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English Pages 372 Year 2015
Adam Cole: Social Stories, the Feldenkrais Method and the Unanswered Question; Linda Flanders: Expanding Our Horizons; C
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Shelley Duke: Resistance as Function - From talking the talk to walking the walk; Carl Ginsburg: Book review “Trances Pe
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Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leadi
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Terrence C. Berns: Learners Never Fail; Terrence Berns: Left Hand, Right Brain; Josef Della Grotte: The Further Reaches
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Elizabeth Beringer: Dennis Eugene Leri 1945-2016; Dennis Leri: Selling Water by the River; Todd Hargrove: Complex Proble
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AN UMBRELLA APPROACH TO FELDENKRAIS® TRAINING GENERIC PROPOSAL Presented by Jeff Haller, Ph.D., Feldenkrais Trainer February 12, 2015 Dear Members of the North American Training Accreditation Board, and the Board of Directors of the Feldenkrais Guild of North America: With the approval of the Board of Directors, I was asked by NATAB Board Co-Chair Liza Weaver Brickey to develop an alternative training program to present to the NATAB. I have participated in the creation of and/or reviewed the following documents, in preparation for this proposal: 1. FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile; 2. Yvan Joly, “A Proposal for an Alternative Training Model: Distributed Training Design (DTD),” presented to the NATAB and EuroTab, 2006; 3. “The International Working Group (IWG) On Training Policy,” Parts A & B, commissioned by AusTAB, EuroTAB and NATAB, 2006; 4. Pieter Mostert, “Turn Towards Competences,” 2001; 5. Carl Ginsburg, Jeff Haller and Beatriz Walterspiel, “The Phase II Report: Competences and the Educational Plan,” ~2002; 6. Pat Buchanan, Survey of Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers, 2014; 7. In Touch, report on competence-based training with notes on the 1997 annual meeting resolution to separate graduation from certification and move toward competence-based training, Spring 2013; 8. FGNA Trainer and Assistant Trainer lists. All are included in the appendices of this proposal. These reports inform us historically of the desire within parts of the training community for change in the international training policy, in order to separate graduation from certification and push towards competence-based training programs. The goal of this proposal to present a generic alternative training process based on the recently submitted FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile (CPP). It recognizes the potential the CPP has for us, not only to train new competent beginning practitioners, but also to develop new Assistant Trainers and Trainers who are adept at teaching all the competences demanded of a new practitioner. In this proposal, you will see how the CPP (also included in the appendices) can be used; it calls for a distributed, or networked, “umbrella training” model, the details of which follow. It is my hope to be in close communication with the NATAB regarding this proposal. This training model makes it impossible, at this point, to fulfill the usual training accreditation
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requirements such as specific dates, locations, training personnel, administrative protocol, Trainer contracts, vocational school regulations, etc. Many exceptions will have to be made to the current training policy if this proposal is to come to life. The process will require developing the training process in a new and unknown way, with the intention of graduating competent beginning professional practitioners and developing a refreshed, vitalized body of Assistant Trainers and Trainers. This proposal includes: perspectives on current training methods, including the issues of practitioner competence and Trainer succession; the proposed training’s basic curriculum, format, and graduation requirements; key features of this proposed training that differentiates it from the traditional training model; and finally, how the competences included in the CPP will be met in this training. Thank you for your attention is reviewing the following proposal. I believe you will see its vitality and viability. Sincerely,
Jeff Haller, Ph.D.
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AN UMBRELLA APPROACH TO FELDENKRAIS® TRAINING Introduction At this point in our short history, I believe we are at a crossroads with our Method. Our training programs are getting smaller and appear to be less relevant, based on diminishing training group sizes over time. Many of those who graduate from our accredited training programs are unable develop a professional practice that will support them, much less recover the investment they made in their training. Guild membership appears to be stagnant, with little growth in membership over the years. We face significant issues if our work is to continue and grow. One major issue is practitioner competence and the ability to develop a professional practice. According to the IFF Competency document, “…only a fraction of those who graduate from a Feldenkrais Training program are practicing members of their guild five years later.”1 “The process of transitioning from a training program to private practice, self-directed learning, and running a business often leads graduates to become dissatisfied and feel incompetent.”2 The present TAGs provide us with minimal standards for developing competent, beginning Feldenkrais Practitioners, which leads to only a small percentage of each training group able to practice successfully upon graduation. At the 1997 FGNA Annual Meeting, Guild membership voted to separate graduation from certification and move toward competence-based certification.3 In 1998, a BOD-appointed task force to look into competency-based certification was established briefly and then disbanded.4 Not until 2012 did the FGNA BOD form the task force on the process for separating graduation from certification. The task force was charged with identifying the issues that needed to be addressed and proposing a model that would certify practitioners beyond graduation from a training program.5 The task force has developed and recommended a competence-based certification process that has been submitted to the BOD: the FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile (CPP). In the past there has been no real way to assess the competence of a graduate from a training program other than time spent, or the practiced eye of educational directors and their training staff. The CPP offers us the opportunity to develop competence-based assessment processes for certification and to open the door for the development of alternative training programs in order to beta test the efficacy of the CPP process. Another major issue is Trainer succession. At present, we have an aging population of 32 Trainers who are members of the FGNA, and 42 Assistant Trainer members. According to Buchanan’s 2014 survey6, of 27 Assistant Trainers surveyed, most were of a similar age to the 1
IFF Competency Profile, p. 4, paragraph 3 IFF Comptenecy Profile, p. 4, paragraph 4 3 1997 Feldenkrais Guild Annual Report, p. 13, 2013 FGNA newsletter, p. 10, paragraph 4 4 2013 FGNA newsletter, p. 12, paragraph 3 5 FGNA CPP, p. 7, paragraph 2, https://sites.google.com/site/fgnataskforce/public-reports/initial-motion 6 Buchanan, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/14/217: “While the increase in Feldenkrais Teachers was stable in the past two decades, the numbers of teachers rising to the ranks of Assistant Trainer and Trainer were lower in the 2000s than in the 1990s. If the profession does not address this pattern, it may reduce the capacity for 2
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Trainer population, 57.9 years to the 13 Trainers surveyed at 62.2 years. It’s probable that these survey numbers reflect the greater Trainer/Assistant Trainer population. Currently, there are no Guild member Trainer candidates in the pipeline to become Trainers.7 The steps to Trainer candidacy are onerous, expensive and time consuming, which makes it difficult for Assistant Trainers to gain the skills they need to rise to Trainer status. With the present Training Accreditation Guidelines and the size of training programs, there is little opportunity for Assistant Trainers to meet the requirements to become a Trainer. Under the present TAGS, many adept practitioners, who would make fine Trainers, recognize they have little chance to become Trainers and therefore simply do not apply for Assistant Trainer status. There have been few, if any, Assistant Trainer applications from young, adept practitioners. With the above in mind, the following training proposal is presented to meet the demands for both the training of competent Trainers and the training of practitioners who will meet Guild certification requirements. While maintaining the curriculum content and pedagogy of traditional training programs, this training proposal differs in 13 key features: 1. It operates on a distributed, networked, “pods”-based umbrella model; 2. It has stringent standards for participation and graduation; 3. Students will maintain their own personal competency profile for their growth and development; 4. Following their ATM and FI practicums, students can receive payment for their work; 5. Graduation is competency-based; 6. There is more training, shorter duration of segments, and extensive clinical experience; 7. The Guild assesses graduates for certification and membership; 8. It enhances and changes the educational leadership role of a Trainer; 9. It provides significant training for Assistant Trainers; 10. It places significant teaching and student monitoring responsibilities in the hands of Assistant Trainers; 11. It provides location-based training to support the growth of the Feldenkrais Method in more regions; 12. Currently certified Trainers can develop their own teachings and have more autonomy in teaching their own programs (via the pods); 13. It serves to beta-test a competence-based training process as a means for preparing practitioners for FGNA certification. In addition, this training model offers the FGNA a grassroots way to expand its membership. Because the training proposed is stringent, demanding, and competence-based, there is a distinct potential it can serve to breath life into a stagnant FGNA membership and help assure the autonomy of the Feldenkrais Method. This proposal is designed to beta-test the CPP profile, and to see if we can develop higher quality beginning practitioners. All of us, who are dedicated to the Feldenkrais Method fear the work will be lost, splintered, and potentially subsumed by organizations that want us in their scope of training Feldenkrais Teachers moving forward, given the average ages of 57.9 for Assistant Trainers and 62.2 for Trainers.” 7 FGNA Excel File TR-TC-AT-All.xisx An Umbrella Approach to Feldenkrais® Training Copyright © 2015 Jeff Haller. All Rights Reserved. Page 4
practice. If we are to maintain our autonomy, we will have to grow, be resilient, and be very effective. In our own profession there are those who want to develop a central theory on the basis of the work. Some say we are just a collection of techniques with no central theme; descriptions such as these serve to diminish the Feldenkrais Method. “Our work integrates the objective, scientifically apprehended and subjective dimensions of human functioning and flourishing, considered in relation to the primary freedom of action—movement. We cultivate subjective experience and awareness of a kind that is informed by method and the science of human morphology. This is a highly sophisticated and distinctive training. Other fields of practice may borrow from it, but if the basis for this training weakens or begins to die out, it is not just our practice that is imperiled but also its generative influence over other professional practices.”8 Training our practitioners is not a simple task. This proposal is one way of meeting the changing demands our Guild and the wider world Feldenkrais practice faces. It is one way of teaching dedicated students how to develop and mature so they can meet the ever-present change that is continually before us. Our traditional training model has served us since Moshe died. The training process needs to develop and mature with the old and the new combined to lead us into new domains of expression, so we can thrive in the throes of uncertainty and provide immense value for the people we help and serve. Key Features The training program outlined in this proposal has 13 key features that differentiate it from the traditional training model: 1. Distributed Training: It operates on a distributed, networked, pods-based umbrella model. Students in the training are grouped into pods, each led by a Trainer or an Assistant Trainer. Pods are small, i.e. 5-20 students, to allow for a great deal of close, one-on-one interaction between the pod leader and the students. Pods may be formed in several locations in a region. For example, in the Pacific Northwest there might be a pod in Bend, OR, one in Eugene, OR, one in Tacoma, WA, a few in the Seattle, WA region, and one in Bellingham, WA. Or, pods could form in different regions and still be under one umbrella. The majority of the training would occur in the local city, reducing the travel requirement and making the program more accessible to more students. It allows us to reach out into local communities to train people who don’t have the means to leave their homes for long periods of time, thus spreading the Method farther. Pods of training students are developed in cities where no training programs have been taught before. Taught by skilled local Assistant Trainers, the training programs are accessible to more students. 2. Stringent Standards: It has stringent standards for participation and graduation. 8
Anna Yeatman, in a private letter An Umbrella Approach to Feldenkrais® Training Copyright © 2015 Jeff Haller. All Rights Reserved. Page 5
This proposal significantly increases the requirements of the students to practice the skills of the profession and to demonstrate those skills before they take their ATM and FI practicums or before they can “graduate” from the program. For example, a graduate must log a minimum of 150 FI lessons to graduate. This proposed program is a rigorous opportunity for people who are highly qualified and who enter the training process with the intention of working as a Feldenkrais Practitioner, either as a private practitioner or within their own field of endeavor. The stringency and the requirements of the program offered here require a high level of dedication and commitment for those who enroll. It will be demanding, and offer students the continual supervision, clinics, support, and practice to become practitioners who have the skills to enter and open markets not yet reached by Feldenkrais practitioners. 3. Student Profiles: Students maintain their own personal competency profile based on the CPP, in order to help them assess their growth and development. 4. Payment while Students: Following their ATM and FI practicums, students can receive payment for their work. This will help them financially in their investment in the training process and give them much needed supervised support as they begin their practices. 5. Competency-based Graduation: Based on the CPP, students will have a clear understanding of their graduation requirements. 6. More Training, Shorter Overall Duration, Extensive Clinical Experience: The TAGs require a minimum of three years for completion of an 80-hour training program. This proposed program is completed within three years with over 1,300 hours of training time, including extensive clinical experience. 7. Graduation Separate from Certification: The Guild assesses graduates for certification and membership. Through student profiles and other forms of practice that demonstrate proficiency, graduates will demonstrate beginner’s competency as specified in the CPP to become certified Guild members. 8. Enhances and Changes the Educational Leadership Role of a Trainer: The Trainer oversees the entire program, and may teach their own pod, but is continually working with the Assistant Trainers to help them with their pods. This process affords Trainers who are interested in working in this way the opportunity to train and pass along
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their gifts, giving the next generation of students the means to become practitioners and Assistant Trainers the means to become Trainers. This training proposal also offers the opportunity for Trainers who do not have the means to organize a “traditional” training the chance to develop a pod of students of their own to teach. This proposal will afford them the ability to teach and share their own unique intelligence in a personal way with a group of students with whom they are mutually attracted. This process will allow them to develop their own lineage of students and establish their own legacies. As a part of an umbrella group, all pod teachers, assistants and Trainers will be working in community with each other, to reach the highest goals of the training process: the transformation of new students into competent beginning professional practitioners who can help people live more easily and comfortably. This proposal is not in lieu of, but in addition to, traditional training programs. Those who choose to teach in the traditional training process will continue to apply to the TAB for their certification using the previous TAGs. 9. Significant Training for Assistant Trainers: Assistant Trainer pod teachers attend in-person teacher-training programs and have weekly web-based meetings with the Trainer to discuss their training process. There are few young, adept practitioners in the pipeline to become Trainers who can help the Feldenkrais Method to flourish. The training process proposed will make it possible for practitioners with a viable practice, who meet the Guild qualifications, to become Assistant Trainers and develop their skills so they can become a Trainer. They will learn by doing, and will have the opportunity to find if they can make their dream of training people to become Feldenkrais Practitioners a reality. Skilled practitioners will have the potential to teach at a higher level and take the initiative to become Assistant Trainers. Trainers will be given the opportunity to develop their own teaching as well, by teaching highly qualified, motivated, skillful assistants. 10. Assistant Trainers Assume Significant Teaching and Student Monitoring Responsibilities: Assistant Trainers teach major aspects of the training curriculum, oversee student profile development, and hold student practicums. 11. Exposure to More Populations: Location-based training supports the exposure to and growth of the Feldenkrais Method in more regions. This process will benefit the Feldenkrais trademark by bringing new life into the training process, increase the number of practitioners who enter the Guild, and bring out of the background undiscovered talented who can further the development of our profession.
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12. Trainer Development: Currently certified Trainers can develop their own teachings and have more autonomy in teaching their own programs (via the pods). 13. Beta-test New Competency-based Training: This competence-based training process serves as a means for preparing practitioners for FGNA certification. This alternative proposal will offer the FGNA a training program that is not time-based but competency based. The FGNA will be able to use the outcomes of this process as a basis for determining the efficacy of using the FGNA CPP as a basis for determining Guild membership. Training Format There are potential practitioners and Assistant Trainers in locations all around North America. Because of the current organization of trainings, it’s logistically difficult for people to commit to participating. This new training format is designed to meet the needs of those potential trainees, and produce competent beginning certified practitioners. In effect, we propose to bring the training to the potential trainees, by creating “pod” segments as well as utilizing the power of technology for remote study. The training is three years total; training segments include: • • • •
Seven-day intensives three times per year, or one 10-day intensive mid-year, with the whole group, Educational Director (ED) and Assistant Trainers. Eight four-day pod workshops (or the equivalent) throughout the year arranged and taught by pod teachers under the ED’s direction. Three-hour supervised clinics, 30 times/year, every week not in the whole group training. One-hour online class, 30 times/year, Q&A with whole group led by the ED.
All intensive training days will be an average minimum of six hours. This can include time for people to work individually or in groups on given class projects or their personal competency profiles. How geographically widespread the pods are will determine how often whole group training sessions will be held (either three/year or one longer intensive). The seven-day whole group intensive can be expanded to 10 days on an as-needed basis.
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The total minimum in-class hours of the training program ranges from 1,116-1,314 hours. The total hours per year ranges from 372-438 hours. What
Intensives Workshops Supervised Clinics Q&A Webinar
# times per year [email protected] days or 1 @ 10 days
# days or hours 7 or 10 days
Teacher Educational Director Trainer Candidate Trainer Candidate Educational Director
Details Whole group in-person meetings at the beginning, middle, and end of each training year. Attended in-person by pod students. Attended in-person by pod students. Whole group online meetings.
60-126 192 90 30 372438/year
The training is designed to also deal with the issue of interruptions in the flow of the teaching and learning that often occurs when segments happen at various times/places during the year, taught by different Assistant Trainers. In the proposed model, the pod teachers are consistent presences in their respective groups; they are always in attendance. Other certified Trainers may be asked to come as needed for their particular skills and teach part or all of a seven-day segment. Requirements for Graduation •
Students will sign an enrollment agreement that spells out their requirements for graduation.
Each student will meet class attendance requirements and make up all missed classes.
Students will develop their own competence profile, based on the FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile. Through mentoring, class participation, and critical self-observation each will develop a written profile of their development as a student. This profile will be a part of each student’s ongoing evaluation as they attend the training.
Students will teach a minimum of 100 documented ATM lessons prior to graduation, including a themed weekend workshop. Each ATM class given will be documented as to attendance, theme, ATM or ATMs given, with critical self-evaluation of how lessons were taught. All themed weekend workshops will be developed and submitted including brochures, times, dates, venue, marketing plan, etc. to their pod teacher for feedback and discussion prior to giving their workshop. An Umbrella Approach to Feldenkrais® Training Copyright © 2015 Jeff Haller. All Rights Reserved. Page 9
Students are expected to participate in ATM on a more than weekly basis when not in training class. They will be apprised of the ATM resources they have available to them. Documentation of their ongoing ATM experience is expected with analysis of live teaching classes they attend so they will learn to discriminate styles of teaching as a part of the process of developing their own teaching expression.
Students will give a minimum of 150 documented FI lessons prior to graduation. Documentation will include what their client came for, what they saw, what they did, what their before and after references were, what homework was given, a critical overview of what they noticed about their self and what they need to develop as they continue in their practice.
Students will know a minimum of 30 ATM lessons in various orientations with different functional themes that they can teach.
Students who maintain their class participation will be given an endorsement to teach ATM and FI during the training process so they can be paid for their work, to support their development and their training. These endorsements will be given after each student has met a minimum standard. o For ATM endorsement: Teach 50 documented ATM lessons plus a one-day themed intensive. Completed an ATM practicum with their pod teacher (to be developed beyond current standard based on the CPP). ATM endorsement extends through the period between graduation and Guild certification if the person graduates from the training in good standing. o For FI endorsement: Give 50 documented FI lessons. Completed a FI practicum with their pod teacher (to be developed beyond current standard based on the CPP). FI endorsement extends through the period between graduation and Guild certification if the person graduates from the training in good standing.
Graduation from the training program is not complete until all documented ATM and FI lessons have been given.
Graduation from the training program will require students to complete their competence profile with clear documentation of their preparedness to be a Feldenkrais Teacher and meet the criteria to pass the Guild’s certification standards.
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Pod Teachers This training is not only to develop competent Feldenkrais practitioners, but also to develop new Assistant Trainers. The pod teachers are Guild-approved Assistant Trainers, or Trainers interested in participating. Gifted, mature teachers, Assistant Trainers and Trainers will be invited to develop personal pods of students from the local area where they live that they are committed to work with through the basic training process. Each pod teacher will be committed to develop the students in his or her proposed training group to graduate and become competent beginning Feldenkrais Teachers. Pod teachers can work alone or form partnerships with other qualified pod teachers to develop training groups to teach. The expectations for pod teachers are: •
Must become Guild-certified Assistant Trainers before the training program begins.
Be a recognized member in good standing of the FGNA.
Meet local and state laws relative to teaching a professional training program.
Have well-developed, extensive practices.
Have a strong working knowledge of the FGNA Competence Profile as a way of recognizing areas they are strong in as teachers and areas they need to develop.
Have a strong working knowledge of the competences to become a Feldenkrais Trainer and be committed to fulfilling those competences in order to become a Trainer themselves.
Pod teachers will be selected by the ED or can apply to the ED to develop a training pod once the training program is announced to the general Guild membership. Announcement of the training program and the enrollment of prospective trainees will commence after training pods have been established. Pod teachers must have their students attend all whole-group class meetings.
Once the training proposal is approved, confirming and training pod teachers, and the development of pods, will commence. The training for pod teachers includes: •
Pod teachers will train with the ED via online class, and in live in-person training programs with the ED, prior to the training program. The pod teacher online classes will familiarize the pod teachers with the FGNA Competence Profile and the Trainer Competences. An Umbrella Approach to Feldenkrais® Training Copyright © 2015 Jeff Haller. All Rights Reserved. Page 11
Each pod teacher will serve as an ongoing mentor to students in the training program to ensure they meet the training’s requirements for attendance in class, class participation, homework, and completion of their competence profile based on the CPP. They will be taught how to initiate the profile process with their students.
Online classes will be used to help pod teachers plan and prepare for teaching their pod classes.
After the first year, all pod teachers will meet for one week/year with the ED at beginning of each training year.
Meet for two days with the ED prior to the subsequent seven-day or 10-day whole group meetings during the year.
Meet weekly in online class format with the ED.
Be able to teach the ATM lessons from Amherst, San Francisco, approximate A & Y lessons, or from other published sources.
By mentoring with the ED and having a strong understanding of their training materials, as well as their own unique style, be prepared to teach FI to their students.
Be able to organize and produce each of the four-day segments given eight times per year.
Be able to organize and produce their weekly evening clinic.
Be able to support their students to attend the large group training sessions.
Meet the ED’s requirement that they prepare for and teach in the whole group sessions under the ED’s direction.
Based on his or her own personal and professional development, each pod teacher will provide their own unique perspective and materials to help each of their student’s fulfill their individual competence profile.
Be willing to mentor each student in their pod to develop and fulfill their own competence profile and meet the trainings graduation requirements.
Be willing if necessary, in conjunction with the ED, to remove people from their pod who do not fulfill training obligations and requirements.
Develop and maintain their own Trainer competence profile, developing those areas of expertise in themselves where they are deficient. Work with their ED on their development as a Trainer. An Umbrella Approach to Feldenkrais® Training Copyright © 2015 Jeff Haller. All Rights Reserved. Page 12
Attend as many as possible of their ED’s own pod sessions and participate in classes, advanced trainings and other programs the ED teaches or study with other Trainers and relevant teachers to maintain their own growth.
There will be a significant increase in the speed with which people become competent and ready to become a Trainer. They will know the whole training process by having participated in all levels of this training program.
Basic Curriculum The curriculum will be based on the FGNA competence profile to insure that each student encompasses the competences in each chapter of the profile. Each ED will provide the curriculum they will oversee. For example, aspects of Jeff Haller’s Standing Protocol (found in Appendix 11) on file with the TAB, are presented here as an example. Theoretical topics taught to prepare students for competence and help students fulfill their competence profile include but are not limited to: (Example taken from Jeff Haller’s Standing Protocol). • • •
• • • • • • • •
Neurological phenomena of regression Organic learning The relationship between early movement learning and later functional preferences and limitations Slowness in development and its relationship to complexity of action The skeleton in gravity Utilization of non-habitual patterns in the process of learning Three kinds of self-images and their relationship to movement The role of imagining and thinking in movement The role of awareness in movement Weber-Fechner Law: the function of reducing force in learning Creating choices (the same function in different ways) and how it affects learning, movement, tonus and feelings The head and its organization in space
• • • • •
The functional relationship between the senses (eyes, ears) and head movement and its organization The anatomical and neurological functional relationship between head and pelvis The relationship between quality of head movement and the general organization Orientation, manipulation and timing as building blocks of every movement Symmetry/Asymmetry: the biological criterion, the importance of dominance, the relationship of asymmetry to learning Emotions Figure/Background “How” versus “Why”: the scientific approach and non-linear thinking On learning Static versus dynamic stability and its relationship to the human structure Center of gravity
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• • • • • • • •
• • • • • • •
• • •
• • • •
Concept and applications Reversibility: concept and applications Ideal movement First series on developmental neurology Introduction to cybernetics What is Functional Integration; what it is not On change and action Dualistic thinking versus integrative thinking; awareness of sensations in learning The impact of very gentle repetitive movement on the general organization of the brain Minimal force/trajectory of movement Proportional distribution of force and movement organization Emotions and movement The mechanics of movement Effective communication in teaching and learning movement Emotions, trauma and cathartic therapy Rapidity and complexity of movement and its relationship to the maturation of the nervous system Differentiation of movement and maturation Utilization of regression in movement learning The relationship between the environment and the development of the nervous system Functional Integration as conversation On the structure of foot and weight distribution Posture (I) Posture and action (II)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Normal articular surfaces Stability/instability: taking risks matches our structure Ground forces Balance and Counter Balance Potential energy, the human structure and initiation of action Center of body as “power station” and head as “telescope” Proportional distribution of effort in movement and its importance Exclusive/inclusive attention Observation versus judgment Functional Integration as learning Verbal communication; non-verbal communication The Feldenkrais Method and philosophy of science Use of the term “Neutral” Primitive undifferentiated movements and their usefulness in learning Trajectory of minimum resistance Movement of proximal and distal parts and how to bypass pain Cardinal lines Second series in neurophysiology The formation of function in Functional Integration The acquisition of new patterns in the brain What is health? Overcoming obstacles Successive approximations Learning and inferiority Maturation and individuation Transference and Countertransference Developing a practice Ethical issues such as creating professional boundaries
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Distinctions from Competence Profile The following distinctions are made as to how the competence profile will be met in this training. Competence 1.0: Self-Organization Self-organization will be the foundation from which the student practitioners’ Functional Integration practice will develop and grow. An early full-class segment will be devoted to the study of Self-Organization taught by the ED or another qualified Trainer. The student will learn to take the principles of movement and action they learn on the floor in ATM into upright action so they can learn to support their self from within as they work at the FI table. Students will meet all of the competences in the FGNA competence profile for self-organization while understanding they will graduate as competent beginners with years of study necessary to achieve mastery in their development. Competence 1.1: Working with Individuals Moshe had a refined sense for “ideal organization.” Students’ own sense of what is possible will be the basis for their learning how to work with individuals. Each will develop and lay his or her own straight keel from which to practice Functional Integration. They will know how to discover how their clients deviate from the ideal and know how to create the learning context and environment to help them function with greater comfort and skill. Supervised study of Functional Integration will begin during the first year of the training program following a week committed to studying self-organization taught by the ED. Moshe’s FI lessons, in addition to the many lessons available for view on such media outlets as YouTube or Vimeo, and of their own pod teachers, will a part of Functional Integration training. Students, in their competence profile, will document their learning and understanding of the competences in 1.1. The competences will become a part of their FI study and slowly become integrated as their practices develop. After 50 lessons they will be given a practicum which will include giving lessons that demonstrate a capacity, which they can discuss using the competences as a basis, for helping people with Functional Integration. Students will teach 150 documented FI lessons in order to meet graduation requirements. Students are expected to receive ongoing documented FI lessons outside of the class setting either through trade with other students or with practitioners. Students will receive a minimum of 12 FI lessons over the three years of course work with at least one lesson given by the ED or another Trainer. All students will attain competent beginner standing for the Competence 1.1.
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Students will complete this competence having given and documented 150 FI lessons. Below is sampling of different modalities and their requirements for graduation: • Heller Work: 120 lessons • School of Structural Medicine (an outgrowth of the Heller Work): 120 lessons • Biodynamic Cranial Sacral Therapy: 150 sessions All practices will be given as a part of developing lessons that serve the development of whole function. Functional Integration practices will include but are not limited to: (Example taken from Jeff Haller’s Dtanding Protocol) • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Qualities of touch Observation of breathing Observation of movement: lying and sitting Observation of movement: standing and walking Observation of weight bearing: lying and sitting Touching another trainee while he moves to help the one touching feel/see what the other one does Observation of the shape and direction of movement with breathing Use of hands Use of touch Observation of movement of head, lying to sitting Following a movement pattern into flexion Observing patterns of rolling Positioning: prone, supine, side lying Observation of the spine and ribs Watching the skeleton move Observation of similarities and differences Lifting the head Supporting the skeleton, use of foam rollers Exploring the feet Observing differences in positions: prone, supine, side lying Following the movements of breathing Sensing your hands
• • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Observing lightness of touch On side: exploring pelvic structures On belly: exploring pelvic structures Transmission of force from pelvis through spine to head (different positions and different ways) Sitting: exploring pelvic structure On side: changing leg positions and its effect on pelvis organization and mobility Hand to face in variety of positions Shoulder/arm differentiation (in variety of positions) Relationship between arm and back movement Elbow movement in space Arm movement in variety of ways and positions Movement through cardinal lines Movement of leg (different positions and movement configurations) Differentiating pelvic and leg movement Lifting head Rolling head Transmission of movement from foot to head Artificial floor Mobilizing the ribs Exploring spine Head movement and its relationship to spine and ribs and hips Gentle arm pull and its relationships to rest of body
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• • • • •
• • • • • • •
Beginning of integration of different ingredients into whole functions Finding neutral of head and gentle compression (in different positions) Head translation, circles Arranging yourself and your student for comfort Relating Awareness Through Movement lessons to a Functional Integration lessons Making an initial interview Creating a learning environment How to avoid focusing on the problem Questions to ask yourself Finding trajectories Hip and shoulder differentiation Clarifying the image of the spine
• • • • • • • • • • •
Proximal and distal movements Shortening one side from the pelvis Observe variables in movement patterns Exploring a movement with different orientations in space Positions: bending over table Finding the most accessible movement patterns Changing the plane of action to access a movement Enhance functions in several orientations Learning to move from the pelvis Planning the Functional Integration Ending the lesson
Competence 1.2 Working with Groups Note: This training proposal is easily adaptable should the FGNA decide to reopen the question of an ATM Teaching Certificate. It provides for a stringent competence-based training, with demonstrable skill level for a beginning ATM teacher. It is suggested that ATM certificate teachers experience all of Competence 1.2 with the distinctions given below, and have completed the ATM material offered in Amherst as a foundation for their teaching. •
ATM will be taught based on the Amherst Model of ATM lessons, or whatever model the ED chooses. (It will be suggested that all students obtain or have access to copies of Moshe teaching in Amherst, as well as his other published works, for their own selfstudy.)
