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An investigation of the effectiveness of propaganda, with a view to formulating some tentative laws

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROPAGANDA WITH A VIE?/ TO FORMULATING. SOME TENTATIVE LAWS

A T h e s is P r e s e n te d to th e F a c u l t y o f th e G ra d u a te S ch o o l The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D eg ree M a s te r o f A r ts

by R a lp h H e r b e r t T u rn e r Ju n e 19 4-2

UMI Number: EP65633

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP65633 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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This thesis, written by .......................RALPH..H,....TTUB&m............................. under the direction of h.l L& F a c u lt y C o m m i t t e e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has be en pr es e n te d to a n d a c c e p te d by the Co unc il on G rad ua te S t u d y an d Resea rch in p a r ti a l fulfill­ m e n t o f th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e o f

.M.STEE..OF..ARTS.

D ean

S ecreta ry D a te .. ...June.,.19.43.

F a c u lty C o m m itte e

-

--->

C h airm an

TABLE OP CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

Im p o rta n c e o f th e P ro b le m ...........................................

4

P ro m o tio n i n th e P a s t ......................... .......................

5

P ro m o tio n T o d a y ............................

9

H i s t o r y o f th e Term " P ro p a g a n d a 11

II.

t

THE PROBLEM...........................................................................

......................... 12

P r e v a le n c e o f

th e Term " p ro p a g a n d a ” Today . .

D e fin itio n of

th e Term "Law”

.........................................17

DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROPAGANDA . . . The M eaning o f P ro p a g a n d a . .

16

.......................

19 19

S ta n d a r d s f o r

D e f in in g p r o p a g a n d a .............................19

The N a tu re o f

p r o p a g a n d a ...............................................21

C o n c e p tu a l Fram ew ork o f P ro p a g a n d a

...................

23

The C r i t e r i a o f P r o p a g a n d a ...............................25 L e a d in g C o n c e p tio n s o f P ro p a g a n d a . . . . . .

39

D e f i n i t i o n o f P r o p a g a n d a .................................

. .

47

The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f P ro p a g a n d a .................................

48

The C o n d itio n s o f E f f e c t i v e P ro p a g a n d a I d e n t i f y i n g p ro p a g a n d a

. . .

...............................................

48 49

I d e n t i f y i n g th e P r o d u c t o f P ro p a g a n d a . . . .

51

I d e n t i f y i n g th e C a u s a l C o n n e c tio n

53

....................

O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e T h e s i s ...............................56 I I I . . STATEMENTS FROM AUTHORITIES...................................... 58 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s C o n c e rn in g P ro p a g a n d a ...................

60

iii CHAPTER

PAGE S e ts o f G e n e ra liz a tio n s

........................

60

............................

71

S y n th e s i s o f th e G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ........................

80

A d d itio n a l G e n e ra liz a tio n s

G e n e ra l O b s e r v a tio n s

IV.

...........................................

80

A T h r e e f o ld A n a ly s is . ...........................................

82

CONCLUSIONS FROM S T U D IE S ...............................................

88

E x p e r im e n ta l an d S t a t i s t i c a l D a t a ...................

88

E x p e r im e n ta l S t u d i e s

...........................................

88

.

104

H i s t o r i c a l an d C ase S t u d i e s .................................

107

P ro p a g a n d a I n th e W orld W a r .............................

107

P ro p a g a n d a i n W orld War I I

113

The I n v a s io n fro m M a r s

............................

P u b l i c U t i l i t y P ro p a g a n d a i n th e U n ite d S ta te s

V.

.......................................................................

118

C o n c l u s i o n s ..................................................................

122

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM RELATED F I E L D S ........................

123

S u g g e s tio n

.......................................................................

125

The N a tu r e o f S u g g e s t i o n ......................................

125

Laws o f S u g g e s t i o n ....................................................

127

A d v e rtis in g

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136

The M eaning o f A d v e r t i s i n g .................................

136

M ethods i n A d v e r t i s i n g

137

E d u c a tio n

................................

.

..........................................

The N a tu r e o f E d u c a t i o n ......................................

1^7 147

iv CHAPTER

PAGE M ethods o f E d u c a tio n ...................................... C o n c l u s i o n s .....................................

VI*SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The P ro b le m

149

.

155

......................................

I 56

................................................................

The M eaning o f P ro p a g a n d a

156

...............................

156

D e te rm in in g th e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f P r o p a g a n d a ......................................................... The G e n e r a l H y p o th e s is

159

................................................

The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f M ethods Employed

. . .

The R e c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n

161 163

.

171

The I n t e r a c t i o n o f th e P ro p a g a n d a w ith th e P a r tic u la r S itu a tio n

................................................

R ecom m endations f o r F u tu r e R e s e a rc h . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

..............................................................

176 178

CHAPTER THE

I

PROBLEM

A w e l t e r o f d is a g r e e m e n t a r i s e s w h en ev er th e w ord " p ro p a g a n d a ” i s em p lo y ed .

To som e, " p ro p a g a n d a ” p i c t u r e s

th e e s s e n c e o f dem o cracy i n a c t i o n ; f a i l u r e o f d em o cracy .

to o t h e r s i t m ark s th e

To some i t i s a m o n s te r to h e f e a r e d ;

to some i t i s a n in s t r u m e n t to h e u t i l i z e d ; a n i n e f f e c t u a l g e s t u r e to h e s c o r n e d .

to o t h e r s i t i s

Some o f th e d i v e r ­

g e n t p o s i t i o n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d hy th e f o llo w in g q u o t a t i o n s . " P ro p a g a n d a i s . . .

a s u b tle and in s id io u s

reptile.

U n ch eck ed , th e e v i l o f p ro p a g a n d a w i l l so o n r e s u l t i n th e e x i s t e n c e o f a h y d r a o r a t i n g fro m a h u n d re d h e a d s . T h a t way B a h e l l i e s . * Up to th e p r e s e n t , a d v e r t i s i n g h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . On th e c o n t r a r y , p ro p a g a n d a h a s b e e n ra th e r a f a ilu r e . . , . P ro p a g a n d a i s by no m eans a p ro fo u n d m a n o eu v re, c l e v e r l y d i r e c t e d by b r i l l i a n t m in d s; i t i s a n i n f a n t i l e r e a c tio n o f n a tio n s a g a in s t a f e e lin g o f i n f eriorlty.3 I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t p ro p a g a n d a s e r v e s a u s e f u l p u r ­ pose. I t I n c r e a s e s g e n e r a l k n o w led g e . I t te n d s to k e e p o p e n a n a r e n a i n p u b l i c l i f e i n w h ich th e b a t t l e o f

1 Raymond P e a r l , "The B io lo g y o f S u p e r i o r i t y , ” The A m eric an M e rc u ry , 1 2 :2 5 7 -2 6 6 , November 1927. 2 "The C u rse o f P r o p a g a n d a ,” The I n d e p e n d e n t, 110: 4 - 5 , J a n u a r y 6 , 1925* 3 J e a n P r e v o s t , "The p s y c h o lo g y o f P ro p a g a n d a ," The A t l a n t i c M o n th ly , 16 1 :6 7 4 -6 7 7 * May, 1938.

2

t r u t h may h e f a i r l y f o u g h t . ^ Mr. B arn ey s* im p r e s s iv e r e f e r e n c e to c o l l e g e s , c h u r c h e s , a n d o t h e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c ie s now em p lo y in g p r o p a g a n d l s t i c m e th o d s f o r w o rth y e n d s o n ly s u b s t a n ­ t i a t e s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t we a r e l i v i n g a t a tim e when th e m o st s a c r e d , r a r e , a n d h i t h e r t o c a r e f u l l y g u a rd e d t r e a s u r e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n a r e o b l i g e d to t u r n to b a l l y ­ hoo a n d s e l l c a r i c a t u r e s o f th e m s e lv e s to o p en -m o u th e d i d l e r s i n th e m a rk e t p l a c e * 5 The o n e p o i n t , h o w e v e r, on w h ie h t h e r e i s c o n s e n s u s , makes th e s tu d y o f p ro p a g a n d a e s s e n t i a l to s o c io lo g y a n d to th e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f d em o cracy .

P ro p a g a n d a i s a t l e a s t a

m eans th ro u g h w h ich p e o p le * s o p in io n s a n d a c t i o n s a r e a l ­ te re d .

H en ce, su c h c o n f u s io n a s i l l u s t r a t e d ab o v e l e a v e s a

g a p i n th e p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c io lo g y a n d s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g y i n t h e i r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f o n e fo rm o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n .

And

su c h d is a g r e e m e n t o b s t r u c t s e f f o r t s to im p ro v e th e demo­ c r a t i c p ro c e ss in a c tio n . Many a s p e c t s o f th e s u b j e c t o f p ro p a g a n d a m u st b e e x ­ am in ed b e f o r e t h e e x i s t i n g c o n f u s io n c a n b e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a lle v ia te d .

B u t one o f th e m o st fu n d a m e n ta l i s s u e s i s co n ­

c e r n e d w ith t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p ro p a g a n d a .

U n d e r s ta n d in g

j u s t how much a n o p in io n c a n b e ch a n g ed by p ro p a g a n d a w i l l

4 Edward L. Bernaye, "Are We V ictim s of Propaganda," Forum, 81:146, March 1929. 5 E v e r e t t Dean M a r tin , "A re We V ic tim s o f P ro p a g a n d a ," F orum , 8 1 :1 4 9 , M arch 1929.

3

t e l l how much a tte n t io n the su b ject d eserv es.

I t w i l l in ­

d ic a te to what ex te n t counter-m easures are demanded.

It

w i l l g iv e in s ig h t in to the fu n c tio n in g s o f the human m e n ta lity . But the most cursory exam ination of statem en ts r e ­ garding the e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f propaganda renders a c lu e to the cause of the g en eral f a ilu r e among a u th o r itie s to reach agreement on th is su b je c t.

Many w r ite r s have attem pted to

make b lan k et sta tem en ts, have o ffe r e d " g lit t e r in g g en era l­ i t i e s , ” in a f i e l d where such statem en ts have no v a l i d it y . They are o ften tim es l i k e two observers who d isa g r ee on the c o lo r o f a chameleon.

Each i s c o r rect w ith r e sp e c t to the

g iv en background; each i s in error w ith r e s p e c t to the oth er background; and each i s u n j u s t if ie d in g e n e r a liz in g . Seen in t h is l i g h t , disagreem ent dim inishes con sid erab ly. B lanket statem ents are seen as mere averages, t e l l i n g l i t t l e about any p a r tic u la r s it u a t io n .

And statem ents

about g iv en s it u a t io n s are n ot expected to h old true in d if f e r e n t s o r ts o f s it u a t io n s .

Hence, t h is study w i ll

avoid the b lan k et statem en t regarding propaganda’ s e f f e c t ­ iv e n e s s , seekin g in ste a d g e n e r a liz a tio n s lim ite d to par­ t ic u la r types o f s it u a t io n s . The c e n tr a l problem o f t h is th e s is may be form ally s ta te d a s fo llo w s :

Under what co n d itio n s i s propaganda

4

most e f f e c t iv e ?

This w i l l imply r e fe r e n c e to the c o r o lla r y

is s u e , under what c o n d itio n s i s propaganda in e f f e c t iv e ?

And

p relim in ary to c o n sid e r a tio n o f th ese q u estio n s must come the answer to an oth er, namely, in what sense s h a ll the word ”propaganda" he employed? Importance of the Problem.

The importance o f th is

problem stems from a t l e a s t f i v e f a c t o r s .

F ir s t o f th ese I s

the u b iq u ito u sn ess o f something which may be c a lle d “propa­ gan da,” and of the word “propaganda” in popular and s c i e n t i ­ f i c v o ca b u la ries.

Second i s the e x te n t of p resen t con fu sion

regarding the e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f propaganda.

The th ird p o in t

i s the need fo r t h is a d d itio n to s c i e n t i f i c understanding o f the p r in c ip le s of human communication and in flu e n c e .

Fourth

i s the co n tr ib u tio n to the study o f psychology in the form o f c lu e s which the r e s u lt s w i l l o ffe r to the understanding of human b eh avior.

And f i f t h i s the demand fo r g e n e r a liz a ­

tio n s which w i l l be o f a id in com batting or u t i l i z i n g the ever in c r e a sin g volume of propaganda.

The support of the

l a s t four fa c to r s w i l l appear throughout the body o f the th e s is .

The f i r s t of th ese p o in ts i s evidenced by h is t o r ­

i c a l in v e s t ig a t io n , dem onstrating the presence o f such prom otional a c t i v i t i e s as may be c a lle d "propaganda” in widespread tim es and p la c e s , and d is c lo s in g th e ir preva­

5

le n c e today.

The remainder of th is chapter w i l l he devoted

to a summary o f the fin d in g s of such h i s t o r i c a l in v e s tig a ­ t io n s , w ith a view to dem onstrating the importance of propaganda. Promotion in the P a s t.

So s a t is f a c t o r y an h is t o r ­

i c a l summary o f propaganda has been p resen ted by Frederick Lumley6 th a t a complete r e c a p itu la tio n here would be super­ flu o u s .

A b r ie f sampling w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the d esired

p o in t s u f f i c i e n t l y .

Since 11p ro p a g a n d a h a s not y e t been

d efin ed in t h is t h e s is , an attem pt has been made to choose on ly th ose examples which would be subsumed under n early any current d e f in it io n o f “propaganda.11 I t i s sa id th a t the f i r s t recorded p r e s c r ip tio n fo r a h a ir grower was th a t made up fo r the Egyptian Queen Bos, mother o f King T eta, in 34-00 B.C. I t c o n s is te d o f a m ixture o f dog to e s , date r e fu s e , and asses* h o o fs. There was a ls o a cu riou s formula so ld com m ercially about th a t time to perform the same se r v ic e fo r ordinary peo­ p le . This c a lle d fo r the f a t o f the fo llo w in g anim als: l i o n , hippopotamus, c r o c o d ile , c a t , ser p e n t, and Egyptian g o a t. N atu rally the ordinary purchaser o f the formula could n ot r e a d ily procure a l l th ese d iv erse f a t s . Q uite as n a tu r a lly the s e l l e r o ffe r e d to provide them, a t a p r ic e . The f a t s reached the purchaser, each properly la b e lle d and in i t s own g a l lip o t and, we are

^ Propaganda Menace (New York: D. A ppletonGentury Company, 1933)7 PP. 4-5-67.

6 t o l d , e a c h an d e v e r y f a t was r e a l l y n o th in g h u t g o o se g re a se !* I n th e t h i r t e e n t h c e n tu r y B .C . th e P h a ra o h Ram ses th e S eco n d c o v e re d w a l l s a q u a r t e r o f a m ile i n e x t e n t w ith a c c o u n ts o f h i s g r e a t “V i c t o r y o f K a d e sh ." A c t u a l l y Ram ses d i d n o t w in t h i s m ig h ty t h i r t e e n t h c e n tu r y B .C . h a t t l e on th e O ro n te s R iv e r i n A s ia M inor a g a i n s t th e H i t t i t e s an d t h e i r a l l i e s . C hecked w ith o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e , th e b e s t t h a t c a n b e s a i d f o r Ram ses . . . i s t h a t h e f o u g h t a draw n b a t t l e an d m anaged to r e t r e a t I n good o r d e r . R am ses' d i s t o r t e d w ar r e p o r t e v i d e n t l y was s u c c e s s f u l p ro p a g a n d a . . . s i n c e a c e n tu r y l a t e r P h a ra o h Ramses th e T h ird p l a g i a r i z e d a lm o s t w ord f o r w ord o n e o f Ram ses th e S e c o n d 's i n s c r i p t i o n s , th e r e b y c la im in g t h a t h e d e f e a t e d a H i t t i t e arm y a lm o s t s in g l e - h a n d e d a t K ad e sh . The t h i r d R am ses n e v e r f o u g h t a n y s u c h b a t t l e a t a l l , i t i s now p r e t t y c e r t a i n . 8 I n B a b y lo n ia , d u r in g th e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y B .C ., H am m u ra b i's fam ous co d e h a d i n s c r i b e d a t th e to p a p i c t u r e o f Hammurabi r e c e i v i n g th e la w s d i r e c t l y fro m th e S u n -g o d .9 Among a l l o f th e e a r l y r u l e r s a b o u t th e f e r t i l e c r e s c e n t a n d th e M e d ite r r a n e a n S ea i t was c u s to m a ry to e r e c t m onuments to v i c t o r i e s .

The g r e a t s to n e T riu m p h a l

Monument o f D a r iu s th e G r e a t i s a n e x c e l l e n t e x a m p le .

7 T. Swann H a r d in g , The P o p u la r P r a c t i c e o f F ra u d (New Y o rk ; Longmans G re en an d Company, 1 9 3 5 ), p# S 4. ® "P ro p a g a n d a S e rv e d E g y p t F o u r T housand Y e a rs A go," S c ie n c e News L e t t e r . 3 7 :3 0 , J a n u a r y 13, 19^-0. 9 Jam es H. B r e a s t e d , The C o n q u e st o f C i v i l i z a t i o n (New Y ork; The L i t e r a r y G u ild o f A m e ric a , 1 9 3 8 ), p p . 1 4 6-147.

7 Thus th e g r e a t k in g p u b lis h e d h i s triu m p h i n th e t h r e e m o st im p o r ta n t la n g u a g e s o f t h i s e a s t e r n r e g i o n an d p l a c e d th e r e c o r d o v e r lo o k in g a m ain r o a d a t B e h is tu n , w h ere th e men o f th e c a r a v a n s p a s s i n g b e tw e e n B a b y lo n an d th e I r a n i a n P l a t e a u w ould lo o k up 300 f e e t a n d s e e th e s p l e n d i d m onum ent, 25 f e e t h ig h a n d 50 f e e t w id e . I n th e O r i e n t , th e f i f t h c e n tu r y B .C . Book o f War by Sun Tzu d i s c u s s e d th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l te c h n iq u e s w h ich accom pany s u c c e s s f u l w a r f a r e . * * D u rin g t h e p e r i o d o f th e l a t e r Roman E m pire th e C h r i s t i a n c r o s s becam e a p o w e rfu l sym bol w h ic h " o f t e n b lo c k e d r e f l e c t i v e

,.1 2

th in k in g .”

O th e r sy m b o ls loom ed l a r g e

i n th e s p r e a d o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , su c h a s th e f i s h , th e dove a n d o l i v e b r a n c h , th e Good S h e p h e rd , th e palm b r a n c h , an d th e s n a k e . *^ Coming to th e m ore r e c e n t tim e s , th e f i r s t C ru sa d e p ro d u c e d s u c h s t o r i e s a s t h a t o f a " t u b f i l l e d w ith e y e s o f «14

p r i s o n e r s ta k e n by th e T u r k s .”

10 I b i d . . p . 235 11 H a ro ld L a s s w e l i , R a lp h C a se y , an d B ru c e S m ith , P ro p a g a n d a an d P ro m o tio n a l A c t i v l t l e s ( M in n e a p o lis : M in n e s o ta U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935)> PP* 20-21 A l b e r t E. W olfram , " S e l e c t e d I n s t a n c e s o f C e r t a i n P ro p a g a n d a T e c h n iq u e s o f A n c ie n t an d M odern T im e s ,” (U n p u b lis h e d D o c to r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 0 ), p . 7 7 . 15 I b i d . , p p . 7 5 -8 5 . ^ H a r o ld l a s s w e l i , C a se y , a n d S m ith , o p . c i t . . pp. 20- 2 1 .

8 On© o f th e m o st n o t a b l e p ro p a g a n d a c o n f l i c t s i n h i s ­ t o r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e p a m p h le te e r s o f C ro m w e llia n E n g la n d ,

M ost o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h i s g ro u p w as J o h n M ilto n ,

The u n s c r u p u lo u s u s e o f th e m o st v i c i o u s a n d i r r a t i o n a l t a c t i c s known to p r o p a g a n d a , g iv e n r e l i e f by t h e i r r e l a t i v e c r u d i t y , makes t h i s p e r i o d s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s tu d y t o d a y . *5 N ap o leo n u n d e r s to o d an d u s e d f a l s e r e p o r t s to b o l s t e r up th e m o r a le o f h i s arm y w h en ev er n e c e s s a r y .

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e x t e n t o f h i s u n s c r u p u lo u s n e s s i s i n d i c a t e d by th e o r i g i n a t t h a t tim e o f th e s a y i n g , ,fto l i e l i k e a b u l l e t i n . 11^ The u s e an d d i s t o r t i o n o f th e fam ous F re n c h Ems D is p a tc h to th e P r u s s i a n s i n 1870 to b r i n g a b o u t t h e w ar w h ic h e s t a b l i s h e d B ism a rc k an d c l o s e d th e c a r e e r o f 17 N ap o le o n I I I i s a n ex am p le o f m a s t e r l y p ro p a g a n d a . 1 Of B e n ja m in F r a n k l i n ’ s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g th e A m eri­ c a n R e v o lu tio n i t i s s a i d , I n s p i t e o f o u r g r e a t r e v e r e n c e f o r F r a n k l i n we f e e l im p e lle d to d e c l a r e — w ith p a i n f u l e m o tio n s — t h a t h e d id n o t c o n t i n u o u s l y t e l l th e t r u t h . He was n o t o n ly sh rew d an d a b l e , b u t a l s o t r i c k y , an d h i s a s s e r t i o n s i n a p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y s h o u ld b e ta k e n w ith a b u s h e l

*5 n o n M, W o lfe , M il to n i n th e P u r i t a n R e v o lu tio n (New Y ork: Thomas N e ls o n a n d S o n s, 194*1), 496 p p . *6 F r e d e r i c k L um ley, o p . c i t . . p . 7 0 . 17 C h a r le s H azen , M odern E u ro p e a n H i s t o r y (New Y ork: H enry H o lt a n d Gompany, 1 9 3 7 ) 7 p p . 3 5 6 -3 5 7 .

9 of s a lt* H is a rg u m e n ts w ere a lw a y s e x p a r t e ; h e n e v e r f o r g o t t h a t h e was a s p e c i a l p l e a d e r . p ro m o tio n T o d ay .

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a c t i v i t i e s h a s b e e n m o st f o r c i b l y i n t h e p u b l i c n o t i c e s i n c e t h e W orld War I .

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in g to t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i s m o st o b v io u s .

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f a l l o f 194-1 th e D a ily S k e t c h , L ondon n e w s p a p e r, w as a v a i l ­ in g i t s e l f ' o f e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y to p la y u p A m e ric a n i n t e r e s t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e p r e s e n t w ar to b o l s t e r E n g lis h m o r a le .

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s o l e l y to p ro m o te o r r e s t r a i n A m erican p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e w a r.

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p ro p a g a n d a s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n f u s e s o r c o n c e a ls many i s s u e s i n r e g a r d to l a b o r p o l i c y , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n an d e f f i c i e n c y o f w ar p r o d u c t i o n , m i l i t a r y a n d n a v a l s t r a t e g y , to th e e x t e n t t h a t o n ly th e o m n is c ie n t a n d t h e n a iv e c a n a p p ro a c h c e r t a i n o p in io n s . I t h a s becom e p a t e n t t h a t to r e a d th e n e w sp a p e r h e a d l i n e s i s to l e a r n o n ly w h a t th e e d i t o r w a n ts know n. The r a d i o b r i n g s s p e e c h e s , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e n e w s, a n d c o n t r o ­ v e r s i a l d ra m a tiz a tio n s d a ily .

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th e s e v e r a l n a t i o n s b a t t l e f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e e t h e r .

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18 W. E . W oodward, A New A m eric an H lB to ry (New Y o rk : The L i t e r a r y G u ild o f A m e ric a , 1 9 3 7 ), p p . 1 2 7 -1 2 8 .

10 B r i t i s h ca m p aig n c e n t e r e d a b o u t th e sym bol "V f o r V i c t o r y ” i s r e p o r t e d i n s p i r i n g s a b o ta g e a n d r e s i s t e n c e to German r u l e i n c o n t i n e n t a l E u ro p e .

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th e B lo g an " B u n d le s f o r C o n g re s s ” f o r c e d th e n a t i o n a l l e g i s ­ l a t u r e to r e p e a l o v e rw h e lm in g ly a la w b u t b r i e f l y i n e x i s t ­ ence. B u t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y to lo o k f o r tim e s o f w a r, n o r o u t s i d e o f A m e ric a n i n t e r n a l p o l i c i e s a n d ; p o l i t i c s f o r u n ­ l i m i t e d e x a m p le s.

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s u b j e c t e d u n c e a s i n g l y to p r e s s u r e s fro m i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s , Id some s c r u p u l o u s , b u t t h e s e th e e x c e p t i o n . W illia m A lle n W h ite I s r e p o r t e d a s s a y in g ,

. . w e h a v e two k in d s o f

g o v e rn m e n t— o u r p o l i t i c a l g o v e rn m e n t . . . a n d a g ro u p o f o r g a n iz e d m i n o r i t i e s . . . m ak in g a v a s t b u t tre m e n d o u s ly p o w e r fu l i n v i s i b l e g o v e rn m e n t— th e g o v e rn m e n t o f m in o r­ itie s .^ ® I n th e a r e a o f s t a t e g o v e rn m e n t th e s i t u a t i o n i s s im ila r.

A s t u d e n t o f p r e s s u r e s o n th e New J e r s e y s t a t e

le g is la tu r e re p o rts ,

*9 o f . E . P e n d le to n H e r r i n g , G roup R e p r e s e n t a t i o n B e f o r e C o n g re s s ( B a ltim o r e : J o h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 1929/.; an d K e n n e th G. C ra w fo rd , The P r e s s u r e Boys (New Y ork: J u l i a n IC e s s n e r, I n c . , 1 9 3 9 ). Q u o ted i n H e le n M. M u ll e r , L o b b y in g i n C o n g re s s (New Y o rk : H. W. W ilso n Company, 1 9 3 1 ), p . 4 0 .

n A c i t i z e n o f New J e r s e y i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n th e l e g i s ­ l a t i v e p r o c e s s b y h i s s e n a t o r , an d assem b ly m an , an d by a n i n d e f i n i t e num ber o f s o c i e t i e s , l e a g u e s , a s s o c i a ­ t i o n s ; h e may b e lo n g t o some o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t s p e a k f o r h im , a n d h e may n e v e r h a v e h e a r d o f some t h a t p r o f e s s to s p e a k f o r him . . . . 2 * The a u t h o r h a s b e e n a b l e to l i s t some o n e h u n d re d s i x t y - f o u r g ro u p s now a c t i v e , a n d , a l th o u g h th e l i s t i s in c o m p le te , i t p r o b a b ly c o m p ris e s m o st o f th e g ro u p s h a v in g a c o n tin u o u s i n t e r e s t i n c o n te m p o ra ry l e g i s ­ l a t i o n . 2^ C om m ercial a d v e r t i s i n g c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t s th e p u b l i c on b i l l b o a r d , by c i r c u l a r , i n th e n e w s p a p e r, a n d o v e r th e r a d i o .

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in g s u p p o r t by m e th o d s a s u n s c r u p u lo u s a s t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s a r e good.

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b a lly h o o " to s a v e th e s o u l s o f t h e r e l u c t a n t .

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com es a p a m p h le t w hose c o v e r b l a z e s w ith l i g h t n i n g an d th e w o rd s , " J u d g e R u t h e r f o r d U n co v ers th e F i f t h C o lu m n ,” i n w h ic h t h i s s e c t l e a d e r " p r o v e s " v i t u p e r a t i v e l y t h a t th e " C a th o li c H e ir a r c h y ” i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s h a s s to c k e d th e b a s e m e n ts o f a l l Roman C a t h o l i c C h u rc h e s w ith a rm s , to a i d th e N a z is i n t h e i r i n v a s i o n o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s . P ro m o tin g p e r s o n a l i t i e s h a s becom e a m a jo r p r o -

D ay to n D av id McKean, P r e s s u r e s o n th e L e g i s l a t u r e o f New J e r s e y (New Y o rk : C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 ), P . 53*

22 i b i a . , p. 5a.

f e s s i o n , su c h t h a t b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n an d s p e e c h e s g iv e n to d e m o n s tr a te t h a t m ak in g a l i v i n g by m o u ld in g th e p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t o p r e d e te r m in e d c h a n n e ls i s b o t h h o n o r a b le a n d i n d i s p e n s i b l e to d e m o c ra c y .

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" C o o lid g e l e g e n d ” w as e n t i r e l y th e p r o d u c t o f n ew sp ap erm en , who made him th e s t r o n g s i l e n t man th e p u b l i c a d m ire d . W e n d e ll W i l l k i e becam e c a n d i d a t e and n e a r - w in n e r i n th e 1940 p r e s i d e n t i a l ca m p aig n a l th o u g h unknown o u t s i d e o f l i m i t e d b u s i n e s s c i r c l e s a few m onths b e f o r e h i s n o m in a tio n . V olum es h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n on th e many fo rm s o f p r o ­ m o tio n a l an d p r o p a g a n d i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s .

F o r th o s e who w ould

re a d f u r t h e r in th e d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d o f p ro p ag an d a , an e x c e l l e n t in d e x i s a v a i l a b l e i n th e B i b lio g r a p h y b y L a s s w e ll, G asey an d S m ith ,22f w i t h s u p p le m e n ta ry l i s t s a p p e a r in g r e g u ­ l a r l y i n th e P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y . H i s t o r y o f th e Term ”P ro p a g a n d a . ”

The Term ” p r o p a ­

g a n d a h a s n o t a lw a y s b e e n a p p l i e d i n a n y o f th e p r i n c i p a l s e n s e s i n w h ich i t i s u s e d to d a y .

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a lw a y s e v e n s i g n i f i e d p ro m o tio n o f an y k in d .

