cly'; op the n:d grami.c ~=phagus of Hordcdcf (Founb Dynas;y)' fOW1d by Rci,ncr at Giza; on the 1lll of the grey granite san;opbagus of Mcrcsnnkh'; on the baclt of nnc of rhc uiad.! o( .Mycerinus1• and on two 1m6oi•hccl ~~ Sl:ltlll!S of this .s,une 11 Pharaoh. ~ marks nf wbulur dril!J att found on ll1I .:ala~i:er lltllWC of Myccrinwu JDd auo on an uo6rrisbc:d llatnc pf the woe moruttch"; on i:hc wcU-1:nown di.orite ,o,mc of Chcphttn: In (our dllfc:n:nt sizes in the eye $005; Pl. :OCX. • I'. .E. Ncwbc:ny, T~ Life •I R of clollr· posa and for bolts! and Petne gjvcs IDllny addltiorual cx:11Dplo of tubular drill holes and cores.~ l ex>m•nrd in th,: store ioom :u 5.tqq?n> a large drill mtt eout 8 cm. (approx. 3 in.) In duiJnetcr of ~ grained red granio; witli g= pa!diC$ on tlu: ouuide Jiom the copper of the drlll, and a mull dtUI arre abollt" 3.i cm. (approx. r~ in.) ill dumctef'llf dioritc. Eumplocof dr:illlng with" copper or stone eoln11 where the drill holes un: :still ckatl.y vlR'blc :md µnmi,..,l;abk, cmt in the nostnls, c::,r-s and Cl>rocn of the .mouth o( :in •l•bastcr mnic of My=rrua•; on two plcUld present greater dllfu:ulties lhaJ1 those expl:aincd bv the assumption of lhclr cmploymait. But were dim indeed ttell,


a4 pamifatcd l>y Pcuk? The cvidcnc:c ;advaru:cd IO prove their p ~ is u follDws1 : (•) A c:yllndngl eotc of gr.mite grooved TOund aod round by ;1 s-ing poini, the gl'IIOVO being CMdnuow 11.Dd forming a spiral, with in onepct " single JITOO"C: may be tneed five rot:atinnt tt>arul .the



(b) Pm: oi a drill hale in i!lo1:i«: with IICYQ\tcen cqtUdisiant gn.,c,vcs due ro the $Ul'CCSSivc romuon of die SlUJlC couing poinL (c) Anoihcr p1,ccc of dlnrite with a scrii:s of ~VC$ p~ughcd out 10 a depth of over ~urulrodth of an inch :u a Ii.ogle CUL (d) Other }li1:i:tt of dio~te showing the rcgubr cquidiSt:tnt giQQves of a saw. (e) Two piece:, of diorite bowls wilh bictoglypbs incised with n Yt!rf free-cutting point and neither =ped 001' ground ouL But IC an :tbtnSi~c powdcc had been u..:d wilh soft copper .awi and ~ itu highly prllbablc that pie= of the: abrasive would have been forcal inro the me12!, where. they might have nmainal for ,;omc tmlC. ,nd any sud, accidental and ICID_pot:UY teeth wo\lld hove produc:rd the wnc cffi:llC9. This pouibiliry is not adniiru:d by P ~ who $t:ltc$' thlll' irst.:Jns i.rnpo.ssiblc that ,my pmideof a loose pwdc:T could bccol'(le so imbcddcd in :t soil mct:tl by the mere 0ing UlQt it could bur the immense main •• . n=!ed u, plough out a g100vc of :iny con~dcrablc dc:ptb In IUCh " hard matrrial u qWIJ'iz.' Judging. however, from the :u:uilugy of modem 'lapping,' ln wb!ch :t nhrasivc pawdcr is employed with a -,ft mc:ml (copper, t...d or M>fi alloy), :tnd some of which bccom,;,, cm· bedded in du: mct:tl dliring we,• ic is bcli(vcd r.h:lt in the andcnuner.bod of working ~me of the ~brmve would have been lorad into th,, metal, • W, M. P• .Pdrl bard; and~wcc dfomond dM u used foe cutting diamonds, presumnblv. cherc£on,, q = powder mis\it be employed forcuaing quart2.. Rcfcr:ring to the &ehist triads. of Mycccious, Rdmcr 1 ~ that ' Some of the signs , . . show slip, of a .sh:up paim.' The mprrm' atudic:s and unfinilhcd works described by Edgar an: all of such a late date wt the we of iron c:h4d.s, or other iron tools, i.s nor only pw:sible but pra,ctica!ly c:crwn, :u 1t u known that in the third cc:ntury -..c. iron 1Qo4 were being mppllcd t0-quarrymen. • Edgar says 'Almost all the objcccs =i:aloguffl here are of comparatively l~~ date. The un6nishcd$tltues .aogc: from the ~li:ic period to the Rom~n 3nndc.:Uio.n • • • Ct is pmmblc • .• that many of the limestone studies belong ro Ptol,:,m;iic: times.'