Supervised experimentation with teaching ATM lessons will be introduced early in the first year.
Students, in their competence profile, will document their learning and understanding of the competences in 1.2. The competences will become a part of their ATM study and become integrated as their practices develop. After teaching 50 ATM lessons they will be given a practicum which will include teaching ATM lessons that demonstrate a capacity, which they can discuss using the competences as a basis, for helping people with Awareness Through Movement. Students will teach 100 documented ATM lessons and give one themed workshop in order to meet graduation requirements.
All students will attain competent beginner standing for the Competence 1.2.
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Awareness Through Movement lessons will include but are not limited to: (Example taken from Jeff Haller’s Standing Protocol) o Sucking movement series o Eye movement series o Rolling from side to back to side series o On back, flexing series o On back, extending arms till rolling on side o Head and eye movement series o Transition from lying to sitting series (each lesson introducing a different way of doing it) o Twisting movement series (prone, supine, sitting and other positions) o Eye hand coordination series o Awareness Through Movement in thinking (imagination) only series o Lifting head to horizon (on belly arching back, lying on side, etc.) series o On hands and knees: weight shifting, rolling, sitting, rocking, movement of arms and legs and relationship to center of body series o Transition from hands and knees to hands and feet series o On feet and hands o Lifting head and pelvis off ground in different ways and positions series o Differentiation of hands and feet series o Foot in hand series o “Fish”/swim to crawling series o Head movements in space series
o Differentiation of pelvic movement series o Increasing differentiation of foot movement series o Rolling to lying in more ways series o Legs and pelvis o Arms and pelvis o Sitting to standing series o Arm movement series o Advanced flexion in lying positions series o Crossing arms and interlacing fingers: extended series o Bell movement (light flexion/extension) with dominant hand and fingers series o Licking movement o Hand to mouth and face o Advanced toes and fingers differentiation and awareness o Sitting and lying on heels extended series o Advanced extension o Preparation for Judo rolls series o Advanced foot to hand series o Lying to standing series o Judo rolls (two styles) series o Balance o Advanced baby rolls (two modalities) series o Advanced head rolling movement series o Breathing series o Advanced bridging (arching and twisting on back) o Analogous movement of arms and legs o Analogous movement of hand/wrist and foot/ankle
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o Softening chest series o Sitting and bending (flexing) with head horizontal to lying extended series o Standing: twisting o Standing: bending o Standing: oscillating o On back lifting pelvis: “carp jumps” series o Pelvis/leg differentiation o Advanced eye movement series o Squatting series o Mobilizing sternum and seventh cervical vertebra o Advanced crossing arms series o Advanced bell hand series o Increased differentiation of hand, wrist, arms movement and its relationship to back and pelvis movement series o Dominant hand lesson o Mobilization of seventh cervical vertebra o Detailed hand to face o Hands and arms behind back series o Delicate hands lesson o More judo rolls o Handstand preparation series o Falling safely from headstand series o Headstand series o Increasing complexity and differentiation of leg movements and its relationship to back, chest, neck and head movement o Carp jumps: continuation series o Five cardinal lines and skeletal behavior o Standing foot in lying position to standing series
o On belly lifting pelvis in air series o Arm movement and its relationship to lower back and pelvis o Ankle movement to move ribs o Creeping movement o Legs crossed to sitting series o Advanced breathing lessons o Supine rolling with arms crossed under chest o Diagonal ripples series o Rolling front to back, head stays on horizon o Supine right foot standing on floor on left side of leg o Moving spine like a chain to soften thorax o Oscillating foot to move whole self o Lift pelvis off floor with feet together o Supine, lift pelvis in air, rock on heels o Head through gate o Sitting on one buttock o Forming circles with knee/foot while lying on right side holding left foot o Sitting on heels o Supine to standing on one knee/holding foot o Sitting on hands o Making a diagonal of the arms and leg on the same side o From squatting, taking knees forward to kneeling o Pelvic clock sitting o Rolling to back to sitting on heels o Arcs o 3 clocks/3 planes o Prone extension, lifting head o Supine rolling to sit, to kneel
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o Coming to standing from kneeling and lying
o Rolling in flexion and extension, holding feet
Competence 1.3 Working with Other Professions Students, in their competence profile, will document their learning and understanding of the competences in 1.3. Practice will be given to help students develop their skills in speaking and working with other professions as a Feldenkrais practitioner. Competence 2.1 Professional Development The very process of the training based on each student developing their own competence profile which will lead them into critical self-analysis and will serve them in their professional development. The nature of the training is to help them discover the resources they will need to continue their learning journey. By documenting their own development based on the FGNA Competence Profile they will know of the necessity for continuing education. To this point, they will have access to the work of various Trainers and teachers offering advanced training programs and graduate programs to support their ongoing learning and development. Students will be directed to attend Guild-sponsored conferences, regional events, training programs and other pod sessions taught by different teachers, for their own development as teachers. Competence 2.3 Personal Development Utilizing the competence profile, each student will learn how to make a critical analysis to discover areas of personal development and find the necessary resources to help them with their maturation. It is expected the training process will provide significant opportunities for students to develop awareness of long-standing, deeply internalized patterns of behavior and self-image. The training will provide a basis for personal growth and maturation for each student, as well as provide other resources for continued self-study and self-actualization. Competence 3.1 Practice Management In addition to abiding with Guild policy, state and national laws, students will learn how to become a professional Feldenkrais Practitioner. Primary to this will be a clear and profound understanding of the issues of Transference and Counter-transference. Ethics, self-direction and self-reliance will be a potent theme throughout the training process.
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Because of the extensive practice involved to graduate from this program and the models of practice given in the program students will have significant training in marketing and business practices from which to build their business. Working with the competence 3.1 in their competence profile will serve to inform each student of their responsibilities in developing a professional practice. Other Guild Criteria for Training Program Accreditation There will be many questions, as this alternative application does not meet the specific guidelines as written in the training accreditation guidelines. What follows is a point-by-point breakdown of where the training is in accordance and where it diverges. Application and Accreditation Guidelines: 1. The training shall prepare trainees for competence in the practice of both Awareness through Movement® and Functional Integration®. Yes. 2. Each individual training program shall be separately accredited in its entirety. To be determined. 3. In countries where there is a formally recognized association of practitioners/teachers, the TAB will consult with the national organization. No training program in a given country will be accredited without consulting with the national association of practitioners. A letter from the practitioner association regarding the training program should accompany the training proposal. Each country may have a specific agreement with the TAB regarding the way to be considered in the process of accrediting a proposal. It is possible that pods could potentially be developed with teachers from other countries such as Canada, Argentina or Spain where Assistant Trainers have not been supported in their development by the Trainers they have worked for. 4. A program shall not begin before accreditation has been given. Yes. 5. A proposal will be considered for approval by the TAB within three (3) months of receipt of a training proposal which fulfills all the criteria to the TAB. The staff will review the proposal for completeness and write to the training organizers for additional data, if needed, before the proposal is put on the agenda of the TAB. This proposal may require a longer period for approval.
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6. Advertising and promotional materials: It will be necessary for an ED to advertise this training in the practitioner community in order to identify the pod teachers they will work with. a. Advertising includes written announcements to the public or to practitioners, teachers, and/or trainees of the Feldenkrais Method. A letter of intention or announcement of a “project” or anything of similar intent, published in Feldenkrais literature or any publication or place is considered advertising. b. For trainings in areas served by EuroTAB, advertising may not begin until accreditation has been granted. For trainings in areas served by NATAB and AusTAB, advertising published before accreditation must include a statement that the sponsor “intends to apply for accreditation.” In North America, a letter of intention must be filed with the NATAB before advertising. c. Advertising should specify that in certain states, or countries, professional practice may be subject to licensing laws limiting their professional practice unless the graduate has (a) certain license(s). Yes. d. Advertising shall indicate that neither ATM nor FI may be practiced professionally until the person has graduated from an accredited training program. Interim authorization as an ATM teacher is a student teaching position, subject to completing all graduation requirements. This proposal will require an exception to the policy and will likely need Board approval as it is suggested that students can receive payment for their work following completion of their ATM and FI practicums. e. Service Marks 1. The training program shall comply with the service mark provisions of the country in which the program is operating. For information on local service mark provisions. training organizers are to refer to the Guild/Association of the country in which the training program is operating. Yes. 2. Service marks will be appropriately used in all training program promotional materials. Yes. 7. When more than one training program is in the same geographical area, it is expected that the training organizers will be in communication with each other to support the needs
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of the area and to facilitate coordination between the training organizations. Yes. 8. It is expected that a training program will proceed according to what has been set forth in the proposal with regard to educational content, personnel, location, structure, etc. The TAB must be informed as soon as possible, in writing, of any planned or unplanned changes in these areas. Significant changes in program may affect the status of accreditation. In the beginning this program will be quite fluid until all pod teachers are identified. The TAB will be kept up to date as the program develops. After approval it will probably take several months for pod teachers to be identified and all arrangements and agreements made with the ED. 9. Include in the proposal consideration of current geographical distribution of Feldenkrais Practitioners/Teachers and the needs of the proposed communities to be served. Specifically address how the following will be provided: (1) an educational support system during the training program and continuity between segments, such as study groups, newsletter, etc. (2) opportunity for post graduate education after the training program; (3) attention to ways a professional practice can be developed. Provided for in the proposal. 10. Include a statement in the proposal attesting that the program is in compliance with country, state, and local laws and that all necessary permits and licenses for conducting a professional, training program have been obtained. All pods will meet state vocational school standards and all students will be informed of state and local laws relative to professional and business licensing. 11. A training is to be held over a minimum of three years (36 months) and include a minimum of 800 hours of class instruction over at least 160 days of training. In training segments longer than 10 days, there has to be at least one day off after each 7 days. This program will be held in three years’ time with hours exceeding the minimum number of days and hours required. At this point no training periods exceed 10 days. Requirements Related to the Organizational Aspects of the Training Program: 12. A Trainer needs to be present for the entire 800 hours, except for brief and extraordinary circumstances. However, a maximum of eight (8) days of any training program can be taught by an experienced Assistant Trainer (defined by a minimum of eight (8) years of experience as an Assistant Trainer and 320 days of work in training programs) or a Trainer candidate without the Trainer present, but with Trainer supervision, at the discretion of the Educational Director. No more than two (2) of these eight days may be consecutive. Training proposals must include specific dates a training is
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to be held, with a list of who the Trainer is for each of those specific dates. A letter of agreement from each Trainer (or Someone from the Administrative staff shall be present on the training site as often as needed. This training proposal is a major departure from this guideline. Under the ED’s direction, Trainers and Assistant Trainers will form local pods of students and be their main teacher for 32 days a year in addition to providing three hours of supervision for 30 weeks each year. All pod students will meet as a whole group one to three times per year under the ED’s direction; other certified Trainers may be invited to teach whole-group segments or present online classes on an as-needed basis. There will be no enlisted backup trainers. 13. Every training program has to have an Educational Director and an Administrative Director. (In some cases, both roles may be performed by the same person.) To be determined following TAB approval. 14. In the Administrative function, one person will be responsible for financial and organizational aspects, including the relationship with the local practitioner Guild/Association and the TAB. This function may be shared. To be determined following TAB approval. 15. The Administrative Director shall be either a citizen or permanent resident or has to know the laws, language and customs on the country in which the Training Program takes place. Yes. 16. The proposal shall include: a. Name (s) of the Educational and Administrative Director (s). b. List of qualifications and duties of persons responsible for administrative and professional aspects. To be determined. c. Location, where the training Program will be held. Pod locations to be determined. d. Exact dates, indicating how the minimum requirement of the 200 hours per training year will be met.
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The training dates will be established as the pods form. e. A list of the names of the Trainers and a list of Assistant Trainers who have verbally agreed. Unknown at this date. f. Letters from each Trainer agreeing to participate in the training program including specific dates the Trainer will be teaching. Letters of agreement from pod teachers will be arranged when they join the training program. g. A description of the process and criteria to be used to remove trainees during the training. A trainee who fails to maintain satisfactory progress, fails to comply with the attendance policy, violates safety regulations, interferes with other trainees’ learning, is convicted of a felony, is boisterous, vulgar or obscene, is under the influence of or abusing alcohol or drugs, uses the Feldenkrais-related service marks or logo inappropriately, or does not make timely tuition payments is subject to immediate termination. Decisions regarding termination or probation of a trainee will be made by his or her pod teacher and the ED after a full discussion of the perceived problems with the trainee and after the trainee has had an opportunity to be heard by the pod teacher and if necessary the ED. h. A description of the graduation process will be included in the proposal. As indicated above. i. A list of fees and a budget for each of the four years in local currency as well as in US Dollars. To be determined. j. A description of the on going feedback and evaluation strategies to track the progress of the training, the trainees, the Assistant Trainers, and the performance of the Trainers. The evaluation processes used in the training program are built into the FGNA Competence Profile. k. A copy of the contract to be signed between the training organization and the trainees. The enrollment agreement will be developed and sent to the TAB. A sample agreement by Jeff Haller and Inside Moves LLC is included in the Appendices.
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17. The TAB shall receive a fee for the process of accreditation. The current fees are: a. Application fee (nonrefundable) - NATAB -$600.00 U.S.; Europe - ECU 450.— (This is a one time fee, to be included with the application.) Fees will be included with proposal. b. For programs submitting to the North American TAB, the accreditation fee (nonrefundable) for each training program, is $100.00/trainee/year, payable at the beginning of each training year to the Guild office, with verification and reconciliation at the end of each training year in cases where trainees have been added or dropped. Subject to the approval of each ED. c. For proposals submitting to the EuroTAB, the accreditation fee is ECU 25.— /trainee/year, payable at the end of the training year to the EuroTAB office. 18. In North America, all trainee contact information requested by FGNA, and trainees’ dates of birth, shall be given to the Guild office by the 25th day of the training program. Agreed. In Europe, a fee has to be paid yearly without direct relationship with a student membership. The fee is set at 20.— ECU/calender year per trainee. The fees should be paid and the names and addresses of the trainees given to the EuroTAB by the 25th day of the training program. The fee is to be paid as follows: • for trainees living in the training country: to the local Guild/Association. • for other trainees or those countries without a Guild/Association: to a special fund to be established by the IFF. 19. In North America, within the first year of the training, the trainees will receive an orientation packet from the Guild. Agreed. One purpose of this training program is to provide highly qualified practitioners for Guild membership. The Guild and its representative body the TAB is invited to attend all segments of the training program. As this is an alternative process, Guild and TAB participation and feedback would be greatly appreciated. 20. Letters from Assistant Trainers are not required in the training proposal, but formal agreements are expected to be made between the training organization and the Assistant Trainer. This proposal necessitates clear contracts between the ED and the pod teachers. Contracts will be sent to the TAB for verification.
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21. If an Assistant Trainer is scheduled to be the Trainer for a specific segment on the assumption that they will be granted Trainer status by that time, a letter from a Trainer will be required committing him/herself to be a back up for this time should the Assistant Trainer not become a Trainer as scheduled. Does not apply in this proposal. 22. It is recommended that Assistant Trainers hired for years 3 & 4 of a training program have experience teaching in years one and two. Well-established assistant trainers will not have a problem with teaching years 3 & 4. New assistant trainers coming from the ranks of well established practitioners will prove their mettle and prepare for year 3 & 4 by teaching years 1 & 2. There will be considerable training of all assistant trainer pod teachers throughout the training program in preparation for each training session. 23. In North America, all Trainers and Assistant Trainers must be members of a recognized Feldenkrais Professional practitioner/teacher Guild/Association. Agreed as stated in the proposal. 24. The training organizer and at least one member of the educational team in every segment should speak the native language of the country, except in those countries where insufficient number of Trainers and assistants speak the language. Agreed. Requirements For the Educational Aspects of the Training Program: 25. A training shall accept no more than 80 participants for a given program, have no more than 80 participants on site, and graduate no more than 80 (exception - visitors and guests). Exceptions may be necessary for this guideline, depending on enrollment of the pods. 26. A proposal should include a clear and comprehensive educational plan including an outline of general and specific skills and functional abilities to be fostered by the training, along with learning strategies to be used to provide learning experiences for the trainees and how these will evolve throughout the training. This is accomplished by the FGNA Competence Profile. 27. A description of the process and criteria to be used in screening applicants should be included in the proposal. Diversity from a variety of professions, occupations and fields of endeavor is encouraged. Trainees shall be accepted into the Feldenkrais Professional Training Program regardless of their race, gender, religion, physical limitations, age or sexual orientation, provided they fulfill the other requirements described herewith.
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Statements provided by EDs in their training proposal and student contract. 28. Previous experience in the Feldenkrais Method, both FI and ATM, is needed for participating in a training program. Agreed. Pre-training workshops will be given and there will be chances to meet the teachers and ED prior to the beginning of the training program. 29. A contract to be signed between accepted applicants and training organizers is to be included with the training application. This contract shall include: a. number of FI lessons included in the tuition b. fees, conditions of payment and responsibilities for non-payment of fees c. number of hours and years d. evaluation process during the training e. causes and process for dismissal f. maximum of permitted time of absence during the training program g. authorization to teach ATM after a designated period of time h. graduation process i. a clause about the intention of the trainee to complete the four years in one training j. description of when and how the service mark terms and the logo may be used. k. a statement about needing to conform to laws about “hands on” practice in certain cases, in some states, provinces, and countries. l. a statement that the training is organized under policies of an international accrediting board. m. a statement that the training has to be completed in seven (7) years. n. a statement that the trainees agrees not to advertise at all during the first two (2) years of the training. o. a statement to the effect that by signing the contract, the trainees authorizes the use of his/her name, address, date of birth, communication networks coordinates (phone, fax, computer access codes, etc.) and formal level in the Feldenkrais community in a Feldenkrais database. Agreed in part. Students who complete their ATM and Functional Integration practicums prior to graduation will be allowed to advertise their work meeting Guild guidelines for advertising, in order that they can work and be paid for their services while in training. Fees are yet to be determined. A sample enrollment agreement contract spelling out the above details is included in the appendix. Each ED will provide their own enrollment agreement contract. 30. The Educational Director is responsible for the integrity of the entire training process;
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he/she should be a Guild-Certified Trainer with at least two years of experience in this function. Agreed. a. For the sake of continuity, the educational director or one person from the educational staff or team has to be present 100% of the time. The Educational Director her/himself is to be present at least 50% of the time. Exceptions will need to be made with this guideline. Continuity - the TAB has further delineated what this means in terms of what needs to be done in trainings and in proposals submitted for accreditation. It is preferred that the Educational team consist of Trainers and very experienced Assistant Trainers and that these are the people providing the continuity functions. Various combinations of faculty, manuals, design materials, and communications with the educational director may be used to fulfill the continuity functions, given the specific situation for each training program. The key is to be in clear communication with the TAB about how this function is to be (and is) carried out. Proposals must specifically address the continuity functions. When the Educational Director is not present 100% of the time the plan should account for the following aspects of continuity: • how the incoming Trainer will know about the educational design and what has preceded the current segment, including information about any special needs of the group and/or specific students. • how the Educational Director will learn about the segment including information about specific students, if indicated. • how the students’ need for a consistent, reliable presence by an educational team member is actualized. For the most part this function is carried out by the local pods and the ongoing local nature of the training program, and how each program is in continued communication with their ED in webinar meetings held weekly. b. The function of educational direction of the training program may be shared by an educational staff, educational team, or co-educational directors. This training proposal insures the educational staff will be diverse with several different teachers with different backgrounds teaching. c. The function of educational direction of the training program includes: 1. Development and implementation of the educational plan and coordination of the educational process. 2. Coordination and integration of all Trainers and training staff with the
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process. 3. Ongoing evaluation of the educational process, including how it is received by the trainees. 4. Evaluation of the trainees for graduation. Agreed. The graduation requirements are clearly spelled out. 31. The educational plan shall include a description of how the educational materials of Moshe Feldenkrais will be utilized in the training program and how the trainees will be exposed to the man and his teachings. Done in the proposal. 32. In countries, where the main language of the trainees is not English, a translation of materials should be provided. Agreed. 33. It is expected that ATM will be part of the curriculum all four years of the training program. The educational plan will specify how Awareness through Movement will be taught in relation to Functional Integration. Agreed. To be determined by the ED. 34. During the training, the trainees shall be exposed to a minimum of four Trainers. The maximum any one Trainer can teach is 50%. However, an Educational Director who has directed a minimum of two training programs can teach a maximum of 60%. The additional days shall be taught by a minimum of three additional Trainers. Minimum exposure to one Trainer is 10 days. The educational plan will indicate how the principle of significant variety will be implemented. Exceptions will have to be made with this guideline, as each pod teacher will be responsible for their training group. Pod teachers may be invited to work in each other’s programs if desired. All pod teachers will be given the opportunity to teach in the whole group training segments. The very nature of the program promotes diversity in the training of students. 35. A minimum of 12 F.I. lessons shall be offered to each trainee as part of the training and included in the tuition. All of these lessons shall be given under the direction of the Educational Director. At least 1 of these lessons shall be given by a Trainer. Practitioners with at least five years of experience may give up to 5 of these lessons. All remaining lessons shall be given by a Trainer or an Assistant Trainer. It is expected that the majority of these lessons will be given outside the 800 hours. Agreed. 36. In the first half of a program, there shall be an average of one Trainer or Assistant
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Trainer for each 20 participants or fraction thereof. For trainings under 40 participants, in the first half, there may be one Trainer for 30 participants or fraction thereof. In the second half of all training programs, the ratio is one to 15. Exceptions will have to be made with this guideline. 37. Each trainee must have the opportunity to teach ATM under supervision before he/she is authorized to teach ATM with the public. Such authorization will not be granted before 80 full days of training is completed. Exceptions will have to be made with this guideline as per the training proposal. 38. In the last quarter of the training, each trainee will have the opportunity to give at least two (2) FI lessons under supervision. Exceptions will have to be made with this guideline as per the training proposal. 39. Trainees in training programs will be permitted to teach Awareness through Movement for purposes of their learning, after two years enrollment in the Professional Training Program. If a trainee drops out of the training program after two years enrollment, but before graduation, he/she will lose the right to teach Awareness through Movement, unless he/she has been granted a leave of absence. Exceptions will have to be made with this guideline. Agreed if a trainee drops out. 40. In North America, trainees are permitted to call themselves authorized ATM Teachers, not certified, which doesn’t happen until graduation. Agreed but exceptions will have to be made with this proposal as it provides for students to be paid after successful completion of their ATM and FI practicum. 41. Trainees may miss no more than five (5) days in any year, and no more than ten (10) days during the whole course of the training program, without having to make formal arrangements with the Trainer or educational staff to make up missed class time. The trainee, however, is responsible for the content of the missed material. Trainees must make up all additional missed time with assistance of the educational director and the training program teachers. Agreed. In North America, no person shall join a training program, having missed more than the first year (40 days/200 hours) of the program. Agreed; in this case, 42-53 days or 372-438 hours.
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When an entire sequence is made up in another training program, it is expected that the learning material be comparable, both in content and stage in the training process. Makeup work is to be done as soon as possible. Exceptions will have to be made with this part of the guideline. The requirements for this training are far more stringent that other accredited programs as far as homework and completion of the competence profile. 42. The training program graduating the trainee and giving the diploma is responsible to see that the trainee has fulfilled all the requirements for graduation. Agreed. 43. A trainee who wants to transfer from one training program to another must receive a letter from the educational director and the administrative director of his/her original program, indicating fees paid, number of days of training completed, which parts of the program completed, and a recommendation to continue the training elsewhere. Agreed. 44. If a trainee has to interrupt the training program and wishes to continue in another program after a period of elapsed time, the Training Accreditation Board will decide about the trainee’s eligibility to continue his/her training, on a case by case basis. A training has to be completed within seven years’ time. Agreed. 45. There shall be a visitor (trainees from other programs and graduates) and guest policy. Agreed. Visitors from other training programs are welcome to attend the training program on a space available basis. 46. Describe in the proposal, ongoing feedback and evaluation strategies to track the progress of the training, the trainees, the Assistant Trainers, and the performance of the Trainers. Answered in the proposal. 47. Compliance forms are due after each 20 days of training (40 days for 8-week long programs). [For programs with three segments each year, submitting the forms after each segment is easier for the TABs to review.] [In North America,] for Educational Directors who have completed directing two accredited trainings, as the Educational Director, and whose trainings have had no recent violations of TAB policy, compliance forma are due 45 days after completion of each year of the training. For other Educational Directors, compliance forms are due more often, as scheduled with the accrediting TAB.
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Agreed. It is expected, as this is an alternative training proposal that the TAB would want to have clear oversight over the training program and keep track of what is happening within each pod as well as the overall training process.
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AN UMBRELLA APPROACH TO FELDENKRAIS® TRAINING GENERIC PROPOSAL Presented by Jeff Haller, Ph.D., Feldenkrais Trainer February 12, 2015
Draft Sample Enrollment Agreement
FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile
Yvan Joly, “A Proposal for an Alternative Training Model: Distributed Training Design (DTD),” presented to the NATAB and EuroTab, 2006
“The International Working Group (IWG) On Training Policy,” Parts A & B, commissioned by AusTAB, EuroTAB and NATAB, 2006
Pieter Mostert, “Turn Towards Competences,” 2001
Carl Ginsburg, Jeff Haller and Beatriz Walterspiel, “The Phase II Report: Competences and the Educational Plan,” ~2002
Pat Buchanan, Survey of Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers, 2014
In Touch, report on competence-based training with notes on the 1997 annual meeting resolution to separate graduation from certification and move toward competence-based training, Spring 2013
FGNA Trainer and Assistant Trainer Lists
Jeff Haller, Standing Protocol
Draft SAMPLE ENROLLMENT AGREEMENT for the Inside Moves LLC Sponsored FELDENKRAIS® PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS
____________ Inside Moves LLC 15081 SE 54th Place Bellevue, WA 98006 (425) 502-‐8346
This Enrollment Agreement is between Inside Moves LLC. and Name _____________________________________________________________________ Address ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Home phone (______) ___________________ Work phone (______) _________________ Fax (______) __________________ E-‐mail ______________________________________ 1. Purpose The XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program is a professional training program accredited by the FELDENKRAIS GUILD® of North America (hereafter referred to as the Guild). Graduates of this program will become Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers® or Guild ®
Certified Feldenkrais Practitionerscm, able to teach and practice Awareness Through Movement ®
(ATM) and Functional Integration (FI) and eligible to use the Feldenkrais-‐related service marks and logo. (See Section 7 for a more detailed explanation of the use of the service marks and logo.) 2. Caveat In certain countries, states, provinces or local jurisdictions, the professional practice of the Feldenkrais Method® may be subject to licensing laws that set forth requirements in addition to graduation from a Guild accredited training program. Trainees are solely responsible for meeting any such requirements and acquiring and maintaining such licenses.
3. Entry Requirements Applicants to the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program should be college graduates or have equivalent, though perhaps less formal, learning experience. If an interested applicant has no college or other degree, the applicant should include in his/her application a statement describing how he/she has benefited from whatever his/her life experiences have been and has attained the maturity and focus in life that will be a suitable foundation for entry into the XXXXX training program. Diversity of backgrounds of the training participants contributes greatly to the training experience and Inside Moves LLC. encourages applicants from a wide variety of professions, occupations, and fields of endeavor. Applicants shall be accepted into the training without regard to their race, gender, religion, physical limitations, age, or sexual orientation. Applicants must be committed to completing all aspects of the training process including class attendance and completion of their individual FGNA competence profile. 4. Training Inside Moves LLC. agrees to provide a minimum of 1314 hours of training over three years. XX as educational director will teach and oversee the entire training process. Students will meet a minimum of three times annually for a total of 21 days with XX and be exposed to a variety of trainers and assistant trainers but will work mainly with their own local “pod” teacher who will be a certified assistant trainer or trainer of the Feldenkrais Method. 4.1 In addition each trainee will receive a total of 12 FI lessons during the course of the training from either a trainer or an assistant trainer or other practitioner/teacher under the direction of the Educational Director. At least four of these FIs may be given by FGNA certified practitioners with a minimum of eight years experience. The majority of these FI sessions will be given outside the 1314 hours of the training and will be open to observation by other trainees as a part of their learning process. It is recommended that trainees obtain a minimum of 12 or more additional FIs per year from the training staff or other practitioners to facilitate the trainee’s development and learning of the Feldenkrais Method. 5. Location and Facility All training segments will be held in suitable buildings and rooms fit for training in the Feldenkraia Method. Some related materials and equipment (a number of Feldenkrais tables and stools, rollers, and foam pillows) will be provided for demonstration purposes and will be available to trainees when not in use by the training staff and practitioners. Trainees who can are encouraged to purchase and bring their own tables and stools as needed in the training program. 6. Tuition Payment for the XXXXX training will be paid in US dollars. 6.1 XXXXX Funds The yearly tuition for this training is XXXXX. The total tuition for this training will be XXXXX, plus any applicable tax. Tuition is payable in one of two ways (note: actual dates are best estimates and may change slightly): 6.1.1 Payment by Training Segments $XXX application fee $XXX deposit to be paid within three weeks of acceptance (this deposit ensures the trainee’s place in each segment of the
training and will be credited toward the final tuition payment for the training)
Years One through Three $XXXX by the first day of each segment (tuition for pod segments and clinics will be paid to pod teachers. Tuition for full group segments and webinar Q & A sessions will be paid to Inside Moves LLC.) 6.1.2 Annual Payment
deposit to be paid within three weeks of acceptance (this deposit ensures the trainee’s place in each segment of the training and will be credited toward the last tuition payment for the training)
by the beginning date of each training year. Total tuition reduced by 5% for annual payment. (tuition will be divided accordingly between Inside Moves LLC and pod teachers.)
6.1.3 Paying Full Tuition $XXX application fee $XXX deposit to be paid within three weeks of acceptance (this deposit ensures the trainee’s place in each segment of the training and will be credited toward the last tuition payment for the training) $XXXXX by the beginning date of the training . Total tuition reduced by 10% for paying full tuition. . (tuition will be divided accordingly between Inside Moves LLC and pod teachers.) Note: All tuition payments stated above will require tax to be paid if necessary. Any payment of less than $XXXX that is made more than three business days after its due date will be assessed a late charge in the amount of $XX. Any additional payments of more than $XXXX that is made more than three business days after its due date will be assessed a late charge in the amount of $XX. In the event of commencement of legal action to collect tuition that is past due, the trainee will have to pay the reasonable costs of such action, including but not limited to attorneys’ fees.