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r o o t , ”p r o p a g a r e , ” b e lo n g s to h o r t i c u l t u r e , r e f e r r i n g to a

23 C f . W illia m A lb lg , P u fe llo O p in io n (New Y o rk : M cG raw -H ill Book Company, 1 9 3 9 ). P- 132. 24

15 way o f p l a n t i n g s l i p s o r r o o t s so a s to f o r c e . g r o w t h . 25 T h is m ean in g becam e g e n e r a l i z e d I n t o th e p r e s e n t - d a y w o rd , 11p r o p a g a t e ," m ean in g " t o g e n e r a t e ; c a u s e to m u l t i p l y , s p r e a d , 26 o r c o n tin u e ." A p p a r e n tly t h i s te rm was i n f a i r l y g e n e r a l u s e when i t s d e r i v a t i v e , " p ro p a g a n d a " b e g a n to b e u s e d . A t t h e tim e o f th e R e fo r m a tio n th e s p i r i t u a l an d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l u n i t y o f E u ro p e was s h a t t e r e d , an d th e m e d ie v a l Roman G hurch l o s t i t s h o ld on t o e N o rth e r n c o u n trie s . D u rin g th e c o u r s e o f th e d e v a s t a t i n g s t r u g g l e w h ic h f o llo w e d b e tw e e n th e f o r c e s o f P r o t e s t ­ a n t is m an d th o s e o f th e C o u n te r - R e f o r m a tio n , th e Roman C a th o li c C h u rch fo u n d i t s e l f f a c e d w i t h to e p ro b le m o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t s h o ld i n n o n - C a to o lic c o u n t r i e s . A c o m m issio n o f C a r d i n a l s w as s e t up by G re g o ry X I I I ( 1 5 7 2 - 8 5 ) , c h a rg e d w ith s p r e a d in g C a th o li c is m an d r e g u l a t i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a f f a i r s i n h e r e t i c , s c h i s m a t i c , o r h e a th e n l a n d s ; a n d th e P r e s i d e n t o f t h i s c o m m issio n , th e C a r d in a l P r e f e c t o f P ro p a g a n d a , so o n becam e known a s th e "Red P o p e ." A g e n e r a t i o n l a t e r , when th e T h i r t y Y e a r s ’ War h a d b r o k e n o u t , G re g o ry XV i n 1622 made th e C om m ission p e rm a n e n t, a s a s a c r e d c o n g r e g a ­ t i o n d e p ro p a g a n d a f i d e , c h a rg e d w i t h to e m anagem ent o f f o r e i g n m is s io n s an d f in a n c e d by & " r i n g ta x " a s s e s s e d up o n e a c h n ew ly a p p o i n te d C a r d i n a l ; and f i n a l l y a l i t t l e l a t e r t h i s c h a r g e becam e c r y s t a l l i z e d i n th e C o lle g e o f P ro p a g a n d a , s e t u p to e d u c a te young p r i e s t s who w ere to u n d e r ta k e su e h m i s s i o n s . Up to t h i s p o i n t i n th e h i s t o r y o f th e te rm , w r i t e r s a r e i n f a i r a g r e e m e n t.

B u t b e y o n d , d i v e r s e h i s t o r i e s o f to e

25 F r e d e r i c k h u m le y , o p . c i t . , p . 56 Funk a n d W a g n a lls P r a c t i c a l S ta n d a r d D i e t l o n a r y , 1928 . 27 R ic h a r d L a m b e rt, P ro p a g a n d a (L ondon: Thomas N e ls o n an d S o n s L t d . , 1939)» p p . 7 - 8 .

14 te rm Mp ro p a g a n d a " c o n f u s e th e f i e l d .

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d i s a g r e e on th e m e an in g o f " p r o p a g a n d a " , h u t th e y c a n n o t e v e n a g r e e o n th e f a c t s b e h in d th e p r e s e n t m e a n in g s .

W ill

I r w in a s s e r t s , ^ ® E n g lis h w o rd s a c q u i r e a u r a s - o v e r l a y s o f e m o tio n a l m e an in g . U s u a l ly th e ch an g e comes th r o u g h g e n e r a t i o n s a n d c e n t u r i e s . . . . B u t . . . p ro p a g a n d a i s p r o b a b ly th e u n iq u e e x c e p t i o n i n th e E n g lis h la n g u a g e . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was n o t a n e v o l u t i o n b u t a m u ta tio n . B e f o r e 1914, " p ro p a g a n d a " b e lo n g e d o n ly t o l i t e r a t e v o c a b u l a r i e s a n d p o s s e s s e d a r e p u t a b l e , d i g n i f i e d mean­ in g . O ver th e d o o r o f a n a n c i e n t s t r u c t u r e i n Rome t h e r e s to o d — a n d s t i l l s t a n d s — a le g e n d , " C o lle g e o f t h e P r o p a g a n d a . 11 F o r p ro p a g a n d a , b e f o r e th e W orld W ar, m ean t s im p ly th e m eans w h ich th e a d h e r a n t o f a p o l i t i c a l o r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h em ployed to c o n v in c e t h e u n c o n v e r te d . Two y e a r s l a t e r th e w ord h a d come i n t o th e v o c a b u la r y o f p e a s a n t s a n d d i t c h d i g g e r s an d h a d b eg u n to a c q u i r e i t s m iasm ic a u r a . I n l o o s e , p o p u la r u s a g e I t m e an t th e n e x t t h i n g to a damned l i e . A n o th e r w r i t e r , W illia m F l e t c h e r , t r a c e s a n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n b a c k to a n e a r l i e r p e r i o d , an d a d d s some d e t a i l s o f th e word* s e v o l u t i o n . ^ By 1800, a c c o r d in g to t h e s u p p le m e n t o f t h e New E n g lis h D i c t i o n a r y , th e w ord seem s to h a v e b e e n u s e d i n a p o l i t i c a l s e n s e : " s i m i l a r p ro p a g a n d a i n D ela w a re S t a t e . ” T h is I s a p p a r e n t l y th e f i r s t u s e o f t h e w ord i n a p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r th a n r e l i g i o u s s e n s e . So a new mean­ i n g , t h a t o f a schem e f o r t h e p r o p a g a t io n o f a p a r t i c u ­ l a r d o c t r i n e o r p r a c t i c e , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l i g i o u s , w as a c q u i r e d a n d w as a b l y d e f i n e d by B ran d e i n 1842. He

P ro p a g a n d a a n d th e News (New Y o rk : W h i t t l e s e y H o u se, 1936}., p7 3 . I n H e r b e r t K l e i n , e d i t o r , The War f o r Men1s M inds (L o s A n g e le s : C i ty C o lle g e , 1 9 4 0 ), p . 8 0 .

15 s a i d t h a t I t w as a p p l i e d i n th e p o l i t i c a l la n g u a g e o f t h a t tim e a s a te rm o f r e p r o a c h to s e c r e t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e . d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f o p in io n s an d p r i n c i p l e s a t w h ich m o st g o v e rn m e n ts w ould "be h o r r i f i e d . Of th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n e v e n p r i o r to t h i s , R ic h a r d L a m b e rt h a s w r i t t e n , . . . I t was a s s o c i a t e d fro m th e s t a r t w ith r e l i g i o n ; t h a t i s , w ith d o c t r i n e s w h ich a r e e s s e n t i a l l y b a s e d on f a i t h r a t h e r th a n on human r e a s o n ; an d m ore p a r t i c u l a r ­ l y w ith one fo rm o f r e l i g i o n — th e Roman C a t h o l i c , a g a i n s t w hose m eth o d s o f m ak in g c o n v e r t s o r r e t a i n i n g d e v o te e s th e m a jo r p a r t o f E u ro p e h a d s h a r p l y r e a c t e d . And so th e w ord came to h a v e s i n i s t e r a s s o c i a t i o n s among th e n a t i o n s o f N o r th e r n E u ro p e t h a t b r o k e away fro m Rome; w h ile among th e L a t i n n a t i o n s w h ic h re m a in e d on t h e w h o le f a i t h f u l to Rome, i t h a d no su c h a s s o c i a ­ t i o n s , n o r h a s i t to t h i s d a y . The same f a c t o r a p p l i e s to t h i s h e m is p h e r e : The A m erican a t t i t u d e to w a rd t h i s w ord seem s to h a v e b e e n c o l o r e d by th e e a r l y A m eric an P r o t e s t a n t - s a n t i ­ p a th y to C a th o li c is m , a n d so 11p ro p a g a n d a 11 e a s i l y becam e a 11nam e” w h ich h e c o u ld h u r l a t h i s p o l i t i c a l enemy. Q u ite a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e h a s p e r s i s t e d i n L a t i n A m e ric a , w h ere th e o l d e r s e n s e o f p r o p a g a t in g th e f a i t h l e d o n i n t o th e s e n s e o f p r o p a g a t in g e d u c a ti o n an d o t h e r "g o o d t h i n g s . " 31 32 A n o th e r s t u d e n t , E , H. C a r r , a g r e e s o n th e e a r l i e r u n f a v o r a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n o f " p r o p a g a n d a " , b u t a s c r i b e s i t to a d if f e r e n t cause.

30 Qp. C i t . , p . 8 31 H e r b e r t K l e i n , l o c . c i t . 3^ p ro p a g a n d a i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s F a r r a r an d R i n e h a r t , 1 9 3 9 ), PP. 6 - 9 .

(New Y o rk :

16 111 th e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y th e p h i l o s o p h e r s o f l a l s a e a - f a i r e b e l i e v e d t h a t o p in io n l i k e t r a d e , s h o u ld he f r e e fro m a l l c o n t r o l s , an d t h a t t h i s a b s o l u t e f r e e ­ dom w ould b e a n i n f a l l i b l e g u a r a n t e e o f th e p u b l i c w e lf a r e * I f e v e r y o p in io n w ere g iv e n a n e q u a l c h a n c e to a s s e r t I t s e l f , th e r i g h t o n e was bound to p r e v a i l . The p r e j u d i c e w h ich th e w ord " p ro p a g a n d a ” e x c i t e s i n many m inds to d a y i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l to t h e p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t S t a t e c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r y an d t r a d e . I n sum, t h e h i s t o r y o f th e te rm " p r o p a g a n d a ” i s n o t s u b j e c t to c o m p le te a g r e e m e n t, a l th o u g h i t i s c l e a r t h a t th e w ord h a s u n d e rg o n e c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e i n m e an in g . O c c a s io n a lly a p p e a l s a r e now h e a r d f o r a r e t u r n to th e te r m ’ s o r i g i n a l m e a n in g , f o r " p r o p a g a n d a ," " a n o b le w ord an d a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h i n g i n i t s e l f , i s to d a y t h r e a t e n e d w ith r u i n o r p e r v e r s i o n .* 1^ P r e v a le n c e o f th e Term " P ro p a g a n d a " T o d ay . p ag a n d a" i s to d a y p a r t o f th e la y m a n ’ s v o c a b u la r y .

"P ro ­ "T he

w ord ’ p r o p a g a n d a 1 i s now s u f f i c i e n t l y common i n E n g lis h to be num bered i n th e e l e v e n t h th o u s a n d o f f r e q u e n c y , i n c u r ­ r e n t u s e a s d e te r m in e d b y T h o r n d i k e . I t s

u s e i n p o p u la r

l i t e r a t u r e c a n b e r o u g h ly g u ag ed b y i t s l i s t i n g s i n t h e

33 E* H* C a r r , o p . c i t . , p* 6 . 3^ M ic h a e l W illia m s , "V iew s an d R e v ie w s ," The Common­ w e a l, 3 0 *2 9 5 , J u l y 14, 1939* 35 H e r b e r t K l e i n , e d i t o r , lo c * c i t .

*7 1s G u id e to P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e .^ *

Prom i t s . f i r s t

a p p e a r a n c e a s a t o p i c f o r m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s , w ith o n e l i s t ­ in g i n 1918, i t h a s grow n u n t i l i n 1940 t h e r e w ere 142 l i s t i n g s f o r th e t o p i c " p ro p a g a n d a * ” C e r t a i n l y i t s p r e v a l e n c e a s a phenom enon a n d a s a te rm , a n d e v e n m ore i t s mushroom g ro w th , e n t i t l e " p ro p a g a n d a " to s e r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e Term "L aw ." th e s is s ta te s

The t i t l e

of th is

th e aim o f t h e r e s e a r c h a s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f

some t e n t a t i v e " la w s ."

The te rm "la w " i s h e r e u s e d i n th e

s e n s e i n w h ich L e s t e r F . Ward h a s d e f i n e d i t . . . . A la w i s t h e g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f th e n a t u r a l s e q u e n c e o f u n if o r m phenom ena. I t s t a t e s th e f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n phenom ena u n if o r m ly ta k e p l a c e i n a c e r t a i n way* I t ta k e s no a c c o u n t o f c a u s e , "but o n ly o f th e o r d e r o f e v e n ts . A la w i n s o c i o l o g y , a s i n a n y o t h e r f i e l d ,

is a

s t a t e m e n t t h a t i f a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s c o u ld h e h e l d c o n s t a n t , t h e e m p i r i c a l datum "A" w ould a lw a y s h e f o llo w e d h y th e e m p i r i c a l d atu m "B ".

If,

i n an y g iv e n s i t u a t i o n , "A" i s n o t

f o llo w e d hy " B ", t h i s d o e s n o t i n v a l i d a t e th e la w i f some o t h e r f a c t o r "C" c a n h e shown to h a v e i n f l u e n c e d th e o u tc o m e.

36 New Y orks The H. W. W ilso n Company. 37 L e s t e r P . W ard, P u re S o c io lo g y (New Y o rk : M a c m illa n , »9 2 1 ) , p . 16 9 .

A law i s a n a b s t r a c t i o n , a p a r t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n .

A " t r u e *1

p i c t u r e i s n o t o b t a i n e d u n t i l a l l th e la w s i n a g iv e n f i e l d a r e c o n s id e r e d t o g e t h e r .

One o f th e a im s o f r e s e a r c h m u st

a lw a y s b e t o a p p r o a c h a c o m p le te s y ste m o f la w s .

CHAPTER I I DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROPAGANDA A nsw ers to t h r e e q u e s t i o n s a r e fu n d a m e n ta l to a s tu d y o f th e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h ich p ro p a g a n d a may b e e f f e c t i v e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s , w h at i s p ro p a g a n d a ?

The

se c o n d i s , w h a t a r e th e c r i t e r i a o f th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p ro p a g a n d a ?

And th e f i n a l q u e s t i o n , how may th e e f f e c t i v e ­

n e s s o f p ro p a g a n d a b e d e te r m in e d i n p r a c t i c e ? o f t h i s c h a p te r i s

The p u r p o s e

to o f f e r a n s w e rs to t h e s e q u e r i e s .

The M eaning o f P ro p a g a n d a S ta n d a r d s f o r D e f in in g P ro p a g a n d a .

I n th e l i g h t o f

th e many an d v a r y in g d e f i n i t i o n s o f " p r o p a g a n d a ,” a s e t o f s t a n d a r d s by w h ic h to s e l e c t th e m o st a d e q u a te c o n c e p ti o n I s e s s e n tia l.

E a r l e E ubank

h as o ffe re d fo u r c r i t e r i a fo r

d e t e r m in in g " w h e th e r o r n o t a te rm s t a n d s f o r a t r u e s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t ."

T h ese q u e s t i o n s s h o u ld b e a s k e d ;

I s i t p e r f e c t l y g e n e r a l , t h a t i s , a lw a y s em ployed I n th e same s e n s e w h e re v e r i t i s u se d ? 2 . I s i t r e a s o n a b l y p r e c i s e ? Does i t co n v e y a n u n am b i­ g u o u s an d c l e a r c u t m ean in g ? 3 . Does I t f i n a l l y c o n t a i n o n ly o n e c a r d i n a l i d e a ? 4 . I s I t f u n d a m e n ta l to i t s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d , t h a t i s , e s s e n t i a l to c o m p le te i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ?

* The C o n c e p ts o f S o c io lo g y ( B o s to n : D. C* H e a th and Company, 19 3 2 ) , p . 3 1 .

To th e s e may b e a d d e d a n o t h e r f o u r , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r ­ e n t , b u t r e p r e s e n t i n g d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e p ro b le m a t hand.

Of e a c h r i v a l d e f i n i t i o n ,

t h e s e Q u e s tio n s s h o u ld b e

( t ) D oes i t c o n s t i t u t e a fu n d a m e n ta l f u n c t i o n a l

asked.

c a t e g o r y o f s o c i a l p h enom ena, r a t h e r th a n m e re ly a s u r f a c e c la s s ific a tio n ?

(2 ) Does i t d e f i n e a c o n c e p t w h ich i s

c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i n m e an in g fro m an y p r e v i o u s l y a c c e p t e d c o n c e p t?

(3 ) D oes i t co n fo rm i n i t s p r i n c i p a l e le m e n ts a s

n e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e to g e n e r a l u s a g e , b o th s c i e n t i f i c a n d p o p u la r ?

And (4 ) D oes i t a f f o r d a t o o l w h ich c a n b e e f f e c t o i v e l y em ployed i n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ? To d e f i n e " p r o p a g a n d a ” i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y to s u r ­

v ey a n d c l a s s i f y o u t s t a n d i n g e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , f o r e v a l u a t i o n i n te rm s o f th e s t a n d a r d s a l r e a d y o f f e r e d .

Many

su m m aries o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f " p ro p a g a n d a ” h a v e f a i l e d to c l a r i f y th e s i t u a t i o n to a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e b e c a u s e (t)

th e y h a v e n e g l e c t e d some o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g c o n c e p ti o n s

o f p r o p a g a n d a , ( 2 ) th e y h a v e f a i l e d to s e g r e g a t e th e d i f f e r e n t e le m e n ts w h ic h m u st e n t e r i n t o an y d e f i n i t i o n o f p ro p a g a n d a , ( 3 ) th e y h a v e m e re ly l i s t e d w ith o u t o r g a n i z i n g

^ D e l i b e r a t e l y o m itte d fro m t h i s l i s t i s a n y m e n tio n o f c o n f o r m ity t o t h e r o o t m e a n in g . I t is f e l t th a t th is s t a n d a r d i s o f o n ly s e n t i m e n t a l r e l e v a n c e when a p p l i e d t o a te rm a l r e a d y i n g e n e r a l u s e .

21 th e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s , an d (4 ) t h e i r c o n c lu s io n s h a v e i n r e a l i t y h e e n r e a c h e d b e f o r e t h e s u r v e y was b e g u n . m in im iz e th e f i r s t o f t h e s e e r r o r s , m ore th a n o n e h u n d re d a u t h o r s .

To

t h i s s tu d y w i l l sam p le

To m e e t th e s e c o n d an d

t h i r d i n a d e q u a c i e s , th e d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l b e f i t t e d

in to a

t h e o r e t i c a l schem e b u i l t fro m th e e le m e n ts o f p ro p a g a n d a on w h ich t h e r e seem s to b e a c o n s e n s u s .

And e v e r y a t t e m p t h a s

b e e n made to a v o id th e f o u r t h p i t f a l l i n t h i s s tu d y . The a p p r o a c h o f th e f i r s t p o r t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r w ill be a s fo llo w s ;

F irs t,

th e q u e s t i o n w i l l be a s k e d , w h a t

c l a s s o f phenom enon i s t o b e c a l l e d " p r o p a g a n d a " — i s i t p r o c e s s , t h i n g , i d e a , o r p la n ?

S e c o n d , th e t h e o r e t i c a l

fram ew o rk w i t h i n w h ic h p ro p a g a n d a m u st b e u n d e r s to o d w i l l b e o u tlin e d ;

T h ir d , t h e v a r i o u s c o n c e p tio n s w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d

i n te rm s o f th e a f o r e m e n tio n e d fra m ew o rk ;

F o u r th , th e

v a lu e c o n n o t a t i o n o f p ro p a g a n d a w i l l b e ex am in ed ;

F if t h , an

a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o i n t e g r a t e th e e le m e n ts i n t o a few l e a d i n g c o n c e p t i o n s ; a n d S i x t h , a w o rk in g d e f i n i t i o n o f " p ro p a g a n d a ” w i l l b e f o r m u l a te d . The N a tu re o f P ro p a g a n d a ..

A n o u n c a n d e s i g n a t e an y

o n e o f s e v e r a l s o r t s o f phenom ena, o r a n y one o f s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e same phenom enon.

The te rm " p ro p a g a n d a " i s

v a r i o u s l y e m p lo y e d , d e p e n d in g u p o n th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f th e

22

s p e a k e r o r th e e x i g e n c i e s o f th e moment.

W h ile c o n f u s io n

fro m t h i s m u l t i p l e u s a g e i s p r o b a b ly to b e m in im iz e d i n p r a c t i c e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to s c i e n c e t h a t a u n if o r m m u l t i ­ p l e o r s i n g l e u s a g e b e a c c e p te d by a l l . The o l d e s t u s a g e , an d t h a t l e a s t fo u n d i n s c i e n t i f i c p a r l a n c e to d a y , i s t o r e f e r to a n a s s o c i a t i o n . ^

Thus

11p ro p a g a n d a ” m eans " a c o n g r e g a tio n o r s o c i e t y o f c a r d i n ­ a ls

. * .,"

"H e n c e , a n y i n s t i t u t i o n

. . . f o r p ro p a g a tin g a

d o c t r i n e o r s y s te m ." ^ M ost commonly among th e w r i t e r s c o n s u l t e d , " p r o p a ­ ganda” r e f e rre d

to a p r o c e s s .

D e f i n i t i o n s in v o lv e su c h

w o rd s a s " u s e ," " e m p lo y m e n t,” " t r a n s m i s s i o n , ” " a d v o c a c y ," " p r o m o tio n ," " p r a c t i c e , " " m a n i p u l a t i o n ," " s p r e a d , " " d is s e m in ­ a t i o n , ” " e x e r t i n g , " " w o rk in g u p ," " c r e a t i n g , " " a tte m p t."

" e f f o r t , " an d

H ow ever, among t h e s e c o n c e p ti o n s , th e e m p h asis

i s p l a c e d on d i f f e r e n t p o r t i o n s o f th e p r o c e s s .

S uch w ords

a s " e f f o r t " e m p h a siz e th e s o u r c e , " c r e a t i n g " e m p h a s iz e s th e r e s u l t , a n d " s p r e a d " e m p h a s iz e s th e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e s . A n o th e r g ro u p o f w r i t e r s em ploy " p ro p a g a n d a " to r e f e r t o th e i d e a o r a t t i t u d e o r o p in io n b e in g s p r e a d — " l i e , "

^ " A s s o c ia t io n " i s h e r e em ployed i n th e s e n s e i n w h ic h R . M. M a e lv e r d e f i n e s i t . O f. S o c i e t y : A T ex tb o o k o f S o c io lo g y (New Y o rk : F a r r a r a n d R i n e h a r t , 1 9 3 7 ), P* H * ^ Funk a n d W a g n a lls New S ta n d a r d D i c t i o n a r y , 1938,

23

" m i s i n f o r m a t i o n , " " m a t e r i a l . 11 To s t i l l a n o t h e r g ro u p " p ro p a g a n d a " i s d e s c r i b e d b y su c h te rm s a s " d e v i c e , " " a r t , " n i q u e , " a n d " c a m p a ig n ."

" s c h e m e ," " m e a n s ," "tech-*

T h ese d e s i g n a t i o n s e m p h a s iz e th e

u t i l i t y o f " p ro p a g a n d a " r a t h e r th a n th e p r o c e s s o r i d e a . The d e f i n i t i o n o f " p ro p a g a n d a " a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n i n e f f e c t d i s c a r d e d , b u t i t seem s i m p r a c t i c a b l e a n d u n ­ n e c e s s a r y to r e l i n q u i s h a n y o f th e o t h e r u s a g e s .

From th e

s o c i o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , " p ro p a g a n d a " i s a p r o c e s s ; fro m th e p o l i t i c a l s c ie n c e o r a d v e r t i s in g s ta n d p o in t i t i s a te c h ­ n iq u e .

I n t h i s t h e s i s i t i s p la n n e d to c o n s id e r " p r o p a ­

ganda" a s a s o c ia l p r o c e s s . w i l l be th e m e a n in g .

U n le s s o th e r w is e i n d i c a t e d t h i s

The common u s a g e o f " p ro p a g a n d a " to

r e f e r to a n id e a i s l e s s u s e f u l i n s o c io lo g y , a n d i s l a r g e l y d u p l i c a t e d by su c h te rm s a s " id e o lo g y " i n o t h e r f i e l d s . H ow ever, i t i s o f t e n tim e - s a v i n g an d seld o m c o n f u s in g to em ploy " p ro p a g a n d a " I n t h i s s e n s e .

H ence a d o u b le - u s a g e o f

" p ro p a g a n d a " seem s j u s t i f i e d . C o n c e p tu a l Fram ew ork o f P ro p a g a n d a .^

A c c e p tin g

" p ro p a g a n d a " a s r e f e r r i n g t o a p r o c e s s , a n d n o t i n g a f u r t h e r c o n s e n s u s to th e e f f e c t t h a t i t i s a p r o c e s s o f com m unica-

^ T h is fra m e w o rk i s d e s ig n e d s o l e l y to f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s o f d e f i n i t i o n s , w i t h o u t an y a s s u m p tio n t h a t i t w o u ld b e o f u s e i n a n a l y z i n g p ro p a g a n d a a s p r o c e s s .

24 t i o n , c e r t a i n e le m e n ts an d s t e p s m u st b e p r e s e n t . t h e r e m u st b e a s o u r c e o f th e p ro p a g a n d a .

F irs t,

I f t h i s so u rce

s h o u ld b e hum an, th e p r e s e n c e o f m o tiv e s i s im p lie d . S e c o n d , t h e r e i s s o m e th in g co m m u n ic ate d , t r a n s m i t t e d , d i s s e m i n a t e d , a d v o c a te d , o r i n c u l c a t e d — some i d e a —w h ich may b e r e f e r r e d to a s th e c o n t e n t .

T h ir d , t h e r e i s th e

medium o r r o u t e o v e r w h ic h th e c o n t e n t t r a v e l s .

F o u r th ,

t h e r e a r e th e m eans o r m eth o d s b y w h ich th e c o n t e n t i s p r o ­ p e l l e d o v e r t h e medium. c o n te n t.

F ifth ,

t h e r e i s a r e c i p i e n t o f th e

And s i x t h , t h e r e i s th e r e s u l t .

At l e a s t th re e

a s p e c t s o f th e r e s u l t n e e d to b e n o te d : t h e r e s u l t o r e f f e c t on th e r e c i p i e n t d i r e c t l y ;

th e e f f e c t on ” s o c i e t y ”

a t l a r g e , o r t h e “g e n e r a l p u b l i c ; 11 an d th e e f f e c t on th e s o u r c e o f th e p ro p a g a n d a .

T h is l a s t c o m p le te s a c y c l e .

I n b o th th e o r y an d p r a c t i c e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s ­ t i n g u i s h i n g p ro p a g a n d a fro m o t h e r s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s o f com­ m u n ic a tio n may b e l o c a t e d a t a n y one o r an y c o m b in a tio n o r a l l of th e s e s ta g e s .

To b e c o m p le te , a d e f i n i t i o n m u st a t

l e a s t im p ly r e f e r e n c e to e a c h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s o f th e p r o c e s s , o r b e ta k e n t o make to l i m i t a t i o n a s to th e n a t u r e o f th e o m it te d e le m e n t.

F o r e x a m p le , w hen th e r e c i p i e n t i s

l e f t u n m e n tio n e d i n a d e f i n i t i o n , one i s

j u s t i f i e d in a s ­

sum ing t h a t p ro p a g a n d a m ig h t b e d i r e c t e d to th e s u n , o r a dog, o r an a b s tr a c t p r in c ip le .

H en c e, th e p r o c e d u r e i n

25 f o r m u l a t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n s h o u ld be to d e te r m in e w h a t l i m i t ­ a t i o n s s h o u ld b e im p o sed on e a c h o n e o f t h e s e a s p e c t s o f p ro p ag an d a . I t w i l l b e o b v io u s t h a t p a r t s o f t h i s schem e a r e d e e p ly I n t e r r e l a t e d a n d t h a t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n o n e p a r t w i l l o f t e n im p ly l i m i t a t i o n s i n a n o t h e r . v itia te

T h is d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r,

th e a p p r o a c h , s i n c e a c c o u n t o f th e s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n ­

s h i p s w i l l b e ta k e n i n th e f i n a l s y n t h e s i s . The C r i t e r i a o f P r o p a g a n d a : The S o u r c e .

Though m o st

s t u d e n t s r e s t r i c t p ro p a g a n d a to a human s o u r c e , t h e r e i s n o t c o m p le te u n a n im ity h e r e .

Norman C o u s in s s p e a k s o f

" p ro p a g a n d a g e n e r a t e d b y e v e n ts th e m s e lv e s a n d h a v in g no r e l a t i o n to p r o p a g a n d i s t s . 110

M ost w r i t e r s a g r e e w ith

Harwood C h ild s t h a t p ro p a g a n d a may come fro m " i n d i v i d u a l s o r *7 g r o u p s . 11 A few s t u d e n t s l i m i t p ro p a g a n d a to g ro u p s o u r c e s , o r to " t h e d e f i n i t e s e r v i c e o f some o r g a n iz e d p a r t y , c h u r c h o o r d o c trin e .” Some a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t , f o r th e s a k e o f a

6 HFe&r a n d P ro p a g a n d a ," The S a tu r d a y R eview o f L i t e r ­ a t u r e . 2 2 : 8 , May 4 , 1940. B e c a u se o f th e I m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f f o o t n o t i n g o v e r 125 d e f i n i t i o n s s e v e r a l tim e s e a c h , f o o t ­ n o te r e f e r e n c e w i l l i n d i c a t e o n ly one o r two t y p i c a l s o u r c e s f o r e a c h g e n e r a l p o i n t o f v ie w . 7 " P u b lic O p in io n — F i r s t L in e o f D e f e n s e ," A n n a ls o f th e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e . 198: T 09, J u l y 1938. ® H. 0 . W e lls , E x p e rim e n t i n A u to b io g ra p h y (New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 3 4 ), p . 4 1 7 .