' When dealing w!th thi=ic border stones the sculptQn wotkcd m.unly with a pointcdiruuume.nt or yont:b • .. the: marks become smaller and

6nc:r u the work :uiv.uu:cs! ' For the soli limestone, of which o.l.mott all the: models &re .made, a diff'crcnt '""1tm.cnt ~s adopted, most of the work being done witli thc chl&el itutcad of the puncli. The s;iw secm.s ID have: been used some. times In the cadlcr >tap when the

wg,:, pi wc:n: being rcma•cd fiom

block •• • The gar=l fomi wu mo:tlly given by long regular

•w. M. F. Pcuic, fo11rn

A~zhrop. /Mt., pp. 18-9 {c4f11rint). CW. !.LP. Petric, / - . .fmArop. ltut., p. 2(olf:r.rJnl). • W, ~(. F, l'c:tric. Tiu Pyrnmi,11 n;J Ttmpla of ~iul,, pp. 173-+ ' Cl, A. ROJ!lc,, op, (ii., p. -r1S (6). • J. P, M>haJ!y. F/inlm Pnl'k P,17ri, "· p. 7•


90 ISUJLUJNO MATDIAU W"Oko or the clUJc1 or 8')UJC .• • Thi: gouge, which leave. J tonatvc mark , •• used u wdl aa chc str.iight-a!gcd chud • , • and rhc da,; clilid wllJI pmb:thl) known wo . .. 11m ~ poiniw m$1l1lmcnt wed I.or taft :as wdl ai for hml ..cones 11 shown , •• Qn fumhcJ lime, .u,ni: worn one. olb:.n - m.u-q of u scraper of 10mc MJrt, ·• I h:n-c ca•ninul sc:,·ml>Cen of thClc ob)ccu' msdc from bard stone (dolerite, gn:ywatk.e [scbutJ and gn:y granite). ThC) ~re in vcrycilff!'X"cnt stages of work. and 1n 3bollt hlllf of lhan tho !!IOI !llllrb appear 10 be thosi: of a (b~I, whJJc in omtt uut3DCQ Q pointed tool has been



In my opinioo d,c abcwve marr:rial was -:a 1nolC pawdcr used wet. and Pcuk m\CS' that 'Thett i, no doubl. lli2t. sawlng lllld grinding with loo,e powder- was the peru mdhod.. That a bard :ihra, powdc:r embedded .irl or used with a ,oft material will cut bard s,ona ,., wdl known, and it b mtcd that in South Amcric:i • umin nibcof .lndilms u one time w= in the habit d" ddlllng l'QCk cry.sul by mCllllS of a shoot of the w1td planwn fed with q!W't:l. sand and ;watu,• and In one of the i:nuict1m1 at Kew Gardens dtae is a ~llnder or quart:&, about t-.1--0 to thttt inches long with a bole dirough, which is- 1u1cd to hav-e born bottd by means of • slcndcs: suips of the skin of the stem of a ~ .Alpinfll rwi.stal rapidly between lhc palms of thc handJ, with the ;aqdiaon of" llttlc line $1Dd,.. "!hkb only illusuations of the 6.a. duu :m abrasive powdtr can cut l Jubitancc .as bud iu \tsdJ: :ts is proved in the ar,, of the diamond whlch .i..s altudy mentiwu,d is ..;bradcd by ill own dim. Rcspc:¢ng the: nature of the ~brasivt powder th~ i, much tliJfQerux of opiniao, -Paric being JUtC that ii wu emery• and Rohner supposing it ID have. been either emery' err purq1".' whDe I venture ti) iuggcst that. it wu odthu. but ~ g-.ncmly lmely•g,ouod qUQrtz $lnd. The DWUIU of wotklng &!Dile depicted oo talllin. tomb wt1l.s 1w born tcf.:ucd ID already, :md bc)'Ond the t=lCS meruioned. the