6.2 In the event a trainee does not make the payments as scheduled, he/she can be denied access to subsequent training segments. 6.3 The application fee plus the deposit ($XXX) paid prior to the beginning of the training will be applied to the last tuition payment to be made by the trainee. If the trainee drops out of the training prior to graduation, this amount will be refunded pursuant to Section 12 below. 6.4 Payments shall be payable to: XXXXX Feldenkrais. 6.5) Accreditation fees of $XXX per year for each trainee’s will be paid on his/her behalf from his/her tuition. Student dues of $XX for each trainee’s membership in the Guild will be the responsibility of each student. 6.5 Trainees will be solely responsible for their transportation, housing, and food expenses during the training segments. 6.6 It is highly recommended that trainees purchase and read all of the books by Moshe Feldenkrais during the course of the training program (estimated $XXX–$XXX). Other recommended materials (and estimated costs) include: skeleton ($XXX), Feldenkrais table ($XXX-‐XXX), and stool, rollers, and pads ($XXX–$XXX).
7. Service Marks The terms FELDENKRAIS®, FELDENKRAIS METHOD®, AWARENESS THROUGH MOVEMENT®, FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION®, GUILD CERTIFIED FELDENKRAIS TEACHER® GUILD CERTIFIED FELDENKRAIS PRACTITIONERcm, FRIENDS OF FELDENKRAISsm, FELDENKRAIS AWARENESS THROUGH MOVEMENT TEACHERcm, The FELDENKRAIS GUILD®, and the FELDENKRAIS® logo may only be used with permission by and following the guidelines of the FELDENKRAIS GUILD® of North America. 7.1 Trainees in the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program will be eligible to use the service marks of the Guild and practice ATM for payment only after successfully completing their ATM practicum. In order to become a temporarily authorized ATM teacher each student must teach a minimum of 50 documented ATM lessons in order to stand for their ATM practicum (see Section 7.3). Each student will be temporarily authorized to practice FI for payment after they have completed their FI practicum. To stand for their FI practicum each student must have given a minimum of 50 documented FI lessons. All trainees agree that they will not advertise themselves as teachers until they are authorized to do so. 7.2 Trainees may not use the Feldenkrais logo until authorized by their educational director and graduates may only use it according to Guild requirements. 7.3 Upon the successful completion of their ATM practicum in XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program , trainees will become authorized by the Educational Director to teach ATM as student teachers, subject to completing all requirements. Trainees at this level may call themselves authorized Awareness through Movement teachers, not certified. If a trainee drops out of the training program after completing the first four segments but before graduation, the trainee will lose the right to teach ATM, unless the trainee has been granted a leave of absence.
Upon the successful completion of their FI practicum in XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program , trainees will become authorized by the Educational Director to teach FI as student teachers, subject to completing all requirements. Trainees at this level may call themselves authorized Functional Integration teachers, not certified. If a trainee drops out of the training program before graduation, the trainee will lose the right to teach ATM and FI, unless the trainee has been granted a leave of absence. 7.4 Upon successful completion of all segments of the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program, graduates will be eligible to become Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers® or Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitionerscm, certified by the FELDENKRAIS GUILD of North America, and they may then practice ATM and FI professionally. In order to maintain their certification and the right to use the service marks, graduates will need to meet the Guild’s ongoing certification requirements and either to join and maintain their membership in the Guild or pay a fee to the Guild to maintain their certification. 8. Attendance Trainees may miss no more than five days in any year and no more than 10 days during the whole course of the training program without having to make formal arrangements with the trainer or educational staff to make up missed class time. The trainee, however, is responsible for the content of the missed material. Trainees must make up all additional missed time with assistance of the educational director and the training program pod teachers. Make-‐up work is to be done as soon as possible and, if at another training program, must be comparable in both content and stage in the training process. 8.1 If a trainee has to interrupt the training program and wishes to continue in another program after a period of elapsed time, the Training Accreditation Board of the FELDENKRAIS GUILD of North America will decide about the trainee’s eligibility to continue training on a case-‐by-‐case basis. A trainee must complete his/her training process within seven years’ time. 9. Evaluation Utilizing the FGNA competence profile the student will be involved in constant self evaluation during the training process. During the last segment of each year of the training, each trainee will participate in a written self-‐evaluation process and have the opportunity to meet individually with a trainer or assistant trainer from the course for the trainee to give feedback about the training to the staff and to receive feedback about the trainee’s individual process and progress in the training. It is expected that the training staff and trainees will have many less formal interactions for the exchange of feedback on the training experience and process. 10. Graduation Process In order to graduate from the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program, the educational director and pod teachers will assess the readiness of each trainee to graduate. In addition, a trainee will: Complete their FGNA competence profile participate in the training program by participating in his/her own self-‐ and course-‐evaluation processes; meet attendance guidelines, teach a minimum of 100 documented ATM lessons, teach a minimum of 150 documented FI lessons, adhere to all training policies; comply with proper usage of service marks; pass their ATM practicum by teaching ATM and being able to discuss in depth ATM principles and strategies; pass their FI practicum by giving two supervised FI lessons and be able to discuss FI principles and strategies; and meet his/her financial obligations.
10.1 Each graduate will receive a certificate of graduation from Inside Moves LLC 11. Placement Inside Moves LLC. offers no placement services to trainees and graduates of the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program. 12. Cancellation and Refund Policy 12.1 Prior to the beginning of the training program, any applicant may cancel this Enrollment Agreement by sending written notice of such cancellation by midnight of the fifth day (excluding Sundays and holidays) following his/her signing of the Enrollment Agreement, provided that he/she has not entered classes sooner. Such notice must be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, or must be personally delivered to the training organizers: Inside Moves LLC. 15081 SE 54th Place Bellevue, WA 98006 Any money paid by the applicant will be fully refunded. 12.2 Prior to the beginning of the training program but more than five business days after trainee has signed this Enrollment Agreement, if the applicant cancels this Enrollment Agreement, Inside Moves LLC. will retain a non-‐refundable registration fee ($XXX)and will return to the applicant the balance of any money pre-‐paid by the applicant. 12.3 If a trainee cancels this Enrollment Agreement after the training program begins, the trainee will forfeit the non-‐refundable registration fee ($XXX). 12.4 If a trainee cancels this Enrollment Agreement during the course of any training segment, the trainee will owe: the pro-‐rated daily rate for the days they attend. 12.5 If a trainee cancels this Enrollment Agreement in between training segments, the trainee will owe tuition only through the end of the last training segment the trainee attended. 12.6 If a trainee cancels this Enrollment Agreement prior to the beginning of the final training segment, the initial deposit ($XXX) will be refunded to the trainee. 12.7 Inside Moves LLC. reserves the right to cancel a starting class if the number of trainees enrolling is deemed insufficient. In the event of such cancellation, a full refund of all money paid shall be made to each applicant. 12.8 Inside Moves LLC. reserves the right to suspend or postpone a segment of the training in the event of unforeseeable circumstances or in the event of an occurrence that unavoidably limits the use of the training facilities such as fire, flood, storm, war, or civil disorder. Such time lost will be made up as soon as possible so as to maintain the overall training schedule. If a segment is
postponed for 30 calendar days or more, the trainee is entitled to a pro-‐rata refund for that segment unless the trainee agrees in writing to comparable training. 12.9 If Inside Moves LLC. discontinues instruction after a trainee enters training, including circumstances where the school changes its location, he/she must be notified in writing of such events and is entitled to a pro-‐rata refund of all tuition and fees paid unless comparable training is arranged for by the school and agreed upon, in writing, by the him/her. A written request for such a refund must be made within 30 days from the date the program was discontinued or relocated, and the refund must be paid within 30 days after receipt of such a request. 12.10 Any money to be returned to the trainee shall be refunded within 30 calendar days of the trainee’s official date of termination.
Note: When a cancellation, termination, or completion occurs, a calculation of all allowable charges shall be made using the last recorded date of attendance, if any, as a baseline. 13. Termination A trainee who fails to maintain satisfactory progress, fails to comply with the attendance policy, violates safety regulations, interferes with other trainee’s learning, is convicted of a felony, is boisterous, vulgar or obscene, is under the influence of or abusing alcohol or drugs, uses the Feldenkrais-‐related service marks or logo inappropriately, or does not make timely tuition payments is subject to immediate termination. Decisions regarding termination or probation of a trainee will be made by the Educational Director after a full discussion of the perceived problems with the trainee and after the trainee has had an opportunity to be heard by the Educational Director. 13.1 A trainee may terminate his/her participation in the training program by giving written notice of the trainee’s intention to discontinue. Any pre-‐paid tuition for future training segments shall be refunded to the trainee pursuant to Section 12 above. 14. Transfer In the event the trainee wants to transfer from the XXXXX Feldenkrais Teacher Training Program to another training, the trainee must receive a letter from the Educational Director and pod teacher, which shall contain information on the amount of tuition paid, the number of days of training the trainee has completed, which parts of the program have been completed and a recommendation that the trainee continue the training elsewhere. 14.1 If a trainee wants to transfer into the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program, the trainee must present a letter with the same information set forth above from the Educational and/or Administrative Director(s) of the trainee’s prior training program. The transfer trainee will only be accepted if the trainee’s prior training program has covered comparable material.
15. Individuality and Modifications If any of the policies and/or practices of the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program create a hardship on any trainee, or if special circumstances exist for any trainee that cause him/her to need special consideration, that trainee is encouraged to propose an exception to the policy or practice that will better fit the trainee’s unique needs. The Educational Director will consider any such request and will
make all reasonable efforts to accommodate the trainee’s individual needs. Any modifications to this Enrollment Agreement shall be in writing and signed by both parties. 16. Liability Insurance Basic liability insurance will be provided to cover trainees while onsite during official training hours. 17. Applicant Acknowledgements I certify that I have read and understood this Enrollment Agreement and I hereby agree to abide by the conditions set forth herein. 17.1 I acknowledge that the XXXXXXX training program is a competence based program that is alternative to the standard FGNA certified program that has been given over the years. By agreeing to this document, I agree to be taught by teachers that, in some cases, are not guild certified trainers, but are assistant trainers. I acknowledge it is my responsibility to utilize the FGNA competence document as a basis for me to fulfill my graduation requirements. 17.1 I acknowledge that this training program will prepare me to be eligible to become a Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teacher® or a Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitionr and that I may be required to attain additional licenses in order to conform to the laws about “hands on” practice in certain cases in some countries, provinces, states and/or local jurisdictions where I might want to practice the Feldenkrais Method and that I will be required to either join the Guild or pay a fee to the Guild and comply with its ongoing certification requirements to maintain my certification and the right to use the service-‐mark terms and logo. 17.2 I acknowledge the importance of completing my training in the XXXXX Feldenkrais Teacher Training Program, and it is my intention to complete all three years in the XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program. 17.3 I acknowledge that I may not advertise as a Feldenkrais practitioner/teacher before graduating from the training and only as an authorized Awareness Through Movement teacher after successfully completing my ATM practicum and only as an authorized Functional Integration teacher after completion of my FI practicum, and only upon meeting full graduation requirements (unless granted a leave of absence). 17.4 I acknowledge that I authorize the Guild to use my name, address, phone and fax numbers, e-‐mail address, and date and place of birth for record-‐keeping purposes. Any inquiry a student may have regarding this contract may be made in writing to the
Applicant/Trainee ____________________________________________ (signature) ____________________________________________
(please print name)
I elect to pay my tuition by the following method:
_____ Payment by training segments
Inside Moves LLC. ____________________________________________ (signature) ____________________________________________ (title/authority of signatory)
(please select one)
XXXXX FELDENKRAIS® PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM ____________________________________________ INSIDE MOVES LLC. 15081 SE 54th Place Bellevue, WA 98006 Notice Acknowledgement by School Signed _________________________________________________ Title ___________________________________________________ Dated this __________ day of ______________________ 20 ______ Acknowledgement by Enrollee 1. I understand and accept that any contract for training I enter into with the above-‐named school contains legally binding obligations and responsibilities. 2. I understand and accept that repayment obligations will be placed upon me by any loans or other financing arrangements I enter into as a means to pay for my training. 3. I understand that any enrollment contract I enter into shall not be binding or take effect for at least five days, excluding Sundays and holidays, following the last date such a contract is signed by the school and myself, provided that I have not entered classes sooner. Signed _________________________________________________ Dated this __________ day of ______________________ 20 ______
XXXXX FELDENKRAIS® PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM ____________________________
INSIDE MOVES LLC. 325Mountain Road Salt Spring Island BC V8K 1T8 (250) 653-‐4332
Name ________________________________________________________________ Address ________________________________________________________________ Home phone _______________________________________________________________ Student ID _________________________________ XXXXX Feldenkrais Professional Teacher Training Program Tuition _______________ Registration Fee ______________ Books _______ I have read and received a copy of this enrollment agreement. _______________________________________ Signature of student Date _______________________________________ Signature of school official Date
FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile
Directing Your Progress This Certified Practitioner Profile (CPP) is the basis for Competency-based certification for FGNA accredited training programs. The CPP defines and codifies the knowledge, skills and abilities that a graduated student of a Feldenkrais Professional Training Program (FPTP) is able to demonstrate to be admitted into the Feldenkrais Guild of North America. It is designed to be used by Feldenkrais students, their mentors and Trainers. It maybe introduced at any point during a Feldenkrais Training Program along with the essential skills of Self and Peer Assessment. In combination, these tools may be used as an ongoing reference in order to: • Develop training curriculum and pedagogy by Trainers • Strengthen the relationship and communication between teachers and students • Guide students toward self-directed learning • Provide a means for each Feldenkrais student to discover strengths, skills, possible directions and sources of growth • Promote a richer exchange of experiences among prospective practitioners • Serve as guide for mentoring • Provide a mechanism for quality assurance • Create a deeper sense of self-reliance in the community • Raise awareness for community collaboration • Provide a reference for those involved in offering basic and continuing education in the Feldenkrais Method • Provide a reference for regulatory purposes, which may be used by practitioners and guilds/ associations
Table of Contents PREAMBULUS........................................................................................................................................................ 2 ATTITUDES AND VALUES ................................................................................................................................11 COMPETENCY 1.0 SELF-ORGANIZATION....................................................................................................13 COMPETENCY 1.1 WORKING WITH INDIVIDUALS..................................................................................17 COMPETENCY 1.2 WORKING WITH GROUPS............................................................................................24 COMPETENCY 1.3 WORKING IN OTHER PROFESSIONS.........................................................................30 COMPETENCY 2.1 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT................................................................................32 COMPETENCY 2.2 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT .........................................................................................34 COMPETENCY 3.1 PRACTICE MANAGEMENT............................................................................................36 GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................................39 APPENDIX 1 ........................................................................................................................................................45 APPENDIX 2 PRINCIPLES OF THE FELDENKRAIS METHOD .................................................................46 BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................................................50
Normal development in general is harmonious. In development the parts grow, improve and strengthen in such a way that the whole can continue toward it’s general destination. And just as new functions appear in the course of a child’s harmonious development and growth, so do new powers appear in any harmonious development. -Dr. Moshe Feldenkrais, Awareness Through Movement, p.51
Praeambulus The Feldenkrais Method assumes that human beings have transformational potential and that all people, regardless of their age or condition, have the ability to learn. At the core of the Feldenkrais Method is a fluid and dynamic state of mind that fosters a process of inquiry rather than one that seeks to define solutions. This Certified Practitioner Profile is an attempt to define and codify competencies that are already being taught in Feldenkrais Method training programs worldwide. This might be seen as producing a somewhat static description of a highly fluid and dynamic method. As practitioners and teachers we continually evolve our understanding and practice of the Method and in offering definitive statements about the work we must not lose our perspective of dynamism and evolution. This document should be interpreted in this light. The authors of this Certified Practitioner Profile for FPTP’s set out to find superlative methods for developing students in their journey to become professional Feldenkrais practitioners. We have extensively reviewed information on competence assessment and educational development. We came to the conclusion that reflection 1 is the necessary element for all growth, development and learning. In educational programs, imparting knowledge and developing skills are necessary, but not sufficient, for all what we want to accomplish. This profile is an articulation of the process undertaken by the authors and a compilation of conclusions. We believe it has great relevance for Feldenkrais Method training programs that will lead to professional practice. It is a first approximation of 1
One hundred years ago, John Dewey published “How We Think.” In this book Dewey describes reflection as including, “a) a state of perplexity, hesitation, doubt; and b) an act of searching or investigation directed toward bringing to light further facts which serve to corroborate or to nullify the suggested belief.” (Dewey, 1910. p.9)
creating an educational environment in training programs that will enable students, not only to develop minimum competence in identified areas necessary for our profession, but to aim for what Donald Schön (1987) dubs as artistry.
“ …-there are some people in every profession who become truly outstanding practitioners. These practitioners are not described as having more professional knowledge than peers, but are described as wise, talented, and intuitive, more aptly, artists. We want to help our students, and ourselves, seek wisdom and maturity in a context where reflection is integrated, planned and evaluated. The high bar for professional competence is artistry, and we need to carefully examine the path to achieve it. Schön (1987) argued artistry is teachable and not just for the fortunate. An artist is an outstanding professional, who, faced with an unusual circumstance, novel situation or ambiguous area of practice, goes beyond the basic knowledge, technical and applied skills, and learned values and becomes a creative, innovative problem solver. This ability is based on knowledge, skills, attitude/values and experience, but also moves beyond them. Artistry requires ability, when faced with something unexpected or not-yet learned, to think about what one is doing as one is doing it (reflection-in-action), and to be able to create solutions when there is no clear right answer. The idea of reaching beyond the knowledge, skills and attitudes/values typically taught may be a long-term goal, but the first step is for training programs to create the necessary framework for the development of artistry and commit to the pursuit. “ (Lewis, Virden, & Smith Hutch, 2011) The real essence in developing artistry and the heart of the creative process is being able to cultivate an attitude of not-knowing, literally, learning how not to know. The explorations that this kind of learning evokes are based not only on a cognitive or intellectual inquiry, but on somatic action and interaction, a way of cultivating curiosity, wonder and exploration. In short, we are interested in developing self-regulated learners within the broader goal of artistry. Self-regulation is an expansive concept that includes self-reflective practice. Self-regulated learners assess their own behavior in terms of their goals and are able to adequately reflect on their development. This process enhances student satisfaction, motivation to improve, optimism, and the likelihood of becoming a life-long learner. Focusing on developing defined competencies is definitely a paradigm shift in the world of Feldenkrais Professional Training Programs. It can be the spine of a training program. We believe more students will be able to achieve entry-level competence in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the Feldenkrais profession using this approach. It is our hope to improve the educational training program experience for our students and to develop a learning community that supports aiming for artistry in practice. 4
Process and History From the earliest days of Feldenkrais Training Programs, practitioners expressed an eagerness to define what competent Feldenkrais Practitioners know and are able to do. This discussion was intense following the Amherst Training, and in 1984, a Professional Advisory Committee met in Tel Aviv and drafted a one-page summary describing the skills of a new graduate. (Appendix 1) Between 1987 and 1989, The Feldenkrais Guild engaged deeply with the issue of certifying Feldenkrais practitioners, as well as the certification of trainings, and the organizational structure required to support both. This discussion was complicated by the concurrent debate about whether to maintain the service marks. What became clear was that in order for the Guild to continue to hold the service marks, there had to be standards for both Trainings and for the certification of practitioners. The Guild also had to demonstrate that it was committed to ensuring these standards. In 1992, The Feldenkrais Guild adopted the Standards of Practice for all members of The Feldenkrais Guild. Earlier, in 1989, the Feldenkrais Guild had resolved to begin actively certifying Feldenkrais trainings, while the certification of graduates remained conditional on the recommendations of the Feldenkrais Trainer. The Guild maintained more of an administrative role in the Certification process for practitioners who agreed to abide by the Standards of Practice. Hence, graduation became synonymous with certification, as long as the Trainer approved and the proper application forms were signed. Internationally, discussions about the knowledge, abilities and success of Feldenkrais practitioners were also ongoing. From the beginning of the International Feldenkrais Federation in 1992, member Guilds expressed concern about the real problems for practitioners of getting started and practicing the Feldenkrais Method. The first response of the IFF was to initiate the IFF Training Survey. Four hundred and twenty two practitioners participated in this survey. One surprising discovery was that a large majority of practitioners favored structured post-graduate education or supervision as part of the training process.
The next phase of research focused on how practitioners define success and become successful. First, in 1996, the FGNA interviewed 55 randomly selected practitioners and later, in 1997, the IFF guild representatives interviewed 70 “successful” practitioners about success. There was a separate survey of 18 trainers as well. Practitioners in these surveys acknowledged the difficulty of setting up practice, and many of them attributed their success to learning from their ongoing practice and studying with their peers as well as studying other relevant topics such as anatomy, business, and communication skills. This raised questions about what other factors, in addition to the Method itself, might be important in developing successful practitioners. FGNA, in response to the expressed interests of its membership passed the following motion at the 1997 Annual Meeting: “It is moved and seconded that the Feldenkrais profession be moved towards a more competence-based certification standard and that the standards for graduation from training and for certification be reviewed to include more attention to competence and to requirements which must be met for professional status.” (1997 Feldenkrais Guild Annual Report, p 13) The international community also took action on this issue. In Germany, in 1996, the Berufsbild was produced (available online at: http://feldenkraismethod.org/de/node/364.This became an important source document for the IFF Competency Project. Later, in 2000 Yochanon Rywerant published the English version of Acquiring the Feldenkrais Profession. Multiple groups focused on the complex aspects of separating graduating from certification, evaluation, and competency. In order to deal more comprehensively with the issues of quality and competency, the IFF Academy was founded in 2001 and a competency team was established. After eight years of social research, writing, feedback, and re-writing, the Competency team completed the IFF Competency Profile in 2008. The Profile is available online at: http://feldenkrais-method.org/en/competency_resources It is important to note that the IFF Competency Profile is not a description of the Feldenkrais method, nor is it a list of the minimal proficiencies necessary to graduate from a Feldenkrais training, rather it is a comprehensive description of what a competent practitioner with five years of experience knows and is able to do.
While the IFF Competency Profile is not a list of entry-level competencies, it did provide a wellspring of ideas for competency-based certification. In 2009, there was renewed FGNA impetus to separate graduation from certification and move toward competency based certification of new practitioners. The North American Training Accreditation Board (NATAB) began to explore the issue, and a Policy Review Subcommittee focused exclusively on the topic throughout 2010. In February 2012, the FGNA Board of Directors formed the Task Force for Separating Graduation from Certification for the purposes of: • •
Identifying the issues that need to be addressed and Proposing a model that would certify practitioners beyond graduation from a Training Program
The Task Force agreed to a two- phase program. First, create a user friendly Certified Practitioner Profile, and next, create a proposal for a Certification Process based on the new Profile, one consistent with the fundamental Attitudes and Values of the Feldenkrais Method. To begin, materials from the Australian EPCP, the IFF Competency Profile, the Standards of Practice, and the Code of Ethics were combined and reorganized into one document following the architecture of the IFF Competency Profile. One new Competency, Self-Organization, was added, and many competencies were eliminated because they were outside the scope of practice for new practitioners. The Task Force gave a great deal of consideration to items that are not typically taught in Training programs and yet are essential skills for a new practitioner. For instance, the basics of business practices may not be covered in a Training program, and yet this knowledge is necessary for students who wish to become successful practitioners. Similarly, there were some competencies that are essential for new practitioners, but are not practical to assess. In order to create a comprehensive guide for students who want to become competent and successful Feldenkrais practitioners, all essential skills were included in this Profile. As the Task Force worked to streamline and organize the material and the profile of a competent beginning practitioner began to emerge, so did potential assessment methods. Each potential assessment method became the focus of a comprehensive
literature review. It became obvious that Competency Assessment in general is a science all on its own, with professional organizations and consultants available to guide organizations as they adopt competency based assessments.
What is competence? The widely varied backgrounds, experiences and activities of practitioners around the world are reflected in this profile. Practitioners “do” Feldenkrais as a profession in private practices, clinics, schools and businesses. They teach classes, give Functional Integration lessons, run businesses and more. Practitioners also embody the Method in their life choices and personal development. It is out of this rich substance that both the IFF Competency Profile and this Certified Practitioner Profile evolved. Competencies don’t come out of the blue. In order to act competently, one needs Resources. Resources consist of everything one has experienced, knows and can do. Naturally, practitioners start out with widely varied resources. Each student enters a Feldenkrais training program with a different personal and professional background, offering expertise in a wide variety of fields. A training program might include scientists, artists, health care workers and retirees. There may be extroverts and introverts, and people who are good at building human relationships as well as those who prefer to work things out on their own. But regardless of their background, each person begins his or her training with a deep well of knowledge, abilities, and experience or situational memories. While in training, students add to their reservoir of resources. New material is experienced and filtered through the treasury of knowledge and wisdom that the student has brought to the program. And although during one training program every student receives the same materials and is taught the identical curriculum, each practitioner graduates with a unique set of resources. As practitioners, each new situation presents an opportunity to integrate old and new resources. Competency is the ability to mobilize and focus the resources necessary to act successfully in a given situation. The Dreyfus continuum model is used fairly widely to provide a means of assessing and supporting progress in the development of skills or competencies, and to provide a 8
definition of acceptable level for the assessment of competence or capability. The five stages of the continuum are from novice to mastery. At the end of Feldenkrais Professional Training Programs we expect students to be able demonstrate Dreyfus’ third level of ability, which he describes as competence, in the domains pertinent to beginning a professional practice. (Dreyfus & Dreyfus 1980)
Figure 1. Dreyfus Model by Andy Hunt
Competency, like the Feldenkrais Method, is a process. It is the intentional act of gathering and synthesizing meaningful information, formulating a plan based on that information, taking action according to the plan, reflecting on the outcome and then making another plan. This process may happen a dozen times before a lesson begins, and a hundred times during a lesson. In this profile that process is called Competence in Action. Cultivating competency can be as comfortable as the process of an Awareness Through Movement lesson. Cultivating competency is also deeply consistent with Feldenkrais Attitudes and Values. Prospective practitioners can use the Certified Practitioner Profile to discover where they have contact with the competency material, and where they have no familiarity or comfort. As students master the art of Self and Peer-Assessment, they learn how to use the stories of their best and worst experiences 9
to discover their own resources. They learn how to listen to each other, to ask questions that direct each other to self-discovery, and to reflect on the experiences together. This Certified Practitioner Profile is meant to be a guidebook for tracking and planning professional growth. It is meant to help one evolve over time. Some may choose to use the process daily. Some may enjoy a re-mapping once every training segment. Some may choose to journal their way through their development. Some may choose to create partnerships or groups for support and discussion. This competency Profile is a compilation of knowledge and experience of hundreds of Feldenkrais Practitioners from many countries and innumerable backgrounds. It can be used right now to inform each and every prospective practitioner about where they are professionally, where they want to be, and how they can continue to become more competent.
Attitudes and Values During the San Francisco Training, June 20, 1977, Dr. Moshe Feldenkrais said:
"...To be able to, in each session, give each person in each session what they need and would like to have even if the person does not know that he needs it. The person may only know that he is in pain or that he doesn't like himself. It doesn't matter if he doesn't like himself. What is important is that you get the person to begin to love himself, not just like himself. If you achieve that, you are worth your weight in diamonds. If you take a person who hates himself, has no confidence, and make him feel that he can love himself. He feels he can begin to rely upon his own self and begins to have self-confidence enough to stand on his feet. Well, who can do that? No politician, no millionaire can. You can't buy that for money. Yet, you may be able to do it and that means that you are richer than any of those. And, a very funny thing. Wherever you go in the world, you will find that you are needed, without exception.” Underlying the knowledge, experience, and situational memories that synthesize into competence, there are Attitudes and Values that are fundamental to Feldenkrais practitioners and are reflected in their interactions with clients. These Attitudes and Values infuse every aspect of a Feldenkrais practitioner’s professional life and include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Being present Learning how to be gentle with and care for oneself Respecting the individuality of human beings Maintaining the highest ethical and professional standards as stated in the national codes of conduct Communicating clearly Recognizing the potential in all human beings Orienting to the process of learning and doing rather than working towards a goal Creating situations in which client(s) are motivated to learn Initiating exploration of self-organization, self-perception, self–image and learning to learn to become self-determined Respecting that clients are responsible for their own learning processes Preserving professional relationships Respecting and accepting the dynamics of client/practitioner relationships Engaging in ongoing self-reflection Valuing life-long learning Appreciating and supporting the potential for creativity, authenticity, flexibility, curiosity, openness
Organization and Structure The following is a description of the competencies that a prospective practitioner of the Feldenkrais Professional Training Program (FPTP) is able to demonstrate to be admitted into the Feldenkrais Guild of North America. Competency is the ability to mobilize and focus the resources necessary to act successfully in a given professional situation. . This document groups these professional situations into three areas: 1. Feldenkrais Learning Applications 2. Personal Development 3. Practice Management Each Competency includes: • •
Overview: a high level description of the competency Competence in Action: a description of the process that a practitioner uses in that specific professional situation in order to mobilize and focus the resources necessary to act successfully Resources: a detailed list of the resources, i.e. the “knowledge” and “abilities” required for that competency
Moshe set a high standard for self-organization through his demonstrations of sitting while teaching and how he supported himself while giving Functional Integration lessons. - Jeff Haller, 2014
Competency 1.0 Self-Organization Self-Organization is primary. Through Self-Organization a greater capacity for sensing, feeling and learning emerges and therefore effects comfort, ease, and efficiency. As Self-Organization improves there is a refinement of selfimage, evoking a clarity of movement and its relationship of self, environment and function. This creates the learning environment.
Competence in Action: Research Note encounters involving difficulty with lesson clarity, client response, effort, discomfort, awkwardness, fatigue, or imprecision in ones own support and movements as well as in relation to clients’ movements. Seek out habits of attention and action. Research upcoming learning opportunities for improving Self Organization, as well as Awareness Through Movement lessons, Functional Integration, mentoring and peer assessment opportunities. Identify and allocate the required resources (e.g. time, money, teachers) Plan Shape a learning plan to develop effective strategies for monitoring and improving SelfOrganization. Take Action Apply oneself to the learning plan. Integrate new knowledge into daily function as well as into one’s Feldenkrais practice. Reflect Assess changes in one’s own comfort, ease, and clarity. Identify other areas of difficulty. Adjust the learning plan appropriately to refine improvements.