26 q u a n t i t a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n p ro p a g a n d a an d e d u c a t i o n , p ro p a g a n d a b e c o n f in e d to a t t e m p t s b y a m i n o r i t y to b r i n g a m a j o r i t y i n t o c o n f o r m ity w ith i t s v ie w s .^ Among th o s e a u t h o r i t i e s who l i m i t p ro p a g a n d a to a hum an s o u r c e , t h e r e i s d is a g r e e m e n t on th e i s s u e o f i n t e n t . L e o n a rd Doob d e f i n e s " u n i n t e n t i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a ,11*® T. L . G ilm o u r s p e a k s o f " t h e p ro p a g a n d a y o u r enemy d o e s f o r y o u ,” ** a n d E l l i s F reem an f i n d s T h o rn d ik e ’ s A r i th m e t ic 12 u n w ittin g p ro p a g a n d is t f o r c a p ita lis m . On th e o t h e r h a n d , p ro p a g a n d a i s " i n t e n t i o n a l " t o W illia m A lb ig ,* ^ a n d 14 d e l i b e r a t e to M ehran Thomson, a n d many w r i t e r s d e f i n e

9 R ic h a r d L a P i e r e , "P ro p a g a n d a a n d E d u c a tio n s The Need f o r a Q u a n t i t a t i v e D i s t i n c t i o n , 11 S o c io lo g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 2 0 :1 8 - 2 6 , S e p t. 1935; W a lte r B e a c h , An I n t r o ­ d u c t i o n to S o c io lo g y a n d S o c i a l P ro b le m s (B o s to n H oughton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 2 5 ) / p . 3 5 1 . *® P r o p a g a n d a : I t s P s y c h o lo g y a n d T e c h n iq u e (New Y o rk : H en ry H o lt a n d Company, 1935/7 p . 89 . ** The G overnm ent a n d P r o p a g a n d a ," The N in e t e e n t h C e n tu r y a n d A f t e r . 8 5 :1 4 8 , J a n u a r y 1919. *2 S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y (New Y ork: H en ry H o lt an d Company, 1 9 3 6 ), p p . 2 6 3 -2 6 5 . 13 P u b l i c O p in io n (New Y ork: McGraw H i l l Book Com­ p an y , 1939) / p . 2 8 6 . *^ The S p r in g s o f Human A c tio n (New Y o rk : D. A p p le to n - C e n tu r y , 192717 P . 451

27 " p ro p a g a n d a 11 a s a n " a t t e m p t 11 o r " e f f o r t * " A c c e p tin g t h e r e q u ir e m e n t o f i n t e n t i o n f o r p r o p a ­ g a n d a , w r i t e r s v a r y on t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o ti v e s .

To W a lte r

S e ld o n th e m o tiv e i s i r r e l e v a n t , s i n c e p ro p a g a n d a i s m e re ly 16 " r e a l i s m w ith a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a d d e d .” For Jean F re v o st p ro p a g a n d a i s " a n a t t e m p t to c o m p e n sa te f o r a f e e l i n g o f in f e r io r ity .” ^

The l a r g e s t num ber o f w r i t e r s s t a t e

th a t

th e p r o p a g a n d i s t s e e k s to w in a d h e re n c e o r s u p p o r t — to 18 c o n v e rt th e r e c i p i e n t . Among th o s e who w ould l i m i t th e c o n c e p t i n t h i s l a s t m a n n e r, R e y n e ll W ro fo rd s a y s , "No p ro p a g a n d a i s d i s i n t e r e s t e d , f o r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i s o f th e e s s e n c e o f th e w o rd ."

to

To o t h e r s th e m o tiv e b e h in d

p ro p a g a n d a i s a lw a y s p e r s o n a l , s e l f i s h g a i n .

20

Raymond

S dw ard L . B e r n a y s , P ro p a g a n d a (New Y o rk : L i v e r i g h t P u b l i s h i n g C o ., 1 9 2 8 ), p . 2 5 ; W a lte r L ip p m an , P u b lic O p in io n (New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 3 2 ), p . 6 . ^ "M o v ies an d p r o p a g a n d a ,” Forum . 1 0 3 ^2 1 0 , A p r i l 1940. 17 « ” The P s y c h o lo g y o f P ro p a g a n d a , 11 The A t l a n t i c M o n th ly , t 6 1:674-, May 1938. C a r l F r i e d r i c h , "The P o is o n i n o u r S y s te m ,” The A t l a n t i c M o n th ly , 1 6 7 :6 6 2 , J u n e 1941; K im b a ll Y oung, S o c ia l P s y c h o lo g y (New Y o rk : F . S. C r o f t s , 1 9 3 0 ), p . 6 5 3 . " P ro p a g a n d a , E v i l and G oo d ," The N in e t e e n t h C e n tu ry an d Af t e r . 9 3 :5 1 4 , A p r i l 1923. 20 Raymond P e a r l , "T he B io lo g y o f S u p e r i o r i t y , ” The A m eric an M e rc u ry , 1 2 :2 5 7 , November 1927.

28

P i p e r an d P a u l Ward l i m i t p ro p a g a n d a f u r t h e r t o t h e w o rk in g f o r 11u l t e r i o r e n d s * "

Pt

A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n , w h ic h i s n o t

i n c o n s i s t e n t w ith many o f th e l i m i t a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y men­ t i o n e d , r e s t r i c t s p ro p a g a n d a to c o m m u n ic a tio n when m o tiv e s a r e c o n c e a le d *

22

T h is same e le m e n t o f c o n c e a lm e n t may h e

a p p l i e d a s a l i m i t a t i o n to t h e e n t i r e s o u r c e , some s t u d e n t s r e q u i r i n g t h a t th e o r i g i n o f th e p ro p a g a n d a h e unknown to th e r e c i p i e n t . 2 ^ C o n te n t a s a C r i t e r i o n o f P ro p a g a n d a .

T h e re i s a

c o n s e n s u s to th e e f f e c t t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a i s made up o f i d e a s o n ly .

A lth o u g h su c h w ords a s a t t i t u d e s ,

o p i n i o n s , e t c . a r e e m p lo y e d , th e y r e a l l y r e f e r to th e r e s u l t r a t h e r th a n to th e c o n t e n t , w h ich i s a n i d e a . The o l d e s t c o n c e p ti o n o f p ro p a g a n d a c o n f i n e s i t to " t h e p ro p a g a n d a o f th e f a i t h , " a n d C a th o li c w r i t e r s h a v e n o t abandoned t h i s u s a g e .

g4

Q u ite o f t e n th e c o n t e n t o f

21 The F i e l d s a n d M ethods o f K now ledge (Mew Y o rk : F . S . C r o f t s , 1 9 3 0 )7 P* 9 . H en ry F a i r c h i l d , G-enepal S o c io lo g y (New Y ork: Jo h n W ile y an d S o n s , pp* 2 1 7 -2 1 8 . G eo rg e S . V ie r e c k , S p r e a d in g Germs o f H a te (New Y o rk : H o ra c e L i v e r i g h t , 1 9 3 0 ), p . I t ; F r e d e r i c k L um ley, The P ro p a g a n d a M enace (New Y o rk : D. A p p le to n - C e n tu r y , 1933)* P# * 24 M ic h a e l W illia m s , "V iew s an d R e v ie w s ," The Common­ w e a l . 3 0 :2 9 5 * J u l y 14, 1939.

29

p ro p a g a n d a i s l i m i t e d t o t h a t w h ich i s " r e c o g n iz e d a s c o n ­ t r o v e r s i a l w i t h i n a g iv e n co m m u n ity .11^

More c y n i c a l l y ,

p ro p a g a n d a h a s b e e n c a l l e d " a t t e m p t s to g e t p e o p le to do t h i n g s o f w h ich I do n o t a p p r o v e .”

L . L* B e rn a rd f u r t h e r

l i m i t s th e c o n t e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a to " a movem ent o r o b j e c t ­ i v e w h ich w i l l n o t command s u p p o r t o n i t s

own m e r i t s . ” ^

P e r h a p s n e a r l y th e same i d e a i s e x p r e s s e d b y r e f e r r i n g to og p ro p a g a n d a a s " m i s i n f o r m a t i o n , ” o r , l e s s e u p h e u m is tic a lly , 29 " t h e n e x t t h i n g t o a dam ned l i e * ” A t t h i s p o i n t a s o u r c e o f much c o n f u s io n s h o u ld b e n o te d .

The s t a t e m e n t s o f t e n made t h a t p ro p a g a n d a i s h o n e s t

o r d i s h o n e s t a r e am b ig u o u s s i n c e th e y f a i l t o s p e c i f y w h e th e r r e f e r e n c e i s b e in g made t o th e s o u r c e o r th e c o n ­ t e n t o r th e m e th o d .

B o th th e co m m u n ic a tio n o f u n t r u t h by

h o n e s t m eans a n d th e c o m m u n ic a tio n o f t r u t h b y d i s h o n e s t

H a ro ld L a s s w e l l , R a lp h G ase y , a n d B ru c e S m ith , P ro p a g a n d a a n d P r o m o tio n a l A c t i v i t i e s ( M in n e a p o lis ; U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o ta P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 )7 p . 3 . 28 R ic h a r d L a P i e r e , o p . c i t . , p* 18. ^ O f. Je ro m e D a v is an d H a rry E . B a r n e s , An I n t r o ­ d u c t i o n to S o c io lo g y (B o s to n ; D. G. H e a th , 1 9 2 7 ), p . 4 8 6 . 28 A l b e r t H e n n in g , E t h i c s and P r a c t i c e s i n J o u r n a l ­ ism (Hew Y o rk ; Ray Long an d R ic h a r d R . S m ith , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 138. W i ll I r w i n , P ro p a g a n d a an d th e News (Hew Y ork; M cG raw -H ill Book Company, 1 9 3 6 )7 P • 3 .

30 m e th o d s a r e - o f t e n f o u n d , an d n e e d to toe k e p t s e p a r a t e . Among o t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s oh " p ro p a g a n d a ” th r o u g h th e c o n t e n t , C. H. V anD uzer s a y s t h e r e i s no p ro p a g a n d a u n l e s s a P u to lic i s s u e i s i n v o l v e d ,"

F r e d e r i c k L um ley an d many

o t h e r s d e s i g n a t e p ro p a g a n d a a s th e s p r e a d o f " c o n c l u s i o n s ," 31 a s d i s t i n c t fro m r e a s o n s .

And L a s s w e ll r e s e r v e s t h e te rm

" p ro p a g a n d a " to th e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f " v a lu e d i s p o s i t i o n s , "

to

toe d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m s im p le c o m m u n ic a tio n o f s k i l l s . ^ 2 Medium a s a C r i t e r i o n o f P ro p a g a n d a .

The to r o a d e s t

p o s s i b l e c o n c e p tio n o f th e m ed ia o f p ro p a g a n d a i n c l u d e s a n y 33 " s t i m u l i " r e a c h i n g th e r e c i p i e n t . Among th e g r e a t m a jo r ­ i t y o f a u t h o r i t i e s , h o w e v e r, t h e r e i s a g re e m e n t w i t h L a s s w e l l t h a t p ro p a g a n d a " ,

, . r e f e r s s o l e l y to th e c o n t r o l

o f o p i n i o n toy s i g n i f i c a n t s y m b o ls . d e f i n i t i o n s o f p ro p a g a n d a r e s t r i c t i n g

T h e re seem to toe no th e m ed ia b ey o n d t h i s .

3® "T he M eaning o f P ro p a g a n d a ," The S o c i a l F r o n t i e r , 4 ;2 4 7 , May t9 3 8 . 3^ F r e d e r i c k L u m ley , "The N a tu re o f P r o p a g a n d a ," S o c io lo g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1 3 s3 V 9 -3 2 4 , M arch 1929. 32 iip ro p a g a n d a ," E n c y c lo p e d ia o f th e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 1934. p . 5 2 2 . 33 Jam es E, F o s t e r , " C e n s o r s h ip a s a Medium o f P r o p a ­ g a n d a ," S o c io lo g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 2 2 :5 7 , S e p t. 1937. P ro p a g a n d a T e c h n iq u e i n th e W orld War (New Y ork: P e t e r S m ith^ 1 9 3 8 )V p . 8 . I t a l i c s m in e .

31 M othod a s a C r i t e r i o n o f P ro p a g a n d a .

T h ere a r e two

v e r y b r o a d c o n c e p ti o n s o f th e m e th o d s to be in c lu d e d u n d e r p ro p ag an d a.

The l e a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c o n c e p tio n s t a t e s

t h a t " a l l s p e e c h , a l l w r i t i n g , a l l a r t i s p r o p a g a n d a .11 The se c o n d d e f i n i t i o n i d e n t i f i e s th e m e th o d s o f p ro p a g a n d a 36 w ith la n g u a g e . And a t h i r d c o n c e p ti o n l i m i t s p ro p a g a n d a o n ly to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f a c t s . ^ From h e r e t h e r e a r e two p a r a l l e l l i n e s o f f u r t h e r d e l i m i t a t i o n o f m e th o d s , o f w h ich th e f i r s t i s c o n c e rn e d w ith h o n e s ty .

T h u s, p r o p a g a n d a , a c c o r d in g to som e, m u st

em ploy a t l e a s t some " c o l o r a t i o n " o r e x a g g e r a t i o n , so t h a t th e t r u e i s s u e i s d i s t o r t e d i n th e p r o p a g a n d i s t ’ s f a v o r . p o s s i b l y m ore l i m i t i n g i s o n e -s id e d p r e s e n t a t i o n . " ^

th e d e f i n i t i o n o f p ro p a g a n d a a s " a A c c o rd in g to a n o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n

p ro p a g a n d a i s m a rk e d i n i t s m eth o d s by " i n d i f f e r e n c e to

May 2 ,

35 " f h e Ways o f God to M an," The N a t i o n . 1 1 6 :5 0 9 , 1923.

^ Iv y L e e , P u b l i c i t y (New Y o rk : I n d u s t r i e s P u b l i s h ­ in g Company, 1 9 2 5 ), P P . 2 1 - 2 2 . ^

W a lte r S e ld e n , l o c . c i t .

38 **point o f V ie w ," The W orld Tom orrow, 1 0 : 14-8 , A p r i l 1927; Jam es D. S q u i r e s , "T he P ro b le m o f P ro p a g a n d a T o d a y ," V i t a l S p e e c h e s , 5 :5 8 8 , J u l y 15, 1939. 39 Emory S . B o g a rd u s , " E a rm a rk s o f P ro p a g a n d a ," S o c io lo g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 2 6 :2 7 3 , J a n u a r y 1942.

32 Aa

t r u t h , 11

a

o r i s 11a l l l i e s . "

1

C o n c e p tio n s i n v o l v i n g th e

i d e a o f c o n c e a lm e n t o r c e n s o r s h i p o f p o r t i o n s o f th e f a c t s a l s o b e lo n g w ith t h i s l a s t g ro u p . The s e c o n d l i n e o f d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f p ro p a g a n d a i n te rm s o f m e th o d s in v o lv e s th e l o g i c a l v e r s u s n o n - lo g ic a l a p p e a ls . To many w r i t e r s e i t h e r may c h a r a c t e r Ap i z e p ro p a g a n d a . L e o n a rd Doob a t t e m p t s to r e s t r i c t p r o p a 43 g a n d a to th e u s e o f s u g g e s t i o n . A common d ic h o to m y i s to c o n t r a s t e d u c a t i o n ’ s l o g i c a l a p p e a l to p r o p a g a n d a 1s " e m o tio n a l” a p p e a l . ^

W a lte r L ippm an h a s e m p h a siz e d p r o Ac

p a g a n d a a s t h e a p p e a l to s t e r e o t y p e s . ^

And some w r i t e r s ,

d e s p i t e a b r o a d f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n , i n p r a c t i c e c o n f in e 46 " p r o p a g a n d a 11 to th e u s e o f v a r i o u s " tr ic k y * 1 m e th o d s.

^

Raymond P e a r l , l o c . c i t .

E v e r e t t L. M a r t i n , The B e h a v io r o f Crow ds (New Y o rk : H a rp e r an d B r o t h e r s , 19 2 0 ) , p . 5 4 . P e t e r O d e g a rd , The A m eric an P u b l i c Mind (New Y ork: C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 0 ), p . 178. ^

P ro p a g a n d a , l o c . c i t .

^ G re g o ry Z i l b o o r g , " P ro p a g a n d a fro m W i t h i n , ” A n n a ls o f th e A m eric an Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e . 1 9 8 :1 1 6 , J u l y 1938. P u b lic O p in io n , p . 6 ^ I n s t i t u t e f o r P ro p a g a n d a A n a l y s i s , The F in e A r t o f P ro p a g a n d a (New Y o rk : H a r c o u r t , B ra c e an d Company, 1 9 3 9 /7 p a s s im .

33 R e c i p i e n t a s a C r i t e r i o n o f P ro p a g a n d a .

By th e

r e c i p i e n t i s m ean t th e p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s to whom th e c o m m u n ic a tio n s i n p ro p a g a n d a a r e d i r e c t e d .

T h is may o r may

n o t h e th e same a s t h e o b j e c t f o r o r a g a i n s t w h ich th e p ro p a g a n d a i s d i r e c t e d .

The r e c i p i e n t i s th e p e r s o n i n

whom a t t i t u d e s o r o p i n i o n s o r b e l i e f s o r d i s p o s i t i o n s a r e to b e c r e a t e d o r a c t i o n s s t i m u l a t e d . T h e re seem s to b e a c o n s e n s u s to th e e f f e c t t h a t p ro p a g a n d a m u st b e d i r e c t e d to human b e i n g s r a t h e r th a n o t h e r a n im a ls o r in a n im a te o b j e c t s .

The m a jo r d i f f e r e n c e s

e n t e r a t th e p o i n t o f q u a n t i t y .

A few a u t h o r s p e r m i t a 47 s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l to b e th e r e c i p i e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a .

More g e n e r a l l y , h o w e v e r* p ro p a g a n d a i s c o n f in e d to "m ass c o m m u n ic a tio n ”2*"® o r i n f l u e n c e s o n " p u b l i c o p i n i o n . 11^

A

f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t th e r e c i p i e n t i n p r o p a ­ g a n d a b e a m a j o r i t y o f th e g iv e n g r o u p . ^ J u l i u s K la n f e r a d d s th e r e q u ir e m e n t t h a t th e

^ K n ig h t D u n la p , S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y ( B a ltim o r e ! W illia m s an d W ilk in s Company, *925)> p p . 2 4 7 - 8 . M alcolm W i lle y , "C o m m u n icatio n A g e n c ie s an d th e Volume o f P r o p a g a n d a ," A n n a ls o f th e A m eric an Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e . * 7 9 :* 9 4 , May *935 ^9 B runo L a s k e r , " P ro p a g a n d a a s a n I n s tr u m e n t o f N a ti o n a l P o l i c y , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s . * 0 :* 5 2 , J u n e *937. 50 R ic h a r d L a P i e r e , o p . c i t . , p . 2 5 .

34 r e c i p i e n t be ’’f r e e

to b e h a v e i n th e way t h a t h a s b e e n p r o ­

p o s e d , a s w e l l a s i n an y o t h e r

w a y . ” 51

R e s u l t a s a C r i t e r i o n o f P ro p a g a n d a .

The s i t u a t i o n

r e g a r d i n g th e r e s u l t i n p ro p a g a n d a i s c o m p lic a te d b e c a u s e o f th e a b u n d a n c e o f s t a t e m e n t s w h ich a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m u tu a lly e x c l u s i v e .

C e rta in g e n e ra l l i m i t a t i o n s on e f f e c t

a r e so m e tim es m ade.

T h u s, a c c o r d in g to some w r i t e r s ,

p ro p a g a n d a i s

to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m c e r t a i n o t h e r p h e ­

nomena b e c a u s e o f th e d e f i n i t e an d s p e c i f i c e f f e c t i t p r o d u c e s .M a n n h e im

s p e a k s o f th e e f f e c t s o f p ro p a g a n d a a s

b e in g " s u p e r f 1 c i a l . M53 V a ry in g c o n c e p ti o n s o f th e e f f e c t o f p ro p a g a n d a on th e r e c i p i e n t a r e h e l d .

Thus to som e, p ro p a g a n d a n e e d o n ly

p ro d u c e o p in io n s i n th e r e c i p i e n t . T o

o t h e r s p ro p a g a n d a

m u st go d e e p e r to c o n t r o l o f a t t i t u d e s o r th e w o rk in g u p o f s e n tim e n ts .

55

to s t i l l a n o t h e r g ro u p o f w r i t e r s ,

51 11D em ocracy an d P r o p a g a n d a ,’1 S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v ie w . 3 1 :4 2 6 , O c to b e r 1939. 52 H en ry H a z l i t t , ’’L i t e r a t u r e a s P r o p a g a n d a ,” The S a tu r d a y R eview o f L i t e r a t u r e , 2 0 : 1 3 | S e p t, 16, 1939. ^ Man a n d S o c i e t y (New Y o rk : H a r c o u r t, B ra c e a n d Company, 1 9 4 0 )7 p* 3 5 9 . 54 Edw ard K. G re g o ry , I n t r o d u c t o r y S o c io lo g y (New Y o rk : p r e n t i c e H a l l , 1939)$ p . 5 9 2 . 55 E r n e s t G ro v e s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S o c io lo g y (New Y ork: L ongm ans, G re e n an d Company, 1 9 4 0 ), p p . 3 5 5 -3 5 6 .

35 p ro p a g a n d a m u st e v e n t u a t e i n a c t i o n b y t h e r e c i p i e n t . 56 R e s t r i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g th e e f f e c t on th e r e c i p i e n t a r e im p o sed a l s o w ith r e s p e c t to r a t i o n a l i t y .

W h ile some

a u t h o r i t i e s make no r e s t r i c t i o n s a t t h i s p o i n t , ^ many w ould a g r e e w ith E v e r e t t D ean M a r tin t h a t " p ro p a g a n d a s t r i v e s f o r th e c l o s e d

m i n d .

"58

same i d e a i s im p lie d by

r e f e r e n c e to th e s t e r e o t y p e d r e s p o n s e p ro d u c e d b y p r o p a g a n d a .^

I t i s a l s o commonly s t a t e d t h a t th e r e c i p i e n t o f

p ro p a g a n d a m u st t h i n k th e i d e a s h e r e c e i v e s h i s

o

w

n

,

Qr

t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i s a n a r t i f i c i a l o r " f a c t i t i o u s 11 o p i n i o n . ^ A c c o rd in g to H e r b e r t Blum m er, " p ro p a g a n d a s e e k s to b r i n g a b o u t c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n r a t h e r th a n m ere i n d i v i d u a l a c tio n .

56 j o y e . M o rg an , " P ro p a g a n d a , I t s R e l a t i o n to th e C h ild L a b o r I s s u e , " E d u c a t i o n . 4 6 :5 2 , S e p t. 1925 57 Edward L . B e r n a y s , l o c . c i t . 5® F a r e w e ll to R e v o lu ti o n (New Y o rk : W. W. N o rto n Company, 1 9 3 5 ), P. 3 5 7 . 59 s. I . H ayakaw a, " G e n e ra l S e m a n tic s a n d P ro p a g a n d a ,11 P u b lic O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y . 3 :2 0 8 , A p r i l 1939. 60 W illia m B i d d l e , "A P s y c h o lo g i c a l D e f i n i t i o n o f p r o p a g a n d a ” , J o u r n a l o f A bnorm al an d S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y , 2 6 :2 8 3 , O c to b e r 1931. Jam es B r y c e , M odern D e m o c ra c ie s (New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 1 ), V o l. I , p p . 1 5 5 -1 5 6 . 62 M O u t l i n e o f to e P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c io lo g y , R o b e r t P a r k , e d i t o r (New Y o rk : B a rn e s an d N o b le , 1939)> p . 2 5 0 .

36 R e s t r i c t i o n s a r e so m e tim es p la c e d o n 11p r o p a g a n d a ” on th e “b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s t o s o c i e t y .

A lth o u g h s o c i e t y a s

a w h o le m ig h t b e th e r e c i p i e n t o f p r o p a g a n d a , th e s e l i m i t a ­ t i o n s a r e im p o sed on s o c i e t y a s s o c i e t y r a t h e r th a n a s th e re c ip ie n t.

Thus K n ig h t D u n lap r e g a r d s p ro p a g a n d a a s b e in g

c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h a n g in g t h e s t a t u s q u o . ^

And p ro p a g a n d a

i s so m e tim e s r e q u i r e d to h a v e a h a r m f u l e f f e c t on so ­ c ie ty . ^ The r e s u l t s

to th e r e c i p i e n t a r e th e same t h i n g a s

th e m o tiv e s , so no new d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made h e r e . The V a lu e C o n n o ta tio n o f P ro p a g a n d a .

Id e a lly ,

s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p ts s h o u ld b e f r e e fro m a l l v a lu e c o n n o ta ­ tio n .

B u t i n p r a c t i c e n o r m a tiv e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e u n a v o id ­

a b le .

W ith " p r o p a g a n d a ” e v a l u a t i o n e n t e r s m o st o f t e n a t

two p o i n t s .

O f te n th e c o n t e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a i s c o n s id e r e d

to b e u n d e s i r a b l e .

And among th o s e who p e r m i t "g o o d ” i d e a s

to b e in c l u d e d i n th e c o n t e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a , many c o n s i d e r th e m eth o d s t o b e u n d e s i r a b l e . Prom th e s t a n d p o i n t o f f o r m u l a t i n g a u s a b l e d e f i n i ­ tio n o f ”p ro p ag an d a” i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t any s tr o n g ly

^

S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y , l o c . c i t .

64- p . L . T h o rn d ik e , Human N a tu r e an d th e S o c i a l O rd e r (New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company, 194-0)', p . 8 3 9 .

37 e n tr e n c h e d n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s h e ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t.

To

a t t e m p t to e r a d i c a t e s u c h a "m iasm ic a u r a ” by a m ere s t r o k e o f th e pen i s f o l l y .

I f such a c o n n o ta tio n d oes e x i s t ,

th e

te rm " p ro p a g a n d a " m u st e i t h e r b e d i s c a r d e d o r d e f i n e d i n su c h a m anner a s to i n c l u d e th e c o n n o t a t i o n .

I n o r d e r to

d e te r m in e w h e th e r t h e a b u n d a n t s t a t e m e n t s to th e e f f e c t t h a t " p ro p a g a n d a " i s r e g a r d e d i n a n u n f a v o r a b l e l i g h t a r e t r u e , t h r e e s m a l l - s c a l e t e s t s w ere m ade. F irs t,

th e i s s u e s o f t h e R e a d e r* s D i g e s t w ere

ex am in ed f o r th e y e a r 1941 an d th e a p p e a r a n c e s o f th e w ord " p ro p a g a n d a 11 n o t e d .

T h e se w ere c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g to th e

c o n t e x t i n w h ich t h e w ord a p p e a r e d a s u n f a v o r a b l e , u n c e r ­ ta in , n e u tr a l, o r fa v o ra b le .

I n g e n e r a l th e w r i t e r * s p o i n t

o f v iew was s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r t h a t no g u e s s -w o r k w as r e ­ q u ir e d in th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

The R e s u l t s w ere a s f o l l o w s :

U n fa v o ra b le c o n n o t a t i o n U n c e rta in c o n n o ta tio n N e u tra l c o n n o ta tio n F a v o r a b le c o n n o ta t i o n

8 7 .5 $ 5 .0 $ 5 .0 $ 2 .5 $

S e c o n d , a r t i c l e s l i s t e d u n d e r th e h e a d in g o f " p r o p a ­ g a n d a " i n th e R e a d e r* s G u id e to P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e w ere ex a m in e d f o r t h e i r p o i n t o f v ie w .

S in c e t h e e d i t o r s o f th e

R eader* s G uide c l a s s i f y a r t i c l e s a c c o r d in g to t h e i r c o n t e n t w i t h o u t im p o s in g a n y d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r o w n , ^ t h i s s o u r c e ^ A c c o rd in g to a l e t t e r r e c e i v e d fro m th e H. W. W ils o n Company, d a t e d J u l y 2 5 , 1941.

38 s h o u ld g i v e a f a i r s a m p lin g o f p e r i o d i c a l u s e o f “P ro p a ­ g a n d a .11

I n o r d e r to e x te n d th e s a m p lin g i n tim e , t h r e e

p e r i o d s w ere s e l e c t e d ,

1 9 1 8 -1 9 2 4 , 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 , 1941.

S in c e

th e p o i n t o f v iew w h ich th e a r t i c l e a t te m p te d to p r e s e n t w ould p r o b a b ly b e th e f a c t o r r e m a in in g m o st c l e a r l y i n th e m ind o f th e r e a d e r , e a c h a r t i c l e was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g t o i t s “m e s s a g e .”

The r e s u l t s f o l l o w :

Condem ning some p ro p a g a n d a How t o r e s i s t p ro p a g a n d a C ondem ning some a n d recom m end­ in g o t h e r p ro p a g a n d a Recom m ending some p ro p a g a n d a N ot c l e a r l y f o r o r a g a i n s t

1 9 1 8-24 62% 0

19 3 9 -4 0 27% 11

16 16 6

9 11 42

1941 9% 9 26 4 52

The p i c t u r e i s n o t c o m p le te , h o w e v e r, w ith t h i s ta b le .

