An investigation of certain aspects of religious education in the public schools of Indiana

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AN INVESTIGATION OF CERTAIN ASPECTS X OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF INDIANA

BI ROBERT L. LIGGETT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Education degree in the School of Education Indiana University May, 1950

ProQuest Number: 10295226

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Accepted by the faculty of the School of Education, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Education, Indiana University,

ector of Thesis Doctoral Committee:

Chairman

gai

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The writer is deeply indebted to Dr. Charles M. Long, Indiana University, for his counsel, helpful criticisms, and encouragement during the development of this study. He also expresses appreciation to Dr. William H. Fox and Dr. Nicholas A. Fattu for their assistance in developing the questionnaire and in handling the data. Appreciation is due Mrs. Liggett, too, who patiently bore with the writer and assisted him.

R.L.L.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

I.

II.

Page

INTRODUCTION ....................................

1

Why the Study was U n d e r t a k e n ................... Sunday School Attendance ....................... The McCollum C a s e .............................. Increasing Juvenile Delinquency ............... Valuable Suggestions . . . . ................... Points for Investigation . . . ................. The Issues Seem to Fall intoSeven Main Divisions The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .............................. The Problem of Random Sampling ................. Questionnaire Returns Classified According to Personal Data . . . ♦ ....................... Size of C o m m u n i t y .............................. Location within the State ..................... Sex . . . . . . . ....................... « . . . A g e ........... '....................... Political Affiliations ......................... E d u c a t i o n ...................................... Occupational Groups . . . . Number having Children . . . . . . . Church Preference .............................. Church Membership ............................. Church Attendance ............................. D e f i n i t i o n s .................................... Religious Education ........................... Weekday Religious Education .................. Released T i m e ........................... Dismissed Time ................................ S c h o o l .......................................... Public S c h o o l ............................. Private School .................................. Parochial School ................................ Summary of Introductory Material ...............

1 2 2 3 9 9 11 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23

HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOLS (UNITED STATES) ................................

24

Historical Background « Other Weekday S c h o o l s .........................

24 28

iv

Chapter

Page Early Warnings Concerning Weekday Religious E d u c a t i o n ...................................... Arguments for and against Weekday Religious E d u c a t i o n ...................................... Summary of Chapter I I ............................

III.

HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (INDIANA)

...

30 33 38 40

Early Opposition to Religious Teachings in the Schools ...................................... Early Weekday Plans in I n d i a n a ................. Credit for Bible Study in High S c h o o l ........... The "Enabling Act" of 1943 Smaller Communities Continue Weekday Religious E d u c a t i o n ...................................... Summary of Chapter I I I .......................... IV.

52 53

55 55 59 62 65 70 73 76 77 79

THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF INDIANA ....................... ................. Separation of Church and State Religious Freedom . . . ....................... Bible Reading . . . . . . ....................... Credit for Bible Study in High S c h o o l ........... Weekday Religious Instruction on Released Time Summary of Chapter V ............................

VI.

46

LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS (UNITED STATES) ................. The Principles of Religious Freedom ........ . O b j e c t i v e s ...................................... Financing and Control ............................ State Control by use of Public Funds C u r r i c u l u m ...................................... State Laws Governing Released Time . . . . . . The McCollum C a s e ...................... An Analysis of the Champaign Case Decision . . Summary of Chapter I V .....................

V.

40 42 43

TYPES OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION FOUND IN THE S C H O O L S ........................................ Bible Reading in the S c h o o l s ................. Teaching Ethical Behavior as a Part of the C u r r i c u l u m .................................... The "Released Time" Plan of Weekday Religious E d u c a t i o n ...................................... "Dismissed Time" Plan of Teaching Religious E d u c a t i o n .......... . ................ v

82 82 86 87 88 89 95

97 97 120 163 216

Page

Chapter

VII.

The Parochial Schools .......................... What Can the Churches D o ? .....................

229 251

C O N C L U S I O N ....................................

299

Summary of Findings ofthis Study . . . . . . . R e m a r k s ........................................ C o n c l u s i o n s ....................................

299 306 306

B I B L I O G R A P H Y ..................................

310

Books and P e r i o d i c a l s ......................... ....................... Documentary References Legal R e f e r e n c e s ..............................

311 320 321

APPENDIX

324

..............................

Appendix A, Part I: Numerical Tabulation of Items on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ................. Appendix A, Part II: Questionnaire Used in This S t u d y .............. Appendix B, Part I: State Laws Regarding Religious Education ......................... Appendix B, Part II: Indiana House Bill No. 195 Appendix B, Part III:Excerpts from the Consti­ tution of the United States and the Constitu­ tion of I n d i a n a .............................. Appendix C: Opinion No. 41 of the AttorneyGeneral of I n d i a n a ......................... Appendix D: Geographic Divisions of Indiana Used in this S t u d y ......................... Appendix E: Outline and Questionnaire, "Religion and the Public Schools," as Prepared by Dean J. B. Edmonson ...................

vi

325 414 417 426

429 432 453

457

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

1.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: ”Our State Constitution, along with that of Many Others, Permits Bible Reading in the Public Schools. Is this an Example of State Encourageof Protestant Christianity?ff................. 101

2.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Some States Require Bible Reading in the Public Schools. Is this Consistent vdth the State-Church Separation Principles?” ........ 107

3.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Some Communities in Which Tradition and Custom Have Long Approved Bible Reading, Prayer and Singing of hymns in the Public Schools feel that They have a Right to Continue in Spite of the United States Supreme Court Decision. The Proponents of the Idea feel that the Will of the People for Their Own Good Supersedes Federal and State Laws. Do you Agree?” ......................... . . . . . .

114

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Many Interested Authorities Believe that the Public Schools Should Give More Time and Emphasis to Training Children in hays of Ethical Behavior and that this Training Should be of a Non-Denominational Nature. Do you Agree?” .....................................

126

4.

5.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Could Representatives of the Churches of Your Community Agree on a tCore* of Religious Teachings to be Required of all Public School Pupils?” ........ ............................ 133

6.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "If Religious Instruction Were Made a Part of the Regular Curriculum, who Should Teach It?" . . 111

7.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to ohe question: "Who Would pay the teachers of Religious In­ struction Under the Plan mentioned in Item 9 above?” ..................................... vii

150

Table $.

9,

Page Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: trSome Have Advocated Teaching Religious Education Right in the Regular Curriculum like Spelling, Arithmetic, and Other School Subjects, It 'Would Include No Indoctrination, Only Spiritual, Moral, and Ethical Values, Do You Feel that Handling the Situation in this Way Would be of the Best Interest to the Churches In Your Community?” ............................ 157

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "The United States Supreme Court Decision in the "McCollum Case in Illinois Makes Illegal the Use of School Buildings, at Least During School Hours, for the Teaching of Religion by Church Groups. Do You Believe that this Constitutes a Misuse of School Property?" . . . .

I64

10.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: !I0ne of the Most Popular Plans for Giving Religious Instruction is by Releasing Pupils to a Church Council for Religious Instruction to be Given Outside of the School Building. Do You Believe that this Constitutes a Misuse of the Public School?” ............................ 170

11.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "One Great Objection to Weekday Religious Education on Time When the Pupils are Released from School is that it Puts Social Pressure on those Who do not Really Want to Attend. Is this a Fair Accusation?”............. 177

12.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: nDo You Believe that Teaching Religious Education on *Released Public School TimeT is No More a Violation of the Principle of ChurchState Separation Than Paying Army and Navy Chaplains from Tax-Raised Money?” .............. 1C4

13.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Offering Any Religious Courses in a State Supported University is Designated by Some to be as Unconstitutional as Weekday Religious Education on Released Time1 in the public Schools. Do you agree?” ................... 191 viii

Page

Table 14*

15*

16.

17.

IS.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Many have Made the Accusation that Allowing the Schools to Participate in Any hay What­ soever in a Program of Weekday Religious Ed­ ucation is the Same as Preferential Treatment for Selected Churches Since Mostly Protestant Groups take Advantage of this Arrangement* Do you Agree With the Accusation?"............

200

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "During the Year Very Few Elementary School Pupils Spend More Than 1,260 Hours in School Duties. Allowing a Total of 11 Hours Daily for Eating and Sleeping, We Have an Annual Balance of 3j4$5 Hours for Other Activities. Do You Believe that this is Adequate Time for Churches to Offer Religious Training to Pupils on Time Outside of School Hours?" .................

210

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "A TDismissed Time' Plan of Teaching Religious Education has Been Used in Some Communities. Under this Plan All Pupils are Dismissed for a Period of Usually One Hour Per Week at Which Time They May Secure Religious Education at the Church of Their Choice. They are free, However, to Use the Time As They Choose, Hot Attending Classes in religion at all if They do not Care to. Do You Believe Most Public School Children in Your Community Would Attend Religious In­ struction if Given an Opportunity Under This P l a n ? " ......... 217 Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Do You Believe That Nearly All the Churches In Your Community Would Co-operate Individually In Offering Religious Instruction Under the 1Dismissed TimeT Plan, and Would Attempt to Hold the Children's i n t e r e s t ? " ............

224

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Over 11,000 Schools in the United States are Supported by Some Church Group or Other. These Parochial Schools Give Instruction in Doctrinal Viewpoints of the Particular Church. Do you Believe That These Schools Should Be Allowed to Train Our Y o u t h ? " .....................

232

Page

Table 19*

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "The United States Supreme Court Decision in the Everson Case Upheld the Use of School Busses for Transporting Pupils to Parochial Schools, Do You Believe That Transportation, Public Health Service, Free Text Books and Recrea­ tional Programs Should be Paid for From Public Funds to Aid Children in a Parochial School?" 237

20.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Proposed Federal Aid to Equalize State Ex­ penditures for Education is Really the Result of a Campaign to Secure Public Funds for Parochial Schools. Do You Agree?” ........

243

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "If Pastors Should Devote a Morning Service to the Topic, TThe Church1s Responsibility for Religious Instruction -for Claildren and Youth,T Would This Help Solve the Problem of Religious Education in Your Community?” . . ,

253

21.

22.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Would the Churches in Your Community Co­ operate in Creating a Community Board for Carrying On a Religious Education Program Satisfactory to the Churches, and Satisfying the Legal Requirements as Set Forth in the United States Supreme Court Decision in the McCollum C a s e ? " .................................... . 260

23. Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Should This Board Work Out a Satisfactory System to Carry On a Continuous Survey of the Community to Discover boys and girls Who Are Not Enrolled in Church Schools (Sunday or Weekday)? " ................................. 24.

267

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Should This Board Promote Community Conferences On Various Problems Relative to Religious Education, Especially Conferences of workers in the Church S c h o o l s ? " ................... 272

x

Page

Table 25.

26.

27.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Would There Be a Definite Advantage If This Board Set Up a System for Maintaining a Con­ tinuous Attendance Record and a tResult-ofInstruction! Record for Each Child Enrolled?"

276

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Should This Board Prepare and Direct a Con­ tinuous Program to Educate Adults Concerning the Importance of Religious Instruction?" ..

231

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "In Items Above Ae Used the Term Church-School to Designate Any Agency for Giving Religious Instruction Through the week As fell As On Sunday. Check the Plan You Feel Gould be Most Effective in Your Community for the Operation of Church Schools."................... . .

236

23.

Opinions, stated in percentage, to the question: "Below Are Some of the Plans Suggested for Financing Cooperative Undertakings for Ex­ tending the Religious Educational Program. Check the One You Feel Could be Most Effectively Used in Your Community." ................. 293

29.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: "Our State Constitution, Along Viith That of Many Others, Permits Bible Reading in the Public Schools. Is This an Example of State En­ couragement of Protestant Christianity?" . . . 327

30.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: "Some States Require Bible Reading in the Public Schools. Is This Consistent Aith the State Church Separation Principles?" ............. 330

31.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question; "Some Communities in Ahich Tradition and Custom Have Long Approved Bible Reading, Prayer, and Singing of Hymns in the Puolic Schools Feel That They Have a Right to Continue in Spite of the United States Supreme Court Decision. The Proponents Feel That the will of the people for Their Own Good Supersedes Federal and State Laws. Do you A g r e e ? " ........................ 333 xi

Page

Table 32.

33.

34.

35.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: TTMany Interested Authorities Believe That the Public Schools Should Give More Time and Emphasis to Training Children in Bays of Ethical Behavior and That This Training Should 3e of a Non-denominational Nature. Do You Agree?” ...................................

336

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”Could Representatives of the Churches of Your Community Agree On a !Core1 of Religious Teachings to be Required of All Public School Pupils?” .................................

339

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”If Religious Instruction Were Made a Part of the Regular Curriculum Who Should Teach It?”

342

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”Who Should Pay the Teachers of Religious Instruction Under the Plan Mentioned in Item 9 Above?” ............................... .

345

36.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: Some Have Advocated Teaching Religious Education Right in the Regular Curriculum Like Spelling, Arithmetic, and Other School Subjects. It would Include No Indoctrination, Only Spiritual, Moral, and Ethical Values. Do You Feel That Handling the Situation in This Way Would Be of the Best Interest to the Churches in Your Community?” ............... 34$

37.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”The United States Supreme Court Decision in the McCollum Case in Illinois Makes Illegal the Use of School Buildings, At Least During School Hours, for the Teaching of Religion by Church Groups. Do You Believe That This Constitutes a Misuse of School Property?” . .

xii

350

Page

Table 38.

39•

RO.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”One of the Most Popular Plans for Giving Relig ious Instruction is by Releasing Pupils to a Church Council for Religious Instruction to be Given Outside of the School Building, Do You Believe that This Constitutes a Misuse of the Public Schools?” .......................

353

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: nOne Great Objection to Weekday Religious Education on Time VJhen The Pupils Are Released From School is That It Puts Social Pressure on Those Who Do Not Really Rant To Attend. Is This a Fair Accusation?” ........

356

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: Do You Believe That Teaching Religious Education on TReleased Public School Time* is No More a Violation of the Principle of Church-State Separation Than Paying Army and Navy Chaplains from Tax-raised Money?” . . . .

359

41 • Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ^Offering Any Religious Courses In a State Supported University is Designated By Some to Be as Unconstitutional as ^Weekday Religious Education on !Released Time1 in the Public School, Do You Agree?” ........ 42.

43.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”Many Have Made the Accusation That Allowing the Schools to Participate in Any Way What­ soever in a Program of Weekday Religious Education is the Same as Preferential Treat­ ment for Selected Churches Since Mostly Protestant Churches Take Advantage of This Arrangement. Do You Agree With This Accusa­ tion?” ..................................... Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”During the Year Very Few Elementary School Pupils Spend More Than 1,260 Hours in School Duties. Allowing a Total of 11 Hours Daily for Eating and Sleeping, We Have an Annual Balance of 3>485 Hours for Other Activities. Do You Believe That This is Adequate Time for Churches to Offer Religious Training to Pupils on Time Outside of School Hours?51 . . xiii

362

365

Table 44.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”A ’Dismissed Time* Plan of Teaching Religious Education Has Been Used in Some Communities, Under This Plan All Pupils are Dismissed for a Period of Usually One Hour Per Week at Which Time They May Secure Religious Education at the Church of Their Choice, They Are Free, However, to Use the Time as They Choose, Hot Attending Classes in Religion at All if They Do Not Care to. Do You Believe Most Public School Children in Your Community Would Attend Religious Instruction if Given an Opportunity Under This Plan?” * ...........................

45. Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”Do You Believe That Nearly All the Churches in Your Community Would Cooperate Individually in Offering Religious Instruction Under the ’Dismissed Time’ Plan, and Would Attempt to Hold the Children’s Interest?” ..............

37

37^

46. Opinions, stated numerically, to the question:

47.

43.

’’Over 11,000 Schools in the United States are Supported by Some Church Croup or Other, These Parochial Schools Give Instruction in Doctrinal Viewpoints of the Particular Church, Do You Believe that These Schools Should be Allowed to Train Our Youth?” ...............

377

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ’’The United States Supreme Court Decision in the Everson Case Upheld the Use of School Busses for Transporting pupils to Parochial Schools, Do You Believe that Transportation, Public Health Service, Free Text Books, and Recreational Programs Should be Paid for From Public Funds to Aid Children in a Parochial School?” .

3&0

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ’’Proposed Federal Aid to Equalize State Ex­ penditures for Education is Really the Result of a Campaign to Secure Public Funds for Parochial Schools. Do You Agree?” ..........

3&3

xiv

q

Pages

Table 49.

50.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”If Pastors Should Devote a Morning Service to the Topic, !The ChurchTs Responsibility for Religious Instruction for Children and Youth,* Would This Help Solve the Problem of Religious Education in YourCommunity?” ...

3$6

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: TIWould the Churches in Your Community Co­ operate in Creating a Community Board for Carrying on a Religious Education Program Satisfactory to the Churches, and Satis­ fying the Legal Requirements as Set Forth in the United States Supreme Court Decision in the McCollum Case?” .............. . .

3&9

51.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: "Should This Board Work Out a Satisfactory System to Carry on a Continuous Survey of the Community to Discover Boys and Girls Who are not Enrolled in Church Schools (Sunday or Weekday)?” ............................. 392

52.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”Should this Board Promote Community Con­ ferences on Various Problems Relative to Religious Education, Especially Conferences of ’Workers in the ChurchSchools?” .........395

53.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”Would There be a Definite Advantage if This Board Set Up a System for Maintaining a Continuous Attendance Record and a ’Resultof-InstructionT Record for each Child En­ rolled?” ................................... 398

54.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: "Should This Board Prepare and Direct a Continuous Program to Educate Adults Con­ cerning the importance of Religious Instruction?”401

55.

Opinions, stated numerically, to the question: ”In Items Above We Used the Term Church-School to Designate Any Agency for Giving Religious Instruction Through the Week as Well as on Sunday. Check the Plan You Feel Would Be Most Effective in Your Community for the Operation of Church Schools.” ............... xv

404

Page

* Table 56 .

Opinions, stated numerically to the question: uBelov/ are Some of the Plans Suggested for Financing Cooperative Undertakings for Ex­ tending the Religious Education Program, Check the One You Feel Could be Host Effectively Used in Your Community.n ........................ Zj.09

xvi

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.

2.

3.

4*

Page Percentage of Catholics and Protestants Agreeing to Increased Emphasis on Character Education of Non-denominational ................... Nature . . . . . . . .

131

ShovhLng the Difference in Catholic and Protestant Response to the Question as to Whether the Churches Could Agree on a ,fCore of Religious Teachings to be Taught in the Schools..................... .

139

Percentage of Catholics and Protestants Expressing Approval of a Plan of Teaching Religious Education Right in the Curric­ ulum Like an Academic S u b j e c t ..............

162

How the Protestants and Catholics Opined Concerning the Accusation of the "Week­ day Religious Education Program Seing Preferential Treatment forthe Protestants . .

205

xvii

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Why the study was undertaken.

The author has long

been interested in the place of religious education in the public schools.

From all walks of life, from the illiterate

parent to the members of the highest tribunal in our nation, come varying opinions as to the place religious education should be given in our schools.

Some think it should have

no place; some think it should have a major place; others, a minor place; and still others are indifferent.

This study is

undertaken to attempt to measure public opinion concerning many of these issues. There were in addition several factors which added to the author's desire to undertake the study. 1.

They are:

The large number of boys and girls who do not

attend Sunday School, 2.

The Supreme Court ruling in the McCollum case

concerning weekday religious education in the public schools, 3.

The upward swing of juvenile delinquency,

4.

The many valuable suggestions for handling ex­

tended religious education found in recent writings, and, 5.

The many possible aspects of developing a re­

ligious educational program.

2 What are some factors concerning these aspects?

Sunday School attendance,

Next Sunday morning 70

per cent of the boys and girls of this nation will not attend Sunday School,

1

Only 52 per cent of our population are

members of any church and many of these attend occasionally 2 or not at all,

The McCollum Case,

3

Weekday religious education was

gaining popularity until the Supreme Court ruling in Illinois declaring the program illegal, at least as it was being con­ ducted in the Champaign, Illinois, schools. In that city, teachers of religious education came into the schools for a period each week of religious instruc­ tion.

The wife of a University of Illinois professor brought

suit that such practice violated the church-state separation principle, was unconstitutional and undemocratic.

The United

States Supreme Court reversed the decision of the lower courts which upheld the teaching as constitutional.

Follow­

ing this decision, the Illinois State Department of Education issued a statement that all weekday religious instruction -*-From a lecture by Dr. George Benson, General Field Director of Church Schools, Church of the Nazarene, Kansas City, Missouri, delivered in Indianapolis, February 21, 1949* ^The World Almanac and Book of Facts for 194$, p® 579* ^For a more detailed discussion of this case, see Chapter IV®

3

under the released time plan would be discontinued.4 Increasing: juvenile delinquency. is becoming more of a problem.

Juvenile delinquency

Criminal activity may involve

the child, the adolescent, or the adult.

Crime involves human

beings possessed of a free will and living in a society which is becoming increasingly complex.

Any success in the war

against crime depends to a large degree upon an intelligent approach to this problem by all of our citizens.

There was a total of 1,665,110 estimated crimes in the United States for 1947. The seriousness of the present-day crime picture is brought into sharp focus by comparing the 1947 average with the 1938-1941 prewar average. For example, murder in 1947 was 15.4 per cent above the 1938-1941 average; rape was 48.3 per cent higher; aggravated assault ran 59.5 per cent higher; burglaries increased 15.3 per cent; robberies 14.6 per cent; larcenies, 2.6 per cent; negligent manslaughter, 2.1 per cent, and auto thefts, 1.9 per cent.^

The rise in crime during 1947 revealed that we are still faced with an abnormally high rate of juvenile mis­ behavior.

Almost 29 per cent of the persons arrested for

robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, receiving stolen property and arson were less than 21 years of age.

4People ex, rel. McCollum ^v. Board of Education of School District No. 71, 396 111. 14, 71 N.E. (2d) 161 (1947).

5 '"Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States Depart­ ment of Justice, The Crime Problem, p. 3.

4

"The teachings of God," says J. Edgar Hoover, "if followed, will prevent criminality. The stabilizing force of religious is needed today more than ever before. A child who has been taught to respect the laws of God will have little difficulty respecting the laws of man."

In another article, J. Edgar Hoover says, "the churches are in the front trenches of America's crime prevention 7 crusade He says that, never before has there been such a challenging need for aggressive,

inspirational leadership

among the boys and girls of this country*

At the present

time, only half of the youth in America are being reached by the churches, and of those who are being reached, en­ tirely too many are merely "on the rolls."

This failure

to make contact with the bulk of tomorrow's citizens is producing a fertile field for future juvenile crime.

If

America is to remain a Christian nation devoted to the funda­ mental ideals of the Beatitudes, the Ten Commandments, and the Golden Rule, then more adults must assume the respon­ sibility of preparing young Americans for virile, dynamic Christian living. He goes on to say church attendance is a vital factor in the Nation’s crime prevention program.

0 Ibid., p. 4.

7 Hoover, J. E., Crime Challenges the Churches, Fed­ eral Bureau of Investigation Publication, 2 pp.

5

While serving as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation during the past twenty years, I have been profoundly impressed with the fact that the Tchurch-going people1 are the most substantial group of citizens in the Nation* Church attendance and crime appear to be like the ingredients of oil and water— they do not mix* He insists that the churches have an excellent oppor­ tunity to fight the causes of crime* varied*

These are many and

Crime usually plants its seeds in the mind of a

child during the early, formative years.

It comes when there

is a lack of something— lack of proper parental guidance, lack of wholesome companions, lack of discipline, lack of respect for the rights of others, disregard for parents and constituted authorities, the lack of emotional stability. The value of the church in filling many of these needs is obvious. Mr* Hoover speaks with authority: Through experience, we of the FBI have also observed that those who are active in some church are also the people who seem most interested in establish­ ing a genuine Thorne'* for their children. The greatest single factor in crime causation among juveniles today is the disintegration of the American home* In this respect the ^home” front is not one-fourth as strong as it should-be. Undoubtedly juvenile delinquency will continue to thrive until we are fervently deter­ mined to restore the home and t»family unitft to their former position of importance as the fundamental social unit in our national life* We need homes where the children feel inalienably attached to the family circle' a place where questions are answered, sympathy and affection received and frequent family activities promoted which allow expression and participation by

$ Ibid*, p* 1.

6

every member of the group* We need homes where children learn respect for their parents, respect for law, respect for God and the religious principles which must be perpetuated if America is to survive as a great nation*' In both the church and the home, Mr. Hoover remarks, children must be made to understand their individual respon­ sibility for personal conduct.

They must gain a personal

appreciation of the law of compensation and retribution which is unequivocally administered in the Heavens.

Children must

be encouraged to acquire sufficient religious conviction to fortify their moral conceptions for later years when selfish aggrandizement, strong personal ambitions, dishonest assoc­ iates or some other negative influence may seek to entice them into bartering their birthright as honest, forthright citizens for sordid careers of corruption and crime. Statistics are quoted by the Bureau as follows: The monthly collection and analysis of crime statistics by the FBI constitute a national crime barometer which shows that the eternal conflict between the forces of good and the forces of lawlessness and destruction exist day and night, seven-days-a-week, as a two-fisted reality. Every twenty-two seconds throughout the past year a major crime has been taking place. During an average day, 27 criminal homicides have been committed, as well as 136 other felonious assaults. An average of 745 American homes have been burglarized every 24 hours, 124 innocent persons have been robbed, 2,209 larcenies have occurred and 514 automobile owners have been deprived of the use of their cars by auto thieves. If such trends continue, it will mean that during the normal lifetime of the

7

average American 436,475 murders will be committed in this country, and $$,000,000 larcenies, burglaries, auto thefts and aggravated assaults will be perpetrated. Of the 1,300,000 major crimes committed last year, IS year old boys and girls were guilty of perpetrating more than any other age group. And you Americans of less than voting age accounted for 65 per cent of all the car thefts, 55 per cent of all the burglaries, 39 per cent of all the robberies, 37 per cent of all the sneak thievery, 30 per cent of ail the cases involving malicious destruction by fire and 13 per cent of all the murders. And the weakening of moral fiber demon­ strated by these figures is not the only problem. The lethargy and apathy of parents and adults who have been directly responsible for young people failing to receive proper religious education or obtain a proper evaluation of the governing principles which have brought the American people to their present position of power and prosperity have also exposed our young people to false philosophies of starry-eyed theorists and the nostrums of Utopian quackery. Failure of American parents to properly instruct their children in the fundamental tenets of their American heritage have permitted many ” ismstf to thrive like parasites, gnawing at the vitals of the constitutional govern­ ment and destroying the ideals of liberty and t f equal opportunity» for which America stands. The only ♦ismtr compatible with the religious and freedom-fostered ideals of the United States is an alert, vigorous, wide­ awake Americanism. Mr. Hoover concludes, It has become imperative that every American arouse himself to the urgent necessity of instituting in each community a wide variety of activities, programs and policies designed to counteract the present trend. Respect for law, personal liberty, life and property must be preached, taught, and practiced. There must be a veritable « crusadeagainst crime. The churches have a vital task in making contact with our youth, in re­ deeming and restoring the American home, in providing inspirational religious leadership, to make America the law-abiding, God-fearing nation our forefathers designed it to be.-^ 10Ibid., p. 2.

11

. .

Ibid., p.

3

*

8

In an article reprinted in a February issue, 1948, of the Sunday School Times,

12

Mr. Hoover indicates that the

criminal is the product of spiritual starvation.

Someone

has failed to cause him to know God, love, and serve Him. As a result the criminal is guided by a selfish urge, has no respect for the law, but hates it#

Mr. Hoover indicates

that the upward sweep of postwar crime is characterized by criminal incidents reminiscent of gang events following World War I#

Gangsters, hoodlums, and trigger men are eagerly

recruiting youngsters into the criminal array. Mr. Hoover pays tribute to the teachers of the Sunday School:

111 would like to pay tribute to the thousands of

loyal men and women who are serving unselfishly as teachers in our Sunday schools.

We in law enforcement look upon them

as companions-in-arms in the fight against crime."

13

He states that one of the valuable aids in fighting juvenile delinquency is a knowledge of the Bible:

More often than not, a child is first intro­ duced to the Bible by a Sunday school teacher. It is quite impossible to believe that progress along the road to righteous living may be accomplished without the guidance of the Bible. It is the source of spiritual food, the solution of life’s problems, and the inspiration for Christian living.

Hoover, J. E., Crime and the Sunday School, 3 pp. 15Ibid. . p. 3.

9

•Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every work that proceedeth out of the mouth of God" is a precept which must be followed by all if life is to have a meaning. Our forefathers believed in the inspired Word of God and their religious faith and simple devotion produced a strong national character. If we are to make progress in the fight against crime, make certain that the children of the nation attend Sunday School. It is difficult to understand why many mothers and fathers refuse to afford to their children the wholesome, healthful, characterbuilding environment of the Sunday school. As a law enforcement officer, I am certain that unless children are given the opportunity of partic­ ipating in activities which have God as their funda­ mental objective, we cannot hope to materially reduce crime in our country. ^ Valuable suggestions.

The author has found many

valuable suggestions for handling the religious education problem in a wide reading range.

These he would like to share

with others by a questionnaire and the finally published dissertation. Points for investigation.

Many of the aspects of

religious education for our youth worthy of investigation are: The giving of more time and emphasis to training children in ways of ethical behavior; a "core" of religious teachings to be required of all public school pupils; the United States Supreme Court decision in the McCollum case in Illinois making illegal the use of school buildings, at least during school hours, for the teaching of religion by church ^ Tbid., p. 3.

10

groups; releasing pupils to a church council for religious instruction to be given outside of the school building; social pressure on those who do not really want to attend weekday religious instruction; our state constitutions, along with that of many others, permitting Bible reading in the public schools; some states requiring Bible reading in the public schools; some communities having a tradition and custom approving Bible reading, prayer, and singing of hymns in the public schools; if religious instruction were made a part of the regular curriculum who should teach it; who would pay the teachers of religious instruction; teaching religious educa­ tion right in the regular school curriculum like spelling, arithmetic, and other school subjects; parochial schoolfs giving instruction in doctrinal viewpoints of their particular church; transportation, public health service, library ser­ vice, free text books and recreational programs paid for from public funds to aid children in a parochial school; teaching religious education on "released public school time" as com­ pared to paying Army and Navy chaplains from tax-raised money; offering religious courses in a state supported university; proposed federal aid to equalize state expenditures for ed­ ucation; preferential treatment for selected churches; an argument for adequate time for churches to offer religious training to pupils on time outside of school hours; a "dis­ missed time" plan of teaching religious education, satis­ fying the legal requirements for carrying on religious ed­

11

ucation; the working out of a satisfactory system to carry on a continuous survey of the community to discover boys and girls who are not enrolled in church schools; promoting com­ munity conferences on various problems relative to religious education, especially conferences of workers in the church schools; the setting up of a system for maintaining a con­ tinuous attendance record and a "result-of-instruction" record for each child enrolled; a continuous program to educate adults concerning the importance of religious instruction; amount of time through the week and on Sunday which should be devoted to religious instruction. To summarize, we desire to find (1) what per cent of Indiana residents are in favor of and what per cent opposed to various aspects of religious education in the public schools, (2) what the nature of religious education should be, if given, (3) who should sponsor and finance the program, (4) what has been successfully accomplished in some communities, and (5) suggestions which might be of value in teaching our youth. The issues seem to fall into seven main divisions: I.

Bible reading in the schools, including the follow­

ing questions: A.

The Indiana State Constitution, along with that

of many others, permits Bible reading in the public schools. Is this an example of state encouragement of Protestant Christianity?

12

B. schools.

Some states require Bible reading in the public

Is this consistent with the state-church separation

principles? C.

Some communities in which tradition and custom

have long approved Bible reading, prayer, and singing of hymns in the public schools feel that they have a right to continue in spite of the United States Supreme Court decision. The proponents of the idea feel that the will of the people for their own good supersedes federal and state laws. II.

Teaching of ethical behavior with these questions: A.

Many interested authorities believe that the

public schools should give more time and emphasis to training children in ways of ethical behavior and that this training should be of a non-denominational nature. B.

Could representatives of the churches of various

communities agree on a lrcoreff of religious teachings to be required of all public school pupils? C.

If religious instruction were made a part of

the regular curriculum, who should teach it? D.

VJho would pay the teachers of religious in­

struction under the plan mentioned in A above? E.

Some have advocated teaching religious ed­

ucation right in the regular school curriculum like spelling, arithmetic, and other school subjects.

It would include no

indoctrination, only spiritual, moral, and ethical values. Would handling the situation in this way be of the best interest to the churches in various communities?

13

III*

The "released time" plan for weekday religious

education as set forth by: A,

The United States Supreme Court decision in

the McCollum case in Illinois makes illegal the use of school buildings, at least during school hours, for the teaching of religion by church groups*

Does this constitute a misuse

of school property? B,

One of the most popular plans for giving

religious instruction is by releasing pupils to a church council for religious instruction to be given outside of the school building.

Does this constitute a misuse of the public

school? C,

One great objection to weekday religious

education on time when the pupils are released from school is that it puts social pressure on those who do not really want to attend. D,

Is this a fair accusation? Is teaching religious education on "released

public school time" no more a violation of the principle of church-state separation than to pay Army and Navy chaplains from tax-raised money? E,

Offering any religious courses in a state

supported university is designated by some to be as un­ constitutional as weekday religious education on "released time" in the public schools* F*

Many have made the accusation that allowing

the schools to participate in any way whatsoever in a program

14

of weekday religious education is the same as preferential treatment for selected churches since mostly Protestant groups take advantage of this arrangement G.

During the year very few elementary school

pupils spend more than 1,260 hours in school duties.

Allow­

ing a total of 11 hours daily for eating and sleeping, we have an annual balance of 3,4^5 hours for other activities. Is this adequate time for churches to offer religious train­ ing to pupils on time outside of school hours? H,

What additional suggestions, if any, can be

made for working out a plan of religious education which would be satisfactory to all the various community churches and would not be contrary to the legal requirements for church' state separation? IV*

The "dismissed time" plan for weekday religious

education embracing just two questions: A#

A "dismissed time" plan of teaching religious

education has been used in some communities.

Under this plan

all pupils are dismissed for a period of usually one hour per week at which time they may secure religious education at the church of their choice.

They are free, however, to use

the time as they choose, not attending classes in religion at all if they do not care to.

Would most public school

children in your community attend religious instruction if given opportunity under this plan?

15

B.

Would nearly all the churches in your community

cooperate individually in offering religious instruction under the "dismissed time" plan, and would attempt to hold the children*s interest? V.

Parochial schools represented by the questions: A.

Over 11,000 schools in the United States are

supported by some church group or other.

These parochial

schools give instruction in doctrinal viewpoints of the particular church.

Should these schools be allowed to train

our youth? B.

The United States Supreme Court decision in

the Everson case upheld the use of school busses for trans­ porting pupils to parochial schools.

Should transportation,

public health service, library service, free text books and recreational programs be paid for from public funds to aid children in a parochial school? VI.

Individual churches* responsibility as brought

out by the following: A.

If pastors should devote a morning service

to the topic, "The Church*s Responsibility for the Religious Instruction for Children and Youth," would this help solve the problem of religious education in the various communities. B.

What have the churches in the various

communities done in regard to providing a more adequate program of religious instruction for the children and youth?

16

VII.

The organization of a community board for pro­

moting a religious education program.

These questions seem

pertinent: A.

Would the churches in the various com­

munities cooperate in creating a Community Board for carrying on a religious education program satisfactory to the churches, and satisfying the legal requirements as set forth in the United States Supreme Court decision in the McCollum case? B.

Should this board work out a satisfactory

system to carry on a continuous survey of the community to discover boys and girls who are not enrolled in church schools. (Sunday or weekday)? C.

Should this board promote community con­

ferences on various problems relative to religious education, especially conferences of workers in the church schools? D.

Would there be a definite advantage if this

board set up a system for maintaining a continuous attend­ ance record and a nresult-of-instructionM record for each child enrolled? E.

Should this board prepare and direct a

continuous program to educate adults concerning the impor­ tance of religious instruction? F.

In items A to E above, we used the term

church-school to designate any agency for giving religious

17 instruction through the week as well as on Sunday.

Check

the plan you feel would be most effective in the various communities for the operation of church schools, 1.

Approximately one hour on Sunday, none other*

2.

Approximately one hour on Sunday and one hour during the week*

3.

Approximately one hour on Sunday; 2 to 5 hours during the week*

4.

Two.or more hours on Sunday; one hour during the week.

5.

Two or more hours on Sunday; 2 to 5 hours during the week*

6.

Five to ten hours weekday instruction; none on Sunday.

7.

No religious instruction at all.

G.

Below are some of the plans suggested for fin­

ancing cooperative undertakings for extending the religious education program.

Check the one you feel could be most

effectively used in your community. 1.

The levy of an assessment of five dollars (or any other amount) per adult member of the cooperating churches.

2.

Private subscription.

3.

Collections at community programs sponsored by cooperating churches.

1$

4.

Selling tickets to special programs arranged by cooperating churches in which boys and girls would participate.

The questionnaire.

These questions raised formed a

basis for the questionnaire and further study.

After deciding

upon just what issues should be involved, a trial question­ naire was constructed which was "tried out" on a select few. They were invited not only to react to the situations, but to be critical.

Using their suggestions plus results from

consulting with authorities in the field, a second revision was made.

This was subjected to a larger number of people,

some 60 college students plus authorities and a few dis­ interested persons.

Finally a revision was made.

was printed and mailed to residents of Indiana,

15

This form The

problem of obtaining a random sampling of Indiana population which would be as nearly as possible representative of the entire Indiana population was a problem to be considered. The problem of random sampling.

Various sources of

lists of names of residents of Indiana were considered.

The

most complete and representative list seemed to be that in the Bureau of Motor Vehicles, Office of the Secretary of State, State House, Indianapolis. half names are listed. 15

Nearly a million and a

The assumption was made that nearly

See Appendix A, Part II.

19 every family in Indiana was represented by at least one car.

A random sampling of one thousand five hundred names was taken from this list, using every nine hundred seventieth on the list.

Each of these persons was sent a questionnaire with

a self-addressed, stamped envelope.

Approximately two

per cent were returned by the post office department with a notation that they were unable to be delivered because the person had moved leaving no forwarding address, and in one or two instances, a notation, ”no such address.” About 20 per cent of the questionnaires sent out were returned completed, or nearly so.

An item here or there was

omitted on various questionnaires. Less than one-half of one per cent of the forms were returned uncompleted. Questionnaire returns classified according to personal data.

Personal data was arranged in eleven categories: 1.

Size of community.

16

Nearly half of those return­

ing questionnaires lived in a community of 10,000 or more inhabitants.

One-fourth lived in rural communities, and

nearly one-fourth in towns smallerthan 10,000 population. 2.

Location within the state.

17

The returns were

classified according to Congressional Districts. ■^See Tables 1 and 29. See Tables 1 and 29.

The

20

smallest return, 4 per cent, was from the Ninth District, and the largest from the Eleventh District, 17 per cent*

There

is a fairly even distribution between those two extremes* 1$ 3. Sex* The fact that 71 per cent of the returns were from men, and only 2$ per cent from women could be due to the fact that, since more cars are listed in men*s names, more men than women received questionnaires* 4.

Age *^9

^ e ownership of cars by persons under age

20 is no doubt small, hence the small percentage of returns from people in that age group.

The returns from the 20-39

and the 40-59 groups was almost identical, both showing 42 per cent. 5e

The returns from persons over 60 was 13 per cent. 20 Political affiliations. Thirteen per cent

failed to check this item*

Over half checked as Republican

and more than one-fourth as Democrat.

Two per cent desig­

nated themselves as Prohibitionists, and 5 per cent checked the category marked, "other." 21 6. Education.

Three-fourths of those returning

the questionnaire designated they had finished high school, and nearly a fourth of these were college graduates. ■^See Tables 1 and 29. 19 See Tables 1 and 29.

20

See Tables 1 and 29.

21

See Tables 1 and 29*

Another

21

22 per cent had had some college training* had finished only common school.

About one-eighth

Only 4 per cent had failed

to complete common school* 7.

22 Occupational groups. Clerical and skilled trades­

men made up the largest percentage, 29 per cent, of those returning questionnaires.

Housewives were second with 17

per cent and semi-skilled workmen third with 14 per cent* Each of the following groups had 11 per cent: semi-professional, farmers.

professional,

Only a small percentage came

from the day-laborers and slightly skilled groups. 23 8 . Number having children* Seventy-one per cent reporting had children.

Thirty-one per cent of these had

children under six years of age; 26 per cent, children in grade school; and 12 per cent, children in high school* Thirty per cent had children out of school. pi 9* Church preference. Only one questionnaire was returned checked Jewish.

Eleven per cent were checked

Catholic, and 87 per cent Protestant.

Two per cent did not

designate their religious preference. 10.

Church membership.

25

Eighty-five per cent

designated that they belonged to a church, 12 per cent did

22

See 23 See 24 See 25 See

Tables 1 and 29. Tables 1 and 29. Tables 1 and 29.

Tables 1 and 29.

22

not belong, and 3 per cent made no indication* 26 11* Church attendance. Over half of those return­ ing questionnaires indicated they attended church more than thirty times yearly. times.

Nearly a fourth attended ten to thirty

About 7 per cent do not attend church at all. Definitions.

The following terms are defined according

to their usage in this work. Religious education— Any training or experience in the lives of the boys and girls the purpose of which is to give them a better understanding of moral and spiritual values and the actual putting into practice of these concepts. Weekday religious education— Any religious edu­ cation given during the five school days in connection with the public schools by any group or agency. Released time— The plan whereby students may be released during school time from public school duties for a period or periods each week to some church group or groups for the giving of religious education. Dismissed time— A period or periods when all public school pupils are dismissed from school.

During this time

they may attend classes in religious education, but may also choose to not attend, in which case they are free to use the time as they wish.

26

See Tables 1 and 29.

23 School— An institution offering educational facilities for any or all grades one through twelve. Public school— Any school supported by tax monies. Private school— Any school supported solely by some individual or group, not a church organization. Parochial school— Any school supported solely or largely by an organized church group or groups. Summary of introductory material.

The need for a

survey of public opinion concerning religious education in the public schools seems to grow largely out of the many controversial issues on the subject, especially those as set forth in the McCollum Case by the United States Supreme Court.

Juvenile delinquency and the implications of more

moral training for the youth of America also contributed. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sampling of 1,500 residents of Indiana.

Approximately 20 per cent

responded. It seems necessary to a better understanding of the subject to investigate briefly the historical and legal background of religious education in the United States, and especially in Indiana.

Chapter II will be devoted to a very

short summary of history of religious education in the United States.

Chapter III will touch the history of religious

education in Indiana.

Chapter IV will deal with the legal

status of religious education in the United States, and Chapter V with the legal status in Indiana.

24

CHAPTER II HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOLS (UNITED STATES)

A recent writer pleads for religious education in the schools*

He believes the public is ready to back a

religious education program in the schools* The historic record of religious education in the schools is persuasive if exploited. Outstanding is the record of our organic law. The Declaration of Independence, the Federal and state constitutions, the Northwest Ordinance, and scores of court decisions recognize God or declare this to be a religious nation* Courts have declared that to frustrate religion through the schools by burdensome inhibitions would be to nullify constitutions* Governmental bodies and executives recognize religion by the use of chaplains, by legalizing religious holidays, and by protecting religious organizations against govern­ mental encroachments. He advocates training teachers, writing textbooks, defining terms, and choosing leaders with a determination to 2 look at every aspect and to ,rbuild from where we now are.n Historical background*

Since the beginning of their

national history, Jews have recognized the importance of religious training of their children, and in about 75 B.C. 1 ...................... Mulford, H. B., nPublic School Boards Face Dilemma,n Religious Education 43:o9> March, 194$#

2Ibid., p. 71

25 attendance upon the synagogue schools was required.

3

Roman Catholics have felt the value of religious education for a long period and have done much by catechetical 4 classes and parochial schools. 5 According to Gorham , no historical record (as of 1934) of the early development of weekday church schools has been compiled. 1. program of 2.

He gives as reasons: The inadequacy of the religious educational the Protestant Church. The trend of more complete separation of church

and state with

its attendant tendency of secularization of

the public school curriculum Early in this century Dr. George Wenner proposed:

Resolved that in view of the need of more systematic education in religion, we recommend for favorable consideration of the public school authori­ ties of the country, the proposal to allow children to absent themselves, without detriment, from the public school on Wednesday or some other afternoon of the school week for the purpose of attending religious instruction in their own churches, and we urge upon the churches the advisability of availing themselves of the opportunity so granted to give instruction in addition to that given on Sunday.^

Price, J. M., editor, Introduction to Religious Ed­ ucation, p. 55. 4Xbid., p. 56. Gorham, D . R ., A Study of the Status of 'iVeekday Church Schools in the United States, p. 8. ^Gift, F. U . , Weekday Religious Education, p. 29.

26

Both Cope

7

and Squires

$

mention a weekday church school

in New York City as early as 1906-1907. of Dr. Wenner’s speech.

This may be a result

There may have been other similar

early efforts. We do know that a program of weekday religious classes was taught in a number of schools as will be shown by the following list# 9 1914

Gary, Indiana

1915

East Greenwich, Rhode Island

1915-1916 1916

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 12 Toledo, Ohio

191$

Van Wert, O h i o ^

1916-1919

Batavia, Illinois

1919-1920

Evanston, Illinois

10

11

14 15

^Cope, H. F., The Weekday Church School, p. 3&. $ Squires, W. A., The Weekday Church School Methods, p. 1$. 9

"Weekday Religious Education," (Editorial), Religious Education 13:338-339, October, 1918. ■^Davis, M. D., Weekday Religious Instruction, p# 29#

11

Squires, 0£. cit., p. 21.