Resources 1.0 Conceptual Knowledge Feldenkrais practitioners: Have an embodied reference for the principles and concepts of the Feldenkrais Method Recognize • that human beings are self organizing • that as one comes into contact with a client, a single system is formed • that improving one’s self-organization for either personal or professional reasons has positive impact on oneself and on client outcomes • that undertaking Awareness Through Movement and Functional Integration potentially refines one’s capacities to sense, feel, move, think, create, and understand complexity Know • • • • •
that one’s self-organization influences the client the effect of contact that is supportive, non-invasive, and non-corrective how the use of voice, word choice, imagery, body, presentation and presence can encourage a supportive environment for learning. the principles of biomechanics (e.g. ground forces, leverage, axis of rotation, center of gravity, moment of inertia, stability and mobility) that improving an aspect of the system is likely to influence the whole
1.0 Conceptual Abilities Feldenkrais practitioners are able to: Discuss and describe to others what his/her thinking are or were during a Functional Integration and/or Awareness Through Movement lesson Engage in self-observation, self-reflection, and self direction Utilize their own embodied understanding of Awareness Through Movement lessons to inform their Awareness Through Movement and Functional Integration teaching
1.0 Self-Observation Knowledge Feldenkrais practitioners: Know • • •
how attending to self refines sensing ability their own habits of attention and action their personal learning styles
Recognize when they are more or less efficiently organized as reflected by • their own sense of comfort, ease and well being • the behavior and/or responses of the client(s)
1.0 Self-Observation Abilities Feldenkrais practitioners are able to: Attend to themselves by routinely assessing Self-Organization, both as a foreground and background activity Attune their own attention by attending to • sensing their own length, width, and volume • noticing their own attitudes • experiencing their own emotions • operating within a range of greater ease • reducing effort • adjusting breathing • improving balance • adjusting quality of touch Routinely assess the client(s) responses to shifts in client(s) or one’s own(s)SelfOrganization
1.0 Self-Regulation Abilities: Feldenkrais practitioners are able to: Prepare themselves earnestly Change Self-Organization appropriately (e.g. patterns of thinking, posture/acture, breathing, gaze) in order to • improve their own sense of comfort, ease and well being • heighten their own sensory acuity • more accurately discern differences (i.e. in muscular tone, directional preference, ease of movement)
• • •
mesh their own movements with the easiest directions in which the client moves respond to the client(s) behavior and/or responses heighten the client’s sensitivity
Adjust their own organization, relative to • presence in the moment • the safety of the client(s) • effective use of ground forces • capacity to access power through the pelvis • maintaining center of gravity over the base of support • maintaining readiness to move in any direction • capacity to make transitions through space • reversibility • minimizing moment of inertia • level of resistance • staying within the range of possibility and ease • balance and equilibrium • their own skeletal support • functional contact with the client • effective breathing • proportional distribution of tonus • accurate orientation • timing and pacing • modulation of volume, rhythm, rate and intonation of voice • maintaining freedom of their own neck and head Adapt their position to the needs of the client(s) and the lesson (proxemics) Communicate effectively, verbally and non-verbally • use voice, language, body, presentation and presence in relation to the client(s), to encourage a supportive environment for learning.
Competency 1.1 Working with Individuals When working with individuals, Feldenkrais practitioners facilitate specific kinds of learning. The learning process is guided verbally (Awareness Through Movement) and/or non-verbally through touch (Functional Integration). By conversing with the client, the practitioner elicits, clarifies and contextualizes the client’s needs and wants. The practitioner takes into account the client’s changing self-image. This all stimulates a new awareness on the part of the client for his/her own actions and functioning. This experience potentiates new ways of acting which, ideally, can be integrated into daily activities in an organic manner.
Competence in Action: Research Use all senses to observe client(s) functional movement. Perceive the client’s embodied intentions and self-image. Gather impressions and ideas concerning the client’s potential for learning and development. Plan Form and modify working hypotheses. Explore movement options creatively. Prepare the learning environment to suite the chosen theme, for example through choice of position, placement of props, etc Take Action Create and accompany learning situations through questions that lead to selfobservation and self-correction and by offering supportive and novel movement options. Help the client to experience himself/herself, through sense of touch and movement, through non-verbal, and verbal communication and through continuous feedback between action and response. Work together with the client toward functional change using client’s feedback to determine the effects of the interaction. Perceive, together with the client qualitative changes in breathing, expression, and movement, while periodically changing focus (e.g., narrow vs. broad, differentiated vs. undifferentiated) Reflect Evaluate working hypotheses on an ongoing basis. Observe rhythm and timing structures of the lesson. Through observation and dialogue, gauge changes in the client’s kinesthetic awareness, self-image and self-use. When appropriate, offer the client the opportunity to reflect on the session.
1.1 Conceptual Knowledge Feldenkrais practitioners: Understand that • utilizing this list of resources in and of itself does not constitute a Functional Integration Lesson • Functional Integration is a hands-on form of interactive kinesthetic communication and that a lesson emerges for and from both the practitioner and the client • Feldenkrais lessons address the biological necessity of movement (i.e. self -preservation, self-protection, pleasure) Are cognizant of the interdependency and integration of acting, sensing, thinking, and feeling Appreciate the difference between acquiring a particular skill and developing more efficient and intentional action Know • that an important form of learning is discovering multiple ways of doing the same action • the importance of teaching a functional theme, in a variety of orientations • that improving an aspect of a dynamic system is likely to influence the whole • the importance of novelty • that Feldenkrais lessons are designed to evoke a shift in the client and their relationship to their environment • the principles of biomechanics (e.g. ground forces, leverage, axis of rotation, center of gravity, moment of inertia) • the effects of different qualities of touch and movement (i.e. slow, gentle, quick, light, directive, supportive) Are familiar with • Feldenkrais' books and articles • human, child and movement development • the principles of perception (e.g. the Weber-Fechner law) • functional and surface anatomy Use the skeleton as a primary reference Understand stability and mobility Recognize the value of mistakes in the process of learning
1.1 Conceptual Abilities: Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Create a learning environment that provides for a sense of safety, curiosity and an appropriate level of challenge Develop a line of inquiry for a lesson or a series of lessons; include a variety of orientations Distinguish between solving a problem and evoking a response designed to create a new way of thinking, feeling, sensing and acting Facilitate a lesson by responding to changes in the client Clarify to the client how he/she organizes for action Support and/or interrupt the client’s habits and patterns in order to promote learning Use touch and movement to propose more effective functional motor patterns. Establish the possibility of moving in any direction without preparation Employ a variety of strategies to enhance rapport, spontaneity, creativity, improvisation and presence Craft the lesson to avoid injury Support the client(s) in learning how to care for themselves Invite the client's self-observation Navigate interpersonal dynamics
1.1 Observational Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Recognize • the qualities and characteristics of efficient action • when the student is supported • when quality of action improves • when function becomes more integrated • the indications that the client may be unreceptive or confused • the indications that the client perceives the contact or proposed change in action as unacceptable • how and when to change or end the lesson
1.1 Observational Abilities Feldenkrais practitioners are able to: Listen actively with all senses Observe distinctions by increasing sensitivity Recognize how the client is moving in a variety of ways, such as • Simulating the client’s movement as a means to understand the client’s organization. • Perceiving the dynamic relationships between different parts of the body in any given movement • Noticing when a movement pattern becomes more or less differentiated • Noticing when a movement pattern becomes more or less integrated • Distinguishing between a more or less efficiently executed action • Perceiving the relationship of orientation and intention to action • Perceiving how the client supports his/her own movement • Sensing cross-motivation in the client • Perceiving extraneous efforts and how they interfere with intended actions. Detect • • • •
the most accessible patterns of movement relative to the function being explored congruent/incongruent patterns of movement relative to the function being explored changes in muscular patterns, skeletal configurations, respiration, and autonomic nervous system signs in both him/herself and the client qualities and changes in patterns such as flow, direction, pressure, force, muscular effort, magnitude.
Sense • • • •
the level of input a client can receive when a client needs to rest when a rest is complete when a lesson is complete
1.1 Action Knowledge: Feldenkrais Practitioners: Know • • • • •
the factors involved in transitioning from conversation to touch the effects of various qualities of touch and movement( i.e. slow, gentle, quick, light, directive, supportive) that exploring movement in an easy direction encourages the possibility of movement in the opposite direction when to use imagination to enhance learning when to educate the client about Feldenkrais concepts and models (e.g. organic learning, self image, function, differentiation and integration of movement)
1.1 Action Abilities: Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Establish rapport and trust with the client Respect the client’s intrinsic timing Offer information and reassurance about the process a client is undertaking Interview a client to discover his/her intentions and viewpoint Create an appropriate context leading into the lesson Choose strategies, tactics and techniques congruent with the line of inquiry Engage in a series of Functional Integration lessons or Awareness Through Movement lessons, vary sessions of Functional Integration and Awareness Through Movement, or use them together (e.g. hands on guided Awareness Through Movement) Provide time before the lesson for the client to reflect on and report experiences from the previous lesson Educate the client about Feldenkrais concepts and models as the concepts become relevant (e.g. organic learning, self image, function, differentiation and integration of movement) Establish a position from which to begin Encourage clients to engage in ongoing self-reflection Clarify for the client how he/she is moving Provide constructive ongoing feedback Touch and move with efficiency and effectiveness Ask questions that invite curiosity Stimulate and guide the client’s attention to sensory-motor possibilities within a function
Operate within an easy range of movement Find the path of least resistance Employ • reference movements or observations to establish context for learning • reference movements throughout the lesson • play appropriately Explore relevant • movement patterns that may help the client learn a particular function • movement patterns in different orientations • non-habitual patterns Introduce • reversibility • movement variations Utilize • • • • • • • • • • Change • • • •
the client’s learning style differentiation and non-differentiation auxiliary movements oscillatory movement rests and pauses compression through the system lengthening through the system visualization and imagination images, metaphors, stories and or analogy effectively props and positioning aids effectively
the proximal-distal relationship (i.e. use the proximal to access the distal and the distal to access the proximal) the client’s center of gravity and/or base of support the initiation of the action the plane of action to access a movement
Follow changes in quality and patterns such as flow, direction, pressure, force, muscular effort and magnitude Facilitate learning by applying constraints Make effective use of demonstration Regulate the intensity and duration of each lesson in response to changes in the client Reference: • previous lessons to inform the current lesson
elements and functions of previous lessons to highlight and assess progress
Bring the lesson to a close by integrating the elements of the lesson into the “whole” Provide time after the lesson for the client to sense and recognize changes in their organization Help the client process the Awareness Through Movement/Functional Integration experience and relate it to daily activities Elicit feedback from the client about their experience with the lesson Advise the client how to optimize their learning over time Supply the client with relevant take home activities to help optimize their learning over time Caution the client about any post lesson activities that might interfere with their learning Reflect on experience after a each lesson or series of lessons and adapt future sessions accordingly Discern when to refer a client to another professional Synthesize knowledge and abilities so that the emergent Functional Integration lesson is more than the sum of the parts
Competency 1.2 Working with Groups When working with groups, Feldenkrais practitioners use verbal instructions to provide a structured series of functional learning explorations involving moving, thinking, sensing and feeling. These lessons were inspired by Dr. Moshe Feldenkrais, DSC. Within a thematic framework, they guide participants to continually explore and differentiate movement options and support them to integrate these new experiences/options into their daily lives. In doing so, they direct the group’s attention to those dimensions of the learning process which lead to improvement in the quality of people’s lives.
Competence in Action: Research Learn about the expectations, needs, and goals of participants. Assess the composition of the group in terms of experience, professions, age, abilities, limitations, etc. Plan Select Awareness Through Movement lessons appropriate to the theme, the composition of the group, the goals of the participants, and the time frame (e.g. weekly lessons, one-day workshops, weekend seminars) Take Action Shape the learning process during the lesson: concentrate on observations, topic, rhythm, time, and language. Reflect Ask participants to perceive changes during and after the lesson(s). Observe changes. Provide opportunity for participants to share their experiences. Lead group discussions as appropriate. Reflect on the teaching/learning experience and outcomes. Adjust teaching plan and style accordingly.
1.2 Conceptual Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Appreciate • that Awareness Through Movement lessons provide a means by which new skills and abilities can spontaneously emerge • movement as an expression of the self-image • the qualities and characteristics of efficient action 24
the difference between acquiring a particular skill and developing more efficient and intentional action
Understand • that Feldenkrais lessons address the biological necessity of movement (i.e. self -preservation, self-protection, pleasure) • that Feldenkrais lessons orient to the process of learning and doing rather than working toward a goal • learning themes and meta-themes • stability and mobility • how external environmental factors may effect a student(s) learning • that improving an aspect of the system is likely to influence the whole • that the same functional theme may be taught in a variety of orientations Know • • •
that an important form of learning is discovering many different ways of doing the same action that decreasing effort increases sensing ability that a lesson may continue to evolve for the student over time
Are familiar with • sources of Awareness Through Movement recordings, videos, transcripts • human developmental sequences • group dynamics
1.2 Conceptual Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Encourage a learning perspective Create a learning environment that provides for • a sense of safety, curiosity and an appropriate level of challenge • a student to mobilize his/her intentions into actions Introduce and outline the form and process of Awareness Through Movement lessons Use Feldenkrais concepts, models, as well as scientific, artistic, and cultural ideas to promote the learning process Distinguish between solving a problem and evoking a response designed to create a new way of thinking, feeling, sensing and moving Reframe the students’ viewpoint with Feldenkrais concepts and principles Teach a lesson or series of lessons that maintain the integrity of the lesson’s intention, function, and the learning theme 25
Teach lessons on the same functional theme in a variety of orientations
1.2 Observational Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Are cognizant that the students’ behaviors may reflect and affect their learning state Recognize what factors inhibit students’ learning Recognize when a student needs support or adaptation Know that the students’ response(s) in a lesson informs the process of that lesson and/or the next lesson
1.2 Observational Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Attend to individuals as well as to a group as a whole Recognize potential for improvement Simulate the students’ movement(s) as a means to understand the students’ organization Track the students’ movement and state through the lesson Observe similarities and differences in the way in which students engage in the lesson Recognize the students’ orientation in space Notice students’ • interpretation of the instructions • emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to instructions • response(s) to particular variations • left/right confusion • when there is a qualitative shift in movement • the size of movements • the speed of movements • the sequence of movements • when a movement becomes more or less integrated by the student(s) Perceive • • • • • •
changes in muscular tone, attention, emotional tone, attitude and affect the students’ initiation of movements congruity and cohesiveness of movement parasitic movements extraneous effort relationships between different parts of the body in any given movement configuration 26
• • •
the students’ orientation to self or the external environment the students’ habits of attention the students’ habits of self-image
Monitor students’ capacity for self-regulation, self-direction, self–motivation and selfcare Recognize when to ask student(s) to rest and when to resume movement
1.2 Action Knowledge: Feldenkrais Practitioners: Know about the sources for equipment, props and supports Recognize that context matters in action
1.2 Action Abilities: Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Access various sources of Awareness Through Movement recordings, videos, transcripts (class, workshop, training curricula) Awareness Through Movement Lesson Development and Preparation: Choose an appropriate lesson or series of lessons considering • the composition of the group • the learning theme • the spatial requirements of the lesson • the constraints of the venue • the structure of the lesson • positions, orientations and relationships to be explored • alternative versions found in resource material Prepare the Awareness Through Movement Lesson with safety in mind Identify the possible sensory cues Select appropriate Awareness Through Movement strategies, tactics and techniques Select an approach for ending the lesson
Awareness Through Movement Series Development and Preparation: Establish a functional theme Study and select lessons from source materials to create a series Sequence lessons in order to meet specific needs and skill levels of a given group Link lessons to create a series Select one or more reference movement(s) to return to periodically for noticing progress and learning
Leading an Awareness Through Movement Lesson: Establish an intention for the lesson Lead a group and take responsibility for group processes Interview class members effectively Establish the student(s) familiarity and experience with Awareness Through Movement Adapt • resource materials as appropriate to meet the needs or requests of student(s) • the starting position to the needs of the individual student(s) Establish the reference coordinates for orientation (up/down, front/back, right/left) Use props and supports effectively Ensure a comfortable room temperature Attend to restrictive clothing, accessories, and scents Address external disturbances that impact attention Address inappropriate behaviors Introduce and establish an appropriate scan and/or reference movement Teach in a variety of ways (timing, rhythm, and learning strategies such as variation, limitation, change of perspective) Shift style, strategies, tactics, and emphasis based on observation of students Convey lesson content with clarity Use voice (enunciation, volume, intonation) and language (vocabulary, tempo) to enhance the students’ capacity to engage in the lesson Communicate instructions that facilitate the students’ learning related to • the self-referential nature of instructions • taking rests and why they are taken • comfort and discomfort • avoiding pain and strain • effort and the benefits of reducing effort (i.e. doing less to be able to sense more and make clearer distinctions) • guiding the students’ attention to smaller and smaller details • making fine distinctions between various trajectories of movement
• • • • • • • • • • • •
benefits of moving more slowly observed inhibitors of students’ learning behaviors that enhance learning habits of thinking, moving and sensing self-image guiding the students to experience themselves kinesthetically and to make discernments out of that experience guiding the students’ awareness of their emotional, cognitive and sensory experiences during the course of the lesson suspending goal-oriented behavior discovering a pleasurable aesthetic quality in movement sensing differences and perceiving whole, interconnected patterns in movement assuming responsibility for their own well-being and safety guiding the students to perceive changes in reference movement(s)
Bring the lesson to a close by • creating the conditions by which the student(s) integrate the lesson into a whole activity • highlighting sensory distinctions and drawing attention to change by returning to the scan • revisiting the reference movement(s) • facilitating the transition from the floor, or other position, to being erect in gravity • guiding the student(s) to observe changes in the upright position • guiding the student(s) through the transition from the environment of the lesson to the environment of the “outside” world Complete the lesson in the time allotted Respond appropriately and with empathy in cases of emotional and somatic urgencies Observe students’ movement and behavior post-lesson, recognize potential for improvement, use this to inform the next lesson
Competency 1.3 Working in other Professions Feldenkrais practitioners may work predominantly in other fields (e.g. schools, management, music, dance, sports, and work with animals). Within those fields they use the Method to improve the emotional, intellectual, artistic, and physical abilities of their clients. They may also use the Method to improve the function and/or development of an organization. In whatever field, Feldenkrais practitioners use Feldenkrais ways of thinking, principles, and techniques to inform and enhance professional abilities.
Competence in Action: Research Recognize situations in which a Feldenkrais approach could be beneficial. Plan Create a plan for integrating Feldenkrais elements, approaches and ideas into this professional field. Identify and allocate the necessary resources. Take Action Incorporate the plan into the primary profession. Maintain the integrity of Feldenkrais ideas while respecting both professional roles. Reflect Observe and reflect on the personal, professional and organizational outcomes of the plan. Adjust as indicated.
Resources 1.3 Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Understand Feldenkrais principles and ways of thinking (see Appendix 2) Are aware of aspects of their profession which may be enhanced by Feldenkrais principles/approaches Know how the FGNA Standards of Practice and Ethical guidelines align with their professional field Are fluent in both profession-specific language and Feldenkrais-specific language
1.3 Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Utilize the fundamental principles of the Feldenkrais Method Communicate Feldenkrais ideas to members of their professional field Adapt Feldenkrais principles, elements and techniques to their professional field Establish cooperative relationships with other professionals.
Competency 2.1 Professional Development Feldenkrais practitioners continuously expand and refine their professional knowledge, abilities, and attitudes.
Competence in Action: Research Note areas of expertise and difficulty within one’s Feldenkrais practice. Research upcoming learning opportunities (e.g. advanced trainings, workshops, study groups, supervision, mentoring) Plan Shape a learning plan. Identify and allocate the required resources (e.g. time, money, teachers) Take Action Apply oneself to the learning plan. Integrate new knowledge into one’s Feldenkrais practice and share one’s experiences with colleagues. Reflect Assess changes in professional development. Adjust learning plan appropriately and identify more training and learning opportunities.
Resources 2.1 Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Know that quality assurance is a system for evaluating performance, as in the delivery of services to clients Know about methods of quality assurance specific to the professional field (e.g. FGNA Certified Practitioner Profile, IFF Competency Profile, IFF Competency Workbook, workshops) Know about advanced training opportunities and sources (association/guild, trainers, assistant trainers, colleagues, advanced training programs, IFF Academy, supervision) Are familiar with professional educational resources (e.g. journals, internet, books/publications, Feldenkrais trainers, IFF) Know about sources of information of other methods of somatic education
Are familiar with cultural discourses (e.g. linguistic, philosophical, artistic, societal, psychological) which may impact one’s development within the Feldenkrais Method
2.1 Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Reflect on their own work style Accept accountability for their work with individuals and groups Recognize their own emerging habit patterns from distinctions made in Functional Integration and Awareness Through Movement Develop • strategies for overcoming obstacles • new ways of acting Constantly define, refine and align to their own ethical base Initiate • supervised professional learning processes (e.g. Awareness Through Movement class, Functional Integration lessons, workshops, advanced trainings, visiting Feldenkrais Professional Training Programs) • independent professional learning processes, (e.g. home study, study groups, using source materials) • professional learning processes in allied disciplines (e.g. arts, music, sciences, humanities, psychology, martial arts, technology, law, commerce, other methods of somatic education) Assess continuing education programs for relevancy Research pertinent resources for Awareness Through Movement lessons or other kinds of information that may inform or enrich future lessons Use movement experience and skeletal awareness to stimulate learning and integrate new knowledge into practice Evoke and utilize feedback from supervisors, mentors, and peers Prioritize quality assurance issues and quality improvement tasks Take action on quality improvement tasks Continue to develop clarity in their interactions
Competency 2.2 Personal Development Feldenkrais practitioners pursue self-development, learning and maturation. They cultivate their curiosity and direct their continuous self-development. Professional crises and developmental plateaus are appreciated as necessary and unavoidable stages of a successful developmental process.
Competence in Action: Research Appreciate the current stage of personal/professional development. Refine awareness of one’s own cultural, intellectual, emotional, and professional roots. Notice when, where, and how one is struggling as well as experiences of confidence and ease. Plan Recognize one’s own potential and identify areas and strategies for improvement and growth. Take Action Use Feldenkrais lessons/principles and/or other means to refine self-image, action potential and pursue maturation. Reflect Assess and appreciate developmental changes and advances. Alter the plan to further develop potential.
Resources 2.2 Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Know of various means for reflecting on their own actions (e.g. supervision, counseling, self-assessment) Are cognizant of personal strengths and weaknesses
2.2 Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Open themselves to new learning experiences (e.g., accept being a beginner) Cope with uncertainty 34
Demonstrate an understanding of the Feldenkrais Method Attend to movement, intentions, sensations, emotions, and thoughts Engage in introspection regarding thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and ideas Develop and maintain awareness of their own self-image Respectfully respond to their own physical, emotional and intellectual needs Use Awareness Through Movement for self-exploration and development Continue to integrate their own Awareness Through Movement and Functional Integration experiences Use the Feldenkrais Method and its ideas to promote their own well being Search for new self-perspectives and question courses of action. Utilize assistance such as supervision and counseling Consider “setbacks” as potential opportunities for learning Develop intentions for the future
Competency 3.1 Practice Management Feldenkrais practitioners manage a practice as a professional business.
Competence in Action: Research Track governmental regulations pertaining to one’s ability to practice. Know the standards of practice/ethical guidelines of the professional association/guild. Plan Define business goals (e.g. professional vision, budget planning, and prioritization of tasks). Plan systems and allocate resources to run business efficiently (e.g. appointment scheduling, purchasing materials, and housekeeping). Take Action Respond to correspondence and phone calls. Schedule and keep appointments. Execute administrative tasks. Purchase materials. Generate invoices, process payments, meet financial obligations. Reflect Review business status relative to goals. Adjust goals and business practices accordingly.
Resources 3.1 Ethics Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Know the importance of confidentiality Understand that they are teachers of movement and awareness Differentiate teaching that is and is not the Feldenkrais Method® Are cognizant of the scope of their own professional expertise Understand that neither Functional Integration nor Awareness Through Movement involves the client/student’s disrobing.
3.1 Ethics Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to:
Comply with local, state/provincial and federal law Adhere to the FGNA Code of Professional Conduct Protect confidentiality of any conversation with the client/student. Limit activities to those that are within their professional competence Refer clients/students to physicians and other professionals as needed and/or indicated. Keep the welfare and needs of the client/student as the priority of professional practice. Respect the legal and civil rights of any person. Create a safe environment: • avoid physical insult, injury, sexual misuse or harm to any person who may be considered as under our professional influence: • prevent unreasonable risk of causing harm to any individual being • maintain the professional relationship and the integrity of the lesson while touching the client/student in an appropriate manner Be honest in all dealings, professional and otherwise. Do no fraud or misrepresentation in any business or professional activity Do no practice under the influence of alcohol or any controlled substance Cooperate fully in the event of any grievance, whether or not one is directly involved, i.e • reasonably respond to inquiries • furnish papers and explanations as requested. • follow the result of a Guild grievance procedure, as agreed. • avoid interfering with the investigation of any grievance proceeding, (re by misrepresenting facts or by threatening/ harassing any one involved)
3.1 Communication/Logistics Knowledge Feldenkrais Practitioners: Know governmental regulations Know the standards of practice/ethical guidelines of the professional association/guild Understand • basic business principles required in operating a Feldenkrais class/practice • time management skills • basic hygiene Know about resources for equipment, props, and positioning aids Are familiar with local and professional association/guild resources for marketing assistance (e.g. marketing kits, web designers, workshops)
3.1 Communication/Logistics Abilities Feldenkrais Practitioners are able to: Describe themselves as teachers of awareness and movement Clarify when one is teaching by the Feldenkrais Method and when one is not. Provide the client(s) with information about their service such as • insurance provision • Code of Professional Conduct • Standards of Practice • ancillary services • details about their professional experience, expertise, and limitations • hours and location of service • fees, conditions of work, expected duration, and results. Organize and schedule their own daily work Conduct basic business processes (correspondence, telephone contacts) Establish the lesson schedule Direct the design and production an distribution of their own promotional and informational material (e.g. printed material, brochures, flyers, handouts, websites) Enroll prospective client(s) in a class Establish the logistics of the session Select an appropriate venue Provide a physical space that is safe and conducive to learning Make premises and practice attractive for clients Seek assistance and/or supervision when necessary Express themselves effectively both verbally and in writing Be sensitive and appropriately responsive to cultural differences
Glossary of Basic Terms Ability Sensory-motor aptitude. One kind of resource described in this document.
Action 1 something performed, 2 deed, 3 an act that one consciously wills which may be characterized by physical or mental activity, 4 an exertion of power or force, 5 effect or influence, 6 way or manner of moving, 7 an event or series of events that form part of a plot
Attitudes and Values The ways in which our profession assigns worth and importance to attributes and ideas. They provide the context for the interpretation and use of competencies and resources.
Auxiliary 1 subsidiary, 2 additional, 3 supplementary, 4 giving support, 5 serving as an aid
Cohesiveness When the parts of the whole work or fit together well
Competence in Action The act of sorting, choosing and applying resources in a given situation, evaluating the response, and planning the next action. In this document each competency includes a description that reflects such a process.
Competency The ability to mobilize and focus the resources necessary to act successfully in a given situation.
Conceptual Concerned with the definitions or relations of the abstract or general ideas of some field of enquiry rather than with the facts
Congruity 1 harmony of parts, 2 the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate
Consciousness the quality or state of being aware especially of something within oneself
Differentiate 1 to perceive or show the difference in or between; discriminate, 2 to become distinct or specialized; acquire a different character, 3 to make different by alteration or modification, 4 to constitute the distinction between
Earnest 1 serious in intention, purpose, or effort, sincerely zealous, 2 showing depth and sincerity of feeling, 3 implies having a purpose and being steadily and soberly eager in pursuing it
Engage 1 to occupy the attention or efforts of a person, 2 to become involved
Extraneous 1 non-essential, superfluous, 2 not belonging or proper to a thing, 3 not pertinent or relevant, 4 Introduced or coming from without,
Facilitate 1 to make easier or less difficult, 2 to help forward, 3 to assist the progress of a person
Follow 1 move or travel behind, 2 go or come after someone to observe or monitor
Group Dynamics 1 the interactions that influence the attitudes and behavior of people when they are grouped with others through either choice or accidental circumstances, 2 the study of such interactions. 3 refers to a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
Group Process How an organization's members work together to get things done
Integrated 1 combining or coordinating separate elements so as to provide a harmonious, interrelated whole, 2 organized or structured so that constituent units function cooperatively, 3 To make into a whole by bringing all parts together; unify.
Intention The act or instance of determining mentally upon some action or result, 2 purpose, 3 meaning or significance, 4 the end or object
Kinesthetically Sensed through bodily position, weight, or movement of the muscles, tendons, and joints.
Knowledge Facts, truth, principles, concepts, guidelines and definitions which can be interconnected in many diverse ways. One kind of resources in this document
Learning Plan A written strategy which reflects ones desires for professional development based on the discoveries one makes during self and peer assessment
Moment of Inertia The mass property of a rigid body that defines the torque needed for a desired change in angular velocity about an axis of rotation. Moment of inertia depends on the shape of the body and may be different around different axes of rotation. For example, the closer a mass is to the center of rotation, the less force is needed to change acceleration. In a Judo throw, increasing an opponent’s mass (through adding one’s weight) increases his speed as he turns but decreases his experienced effort.
Parasitic movements 1 Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism benefits from the other being hurt 2 From The Potent Self, pg.193: “... actions which are governed by a single motivation, where all the parasitic elements that tend to enact themselves by habit, conditioning, and stereotyped motion have been excluded, and where the motivation to succeed is not stronger than “the motivation to act.”