A lth o u g h th e a r t i c l e s l i s t e d u n d e r th e l a s t c a t e ­

g o r y e x p r e s s e d no o v e r t ju d g m e n t on p r o p a g a n d a , e v e r y one d u r i n g 1 9 3 9 -4 0 a n d 1941 d e s c r i b e d some fo rm o f p ro p a g a n d a w h ic h w ould b e c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e .

H en ce, th e c o n ­

c l u s i o n t h a t " p r o p a g a n d a ” i s m o st o f t e n em ployed w ith a n e g a tiv e c o n n o ta tio n i s f u r t h e r r e in f o r c e d . T h ir d , i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t to e d i t o r s o f C a l i ­ f o r n i a d a i l y n e w s p a p e rs w ith c i r c u l a t i o n s i n e x c e s s o f 1000, th e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was i n c l u d e d , w ith th e i n ­ s t r u c t i o n , ” c h e c h th e m o st a d e q u a te c o m p l e t i o n .” The U n ite d S t a t e s w ould b e n e f i t m o st i f t h e r e w ere More p ro p a g a n d a th a n a t p r e s e n t . The same am ount o f p ro p a g a n d a a s a t p r e s e n t .

39 — --L e s s p ro p a g a n d a th a n a t p r e s e n t No p r o p a g a n d a . Of f o r t y - e i g h t r e p l i e s , n in e p r e f e r r e d th e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t , f i v e th e s e c o n d , t w e n t y - t h r e e th e t h i r d , f i v e th e f o u r t h , a n d s i x d e c l i n e d t o a n s w e r.

A lth o u g h t h e s e r e s u l t s c a n n o t

h e e x a c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n te rm s o f th e p r e s e n t i s s u e , th e y do i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f th e e d i t o r s c o n s u l t e d fo u n d m ore o f th e u n d e s i r a b l e i n c u r r e n t p ro p a g a n d a th a n o f th e d e s ira b le . I n th e l i g h t o f t h i s e v id e n c e a n d t h e many s t a t e m e n t s o f a u t h o r i t i e s , wp ro p a g a n d a " s h o u ld b e d e f i n e d i n a m anner w h ic h w i l l make i t s o m e th in g u n d e s i r a b l e i n te rm s o f th e p r e s e n t A m eric an m o re s. L e a d in g C o n c e p tio n s o f P ro p a g a n d a .

E lim in a tin g

th o s e c o n c e p ti o n s w h ich h a v e to o few s u p p o r t e r s , a v o i d in g m in o r d i s t i n c t i o n s , a n d c o m b in in g r e l a t e d e le m e n ts when th e y a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a few l e a d i n g c o n c e p tio n s .

The v a r i o u s c o n c e p ti o n s w i l l n o t b e m u tu a lly

e x c l u s i v e , an d a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n i t i o n o f 11p r o p a g a n d a 11 may i n c l u d e s e v e r a l o f th em .

They a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n th e fo rm

o f i s s u e s , an d a r e n u m b ered f o r c o n v e n ie n c e . 1 . The s o u r c e o f p ro p a g a n d a may b e i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s , v e r s u s , t h e s o u r c e o f p ro p a g a n d a i s a lw a y s a g ro u p . 2 . P ro p a g a n d a I s b o th i n t e n t i o n a l an d u n i n t e n t i o n a l ,

40 v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a i s a lw a y s i n t e n t i o n a l . 3 . The m o tiv e b e h in d p ro p a g a n d a may b e s im p ly to c o n v e r t th e r e c i p i e n t , v e r s u s , t h e r e i s a lw a y s a s e l f i s h m o tiv e b e h in d p r o p a g a n d a . 4 , P ro p a g a n d a may b e c o m p le te ly o p en a n d ab o v e b o a r d , v e r s u s , t h e r e i s a lw a y s s o m e th in g c o n c e a le d a b o u t p ro p ag an d a , 5* M a j o r i t y a n d m i n o r i t y c o n c e p tio n s a r e i r r e l e v a n t to a d e f i n i t i o n o f p ro p a g a n d a , v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a m eans a m i n o r i t y im p o s in g i t s

i d e a s on a m a j o r i t y .

6 , Any i d e a may b e th e c o n t e n t o f p r o p a g a n d a , v e r s u s , o n ly i d e a s r e c o g n i z e d a s c o n t r o v e r s i a l may be s p r e a d th r o u g h p ro p a g a n d a , v e r s u s , th e c o n t e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a i s a lw a y s u n ­ t r u e o r o n ly p a r t i a l l y

tru e ,

7 , P ro p a g a n d a w o rk s th r o u g h d i r e c t i n g a n y s t i m u l i w h ic h r e a c h th e r e c i p i e n t , v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a w o rk s th r o u g h d i r e c t i n g s y m b o lic s t i m u l i . 8 , The m eth o d s o f p ro p a g a n d a may b e r a t i o n a l o r i r r a t i o n a l , v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a a lw a y s i n v o lv e s i r r a t i o n a l m e th o d s , 9 , p ro p a g a n d a may b e d i r e c t e d to a s i n g l e p e r s o n o r t o a num ber o f p e r s o n s , v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a i s a lw a y s d i r e c t e d to a p l u r a l i t y o f p e r s o n s . 1 0 , P ro p a g a n d a s e e k s e i t h e r a m e n ta l s t a t e o r a c t i o n

41 i n th e r e c i p i e n t , v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a a lw a y s s e e k s a c tio n * 11. P ro p a g a n d a may s e e k e i t h e r t o m a i n t a i n o r to a l t e r th e s t a t u s q u o , v e r s u s , p ro p a g a n d a i s a lw a y s d i r e c t e d to w a rd c h a n g in g th e s t a t u s q u o . 12. P ro p a g a n d a may s e e k e i t h e r th e o p e n o r c l o s e d v e r s u s t p ro p a g a n d a a lw a y s s e e k s t o p r e v e n t c r i t i c a l th o u g h t. E v a l u a t i o n o f th e C o n c e p tio n s o f P ro p a g a n d a .

The

f i n a l p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n f o r p ro p a g a n d a m u st b e th r o u g h s e l e c t i n g among th e a b o v e p a r t i a l d e f i n i ­ tio n s .

T h is s e l e c t i o n m u st b e made on th e b a s i s o f th e

p r in c ip le s a lre a d y e n u n c ia te d ,

66

a v o id in g a s f a r as p o s s ib le

p e rso n a l b ia s . F ir s t of a l l ,

c a r e m u s t b e ta k e n n o t to d e f i n e p r o p a ­

g a n d a sy n o n y m o u sly w ith s u c h o t h e r c o n c e p ts a s i n t e r a c t i o n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , la n g u a g e , s o c i a l c o n t r o l , s u g g e s t i o n , p e r ­ s u a s io n .

T h is i s th e m a jo r e r r o r i n t o w h ich many w r i t e r s

have f a l l e n . I n r e g a r d t o th e f i r s t i s s u e s t a t e d a b o v e ,

th e b r o a d ­

e r c o n c e p ti o n seem s to b e th e m ore u s e f u l , f o r t h e r e i s little

f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e i n a p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n

o r i g i n a t i n g fro m a n i n d i v i d u a l an d s u c h a p r o c e s s stem m ing

66 Q f 0 a n t e . , p p .

1 6 -1 7 .

42 fro m a n i n d i v i d u a l . I n th e se c o n d i s s u e , h o w e v e r, b o th p o p u la r u s a g e a n d s c i e n t i f i c e x p e d ie n c y s u p p o r t th e r e q u ir e m e n t t h a t p r o p a ­ ganda he i n t e n t i o n a l .

I h i l e p e r s o n s do u n w i t t i n g l y s e r v e

p r o p a g a n d i s t s , th e i n t e n t i o n s t i l l e x i s t s i n th e o r i g i n a l p ro p a g a n d is t.

And t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p e r s o n s do u n i n t e n ­

t i o n a l l y i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s i s s im p ly a s t a t e m e n t o f th e f a c t of s o c ia l in te ra c tio n .

To in c l u d e th e u n i n t e n t i o n a l u n d e r

" p r o p a g a n d a ” m akes e v e ry o n e

a* p r o p a g a n d i s t a l l t h e tim e ,

r e d u c i n g th e c o n c e p t to g e n e r a l i z e d m e a n in g l e s s n e s s .

F u r­

th e r m o r e , th e la w s o f th e i n t e n t i o n a l a n d u n i n t e n t i o n a l i n f l u e n c i n g a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t th e y m u st b e c o n ­ s id e re d la r g e ly s e p a r a te ly . The r e q u ir e m e n t o f a s e l f i s h m o tiv e f o r p ro p a g a n d a c a r r i e s w ith i t many d i f f i c u l t i e s . an d t h e i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s

The m ix tu r e o f m o tiv e s

in d if f e r e n tia tin g s e lf is h

a n d u n s e l f i s h m o tiv e s p r e s e n t im p o s in g o b s t a c l e s t o r e ­ se arc h .

B u t m ore i m p o r ta n t i s

th e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s o f t e n

no d i s c e r n a b l e d i f f e r e n c e I n th e te c h n iq u e s an d s t e p s i n th e p r o c e s s b y w h ich th e s e l f i s h an d th e a l t r u i s t i c seek t h e i r en d s.

fa n a tic s

The l i m i t a t i o n o f s e l f i s h n e s s seem s u n ­

n e c e ssa ry . The i s s u e o f c o n c e a lm e n t i s so im p o r ta n t t h a t i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l b e l e f t to th e l a s t .

43 W h ile o f f e r i n g a n a p p e a r a n c e o f q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n a l ­ ity ,

th e m a j o r i t y a n d m i n o r i t y c o n c e p ti o n i n p ro p a g a n d a

c r e a t e s m ore p ro b le m s th a n i t s o l v e s .

F ir s t of a l l ,

th e

m a j o r i t y i s n e a r l y a lw a y s i n a r t i c u l a t e , so t h a t m a j o r i t y o p i n io n i s f a r m ore d i f f i c u l t to d e te r m in e th a n a t f i r s t su p p o sed .

F u r th e r m o r e , t h i s d i s r e g a r d s th e u n f a v o r a b le

c o n n o t a t i o n b e l o n g in g to p ro p a g a n d a .

B u t m o st i m p o r t a n t ,

t h e r e i s no n e c e s s a r y d i f f e r e n c e i n th e p r o c e s s i n w h ich a m i n o r i t y s p r e a d s i t s v ie w s an d t h a t i n w hich a m a j o r i t y d o e s so .

I n f a c t a c a m p a ig n c o n t i n u i n g to em ploy e x a c t l y th e

same m eth o d s i n e v e r y r e s p e c t a r b i t r a r i l y c e a s e s t o b e p ro p a g a n d a when i t s num ber o f c o n v e r t s p a s s e s a d e f i n i t e fig u re .

C e r t a i n l y , t h i s i s n o t a u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n fro m a

s o c io lo g ic a l s ta n d p o in t. R e s t r i c t i o n o f th e c o n t e n t o f p ro p a g a n d a t o m a t e r i a l re c o g n iz e d a s c o n t r o v e r s i a l lik e w is e i s n o t an a l to g e t h e r f u n d a m e n ta l d i s t i n c t i o n .

From a p o l i t i c a l s c ie n c e s t a n d ­

p o i n t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may b e u s e f u l , i f i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e te r m in e j u s t w h a t i s c o n s id e r e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l .

A c tu a lly ,

i t may b e t h a t th e m a j o r i t y i n a n y c a s e c o n s i d e r s v e r y few i d e a s c o n t r o v e r s i a l — th e y a r e a l l e i t h e r r i g h t o r w ro n g . To a l a r g e e le m e n t i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,

to f o llo w L a s s -

w e ll* s i l l u s t r a t i o n , 6? communism i s no m ore c o n t r o v e r s i a l 67 H a r o ld L a s s w e l l , R a lp h C a s e y , an d B ru c e S m ith , lo c . c i t .

44

i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s th a n i t i s i n R u s s i a .

S o c io lo g ic a lly ,

h o w e v e r, t h e r e w ould n o t seem to "be s u f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n a l d if f e r e n c e to w a rra n t t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . The f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f p ro p a g a n d a to th e s p r e a d o f m is in f o r m a tio n so u n d s p r o m is in g u n t i l a p p l i e d to a n a c t u a l s itu a tio n .

A lth o u g h f a c t i s c o m p a r a tiv e ly c e r t a i n i n many

i n s t a n c e s , a b s o l u t e t r u t h i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n m any o t h e r s . F u r th e r m o r e , p ro m is e s an d p r e d i c t i o n s c a n n o t b e a d ju d g e d u n t i l th e tim e f o r t h e i r m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n h a s b e e n r e a c h e d . Thus th e a s s e r t i o n , "we s h a l l w in t h i s w ar,*1 c a n n o t b e a d ­ ju d g e d u n t i l t h e w ar i s c o m p le te d .

The o b s t a c l e s to s tu d y ­

in g p ro p a g a n d a i n s u c h a c a s e a r e to o o b v io u s t o e n u m e ra te . G e n e ra l u sa g e and p r a c t i c a l i t y r e q u ir e t h a t p ro p a ­ g a n d a b e l i m i t e d t o sy m b o lic m e d ia .

The b r o a d e r c o n c e p tio n

i n c l u d e s so many d i v e r s e phenom ena t h a t f o r m u l a t i o n o f a n y la w s w ould b e i m p o s s i b l e . The ty p e s o f m e th o d s u s e d ' a r e s u b s i d i a r y to th e en d s s o u g h t.

H ence i t w o u ld seem w e l l to c o n s i d e r t h e en d s

b e f o r e th e m e th o d s . T h re e f a c t o r s seem t o d i c t a t e t h a t p ro p a g a n d a h a d b e s t b e l i m i t e d t o p r o c e s s e s i n w h ich th e r e c i p i e n t i s p lu ra l.

F i r s t , g e n e r a l u s a g e m ore o f t e n c o n s i d e r s p r o p a ­

g a n d a a n i n f l u e n c e on p u b l i c o p in io n .

S e c o n d , s u c h te rm s a s

p e r s u a s i o n an d s u g g e s t i o n an d o t h e r s c o v e r th e f i e l d o f

45 i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n ic a tio n r a t h e r c o m p le te ly .

And t h i r d ,

t h e r e a r e f u n d a m e n ta l f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n com­ m u n ic a tio n d i r e c t e d to a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l an d t h a t d i r e c t e d to w a rd l a r g e n u m b e rs. The q u e s t i o n o f l i m i t i n g p ro p a g a n d a t o th e a r o u s a l o f o v e r t a c t i v i t y r a i s e s im m e d ia te ly th e b e h a v i o r i s t i c i s s u e o f w h e th e r t h e r e i s a m e n ta l s t a t e w i t h o u t some o v e r t a c tio n .

B u t th e r e a l q u e s t i o n r e m a in s , d o e s i t make a n y

d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s in v o lv e d . G e n e r a lly th e a n s w e r w ould seem t o b e , to o l i t t l e

to m a tte r .

A g a in , c o n f i n i n g p ro p a g a n d a t o a t t e m p t s to a l t e r th e s t a t u s quo o f f e r s l i t t l e

f u n c t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n fro m s u c h

o t h e r p r o c e s s e s a s th o s e in v o lv e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g a d e c a d e n t s ta tu s quo. A t p r e s e n t , p ro p a g a n d a h a s b e e n

a s c e r t a i n e d a s th e

d e l i b e r a t e u s e o f s y m b o l s b y human b e i n g s to ev o k e a p a r t i c u ­ l a r r e a c t i o n on th e p a r t o f a num ber o f p e o p l e .

A lth o u g h

t h i s w o u ld seem t o s a t i s f y E u b an k 1s r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r a c o n ­ c e p t, i s i t be a p p lie d ?

th e c o n c e p t to w h ich th e te rm " p ro p a g a n d a " s h o u ld The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y e n t e r s a t th e d i f f e r e n t

ty p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s i t i n c l u d e s , s o d i v e r g e n t t h a t f o r m u la ­ t i o n o f a s i n g l e g ro u p o f la w s i s w e l l - n i g h im p o s s i b l e .

In

p r a c t i c e th o s e who h a v e d e f i n e d p ro p a g a n d a th u s b r o a d ly h a v e a c t u a l l y u s e d i t i n a much n a r r o w e r s e n s e .

As a n ex am p le o f

t h e c o n f u s io n w h ic h w ould r e s u l t fro m s u c h a d e f i n i t i o n ,

46 s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to p ro p a g a n d a an d o p e n m in d e d n e ss t o new f a c t s and re a s o n a b le id e a s a r e s tu d ie d a s i f th in g . is its

th e y w e re th e same

A n o th e r m a jo r o b j e c t i o n to t h i s b r o a d a d e f i n i t i o n fa ilu re

t o ta k e a c c o u n t o f th e n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n

a t t a c h i n g to " p r o p a g a n d a . 11

F a i l u r e to a llo w f o r t h i s

c o n n o t a t i o n c a n o n ly p ro m o te c o n f u s i o n . T h ere r e m a in two p r i n c i p a l b a s e s on w h ic h d e l i m i t a ­ t i o n o f th e c o n c e p t may be m ade.

T h ese a r e th e r e q u ir e m e n t

o f c o n c e a lm e n t som ew here a lo n g th e l i n e , a n d c o n f in e m e n t o f th e te rm t o e f f o r t s s e e k in g a c l o s e d m ind i n th e r e c i p i e n t . C l e a r l y , t h e s e a r e d e e p ly i n t e r r e l a t e d , an d e i t h e r one a lm o s t p r e s u p p o s e s th e o t h e r , a s b o th p r e s u p p o s e t h e l i m i t ­ a t i o n t o i r r a t i o n a l m e th o d s .

S e l e c t i o n b e tw e e n th e s e

c r i t e r i a m u st b e d e te r m in e d by w h ich i s m e n ta l .

th e m ore f u n d a ­

C o n c e a lm e n t i s p r o b a b ly th e m ore e a s i l y o b j e c t i f i e d

a n d m e a s u re d .

H ow ever, p r e v e n t i o n o f c r i t i c a l th o u g h t i s

m ore f u n d a m e n ta l s i n c e i t i s m ent i s m e re ly t h e m e an s.

th e en d to w a rd w h ic h c o n c e a l­

F u r th e r m o r e t h e r e a r e c a s e s o f

"o p e n " c o n c e a lm e n t w h ic h w ould n o t g e n e r a l l y b e c a l l e d propagandaw

T h u s, f a i l u r e o f t h e g o v e rn m e n t to s t a t e a l l

m i l i t a r y l o s s e s a t o n c e when th e s o l e m o tiv e f o r t h a t c o n ­ c e a lm e n t i s t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f v a l u a b l e m i l i t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n r e a c h i n g th e enemy w o u ld n o t u s u a l l y b e d e s i g n a t e d a s " p r o p a g a n d a .11

47 D e f i n i t i o n o f D ro p a g a n d a .

P o p u l a r l y , p ro p a g a n d a

may b e d e f i n e d a s a n e f f o r t on th e p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r g ro u p s t o em ploy sy m b o ls s o a s to s e c u r e w id e s p r e a d u n ­ c r i t i c a l a d h e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f v ie w o r p l a n o f a c tio n *

S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , p ro p a g a n d a i s a c o m m u n ic a tio n p r o ­

c e s s i n w h ic h i n d i v i d u a l s o r g ro u p s em ploy sy m b o ls i n o r d e r to w in w id e s p r e a d u n c r i t i c a l a d h e r e n c e to a p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t l o n of a g iv e n s i t u a t i o n .

" P ro p a g a n d a " may a l s o b e

em ployed to r e f e r to th e d e s i r e d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a ­ tio n . The k ey w ord i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n w h ich d i s t i n g u i s h e s p ro p a g a n d a fro m e d u c a t i o n i s " u n c r i t i c a l . ”

The p r o p a g a n d i s t

a im s to p r e s e n t " a d e b a t a b l e i s s u e a s i f i t w ere n o t d e b a t ­ a b l e . 11 P ro p a g a n d a i s e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t fro m e d u c a t i o n . The p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n i s to d e v e lo p a n i n d i v i d u a l who w i l l m a i n t a i n s u s p e n d e d ju d g m e n t u n t i l th e e v id e n c e i s a l l i n and to g iv e him a r a n g e o f k n o w led g e t h a t w i l l e n l a r g e th e o u t l o o k o f h i s m in d . The p u r p o s e o f p r o p a ­ g a n d a i s to g e t th e i n d i v i d u a l t o make a c e r t a i n ju d g ­ m en t w h e th e r th e e v id e n c e i s p a r t i a l o r c o m p le te , o r , t o b u i l d a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l l e a d him to jump t o c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h o u t p a y in g much a t t e n t i o n to t h e e v i ­ dence. T hose who w ould s u b s t i t u t e p ro p a g a n d a f o r e d u c a t i o n w ould do s o e i t h e r b e c a u s e th e y a r e a f r a i d t h e i r c a u s e w i l l n o t s t a n d th e l i g h t o f r e a s o n o r b e ­ c a u s e th e y l a c k f a i t h i n th e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f th e

68 E d g a r D a le , "M o v ies a n d P r o p a g a n d a ,” E d u c a tio n A g a in s t P r o p a g a n d a , n a t i o n a l C o u n c il f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s , S e v e n th Y ear B ook, 1 9 3 7 » P* 7 t*

48 p e o p le * The k e y w ord d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p ro p a g a n d a from m ere i n ­ f o r m a t i o n i s " e f f o r t . 11

W h a tev e r e f f e c t w e a th e r b u r e a u maps

may h a v e , th e y c a n n o t h e c a l l e d " p r o p a g a n d a ." And th e k e y w ord d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p ro p a g a n d a fro m s u g g e s t i o n an d p e r s u a s i o n i s " w i d e s p r e a d .11 By way o f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , a d e f i n i t i o n o f " p ro p a g a n d a " h a s b e e n f o r m u l a te d a s a b a s i s f o r s t u d y i n g i t s ness.

e ffe c tiv e ­

The f o r m u l a t i o n h a s n o t b e e n made on th e b a s i s o f

t e l l i n g "w h a t p ro p a g a n d a i s , " b u t o f a s c e r t a i n i n g w h at d e ­ f i n i t i o n w i l l be m ost u s e f u l . " D e f i n i t i o n s do n o t t e l l u s a n y t h i n g a b o u t th e t h i n g s f o r w h ich a w ord s t a n d s ; th e y m e r e ly d i r e c t u s to u s e w ords i n c e r t a i n w ay s. . . . The im p lie d p ro m is e b e h in d t h i s e x h o r t a t i o n i s t h a t i f th e r e a d e r d o e s a s he i s t o l d , h e w i l l f i n d c e r t a i n p ro b le m s c l a r i f i e d . ™ The r e m a in d e r o f th e t h e s i s w i l l w i t n e s s w h e th e r o r n o t t h e " im p lie d p ro m is e " i s

ju s tifie d .

The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f P ro p a g a n d a The C o n d i tio n s o f E f f e c t i v e P r o p a g a n d a .

I n te rm s o f

th e p r e c e d i n g d e f i n i t i o n , p ro p a g a n d a may be s a i d to b e e f f e c t -

69 C h a r le s W. S m ith , P u b l i c O p in io n i n a Dem o cracy (New Y o rk : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1939)> P* 55 S . I . H ayakaw a, Lan g u a g e i n A c tio n (New Y o rk : H a r c o u r t , B ra c e a n d Company, 1 9 4 1 ), p p . 1 1 6 -1 1 7 .

49 i v e when a num ber o f p e r s o n s a d h e re u n c r i t i c a l l y to a p o i n t o f v iew o r p l a n o f a c t i o n a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f so m e o n e fs e ffo rt.

In a p p lic a tio n ,

t h e r e f o r e , t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s m u st b e

a s c e r t a i n e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e th e r o r n o t p ro p a g a n d a h a s been e f f e c tiv e ;

t h e p r e s e n c e o f p ro p a g a n d a ; th e e x i s t e n c e o f

a n u n c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n among c e r t a i n p e o p le ; a n d a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e p ro p a g a n d a a n d th e o p i n i o n s . The d e g r e e o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p ro p a g a n d a i s o f th r e e k in d s .

M e t a p h o r i c a l l y , p ro p a g a n d a may b e s a i d to c o n ­

s i s t o f t h r e e d im e n s io n s .

F i r s t of th e s e i s

th e num ber o f

p e o p l e r e s p o n d in g f a v o r a b l y t o th e p r o p a g a n d a . t h e I n t e n s i t y o f th e r e a c t i o n . w e ig h s a p a s s i v e m a j o r i t y . th e d e s i r e d r e a c t i o n s .

S eco n d i s

An a r t i c u l a t e m i n o r i t y o u t ­

And t h i r d i s th e p e r s i s t e n c e o f

I n some c a s e s o n ly a n im m e d ia te

r e a c t i o n i s n e e d e d , b u t o f t e n t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t I s s e e k in g o p i n i o n s w h ic h w i l l l a s t .

I n d e t e r m in in g th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s

o f p ro p a g a n d a a b a l a n c e o f t h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s m u st b e m a in ­ t a i n e d , s i n c e th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p ro p a g a n d a i n one o f t h e s e d im e n s io n s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s s u r e i t s

e ffe c tiv e ­

n e s s i n th e o t h e r s . I d e n tif y in g P ro p a g a n d a .

The p r e s e n c e o f p ro p a g a n d a

i s m o st s u r e l y d e te r m in e d fro m th e s o u r c e .

I f i t can be

d e m o n s tr a te d t h a t an y p e r s o n o r g ro u p i s s t r i v i n g t o a c h ie v e a c e r t a i n g o a l i n p u b lic o p in io n o r a c tio n i r r e s p e c t i v e of

50

t h e m e r i t s o f t h i s c a u s e , th e y a r e p u r e l y p r o p a g a n d i s t s .

A

p r a g m a tic t e s t m ig h t h e to n o te t h e i r a t t i t u d e to w a rd o p ­ p o s itio n o r i n t e l l i g e n t q u e s tio n in g . Y/hen th e s o u r c e i s n o t so e a s i l y t r a c e d o r i t s m o tiv e s a s c e r t a i n e d , c e r t a i n " c l u e s '1 o r " e a r m a r k s ” may s e r v e a s r e l a t i v e l y v a l i d i n d i c a t o r s o f p ro p a g a n d a .

M ost w id e ly

p o p u l a r i z e d o f th e sch em es f o r d e t e c t i n g p ro p a g a n d a a r e th e I n s t i t u t e f o r p ro p a g a n d a A n a ly s is * tr a d e ."

s e v e n " t r i c k s o f th e

T h ese a r e Name C a l l i n g , G l i t t e r i n g G e n e r a l i t y ,

T r a n s f e r , T e s t i m o n i a l , P l a i n F o l k s , C a rd S t a c k i n g , a n d Band Wagon. M ore c o m p le te a n d l e s s e q u i v o c a l a r e B o g ard u s* " E a r ­ m ark s o f P r o p a g a n d a ," f i f t e e n i n n u m b er.

The m ore e a s i l y

r e c o g n i z e d e a rm a rk s in c l u d e U n g u ard ed e n th u s ia s m , S e n tim e n t, I n t o l e r a n t a i r o r to n e , G e n e r a l i t i e s a p p l i e d to p a r t i c u l a r s , W h o le s a le c o n d e m n a tio n , an d u s e o f P r e s s u r e .

More s u b t l e

a r e I n s i n u a t i o n , C o n c e a le d s o u r c e s , P r e s e n t i n g b o th s i d e s fro m one s i d e , A r t i s t i c i n c o n s i s t e n c y , Non s e q u i t u r a r g u ­ m e n t, D o c to r in g o f f a c t s , u s e o f a R e p u ta b le m o u th p ie c e , l e a d i n g t h e o p p o s i t i o n to assu m e a C om prom ising p o s i t i o n ,

I n s t i t u t e f o r P ro p a g a n d a A n a l y s i s , The F in e A r t o f P ro p a g a n d a (New Y o rk : H a r e o u r t , B ra c e a n d Company, t939)7 p p . 2 2 -2 3 ©t p a s s im

51 a n d C e n s o r s h ip .

72

I d e n t i f y l n g t h e P r o d u c t o f Pr o p a g a n d a .

The e f f e c t

o f p ro p a g a n d a may h e e i t h e r a c h a n g e t o a new o p in io n o r a r e t e n t i o n o f a n o ld o p in io n ( o r way o f a c t i n g ) . i o n m u st h e t h a t s o u g h t h y th e p r o p a g a n d i s t .

The o p in ­

And i t m u st h e

u n r e a s o n e d a n d d o g m a tic . Two f u n d a m e n ta l p ro b le m s c o n f r o n t u s when we s p e a k o f u n r e a s o n e d o r d o g m a tic o p i n i o n s .

F irs t,

th e d if f e r e n c e b e ­

tw een r e a s o n an d dogma i s n o t y e t s u b j e c t to o b j e c t i v e d e ­ te rm in a tio n ;

th e w h o le d i s t i n c t i o n i s " s u b j e c t i v e . ”

S econd,

th e d i f f e r e n c e i s u s u a l l y one o f d e g r e e r a t h e r th a n k i n d , so t h a t m o st c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l b e fo u n d to l i e a b o u t th e m eans r a t h e r th a n th e e x tr e m e s .

The fo rm e r i s

th e l e s s

p o te n t o b s ta c le s in c e th e s ig n s of r a t i o n a l v e rs u s p r e ju ­ d i c i a l o r e m o tio n a l b e h a v io r a r e f a i r l y w e l l a g r e e d u p o n by th o s e q u a l i f i e d t o s p e a k .