C. C. l!dgu, S!itivo c•idcnc:c ~pcctiag the fl1llU!C of the abraJlvc: powdu c:mpl!l)'ffl nnddltly 1n Egypt, the ncg;uivc cvjdcna, may be COJl,li~ 211d u a, follows : A Qbjc:a$' (a plummet; a .-asc; a r.ool; thru urulll bl«b; :t pittc and several nonci)'I ~ily of early di,tc, rQund in Egypc. have been 1tated ro consist o cmcr:y, but that ~he rruuc:rial .is emery ill 211y case is •cr:y d4t,:d qf ruwnlly-:roundcd, vety line gains of quartz IIU1d and the colo1,1r \V4J due t_i, a copper compound, evidently from the drill uscd. M)-ets ,q,ort:s• the we of crushed chert or filnt. Jor boring a sccatitc bead. In .all ducussions rcspc,cting the nunncr of curring hntd f!On~ ln .incicnt Egypt it •hould be tcmembcred th:u th,, large numbct nf workmen, the long houn worked in the day, the time oa:upled iu the workand paniwlarly the skill, pmcdcc llnd infioitc patience of the W1>Tkmcn arc all impor12ntfact0rt thu should be mken mto acc:Qunt. The much-« qw:stloD$ of the hardening of ooppct' and of the JIOSSlblc 115'! of 11ed ar :in early dau:• will bl: cfucusscd_ in CODJldtion with the mctili. ~Al

Mo11na The mon:ircmploycd mancient Egypt bcfotc Gr-.acco-Roman time& of two ldnds, dc:pcndmg upqn the rwurt. of UI( c:onmuaion, namdy, clay for '"" with ,un-dticd bric.lcs and gypsum for we with stone. The formcz is sdll used for sWHincd bricks at the pfQCllt day !lnd. is lhe .most suit:1ble nurtcrlal for the purpcnc, bu1 gypsum is .DM now emrloy«I u " morar, l,,.,nng given pl..,,, tr> the fflt to Sun• dncJ brick and to tosrse day p!a:ni,r,

Gypsum Plasrer. Toa i• the clwaarri•rir wiul plUIIU of 11ncu:.n1 .£11YPr and ls hu1wn from c.arly dy.n.astii: um~ .md no mdcna: whatd\'u c:m be found of lb. ~ of lime bcfotc lhc l'r.olamlc period,1 the _pliu.1.c1 frequently

tc:n:md ' lime plintc:r • being olw;iys gypsum until II late chrc. The great Ui< of gypruru ~F-C• wai. co prvvide for the w:alli and cdllng, of houses, paL,cn. mmbs And icmples 11 $11i111blc .surface for p.>indn_g upon. Whcrc the wall w~s pla1teted Mth d:,y, this gcncrolly w:is -ii:d with gypsum pwte!t, and whcte day pwu:r wa1 oot uJCd g)'JJSUm plamt c:rnelc)yw fur the puqx,k of awcring up &ult, and im1gubtitle5 in the sll)nc and of smoothing the ,urf:ta: before plllnring. Gypown. being q n~nmil 1m1tcruli v.rn.c,s c:onsidrr.ihly both u1 clour wu1 in oomPQSltion, The ooloor may be white, dil'lc=tt ~ades of grey, lli,>lu brown, or c:vcn occamnally pink, c:umphs of piolc plaster lieiog in the 'f..vcll1Ji DynaRy mmb or lmhotcp It' 1Uld in Ule Elghtttnth Dyiuny tmnb of Tut-11Dkhll,mU1 41. Tb.d.>es,• Tha Lun:r, hnwev1er, ~ merely n ,urucc oaJor.uu,n aod is 11dven1itfuw, being due 10 chcmial cb:lngC$ IM mvc taken plau in the Iron compouniil or du:: pla>tcr in the: ~wac: of thc,uwuh of years. -''hen the c,olour is gn::y, this t~crally ~ owing tr) the pmcutt of small 11artfclc. of wtbumtfud. Occ;.uloruilly Ilic pla>1cr uocd

a, ll finishing c:oar, which Is white ot pn,aiwly whirr, conrain•:, very IBTgc proportion of cilcium c:arbanntc I

Sec P, !lJ,

• A. M.. Lrlhgoe. BalJ Mtt. Alar. of Art, ,Yn, Y.wt Er,pt,u, F.xp,r.l~ 1914 (191.'f}, p. 16; • "- ~ T/;e To,d ,,J Tow•~l,.,4~•. u, Hc,v.·•ttl Can,:r, .Al'l""'d"' "• p. ·~~,


~nd vay lttde gypsum ruid, •iihMgb thi