Peer Assessment A discovery process which requires a partner. The partner listens attentively and asks careful questions in order to fill in details and/or shift focus as one person reflects on a competency and the related self-assessment. If that person requests, the partner may provide specific kinds of feedback
Presence 1 the ability to project a sense of ease, poise, or self assurance, especially before an audience, 2 a particular quality personal appearance or bearing,
Principle 1 a fundamental truth or proposition that serves as the foundation for a system of belief or behavior or for a chain of reasoning, 2 (usu. principles) a rule or belief governing one's personal behavior, 3 a general scientific theorem or law that has numerous special applications across a wide field
Progress 1 movement toward a goal or to a further or higher stage, 2 advancement in general, 3 growth or development, 4 continuous improvement
Proxemics 1 "the interrelated observations and theories of man's use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture”, 2 a subcategory of the study of nonverbal communication along with haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics (paralanguage), and chronemics (structure of time). Moore, Nina (2010). Nonverbal Communication:Studies and Applications. New York: Oxford University Press.
Resources The culmination of what one has learned, experienced, and used to date. Resources include knowledge, abilities and situational memories. A resource can be applied in many different areas of activity. 42
Self-Assessment A discovery process in which one reflects on a competency or group of competencies and the related resources and then writes about a situation which illustrates or demonstrates the use of this resource. This may include noting one’s level of comfort and experience with it.
Self-care The activities individuals, families and communities undertake with the intention of enhancing and restoring health and function. These activities are derived from knowledge and skills from the pool of both professional and lay experience. They are undertaken by lay people on their own behalf, either separately or in participative collaboration with professionals
Self-direction 1 autonomy: personal independence, 2 a process by which individuals take the initiative, with or without the assistance of others, in: diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes. (M. Knowles, Principles of Androgogy, 1972)
Self-image 1 The mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, gender, I.Q. score, etc.), but also items that have been learned by that person about himself or herself, either from personal experiences or by internalizing the judgments of others. 2 One's own idea of oneself or sense of one's worth 3 Involves four components: movement, sensation, feeling and thought (M. Feldenkrais)
Self-motivation 1 Motivated to achieve something due to one's own interest, 2 Initiative to undertake or continue a task or activity without another's prodding or supervision 3 The ability to satisfy a desire, expectation, or goal without being influenced to do so by another person.
Self-regulation 1 Self-regulation is an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviors that affect one's learning. These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments. 2 Self-regulated learning (SRL) is learning that is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal 43
progress against a standard), and motivation to learn. 3 Self-regulated describes a process of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior
Situational Memories The inner treasury of stories and memories, which may influence one’s actions
Skill The learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.
Strategy A plan, method, or series of maneuvers for obtaining a specific goal or result
Tactic An action carefully planned to support a particular strategy
Theme 1 A specific and distinctive quality, characteristic or concern 2 the element common to all or most forms of a paradigm 3 subject of discourse, discussion, meditation, or composition
Tonus 1 the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, 2 the continuous and passive partial contraction of the arterioles
Appendix 1 1984: Professional Advisory Committee met in Tel Aviv and drafted a one-page summary describing the skills of a new graduate
Appendix 2: Principles of the Feldenkrais Method ! The Principle of No Principles: "... it is bad in Judo to try for anything with such determination as not to be able to change your mind if necessary..." (M. Feldenkrais, Higher Judo, pg. 94) At times, principles guide one how to act. However, to perceive differently, one must act differently and to act differently one must learn how to do so. Therefore, principles may be used fluidly. Moshe's 'principle of no principles' so often misunderstood, as an admonition to eschew principles is rather, one principle amongst many to invoke when needed. ! Balance/counter balance- Improved balance is achieved when the center of the body mass is clearly organized above the base of support. ! Breathing is free in activity. Held or restricted breath is a manifestation of strain and effort while ideal movement is coordinated with uninterrupted and easy breathing. ! Co-regulation – the joining of two nervous systems ! Differentiation and Integration are biological capacities ! Evenly distributed muscular tone. No place works harder than any other place. A well organized person experiences lightness and ease in movement. ! Every action has the components of manipulation, orientation, and timing ! Force must travel through the joints, not across or around them in order to avoid shearing forces. Soft tissue is available for action but is ineffective for support.
! Good Action is determined by the capacity of the person to move the eyes, the head and the breath in a differentiated or coordinated ! Learning by doing. Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience. Knowledge may be continuously gained through personal, exploratory interaction with the environment. ! Mature behavior is the ability to act spontaneously. A mature human responds to the environment and situations without compulsion. The response is effortless, making effective use of self, and allows the possibility of failure. ! New movement learning builds on previous learning as well the inherent capabilities of the person. Learned actions contain subsidiary coordinations that may be transferred to other skills. ! Orientation is a biological necessity and is essential to all action. Spatial relationships and coordination are determined by orientation. ! Performance is improved by the separation of the aim (end, goal) from the means. ! Proportional distribution of muscular effort. The big muscles do the big work and the small muscles do small work. ! Reversibility: the sequential character of a movement that enables one to stop or change direction at any moment without holding, falling or experiencing a moment of disturbance. ! Support – Support describes the equal and opposite forces generated from the surfaces with which one in contact. External support, (i.e. the ground, the chair,)
interacts with internal support (through the joints) to promote efficient and flexible behavior. The specificity of the support determines the quality of the outcome. ! The carriage of the head serves to tonify the body. ! The nonlinear nature of change. Differences in action or environment may trigger nonlinear changes. By varying the environment of familiar task demands, it is possible to destabilize postural habits and help new ones to emerge. ! The skeleton affords ideal paths of action. ! There is no limit to learning and refinement. ! To correct is incorrect- When working with self and others, force is not directed to create a specific outcome, rather one elicits the person’s ability to selforganize. ! Variation is key for learning and adapting to novel conditions. Meeting the demands of a changing environment is a characteristic of a well-leaned skill. ! We act in accordance with our self-image. This self-image-which in turn governs our every act—is conditioned in varying degree by three factors: heritage, education and self-education (Moshe Feldenkrais, DSc, Awareness Through Movement, p 72) ! Weber- Fechner Law -. When effort is decreased, one can discriminate finer sensory changes, leading to greater potential for learning. ! What is good posture? The state from where a person is able to move in any direction, at any time, without hesitation or preparation. It is the absence of
unnecessary muscular contraction. As a starting point for our movements and actions, posture, or more accurately “acture” dictates our movement potential.
Bibliography Dreyfus, S., & Dreyfus, H. (1980). A Five-Stage Model of the Direct Activities involved in Directed Skill Aquisition. University of California, Berkeley, Operations Research Centre. University of California, Berkeley. Feldenkrais Guild of North America. (1992). standards_of_practice. Retrieved 01 20, 2014, from Feldenkrais Guild of North America: http://www.feldenkrais.com/profession/standards_of_practice/ FGNA. (1997). Notes from the Annual Meeting. Guild Annual Report . Hunt, A. (n.d.). The Dreyfus Model. Retrieved 01 20, 2014, from Struggling for Competence: http://moleseyhill.com/blog/2009/08/27/dreyfus-‐model/ International Feldenkrais Federation (IFF). (2008). IFF Feldenkrais® Professional Competency Profile. Retrieved 01 20, 2014, from Feldenkrais Guild of North America: http://www.feldenkrais.com/download/profession/IFFCompetencyProfile.pdf Lambert, C., Spink, S., & Stanton, L. (2010). The Emergent Practitioner Competency Profile. AUSTAB, AFG, ETC, EUROTAB. Australian Feldenkrais Guild. Lewis, D., Virden, T., & Smith Hutch, P. (2011). Competence assessment integrating reflective practice in a professional psychology program. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 11 (3), 86-‐108. Pieper, B., & Weise, S. (1996). Berufsbild: FELDENKRAIS: Tasks, Activities, Development of a New Profession. Retrieved 01 20, 2014, from International Feldenkrais Guild: http://feldenkrais-‐method.org/de/node/364 Rywerant, Y. (2000). Acquiring the Feldenkrais Profession. Schön, D. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions. San Francisco: Jossey-‐Bass. Smyth, C. (1995). IFF Training Survey. Retrieved 01 20, 2014, from International Feldenkrais Federation: http://feldenkrais-‐method.org/en/node/398 Smyth, C. (1996). Success and the Feldenkrais Method. Retrieved 01 20, 2014, from International Feldenkrais Federation: http://feldenkrais-‐method.org/en/node/407
10 March 2006 To : NATAB and EuroTAB From : Yvan Joly M.A. (Psy.), Certified Feldenkrais Trainer and Educational Director
A Proposal for an Alternative Training Model: Distributed Training Design (DTD) Dear colleagues, In the following paragraphs, I am submitting for your consideration an alternative model for a basic training in the Feldenkrais Method®. Eventually, if you find this model acceptable, I would like to use it soon as a basis for future training programs in Argentina, Québec and in France, thus the actual presentation to both NATAB and EuroTAB.
My proposal for an alternative training model is the result of two recent insightful experiences: A three week teaching tour in Argentina and a one year participation in the IWG (International Working Group) on Feldenkrais training policies.
Insights from the Case of Argentina
In November 2005, I was kindly invited to Argentina by the Asociaciõn Feldenkrais Argentina to offer advanced training for practitioners and public workshops. There is a very dynamic community of colleagues there. Though there is an obvious great potential for developing the FM in Argentina, the financial situation of the country is such that it is virtually impossible to hold another training program under the present policies. A third training program has recently failed to recruit the minimum number of participants due to the dire financial situation of the country. And if programs can actually happen under the international policies, their costs are such that they are available to the financially well off. In neighboring countries, like Brazil not to name one, a local assistant-trainer and
trainer-candidate is now directing unaccredited training programs –admittedly quite successfully. If we do not proactively develop training policies viable for all, we may just have to live with the consequences of de facto alternatives as we already have.
Insights from the IWG (International Working Group) on training policies
In the last year, I was a member of the IWG. After the recent presentation of the Final Report Part A in February 2006 I have resigned from the IWG. In the incredibly rich and daunting task of the IWG, I have re-read hundreds of pages of our history and discussed with tens of colleagues worldwide and for hundreds of hours. At this moment you must have read the report or will read it soon. The proposals for a new model of training I submit here address concretely many of the issues I personally found crucial.
-Only a small portion of graduates who do not have an already established profession actually seem to “make it” as autonomous Feldenkrais Practitioner/Teacher.
- Worldwide we obviously do not witness the growth that we think our work deserves. Though more numerous, training programs get smaller and smaller in many cities.
-We have hundreds of very qualified practitioners in our network who have nowhere to go to develop as mentors and trainers in their own community. Some actually refrain from presenting the work to professionals out of fear of being ostracized by their colleagues for doing un-authorized training programs.
-We have already tens of certified assistant-trainers worldwide and most have very little actual work opportunities. Many successful practitioners just don’t want to –and should probably not- leave their practice to go on the road, even more so if it is to be paid as assistant-trainer less than what they get from their practice and if it is to be put in a role that most of the time, to say the least, if not very glorifying.
-Students of practitioners who eventually start a training end up investing their time, money and attachment to trainers, thus detaching themselves from the practitioners who introduced them to the work. Practitioners easily feel that by referring their students, they bring business to training programs and as a consequence loose their own business.
An apparent digression on Distributed
“Distributed cognition is a branch of cognitive science that proposes that human knowledge and cognition are not confined to the individual. Instead, it is distributed by placing memories, facts, knowledge on the objects, individuals and tools in our environment…” (Wikipedia)
“…cognitive processes may be distributed across the members of a social group (…), the operation of the cognitive system involves coordination between internal and external structures, and processes may be distributed through time such that a product of earlier events can transform the nature of later events” (Edwin Hutchins http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Anthro179a/DistributedCognition.pdf).
Guidelines for an alternative model: A DISTRIBUTED TRAINING DESIGN (DTD)
In the context of a Feldenkrais training program, the notion of distribution seems to address many of my own insights. A Distributed Training Design would include the distribution of responsibilities between practitioners, assistants and trainers and educational director in the training process itself, thus the reduction of emphasis on hierarchy and centralization and an accent on the sharing of authority in a training team. “Distribution” could also imply the recruitment of professionals already trained in other disciplines thus the distribution of training responsibility and the distribution of our
method in various fields. Finally the distribution of the training process through time (continuity over the year) and space (small groups in various cities around local assistants) are also part of the DTD.
The Distributed Training Design (DTD) that I wish to propose here has the following concrete characteristics:
-the training is offered to professionals who already have trained as professionals of a discipline related to our work; thus this is a project for a “Training for Professionals”, to be differentiated from a “Professional Training”;
-the whole training group meets 2 or 3 times a year, for 20 days a year as a large training group;
-in between these two yearly training segments as a large group, trainees meet in small local training groups with a local practitioner certified as assistant-trainer. Such small training groups meet for 20 days; they have 5 to 12 participants and each local group has the prerogative of organizing their meetings around their schedule, weekly or monthly and formats will vary;
-trainees will each have a booklet of training attendance and will need to have each session attended documented and initialized by the teacher offering the activities. Rules of presence and absence will be respected as in the actual policy.
-the content and process of the training program is coordinated by the educational director; it is elaborated and implemented and evaluated in collaboration with the training staff; local assistants have the responsibility of applying the agreed upon program rigorously, according to the plan and in collaboration with the educational director and with an ongoing evaluation and adjustment process between each assistant and the educational director and the other assistants;
-assistants for small training groups are part of the training staff and they are hired and paid by the training program as assistants;
-in their small local training groups, over the whole year, assistants review the material of the large group segments; assistants are present at these large group segments and they also received there special supervision sessions in order to prepare for teaching in their own small local training groups;
-in their small local training groups, assistants also have the responsibility to present specific modules, on determined topics. These modules need to be followed by every trainee and are documented in the trainee’s booklet where all training activities are checked. Some of the modules may be taught by an assistant who may travel from one small group to the other, and thus there can be “cross-pollination” of pedagogical content among small local training groups; examples of such modules: functional anatomy, interviewing techniques, working with children, athletes, artists etc., selected ATM sequences, ATM and FI practicum.
-FI lessons (minimum of 12 as per current policy) offered by the training as part of the program can be “distributed” through the whole year. Trainees can thus receive series of lessons from a particular practitioner, a model much closer to what their future practice;
-attending ATM classes with their local practitioners is an integral part of the training program requirements and is done with the local assistants and serves for some of the hours;
-practice among trainees and eventually with persons from the public for practicum of both ATM and FI will be emphasized in small local training groups;
-graduation is under the collective responsibility of the training staff. Yet the educational director has the final authority over the whole process and is responsible vis-à-vis the TABs and the local Guilds;
-total training days (of 5 hours) will thus be per year: 20 with educational director 20 with local assistants Total: 40 days over 4 years: 160 days
The dynamics created by the Distributed Training Design
A DTD can include assistants in a much more integrated role as both autonomous teachers and part of a concerted team. Trainees stay connected locally to their practitioners including in diverse cities, possibly even in diverse countries (eg a program meeting yearly as a large group twice in Argentina, with small local training groups in Brazil and Chile; or a program meeting in France, with small local training groups in other French speaking countries; or a bilingual program in Quebec meeting as a large bilingual group twice yearly and meeting in small local training groups in various cities in various languages.
A DTD offers a training close to home. This can attract more easily professionals of a variety of disciplines who are not always available to leave their practice, their income, their family for 40 days a year.
The fact that trainees are expected to be professionals trained already in a related discipline frees the Feldenkrais training program from a lot of corollary aspects that are taken care by the previous formation of the candidates. Professionals will not be expecting or expected to develop an autonomous new profession from scratch. And as Moshe expressed twice in Amherst, professionals will bring what they learn in the FM to their own field of expertise. “Only a few of you will actually become Feldenkrais
practitioners as such”. Training professionals of various fields to apply the Feldenkrais principles and practices in their own field seems to me a far more reachable objective for a 160 day training program. And surely, as usual and perhaps even more, a portion of graduates eventually will want to identify to the Feldenkrais profession as such. But that choice will also be distributed over time and process.
A DTD can also support local practice and local roots of our experienced colleagues. Many colleagues have many years of experience and are keep out of the training system because they don’t want to deal with the constraints of the Feldenkrais policies as they are. Yet many have a lot to offer, sometimes as much if not more to offer than actual assistants or certified trainers for that matter who may have lost touch with steady private practice. Trainees need role models who are successful practitioners, not only successful trainers.
A DTD is proposed to reduce the pressure on training budgets. In DTD, trainer fees need to be paid for 20 and not 40 days a year. With local practitioners as staff, traveling or per diem fees are reduced if not avoided. Assistants working at home are usually satisfied to be paid their usual local fees. They get to work at home, and grow their competence and recognition locally. Maybe they can even have a family and keep it!
Finally a DTD can favor the development of a more solid rapport between trainees and their local practitioners who can have a more intimate connection with a significant mentor and role model. Assistants and trainees too, grow their competence more “by doing” rather that by watching, which seems like a good idea for the FM too!
Last but not least, a DTD includes team coordination as integral to becoming an assistant and eventual trainer and coordination is modeled throughout the training.
Obviously there are some challenges in a DTD that need also to be considered:
-The international Feldenkrais community has not adopted many variations to it’s standard program accreditation and may perceive this as a dangerous precedent. Yes this may set a precedent, but it is probably even more dangerous to keep our unique model. And in fact, particularly in Europe, there are more and more training models that lead to graduation, some of them not asking for any TAB recognition, following their “own drum” and yet their graduates are welcome as Guild members.
-This shift of model from hierarchical and centralized to distributed is not obvious to manage from the point of view of the educational director role. I for one surely feel the pressure in making this passage, keeping some form of authority, yet sharing the adventure with other colleagues whom I respect for their competence. Distributing power and authority definitely requires attention in a community structured from the inception as pyramidal.
-The organizational components of a DTD model are also to be considered with care. A hierarchical top down centralized organization may seem simpler to manage, and in a certain way, if it works better pedagogically, financially and culturally, is perhaps preferable. I feel that in our case, we need to grow the organizational model to serve the learning model. Coordinating all the assistants in various moments and roles is in itself a complex project. I am convinced that this won’t be a boring task!
-The finances associated to such a project also need to be planned carefully. The model has to be used clearly to make it significantly cheaper to organize, cheaper to operate, cheaper to register but not cheaper on the quality of training itself. Thus we do have to make enough adjustments so that fees can be reduced and competency not.
-It is also granted that we will not be able to preserve in the same way all our criteria of competency of staff, variety of teachers, continuity of presence, percentage of presence by the educational director etc. Somewhere something will be changed in the profile.
-For example, in the present model, the educational director is still present 50% of the teaching time, and our usual criterion of variety is not met. Yet variety is ensured by a variety of assistants during large group segments. Reduced variety of trainers is probably compensated also by closer connection with assistants in small local training groups. Maybe less variety, but more personal attention and continuity in small groups.
-Inviting other trainers has been considered but it would disturb what the project intends to do which is to reduce the higher costs and most and foremost give local assistants a chance to grow. Some would suggest reducing the teaching time of the educational director. I submit that this reduction for the sake of variety can create more confusion and discontinuity in the learning itself, a phenomenon already observed in our standard training profiles. I find that my own presence for 50% of the time is a minimum to give the training a minimum of coherence. Please remember that some training programs whose graduates are Guild certifiable are led by one single trainer and over shorter times. These models have not been demonstrated to be less effective. In fact, no model has been demonstrated to be more or less effective. In the case of DTD, beyond the educational director, trainees will be exposed to many of their local assistants.
Again, we will not be able to sustain alternative models and keep all of our usual rules, and ensure the respect of all of our usual principles. I have made some choices here and beyond quality, coherence, variety and continuity, these choices do serve a few other principles: reduction of the costs and displacements for better accessibility; distribution of the responsibility of the training itself to nurture local practitioner growth and recognition. I hope that you will give such a model a chance to be experienced. Yours sincerely, Yvan Joly
Final Report Part A
Investigations and Preliminary Recommendations February 2006
International Working Group (IWG) On Training Policy Commissioned by the Governing Bodies of AusTAB, EuroTAB and NATAB
Naomi Doron, Sabina Graf-Pointner, Yvan Joly, George Krutz and Chris Lambert1
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.
Terms of Reference and Acknowledgments
2.1 2.2 2.3
10 10 10
Terms of Reference Purpose of the Report Acknowledgements
3.1. How to read the report 3.1.1. Structure of the report 3.1.2. Language
11 11 11
4.1. The context of the IWG 4.2. The process of the IWG
The Foci of Dissatisfaction and the Stakeholders
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5. 6.6. 6.7. 6.8. 6.9. 6.10. 6.11
16 17 18 18 19 20 22 22 23 24 24
The Training Accreditation Policy Teacher Certification Policies Governing Bodies Guilds/Associations TABs Trainees Practitioners Assistant Trainers/Trainer Candidates Trainers Educational Directors Training Organizers
7.1. What is the Feldenkrais Method? 7.2. Status issues
7.3. Assessment 7.4. Continuity of Expertise 7.5 International Co-operation 7.5.1. Purpose and Ends of an international structure 7.5.2. Levels of international relationships 7.5.3. The International Feldenkrais Community 126.96.36.199. Chart: Structures and Bodies in the International Feldenkrais Community 188.8.131.52. Remarks on the Charts 184.108.40.206 The Current Architecture of the Training System 220.127.116.11. Benefits of the International Structures 18.104.22.168. Disadvantages of the International Structures 22.214.171.124.1. Volunteer Commitments of Time & Resources on Training Policy 126.96.36.199.2. The Art of Overreaching 188.8.131.52. Challenges
28 31 32 32 32 34 34
8.1. Distinguishing Protectionism and Standards 8.2. Professional vs. Entrepreneurial – Institutional or market Control 8.3. Social Acceptance and Integrity of the Method 8.4. The cost of Change
42 42 43 44
Conclusions and Findings
9.1.Change will happen 9.2.Choices 9.2.1 Culture and Regulation 9.3.Additional Findings
45 46 46
Recommendations 10.1 Create a Decision Making Process 10.2 Convene a General Assembly 10.3 Policies 10.4 Create a new International Structure
48 48 48 49 50
34 35 37 37 38
10.5 Develop a path and a timeline 10.6 Transitional Recommendations
Title Page (1) Authors of the report
Chapter 2 (1) Terms of Reference and Acknowledgements
Chapter 4 (1) Introduction (2) Introduction (3) The Parable of the Blind Men and the Elephant (1869) (4) Questionnaire from the IWG (5) Comparison of Decision Making Concerning Training Issues in Different Somatic methods Chapter 5 (1) Historical overview Chapter 6 (1) Thoughts on the Feldenkrais Trainer Competency Profile and Trainer candidacy Process
55 55 56 57 58
Chapter 7 (1) Somewhere between Earning a Living, Self-Realization and Social recognition – Reflection on the Profession “Feldenkrais Practitioner” . (2) Chart: Structures and Bodies in the International Feldenkrais Community (3) A Short History About national Accreditation in Switzerland
Chapter 10 (1) Report on Convention Idea for the IFF (IFF, Kassel 2001)
1. The principal aims of the International Working Group are to continue the process of gathering information and stimulating discussion of training policy at an international level and to suggest a coherent rationale for international training policies. To determine the (current and possible future) needs of our profession and find a way to meet them and to provide a frame work for an international discussion that could result in workable policy. Further aims are to make recommendations for international policy and the administration and ratification process of those policies. (Ref 2) 2. This report forms part 1 of a two part report (A&B). The second report holds our recommendations in detail. For ease of absorption, this report is structured in three layers of increasingly detailed information; a synopsis, the body of the report and the appendices. (Ref 3) 3. A twenty year history of policy development since the death of Moshe Feldenkrais has resulted in a number of ad hoc policies, designed to meet the then immediate needs of the Feldenkrais Community. Given the growth and current sophistication of our community these policies no longer appropriately serve our needs. Redevelopment of policy to match the current and future needs is being called for by many practitioners. (Ref 4.1) 4.
We developed our investigations along four major tracks: • Situational analysis -Where are we and how did we get here? • Identifying underlying principles and values. • Comparison with other somatic Methods • Vision quest From there we developed our recommendations. (Ref 4.2)
5. A brief history of events which have a bearing on this report is provided in the Appendices (Ref 5) 6. The foci of dissatisfaction and the perspective of the various stakeholders were investigated. These are as follows; Dissatisfaction with the TAPs can be seen as a fractal of the generalized dissatisfaction currently being voiced. Formulated in crisis, modified to address loopholes and perceived as over regulatory when in fact poorly written, they are difficult to change due to the current Policy for Changing Policy and the lack of cohesive intention.(Ref 6.1) The first of the Teacher policies to be redeveloped using the system of competency based assessment, the Trainer Certification Policy was instituted before the process of assessment required to operate it was well and broadly understood. Based on a model of written submission and modified to accommodate the concept of Candidacy, the execution of the process has become convoluted as the TABs endeavored to respond to concerns that arose from the community (Ref 6.2)
The Governing Bodies of the TABs (GBs) have been required to ratify policy changes without being fundamentally involved in their development. While the TABs connected for the development of policy, the GBs have not. The relationship between the GBs and their TABs is different in each instance, making cohesive decisions difficult. (Ref 6.3) The Guilds form the interface between their practitioner members and external bodies, between the “training community” and the “practitioner community” and between each other. Executives of the Guilds report a sense of vulnerability, of being squeezed between international policy and the requirements of their National Governments. (Ref 6.4) The TABs have had minimal accountability in their day to day work. They differ in terms of size, manpower, resources and geographical responsibility. There is no conformity in structure, mandate, reporting systems and place in the architecture of their GBs. Yet, they are required to expedite the development of policy and the processing of applications in consensus with each other internationally. (Ref.6.5) The method of learning The Feldenkrais Method is The Method itself. Some trainees report a sense of not knowing what is before them without having a traditional curriculum statement available to them. There seems to be a general sense of inadequacy in the level of feedback available. Many new graduates feel unprepared to practice The Method professionally. (Ref 6.6) Despite the increasing number of practitioners and the growing visibility of The Method, many practitioners find it difficult to earn a living from the work. Practitioners who do not have other credentials in a recognized profession often feel at a disadvantage. Practitioners applying for accreditation as an assistant trainer often say the process is cumbersome, does not reflect the basic premises of the Method and is difficult to negotiate as a result of poor communication pathways. (Ref 6.7) Opportunities for employment are perceived as diminishing. Many feel the community has systematically raised the bar for advancement in the teacher application processes which have little relevance either as assessment or education. While on the job training is the main process for learning to facilitate learning in an FPTP, opportunities for this are patchy at best. (Ref 6.8) Trainers in general appear to be satisfied with their lot, but dissatisfied with the rules under which they ply their trade. They do not have an institutionalized continuing education process. (Ref 6.9) Educational Directors are at the highest point of the Feldenkrais Pyramid of status, they have the greatest responsibilities with the potential for the greatest consequences on the community, yet there are no checks and balances. The status is easily attained after trainer certification and automatically maintained. Still some Educational directors would like more autonomy and the ability to experiment with training formats. (Ref 6.10)
Some training organizers report decreased enrolments, an increased risk to the viability of their businesses, and a difficulty with the constraints and expense generated by the current system of accreditation. (Ref 6.11) 7.
Issues pertinent to this project are as follows:
The Feldenkrais Method defies universally accepted definition or categorization. Debate exists in particular in regard to the relationship between The Method and the spheres of health, education and somatic practice. Dependence on service marks has allowed avoidance of the issue of an acceptable definition. But we must consider how to protect the integrity of the F.M and its standards of practice. (Ref 7.1) The implicit hierarchy operating in our community has its roots in the “point source” model of teaching initiated by Moshe Feldenkrais. We have shifted the role of teaching to that of a status. This model can tend to emphasize charisma and personality over substance. (Ref 7.2) Assessment: Affirmation and the development of self authority is one of the foundational values of The Method. However, assessment is undertaken informally throughout all fields of our work. Part of the difficulty with assessment comes from the fact that The Method presents a process and not an accumulation of knowledge. The difficulty in finding fair and transparent ways of assessment that reflect our work should not prevent us from looking for them. All attempts to regulate trainings and maintain standards must rely on some set of criteria for legitimacy. There are at least nine phases in the current career path which employ assessment. Serious research projects are required to develop standards against which a transparent form of assessment can be made. Two forms of assessment are considered; formative and summative evaluation. (Ref 7.3) If it is true, as some have observed, that the average age of graduates is increasing, and the time to become a trainer is growing, we need to seriously consider how this affects long term expertise in the training field. Consideration must be given to the transmission of expertise in the current system of trainer development. (Ref 7.4) Before we change anything of our current structures we should be clear about the desired purposes and ends. (Ref 7.5.1) Three forms of relationship between our national organizations are examined; legal, organizational and informal. (Ref 7.5.2) A large number of people in our community do not appear to have a general understanding of the nature of and relationship between our bureaucracies. (Ref. 7.5.3) Flow charts have been developed describing the links and relationship between all organizations impacting on the training arena. (Ref 184.108.40.206 & 220.127.116.11) An explanation of the elements of the charts supplied is provided. (Ref. 18.104.22.168)
Some responses to the IWG questionnaire have been collated to reflect the perceived benefits and disadvantages of our international structures currently regarded as relevant to this discussion. (Ref. 22.214.171.124 & 126.96.36.199) The GBs and TABs were surveyed to establish an estimate of current expenditures in terms of human and fiscal resources. (Ref. 188.8.131.52.1) Our bureaucracies are manned by volunteers dedicated to the maintenance and advancement of our Method. The execution of the possibilities raised by their vision is outstripped by the general paucity of resources. The tendency to overreach has an impact on the well being of those involved and reduces our long term effectiveness. We require simple, elegant bureaucratic structures supported by a skill set of sharing, disseminating, communication and organisation. (Ref. 184.108.40.206.2) There are many pressures operating nationally which impact on our ability to maintain international homogeneity. To what extent do we strive to maintain international homogeneity in policy, function and structure? (Ref. 220.127.116.11) 8.
The economic forces impacting on our organizations and policies were examined.
Well articulated policies with clear intentions and explicitly stated rationales administered through transparent processes provide a balance between over regulation and a loss of standards. (Ref. 8.1) The community is presently unclear about the choice of system to be employed when offering FPTPs and the ramifications of those choices. Do we use an institutional model which is ostensibly insulated from politics and the market place or do we continue in the current entrepreneurial market model? In our community decisions such as admissions and retention in training programs, graduation and endorsing potential competitor’s promotion to trainer role are examples of situations in which sheering forces between the two models can operate. (Ref. 8.2) One of the sources of dissatisfaction has been what is perceived by some as a lack of recognition of The Method by society. It is important that as we push for growth and greater opportunities, we don’t resort to magical thinking and apply inappropriate metrics and standards to our work. (Ref 8.3) Any meaningful change we make in the structure and functioning of our bureaucracies will come at a cost. Much of the resistance to change possibly results from anxiety about who will bear the cost. (Ref 8.4) 9.