T h u s, when a p e r s o n w i l l n o t

c o n c e d e t h a t a n i s s u e i s d e b a t a b l e , w hen c h a l l e n g e to h i s o p i n i o n b r i n g s e m o tio n a l o u t b u r s t s o r v i o l e n c e , when h e r e ­ c ite s

s lo g a n s r a t h e r th a n r e a s o n s , e t c . , h i s v ie w s may be

a d ju d g e d i r r a t i o n a l .

I f a num ber o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i t h a

V a r i e t y o f b i a s e s a g r e e t h a t c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s a r e h e l d on

72 e . S . B o g a rd u s , "E a rm a rk s o f P r o p a g a n d a ,” p p . 272- 2 8 2 .

52

a n i r r a t i o n a l ‘b a s i s , a f a i r l y v a l i d m e a su re i s o b t a i n e d . The p ro b le m i f

th e r e l a t i v i t y o f th e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n th e

r a t i o n a l an d i r r a t i o n a l o r u n c r i t i c a l i s s im p ly a p r o j e c t ­ i o n o f a p ro b le m th r o u g h o u t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a n d m o st o th e r s c ie n c e s .

I t is

t o b e m et b y w e ig h tin g th e v a r i o u s

o p i n i o n s a c c o r d in g t o th e d e g r e e o f t h e i r d o g m a tism .

Such

w e ig h t in g i s a t p r e s e n t m e r e ly a m a t t e r o f ju d g m e n t, a l ­ th o u g h o b j e c t i v e s c a l e s may b e d e v i s e d i n th e f u t u r e . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n a c r i t i c a l an d a n u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p ta n c e o f a n i d e a l i e s i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p i n th e c a s e o f th e f o r m e r . c r i t i c a l l y h e l d v iew i s

T h u s, a n u n ­

th e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e s t i m u l i

p l a y i n g up o n th e i n d i v i d u a l .

I t i s th e im m e d ia te p r o d u c t o f

th e c ir c u m s ta n c e i n w h ic h th e id e a was s t a t e d ,

th e p r e s t i g e

o f th e s o u r c e , th e e lo q u e n c e o f th e s p e a k e r , t h e c l e v e r n e s s o f th e c a tc h w o r d , th e c o n t a g io n o f th e c ro w d , e t c . , a c t i n g w ith th e r e c i p i e n t s m e n ta l s e t .

in te r­

B u t th e c r i t i c a l l y -

h e l d c o n c l u s i o n i s o n ly a n i n d i r e c t r e s u l t o f th e e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n im m e d ia te ly p r e s e n t .

T h o u g h t an d w e ig h in g o f

i d e a s c o n s t i t u t e s th e i n t e r m e d i a t e an d d i r e c t l y c a u s a l s t e p . S uch a " c r i t i c a l ” c o n c l u s i o n i s r e a c h e d b e c a u s e th e i d e a i

h a s b e e n f o u n d so u n d i n te rm s o f th e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e . T h is d i s t i n c t i o n i s f u n d a m e n ta l t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to p ro p a g a n d a a n d o p e n ­

53 m in d e d n e s s .

The p r o p a g a n d i s t s e e k s to c r e a t e th e f o rm e r

an d th e e d u c a t o r s t r i v e s f o r th e l a t t e r . fo rm th e y a r e a n t i t h e t i c a l c o n c e p t s .

In t h e i r p u re

S u s c e p t i b i l i t y to

p ro p a g a n d a m eans r e a d i n e s s to a c c e p t c e r t a i n i d e a s w i t h o u t e x a m in in g them .

O p e n -m in d e d n e ss s u c h a s th e e d u c a to r s e e k s

m eans w i l l i n g n e s s to ex am in e new I d e a s i n te rm s o f a v a i l a ­ b le f a c t and lo g ic .

F a i l u r e t o make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n h a s

c a u s e d much c o n f u s i o n a n d c y n ic is m , an d h a s e n c o u ra g e d t h a t r i c h e s t s o i l o f th e p r o p a g a n d i s t , w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g .

A

p e r s o n may e v e n a l t e r h i s v ie w a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to a p r o p a ­ g a n d i s t w i t h o u t th e p ro p a g a n d a b e in g s a i d to b e e f f e c t i v e . The p r o p a g a n d i s t may m e re ly h a v e s u g g e s te d a new p o i n t o f v ie w o r o f f e r e d a new f a c t w h ic h n e c e s s i t a t e d r e v i s i o n o f th e r e c i p i e n t * s f o r m e r v ie w s .

W ith p r o p a g a n d i s t s on a l l

s i d e s , some o f them a r e bound to b e p ro m o tin g th e " t r u e " v ie w p o i n t. I d e n t i f y i n g t h e C a u s a l C o n n e c tio n .

N e g a tiv e l y

s p e a k in g , m ere a g r e e m e n t w ith th e p r o p a g a n d i s t , e v e n a f t e r c o n t a c t , a n d e v e n when th e o p i n io n i s d e m o n s tr a b ly u n ­ c ritic a l,

i s n o t p r o o f o f a c a u s a l c o n n e c ti o n .

I n th e c a s e

o f a n u n c h a n g e d o p i n i o n , th e p e r s i s t e n c e may h a v e b e e n q u i t e in d e p e n d e n t o f a n y i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t . When a p o l i t i c i a n s p e a k s to p e o p l e who a r e a l r e a d y d e t e r ­ m ined to v o te f o r h im , h i s p ro p a g a n d a i s n o t e f f e c t i v e

54

u n l e s s h e I n d u c e s them t o s u p p o r t him m ore v i g o r o u s l y o r f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f tim e th a n th e y o t h e r w i s e w o u ld h a v e .

In

t h e c a s e o f a c h a n g e d o p i n i o n , th e c h a n g e may he th e r e s u l t o f a c h a n g e d s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r th a n o f t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t . t u r n o f e v e n t s on D ecem ber 7 ,

The

e f f e c te d a changed p u b lic

o p i n i o n an d m o st o f th e ac c o m p a n y in g p ro p a g a n d a was q u i t e s u p e rflu o u s .

The m ere f a c t t h a t p ro p a g a n d a f o r w ar accom ­

p a n i e d t h i s c h a n g e i s no i n d i c a t i o n w h a ts o e v e r t h a t th e change i s

to b e a t t r i b u t e d

to th e p ro p a g a n d a .

P o s i t i v e l y , i t i s so m e tim e s p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e th e c a u s a l c o n n e c ti o n d i r e c t l y .

S om etim es th e r e c i p i e n t a d m its

h i s in d e b te d n e s s t o t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t o r q u o te s h im .

Or th e

r e c i p i e n t , a f t e r c o n t a c t w i t h th e p r o p a g a n d i s t , may em ploy t h e same s lo g a n s an d a rg u m e n ts a n d " r e a s o n s 11 to s u p p o r t h i s v ie w s o r a c t i o n s . More com m only, l e s s c e r t a i n m e th o d s o f t r a c i n g th e c a u s a l c o n n e c ti o n m u st b e em p lo y ed .

As th e m e th o d s becom e

l e s s c e r t a i n th e num ber o f s u b j e c t s m u st b e l a r g e r a n d th e s u b s t a n t i a t i n g e v id e n c e m ore im p o s in g . commonly u s e d a r e th e f o l l o w i n g tw o.

The p r i n c i p l e s m o st A ca u se-effect r e la ­

t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a g i v e n p ro p a g a n d a a n d a c o r r e s p o n d in g o p i n i o n ch a n g e may b e assu m e d when a l l o t h e r p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s i n th e s i t u a t i o n r e m a in c o n s t a n t .

A ca u se-effect

r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a g iv e n p ro p a g a n d a an d a c o r r e s p o n d in g f a i l u r e o f o p i n i o n t o c h a n g e may b e assu m ed when o t h e r m a jo r

55

f a c t o r s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e i n s u c h a way t h a t a c h a n g e d o p in io n i s to he e x p e c te d .

T h ese a r e th e p r i n c i p l e s a r o u n d

w h ic h m o st l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s a r e b u i l t . O f t e n , s t i l l l e s s c e r t a i n m e th o d s m u st b e em plo yed i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n b e tw e e n p r o p a g a n d a a n d t h e f i n a l o p in io n o r a c tio n .

S u ch m e th o d s a r e a c c e p t a b l e when

b e t t e r m e th o d s a r e n o t a p p l i c a b l e i f

th e c o n c lu s io n s con­

fo rm t o r e a s o n , t h e d a t a show u n e q u i v o c a l r e s u l t s ,

t h e num­

b e r o f c a s e s i s l a r g e , a n d a v a r i e t y o f m e th o d s b e a r o u t e a c h o t h e r 1s r e s u l t s .

Such m e th o d s i n c l u d e t e n d e n c i e s t o

c o n tin u e a t te n d i n g to th e p ro p a g a n d is t.

Thus t h e e f f e c t i v e ­

n e s s o f p r o p a g a n d a may b e i n f e r r e d when t h e r e c i p i e n t p e r ­ s i s t s i n r e a d in g o r l i s t e n i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r p r o p a g a n d is t t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h o s e on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e i s s u e . E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o p a g a n d a may a l s o so m e tim e s b e I n f e r r e d fro m w i d e s p r e a d c o n t i n u e d u s e o f t h e same t a c t i c s a n d m e th o d s of propaganda.

And s o m e tim e s t h e vehem ence w i t h w h ich t h e

o p p o s i t i o n a t t e m p t s t o c e n s o r t h e p r o p a g a n d a o r th e a t t e n ­ t i o n th e y pay to c o u n te rin g i t

s e r v e s a s a r b u g h in d e x o f

th e p ro p ag an d a* s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t w i l l b e e v i d e n t t h a t c l e a r - c u t a n d c o m p le te o b j e c t i v i t y i s se ld o m t o b e f o u n d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p ro p ag an d a .

The a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s

i n t h i s f i e l d m u st b e made i n te r m s o f p r o b a b i l i t i e s a n d av erag es a t p r e s e n t.

An e s c a p e fro m t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y i s

56

s o m e tim e s s o u g h t b y a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t , e i t h e r so b r o a d l y t h a t t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i o n s t o b e m ade, o r i n te rm s o f some s u r f a c e o r ’' q u a n t i t a t i v e 11 c r i t e r i o n w h ic h c a n b e m ore e a s i l y o b s e r v e d .

The f o r m e r m e th o d i s s im p ly a n

e v a s i o n an d s e r v e s no u s e f u l p u r p o s e .

The s e c o n d p a t h

a c h i e v e s e a s e o f r e s e a r c h an d s u r f a c e o b j e c t i v i t y a t t h e e x p e n s e o f m e a n in g .

T h e re m ig h t a s w e l l b e no r e s u l t s a s

t h a t t h o s e o b t a i n e d h a v e no m e a n in g . th is th e sis is

The p a t h t a k e n i n

t o f o l l o w w h a t seems a f u n d a m e n t a l a n d

f u n c t i o n a l and m e a n in g fu l p ro c e d u re a t th e expense o f p r e ­ s e n t o b j e c t i v i t y and c e r t a i n t y * Issu es are faced ,

The f a i t h i s

th a t as r e a l

t h e t o o l s w i t h w h ic h t o s o l v e them w i l l

g r a d u a l ly be fo u n d . O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e T h e s is . t h e s i s w i l l be w h o lly s y n t h e t i c .

The a p p r o a c h o f t h i s The work o f a u t h o r i t i e s

a s i t b e a r s on t h e p r o b le m o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o p a ­ g a n d a w i l l b e e x a m in e d a n d s u b j e c t e d t o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s w i l l b e o r g a n i z e d i n t o t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e re a r e t h r e e s o u r c e s fro m w h ic h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s s o u g h t may b e o b t a i n e d .

F irs t,

t h e r e a r e t h e a l r e a d y fo rm u ­

l a t e d c o n c l u s i o n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s who h a v e s t u d i e d th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f pro p ag an d a.

Second, th e r e i s th e c o n c re te

e v id e n c e a v a i l a b l e c o n c e rn in g th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p ro p a ­ ganda.

T h is i n c l u d e s e x p e r i m e n t s , r e c o r d e d o b s e r v a t i o n s ,

57 and c a se stu d ie s*

E v e n tu a lly , a l l p r i n c i p l e s m ust be sup­

p o r t e d on th e b a s i s o f t h i s s o r t o f e v id e n c e .

T h ird , th e re

i s t h e a c c u m u l a te d t h e o r y i n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f i e l d s o f stu d y .

I n some c a s e s t h e r e w i l l b e t h e o r y common t o b o t h

f i e l d s b e c a u s e o f common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e two phenom­ ena.

I n g e n e r a l s u c h t h e o r y w i l l s u b s t a n t i a t e o r w eaken

c o n c lu s io n s i n th e f i e l d o f p ro p ag an d a , and o f f e r c l u e s to a p p r o a c h e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n n e g l e c t e d . E a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e s o u r c e s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e on e c h a p te r of th e t h e s i s .

And a f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l a s s a y a

s y n th e s is o f th e r e s u l t s o f th e th r e e ap p ro ach es i n t o a s e r i e s o f p r i n c i p l e s a n d a so u n d t h e o r y .

CHAPTER I I I STATEMENTS PROM AUTHORITIES I t w ould toe a n i m p o s s i b l e t a s k t o s u r v e y a n d p r e s e n t a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s w h ich h a v e g a i n e d p r i n t r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f pro p ag an d a,

To a s s a y a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f

a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s toy r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t i e s w ould toe n e a r ­ l y as fo o lh a rd y .

In ste a d ,

t h i s c h a p te r w i l l seek to p r e s e n t

t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f o n l y a s e l e c t e d fe w .

The p r i m a r y f a c t o r

i n t h e s e l e c t i o n h a s toeen t h e a p p a r e n t d e g r e e o f r e c o g n i t i o n r e c o r d e d t h e w r i t e r toy o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d . A n o th e r f a c t o r i n t h e s e l e c t i o n h a s toeen t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h e a c h s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s h a s seem ed to c o n t r i b u t e to a t o t a l c o m p r e h e n s io n o f t h e s u b j e c t .

And a f o r t u i t o u s

e l e m e n t h a s u n d o u b t e d l y toeen a t w ork i n t h e c h o i c e o f many of th e s ta te m e n ts . The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y e n c o u n t e r e d i n a m a s s i n g s t a t e ­ m e n ts i s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s t u d i e s o f p r o p a g a n d a t o t h e p r e s e n t tim e h a v e toeen h i s t o r i c a l a n d d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r th a n a n a l y t i c .

T h e r e i s a g r e a t volum e o f l i t e r a t u r e r e ­

l a t i n g t o t h e s o r t s o f p r o p a g a n d a d e v i c e s w h ich h a v e toeen em p lo y ed i n p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s .

T h e re a r e

g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o v e rin g th e ty p e s of propaganda d e v ic e s found u n d er u s u a l c o n d i t i o n s .

T h e re a r e many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s

59

o f t h e a im s o f p r o p a g a n d a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n w a r t i m e .

T h e re

i s a w e a l t h o f m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n an d r e s i s t i n g of propaganda.

B u t t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l e s s com­

p a r in g te c h n iq u e s and c o n d itio n s of propaganda w ith r e s p e c t to t h e i r e f f e c tiv e n e s s . The m o s t p r o l i f i c

so u rce f o r such g e n e r a l iz a ti o n s

c o n c e rn in g th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of propaganda i s th e i n c i d e n t a l s t a t e m e n t h i d d e n d e e p i n s t u d i e s o f p r o p a g a n d a made fro m some o t h e r p o i n t o f v ie w .

Then t h e r e a r e a few c o l l e c t i o n s

o f s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t l y on t h e s u b j e c t a t h a n d .

But th e re

a r e a l s o many s t a t e m e n t s w h ic h a r e d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m , b u t w h ic h r e a l l y c o n s t i t u t e a n e v a l u a t i o n o f m e th o d s . when L e o n a rd Doob s t a t e s

T h u s,

t h e p r i n c i p l e , 11The p r o p a g a n d i s t

p r o d u c e s a n i m p r e s s i o n o f u n i v e r s a l i t y , " ^ h e means t h a t such a p ro ced u re i s p r o d u c tiv e o f e f f e c t i v e p ro p ag an d a. In such c a s e s , th e n ,

t h a t t h e w r i t e r ’ s m e an in g i s e v i d e n t l y

t o s t a t e t h e m e th o d s a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f e f f e c t i v e p r o p a g a n d a , th e se sta te m e n ts w i l l be in c o rp o ra te d in t h i s

th e sis.

The p r o c e d u r e o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e , f i r s t ,

to

ex a m in e a num ber o f s e t s o f c o n c l u s i o n s w h ich h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d by a u t h o r i t i e s ;

s e c o n d , t o a d d some i s o l a t e d c o n ­

c l u s i o n s w h ic h seem to c o n t r i b u t e ; and t h i r d , e v a l u a t e a n d

* L e o n a rd Doob, P r o p a g a n d a , I t s P s y c h o l ogy a n d T ech­ n i q u e (New Y o rk : H en ry H o l t a n d Company, 1935)> p . 416

60 o r g a n i z e t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a s a w h o le . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s C o n c e r n in g P ro p a g a n d a B e ts o f G e n e r a 1 i z a t i o n s .

One o f t h e m o s t c o m p le te

fo rm u la tio n s of a s e t of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o p a g a n d a i s t h a t o f W i llia m A l b i g . S u m m arized , t h e s e a r e a s f o l l o w s : P ro p a g a n d a i s m o s t e f f e c t i v e when a c c o m p a n ie d by c e n so rsh ip . P r o p a g a n d i s t s c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p e a l t o t h e e m o tio n s o f th e ir su b je c ts. A lm o st i n e v i t a b l y t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t becom es a l i a r . The p r o p a g a n d i s t e x a g g e r a t e s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f h i s cause. The p r o p a g a n d i s t f u r t h e r d i s t o r t s b y s e l e c t i o n . The p r o p a g a n d i s t em p lo y s t h e r e d - h e r r i n g t e c h n i q u e . The p r o p a g a n d i s t e t e r n a l l y r e p e a t s h i s a s s e r t i o n s . I t i s a p r o p a g a n d i s t ’ s r u l e t o a v o i d a r g u m e n t. S p e c t a c u l a r m e th o d s a r e u s e d to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . The p r o p a g a n d i s t m u st know t h e p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s of h is s u b je c ts . The p r o p a g a n d i s t m u st h a v e a t h o r o u g h k n o w le d g e o f t h e sy m b o ls w h e re b y a t t i t u d e s a r e e x p r e s s e d . The p r o p a g a n d i s t m u st b e s i m p l e , c l e a r , a n d p r e c i s e . The p r o p a g a n d i s t e x e r c i s e s h i s i n g e n u i t y u p o n a p a r tic u la r S itu a tio n , and, i f he is a s u c c e s s fu l p ropa­ g a n d i s t , h i s m e th o d s a r e i n f i n i t e l y a d a p t a b l e t o situ a tio n s. F i n a l l y , t h e m ore s u c c e s s f u l p r o p a g a n d i s t s u s u a l l y a r e a b le to co n v in ce th e m s e lv e s .^ The m o s t c a r e f u l a t t e m p t a t a f o r m u l a t i o n o f p r i n c i ­ p le s o f propaganda i n s t r i c t l y s c i e n t i f i c

H ill,

te r m s i s

th a t of

^ W i llia m A l b i g , P u b l i c O p in io n (New Y ork: McGraw1 9 3 9 ), PP. 3 1 1 - 3 3 3 .

61

L e o n a r d Doob.

The p r i n c i p l e s a r e l o g i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o

h e a d s a n d s u b - h e a d s , m a k in g them c o n s e q u e n t l y more v a l u a b l e . F u rth e rm o re ,

t h e y a r e b a s e d on a sound p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d

s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , so t h a t Doob, m ore t h a n a n y o th e r a u th o rity ,

seems t o h a v e s e e n p ro p a g a n d a a s a c o n c e p t

f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g phenom ena r a t h e r t h a n s im p ly a p i g e o n ­ h o le f o r c o n v e n ie n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

H ow ever, some o f t h e

p r i n c i p l e s am o un t s i m p l y t o d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s , a n d o t h e r s are not d ire c tly re la te d

t o t h e p ro b le m o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s

of propaganda. 1. PRINCIPLE OF THE INTENTION OF THE PROPAGANDIST. In i n t e n t i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a , t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t i s a w a re o f h i s i n t e r e s t e d a im ; i n u n i n t e n t i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a , he does n o t a p p r e c ia t e th e s o c i a l e f f e c t o f h i s a c tio n s .5 2 . PRINCIPLE OF PERCEPTION. The p r o p a g a n d i s t m akes h i s s t i m u l u s - s i t u a t i o n o u ts ta n d in g th ro u g h th e a r o u s a l of a u x ilia ry a ttitu d e s . 3* PRINCIPLE OF THE TYPE OF PROPAGANDA. The p r o p a ­ g a n d i s t em p lo y s a n y one o r a l l of t h e f o l l o w i n g ty p e s o f p ro p ag an d a: r e v e a le d , d e la y e d r e v e a le d , and co n c e a le d p ro paganda. 4 . PRINCIPLE OF BELA.TED ATTITUDES. I n t h e p r o c e s s o f s u g g e s tio n , th e p ro p a g a n d is t a ro u s e s r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s th a t a re in stru m e n ta l in b rin g in g ab o u t th e d e s ir e d i n t e g r a t i o n . 5 . PRINCIPLE OF THE DESIRED INTEGRATION. The p r o p a ­ g a n d is t secu res a d e s ire d in te g ra tio n th a t p re ­ d i s p o s e s p e o p l e to w a r d h i s a im . 6 . PRINCIPLE OF THE SPHERE OF UNPREDICTABILITY. B e f o r e th e d e s i r e d i n t e g r a t i o n i s a c h ie v e d b etw e en th e r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s a n d , e x c e p t i n th e c a se o f ^ T h is p r i n c i p l e I s b a s e d on a d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o p a g a n d a , w h ic h i n c l u d e s u n i n t e n t i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a . H ence, i t i s i n a p p l i c a b l e to th e p r e s e n t s tu d y .

62 c o n c e a l e d p r o p a g a n d a , t h e c o m p r e h e n s io n o f t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t ’ s aim a n d b e f o r e i t l e a d s t o a c t i o n , t h e r e i s a s p h e r e o f u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y du e to t h e te m p o ra ry c h a r a c t e r o f th e p ro p a g a n d a , th e p r e ­ s e n c e o f c o m p e tin g p r o p a g a n d i s t s , a n d th e com­ p l e x i t y o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t h e g ro u p w i t h w h ic h t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t m u st d e a l . 7. PRINCIPLE OF COUNTER-PROPAGANDA. The p r o p a g a n d i s t u s e s c o u n t e r - p r o p a g a n d a when c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s t e n d t o p r e v e n t t h e d e s i r e d i n t e g r a t i o n fro m e m e r g in g . 8 . PRINCIPLE OF PERSUASION. The p r o p a g a n d i s t u s e s p e r ­ s u a s i o n a s a s u p p l e m e n t a r y m e t h o d .2** U nder e a c h o f t h e a b o v e p r i n c i p l e s Doob makes a num ber o f e l a b o r a t i n g s t a t e m e n t s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g many o f t h e id e a s found i n th e w r i t i n g s of o t h e r s . re p e titio n ,

Some o f t h e s e a r e

s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , u s e o f c o n c e a lm en t o r non­

c o n c e a lm e n t d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e , a p p e a l t o e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e s , v a r i a t i o n o f th e s tim u lu s , use o f p r e s t i g e , b a n d -w a g o n , p r o m i s e s a n d p o s i t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s , d isto rtio n s,

s u p p r e s s io n , f a b r i c a t i o n , and a p p e a l to group

le a d e rs . The p r i m a r y w e a k n e ss o f t h i s s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s i s i t s s u c c e s s i n h i d i n g i t s p o i n t s i n a c a m o u f la g e o f v e r b i a g e .

It

i s d i f f i c u l t t o com prehend t h e p o i n t s o f f e r e d w i t h o u t a c a r e f u l su rv ey of th e e n t i r e book.

F u rth e rm o re , th e p r i n c i ­

p l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e s i n g l e t h e o r y w h ic h t h e a u t h o r e s p o u s e s , a n d l o s e much o f t h e i r v a l u e when a p p r o a c h e d

^ L e o n a rd D oob, o p . c i t . , p p .

©t p a s s i m .

63 fro m a d i f f e r e n t f o u n d a t i o n . B e s i d e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s t h e m s e l v e s , h o w e v e r , Doob h a s made s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s .

He h a s shown th e

n e e d f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s w h ic h r e l a t e t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e t o t a l phenom enon.

He h a s n o t e d t h e n e e d f o r

d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b etw e en p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i v e s o r t s o f p ro p ag an d a.

to d i f f e r e n t

He h a s s e e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e ­

g r a t i n g th e p r i n c i p l e s o f p ropaganda w ith e x i s t i n g p r i n c i ­ p l e s i n r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s i n p s y c h o lo g y an d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . And h e h a s e m p h a s iz e d t h e i m p o r ta n c e o f t h e e x i s t i n g a t t i ­ t u d e s among t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f p ro p a g a n d a i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t iv e n e s s of propaganda. K n ig h t D u n la p h a s p r e p a r e d a l i s t o f tfs i x f u n d a m e n t a l r u l e s o f p r o p a g a n d a , ” w h ic h a r e c o u c h e d i n s i m p l e r t e r m s . They s u f f e r fro m t h e i r s t a t e m e n t i n te r m s o f a d m o n i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r y , b u t c o m p e n s a te th r o u g h t h e i r c l a r i t y an d p re c ise n e ss. 1. I f you h a v e a n i d e a t o p u t o v e r , k e e p p r e s e n t i n g i t in c e ssa n tly . Keep t a l k i n g ( o r p r i n t i n g ) s y s t e m a t i c ­ a l l y and p e r s i s t e n t l y . 2 . A v o id a r g u m e n t a s a g e n e r a l t h i n g . Do n o t a d m it th e r e i s any ’o th e r s id e * ; and i n a l l s ta te m e n ts sc ru p u ­ lo u s ly av o id a ro u s in g r e f l e c t i o n o r a s s o c ia te d id e a s , e x c e p t t h o s e w h ic h a r e f a v o r a b l e . R e s e r v e a r g u m e n t f o r t h e s m a l l e l a s s o f p e o p l e who d e p e n d on l o g i c a l p r o ­ c e s s e s , o r a s a m eans o f a t t r a c t i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h o s e w i t h whom you a r e n o t a r g u i n g . 3 . I n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way c o n n e c t t h e i d e a you w is h t o p u t o v e r w i t h t h e known d e s i r e s o f y o u r a u d i e n c e . Re­ member t h a t w i s h e s a r e t h e b a s i s o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f i d e a s i n more c a s e s t h a n l o g i c i s .

64 4 , Make y o u r s t a t e m e n t s c l e a r , an d I n s u c h la n g u a g e t h a t y o u r a u d i e n c e c a n r e p e a t th em , i n t h o u g h t , w i t h o u t t h e n e e d o f t r a n s f o r m i n g them . 5 . Use d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t s o n l y when you a r e s u r e t h a t a "basis f o r t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n l a i d . O t h e r w i s e , u s e i n d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t , in n u e n d o , a n d im­ p lic a tio n . Use d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e s h a l l b e d raw n t o i t s u f f i c i e n t l y to ta k e i t i n , b u t n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y to r e f l e c t upon i t . 6. F o r t h e m o s t p erm am en t e v e n t u a l r e s u l t s , aim y o u r p r o p a g a n d a a t t h e c h i l d r e n ; m ix i t i n y o u r p e d a g o g y . F o llo w t h e e x a m p le , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , o f I v o r y Soap a n d p r o h i b i t i o n , 5 A. J* M a c k e n z ie h a s l i s t e d w h a t h e c a l l s

th e sev en

s e c r e t s of propaganda s u c c e s s . The f i r s t e s s e n t i a l i n p r o p a g a n d a i s r e p e t i t i o n . The s e c o n d e s s e n t i a l o f so u n d p r o p a g a n d a i s c o l o u r . The a v e r a g e i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a b s t r a c t ­ io n s ; b u t he i s i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s and f a c t s . The t h i r d m a jo r p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p a g a n d a i s t h a t i t sh o u ld c o n ta in a t l e a s t a k e r n e l o f t r u t h . The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p a g a n d a i s t h a t i t s h o u l d b e b u i l t ro u n d a s lo g a n . The f i f t h p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p a g a n d a i s t h a t i t s h o u l d b e d i r e c t e d to w a rd a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e . The s i x t h p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p a g a n d a i s c o n c e a lm e n t o f m o tiv e . T im in g i s t h e s e v e n t h p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p a g a n d a s u c c e s s .® M a c k e n z ie p r e c e d e s h i s l i s t w i t h a h i g h l y s i g n i f i ­ c a n t . s t a t e m e n t w h ic h m ig h t e a s i l y be c o n v e r t e d i n t o a n e ig h th p o in t. 5 K n ig h t D u n la p , S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y ( B a l t i m o r e : The W i l l i a m s an d W i l k i n s Company, 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 25 6 . 6 A. p p . 7 2 - 7 3 . a n t e . , p. 62.

74

p e r s o n s drow n i n i t . S t r o n g e r a n d s t r o n g e r swimming i s r e q u i r e d , an d t y p e s o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t l a c k v i g o r a n d s e l f - r e l i a n c e a r e more a n d m ore l i k e l y t o go u n d e r . 26 Prom t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i t a p p e a r s t h a t w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f s o c i e t y r e s i s t i n g p r o p a g a n d a becom es m ore a n d more d i f f i c u l t .