12

Lotz, P. H., and Crawford, L. W., Studies in Religious Education, p. 270. 13

"Weekday Religious Education," (Editorial), Religious Education 15:26-32, January, 1920.

14Ibid., pp. 307-309. 15

Stout, J. E., Organization and Administration of Religious Education, p. 08 .

27 1920

Hammond, Indiana 17 Corydon, Iowa

1920

The origin of released time.

It was in Gary, Indiana,

that provision was first made for giving religious instruction during school hours to public school children.

The be­

ginning of weekday religious education here dates from a 1$ ministers’ meeting held October 21, 1913. The president of the ministerial association called a meeting of the ministers and invited Dr. William E. Wirt, Superintendent of the public schools, to address them.

In this address, Dr.

Wirt suggested that each church should provide a teacher for its 01m

children during the hours of the public school

session.

The teachers so provided had to be on a par in

educational qualification with the iDublic school teacher. The pupils were to "go to their respective churches for religious instruction at such hours of the week as could be agreed upon by the pastor and authorities of the public schools."

19

Eight Protestant churches, according to Archdeacon, accepted, but since some of the churches found it difficult _

_

_

.

Squires, op. cit., pp. 100, 123. 17

Cope, op. cit., p. 72.

IS

Archdeacon, J. P., The Weekday Religious School

p. 19. *^Ibid., p. 19.

.

26

to finance the plan, in 1717 five of the original eight churches decided to combine their efforts.

Accordingly,

a Board of Religious Education was formed.

In 1927, the number 20 of churches had grown from five to seventeen. There was a fourfold aim to the unified program: ,1}

21

To help children discover principles of right

conduct. '2#

To create in them desires to do right by presenting

God as the loving Father. \3i

To bring to them sources of help for doing right—

Jesus, their Friend. ;4i

To give them practice in right living.

According to data furnished by Miss M. E. Abernethy, Superintendent of Community Church Schools, Gary, in 1927, the enrollment in weekday religious schools that year was

4,400 in the nine centers. Other weekday schools.

A comparable plan was organ­

ized in Van Wert, Ohio, in 1916, in the first six grades 22 of the public school on an elective basis. For five years the classes were held in churches near the four public schools, but in 1923, the public school board, at the request of the citizens, permitted the religious education to be ^ I b i d ., p. 20 .

21Ibid.. p. 21. 22Ibid., p. 22.

29

given in rhe regular class rooms, and during the public session. Enrollment increased from 51 per cent to 95 per cent of the first six grades in the eight-year period from 1915 ✓ 23 to 1926.

In 1925, the county in which Van Vert is located

also adopted a plan for giving religious instruction during the regular school day. In 1919> Batavia, Illinois, adopted a plan which

2i differed materially from the other two plans.

^ This plan

might be characterized as the ”denominational plan.n

Each

pastor, or his representative, instructed the children of his particular church.

The children are released from the

public school in successive groups of two grades at a time. The classes meet every Thursday of the school year for an hour of religious instruction.

The action to release the

pupils was granted by the school board on request of the 25 ministerial association. The churches participating in the plan were listed on cards which were sent out to the parents.

The parent designated the choice of church,

signed and returned the card to the superintendent who in turn filed it with the proper teacher.

23Ibid.. p. 23 . 24 Lotz, P. H., Current Week-Day Religious Education, p. 35. 25

Brown, A. A,, A History of Religious Education in Recent Times, p. 211. ■-

30 In 1920, it was reported that all but 13 01 the 723 children in the eight grades at Batavia were enrolled in the courses in religious instruction.

26

Tardiness, the source

says, was negligible. Early warnings concerning weekday religious education. The Religious Education Association realized as early as 1922 that the program would be challenged.

Says the report

in part: The week-day school is challenged by both the public school and the child to justify its claim for a share of their time and attention. School boards will not feel at liberty to grant a portion of that time of the pupil for which they are responsible unless they are assured that the experience of the pupil in the school of religion will measure up to publicschool standards, nor will the pupils give their attention to a program which does not awaken real interest. This is a legitimate challenge and one that the school of religion must frankly meet. Provided this challenge is met, however, the school of religion is entitled to the opportunity to make its vital contribution to the education of the child. The church and state are to be regarded as distinct institutions, which, as far as possible, cooperate through the agency of their common con­ stituents in their capacity as individual citizens. The work of religious instruction and training should be done by such institutions as the home, the church, and the private school, and not by the public 27 school nor in official connection with the public schools. 26

Hoag, V., "Week-Day-Instruction in Batavia, Illinois/ 1 Religious Education, 15:307, December, 1920. ^Religious Education Association, Findings of the Annual Meeting, reported in Religious Education 17:226-26B , December, 1922.

31 There is a doubt as to whether the Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association favors the public school having a part in the weekday program.

The

recorded statement is;

Our society today awaits a new integration of knowledge, aspiration, and human purpose . . . Until such an integration is forthcoming, the present condi­ tion of moral chaos is likely to continue and the more fundamental problems of character education will defy solution. Whether this is a task of the church or some other agency, we cannot say today; but it would seem to be a task that is essentially religious in nature.

In spite of some opposition, the movement gained in numbers according to a report issued in Philadelphia in 1934: 1. The movement had a very rapid growth after 1920, particularly from 1921-1929. Since 1929, the growth has been much less rapid, due to the financial depression. 2. Weekday religious instruction is given in at least 41 states. 3. Six states enroll more than 10,000 pupils each. In thirteen additional states, weekday church schools may be said to be fairly well established, with enrollments ranging from 1,000-10,000 each. 4. At least 383 communities are known to be conducting weekday church schools on released time. 5. In communities conducting weekday church schools on released time the known pupil enrollment is 227,210.29

oo

National Education Association, Character Education,

p. 23. 29Gorham, ojd. cit . t pp. 23-24.

32 In Dayton, Ohio, a plan similar to the Gary plan was proposed by the Sunday School Council of Dayton and Montgomery County*

30

In 1922, the city Board of Education accepted

the proposal and in 1930 there were weekday classes in every public school in the system including those beyond the borders of Dayton*

Credit was given for high school courses.

The teaching standards had to come up to those of the public school. In Wooster, Ohio, the weekday religious educational 31 program started in 1931, is confined to the high school. Classes were given for credit, and a room was furnished in the school building. In the State of New York, in 1923, the New York State Sunday School Association published a bulletin on the 32 Weekday Church School in New York State. The bulletin was specific.

The state law made one hour of released time per

week possible for each child, on any of the five school days, but the public school buildings could not be used. The program extended so rapidly that in 1937 school authorities complained of "alleged interruptions to the school program.” The law was amended with the addition of more rigorous requirements in 1940, but still enrollment continued to increase. —

_



Hauser, C. A., Teaching Religion in the Public School, pp. 232-233.

3 Ibid., p. 234. 32Ibid., p. 237.

33

Oak park, Illinois,

33

"has lor many years taken a

leading place in weekday religious education pioneering. A Community Council of Religious Education directs the work. It is composed of pastors, directors of religious education, Sunday School superintendents, ana three or more delegates from each of the 50 cooperating churches. Two thousand 34 children are enrolled in one hundred five classes. Four­ teen thousand dollars Is spent annually on these schools.n The State of Virginia is the one state which has sought to have a state-wide, unified program of weekday relig• 35 ious education. a representative committee, with school­ men and churchmen included build the curriculum.

Twenty

36 eight thousand six hundred children were enrolled in 1941.

A conference report states that the released plan started in Gary in 1914, has grown to Include 1,S00 comrnun37 lties in 47 states 'with some 1 ,500,000 children affected. Arguments for and against week:-day religious education. 38 Dr. Shaver, head of the international Religious 33

Ibid., pp. 241-242.

uFhis report was published in 1942. 35 ■"Hauser, op. pit., p. 243. ^ Ibid., p. 244. 37

National Community Relations Ao.visory Council, Proceedings of the Conference of Religious Instruction and the Public ScEools, p. 47. ~ 3kshaver, E. L., "The Movement for Reekday Religious Education," Religious Education 41:6-16, January, 1940.

34

Education Association, urges that the churches hold the great gains they have made and continue to go forward*

His ex­

pansion program for religious education includes: (1^

Bible and religious concepts taught as a part of

the regular curriculum by regular teachers*-(2J.

Enriching various areas of the public school

studies and experiences with resources of religion normally belonging in that area* '3*

Stressing spiritual values in the public school

program, organization, and personnel* ;4#

Teaching democracy as religion ltboth on the

assumption of intrinsic embodiment of practically all that religion has to offer and of its being non-sectarian *fT^ [5

0

Combining all resources of all agencies in the

community which work with children to develop a higher type of personality and character, .6#

Slightly shorten school time and let churches

take over that time right in the school building. The editor of Christian Century^

urges Protestants

to see their mistake in trying any plan of religious educa­ tion in conjunction with the public schools*

Says he, ,f7/ash

39 Note this suggestion came before the United States Supreme Court decision in the McCollum Case* 40 nProtestants Come Clean I Released Time Case,11 Christian Century 63:591-592, June 16, 1946.

35

your hands and get completely out of the weekday religious educational program."

He believes that the Catholics will

in Federal aid and other helps gain much more than the Protestants will in pursuing their present policy* Fir* Justice Frankfurters supplemental opinion de­ livered as part of the Federal Supreme Courts decision in the McCollum case takes a smack at the underlying principle of the weekday schools: There were experiments with vacation schools, with Saturday as well as Sunday schools* They all fell short of their purpose* It was urged that by appearing to make religion a one-day-a-week matter, the Sunday school, which acquired national acceptance, tended to relegate the childS religious education, and thereby his religion, to a minor roll not unlike the enforced piano lesson. Out of these inadequate efforts evolved the weekday church school, held on one or more afternoons a week after the close of the public school* But children continued to be children; they wanted to play when school was out, particularly when other children were free to do so. Church leaders decided that if the weekday school was to succeed, a way had to be found to give the child his religious education during what he conceived to be his ^business hours.* • • • From such a beginning *»released time1* has at­ tained substantial proportions.^” The claim for "released time" pupils in 1947 is al­ most 2,000,000 pupils in 2,200 communities.^

In the

^ I b i d *» p* 592* 42 People ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education of School District No. 717 396 111. 14, 71 N.E. (2d) l6l (1947). 43 1947 Yearbook. International Council of Religious Education, p., " 7 ^ ----

36

spring of 1946, there were 3,000 communities on released time 44 programs involving over two million children in 4o states, 43 Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, while not precisely ad­ vocating the weekday religious education program, does insist that our schools are responsible for our “religious illiterates1' as he calls them.

To the assertion that we should not teach

religion, but faith in liberty and democracy, Dr. Fosdick claims that “this faith is grounded in a spiritual heritage asserting the dignity and value of the human child of God." He charges that the church-state separation doctrine prevents presentation in our schools of this very faith from which so much of the best in our American heritage has come.

He

continues: VJhat the public schools emphasize or do not emphasize has a determining effect on what our Youth consider important. Hence the need for religious in­ fluence. Everything — music, sports, art, drama, economics, civics, psychology, psychiatry, etc., gets into our schools. That is, everything except religion. • . • Freud is proper, but not Isaiah; the biography of Hitler is acceptable, but not that of Jesus Christ. Separation of church and state, though basic in the American system never has meant that the recognition of God be shut out of our schools or, for that matter of fact from any other public agency . . . Indoctrina­ tion is certainly no proper function of the public school, but learning is the school's business. How can anyone be really educated who is illiterate concerning the religious faiths which have so momentously affected the history, institutions, and ideas of our race? . . . Let religion be recognized and presented in our class44 -/• / "Editorial," Christian Evangelist 8o:27o, March 24, 1946. 45 Fosdick, H. S., "Our Religious Illiterates," School and Society 46:281-264, November 29, 1947.

37

rooms as one of mankind’s predominant concerns* It would add new dimension-to the thinking of boys and girls now untouched by the churches.46 A committee of the American Council on Education Studies in 1947 > published a 54-pnge report on the question of religious education in the public schools.

47

They comment that the problem in brief is how to find a way to give due recognition in public education to the place of religion in the culture and in the convictions of our people while at the same time safeguarding the separation of church and state*

The exclusion of religion from the

public schools which so largely prevails today results in its relegation in the minds of youth to a position of rela­ tive unimportance.

This runs counter, the committee believes,

to the intention of the American school system from the be­ ginning.

On the other hand, any educational innovation which

would tend to identify public education with a particular body of sectarian beliefs and practices they hold to be not only impracticable but improper. We are unable to believe that a school which accepts responsibility for bringing its students into full possession of their cultural heritage can be con­ sidered to have performed its task if it leaves them without a knowledge of the role of religion in our history, its relation to other phases of the culture, and the ways in which the religious life of the American 4^ 47

,

Ibid., p. 2$3*

American Council on Education Studies, The Relation of Religion to Public Education— The Basic Principles, 34 PP«

3$ community is expressed,.gAn educated person cannot oe religiously illiterate. This committee expresses the view that religion is either central in human life or it is inconsequential.

If

it is not basic in experience and in the culture, then the secularists are right in their neglect of it, and the testi mony of the ages is false. We believe otherwise; and, says the report, we think the fruits of the secularization of life are becoming evident to the masses of our people whose changing mood is made articulate in the utterances of some of the profoundest thinkers of our time. Let us abate none of our enthusiasm for scientific knowledge and useful skills, but let us remember that only a strong faith that can resolve the perplexities of life and a lasting commitment to high purposes vail make education complete.^ Summary of Chapter II.

Many and varied arguments have

been given pro and con for teaching religious education in the public schools, either directly or by one of the week­ day plans.

The most frequent argument against the practice

is that of state-church separation as set forth in the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Federal Constitution.

Those

who argue for the program state that religious precepts are a part of the American way ox life, the very foundations on which American democracy stands, and that education is not Ibid., pp. 49-50. 49 Ibid., pp. 33-34#

39 fairly conducted without giving these principles to the boys and girls who enjoy this freedom and democracy. The weekday religious education movement started in Gary, Indiana, in 1914, as a result of a speech made by Dr. George U. Nenner at the Interfaith Conference on Fed­ eration held in New York City in 1905*

It grew from small

beginnings until in 194$ there were 3,000 communities on released time programs involving over two million pupils in 46 states. In Chapter III we shall note a brief summary of the history of religious education in the schools of Indiana.

40 CHAPTER III HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (INDIANA)

Indiana became a state in l£l6.

In l$51j the follow­

ing was added to the Constitution of the State of Indiana: All men shall be secured in the natural right to worship almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences . ♦ ♦ No law shall in any case, whatever, control the free exercise and enjoyment of religious opinions, or interfere with the right of conscience , . . No preference shall be given by law to any creed, religious society or mode of worship, and no man shall be compelled to attend, erect or support any place of worship against his consent . . . No money shall be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious or theological institution. Bible reading without comment is permitted by statute in the public schools of Indiana. Early opposition to religious teachings in the schools. Fifty nine years after Indiana became a state, one Jerry N. Collings delivered a lecture at the court house in Rockville, Indiana.

In this address he argues very vehemently against 2 any form of teaching religion in the public schools. Says he: I have been thus explicit in calling your attention to the relation which the government sustains to the religion of the citizens because very many 1

Constitution of the State of Indiana, Art. 1, sec. 2, 3, 4) and 6. o Collings, J. h., Bible Reading and Prayer, IS pp.

41 intelligent people and very good people who argue that religion should be taught in the schools, insist that ours is a government in which all questions are settled by majorities and that if a majority are in favor of such teaching, it is therefore right. This reasoning is correct when applied to subjects, in regard to which the State may act, but religion is not such a subject and the State cannot, nor can any officer of the State as such, take cognizance of it further than to protect each one of its citizens in the right to act in regard to it as to him seems p r o p e r . ^

He goes on to say that the United States Consti­ tutional implication and the decisions of some other state supreme court rulings prohibit teaching of Bible and singing

of religious songs in school. He eloquently proclaims:

nI say, then, that Christi­

anity, when applied to government, teaches theocracy and not democracy, and that the truth of this proposition is fully attested by the unbroken voice of history. Collings attempts to set forth the inherent dangers of any program of religious education in the public schools by quoting from history:

VJill the people of our times learn nothing from the experience of the past? Does the history of the ages that are gone give us no warning? Are we to go blindly and heedlessly on in the same track that our ancestors left when we know their fate? Bill we persist in saying that the State has a right to teach religion with the Spanish Inquisition and the reign' of terror, under Bloody Llary, of England before us? Tdill any citizen still clamor for a union of church and State w i t h the Hanging of Quakers and the per-

^Ibid., p. 5*

Hbid., p.

42 secution of our own New England fresh in our minds? Do these things cause no blush of shame upon the cheek of religious intolerance, and will they not silence the vaunt that a state cannot exist without the right to teach religion?? Collings urges in conclusion, that we adhere to the 11good old doctrines” of the founders of the government— complete separation of church and state. While the language in which he couches his protest is strong and colored by the times in which it was given, it gives us a picture of sentiment expressed at a public meeting; and he did find a publisher to put it in print. Early weekday plans in Indiana. Despite such open 6 7 protests, Gary, in 1914* and Hammond, in 1920, established a plan whereby children could be released on parental consent to participate in a program of religious education organized by the school board and local councils of religious education; and given either on dismissed or released time.

The council

of churches was responsible for the financial part of the program.

This arrangement spread to all parts of the United

-

Ibid., p. ^"Weekday Religious Ecuation,” (Editorial), Religious Education 13:333-339, October, 1913. For a fuller description of the liary plan, see Chapter II. Stout, J. E., Organization and Administration of Religious Education, pp. 88, 133•

43

States, and now many Indiana communities are giving similar a programs. Credit for Bible study in high school.

In 1917* a

joint committee of the Indiana Association of Teachers of English and the High School Section of the Indiana State Teachers1 Association made the following statement: A knowledge of the Bible is an essential element in a good education. V/hether or not one is interested in the Bible as a manual of devotion, it is imperative that he should be familiar with it as literature and as history; for no literature and no history have more vitally affected Anglo-Saxon civ­ ilization. English literature has been greatly in­ fluenced by Biblical style and is strewn with allusions to Bible stories and teachings. Shakespeare is said to have over seven hundred such allusions; Tennyson over four hundred. As Charles Dudley Warner put it: ”The Bible is the one book that no intelligent person can afford to be ignorant of. All modern literature and all art are permeated with it. It is not all a question of religion or theology or dogma; it is a question of general intelligenceJ! This syllabus has been prepared with the hope that the boys and girls of Indiana of high school age may be led to a serious study of this great literature. With a Bible containing maps, the diligent student will be adequately equipped, although other helps, if available, may, of course, be used to ad­ vantage. The essential thing is to study the Bible itself, to glean its history and the life stories of its great characters, to note the simple beauty of its style, and to grasp its ideals and ideas.' I-Iulford, H. B., ”Public School Board Face Dilemma,” Religious Education 43•*6B-71, March, 194$ • ^Indiana Association of Teachers of English and the^ High School Section of the Indiana State Teachers Association, Outline of Bible Study for Credit in Indiana High Schools, p. 1.

44

This joint committee received its authority from an enactment of the Indiana State Board of Education, approved January 22, 1915.

The act reads:

Any pupil enrolled in a high school in Indiana who studies any two of the four unit parts of this outline and who passes successfully a written exam­ ination upon the parts studied shall be given one high school credit, which shall count for graduation. Each of the unit parts of this course is de­ signed to cover at least forty lessons of the usual school length, and thus two are equivalent to a high school subject pursued five days a week for one school semester. The fact that the parts of this course are numbered consecutively does not indicate that they are expected to be studied in that order. Only two unit parts may be taken for credit. In any system of counting credits, the amount of credit shall be the same as is given for a semester1s work in any regular high school subject. One representative from each of the school cities using this course of study shall constitute a board of control. The examination shall be set by a committee of five persons chosen by a board of control. The commit­ tee shall also have charge of the grading of the manu­ scripts, which shall be handed in by number rather than by name. The examination itself shall consist of (1 ) questions of fact based upon the work outlines in this syllabus, and (2 ) questions of literary and historical values. Questions of theological inter­ pretation shall be strictly avoided. The student may also be asked at the time of the examination to make a statement of his methods of study. Each applicant for examination in this course shall be required to pay a fee of twenty-five cents to cover the cost of questions and grading.

45 This work in Bible study may be done by indi­ viduals, in clubs, in classes, or in any way desired by the person who wishes to take the examination for credit,*^ The constitution drawn up by the joint committee pro­ vides for the "Committee of Five," in which committee is vested the power of setting examination dates and grading the prepared manuscripts.

The constitution in part reads:

The representatives from the several school cities using the course and authorized to give credit by the State Department of Education shall hold an annual meeting at the time of the meeting of the State Teachers1 Association, At the annual meeting, the board of control shall choose the *TCommittee of Fivetf to set the examinations, and-to have charge of-the grading of the manuscripts. At the first annual meeting after the adoption of this constitution two members shall be selected for three years, two members for two years and one member for one year. Thereafter elections shall be for three years. Vacancies that may occur between annual meetings shall be filled by appoint­ ment of the president for the unexpired portion of the year only, and at the next annual meeting the board of control shall choose one for the unexpired part of the three-year term. Representation on the Com­ mittee of Five shall be limited to persons that as administrators or teachers are connected with public high schools adopting the plan and authorized to grant the credit and shall always include a superintendent, a high school principal, and a high school teacher. This same **Committee of Five11 shall constitute the executive committee of the board of control whose duty it will be to arrange for the annual meetings, to fix the rules of the examinations, to receive fees, to pay bills, and, in general, to see to it that the purposes of the plan are carried out. Each school shall determine whether or not Ibid., p. 13*

46 pupils have met the local requirements to entitle them to admission to the examinations. The principal, or a teacher of the school, shall have charge of the examination and shall send in all manuscripts. The wCommittee of Five1* shall have direction of the publication of the outline or syllabus for the guidance of pupils and teachers. For a number of years this program was quite popular and was used in a number of cities in Indiana The »Enabling Act” of 1943*

Indianapolis and Marion

County have an outstanding system of weekday religious education.

12 After the enactment of the nenabling act,”

1943) for Weekday Religious Education on released-time by the General Assembly of Indiana, a committee was appointed by the former Marion County Council of Religious Education, the Church Federation and the Indianapolis Council of Church Women to study a plan for Indianapolis and Marion County. After public hearings, study and discussions, the Board of Fifteen was elected by the Indianapolis Church Federation in May, 1945* Schools were started by five church districts and all were merged into the city and county-wide organization, January, 1946.

The Board of Weekday Religious Education of

Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana, was incorporated ^ I b l d *, pp* 14-13*

12 Ind. Stat. Ann. (Burns, Repl. 194$), sec. 2C-305*

47 January 28, 1946, with lb1 elected members and the Executive Secretary of the Church Federation ex-officio. The board has four permanent committees— administrative, curriculum, finance, and personnel.

There is an advi­

sory council made up of two elected representatives from each church district, which council meets to advise with the Board on Promotion, Organization and Curriculum. The funds of the Weekday Board of Religious Educa­ tion of Indianapolis and Marion County are to be handled through the corporation*s own separate bank account, and are not allowed to be merged with any other funds whatsoever. The corporation*s funds must be raised in its own separate campaign. The Citizens* Meekday Religious Education Committee of One Thousand is being set up to sponsor and promote the cause of VJeekday Religious Education.

They will meet annually

and at such times as the chairman may call them together. They are kept informed as to the progress of the Meekday Schools and sent human interest stories for use in conver­ sation about the movement. The 7fenabling act” makes possible the release of children up to 120 minutes.

However, only 60 minutes of

this time is used in Indianapolis and. Marion County. The giving of religious education on nreleasea time” is necessary because, says the Indianapolis and Marion

43

County Board: (1)

Only forty per cent of our children receive

religious instruction on Sunday. is inadequate.

(3)

(2)

Time in Sunday Schools

It Identifies religion in the child1s

mind with weekday as well as Sunday.

(4)

Society owes to

the child a complete education, and instruction In religion is needed as well as other subjects.

(5)

It reaches children

who are not otherwise reached, and aids in making "good . . 13 citizens.tr

The Board insists that this practice does not violate church-state separation principles and claims that there is not enough time outside of school for giving this vital instruction. Eighty-two per cent of all children enrolled in the fourth and fifth grades in Indianapolis and Marion County Public Schools are released each week. written request of their parents.

This is upon the

No one is forced to go.

The public school usually makes provision for children who do not wish to attend, offering a period of supervised study. Children from 76 different denominations are enrolled in the system* Released-time will not take the place of Sunday School. 13 Indianapolis and Marion county Schools of 'Jeekday Religious Education, This is the Answer 6 pp. * 14 Ibid. All figures cited concerning the Indianapolis and Marion County weekday program are from this pamphlet.

49

Instead, many new children are enlisted for the Sunday Schools.

In two years since Weekday Religious Education

started in Indianapolis and Marion County, Sunday School attendance is greater by 24.2 per cent than two years ago. Nine per cent of the 24*2 per cent increase is among fourth and fifth grade children. There is no duplication of instruction between week­ day and Sunday School, the Board claims. Weekday teachers educationally are on a par with public school teachers, and in addition have credits in Bible and Religious Education. deep Christian consecration.

They are selected for their They are paid a minimum of

§2,040.00 for 12 months with a §60.00 yearly increase until they are paid §2,400.00 for an A.B., and §2,700.00 for those with a Master1s degree. The budget for 1943 (January 1 to December 31) is §59,320.50.

This is an estimated cost of §5.40 per child

for the year of 1943 as compared to §3.10 for the year of 1946.

Each pupil is furnished a workbook, pencils, crayons

and other materials free of charge.

No articles are taken

from the public schools to the churches by rule of the Indianapolis School Board.

Two dollars per day is paid for

each meeting place. The churches pledge to the budget and a few interested individuals pay the cost of administration.

50 Each church is given an allocation based 35 per cent on membership, 15 per cent on Sunday School enrollment, 35 per cent on current expenses and 15 per cent on benevolences. The church then pledges the amount it will pay for its fiscal year, and the majority accept their allocation in full.

This plan is accepted as fair and just, as both

numerical and financial strength are taken into consideration. The last report to the denominations is used as the basis for figuring the allocation to each church.

Beginning with

January 1, 194$> all churches are asked to make their pledges for their fiscal year and to pay to the Board for the months between January first and the beginning of their fiscal year at the rate of their 1947 pledge.

The allocation

formula for 194$ is church members 20.45 par cent, Sunday School members enrolled 16.62 per cent, current expenses

1.15 per cent; benevolent giving, 1.9 per cent. The Bible is used as a text-book J There are four units (each unit has a Pupil*s Workbook) taught as follows; 1,

!f3tories Jesus Heard— Heroes of Early Hebrews.” Spring of even years.

2\

?rLife of Jesus— Jesus, the Lora.” Fall of even years.

3f

n3tories Jesus Heard— Leaders, Prophets and People of God.” Spring of uneven years.

,4#

!TLife of Jesus— Jesus, the Saviour.” Fall of uneven years.

51

Following is the outline of the course for she spring 15 semester of 1948: ,

Week

1

Citizens of the New Kingdom

2

Abraham, she Pioneer

3

Abraham Gives First Choice

4

Jacob Discovers Place to borship

5

Joseph, The Food Administrator

6 hoses Prepares to be a Leader 7

Freed from Slavery

8 A Code of Laws for a New Nation 9

Building a Place of torship

10

Joshua, The Courageous

11

Gideon

12 'PtuthTs Decision 13

Samuel is Trained for His fork

14

Saul, The First King

15

David, The Shepherd King

16

David Flakes the Kingdom Strong

17

Living in the Kingdom

Fourth and fifth graces in 110 of the 113 puolic schools of Indianapolis and Marion County.

The other three

schools will be included as soon as local problems can be 15

For further information, contact the office of one Board of T/eekday Religious Education, Y.M.C.A. Buildin0 , 310 North Illinois Street, Indianapolis 4 , Indiana.

52 cleared. Twenty lull and part-tirae teachers teach 373 classes each week.

The enrollment on March 2o, 1946, was 10,089

pupils. Smaller communities continue weekday religious education. According to an article in an Indianapolis newspaper early in 1949, two Wabash County communities believe they have the answer to the United States Supreme Court ruling that religion cannot be taught in the public schools.

These two

communities, Roann and Laketon, had already provided funds for a religion teacher.

Citizens there decided to go ahead

with their plans, despite the high court ruling.

Buildings

in which the classes in religious education might be held were constructed in both communities with lumber lent by the Wabash Farm Bureau. The construction was done by interested citizens in the two small towns.

The ground was donated.

holds classes each Tuesday.

The teacher

She also teaches, according

to the newspaper report, at Lagno, Urbana, Lincolnville, and Somerset A ruling by the Attorney deneral of Indiana suggested that the taking of attendance for their religious education classes constitutes an unconstitutional act but at the time ^ Indianapolis Nev/s, January 20, 1949, p. 19*

53 n 17 being believes that the program is constitutional*

He

also stated that granting credit of any kind is unconsti­ tutional. Summary of Chapter III.

Freedom of worship was

added to our state constitution in 1851 with the added pro­ vision that no preference should be given by law to any creed, religious society or mode of worship; and that no money be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious in­ stitution. There was early opposition against any form of reli­ gious education in the public schools on the grounds of violating the state-church separation provision of the Con­ stitution. weekday religious education classes were started in Gary in 1914 and in Hammond in 1920. In 1917; the Indiana State Teachers Association, acting on a 1915 act of the State Board of Education, drew up a plan for awarding credit for Bible study in high school. The 1fenabling actn passed by the Legislature in 1943 made possible the release of pupils from the public schools to obtain religious instruction in the churches for a period not to exceed 120 minutes per week. taken advantage of this act. 17

Many church groups have

The Indianapolis and Marion

See the section of this thesis entitled nLegal Aspects of Religious Education (Indiana).

54 County Board of Weekday Religious 'education is an outstanding example.

No credit may be given, nor may records of attendance

be kept by the public schools. Chapter IV will deal with the legal aspects ox religious education in the United States.

55 CHAPTER IV LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS (UNITED STATES)

In this chapter we shall deal with the legal aspects of (1) the principles of religious freedom, (2) the objectives, (3)

the finance and control, (4)

elements in the curriculum,

(5)

the weekday religious education program noting specif­

ically the Champaign case. The principles of religious freedom.

The Federal

Constitution is very definite in its prescription of freedom, including religious freedom for all who live under its juris­ diction.

Before the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment,

the first Ten Amendments (the Bill of Rights) were inter­ preted as restriction on the Federal Government only.^

How­

ever, the makers of the state constitutions did not choose to leave the matter in doubt, because every state constitution contains one or more statements that definitely guarantees p

religious freedom. Although the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1865 to secure certain rights and liberties,

it was not until

^Barron v. Baltimore, 7 Peters 24", 8 L.Ed. 673 (1833). p

The constitutional sources for these are listed in Appendix B, Table I, The Legal Status of Religion in the Public Elementary and Secondary Schools of the United States, by R. R. Miller.

56 some years later that its broader application was realized, that of ^making applicable to the States the protection of 3 the Federal Constitution.” However, in our national history we see the influence of religion.

The Declaration of Independence is marked by

an invocation to God and prayer for guidance.^

Although

the Federal Constitution makes no mention of Deity, it is worthy of note that daily prayers were offered for the guidance of delegates who prepared the frame of our government. Case

6

5

The Federal Supreme Court in the Trinity Church

stated:

”This is a Christian nation.”

There is, however, a difference between being ”founded” on religious principles and the general acceptance by the people of the principles and practices of religion. The in7 terpretation of religious liberty of Cooley , authority on constitutional law, is that it is unlawful to pass any law: Getlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652, 666 (1925). 4 Commager, H. S., Documents of American History, pp. 100, 102. 5 Madison, J*, Journal of the Federal Convention, PP* 259-260,

6

Holy Trinity Church v. U.S., 143 U.S. 457 (1692). 7 Cooley, T. M., A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations, pp. 966-97*6.

57

1.

Respecting an establishment of religion.

2.

Compelling support, by taxation or otherwise, of

religious instruction. 3*

Compelling attendance upon religious worship.

4.

Restraining the free exercise of religion accord­

ing to the dictates of oneTs conscience. 5.

Restraining the expression of belief. d

Constitutional law is quoted in the Ring Case follows:

as

”Free enjoyment of religious worship includes the

freedom not to worship.” However, the mind of man seems to be so constituted that, even after an avowal of religious freedom, he has been inclined to limit its expression for others of differ­ ent convictions.

In a number of state constitutions still

in force there are vestiges of the dogmatic spirit prevalent in colonial days in the form of ”sermonizing.” The Con9 stitution of Connecticut declares that it is the f,dutyir as well as the right of men to worship the Supreme Being. The Constitution of South Carolina, adopted in 177$, declared that the ^Christian Protestant” religion was the

24,

People ex rel. Ring v. Board of Education of District 245 111. 334, 92 N.E. 251 (1910). 9

Miller, op. cit., Appendix C, VII, 1.

5$

established religion of the State,10

This was modified in

1790, so as to read that "religious expression was without 11 discrimination or preference."

The Second Charter of Virginia proposed to accomplish the "conversion and reduction of the people in those parts into the true worship of God and Christian religion" by proscribing all who "affect the superstitions of Rome,"

12

Such differences of faith and discrimination against certain faiths have done much to promote separation of church and state.

Cooley explains the result thus:

The American people came to the work of framing their fundamental laws, after centuries of religious suppression and persecution, sometimes by one party or sect and sometimes by another, had taught them the utter futility of all attempts to propagate religious opinions by rewards, penalties or terrors of human laws. They could not fail to perceive also, that a union of church and state, like that which existed in England, if not wholly impracticable in America, was certainly opposed to the spirit of our institutions, and that any domineering of one sect over another was repressing the energies of the people and must nec­ essarily tend to discontent and d i s o r d e r . - ^ A number of state constitutions provide that there shall be no religious test for teachers or students in public

10

Poore, B. P., The Federal and State Constitutions of the United States, p. '1626. ^ I b i d ., p. 1632. 12Ibid. , p. 1902. 13

Cooley, 0£. cit., p. 960.

59

u schools or public educational institutions*

If the

principle of extension of the protection of the Federal Constitution to the state by authority of the Fourteenth Amendment be applied, all states have such protection* The matter of public school teachers wearing garb of a distinctive religious nature in the classroom has been a live issue for years and is one upon which the courts have not been uniform in their judgments.

In a case that arose

in 1$94 in Pennsylvania,'**'* the court held that the mere act of wearing religious garb was not a sectarian influence but merely "an announcement of a fact— that the wearer holds a particular religious belief.”

This decision was probably

responsible for the enactment by the Pennsylvania Legislature the following year of a law forbidding Pennsylvania school teachers from wearing any "dress, mark, emblem, or insignia indicating the fact that such teacher is a member or ad1 l6 herent of any religious order, sect, or denomination.” Objectives.

One of the seven objectives of secondary

education from the report of the Commission on Reorganization "^Constitution of Arizona, Art. 11, sec. 7; Consti­ tution of Colorado, Art. 9? sec. 8; Constitution of Idaho, Art. 9, sec. 6 ; Constitution of Montana, Art. 11, sec. 9; etc. 15 Hysong v. Gallitzin School District, 164 Pa. 629, 26 L.R.A. 203, 44 Am. St. Rep. 632, 30 Atl. 462 (1894). 1A Pa. Stat. Ann. (Purdon, 1930), Tit. 24, sec. 1129.

60 of Secondary Education,

17

under the sponsorsnip of the Nat­

ional Education Association, was ethical character.

Since

that time many aims have been set forth, and nearly all recognize the importance of ethical character, but vary widely as to the place they assign religion in attainment of that goal. A law passed in Puritan Massachusetts in lo47

had as

its purpose the circumventing fIthat old deluder, Satan,1* and provided for an education so that children of the colony might be able to read the Scriptures and thereby become en­ lightened so that they might live properly in this life and be saved from the horrors of eternal damnation in the life to come.11 The influence of the church 011 early education is shown by the fact that in early New England schools the church

fathers selected the teachers and the teachers* examination 19

was given by a minister.

Farther south the license to

teach not infrequently carae from a church synod or bishop. The primary basis for selection was ,rsound in faith and

17 Cardinal Principles in Secondary Education, a Report of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education (N.E.A.) Bulletin 35 of the Department of Interior, Bureau of Education, Washington, 1916, pp. 10-15* l6 Commager, 0£. cit., p. 29* 19

Cubberley, E.P., Public Education in the United States, pp. 26-35*

61 doctrine*” C. H. Moehlman

20

characterizes the New England Puritan

ideal as an oligarchy with the preachers deciding the issues. T!How could this power be retained by the ministry?11 he asks. The answer is found in his statement, ”the restriction of political power to church members.” Gradually the emphasis in objectives swung frorn 21 religion to citizenship mainly for two reasons: 1*

A conviction that a republic can rest securely

only on an educated citizenship; ,2,

A sacred regard by the state for the religion

of the individual citizen. John Dewey expresses the underlying aim for nationalism thus: There was a deeper and by no means wholly un­ conscious influence at work . . , The lesson of the two and one half centuries lying between the Protes­ tant revolt and the formation of the nation was well learned and respected the necessity of maintaining the integrity of the state as against all divisive ecclesiastical divisions. ^

20

Moehlman, C. H., School and Church, p. 7*

21

Brown, S. W., Secularization of American Education,

p. 4$. 22

Dewey, J., Education Today, p. 7$*

62 The application of the citizenship objective in approval of Bible reading in the public schools is plainly e xpressed by a court in Colorado in 1927* The state for her own protection may require the children to be educated * . • Certain studies plainly essential to good citizenship must be taught* * . . Unquestionably much in the Bible is plainly essential to good citizenship.^3 Horace M a n n ^ believed that an expression of religion, non-sectarian, would be of such a unifying nature that it could safely become an objective of the program of our public schools. 25 Bobbitt ' is not very optimistic about the school^ achieving this higher religious integration. Financing and control. Monroe^ gives us some insight into the method of financing the ”free” schools which were referred to as ”public schools17 and also as 17endowed schools.” The provision of such schools in numbers sufficient to give every boy of ability and ambition a literary education was considered a social and religious obligation. 23 People ex rel. Vollmar v. Stanley, 61 Colo. 276, 255 Pac. 610 (1927). 24 Culver, R. B., Horace Mann and Religion in the Massa­ chusetts Public Schools, pp. 73» *76. 25 Bobbitt, F., How to Make A Curriculum, p. 3°« 26 Monroe, Paul, Founding of the American Public School System, p. 61.

63 The desire on the part of the churches to shift the financial burden of maintaining schools from their own shoulders is described by Thayer as follows: They, too, began as narrow sectarian institu­ tions, designed to instruct young people in the tenets of the true faith and to breed fear and hostility to­ ward unbelief and unbelievers. But denominational schools were difficult to finance, so gradually they opened their doors to children of various other Protestant sects, and accordingly the instruction tended to become less sectarian. By 1&30, when Jacksonian democracy gave impetus to the development of public schools, publicly supported, the principle of non-sectarian instruction was already fairly well established. ' The state was soon to assume the financing of the public schools.

Cubberley suras up the shifting of financial

responsibility from church and home to state as follows: The strategic points in this American struggle were the battles for tax support, for the elimination of the pauper-school idea and of the rate-bill, the prohibition of support for sectarian schools, the es­ tablishment of the American high school, and the addi­ tion of the state university to crown the educational ladder created. ° The assumption of control by the larger governing unit began in Massachusetts Bay in New England by the central authority ordering every township under the Massachusetts School Law of 1647, the "Old Deluder Satan11 law,^ in which 27

Thayer, V. T., American Education Under Fire, p. 99.

2^ Cubberley, E. P., Readings in the History of Education, p. 560. 29

Commager, op. cit., p. 29.

64

nThe Lord hath increased ye number to 50 housholdrsT? to appoint a teacher to be paid by the parents or the inhab­ itants in general, and if the town contained a hundred families, to set up a grammar school* That it is the proper function of the States to assume the responsibility for regulation of education is stated in the Ring case-^ as follows: The Federal Constitution does not control in the matter of public schools or in what instruction shall be given therein, but the regulations of public schools, as well as their support, rests with and devolves upon the several states. Nor does the Constitution of the United States provide for protecting the citizens of the respective states in their religious liberties. This is left to the state constitutions and laws. Nor is there any inhibition imposed by the Constitution of the United States in this respect on the States. The constitutions of most of the states still retain a prohibition against giving any preference to any particular religious sect or denomination or particular mode of worship.

31

A number of state constitutions contain clauses specifically forbidding sectarian control of public schools.^ Most states have some specific legal prohibition of sectarian instruction in addition to the more general statePeople ex rel. Ring v. Board of Education of District 24, 0£. cit. ^Miller, op. cit., Appendix B, Table III. 32 Miller, op. cit., Appendix B, Table Vll, and appendix C.

65

ments regarding religious freedom.

33

Inthe State of Minnesota, religious instruction is prohibited in the schools on the basis of an opinion rendered by Attorney General Hilton^ on July 12, 1921, based on the 35 Constitution of Minnesota*^

A careful study of these sec­

tions reveals the fact that it is sectarian doctrines that are prohibited, so it is necessary to conclude that the "reli­ gion" that is prohibited is the narrow interpretation that others prefer to call "sectarianism." 36 New Jersey ordains by statute^ that "no religious service or exercise, except the reading of the Bible and the repeating of the Lord's Prayer, shall be held in any school receiving any portion of the moneys appropriated for the support of public schools," and in the preceding paragraph of the l a w ^ requires Bible reading as a part of daily open­ ing exercises. State control by use of public funds.

The fact that

an assumption of control by the state has been most effectively accomplished by granting or withholding of public funds is a 33

Miller, ojq. cit., Table VIII, Appendix B, and Appendix G. 3Ll> Information based on letter from Minnesota State Department of Education, April 12, 194$, to Miller, o£. cit. 35 Miller, ojo. cit., See Appendix G, Constitution of Minnesota, Art. 1, sec. 16, and Art. $, sec. 3* 36 N.J. Rev. Stat. (Gum. Supp. 1940), Tit. 1$, sec. 14, par. 7$. ^Ibid., par. 77.

66 perfect illustration of the principle, !Twho pays the fiddler calls the tune.tr Moehlman reminds us that this change in control did not come all at once in the following words: During the colonial period and even later, both Catholic and Protestant schools received support from public funds. Although the adoption of the First Amend­ ment in 1791 prohibited the establishment of religion by the United States, it was not till after 1637 that the majority of the states took constitutional action against state aid for religious schools. Some states limit the constitutional regulation of school funds to the control of nstate funds,” while others are very specific and include all public funds, derived from any source whatever. The constitutions of only four states^ forbid the use of public funds for religious purposes and the Constitution of the State of Washington makes as an exception the hiring of chaplains for state prisons.^ There have been various interpretations as to whether the use of a school building may be used outside of school hours for worship (or other purposes). Michigan.

,41

In this state it has been held

that the

36

Moehlman, op. cit., p. 16. 39 Constitution of Utah, Art. 1, sec. 4; Constitution of Arizona, Art. 2, sec. 12; Constitution of Idaho, Art. 9, sec. 5; Constitution of the State of 'Washington, Art. 1, sec. 11. 40 Constitution of the State of Washington, Art. 1, sec. 11. ^"Eckhardt v. Darby, 116 Mich. 199, 76 N.f. 761 (l6'9o).

67

electors of a school district may, by vote, refuse to permit certain persons the use of a school house for the purpose of holding religious meetings. Missouri.

In a case in this state it was held

42

that

in the absence of express authority, a school board cannot permit the use of a school building for Sunday school pur­ poses. Nebraska.

In a case in this state it was held

43

that

the occasional use of the school house for Sunday school and religious meetings over a period of five years or more, in which the building was not used more than four times in any one year, on Sundays, when such meetings did not interfere with the school work, did not constitute the school house a place of worship within the meaning of the constitutional provisions prohibiting compulsory attendance on places of worship, or taxation for the maintenance thereof. The question of the use of public funds for furnishing textbooks and other school supplies to parochial schools was reviewed before a court in New York in 1922. It seems to us to be giving a strained and unusual meaning to words if we hold that the books and the ordinary school supplies, when furnished for the use of pupils, is a furnishing to the pupils, and not a furnishing in aid or maintenance of a school of ^Dorton v. Hearn, 67 Mo. 301 (187$)* I o

L.R.A.

State ex rel. Gilbert v. Dilley, 95 Ne’ o. 527, 50 (N.S.) 1IF27T45 N.W. 999 (1914).

6$ learning. It seems very plain that such a furnishing is at least indirectly in aid of the institution and that if not in actual violation of the words, it is in violation of the true intent and meaning of the consti­ tution and in consequence equally unconstitutional.^ On the other hand, in a case in Mississippi

45

in

1941, it was held that: The use of the textbook fund constitutes no charge against any public school funds . . . Such funds are not appropriated toward the support of any sectarian school . . . The books belong to, and are controlled by the state; they are merely loaned to the individual pupil therein designated; . . . The question of transportation has also been raised in the support of public education.

Only one state, the State

of New York, has a constitutional provision^ for trans­ portation of other than public school pupils. The first case in which the religious issue entered transportation was in V/isconsin^ in 1923.