Our findings and conclusions are as follows;
The primary conclusion of the IWG is that we are at a critical stage. Change is happening and will happen. Many of the forces pushing us towards change are the result of our successes rather than failures. Growth in the number of practitioners, the diversification 8
of the international community and the increased recognition and visibility of The Method has resulted in a call for clearer training standards and clarification of international operating principles. (Ref. 9.1) We have a choice between guiding change and allowing change to happen. If we choose to guide change that choice should come from within the community as a whole. Intentionality in who we are, what we want to do and where we want to move is paramount. (Ref. 9.2) Additional findings are as follows; We currently have no way to evaluate training outcomes. The current policies are not explicit in their aims or principles so there is no way to know if they are achieving their purpose. The current decision making and administration structure is costly and inefficient in using human and financial resources. It no longer reflects the international picture. The current structure and policy do not allow for the autonomy of national Guilds and Associations. The Trainer Accreditation process does not serve the long term needs of our community. Having an employment based system where there is little opportunity is centrifugal and leads to disenchantment and stagnation. Although it would seem logical that Trainers and TABs evaluate trainer candidate applications, the inherent conflict of interest places this process under suspicion. The future will almost certainly bring more unaccredited trainings (particularly in Europe) (Ref. 9.3) 10.
We strongly recommend that this report be translated into German, French, Spanish and Italian. Any useful change depends on the participation of the ENTIRE international community Six sets of preliminary recommendations are outlined in this report. (Ref 10.1 to 10.6)
Terms of Reference and Acknowledgments
Terms of Reference under which this report is produced1
The terms of Reference are produced in full in the Appendix.
Purpose of this report
This report reflects the investigations and discussions undertaken by the IWG, and is intended to provide a structure by which the Feldenkrais community can explore their ideas in relation to the dissatisfactions voiced in the community. It is calculated to stimulate the dialogue between the different groups of interest and individuals and to lay the ground for a process of creating solutions. Moreover we hope to receive contributions to the discussion to refine our conceptual base for the professional organisation of the Feldenkrais Method. The final report is divided into two parts. Part A (this document) reflects our investigations and some preliminary recommendations. Part B, which will follow this document will contain our recommendations in full. Named as final, the report constitutes the completion of the mandate of the IWG and should by no means be confused with the end of the process of change in our community.
The members of the IWG recognise the forward thinking of the governing bodies of the international TABs in convening a working group to investigate the concerns of our community around training policy and thank them for their support during this project. We wish to acknowledge those practitioners who completed our questionnaire thereby contributing to this project. We also wish to acknowledge the practitioner volunteers on the various committees worldwide, who have contributed so much work operating the Guilds, TABs and IFF and whose papers have contributed much to this report.
Preamble “…the systematic is of great importance. It enables us to find ways of behaving and acting that are in accordance with our personal and inner needs, ways that we might not discover naturally, because circumstances and outside influences may have led us in other directions in which continued progress is impossible. Systematic study and awareness should provide man a means of scanning all fields of action so he can find a place for himself where he can act and breathe freely.” (Moshe Feldenkrais, “Awareness Through Movement”.)
How to read the report
3.1.1. Structure of this report This report is organised in a three level pyramidal fashion to provide the reader with an echelon of information beginning with the succinct and expanding through the body of the report to elucidate our investigations. Level 1: Level 2: Level 3:
The Executive Summary provides a short synopsis which summarizes each point in the table of contents. The body of the report tables the investigations and discussions undertaken by the IWG in keeping with the Terms of Reference. The Appendices contain information intended to clarify elements in the report which may not be known to some readers.
The Final Report Part B will contain an elaboration of our recommendations and an evaluation of the responses to our questionnaire. Footnotes directing the reader to the appendices pertain to each chapter, and thus run in numerical order commencing with 1. in each chapter. 3.1.2. Language We would like to stress that language has been an issue both for the IWG, all the existing international bodies and the community as a whole. We encountered many confusions and difficulties because as one North American, one French Canadian, one Australian, one Israeli and one German we did not have a common form of English. In our international community 2100 members of our international community speak English as a mother tongue, 1700 German, 350 Italian, 250 French, 150 Spanish, and the remainder Hebrew, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish and many other languages. Thus more than half our community may be struggling to understand what is discussed in English let alone able to express their concerns adequately. We feel the advantage of expressing oneself in the mother tongue is not highly enough estimated. 11
The context of the IWG1
In relation to other professions, the Feldenkrais Method is still relatively young. However, since the first recognition of the work as a Method, there has been significant growth in both the number of practitioners and the number of our professional organisations. In 1983 there were approximately 310 practitioners and now twenty years later we have around 6000 practitioners in approximately twenty countries. This growth would not have occurred had it not been for the successful operation of numerous Feldenkrais Training Programs. Much has happened during these twenty years, not only in the community of Feldenkrais teachers, but in society at large2. In that “short” history many different Feldenkrais organisations have been formed, rules made and policies developed. Taking a step back and looking at the big picture3 – where we come from, where we are now, in which environments we find ourselves, where our challenges are and what the risks are to us an international community – is the core of our mandate. The IWG has looked at both the content and the process (the WHAT and HOW) by which we negotiate training policy. What is missing in the process if we feel caught? What can shake the system in a way that lets new perspectives and options arise? From an appreciation of the present situation we have explored different options, different ways to organize our actions as a community. Our intention thereby is to identify paths and structures for a set of international training policies that minimize sheering forces, friction, a loss of energy and personal frustration. We believe that our community has arrived at an important crossroad in our history. It will take experience and competence, forethoughtfulness and genuine commitment to deal with this difficult process, allowing us to initiate and promote a development which will assure a lasting place for our Method in society without distorting its essential principles. We are convinced that this process is necessary and inevitable. We feel that it is wise to take a discerning look in order to make the very best of our current situation. This is in keeping with the Feldenkrais adage of calling habits into question, asking ourselves whether something feels better because it is more efficient or merely so familiar. We are convinced that it is wise to have choices. As Moshe Feldenkrais once said, “in order to do what we want, we need more ways than the one we already know – even if it is per se a good one”. How training programs are conducted and who can train has been a central issue in our community since the death Moshe Feldenkrais, more than twenty years ago. Much of the turbulence in the history of the Feldenkrais Method has centred on the issues of training
policy. There have been deep divisions as well as incredibly coordinated and effective collective action. In this report we have tried to avoid a problem solving approach but rather to scan the “fields of action”. We have found our efforts exhausting but nowhere near exhaustive. To those who say we have focused too narrowly on problems, our reply is that the recognition that there are significant problems is why this group was called into existence. Many of the stresses we have identified are the direct results of the successful efforts of those who have worked to advance the Feldenkrais Method. The purpose of this report is not to find fault with, or fix blame on anyone. The questions of training policy can be put quite simply, especially if one thinks only in terms of regulation or control- Who can teach? What is taught? How is it taught? But those questions leave out the more basic questions -What for? …Who for? ... At what cost? … Who pays? ….Who sets standards? These questions are less easily answered. In any case they are best not left to a small group of people. We do ask that you keep them in mind as you read this report.
The process of the IWG
The mandate of the IWG is to consider all of the International training policies and our structures for developing and implementing them. We were also asked to make recommendations for the future. We developed our work along the following four major tracks: • • • •
Situational analysis -Where are we and how did we get here? Identification of underlying principles and values. Comparison with other somatic Methods Vision quest
From there developed our recommendations. •
Situation analysis -Where are we and how did we get here?
We began by collecting and examining documents and data. This included the policies themselves, survey results and historical data from FGNA and The AFG Inc. documents and research produced for the German Guild’s “Workshop for the Future” and various papers and documents reaching as far back as the 1980s. We also relied on our personal histories of involvement with the international Feldenkrais community, and an extensive network of colleagues all over the world.
We developed a questionnaire designed to elicit the wealth of opinion held by practitioners and to ensure that any person with a desire to be heard could be. This questionnaire was distributed via the Guilds to reach every practitioner worldwide.4 •
Identification of underlying principles and values.
This was difficult and to say the least, problematic, as the intentions, principles and values of our training policies are rarely being made explicit. Nevertheless it was always in the background of our research and discussions and very often in the foreground of our considerations. •
Comparison with other somatic Methods
We investigated different systems such as the Alexander Method, Yoga, and somatic practices.5 •
What is our community’s image of itself, now and in the future, particularly in regards to training issues? In this, we relied on responses to the FGNA’s survey on training issues and on our own questionnaire mentioned before. Although we are still in the process of receiving community feedback – for organizational reasons some Guilds sent it out just recently - the consistency of the issues and ideas that surfaced were revealing and useful. •
Development of recommendations-
The IWG recognizes that, although it is interesting and useful to identify issues and develop a vision, a key part of our mandate is to provide a set of recommendations. While the IWG has identified what we believe are useful directions for change, we realize that without more specific proposals there is little chance they will be implemented. We look forward to presenting these specifics in the Final Report Part B which will follow this report in the near future.
The IWG spent a lot of time researching the history of our community and training policy to establish a common ground both for us and readers of the report. Throughout the report we use the history to explain why we raise different issues. Moreover we wished to acknowledge the contributions and intentions of those undertaking the work earlier in our history as being the best possible solution under the circumstances of the time. In addition we needed to highlight the history to avoid falling into old pitfalls again. In the words of Mark Twain; “History does not repeat itself, but it does rhyme”. Throughout this report we refer to timelines and developments that may not be familiar to all readers. There is a brief historical overview included in the Appendix 1.1
The Foci of Dissatisfaction and the Parties Involved
The sources of dissatisfaction in the Feldenkrais Community have been many and varied. Most but not all have centred on Training, the Training Accreditation Policy (TAPs), the Certification of Trainers Policy and the implementation of these.
Training Accreditation Policy (TAPs)
In regard to the TAPs, dissatisfaction has been present since the death of Moshe Feldenkrais. There have been two broad areas of dissatisfaction: 6.1.1 6.1.2
Issues of being required to submit an application for accreditation to the Training Accreditation Board(s) Issues with implementation of the TAP’s
6.1.1 After the death of Moshe Feldenkrais in 1984 a group of involved and interested persons gathered to create a set of requirements for the teaching of a Feldenkrais Training Program (thereafter called a Feldenkrais Professional Training Program – FPTP). This resulted in “The Training and Accreditation Guidelines” -TAGs. Within a year the agreement to adhere to the Policy developed at the meeting in 1984 had been breached and Feldenkrais Professional Training Programs that had not been accredited by the TAB were introduced. Subsequently, there were many meetings of practitioners attempting to remediate the situation. A Crossover Policy was developed to provide a vehicle for practitioners who had graduated from these programs to undertake additional tuition in order to be recognised as an accredited practitioner and to be eligible for Guild membership. This policy while still in effect applies only to graduates of Mia Segal’s and Yochanan Rywerant’s programs who graduated before 2003. The issue of accreditation or not (base line standards or not) was exacerbated in 1998 when a trainer in North America challenged the FGNA’s ownership of their service marks by bringing a suit in law against them. The out of court settlement of this dispute precipitated the first major breach of the homogeneity of the internationally held TAPs. Thus two forms of accreditation of training programs came into existence in addition to those non-accredited. 6.1.2. There is a perception that the TAPs are overly detailed and overly regulatory in nature. The Training Accreditation Policies were originally called Guidelines, (and still are in North America). However they were treated by both applicants and regulators as policy. When first written, the TAPs did not reflect the language of policy and there were many ambiguities peppered through the document. As advantage was taken of each ambiguity by one or more applicants the community and
regulators reacted by closing the loophole. As a result we presently have a document that in fact remains very open ended in some items and very detailed and closed in others. As policy it is a flawed document. Regardless of the real nature of the document, the perception of over- regulation remains. While many attempts have been made to refine the document, the process of admitting change has been retarded by the requirements of the Policy for Changing Policy and by the lack of an ultimate international decision making body having authority over the whole process. Hundreds, possibly thousands of hours were spent by the many who attended the TAB/Trainer meetings with the intention of subsequently reworking the TAP’s. All to no avail, as consensus could not be gained on even the most fundamental points. This was exacerbated by a process that required international back and forth over every detail and by the lack of consensus on what the whole policy should serve. While the agreed process for implementing change is based on a belief that complete consensus must be obtained there is little possibility for change. It is not common sense to expect that the entire international Feldenkrais Community can reach consensus about any change (except perhaps the sentiment that change is needed!).
Teacher Certification Policies
General dissatisfaction by the community with the quantitative rather than qualitative nature of the requirements in the Trainer Certification Policy resulted in a shift to a “competency based assessment” model in 1999. With that, a process by which prospective candidates for Trainer Certification flagged their intention was implemented and an adjustment was made to the Trainer Certification Policy to include the Trainer Candidacy process.1 The trainer candidacy process was implemented before the TAB members and the training community in general fully understood the nature and process of “competency based assessment” and before the infrastructure to implement assessment on site was in place. To further complicate matters, the TABs responded to the criticism that many of their members were not mature enough in the Method to reliably assess Trainer and Trainer Candidate applications by forming yet another group, “The Small Trainer Group” to make recommendations to the TABs on reviewing an application that relied more and more on written activities. Trainer candidate applicants found themselves in the position of having their applications assessed by a Guidance committee, a Small Trainer Group, each member of the three TABs and the trainer community in general. The consequent time delay, exacerbated by differing levels of rigour applied by various assessors with a consequent lack of
consensus as to whether the application was acceptable or not, found some applicants waiting for more than six months for a determination on their application. Many were asked to submit further written material to meet the policy requirements, when in fact it was their ability to reflect their work via their writing skills rather than the skill itself that was in question. The process was and remains tedious and frustrating for almost every party. Eventually the groundswell of dissatisfaction found voice through a group of Trainer and assistant trainers from North America and a request for change was directly addressed to the governing body of the NATAB, the FGNA.
THE PARTIES INVOLVED What follows is not a portrait of the global situation which has many satisfactory attributes, but rather an attempt to record and recognise the sources of dissatisfaction.
Governing Bodies of the TABs
The Governing Bodies (FGNA, EuroTAB Council and The Australian Feldenkrais Guild Inc.) have instigated this report in response to a call from the community. The Governing Bodies are ultimately responsible for the TABs activities, and the Policies. Until that call they functioned as three separate entities with little communication. They are now pursuing an active and cooperative role in responding to strong dissatisfaction with training policy from many segments in the community. The FGNA and The AFG Inc have a dual role. They are the associations of practitioners in their spheres of influence and the governing bodies of the TABs. As such, their executives have a double workload. The EuroTAB Council has the advantage of being a uni-focused group dedicated to governing the EuroTAB. However, by nature of the selection process of representatives on the Council, various European Guilds feel under represented. There is one vote per represented country, but the membership, resources and experience with training programs in the country of those guilds vary widely.
The Guilds play a key role in conveying the principles of the Method to the outside world. That means also actively documenting the quality and transparency of our training guidelines and curricula in public. Early on in the history of the Guilds/Associations, almost all practical experience with teaching the Method lay in the hands of a few trainers. Due to a broad lack of experience, the guilds took a low key approach to their responsibilities in respect to the development of policy by their TABs. Although the guilds were, or served as a member of, the parent
body of one of the TABs, the “children” were simply more experienced and more competent than the “parents”. During the past 20 years, both the practitioners and the national Guilds/Associations have acquired a considerable amount of experience, competence and professionalism, enabling them to engage in the area of training policy to an increasing degree. From the beginning they have been able to fulfil their responsibility as representatives in the public arena. This became particularly apparent in the cases of challenges to the service marks. Here, the FGNA and the German Guild expended a considerable amount of personal energy and financial resources to protect Feldenkrais Training Programs. It is the Guilds’ mandate to develop and publicize the standards of our profession, to protect their members, the general public and the integrity of the Method. Today, curricula, evaluation procedures and quality assurance are common standards which have not as yet been documented publicly. Quality standards, the transparent procedures on which they are based and the strategies necessary for assuring and evaluating them are expectations which society makes on Guilds and its members. Guilds often form the interface between the “practitioner community” and the “training community”. Simply put, they can be the focus of discontent. The boards of the Guilds often report a sense of vulnerability, of being squeezed between international Feldenkrais policy and the requirements of their national governments. They have, over time, endured threats of legal action, to say nothing of the pressure of member’s anxiety to have their ability to earn a living facilitated. There is a lack of cohesion in the planning and structure of the Guilds that can lead to sheering forces between them. Often there is a lack of continuity in the membership of their boards or executives. There is a tremendous variety of size of membership and financial means. This in itself is a characteristic of the community that deserves attention. Some Guilds have staff and hundreds of members, while others have fewer than 20 members and no staff. As there is no consensus on what it takes to graduate as a competent emergent practitioner it can be difficult to interface with government departments who demand concrete reasoning and descriptors. It should also be noted that practitioners themselves more and more demand of their Guild some form of movement in the direction of recognition and institutionalization of the Feldenkrais Method.
The TABs are manned by volunteer Feldenkrais Practitioners who provide their time and expertise as a contribution to the development of their community. The workload is often excessive and undertaken with a paucity of resources. The membership of each board changes constantly, so that in many instances a Board is very experienced, very
inexperienced or any of the possibilities in-between. With the continual change in board membership, there is a possibility for the loss of corporate memory. The TABs are of differing sizes, in manpower, resources and geographical responsibility. There is no conformity in structure, mandate, reporting systems and place in the architecture of their governing bodies. This results in sheering forces operating through disparate time responses, differing degrees of rigour, and differing levels of resources (time, money, energy). As in any group, the TABs are also vulnerable to personality conflicts, and struggles between board members, who may take a personal lead and stance in the processes and decisions. Also as in any small community, there is a potential for conflicts of interest. Applicants and the board members assessing the application may have common social, financial or employment connections. While there are guidelines for such potential conflicts of interest, they are not comprehensive. Most TAB members have at one time or another experienced the animosity of a Feldenkrais Practitioner dissatisfied with some element of their interaction with the TAB. This animosity has at times impacted on the TAB member’s employment prospects or their good name. All TAB members are required to engage in a contract that necessitates the declaration of any conflict of interest between the work of the TAB and their own private work. They also agree to maintain the confidentiality that is a requirement of being a TAB member. Some TAB members have been accused of undertaking the work of the TAB to further their own fortunes. Some have been accused of breaches in confidentiality. While unfortunately there have been rare instances where this has been true, it is more usually an unfounded accusation which reflects the suspicion and tension that exists between the TABs and the community. Finally, the composition of TABs is oftentimes directly challenged. Many trainers, educational directors, organizers, and trainer applicants consider it inappropriate to be conversing about their applications with colleagues who have no experience in the training business themselves. In other instances, it is the variety of processes by which members come to the Board; some nominated with a following vote and others appointed.
The method of learning the Feldenkrais Method is The Method itself. Thus, a student cannot know what it is they are to be learning or how it will be “taught’. This loop results in trainees undergoing a process that they have no clear way to evaluate. Trainees often feel they receive little or no feedback on their progress. Trainees also may have no sense of their rights or even reasonable expectations as students. Though contracts between students and training organisers are demanded by
TABs, students often have no idea to whom to complain to if they have a grievance and often feel infantilised in the training process itself. New graduates often report a sense of inadequacy and lack of confidence. Many slate this to being poorly prepared to engage in practice. While no professional training can provide a complete experience of professional practice, one of the most common complaints is there is little practical preparation for being a practitioner and a lack of supervised internship. That many new graduates feel insufficiently prepared to practice is not surprising. They are at the beginning of a lifetime of learning. The artificial environment of the training room is very different from the practice studio. It is worth noting that in surveys and discussions graduates who express the most satisfaction with their trainings also recognize graduation as a starting place for further learning. It should also be noted that oftentimes graduates do not always differentiate between being ready to start a practice and being able to give good enough lessons. Being ready to be an entrepreneur in developing a private practice requires a whole set of skills, people skills and management skills etc. that are not, and maybe need not, be included in an FPTP. Graduates vary a lot on this topic, as some already have another profession, and have no interest in developing a practice that is autonomous as Feldenkrais. Still, providing a bridge to professional practice could be seen as part of the education of practitioners. Whether or not this should be part of the formal training program is debatable. Some trainees already have the requisite skills to develop a practice in a professional way. Some trainers feel that they cannot afford to give time that might otherwise be used in building knowledge and experience in The Method. It may be that the preparation for a professional life is predominantly the responsibility of Guilds and other professional organizations. Yet even if it is not the direct responsibility of training programs, practice building and supervision should be part of our educational policies. Some colleagues have suggested that we consider separating graduation from Certification in the Feldenkrais Method, such that Certification became optional and available for application after some time of practise and supervision. In the process of facilitating the “discovery of The Method” some trainees feel their teachers are withholding “an explanation of The Method” from them. The bridge between “teaching” The Method and the Feldenkrais process of self discovery is sometimes not made. Some Educational Directors and Training Organizers sequester their students from the community of practitioners to varying degrees. There are plausible pedagogical reasons for this. Often though, there seems to be a tacit and sometimes overt hostility towards the Guilds and local communities of practitioners by trainers and organizers. In these situations the trainees seem to be caught in the middle of a power struggle in which they actually have no part to play.
Educational Directors must necessarily be able to create an environment for learning and most student grievances can and should be resolved within the context of the training. At the same time, it would be of value to students to be made clearly aware of the nature of the trainings’ accreditation and the accountability of the training organization. Of further value would be an awareness of the self –governing nature of the professional community with whom they will share rights and responsibilities. They should also recognize that as students they are entering a profession that is not yet socially institutionalized and very much a work in progress. Sometimes this seems to be forgotten.
Despite the increased number of practitioners and the growing visibility of the work, many practitioners find it difficult to earn a living or to take the work in directions that interest them. They want trainings and training standards that would allow them to work in medical facilities, primary schools, and universities. Practitioners who don’t have credentials in a recognized profession often feel at a disadvantage compared to those who can bill third parties and thus gain their living. Some simply want trainings and training standards that offer a sense of legitimacy to their work. Many have a lingering feeling of incompetence and feel little able to describe the Feldenkrais Method to the general public. Obviously the self image of many practitioners does not include an aspect of respectable competence in the field of our profession. More experienced practitioners also want the opportunity to grow in the work and to deepen their understanding of it. Some would just like to make more money. Under the present system the only perceived path of advancement and recognition is in the training arena.
Assistant Trainers/Trainer Candidates
Many practitioners find the process by which they apply for accreditation as an assistant cumbersome and believe the process does not reflect the nature of the Feldenkrais Method. Indeed, the process is far from experiential and is often perceived as more and more de-personalized. Communication with the TABs may be seen as opaque and lacking in useful feedback. In addition, those for whom English is a second language feel they are penalized by the requirement to make their application in English. Many Assistants and Trainer Candidates feel caught in a system that has increasingly fewer opportunities for advancement. Some have been accredited as assistants for many years, but have had few opportunities to assist in a Feldenkrais Training Program. The reasons for a lack of work are many and varied, but certainly the decrease in size of training programs, with a consequent decrease in staffing, has contributed. The current system of on the job training is often perceived as insufficient. The actual system is such that assistants are hired to do a job. Yet they are also there to be trained on the job. That portion of the contract is left to each trainer and consequently there is a wide
variation on how much assistants teach, share the designing and implementation of the training and participate in staff meetings etc. The community seems to desperately lack a training system for the renewal of its’ trainer staff. We do need to consider the possibility of creating a training process in the different roles of our teachers of teachers, rather than relying only on osmosis, volunteer mentoring –which is more and more difficult to find- and on the job training. Not only are the opportunities for employment diminishing, but assistants and candidates may feel they are stuck in a “go along to get along” relationship with those on whom their future depends. Many candidates feel that the TABs have systematically raised the bar for advancement in an application process that has little relevance either as assessment or education. It is frequently described as “jumping through hoops”. There is a serious concern that we are not providing for the future of the Method by adequately preparing the next generation of training staff.
Trainers in general appear to be the most satisfied with their lot, but dissatisfied with the rules and conditions under which they ply their trade. Many trainers appear to feel under threat by the possible imposition of yet more rules that may encumber them. Some trainers however feel the need for more regulation such as a basic curriculum, trainer certification and decertification. Trainers are asked to participate in bringing along assistants and trainer candidates through a process that many see as cumbersome, time consuming and irrelevant. Some trainers express the opinion that the TABs are unqualified to make informed decisions on training issues and trainer certification. Many are concerned about the overall quality of trainings and the teaching and coordination of them. Many would like to see more training time. At the same time they feel the economic pressures of smaller trainings. Trainers are also vulnerable to the feeling that they must “go along to get along” especially if they have not yet qualified to be Educational Directors. This can inhibit their freedom to express concerns about the quality of the trainings in which they teach. It should also be noted that the basic salary for trainer (and assistant trainer) assignments has remained the same for the last 15 years. At times some trainers find themselves at odds with Guilds for various reasons. This has sometimes led to their threatening to leave the community. .
6.10. Educational Directors It is seen by some as paradoxical that the highest status of competence and authority in the Feldenkrais community, that of Educational Director, is the easiest to attain in the long process through the eight steps leading to the top of the Feldenkrais Pyramid. After two years of teaching as a trainer, one can become an Educational Director without showing any further competence in curriculum design and implementations. Yet this position requires forming the educational plan, the on-going (formative) evaluation of the trainees’ process, their eventual graduation (summative evaluation), the management of the training staff and the guidance and mentoring of assistants and trainer candidates on the trainer track. In this view, the status of Educational Director should require a higher qualification. Others maintain that it is a role that can only be learned on the job and that the earlier trainers were able to grow and develop in their positions. Once their educational plan has been accepted by the TAB – a process that is relatively easily completed – Educational Directors are on their own with virtually no checks and balances. Still some Educational Directors would like to have more autonomy and the ability to experiment with different training formats. They would like to teach more of their trainings and meet the contingencies of the training process in a more flexible way. Like Trainers and Training Organisers they find themselves working in a changing environment, with smaller trainings, higher costs and increased visibility and regulation.
6.11. Training Organisers As Feldenkrais Training Programs have enrolled fewer students, the profit margins have narrowed and recompense for the immense amount of work of organising an FPTP has been reduced. Coupled with this decreased enrolment is the increased risk to maintaining the training program as a viable business. Trainers and training organizers complain not only of lack of clientele but also of constraints, bureaucracy, and expense occasioned by the requirements of the TAPs. Whether justified or not, this creates an atmosphere of friction and mistrust. The relationship of organizers to Guilds and to the community of practitioners is to say the least unsure. Practitioners often feel threatened by the appearance of yet more graduates. Practitioners may experience training organisers as diverting students away from their practice into the training program where they as practitioners have no role. Organizers may feel that the practitioners should support the development of the Feldenkrais Method and refer their students to their training program.
Finally, training organisers and training owners have increasing obligations to government bureaucracies in the form of taxation issues, national accreditation and student fee relief programs. In some countries, where for example somatic modalities are taught in a university faculty, organisers/owners may experience a sense of loss of competitive edge by virtue of the kudos gradient between a university education and a private organisation education.
What is the Feldenkrais Method and how to protect it?
The Feldenkrais Method defies easy definition or categorization.1 If two practitioners are asked to define The Method there is rarely full agreement. Many are happy simply to know it when they see it. It is not as if it were the only field that is hard to define. Libraries of books have been written arguing about what science is, and nobody expects parents to agree with their children on what music or mathematics is all about. But nobody regulates music. Scientists have journals, university departments and academies to help them identify each other. What’s more, science is by nature an open discipline. Nobody holds title to it, and it is defined by the interaction of the participants. The Feldenkrais Method is relevant to so many fields, and in the centre of so many other disciplines, it could be argued it is not yet a discipline in itself. Even the possibility of the Feldenkrais Method becoming a discipline does not raise consensus in the community. It’s also important to note that in the debates over what the Feldenkrais Method is about, there are definite disagreements in for example the relation of The Method to health, as an alternative health practice, as an educational modality, or as a practice of awareness etc. These pulls on the definition of The Method are not addressed often in open forums. Many teachers are concerned about keeping the specificity and originality of Moshe Feldenkrais’ ideas and that the Method not be diluted or distorted through short cuts and idiosyncratic interpretations. Obviously there is no one authority to stamp the practice of the practitioner as authentic. There is often times disagreement even among the people who were close to Moshe Feldenkrais. The Feldenkrais authority is “distributed” not just among trainers but by all of those practicing The Method. Up to this point, we have depended on the service marks to maintain cohesion and integrity of The Method. By being able to determine who can use the name Feldenkrais, and how they can use it, we have been able to sidestep the issue of definition. This is no longer an option in Germany and problematic in the rest of Europe. In North America several hundred thousand dollars were spent defending the marks and resulted in a unilateral breach of the International Accreditation Policies. One of the critical questions we have to ask is how regulation of The Method either supports or inhibits its future development. This is true whether we depend on the service marks or other forms of regulation as a means for self-identification. The role of regulation depends a lot on our understanding of what the Feldenkrais Method is and how we see ourselves. Was Feldenkrais an inventor, scientist or artist? If he was an inventor we might see his invention as being an intellectual property to which we hold the rights. If we see him as a scientist, we are more likely to view his work as a
contribution to intellectual and scientific discourse. If he was an artist, we might see his work more as inspirational or evocative. Of course none of these domains are mutually exclusive. All share common aspects. Nonetheless, how we see Feldenkrais’ work and what model we follow will have a long term impact on its place in the world. An ownership model makes it easier to maintain the integrity of The Method, but can inhibit its growth and development. The use of the service marks themselves in some ways defines The Method as a commercial commodity. An un-owned model can emphasize the generative aspects of the Feldenkrais Method but make it more difficult to control dilution or misrepresentation of the Method and may have economic repercussions on all teachers of the Method.