W h e th er e d u c a t i o n c a n grow f a s t e n o u g h t o

make s t r o n g e r swimmers o f u s a l l i s

th e q u e s tio n f o r th e

fu tu re . A t e c h n i q u e w h ic h f i t s

c l o s e l y w i t h t h e s t a t e o f m ind

w i t h w h ic h C o o le y d e a l s i s p o i n t e d o u t b y H e r b e r t Blummer, A n o th e r f a v o r i t e means o f p r o p a g a n d a i s t o make u s e o f i n g r o u p - o u t g r o u p a t t i t u d e s . . . . E ach g r o u p t e n d s t o f o s t e r a t t i t u d e s o f l o y a l t y a n d a l t r u i s m among t h e mem­ b e r s and to i n c u l c a t e b i t t e r f e e l i n g s of h a t r e d and e n m i t y to w a r d t h e o u t s i d e r s . The a b i l i t y t o u s e t h i s in g ro u p -o u tg ro u p p a t t e r n i s a p rim a ry d e s id e ra tu m to th e p ro p a g a n d ist. He e n d e a v o r s t o g e t p e o p l e t o i d e n t i f y h i s v ie w s w i t h „ t h e i r i n g r o u p f e e l i n g s , a n d o p p o s i n g v ie w s w i t h o u t g r o u p a t t i t u d e s . 2? H a r o ld L a s s w e l l e m p h a s iz e s many o f t h e f a c t o r s e x t e r ­ n a l t o t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t ’ s c o n t r o l w h ic h d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p a ­ ganda’s e ffe c tiv e n e ss. w ork o f c o m m u n ic a tio n s .

One o f t h e s e i s t h e a v a i l a b l e n e t ­ L a s s w e l l a l s o e m p h a s iz e s h e t e r o g e ­

n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s tim e r a c i a l l y , a s a n im p e d im e n t to e f f e c t i v e p ro p ag an d a .

P ro p ag an d a i s l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t

C h a r l e s H. C o o le y , p p . c i t , . p p . 7 5 - 7 6 . 2? " C o l l e c t i v e B e h a v i o r , ” i n An O u t l i n e o f t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i o l o g y , R o b e r t P a r k , e d i t o r ( H e w Y o rk ; B a r n e s a n d N o b le , 1959)> P* 251 •

75 on e v e n t s , w a r - t i m e p r o p a g a n d a s u c c e s s r e f l e c t i n g t h e course of m i l i t a r y fo rtu n e s very la r g e ly . L a s s w e l l e m p h a s iz e s t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t o f th e te n s i o n , a p p l ie d to th e g ro u p ,

t o a c c o u n t f o r some

s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to p ro p ag an d a. The p r o p a g a n d i s t who d e a l s w i t h a com m unity when i t s te n s io n l e v e l i s h ig h , f in d s t h a t a r e s e r v o i r of ex­ p l o s i v e e n e r g y c a n he to u c h e d o f f b y t h e same s m a ll m a tc h w h ic h w o u ld n o r m a l l y i g n i t e a b o n f i r e . ^ 9 J u s t w hat i s th e s o u rc e o r p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h i s l e v e l i s n o t made c l e a r .

te n sio n -

H ow ever, m o st o f u s h a v e p r o b a b l y

f e l t t h a t 11some t h i n g ” i n t h e a i r , a s o r t o f g e n e r a l e x c i t ­ a b ility ,

o f te n a s s o c ia t e d w ith an u n c e r t a in o r c a la m ito u s

tu r n of e v e n ts , o r even w ith c e r t a i n w e a th e r c o n d itio n s . L a ssw e ll f in d s t h a t t h i s te n s io n c h a r a c t e r i z e s i n d u s t r i a l g r o u p s more t h a n t h e a g r a r i a n , m aking t h e f o r m e r c o n s e ­ q u e n t l y more s u s c e p t i b l e t o p r o p a g a n d a . A n o th e r i n t e r e s t i n g comment on p r o p a g a n d a i s t h i s : MA w e l l - r e s t a b l i s h e d i d e o l o g y p e r p e t u a t e s i t s e l f w i t h l i t t l e p l a n n e d p r o p a g a n d a b y t h o s e whom i t b e n e f i t s m o s t* ”^

P r o p a g a n d a T e c h n iq u e i n t h e W orld War (New Y o rk : P e t e r S m ith , 1 9 3 8 ) , p in 1 8 5 -^ 9 8 . 29 I b i d . , p .

190.

3 0 H a r o ld X ia e sw e ll, P o l i t i c s : Who S e t s W h a t. When How (New Y o rk : W h i t t l e s e y H o u se , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 2 9 .

76

Prom t h i s i t may "be c o n c l u d e d t h a t p r o p a g a n d a f o r a w e l l - e s ­ t a b l i s h e d i d e o l o g y w o u ld b e i n e f f e c t i v e .

But s in c e i t h as

a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t p r o p a g a n d a a g a i n s t s u c h ”p r e p o n d eran t o p in io n s” f in d s in te n s e r e s is ta n c e , a g e n e r a liz a ­ t i o n m ig h t b e f o r m u l a t e d t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i n t h e f a c e o f an e s t a b l i s h e d id e o lo g y , any propaganda i s l i k e l y to be l e s s e ffe c tiv e

th a n u n d e r d i f f e r e n t c o n d itio n s .

A n o th e r comment on t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n a n d i t s im p o rta n c e i n d e te r m in in g th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any p ro p a ­ g a n d a comes fro m P a u l L a z a r s f e l d , who s t u d i e d o p i n i o n c h a n g e s a t t h e tim e o f J u s t i c e B l a c k ' s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e Suprem e C o u r t w i t h t h e a c c o m p a n y in g d i s p u t e r e g a r d i n g t h e Ku K lu x IClan.

A t t h i s tim e h e c o n c l u d e d t h a t ,

The g r e a t b u l k o f t h e c h a n g e comes fro m t h o s e p e o p l e who o r i g i n a l l y h a d no o p i n i o n on t h e m a t t e r a n d made up t h e i r m in d s one way o r a n o t h e r d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c d i s ­ c u ssio n . 3 ' T h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e d e g r e e to w h ic h a d h e r e n c e t o t h e t r u t h i s a n e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l propaganda.

One w r i t e r s u p p o r t s F r a n k K e n t ' s ^ 2 m i n i m i z i n g

of th e need f o r t r u t h . The b i g l i e

i s a re c o g n iz e d te c h n iq u e i n a p ro p a -

31 11The Change o f O p in io n D u rin g a P o l i t i c a l D i s ­ c u s s i o n , ” J o u r n a l o f A p p lie d P sy c h o lo g y , 2 3 ;1 ^ 1 , J a n u a ry 1939 . Cf. a n t e . , p . 6 5 .

77

g a n d a c a m p a ig n , e n s h r i n e d i n H i t l e r ’ s "M ein Kampf" a n d b r o u g h t t o p e r f e c t i o n b y G -oebbels. One o f t h e b e s t w ays t o u s e i t i s t o i n v e n t some f u t u r e a c t o n t h e p a r t o f y o u r enem y, a n d l a m b a s t e h im f o r s o m e th in g h e n e v e r d id , n e v e r w i l l do, and h as n o t th e s l i g h t e s t I n t e n t i o n o f e v e r d o i n g : a n d p r e c i p i t a t e a d e b a t e on w h a t w i l l h a p p e n when h e d o e s i t . 53 I n se e m in g c o n t r a d i c t i o n E. H. C a r r m a i n t a i n s t h a t " t h e more n e a r l y p r o p a g a n d a a p p r o x i m a t e s t r u t h , i t w i l l b e , "5 ^

th e b e t t e r

More e m p h a t i c a l l y , E d g a r S t e r n - R u b a r t h

f in d s: F o r i f one t h i n g i s t r u e o f a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , a n d e v e n m ore so i n t h e em ploym ent o f s u c h s h a r p a n d d a n g e r o u s w ea p o n s a s t h o s e o f p r o p a g a n d a , i t i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e l o n g r u n n o t h i n g c a n be g a i n e d w i t h o u t th e b l e s s i n g o f t r u t h and s i n c e r i t y . - ^ I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , h o w e v e r, h e r e a g a i n t h e r e a l d iffe re n c e l i e s

i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f w h ic h on e i s s p e a k ­

in g r a t h e r th a n in th e c o n c lu s io n s re a c h e d .

In th e s h o r t

r u n , i n se c u rin g in te n s e and e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s , succeed.

l i e s may

H ow ever, p e r h a p s i t r e m a i n s t r u e t h a t g i v e n t i m e ,

" tr u th w ill o u t."

L ik e T a l l e y r a n d ’ s b a y o n e t s , you c a n do

a n y th in g w ith l i e s

e x c e p t s i t on them.

A c c o r d i n g t o R i c h a r d L a m b e rt, " I n d i r e c t m e th o d s o f 53 " L i n d b e r g a n d t h e B ig L i e , " The New R e p u b l i c , t 9 5 : 4 5 3 , O c to b e r 13, 1941. 54 P r o p a g a n d a i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s F a r r a r a n d R i n e h a r t , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 28

(New Y ork:

55 11The M eth o ds o f P o l i t i c a l P r o p a g a n d a , " i n P u b l i c O p i n i o n a n d W o rld P o l i t i c s , Q u in c y W r i g h t , e d i t o r ( C h ic a g o . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 115.

78 p r o p a g a n d a a r e g e n e r a l l y more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n d i r e c t m e th o d s , b e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t b e so e a s i l y I d e n t i f i e d . The p l a c e o f t h e m o ti o n p i c t u r e a s a p u r v e y o r o f i n d i r e c t p r o p a g a n d a i s e m p h a s iz e d by E d g a r D a le . . . . The m o ti o n p i c t u r e d r a m a t i s t i s , o f n e c e s s i t y , a s p e c i a l p l e a d e r , p r a c t i c i n g a fo rm o f s u a s i o n . He i s a t t e m p t i n g t o s e c u r e a te m p o r a r y s u s p e n s i o n o f c r i t i c a l ju d g m e n t on t h e p a r t o f t h e a u d i e n c e . F u rth e r, c e rta in p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a r e a l s o a t w ork t o a i d him i n s e c u r i n g t h i s r e m i s s i o n o f ju d g m e n t. T here i s th e d a r k e n e d ro om , t h e l i g h t f o c u s e d on a s c r e e n , t h e c u t tin g o ff of a l l ex tra n eo u s su g g e stio n . The r e c e p t i v e mood o f t h e s p e c t a t o r , w a i t i n g t o b e e n t e r t a i n e d , a d d s t o t h e n o n - c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e w i t h w h ic h h e v ie w s t h e film . I f th e d r a m a tis t is s u c c e s s f u l, he v i r t u a l l y s e c u r e s e m o t i o n a l p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e members o f t h e a u d i e n c e . 37 A n o th e r k i n d o f p r o p a g a n d a f o u n d i n t h e m o tio n p i c ­ t u r e s , a n d a k i n d w h ic h i s e x c e e d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t an d e l u s i v e , i s th e c o n s ta n t r e i t e r a t i o n of a c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h y o r way o f l i f e . I t seem s r e a s o n a b l e t o assum e, does i t n o t , t h a t th e id e a s of th e le a d in g c h a r a c t e r s i n m ovie p l o t s w i l l b e t a k e n o v e r i n some d e g r e e by t h e m i l l i o n s o f young p e o p l e who a t t e n d t h e t h e a t e r s w e e k ly ? The v e r y s t r u g g l e s an d a m b i t i o n s o f th e h e ro e s and h e r o in e s c a s t a h a lo a b o u t th e g o a ls th e y a r e t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e . 58 The c r e a t i o n a n d t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t e r e o t y p e s i n prop ag an d a a s a h ig h l y e f f e c t i v e te c h n iq u e i s p o in te d o u t

56 p r o p a g a n d a (L on do n: Thomas N e ls o n ,

1959) , P* 4-5.

57 "M o v ies a n d P r o p a g a n d a , 11 i n E d u c a t i o n A g a i n s t P ro p a g a n d a , N a ti o n a l C o u n c il f o r S o c ia l S t u d i e s , S ev en th Y e a rb o o k , 1957, p . 7 1 . 38 i b i d . , p . 7 3 .

79 "by many*

A c c o r d in g t o S. I . H ayakaw a, t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t ’ s

m o s t p o w e r f u l w eapon i s ’’h i s a b i l i t y

to c r e a t e a u to m a tic ,

a s s o c i a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s — ’ J e w s - e n e m i e s , ’ *s t r i k e - v i o l e n c e ,* ’a s p i r i n - B a y e r ’ s , ’ ’R u s s i a - r e d ’ —w h ic h a r e t h e m o s t m ark ed f e a t u r e s o f p u b l i c s t u p i d i t y - . 11^

S t u a r t C hase i s r e p o r t e d

t o h a v e recom mended t h a t t h e New D e a l t a k e c a r e a lw a y s t o em p lo y t h e r i g h t w o r d s , t h o s e w h ic h c a l l up f a v o r a b l e r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e w h ic h e l i c i t u n f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e .

T h u s , ’’i n v e s t ­

m e n t” i s a g oo d w ord an d ’’d e b t ” a b a d o n e , ” s a v i n g s ” good and "h o a rd in g ” bad,

" ru n n in g ex p en ses” b e t t e r th a n "sp en d ­

in g . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a n o t h e r ty p e o f s t e r e o t y p e , p e rso n a lity ,

th e

i n p r o p a g a n d a c a m p a ig n s i s f u n d a m e n t a l .

. . . Knowing t h a t p e r s o n a l i t i e s a r e o f t e n more im p o r­ t a n t th a n p r i n c i p l e s , p r o p a g a n d is ts busy th e m selv es in and o u t o f s e a s o n to " b u i l d up" t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s , c r e a t e m y th s a b o u t them , a n d m a g n if y t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s an d c h a rm s o f q u i t e o r d i n a r y men r u n n i n g f o r o f f i c e . They a l s o se ek to c r e a t e u n fa v o ra b le le g e n d s a b o u t th e r i v a l c a n d id a te s. ^ C e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s c a r r y w i t h them a n a i r o f a u t h e n ­ t i c i t y w h ic h g r e a t l y e n h a n c e s t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . th e se i s

One o f

t h e map.

39 ’’G e n e r a l S e m a n tic s an d P r o p a g a n d a , " P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y . 3 : 2 0 8 , A p r i l 1939. ^ 0 " p ro p a g a n d a G l o s s a r y , ” T im e. 3 3 : 6 5 - , J u n e 19, 1939. ^ B a lp h P . C a s e y , " P a r t y Cam paign P r o p a g a n d a , ” The A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1 7 9 :1 0 3 , May 1935.

80 B u t i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o s e e t h a t we a r e n o t a t a l l c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r t w h ic h t h e maps a n d t h e a r t o f m ap-m aking p l a y s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g a new c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w orld* We s i m p l y r e l y o n maps a s i f t h e y w ere f a c t s i n t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h i n k i n g an d s e e in g .^ " 2 O t h e r m e d ia w h ic h s h a r e t h i s a i r o f a u t h o r i t y a n d c o n s e q u e n tly a r e a c c e p te d as v e r i t i e s a lm o st w ith o u t q u e s tio n in c lu d e s t a t i s t i c s , p i c t u r e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y p h o to g ra p h s * S y n th e s is o f th e G e n e r a liz a tio n s G en eral O b s e r v a tio n s . little

A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e w o u ld be

v a l u e i n a s im p le r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e many s t a t e m e n t s

r e l a t i n g to th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p ropaganda.

R a th e r, i t

is

e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e y b e e x a m in e d i n t h e l a r g e t o s e e how t h e y may b e co m b in ed i n t o a v a l i d t h e o r y o f p r o p a g a n d a . F i r s t of a l l ,

it

i s a t o n ce c l e a r t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e ­

n e s s o f p r o p a g a n d a i s n o t a t a l l a s im p l e m a t t e r f o r r e a d y and c e r t a i n p r e d i c t i o n in any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .

The

e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p ro p ag an d a i s c e r t a i n l y n o t th e f u n c tio n of a s in g le p r in c ip le , b u t r a th e r of se v e ra l. A second o b s e r v a tio n i s to th e e f f e c t t h a t th e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t among s t u d e n t s o f t h i s

^ H. W, W e i g e r t , "Maps a r e W eap o ns," S u r v e y G r a p h i c , 3 0 : 5 2 8 , O c t o b e r 19^1. C h a r l e s W. S m ith . P u b l i c O p in io n i n a D em ocracy (New Y o rk : P r e n t i c e H a l l , * 9 3 9 ) , P.

81 su b ject*

T h is

is

m ore a p p a r e n t i n

w h ich h a s b e e n o m it t e d

t h e v o lu m e o f l i t e r a t u r e

to a v o id n e e d le s s r e p e t i t i o n

t h a t w h ic h h a s b e e n su m m a rized i n

th e p r e c e d in g p a g e s .

s t a t e m e n t s a r e fo u n d w h ich d i r e c t l y But in

th e

th ir d p la c e

sta tem en ts or even a la r g e accep ted ,

none o f

th e a n a ly s e s

it

is

c o n tr a d ic t e v id e n t

p o r tio n o f

th a t i f

th e m a r e

th e la w s s u g g e s t e d

Few

each o th er. a ll

th e

to be

th e a n a ly s e s h ave b e e n c o m p le te .

covered a l l

th an i n

N on e o f

or even a l l

th e

fie ld s . F ou rth ,

none o f

th e w r it e r s h a s d e v e lo p e d a t h e o r e t ­

i c a l fram ew ork s u f f i c i e n t l y e n tir e

phenom enon o f

approach i s to le a v e

c o m p r e h e n siv e

e ffe c tiv e

to encom pass

propaganda.

The c l o s e s t

o f f e r e d by L eonard Doob, b u t h i s

out

th e g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f

th e

schem e seem s

th e p r in c ip le s

w h ic h

o th e r s h ave fo r m u la te d . It of

seem s p o s s i b l e ,

sta tem en ts

to a v a lid

how ever,

to red u ce

and w o r k a b le t h e o r y .

fi h

T here i s

on e c o r e p r i n c i p l e w h ic h seem s

to

of

I s a p r i n c i p l e w h ic h w o u ld

th e p r e c e d in g a n a ly s e s .

It

show i t s e l f

t h i s a sse m b la g e

be germ ane to a n y s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . s o c ia l p rocess.

^

As s u c h ,

it

is

th rou gh m ost

Propaganda i s

to be u n d ersto o d

o n ly as

a it

G om pare C l a r e n c e M. C a s e , r,L e a d e r s h i p a n d C o n j u n c ­ t u r e ; A S o c i o l o g i c a l H y p o t h e s i s , ” S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e­ s e a r c h . 1 7 :5 1 0 - 5 1 3 , J u l y 1933.

82 i s p e r c e iv e d a s a n i n t e g r a l , f u n c tio n in g p a r t o f ” th e s o c i a l p r o c e s s 11 o f A l b i o n S m a ll ,

P r o p a g a n d a i s n o t t o "be

co m p re h e n d e d a p a r t fro m t h e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l m i l e u i n w h ic h i t i s b o t h c a u s e a n d e f f e c t . T h is a n a l y s i s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a s t u d y o f a n y a s p e c t o f t h e t o t a l phenom enon o f p r o p a g a n d a .

The c a u s e o f p r o p a ­

ganda i s p ro b a b ly to be fo u n d i n th e p r e v a i l i n g t o t a l s i t u a t i o n a s w e ll a s i n th e a m b itio n s of i t s

in s tig a to rs ,

A s tu d y o f p ropaganda a s a p ro d u c t of th e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n m ig h t c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s

e l i m i n a t i o n an d r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h

e d u c a tio n and u n b ia s e d in fo rm in g . w h ic h p r o p a g a n d a

The p a r t i c u l a r fo rm s

t a k e s a t a g i v e n tim e m ig h t s i m i l a r l y be

more a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d i n te rm s o f t h e t o t a l m i l e u a t th e tim e . As a p p l i e d t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o p a g a n d a , t h i s c o r e p r i n c i p l e e x p l a i n s t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f many a n a l y s e s . I t m eans t h a t p r o p a g a n d a i s n o t t o b e s t u d i e d s i m p l y i n te r m s o f m e th o d s .

I t m eans t h a t

no u n i l i n e a r c a u s e - e f f e c t

r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e c h n i q u e an d r e s u l t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f th e s i t u a t i o n can be so u g h t. 4 T h re e fo ld A n a ly s is .

A t o t a l v ie w o f t h e e f f e c ­

t i v e n e s s of p ro p ag an d a m ust th e n in v o lv e t h r e e a s p e c t s . F irs t,

t h e r e a r e t h e m e th o d s em p lo y ed b y t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t .

C e r t a i n l y i t h a s b ee n fou n d t h a t c e r t a i n te c h n iq u e s w i l l

S3 g e n e r a l l y b e f o u n d m o re e f f e c t i v e th ere

is

e v id e n t

th e r e c e p t iv e n e s s

th ere are

I f m any o f

th ere

th e

in te r a c tio n

of

th e

to be a c c r e d it e d ,

s p e c ific

te c h n iq u e s

d ir e c te d .

s o c ia l T here

te c h n iq u e s do

th e propaganda ru n s

v a lu e or a t t it u d e .

th ese a sp e c ts

I t may a l s o

g e n e r a l i z a t i o n m ost r e a d i l y . i n w h ic h

th e p e o p le .

th e p a r t ic u la r

of

th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s

t h a t w h ich h a s r e c e i v e d

th e p a s t .

th e a s p e c t

is

tow ard a h i g h l y r e c e p t i v e

som ew here

t o so m e e s t a b l i s h e d

propaganda i s in

It

to propaganda

P e r fe c tly s a tis fa c to r y

s itu a tio n because

The f i r s t

tio n

are

tow ard w h ic h th e p ro p a g a n d a i s

n o t a l w a y s w o r k w h en d i r e c t e d

co u n ter

of

th e propaganda w ith

a " c o n j u n c t u r e . ” 4 -*

s o c ia l

s itu a tio n .

t o p rop agan d a on th e p a r t o f

is

and m eth o d s o f s itu a tio n

th e w r it e r s

Second,

c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w h ich a r e c o n d u c iv e

to r e c e p t iv it y

is

th e s o c i a l

t h a t so m e p e o p l e a r e m o re i m p e r v i o u s

th an o t h e r s .

T h ir d ,

of

th a n o t h e r s .

be

of

th e g r e a t e s t a t t e n ­

t h e a s p e c t w h ic h p e r m it s

F u rth erm ore,

it

has been

t h e la y m a n and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o p a ­

g a n d is t w ere m ost i n t e r e s t e d . As d is t in g u is h e d a tio n ,

from th e o t h e r a s p e c t s

of

th e s i t u ­

t h e m e t h o d s may b e d e f i n e d a s b e i n g m o s t c o m p l e t e l y

su b je c t to

th e p r o p a g a n d ist’ s c o n t r o l.

45 C f. Loc, c i t .

W ith in r a t h e r

84

g en eral lim ita tio n s

t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t may em ploy w h a t e v e r

m eans a n d m e d ia h i s r e s o u r c e s make p o s s i b l e . In c lu d e d u n d e r t h i s f i r s t c a te g o r y a r e a l l

th e s o -

c a l l e d " r u l e s " o r p r o p a g a n d a o r " s e c r e t s 11 o f p r o p a g a n d a . The i m p o r t a n c e o f r e p e t i t i o n , d r a m a t i z a t i o n , vo lu m e o f s tim u li, h o n e sty , r i d i c u l e ,

s im p lic ity , p o s itiv e a p p e a l,

i n d i r e c t i o n a n d c o n c e a l m e n t o f m o tiv e w o u ld b e i n c l u d e d u n d e r t h i s g e n e r a l h e a d in g . The s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s

t h a t a s p e c t o f th e t o t a l

s i t u a t i o n w h ic h i s m o st i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t ’ s c o n tro l.

A t t h e tim e h e commences h i s p r o p a g a n d a , h i s o n l y

o p tio n i s to a c c e p t o r r e j e c t th e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .

He

may h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s h a p i n g t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n th ro u g h p ropaganda e a r l i e r .

And h i s p r o p a g a n d a a lw a y s

s e e k s to a l t e r t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n so m ew h at. moment t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s

B u t a t th e

th e s o i l i n w h ic h h e s e e k s

to p la n t h is id e a s . The s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s t i t u t e d b y t h e two com­ p le m e n ta ry e le m e n ts , g r o u p . 4*6

th e a t t i t u d e s and th e v a l u e s o f th e

T h ese a t t i t u d e s a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n b o t h t h e i r

s ta tic or r e la tio n a l a sp e c ts, c e ssu a l a sp e c ts.

an d i n t h e i r d y n a m ic o r p r o -

M a jo r a l t e r a t i o n s i n a n y o f t h e g r o u p

4*6o f . W i l l i a m I . Thomas a n d F l o r i a n Z n a n i e c k i , The p o l i s h P e a s a n t i n E u ro p e a n d A m eric a ( B o s to n : R i c h a r d G. B a d g e r , 1 9 1 8 ) , V o l. I , p p . 2 0 - 2 3 .

85 values are sufficiently important to "be named as a third component of the social situation,

the e v e n t s . ^

From the standpoint of propaganda, the social situa­ tion is important in several ways.

First, the issue itself

is a product and a part of the social situation.

Certain

issues, "because of the prevailing attitudes and value schemes are more amenable to the method of propaganda than are others.

Thus, according to Aldous Huxley, the unim­

portant issue is more likely to be solved through propaganda than the more fundamental.

It might be suggested that those

issues which are most fundamentally matters of fact are least likely to be profitable fields for propaganda. Second,

the prevailing facilities for communication

constitute an important factor in determining how effective propaganda may be.

The propagandist is limited to the

symbols which have meaning to the group; he is limited by the mechanical devices available. Third, the prevailing attitudes and habits and values determine to a large extent the susceptibility which will be shown to propaganda.

A group habituated to calm, rational

consideration of issues is less likely to be Railroaded” or 11stampeded” into a prescribed definition of the situation.

^

C f . Frederick J. Teggart, Theory of History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1925) » pP* 147-149-.

86

Fourth,

the general organization and functioning of

the prevailing social and political and economic structure may he conducive to or restrictive of susceptibility to propaganda in general,

Thus, propaganda is less effective

in a static than in a dynamic society, less effective in an immobile than in a mobile system. The third aspect of the effectiveness of propaganda is that least subject to generalization at present, because it is concerned with more specific types of situation. However, some generalizations are possible.

That propaganda

which most nearly satisfies the deepest wishes of the popu­ lace toward which it is directed is the most likely to be effective.

That propaganda which supports or utilizes the

constant and enduring values of the populace is most likely to be effective.

The assertion that propaganda directed

toward the "wrong public 11 is futile

AA

is a further example

of this aspect of the effectiveness of propaganda.

It is

apparently in this aspect that least certainty exists in present theory, and it is this aspect which accommodated itself least readily to controlled experimentation and r e ­ search.

R e y n e l l W r e f o r d , " P r o p a g a n d a , E v i l a n d G o o d ,11 The N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu r y an d A f j te r , 9 3 * 5 1 5 , A p r i l t9&3.

87 The hypothesis proposed on the basis of the evi­ dence in this chapter may be stated as follows: The effec­ tiveness of propaganda is determined by (t) the methods used,

(2 ) the social situation receiving the propaganda,

and (3 ) the interaction of the specific propaganda and the particular social situation.

The validity of this h y ­

pothesis may be more adequately tested in the remaining chapters of the thesis.

CHAPTER XV CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES The sources of concrete evidence concerning the effectiveness of propaganda are broadly divisible into tw.o categories.

The first includes the more exact, more

11objective , 11 studies, of either an experimental or statis­ tical nature. studies.

The second subsumes the historical and case

While the interpretations of the latter leave more

to the investigator’s insight and are less subject to veri­ fication by others, the interpretations of the former are based upon more abstracted and less typical situations. These two sources complement each other, and conclusions are inadequate unless based on both.

The procedure of this

chapter will be to examine first the experimental and statistical data, and second the case material. Experimental and Statistical Data Experimental Studies.

More studies have been

pursued to demonstrate that propaganda is effective than to demonstrate under what conditions it may be more effective. Such relatively undifferentiated results are illustrated by two reports by L. L. Thurstone.

However, even from

these it is possible to draw certain inferences relating to the px’esent problem.

89 One hundred eighty-two school children in Geneva, Illinois, were shown the pro-Chinese motion picture film, "Son of the Gods,"

Scores on an attitude scale taken be­

fore and after viewing the motion picture showed a con­ siderable shift in attitudes favorable to the Chinese people.

A similar experiment with one hundred seventy-two

school children being shown the film, "Welcome Danger," resulted in a slight shift away from the Chinese. Besides demonstrating that attitudes can be altered measurably without rational justification,

this study is

chiefly of importance in illustrating the indirect and graphic methods. parison,

Without providing the basis for any com­

this study does show that propagandistie effects

may be hidden within amusement and may operate without any direct statement. In another study, Thurstone employed as subjects two hundred forty school children, grades 9 to 1 2 , from Mendota,

Illinois.

These children saw several motion

pictures, most of which brought about attitude changes, One in particular, "Street of Chance," produced a very con­ spicuous effect,

1 L. L. Thurstone, "The Measurement of Change In Social Attitudes," Journal of Social Psychology, 2:230-235, May 1931.

90 • . . The film made the children more severe in their judgment of gambling than they were before seeing the film. It seems to be evident from these experiments and from others of a similar type that motion pictures can be used to affect the social attitudes of school children and that these effects can be objectively measured . 2 William Keh-Ching Chen studied the influence of oral propaganda material upon college students* race attitudes. The propaganda material consisted of brief talks, proJapanese, pro-Chinese, and neutral with respect to the Manchurian situation, and pro-Chinese and pro-Japanese on art.