Out of some 30

pupils being transported, two attended parochial school. The court held that the school district should not be burden­ ed with the extra expense. ^Smith v. Donahue, 202 App. Div. 636, 195 N.I. Supp. 715 (1922). 45 Chance v. Mississippi State Textbook Rating and Fur chasing Board, 1 200 So. 706 (1941). )6 Constitution of New York, Art. 11, sec. 4* in State ex rel. Van Straten v. Milquet, 160 his. 109, 192 N.W. 392 ( l W I T -

69

After the courts had rendered decisions adverse to allowing payment for transportation of pupils attending parochial schools in hew York in 1937 and 1936, the state constitution was amended to permit it.

Zi.6

In 1941 the hew Jersey legislature passed an act

LQ

permitting children to be transported via the regular public school route to and from private or parochial schools. A taxpayer brought suit to prevent the using of tax moneys for the transportation of children to a Roman Catholic parochial school.

The case was carried to the New Jersey

Supreme Gourt, where the statute dealing with transportation was declared unconstitutional*

The stateTs highest court, the

Court of Errors and Appeals, overruled the State Supreme Court and declared the act constitutional.

On February 10, 1947*

the United States Supreme Court, in a five to four decision, upheld the constitutionality of the law.

To quote from the

opinion of the Court: The New Jersey state legislation, intended to facilitate the opportunity of children to get a secular 4$ Lewis v. Board of Education of City of New York, 157 Misc. 520, 785 N.Y.S. 164 (1935), 247 App. Div. 106, 236 N.Y.S. 174 (1936), 275 N.Y. 430, 11 N.E. (2d) 307 (1937), 275 N.Y. 544, 11 N.E. (2d) 744 (1937), 276, N.Y. 490, 12 N.E. (2d) 172 (1937): Judd v. Board of Education, 273 N.Y. 200, 15 N.E. (2d) 576 (193ST, 113 A.L.R. 789, rehearing denied 278 N.Y. 712, 17 N.E. (2d) 134 (1938). N.J. Rev. Stat. (Cum. Supp. 1941), Tit. 13, sec. 14, par. 8.

70

education, serves a public purpose, as does legislation to reimburse needy parents, or all parents, for the payment of the fares of their children so that they can ride in public busses to and from school rather than run the risk of traffic and other hazards incident to walking or Thitch-hiking.1 Curriculum.

Several elements of the curriculum have

become involved in the question of state-church separation. Early science was based on narrow religious interpreta51 tions. The most striking instance of legal conflict between a scientific theory and religious dogma in American history 52 is the famous Scopes trial, held in 1927* John Thomas Scopes was a school teacher who was convicted in the Circuit Court of Rhea County of violation of a Tennessee statute

53

forbidding the teaching of the theory of evolution, and fined $100.00.

The case was carried to the Supreme Court, -which,

while upholding the constitutionality of the act, reversed the conviction of Scopes and, upon the suggestion of the attorney general, entered a nolle prosequi.

As a result of

this action the case was not appealed to the Supreme Court 50 Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing, 330 U.S. 1 (1947)* 16$ A.L.R. 1392, rehearing denied, 330 U.S. £>55 (1947). 51 Parker, S. C., The History of Modern Elementary Education, p. 71. ^Scopes v. State, 154 Tenn. 105, 2S9 3.4. 3o3 (1927). ^Tenn. Rev. Stat. (1925), ch. 27.

71

of the United States, as originally intended.

Constitutional

Law was quoted as follows: 1. A statute forbidding the teaching in public schools of the theory that man descended from a lower order of animals does not deprive a teacher in the employ of the public of the constitutional right of due process of law or the lav; of the land.

3. A constitutional provision that it shall be the duty of the general assembly to cherish science is merely directory and cannot be enforced by the courts. No state constitution specifically prohibits Bible reading.

A few states forbid the Bible by attorney generalTs

opinion based on court decisions.

Wisconsin forbids the

King James Version, but permits ,?Readings,T from the Bible. Several states forbid the exclusion of the Bible, one by constitutional authority,

54

55 and others by statute. ^

Some groups have attacked using the King James Version of the Bible in the classroom as sectarian.

One court rules

that the proscription of the King James version of the Bible by the church did not make it sectarian. 56 57 In a South Dakota case in 1929, the King James version was held to be sectarian*

Similarly in the

54 Constitution of Mississippi, Art. 3, sec. 18. 55 Miller, op. cit*, Appendix B, IVIII. 56 Evans v. Selma Union High School District of Fresno County, 193 Cal. 54, 222 Pac. 801, 803 (1924). 57 State ex rel. Finger v. 'Veedman, 55 S.D. 343, 352, 226 N.¥. 346, 37ZTT929). -

72

Ring Case

5$

it was held that reading the King James version

of the Bible in the schools constitutes sectarian instruction. A number of jurisdictions disapproved Bible reading because it was interpreted to constitute worship and to make the school a place of worship, both of which are forbidden in public schools.

Usually, but not always, such reading

has been a part of 11opening” or ?tmorning exercises” in which there was prayer and hymn singing in addition to the Bible 59 reading. A number of states, however, and commonwealths approve Bible reading and some require it with the stipulation that there shall be no note or comment, or sectarian comment. law in Idaho^ seems to be the most specific example.

A

It

requires each teacher to read from 12 to 20 verses from the Bible for morning exercises.

No comments are to be made and

if a pupil asks a question about the selection read, the teachers is forbiddento answer but is instructed to refer the inquirer to his parents or guardians for reply. 61 The North Dakota State Law is unique in that it requires the Ten Commandments to be displayed in every class—

People ex rel. Ring v. Board of Education 24, 245 111. 3347“92~I.E. 251 (1910). 59 State ex rel. bfeiss v. District Board No. City of Edgerton; State ex reT. Freeman v. Scheve; rel. Finger v. b'eedman, op. cit., Herold v. Parish

-

of District ^ S of the State ex Board.

60 Idaho Code (1932), sec. 32-2205 to 32-2207. 61 N.D. Rev. Code (1943), sec. 4710.

73

room. In a case in Michigan

62

in 1898, it was held that the

reading of extracts from the Biale, emphasizing the moral precepts of the Ten Commandments, as a supplemental text­ book which was used at the close of the school session, and from which any pupil might be excused on the application of parent or guardian, did not violate a constitutional pro­ vision that no person shall be compelled to attend or support any place of religious worship, or to pay taxes for the support of any minister of the gospel, or teacher of religion. Repeating she Psalm is not a sectarian exercise according to the legal decision in cases in Massachusetts 63 64 , 65 in 1366; Kansas in 1904; and Texas in 1908. State laws governing released time.

In California,

pupils with the written consent of their parents or guardians, may be excused for a maximum of four days a week, provided they attend school at least the minimum school day for their grade for elementary school. 62

66

Pfeiffer v. Board of Education of Detroit.

63

Spiller v. Woburn, 12 Allen 127 (mass. 1866).

64

Billard v. Board of Education, 69 Kan, 33, 76 Pac. 422 (1904). 65 Church v. Bullock, 100 S.W. 1023 (Tex. Civ. App. 1907), affTd, 104: Tex. 1, 109 S.W. 113 (1903).

66See

Appendix 3, California.

74 £ jr i

In Indiana,

if it is the wish of the parent or

guardian, the child may attend weekday religious classes for a period to be determined by the local principal or superin­ tendent, and not to exceed an aggregate of 120 minutes per week. In Iowa,

66

there are provisions for "releasing pupils

from penalty" for not attending school while in attendance upon religious services. Under the Kentucky law,

69

the local boards of edu­

cation may make a survey of religious preference and excuse the pupils for attendance upon religious education classes at the church of their choice. 70 Maine has a similar act' which specifically grants credit as if the time had been spent in school and states that a child must stay in school or attend the classes.

No

cost beyond the original survey may be borne by the board. 71 Massachusetts allows one hour a week to pupils if a school committee approves, proviced no public funds are ex­ pended for such education. 67

See Appendix B, Indiana.

6g See Appendix 3, Iowa*

69

See Appendix B, Kentucky.

70

See Appendix B, Maine.

7^-See Appendix B, Massachusetts.

75

In Minnesota,

72

upon request by the parent or guardian,

a pupil may be excused for a period or periods nnot exceeding in the aggregate three hours in any week.” In New York

73

for school absences.

the commissioner establishes the rules Under these rules, an hour of religious

education is permitted weekly upon request of parents, provided that a record is kept and report of pupilsT attendance at the classes be made to the principal or teacher each week. 74 The Oregon law resembles that of Indiana. 75 The South Dakota statutes'^ allow the superintendent to set up an hour period for reli0ious instruction on re­ leased time. cuse.

Pupils must have written application for ex­

Any citizen who is dissatisfied with the decision of

the superintendent concerning the disposition of released time may appeal to the Superintendent of Public Instruction whose decision shall be final. Test Virginia

76

has provisions whereby the county

board of education may approve exemption for religious in­ struction. 77 Pennsylvania law stares that any local board of _ . . See Appendix B, Minnesota. 73 74 75 76 77

See Appendix B, New York. See Appendix 3, Oregon. See Appendix B, South Dakota. See Appendix 3, .Test Virginia. See Appendix 3, Pennsylvania.

education shall have power to enter into suitable arrange­ ment with a religious group ,rof responsible citizens"’ to release pupils from school for religious instruction. 7$ 79 Hawaii and the Philippine Islands provide, respectively, for one hour and three half-hour periods weekly to be used for religious instruction.

Such in­

struction may be discontinued when deemed wise by the board. SO The McCollum Case.

Following is an analysis of

the opinions rendered by the Supreme Court justices in the Si McCollum Case in Champaign, Illinois. BLACK— Delivered the Opinion of the Court. VINSON (Chief Justice) — Joined in the Opinion of the Court. MURPHY— Joined in the Opinion of the Court. DOUGLAS— Joined in the Opinion of the Court. FRANKFURTER— Delivered Separate Opinion (Ho. 1). RUTLEDGE— Joined Separate Opinion (No. 1).

Con­

curred in the Opinion of the Court. BURTON— Joined Separate Opinion (Ho. 1).

Con­

curred in the Opinion of the Court. 7$ 79

See Appendix B, Hawaii* See Appendix B, Philippine Islands.

^0 Discussed more fully elsewhere in this thesis. ^Prepared by Erwin L. Shaver, Director of weekday Religious Education, International Council of Religious Education (a mimeographed sheet).

77

JACKSON— Delivered Separate Opinion No. 2. Separate Opinion No. 1.

Joined

Concurred in the

"Result” of the Opinion of the Court. REED— Delivered Opinion Dissenting from Opinion of the Court and Opinions No. 1 and No. 2. An analysis of the "Champaign Case” decision— Opinion highlights.

The opinion of the Court:

The foregoing facts show the use of tax supported property for religious instruction and the close cooperation between the school authorities and the religious council in promoting religious education. The operation of the state*s compulsory education system thus assists and is integrated with the program of religious instruction carried on by the separate religious sects . • . This is not separation of church and state. Mr. Justice Frankfurter *s Opinion: »*Released time” as a generalized conception, undefined by differentiating particularities, is not an issue for Constitutional adjudication . . . It is only when challenge is made to the share that the public schools have in the execution of a particular *released time* program that close judicial scrutiny is demanded of the exact relation between the religious instruction and the public educational system in the specific situation before the Court . . . Differing forms which **released time" has taken . . . include programs which, like that before us, could not with­ stand the test of the Constitution; others may be found unexceptionable. Ne do not now attempt to weigh in the Constitutional scale every separate detail or various combination of factors which may establish a valid "released time” program.

73 Mr. Justice Jackson*s Opinion: If, however, jurisdiction is found to exist, it is important that we circumscribe our decision with some care . . . This Court is directing the Illinois courts generally to sustain plaintiff*s complaint without exception of any of these grounds of complaint, without discriminating between them and without laying down any standards to define the limits of our decision . . . The sweep and detail of these complaints . . . will leave public education in shreds * . . Me must leave some flexibility to meet local conditions, some chance to progress by trial and error. Mr. Justice Reed*s Dissenting Opinion: I find it difficult to extract from the opinions any conclusions as to what it is in the Champaign plan that is unconstitutional . . . A rule of law should not be drawn from a figure of speech . . . The practices of the federal government offer many ex­ amples of this kind of #aid11 by the state to religion • * • Attendance at church services on Sunday is compul­ sory at both the Military and Naval Academies . . . The prohibition of enactments respecting the estab­ lishment of religion do not bar every friendly gesture between church and state . . . This Court cannot be too cautious in upsetting practices embedded in our society by many years of experience. Differing Opinions: (Including the four opinions delivered and combinations of them voted for by three of the Justices), Justices Voting for this Opinion Only 1. 2.

Total Votes for this Opinion _______

The Opinion of the Court, delivered by Mr. Justice Black

4

7

The Separate Opinion (No. 1) delivered by Mr. Justice Frankfurter

1

4

79

Justices Voting for this Opinion Only 3. 4.

Total Votes for this Opinion

The Separate Opinion (No. 2) delivered by Mr. Justice Jackson.

1

The Dissenting Opinion, delivered by Mr. Justice Reed.

1

5.

A combination of the Opinion of the Court and Separate Opinion No. 1.

6.

A combination of the Opinion of the Court, Separate Opinion No. 1 and Separate Opinion No. 2.

Totals

9

13

Number of Justices voting to ban the Champaign rlan

a

(All opinions except the dissenting opinion stated that the plan as operated in Champaign was uncon­ stitutional ). Summary of voting on "Released Time as a Generalized Conception": Justices voting only for the Opinion of the Court, "without laying aovn any standards to define the limits of the effect of our decision" a MINORITY OF

4

Justices voting for "reservation" opinions Justices giving a dissenting opinion

4 1

Total Justices voting against invalidating "released time as a generalized conception" a MAJORITY OF Summary of Chapter IV.

The principle of religious

freedom was early a part of our Federal constitution as well as that of the states.

The practice has by no means been

consistent with the intent of the law, nor has there been a uniformity of practice in various localities.

The colonial

so schools were largely controlled by the clergy.

This practice

was gradually broken, and while there remains dissension as to what actually constitutes religious freedom in the schools and church-state separation, it is pretty generally agreed that all-sectarianism should be barred from the public schools. The objective of education identified as :?ethical character” has gradually shifted its emphasis from religion to citizenship. The financial responsibility of the schools, too, was gradually shifted from ecclesiastical authorities to the state. In such controversial issues as furnishing textbooks, library facilities, transportation to pupils in a private or parochial school, there have been decisions of one court overruled by another with the practice varying as to locality.

The history

of use of public school buildings for worship and holding public school classes in places of worship has also drawn various decisions from the courts.

The effort is for all

public schools to be supported by tax moneys, and for no tax moneys to be used for any aid to private or parochial schools. Weekday religious education on released time has usually been favored by state laws and upheld in the courts. The one outstanding exception is the McCollum Case in Champaign, Illinois.

The cases which have been unfavorably

ruled against are those 'which (1) have used public school buildings to hold the classes in religious education, or (2) the records have been kept by the public school teacher or

61 (3) credit has been given.

Most of the programs are still £2 operating with these three conditions remedied.

&2

McClure, L. V., nThey vlant 'Weekday Religious Id' ucation,” International Journal of Religious Education 25 7-3, September, 1949•

$2

CHAPTER V THE LEGAL ASPECT OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 01 INDIANA

An investigation of* the files in the Attorney-Gen­ eral^ office reveals only a few cases relative to religious education in the public schools. Five sections of Article 1 of the Amendments to the Constitution of Indiana pertain to religion: sec. 2. All men shall be secured in the natural right to worship Almighty God, according to the dictates of their own consciences. sec. 3. Ho lav; shall, in any case, whatever, control the free exercise and enjoyment of religious opinions, or interfere with the right of conscience. sec. 4. No preference shall be given, by law, to any creed, religious society, or mode of -worship; 'and no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support, any place of worship, against his consent. sec. 5. No religious test shall be required, as a qualification for any office, of trust or profit. sec. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, for the benefit of any religious or theological Institution. Separation of church and state.

This principle,

strongly implied in the amendments to the Indiana Consti­ tution as well as the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Federal Constitution, has seldom come to the attention of the courts in Indiana.

'Then, however, because of fires

S3 1

or other nActs of God,n

it has been necessary to use church

property for temporary housing for schools, such usage has been uniformly permitted whether there are specific statutes or not.

In a city in Indiana, at the time of the depression,

the parish priest notified the city board of education that the parish would be unable to operate Its schools and that eight hundred pupils would be sent to the public school. There were neither buildings nor teachers available, so the board contracted with the parish for the use of its build­ ings and teachers.

There was no sectarian instruction, the

course of the study was identical with that of the rest of the city, and the schools had the same supervision. 2 action of the board was uphelci by the court.

The

In this case it had been charged that the leaving of religious pictures on the walls of the parochial school constituted sectarian instruction.

The court ruled other­

wise and upheld the rental of the building. In an early case in Indiana,

3

it was saiu that if, in

accordance with a statute^* so providing, a majority of the legal voters of the district had expressed a desire that the school house might be used for religious worship, the 1 Odgers, h. B., and Odgers, h. B., The Common Law of England, p. 644. 2 , State ex rel. Johnson v. Boyd, 217 inch 34b, 20 N.E. (2d) 256 (1940J7 " ^Hurd y. halters, 4b Ind. 14b (1&74)* ^Ind. Stat. Ann. (Burns, Repl. 1946), sec. 28-3307*

action of the school trustee in permitting such use would be clearly right but refused to express any opinion as to the power of the trustee, in the absence of any express desire on the part of the majority of the legal voters of the dis­ trict. In a more recent case m

Indiana,

5

it was held that a

school house is occupied for school purposes from the begin­ ning of the school term to its end, including school days, Saturdays, Sundays, and nights, and a statute permitting, under certain conditions, the use of a school house for other than school purposes, nwhen unoccupied for common school purposes,” does not prevent a trustee from enjoining,

and

does not permit him to grant, the use of the building for religious purposes during such time.

Suggesting a doubt as

to the validity of the act, the court said that if it were valid the trustee might properly grant the use of the school for religious turposes during the time intervening between ■o

X

j.

!— *

the close of the school term In the spring and the commence­ ment of the succeeding term In the fall. Aid to parochial schools has long been a bone of contention relative to church-state separation. In 1935, 6 the Indiana legislature passed an act which states in part: Baggerly v. Lee, 37 Ind. App. 139, 73 f.b. 921 (1905). 6

v

v

Ind. Stat. Ann. (burns, Aeplo 19Ao), sec. 23-601.

85

The state board of education shall constitute a board of commissioners for the purpose of making a selection . . . of a series of textbooks . . . Provided, that none of said text books shall contain anything of a partisan or sectarian character.

It is of interest to note that the "loophole" in this law was soon discovered and in the newer edition of the

7 Indiana School Law

we find the following opinion of the

Attorney General:

1. Statute does not apply to Parochial Schools. By making express reference to township trustees, the board of school trustees . . ♦ , it is my opinion that the legislature intended to make the textbook law apply only to public schools as distinguished from parochial or private schools. (Opinions of Attorney General, 1941, p. 284).

Transportation of other than public school pupils at

8 public expense is provided for by act

of the Legislature:

Where school children who are attending any parochial school in any school corporation of this state reside on or along the highway constituting the regular route of a public school bus or conveyance, for the children attending such parochial school, from their homes, or from some point on the regular route near­ est or most easily accessible to their homes, to such parochial school or to the point on such regular route which is nearest or most easily accessible to such parochial school. 7

School Laws of Indiana, p. 749.

^Ind. Stat. Ann. (Burns, Repl. 1948), sec. 28-2805.

86 It is interesting to note that this practice is upheld in the Everson case*

9

Religious freedom.

Tied in closely with the principle

of church-state separation is the element of religious freedom. The intents of the amendments to the Indiana Constitution^ are to guarantee religious freedom to all. In certain cases in which tax payers have objected to the employment of members of particular religious organ­ izations or sects as teachers in the public schools, the courts have expressed opinions to the effect that neither the leg­ islatures nor the public school authorities may lawfully discriminate between teachers or applicants for teaching positions merely because of their creed or religious affil­ iations.^

The exclusion of any particular sect would have

been in direct violation to Art. 1, sec. 5 of the Amendments to the Indiana Constitution. The question of required vaccination as violating the pupil1s religious convictions has been tried in the Indiana courts.

An ordinance that no person should be permitted to

attend the public or private schools of the city without presenting a physician’s certificate of vaccination within 9 Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing, 330 U.S. I (1947), 169 A.L.R.

10

Art. 1, sec. 2, 3, 4, 5, quoted in the introduction to this Chapter.

11

State ex rel. Johnson v. Boyd, 217 Ind. 3k-8, 28 B.f. (2d) 256 (1940):

37

six years was held not to undertake to control or interfere with any rights of conscience in matters of religion, the plaintiffs being Christian Scientists who did not believe in vaccination*

The court said that the religious freedom

guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States does not deprive Congress of legislative power whereby actions may be reached which violate social duties, and the Bill of Rights of the state constitution does not relieve a person from reasonable health regulations, enacted under police power of the state, because such regulations happen not to conform 12 to oneTs religious belief. 13 Bible reading* An act of the Legislature specif­ ically states that ”The Bible shall not be excluded from the public schools*n

There are six other states which forbid

15 while twelve require it, and nearly 16 every state permits it. The author has not been able to

excluding the Bible,

14

find any record of a case being tried in the courts of Indiana concerning Bible reading in the public schools.

Such cases

12 Vonnegut v* Baun, 206 Ind. 172, 133 II.L. 677 (1934). 13 Ind. Stat. Ann* (3urns, Repl. 1940), sec, 23-5101. 14 Johnson, A. hT,, Church-State Relationships in the United States, p. 47. “^ Ibid., p. 33. "^Miller, R. R*, The Legal Status of Religion in the Public Elementary and Secondary Schools oT~the United States ^ '■' ' “Appendix B, Table ~IVIII, p. W T .

have been tried in other states,

17

and in every recorded

instance, the constitutionality of the lav; has been upheld. Credit for Bible study in high school.

As has been

noted in Chapter III, a joint committee of the Indiana Association for Teachers of English and the High School Section of the Indiana State Teachers Association, upon approval of the State Board of Education, started the foliovALng plan: Any pupil enrolled in a high school in Indiana who studies any two of the four unit parts of this outline and who passes successfully a written exam­ ination upon the parts studied shall be given one -j_g high school credit, which shall count for graduation. The same plan was made lav; by an Act

19

of the 1923

legislature. In the Attorney General's opinion

20

following the

Supreme Court decision in the McCollum case, it was stated that the giving of credit for Bible Study was unconsti­ tutional unless it was entirely non-sectarian. Several other states have comparable plans to the 21 one used in Indiana. Some states planned so continue 17

Johnson, op. cit., p. 39«

IB

Indiana association of Teachers of _nglish and the High School Section of the Indiana state Teacher's association, Outline of Bible Study for Credit in Indiana High Schools , p. 13 ■^Ind. Stat. Ann. (Burris, Repl. 19), sec. 2b-341o. 20 ......... see App enuix 21

Miller, op. ere., p. 302.

$9

following the McCollum Case decision, and others discontinued the plan. In Indiana, there is, however, a great responsibility placed upon each teacher for teaching honesty, morality 22 respect for home, parents, government, etc. An Act of v

>

the Indiana Legislature states: sec. 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the State of Indiana, That it shall be the duty of each and every teacher who is employed to give in­ struction in the regular courses of the first twelve grades of any public, private, parochial or denom­ inational school in the State of Indiana to so arrange and present his or her instruction as to give special emphasis to common honesty, morality, courtesy, obed­ ience to law, respect for the national flag, the con­ stitution of the United States and the constitution of the State of Indiana, respect for parents and the home, the dignity and necessity of honest labor and other lessons of a steadying influence, which tend to promote and develop an upright and desirable citizenry. Weekday religious instruction on released time. The 23 released time plan started in Gary, Indiana, and soon spread to other parts of Indiana, operated without statute backing 24 until 1943 at which time an Act was passed which reads in part: That if it is the wish of the parent, guardian or other person having control or legal custody of any 22

23

Acts of Indiana Legislature, Chapter 249, sec. 1, (1937). See Chapter II for a discussion of this plan.

24 See Appendix B, Part II, for copy of the Act (1943 Acts, Chapter 23)•

90 child, that such child attend, for a period or periods to be determined by the local principal or superin­ tendent of schools and” not exceeding in tKe aggregate one hundred and twenty minutes in any week, a school for religious instruction, conducted and maintained by some church or association of churches, • . . and which school shall not be conducted or maintained, either in whole or in part, by the use of any public funds raised by taxation . . . Attendance at such school for religious instruction shall be given the same attendance credit as at the public school. After the enactment of this Menabling actn for Teekday Religious Education on released-time, a committee was appoint­ ed by the former Marion County Council of Religious Educa­ tion, the Church Federation and the Indianapolis Council of Church Momen to study a plan for Indianapolis and Marion 25 County. After public hearings, study and discussions, the Board of 15 was elected by the Indianapolis Church Federation in May, 1945. Schools were started by five church districts and all were merged into the City and County-wide organisation January, 1946.

The Board of Meekday Religious Education of

Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana, was incorporated January 26, 1946, with 16 elected members and the Executive Secretary of the Church Federation ex-officio. Eighty-two per cent of all children enrolled in the fourth and fifth grades in Indianapolis and Marion County Public Schools are released each week. 25

This is upon the

Indianapolis and Marion County Schools of .,eekday Religious Education, This is the Answer, 6 pp.

91 written request of their parents.

Mo one is forced to go.

The public school usually makes provision for children who do not wish to attend, offering a period of supervised study. Children from 76 different denominations are enrolled in the system. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction asked the Attorney General for an official opinion on three questions relating to teaching of religion in the public schools as provided by statute and board rule in view of the United States Supreme Court Decision issued on March 6, 194$* The Attorney General gave the State Superintendent 27 of Public Instruction a nineteen page official opinion on the three questions asked on Ifay 10, 194$, a portion of which is here quoted: Question 1.

Is Chapter 22p of the 1943 acts un­ constitutional in view of the Supreme Court decision (People of the State of Illinois ex rel. Vashti McCollum, Appellant, v h board of Education of School District Mo. 71, Champaign County, Illinois et al.) issued on March o, 194$)•

Answer.

The element of compulsion is undeniably present in the Indiana law. The Act in effect says, *TTou may perform a legal duty of attending school by taking religious instruction.11

26

— People ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Eaucation of School District Mo. 71, 396 111. T 4 , 71 N.E. (2d) lol (1947). 27 See Appendix C for complete copy of opinion.

92 As Mr, Justice Frankfurter said, *That a child is offered an alternative may reduce the constraint; it does not eliminate the operation of influence by the school in matters sacred to conscience and outside the schoolTs domain.” No Act would be necessary to permit a child to take religious instruction outside of the schoolhouse and after school hours. I do not believe an Act, would be necessary to permit «fdismissed time11 at any time of the day if the students are dismissed with complete freedom to do as they please— to study, to take religious instruction, to take music lessons, etc., or to play. Is not the very purpose of our act to ■"provide pupils for the religious classes through use of the State’s compulsory public school machinery?” Is that the "absolute separation” required? Recognising the hazard of the determination of such a complicated problem as this upon the basis of one opinion, I nevertheless am of the opinion that our Act will have difficulty, to use the words of Mr. Justice Reed, in running the gantlet, of the judgment rendered in the McCollum case. The most questionable part of the Indiana law is the last two sentences. They read: ’’Such school for religious instruction shall maintain records of attendance which shall at all times be open to the inspection of the public school attendance officers. Attendance at such school for religious instruction shall be given the same attendance credit as at the public school.” The purpose of the Act may be executed without those two sentences. I would there­ fore recommend that for the present, no attendance records be kept.

93

The general rule with respect to the sever­ ability of constitutional and unconsti­ tutional provisions of an Act is that un­ constitutional provisions may be deleted if it appears that such deletion does not do violence to the legislative intent in passing the Act. The rule is discussed at length in Ettinger et al v. Studevent (1941) 219 Ind. 4C6 . As stated at page 423, »!Where the Legislature attempts to do several things one of which is invalid it may be discarded if the remainder of the act is workable and in no way dependent upon the invalid portion . . . 't Here the Legislature apparently wanted to provide affirmative authority for the re­ lease of children for religious instruction. It added an element of compulsion which is objectionable. By the deletion of the objectionable part, the major intent, in my opinion, may yet be preserved. By that, though , I do not mean to imply that the remainder of the Act can, in any event, be sustained but the part which, at present writing, appears to be in violation ox the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution ought not"to be en'Torcea. By the time of the next General Assent we may have sufficient imormation to enact a program "(whether this or a modified! one) free of all doubt.

Question 2. Does the same decision delivered by Justice Black invalidate Rule 79 of the General Commission of the Indiana State Board of Education? Rule 79. u Credit for Bible Study {as prescribed by Chapter 225 of the 1943 Acts) may be granted when achievement or compe­ tence on the part of the student has been measured by some recognized test. A maximum of five-tenth units of credit in Bible Study may be allowed toward graduation. !*

94

Answer.

The rule was promulgated to implement the statute discussed above. In the light of the statements of the members of the United States Supreme Court in the McCollum case, it is my opinion that this rule is un­ constitutional. There is definitely herein the element of aid, inducement and en­ couragement, as well as many other facts that the high court criticized.

Question 3* Does the same decision invalidate the teaching of Bible as a one semester course as per­ mitted by the 1923 Acts, Chapter 91? In my opinion, Chapter 91 of the Acts of 1923, same being Section 2£-341$ of Eurns, is not affected by either the opinion rendered in the McCollum or the Everson case, provided, however, that the teaching is secular and not sectarian in nature. The State Superintendent of Eublic Instruction sent out to all superintendents and principals a mimeographed letter dated May 13, 194$> fn which he quoted excerpts from the Attorney GeneralTs opinion.

In a closing statement he ex­

pressed a desire that 7?the above excerpts from the opinion will be of help to you in planning your program for the next year.1* Tfe may safely imply that this represented his approval of weekday religious education classes providing that they were not held in the school building nor were attendance records kept by the school. In some schools where a teacher of weekday religious instruction had already been employed, it was necessary to 2g alter plans some, but the program continued. Buildings —

Indianapolis hews, January 20, 1949.

95

were constructed from lumber lent by the local Farm Bureau. The construction was done by interested citizens. was donated.

The ground

According to the article in the Indianapolis

hews classes were held in Eoann, Laketon, Lagro, Urbana, 29

Lincolnville, and Somerset. Summary of Chapter V.

The Bill of Eights (Article 1,

secs. 2, 3, 4» and 5) in the Indiana Constitution guarantees religious freedom, and implies separation of church and state. Under legislative acts and court decisions, no help may be given to parochial schools.

Transporting pupils to

and from such schools is not considered unconstitutional under certain conditions. A public school building nay be used for purposes other than school during the time when school is not in session, and then only with the written request of over half the eligible voters. Requiring vaccination for attendance at the public schools is held by the courts not to violate one’s religious freedom, Bible reading is protected from exclusion in the schools by statute in Indiana. Credit for Bible study may no longer be given in Indiana unless it is of a non-sectarian nature. The enabling act of 1943 made possible up to 120

96 minutes of religious instruction on released time under certain conditions.

Most of these weekday programs in Indiana are

being continued with slight codification since the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the I-lcDollum case. In Chapter VI we will look at some of the types of religious education in the schools.

97

CHAPTER VI

TYPES OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION FOUND IN THE SCHOOLS

In this chapter, six specific types of religious instruction will be considered: 1.

Reading of the Bible in the schools

2*

Teaching ethical behavior as a part of the curric­

3.

Religious education given under the "released

ulum

time" plan 4.

Religious education given under the "dismissed

time" plan 5*

Religious education in the parochial school

6.

Responsibility of the churches for the religious

education program

Bible Reading in the Schools

The constitutions or statues of 12 states--Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee-require Bible reading in the public schools.^

Some require

that it be read without comment; others, that prayer ensue*

^■Johnson, A. w., Church-State Relationships in the United States, p. 38.

93 Some designate that pupils may be excused by written request from their parents. Four of the states hacl their statutes questioned and each time the State Supreme Court in question upheld the statutes— Maine, Massachusetts, Kentucky, and Georgia.

2

Seven states— Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Mississippi, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota— have specific statutes forbidding exclusion of Bible reading in schools without comment.

3

No state has any constitutional provision or statutory law that specifically prohibits in the terms "Bible” or "Bible Reading1* the reading of the Bible in public schools, but teaching sectarian doctrine or placing religious books in libraries, or using "tax" money to support or help denom­ inations, or private and parochial schools is strictly for4 bidden by most state constitutions. There has been considerable opposition from time to time.

For example the American Civil Liberties Union, in

1931, made this statement: Lven more successful than the attempt to impose "Genesis as a state religion" has been the movement to compel by legislation the reading of the Bible in the ^Ibid., pp. 39-40* ^Ibid., pp. 47 ff* ^Ibid., pp. 54-53.

99

public schools. In practical effect this is equivalent to attempting to impose the Protestant religion on the children of the schools, for the King James version is almost Invariably the Bible selected. Any Bible reading in the schools was once held to be contrary to the provisions of complete separation of church and state. The Union lays the spread of the movement to the ,?Klan and Fundamentalists after the CJar.n Many authorities believe that the principle of separ­ ation of church and state does not mean banning Bible reading. Christian Century is among these. Commenting on the First Amendment to the Federal Constitution— ^Congress shall make no lav/ respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof_7*. It is this double limitation upon the state that gave rise to the formula, **separation of church and state,*1 in the American system of government . . . does not mean separation of religion and the state . . . In a word there is nothing in the Constitution that forbids the state to perform a religious act. i'md it does perform such acts. Nor does it mean the separation of church and politics.' The church has full liberty to engage in political action, either as a body or through its members in the discharge of their democratic respon­ sibility as citizens. The separation of church and state does not mean that the state must be indifferent to religion. Nor on the other side, does separation mean that the state must be strictly secular. ^American Civil Liberties Union, p* 8 V

The Gag on 1

100 It means that there shall be no law or action which involves the interlocking of the official functions of the state with the official • . . functions of any church Mr. Greene

gives us both sides of the picture:

Notwithstanding the supposed separation of the Church from the State, that separation is by no means complete. Some older ideas have survived; some relation between these two social agencies is inevitable in any community; and certain problems involved in this relation still remain . . .

Meantime the general tendency has been to con­ fine the public schools to secular instruction. There has not, however, been any uniform practice regarding such religious exercises as the reading of the Bible and the recital of the Lord’s Prayer. Thus in 1910, the Supreme Court of Illinois declared that the reading of the Bible in the King James version had a sectarian character, while the courts of several other states have taken the opposite stand. Even within a given state, variations in practice may be based on local public opinion. Our state constitution, along with that of many others, permits Bible reading in the public schools. Is this an example of state encouragement of Protestant Christianity? Table 1 explains how the eleven categories of sampled Indiana population responded to this question.^ tlThe Meaning of Separation,” Christian Century 64:1447-1443, November 26, 1947. " 7

Greene, E. 3., Church and State, p. 20.

^Ibid., pp. 39-40. ^See Table 1, also questionnaire (6), Appenciix A, Part II.

101

TABLE 1. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "OUR STATE CONSTITUTION ALONG TITH TH.-.T OF MANX OTHERS PERMITS BIBLE READING IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IS THIS AN EXAMPLE OF STATE ENCOURAGEMENT OF PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY?"*

Personal date

Yes

No

20 17 37 21 33

57 67 51 57 55

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 2,000-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

14 8 12 12 6

8 8

1

7

2 6

13 19 14 4

4 7 7 4 13 4

4

137 24 43 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II X XI Not designated

17 32 22 11 22 24 33 40 IB 6 15 31

61 42 57 81 65 60 38 45

25 17 40

56 62 40

23 43 14

26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

64

12 14 10 18

81 5°

23

13 8

13 12

6 5

1 4 20

208 82 5

8 5 5

2 2 2

6 124 123 39 3

10

5 4

69

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE

Under 20 20-39 4-0—59 ^ Over 60 Not designated

33 23 15

46 33

58 63 38 67

33 10 15 8

*For a numerical tabulation of opinions on this and subsequent items from the questionnaire, see Appendix A.

102 TABLE 1 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

30 16 20 12 26

54 56 60 56 69

7 16 20 3

70 2o 7 15 40 24 39 20 9 16

20 66 63 50 30 63 42 28 73 61

5

26

56

10

3

23

66

6

3

15 32 26 43 33 16

56 55 50 43 67

17 10 15 14

10

64

10

60 20

20 50

20

10

22 29 22 16 23

54 54

20 6 8 9 8

2 10

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

9 5 25

82 3 152 5

6

16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

10

10

3 5

36 15 20

10

10

4

75 31 25

20 13 16 24 16 14

10 20 3 24

11 3

79

3

31

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

31 2

64

4

31 40 7 6 50

3 6

5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

61 74

64

4

2 66 1

62

1

69 31 79

103 TABLE 1 (Continued)

Yes

Yeb

100 19 22 50

55 56 25

10 12 25

13 5

3 2

1 31 255 6

21 29 44

59 51 11

12 14 22

6 3 11

1 3 11

251 35 9

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

22 25 24 19 25

62 45 70 52 13

9 19 3 19 36

7 6 3 5 13

5 13

162 67 37 21 a

Totals

23

57

12

6

2

295

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

4

Considerably more than half those reply said it was not.

Less than one-f ourth believed it was and about one-

fifth were doubtful or expressed no opinion at all. The size of the community seems to show no sig­ nificant differences from the percentages for the total. However, in the very small town there seems to be a tendency for a larger percentage to answer in the affirmative.

104 10

Geographic location follows much the same pattern* The eastern portion of the state (note Districts 4 and 10) have a stronger negative response, while the western section tends to be stronger on the positive; however, throughout the whole state there is a definite tendency to believe this is not encouragement of Protestant Christianity* A slightly larger percentage of men than women answer­ ed the question, yes*

One fourth of the men responded this

way while only about a sixth of the women did.

Fifty-six

per cent of the men replied in the negative while sixtytwo per cent of the women did. The six respondents under twenty years of age were equally divided on their opinion*

The sharpest break in

age comes between the forty to fifty-nine age group and the over 60 age group*

Of the former, less than one sixth be­

lieved Bible reading in the schools to be state encourage­ ment of Protestantism, but nearly one half of those over sixty believed it to be.

Nearly fifty per cent more of the

twenty to thirty-nine age group than the forty to fiftynine age group replied in the affirmative. Practically the same percentage (slightly over half) of Democrats and Republicans said, no, but decidedly a larger percentage of the Democrats said, yes. cent of the Republicans were doubtful*

See map, Appendix D.

A great per

Only five Prohib-

105

itionists replied, which would hardly be a large enough number to compare with the others* Formal education seems to have some effect on belief concerning this issue*

Of those finishing the seventh grade

or less, nearly three fourths replied yes to the question* While of those who had completed grade school, only one fourth, and of those who had completed at least one year of high school less than one tenth gave the affirmative reply* Those with some college education leaned

rather heavily

toward a negative answer; however, there was more doubt in this group, as is shown by the rather consistent one sixth to one fourth checking doubtful in the college group* A smaller percentage (about one fourth) of professional people, skilled tradesmen, and farmers answered in the affirmative than slightly skilled workmen and day laborers. The former group consistently replied negatively in over half the cases* Of those having no children, about one fourth ansxirered no, and one half, yes, with about one fifth designating doubt.

Practically the same response came from those having

children under school age, with perhaps a slighter degree of doubt.

Those with children in grade school show a slightly

greater percentage replying no; and those with children in high school still a larger percentage. There seems to be no significant difference between

106

the replies of Catholics and Protestants on this question.

11

A greater percentage of the former, however, expressed no opinion. Of those who belong to church, about one fifth agreed with the accusation in the question while nearly three tenths of the non-church members agreed.

This same

relationship is reflected in the negative response as well as the doubtful. The regularity of church attendance seems to have no effect on response to the question.

From one fifth to one

fourth of all groups (from those who do not attend to those who attend over thirty times yearly) answered in the affirma­ tive.

The degree of doubt seems to be slightly greater in

those who reported church attendance from ten to thirty times annually.

One fifth of these checked doubtful.

Some states require Bible reading in the public schools.

Is this consistent with the state-church separation

principles?

12

As to the total number of replies, there is an almost equal division on replies to this question, about one third replying yes, about one third replying no, and about one third replying doubtful or not expressing an opinion.

11

Only one respondent identified himself as Jewish. This seems to have little or no bearing on the study. Consequently his responses on the various items will not be referred to further. For comparisons, see the tables in Appendix A and in this Chapter.

12

See Table 2, also Questionnaire (7), Appendix A,

Part II.

TABLE 2. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "SOME STATES REQUIRE BIBLE READING IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IS THIS CONSISTENT WITH THE STATE-CHURCH SEPARATION PRINCIPLES?"

Personal data

les

No

28 37 37 34

35 50 25 36 39

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

kk

16

k

12 11 17

15 8 25 15

6

13

k

137 24 43 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

22 23 43 19 39 32 47 25 45 50 35 31

30 48 36 50 26 32 24 25 45 25 36 31

26 14 7 12 16 4 10 10 19 13 23

8 12 14 19 19 24 5 35 9 6 13 15

34 27 60

34 38 40

14 12

15 18

2 5

208 82 5

17 23 37 49 67

33 41 29 38 33

33 13 16 2

21 13 8

17 3 4 2

6 124 123 39 3

8 14 5 2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

106

TABLE 2 (Continued)

Personal data

Tes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

29 32 40 3# 41

33 36 40 31 26

2 5 20

60 29 47 25 20 33 29 24 16 34

40 26 33 40 30 29 35 40 55 39

42

42

10

35

26

13

26

29 46 36 14 33

37 26 40 14 33

17 6 6 29

15 16 13 29 33

2 3 3 14

60 20

20 40

20

10

10

5 10

33 23 22 35 49

36 40 32 19 26

12 13 20 26 13

16 16 22 13 10

4 7 4 6 1

66 62 69 31 79

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

15 13

21 12

12 13

19 16

62 152 5 16 40

16 7 5 20 20 19 24

26 13 25 20 16 16 4 16 11

6 9 5

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

6

31

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

10

3 5 10 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional ' Semi-professional managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day Laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

31

64 31 40 7 6

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

109 TABLE 2 (Continued)

Personal data

les

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE 100 23 36

23 12

10 15

6 4

1 31 255 8

32 37 22

33 34 44

13 14 22

17 9

3 6 11

251 35 9

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

3$ 22 32 24 25

27 45 43 52 50

14 15 11 5

18 14 14 10 13

3 4 10 13

162 67 37 21

Totals

33

35

13

15

4

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

3$ 31 63

38

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

8

295

In the cities over ten thousand, considerably less than one third replied yes, while slightly over one third replied no, with the rest undecided.

In the cities of 2,500

to 10,000 over one third expressed a positive opinion while one-half expressed a negative opinion.

In the towns of less

than 2,500, over one third stated that they believed the re­ quirement of Bible reading to be consistent with the statechurch separation principle while only a fourth denied that it was.

110

There seems to be more disagreement within the sections 13 of the state than among the sections* For example, the southern section (districts 7,

and 9) shows a positive

answer of nearly half the cases in districts seven and nine and only one fourth in district eight, the southernmost district in the state.

In district five an equal number reply

yes and no, while in district ten which adjoins it on the south, twice as many reply yes as no.

The element of doubt

seems to be greatest in district one, Lake Gounty, and less in the midwestern portion of the state.

In the northeast

portion of the state the negatives outweigh the positives almost three to one, while in districts seven and ten the negatives are only one half the positives. The men are equally divided on the issue, thirty-four per cent with and thirty-four per cent against.

Of the women,

only slightly over a fourth agree with the statement and nearly two fifths disagree. Those under 40 years of age responded no in a larger per cent of cases than those over 40.

This is especially

true of the 20 to 39 age bracket where the portion was over four tenths while those 40 to 59 showed less than three tenths.

There were slightly under three tenths of the Democrats who answered the question yes, and slightly over three tenths 13

See map, Appendix D*

Ill

of the Republicans. in the yes responses.

Practically the same relationship exists A greater percentage of the Democrats

failed to express an opinion at all.

Of those who did not

designate their political affiliation on the questionnaire over four per cent checked this item yes, while over 25 per cent checked it no. Of the ten cases who had not finished common school, six answered yes and four no.

This contrasts with those

finishing grade school, about three tenths for yes as against one fourth for no. group expressed no opinion.

Over one fourth of this latter Of those attending high school,

the same percentage (about a third in each case) answered yes as no.

A slightly smaller per cent (about three tenths)

of those who had attended college answered yes as against those who answered no (about four tenths). In the occupational groups there were practically the same proportion of yes responses and no responses in each group except the farmers where there were slightly less than half replying yes, while slightly over a fourth replied no. Nearly one third of those having no children responded yes, and slightly more replied no. doubtful or of no opinion.

The remaining third were

This contrasts with less than one

fourth positive replies and four tenths negative replies of those having pre-school children.

The ratio is almost the

same for those having children in grade school with a slightly smaller percentage replying no.

But parents with

112

children in high school show a trend in the opposite direction, where over one third reply yes, and less than one fifth reply no.

This same trend exists in those whose children

are through school, where the ratio is one half for the yes response as against one fourth for the no response. Nearly four tenths of the Catholics designated a positive answer and only slightly over one third of the Protestants checked the same.