Status issues and hierarchical preoccupations
Every organization and community has a hierarchy. The more explicit that hierarchy the more open and transparent the community or organization will be. An implicit hierarchy leads to taboos, allows the pretence that it is not there and in consequence denies the advantages of the hierarchy. The Feldenkrais profession has grown from one teacher, Moshe Feldenkrais, to several thousand. Similarly where there was one Guild there are now sixteen. There was one TAB and now there are three. Moshe Feldenkrais was a brilliant and charismatic personality. He struggled with the mere possibility of teaching his work. The three trainings that he conducted were all very different in size and format. While he was alive and well he was able to exercise almost total control over his work. Although he had assistants, he had no real partners in teaching. He was the Feldenkrais Method himself and whatever he did was “Feldenkrais”. Also Moshe was from a particular generation, a particular culture, and his “teaching” style was obviously, though paradoxically, autocratic and far from collaborative. It is not surprising, given the passion he inspired and the types of people he attracted, that after his death there was friction, competition, and struggle between his students. Some saw themselves as inheritors of the work, others as perpetuators. Whether or not Moshe foresaw this, he did suggest and support the formation of The Feldenkrais Guild. After his death, if the Feldenkrais Method can be said to have any real existence it is embodied in the work of all of those who practice it and their interactions. The Feldenkrais Community as a whole has explicitly embraced an institutional and democratic model based on collegiality. Tacitly, we seem to have clung to an oligarchic model based on personal transmission, lineage and seniority. Part of Moshe’s legacy is that we have inherited what might be called a “point source” model of teaching. This is reflected even in our training policies. We have one educational director and one lead trainer and a prescribed number of assistants who may or may not have a function beyond fulfilling the Training Accreditation Policy depending
on the teaching style of the trainer. Whether it is the best model needs at least to be reflected upon. We have taken trainer certification beyond an educational function and turned it into a status. This model can tend to emphasize personality and charisma over substance. It can also lead to turf battles. It can and some say has lead to isolation among trainers and between what is, tellingly, called the training community and the rest of practitioners. It can also contribute to a certain kind of pedagogical relationship that can lead to authoritarian attitudes and teacher centred learning. This might be considered simply human nature and no different to that which exists in any other professional or academic community. But our training policies enforce a system where the main paths of career advancement and growth in The Method rely on recommendations and employment by senior colleagues. There is a real need for critical dialogue among the most experienced and knowledgeable in our work. This dialogue is beginning to occur, but needs to be ongoing and open to the larger community of practitioners. It also needs to happen cross culturally. Not every culture, not every country, not every economy will have the same approach to the Feldenkrais Method. There is a possibility of cultural imperialism within our community.
As we have said, if there is such a method as the Feldenkrais Method, if the method exists beyond the founder, it will be among the people who decide to share a common understanding of what that The Method is. Furthermore, if the Feldenkrais Method is to have some societal recognition, somewhere someone has to determine what it is, where it starts and where it stops, in what field and how it distinguishes itself and how it resembles other modalities. For a person taking a weekly class or an occasional workshop in their neighbourhood this may not be such a crucial question. But for the international Feldenkrais community, for trainers who take the responsibility of graduating trainees, for Guilds certifying their members and stamping them “Feldenkrais approved”, this is an unavoidable and complex shift of accent. That shift is oftentimes not easily accepted by trainees when after a few years of complaisance in their own experience, the training staff start showing them that what they do is NOT Feldenkrais yet, that their use of self needs progress, that their lesson is not well structured etc. The question is probably as difficult as it is unavoidable. And that passage is resolved more or less happily in different training programs with different individuals. How do we develop standards with which we can assess, to determine the transition between roles and functions? For most of the practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, let alone for most of the students of The Method, the affirmation and the development of self-authority is a foundational value. Moshe’s position was uniquely precious from that point of view: determine by yourself what is appropriate; learn to do what YOU want according to your OWN criteria and don’t copy the teachers or your neighbours! This is a great project, an inspiring idea, and an essential ingredient of our identity, one that still seduces most of us interested in
doing and in teaching the Method and one that makes the Feldenkrais Method so unique and irreplaceable. Yet taken to a certain extreme, this idea, to say the least, may not contribute to the formation of a cohesive community. Most practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method would agree that there is something identifiable in it that is common in varying degrees through its practice worldwide. Fewer practitioners would agree on what a list of identifying features would look like. Still fewer would agree on how to assess those characteristics and who should do it. Part of the difficulty with assessment in The Method comes from the fact that it presents a process and not an accumulation of knowledge. This is not an academic training: It’s an organic learning process. That process is deeply personal and basically idiosyncratic. In the formation of a competent Feldenkrais teacher-practitioner there is thus great importance given to personal growth and maturity. Maturity is not so easy to achieve, let alone to measure. Who will stand as criteria for maturity? Yet this is partly what our training programs should do (ref. “Body and Mature Behaviour”). Due surely to the difficulty of measuring such factors, the history of the Feldenkrais processes has paid much more attention to quantitative and factual criteria. It is understandable that in order to protect ourselves from lawsuits –some of them originating from our own membersand in order to be credible, one would tend, at least as a first “primitive” reflex, to retreat to “so called objective” and quantifiable criteria. This composes perhaps a nice facade, but honestly does not do the job of monitoring a person’s personal and professional growth of competence in the Feldenkrais Method. The difficulty in finding fair and transparent ways of assessment that reflect our work should not prevent us from looking for them. All attempts to regulate trainings and maintain standards must rely on some set of criteria for legitimacy. In regards to Training Policy the most logical place to start is to determine what needs to be assessed. These are the key areas in which we can identify a need to assess: •
selection of trainees for training programs
temporary authorization to teach ATM
graduation of an emergent practitioner
training program assessment
certification as a practitioner
accreditation as an assistant-trainer
certification as a trainer
certification as an educational director
From the list above it can be seen to trace the career path from trainee through to educational director. Interestingly, in our training policies we have started near the end of that career path in our attempts at assessment, that is, in the certification of trainers. The most work done to date on policies is around the question “who should be a trainer”? Whatever the reason, much more time has been spent elaborating the qualifications to become a trainer than those to be a practitioner. Certification of practitioners was introduced relatively late and the requirements are minimal. While the intentions behind the development of trainer competencies are to be applauded, they should lead us to and rest on the more fundamental issue of what makes a good Feldenkrais practitioner and what the Feldenkrais Method is. There have been attempts in recent years by the TAB’s competency projects to go back and identify the skills needed to be an emergent practitioner in order to develop tools of assessment for training outcomes, practitioner certification, and credentialing for government agencies and other institutions. Likewise the IFF’s competency project is investigating the competencies of an experienced practitioner. These attempts have been resisted by many people in our community because they are seen as potentially reductionist. While this may be true we have not had the time and resources to explore the variety of models that competency profiling has to offer. However, we have chosen to regulate the Method. We certify practitioners, trainers, and assistants and we accredit trainings. Moreover assessment takes place in trainings all of the time. Trainers and educational directors make decisions on who to retain in their programs and who to graduate. Also there seems to be a general sense that trainings have improved over time and that graduates, at least a percentage of them, are more prepared to practice the work. But as Feldenkrais pointed out, in order to do what you want, you have to know what you are doing. Without examining our successes as well as our failures, what we do will remain haphazard at best. The difficulties in specifying all of the requisite skills it takes to be a practitioner, trainer or assistant trainer should not keep us from making the attempt. In order to have any realistic regulation of trainings we need to at least begin to have a look at the outcomes of those trainings. On this topic, among others, we need serious research projects.
Formative and summative evaluation In the relatively new science of program development (and for a long time in school course evaluation) there is an interesting distinction that we would like to use here. The distinction is between formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Formative evaluations exist in order to help the development of a course or a program along the way, in the “formative” moments. In schools, a formative exam for example does not contribute to grades as such, but is given by the teachers to appreciate how the learning is going so that they can “form” (thus formative) the rest of their teaching. Summative evaluations tend to happen at the end of the process, to measure the level of acquisitions, give grade, renew grants etc. We recognize the importance of self-evaluation. We also need to recognize the importance of feedback from teachers, colleagues and trainees as part of the on going evaluation. The development of self-authority and self regulation within our training process should not be an excuse to let everyone do what they want under the name of the Feldenkrais Method. Or, we should just offer our training programs under our own name, to whoever wants them and let people do what they want, under their own name or under other professional identities The case for summative evaluation If the Feldenkrais Method is a method, someone has to be able to delineate it and accompany the growth of practitioners and teachers and trainers in the delineated field. We thus insist that there must be along the way moments of “summative evaluations”. Summative evaluations help determine if the person’s learning has reached a “good enough” level of competence in order to pass on to the next stage of learning, and if not, what needs to be learned further and in what form. And one can use as much selfevaluation as one wants, but honestly, at this point, there must be someone representing the Feldenkrais Method to make an assessment that is obviously not objective, but does also not leave the person alone within their own subjective appreciation. This can be referred to as inter-subjectivity. Most and foremost, we believe here in interaction, conversation, and yes, checks and balances, in as much as we have clarified what we will be checking for at every stage of growth. Such a competency based evaluation process will create also a strong basis for any kind of affirmation of our professional identity in the societies and institutions where we navigate.
Continuity of Expertise
If all goes well it takes a minimum of ten years after graduation from a four year program to fulfil the requirements to become a trainer. Usually it goes well beyond that strict minimum.
The dependence on employment in trainings to fulfil the requirements means that even the most competent people can remain assistants for years without acquiring the requisites. Some of the early trainers were certified within 7 years of their graduation and up until the beginning 90s there was a number of assistants who became a trainer 10 years after graduation. These trainers were for the most part still relatively young and had a time before them in which to develop as a trainer and to contribute significantly to the future development of The Method. If it is true, as some have observed, that the average age of graduates is increasing, and the time to become a trainer is growing, we seriously need to look at how the long term prospects for our work are being affected. In addition, the pedagogical approaches to training have developed significantly since the early trainings. This experience is being passed on very haphazardly in the current system of trainer development. In 1983 there were 310 practitioners. Just twenty years later there are 6000 practitioners in about twenty different countries. In 1983 there were around 12 trainers and now around 50. This is one trainer to 120 practitioners, where in 1983 the ratio was one trainer to 27 practitioners. In today’s community there are many experienced practitioners, but their knowledge and experience does not find an entrance in the training programs. This is a loss of important resources.
7.5.1. Purpose and Goals of an International Structure Before we change anything of our current structures or even implement a new one we should be very clear about the purposes and goals of any international structures. As with any policy governance there is a need for high level statements from where further specifications can be developed.
7.5.2. Levels of international relationships An international structure is determined through the different relationships between nations and/or between individuals or groups from different nations In the Feldenkrais arena the chief aim is to develop and maintain a professional identity world-wide. Our current international relationships function primarily in sharing information and resources and maintaining international training standards. These relationships function at varying levels.
• LegalWhile there are legally binding agreements between individual Guilds such as service mark and logo licensing; it is difficult and impractical to have agreements between them which are enforceable over their members or private individuals. This can be seen in the case of the North American lawsuit where the FGNA was forced to change its’ training policies unilaterally despite its’ participation in an agreement to maintain homogeneity with the international forum. The loss of effective control of the service marks in Germany and their problematic status in the rest of Europe makes policy compliance difficult to enforce. The EuroTAB and the EuroTAB Council are legally constituted bodies but seem to have little actual grounds to enforce compliance. • Organizational Policy AgreementsOrganizations such as the IFF can make membership rules requiring participation to be conditional on compliance. These sorts of agreements definitely help maintain an international identity but can be more or less flexible in an attempt to maintain full participation. Organizations like the IFF are invaluable in their capacity to share information and resources. They can be used to provide infrastructure that supports international efforts in research, pedagogy and marketing. This kind of infrastructure reinforces professional identity in ways that are at least as important as regulation. • Informal Policy AgreementsThe three TABs have been operating in concert for years without a formal agreement between them or their Governing Bodies. The closest thing to a formal agreement would be the Policy to Change International Policies. More recently the governing bodies have begun working together in a more direct way. The effectiveness of our international relationships and structures is utterly reliant on shared interests and values. The cohesion of the international Feldenkrais community has been remarkable and is reflection of these shared interests and values. Albeit implicit, this may be a result of our recognition that we have in our hands something greater than any one of us and that we support each other’s growth. Most of us actually collaborate and synchronize more than is legally binding.
7.5.3. The International Bodies in the Feldenkrais Community It should first be noted that our international structures have reached a certain level of complexity, so much so that many practitioners on the terrain are really lost about it all. We wonder which proportion of the community actually could pass a test of knowledge of these structures… this is part of our problem. We have made the choice to present the following charts in order to clarify some of these structures and their relationships. (Note: For printing purposes, the charts are reproduced in black/white tones in the appendix.)
18.104.22.168. Chart: Structures and Bodies in the International
Feldenkrais Community 2
All members of the national Feldenkrais-Guilds and Associations (Student – Practitioner
Governing Bodies (3) of the three TABs International Feldenkrais Federation IFF FGNA (USA, Canada) Québec Mexico Argentina Belgium Germany France United Kingdom Italy Israel Norway Austria Sweden Switzerland (Netherlands)
EuroTAB Council (ETC): Germany France United Kingdom Italy Israel Norway Austria Sweden Switzerland
European TAB (EuroTAB)
FeldenkraisGuild of North America: FGNA (USA, Canada) Mexico Argentina
North American TAB (NATAB)
ITATA – International Trainerand Assistant Trainer- Academy
The Australian Feldenkrais Guild Inc.
(The AFG Inc): AFG New Zealand
NATRASST – North American Trainer and Assistant Trainer Group
Australian TAB (AusTAB)
Australia New Zealand Feldenkrais-Family NATAB EuroTAB AusTAB
Training Programs in Europe and Israel:
Training Programs in USA, Canada, Mexico, Argentina
Training Programs in the Australasian Pacific Basin
Educational Director, Training Staff, Training Organizer
Note: For printing purposes this charts is reproduced in the Appendices in black and white.
22.214.171.124. Remarks on the Chart The chart above shows the current organizations in the International community. Every national Guild of sufficient size is eligible for membership of the international umbrella body -The International Feldenkrais Federation – IFF.
The IFF is a membership organisation of national Guilds – currently 17 Guilds/Associations, the 3 TABs and the Feldenkrais Family. The annual General Assembly of the IFF is the occasion where all Guilds/Associations meet. In the decision making process the national Guilds are represented proportionally according to their size (for Associations with more than 10 members 2 votes, and up to five votes for Associations with more than 300 members). Further voting rights are held by the three TABs and by Michel Silice-Feldenkrais as representative of the Feldenkrais Family. Up until 2003 training in the Feldenkrais Method and the further development of training standards formed part of the Purposes and Aims of the constitution of the IFF. It is interesting that despite the fact that the formation of the IFF was driven in large part by the need to resolve conflicts in training policy issues (accreditation of FPTPs), the IFF has historically not been involved in any other training policy despite their inclusion in the Aims and Purposes. In May 2003 all issues related to training policy were excluded from the constitution and new purposes were adopted. The IFF decided to dedicate itself exclusively to the post graduation arena. The TABs and their Governing Bodies The three TABs were formed at separate times and in different ways, reflecting the spread and growth of The Method. They do not have constitutions and by-laws in common. AusTAB and NATAB are governed by the executive of their national guilds while the EuroTAB is governed by an amalgam of representatives of the European and Israeli Guilds, the EuroTAB Council. The jurisdiction of each TAB has gradually been recognized according to geographic spheres of influence. EuroTAB regulates trainings in Israel and Europe, AusTAB the Australasian Pacific Basin, and NATAB the Americas. This relatively unplanned division of responsibility superimposed on existing structures has resulted in some Guilds not having representation in the Governing Bodies. Examples of this are Japan, Mexico and Argentina. Moreover, until recently the level of actual governance by the TAB Governing Bodies has varied in areas such as policy development and budgetary control. There are historical reasons for this, an example of which is the ETC was not founded until after the EuroTAB had been established. 126.96.36.199
The Current Architecture of the Training System
This chart is a representation of the lines of authority under which the Training policies are currently operated.
The solid lines represent direct and formal connections between the various sectors of the Feldenkrais community. Lines with a // across them represent an indirect, informal connection or no connection at all between the parties. It becomes obvious from the pattern of the chart that although the TABs link internationally and their governing bodies link internationally, neither group
democratically represents all Feldenkrais Practitioners or the training communities that fall under their aegis. This is particularly true for the NATAB and AusTAB and their governing bodies.
188.8.131.52. Benefits of the International Structures The following section reflects some of the common opinions in the response to our questionnaire. An international structure provides the means for communication and cooperation between different countries and cultures. It is also a way to maintain some uniformity of The Method. Ideas and information about the Feldenkrais Method and trainings are exchanged. The confrontation with viewpoints other than one’s own supports selfreflection. While some appreciated the current flexibility provided by the ability to work/study cross nationally others felt this was less important. Some accepted the authority of an international structure for better or worse.
184.108.40.206. Disadvantages of the International Structures The following section reflects some of the common opinions in the response to our questionnaire. It is significant that almost everybody listed more disadvantages than benefits. The disadvantages can be summarized under three major themes; the decision making structure which is characterized by a need for uniformity, a high level of bureaucracy and the lack of resources. In a system with a high degree of international uniformity national differences aren’t taken into account. This not only inhibits variety due to cultural differences, but may lead to serious difficulties in one country or even force one country to leave the international associations to answer the needs of the practitioners in their country. 3 Language is a major cultural difference. The use of English on every international platform and the requirement for fluency in English to make a successful application to become an assistant trainer or trainer closes the door to many talented non English speaking practitioners. It is of concern that the development of the Feldenkrais community and all important decisions are dominated by those who can express themselves best in English – usually those in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Due to the nature of the structure of the relationship of the G.B.s to their TABs, practitioner representation through the GBs is unbalanced. The Australian Feldenkrais Guild Inc., which represents 236 practitioners and forms one third of the three GBs, has
eleven times more influence than the German Guild which has 1700 members and forms one eleventh of one third of the GBs. 220.127.116.11.1. Volunteer Commitments of Time and Resources on Training Policy The information in this section was provided by The AFG Inc, AUSTAB, The FGNA, NATAB, the ETC, and EuroTAB. Our thanks go to those who took the time to gather this information. Suffice it to say the figures here represent a huge commitment of resources. The chart reflects an estimate of the time and resources dedicated by the TABs and their Governing Bodies.
AusTAB AFG NATAB FGNA EuroTAB ETC
Estimated Expenses per year (Phone & communication, travel costs, office & others) 9.400,- AUD $ 5830.- € 6.000.- AUD $ 3721.- € 50.000,- US $ 42.000.- € 5.500,- US $ 4623.- € 58.800.- € 14.781,- €
Estimated Volunteer time per year (in hours) 2730 720 2000 250 1735
Exchange Rate at 14.02.06 18.104.22.168.2. The Art of Over Reaching It is distressing to see how often and in how many situations practitioners working to establish the Feldenkrais Method in our communities find themselves in a position of being required to extend them-selves well beyond that which is comfortable. Time, energy and personal resources are taxed by the constant call for volunteers for necessary projects to continue the advancement of our Method into all facets of mainstream society. The desire to launch, institute, set- up and initiate systems in which our work can be offered to the general community has been and continues to be strong. The outcomes have been effective. We now have a system of organisations and ongoing tasks which continue to establish the credibility of our work. However, these organisations continuously require yet more resources not simply to maintain them, but to advance their activities into more and more domains. Further there is constantly a requirement to reorganise and adapt them to changing circumstances, to extend them and to create others. The demands raised by the nature of our current organisational system do not seem to be able to be met by the resources we have available.
This deficit seems to be systemic in nature, in that it can be observed in every corner of each organisation, internationally, nationally, locally and privately (personally) It may behoof us to consider reorganizing our resources. Rather than finding more and more, perhaps we can find another way of more efficiently and equitably using them. Apportioning the particular skills of our volunteers according to functional requirements rather than repeating projects unnecessarily may assist. Sharing, disseminating, communicating and organising may serve us much more efficiently than raising more money. We see our community moving from a pioneering mentality (breaking new ground) to a society mentality (establishing the ground). This requires trust, respect and just enough common rules to give us a sturdy foundation without the binding effects of over regulation. Moving from breaking the ground to establishing the ground in addition requires a shift in skills sets. These sets, while not necessarily higher or lower order skills, are different. Our current organizational foundations are not up to the task of supporting a system that has expanded and developed over time, and which is still using an outmoded skill set. We recommend that before the structure becomes too massive and immoveable; a reorganization based on realistic sensible organizing principles is instituted. To lessen the forces which cause over reaching we require a simple, elegant bureaucratic structure with inter connections between the various bodies to share tasks which do not contain superfluous elements, redundancies and duplication. To be effective this refinement must be supported by the addition of the skill set of sharing, disseminating, communicating and organising.
22.214.171.124. Challenges to International Relationships To gain a broad view and represent opinions from a diverse and controversial background, the IWG dedicated the second question of its survey to the international structure of our community. The growth and spread of the Feldenkrais Method has happened very differently in different countries. The standing of The Method and the number of practitioners varies strongly. In some countries it is still very much on the edge of society and not much known both politically and socially. In positive terms this means practitioners can work in an “empty zone”, under no threat of constraint by governmental regulation. In other countries the visibility of The Method has expanded to the extent that it can no longer be overlooked and appears on the governmental “radar”. While this may both threaten the freedom of practice and the integrity of the Feldenkrais Method, it may also open the door to a more established and recognized place in society. This may also satisfy many
practitioners, who have, for some time, wished for an increase in the institutionalization of The Method via universities, government accreditation and insurance companies etc. Some countries like Switzerland, Italy, Israel or Germany are involved in processes with government bodies that may lead to necessary adaptations in the actual practice of the Feldenkrais Method or requirements in training in the Feldenkrais Method. Moreover, in the last twenty years, consumer protection and regulation to establish quality assurance for clients has become very powerful in some countries. The environment in which a practitioner is working can vary a lot. These different challenges may require very different solutions. Challenging to the desire for homogeneous international training policy is the question: how much differentiation on a national level can be provided for national Guilds and associations to adapt to their specific environment and how much commonality is needed to serve coherency and integration? We may in the future be required to face the situation where graduates from one country may not meet the legal requirements necessary to work or become members of the Guild in another country. In Europe, the students of Mia Segal and Yochanan Rywerant form a strong community (their number may be estimated between 500 and 1000). They have the legal right to work as Feldenkrais Practitioners and contribute significantly to the spread of the Feldenkrais Method especially in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Austria. In Austria, Switzerland, UK and Sweden they are also full members of their Guild/Association. Moreover some of those students now offer training programs in the Feldenkrais Method consequent to the loss of the trademarks in Germany. There, the usage of the name Feldenkrais Method is available to any practitioner no matter what rank of accreditation system was employed to graduate practitioners... The differing levels of control National Guilds can exert over the usage of service marks impacts on the degree of international understanding of how the work is used and how training programs may be offered. Other challenges we identified are:- The difficulty of making any significant change. Due to the policy of consensus every change is a challenge. A system that requires consensus for every decision tends to conservatism where only minor changes are possible. - The ability to come to a common understanding of the Feldenkrais Method and of its place in the domain of ideas, practices, and professions. A huge portion of the challenge is less linked to organizational structures and more to personal maturity. Often heard is the desire for a more trusting relationship in our
community. How can we become more trustful, more interested in the community and in cooperation instead of undermining each others interests? And how can we preserve Moshe Feldenkrais’ legacy if we depend on a system of more and more bureaucracy?
Distinguishing Protectionism and Standards
Protectionism is what any policy or the implementation of policy does in order to protect the status or economic standing of individuals or groups from competition. Upholding standards is ensuring that those offering services are qualified to do so. The difference between protectionism and upholding standards is often in the eye of the beholder. It is very easy to hide protectionism behind the fig leaf of maintaining standards and it is just as easy to lose sight of standards in appeals to fairness. The only recourse is to have well articulated policies with clear intentions and rationales explicitly stated. Those policies must be administered through transparent processes.
Professional vs. Entrepreneurial – Institutional or Market Control
Do we want the teaching of the Feldenkrais Method to be based within a system that is, at least ostensibly insulated from politics and the market place (like a University) or do we want to continue in the current entrepreneurial market? This distinction may not be readily apparent. It relies on a more classical definition of profession. The word profession comes from the meaning to take vows and originally had a religious connotation. The original professions were law, medicine, and the clergy sometimes with the inclusion of the military. They indicated not only special training and status but a high degree of responsibility and integrity. As such they were supposedly insulated from the market place and politics. As such, professions are collective entities. Most commonly, the term entrepreneur applies to “someone who establishes a new entity to offer a new or existing product or service into a new or existing market, whether for a profit or not-for-profit venture, a business entrepreneur” (wikipedia.com). Business entrepreneurs often have strong beliefs about a market opportunity and are willing to accept a high level of personal, professional or financial risk to pursue that opportunity. In the jargon of behavioral scientists, the "locus of control" of the entrepreneur lies within himself. One can easily see the inherent conflict here. Our work places a high value on autonomy. At the same time as a community we value standards and integrity in our work. The entrepreneurial model does not necessarily insulate individuals (although it can be argued that such insulation no longer exists in the traditional professions) from the consequences of making hard decisions that can have an effect on both the maintenance of community standards and their own bottom line. In our community decisions such as admission and retention in training programs, graduation and endorsing potential competitors’ promotion to trainer status are examples. These decisions become all the more difficult when trainings are small and margins close.
The best policies insulate those who have to make the decisions from the potential conflicts. So a clear admissions policy for instance can relieve someone from having to make a decision that affects their income. Further, we do not have the requisite data to substantiate the selection of curriculum and teaching strategies intended to bring a person to graduation. And we have not developed standards against which we can assess the competency of a new graduate, of a best practice practitioner or assistant trainer or trainer.
Social Acceptance and Integrity of the Method
One of the sources of dissatisfaction has been what is perceived by some as a lack of recognition and legitimacy of the Feldenkrais Method by society. There is a risk of sacrificing the integrity of the Method by allowing it to be pigeonholed in a particular domain such as the health sector, the educational sector, fitness, etc. Many point to our accreditation and certification policies as one way of addressing those concerns. In this view, more rigorous standards based on accepted models, bring government recognition, third party payment etc. Practitioners certainly desire recognition of their work and an opportunity to earn a good living. At the same time they are confronted with pressures and demands from outside of the profession. While it is necessary to recognize these external pressures and possibly conform to them, it is valuable to remember that one of the hallmarks of a profession is self recognition and self regulation. It is important that as we push for growth and greater opportunities we don’t resort to magical thinking and apply inappropriate metrics and standards to our work.
8.4. The Cost of Change In any consideration of economics and international policy, the impact of any change on those working under the present system and structures must be considered. Moshe and those who followed can easily be seen as pioneers. They broke new ground and opened the way for those who followed. They also established structures to protect the integrity of the Feldenkrais Method. Moreover they trained practitioners who have come to share those structures with them. It is perhaps in the nature of pioneers that they do not always look back to see where they have been or what they have left in their wake. Moshe and the immediate trainers after him have trained thousands of practitioners. As much as it is important that these trainers recognize the consequences of their success and their dependence on the larger community, it important to recognize the ongoing contributions they have made. Any meaningful change that we make in the structure of our community will come at some cost. Much of the resistance to change may be caused by anxiety about who will
bear that cost. Trainers have, by and large staked their careers and their livelihood on abiding by the rules as they exist now. They are also a key component of our international community. If we are to avoid rupture in our community we are obliged to take this into account. On the other hand, it is to the advantage of trainers and for that matter training organizers that the community of Feldenkrais practitioners contributes to the recruiting of new trainees and the Guilds have the responsibility of integrating the graduates in the profession. There are systemic complementarities between training programs, Guilds and practitioners and the relation can perhaps be harmonized if the various parties do not compete but collaborate.
Change Will Happen
The primary conclusion of the IWG is that we are at a critical stage. Change is happening and it cannot be easily predicted from which quarter that change will come or what the consequences will be. As we have tried to emphasize, many of the forces of pushing towards change are the result of success rather than failure. •
The growing number of new and experienced practitioners
The increased recognition and visibility of the Feldenkrais Method
The proliferation of National Guilds and Associations
The strong international cooperation and accompanying structures
The growth and development and diversification of the international community.
The development and maturing of many practitioners who want the educational and career opportunities that working in trainings affords.
As a result of this growth we find these shearing forces: •
Many new practitioners feel under trained or lack confidence to practice.
There is a demand for clearer training standards both from within and outside the profession.
The increasingly divergent conditions under which National Guilds and Associations find themselves operating. Guilds and Associations find themselves at different stages of development trying to participate in the international community equitably with vastly different resources.
The various National Guilds and Associations have service marks with differing levels of coverage.
Trainers have called for the opportunity to open up the training format.
9. 2. Choices It is our choice as a community whether to guide change or do nothing and let it happen... We can be either proactive or reactive.
It is essential we develop a clear picture about who we are and what we do and where we want to move with the Feldenkrais Method. The societal attributes a profession in many ways already apply to us. Where do we see ourselves in the range of professional behaviour and activity and how do we decide where we are in the range between selfdevelopment and tertiary education of a high professional standing? It is time to become more intentional. What we choose should be undertaken clearly, carefully and transparently. Most importantly it is a choice that must come from within the community of all practitioners and not from the outside or by any one segment of our community. It is imperative we decide how necessary the various aspects of our international community are and how specific and encompassing our international policies need to be.
9.2.1. Culture and Regulation What kind of culture do we want to foster through our training policies? We have options somewhere between an “open” and “closed” culture. These are not a dichotomy but a continuum. An open culture is susceptible to abuse and disorder risking chaos. A closed culture can be highly ordered but moves toward stagnation. One of the respondents to our questionnaire included in her response this quote from Dee Hock: "Purpose and principle, clearly understood and articulated, and commonly shared, are the genetic code of any healthy organization. To the degree that you hold purpose and principles in common among you, you can dispense with command and control. People will know how to behave in accordance with them, and they'll do it in thousands of unimaginable, creative ways. The organization will become a vital, living set of beliefs." - Dee Hock For an organization to subscribe to this sentiment requires mutual trust. It also requires an ongoing conversation on what purposes and the principles are held in common. Our greatest strength is the passion for, and the commitment to, our work. It is the reason we have an international community and the reason the Feldenkrais Method has survived its rather unlikely history to date.
The IWG believes the following areas need addressing: •
We currently have no way to evaluate training program outcomes.