Some of the conclusions reached were as follows:

A

few minutes of vigorous propaganda in the classroom may effect considerable changes in attitudes; all types of persons studied were influenced, irrespective of emotional or logical appeal;

the effect was greater with material

dealing directly with the subject than with that dealing indirectly through appreciation of art; and original atti­ tudes are not significant in determining the ease or degree to which they can be modified.-^ The conclusions of value from this experiment are three.

First is the lack of difference between emotional

2 L. L. Thurstone, "Influence of Motion Pictures on Children’s Attitudes," Journal of Social Psychology, 2 :2 9 1 3 0 5 , August, 1931. ^**j?he Influence of Oral Propaganda Material Upon Students* Attitudes," Archives of Psychology, no. 150, April 1933, 4-3 pp.

91 and rational appeals.

Second is the lesser effect of

appeal to a related subject.

And third is the independence

of the effects and the original attitudes of the subjects. George W. Hartmann attempted to compare the effects of “emotional” and -“rational” propaganda in an actual political campaign.

The socialist party was selected

because it presented the most stable situation.

Three

wards were chosen on the basis of their similarity with respect to several factors.

To every house in one of the

wards was distributed a pamphlet bearing an “emotional" appeal;

to every house in the second ward a pamphlet con­

taining a "rational" appeal was sent; and the third ward served as a control.

Actually there might be some question

concerning use of the term "rational," for while the argu­ ments contained were reasonable,

they were clearly one­

sided and insufficient for the conclusion offered. the results of the study were marked.

However,

"The increase in the

minority party vote was greatest in the emotional wards, next largest in the rational wards, and lowest in the control wards. This experiment also demonstrates that propaganda can be effective, but disagrees with the last study in conclud— ^ "A Field Experiment on the Comparative Effective­ ness of 'Emotional* and 'Rational 1 Political Leaflets in Determining Election Results*,“ Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 31:99-114, April 1936.

92 ing that an 11emotional” appeal is more effective than a "rational-appearing" appeal. Henry T. Moore compared the effectiveness of major­ ity opinion and expert opinion in influencing 95 students 1 opinions on linguistic, ethical, and musical Issues.

The

test consisted of pairs of statements, one of which was to he checked as preferred in each case.

After reporting to

the group the verdict of the majority in each case, the test was given again.

Then a statement of an expert rela­

tive to each pair was presented to the group, and they were retested.

The changes recorded hy the first retesting were

five times those expected hy chance in the direction of majority opinion.

Changes in the second retesting showed a

switch toward the expert’s opinion amounting to twice that expected hy chance.

Furthermore,

. . . we may venture the statement that a man is two and one-half times as individualistic in his musical likes and dislikes as in his moral and linguistic preferences. Similarly we may conclude that expert and majority opinion hold ahout equal sway over the individual in morals and music, hut that the chances are ahout ten to seven in favor of majority prestige in matters pertain­ ing to speech.5 These results may he questioned because regardless of other factors an opinion may he expected to become more

^ "The Comparative Influence of Majority and Expert Opinion," American Journal of Psychology, 32:16-20, January

19 2 1 .

93 stable with successive retesting.

However, the differential

effect of propaganda in the different issues is supported by reason, since linguistic preference is, in the final analy­ sis, a matter of popular decision. Clare E. Marple investigated the same problem of majority versus expert opinion, with 3 0 0 high school seniors, 300 college seniors, and 300 representative adults in Iowa as subjects.

Three equivalent groups were formed,

the

members of each were given a list of questions to answer, and one month’s time permitted to elapse.

Then the first

group was informed of the majority results, the second of certain experts’ decision, and the third was told nothing. One month later all were retested.

The influence of the

group opinion was roughly four times that of chance, and the influence of expert opinion three times chance. more,

Further­

susceptibility varied inversely with age.^ This study supports the previous one in its conclu­

sion, and adds a new factor in determining effectiveness of propaganda, i.e., age of the recipient. The importance of the popularity of the supposed source of dogmatic statements was the issue of an experiment

6 ’’The Comparative Suggestibility of Three Age Levels to the Suggestion of Group Versus Expert Opinion," Journal of Social Psychology. 4:176-184, May 1933.

94 with two college classes. was prepared.

A group of dogmatic statements

The same statements were attributed in some

cases to a person known to be well-liked, in others to persons known to be disliked by the students, and in others to no one.

The students were then asked to indicate their

approval or disapproval of the statements.

The statements

were given greater credence when attributed to a popular source.7 The preceding conclusion is verified by Irving Lorge, with 99 unemployed adults.

By a complicated and careful

procedure the difference in evaluation of statements when attributed to authorities highly respected by the subjects, when attributed to someone not highly regarded, and when the source of the statement was unknown was measured.

The

results clearly demonstrated that acceptance of the state­ ments was closely related to prestige of the supposed source with the particular recipient,

Q

Gerhart Wiebe investigated the relation between the number of times a piece of music is played on the radio and its popularity with 134 high school and college students. 7 Mitchel Saadi and Paul Farnsworth, nThe Degree of Acceptance of Dogmatic Statements and Preferences for Their Supposed Makers , 11 Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 29:143-150, July 1934.

o

”F r e s t i g e , S u g g e s t i o n a n d A t t i t u d e s , ” The P s y c h o ­ l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 32:750, November 1935.

These students liked ten popular songs which were later widely broadcast no better than thirteen songs seldom or never broadcast.

A month later the much played songs were

liked to the same degree but the unplayed songs had dropped in favor.9 Another student finds that sales of sheet music rise and fall consistently according to the number of times the particular songs are played on the radio, with a two-weeks lag. Theae t?*o reports lend themselves to at least five different interpretations. effect of repetition,

The results may indicate the

they may indicate the importance of

group pressure and the "band wagon," they may indicate the importance of the prestige of certain radio personalities, they may indicate that the better pieces are played more often, or they may indicate some combination of these factors Comparison of various media of propaganda was the object of an experiment with three groups of college stud­ ents.

The same material was presented to each group: to one

group as a speech,

to the second as a radio broadcast, and to

9 "The Effects of Radio Plugging on Students* Opinions of Popular Songs," Journal of Applied psychology, 24:721-7, 1940. 10 Michael Erdelyi, "The Relation Between *Radio Plugs and Sheet Sales of Popular Music," Journal of Applied Psy­ chology. 24:696-702, 1940.

96 the third as a printed text.

This material was presented on

four different topics, and the groups and media inter­ changed.

The attitudes of these groups and of a control

group were measured two weeks "before and one week after application of the propaganda.

The speaker technique was

found to be most effective and the printed word least effective.

Attitudes in the radical direction were more

stable and changes were more frequent in the radical di­ rection. * * The conclusion regarding the three media seem valid in this experiment, but those regarding the initial atti­ tude and direction of change may or may not be significant. They may have been brought about by the construction of the test, or they may indicate something peculiar to the age group studied. Frederick Lumley reports a number of studies which support the first conclusion of the preceding experiment regarding the superiority of the auditory stimulus over the visual, reporting a few disagreements,*^ In a careful experiment Franklin Knower permitted

** W a l t e r H, W i lk e , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l C o m p a riso n o f t h e S p e e c h , t h e R a d io , a n d t h e P r i n t e d P age a s P r o p a g a n d a D e v i c e s , " A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y . Ho, 169, J u n e 1934, 32 p p . *^ Measurement in Radio (Columbus: Ohio State Uni­ versity, 1934), pp. 215-218.

97

221 college students to read a printed argument on only one side of a sool&l issue, let 107 students read arguments on both sides, and used another 100 students as a control. These arguments were read under varying situations, and attitudes of the subjects measured before and after the argument was presented. follows:

No difference

Significant conclusions are as was noted in the effect

of per­

suasive and logical appeals; Subjects reading the arguments alone in a room were more influenced material in a classroom

than those

reading the

with others; Women were

influenced

more than men; Oral presentation of the arguments was more effective than presentation in printed form; Those who read both arguments were only slightly influenced,

their move­

ment being in the direction of intensifying their initial opinions; and when speeches on both sides were presented, primacy in order of reading seemed to influence the re­ sults. ^ Solomon Rosenthal subjected college students to “radical 11 motion picture propaganda, and found the propa­ ganda generally effective, although it occasionally worked in the opposite direction to that intended.

The propaganda

13 Study of the Effect of Printed Argument on Changes of Attitude,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 30:522-532, March 1936 .

98 was more effective on attitudes directly involved in the subject matter than on issues more distantly related, sup­ porting Chen*s finding.

It was also found that dislikes of

particular stereotypes are more easily aroused than erased. 1^ The last conclusion is supported by a study of the Turkish Stereotype, It seems significant that past propaganda efforts have succeeded in building up types of unfavorable stereotypes which are so uncritically believed that they prevent unbiased observation or clear thinking about changed conditions in Turkey today by a majority of a group of university students.15 Frederick Lund had 31 college students rate 30 propo­ sitions from social fields on 2 1 -point scales of belief, of certainty of knowledge, and of desire.

The results demon­

strated a clear connection between belief and desire.

The

conclusions also supported those of the former studies in demonstrating the importance of primacy of stimulation, and proving that beliefs are more easily formed than relin­ quished, especially after open commitment on the subject. 1^

14

M

"Changes of Socio-Economic Attitudes Under Radical Motion Picture Propaganda , 11 Archives of Psychology, 166,

1934 .

*5 Harry Meyering, "The Turkish Stereotype," Sociol­ ogy and Social Research, 22:122-123, November, 1937. 16 “The Psychology of Belief," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 20:63-81, April 1985; 175-180, July 1985.

99

The author of this study may he exceeding the con­ clusions justified hy his data, hut his interpretations seem to fit with results from other studies. The difficulties of altering strongly entrenched beliefs are further demonstrated in a Columbia University study in which the opinions of ten theists and ten atheists were unaltered hy propaganda for the opposite viewpoint , ^ A number of radio fans tested exhibited a tendency to mark more statements true than false, even though the statements were contradictory.

The author concluded that,

”. . . minds work much more readily in the positive than in the negative direction , 1

18

Gardner Murphy and Rensis Likert compared suscepti­ bility of “radicals” and “conservatives” to propaganda on a variety of social issues. students.

The subjects were a number of

After following an extremely careful procedure, it

was concluded that no relation existed between initial social attitudes and susceptibility to the printed propaganda material,*9

This contradicts the findings of Wilke.

17 “propaganda is Ineffective When Minds are not Ready,” Science News Letter, 36:334, November 18, 1939. Edward Robinson, "Are Radio Fans Influenced,” Survey, 68:546-7, November 1, 1932. 19 p u b l i c O p i n i o n a n d t h e I n d i v i d u a l a n d B r o t h e r s , 1938), pp. 142-161.

(New Y o r k : H a r p e r

100

William Biddle attempted to determine the connection between autistic thinking, which may be an indication of effective propaganda, and knowledge of the issues involved. A number of articles interpreting certain international issues were presented to students for evaluation.

The

variance of each student's evaluation from that of a majority of authorities was the measure of autistic think­ ing employed.

When a test of knowledge of the facts of the

issue was presented, it correlated ~.35'£v043 with the measure of autistic t h i n k i n g . ^

While the measure of

autistic thinking is subject to considerable question,

the

conclusion is that which would be expected on the basis of other evidence. Examining the effect of the motion pictures on chil­ dren's social attitudes, Ruth Peterson and L. L. Thurstone found definite effects from some pictures, and none from others.

They also discovered a slightly uncertain tendency

for the effect to vary with the age of the child.

It was

found that two pictures, neither of which was effective in changing attitudes by itself, did alter the attitudes of those who saw them both.

Testing as much as 19 months later

"T he R e l a t i o n s h i p

B e t w e e n K n o w le d g e a n d a M e a s u r e

o f A u t i s t i c T h i n k i n g o n C e r t a i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s ," J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Ps y c h o l o g y , 2 : 4 9 3 - 4 9 6 , N o v e m b e r 1 9 3 * .

tot slaowe& a persistence of the results, with a slight tendency to return to the initial attitude .21 Two hundred three college students were required to read several editorial pages from the same newspaper, in several of which were ‘’planted 11 editorials about a person with whom none of the group were acquainted.

Ninety-eight

per cent of those reading favorable editorials were favor­ ably biased, and eighty-six per cent of those reading u n ­ favorable articles were unfavorably biased.

Unless the

nature of the articles accounts for the results,

this would

appear to support the contention that the "mind ’1 works positively more readily than negatively.

No reliable

differences in results were found between those reading only seven editorials and those reading fifteen, nor between the sexes . 22 In another study, of 907 university students of whom 300 were used as a control, Franklin Knower presented propa­ ganda material orally, on the subject of Prohibition.

He

found again no differences between persuasive and logical appeal, but found greater susceptibility of women,

Face-

Motion P ictures and the. Social At-kLtudes of Chil­ dren (New York: Macmillan, 1933), 75 PP. 22 Albert Annis and Norman Meier, "The Induction of Opinion Through Suggestion by Means of !Planted Content,1” Journal of Social Psychology, 5:65-79, February 1934.

102 to-face presentation with the speaker and subject alone was more effective than presentation to a large audience.

In

every case a speaker was more effective with a group of the opposite sex.

Women were superior in the "alone 11 situa­

tion, while men were superior with the audience.

Men

seemed more affected by logical appeals, and women by persuasive. A few additional miscellaneous studies bring out a few more points regarding the effectiveness of propaganda. Indirectly related to this subject is the discovery that "private" opinion is often far more liberal than "public" opinion.

From this some inferences might be made regard­

ing the manner of presenting certain propaganda.

The im­

portance of the supposed group opinion is also possibly illustrated here. In a highly convincing study using completely "objective" methods, Frank Stanton checked the effect of a radio program on the sales of the product advertised.

He

discovered that sales of this product in a market where the program was heard were 188$ of those in a similar market

25 "A Study of the Effect of Oral Argument on Change of Attitude," Journal of Social Psychology. 6:315-3^5 , August 1935O p in io n ," 1941.

M a rch B . S i s s o n , " S o c i a l C h a n g e a n d P u b l i c S o c i o l o g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 26:121-125* N o v em b er

103 where the program could not he heard.2-*

The striking

feature about this study is the exceedingly great effort of the propaganda, which is more than would be expected on the basis of the other studies presented here. answers suggest themselves.

Two possible

First, there may have been

almost no opposition propaganda, that is, advertising by competitors.

The report does not give the information to

justify or contradict this conclusion. pretation does appear justified.

But a second inter­

The author reports that

with this product, there is nno significant visible varia­ tion in quality from brand to b r a n d . H e n c e , facts on which to base a choice,

with no

the housewife is more easily

influenced by the advertising. The danger of over-emphasizing any single factor in the total propaganda situation is illustrated by a pair of articles.

Paul F. Peter demonstrates the direct relation­

ship between the number of radio sets in use in the United States and the number of votes cast at the presidential elections from 1920 to 1940.^7

On the basis of this evidence

25 nA Two-Way C heck o n t h e S a l e s I n f l u e n c e o f a S p e c i f i c R a d io P r o g r a m , ” J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 2 4 : 6 6 5 - 6 7 2 , 1940. Ibid., p. 6 6 6 .

27 "The A m e ric a n L i s t e n e r i n 1 9 4 0 ," The A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 213* 1 - 8 , J a n u a r y 1941.

104 many writers have claimed that the radio is the greatest propaganda instrument in modern elections.

That the radio

has served to stimulate interest remains unchallenged, hut some doubt on its propaganda role is cast hy another in­ vestigation disclosing that in the elections of 1 9 2 8 , 1 9 3 2 , and 1936 the presidential candidate whose party had the most time on the air lost the election.^® Most of the conclusions from' these many studies .support those of the previous chapter, and support each other.

In a few cases, as expected,

there is contradiction.

But the threefold analysis of the former chapter appears still to he sound and complete. The Invasion from Mars.

A weakness found in most of

the preceding studies is the failure to deal with actual life situations.

Most of them were conducted in a class­

room on a rather select group of students.

The very atmos­

phere of the school is one of authority and trust which should augment normal receptiveness.

Because of the ration­

ally hased trust, in the teacher and the classroom,

there

might conceivably he cases in which the persons least sus­ ceptible in a normal situation would he most susceptible

26 “Campaign Paradox / 1 The Literary Digest, 122:8, November 2 1 , 1 9 3 6 .

10 5

i n th e t e s t s i t u a t i o n . A windfall for the careful study of these processes of irrational behavior in a true life situation was pro­ vided hy the effects of the 11Invasion from M a r s , 11 a radio program.

This half-hour program was "based on H. G-. Wells 1

!tThe War of the Worlds , 11 and was presented in the form of a series of nev/s "bulletins.

The setting of the story "began

in New Jersey and spread throughout the United States. Despite the fantastic nature of the story, a large number of persons from all parts of the United States mistook the program for a true news account.

As a restilt many 11lost

their heads 11 and behaved in a completely irrational manner. At the outset it should be clear that this situation does not offer an example of propaganda.

The results pro­

duced were totally unexpected by those presenting the pro­ gram.

Furthermore,

the results were diverse;

the defini­

tions of the situation varied from person to person.

But

this case can contribute to a comprehension of propaganda because of the many similarities involved.

In those

deceived by the program the behavior was definitely u n ­ critical.

Furthermore, similar tactics might have been

employed as propaganda to demoralize this- nation.

It would

seem reasonable to infer that many of the same techniques which created the crowd behavior in this radio situation

would induce similar reactions if employed "by a propagan­ dist.

And it seems justifiable to assume that the same

types of people who behaved irrationally in this situation would be the pliable tools of the propagandist. A study of the reactions of a number of the people who heard the broadcast was conducted by Hadley Cantril immediately following the i n c i d e n t , ^

The study was con­

ducted with as great care as the requirement for immediate study permitted.

While some of the conclusions are made

with greater generality and finality than the limited evi­ dence warrants, sideration.

the interpretations deserve careful con­

The following are some of the conclusions that

were reached. The uncritical reaction was definitely correlated with lack of education. Factors determining the individual reaction included critical ability, personality of the individual, and the nature of the listening situation.

In the third category,

the following conditions increased the likelihood of irrational interpretation of the radio programs

Corrobor­

atory effect of other people!s behavior, imagined or real; Disturbing effect of other people; The listener*s status in

Hadley Cantril, The Invasion from Mars (Princeton Princeton University Press, 19^0), 228 pp.

106 the group of which he was at the moment a member, submission being associated with susceptibility; imagined danger geographically; family circle;

the immediacy of the

separation from o n e ’s usual

strangeness of the listening situation; and

listening in public places,30 Hadley Cantril determines that persons were likely to respond positively to the suggestions in the program because of one of four factors.

Some referred the stimulus to their

standards of judgment and found them consistent. cluded persons expecting the end of the world,

This in­

those upset

by the war scare abroad, and believers in the power of super-science.

Some were unable to decide what interpreta­

tion to give because they lacked adequate standards of judg­ ment for a reliable check.

Some wanted an interpretation

but found none of their existing standards of judgment adequate.

And some lacked the realization that any other

than the original interpretation was p o s s i b l e . The author places chief responsibility for the crowd behavior which resulted on the instability of important social norms in the United States.

30 Ibid. . pp. 139-146. 31 Ibid., pp.

189-197.

Ibid., pp.

153-164.

32

107 H i s t o r i c a l and C ase S t u d ie s The v o lu m e o f h i s t o r i c a l d a t a r e g a r d i n g p r o p a g a n d a is

so

in e d

la r g e at

t h a t h u t a s m a ll p r o p o r tio n o f

th is

p o in t.

F u r t h e r m o r e , m uch o f i t

h i s t o r i c a l and in c lu d e s e ffe c tiv e n e s s paper.

no su c h a n a l y s i s

te c h n iq u e s

in

of

sta te m e n ts o p in io n s

in c o r p o r a te

in r e la t io n

of

th e w r ite r s

r e ite r a tio n .

T h is

illu s tr a tiv e .

p r in c ip le s

s e c tio n , Its

concerns

is

C h a p te r I I I .

little

v a lu e w i l l h e i n

In so fa r as are

p o in t in

t h e n , m ay h e s a i d

th is

th e r e has heen

to p ropaganda in a c t io n th e r e

s im p ly

th e r e l a t i v e

s itu a tio n s a s

th em i n

c a n h e ex a m ­ is

W hen g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s h a v e h e e n m a d e ,

an a tte m p t to

ily

of

it

s im p ly

th e ir

t o h e p r im a r ­

s h o w in g so m e o f

th e

in a c tio n .

S in c e

it

w ill he n ecessa ry

to

s e le c t,

ganda s it u a t io n s

w ill he p r e se n te d .

f i r s t W o r ld W ar,

th e p r e s e n t w o r ld c o n f l i c t ,

p u b lic

p r e ssu r e groups

u tilitie s

Propaganda in

in

T h ese t h r e e and

in c lu d e

th e

th a t o f

th e

th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

t h e W o r ld W ar.

propaganda h ave h een s u c c in c t ly

th ree p rop a­

sta te d

The a im s o f W o r ld War h y R a lp h H. L u t z .

The d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e s o f w a r - t i m e p r o p a g a n d a i n e v e r y b e l l i g e r e n t c o u n t r y w e r e t o m a in t a in t h e m o r a le o f th e arm ed f o r c e s o f t h e s t a t e , c r e a t e a f a v o r a b le s t a t e o f m in d a t h o m e , d i m i n i s h t h e m o r a le o f t h e e n e m y , i n ­ f lu e n c e f a v o r a b ly n e u t r a l o p in io n c o n c e r n in g th e r e a s o n , j u s t i c e and n e c e s s i t y o f th e c o n f l i c t , a n d , i f p o s s i b l e ,

108 induce friendly a c t i o n . ^ It is generally conceded that the propaganda of the Allies was far more effective than that of the Central powers.

In regard to the effort to win the sympathy of

neutrals, particularly the United States, H. C. Peterson gives several reasons. There were a number of factors which contributed to the great success of Sir Gilbert Parker and his asso­ ciates. In the first place, there was a pro-British attitude among leading Americans at the outbreak of hostilities. Secondly, their propaganda was unobtrusive, and artistically presented. In the third place, their principal enemy was a new-rising nation with all the unpleasant characteristics nominally encountered in the newly rich and newly powerful. Finally, their control of the conventional channels of American opinion made it unnecessary for them to compete on an equal footing with the Germans.34 H. C. Engelbrecht suggests several other factors to account for the superior effectiveness of British propaganda. England was helped through possessing a language and litera­ ture in common with America; negative German propaganda;

through the clumsy, remote, the sinking of the Lusitania and

similar acts of the enemy; and their possession of the key to the German secret code, which enabled them to publish

33 t!s t u d i e s o f W o r ld War P r o p a g a n d a , 1914-1933,” J o u r n a l o f M o d ern H i s t o r y , 5:497, D e c e m b e r 1933. 3^ Propaganda for War (Horman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939), p7 33.

109

correct information concerning German events to counteract the incorrect German propaganda reports.35 Besides major initial disadvantages,

the German

propaganda suffered from the inability of the Germans to understand the attitudes of the populace toward whom their propaganda was directed. . . . Shortly after the Allies had created a tremendous uproar about the execution of Nurse Cavell, the French executed two German nurses under substantially the same circumstances. Not a murmur in the German Press. The American saw the official (in charge of propaganda for the German General Staff) shortly afterwards and asked— "Why don't you do something to counteract the British propaganda in America?" "Why, what do you mean?" "Raise the devil about those nurses the French shot the other day." "What? Protest? The French had a perfect right to shoot them!"36 One of the major techniques of both sides in the World War was to place the war guilt solely on the opponent. This was done in three ways principally.

The enemy was

found to have mobilized first, either openly or secretly. The enemy very obviously seeks to manoeuvre the protagonist government into the positoon of aggressor during the nego­ tiations preceding the final break.

And the enemy bears a

35 "How War Propaganda Won," The World Tomorrow, 159, April 1927.

10:

36 Harold D. Las swell, Propaganda Technique in the World War (New York: Peter S m i t h , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 32

110

record of disregard for law and decency and fair p l a y . ^ Both sides sought to paint their enemies "black and themselves white, without allowance for intermediate shades. War aims of one country are stated in terms of the highest idealism; those of the opponent in terms of diabolic de­ signs.

On the other side, victory was sure for the propa­

g a n d i s t ^ nation. Allied propaganda designed to demoralize the Central Powers passed through five stages, lightenment; hope;

fl(1) propaganda of en­

(2 ) propaganda of despair;

(3 ) propaganda of

(4) particularistic propaganda; and (5 ) revolutionary

propaganda . 11^ A great many factors helped the Allies in their propa­ ganda against Germany.

The direction of prevailing winds

played its part, since this made it easier for Allied propaganda balloons to reach enemy lines than for the Central propaganda.

40

Quoting German sources and pointing

to representatives of Germany to support Allied propaganda seems to have been highly effective.

The inclusion in

37 Ibid.. p. 50 38 Ibid., pp. 4-7-113. 39 G e o r g e B r u n t z , A l l i e d P r o p a g a n d a a n d t h e C o l l a p s e o f t h e G erm an E m p ir e i n P o l i t i c a l B e h a v io r The H e r e t o f o r e U n w r i t t e n Laws, Custom s an d P r i n c i p l e s o f P o l i t i c s a s p r a c t i c e d i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . New Y o rk : W i llia m Morrow a n d Company, 1928. 342 p p . K i t s o n , H a r r y D e x t e r , The Mind o f t h e B u y e r A P s y c h o lo g y o f S e llin g . Hew Y ork: The M a c m illa n Company, 1921. 211 p p . K l e i n , H e r b e r t , e d i t o r , The War f o r Men1s Minds A S u rv e y of F o r c e s S h a p in g A t t i t u d e s and A c t i o n s . Los A n g e l e s : C i t y C o l l e g e , 1940. 103 PP. K lin e b e rg , O tto , S o c ia l P sy c h o lo g y . Company, 1940. 570 p p .

Hew Y o rk : H enry H o l t an d

186 L a m b e rt, R i c h a r d S . , P r o p a g a n d a . Sons L t d . , 1939. 161 p p. L a n d is ,. P au l H ., S o c ia l C o n tro l D iso rg a n iz a tio n in P ro cess. Company, 1939. 507 p p .

L o ndon: Thomas N e ls o n a n d S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n an d C h ic a g o : J . B. L i p p i n c o t t

L a s s w e l l , H a r o l d D . , P o l i t i c s , Who G-ets W hat, When. How. New Y ork: W h i t t l e s e y H o use, 1936. 264 p p. ■ ------------ > P ro p a g a n d a T e c h n iq u e i n th e W orld War. P e t e r S m ith , 1936. 233 PP.

New Y ork:

---------- —, a n d D o ro th y B lu m e n s to c k , W orld R e v o l u t i o n a r y P r o p a ­ g a n d a . New Y o rk : A l f r e d A. K no p f, 1939. 393 p p . -------------, R a lp h D. C a s e y , an d B ru c e L a n n e s S m ith , P ro p a g a n d a a n d P r o m o t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y . M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o ta P r e s s , 1935. 450 p p . L e e , I v y L . , P u b l i c i t y : Some T h in g s I t I s and I s N o t. New Y ork: I n d u s t r i e s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1925. 64 p p . L e v i n , J a c k , Pow er E t h i c s . 191 PP.

New Y ork: A l f r e d A. K n o p f, 1931.

L i n k , H enry C . , The New P s y c h o lo g y o f S e l l i n g a n d A d v e r t i s ­ i n g . New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company, 1932. 293 p p . L ippm ann, W a l t e r , A P r e f a c e to M o r a l s .New Y o rk: m i l l a n Company, 1929. 348 p p . ------* P u b l i c O p i n i o n . 1932. 427 p p .

The Mac­

New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company,

L i p s k y , Abram, Man t h e P u p p e t The A r t o f C o n t r o l l i n g New Y ork: F r a n k - M a u r i c e , I n c . , 1925. 275 p p .

M ind s.

L o w e l l , A b b o t t L . , P u b l i c O p in io n i n War an d P e a c e . Cam­ b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923. 303 pp. L u c a s , D. B . , an d C. E . B e n so n , P s y c h o lo g y f o r A d v e r t i s e r s . New Y ork: H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1930. 351 p p. L um ley, F r e d e r i c k E . , Means o f S o c i a l C o n t r o l . The C e n tu r y Company, 1925. 415 PP.

New Y ork:

187 ------------ > M easu rem en t i n R a d i o . v e r s i t y , 1934. 318 p p .

C olum bus: O hio S t a t e U n i­

------------ , The P ro p a g a n d a M en ace. New Y ork: D. A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y Company, 1933. 454 p p . M a c k e n z ie , A. J . , P ro p a g a n d a Boom. L t d . , 1938. 368 p p .

L ondon: J o h n G -iffo rd

Manheim, K a r l , Man a n d S o c i e t y i n a n Age o f R e c o n s t r u e t i o n . New Y ork: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Company, 1940. 469 PP. M c D o u g a ll, W i l l i a m , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . B o s t o n : J o h n W. Luce an d Company, 1926. 513 PP. 1

M a r t i n , E v e r e t t D ean, The B e h a v i o r o f Crowds A P s y c h o l o g i ­ c a l S tu d y . New Y ork: H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1920. 312 p p . ------------ , F a r e w e l l t o R e v o l u t i o n . New Y ork: 7/. W. N o r to n a n d Company, I n c . , 1935. 380 p p . — 9 M eaning o f a L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n . N o r t o n Company, 1926.

Nev? Y o rk: W. W.