This compares with less than

one fourth no responses for the Catholics as against over one third for the Protestants. There is no significant difference in the yes and no responses among those who belong to church and those who do not belong approximately one third of each group answering yes and one third, no, thus practically dividing the yes and no responses equally. Nearly four tenths of those attending church most frequently replied yes and over one fourth replied no.

This

contrasts with approximately one fourth yes replies and nearly one half no replies of those who attend less fre­ quently.

This trend is even more marked for those who do

not go to church at all where the ratio of positive to neg­ ative responses is less than one fourth to over one half.

113

Some communities in which tradition and custom have long approved Bible reading, prayer, and singing of hymns in the public schools feel that they have a right to continue in spite of the United States Supreme Court decision.

The

proponents of the idea feel that the will of the people for their own good supersedes federal and state laws.

Do you

14 agree? This question has been a controversial one for some time. In opposition to the prevailing American tradition of colonial times and the authoritative teaching of the Catholic Church must be set the general trend of public educational policy for the past hundred years as seen in the constitutions and laws of the states.

Even after the separation of Church

and State, it seemed possible to provide what were consid­ ered ^non-sectarian" religious exercises in the schools. The mass immigration of the nineteenth century, increasing the number, first of Catholic and later of Jewish people, complicated the problem of "non-sectarian" exercises.

What

seemed "non-sectarian" to most Protestants has not seemed so to members of other religious groups. ^ S e e Table 3» Part II.

Also Questionnaire (&), Appendix A,

114

TABLE 3. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: ’’SOME COMMUNITIES IN WHICH TRADITION AND CUSTOM HAVE LONG APPROVED BIBLE READING, PRAYER, AND SINGING OF HYMNS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FEEL THAT THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO CONTINUE IN SPITE OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION. THE PROPONENTS OF THE IDEA FEEL THAT THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE FOR THEIR OWN GOOD SUPERSEDES FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS. DO YOU AGREE?"

Personal data

Yes

No

56 50 51 67 72

23 42 23 15 6

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

3 4 5 7 20

9 4 14 9

9 9

4 14 14 19 13

3 2 1

137 24 43 73 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII 12 X XI Not designated

60 46 50 61 55 64 67 70 55 SI 5^ 46

22 30 29 11 13 32 24 5 36 13 25 31

59 59 60

24 20

4 19 4

4 7 4 9

5

20 9

6 3 23

3

2

7 9 20

3 12 20

2 1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

203 32 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

67 59 53 59 67

23 21 26 33

33 7 9 2

3 12 5

2 3

6 124 123 39 3

115 TABLE 3 (Continued)

Personal data

les

No

Doubt­ ful

63 55 30 44 67

22 26

30 63 27 60 70 67 77 44 55 52

10 16 20 25 10 16 16 20 45 32

3 33 5 20 4 3 12

12 3 20

4

11

3

3

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

52

29

13

3

3

31

42

39

6

13

60 74 55 43 33

20 19 25

11 3 3

7

30 30

20

54 67 65 77 57

29 20 23 13 24

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

25 10

5 7 20 19 13

9 10

1 3

6 10

6

32 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

10 11 20 5

3 5 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives, students, retired, etc. Not designated

10 57

50

31 2 3 3 17

34 31 40 7 6 5 10

20

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

9 6 1 3 6

6 5 10 6 11

2 2 1

36 32 69 31 79

116

TABLE 3 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE 100 19 22 25

13 7

3 10

6 2

1 31 255 6

56 57 67

22 29

6 5

10 3 11

1 5 22

251 35 9

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

60 57 57 52 63

19 27 30 29 13

12 3

7 10 14 10 13

1 3 5 13

162 67 37 21 6

Totals

59

22

6

9

2

295

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

56 56 75

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

5

One of the best-known illustrations of this situation was the school controversy which took place in New York in the middle years of the nineteenth century*

15

At that time

the "Public School Society,” a private organisation in New York City, supported partly by private contributions but partly from public funds, maintained schools which provided, beside the usual elementary studies, simple religious exercises* Though the Society regarded these exercises as non-sectarian, Green, 0£* cit*, p* 36.

117

Bishop John Hughes, speaking for his fellow-Catholics, in­ sisted that they showed a definitely Protestant tendency, as for instance in the use of the Protestant King James version of the English Bible.

He claimed also that the teaching of

certain subjects in the school program showed a Protestant bias.

The controversy continued for several years and became

for a time a political issue in the city and state.

Finally,

public support was withdrawn from the Society and a municipal Board of Education was set up with the provision that no school which taught or practiced ”any religious or sectarian doctrine” should receive public funds.

This result was

satisfactory neither to those who favored ”non-sectarian” religious training of the kind previously offered, nor to Bishop Hughes and his associates, since it prevented state aid to parochial schools. Nearly three fifths of those replying to the question­ naire believed that the will of the people in this case super­ sedes federal and state laws. think it does not.

Slightly more than one fifth

The other one-fifth are doubtful or ex­

pressed no opinion. In the larger community more than twice as many replied in the affirmative as the negative while the difference in the middle-sized community is less than one tenth where half of them replied yes and over two fifths replied no.

In the

rural community, perhaps reflecting the independent agrarian nature, over two thirds responded yes and less than one

lid

sixth, no. Over half of those replying in the northern section of the state agreed with opinion eight; over one fifth dis­ agreed; less than one tenth were doubtful, and nearly one sixth expressed no opinion.

In the central section, nearly

seven tenths agreed, nearly one fourth disagreed; and a very small per cent expressed doubt or no opinion at all.

In the

southern section, over three fifths agreed, over one fifth disagreed, with the remaining few doubtful or expressing no opinion. Nearly three fifths of the men and exactly the same number of women agreed with opinion eight; but one fourth of the men disagreed while only one fifth of the women held opposing views.

A very slightly larger percentage of the

women over the men were doubtful. Nearly three fifths of those in all age groups agreed. There is a slight exception in the six people under 20 years of age who replied.

Here the percentage was somewhat larger.

The disagreement with the opinion was almost the same in all

age groups, the variation being that from one fourth to one fifth.

The age group 40 to 59 showed slightly more un­

decided cases.

All except one of the five Prohibitionist, over a half of the Republican, and over three fifths of the Democrats agree.

The other Prohibitionist expressed doubt of the opinion.

119

Approximately one fourth of both Democrats and Republicans disagreed, and almost one sixth of both groups were undecided. About three fourths of those not attending high school, about two thirds of those attending high school, and con­ siderably over half of those attending college agreed.

Nearly

one tenth of the first group, one sixth of the second group, and over one fifth of the third group disagreed.

Considerable

variation is noted in the doubtful and undecided, the per­ centage being greatest in those having finished one or three years of high school and two years of college. Over half the professional groups, nearly three fourths of the farmers, about two fifths of the day laborers, and over two thirds of the housewives agreed.

Disagreement was

over one fourth for the first group, one fifth for the second group, a half for the third group, and one sixth for the last group. Over one half of those having no children, two thirds of those with pre-school children, nearly three fourths of those with school children, and well over one half of those reporting children out of school agreed.

Three tenths of the

first group, one fifth of the second group, one sixth of the third group, and one fourth of the fourth group disagreed. Nearly three fifths of both Catholics and Protestants agreed, and approximately one fifth of both groups disagreed. The remainder were undecided in both groups.

120

Three fifths of those who go to church often, well over one half

of those who attend less frequently, and slightly

over one half

of those who do not go at all agreed*

One

fifth of the first group and nearly three tenths of groups two and three disagreed.

About the same relationship exists

in those expressing doubt with the church-members leading with over one tenth.

Teaching Ethical Behavior as a Part of the Curriculum Much has been written concerning teaching of religion or morals in the public schools.

Opinions vary all the way

from those who advocate sectarianism in the schools to those who would bar the very name of God and all religious terms. Most authorities feel some common core of moral and spiritual truths should

be found for youth character building.

Noll calls upon the state to help make the public

16

system a tTpowerful character-forming agency.”

school

He pleads

for the state to be behind "religion generally and the moral law.”

He believes that genuine citizenship is based on

justice as is also a sound social and economic order but there can be no justice without religion.

Good citizenship

presupposes training of youth along lines of virtue.

Hon­

orable citizens should produce stable and happy homes, but our nation now leads all the world in broken homes.

Virtuous

^Noll, J. F., Our National Enemy Number One— Educa­ tion without Religion, introduction (not paged).

citizenship is injured when moral ideals wane.

"Let America

bring God back to the schools in order that he may once more live in the minds and hearts of all its citizens.” He says that religious instruction can no longer be restricted to home and church since youth takes the easier way of its inclination since so often even its elders are unschooled in religious or moral training.

The home is not

training its youth, cannot in many instances, and the church is not reaching untold thousands. Baumeister in answering Dr. BodeTs article in the March 27 issue of School and Society, says it is 11not a matter of separating church and state, but religion and life; it is one of separation of the supernatural from the natural.” In the introduction to his book, Fleming makes the following revealing statement:

"Dedicated to the millions

of American children, born and yet to be, who never, except from the school teacher, will hear the message of religion and morals that alone will enable them to become good citizens Williams believes that religion should be taught, but 19 that it should be entirely non-sectarian. He places the responsibility on the community.

It can do the job better

_

Baumeister, E. J., "Religion and the Public Schools: School and Society 67:473-475, June 26, 1948.

Reply."

IB

Fleming, W. S., God in Our Public Schools, p. 5*

19

Williams, J. P., "Adequate Religious Education m a Free Society." Religious Education 41:22-25, January, 1946.

122

because it gives opportunities for practicing religion, under satisfying circumstances and this is necessary.

Further,

religious education must have the verbalization, glorification, and practice aspect if it is to be effective, he believes. Indoctrination is inevitable, he sets forth, for that is belief, and we must believe in something.

The question

is, "hThat shall be indoctrinate?" Absolute religious freedom is impossible, but we should have as much religious freedom as is consistent with the high­ est community values, he maintains.

"Religion should be

taught descriptively on school time in non-sectarian classes, by teachers employed by the public— teachers who make a 20 studied effort to do no more than describe religion." This is a better plan, he thinks, than releasedtime teaching by the churches. If the public schools and the churches and syna­ gogues do an adequate job in teaching democracy as religion, it is not unreasonable to hope that homes of the nation could be awakened to their responsibility to help children view democratic ideals as religious ideals.This would best serve the greatest number or people.

f

The American Council on Education insists that we shall stress the teaching of the values of religious educa22 tion. In this respect we should expect it perfectly in

20



Ibid., p. 24.

21Ibid., p. 25.

22

American Council on Education, The Relation of Religion to Public Education, pp. 12-15.

123

order to teach the value of religion, to show students that there are divergent points here and let them reason— what we should turn out in the way of graduates are those who have ”a positive attitude toward the values that religion repre­ sents in culture.” 23 The Council questions a "core curriculum” of relig­ ious teaching.

The big problem here is that in a democracy

just getting a minimum of truths seems unfair.

Shouldn't

they know whole truths, about all religions, and the scien­ tific method has so laid hold on the modern mind that to teach any doctrine and say, "Here is the truth beyond a question,” is resisted.

In other words, some people question

all things. But consistent adherence to the present day philosophy of education and a responsible attitude toward leadership will call for a new and serious approach to the place given religion in the school. ^ Ernest W. Kuebler

25

advocates a change of heart in

all sectarian leaders and insists on a get-together and making religious education a unifying force for religious education instead of controversial subject. 23

Ibid., p. 16 ff.

24Ibid., p. 18. 25 Kuebler, E. tf., "Religious Education and the Public Schools: A Symposium,” Religious Education 43:193-22$, July, 1946. /Seven articles/.

124 pZ F. Ernest Johnson

believes that a foundation for

morality and democracy is certainly to be hoped for.

We

must stress spiritual values implicit in democratic living and educate youth concerning the role of religion in human affairs.

If this is done, dogmatic doctrine can ngo hang.”

These values are so much more practical. 27 Samuel P. Franklin expresses some doubt, but is certain that all sectarianism should be barred from the schools.

He believes that if a common body of religious in­

formation, ideas, beliefs and practices could be found for a religious education curriculum acceptable to both Catholics, Jews, and Protestants, the religious education program on released time would work. There is a place where religious education leaves off and secular or sectarianism begins.

Unless each denomination

handles its own religious education program, there must be no sectarianism. The problem, he points out, is to find the elements which should be taught and which are acceptable to all faiths, and then to use these. Moehlman believes there is a common core of religious

26

Johnson, F. E., ”Religion and the Schools— What Can We Hope For?” Religious Education 43:201-206, July, 1946. 27 Franklin, S. P., ”The Language of the Problem,” Religious Education 43:193-197» July, 1946.

125

teaching, but qualifies his assertion with the following: The school, however, is limited to the teaching of fundamentals of religion, divorced from any insti­ tutionalized concept of these principles* These fundamentals may be said to include the development of the moral sense, the aesthetic sense, the principles of love as opposed to the principles of power, and understanding of man*s relationship to the world about him, the search for truth . * . attitudes, ideals . moral courage growing out of conviction and faith* Paysan Smith concurs with these latter authorities when he says:

”The problem is to keep sectarianism out of 29 the schools and religion in them*”

Many interested authorities believe that the public schools should give more time and emphasis to training children in ways of ethical behavior and that this training should be of a non-denominational nature* Do you agree? In a questionnaire in which Dean J. B. Edmonson of the University of Michigan polled 160 educators, 87.1 per cent favored continued separation of church and state, but 85 per cent believed that schools should increase civic training and character education of a non-sectarian nature*

28 Moehlman, A* B*, School Administration, p. 58* 29 Smith, P., ”The Public Schools and Religious Education,” Religion and Education, p. 18, edited by ¥. L. Sperry, 1945. 30 Edmonson, J. B., ”Who Shall Teach Religion?” in Nation*s Schools 42:29, July, 1948.

30

126

TABLE 4.

OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: INTERESTED AUTHORITIES BELIEVE THAT THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS SHOULD GIVE MORE TIME AND EMPHASIS TO TRAINING CHILDREN IN WAYS OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR AND THAT THIS TRAINING SHOULD BE OF A MON-DENOMINATIONAL NATURE . DC) YOU . AGREE?”

"MANY

Personal data

Yes

No

86 a? 86 69 100

9 8 5 4

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

2

1

5 3

3

7

1 4 5

137 24 43 73 18

4

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN M U C H LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

78 70 100 84 100 92 90 95 100 94 88 92

13 18

4 5

12

4

88 69 80

5 9 20

8

1 10

5 6 8

2

2 8

SEX Male Female Not designated

3

2

2 2 2

2 1

1 2

208 82 5

17 1 2 5

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

63 67 69 87 100

8 6 5

127 TABLE 4 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

35 90 100 73 90

9 5

1 3

20 5

3

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

4

1 2

7 3

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

go $4 93 100 go 90 90 76 73 67

4

4

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

20 4 6 24 16 4

67

6

3

3

31

90

3

6

61 94 90 100 100 90

11 10

5

6 7

20 3

1 3

3

3

3

1

9

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives, students, retired, etc. Not designated

31 2 6

6

1

4

60 100

64 31 40 7 6 50

20

5 10

1

66 62 69 31 79

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

67 92 93 93 67

6 6 3 3 5

1 1 3 4

2 1 1

3 4

128 TABLE 4 (Continued

Yes

Personal data

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Gatholic Protestant Not designated

70

100 13

88

7 2

7 1

3 1 13

1 31 255 a

9 11

251 35 9

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

89 89

7 6

2 6

2

93

3 10 19

1 4 5

2

1

13

10 25

1

2

79

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

76 90 63

Totals

S3

85

6

2

162 67 37 21

8

295

On this question, of those Indiana residents replying

88 per

cent agreed, six per cent thought no more training

of this kind necessary, and five per cent were either doubtful or indifferent.

31

The size of the city seems to have no effect upon the answering of this item. cent with difference from positive answers.

The variation is only three per

86 per

cent to $9 pen cent for

The same is true of the negative responses

31 See questionnaire (1) in Appendix A, Part II, also Table 4*

129

where the difference is from four per cent in the smallest to nine per cent in the largest.

No other question on the entire

questionnaire was so overwhelmingly one sided• Nearly nine tenths of those in the northern section of the state agreed.

(It was unanimously yes in Districts

III and V according to the 45 responses received from those sections.)

Slightly over nine tenths in the central section

and considerably more than nine tenths in the southern section agreed.

The greatest number of negative opinions

came from the northern section, but there it was less than 10 per cent.

There were few doubters, but of those, a few

more came from the northern section.

Eighty-eight per cent of the men and eighty nine per

cent of the women agreed.

Five per cent of the men and

nine per cent of the women disagreed.

Five per cent of the

men checked doubtful or no opinion, while not a single woman checked either. The age groups 20 to 39 and over 60 both were $7 per

cent in agreement.

The group between these two age

categories had 89 per cent in agreement. per cent of those under 20 agreed.

A slightly smaller

The same agreement of

each group checking no is shown by the small amount of difference from eight per cent for the younger group to five per cent for the older group.

130

All five of the Prohibitionists,

32

90 per cent of the

Republicans, and £>5 per cent of the Democrats agreed.

Nine

per cent of the Democrats and only five per cent of the Republicans disagreed.

The rest were in doubt or expressed

no opinion. Slightly over eight tenths of those having only common school education, slightly over nine tenths of those having high school training, and less than eight tenths of those who had been to college agreed.

Of those who dis­

agreed there was greater variation in the grades within each group than there was from one group to the other.

This is

clearly shown by the six per cent for those with one year college and 24 per cent for those with two, as well as the 0 per cent for those who finished the tenth grade and 20 per cent for those who finished the eleventh grade.

The

variation from group to group is less, from four per cent for the lowest group to 13 per cent for the highest group. The greatest percentage doubting were college graduates and those who had finished one year of college. One hundred per cent of the slightly skilled and day laborers agreed, about 90 per cent of the skilled laborers and housewives, and 95 per cent of the farmers.

About ten

per cent of the skilled and semi-skilled tradesmen disagreed. Only a negligible per cent of the others disagreed or doubted.

___

It will be noted from Table 4 that only five of the respondents identified themselves as Prohibitionists.



131 The smallest percentage, eighty-seven, which agreed, were the two groups, one having no children and the other, children out of school.

Those with pre-school children and

children in school agreed in well over 90 per cent of the cases. Only 70 per cent of the Catholics, but over 90 per cent of the Protestants agreed.

A larger percentage of the

Catholics than Protestants checked no or were doubtful. The following graphs show the relationship:

Catholics

Protestants

Figure 1. Percentage of Catholics and Protestants Agree­ ing to Increased Emphasis on Character Training of Non-denominational Nature. (See Taoie IV)

Eighty-nine per cent of the church members, but only 79 per cent of the non-church members agreed.

Seven per cent

132

of the church members, and six per cent of the non-members agreed.

There was very little doubt expressed, but it was

slightly greater among the non-church members. There is relation between the frequency of church attendance and the percentage of yes-responses on this question as is shown by 93 per cent for the most frequent, $5 per cent for the next frequent and 76 per cent for the least frequent.

However, 90 per cent of those who don!t go

at all checked yes.

An inverse relation exists between the

no-responses and frequency of church attendance, the per­ centages being three, ten, and nineteen for the respective groups.

The same inverse relation exists between the doubtful

cases and the frequency of church attendance. Could representatives of the churches of your community agree on a »coretT of religious teachings to be required of 33 all public school pupils?

See questionnaire (2) in Appendix A, Part II and Table 5#

133

TABLE 5. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "COULD REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHURCHES OF YOUR COMMUNITX AGREE ON A 'CORE’ OF RELIGIOUS TEACHINGS TO BE REQUIRED OF ALL PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS?"

Personal data

Yes

No

50 29 43 35 61

11 21 7 16 6

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

29 37 37 23 22

7 3 5 22 11

3 4 2 3

137 24 43 72 13

9 12

4 2 7

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II I II Not designated

40 32 57 31 61 60 33 35 55 56 51 33

17 12 11 13 6 37 5 9 6 3 23

30 42 36 31 19 20 30 40 36 6 27 23

43 52 20

13 10 20

33 43 43 44 67

13 12 10 33

27 6 12 15

5

19 12

13 2 a

32 13 60

10 13

1 6

33 23

33 15 9 2

2 3 5

8

SEI Male Female Not designated

203 32 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

28 33

6 124 123 39 3

134

TABLE 5 (Continued)

Personal data

les

No

29 51 60 27 61

17 a

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

20 15

33 30 40 40 13

17 9

4 3

13 a

3

S2 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less o years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 13 years 16 or more

70 45 20 40 50 51 45 52 45 44

10 9 13 20 27 11

26 20

4$

6

35

4$

3

29

19

36 39 43 57 67 54

17 23

39

a 23 10 14 17 12

16 13

30 21 40 35 30 23

27 35

13 27 25 10 12 13

5

10 3S 15

20 10 5 3

a

75 31 25

11

5

4

79

10

31

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

10

14

SO

16 33 29 17 14

31

a 5

6 6

20

50

10

40

3$ 50 55

13

33 24 17

64

19 13

S4 31 40 7 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

52

12 12

2

a6

5

S2

4

69 31 79

14 9 12 4

3

16

29

135 TABLE 5 (Continued)

Yes

Personal data

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

13 50 13

100 23 11 13

47 26 50

13 10 25

3 3

1 31 255 a

4$ 31 33

12 9 11

27 43 33

10 14 11

2 3 11

251 35 9

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

53

46 24 3$

Totals

45

a

24

19 16 10 25

30 35 4$ 3$

12 1 22 5 25

2 3 3

162 67 37 21

13

8

12

29

11

3

295

01 Dean Edmonson

found that of the 160 educators whom

he polled on this question, 75*2 per cent believed it could not be done.

Of the Indiana residents who returned question­

naires for the present study, 45 per cent said it could be done, 12 per cent said it could not be done, 29 per cent were doubtful, 11 per cent expressed no opinion and three per cent did not check this question at all.

The opinion of

•Edmonson, J. B., "Who Shall Teach Religion," in Nation1s Schools 42:29, July, 194$•

136

the people at large as against a group of specialists in the field of education compares very unfavorably. Half the occupants of the larger cities believed this plan possible, less than three tenths in the smaller cities, and nearly half in the communities under 2,500 population. Slightly over a third of the rural occupants expressed belief in such a plan.

About one tenth in the larger cities,

one fifth in smaller cities, less than one tenth in very small communities and one sixth in the rural areas flatly said the plan would not work.

Nearly three tenths in the

first group of cities and nearly four tenths in the next two groups were dubious of the plan.

They were joined by

about one sixth of the farmers. Considerably more than two fifths of the residents in the northern section, considerably more than one half in the central section, and approximately two fifths in the southern section believed the plan would work.

There was

no great degree of significant variation in the negative responses, District Six in the Southern section, where only 21 people responded being an exception, but seemingly having no significance.

Here the amount jumps to over a third, as

compared with the average total of twelve per cent.

Of

those expressing doubt, less than one third lived in the northern section, less than ten per cent of these in the 35 central section, and considerably over one third in the 35

~ The Marion County and Indianapolis Board of Weekday Religious Education is active in this section.

137 southern section. Over two fifths of the men and over one half of the women believed this plan possible, but of the men who replied, 13 per cent believed it not possible while only ten per cent of the women felt it would not work.

Nearly one

third of the men and only one sixth of the women were doubt­ ful.

Ten per cent of the men and 13 per cent of the women

expressed no opinion. Over two fifths of the age group 20 to 39, nearly one half in the next 20 year age group, and over two fifths of those over 60 expressed belief in the possibilities of the plan.

The negative responses varied from t en to thirteen

per cent in the various age groups.

The first two age groups

had over one fourth doubtful, while of those over 60 nearly two fifths were doubtful. Only three tenths of the Democrats, over half of the Republicans and three fifths of the Prohibitionists checked yes.

About one sixth of the Democrats, less than one tenth

of the Republicans and no Prohibitionists checked no.

One

third of the Democrats, three tenths of the Republicans and four tenths of the Prohibitionists were doubtful. Over half of those having common school education or less about one half answered yes, two fifths of those going to high school, and 45 per cent of those in college answered yes.

Only eight per cent of the first group, ten per cent

13S of the second group and IS per cent of the third group responded negatively*

About three tenths, one third, one

fourth respectively in the groups were doubtful.

Fewer of

those having college training failed to check an opinion* Nearly one half of the professional group, over one third of'the clerical group, nearly two fifths of the farmers, and two thirds of the slightly skilled and unskilled laborers gave the yes response.

The no responses are for the above

groups, respectively, five per cent, 14 per cent, one fourth, and one fourth.

The greatest number, nearly two-fifths,

expressed doubt in the clerical group; the smallest number, nearly one sixth, in the farm group* Of those having no children, over a third expressed positive replies, a half of those having pre-school children and children out of school, and three fifths of those having children in school were on the positive side.

The negative

side was represented by slightly over a tenth for all the groups except the group with children in high school, where the figure was nearly one fifth.

The proportion expressing

doubtful opinions were in the different groups respectively, one third, one fourth, one sixth, one sixth, and three tenths, the greatest percentage being those with no children, and the smallest, those with children in school. Only 13 per cent of the Catholics, but one half of the Protestants expressed faith in the plan.

One fourth

139 of the Catholics, and one tenth of the Protestants said it would not work#

Half of the Catholics and a fourth of the

Protestants were doubtful.

Wo ~"'fzv%.i Appendix A, Part II; also Table 6. 37 American Council on Education, The Relation of Religion to Public Education, 54 PP-

141

TABLE 6, OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "IF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION WERE MADE A PART OF THE REGULAR CURRICULUM, WHO SHOULD TEACH IT?”

Personal data

Regular teachers licensed by state

Specially trained, licensed by state

Teachers No No appointed opinion mark by church committee

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

12 8 16 8 22

42 33 24 45 39

4 4 7 8 1

5 4 16 3 6

127 24 43 73 18

48 39 36 35 29 40 29 40 36 50 31 38

39 37 50 54 48 32 38 30 36 25 40 38

4 12

4 2 7 11 3 4 3 15 18 6 6 8

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

34 46

45 28

5 4 40

6 7

208 82 3

83 46 18

17 38 41

3 8

5 10

37 50 34 36 27

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IY V VI YII VIII IX X XI Not designated

4 9 7 13 24 19 19 19 15

6 9 15 9 4

SEX Male Female Not designated

10 15 60

AGE Under 20 20-39 Over 60 Not designated

8 23 100

6 124 39 3

142

TABLE 6 (Continued)

Personal data

Regular teachers licensed by state

Specially trained, licensed by state

Teachers No No appointed opinion mark by church committee

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

11 11 20 19 13

41 39 20 12 31

39 41 60 25 41

30 5 13 30 10

9

30 37 40 5 30 37 42 24 64 41

40 45 47 63 40 47 42 43 36 33

10

29

3

5 5

4 5

19 3

25 13

11

3

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION'

7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

6

11

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

32

13

16

31

32

55

3

6

31

11 6 13

44 26 45

32 55 40

6 13

6

64 31 40

14

18

14 67 36

57 33 30

40 20

20 10

40 70

8

6 12

1 6 16

20 6 3

OCCUPATIONAL C-ROUPS I II

Professional Semiprofessional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades 17 Farmers V Semi-skilled 71 Slightly skilled 711 Day laborers 7III Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

3

14 4

10

7 6 50 5 10

143

TABLE 6 (Continued)

Personal data

Regular teachers licensed by state

Specially trained, licensed by state

Teachers No No appointed opinion mark by church committee

N

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

11 11 10 16 -16

47 39 3$ 19 26

31 39 46 52 44

4 5 4 3 6

7 6 1 10 6

66 62 69 31 79

3 13 25

26 39 13

45 39 36

100 10 5 13

16 5 25

1 31 255 6

12 11 11

37 40 11

40 34 44

4 11 11

6 3 22

251 35 9

36 30 59 29 13

41 43 19 57 36

4 7 11

6 9

13

36

162 67 37 21 6

37

40

5

6

295

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

13 10 11 14

Totals

12

14 4

To quote: The importance of the teacher in the difficult task of relating religion and education cannot be over­ emphasized* Fortunately, there is already in the public schools a substantial nucleus of teaching and adminis­ trative personnel who are well informed in the field of religion and who live and teach on the basis of funda­ mental religious assumptions* They are to be found among all religious groups and could be trusted to teach religion without prejudice and sectarianism* The fact that the number of such informed teachers is tragically limited is a hazard which must be overcome if the task is to be accomplished* Two dangers loom large in the process: first, the danger inherent in the fact that there are large numbers of teachers who are not ade­ quately informed in matters of religion and who lack interest in the study of religion; and second, the danger arising from the fact that teachers with deep religious convictions are tempted to teach religion along sectarian lines* These dangers are not insurmountable and do not represent vulnerabilities which cannot be overcome by good teacher education. The answer to the question where the teachers are coming from is therefore obvious* They will have to come from the same sources from which we get teachers now, or from which we expect to get them in the coming years. This is not to exclude the possibility that in school systems which now provide for the conduct of religious classes within the school under church auspices, or in released-time educational plans, teachers may be found who can qualify as public school teachers quite as well as many who are now on the school pay­ rolls *'° In the ensuing discussion the following designations will be made: Regular state for those expressing the opinion that regular teachers licensed by the state should teach religious education. ^ I b i d *t pp. 35-36.

Ik5 Special state for those believing that teachers specially trained and licensed by the state should teach religious education* 3*

Church selection for those who think it best for

the churches working as a council to select the teachers* k*

£2 opinion for those who check the no opinion

option or who failed to mark this question at all* Of the total number replying, only slightly over onetenth believed that the regular state system was the best; nearly two fifths that the special state arrangement was superior, and two fifths believed the church selection plan 39 the best* Only ten per cent expressed no opinion. Regular state teachers were favored by approximately one tenth of the people replying from each community classif­ ication except communities of less than 2,500 population where the amount was one sixth.

One third of the first, third, and

fourth groups and one half of the second group favored the special state teacher*

Two fifths in larger cities, one

third in the middle-sized cities, and one fourth in the small community favored the church selection plan.

Nearly one half

of the rural occupants favored this plan. Far less than one tenth of the northern section of the state, nearly one fourth of the central section, and only about six per cent of the southern section favored regular state

^ I t will be noted that $5 per cent of those replying designated themselves as church members. See Chapter I.

146 teachers.

About two fifths of the northern section, over two

fifths of the Central section and one third of the southern section favored special state teachers.

Forty-five per cent

of the northern section, only one third of the central section and one third of the southern section favored church selected teachers.

Nearly one fourth of the southern section, but

only one tenth of the Central and northern sections failed to express an opinion. One tenth of the men, and one sixth of the women desig­ nated regular state teachers.

One third of the men and nearly

one half of the women favored special state teachers.

Forty

five per cent of the men, and only 2$ per cent of the women favored the church selected teacher. Approximately one tenth of the age groups up to 60 and nearly one fourth of those over 60 favored the regular 40 state teacher. Nearly one half of the age group up to 40, nearly one third of those up to 60 and only one sixth of those over 60 favored the special state teacher.

Approx­

imately two fifths of all groups favored church-selected teachers.

The greatest percentage, nearly one fifth, ex­

pressing no opinion were in the over 60 group, while approxi­ mately one tenth of the younger groups were undecided. Eleven per cent of both Democrats and Republicans favored the regular state plan.

Forty-one per cent of the

Democrats and 39 per cent of the Republicans favored the The six cases under 20 are disregarded here. Five of them favored special state teachers and one the church selected teacher.

147 special state plan*

Thirty nine per cent of the Democrats

and 41 per cent of the Republicans favored the church selection plan*

Approximately one tenth of both groups expressed no

opinion.

The close agreement of both groups throughout is

worthy of note.

Practically the same percentage in both

groups favored special state teachers as favored church selected teachers. About one sixth of those who had attended elementary school only, about one sixth of those who had attended college, and nearly one tenth of those who had attended or finished college favored the regular state teacher.

One third

of those with less formal education, about three tenths with high school, and over two fifths of those with college train­ ing favored special state teachers.

In excess of two fifths

of the elementary school attendants, half the high school group, and less than two fifths of the college group favored church selected teachers.

Nearly all of those who failed to

express an opinion were in the college group with a few in the high school group. Six per cent of the professional group,

12 per

cent of

the clericals and skilled workmen, six per cent of the farmers and about one sixth of the slightly skilled and day laborers expressed leaning toward the regular state teacher.

About

three tenths of the professional group, nearly half of the clerical and skilled group, one fourth of the farmers, and

148

one sixth of the unskilled class favor the special state teachers.

Forty-four per cent of the professional group,

about one third of the clerical and skilled group, consider­ ably more than one half of both the farmer and unskilled groups favored church selected teachers.

A far greater per cent of

the professional group than any other expressed no opinion. About one tenth of those having no children and nearly one sixth of those having children in all groups favored the regular state teacher.

Nearly one half of those having no

children, and only three tenths of those having children favored special state teachers.

The sub-group of these

representing the largest percentage in favor was those with younger children. The Catholics voted a very small per cent for regular state teachers, about one fourth for special state teachers, and nearly one half for church selected teachers.

The Protes­

tants voted slightly over one tenth for regularly trained state teachers, two fifths for special state teachers and two fifths for church-selected teachers. The church members polled over one tenth for regular state teachers, less than two fifths for special state teachers and one tenth no opinion.

The non-church members

compare very favorably with one tenth for regular state, two fifths for special state, one third for church selected teachers and nearly a sixth no opinion.

149

Slightly more than one tenth of all groups regardless of frequency of church attendance checked regular state teachers as preferred.

Over a third of the most frequent

church goers, three tenths of those who go somewhat less frequently, nearly three tenths of those who seldom go, and three tenths of those who do not go designated their choice as special teachers.

Over two fifths of the first two groups,

one fifth of the third, and nearly three fifths of those who do not go to church believe that the churches should select the teachers I Who would pay the teachers of religious instruction under the plan mentioned in theq uestion above?

a.

Public school fund

b.

The churches cooperating

c.

A combination of both the above

J

TVT

d.

*

No opinion

4 1

Over one third of the total believed tax money should pay the teachers of courses in religious education; one fifth that the churches cooperating should pay, nearly one third that both should be responsible for the salary and slightly in excess of one tenth, no opinion. ^ See Questionnaire (10), Appendix A, Part II, also Table 7.

150 TABLE 7. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "WHO SHOULD PAY THE TEACHERS OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION UNDER THE PLAN MENTIONED ABOVE?"

Personal data

Public school fund

Churches

Both

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000/ 2 ,5000-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

36 54 33 26 39

16 17 16 26 27

32 25 30 34 22

9

12 12 6

5 4 2 1 6

137 24 43 73 13

4

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

39 26 36 27 42 40 23 15 36 44 44 46

17 19 21 42 23 20 24 5 13 19 15 23

35 30 43 23 32 36 19 55 45 31 25 15

4 23

33 40 60

23 15

30 34

10 6 40

3 5

203 32 5

17 31 39 33 100

19 13 36

33 40 23 5

6 12 10

3 2 10

6 124 123 39 3

3 2 4 19 25

6 3 3

9

3 3

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

151 TABLE 7 (Continued)

Personal data

Public school fund

Churches

Both

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

42 32 20 36 36

16 22

30 26 27 50 50 34 23 24 27 37

20 29 47 25

32 31 20 19 36

6 11 20 12 5

30 16

21 26 20 9 15

20 24 27 25 30 40 46 26 55 30

24 9 13

19

19

19

23

29

13

15 29 26

27 35 33

10 3 3

29 67 10

43 33 40

6

20 20

20 40

60 10

40

19 13

2 3 12 6

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

3

5

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

6

31

3 20 1 3 4

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 35 Semiprofessional, managers 35 III Clerical, skilled trades43 IV Farmers 29 V Semi-skilled 36 VI Slightly skilled 29 VII Day laborers VIII Housewives 36 Student s, Retired, etc. Not designated 30

31 5 3

6

64 31 40 n 6 50 5 10

152 TABLE 7 (Continued)

Personal data

Public school fund

Churches

Both

No opinion

No mark

N

HUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

37 31 42 52 34

16 15 19 19 29

36 43 35 16 21

7 3 4 6 11

19 3$ 3a

26 19 3a

32 32

100 10 9

37 31 11

21 14 22

30 40 22

More than 30 times33 10-30 times 36 Less than 10 35 Not at all 29 Not designated 13

22 13 14 24 25

Totals

20

6 4

36 32 69 31 79

13 2 25

1 31 255 3

9 11 11

3 3 33

251 35 9

30 31 41 29 13

6 13 11 19 13

4 1 33

162 67 37 21 3

31

9

4

295

4 4

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

36

Over one third of those in the larger cities, over one half in medium cities, nearly two fifths in small communities, and one fourth in the rural area favored payment by taxes.

153 Approximately one sixth in cities of all sizes, and one fourth in farm communities believed payment by the churches should be the plan*

One third in larger cities, one fourth

in the medium communities and over one third in the rural areas believed payment should be shared by both.

Over a

third in northern Indiana, over four tenths in central Indiana, and over one fourth in southern Indiana favored the tax payment plan*

Nearly one fourth in the northern section,

less than one fifth in the central section and about one sixth in the southern section favored church payment.

One

third in the northern, three tenths in the central, and two fifths in the southern section favored a combination of the two. Of the men, a third favored payment by taxes,

a fourth

by the churches, three tenths by a combination, and over one tenth expressed no opinion.

Of the women, two fifths favored

payment by taxes, one sixth by the churches, one third by both, and one tenth expressed no opinion. Of the 20 to 40 age group, three tenths favor by taxes, two tenths by the churches, four tenths by tion of the two.

payment a combina­

Of those over 60, 33 per cent favored pay­

ment by taxes, thirty six per cent, by the churches, and only five per cent by both. Four tenths of the Democrats and three tenths of the Republicans wanted to spend tax money for these teachers.

154 Slightly under one fifth of the Democrats and slightly over one fifth of the Republicans felt that the churches ought to pay them.

Not quite a third of both Democrats and

slightly over one fifth of the Republicans felt that the churches ought to pay them.

Not quite a third of both Demo­

crats and Republicans indicated that the best plan would be getting funds from both sources.

Of those 40 who did not

designate their political affiliations,

per cent placed

the responsibility on tax funds, 13 per cent on church funds, and 33 per cent on a combination of the two. About a fourth of those having attended only grade school, about two fifths of those who attended high school, and about one fourth of those who attended college believed in public support for the religious education classes.

One

fourth of the first group, one third of the second and one sixth of the third believed in church support.

One fifth of

those with formal education, three tenths of those with some high school, and two fifths with college education favor a combination of both for support. One third in the professional groups, two fifths in the clerical and skilled, three tenths in the farmer group, one third in the slightly skilled and unskilled laborers groups favored tax support.

One fifth in the professional

groups, one fifth in the clerical and skilled groups, three tenths in the farmers group, and about one half of the un­ skilled and slightly skilled favored church support.

A

155 combination of support by both public and church funds was favored by one fourth of the professional groups, three tenths of the clerical and skilled laborers, one third of the farmers and two fifths of the slightly skilled and day laborers. Of those with no children, well over a third favor support from public funds, one sixth from church funds, one third from both, with the rest expressing no opinion.

Of

those with pre-school children, a third favored the first plan, one sixth the second and two fifths the third.

Of

those with children in school, nearly one half favored plan number one, nearly one fifth, plan number two, and one fourth plan number three.

Of those having children out of school,

one third favored the tax support, three tenths church support, one fifth a combination of both. Nineteen per cent of the Catholics, and just twice that per cent of the Protestants wanted tax support.

A

fourth of the Catholics, and a fifth of the Protestants want­ ed church support.

Nearly a third of both groups agreed on

a combination of tax and church support as best. Thirty seven per cent of the church members and 31 per cent of the non-church members wanted tax support. Twenty-one per cent of the former group and 14 per cent of the latter want church support.

Three tenths of the church

members, and four tenths of the others recommend the plan of combination finance.

156 Nearly two fifths of those who attend church fre­ quently, over a third of those who rather often attend church, one third of those who seldom go, and three tenths of those who never go favor the tax plan.

Approximately one fifth

of the first two groups, a sixth of the third, and a fourth of the fourth favor church support.

Three tenths of the two

groups attending most frequently, two fifths of the group attending seldom, and three tenths of those not attending favored a combination of church and public funds to support the movement. Some have advocated teaching religious education right in the regular school curriculum like spelling, arithmetic, and other school sub.jects.

It would include no indoctrination,

only spiritual, moral, and ethical values.

Do you feel that

handling the situation in this way would be of the best in-

i2 terest to the churches in your community? Almost two thirds of the total number believed that this arrangement would be best, one sixth thought it would not and about one fifth were doubtful or expressed no opinion.

i2 See Questionnaire (11), Appendix A, Part II, also Table 8.

157 TABLE g. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "SOME HAVE ADVOCATED TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION RIGHT IN THE REGULAR SCHOOL CURRICULUM LIKE SPELLING, ARITHMETIC, AND OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS. IT WOULD INCLUDE NO INDOCTRINA­ TION, ONLY SPIRITUAL, MORAL, AND ETHICAL VALUES. DO YOU FEEL THAT HANDLING THE SITUATION IN THIS WAY WOULD BE OF THE BEST INTEREST TO THE CHURCHES IN YOUR COMMUNITY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

66 50

13 25 16 20 6

Doubtful

No opinion

No Mark

N

4

137 24 43 73

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

64 56

aa

12 21 11 15 6

4 4 2

5

g

ia

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

52

46 71

65 74

aa

47 50 55 75

17 21 7 27 13 4

17

26

21 4 3

4 2

23 43

4 6

3

26 31 25 21

9 5

14

g

24

24

15

5 27 13

20

5 10

11

6

2

a

52 13

IS

20 11 16

71

13 10

61

31

60 71 SO

IS 11 20

15 9

5 5

2 5

20a g2

11 20

12 lg

2 2

23

5

7 2 a

124 123 39 3

SEX Male Female Not designated

5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6

100 63 5$ 56 100

a

158 TABLE 8 (Continued)

Personal data

Tes

No

Doubt­ ful

62

IS 14

13 14

6 3

3& 72

19 15

20 19 S

19 5

50 60

20 13 13 20 10 17 16

20 5

10 IS

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

64 80

5 6

S2 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less S years 9 years 1 0 years 1 1 years 12 years 1 3 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

87 65 70 69 70 52

10

3 5

20

10 3S 15 20

10

12 13

1

20

16

S

4

32

16

IS 19

5

5

79

61

13

16

3

6

31

5$

16

16

10

61

14 35 IS 14

19

52 75 71

4 3 5

8k 68

12

82

75 31 25

11

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

10

31

2 3

40

4

7 6 50

14 17

10

6

80

S4 31

20

5 10

4

S6 S2 69 31 79

50

10

30

10

59 67 72 52 60

14 15

17 9

1 1 3 3

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

12

12

5 7 3

26 IS

19 15

4

159 TABLE 3 (Continued)

Personal data

les

No

29 63 50

35 14 25

26 11 25

64

16 17 11

13 6 33

15 27 5

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

3 3

1 31 255 3

5 6

2 9 11

251 35 9

3 1 16 5 13

1 1 3 13

162 67 37 21 3

5

3

295

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 6 4

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

63 44

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

69 55 13

25

11 15 11 19 36

Totals

64

16

13

65 62

14

Two thirds of those replying in the larger cities, one half in the medium cities, nearly two thirds in the smaller communities, and considerably more than one half in the rural areas advocated this method of religious instruction.

One

tenth in the larger cities, one fourth in the medium cities, and one fifth in the rural communities opposed this type teaching.

One tenth in the larger cities, one fifth in the

middle sized, one tenth in the smaller, and one sixth in

160 the rural areas were doubtful*

From four to eight per cent

expressed no opinion in the various groups* Three fifths in the northern section, over three fourths in the central area, and one half in the southern section were for teaching religious education in the regular curriculum*

One sixth in the northern section, one tenth

in the central section, and one fifth in the southern section were opposed to it. Of the women, seven tenths favored the plan, one tenth opposed, and the remaining one fifth either expressed doubt or no opinion. All six of those under 20 years of age liked the plan. Over two thirds of those between the ages of 20 and AO, three fifths of those between the ages 40 and 60, and well over half of those who had passed 60 liked the plan.

One tenth

of the 20 to 40 age group, one fifth of the next, and nearly one fourth of the oldest group show disfavor of it.

One

tenth of the 20 to 40 group, one fifth of the 40 to 60 group, and one twentieth of the over 60 group were doubtful. The Democrats and Republicans both voted about three fifths in favor, one sixth in disfavor and nearly the same proportion doubtful or expressing no opinion.

Nearly three

fourths of those who did not designate their politics and four fifths of the Prohibitionists favored the plan. Over half of those who attended grade school only,

See the section on Age in Chapter I.

43

l6i almost three fourths of those who attended high school, and nearly two thirds of those who had college training felt this plan best for the churches*

About one sixth of those in the

lowest bracket of formal education, about one seventh of the next highest group, and one sixth of the highest group felt the plan unwise*

One tenth of the two lower groups and one

sixth of the highest expressed doubt.

There were a few

seemingly negligible cases of no opinion, the most being in the common school graduates. Three fifths of the professional groups, two thirds of the clerical and skilled groups, more than one half of the farmers, three fourths of the slightly skilled and unskilled, and two thirds of the housewives favored this plan.

It was

looked upon with disfavor by the various groups, respectively, one sixth, one sixth, one third, one tenth, and one tenth. The range in expressing doubt from one group to the other was from one tenth to one sixth with no seeming significant differences.