The current policies are not explicit in their aims or principles and so there is no way of knowing if they are achieving their purpose.
The current decision making and administration structure is costly and inefficient in the use of human and financial resources. It no longer reflects the international picture.
The current structure and policy does not consider the autonomy of national Guilds and Associations.
The Trainer Accreditation process does not serve the long term needs of our community. Having an employment based system where there is little opportunity is centrifugal and leads to disenfranchisement and stagnation.
Although it would seem logical that trainers and TABs evaluate trainer candidate applications, the inherent conflict of interest puts this process under suspicion.
The future will almost certainly bring more unaccredited trainings. (particularly in Europe)
The IWG believes it has laid substantial groundwork with this report. If the analysis and general recommendations meet the approval of the governing bodies we will continue and develop more detailed and concrete proposals, specific recommendations which would be the basis for a next report, after some reflection and discussion upon the present report. WE WOULD FIRST STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT THIS REPORT BE TRANSLATED INTO GERMAN, FRENCH, SPANISH AND ITALIAN. ANY USEFUL CHANGE DEPENDS ON THE PARTICIPATION OF THE ENTIRE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
10.1. Create a Decision Making Process The governing bodies are the only entities with the recognized authority to make changes to the International Training Policies. If we rely upon the current decision making procedures as laid out in the Protocol for Changing International Policy any meaningful change is doomed from the outset. The IWG fully supports the principle of community input and feedback in developing policy. We believe that there exists a commonality of interests and values between all elements of the international community. We also believe that no meaningful statement of principles and values will achieve absolute consensus. The governing bodies are legally constituted legislative and deliberative bodies and have the means to break the deadlock. Any decision will not please everyone and entails the risk of alienation of certain groups and individuals. But we believe the risk in taking no action may be just as great or greater. We may also have to accept that a group that does not support the majority’s decision may take its own path.
10.2. Convene a General Assembly The IWG recommends there be a general assembly that includes all interested parties- a cross section of the international community of Feldenkrais practitioners including representatives from practitioners, trainers, assistant trainers, educational directors, trainees, Guilds, TABs and International Bodies. A clear agenda, developed and distributed beforehand, would be a necessity. An Assembly would be a large undertaking and we understand presents problems in allocation of attendance places. It would also require a substantial commitment of resources. It should be clear from the outset that the Assembly would be advisory and in no way represent an abrogation of the Governing Bodies’ authority or responsibilities.
10.3. Policies •
Move towards Purposes and Principles
The IWG recommends the development of clear statements of Principles and Purposes for International Training Policy. This would not preclude more specific policies and requirements that reflect those principles and intentions. However these kinds of overarching statements can minimize the need for more detailed requirements and allow more flexibility in their administration. They can also go along way towards making the process of regulation more transparent and user friendly. •
Policies should be flexible enough to meet national needs.
Adoption of higher level statements would strongly contribute towards making international policy more flexible. They do need to be crafted with the recognition that national Guilds or Associations are increasingly required to conform to the different demands of the political environment. The International Association of Mountain Guide Associations serves as a useful model to develop our thinking. There are some surprising parallels to the Feldenkrais Method. Mountain Guides come from diverse backgrounds. They also use their training in differing contexts. The majority of trained mountain guides work part time as mountain guides. The work of a mountain guide is always full of surprises. On the road they have to rethink previous decisions and adapt to new, unplanned situations. In their every day life they encounter uncertainties management of which have to be reflected in the training itself. Over the years the mountain guides have found that the trainees entering programs increasingly have previously acquired skills. Most already have a professional training in another field. Many have experience in training others and therefore have much higher expectations of their trainers and the training. Depending on the context in which the guides work, they may need differing adjunct skills such as environmental protection, medical knowledge, entrepreneurship, social and leadership skills, etc. Additionally at a state level knowledge of the local terrain and of the state regulations under which they work is required. As a result of these various contexts, there is much diversity in the structure and content of mountain guide training, offered by the national associations. Internationally, they are bound only to minimal standards. Additionally, each association sets its own standards and main emphases according to its’ vocational profile. These additional requirements may contain added content or a description of a higher level of skill in certain areas.
In an interview, the president of one association stated; “nevertheless all trainings are equally good and have the same aim: To create a practical oriented and wide base, which gives the direction for professional thinking and acting”. All professional trainings in each associated country are acknowledged in every other country –thus a mountain guide trained in one country may work in another country even if their training is different. This freedom is nevertheless constrained by national laws and regulations. This acknowledgement is the core of the international association and functions very successfully. (Summary from an article on the mountain guide professional training program; Alpin 10, October 2001, page 78 – 83) The adoption of such a model would not weaken our work but rather strengthen it as we came to terms with the core principles of our Method.
10.4. Create a new International Structure The current system of three TABs and three governing bodies is not sufficiently representational and places unreasonable and unequal demands on the volunteers and the organizations that provide the resources for their maintenance. The IWG recommends that the governing bodies explore the creation of a new international structure for training regulation. While we considered the IFF as a vehicle for such a structure we believe for various reasons including the constitution of the IFF it may be simpler to develop an independent structure. This proposal is one the IWG feels requires further research and development. Any new proposal along these lines needs to take into account the varying size and resources of the Guilds. Some of the smaller newer Guilds could be easily over challenged.
10.5. Develop a path and a timeline Any large scale change to international policy and structure will entail a great deal of work and time. Also, it is reasonable that the expectations of those who have been working under the current system be respected. The process for implementation of change should be transparent and all those affected informed. Most of the proposals for change to date have failed because they did not specify any path to implementation. As changes are agreed to in principle, there must be realistic assessments of the work and resources necessary to implement them.
10.6. Transitional Recommendations Discontinue or revisit Trainer Candidacy- The trainer candidacy policy was developed in an effort to rectify inequities and deficiencies in the Trainer Certification Policy. It was also intended to introduce competency based assessment in the certification of trainers. 50
While it may have made a marginal improvement, it is perceived by many as just another arbitrary hurdle or hoop through which to jump in the process of becoming a trainer. It should at least be revisited and a clear statement of the intentions and desired outcomes developed. If this course of action is taken the policy should then be re-examined in light of those intentions and outcomes, to ascertain if it serves any useful purpose. Review the complete process of trainer, trainer candidate and assistant certification with the following goals: clarify the profiles of competency, simplify the application process, reduce the reliance on written materials and establish a better balance between experience, evaluation in action and reflection on action. Design and implement data collection mechanisms on training programs and the results of training programs. Rewrite TAPs to reduce details of regulation and reflect intention and principles. Develop a basic curriculum- The curriculum need not be overly specific. It could simply state the skills and knowledge that are required in a training program Coordinate the development of competency based assessment and monitor the efforts of the various Competency committees ensuring the result of their research is reflected in the policies and assessment processes for trainer and assistant-trainer application. Separate graduation and certification. The use of competency based assessment may allow the community to examine the possibility of separating graduation from certification. By graduation we mean the completion of a FPTP. By Certification we mean a process by which graduates join the ranks of professional Feldenkrais Practitioners... This step alone would open new paths of outcome data and accountability. Improve communication between TABs and applicants- Many applicants find their application process impersonal and inhumane. This creates an atmosphere of suspicion and anxiety. We suggest the TABs consider adopting the use of personal interviews –live or by phone. This could allow questions to be answered by direct conversation. Such an innovation could conceivably streamline the application process and contribute to reducing mistrust. A concluding note from one of our respondents to the IWG questionnaire: “Let us not forget that the quality and quantity of good work done by the practitioners in their day to day practice is what really makes the Feldenkrais Method recognized. Training programs and training policies and training staffs are only means to do just that.”
Appendices Title Page (1)Authors of the Report Naomi Doron (Israel) is a graduate of the Wingate Institute for Physical Education and received a B.A. in history and education from Tel-Aviv University. She taught physical education in high school and was also in charge of the social education program. In the early 1960`s she attended ATM classes given by Moshe Feldenkrais. In 1991 she was accredited as a Feldenkrais Practitioner (Tel Aviv 2). Between 1991 and 2000 she was a member of the board of the Israeli Guild, during that time she became a secretary and latter the chairman. She was a representative at the IFF and the Euro Tab Council. In 2004, together with a colleague she organized the centennial commemoration for Moshe Feldenkrais. Sabina Graf-Pointner is a Feldenkrais Practitioner (1993), Assistant trainer (2005) with a background in Pedagogies (Diploma 1987) and as a Performer and Dance and Movement Teacher. She is involved in voluntary work for the German Feldenkrais Guilds since 1986. She was a representative at the IFF for several years and is a Board member since March 2002. Since March 2004 she is the president of the German Feldenkrais Guild. Yvan Joly (Québec, Canada) Yvan Joly, M.A. (Psy.) is a certified Feldenkrais Trainer, Educational Director and Psychologist with a background in organizational development. He has taught Feldenkrais in 15 countries worldwide in the last 25 years. He has been involved in Feldenkrais politics since 1982, participating in FGNA as board member on committees for the early development of Training guidelines, as member of NATAB, at the inception of the IFF, in sponsoring committees for trainer candidates and as president of "Le Regroupement pour l'éducation somatique" in Québec, Canada. George Krutz George Krutz has been a practitioner since 1994; he has been active in FGNA since 1991 starting as an associate editor for In- Touch, the FGNA newsletter. He was president of FGNA from 1999-2004. He has been active in the IFF since 2000. As support staff and organizer he has been involved with trainings since becoming a practitioner. Chris Lambert Chris Lambert is a Feldenkrais Practitioner (1990), Assistant trainer (1995) and Pediatric Physiotherapist (1972). She has spent 35 years working with infants, young children and their families. She was Founding President of The Australian Feldenkrais Guild Inc (1987), Founding Chair of AusTAB (1996) and has actively served the Guild on many committees and projects over the years. She attended the formative meeting in Amsterdam of the IFF and 52
has attended many Assemblies since, representing the Guild and AusTAB. She is currently a delegate to AusTAB, editor of The AFG Inc National Newsletter and a participant in the Competency project. She has participated as an assistant trainer in FPTPs in Australia, Europe and the USA. She has undertaken the role of Administrative Director of an FPTP. She currently runs a practice which includes intervention for infants, young children and their families, offers Feldenkrais Advanced Trainings and workshops on Functional Anatomy.
Chapter 2: Terms of Reference and Acknowledgments (1) International Working Group – Training Policies By EuroTAB Council, FGNA BOD and AFG National Council, Dec 2004
Aims The principal aims of the International Work Group will be: To continue the process of gathering information and stimulating discussion of training policy, already underway, at an international level To suggest a coherent rationale for international training policies in the Feldenkrais Community; that is, to begin to answer the question: What is the purpose of our training policies and what goals do we hope to achieve through them? To determine the (current and possible future) needs of our community and profession and find a way to meet them that is fair, equitable and efficient, while ensuring that competencies and standards are met consistently.’ (NATAB letter 3.10.04) To provide a frame work for an international discussion that could result in a workable policy To make recommendations for international policy and the administration of those policies. This group will also look at the process of approving international policy. Scope The analysis and critique of all International training policies ConsiderationsPedagogical- the educational principles and assumptions in the training of Feldenkrais practitioners Developmental- how does present or proposed policy reflect the state of development of the FM and the professional community. Feasibility- Is it a workable policy? A path and a timeline for implementation of any policy recommendations- how to get from here to there 53
Economic- What are the costs and benefits of any policy to trainers and organizers, assistants, practitioners, trainees, Guilds? Internal Social - How does the current and any proposed policies take into account or create the social structure of the Feldenkrais community? The group will consult with and take into account the needs of all segments of the FM community. External Social - Government regulation, social acceptance Resources Community experience - Consultation and interviews of individuals with extensive history and experience with the Feldenkrais method. External experience - Appropriate use of consultants Historical - How policies have been developed. What useful work has already been done? Make up The group will consist of 5 or 6 people nominated and/or agreed on by TAB Governing (Parent) Body representatives. The IWG will have a representative nominated by each of the governing bodies. Because of the changing situation for the German Gilde and the fact that they are already engaged in considering these issues, they will also nominate a representative. Membership of the group will have a working and historical understanding of the Method, Guilds, TABS, and policy. They will have credibility within the international community and value international cohesion. They will be able to take in the big picture and to hold a vision of the future without having a fixed agenda. They should be sensitive to the needs of those affected by the policies including the trainees, practitioners and the training community. Communication The International Working Group will provide 3 primary reports to the International community: • Preliminary Report - In time for international conference and IFF Assembly March, 2005 • Interim Report - (Approximately) July, 2005 • Final Report and recommendations – (Approximately) November,2005 Regular participation and updates will occur by email or in teleconference with representatives of the TAB Governing (Parent) Bodies. Ongoing decision making regarding the International Work Group will be made by the representatives of each TAB Governing (Parent) Body and the International Work Group.
Budget, Budget will include, staff time, phone, mailing and travel costs, outside consultant. Contributions will be solicited from the TAB Governing (Parent) Bodies, Guilds, and TABs.
Chapter 4: Introduction (1) For the last 20 years, most of the work around Policy has been under the responsibility of Training Accreditation Boards (TABs). NATAB, EUROTAB, AUSTAB have been responsible for the application of Policy and for the development of modest additions and changes... TABs have been the driving force in training issues. TABS, often in response to community suggestions, have suggested the changes and managed the application of the policy. Yet since the beginning, the review and ratification of Policy has been the responsibility of the Governing Bodies of each TAB, namely, the FGNA for NATAB, the EUROCOUNCIL for EUROTAB, and The Australian Feldenkrais Guild Inc for AUSTAB. GBs are composed exclusively of practitioners’ representatives. On paper at least, practitioners thus have authority over training policies through their Guild Board of Directors. That line of authority has been reaffirmed and reactivated in the last three years partly as a result of a series of proposals coming NOT from TABs but from a group of practitioners, assistants and trainers and following the “Policy to change the Policy” on the topic of the Trainer and Trainer Candidate and Assistant-Trainer certification process (the 2003 Omega conference proposals). GBs have started meeting as a council of GBs only in the last few years. One of the first decisions of the GBs council was to create this IWG and to ask for the present interim and up-coming final report. Obviously the system needs an overhaul. Dissatisfaction is felt at every node of the web of our community. The IWG thus carries this large and heavy mandate. (2) The 1970’s and 1980’s were characterized by a great need on the part of society to experiment with diverse creative and humanistic methods. Many different trends were carried by the wave of the self-discovery movement and the rank growth of some of these was more or less tolerated by society. After more than twenty years the market has not only reached a certain degree of saturation, but the expectations of its clientele as well as those of the political arena have grown. In many countries these self-discovery movements experienced a dampening as legislation designed to regulate accreditation of therapeutic practices was introduced. These communities are now confronted with expectations concerning consumer protection, quality and transparency. In many countries, particularly in those with a relatively large number of practitioners, the national Guilds are confronted with similar challenges and the need to adapt to societal demands.
In Switzerland an umbrella association of methods of movement education has been established and a description of this professional field is being designed; in Israel the possibility of integrating The Method into university education is being discussed and in countries such as Italy, Australia and New Zealand the Guild strives for governmental recognition of the guild and the trainings.
(3) The Parable of the Blind Men and the Elephant (1869) By John Godfrey Saxe It was six men of Indostan To learning much inclined, Who went to see the Elephant Though all of them were blind, That each by observation Might satisfy his mind. The First approached the Elephant And, happening to fall Against his broad and sturdy side, At once began to bawl: “God bless me, but the Elephant Is very like a wall!” The Second, feeling the tusk, Cried, “Ho! What have we here So very round and smooth and sharp? To me’tis very clear This wonder of an Elephant Is very like a spear!” The Third approached the animal And, happening to take The squirming trunk within his hands, Thus boldly up he spake: “I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant Is very like a snake!” The Fourth reached out an eager hand, And felt about the knee: “What most the wondrous beast is like Is very plain”, quoth he; “Tis clear enough the Elephant Is very like a tree!” The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
Said, “Even the blindest man Can tell what this resembles most; Deny the fact who can: This marvel of an elephant Is very like a fan!” The Sixth no sooner had begun About the beast to grope Than, seizing on the swinging tail That fell within his scope, “I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant Is very like a rope!” And so these men of Indostan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong, Though each was partly in the right, They all were in the wrong! (4) Questionnaires from International Working Group on Training Policy: Critical Issues and Vision Quest By IWG, 03-20-05 1. Critical Issues • Do you see any critical issues in the current training policy regarding training guidelines and trainer and assistant trainer certification? i. If yes, please name them and describe in short terms why you estimate them critical. 2. Being an International Community 2.1. How important is in your opinion the international structure of the Feldenkrais community? ii. What are benefits? iii. What are disadvantages? 2.2.What is the biggest challenge to the international structure of the Feldenkrais community 2.3.What keeps you as a trainer/organiser in the TAB/Guild system? 3. Vision Quest 3.1.If you would rule the world, what would training policy look like? 3.2.For trainers: If there were no policy what would your training look like?
3.3. For all other persons: If there was no policy what would you think a training should look like 4. Is there anything else you would like to add?
(5) Comparison of Decision Making Concerning Training Issues in Different Somatic Methods By Sabina Graf-Pointner, Sylvia Weise, Jörg Cezanne 01.11.04
FeldenkraisMethod (TABSystem) Accreditation NATAB, of trainings AusTAB, EuroTAB
Alexander Technique (GLAT)
National board and European Rolfing Training Association (ERA) is itself Commission organizer of trainings. The number of trainings and their dates are jointly developed between the board and the trainers. National Training „Faculty Development Review Board“, made up of Commission two trainers, two ERAchecks formal requirements and practitioners and a member of the board. In addition carries out an interview with the every 3-5 years trainers are evaluated by the Review candidate; then a recommendation is Board, using also made to the questionnaires filled out by national board that the students of their is making the final trainings. decision
Certification of trainers
NATAB, AusTAB, EuroTAB in consensus
Certification of assistant trainers
the TAB that is geographically responsible
Trainers choose their own assistants for their trainings.
Promoting and developing a curriculum of the method
Initiative of the TABs about competency profile; so far no educational guidelines exist, only
The Affiliated Societies of different countries try to establish the highest possible denominator. The curricula of the different schools vary individually,
Independent Yoga schools adhering to BDY guidelines
Trainers are accredited by the national board in cooperation with Fachkonferenz Ausbildung (FKA) (= Specialized Conference on Education, a national training commission) Trainers choose their own Is regulated by assistants for their trainings the schools themselves
A Curriculum has once been developed during a retreat of the trainers with the help of an external expert. In addition there exists a list of learning goals that is used to evaluate students at the end of their training.
Fachkonferenz Ausbildung (FKA) Lately the FKA has started meeting prior to there own meetings with
guidelines that resembles a Franchise contract, where a partner acquires the right to use a registered mark (or a brand name) and agrees to adhere to rather strict formal regulations - annual Developing, administering reports from and securing training standards of organizers trainings - the legal situation seems to be somewhat unclear, both in regard to how the TAGs could be enforced and concerning how far national legal requirements allow for regulations by an association (=EuroTAB Council) on a European level
e.g. whether anatomy lessons are part of the curriculum etc. The head of the school/Educational Director is ultimately responsible for the individual curriculum.
heads of schools during so called "days of quality"
International No information guidelines have been developed by national Affiliated Societies, represented by members of their boards. The national boards in cooperation with the training commissions are responsible for overseeing adherence to the guidelines.
The board member responsible for educational questions together with the Executive Officer visits the schools
International Decision consensus making necessary both concerning trainer accreditation and changing even minute regulations in the TAGs
Basic guidelines No information based on the highest possible denominator have been developed by the different Affiliated Societies; only for changing these basic guidelines an international consensus is necessary, all other questions are dealt with on a national level
Guidelines provide for a simple majority in decision making in the FKA, though in reality decisions are made by consensus
A remark concerning the Alexander Technique: The Training commission is elected by the trainers during so called "trainers days", the board by the annual general assembly of the national association (here the German Society for Teachers of Alexander Technique).
Chapter 5: Historical Overview (1) Moshe Feldenkrais 1900 – 1984 Many stories of the life of Moshe Feldenkrais are told throughout our community. Some are undoubtedly true, while others are undoubtedly apocryphal. The members of the IWG are not in a position to determine the veracity of these stories. We have decided not to include any of these stories but to wait for the biography of Moshe Feldenkrais which is currently being written. The origin of the international structure of the Feldenkrais community may lie in the personality and history of Moshe Feldenkrais. Not only that he lived and learned in different countries but moreover that he had personal connections to many respected personalities in those countries. It is enough to say that as originator of The Method his influence is still widely present today. The first Feldenkrais Method training took place in Israel from 1969 – 1971 with 13 students and was taught by Moshe Feldenkrais. He followed this training with two others; San Francisco, California, USA from 1975 – 1977 with 77 students graduated and Amherst, Massachusetts, USA from 1980 - 1983 with a little over 200 graduates graduated. Interest in his work was also being strongly expressed in countries other than Israel and the USA. When invited in the late 70’s to give workshops in the Netherlands he delegated the teaching role to one of his Israeli graduates. It was in the second year of the Amherst program that Moshe fell ill and was unable to complete the training process. The assistants he chose, both from the Israel and the San Francisco Training taught the last two years of this training.
In 1984 Moshe Feldenkrais died. It was at this point The Method passed into the hands of practitioners and the possibility of divergent pathways became apparent. Formal solutions to the question of how the legacy of the Feldenkrais Method could be preserved, who could train students to become practitioners, how a training should be, and what legal bodies were needed to create and implement a training policy became paramount. Structures to Perpetuate “The Method” The Feldenkrais Foundation Prior to the Amherst training, Moshe Feldenkrais founded the Feldenkrais Foundation with the aim of promoting and coordinating training programs and materials. Amherst, San Diego I, Toronto I San Rafael I and Munich I were all Foundation programs. The teaching in the first two years of these trainings (besides Amherst) was based on viewing the Amherst videotapes which were owned by The Feldenkrais Foundation. The Guilds At the conclusion of the San Francisco training, at least partly through the instigation of Moshe Feldenkrais, The Feldenkrais Guild (now The Feldenkrais Guild of North America) was formed to represent the practitioners of his Method. Over the years many more guilds and associations (18) have been formed representing practitioners in 20 countries. The Training and Accreditation Boards The Training Accreditation Board (subsequently the North American Training and Accreditation Board- NATAB) was formed under The Feldenkrais Guild to generate training policy and regulate Feldenkrais trainings worldwide. The first TAB accredited training program was held in Sydney, Australia commencing in September 1986. From 1987 on there was a desire for a separate TAB in Europe. From 1989, an informal group called the Feldenkrais European Meetings (FEM) was created. One of its first concrete actions was to open communications with the (NA) TAB to create a European TAB; the EuroTAB was created in August 1990. With the support of the (NA) TAB, the EuroTAB began functioning in January 1991. Steps were defined in common to facilitate learning and build confidence. In 1993 The Australian Feldenkrais Guild Inc flagged its’ intention to form an Australian Feldenkrais TAB. In concert with representatives of the EuroTAB and NATAB by-laws were written by which an Australian TAB could be formed. In May 1996 the AusTAB was constituted as a Standing Committee of The AFG Inc, with a two year apprenticeship to the NATAB. Immediately, NATAB suggested the AusTAB undertake responsibility for the geographical region of the Australasian Pacific Basin. In 1997 the AusTAB began functioning independently of its’ apprenticeship. Governing Bodies of the TABs Difficulties arose when it was discovered that the EuroTAB was not a formally constituted body and did not have a parent body to which it was responsible.
Consequently “Feldenkrais Europe” (the FEM had changed its name by that time) searched for a clearer connection and official line of authority. In May 1995 it created the conditions for a parent body to be formed, with representatives of the European and Israeli Guilds/associations making up what was then called the EuroTAB Council. From May 1996, the Euro TAB Council undertook the responsibility of administering the election of members of the EuroTAB. The FGNA and The AFG Inc. remained the governing bodies of their respective TABs. Feldenkrais Network International Graduates of the Mia Segal and Yochanan Rywerant programs founded the Feldenkrais Network International as an international platform representing only the graduates of non-accredited programs. The International Feldenkrais Federation In 1987 an International Assembly of practitioners and students representing their Guilds, trainers, assistant trainers, Foundation and family representatives was held in Amsterdam to discuss the formation of an international umbrella body. One of the motivations for this was the desire to resolve the impasse between those who ascribed to accreditation of training programs by the then TAB and those who did not. Also important to the founding assemblies, was the creation of an international network of guilds and the maintenance of relationship with the Feldenkrais Family who owned the Feldenkrais teaching archives. The London meeting followed in 1988 to pursue the founding efforts. A third meeting was held in Paris in 1989 at which the International Feldenkrais Federation was formed. The official foundation of the IFF was in 1991. The Service Marks The first service marks covering the terms of The Method were acquired by The Feldenkrais Guild under the endorsement of Moshe Feldenkrais. Many Guilds (and individuals) have since applied for and acquired service marks, some in their own countries and in at least one instance, in another country. The service marks appear to be perceived as a way of “owning” the work; in the best cases as a way of protecting the integrity of The Method and in the worst for personal gain. The Policies The Training Accreditation Guidelines (TAGs) were formulated in 1984. They were first proposed by a Professional Advisory committee of eight trainers at the request of the now extinct Feldenkrais Foundation following the death of Moshe Feldenkrais. After eight successive drafts, the guidelines of the Advisory Committee were adopted by The Feldenkrais Guild (now the FGNA) in 1985. In the intervening 20 years the vast majority of the international Feldenkrais community has been aligning itself with that policy. There have been many modification and revisions to the TAGs, one of which was the change of name to the Training Accreditation Policy (TAPs). There have been two (?) addenda formulated which have also been modified
The Cross- over Policy was formulated in January 1994 to accommodate graduates from Mia Segal and Yochanan Rywerant Programs (who at the time were the only ones directing and graduating training programs outside the accreditation rules of the TABs). This was intended only as an interim solution; however the timeframe for operation of the policy has been extended many times. Protocol for Training Accreditation Boards to Change Training Accreditation Policies and Guidelines (Accreditation and ongoing regulation of FPTP, Certification of Assistant Trainers and Trainers) now known as The Policy for Changing Policy was first ratified in March 1994. It has undergone changes subsequently. Trainer Certification and Trainer Candidacy Policy Trainer Certification was one of the first policies introduced. Essentially quantitative in its requirements, it was slated for change in 1997. Trainer Candidacy and competency based assessment was added in 1999. In many ways it was these additions and their subsequent use which precipitated the call for change and the formation of the IWG. Assistant Trainer Accreditation was again, one of the earliest policies and has remained essentially unchanged since its formulation Guidelines for the Role of Experienced practitioners in Training Programs was adopted by the NATAB and EuroTAB in December 1995. It has subsequently undergone a number of revisions The Draft Make-up Policy has never been ratified by any of the Governing Bodies of the TABs and remains a draft to this day. Many, many drafts have been written. Many attempts have been made to find consensus between the three TABs and their three governing bodies. This process is perhaps a fractal of the systemic difficulties our community is currently experiencing in relation to policy. Each TAB has a different perspective, a different history and is situated in a different culture. All have varying degrees of rigor which have shifted over time, but never at the same time. All write in different English where cultural nuances may not be seen or are misunderstood by the others. All operate in different and differing training program climates. To further complicate matters, the term “Make-up” is variously used to mean “Late Entry requirements”, “a process for covering missed material as a result of incidental absenteeism” and “a process for covering missed material for continuous periods of greater than five days.
Chapter 6: The Foci of Dissatisfaction and the Stakeholders (1)Thoughts on the Feldenkrais Trainer Competency Profile and Trainer Candidacy process, By Cliff Smyth, March 2005 (Note: This paper was prepared specifically to input into discussions within the NATAB and not originally intended for wider circulation. However, it does seem relevant to some of the issues addressed in the IWG Report and so I have agreed for it to be included. The views are purely my own and do not represent the views of any of the organisations or
competency projects with which I have been involved. The language of the discussion of competency reflects the language and conceptual frameworks used in the Trainer Competency project – other competency projects in the community have and do use slightly different language and conceptual frameworks (reflecting that there are a many, if complementary, ways of approaching competency development).- Cliff Smyth)
Some background As one of the people who has advocated competency-based approaches in the Feldenkrais community and as the person who was hired as a consultant-editor for the writing of the Trainer Competency profile I want to – and have been asked by a number of people – to make some observations about the current discussion of the Trainer Candidacy and competency assessment process. I did not comment on these matters before, partly because having worked on the editing of the profile, it did not behoove me to publicly criticize the implementation of the process prematurely. The TABs did not consult with me about the implementation phase of the Trainer competency project and so I left my work for them after completing editing of the profile and the assessment tasks related to the Profile and before the Trainer Candidacy process was added. However, I did provide some draft principles and an overview for assessment I have included these below as they give some background to the arguments I put forward in this paper. We know that we learn in approximations and perhaps it was necessary to implement the Trainer competency system in some way and then learn from the issues that have arisen. Shortly after working on this project, I became President of the IFF and held the position until recently. During this period it did not seem appropriate for me to be seen to be interfering with the internal affairs of the TABs. Since a public discussion has begun about the Trainer Candidacy guidelines, and a decision to review them, I feel a need to make a contribution to the discussion. I fully appreciate the amount of work that has gone into the implementation and review of this process, but I believe there are many flaws in the current process, some based on some fundamental misunderstandings of the competency development and assessment process. While these may have arisen out of perceptions of legal and administrative pressures, they seem to have led to distortions in both the concept of competency-based assessment and its implementation in our Trainer assessment processes. Personally I support the current professionalisation of the teaching of the Feldenkrais Method and high standards for the assessment of our teachers. Again, this is why I have supported the introduction to competency-based approaches. However, their introduction must be thorough and well informed, and because it is a major leap in expectations from the old system must be done in a way that is fair and transparent. Some of what I understand about how the Trainer and Trainer Candidate assessment process has been implemented has come from conversations with people in the community. My apologies in advance if I have misunderstood some aspect of the processes as they are currently being implemented.
Criteria for Assessment To set a context for my thinking I have included some of the material I prepared for the NATAB when I was the editing consultant for the Trainer competencies project. I pondered whether I should, as former consultant, include these materials, but I felt that these level of concern in our community warranted presenting some of my thinking at the time as background and reference for this paper.) The following I prepared for the NATAB in August 1997: 80%. Most saw