Mock, Jam es R . , a n d C e d r i c L a r s o n , Words t h a t Won t h e W ar. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939* 372 p p . M urphy, G a r d n e r , a n d R e n s i s L i k e r t , P u b l i c O p in io n a n d t h e I n d i v i d u a l A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S tu d y o f S t u d e n t A t t i t u d e s on P u b l i c Q u e s t i o n s , W ith a R e t e s t F i v e Y e a rs L a t e r . New Y ork: H a r p e r an d B r o t h e r s p u b l i s h e r s , 1938. 316 p p . M urphy, G a r d n e r , L o i s B a r c l a y M urphy, a n d comb, E x p e r i m e n t a l S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y o f R e s e a r c h Upon t h e S o c i a l i z a t i o n o f New Y o rk : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1:937#

T h eo d o re M. New­ An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n th e I n d i v i d u a l . 1121 p p .

M u rra y , Raymond W ., I n t r o d u c t o r y S o c i o l o g y . C r o f t s an d Company, 1938. 423 p p . O d e g a rd , P e t e r , The A m e ric a n P u b l i c M ind. b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930. 308 pp .

New Y o rk , F. S . New Y o rk: Colum­

________ t P r e s s u r e P o l i t i c s , The S t o r y o f t h e A n t i - S a l o o n League. New Y ork: C olum b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928. 299 PP.

188 P a r k , R o b e r t E . , e d i t o r , An O u t l i n e o f th e P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c io lo g y .. New Y ork: B a rn e s a n d N o b le , I n c . , 1939. 353 p p . •*rm

im

P e t e r s o n , H. C. , P ro p a g a n d a f o r War A m e ric a n N e u t r a l i t y , 1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 7 . Oklahoma P r e s s , 1939. 357 PP.

The Campaign A g a i n s t Norman: U n i v e r s i t y o f

P e t e r s o n , R u th C . , a n d L. L. T h u r s t o n e , M o tio n P i c t u r e s an d t h e S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s o f C h i l d r e n . New Y o rk : The Mac­ m i l l a n Company, 1933. 75 p p . P i p e r , Raymond F . , an d P a u l W. Ward, The F i e l d s a n d M ethods o f K now ledge A T e x tb o o k i n O r i e n t a t i o n an d IjO gic. New Y ork: F . S. C r o f t s an d Company, 1930. 398 PP. P o f f e n b e r g e r , A l b e r t T . , P s y c h o lo g y i n A d v e r t i s i n g . A. W. Shaw Company, 1926. 632 p p .

C h ic a g o :

P o n so n b y , A r t h u r , F a l s e h o o d i n W a r-tim e C o n t a i n i n g a n .A s s o r tm e n t o f L i e s C i r c u l a t e d T h ro u g h o u t t h e N a t i o n s D u rin g t h e G r e a t War. New Y o rk : E. P . D u tto n an d Com­ p a n y , I n c . , 1928. 192 p p . R a u s h e n b u s h , S t e p h e n , The Power F i g h t . p u b l i c , I n c . , 1932. 308 p p .

New Y o rk : New Re­

R o g e r s o n , S id n e y , P ro p a g a n d a i n t h e N ex t W ar. G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1939. 188 p p .

L ondon:

R o r t y , J a m e s , Qur M a s t e r 1a V o ic e A d v e r t i s i n g . J o h n Day Company, 1934. 394 p p .

New Y o rk : The

R o s s , Edward A l s w o r t h , S o c i a l C o n t r o l . A S u rv e y o f t h e F o u n d a tio n s of O rd er. New Y ork: The M a c m illa n Company, 1912. 463 p p . ------------ > S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . p a n y , 1917. 372 p p .

New Y ork: The- M a c m illa n Com­

R o s s , E . J . F u n d a m e n ta l S o c i o l o g y . M ilw a u k ee : The B ru c e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1939. 608 p p . S c h o r l i n g , R a l e i g h , S t u d e n t T e a c h in g An E x p e r i e n c e P r o ­ gram . New Y ork: M cG raw -H ill Book Company, 1940. 329 p p .

S c o t t , J o n a t h o n F r e n c h , F i v e Weeks The S u rg e o f P u b l i c O p in io n on th e Eve o f t h e G r e a t War. New Y ork : The J o h n Day Company, 1927* 305 p p . S h u t t l e w o r t h , F r a n k K . , an d Mark A. May, The S o c i a l C o n d u c t a n d A t t i t u d e s o f M ovie F ans,. New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company, 1933. 142' p p . S m ith , C h a r l e s W ., P u b l i c O p in io n i n a D em ocracy. A s t u d y i n A m e ric a n P o l i t i c s . New Y o rk : F r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1939. 596 p p . S ta r c h , D a n ie l, P r in c ip le s of A d v e r tis in g . Shaw Company, 1926. 998 pp .

C h ic a g o : A. W.

S u t h e r l a n d , R o b e r t L . , a n d J u l i a n L. Woodward, I n t r o d u c t o r y S o c i o l o g y . C h ic a g o , J , B. L i p p i n c o t t Company, 1937. 720 pp. T e g g a r t , F r e d e r i c k J . , T h e o ry o f H i s t o r y . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925. 231 p p .

New H aven: Y a le

Thomas, F r a n k W., a n d A l b e r t R. L an g, P r i n c i p l e s o f M odern E d u c a t i o n . B o s to n : H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1937. 340 p p . Thomas, W i llia m I . , an d P l o r i a n Z n a n i e c k i , The P o l i s h P e a s a n t i n E u ro p e and A m e r ic a , 4 v o l e . B o s to n : R i c h a r d G-. B a d g e r , 1916. Thompson, C a r l D . , C o n f e s s i o n s o f t h e Power T r u s t . Y ork: E. P . D u tto n and Company, 1932. 670 p p .

New

Thomson, M ehran K . , The S p r i n g s o f Human A c t i o n . New Y ork: D. A p p l e t o n a n d Company, 1927. 501 p p . T h o r n d i k e , E. L . , Human N a tu r e a n d t h e S o c i a l O r d e r . Y ork : The M a c m illa n Company, 1940. 1019 p p . T u r n e r , R a lp h E . , A m eric a i n C i v i l i z a t i o n . A l f r e d A. K nopf, 1925. 411 p p .

New

New Y ork:

V i e r e c k , G-eorge S y l v e s t e r , S p r e a d i n g G-erms o f H a t e . Y ork : H o ra c e L i v e r i g h t , 1936. 327 p p .

New

W a l l e r , W i l l a r d , The S o c i o l o g y o f T e a c h i n g . New Y ork: J o h n W ile y and S o n s , I n c . , 1932. 467 p p .

t90 W ard, L e s t e r F . , P u r e S o c i o l o g y A T r e a t i s e on t h e O r i g i n a n d S p o n ta n e o u s D e v e lo p m e n t' o f S o c i e t y . New Y o rk : The M a c m illa n Company 1921. 607 p p . W e l l s , H. 0 . , E x p e r im e n t i n A u t o b i o g r a p h y . M a c m illa n Company, 1934. 718 pp.

New Y ork: The

W o lfe , Don M ,, M i l t o n i n t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n . New Y ork: Thomas N e ls o n an d S o n s , 1941. 496 p p . Woodward, W. E . , A New A m e ric a n H i s t o r y . L i t e r a r y G u i l d , 1937. 900 pp.

New Y ork: The

W r i g h t , Q u in c e y , e d i t o r , P u b l i c O p in io n an d W orld P o l i t i c s . C h ic a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h icag o P r e s s : 1933. 237 p p . Young, K im b a ll, S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , An A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . New Y o rk : F . S. C r o f t s and Company, 1930. 674 pp* Z e l e n y , L e s l i e Day, P r a c t i c a l S o c i o l o g y . P r e n t l e e - H a l l , 1937. 461 p p . II.

New Y o rk :

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

A b b a s, Khaw aia Ahmed, 11I n d i a L i s t e n s , " L i v i n g A ge, 3 5 7 : 5 5 - 5 8 , S e p te m b e r 1939. " A i r f o r t h e New O r d e r , " T im e. 3 8 - 4 4 , J u l y 2 8 ,

1941.

A n n i s , A l b e r t D . , an d Norman C. M e ie r , "The I n d u c t i o n o f O p in io n T h rou g h S u g g e s t i o n b y Means o f ‘P l a n t e d Con­ t e n t ’ ," J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5 : 6 5 - 7 9 , F e b r u a r y 1934. B e r n a y s , Edward L . , " M o ld in g P u b l i c O p i n i o n , ” A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 179* 8 2 - 8 7 , May 1935. B o y l e , Herman C . , " D e t e r m i n i n g t h e E f f e c t o f P ro p a g a n d a C a m p a ig n s," A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l , and S o c i a l S c i e n c e . ~ T 7 9 : 1 0 6 -1 1 3 , May 1935. B i d d l e , W i llia m W ., "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e f i n i t i o n o f P r o p a ­ g a n d a , ” J o u r n a l o f A bn orm al an d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2 6 : 2 8 3 - 2 9 5 , O c t o b e r 1931.

191 ------------ , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p "between Knowledge and a M e asu re o f A u t i s t i c T h in k in g on C e r t a i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s ," J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2 : 4 9 3 - 4 9 6 , November 1931. B o g a r d u s , Emory S . , "E a rm a rk s o f P r o p a g a n d a , 11 S o c i o l o g y an d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 2 6 : 2 7 2 - 2 8 2 , J a n u a r y 1942, " B r i t i s h P e r f i d y , " L i v i n g A g e , 3 5 7 : 2 7 0 - 2 7 1 , November 1939Brown, 33&roXd Chapman, - '" A d v e r t is in g an d P r o p a g a n d a : A S tu d y i n t h e E t h i c s o f S o c i a l C o n t r o l , " The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f E t h i c s , 4 0 : 3 9 - 5 5 , O c to b e r 1929. Brown, J o h n R . , " P u b l i c i t y v e r s u s P ro p a g a n d a i n F a m ily W ork," The F a m i l y , 7 : 7 5 - 7 9 , May 1926. B r u n t z , G eorg e G . , " A l l i e d P ro p a g a n d a an d t h e C o l l a p s e o f German M o ra le i n 1 9 1 8 ," P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , 2 : 6 1 - 7 6 , J a n u a r y 1938. B u r n e t t , V ern e E dw in, "How W o rk ers R e a c t t o P r o p a g a n d a ," I n d u s t r i a l M anagem ent, 6 5 : 2 5 0 - 5 3 , A p r i l 1923. "C am paign P a r a d o x , " The L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , 1 2 2 :8 , November 2 1 , 1936. C a r t e r , J o h n , " P r o p a g a n d a a s S een i n R e c e n t B o o k s ," O u tlo o k and I n d e p e n d e n t, : 4 7 t , J u l y 2 3 , 1930. C a s e , C l a r e n c e M a rsh , " L e a d e r s h i p an d C o n j u n c t u r e : A S o c i o l o g i c a l H y p o t h e s i s , " S o c i o l o g y an d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1 7 :5 1 0 - 5 1 3 , J u l y 1933. C a s e y , R a lp h D . , " P a r t y Cam paign P r o p a g a n d a ," A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o ci a l S c i e n c e , 179: 9 ^ T 0 5 , May 1935. Chen, W illia m K e h -C h in g , "T he I n f l u e n c e o f O r a l P ro p a g a n d a M a t e r i a l Upon S t u d e n t s ’ A t t i t u d e s , " A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y , n o . 150, A p r i l 1933, 43 PP. C h i l d s , Harwood L . , " P u b l i c O p i n i o n - - F i r s t L in e o f D e f e n s e , " A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1 9 8 :1 0 9 - 1 1 5 , J u l y 193#. C o l e g r o v e , K e n n e th , " p r o f e s s o r s and P r o p a g a n d a ," S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , 5 2 :6 6 2 - 6 6 3 , D ecember 2 1 , t940#

192 C o u s in s ^ Norman, " F e a r an d P r o p a g a n d a , 11 The S a t u r d a y R eview o f L i t e r a t u r e . 2 2 : 8 , May 4 , 1940. "The C u r s e o f P r o p a g a n d a , " The I n d e p e n d e n t . 1 1 0 : 4 - 5 , J a n u a r y 6 , 1923 * deR och em on t, R i c h a r d , " F r a n c e an d P r o p a g a n d a ," L i f e , 8 : 9 - 1 1 . -March 2 5 , 1940. L o d g e, Raymond, "The P s y c h o lo g y o f P r o p a g a n d a , " R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n . 1 5 :2 4 1 - 2 5 2 , O c to b e r 1920. L o o b, L e o n a rd W ., a n d Edward S. R o b in s o n , " P s y c h o lo g y an d P r o p a g a n d a , " A n n a ls o f t h e Ameri c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1 7 9 :8 8 - 9 5 , May 1935. D u r a n t , H enry a n d R u th D u r a n t , "L o rd Haw-Haw o f Hamburg: H is B r i t i s h A u d i e n c e , " P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , 4 : 4 4 3 - 4 5 0 , S e p te m b e r 1940. E n g e l b r e c h t , H* C*, "How War P ro p a g a n d a Won," The W orld Tomorrow, 1 0 :1 5 9 - 1 6 2 , A p r i l 1927. E r d e l y i , M i c h a e l , "The R e l a t i o n B etw een 1R a d io P lu g s * and S h e e t S a l e s o f p o p u l a r M u s i c ," J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 2 4 : 6 9 6 - 7 0 2 , 1940. F a r a g o , L a d i s l a s , "No N a z i R e v o l t i n t h e D e s e r t , " A s i a , 4 0 : 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 , A p r i l 194-0. F e ld m a n , M a u r ic e , "Sw eden*s T r o j a n H o r s e , " N a t i o n , 1 5 0 :5 3 1 5 3 2 , A p r i l 2 7 , 1940. F o s t e r , H. S c h u y l e r , a n d C a r l J . F r i e d r i c h , " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r a s a Means o f M e a s u r in g t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f P r o p a g a n d a , " A m e ric a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e R e v ie w . 3 1 : 7 1 - 7 9 , F e b r u a r y 1937. F o s t e r , Jam es E . , " C e n s o r s h i p a s a Medium o f P r o p a g a n d a ," S o c i o l o g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 2 2 : 5 7 - 6 6 , S e p te m b e r 1937. F r i e d r i c h , C a r l J . , " E d u c a t i o n an d P r o p a g a n d a , " The A t l a n t i c M o n th ly , 1 5 9 :6 9 3 - 7 0 1 , J u n e 1937. , "The P o i s o n i n Our S y s te m ," The A t l a n t i c M o n th l y , 1 6 7 :6 6 1 - 6 7 2 , J u n e 1941. " F r i v o l o u s *Vf , " T im e , 3 8 : 2 0 , J u l y 2 8 ,

1941.

193 G a v i t , J o h n P a lm e r , 11A n t i - S o v i e t P r o p a g a n d a , 11 S u rv e y G r a p h i c . 2 9 : 3 2 - 3 3 , J a n u a r y 1940. G e h r k e n s , K a r l W ., " I s t h e R a d io H e l p f u l o r H a r m f u l? 11 E tu d e . 5 9 :5 2 4 , A u g u s t 1941. ' G ilm o u r , T. L . , "The G overnm ent an d P r o p a g a n d a , " The N in e ­ t e e n t h C e n tu r y a n d A f t e r . 8 5 :1 4 8 —158, J a n u a r y 1919* G r a v e s , H a r o ld N . , "L o rd Haw-Haw o f Hamburg; The Campaign A g a i n s t B r i t a i n , " P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y . 4 : 4 2 9 - 4 4 2 , S e p te m b e r 1940. ------------ , " P r o p a g a n d a by S h o r t Wave: B e r l i n C a l l i n g A m e r ic a ," P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , 4 : 6 0 1 - 6 1 9 , December 1940. Hammond, J . L . , "To L i e L ik e a B u l l e t i n , " The S p e c t a t o r , 1 5 5 :3 8 4 - 3 8 5 , S e p te m b e r 13, 1935. H an so n , E l i s h a , " O f f i c i a l P ro p a g a n d a a n d t h e New D e a l , " A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e . 1 7 9 :1 7 6 - 1 8 6 , ~May 1935. H a r d i n g , D. W., " G e n e r a l C o n c e p tio n s i n t h e S tu d y o f t h e P r e s s an d P u b l i c O p i n i o n j " The S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v ie w , 2 4 : 3 7 0 - 3 9 0 , O c t o b e r 1937, H artm a n n , G eorg e W .,- "A F i e l d E x p e r im e n t on t h e C o m p a ra tiv e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f E m o t i o n a l 1 and ’R a t i o n a l * P o l i t i c a l L e a f l e t s i n D e te r m in in g E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s , " J o u r n a l o f A bnorm al a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 3 1 : 9 9 - 1 1 4 , A p r i l 1936. H ayakaw a, S. I . , " G e n e r a l S e m a n tic s an d P r o p a g a n d a , " P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , 4 : 1 9 7 - 2 0 8 , A p r i l 1939. H a z l i t t , H e n ry , " L i t e r a t u r e a s P r o p a g a n d a , 11 The S a t u r d a y R eview o f L i t e r a t u r e . 2 0 : 1 3 - 1 5 , S e p te m b e r 16, 1939. H e e r , J e a n . "German M ovies a s P r o p a g a n d a , " The L i v i n g Age , 3 5 9 :5 6 1 - 5 6 3 , F e b r u a r y 1941. "Here* s R e c ip e f o r C o c k t a i l S e r v e d by F i f t h C o l u m n i s t s , S c i e n c e News L e t t e r , 3 9 : 4 0 9 , J u n e 2 8 , 1941. " H i t l e r i n t h e J u n g l e , " T im e , 3 7 : 3 2 , May 2 6 ,

1941.

H o l l i s , E r n e s t V . , "An A n t i d o t e f o r P r o p a g a n d a ," S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y 5 0 : 4 4 9 - 4 5 3 , O c to b e r 7 , 1939.

194 H u x le y , A l& ous, "N o te s on P r o p a g a n d a , 11 H a r p e r 1s M o n th ly M a g a z in e , 1 7 4 :3 2 * 4 1 , December 1936. I r w i n , W i l l , "How Red i s A m e ric a ? " The W orld Tomorrow 10: 158, A p r i l 1927. K i l p a t r i c k , W i l l i a m H ., " P ro p a g a n d a an d I n d o c t r i n a t i o n , ” "The A m e ric a n T e a c h e r . 2 4 : 1 8 - 2 1 , November 1939. K l a n f e r , J u l i u s , "D em ocracy a n d P r o p a g a n d a ," S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v ie w . 3 1 : 4 2 2 - 4 4 8 , O c to b e r 1939. Knower, F r a n k l i n H . , " E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s o f C hanges i n A t t i t u d e s : A S tu d y o f t h e E f f e c t o f O r a l A rgum ent on C hanges o f A t t i t u d e , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 6 : 3 1 5 - 3 4 5 , A u g u s t 1935* ------------ , "A S tu d y o f t h e E f f e c t o f P r i n t e d A rgum ent on C hanges o f A t t i t u d e , " J o u r n a l o f Abnorm al a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 3 0 : 5 2 2 - 5 3 2 , M arch 193^7 L a P i e r e , R i c h a r d T . , " P ro p a g a n d a a n d E d u c a t i o n : The Need f o r a Q u a n t i t a t i v e D i s t i n c t i o n , ” S o c io lo g y and S o c ia l R e s e a r c h , 2 0 : 1 8 - 2 6 , S e p te m b e r 1935. L a s k e r , B ru n o , " P ro p a g a n d a a s a n I n s t r u m e n t o f N a t i o n a l P o l i c y , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s . 1 0 :1 5 2 - 1 6 0 , J u n e 1937. L a s s w e l l , H a r o l d D . , "The P e r s o n : S u b j e c t an d O b j e c t o f P r o p a g a n d a , " A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i ­ c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e . 1 7 9 : 1 8 7 - 1 9 3 . May 1935» L aw son, S t r a n g , " S t a y Tuned to t h i s S t a t i o n , " S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , 5 4 : 1 9 3 , S e p te m b e r 13, 1941. L a z a r s f e l d , P a u l F . , "The Change o f D i s c u s s i o n D u rin g a P o l i t i c a l D is c u s s io n ," J o u r n a l of A p p lie d P sy c h o lo g y , 2 3 : 1 3 1 - 1 4 7 , J a n u a r y 1939. " L i n d b e r g a n d t h e B ig L i e , " The New R e p u b l i c , 1 0 5 :4 5 3 - 4 5 4 , O c to b e r 13, 1941. L o r g e , I r v i n g , " P r e s t i g e , S u g g e s t i o n an d A t t i t u d e s , " The P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 3 2 : 7 5 0 , November 1935. L o v e t t , R o b e r t M o rse , "The P i t f a l l s o f P r o p a g a n d a , W o rld Tomorrow, 6 : 1 6 7 - 1 6 9 , J u n e 1923.

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, "The M a tu re o f P r o p a g a n d a ," S o c i o l o g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1 3 :3 1 5 - 3 2 4 , M arch 1924.

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" T a s t e on t h e A i r , " E d u c a t i o n , 6 0 : 6 2 2 - 6 2 6 ,

M a r p le , C l a r e E . , "The C o m p a r a tiv e S u g g e s t i b i l i t y o f T h re e Age L e v e l s t o t h e S u g g e s t i o n o f G roup V e r s u s E x p e r t O p i n i o n , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 : 1 7 6 - 1 8 4 , May 1933. M a r t i n , E v e r e t t D ean, a n d Edward L . B e m a y s , "A re We V ic t im s o f P r o p a g a n d a , " F orum , 8 1 : 1 4 2 - 1 4 9 , M arch 1929. M e rz , C h a r l e s , "The P r o p a g a n d a A g a i n s t M e x ic o ," The W orld Tomorrow. 1 0 :1 5 2 - 1 5 5 , A p r i l 1927. M e y e r in g , H a r r y , The T u r k i s h S t e r e o t y p e , " S o c i o l o g y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 2 2 : t l 2 r 1 2 3 , November 1937. M oore, H en ry T . , "The C o m p a r a tiv e I n f l u e n c e o f M a j o r i t y an d E x p e r t O p i n i o n , " A m e ric a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 3 2 : 1 6 - 2 0 , J a n u a r y 1921, M organ, J o y E lm e r , " P r o p a g a n d a : I t s R e l a t i o n t o t h e C h i l d L a b o r I s s u e , " E d u c a t i o n , 4 6 : 5 1 - 5 4 , S e p te m b e r 1925. M u v a ffa k , N e rm in , " T u r k e y i s n o t N e u t r a l , " N a t i o n , 2 5 2 , F e b r u a r y 17, 1940.

1 5 0 :2 5 0 -

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197 , and R. S t r a u s z - H u p e , "U. S. I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o a d ­ c a s t i n g , " H a r p e r s M o n th ly M a g a z in e , 1 8 3 :3 0 1 - 3 1 2 , A u g u s t R o s e n t h a l , Solomon P . , "Change o f S o c io -E c o n o m ic A t t i t u d e s U nder R a d i c a l M o tio n P i c t u r e P r o p a g a n d a , " A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y , No. 166, 1934, S a a d i , M i t c h e l , a n d P a u l R. F a r n s w o r t h , "The D eg ree o f A c c e p ta n c e o f D ogm atic S t a t e m e n t s , and P r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e i r S u p p o sed M a k e r s , ” J o u r n a l o f A bnorm al a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2 9 : 1 4 3 - 1 5 0 , J u l y 1934. S c o t t - M o n t a g u e , E . , "Some T h o u g h ts on P r o p a g a n d a , " N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu r y a n d A f t e r , 1 2 6 :2 6 4 - 2 6 9 , S e p te m b e r 19 3 9 . S e l d e n , W a l t e r , "M ovies a n d P r o p a g a n d a ," Forum , 1 0 3 :2 0 9 - 2 1 3 , A p r i l 1940. " S h a k e s p e a r e a p r o p a g a n d i s t , T oo!" The L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , 103: 2 7 - 2 8 , O c to b e r 5 , 1 9 2 9 . S i s s o n , March B«, " S o c i a l Change an d P u b l i c O p i n i o n , ” S o c i o l o g y an d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 2 6 : 1 2 1 - 1 2 5 , November 1941. " S n o r k , P u n k , ” T im e, 3 4 : 6 4 , O c to b e r 1939. S p r o u t , H a r o l d H . , " P r e s s u r e G ro u p s a n d F o r e i g n P o l i c i e s , " A n n a ls o f th e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1 ^ 9 :1 1 4 - 1 2 3 , May 1935. S q u i r e s , Jam es D uane, "The P ro b le m o f P ro p a g a n d a T o d a y ," V i t a l S p e e c h e s , 5 : 5 3 8 - 5 9 3 , J u l y 15, 1939. S t a n t o n , F r a n k A . , "A Two-Way Check on t h e S a l e s I n f l u e n c e o f a S p e c i f i c R a d io P r o g r a m ," J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 2 4 :6 6 5 ^ 6 7 2 , 1940. S t e r n , M a d e lin e B . , "Jew s W ith o u t M oney," Sew anee R e v ie w , 4 5 : 3 0 6 - 3 2 7 , S e p te m b e r 1937. S t r o n g , Edward K. " C o n t r o l o f P ro p a g a n d a a s a P s y c h o l o g i ­ c a l P r o b le m ," The S c i e n t i f i c M o n th ly , 1 4 :2 3 4 - 2 5 2 , M arch 1922

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Thompson, D o r o th y , " P r o p a g a n d a B o g e y ," L a d i e s Home J o u r n a l , 5 6 : 4 , December 1939.

198 Thomson, B a s i l , "Does I n t e r n a t i o n a l P ro p a g a n d a P a y ?" C u r r e n t O p i n i o n , 7 3 : 3 6 - 3 9 , J u l y 1922, T h u r s t o n e , L . L . , “ I n f l u e n c e o f M o tio n P i c t u r e s on C h i l d r e n * s A t t i t u d e s , " J o u r n a l o f S o c ia l P s y c h o lo g y , 2 :2 9 1 -3 0 5 , A u g u s t 1931. ----- ----- , “The M e asu rem e n t o f Change i n S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2 : 2 3 0 - 2 3 5 , May 1931. Van D u z e r, C. H . , “The M eaning o f P r o p a g a n d a , " The S o c i a l F r o n t i e r , 4 : 2 4 5 - 2 4 8 , May 1938. W a p le s, D o u g la s , “P r e s s , R a d io a n d F ilm i n t h e N a t i o n a l E m e rg e n c y ," P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , 5 : 4 6 3 - 4 6 9 , F a l l 1941. "The Ways o f God to M an," The N a t i o n . 1 1 6 :5 0 9 , May 2 ,

1923,

W e i g e r t , H. W ., “Maps A re W eapons," S u rv e y G r a p h i c , 3 0 : 5 2 8 5 3 0 , O c to b e r 1941. W ieb e, G e r h a r t , “ The E f f e c t s o f R a d io P l u g g i n g on S tu d e n ts * O p in io n s o f P o p u l a r S o n g s , ” J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y ­ c h o l o g y , 2 4 : 7 2 1 - 7 2 7 , 1940. W ilk e , W a lte r H . , !?An E x p e r i m e n t a l C o m p ariso n o f t h e S p e e c h , th e R a d io , an d t h e P r i n t e d P age a s P ro p a g a n d a D e v i c e s , " A r c h i v e s - o f P s y c h o l o g y , No. 169, J u n e 1934. W i l l e y , M alcolm M ., "C o m m u nication A g e n c ie s an d t h e Volume o f P r o p a g a n d a , 11 A n n a ls o f t h e A m e ric a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1 7 9 :1 9 4 - 2 0 0 , May 1935, W i l l i a m s , M i c h a e l , "Views and R e v ie w s ," The Commonweal, 3 0 : 2 9 5 , J u l y 14, 1939. Woody, C a r r o l l H . , " E d u c a t i o n a n d p r o p a g a n d a , ” A n n a ls o f th e A m eric an Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 179: 2 2 7 - 2 3 9 , May 1935. W r e f o r d , R e y n e l l , J , R . G ., " P r o p a g a n d a , E v i l an d G o o d ,” N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y a n d A f t e r , 9 3 : 5 1 4 - 5 2 4 , A p r i l 1923. g i i b o o r g , G r e g o r y , " P ro p a g a n d a From W i t h i n , " A n n a ls o f th e A m eric an Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 198: 1 1 6 - 1 2 3 , J u l y 1938.

199 III.

e n c y c l o p e d ia a r t i c l e s

L a s s w e l l , H a r o ld D . , " P r o p a g a n d a #11 E n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 1934, V I, 5 2 1 - 5 3 7 . " P r o p a g a n d a , 11 The A m e r ic a n a . 1936, X X II, 6 5 9 , S t e e d , H en ry Wickham, " P r o p a g a n d a , 11 E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . 1 4 th e d i t i o n , X V I I I , 5 8 1 - 5 3 4 . --------------------------IV ,

DICTIONARIES

Funk a n d W a g n a lls New S t a n d a r d D i c t i o n a r y , 1938. M u rra y , Jam es A. H ., A New E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y on H i s t o r i c a l P r i n c i p l e s , 1909. W e b s te r * s New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y . 1934. V.

THESES

E a g e r , M a r g a r e t E l i z a b e t h , 4 C o m p a r a tiv e S tu d y o f t h e T h e o r i e s an d N a t u r e o f P r o p a g a n d a . U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r * s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e 1939. W olfram , A l b e r t E r n e s t , S e l e c t e d I n s t a n c e s o f C e r t a i n P ro p a g a n d a T e c h n iq u e s o f A n c i e n t a n d M odern T im e s , U n p u b lis h e d D o c t o r ’ s D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 194-0. 281 p p . V I.

MISCELLANEOUS

C a r r , E . H ., P ro p a g a n d a i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s . P a m p h le ts on W orld A f f a i r s , No. 1 6 . ~ New Y o rk ; F a r r a r an d R i n e h a r t , 1939. 3 0 p p . E l l i s , E lm e r , e d i t o r , E d u c a t i o n A g a i n s t P r o p a g a n d a , N a t i o n a l C o u n c il f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s , S e v e n th Y ear B ook, 1937.