Just a scattered few in each group expressed

no opinion. Three fifths of those with no children, two thirds of those with children under school age, nearly three fourths with children in grade school, over half with children in high school, and three fifths with children out of school like the plan.

Most dislike of the plan comes from the high

school parents where one fourth opposed while opposition in the other groups was one tenth to one sixth.

Doubtful

162 expression comes from approximately one tenth to one sixth in the various groups. Of the Catholics three tenths liked the plan, one third did not, and over a fourth were doubtful with ten per cent not committing themselves.

Of the Protestants over two thirds

liked the plan, less than one sixth did not, and about one tenth were doubtful.

Yes

No,

Seven per cent expressed no opinion.

/

No,

Doubtful,

Doubtful,

Yes No Opinion

No opinion

71%

Protestants Catholics Figure 3* Percentage of Catholics and Protestants Ex­ pressing Approval of a Plan of Teaching Religious Education Right in the Curriculum Like an Academic Subject (See Table 6)

Nearly two thirds of both those belonging and those not belonging to church favor the plan, and approximately one sixth of each group disfavors it. Thirteen per cent in the first group expressed doubt as compared to six per cent in the second group.

163 Over two thirds of those going most frequently to church, over half of those going less frequently, nearly two thirds of those going seldom, and three fifths of those not going at all favored this plan.

One sixth of the most

frequent group, over one half of the next group, only five per cent of the seldom group, and not a single one of those who do not attend at all disapproved of the plan.

One tenth

of the first and third groups and one sixth of the second and fourth were doubtful.

About one sixth of those who go

to church less than 10 times annually expressed no opinion. Most of the others nearly all opined.

The "Released Time" Plan of Weekday Religious Education

A recent article stated that 90 per cent of the com­ munities, following the McCollum decision, are continuing their weekday religious education programs in the same or 44 revised form. The United States Supreme Court decision in the McCollum case in Illinois makes illegal the use of school buildings, at least during school hours, for the teaching of religion by church groups.

Do you believe that this constitutes a misuse A5 of school property?

^McClure, L. "They Want Weekday Religious Education," International Journal of Religious Education 25:7-$ j September,

B48. 45 Table 9.

See Questionnaire (3), Appendix A, Part II, and

164 TABLE 9. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: nTHE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION IN THE McCQLLUM CASE IN ILLINOIS MAKES ILLEGAL THE USE OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS, AT LEAST DURING SCHOOL HOURS, FOR THE TEACHING OF RELIGION BT CHURCH GROUPS. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THIS CONSTITUTES A MISUSE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

23 17 23 26 17

67 71 56 62 33

3 4 7 5

No opinion

No mark

N

1

137 24 43 73 13

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

1 3 7 4

2 3

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN LiHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II I XI Not designated

17 44 . 14 23 22 23 29 25 36 13 22 23

70 4? 36 69 63

64

9 7 6 3

66 60

5 4 3 5 10

4 2 4

5

64 75 72 69

6 4

6 2 3

25 29 20

65

5 1

4 1 20

1 1

17 23 23 15

63 5 2 3

2 5 5

2 1 3

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

67 60

20 3 32 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

64 63 69 100

6 124 123 39 3

165

TABLE 9 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

23 26 40 47 23

65 66 60 47 72

9 3

2 4

3

7 3

50 16 20 30 20 21 10

33

50 79 SO 55 60 73 87 48 36 57

23 35

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

1 2

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

28

64

5 20 1

1

8

12

4

4

4

3

10 38 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

58

10

3

6

31

55

6

3

5 10 3 5

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

31 26 30

64 14

5 3 3 14

2

2

17 20

65 5& 71 34 76

3

SO 90

20

10

60 65 73

3 8 4

5 1

4

4

8

31

84 3 3

31 40 7 6 50 5

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

31 24 22 32 21

68 71

1 2 1

66 82 69 31 79

166

TABLE 9 (Continued) Personal data

les

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 27 23 2$

60 66 75

3 4

26 31

66 60

l

0

;> 4

7 1

4 3

1

1 31 255 £

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

n

6 11

251 35 9

11

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

21 31 41 19 2$

69

Totals

26

65

64

4 1

54

67

10

3 3 5 5

63 4

3

2

13

162 67 37 21 a

1

295

Only one fourth of the total number of persons believed that the use of school buildings for weekday religious educa­ tion was not a proper use. proper.

Two thirds believed such use

Less than ten per cent were doubtful or expressed no

opinion. Over one fourth each of the residents of the larger cities, the smaller cities, and the rural areas agreed. figure was one sixth in the middle sized towns.

The

Two thirds

of those in the larger cities, seven tenths in the medium

167 cities, over half in the smaller cities, and three fifths in farm areas disagreed.

Those expressing doubt or no

opinion in the various communities ranged from three to eight per cent. Of those in the northern section, one fourth agreed, two thirds disagreed, and about five per cent were doubtful. Of those in the central section, one fifth agreed, while seven t enths disagreed and about five per cent expressed doubt.

In the southern section, three tenths agreed, three

fifths disagreed, and none were doubtful.

Only a few ex­

pressed no opinion. One fourth of the men and three tenths of the women agreed with the accusation. the accusation.

About two thirds of each denied

Five per cent of the men, and only one per

cent of the women expressed doubt. Twenty-eight per cent of the two groups comprising the ages 20 to 60 agreed and nearly t wo thirds of both groups disagreed, with a negligible number of cases expressing doubt. A slightly greater per cent of those over 60 were doubtful.

Political affiliations show no significant differ­ ences, the largest variation being only three per cent in those who agreed and disagreed among the Democrats and Repub­ licans. Five of the ten persons with seven or less years of formal education agreed and five disagreed.

One sixth of

168

the common school graduates agreed and four fifths disagreed. Over one fifth of those attending high s chool agreed, al­ most two thirds disagreed, and about seven per cent were doubtful.

Of those attending college, about one third agreed,

nearly three fifths disagreed and about three per cent were doubtful.

Considerable variation was noted within the college

group. The professional group showed three tenths agreeing, three fifths disagreeing, and one tenth doubtful or un­ decided.

The clerical and skilled workmen group also showed

three tenths agreeing, three fifths disagreeing and one tenth doubtful and undecided.

The farm group showed one fourth

agreeing, two thirds disagreeing, and one tenth undecided or doubtful.

The housewives showed one fifth agreeing, three

fourths disagreeing and about one tenth doubtful or undecided. Of those with no children, three tenths agreed and three fifths disagreed.

Of those with very young children,

one fourth agreed and two thirds disagreed.

Of those with

children in grade school, over one fifth a greed and nearly three fourths disagreed.

Of those with children in high

school, one third agreed and two thirds disagreed.

There

was not a single c ase of doubt or no opinion in this group. One fifth of those with children out of school agreed and seven tenths disagreed. The Catholics and Protestants stood united with each showing about one fourth in agreement and three fifths or

slightly more in disagreement. There is only a slight percentage difference in compar­ ing the church members and non-church members where the agreement and disagreement nearly parallels the totals for each response. Of those who go to church more than 30 times a year, one fifth agreed, over two thirds disagreed, and about one tenth were doubtful or had no opinion.

Of those going to

church 10 to 30 times annually, three tenths agreed, less than two thirds disagreed and only a few were doubtful or had no opinion.

Of those who attended church less than 10 times

annually, two fifths agreed and over a half disagreed.

Of

those who do not attend church, about one fifth agreed, two thirds disagreed, and nearly one sixth expressed no opinion or were doubtful. One of the most popular plans for giving religious instruction is by releasing pupils to a church council for religious instruction to be given outside of the school building.

Do you believe that this constitutes a misuse of

school property? ^

See Questionnaire (4) In Appendix A, Part II, also

Table 10.

1/0 TABLE 10. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE TO THE QUESTION: "ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR PLANS FOR GIVING RELIGIOUS IN­ STRUCTION IS BY RELEASING PUPILS TO A CHURCH COUNCIL FOR RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION TO BE GIVEN OUTSIDE OF THE SCHOOL BUILDING. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THIS CONSTITUTES A MISUSE OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

IS s 14 23 22

63 79 67 67 72

7

No No opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

10

L

3 12 7 4

3 2 2

137 24 43 73 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN 7JHICH LCC ATED I II III 17 V VI VII VIII II I II Not designated

9 32 14 15 13 24 14 15 9 13 25

66 63 64 69 71 60 76 75 32 75 67 35

9 2 22 4 10 3

16 22 60

70 63 40

33 20 15 20 33

67 65 75 64 67

4 2

13 4 3

6 4 3

3 3 3 5 5 9 6 2 3

7 4

4 5

3 1

5

5

2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

203 32 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

7 5 5

4 4 3

3 2 2

6 124 123 39 3

171 TABLE 10 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

6 3

5 1

13 3

3

62 152 5 16 40

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

66 70 60 67 72

6 4 40 7 6

10 5 7

13 16 20 36 15

70 74 60 65 70 73 77 72 64 65

16

15 22 13 15

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

20 16 13 25

5 20 7 3

1

9

5

6

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

65

10

3

6

31

10

74

13

3

25 19 20

64 77 66 71 50 72

5 3 5

2

4 14

2

6 14 17 6

100 70

20

10

6 9 1

6 5 1 3 5

10 5 3 6

3 5

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

33 16

31

2

64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

24

IS 13 6 11

61 66 61 64 77

5

4 3 6 1

66 62 69 31 79

172

TABLE 10 (Continued) Personal data

les

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 10 19 23

63 70 63

10 5

16 3A 11

70 66 56

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

13 22 30 24 25

Totals

IB

7 4 13

10 2

6

5

2

11

11

11

72 67 65 67 50

7 6 3 5

6 3 3

2 1

69

6

1 31 255 B

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

13

5 13

4

2

162 67 37 21 B

295

This question considered the same issue as question number three, except that in this case the instruction was to be given outside of the school building.

Twenty six per

cent answered question number three in the affirmative, but only IB per cent answered question number four in the affirm­ ative, pointed to the fact that part of the objection to weekday religious education is the use of school buildings. While nearly one fifth answered this question yes, nearly seven tenths answered it in the negative, and slightly

173 more than one tenth were in doubt or had no opinion. In the larger cities, nearly one fifth, in the medium cities less than one tenth, in the smaller communities one seventh, and in the rural areas nearly one fourth agreed. This compares with two thirds in the larger cities, four fifths in the medium cities, two thirds in the smaller cities, and two thirds in the rural areas disagreed.

Per­

centages for doubt and no opinion varied from five to ten per cent in most cases. In the northern section one sixth, in the central section one fifth, and in the southern section one seventh agreed.

Two thirds of the northern section, two thirds of

the central section, and over three fourths of the southern section disagreed.

Doubtful cases and those of no opinion

were from five to ten per cent in most of the cases. One sixth of the men and over one fifth of the women believed that this program does constitute a misuse of the public schools. disagreed.

Nearly seven tenths both men and women

There were a few more men doubters than women.

One fifth of the 20 to 40 age group, one sixth of the 40 to 60, and one fifth of the over 60 group agreed.

Two

of the six persons under 20 agreed, the other four disagreeing. Two thirds of every group except the 40 to 60 group agreed. In the latter group there were three fourths.

There is no

significant differences in doubt expressed. Nearly one sixth of the Democrats, over one fifth of

17 4 the Republicans and none of the Prohibitionists agree. Approximately two thirds or slightly more of the various groups disagree.

All groups show four to eight per cent of

doubtful persons on this question, except the Prohibitionist group which shows 40 per cent but this represents only two out of five cases and is not significant. Approximately one fifth of those having grade school education, about one fifth of those who have attended high school, and nearly a fourth of the college people agreed. Nearly three fourths of the first group, well over seven tenths of the second, and seven tenths of the third disagreed. The largest percentage of doubtful cases in the separate cases was ten per cent and the smallest, three per cent. Over one tenth of the professional group, nearly a fourth of the clerical and skilled group, and a third of the day laborers, one fifth of the farmers, and nearly a fifth of the housewives believed that this constituted a misuse of the public schools.

Seven tenths of the pro­

fessional group, two thirds of the clerical and skilled group, three fifths of the laborers and slightly skilled, two thirds of the farmers and seven t enths of the house­ wives disagreed.

The professional group was a little above

the others in percentage of cases of doubt, but even here the figure was slightly over ten per cent. Of those having no children one fourth agreed, three fifths disagreed, and less than one sixth doubted or did not

175

express an opinion*

Of those having pre-school children

more than

one sixth agreed, over two thirds disagreed and

less than

one sixth were doubtful or uncertain*

Of those

having children in grade school, about one seventh agreed, over four fifths disagreed, and only five per cent expressed doubt or no opinion*

Of those having children in high

school only six per cent agreed, five sixths disagreed and less than

one tenth did not express an opinion.

Of those

having children out of school, ten per cent agreed, three fourths disagreed, and slightly over one tenth did not ex­ press an opinion or were doubtful• One tenth of the Catholics and one fifth of the Protestants agreed.

Five eights of the Catholics and seven

tenths of the Protestants disagreed.

One tenth of the

Catholics and one twentieth of the Protestants were doubt­ ful. One sixth of those who belong to church and one third of those who do not belong agreed that this was a misuse of the schools.

Seven tenths of those who belong and

two thirds of those who do not belong disagreed.

There

were about one tenth of the church members doubting or ex­ pressing an opinion while there were none of the non-church members expressing doubt or no opinion at all. Of those who attended church most frequently, one seventh agreed, and over seven tenths disagreed.

Of those

attending 10 to 30 times annually over one fifth agreed and

176

two thirds disagreed.

Of those attending only seldom, three

tenths agreed and two thirds disagreed.

Of those not

attending, one fourth agreed, two thirds disagreed and one tenth were doubtful or expressed no opinion.

There were

a few in each of the other groups who expressed doubt or no opinion. One great objection to weekday religious education on time when the pupils are released from school is that it puts social pressure on those who do not really want to 47 attend, is this a fair accusation? Rev. Schug in speaking of the McCollum case said. Terry was ostracized and ridiculed by his class­ mates because he did not take religious instruction. For a child there is probably no punishment more severe or more serious than being shunned or ridiculed by his fellows. Yet it is inevitable that such things will happen when sectarian teachers divide the sheep from the goats and then subdivide the sheep for in­ struction in conflicting philosophies . . , Sectarian religious education does have its place in our country of many sects and religions, but that place is not in tax supported public schools during school hours. in

See Questionnaire (5) Appendix A, Part II; also Table 11.

46Schug,

(nev.) Phillip, The Case of Mrs. V. McCollum vs. the Champaign, Illinois, Sch0oT"30ard,~~B pp.

177 TABLE 11. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "ONE GREAT OBJECTION TO WEEKDAY RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON TIME MIEN THE PUPILS ARE RELEASED FROM SCHOOL IS THAT IT PUTS SOCIAL PRESSURE ON THOSE WHO DO NOT REALLY WANT TO ATTEND. IS THIS A FAIR ACCUSATION?"

Personal data

Yes

No

14 25 21 18 11

56 54 56 60 77

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

1

137

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 ' Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

19 21 23 14 6

8

24 43 73 18

8 6

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOC iiTED I II III I? V VI VII VIII II X XI Not designated

26 12 7 15 16 20 28 25 27 6 12 15

53 70 79 58 64 60 48 50 27 63 56 69

13 7 14 19 10 20 24 20 45 31 19 15

18 13 20

57 65 60

18 18

22 14 13

63 55 6l 59 100

4 9

4 2

8 10

5

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20

11 16 52 13

13

SEX Male Female Not designated

7 4 20

1

208 82 5

1

124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

15 23 13

17 7 2 13

6 2

17S TABLE 11 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

15 15 36

16

56

16 16

60 60

40

44

6

61

15

62

9 5

152 5

12 6

16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

32 7 15

90 55 47 50 70 59

11 33

10

10

10

3 13 25 30 3

36 15

12 10 20

64 60

23

91 54

20

42

19

71

13

3

23 16

12

15 14

6

27

26 12

20

10 75 31 25

6

11

1

79

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 35 Semi-professional, managers 13 III Clerical, skilled trades 12 IV Farmers 23 V Semi-skilled 15 VI Slightly skilled 14 VII Day laborers 33 VIII Housewives 14 Students, retired, etc. Not designated 10

52 61

63 57

100 70

31

1

64

14

31 40 7

20

4

50

10

10

10

19 13 15 19 23

9 4 7

62

67 62

31

6 5

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

15 24 15 13 11

56 59

64 66

64

1

£6 69 31 79

179 TABLE 11 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

^ No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100

1

13 17 13

65 58 75

10

10

19

5 13

16 29

61

17 23

6 9

11

11

17 IS 19 29

7 4 3 5 13

3

1

31 255 S

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

40 67

1 251 35 9

11

UP ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANC T More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

10 22 30 29 13

55 49 33 63

Totals

17

59

66

IS

6

162 87 37 5 13

21 S

1 295

Of the total number of responses on the questionnaire, only one sixth believed the accusation to be fair while three fifths believed it was unfair, one sixth were doubtful, and a very small per cent expressed no opinion* One seventh of those in the larger cities, one fourth in the medium cities, one fifth in the smaller cities and over one sixth in the rural areas agreed with the accusation. Nearly three fifths of those in the first group, well over half of those in the second and third groups, and three fifths

160

of those in the fourth group felt the accusation unfair. Approximately one fifth of all three city groups and one seventh of the rural group expressed doubt.

Of the northern section, one sixth felt the accusation fair, two thirds felt it was unfair, and one seventh doubted. Of the central section, one seventh felt the accusation was fair, three fifths felt it was unfair and one fourth were doubtful.

Of the southern section one fourth felt the ac­

cusation fair, two fifths felt it unfair and three tenths were doubtful. Over one fifth of the group 20 to 40 years of age, one seventh of those 40 to 60, and one seventh of those over 60, felt the accusation fair. of all the groups felt it unfair.

Approximately three fifths One sixth of the first

group, one fourth of the second group, and one seventh of the third group doubted. There is no significant difference in the opinion on this item between Democrats and Republicans, the approximate percentages for both groups being one sixth for yes, three fifths for no, and one sixth for doubtful.

All of the Pro­

hibitionists either feel the accusation is unfair or are doubtful. Nearly a third of those who had graduated from common 49 school, nearly one tenth of those who had attended high school, 49 Nine of the ten who had finished the seventh grade or less branded the accusation unfair. The other expressed no opinion.

161

and almost one seventh of those who had attended college felt the accusation fair.

Over half of the grade school graduates,

nearly three fifths of those who had attended high school, and more than two thirds of those who had attended college felt the accusation unfair.

Approximately one tenth of the first

group, one sixth of the high school group, and one seventh of the college group expressed doubt.

As many as three tenths

in a single grade expressed no opinion.

Far more in the high

school group than any other group expressed no opinion. There is a slight variation from one occupational group to another on this item.

Those believing the accusation fair

ranged from one seventh for the housewives and clericalskilled classes to one fourth for all others.

Those be­

lieving the accusation unfair ranged from three fifths to five eighths, the difference being very small.

Doubtful cases

ranged from less than one tenth for the day-laborers and slightly skilled class to one sixth for the professional and farm groups. One sixth of those having no children, one fourth of those with pre-school children, one sixth with grade school children, one seventh with high school children and one tenth with children out of school felt the accusation fair.

Well

over one half in the first group, three fifths in the second, five eights in the third, seven tenths in the fourth, and five eights in the fifth felt the accusation unfair.

One fifth

in the first group, one seventh in the second, one sixth in

132 the third, one fifth in the fourth, and one fourth in the fifth were doubtful. One seventh of the Catholics and one sixth of the Protestants felt the accusation fair.

Two thirds of the

Catholics and nearly three fifths of the Protestants felt it unfair.

One tenth of the Catholics and one fifth of the

Protestants were not sure. One sixth of those belonging to church and nearly three tenths of those not belonging felt the accusation fair.

Three fifths of the former group and two fifths of

the latter branded it unfair.

One sixth of the church

members and one fourth of the non-members were doubtful. Of those who attended church most frequently, ten per cent said the accusation was fair, and three fifths, unfair, with one sixth doubtful.

Of those who attended

from 10 to 30 times annually, over one fifth marked the accusation fair; over half unfair, and over one sixth doubtful.

Of those who attend church less than ten times

annually, three tenths said it was fair, one half unfair, and one fifth were doubtful.

Of those not attending church

three tenths believed the accusation fair, one third unfair and three tenths doubtful. Do you believe that teaching religious education on “released public school time” is no more a violation of the church-state separation than to pay; Army and Navy chaplains

163 50

from tax-raised money?

H. B. Mulford states that some are raising the question now as to the similarity between the weekday religious ed­ ucation situation and the employing of Army, Navy chaplains by the United States Government.

Says he:

"The great con­

cern is over changing deeply rooted national customs rather 51 than a word in the Constitution.1*' He cites the incident on the U.S.S. Dorchester where the Methodist preacher, the Baptist preacher, the Jewish rabbi, and the Catholic priest all went down on the tor­ pedoed ship, having given their jackets to boys who had lost theirs.

They were on government property, paid by

the government, and teaching religion. The American Bar Association had this to say in defending weekday religious education following the Supreme Court decision: 50 See Questionnaire (14), Appendix A, Part II, also Table 12. 51 Mulford, H. B,, "New Battle Lines in Religious Education," American School Board Journal 117:35-36, September, 1948.

184

TABLE 12. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "DO YOU BELIEVE THAT TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON "RELEASED PUBLIC SCHOOL TIME" IS NO MORE A VIOLATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF CHURCH-STATE SEPARATION THAN PAYING ARMY AND NAVY CHAPLAINS FROM TAX-RAISED MONEY?

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

47 5$ 37 45 44

29 37 32 27 50

7

No opinion

No mark

N

12

5

4 23

2

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000/ 3,600-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

5 7

16

4

137 24 43 73

6

IS

13

23 43 14

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH[ LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

43

26

13

4

46

30 50 35

2

21

7 4

11

43 50 52 56 29 45 36 50

26

13

20

32

24 43 30 27 31 29 33

45 49 40

34 24 40

50

33 27 31 41 67

46

9 9

9 25 9

26 9 9 IS

11 16

15

52 13

3 0

20S S2

19

0

21 20

19

6

31 25

SEX Male Female Not designated

5

6

13 15

20

5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

46 49 36 33

a

4 2

17 17

6

11

1 6

15

5

124 123 39 3

135 TABLE 12 (Continued)

Personal Data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

39 47 30 44

35 23 20 33 33

5 3

No mark

N

13 13

2 3

19 3

13

32 152 5 16 40

No opinion

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

51

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

39 19 24 45 29

1 10 4 9 6

10 16 20 25 30 9 13 12 9 9

10 5 6 3

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

5$'

29

3

6

3

31

4$

26

3

19

3

31

39 42 55 43 33 42

36 43 23 29 17 30

6

4 6

3 14 33 3

15 3 20 14 17 12

3

34 31 40 7 6 50

20 70

60 10

20 10

10

5 10

33 61 4$ 71 45

30 29 35 13 39

7 1 3 6 7

21 9 13 3 6

40 37 53 35 60 45 52 60 36 4$

50 34 27 35

11 5

3

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farme rs V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

9 2 6 1

36 32 69 31 79

186 TABLE 12 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE

100

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1

39 47 50

32 31 36

10

10

10

5

15

3 13

46 46 33

31 23 56

5 9

4

14

31 255

6

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

13 17

4 3

11

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTEND,iNCE

162

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

44 54 41 52 25

33 25 36 24 25

6' 11

12 11

13

24 13

25

21 6

Totals

46

31

5

14

4

295

5 3

67 37

Sessions of the Senate and House of Representa­ tives, under their historic rules, are opened always with a prayer, by Chaplains paid from public funds. Chapels are maintained on the government reservation at West Point and Annapolis; *no cadet will be exempted from attendance," Millions of dollars were spent in erecting and maintaining chapels at army camps and bases during World War II; they were used interchangeably by clergymen of the different faiths. Chaplains went everywhere with the troops and on ships of war, and conducted services. Money of taxpayers and properties of government were used freely to see to it that our young men who went into the face of danger and death did not lack the ministrations of those who believed in God and the verities of religion. Must state and local governments do less for those who are being educated for citizenship and life?

1S7 Under the 1944 legislation, a discharged veteran may be educated at public expense to be arclergyman, in a denominational school of his choice. ~

Nearly half of those replying to this question on the questionnaire agreed that religious education is as much in order for the schools as chaplains for the Army.

Nearly

a third disagreed, over one sixth expressed no opinion and a small per cent were doubtful. Nearly half of those in the larger cities, almost three fifths in the medium cities, three eights in the smaller cities, and less than one half in the rural areas agreed. Almost three tenths in the larger cities, three eighths in the medium cities, one third in the smaller cities, and one fourth in the farm area disagreed. cent of each group expressed doubt.

Approximately five per One tenth of those in

larger cities, one twentieth in medium cities, one fourth in smaller cities, and one sixth in farm communities expressed no opinion. In the northern section almost one half, in the central section, one half, and in the southern section, three eighths agreed.

In the northern section, one third, in the central

section over one fourth and in the southern section, one third disagreed.

One tenth of the northern section, one

sixth of the central section and one seventh of the southern section expressed no opinion.

A few in each section expressed

"An Editorial," American Bar Association Journal

34:4^2, June, 194&.

138

doubt * Nearly half of both men and women agreed; but one third of the men and only a fourth of the women disagreed. One fourth of the women and one fifth of the men were doubt­ ful or expressed no opinion. Nearly half of the groups comprising ages 20 to 60; and two fifths of the group over 60 agreed.

Over one fourth

of the 20 to 40 age group, three tenths of the 40 to 60 group, and two fifths of the over 60 group disagreed. were a few scattered cases of doubt.

There

Approximately one sixth

of each group expressed no opinion. Two fifths of the Democrats and nearly half of the Republicans agreed.

One third of the former and over one

fourth of the latter disagreed.

There seems to be no sig­

nificant differences in those in this category who expressed doubt or no opinion. Nearly two fifths of those who had attended common school, nearly half who had attended high school, and half who had attended college agreed.

Over two fifths of the first

group, one fourth of the second group, and three tenths of the third group disagreed.

One sixth of the first group,

one fifth of the second, and one tenth of the third expressed no opinion. Over half the professionally employed, nearly half

the clerical and skilled tradesmen, two fifths of the farmers, two fifths of the slightly skilled and day laborers, and two fifths of the housewives agreed. Approximately one fourth of the first group, three tenths of the second, one half of the third, one fourth of the fourth, and three tenths of the fifth disagreed.

All

groups showed about one sixth expressing no opinion except the farmers, where the per cent was down to three.

None of

the farmers checked doubtful. One third of those with no children, three fifths with children of pre-school age, half of those with children in grade school, seven tenths with children in high school, and less than half of those with children out of school agreed. Three tenths of those in the first group and the second group, one third of the third, one seventh of the fourth, and two fifths of the fifth disagreed.

One fifth of those having

no children expressed no opinion, but only one tenth of those having children in one or more of the groups failed to ex­ press an opinion. Two fifths of the Catholics and nearly half the Protes­ tants agreed that released time religious education is the same in principle as Army, Navy chaplains.

Approximately

one third of both the former and the latter disagreed. slightly larger per cent of the Protestants expressed no opinion, but a slightly larger per cent of the Catholics

A

190 doubted the plan*

The difference in each case was only five

per cent. Nearly one half of both the church members and the non-church members agreed.

One third of the former and one

fourth of the latter disagreed.

Approximately one sixth

of each group expressed no opinion. Over two fifths of those who go to church most fre­ quently, over half of those who attend rather frequently, two fifths of those who seldom attend, and over one half of those who do not attend agree that there is no difference in principle between the weekday religious education program and the employing by the government of Army and Navy chaplains. One third of the first group, one fourth of the second, three eighths of the third, and one fourth of the fourth disagreed. One seventh of the first group, one tenth of the second, one tenth of the third, one fourth of the fourth, and one tenth of the fifth expressed no opinion.

A slightly

larger percentage of doubtful cases was shown by those going to church less frequently. Offering any religious courses in a state supported university is designated by some to be as unconstitutional as weekday religious education on ^released timeT1 in the public schools.

Do you agree?

53

See Questionnaire (15), Appendix A, Part Ii; also Table 13*

TABLE 13. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QDESTION: "OFFERING ANT RELIGIOUS COURSES IN A STATE SUPPORTED UNIVKRSITT IS DESIGNATED BT SOME TO BE AS UNCONSTITUTIONAL AS WEEKDAY RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON "RELEASED TIME" IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. DO TOU AGREE?

Personal data

Yes

No

19 IS 23 21 22

62 71 67 51

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

7 4 5 1

137 24 43 73 16

13

13

14 12 10 12 24

13

23 43 1L 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural lot designated

4 6 2 7 67

9 2 21 11

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II I II Not designated

17 36 23 23 26 14 15 9 13 16 15

49 70 43 65 52 60 52 75 73 69 59 66

20 20 20

15 15 30

26

9 5 7 3 5

9

5 10 9

19 6

20

2 15

61 60 60

4 6

12 6 20

3 9

206 62 5

100 63 60 49 67

6 3 6

3 6 6

6 124 123 39 3

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

14 6 5 33

192

No

Doubt­ ful

£5

Yes

o

Personal data

! O2i

TABLE 13 (Continued)

opinion mark

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

13 22 60 19 18

66 61 40 56 54

20 26 33 33

80 45 53 35 80 67 58 68

5 5

11 8

4 5

6 5

19 15

8

3

21 13 10 20 5 3 4

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 13 years 16 or more

3

11

18 8

10 38 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

61

6

3

6

31

16

58

3

23

20 19 25 14

4 10 3

13 16 5

10

16

58 55 58 86 100 66

8

4

6

20 40

60 50

20

16 16 10 29 29

58 68

3 6 6 6 5

17 26 26 ia 15

20 5 10

64 63

23

6

4 3

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

31 5

84 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

62 55 57

13 10

9

17

4

10 8

1

86 82 69 31 79

193 TABLE 13 (Continued)

Yes

Personal data

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 13 21 13

1 31 255 8

58 61 75

10 4

13 10 13

6 4

64

3 17 11

10 6 22

5

11 6 5

5 3

14 38

5 25

162 67 37 21 8

10

4

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

18 37

40 56

11

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

13 39 19 19 13

65 51 68 57 25

6 1 8 5

Totals

20

61

5

Shedd believes that religion can be taught in state universities on a basis that does not seek to impose any sectarian or particular point of v i e w * ^ He quotes the experience of the past 20 years, stating that over 60 per cent of all state universities and land grant colleges offer instruction in religion on an academic credit basis.

Seventeen per cent of these have chairs of religion

Shedd, C. P., Religion in the State University, p, 20,

194 financed by the university*

More than twelve per cent

accept for academic credit the teaching work of denomina­ tional university pastors*

About 10 per cent give non­

credit courses in Bible and are given reference in the official college announcement.

These courses are usually

offered by religious workers, ¥. C, Bower

55

has pointed out that ecclesiastical

sectarianism, being an anachronism in American culture, has given way to a functional concept of religion— a concept which calls on religion to revalue all values into a total meaning and worth of life.

Religion on this level is what

is needed in state universities, he believes, as it will be a uniting force, and not be barred by constitutional strength, 56 Sherwood says that the constitutional phrase con­ cerning the prevention of establishment of religion makes illegal teaching sectarian religion in state supported institutions.

This, he claims, encourages secularism TTto

enter the tent of democracy to drive out basic and broader religion dealing with values, ideals, motivation.u

This

acts to screen the curriculum of higher education of all religious elements.

He advocates religion in the univer­

sity at the ”functional level” where it unites, but is against it on the "theological level” where it divides and 55

Bower, W. C., Church and State in Education, p, 80. 56 Sherwood, H, N., ,TCan All These Men Be drong?” College and Church II?:22-27, Spring, 1949*

195 becomes sectarian* The teaching of Bible at the University of Kansas has an interesting history.

At the state convention of

Christian churches in Kansas in December, 1899* a special

session was held concerning teaching Bible at the University of Kansas*

57

The Christian Komars Board of Missions

proceeded to raise $1,000 and a Wallace C. Payne was appointed to the University Bible Chair.

After the first year, a

building near the campus was selected for Bible classes. The work was still financed by donations and gifts. In 1920, the University agreed to allow the courses, up to this time given on non-credit basis, to be given for credit if any religious body were given the opportunity of offering courses.

This system was worked out in 1920, but

not until 1935 were the courses in religion listed in the University catalog.

In 19A3, the School of Religion was

placed on equal footing with any other department of the University as regards elective credit.

As many as 26 hours

of credit may be applied toward an undergraduate degree. Approximately this same number of credit courses is still offered by the Bible Chair. The State University of Iowa offers courses in relig­ ion for credit.

The School of Religion is part of the State

57 Barr, Harold G.,

Kansas Bible Chair. IB PP*

196 University of Iowa* Arts.

It is a unit of the College of Liberal

Its courses are fully accredited toward University

degrees.

Its staff are members of the University faculty.

The School has its own board of trustees, composed of members of the University faculty, representatives of the religious groups of the State and other citizens.

The board

recommends all staff appointments, and is responsible for the financial support of the Protestant, Catholic and Jewish professorships, and of inter-faith projects.

This support

comes entirely from private and denominational sources; the University provides only for the general administrative expense. The staff is made up of a director, M. Willard Lampe, Ph.D., two Protestant teachers, a Jewish teacher and a Catholic teacher. Enrollment in the School of Religion is now over 15 per cent of the students registered in the College of Liberal Arts.

In the more than 20 years of its history, this en­

rollment has shown a steady growth. Again and again the question is raised, *?Is teaching Bible in a state university a violation of the constitutional provision forbidding Establishment of religion* ?,f

On the campus of Indiana University there is a **church” bulletin board, on state-supported land, kept up by taxation. Universiry of Iowa, Religion is Taught JLn a Statue. University, 2 pp.

197 This bulletin board is nfor religious and church notices only.”

Is this establishment of religion?

Would an Indiana

University Auditorium speaker belonging to a certain church denomination be interpreted as Hestablishment of religion”? Question fifteen on the questionnaire in this study brought rather surprising results.

Only one fifth of the

returns designated the giving of religious courses in a state university as unconstitutional as giving weekday courses in religious education in the public schools.

Three

fifths believed that it was not as unconstitutional, and the other one fifth expressed doubt or no opinion. Approximately one fifth of the people in communities of all sizes agreed.

Three fifths in the larger cities,

seven tenths in the medium cities, two thirds in the smaller communities, and one half in the farm areas disagreed. There were scattered cases of doubt and no opinion, the largest percentages being from those in the farm group. One fourth of the northern residents replying, one sixth of the central, and one seventh of the southern agreed. Well over one half of the former, three fifths of the second, and two thirds of the latter disagreed.

The percentages

for men and women show no differences on this question, one fifth of both groups agreeing with the opinion and three fifths disagreeing. One seventh of those ages 20 to 60 and three tenths of those over 60 agreed.

Three fifths of the former and half

198

of the latter disagreed* no opinion is in the is only one seventh.

The largest percentage expressing

20 to

40 age group where the amount

The other groups show smaller per­

centages. Of the Democrats, only one seventh agreed, and two thirds disagreed.

Of the Republicans, over one fifth agreed

and three fifths disagreed.

Of those not designating their

political affiliation one sixth agreed, and over one half disagreed. Approximately one fourth of those who attended only grade school, one fifth of those attending high school, and one sixth of those attending college agreed that offering religious education in a state university is the same as the weekday plan in the public schools.

Three fifths of

the former group, three fifths of the second group, and five eighths of the latter group disagreed.

A slightly larger

percentage of the high school group expressed no opinion. One fourth of the professional group, over one fifth of the clerical and skilled laborers, one fourth of the farmers, less than one tenth of the slightly skilled and day laborers, and one sixth of the housewives agreed.

Three fifths of the

first group, slightly less than three fifths of the second, well over one half of the third, nine tenths of the fourth, and two thirds of the last group disagreed* One sixth of those with no children, one sixth with pre-school children, one tenth with grade school children,

199

three tenths with high school children, and three tenths with children out of school agreed*

Nearly three fifths

of the first group, seven tenths of the second, over three fifths of the third, over half of the fourth and less than three fifths of the last group disagreed* Over one tenth of the catholics, and over one fifth of the Protestants agreed.

Approximately three fifths of

both Catholics and Protestants disagreed.

Only one sixth

of those belonging to church, but one third of those not belonging agreed.

Two thirds of the former group and two

fifths of the latter disagreed.

One sixth of those not be­

longing were doubtful as against only three per cent of the church memberso One seventh of those attending church most frequently, two fifths of those attending ten to thirty times annually, one fifth of those attending only occasionally, and one fifth of those who do not attend agreed.

Two thirds of the first

group, half of the second, over two thirds of the third and less than three fifths of the last group disagreed. Many have made the accusation that allowing the schools to participate in any way whatsoever in a program of week­ day religious education is the same as preferential treatment for selected churches since mostly Protestant groups take advantage of this arrangement. Do you agree with the accusa­ tion?^ 59

See Questionnaire (17), Appendix A, Part II; also

Table 14*

200

TABLE 14. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: MANY HAVE MADE THE ACCUSATION THAT ALLOWING THE SCHOOLS TO PARTICIPATE IN ANY WAY WHATSOEVER IN A PROGRAM OF WEEK­ DAY RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IS THE SAME AS PREFERENTIAL TREAT­ MENT FOR SELECTED CHURCHES SINCE MOSTLY PROTESTANT GROUPS TAKE ADVANTAGE. DO YOU AGREE WITH THE ACCUSATION?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Kural Not designated

9 12 7 11 11

77 75 67 69 73

7 9 7

No opinion 6 12 14 3 11

No mark

N

1

137 24 43 73 13

2 5

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

9 19 7 15 13 4 5 5 9 6 a

66 63 79 77 63 76 71 70 73 93 79 77

13 12

10

4 23

10 7 20

72 73 60

7 6

9 6 20

2 2

14 5 13

100 73 73 69 100

3 7 3

5 12 10

1 3 5

6 3 5 5

9 7 14 3 6 12 10 20 13

4

6 10

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

20$ $2 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 124 123 39 3

201

TABLE 14 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

13 9

4 6

13 3

74 77 go 50 67

19 10

9 5 20 19 15

go

20

16

61

13 15

67 go

5 13 5

No mark

N

3

152 5

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

$2

16 5

40

5

3S 15

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less g years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

g

10 16

60 79 77

60 64

lg 9

7S

16

65

13

Si

g 13 13

70 65 73 71 100 76

10 13 7

20 1 6

10

g 4

16

20 10

9 3

3 3

g

1

75 31 25 11 79

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS Professional S emi-profess ional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated I II

4 20

10

6

31

6

31

12 13

10

1 10

5 29

£4 31 40 7

6

10

50

BO 100

5

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

12 10 6

70 72 S3 go

7 9 6 10

6 9 4 10

7 1 1

£6 £2 69 31

202 TABLE 14 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

16 9

5$ 75 75

16 5 13

76 63 44

6 14

100 6

a

3 2

1 31 255

a

13

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

a 17 11

a

2

6 33

11

6 3 g 14 25

7 10

2 3

5 13

13

a

6

9

2

295

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 1 0 -3 0 times Less than 1 0 Not at all Not designated

g 13 14 25

77 70 70 gl 25

Totals

10

73

a

162 67 37 21

Ten per cent of the total persons replying to the questionnaire agreed with the accusation that the weekday religious education was preferential treatment for the Protes­ tant churches, Nearly three fourths of the total disagreed and approximately one sixth were doubtful or marked no opinion. Approximately only ten per cent of residents in all size cities and even the rural areas agreed.

Slightly over

three fourths in the larger and middle sized cities, and over

203 two thirds in the smaller and farm communities disagreed. There is a fairly even distribution of the no-opinion and doubtful responses over the various sized communities.

Nearly one seventh in the northern section and only six per cent in the central and southern sections agreed. Seven tenths in the northern section, four fifths in the central section, and seven tenths in the southern section disagreed.

Ten per cent of the men and less than ten per

cent of the women agreed.

In excess of seven tenths of the

women and three fourths of the men disagreed. One seventh of the 20 to 40 age group, only five per cent of the 40 to 60 group, and one seventh of the over 60 group agreed with the accusation of preferential treat­ ment.

Nearly three fourths of the first two groups and

seven tenths of the third disagreed. Over one tenth of the Democrats and less than one tenth of the Republicans agreed.

Only three per cent of

those who did not designate political affiliations agreed. Nearly three fourths of both Democrats and Republicans disagreed.

Two thirds of the last group disagreed.

Less than ten per cent of those who attended only grade school, ten per cent of those who attended high school and one seventh of those who attended college agreed with the accusation. groups disagreed.

Approximately seven tenths of all three

204 About one sixth of those in the professional group, ten per cent in the clerical and skilled group, none of the slightly skilled and day laborers, over ten per cent of the farmers, and only four per cent of the housewives agreed. Nearly three fourths of the first group, over seven tenth of the second, five sixths of the third, two thirds of the fourth, and three fourths of the fifth disagreed. Over one tenth of those having no children, ten per cent of those with pre-school children, only six per cent with grade school children, none with high school children, and only five per cent of those with children out of school agreed with the accusation of preferential treatment to cer­ tain groups.

Seven tenths of the first and second groups,

four fifths of the third and fourth groups, and three fourths of the fifth group disagreed. One sixth of the Catholics and one tenth of the Protes­ tants agreed, while less than three fifths of the Catholics but three fourths of the Protestants disagreed.

One sixth of

the Catholics were doubtful and only five per cent of the Protestants. opinion.

A few Catholics and Protestants expressed no

205

16/0

Catholics Figure 4.

Protestants

How the Catholics and Protestants Opined Concerning the Accusation of the Weekday Religious Education Program Being Preferential Treat­ ment for the Protestants. (See Table 14)

Of those belonging to church less than ten per cent agreed, three fourths disagreed and the rest were doubtful or expressed no opinion*

Of those not belonging, one sixth

agreed, five eighths disagreed, and the rest were doubtful or expressed no opinion. About one tenth of those who attended church most frequently, over one tenth of those attending 10 to 30 times annually, one seventh of those seldom attending, and none of those who do not attend agreed.

Over three fourths of the

first group, seven tenths of the second and third groups, and four fifths of the fourth group disagreed. During the year very few elementary school pupils spend roore than 1,260 hours in school duties. Allowing a total of 11 hours daily for eating and sleeping, we have an annual

206

balance of 3,4$5 hours for other activities. Do you believe that this is adequate time for churches to offer religious 60 training to pupils on time outside of school hours? Ninety per cent of the educators polled in Dean 61 Edmonson*s survey answered this question in the affinitiative. This compares with 54 per cent on the same question on the questionnaire in this study.

Over one fifth believed time

outside school hours inadequate.

Over one tenth were doubt­

ful and the same part checked no response. Three fifths of those in the larger cities, seven tenths in medium cities, two fifths in smaller communities, and half in rural areas believed there is adequate time outside school hours.

One sixth of the first group, one tenth

of the second, one fourth of the third, and one third of the fourth believe there is not.

There is very little variation

in the amount expressing doubt in each category, the average being about one eighth. Well over one half in the northern section, less than three fifths in the central section, and three fifths in the southern section answered yes.

One fifth in the northern,

one sixth in the central, and over one fifth in the southern section answered no.

Doubt was expressed by one sixth of

^See Questionnaire (1$), Appendix A, Part III, also Table 15, Appendix A, Part II. 61 . tdmonson, o£. cit. 42:29.

207 the northern section, one tenth of the central section, and only five per cent of the southern section. Men and women were in close agreement, the response being, for both groups: no;

well over one half, yes; one fifth,

one tenth, doubtful; and one tenth, no opinion. Nearly three fifths of the 20 to

40 age group,

half

the next 20 year span, over half of those who were past 60 answered yes. answered no.

About one fifth of all three of those groups One tenth of the first group, one sixth of

the second, and only five per cent of the third were doubt­ ful. Well over half of both Democrats answered yes.

One fourth of the former

latter answered no.

and Republicans and one fifth of the

Approximately one tenth of both groups

were doubtful and one tenth expressed no opinion. Of those who had attended only grade school, one half answered yes, two fifths answered no, and four per cent were doubtful.

Of those who had attended high school, less than

one half answered yes, one fourth answered no, and one sixth weredoubtful.

Of the college people, five eights answered

yes, one eighth answered no, and one eighth were doubtful. Well over one half of the professional people, three fifths of the clerical and skilled workers, less than one half of the farmers, three fifths of the slightly skilled and day laborers, and one half of the housewives thought there

20$

was adequate time.

One fifth of the first group, one sixth

of the second, one

third of the third, only seven per cent

of the fourth, andone sixth of was not adequate time.

the last group thought there

Nearly every group showed one sixth

doubtful except the farmers who showed only three per cent doubtful cases. One half of those with no children, three fifths with pre-school children, two fifths with children in school, and well over one half with those whose children were out of school answered yes.

One sixth of the first and second

group each, one third of the third and one fifth of the fourth answered no. of the second, one

One sixth of the first group, one tenth fifth of the third (here the percentage

was much larger in high school than ingrade school), and one tenth of the last group was doubtful. PJell over half of the Protestants and Catholics answered yes.

Over one fifth of the two latter sects

answered no and over one tenth of both groups were doubt­ ful. Fifty six per cent of the church members and 51 per cent of the non-church members answered yes.

Over one fifth

of the former, but less than one tenth of the latter ansv,Tered no.

One tenth of the former and nearly a fourth of the

latter were doubtful. Nearly one half of the most frequent church attendants, two thirds of those going not so often, three fifths of those

209 who seldom go, and two thirds of those who do not attend believed that there was enough time outside school hours for religious education.

Over one fourth of the first group,

one eighth of the second, one seventh of uhe third, and one tenth of the last were doubtful. What additional suggestions, if any, would you make for working out a plan of religious education which would be satisfactory to all of your community churches and would not be contrary to the legal requirements for church-state separation?62

Those completing the questionnaire were asked to react to the above question. pertinent reactions.

Following are a few of the more Many of them stressed the great need

for a program of some kind such as is shown by the following responses: Make a start and continue. I haven’t given sufficient consideration to problem. I think it’s time that we take a very active interest in developing a program, however. None.

But I feel some plan should be worked out.

I have no suggestions at present, but am very much in favor of a plan for religious education, non-denominational, taught in public schools. More emphasis should be given to create and main­ tain a religious atmosphere in all communities to counter­ act the atheistic spirit of communism, which exists in various forms today, an element very prominent in the G.I.O. labor group. See Questionnaire (30), Appendix A, Part also Table 15*

jlI;

210

TABLE 15. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "DURING THE YEAR VERY FEW ELEMENTART SCHOOL PUPILS SPEND MORE THAN 1,260 HOURS IN SCHOOL DUTIES. ALLOWING A TOTAL OF 11 HOURS DAILY FOR EATING AND SLEEPING, WE HAVE AH ANNUAL BALANCE OF 3,485 HOURS FOR OTHER ACTIVITIES. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THIS IS ADEQUATE TIME FOR CHURCHES TO OFFER RELIGIOUS TRAINING TO PUPILS ON TIME OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS?"

Personal data

Yes

No

59 71 44 49 44

15 6 26 32 33

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

11 4 7 7 11

4 4 7 3

137 24 43 73 IB

4 -7 7

4

13 24 10

6

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural

Not designated

12 12 16 10 11

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN MUCH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII

IX X XI Not designated

52 49 71 61 39 52 67 70 45 69 4$ 54

22 26 14 23 23 20 19 20 27 6 21 23

17 19 7 15 19 4 5 10 19 6 8

17

54 55 60

22 20 20

12 11 20

9 9

27 6 6 15

SEX Male Female

Not designated

3 6

208 82 5

1 7 a

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

67 5$ 50 56 33

20 22 20 67

33 10 15 5

10 7 10

211 TABLE

Personal data

(Continued)

Yes

No

54 55 20 56 56

26 20 40 6 21

30 66 33 75 40 37 42 64 £2 66

70 13 33 10 20 33 19 £ 9 14



Doubtful

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

10 12 31 10

9 9 40 6 5

3 5 £

£2 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less £ years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

9

£ 20 10 10 9 13 £ 9 £

4

10 3£ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

19

6

10

6

31

52

23

23

3

63 45 55 43 £4 50

17 35 l£ 14

7 10 10 29

1 6 5



12 3 13 14 17 14

12

6

£4 31 40 7 6 50

20 30

40 50

20 10

20 10

5 10

55 61 45 35 56

16 l£ 39 26 19

15 11 7 32 9

£ 9 9 3 11

6 1

£6 £2 69 31 79

£ 13 5 30 13 23 16

5

7 3 4

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

31

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

3 5

212

TABLE 15 (Continued)

Yes

Personal data

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

10 9

1 4

1 31 255 $

11 22

4 6 11

251 35 9

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 $2 55 3#

23 20 33

13 11 25

56 51 22

22 9 44

11 23

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not helong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

47 66 59 66 50

27 13 14 10 32

12 12 14 10

10 6 11 10

4 3 3 5 13

162 67 37 21 g

Totals

54

21

12

9

4

295

Since so many children do not receive religious council or training at home, I definitely believe the schools and churches should accept this responsibility. Every child needs religious council and I do believe it would save many children from becoming delinquents. For a book as wonderful as the Bible to be left out of a childfs life, seems true negligence on the part of educators. We teach history in our public schools— why not religion? Special creeds should be left for the churches to teach. Comparative religion should be helpful to older pupils, to bring better understanding of peoples of other faiths. Even an atheist!s child might learn about what it was his parent express disagreement.

213 Others throw the responsibility to the parents, as is shown by these reactions: LetTs set up some means of educating the parents. Children tend to imitate their parents and it is my belief that therein lies the answer. Do something to arouse the parents interest in their own children’s religious education. Let the churchmen interest the parents. It is my opinion that it is not the children who need religious education so much as do adults. All time teaching of children will not be effective, un­ less it is reflected in their home and social life. Some believe that the law should be changed.

Note these

responses: We believe the U. S. Supreme Court decision should be carefully reviewed, not from a purely legalistic point of view, but from the spirit and precedent of the founders of the constitution. Relax the legal requirements. Set up a school or get the law changed. Still other accuse the church of not doing its part or believe that the pastors should arrange for a better program of religious instruction.

Here are some of their

responses. The pastors of the various churches should work this problem out themselves. Let those individuals1 churches that are inter­ ested, plan and carry out the program without high

214 pressure methods* Religion, many consider as sacred as their politics and while this is a regressive comparison, unless it is tactfully handled confusion and lack of cooperation on the part of participants would cause the program to bog down and eventually stop* This is merely an opinion of my own, but I believe that 1, The course should be made more attractive to children so that they want to come even if parents donTt send them 2* The time allowed for it and the facilities provided should be increased 3. All Protestant ministers should carry on a "parent education" program in this regard 4. Specially trained personnel who are also "spiritually inspired" should do this kind of work 5* While the teaching standards should compare favorably with those of the public school, the control of the program should be vested in the Protestant churches of the community* This should be integrated carefully with the public schools I believe some plan should be worked out individually by each church, with the children taking the lead as teachers and instructors* I believe once a month the churches should have a combined meeting* I believe these meetings should be of religious and recreational nature. A few still insist that there should be no religious instruction at all: Religion has no more business in the public school than Farm Bureau meetings— yet the F.B. holds them just the same. Getting adults interested in attending church again seems to be the first step of the process. Children tend to follow such a good example. No where in this questionnaire have you indicated just what religious aspect the children "as a mass"are in such dire need of*

215 Churches should do their own training and pay for it. Too many groups are crying for public money. If its good to have its good enough to pay for. Many think teaching religious values, or reading of the Bible in the regular curriculum is the answer.

Their

responses read: A consideration of the European way of including religious Instruction in the regular school program. I definitely feel if a child were introduced to religion as he is to arithmetic, spelling, etc., it would ntake” better than just the push we give to Sunday School on the one of two days in which they naturally rebel from forced schedules and learning. If part of the regular education program and interesting, it would provide a good foundation and at least a general knowledge of the thing any individual needs most in life— religion I Religious teaching is so greatly needed that it should be freed from all impediments. It should be part of the regular school curriculum. Separating it from the regular school period would injure it. Churches and civic organizations should be prevented from attempting to modify or limit it. It should be the responsibility of the schools, alone. In this way complete separation of church and state could be achieved. The constitution did not intend that there should be antagonism between the church and state. Religious instructions is part of the means by which the schools fit children for life* No denom­ ination should be permitted to slant this religious instruction in any way favorable to some and opposed to others. I believe schools could properly teach the historical and ethical aspects of Christianity. I do not see how either an atheist or the highly orthodox could quarrel with the historical importance of

2.16

Christianity or its philosophical theory, I do not believe that denominations should have any voice in the subject matter taught, its method or the selection of a teacher. The object of religious education in the public school curriculum— as I see it— should be to indoctrin­ ate the basic Christian social ethics by which we must abide in our day to day living. I believe by giving the instructors now in the public schools a logical pattern for teaching the ethics of our Christian society, and allowing more time for such instruc­ tion during the standard school period would be the answer. There is ample time and expense devoted by our churches on Sunday morning to portray the spiritual value of religion in all denominations. Perhaps there is none which would satisfy all. I say limit program to an objective study of the Bible. This should not hurt anyone— even a Mohammedan, A wdismissed time” plan of teaching religious ed­ ucation has been used in some communities. Under this plan all pupils are dismissed for a period of usually one hour per week at which time they m y secure religious education Si iM, church of their choice. They are free, however, to use the time as they choose, not attending classes in religion at all if they do not care to. Do you believe most public school children in your community would attend religious instruction if given opportunity under this plan? ^ ^See Questionnaire (19) > Appendix A, Part II; also Table 16.

217 TABLE 16. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "A ’DISMISSED TIME' PLAN OF TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION HAS BEEN USED IN SOME COMMUNITIES. UNDER THIS PLAN ALL PUPILS ARE DISMISSED FOR A PERIOD OF USUALLX ONE HOUR PER WEEK AT WHICH TIME THEY MAT SECURE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION AT THE CHURCH OF THEIR CHOICE. THEY ARE FREE, HOWEVER, TO USE THE Ti m AS THEY CHOOSE, NOT ATTENDING CLASSES IN RELIGION IF THEY DO NOT CARE TO. DO YOU BELIEVE MOST PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TOUR COMMUNITY WOULD ATTEND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IF GIVEN OPPORTUNITY UNDER THIS PLAN?"

Personal data

Yes

No

20 33 14 25 33

29 49 62 17

Doubt- No No N ful opinion mark

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

46

23 37 32 10 33

2

5

5 1 11

3

137 24 43 73 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN M I C H LOCATED I II III IY Y YI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

30 23 36 12 19 16 14 30 45 6 21 23

47

46 43 54 39 52 52 45 27

69 44 33

9 23 14 35 32 20 24 25 9 25 31 33

13 2 7 6 12 5

23 43 14

26

3 5 13 4

31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

21 24 40

46 50 40

27 21 20

3 2

3 2

203 32 5

3 2 5

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

26 15 31 100

33 41 52

46

67 25 23 13

2 2 5

218

TABLE 16 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

2$ 20 19 26

50 49 20 50 31

40 19 31

30 29 7 15 20 39 23 26 36 14

60 50 40 45 60 31 45 52 27 52

16 47 40 20 25 29 16 9 29

13

42

39

23

52

26

24 42 10 30

36 42 56 43 50 54

10 32 57 50 12

2

20 20

40 60

40 10

10

17 26 30 32 20

51 41 49 55 47

23 27 17 13 29

Doubt­ No No ful opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

21

26

1 3 20 6 3

2 20 6 10

62 152 5 16 40

9 1

3 3 4 16 4

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

3

3

31

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years lo or more

10 5 7 3

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

26

31 6

6 6

64 31 40 7 6 50 /

2

5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN

None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

3 2 4

5 1 3

66 62 69 31 79 / vs.

2.19 TABLE 16 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

3

3 3

1 31 255 3

CHURCH PREFERENCE 100 22 21 50

65 45 50

10 23

24 11 33

47 49 44

24 34 11

3 3

3 3 11

251 35 9

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

25 19 19 10 33

44 54 54 33 33

25 24 22 43 13

3

3 3 5 13

162 67 37 21 3

Totals

22

47

25

3

295

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

5 5

3

Mr, S m i t h ^ notes that most sponsors of a weekday do not want dismissed time since too many of the parents would deliberately keep their children from attending classes in religious education for that period.

Others would become

indifferent. Kuebler, Division of Education, American Unitarian Association, pleads for a change of heart in all sectarian

^Smith, P,, ”The Public Schools and Religious Ed' ucation,” Religion and Education, ' A p. Si.

220

leaders to make religion a unifying force for the boys and girls instead of a controversial subject.

His recommendations

for bringing about effective religious education beneficial to all are as follows: 1. No parochial schools of any kind to be conducted in this country— this by wholly voluntary arrangement, not by government dictation. All the children now in parochial schools of all denominations to be sent to public schools for instruction in the regular academic and vocational subjects, 2, Each parish, or other group, to have by state law the right to have all their children, staggered in groups by grades from primary through senior high school, free from public school for one full half-day each week for attendance at the parish ^institute** , , , Each parish to employ physical, financial, and personnel resources in the institute to teach religion, morality, manners, marriage courses, and related subjects. Each parish to have— especially during vacation periods— a complete social and rec­ reational program at the institute. loung people not in school privileged to attend the institute (so called) to differentiate it from school. ? -J In responding to the question of "dismissed time” on the questionnaire, only slightly over one fifth of the total believed that pupils would attend classes under this plan. Nearly half thought they would not and one fourth expressed themselves as doubtful, and a very small per cent expressed no opinion. One fifth of those in the larger towns, one third in the medium, one seventh in the small, and one fourth in the 65 Kuebler, E. W., "To Reduce Tensions between Govern­ ment and Church-Sponsored Education,” Religious Education --- ------------43:223-227, July, 1948.

221 rural areas believed children would attend under this plan* Nearly half in the first group, three tenths in the second, half in the third, and three fifths in the last did not be­ lieve they would attend*

Three tenths in the first group,

three eighths in the second, one third in the third, and only one tenth in the fourth were doubtful* In the northern section one fourth believed children would attend, less than one half that they would not attend, and nearly one fourth were doubtful*

In the central section,

one seventh believed they would, one half believed they would not and one fourth were doubtful.

In the southern section,

three tenths believed they would, one half believed they would not, and one fifth were doubtful. Nearly one fifth of the men and one fourth of the women believed children would attend.

Nearly one half of

the former, and exactly one half of the latter believed they would not.

Over one fourth of the women, and one fifth of

the men were doubtful.

One fifth of the younger age group,

one seventh of the middle group, and three tenths of the older group believed the children would attend under this plan.

Two fifths of the first group, over half of the second,

and less than half of the third believed they would not.

One

fourth of the first two groups and only one seventh of the third group were doubtful. Over one fourth of the Democrats and one fifth of the Republicans believed children would attend, approximately

222 half of both groups believed they would not.

One fifth of

the former and one fourth of the latter were doubtful.

Two

thirds of those not designating any political affiliation either answered in the negative or were doubtful.

Only one

fourth of this group believed that children would attendclasses under this plan. Three tenths of those who had attended only grade school, one fifth who had attended high school, and one fourth who had attended college said yes.

One half of the

first group, over two fifths of the second group, and over two fifths of the third group said no.

One tenth of the

first group, one third of the second and one fifth of the third were doubtful. One sixth of the professional persons, one sixth of the clerical and skilled laborers, two fifths of the farmers, none of the laborers, and three tenths of the housewives answered yes.

Less than one half of the groups one and two,

two fifths of group three, less than half of group four, and slightly more than half of group five answered no.

One

third of the first group, three tenths of the second, one tenth of the third, over one half of the fourth, and over one tenth of the fifth were doubtful. One sixth of those having no children, three tenths of those with pre-school children, three tenths with school children, and one fifth with children out of school answered yes.

One half of the first group, two fifths of the second,

223 over one half of the third, and less than one half of the fourth answered no.

Approximately one fourth of each group

expressed doubt.

One fifth of both Catholics and Protestants be­ lieved children would attend classes under the "dismissed time" plan.

Two thirds of the Catholics and less than one

half of the Protestants thought they would not.

Only one

tenth of the Catholics, but over one fourth of the Protestants were doubtful. One fourth of the church members, but only one tenth of the non-members answered yes. answered no.

Nearly one half of both

One fourth of the former and one third of the

latter were doubtful. One fourth of those who attended church most frequently, one fifth of the two less frequent groups, and only one tenth of the "not-at-all" group answered yes.

Over two fifths of

the former group, over one half of the next, and three eighths of the latter answered no.

Approximately one fourth

of all three "church-going" groups and over two fifths of those who do not attend were doubtful. Do you believe that nearly all the churches in your community would co-operate individually in offering religious instruction under the "dismissed time" plan, and would attempt to hold the children1s interest?

66

66 See Questionnaire (20). Appendix A, Part II; also Table 17.

224

TABLE 17. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "DO TOU BELIEVE THAT NEARLY ALL THE CHURCHES IN YOUR COMMUNITY WOULD COOPERATE INDIVIDUALLY IN OFFERING RELIG­ IOUS INSTRUCTION UNDER THE 'DISMISSED TIME' PLAN, AND WOULD ATTEMPT TO HOLD THE CHILDREN'S INTEREST?”

Personal data

Xes

No

60 54 56 69 76

13

Doubt - No ful opinion

No mark

N

2 4 2 3

137

4

23 43

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

19 12 6

16 37 19 12 6

10 4 2 4 11

24 43 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOG.ATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

61 65

64 31

65 72 62 80 82 44 62 77

9 7 7 23 16 4

24 10

26 19 14 36 6 16 14 5

9 14 8 6 8

14 6

5 18

19 13

19 15 15

13 8 8

2

61 67 40

11 12 40

19 10 20

6 9

2 2

100 72 52 59 67

10 15 10 33

26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

208 82 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

14 22 13

5 7 13

4 5

6 124 123 39 3

225 TABLE 17 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

60 66 60 31

16 12

17 14

64

6 a

50 13

6 5 20 13 10

50 74 47 30 50 75 74 43 45 66

B 13 20 20 7 6 32 9 9

20 11 20 25 20 13 10 12 IB 20

30 5 20 5 10 1 6 B 27 3

3

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

10

23

6

3

31

10

19

6

10 13 IB 29

24 6 IB 14

7 10 14

16

10

6

20

20 10

15 6 17 16 25

5 9 6 3 9

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

1 2 20 5

B2 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less B years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

3

4 3

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 5$ Semi-professional, managers 65 III Clerical, skilled trades 57 IV Farmers 74 V Semi-skilled 55 VI Slightly skilled 43 VII Day laborers 100 VIII Housewives 64 Students, retired, etc. 60 Not designated 90

31 2 6

4

B4 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

64 73 61

64 52

12 12 16 16 13

5

B6 62

69 1

31 79

226 TABLE 17 (Continued)

Personal data

Xes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

19 10 36

100 19 16 13

10 7

3 2

65 49 56

10 20 22

17 17 11

6 14

2

67 66 4? 50

11 13 14 10 13

14 16 27 24 13

6 3 11 19 13

13

162 67 37 21 6

63

12

17

7

2

295

46 65 50

1 31 255 6

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

11

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTEND.ANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Totals

46

3 1

Five eights ox the total number of persons replying to the questionnaire believed that nearly all the churches would cooperate in a "dismissed time" plan. would not.

One eighth believed they

One sixth were doubtful and nearly one tenth ex­

pressed no opinion. Three fifths of those in the larger cities, over half in the medium cities, nearly three fifths in the smaller cities and seven tenths in the rural areas answered yes.

One seventh

in the first group, none in the second, one fifth in the third,

227 and one eighth in the fourth said no.

One sixth in the first

group, three eighths in the second, one fifth in the third, and one eighth in the last group were doubtful.

Nearly three

fifths of those living in northern Indiana, three fifths in the central section, and three fourths in the southern section believed the churches would cooperate.

One eighth in the

northern section, one eighth in the central, and one eighth in the southern section believed they would not.

One fifth

in the northern section, one sixth in the central, and one tenth in the southern section were doubtful. Three fifths of the men and two thirds of the women thought the churches would cooperate.

Approximately one

eighth of both groups thought they would not.

One fifth of

the men, but only one tenth of the women were doubtful. Seven tenths of the 20 to 40 age group, half of the 40 to 60, and three fifths of those over 60 answered positively. One tenth of the first, one seventh of the second, and one tenth of the third answered in the negative.

One seventh of

the first, over one fifth of the second, and nearly one seventh of the third were doubtful. Two thirds of the Republicans and three fifths of the Democrats answered yes.

One eighth of the former and one

sixth of the latter answered no.

One seventh of the former

and one sixth of the latter expressed doubt.

Of those who

did not designate political affiliations, two thirds answered yes, one twelfth answered no and nearly one seventh were

22a doubtful* Two thirds of those with only common school training, well over half with high school, and slightly less than three fifths with college felt they would cooperate*

Only four

per cent in the lower bracket, less than one sixth in the middle bracket, and one seventh in the upper bracket felt they would not cooperate*

One sixth of the lower bracket, one fifth of

the middle, and less than one sixth of the higher were doubt­ ful. Three fifths of the professional group, as well as the clerical and skilled group, seven tenths of the laborers, three fourths of the farmers and fiveeighths of the house­ wives believed the church would cooperate*

One tenth of the

first group, one sixth of the second, one twelfth of the third, one eighth of the fourth, and one sixth of the last believed the churches would not cooperate.

One fifth of the first

two groups, only five per cent of thethird, and fourth, and one tenth of the last group were doubtful* Two thirds of those with no children, nearly three fourths with pre-school children, three fifths with school children, and over one half with children out of school answered yes.

One eighth of the first two groups, one sixth

of the next group, and one eighth of the last group answered no.

One sixth in the first group, only six per cent in the

second, one sixth in the third, and one fourth in the last group expressed doubt*

229 Half of the Catholics and two thirds of the Protestants thought the churches would cooperate.

One fifth of the former

and one tenth of the latter thought they would not.

Approxi­

mately one sixth of both groups expressed doubt. Two thirds of the church members, but only half of the non-church members answered yes.

One tenth of the former and

one fifth of the latter answered no.

One sixth of both groups

expressed doubt. Two thirds of those who attend church more than ten times annually and half of those who attend less than ten times, or not at all, gave a positive reply.

Approximately one

eighth of the former as well as one eighth of the latter gave the negative response.

Nearly one sixth of the former,

but one fourth of the latter were doubtful.

The Parochial Schools Of 26,000,000 pupils in elementary and secondary schools in the United States, approximately 2,500,000 attend sectarian schools and of these 2,400,000 are in Cath67 olic schools. These schools have been in existence a long time.

A

superintendent of Catholic schools pleads that if the common good in American life is recognized as a supernatural good, 67 United States Office of Education, Second Biennial Survey of Education^ 41 PP»

230

then the government should encourage church sponsored 6$ schools* The closing of all religious schools would be in the direction of Totalitarianism* However, there is and has been much antagonism against this minority group*

Following are excerpts from some of those

expressing such views: Senator Taft in a letter said: The whold basis of the American Constitution is a complete separation of Church and State. It is not necessary to review the reasons for this. It grew out of the history of many European countries, and I believe it is essential if we are to have freedom of religion and freedom for every man to worship in the way in which he may desire* When the state offers a full education to every child, it cannot offer religious instruction without imposing the religious views of those who happen to be in authority on all the children who attend those schools and are unable to pay for instruction else­ where. I, therefore, always opposed any teaching of religion in the public schools . . . I might add that my grandfather sacrificed an opportunity to be Governor of Ohio by holding, when he was a judge, that the reading of the Bible in the public schools was un­ constitutional. ' 6$

Quigley, T. J., T,The Relationship between Government and Church Sponsored Education,” Religious Education 43:217-222, July, 194$, ^Taft, R. A., in a letter published in The Catholic Telegraph-Register, Cincinnati, Ohio, February 87"19W>.

231 Over 11,OOP schools in the United States are supported some church group or other. These parochial schools give instruction in doctrinal viewpoints of the particular church. Do you believe that these schools should be allowed to train , 70 our youth? Half of the persons answering this question replied in the affirmative, slightly over one third in the negative, one sixteenth were doubtful and one twelfth expressed no opinion. Considerably less than one half in the larger cities, seven tenths in the middle sized cities, one half in the smaller cities, and three fifths in the rural areas agreed that this system is all right.

Two fifths in the larger

cities, one fifth in the medium cities, one third in the smaller cities, and well over one fourth in the rural areas disagreed.

Doubtful cases were negligible in all groups.

Over one half of the residents in the northern section, less than one half in the central, and three fifths in the southern section agreed.

Three eighths in the northern

section, over one third in the central, and one fourth in the southern section disagreed. Just half of the men and slightly over half of the women agreed.

Over one third of both groups disagreed.

A slightly higher per cent of women over men occurred in those designating doubt. 7°See Questionnaire (12), Appendix A, Part II; also Table IS.

232

TABLE IS. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "OVER 11,000 SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES ARE SUPPORTED BY SOME CHURCH GROUP OR OTHER. THESE PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS GIVE INSTRUCTION IN DOCTRINAL VIEWPOINTS OF THE PARTICULAR CHURCH. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THESE SCHOOLS. SHOULD BE ALLOWEI TO TRAIN OUR YOUTH"?

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

45 71 51 59 39

39 21 32 27 55

7 4 9 5

No opinion

No mark

N

4 4

137 24 43 73 18

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

5 7 5 6

3

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

43 60 50 61 42 56 43 70 73 69 27 61

26 28 43 35 42 28 48 20 9 25 54 23

50 54 60

35 34 40

50 49 54 49 33

50 35 34 33 67

9 9 6 4

9 2 7 4 6 12 9

13

3

10 18 6 11 8

6

2 8

5 10

7

3 2

8 6 2

6 3 8

2 2 8

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

208 82 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 124 123 39 3

233 TABLE 13 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

52 51 40 56 46

31 35 60 3$

70 45

20

Doubt­ No No ful opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other

Not designated

11

82

7

152

38

10

5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

60 15 50 49 48

39 27

10

10

13

3

6

38 15

60

5

30 40 39

10

6 20 10

5

3

20 10

68

16

9

73

62

25

4

6

3 3 4 18 3

61

26

3

3

6

Semi-professional, managers 42

39

10

10

39 26 40

4 3 8 29

8

10 12

75 31 25

11 79

31

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II III

Professional

. . skilled trades IV V VI VII VIII

31

Clerical, Farmers Semi-skilled

Slightly skilled Day laborers Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

46 65

48 57

67 46

33 38

60 60

40

42 55 42 61 55

38 32 38 39 35

2

84

6

31 40 7 6 50

5

14

12

4

5 10

10

30

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

8 10 13

8 2 4

4 1 3

4

4

1

86 82

69 31 79

234 TABLE IS (Continued)

les

No

$7 63

100 6 33 25

51 51 33

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Totals

Personal data

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

7

3 5 13

3 3

1 31 255 S

35 34 33

6 11 11

5 3 11

3

51 51 57 4S 25

34 39 35 29 3d

7 7 3 10

4 3 5 14 25

13

162 67 37 21 S

51

35

6

5

3

295

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

46

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

251 35 9

11

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE 4

Approximately one half of all the age groups agreed* This was slightly higher for the 40 to 60 age group* over one third in each group disagreed.

Slightly

There were no sig­

nificant differences in these groups as related to doubtful opinions* Slightly over half of both Democrats and Republicans agreed.

Slightly less than one third of the Democrats and

slightly over one third of the Republicans disagreed.

The

Democrats showed a slightly larger percentage of doubtful

235 cases over the latter group. Of those who had attended only common school, less than three fifths agreed and less than three tenths disagreed.

Of

those who had attended high school well over two fifths agreed and two fifths disagreed, expressed no opinion.

Nearly one tenth of this group

Of those who had attended college,

less than one half agreed and two fifths disagreed. About one half of the professional group, less than one half of the clerical and skilled group, over three fifths of the slightly skilled and laboring group, two thirds of the farmers and less than one half the housewives gave sanction to the

existence of the parochial school.

However, one third

of the

first group, two fifths of the second, one fifth of the

third, one fourth of the fourth, and three eighths of the last showed disapproval.

There were no significant differences in

those expressing doubt. Of those having no children slightly over two fifths were favorable to the parochial school system, and slightly under two fifths were unfavorable.

Of those having pre-school

children, well over half were favorable and almost one third were unfavorable.

Of those having children in grade school,

over two fifths were favorable and less than two fifths were unfavorable.

Of those with children in high school, three

fifths were favorable and two fifths were unfavorable.

There

were no cases of doubtful or no opinion in this group.

Of

those having children out of school, in excess of one half

were favorable, and over one third were unfavorable. Seven eighths of the Catholics were favorable, but 71 six per cent were unfavorable ! Nearly half of the Protes­ tants itfere favorable and three eights were unfavorable. Exactly 51 per cent of both church and non-church members were favorable.

Thirty five per cent of the former

and 34 per cent of the latter were unfavorable. Half of those who attend church more than ten times a year, along with those who do not attend at all were favorable Nearly three fifths of those who attend less than ten times were favorable.

One third of the most frequent nchurch goers,

two fifths of those who attend 10 to 30 times annually, one third of those who seldom attend, and three tenths of those who do not attend were unfavorable. The United States Supreme Court decision in the Everson case upheld the use of school busses for transporting pupils to parochial schools. Do you believe that transportation, public health service, library service, free text books and recreational programs should be paid for from public funds to 72 aid children in a parochial school? 71 This represents two cases out of 31* ^2See Questionnaire (13), Apoendix A, Part II: also Table 19.

237 TABLE 19. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: ”THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION IN THE EVERSON CASE UPHELD THE USE OF SCHOOL BUSSES FOR TRANSPORTING PUPILS TO PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT TRANS­ PORTATION, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, LIBRARY SERVICE, FREE TEST BOOKS AND RECREATIONAL PROGRAMS SHOULD BE PAID FOR FROM PUBLIC FUNDS TO AID CHILDREN IN A PAROCHIAL SCHOOL?”

Yes

No

10,000/ 2,500-10,000

30 42

54

7

6

46

8

Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

26

58 37 55

4 7

11

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

3

137 24 43 73

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

37

22

9 17

12 6

3

18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II , I II Not designated

48 28 50 54 32

28 19 35 45 44 4 45

43 63 43 35 35 44 52 35

4 7 7 7 19

4 13

8

16

14 5

5 25

18

18 6 10

19

6

2

52 13

9

6 11

3

1

208 82

31 79

4

2

23 43 14

26 4 9

18

46

31 25

21 20 11 16

SEI Male Female Not designated

33

28 20

49 49

11

80

5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

17 29 36 28 33

50

48 49 59 67

33

10 10 2

6 12 4 5

1 2 8

124 123 39 3

23$ TABLE 19 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

50

32

60 60

9 7

10

22

3

3

19 15

6 2

3

40

10

20

10

7

33 15

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

40 19 33

56 41

32 152 5

16

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 years or more

50 29 40

20 50 33 55

3

13

20

3

43 27 34

52 52 32 73 49

10 10 1 16

16

4

9

25

55

43

29 36

20 10 32

60

15

20 12

20 10 3 3

75 31 25

6

1

79

10

6

3

31

42

3

6

54

11

6

6

33 29 17 24

45 43 14 34 52

6 5 14

10

14

20 40

40 40

10

10

3B 24 25 39

43 52 55

30

^3

7 12 10 6 11

7 11 10 10 3

26

11

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laboeres VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc, Not designated

10 29

31

6 14

34 31 40 7

6 50

40

5

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

45

5

3

36 32 69 31 79

239 TABLE 19 (Continued)

Yes

No

£4 24 75

100 10 55 25

30 34 56

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Totals

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No No opinion mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

3 2

1 31 255 3

7 11

2 3 22

251 35 9

2

14

7 3 16 10

3 5 13

162 67 37 21 3

9

7

2

295

3 10

9

51 43 22

10 9

35 22 30 33 33

46 43 33 50

9 10 3

32

50

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

64

Just one half of the persons replying to this question in the present study maintained that transportation, service, and materials should not be furnished to pupils in parochial schools.

One third thought they should, nearly one tenth

were doubtful and nearly one tenth expressed no opinion. Three tenths of those in larger cities, two fifths in medium cities, one fourth in smaller communities, and three eights in farm areas expressed favor,

fell over half of the

first group, well under half of the second group, nearly

240

three fifths of the third group, and three eighths of the last expressed disfavor,

A slightly larger percentage of

doubt came from the farm area as compared with the urban areas. Of the northern section residents, two fifths expressed favor, and well over two fifths, disfavor.

Of those in the

central section, one fourth expressed favor, and over one half disfavor.

In the southern section, one third favored

and one third opposed. One third of the men and well over one fourth of the women expressed favor.

Exactly one per cent, less than one

half of both groups, expressed disfavor. Three tenths of the 20 to 40 age group, one third of the 40 to 60 group, and well over one fourth of the over 60 group expressed favor.

Nearly one half of the first two

groups and nearly three fifths of the latter expressed disfavor. Exactly half of the Democrats, but only slightly over one fifth of the Republicans expressed favor.

One third of

the former and three fifths of the latter expressed disfavor. The percentage of both groups expressing doubt was about the same. Of those having only grade school formal education, two fifths expressed favor and one third, disfavor.

Of those

having high school, one fifth expressed favor, one half disfavor, and one sixth were doubtful.

Of those attending

college, one third expressed favor, and one half, disfavor.

241 Three eighths of the professional group, one third of the clerical and skilled group, nearly a fourth of the slightly skilled and day laborers, over one third of the farmers, and a fourth of the housewives favored parochial schools being allowed to train children.

Approximately one half of all

five groups were unfavorable, the farmers being slightly under a half and the housewives slightly over.

The dif­

ference was due to a slightly greater percentage of undecided opinions in the case of the farmers. Approximately three eighths of those with no children, over one fourth of those with pre-school children, one fourth with grade school, two fifths with high school children, and three tenths with children out of school favored the par­ ochial school's existence.

Over two fifths of the first

group, one half of the second, well over one half of the third, less than one half of the fourth, and a half of the last group were unfavorable. Of the Catholics, over five sixths favored, but 10 per cent were not favorable.

Of the Protestants, one fourth

favored, well over one half did not favor and the rest were doubtful or expressed no opinion. Three tenths of the church members as compared to one third of the non-church members expressed favor.

One half

of the former, but only two fifths of the latter were unfavor­ able.

242 Over one third of those attending church most frequently, over one fifth of those attending 10 to 30 times annually, three tenths of those seldom attending, and one third of those never attending expressed favor to permitting the par­ ochial school to exist.

Considerably less than one half

of the first group, five eighths of the second, over two fifths of the third, and three eighths of the last group were unfavorable. Proposed federal aid to equalize state expenditures for education is really the result of a campaign to secure 73 public funds for parochial schools. Do you agree? Miss Studebaker, N.E.A. president for 1948-1949, speaks for a great educational organization in behalf of Federal aid:

r,Let us seek increased local and state support

for schools and go forward to victory in the federal-aid 74 battle which made such great gains during the past year.”'^ 73 See Questionnaire (16), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 20. 74uThe Editor's Page,” National Education Association Journal 37:334, September, 194^*

243

TABLE 20. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "PROPOSED FEDERAL AID TO EQUALIZE STATE EXPENDITURES FOR EDUCATION IS REALL! THE RESULT OF A CAMPAIGN TO SECURE PUBLIC FUNDS FOR PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. DO YOU AGREE?"

Personal data

Yes

No

20

35 42 53 41 44

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

4

137 24 43 73

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

33 21 21 17

21 4 7 11 11

21 21 14 26 2S

5 11

ia

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IY Y YI VII VIII II X II Not designated

11 14 14 35 22 12 19 20 27 13 23 54

49 35

36 50 52 52

36 2B 7

3

50 29 31

12 5 25 9 19 23 15

44 31 40

9 27 20

3B 20

64

4 2

21 43 4 16 24

12 6

24

14

35

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

19 23

2

20 27

2 5

20a a2 5

27 21 13

2 2 5

6 124 123 39 3

SEX Male Female Not designated

25 11 40

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

100 36

46 32 41

67

33

11

26

14 19 5

244 TABLE 20 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

15 24

32 36 20 30 31

Doubtful

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

7 19

26

d2 5

132

6

3 16 40

6 10

16 40 23 33

10 16 7 3 10 17 23 2$ Id 14

40 29 27 23 20 21 19 12 27 16

10 1

14

21 40 33 40 44 32 44 Id 33

3

20 10 75 31 25 11 79

19

4d

13

16

3

31

29

39

3

29

29

10

20

13 29

d

3$ 4$ 43 43 100 30

40 10

20 11 17 29 2$

13 26

40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less d years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

50 29 27 33 20 16

26 12

36

3

10 3d

15

4

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades I? Farmers ¥ Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

26 20

31 4

d4 31

20 29

3

40

30

26

6

7 6 50

40 20

20 30

20

33 3o 30 29 33

21 13 23 14

26

3 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

a

13 29 36 19 24

3 1 3 1

d6 d2

69 31 79

245 TABLE 20 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

16 27 3$

65 37 50

21 11

41 31 56

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

22 25 16 14 13

Totals

21

Doubt'- No ful opinion

No mark

N

100 16 22 13

3 3

1 31 255 6

14 17

22 23 23

2 3 11

251 35 9

47 30 32 30 36

9 25 22 14

20 16 30 29 36

2 3 5 13

162 67 37 21 6

40

14

22

3

295

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

26

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

Mr* Marston, an officer in N.E.A., says: The nation1s prosperity depends upon the educa­ tion of its people* The nationfs security will be assured only when all citizens are well prepared for the duties of citizenship. A fair chance for all American youth to oecome educated people can be had only through federal aid, without federal control, to supplement state and local school revenues. The action of House majority leaders in the 60th Congress in refusing the lower cnamberan oppor­ tunity to vote on S472-HR2953 was, and remains, a

246

serious blow to our nation1s well being.^ Many agencies and groups are fighting federal aid to education, claiming it is to aid parochial schools. Says an editorial in the New York Times: "Proposed federal aid to equalize state expenditures for education is the center of a campaign to secure public funds for parochial 76 schools." Lawrence Siegel,

77

New York attorney-at-law, believes

that the McCollum case decision makes clear to students of the entire question that it closes the door finally upon all attempts to secure federal and state funds in support of sectarian schools.

This "falls squarely under the ban

of the First Amendment (made applicable to the states by the Fourteenth)," he says.

Such federal or state aid thus, he

thinks, would be unconstitutional. Siegel believes that the McCollum decision is in the interest of religion and not opposed to it.

The fact that

Mrs. McCollum was a professed atheist had nothing to do with the Supreme Court Ts decision, nor does it mean they were giving aid or comfort to atheism.

Says he:

"Religious

^Marston, R. B., "Congress Must Complete the Un­ finished Business in Public Education,l! National Education Association Journal 37:341, September, 194©• ^New York Times, March 6, 1947, p* 27, col. 2. ^Siegel, R. L., "Church-State Separation and the Public Schools," Progressive Education 26:103-111, February, 1949*

247 teaching cannot be a private affair when the state seeks to impose regulations which infringe on it directly, and, contrary-wise, a public affair when it comes to taxing cit­ izens of one faith to aid another, or those of »no faith at all’." Two University of Minnesota authors give an impartial picture: In the past the movements for a union of church and state, whether they have been Catholic or Protes­ tant, have always been inaugurated with mild measures that appeared innocent enough on the surface* The first step has always been a union of divergent church forces, which have taken the initiative in the pre­ liminary steps. After these divergent church forces have gained the necessary strength and popularity, they have sent out feelers toward the political institu­ tions, in hope of obtaining cooperation and political aid for furtherance of church ends. What were first considered voluntary and suggestive measures afterward resolved themselves into ecclesiastical and political coersion.73 We need to be critically aware of how far we are moving toward state aid, they say.

In the case of Cochran

v. Louisiana State Board of Education in 1930, the United States Supreme Court decided that furnishing textbooks to Catholic schools was not a violation of state-church prin­ ciples since the books were only loaned by the state. Then why not furnish athletic materials, buildings, teachers, etc., they ask. Johnson, A. W., and Yost, F. H., Separation of Church and State in the United States, p. 99•

24# Again: If the pupil may fulfill its duty to the state by attending a parochial school, it is difficult to see why the state may not fulfill its duty to the pupil by encouraging it by all suitable means I The state is under a duty to ignore the child*s creed, but not its need. It cannot control what one child may think, but it can and must do all it can to teach the child how to think.** They conclude: The principle of separation of church and state and the recognition of personal liberties expressed particularly in the First Amendment to the Federal Constitution have been successfully applied in leg­ islation and through litigation in the courts. Amer­ ican insistence upon separation of church and state has been maintained in a remarkable manner. Only one fifth of those reacting to question 20 on the questionnaire in this study agreed with the accusation that proposed federal aid to education is really a campaign to secure public funds for parochial schools.

Two fifths

disagreed, one seventh were doubtful, over one fifth ex­ pressed no opinion and three per cent did not mark this question at all. One fifth in the larger cities, one third in the med­ ium cities, one fifth in the smaller communities, and one fifth in the farm area agreed. ^Ibid., pp. 247-250. ^Ibid., p. 257.

One third of the first group,

249

two fifths of the second, two fifths of the third, and two fifths of the fourth disagreed. In the northern section, less than one fifth agreed and two fifths disagreed with one seventh doubtful and one fifth expressing no opinion.

This same proportion of responses

occurred in both the central and southern sections with very slight variations. One fourth of the men, but only one tenth of the women agreed, while over two fifths of the former and only three tenths of the latter disagreed.

Only one tenth of the men

as compared with over a fourth of the women expressed doubt. One seventh of the Democrats and one fourth of the Republicans agreed.

One half of the former and slightly

over one third of the latter disagreed.

Less than ten per

cent of the former and over one fourth of the latter ex­ pressed doubt. About one tenth of the 20 to 40 age group, one fourth of the 40 to 60 age group and well over one third of the older age group agreed.

Nearly one half of the first group,

a third of the second and two fifths of the third disagreed. Two fifths of those having only grade school edu­ cation, one fourth of those having high school, and over one fifth of those having college agreed that federal aid proposals are really a campaign to turn public monies to parochial schools.

One tenth of the first group, two fifths of the

250 second and three eighths of the last disagreed* One fourth of all the professional, clerical, skilled and farm groups agreed.

None of the slightly skilled and

day laborers, and only one tenth of the housewives agreed. Two fifths of the professionals and clericals, four fifths of the slightly skilled and day laborers,

Si

one half of the

farmers, and three tenths of the housewives disagreed. Of those having no children, one fifth agreed, over one half disagreed, one seventh were of no opinion*

Of

those having pre-school children, one tenth agreed, three eighths disagreed and three tenths were of no opinion*

Of

those having children in school, one fourth agreed, three tenths disagreed, and over one fourth expressed no opinion. Of those having children out of school, one fourth agreed, over one third disagreed, and one fourth expressed no opin­ ion.

The doubtful cases were about in the same proportion

in each group. One sixth of the Catholics and one fifth of the Protes­ tants agreed.

Nearly two thirds of the Catholics, but only

slightly above one third of the Protestants disagreed.

Over

two fifths of the Protestants were either doubtful or did not express an opinion,

SiOnly combined.

13 cases are represented in the two groups

251 One fifth of the church members and one fourth of the non church members agreed*

Two fifths of the former and

three tenths of the latter disagreed.

There were only slight

differences in these two groups as to doubtful cases and those expressing no opinion. One fourth of those who attend church most frequently, one fourth of those who go less frequently, one sixth of those who seldom go, and one seventh of those who do not attend agree with the accusation.

Nearly one half of the

first group, three tenths of the second, one third of the third, and three eighths of the fourth disagreed*

Doubt

was expressed by one tenth of the first group, one fourth of the second, one fifth of the third and one seventh of the last group.

What Gan the Churches Do?

The accusation is made that exclusion of religion from the public schools resulted from sectarian influence.

Says

the American Council on Education:

The exclusion of religious teaching was not brought about so much by secularizing influences and the scientific attitude as many would have it be­ lieved— the exclusion of religion from our schools is largely a result of sectarian conflict.

252

It has of course not been excluded from all schools, but the present trend means it is being excluded from more and more. ^ The Council goes on to say: The educators who are fighting sectarian relig­ ious education are those who identify their own phil­ osophy as ultimate truth. The natural outcome of an unwarranted exercise of a freedom is to have it taken away. If academic freedom of testimony to one!s own conviction should be restrained, American life and education would be immeasurably poorer. This indeed would be un-American as positive religious dogmatism. Indeed in,the long run it must be more vigorously resented. When will the churches realize that sectarianism serves to divide and has no place in the public schools? If pastors should devote a morning service to the topic. The Church1s Responsibility for the Religious In­ struction for Children and Youth,Tt would this help solve the problem of religious education in your community? ^ Less than half of those replying believed the above program would help solve the problem of religious education in their respective communities.

However, only one eighth

were sure that it would not, while one fourth were doubtful and the remainder expressed no opinion. American Council on Education, The Relation of Religion to Public Education, pp. 6-7. 83Ibid., pp. 20-21. dJ

See Questionnaire (2$), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 21.

253

TABLE 21. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "IF PASTORS SHOULD DEVOTE A MORNING SERVICE TO THE TOPIC, 'THE CHURCH'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH,' WOULD THIS HELP SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN YOUR COMMUNITY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

42 42 39 43 $9

10 8

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

9 23

27 33 32

10 7

12

18 11

10

7

11 17

137 24 43 73

18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN VIrHICH LOC ATED I II III I? V VI VII VIII IS X XI Not designated

39

46 43 54

13 9 7

8

42

19

40 29

16 29

40 36

40 55

62

9 19 13 8

26 21 43 19 19 36 24 30 55 31 17 15

4

17

12

12

7 4

6 4 5 15 15

15 13 4

23 43 14

26

6 4 15

31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

14 15

SEX Male Female Not designated

49 32 60

14 11

22 33 20

8 9

7 16 20

208 82 5

50

33 19 8 8

17 27 28 15

6 6 23

10 10 8

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

40 48 46 100

254 TABLE 21 (Continued)

Yes

Personal data

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

39 47 100 13 54

16 12

32 21

7 9

5 11

25 5

36

26

13 5

13 10

30 13

5

18 51

20 12 10 20 27 13

20 21 20 20 30 26 29 20 27 25

15 20 5 3 8 9 3

9 6 24 18 9

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

55

13

23

3

6

31

46

13

39

49

13 19 13

17 23 2a 43

10 10 13

50 6

34

6

30

20 10

20

10

5 10

21 6 9 13 10

31 26 29 29 16

9 7 3

7 11 12 6 7

66 62

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

50 47 53 55 30 44 52

26

13 27

10

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

46 41 43 33 30 60 50

31 12

64

7 14 17 20

31 40 7 6 50

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

31

48 4$ 52 57

9

69 31 79

255 TABLE 21 (Continued)

Yes

No

1000 29 46 3$

23 12 13

39 23 3$

6

44 51 33

14 3 11

2B 6 22

6 20

7 20 33

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

44 43 54 43 25

14 15 5 10 13

27 2a 24 5 25

6 9 11 14 13

10 162 5 67 5 37 2a 21 a 25

Totals

45

13

25

a

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

a

3 10 13

1 31 255

a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

10

295

Approximately two fifths of the residents in all four sizes of communities believed that this action would help solve the problem.

One tenth of the urban population, and

almost one fourth rural believed that it would not.

Doubt

was registered by one fourth of those in the larger commun­ ities, one third in the medium and smaller communities, and one sixth in the rural areas. Considerably less than one half of both the northern and central section residents, but only one third of the

256

southern section answered yes.

One seventh of the northern,

one sixth of the central, and one tenth of the southern answered no.

One fourth of the first two groups and over

one third of the latter were doubtful. About one half of the men and one third of the women answered yes; one seventh of the former and one tenth of the latter, no, over one fifth of the former and one third of the latter, doubtful. Two fifths of the group 20 to 40 and nearly one half of the groups over 40 believed this would help solve the religious education problem.

One fifth of the former

and one twelfth of the latter believed it would not.

As

to those expressing doubt, well over a fourth were under age 60 and about one seventh over age 60. Two fifths of the Democrats, nearly one half of the Republicans, over one half of those not designating polit­ ical affiliation, and all five of the Prohibitionists an­ swered yes.

One sixth of the Democrats and one eighth of

the Republicans answered no.

Nearly one third of the

Democrats and one fifth of the Republicans were doubtful. One half of those who had attended only grade school, one half who had attended high school, and three eighths who had attended college asserted belief in the plan.

One

tenth of the first group, one seventh of the second, and one sixth of the last asserted they did not believe in it.

Near­

ly one fourth of all groups expressed doubt, the percentage

257 being slightly smaller in the first category. Slightly over one half of the professional classes, less than one half the clerical and skilled workmen, two fifths of the common laborers, one half of the farmers, and three tenths of the housewives expressed belief in the benefit of the plan explained.

One eighth of the first two

groups, approximately a fourth of the third and fourth, and one tenth of the fifth did not believe in the plan.

Three

tenths of the first, nearly one fourth of the second, over one third of the third, one fourth of the fourth, and two thirds of the fifth were doubtful. Of those having no children, one third answered yes, one fifth answered no, and one third were doubtful.

Of

those having children, all ages, one half answered yes, one tenth answered no, and three tenths were doubtful. Three tenths of the Catholics and nearly one half of the Protestants answered yes.

Nearly one fourth of the

Catholics, but only one eighth of the Protestants answered no.

Two fifths of the former, but only one fourth of the

latter expressed doubt. Forty four per cent of the church members as against 51 per cent of the non-church members believed the plan would be effective.

One seventh of the former, but only

three per cent of the latter were sure it would not be effective. Over one fourth of the Catholics but only six per cent of the Protestants were doubtful.

25$ Well over two fifths of all persons, regardless of whether they went to church frequently or not at all be­ lieved that the plan would help*

The single exception here

is found in those who seldom attended, who reported over one half*

One seventh of those who attended church over

ten times annually, one twentieth of those who attended less than ten times, and one tenth of those who did not attend at all, have no credence in the effectiveness of the plan*

Approximately one fourth of those who attended church,

but only one twentieth of those who did not attend church were doubtful. What has your church or any church in your community done in regard to providing a more adequate program of religious instruction for the children and youth of your community? ^ This question was placed on the questionnaire for a two-fold reason: (1) To discover what the churches in the various communities were doing to stimulate and guide the program of religious education for youth (2) To encourage thought along this line in the hope that a more satisfactory method for handling of the program of religious education will be formulated, and inaugurated, in the various communities by interested people . g% e e Questionnaire (29), Appendix A, Part II.

259

The reactions to this question were very disappoint­ ing, the majority of the questionnaires being returned with this question completely blank or with the scribbled comment, "Haven1t had time to think," or "Nothing adequate," or "Donft know." However, some did give brief answers.

Following is

a summary of the suggestions: (1) Daily vacation Bible schools (2) Summer camps (3) Sunday night youth meetings for religious, social and recreational activities (4) Sunday morning "sermonettes" for the children (5) Weekly Saturday afternoon instruction class for

juvenile members, sponsored by the church (6) Christian teacher training schools (7) Organized "louth-for-Christ" groups

(8) "The giving of religious tests by ministers." Would the churches in your community cooperate in creating a Community Board for carrying on a religious ed­ ucation program satisfactory to the churches, and satisfying the legal requirements as set forth in the United States Supreme Court decision in the McCollum case? ^

$6

No explanation was given by this person who identi­ fied himself as a principal in Newton county.

£7 See Questionnaire (21), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 22.

260

TABLE 22. OPINIONS. STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "WOULD THE CHURCHES IN TOUR COMMUNITY COOPERATE IN CREATING A COMMUNITY BOARD FOR CARRYING ON A RELIGIOUS EDUCATION PROGRAM SATISFACTORY TO THE CHURCHES, AND SATISFYING THE LEC-AL REQUIREMENTS AS SET FORTH IN THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION IN THE McCOLLUM CASE?"

Personal data

les

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

7 8 5 4 6

137 24 43 73 16

13

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

46 37 37 43 61

6 12 6 11

24 37 19 16 17

18 17

26 29 6

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHIGH LOG A'CED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IS I XI Not designated

35 32 6A 19 65 52 43 45 55 36 54 23

46 35 20

7 15 3 12 5 5 9 13 a 15

22 42 21 31 3 20 33 10 16 6 13 36

26 26 7 31 19 16 10 35

7 7 20

21 23 40

21 22 20

4

36 17 15

4 10 10 5 16 6 6 6

SEX Male Female Not designated

4 12

206

62 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

62 44 41 44 67

5 6 10 33

19 27 20

17 27

16 16

5 7 6

6 124 123 39 3

261

TABLE 22 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATION Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

23 21

4 6

6

24 16 40 56 13

31 15

6

30 41 40 40 30 51 53 43 36 43

3 7 5 10 7 3 12 9 6

50 32 13 25 30 16 13 24 27 23

20 16 40 25 20 20 16 12 27 19

45

6

26

13

52

3

26

19

42 52 43 71 67 26

6 6 5

19 10 25

26 26

3

30

60 40

20 30

20

30

51 50 45 45 43

6 4 10 13 6

16 23 20 29 30

14 20 23 13 19

41 45 60 13 56

7 6

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

9

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

10

31

6 5 10 7 10 4

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

20 14 33 20

31 5 6 3 14 14

64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

13 4 1 2

66 62 69 31 79

262 TABLE 22 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

19 4$ 25

13

47

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE

100 4$ IS 3$

10 23 13

1 10 31 6 255 8

20

20

6 251

26

7 3

37

44

22

31

22

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

50 45 30 29 25

7 9 3

Totals

44

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

6 25

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

3 11

35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

Dean J, B. Edmonson summer of 194$•

17

25

32 3$ 25

19 id 35 24 13

7

22

21

22

7 162 6 67 37

10 13

21 8

6 295

raised this question in the

Smith City was represented as a hypothetical

city of 4,000 people.

At a dinner meeting and subsequently,

the following questionsi were riased : Could the churches of Smith City furnish a more adequate and effective program of religious instruction that would serve more of the boys and girls of our community? dd

Edmonson, J. B,, Religious Instruction in Smith City," Religious Education 43:229-233, July-August, 194$.

263 What might be identified as the major ob­ jectives of a plan for promoting greater cooperation among the churches of Smith City in matters of religious instruction? To what extent would the cooperative program restrict the freedom of the several churches in their instructional programs? What are some of the cooperative activities that might contribute in Smith City to the attain­ ment of the objectives defined at the previous meetings? In his conclusion, Dean Edmonson gave four very stimulating questions for a community which would be inter­ ested in development of more effective programs of religious instruction and for deepening the interest of children, youth, and adults in such programs.

The four questions

raised are: 1.

2.

What favorable or unfavorable conditions affecting religious instruction in Smith City are to be found in your community? Which of the cooperative activities of Smith City would be desirable and feasible in your community?

3*

Do you believe that a Board of Religious Instruction such as described for Smith City is needed in your community?

4.

If you are convinced that a Board of Relig­ ious Instruction is needed in your com­ munity, what steps^should be taken to se­ cure its creation?^'

On the questionnaire in our study, well under half of

264 the total number of persons believed that the churches in their community could and would cooperate in such a plan* Only seven per cent said they would not, but well over one fifth were doubtful, and an equal number expressed no opinion. In the larger cities, nearly one half answered in the affirmative, one fourth were doubtful and less than one fifth expressed no opinion*

In the middle-sized cities, three

eighths said yes, none said no, three eighths were doubtful and about one sixth expressed no opinion*

In the smaller

communities, three eighths believed in the possibilities of the plan, one eighth did not, one fifth were doubtful, and one fourth expressed no opinion.

In the rural areas, over

two fifths said yes, one twelfth said no, one sixth were doubtful and only six per cent failed to express an opinion. Well over two fifths in the northern section, nearly one half in the central, and nearly one half in the southern replied yes* all sections.

Very few scattered no responses occurred in One third in the northern section, one seventh

in the central, and one fifth in the southern section were doubtful.

One fourth of those in the northern section, one

fourth in the central, and only one seventh in the southern section expressed no opinion* Nearly half the men and one third the women answered yes.

Seven per cent of each answered no*

Over one fourth

of the former and nearly a fourth of the latter were doubtful.

265 Approximately one fifth of both expressed no opinion. Approximately two fifths of all age groups expressed belief in the possibilities of the plan. cent of each group expressed disbelief.

Five to ten per One fifth of the

younger group, one fourth of the second, and one fifth of the over 60 age group were doubtful.

Over one fourth of the

under 40 group, and approximately one sixth of those over 40 expressed no opinion. The Democrats and Republicans show no significant differences between their groups nor with the percentages for the totals. About one third of those with only elementary school training, two fifths of those with high school and well under one half of those with college answered yes.

Three

per cent of the first group and approximately one seventh of the other two answered no.

One fifth of all groups showed

both doubt and no opinion. Slightly over one half of those with no children and slightly under one half of those having children believed the churches would cooperate.

Six per cent of the former

as against about eight per cent of the latter believed they would not.

About one sixth of the former and one fourth of

the latter expressed doubt or no opinion. Half of the Catholics, and only one sixth of the Protestants were doubtful.

Half of the Protestants, but

only one fifth of the Catholics expressed faith in working

266

out such a plan.

Nearly one fourth of the Protestants ex­

pressed no opinion as compared with one tenth of the Catholics. Nearly one half of the church members, but only one fourth of the non-church members expressed credence in the plan. One half of those attending church more than 30 times annually, less than half of those attending ten to 30 times, three tenths of those attending less than ten times and less than three tenths of those not attending expressed a positive opinion.

One sixth of the first, over one fifth of the

second, nearly a third of the third, and three eighths of the fourth were doubtful.

The positive answers showed a

direct relation to frequency of church attendance and the doubtful ones an inverse relation. Should this board (Item 21) work out a satisfactory system to carry on a continuous survey of the community to discover boys and girls who are not enrolled in church schools.

(Sunday or weekday)?^

Two thirds of those replying believed that a system of continuous survey should be carried on.

About one twelfth

thought it should not, and one twelfth were doubtful.

About

one seventh expressed no opinion. 9°See_Questionnaire (22), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 23. Since there is such a large positive percentage on the totals and the other four opinions are of such small percentages, only the positive will be discussed except in exceptional cases.

267

TABLE 23. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: ♦'SHOULD THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) WORK OUT A SATISFACTORY SYSTEM TO CARRY ON A CONTINUOUS SURVEY OF THE COMMUNITY TO DIS­ COVER BOYS AND GIRLS WHO ARE NOT ENROLLED IN CHURCH SCHOOLS (SUNDAY OR WEEKDAY)?"

Personal data

Yes

No

63

12 8 2 5 6

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

62 67 70 $9

8 12 14 5 6

17 12 5 11

2 137 4 24 12 43 3 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II I XI Not designated

60 49 86 54 77 80 62

9 7 12 6

13 21 7 4 3 4 5 5 27

17 14

9 7

27 6 8 14 30

4 1 8 5

60

14 5

73 75 71 69

15 15

4 8

25 10 8

9 6

9 6 20

12 16 20

9 9 5

17 15 15 5

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

68 62 60

1 10

208

82 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

63 61 67 77 100

13 5 5

6 2 124 4 123 8 39 3

266

TABLE 23 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

5 10

11 7

22 9

13 6

19 3

31 10

70 66 67 75

10 5 13

20

60

20 7 3 12 16 11

13

25 10 11 6 20 16 11

6

16

19

6

10

16

14 3 3 14 17 6

10 3 5

15 16 13

1

17 6

12

14

10

10

10 11 4 6 6

15 6 4 13 5

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

60 66 100 36 79

2 6

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

65 64 56 64 62

24

9 6 12

3

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

3

31

3 10 6

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 55 Semi-professional, Managers 66 III Clerical, skilled trades 60 IV Farmers 77 V Semi-skilled 75 VI Slightly skilled 66 VII Day laborers 67 VIII Housewives 62 Students, retired, 100 etc* Not designated 60

31

5

64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

56 70 66 71 75

14 12 16 10 10

5 1 7 4

66 62 69 31 79

269 TABLE 23 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

29 72 33

13 7 13

27 5 36

100 29 11 13

67 63 66

8 9

7 17 11

14 11 11

3 251 35 11 9

71 67

7 7 14 5 13

12 12 30

4 162 67 3 37 21 5 8 13

8

14

1 3 31 4 255 8

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

71 50

5 10 11 19 13

Totals

67

8

46

13

4

295

About five eighths of the cities of over 10,000 in­ habitants, as well as those of 2,500 to 10,000, slightly over two thirds of the communities under 2,500, and seven tenths of the rural areas believed such a plan should be followed. Slightly less than two thirds of the residents in northern Indiana, three fourths in the central section, and slightly more than two thirds in the southern section were in favor of the continuous survey plan.

270

Three fifths of the age group 20 to 40, two thirds of the 40 to 60 group, and over three fourths of the group over 60 were favorable.

Three fifths of the Democrats as compared

with over two thirds of the Republicans favored this plan. All five of the Prohibitionists were favorable.

Nearly four

fifths of those who did not designate their political affil­ iations were favorable. Well over two thirds of those attending only grade school, well over seven tenths of those who had attended high school, and slightly under two thirds of those attending college were in favor of the plan of continuous survey. About five eighths of the professional persons, the same proportion of the clerical and skilled tradesmen, over one fourth of the farmers, over three fourths of the day laborers, and five eighths of the housewives agreed with the plan. Well over half of those with no children, seven tenths of those with pre-school children, well over two thirds with grade school children, seven tenths with children in high school, and three fourths with children out of school felt the plan of continuous survey desirous. About three tenths of the Catholics, and over seven tenths of the Protestants agreed with the plan.

Of the

Catholics who did not answer yes, about an equal number answered no and doubtful.

Two thirds of the church members

271

and five eighths of the non-church members gave a favorable response. Seven tenths of those attending church most frequently, two thirds of those attending less frequently, less than half of those who seldom attend, but over seven tenths of those who do not attend favor the plan. Should this board (Item 21) promote community confer­ ences on various problems relative to religious education, 91 especially conferences of workers in the church schools? Over seven tenths of the people felt that workers1 conferences and the like would be a responsibility of this community board.

Five per cent felt it should not.

per cent were uncertain.

Seven

Approximately one eighth expressed

no opinion. Over seven tenths in the larger communities, five eighths of those next in size, nearly three fourths of the smaller ones and two thirds of the farm areas favored the plan. This plan was most favored in the central section, with over three fourths for it.

Slightly less than three

fourths of the southern group favored it and hardly two thirds of the northern section showed favorable opinions.

Three

fourths of the men and five eighths of the women felt that these churchworker conferences would oe a function of this board. 91 See Questionnaire (23), Appendix A, part II; also Table 24; also the note after the preceding footnote.

272

TABLE 2k. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "SHOULD THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) PROMOTE COMMUNITY CONFERENCES ON VARIOUS PROBLEMS RELATIVE TO RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY CONFERENCES OF WOHKBBS IN THE CHURCH SCHOOLS?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

71 62 74 67 39

4 4 7 7

7 17 10 11

16 3 9 14

3 137 3 24 9 43 3 73 13

13 19 7 23 10 3 10 20

9 7

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN THIGH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

60 60 79 69 67 30 67 30 73 69 32 54

7

17 7 14

4 3 4 14

13 4 3

4 15

13 13 4 3

5 4

3 3

11 17 40

6 5 3

12 4 5

13 15 10

9

19 10 3

4 6 4 5

15

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

75

62 60

2 10

203 32 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59. Over 60 Not designated

100 67 72 74 100

6 2 124 5 123 3 39 3

273 TABLE 24 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

66 74 100 44 77

5 5

6 5

21 9

6 3

19 13

31 6

3 13

24

2 7

62 152 5 lo 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 70 62 67 75 70 73 6$ 72 55 7$

30 3

Professional 74 Semi-professional, managers 71 III Clerical, 66 skilled trades IV Fanners 77 66 V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled 100 100 VII Day laborers 62 VIII Housewives Students, retired, 100 etc. Not designated 70

7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years lo or more

5 20

6

20 9 16 20 16 6

9 3 9

6

10 6 13 4 16 6

6

3

13

3

10

3

16

6 3

12 6 6

13 13 16

6

4

6

14

14

10

20

5 4 3 6 6

9 4 7 13 £ >

4

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

31 31

1

64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

65 62 66 66 75

15 10 15 13 10

6 1 7 2

66 62 69 31 79

274 TABLE 24 (Continued)

Yes

No

45 75 50

16 3 13

16 7

72 63 7$

4 11

a 6

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

73 73 54 76 63

2 7 5 10 13

Totals

71

5

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 19 11 36

1 3 31 4 255 a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

12 20 11

11

9 3 14 5

10 13 27 5 13

5 162 3 67 37 21 5 a 13

7

13

4

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTE:NDANCE

4

295

Two thirds of the 20 to 40 age group, over seven tenths of the 40 to 60 age group, and three fourths of the over 60 expressed the same opinion. This opinion was shared by two thirds of the Demo­ crats, three fourths of the Republicans, all the Prohibition­ ists, and over three fourths of those who did not check their political affiliation. A favorable reaction is shown by more than three

275 fourths of those who had attended high school as compared with only two thirds of those who had attended only grade school and those who had attended college# Well up to three fourths of professional persons, two thirds of the skilled tradesmen, all of the common laborers, over three fourths of the farmers, and approximately five eighths of the housewives agreed to the plan* Nearly two thirds of those with no children, over four fifths with pre-school children, two thirds of those with children in grade and high school, and three fourths of those with children out of school favored the plan. Only 45 pen cent of the Catholics as compared to three fourths of the Protestants showed themselves in favor.

Over

seven tenths of the church members and five eighths of the non-church members assented. Nearly three fourths of those who attended church at least ten times annually, only half of those who attend less than ten times, but more than three fourths of those who do not attend church at all favored the church-worker conference plan. Would there be a definite advantage if this board (Item 21) set up a system for maintaining a continuous attendance record and a TTresult-of-instruction” record for each child enrolled?^2

92

See Questionnaire (24), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 25.

276

TABLE 25. OPINIONS STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION "WOULD THERE BE A DEFINITE ADVANTAGE IF THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) SET UP A SYSTEM FOR MAINTAINING A CONTINUOUS ATTENDANCE RECORD AND A 'RESULT-OF-INSTRUCTIOH' RECORD FOR EACH CHILD ENROLLED?"

Personal data

Yes

No

60 67 74 67 39

14 6 2 7 6

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

9 17 12 10 6

13 4 2 12

4 4 9

14

13 9 19 10 6 10 15

9

14 7 10 24 10 5 27

9 7 7 3 6 6 5 5 9

19 15

6 15

13 6 6

31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

66 61 60

10 9

12 7 20

6 15 20

3 206 62 9 5

67 66

17 12 7 10

10 12 10

17 6 12 6

6 2 124 5 123 10 39 3

137 24 43 4 73 16

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

65 56 79

9 14

64

7 3

71 60 62 75 55 67 67 62

14

4

23 43 14

26

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

64 61 100

277 TABLE 25 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

66 66 SO 36 74

9 11 20 13 3

70 66 73

30

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

6 10

16 7

25 15

25 5

62 152 5 16 40 3

S 13

24

3

4 6

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

65 60 67 77

64 55 66

5

4

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

10

6

3

31

10

13

13

20 3

10 19 10

il 13 13

2 3 S

10

12

13 10

12 9 IS

30 12 19 S IS s

6

3

25 10 s

11 3

16 19

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 74 Semi-professional, managers 65 III Clerical, skilled trades 57 61 IV Farmers V Semi-skilled 70 VI Slightly skilled 71 100 VII Day laborers VIII Housewives 64 Students, retired, 100 etc. Not designated so

31

29 S

6

10

10

12 13 9 3 6

17 6 7 16 9

64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

55 72 67 74 71

9 7 12 6 10

7 1 6 4

66 82

69 31 79

276

TABLE 2^ (Continued) Tes

No

39 70 50

19 6 13

19 9 25

66 60 76

6 23

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

69 61 54 76 63

Totals

66

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No No opinion mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 19 6 13

1 3 31 5 255 6

11 9

10 9 11

5 251 35 11 9

6 9 16 10 13

6 16 14 10

9 10 16

6 162 3 67 37 21 5 6 13

10

11

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

13 10

4

295

Two thirds of the ones replying to this question felt that such records should be kept*

One tenth felt that they

should not, one tenth were doubtful and one tenth marked no opinion. Three fifths of those in larger cities, two thirds in the medium sized cities, three fourths in the small commun­ ities and two thirds in the rural sections sanctioned the keeping of records as outlined. Seven tenths of those in the central section, two

279 thirds in the northern section, and five eighths in the southern section were favorable to keeping such records.

Over

two thirds of the women and three fifths of the men gave assent to the record plan. In excess of two thirds of the 20 to 40 group, less than that amount of the 40 to 60 group, and three fifths of those over 60 showed approval of the plan. Exactly the same proportion, almost two thirds, of both Democrats and Republicans were in approval of the plan. Two thirds of those who had attended only grade school, two thirds of those who had attended high school, and two thirds of those who had attended college were favorable to the keeping of records. Two thirds of those in the professions, five eighths of the clerical group, four fifths of the slightly skilled and laboring classes, three fifths of the farmers, and over five eighths of the housewives were in favor. Seven tenths of those having children, all ages, with little variation among the various categories, were in favor of the keeping of records.

This compares with the 55 per

cent count of those having no children. Seven tenths of the Protestants, as compared with two fifths of the Catholics, showed themselves favorable.

The

balance of the Catholics divided equally voting nearly one fifth each for no, no opinion, and doubtful.

260

Three fifths of the non-church members and two thirds of the church members gave the yes response. Nearly seven tenths of those attending church most often, three fifths of the less often attendants, only some­ what over one half of those who seldom go, and three fourths of those who do not go voiced favorable opinions. Should this board (Item 21) prepare and direct a continuous program to educate adults concerning the importance 93 of religious instruction? Nearly three fourths of the total number of respon­ dents believed in the value of a program for adult educa­ tion concerning the importance of religious education.

Five

per cent did not believe in it, five per cent were doubtful, and nearly one eighth of those replying expressed no opinion. Seven tenths of those living in larger cities, slightly under five eighths of those in the middle sized cities, four fifths of those in the small communities, and seven tenths of the rural residents expressed a positive reaction to the question. See Questionnaire (25), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 26.

261

TABLE 26. OPINIONS, STATED IN PERCENTAGE, TO THE QUESTION: "SHOULD THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) PREPARE AND DIRECT A CONTINUOUS PROGRAM TO EDUCATE ADULTS CONCERNING THE IMPORTANCE OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION?"

Personal data

les

No

71 62 01 71 94

6 6 2 7

Doubt­ No No ful opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000/ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

5 17 2 4 6

14 6 10 15

4 4 5 ?

137 24 43 73 16

13 7

13 14

17 2

23 43 14

14

35 6 12 5 15

4 6 4 10

26

6 6 10

9

16

4 15

2 6

6 4

6 5

12 12 40

3 206 6 62 5

5 7 5

13 12 13

6 2 124 3 123 10 39 3

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOC ATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX I XI Not designated

56 70 93 50 77 76 62 65 73 67 61 77

7 7 12 3

13 13

31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

74 73 60

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

100 73 73 67 100

6 r i 5

282

TABLE 26 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

71 73 100 63 62

4 7

4 7

16 10

6 5

5

31 3

70 79 73 60 90 77

30

Doubt­ No No ful opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

62 4 4 152 5 16 40 5

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

64 72 55 75

16 13 40

5

5

9

11 6 16 16 6

16 3

10 36 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

10

3

10

3

31

6

6

13

10 3

7 6 3

2

6

13 13 23 14 17 6

10

10

5 5 1 10 6

9 1 4 10 4

13 1 3 4 9 6

10 5 6 6

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 74 Semi-professional, managers 74 III Clerical, skilled trades 67 IV Farmers 74 V Semi-skilled 70 VI Slightly skilled 66 VII Day laborers 64 VIII Housewives 76 Students, retired, etc. 100 Not designated 60

31 4 3 5 6

64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

69 61 70 74 77

13 12 19 6 6

5 1 6 4

66 62 69 31 79

283 TABLE 26 (Continued)

Yes

No

51 77 50

13 4 13

13 5

75 60 76

5 11

6 3

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

77 69 81 63

2 12 5 10 13

5 6 8 5

Totals

73

5

5

Personal data

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

100 16 11 36

1 6 31 4 255 8

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

11

4

26 22

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

62

11 12 24 13 12

5 162 3 67 37 21 5 8 13 4

295

Two thirds of those living in northern Indiana, four fifths of those living in the central section and nearly three fourths of those living in the southern section were positive in their reply. Practically three fourths of both men and women agreed to the value of this system of adult education. Not quite three fourths of those up to age oO, and two thirds of those over age 60 sanctioned this plan of action.

284 There was just two per cent points difference between the yes-responses of the Democrats and of the Republicans, the former being 71, and the latter 73.

All the Prohib­

itionists and over four fifths of those who did not express political affiliations gave the same answer. Three fourths of those who had attended only grade school, the same fractional part of those who had gone to high school, and a very slightly smaller amount of those who had attended college answered this question in the affirma­ tive. Three fourths of the professional groups, two thirds of those in clerical and skilled labor, five sixths of common laborers, three fourths of the farmers, and in excess of three fourths of the housewives agreed with adult-education program.

Seven tenths of those with no children, four fifths

with pre-school children, seven tenths with grade school children, three fourths with high school, and over three fourths with children out of school are in favor of the pro­ posed system. Half of the Catholics and over three fourths of the Protestants approve of this.

Three fourths of the church

members and three fifths of the non-church raembers were in favor.

Over three fourths of those who attend church most

frequently, three fifths of those who attend less frequently, five eighths of those who seldom go to church, and over four fifths of those who never go put their stamp of approval on this type of adult-education.

285

In items 21-25 above we used the term church-school to designate any agency for giving religious instruction through the week as well as on Sunday. Check the plan you feel would be most effective in your community for the operation of church schools. a.

Approximately one hour on Sunday, none other

b.

Approximately one hour on Sunday and one hour

during the week c.

Approximately one hour on Sunday; 2 to 5 hours

during the week Two or more hours on Sunday; one hour during the week e* Two or more hours on Sunday; 2 to 5 hours during the week f. Five to ten hours weekday instruction; none on Sunday g* h.

No religious instruction at all 94 No opinion

*^See Questionnaire (26), Appendix A, Part II; also Table 27.

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(0,3 0 0 pp. Parker, Samuel C., The History of Modern Elementary Education, Ginn and Co., Boston, 1912} 505 pp.

31$

Pearson, I. F., ”Far Peaching Decision,” Illinois Education 36:222, April, 194$. Poore, Benjamin Perley, The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters and Other Organic Laws of the United States, U. S. Government Printing Office, d/asEIngton, D. 0., 1$76, 2 vols. Powers, Francis J*, Religious Liberty and the Police Power of the State, Catholic University of America"Press, Washington, D. C., 194$, 76 pp. Price, John M*, editor, Introduction to Religious Education, The Macmillan Co., I\(ew 'York,"1.W32, 489 pp. ,lProtestants Come Clean I Released Time Case,” Christian Century, 65:591-692, June 16, 194$. "Public Aid to Establishment of Religion," University of Pennsylvania Law Review 96:230-239, December, 1^47. Quigley, (Rev.) T, J. rtThe Relationship Between Government and Church Sponsored Education,” Religious Education 43:217-222, July-August, 194$. ■?Religion is Taught in a State University, cir., University oT Towa, Iowa City, 1949, 2 pp. "Religious Education and the Public Schools,” High School Journal 31:99-111, May, 194$. Religious Education and the Public Schools: A Symposium,” Religious Education 43:193-22$, July, 194$. Religious Education Association, Findings of the Annual Meeting of the Religious Education Association, reported in Religious Education 17:266-268, December, 1922. Remmlein, M. T. llThe Legal Situation Resulting from the Recent Supreme Court Decision,” Religious Education 43:211216, July-August, 194$. Ryan, W. C#, "Education and the United States Supreme Court,” High School Journal 31:97-9$, May, 194$. School Laws of Indiana, State of Indiana, Department of Public Instruction, Bulletin No. 13d, Indianapolis, 1946, 100$ pp.

319 Schug, (Rev.) Phillip, The Case of Mrs. V, McCollum vs. the Champaign, Illinois School”Board, The Chicago Action Council, Chicago, 194$, S pp. Shaver, Erwin L., tfThe Movement for Weekday Religious Ed­ ucation,n Religious Education 41:6-16, January, 1946, “Weekday Religious Education is Now on its Own,” International Journal of Religious Education, 24:4-6,

'June," m ? : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - “New Policies for Old Purposes,” International Journal of Religious Education 23:10-12, May, i949. Shedd, C. P., Religion in the State University, Hazen Founda­ tion, New Haven,“Conn.,""1947, 30 pp. Sherwood, Henry Noble, “Can All These Men Be Wrong?” College and Church 14:22-27, Spring, 1949. Siegel, R. Lawrence, “Church-State Separation and the Public Schools,” Progressive Education 26:103-111, February, 1949. Smith, Payson, “The Public Schools and Religious Education,” Religion and Education, edited by L. Sperry, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1945, 144 pp. Squires, Walter A., The Week-Day Church School Methods, The Judson Press, Philadelphia, 1924,' 112 pp. Stark, Donald L., “Due Process— Establishment of Religion— Presumption of Constitutionality— Application of the First Amendment to State Action Through the Fourteenth Amendment,” Southern California Law Review 21: 61-76, December, 1947. Stout, John E., Organization and Administration of Religious Education, Abingdon Press, New York, 1922, 27$ pp. " “Testing Legality of Released Time in New York,” America 76:126, May 15, 1946. Thayer, V. T,, American Education Under Fire, Harper and Bros., New fork, 1944, 193 pp. “Religion in the Public Schools,” Educational Ad­ ministration and Supervision 34:157-158, March, 1946.

320 U. S. Office of Education, Second Biennial Survey of Education, U. S. Office of Education, Bulletin 9, Washington, D. C., 1941, 41 pp. "U. S. Supreme Court Released Time Decision Criticized in Speeches Before House of Representatives," Catholic Educational Review 46:389-391, June, 19R8. "Weekday Religious Education,11 (editorial), Religious Ed­ ucation 13:338-339, October, 1918. "Weekday Religious Education,” (editorial), Religious Ed­ ucation 13:26-32, January, 1920. Wheildon, L. B., "Religion in the Schools," Editorial Research Report, September 12, 1947, p". 667—682• Williams, J. Paul, "Adequate Religious Education in a Free Society," Religious Education 41:22-23, JanuaryFebruary, 1946. World Almanac and Book ox Facts for 1946, New York WorldTelegram, New York, 19^8, ;712 pp.

Documentary References Acts of Indiana Legislature, Chapter 249, sec. 11, (1937) Arizona Constitution (1912), Art. 2, sec. 12. Arizona Constitution (1912), Art. 11, sec. 7. Colorado Constitution (1676), Art. 9, sec* 6. Idaho Constitution (1890), Art. 9, sec. 3* Idaho Constitution (1890), Art. 9, sec. 6. Indiana Constitution (1831), Art. 1, sec. 2, 3, 4 and 6. Minnesota Constitution (1838), Art. 1, sec. 16. Minnesota Constitution (I838), Art. 8, sec. 3. Mississippi Constitution (1890), Art. 3, sec. 18. Montana Constitution (1889), Art. 11, sec. 9*

321 New York Constitution (1894), Art. 11, sec. 4* Utah Constitution (1896), Art. 1, sec. 4* Washington Constitution (1889), Art. 1, sec. 11.

Legal References Baggerly v. Lee, 37 Ind. App. 139, 73 N.E. 921 (1905). Barrow v. Baltimore, 7 Peters 243, 8 L.Ed. 673 (1633). Billiard v. Board of Education, 69 Kan. 53, 76 Pac. 422 (1904). Chance v. Mississippi State Textbook Rating and Purchasing Board, 190 Miss, 453, 200 So. 706 (1941). Church v. Bullock, 100 S.W. 1025(Tex. Civ, App. 1907), aff*d, 104 Tex. 1, 109 S.W. 115 (1906). Dorton v. Hearn, 67 Mo. 301 (1876). Eckhardt v. Darby, 116 Mich. 199, 76 N.W. 761 (1898). Evans v. Selma Union High School District of Fresno County, "193 Cal. 54, 222 Pac, 801, 803 (1924). Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing, 330 U.S. 1 (1947), 168 A.L.R. 1392, rehearing denied, 330 U.S. 855 (1947). Getlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652, 666 (1925). Herold v. Parish Board, 136 La 1034, 68 So. 116 L.R.A. 19150 941 (1915). Holy Trinity Church v, U.S., 143 U.S. 457 (1892). Hurd v. Walters, 48 Ind. 148 (1874). Hysong v. Gallitzin School District, 164 Pa. 629, 26 L.R.A. ^03, 44 Am. St. Rep. 632, 30 Atl, 402 (1894). Idaho Code (1932), sec. 32-2205 to 32-2207, Ind. Stat. Ann. (Burns Repl. 1946), sec. 28-505.

322 Ind.

Stat. Ann, (Burns Repl, 1948), sec, 28-601,

Ind,

Stat, Ann, (Burns Repl, 1946), sec, 26-2803,

Ind.

Stat. Ann. (Burns Repl. 1946), sec. 28-3307.

Ind.

Stat. Ann. (Burns Repl. 19), sec. 28-3418.

Ind.

Stat. Ann. (Burns Repl. 1948), sec. 28-5101.

Judd v. Board of Education, 278 N.I. 200, 15 N.E. 2d 576 “ (1938), 118 A.L.R, 789, rehearing denied 276 N.I. 712, 17 N.E. 2d 1 3 4 (I 9387. Lev/is v. Board of Education of City of New York, 157 Misc. *"520, 285 N.I.S. 164 (1935), 247 App. Div. 106, 286 N.I.S. 174 ( 1 9 3 6 ) , 275 N.I. 480, 11 N.E. 2d 307 (1937), 275 N.I. 544, 11 N.E. 2d 744 (1937), 276, N.I. 490, 12 N.E. 2d 172 (1937). N. J. Rev. Stat. (Gum. Supp. 1941), Tit. 18, sec. 14, par. 8. N. J. Rev. Stat. (Gum. Supp. 1940), Tit. 18, Sec, 14, par. 78. N. D. Rev. Code (1 94 3 ) , sec. 4710, Pa. Stat. Ann. (Purdon, 1930), Tit. 24, Sec. 1129. People ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education of School Mstrict No. 71, 596 111. 14, 71 N.E. 2d 161 (1947). People ex rel. Ring v. Board of Education of District 24, 245~Hl. 334, 92 N.E. 251 (1910). People ex rel. Vollmar v. Stanley, 81 Golo. 276, 255 Pac, UI01T927).

Pfeiffer v. Board of Education of Detroit, 118 Mich. 560, 77~N.E. 250 42 L.R.A. 536 (1898). Scopes v. State, 154 Tenn. 105, 289 S.A. 3o3 (1927). Smith v. Donahue, 202 App. Div. 656, 194 N.I. Supp. 715 (1922). Spiller v. 7’ Ioburn, 12 Allen 127 (Mass. 1866). State ex rel. Finger v, Weedman, 55 S.D. 343, 352, 226 N.E. 1 4 3 T 3 5 2 (1929T. State ex rel. Freeman v. Scheve, 65 Neb. 853, 91 N.A. 846 "79 L.R.A. 927 (1902).

323

State ex rel. Gilbert v. Dilley,95 Neb. 527, 50 L.R.A. TNTB7) 1132, 145 N.tf. 999 (1914). State ex rel. Johnson v. Boyd, 217 Ind. 343, 2d N.E. 2d

T5FT1940). State ex rel. Van Straten v. Milquet, 180 Vis. 109. 192 N.W.

“59rTl923). State ex rel. Reiss v, District Board No.3of the City of Edgerton, 76 5is. 177> 44 N.N. 967 7 L.R.A. 330, 20 Am. St. Rep. 41 (1890). Tenn. Rev. Stat. (1925), ch. 27. Vonnegut v. Baun, 206 Ind. 172, 133 N.E, 677 (1934).

APPENDIX

325

APPENDIX A Part I Numerical Tabulation of Items on Questionnaire

326

Concerning Tables 29 to 56

Tables 29 to 56 support Tables 1 to 2$.

They contain

the opinions, expressed numerically, on the various items from the questionnaire, classified according to divisions of the 11 categories of personal data which each respondent checked.

Each table represents opinions on one item from

the questionnaire. The reading of the tables is exceedingly simple. example, Table 29 would be read:

For

Twenty-seven respondents

who answered in the affirmative the question as to whether permitting Bible reading in the public schools was an example of state encouragement of Prdbestant Christianity, lived in a town of over 10,000.

Seventy-seven in the same sized community

answered this question in the negative; 19 expressed doubtful opinions; 11 indicated that they had no opinion; and 3 failed to mark this item.

A total of 137 respondents live in a

community over 10,000. The last row of figures (bottom of the third page of each table) designates the total number who gave each of the five responses.

For example, a total of 6$ answered this

question in the negative; 16$ in the affirmative, and so on.

327

TABLE 29. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "OUR STATE CONSTITUTION ALONG WITH THAT OF MANY OTHERS, PERMITS BIBLE READING IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IS THIS AN EXAMPLE OF STATE ENCOURAGEMENT OF PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

27 4 16 15 6

77 16 22 43 10

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10.000 * 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

19 2 5 9 1

11 2

3 a 2 1

1 3 1 1 4 1

5

3 1 1

137 24 43 73 ia

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II X XI Not designated

4 14 3 3 7 6 a a

2 i

a 4

14 ia

a 21 20 15 a 9 7 13 26 9

3 3 2 2 12

1

2 1 2 4

2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52

13

SEX Male Female Not designated

52

14 2

115 51

26 10

2

13 4

2 3

20S S2

1

5

10 6 2

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20

20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

2 2B 19

2 72 77

ia

15

i

2

2 12 19 3

2 2 1

323

TABLE 29 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

25 23

1 2 12

44 $5 3 9 27

7

2

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

6

7 7

4

4

1

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

23

1 1

32 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

10 1

25 14

2

3 4 13

10

4

12 5

1 13

3 47 13 7 3 43

1 1 2 2

1 1

1 6

1

25

5

2

11 79

10 5

6 2 11

10 33 15 20 10 75 31

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional 3 Semi-professional, managers 7 III Clerical, skilled trades 13 IV Farmers 10 V Semi-skilled 11 VI Slightly skilled 3 VII Day laborers 2 VIII Housewives 3 Students, retired,etc . 4 Not designated 2

13

3

1

31

21

2

1

31

47 17

14 3

3

1

20

6 1

3

34 31 40 7

3 4 32

6 5

3

5

2

1

46

17 5

2

50 5 10

1

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

19 24 15 5 13

44

42

6

23 51

3

6

3

2 1

6 3

1

36 32 69 31 79

329 TABLE 29 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE 1 6 57 4

17 149 2

3 31 2

54 10 4

149 IB 1

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

36 17 9 4 2

100 30

Totala

68

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

4 14

1 4

1 31 255 8

29 5 2

16 1 1

3 1 1

251 35 9

11 1

15 13 1 4 3

11 4 1 1 1

168

36

18

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

26

1 1

162 67 37 21 8

5

295

3

330

TABLE 30. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: *S0ME STATES REQUIRE BIBLE READING IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IS THIS CONSISTENT WITH THE STATE-CHURCH SEPARATION PRINCIPLES?” Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No opinion

No mark

3$ 9 16

4£ 12 11 26 7

22 1 5 £ 3

21 2 11 11

3 1

7 4

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 42,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

25 £

£ 137

24 3

43 73 l£

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

5 10 6 5 12 £ 10 5 5 £ l£ 4

7 21 5 13 £ £ 5 5 5 4 19 4

6 6 1 3 5 1 ,2 2 3 7 3

2 5 2 5 6 6 1 7 1 1 7 2

71 22 3

71 31 2

29 10

30 15

1 2£

2 50 36 15 1

2 16 20 1

23 43 14

26 2 3 1 1

31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

20£ £2 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

46 19 2

26 16 3

6 1 124 4 5 123 /"s 1 39 3

331 TABLE 30 (Continued)

Yes

No

24 43 2 6 16

27 53 2 5 12

6 11 7 5 2 25 9 6 2 27

4 10 5 8 3 22 11 10 6 31

Professional 13 Semi-Professional, managers 11 III Clerical, skilled trades 24 IV Farmers 15 V Semi-skilled 15 1 VI Slightly skilled 2 VII Day laborers VIII Housewives 9 Students,retired,etc. 4 Not designated 2

13

3

8

4

8

31 8 16 1 2 20 1 4

14 2 3 2

2 1 1 1

9

13 5 5 2 2 9

2

1

1

31 33 22 6 21

10 11 14 8 10

14 13 15 4 8

3 6 3 2 1

Personal data

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

12 20

17 18

2 5

3 7

6 1 1 2 15 6 6

10 2 5 2 12 5 1 2 9

2 82 8 132 1 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

8

2 1 4

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

2

31

1 1 1 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

31

3

84 31

40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

28 19 15 11 39

86

82 69 31 nn 79

332

TABLE 30 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

12 79 5

1 7 93 3

&L 13 2

12 4

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

7 32

3 42

2 9

1 31 255

a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

aa

a

32 5 2

42 3

23 10 5 1

29 9 4

5 3

2

2

162 67 37 21

1

1

a

39

45

11

295

2 1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

62 15 12 2

43 30 16 11 4

Total cases

96

104

5

333

TABLE 31. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "SOME COMMUNITIES IN WHICH TRADITION AND CUSTOM HAVE LONG APPROVED BIBLE READING, PRAYER, AND SINGING OF HYMNS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FEEL THAT THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO CONTINUE IN SPITE OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION. THE PROPONENTS OF THE IDEA FEEL THAT THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE SUPERCEDES FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS. DO YOU AGREE?"

Personal data

Yes

No

77 12 22 49 13

32 10 12 11 1

Doubt­ No No ful opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

11 1 2 5 4

13 1 6 7

4 137

24 1 1

43 73 18

1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II I II Not designated

14 20 7 16 17 16 14 14 6 13 30 6

5 13 4 3 4 8 5 1 4 2 13 4

2 4

1 4 3

4

122 4$ 3

50 16

15 7 1

16 10 1

5 208 82 r 5

10 15 2

6 3 124 123 “5 n 39 3 0

1 6 1

1 6 2 5 4

1 1 2

1

4 1 1

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

4 73 71 23 2

29 26 10 1

2 9 11 1

334 TABLE 31 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

52

18 39

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

84 4 7

26

4 5

4 10 1 3 5

7 15 1 4

1 82 4 152 5 1 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

9 1 5

1

9

2

2

10 38 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

9

4

1

1

31

12

2

4

17 6 10

9 1 3

6

4

6

8

26 4 12 7 50

24 11 6 41

6 3 5 1 12 5 5 5 25

1 5 1 2 3 1 3

1 4 3 1

1 1

1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS 16 Professional Semi-professional, 13 managers III Clerical, skilled 50 trades 23 IV Farmers 22 V Semi-skilled 3 ✓ VI Slightly skilled 2 VII Day laborers 32 VIII Housewives Students,retired,etc . 4 8 Not designated

I II

3 8 1

4 4

31 2 1 1

84

1

31 40 7 6 50 5 10

2

86

2

82 69 31 79

2

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

46 55 45 24 45

25 16

16 4 19

8 5 1 1 5

5 4 7 2 9

1

335 TABLE 31 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

IB 149 6

1 6 57 2

147 20 6

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

4 19

1 26

1 2 31 4 255 S

56 10

21 2

25 1 1

2 2 2

251 35 9

9B 3$ 21 11 5

30 id 11 6 1

20 2

12 2 5 2 1

2 2 1 1

162 67 37 21 a

173

66

23

27

6

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Total cases

1

336 TABLE 32. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "MANY INTERESTED AUTHORITIES BELIEVE THAT THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS SHOULD GIVE MORE TIME AND EMPHASIS TO TRAINING CHILDREN IN WAYS OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR AND THAT THIS TRAINING SHOULD BE OF A NON-DENOMINATIONAL ’NATURE. DO YOU AGREE*?" Personal data

Yes —

No -



Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

-

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

116 21 37 66 16

12 2 2 3

3

2

2 2

2

2 1 2

137 24 43 73

16

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

16

30 14 22 31 23 19 19 11 13

46

3 6

1 2

3

1 2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20

1 4

1

11 7 1

7

12

11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

163 73 4

206 62 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

§ 106 110 34 3

6 10 7 2

3 3 1

124 123 39 3

337

TABLE 32 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

70 137 5 12 36

7 7

1 5

3 2

1

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

3

1 3

1 1

$2

152 5 lo 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less & years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

a

32 14 20

3 1

a 6a 2a

70

2 3 2 6 2 3

27

2 1

1

1

2

1

10 3$ 15 20

10 1 1 3

3

75 31 25 11 79

2

1

1

31

25

1

2

6a

9

4

29 36 7

4

19 a

1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

2 2

1

34 31

40 7

6

3

1 —1 0

6 45

31

-p o>

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students,retired, Not designated

2 1

50 15 10

1

a6 82 69 31 79

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

75 75

64 29 69

7 5 2 1 4

1 1 2 3

2 1 1

1 3

33B

TABLE 32 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

22

1 4 14

2

17 2

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

231

2 2

1 3 1

1 31 255 a

5 2

4

1 3 1

251 35 9

2 3 2

3

1

2 2

161 67 37 21 a

4

5

295

5

7

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

224 2£ $

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

151 57 2$ 19 5

5 7 7

Total cases

260

19

7

339 TABLE 33. OPINIONS STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "COULD REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHURCHES IN YOUR COMMUNITY AGREE ON A "CORE" OF RELIGIOUS TEACHINGS TO BE REQUIRED OF ALL PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS?"

Personal data

Yes

No

69 7 21

15 5 3 12 1

Doubtful

No No opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 ^ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

26 11

39 9 16 17 4

10 2 2 16 2

4 1 1 2

7 Id 5 a 6 5 6 a 4

2 5

1 1 1

137 24 43 73 id

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII

IX X XI Not designated

9 14 d 3 19 15 7 7 6 9 27 5

4 5 3 4 2 3 1 1 1 4 3

26

7 2 3 3

1

3 6 1

2 1 1

67 15 3

21 11

3 5

2 34 34 15

2 id n l

i

14 3

23 43 14 31 25 21 20 11

16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

90 43 1

27

3 1

203 32 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

2 54 59 17 2

16 15 4 1

2

4 2

6 124 123 39 3

340 TABLE 33 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

24 7$ 3 4 25

14 12

Doubt- No No ful opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

4 6

27 45 2 6 5

14 13

3 4

2 3

1

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

7 17 3

5 4 5 1 9 4 2

2

4

3

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

3

31

5 33 14 13 5 35

1 7 4 5 3 9

3 a 6 7 3 17 3 5 3 28

15

2

11

15

1

9

6

31

31 12 17 4 4 27

14 7 4 7

32 5 13 2 1 7

7 7 4 1 1 6

34 31 40 7 6 50

4 5

1

1 4

33 41 33 20 41

11 10 6 6 10

28 20 12 5 23

6 2

3

4 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

2 3

5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

12 7 a

2 4 3

3

2

36 32 69 31 79

341

T A B L E 33

Personal data

(Continued)

Yes

No

5 128 1

1 7 27 1

14 67 4

4 26 2

1 7

1 31 255 8

120 11 3

32 3 1

67 15 3

26 5 1

6 1 1

251 35 9

13 13 6 2 2

39 20 13 10 3

20 1 8 1 2

4 2 1 1

162 67 37 21 8

36

85

32

8

295

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

Total

cases

86 31 9 8

134

342 TABLE 34. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "IF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION WERE MADE A PART OF THE REGULAR CURRICULUM, WHO SHOULD TEACH IT?"

Personal data

Regular teachers licensed by state

Spec.trained licensed by state

16 2 7 6 4

50 12 15 26 5

Teachers No No appoint- opin- mark ed by ion church commit­ tee

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 f 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

53 3 11 33 7

5 1 3 6 1

3 1 7 2 1

137 24 43 73 13

11 17 5 9 9 10 6 3 4 3 16 5

9 16 7 14 15 3 3 '6 4 4 21 5

1 5

1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

20 12 3

70 3S

94 23

11 3 2

13 6

203 32 5

10 14 9 2

5 57 33 7 1

1 47 53 16

4 9 3

6 9 4

6 124 123 39 3

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II X II Not designated

1 4 1 4 6 4 3 10 2

2 2 3 1 2

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

343

TABLE 3 4 (Continued)

Personal data

Regular teachers licensed by state

Spec.trained licensed by state

Teachers No No appoint- opin- mark ed by ion church commit­ tee

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

9 17 1 3 5

34 59 1 2 12

32 62 3 4 16

3 2 2 6 1 6 2 3 7

3 14 6 1 3 28 13 6 7 32

4 17 7 13 4 35 13 12 4 26

3

9

1 10 2 5 1

4 7

3 7

3 2

4 5

4

1

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

5

9

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

10

4

5

31

10

17

1

2

31

27 17 16 4 2 15

5 4

5

9

37 8 Id 1 4 19

2 2

1 1

2 7

1 2 4

2 5 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

1 1 2

5

84 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

344

TABLE 3 4 (Continued)

Personal data

Regular teachers licensed by state

Spec.trained licens­ ed by state

Teachers No No appoint- opin­ mark ed by ion church commit­ tee

N

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

6 5 1 3 5

86 82 69 31 79

5 12 2

1 31 255 8

11 4 1

16 1 2

251 35 9

66 29 7 12 3

6 5 4

10 6

1

3

162 67 37 21 8

117

16

19

295

9 9 7 5 13

41 32 6 21

27 32 32 16 35

1 32 2

8 99 1

14 100 3

30 4 1

93 14 1

101 12 4

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

21 7 4 3

59 20 22 6 1

Total cases

35

108

26

3 4 3 1 5

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 3 12

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

345

TABLE 35. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "WHO WOULD PAY THE TEACHERS OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION UNDER THE PLAN MENTIONED ABOVE?"

Personal data

Public Churches schools

Both No No opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 +* 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500

Rural Not designated

49 13 17 19 7

25 4 7 19 5

44

12

7

5 9

1 1 1 1

6

13 25 4

1

137

24 43 73

16

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II X XI Not designated

9

4

12

6

5 7 13

11

10 6

3 7 5 5

6 13

6 6 10 9 4

4 5

5 5 13

1

2

3 4 7 23

6

3

69 33 3

46

64

12

26

6

1

23 43

2 1

26

2

21 20 11 16

1

11

1 2 3

1 10

31 25

4

1

1

52 13

20 5 2

7 4

206

4

SEX Male Female Not designated

62 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

1 36

46 15 3

24 22 14

5 50 35 2

6 15 4

4 3 4

6 124 123 39 3

346

T A B L E 35

Personal data

(Continued)

Public Churches Schools

Both No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

35 49 1 6 14

15 34 2 3 6

26 47 1 3 15

5 17 1 2 2

3 10 4 10 5 26 7 6 3 29

2 11 7 5

3 7

16 6 5 1 12

2 9 4 5 3 30 15 7 6 24

6 1 10

11

6

6

6

11

7

9

4

36 9 15 2

23 11 13 3 2 20

6 1 1

4 1

16

13 9 11 2 4 5

3

4

3

1 2

1 4

3 1

32 25 29 16 27

14 12 13 6 23

31 35 24 5 17

6 7 3 2 9

1 5 2 3

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

2

4

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

2

31

1 2 1 1 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Professional Semi-professional, managers Clerical, skilled trades Farmers

Semi-skilled

Slightly skilled Day laborers Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

31 64 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN

None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

3 3 2 3

66 62 69 31 79

347

TABLE 35 (Continued)

Personal data

Public Churches Both Schools

No No opinion mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

6 96 3

S 49 3

10 $2

1 3 23

93 11 1

53 5 1

76 14 2

61 24 13 6 1

36 12 5 5 2

105

60

4 5 2

1 31 255 8

22 4 1

7 1 3

251 35 9

49 21 15 6 1

9 9 4 4 1

7 1 3

162 67 37 21 8

92

27

11

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Total cases

343

TABLE 36. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "SOME HAVE ADVOCATED TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION RIGHT IN THE REGULAR SCHOOL CURRICULUM LIKE SPELLING, ARITHMETIC, AND OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS. IT WOULD INCLUDE NO INDOCTRINATION, ONLY SPIRITUAL, MORAL, AND ETHICAL VALUES. DO YOU FEEL THAT HANDLING THE SITUATION IN THIS WAY WOULD BE OF THE BEST INTEREST TO THE CHURCHES IN YOUR COMMUNITY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt-

No

No

ful

opinion

mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

90 12 23 41 16

13 6 7 15 1

17 5 5 11 1

6 1 1 6

6 2

43 73 13

137

24

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI HI VIII IX X

XI Not designated

4 11 3 1 1 2 5 1 3 2 6

2 2

1 1

1 2

1

4

1 2

3

a

4 9 1 7 4 1 5 3 2 2 5 4

1 1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

125 53 4

37 9 1

32 7

10 4

1 4 4

203 32 5

12 20 10 17 23 22

10 10 6 12 37

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 £4 72 22 3

6 14 24 9

15

a

22 2

3 3

3 2 3

124 123 39 3

349

TABLE 36 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

51 9$ 4

15

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

6

23

22

11 21 1

5 4

7

3 7

3 3

3

1

2

2 2

1

2

32 152 5

16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

5 23 13 13 7 52

5

7

10 1

2

3^ 15

1

4

2 2

13 5 5

9 4 4

1

13

15

4

4

79

19

4

5

1

2

31

13

5

5

3

51

12 11

16

22 13 9 43

1

2

1

2

20 10 75 31 25

11

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

16

30 5 5 34 4 5

7

1 6

3

3

1 2

1 1 5

31

2 1

34 31

40

7

6 3

2 1

1

3

1

12 12

15 3 3

6 2

6 12

3

50 5

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

52 55 50

16 43

3 3 14

4

3

1 1 1 2

36 32 69 31 79

349a

TABLE 36 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

9 174 4

11

8

34

29

1 2 11

161 22

40

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

2

2

1 1 7

31 255

8

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

4

6 1

34

2

12 2

4 3

251 35 9

2 1 1

162

1

3

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

112 37

1

Total cases

137

24 13

25

18 10

5

2

4 4 3

1 6 1 1

1

3

21 8

47

39

14

S

295

18 2

67 37

350

TABLE 37. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION IN THE McCOLLUM CASE IN ILLINOIS MAKES ILLEGAL THE USE OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS, AT LEAST DURING SCHOOL HOURS, FOR THE TEACHING OF RELIGION BY CHURCH GROUPS. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THIS CONSTITUTES A MISUSE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

Noopinion

39 4 12 19 3

91 17 24 45 15

4 1 3 4

2 2 3 3

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

1 1 2

137 24 43 73 IS

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

4 19 2 6 7 7 6 5 4 2 12 3

16 IS 12 IS 21 16 14 12 7 12 37 9

2 3

1 2

1 1 1

51 24 1

134 55 3

11 1

S 1 1

3 1

1 35 35 6

5 79 7S 27 3

2 6 2

2 1 1

2 2

2 1 1 1 2

1 1 1

1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

207 B2 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 3 3

6 124 123 39 3

351 TABLE 37 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

19 39 2 7 9

53 100 3 3 7 29

7 44

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

1

6

2 6

3

1 3

1 1

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

5 66 33 66 2 16 16 33 77 7 26 26

5 30 30 12 12 11 11 6 55 55 27 27 12 12 4 45 45

7

10

22 22 22 11 22

11 2 11

11

3$ 15 20 10 75 31

33

25

33

33

22

11 79

18

3

1

2

31

11

17

2

1

27 8 12

53 20 23 5 5

1 3 1

4 1 1 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

1 10

38

1

4 9

1

1

27 20 15 10 17

51 53 50 21 56

3 6 3

4 1

3

3

31

$4 1

31

1

40 7

6 50

1

5

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

1

86

2 1

82 69 31 79

352

TABLE 37 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

1 9 65 2

16 166 6

1 11

1 9

2 2

164

9 2 1

9 1

3

5 2 2 1

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 31 255 6

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

66 11

21 7

1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

35 21 15 4 2

110 43 20 14 5

9 1

Total cases

77

192

12

2

10

1

162 67 37 21 8

4

295

3

353

TABLE 3g. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR PLANS FOR GIVING RELIGIOUS INSTRUC­ TION IS BY RELEASING PUPILS TO A CHURCH COUNCIL FOR RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION TO BE GIVEN OUTSIDE OF THE SCHOOL BUILDING. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THIS CONSTITUTES A MISUSE OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No : opinion

25 2 6 17 4

94 19 29 49 13

9

4 3 3 3

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

4 3 1

5 1 1

137 24 43 73 id

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

2 14 2 4 4 6 3 3 1 2 13

15 27 9 id 22 15 16 15 9 12 35 11

2 1 3 1 3 2

1 1

3

1 1

1 2 1

2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

33 IS 3

146 56 2

14 3

9 4

6 1

2 25 id a i

4 di

9 6 2

5 5 3

4 2 1

1

1

1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

20d 62 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 v ✓/ 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

92 25 2

6 124 123 39 3

354

TABLE 3$ (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

12 33

56 106 3 11 23

5 6 2 1 3

5 5

1 2 1

10 5 5 4 12

7 23 12 13 7 55 24 13 7 51

5

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist

Other Not designated

2 7

2 1

32

4 2

152

1

5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

1 2 5 1

1

7

4

5

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

20

3

1

2

31

3

23

4

1

21 6 3

54 24 27 5 3 36

4 1 2

2

2 7 2 5

1 4 1 2

1

1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

2 9

5 7

1

3 1 1 3

2

1

31

%

1 1

34 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

20 15 9

2

53 56 56

26 61

5 4 1 1 4

3 2 2 1

36 32 69 31 79

355

TABLE 3$ (Continued)

Yes

No

1 3 4# 2

20 179 5

41 12 1

More than 30 times 10*30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

Total cases

Personal data

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

3 14

2 10 1

3 4

176 23 5

16

12

6

1

1

1

21 15 11 5 2

117 45 24 14 4

11 4 1 1

9 2 1

4 1

54

204

17

1 31 255 3

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

1

1 1

162 67 37 21 3

13

7

295

356

TABLE 39. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "ONE GREAT OBJECTION TO WEEKDAY RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON TIME WHEN THE PUPILS ARE RELEASED FROM SCHOOL IS THAT IT PUTS SOCIAL PRESSURE ON THOSE WHO DO NOT REALLY WANT TO ATTEND. IS THIS A FAIR ACCUSATION?"

Personal data

Yes

No

19 6 9 13 2

79 13 24 44 14

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000*+2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

26 5 10 10 1

11

6 1

2

137 24 43 73 IS

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI

Not designated

6 5 1 4 5 5 6 5 3 1 6 2

12 30 11 15 20 15 10 10 3 10 29 9

3 3 2 5 3 5 5 4 5 5 10 2

37 11 1

lid 53 3

37 15

27 17 5

5 63 75 23 3

23 43 14

26 31 25

21 20 11 16

52 13

SEX

Male Female Not designated

14 3

203

1

5

$2

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 19 23 5

124 123 39 3

357 TABLE 39 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

12 23

48 92 3 7 24

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

6 6

15 28 2 1 6

7 8

1

2 1

1

82 152 5 16 40

1 1

10 38 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

1

31

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

12 1 3 9 3 5

18

1 1 2 5 3 2

9 21 7 10 7 44 20 15 10 43

10

13

6

22

4

1

44 19 25 4 4 31

19 5 6 1

10 3 1

40

10

2

50

1

1

5 10

16 11 10 6 18

8 3 5

4 5 2 20 8 3

2 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS 11 Professional Semi-prof essional, managers 4 III Clerical, 10 skilled trades IV Farmers 7 6 V Semi-skilled 1 VI Slightly skilled 2 VII Day laborers VIII Housewives 7 Students, retired, etc. 1 Not designated

I II

5 7

31 1

84 31 7 6

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

13 20 10 4 9

47

48 44 21 51

1

2

86 A ^ 82 69 31 79

353

TABLE

Personal data

39 (Continued)

Yes

No

1 4 43 1

20 143 6

3 49

3 14 1

1 1

154 14 6

43 3 1

14 3 1

1

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 31 255 3

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

39 10

1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

16 15 11 6 1

107 37 13 7 5

27 12 7 6

12 3 1 1 1

1 1

162 67 37 21 3

cases

49

174

52

IS

2

295

Total

359

TABLE 40. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "DO YOU BELIEVE THAT TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON 'RELEASED PUBLIC SCHOOL TIME' IS NO MORE A VIOLATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF CHURCH-STATE SEPARATION THAN PAYING ARMY AND NAVY CHAPLAINS FROM TAX-RAISED MONEY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

64 14 16 33 8

40 9 14 20 9

9

17 1 10 12

7

1 9

3

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 +* 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

2 5

1 3 1

137 *24 43 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III I? V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

10 20 6 13 16 14 6 9 4 a 24 5

6 13 7 9 a 6 9 6 3 5 15 5

3 1 1 1

1 3 3 1

10

93 40 2

70 20 2

11 5

27 12 1

3 57 60 14 1

2 34 3# 16 2

10 5 1

21 13 6

2

3 4 5 2 5 1

3 2 2 2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

7 5

208 82 5

1 2 7 2

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

360

TABLE 40 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

32 71 4 7 21

29 43 1 6 13

4 14 3 7 6 34 16 15 4 36

5 13 4 7

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

4 12

15 21

2 5

3 1

5

32 152 5 15 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

6

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

2

1

31

1

6

1

31

1 1

13 1 3 1 1 6

29 6 6 5 23

1 3 1 1 5

1 6 3 5 3 7 4 3 1 7

13

9

1

15

3

33 13 22 3 2 21

30 15 9 2 1 15

1 7

3

23 50 33 22 36

26 24 24 4 31

4 1

1 1 4 2

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

2 4

34 31 40 7

6

50

1 1

5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

6 1 2 2 6

13 7 9 1 5

3 1 2 1

36 32 /& 69 31 79

361

TABLE 40 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

12 119 4

1 10 7& 3

115 17 3

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

3 13

3 37

3 3 1

1 31 255 3

79 3 5

13 3

34 6

10 1 1

251 35 9

71 36 15 11 2

54 17 14 5 2

7 4 4 1

22 3 4 5 1

135

92

16

40

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

Total cases

2

162 67 37 21 3

12

295

32

362

TABLE 41. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: ’’OFFERING ANY RELIGIOUS COURSES IN A STATE SUPPORTED UNIVER­ SITY IS DESIGNATED BY SOME TO BE AS UNCONSTITUTIONAL AS WEEKDAY RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON 'RELEASED TIME' IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. DO YOU AGREE?"

Personal data

Yes

No

26 4 10 15 4

64 17 29 37 12

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 f 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

6 2 1 5

12

9 1 2 1

137 24 43 73 16

3

3

2 3 3 3 5

4

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

1 15 2

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

4 11 5 6 7 7 3 3 1 2 6 2

11 30 6 17 16 15 11 15 6 11 30 9

2 2 1

3 3

10

1 2

42 16 1

127 49 3

9 5

24 5 1

6 7

19 26 12

6 76 74 19 2

7 4 3

17 10 2 1

3 7 3

1 1

1

1 1 1

SEX Male Female Not designated

206 62 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 124 123 39 3

363

TABLE 41 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

12

54 93

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

33 3 3

9

3 7

4 7

12

1 2

3

6

3

1

6 2 2 2

2

2 9

6

21

2 10

6

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

17

10

6

3^ 15

5 7

7

13

51

6

16

4 3

7

2 12

17 7 50

9

2 6

11

2

7

19

2

1

2

31

5

16

1

7

17

49 17 23

3 3

11

4

6

20 10

4

3

1 1

1

75 31 25 79

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives ' Students, retired, etc. Not designated

6 10 1

31 4

31

5

1

2

4

49 7 6

4

2

3

50

6 6

6

33

1 4

3 5

14 13 7 9 23

50 50 43 17 45

64

1 1

5

10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

3 5 4

11 6 12

2

3

4

6

6

66 62

3

69 31 79

1

364

TABLE 41 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

1 4 53 1

id 155 6

No opinion

No mark

3 11

4 25 1

2 11

160 14 5

7 6 1

26 2 2

12

B 2

Doubt­ ful

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 31 255 a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

46 13

1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

21 26 7 4 1

106 34 25 12 2

9 1 3 1

IB 4 2 3 3

1 2

162 67 37 21 B

Total cases

59

179

14

30

13

295

365

TABLE 42. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "MANY HAVE MADE THE ACCUSATION THAT ALLOWING THE SCHOOLS TO PARTICIPATE IN ANY WAY WHATSOEVER IN A PROGRAM OF WEEK­ DAY RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IS THE SAME AS PREFERENTIAL TREAT­ MENT FOR SELECTED CHURCHES SINCE MOSTLY PROTESTANT GROUPS TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS ARRANGEMENT. DO YOU AGREE WITH THE ACCUSATION?"

Personal data

Yes

No

12 3 3 8 2

105 18 29 50 14

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 + 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

10 4 5

8 3 6 6 2

2 1 4

137 24 43 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I

2

n III IV V VI VII VIII

8

IX

X XI Not designated

1 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 4

15 27 11 20 21 19 15 14 8 15 41 10

3 5

2 2 1 1

2 3 2 2 2

1

2

3 2 4

2 2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

5

2 3

14 5

19 5 1

5 2

208 82 5

10 8 1

6 15 4

1 4 2

6 124 123 39 3

SEX Male Female Not designated

21 6 1

149 64 3

17 6 5

6 90 90 27 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 ^v / / 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

366

TABLE 42 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

11

61

13

117 4

2 2

8 26

3 9 3 4

82

7

8 1 3

5

6

2

5

2

152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

10 1

38 15

1

20 10

2

59 24 15 7

2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2

7

62

3

6

1

79

5

20

3

2

1

31

4

25

7 4 5

59

20

2

38

8 6 2 3

6 3 4

23

10 16 6

7

1

1 2 1

4

75 31 25

11

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated I II

29 5

2 7

31

10

1

84

4

3

31 40 7

2

50

4

2 2

5

3

6

6 1

4

5

10

10

60 59 57 25 60

86

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

10

8 4

82 69 31 79

367

TABLE 42 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

5 23

IS 192 6

5 13 1

21 6 1

190 22 4

14 5

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

12 9 5

9 2 3 3 2

13 7 3 1 1

4 2

2

124 47 26 17 2

1

162 67 37 21 a

Total cases

2$

216

19

25

7

295

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 2 21 1

1 6

1 31 255 a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

20 2 3

6 1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

368 TABLE 43. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "DURING THE YEAR VERY FEW ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS SPEND MORE THAN 1260 HOURS IN SCHOOL DUTIES. ALLOWING A TOTAL OF 11 HOURS DAILY FOR EATING AND SLEEPING, WE HAVE AN ANNUAL BALANCE OF 34^5 HOURS FOR OTHER ACTIVITIES. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THIS IS ADEQUATE TIME FOR CHURCHES TO OFFER RELIGIOUS TRAINING TO PUPILS OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS?" Personal data

Yes

No

SO 17 19 36 S

20 2 11 23 6

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 * 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

16 3 7 7 2

15 1 3 5 2

6 1 3 2

137 24 43 73 IS

1 3 1

1

4 6 2

2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

12 21 10 16 12 13 14 14 5 11 25 7

5 11 2 6 7 5 4 4 3 1 11 3

4 s

112 45 3

45 16 1

25 9 1

4 72 61 22 1

25 27 S 2

i

4 6 1 1 2 3 4 1

9

3 1 3 2

SEX Male Female Not designated

19 7

7 5

20S S2 5

13 9 4

1 S 3

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 // 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

2 13 IS 2

369

TABLE 43 (Continued)

Personal data

Doubt­ No opinion ful

Yes

No

44 $3 1 9 23

21 30 2 1 8

3 25 5 15 4 28 13 16 9 52

7 5 5 2 2 25 6 2 1 11

3 2 1 3 10 7 4

18

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

82

7 14 2 1 2

2 7

152

3

5 16 40

2

7

3 3 2 1 7 4 2 1 6

3

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

6

2

3

2

31

16

7

7

1

53 14 22 3 5 25

14 11 7 1

6 3 4 2

9

10 1 5 1 1 7

1 3

2 5

1

47 50 31 11 44

14 15 27 $ 15

13 9 5 10 7

8 18 5 4

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

5 1 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

31

6

3

8k 31 40 7 /■ 6 50

1

1 1

5 10

7 7/ 6 1 A 9

5 1

86 82 69 31

/

1 2 2

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

1 4

19

370 TABLE 43 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

1 16 140 3

7 52 3

4 29 2

3 23

1 11

1 31 255 a

140 id 2

55 3 4

27 S

20 4 2

9 2 1

251 35 9

76 44 22 14 4

43 9 5 2 3

20 S 5 2

16 4 4 2

7 2 1 1 1

162 67 37 21 $

160

62

35

26

12

295

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Total cases

371 TABLE 44. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "A ^DISMISSED TIME1 PLAN OF TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION HAS BEEN USED IN SOME COMMUNITIES. UNDER THIS PLAN ALL PUPILS ARE DISMISSED FOR A PERIOD OF USUALLY ONE HOUR PER WEEK AT WHICH TIME THEY MAY SECURE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION AT THE CHURCH OF THEIR CHOICE. THEY ARE FREE, HOWEVER, TO USE THE TIME AS THEY CHOOSE, NOT ATTENDING CLASSES IN RELIGION AT ALL IF THEY DO NOT CARE TO. DO YOU BELIEVE MOST PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN IN YOUR COMMUNITY WOULD ATTEND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IF GIVEN OPPORTUNITY UNDER THIS PLAN?"

Personal data

Yes

No

27 a 6 id 7

62 7 21 45 3

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 -f2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

33 9 14 7 6

3

7

2 1 2

2

137 24 43 73 id

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI HI VIII II X XI Not designated

7 12 5 3 6 4 3 6 5 1 11 3

11 20 6 14 12 13 11 9 3 11 23 5

2 10 2 9 10 5 5 5 1 4 16 5

44 20 2

95 41 2

56 17 1

2 54

4 31 34 5

3 1 1 2 3 1

1 1 2 2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

6 2

7 2

208 82 5

4 3 2

124

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

32 19 12 3

64 id

6 3 3 2

123 39 3

372

TABLE 44 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

23 30 3 10

41 75 1 3 13

17 40 2 3 12

3 11 1 3 2 29 7 7 4 11

6 19 6 9 6 23 14 13 3 41

6 7 a 2 19 9 4 1 23

4

13

12

7

16

8

20 13 4

22 3 13 4 3 6

5

5 2

15

32 13 23 3 3 27

1

1

1 2

2 6

2 1

1

15 23 21 10 16

44 34 34 17 37

20 22 12 4 23

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

1 4 1 1 1

82 3 1 1 4

152 5 16 40

1 1

2 1 1 2 3

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

1

1

31

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

1 2 1 2

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

31 $4 31 40 7> 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

3 2 3

4 1 2

B6

82 69 31

79

373

TABLE

Personal data

kk

(Continued)

Yes

No

1 7 54 4

20 114 4

3 71

3

59 4 3

117 17 4

61 12 1

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

41 13 7 2 3

71 36 20 3 3

40 16 3 9 1

Total cases

66

133

74

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 3

1 31 255 3

7 1

7 1 1

251 35 9

5

5 2 1 1

162 67 37 21 3

9

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

2 1

3

374

TABLE 45. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "DO YOU BELIEVE THAT NEARLY ALL THE CHURCHES IN YOUR COMMUNITY WOULD COOPERATE INDIVIDUALLY IN OFFERING RELIGIOUS INSTRUC­ TION UNDER THE 'DISMISSED TIME' PLAN, AND WOULD ATTEMPT TO HOLD THE CHILDREN'S INTEREST?"

Personal data

Yes

No

62 13 25 50 14

17

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000+“ 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

6 9 1

22 9 6 9 1

13 1 1 3 2

3 1 1 2

137 24 43 73 16

1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

14 26 9 6 20 16 13 16 9 7 32 10

2 3 1 6 5 1 5 2

6 6 2 10 2 4 3 1

1

3 7

3 6 2

2 4 1

127 55 2

23 10 2

40 6 1

13 7

6 69 64 23 2

12 16 4 1

17 27 5

6 9 5

4 2 2 2 2

2

2 1 1

SEX Male Female Not designated

5 2

206 62 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

5 2

6 124 123 39 3

375 TABLE 45 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

49 101 3 5 26

13 IS

14 22

1 3

S 5

5 S 1 2 4

5 2S 7 10 5 56 23 12 5 52

3 2 4 2 5 2 S 1 7

2 4 3 5 2 10 3 3 2 16

3 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 2

IS

3

7

2

20

3

6

2

4S 23 22 3 6 32 3 9

S 4 7 2

20 2 7 1

6

S

5 1

3 1 1

2

55 60 42 20 41

10 10 11 5 10

13 5 12 5 20

4 7 4 1 7

4

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

1 3 1 2

S2 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 5 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

2

10 3# 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

1

31

1

3 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, Not designated

31 2 2

4 1

S4 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

S6 S2 69 31 79

376

T A B L E 45

( C o n tinued)

Yes

No

15 165 4

6 26 3

1 6 41 1

3 17

1 6

162 17 5

26 7 2

42 6 1

15 5

6

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

lOd 44 id 10 4

id 9 5 2 1

22 11 10 5 1

9 2 4 4 1

1

162 67 37 21 d

Total cases

1*4

35

49

20

7

295

Personal data

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 31 255 d

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE 5 1

377

TABLE 46 . OPINIONS. STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "OVER 11,000 SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES ARE SUPPORTED BY SOME CHURCH GROUP OR OTHER. THESE PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS GIVE INSTRUCTION IN DOCTRINAL VIEWPOINTS OF THE PARTICULAR CHURCH. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THESE SCHOOLS SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO TRAIN OUR YOUTH?"

Personal data

Yes

No

61 17 22 43 7

54 5 14 20 10

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

10 1 4 4

7 3 4 1

5 1 2

137 24 43 73 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II

III IV V VI

VII VIII

IX X XI Not designated

2 1 1 1 2 3 2

10 26 7 16 13 14 9 14 8 11 14 8

6 12 6 9 13 7 10 4 1 4 23 3

2 4

1 6 1

3

1 1

103 44 3

73 28 2

11 8

15

6 2

3 61 66 19 1

3 43 42 13 2

10 8 1

8 4 3

2 3 3

2 1

3

1

2 2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

208 82 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 124 123 39 3

m TABLE 46 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

43 7$ 2 9 18

25 53 3 6 16

7 17 9 3 5 37 15 17 1 49

2 15 4 12 3 30 12 4 8 20

5 1 1 1 4 3 3 3

19

8

13

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS

Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

5 7

4

1 2

4

82 152 5 16 40

5

2 1 1 2 2

10 3$ 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

1

1

2

31

12

3

3

39 20 19 4 4 23

33 8 16

3 1 3 2

7

3 6

2 3

36 4$ 29 19

33 26 26 12 28

9 10

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

1 1 1 4 1 2

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc* Not designated

2 19

31 2 2

2 1 2

6

84 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

1

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

44

7 8 9

7 2 3

3 1 2

3

3

1

86 82 69 31 79

379

TABLE 46 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

27 lid 5

1 2 9d 2

129 id 3

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 31 255 d

19

1 13 1

1 7

dd 12 3

14 4 1

13 1 1

7

S3 34 21 10 2

55 26 13 6 3

11 5 1 2

6 2 2 3 2

7

1

162 67 37 21 d

150

103

19

15

d

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Total cases

380

TABLE 47. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISION IN THE EVERSON CASE UP­ HELD THE USE OF SCHOOL BUSSES FOR TRANSPORTING PUPILS TO PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT TRANSPORTATION, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, LIBRARY SERVICE, FREE TEXT BOOKS AND RECREATIONAL PROGRAMS SHOULD BE PAID FOR FROM PUBLIC FUNDS TO AID CHILDREN IN A PAROCHIAL SCHOOL?"

Personal data

Yes

No

41 10 11 27 4

73 11 25 27 10

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OP COMMUNITY 10,000 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

10 2 4 s 3

9 1 3 9

4 2 1

137 24 43 73 IB

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II

III IV V VI VII VIII IX

X XI Not designated

11 12 7 14 10 7 4 7 5 7 2 7

10 27 6 9 11 11 11 7 2 5 41 6

1 3 1 2 6 2 3 1 2 1 5

69 23 1

102 40 4

IB 9

1 36 44 11 1

3 59 60 22 2

2 12 12 1

1 1 1 4 4 1 5

1 2 2

3 3

1

13 9

6 1

15 5 2

2 2 3

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

20B B2 5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 124 123 39 3

331

TABLE 47 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

41 34 2 3 13

26 91 3 9 17

5 11 6 4 1 24 3 12 3 27

2 19 5 11 6 39 16 3 3 39

3 3 2 2 9 1 4

3

No No opinion mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

7 11

3 .2

4

3 6

1 1

3

32 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 3 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

3 1 1 5 1

2 1

7

5

1

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

17

3

2

1

31

15

13

1

2

24 11 15 2 1 12

45 14 19 1 5 26

9 2 4 2

5 2 2 1

5

7

1 4

2 4

1

1

33 20 17 12 24

37 43 33 14 42

6 10 7 2 9

6 9 7 3 2

1 5

2 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

31 1 2 1

34 31 40 7 6 50

2

5 10

4

36 32 69 31 79

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

2

332

T A B L E 47

Personal data

(Continued)

Tes

No

26 61 6

1 3 140 2

1 26

22

76 12 5

129 15 2

24 3

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

57 15 11 7 3

75 43 16 S 4

Total

93

146

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 6

1 31 255 S

id 4

4 1 2

251 35 9

14 7 3 3

12 2 6 2

4 1 1 1

162 67 37 21 a

27

22

7

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

cases

TABLE 4B. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "PROPOSED FEDERAL AID TO EQUALIZE STATE EXPENDITURES FOR EDU­ CATION IS REALLY THE RESULT OF A CAMPAIGN TO SECURE PUBLIC FUNDS FOR PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. DO YOU AGREE?"

Personal data

Yes

No

27 3 9 15 3

46 10 23 30 a

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 t 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

26 1 3 6 2

29 5 6 19 5

5 2 1

137 24 43 73 16

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

3 6 2 9 7 3 4 4 3 2 12 7

n 15 5 13 16 13 6 4 7 6 15 4

12 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 3 12 2

51 9 2

92 25 2

19 22 1

14 32 14 2

6 57 39 16 1

6 9 6 3 5 6 5 7

1 1 2 3

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

3 12

1

42 22

4 4

206 62 5

3 3 2

6 124 123 39 3

SEX Male Female Not designated AGE Under 20 20-39 4*0-59 Over 60 Not designated

17 23 2

33 26 5

TABLE 4$ (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

12 37 2 11

43 55 1 8 12

6 29 2 1 4

21 24 2 4 13

5 11 4 7 2 12 8 3 4 11

8 6 7 4 33 10 11 2 42

1 6 1 1 1 13 7 7 2 11

4 11 4 5 2 16 6 3 3 13

6

15

4

5

9

12

1

9

24 8 8

8

17 8 8 2

4

32 15 17 3 6 15

15

13

2 1

2 2

1 5

2

17 9 12 9 22

47 31 21 9 26

7 17 9 7 11

11 24 25 6 19

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

7 1

82 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

2

10 38 15 go 10 75 31 25 11 79

1

31

2 1 1 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

6 2

31 3 1

84 31 40 7 / 0

3

50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

4 1 2 1

86 82 /A 69 31 no 79

385 TABLE 48 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

5 54 3

20 95 4

52 9 1

103 11 5

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

35 17 6 3 1

Total cases

62

Doubt­ ful.

No opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 5 57 1

1 7

1 31 255 8

36 6

54 8 2

6 1 1

251 35 9

76 20 12 8 3

14 17 8 3

33 11 11 6 3

4 2

1 1

162 67 37 21 8

119

42

64

8

295

42

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

386

TABLE A9. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "IF PASTORS SHOULD DEVOTE A MORNING SERVICE TO THE TOPIC, ’THE CHURCH'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION FOR CHIL­ DREN AND YOUTH,' WOULD THIS HELP SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN YOUR COMMUNITY?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

57 10 17 31 16

15

No No opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

O o o

O

O O t

ro \j-i-

10,000+-

Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

2

4 17

37 d 14 13 2

13 3 7

15 4 5 5

137 24 43 73 id

4 5

2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

14 13 1

20d d2 5

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII

VIII IX X XI Not designated

9 20

6 14 13 10 6 8 4 7 26 d

3 4 1 2 6 4 6 1 3 7 1

6 9 6 5 6 9 5 6 6 5 9

1 5 1 1 2 1 1 3 d

2

4 4 1 3 3 1 2

SEX Male Female Not designated

103 26 3

29 9

46 27 1

3 49 59 18 3

2

1 33 34 6

16 7

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

23 10 3

7 7 9

12

13 3

6 124 123 39 3

387

TABLE 49 (Continued)

Personal data?

les

No

32 71 5 2 22

13 19 4 2

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

26 32

6 13

5 17

6 10

2 2

2 4

d2 152 5 16 40

3 5

2

3 2 4 1 2 1 2

d 2 6 2 7

10 3d 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

1

2

31

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less & years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

5 Id d li 3 33 16 7 2 40

2 9 3 5 3 10

2 d 3 4 3 21 9 5 3 20

17

4

7

15

4

12

41 15 16 3 2 15

11 6 5

14 7 11 3

d 3 5

17

4 1 1

1

5 10

d 6 2

6 9 7 2 6

d6 d2 / 69 31 79

5 4

2

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

3 4

3 5

1

3

27 39 32 16 45

id 5 6 4 d

27 23 22 9 13

31 10 3 1 1 10

d4 31 40 7 / 6 50

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

7

A.

383

TABLE A9 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE

Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 9 119 3

7 30 1

12 59 3

2 21

1 26 1

1 31 255 8

111 IS 3

36 1 1

70 2 2

16 7

IS 7 3

251 35 9

71 30 20 9 2

23 10 2 2 1

43 19 9 1 2

9 6 4 3 1

16 2 2 6 2

162 67 37 21 8

132

38

74

23

28

295

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Total cases

339

TABLE 50. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "WOULD THE CHURCHES IN TOUR COMMUNITY COOPERATE IN CREATING A COMMUNITY BOARD FOR CARRYING ON A RELIGIOUS EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM SATISFACTORY TO THE CHURCHES, AND SATISFYING THE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AS SET FORTH IN THE UNITED STATES SUPREME ' COURT DECISION IN THE McCOLLUM CASE?"

Personal data

Yes

No

62 9 17 31 11

8

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

25 4 11 21 1

10 2 2 3 1

137 24 43

6 11 1 8 6 4 2 7

3

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 f 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

5 6 2

32 9 8 12 3

7l 18

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

8 14 9 5 20 13 9 9 6 6

1

3

1 4 1 3 1 1 1 2 4 2

100 29 1

14 6 1

5 55 51 17 2

6 10 4 1

28

5 18 3 8 1 5 7 2 2

1 7 5

6 9 2

43 19 2

43 18 1

23 33 8

1 34 20 7

1 3 2 1 2 1 4 1

SEX Male Female Not designated

8 10

208

82 5

AGE Under 20

20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 9 3

6 124 123 39 3

390

TABLE 50 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

34 3& 3 2 23

6 12

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

82 152 5 16 40

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

19 32

3 12

3

20 28 2 9 5

5 6

3

18 12 4 34

1 1 1 1 5 1 3 1 5

5 12 2 5 3 12 4 6 3 18

2 6 6 5 2 15 5 3 3 15

14

2

8

4

16

1

8

6

35 16 19 5 4 14

7 2 2

16 3 10

22 8 8 1 2 10

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

3 16 6 8 3

38

7

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

3

31

3 1 1 5 3 1

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

4

15

31

84

4 2 1 1

31

7

50

40 7

0 5 10

3 4

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

44 41 31 14 34

5 3 7 4 5

14 19 14 9 23

12 16 16 4 15

3

86 82

2

69 31 79

11 1

391

TABLE 50 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

6 122 2

4 15 2

1 15 45 3

3 58 1

3 15

1 31 255 B

117 9 4

IB 1 2

51 11 2

49 13

16 1 1

251 35 9

31 30 11 6 2

12 6 1

27 15 12

11 4

162 67 37 21

2

2

31 12 13 5 1

130

21

64

62

IB

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated Total cases

B

2 1

B

295

392

TABLE 51. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "SHOULD THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) WORK OUT A SATISFACTORY SYSTEM TO CARRY ON A CONTINUOUS SURVEY OF THE COMMUNITY TO DISCOVER BOYS AND GIRLS WHO ARE NOT ENROLLED IN CHURCH SCHOOLS (SUNDAY OR WEEKDAY)?"

Personal data

Yes

No

35 15 29 51 16

16 2 1 4 1

Doubt­ No opinion ful

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 10,000 + 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

10 3 6 4 1

23 3 2 12

3 1 5 2

137 24 43 73 1ft

4 6

2 3

7 2 2 3 6

1 2 2 1

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IS X XI Not designated

14 21 12 14 24 20 13 12

4 1 3 2 3 1

ft

12 37 9

ft

2

3 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1

4 5 1

SEX Male Female Not designated

142 51 3

19 5

1ft 5 1

16 6 2

11 11 2

26

3

13 1

ft

20ft ft2 5

3 5 3

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

5 76 ft2 30 3

1 1ft 19 2

393

TABLE $1 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No No opinion mark

49 104 5 6 32

4 15

9 11

18 13

2 3

3 1

5 4

7 26 13 15 6 49

1 2 2

2

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

2 9

$2

152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

14 7 49

2 5 1 3 2 9

10

9

10 33 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

17

2

5

6

31

21

2

3

5

31

50 24 30 6 4 31

12 1 1 1 1 3

8 1 2

13 5 5

31

1 3

50

5 8

1

1

5 10

9 9 3 2 5

13 5 3 4 4

26

7 2 3

5 1 a 2 5 2

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

84 40

7 6

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

48 57 47 22 59

12 10 11 3 8

4 1 5 3

86

82 69 31 79

394

TABLE 51 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

9 164 3

4 19 1

$ 13 3

29 1

16$ 22 6

21 3

17 6 1

35 4 1

$ 7 4

12

20 $

4

1

1

1

1

1

$

24

24

40

11

295

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

1 10

1 31 255 $

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

1 Q

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

10 1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTE;NDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

115 45 17 15 4

Total cases

196

5 5

11

7 2

■ j) ..

162 67 37 21

395

TABLE 52. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "SHOULD THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) PROMOTE COMMUNITY CONFERENCES ON VARIOUS PROBLEMS RELATIVE TO RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY CONFERENCES OF WORKERS IN THE CHURCH SCHOOLS?"

Personal data

Yes

No

97 15 32 49 16

5 1 3 5

Doubt- No opinion ful

No mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 1 0,000 + 2 ,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

9 4 7 2

22 2 4 10

4 2 4 2

137 24 43 73 IS

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Not designated

14 26 11 IS

21 20 14 16

3 1 1 1 3

4 3 2 4 1 1

a

1

ii 43 7

2 2

2 2 2 1

11 3

16 6

3 a

2 3

i

6 3 2 2 4 3 5 1

1 2 1 1

2

23 43 14 26 31 25 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

155 51 3

22 14 2

4 S

16 IS 4

3 6 3

20S S2

5

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 S3 as

29 3

7 6 1

15 5 2

6 124 123 39 3

396

TABLE 52 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No opinion ful

54 113 5 7 30

4 d

5 d

17 13

1 1

3 6

5 3

7

3 1

1 2

9

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

2 10

152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

24 11 16 7 55 21 id 6

1 2

3

4

62

6

1 6 4 1 2 5

23

2

1

4

22

3

1

5

57

5 1

10 2 3

11 4 7

1

2

3

7

7

5 7

1

2

56 67 47 21 59

4 3 2 2 6

d 3 5 4 4

1

7 5 5 2 6

7 1

1

1

10 3d 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

24 27 7 6 31

31 31

3

£4 31 40 7 6 50 5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

10

5 1 5

4 6

2

13 d

% S2 69 31 79

397

TABLE 52 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

14 191 4

5 S 1

5 17

ISO 22 7

10 4

20 2

More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

119 49 20 16 5

4 5 2 2 1

Total cases

209

14

1 6 2$ 3

1 11

1 31 255 a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

251 35 9

30 7 1

11

14 2 5 1

17 9 10 1 1

a 2 1 1

162 67 37 21 a

22

3$

12

295

1

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE

393

TABLE 53. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: "WOULD THERE BE A DEFINITE ADVANTAGE IF THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) SET UP A SYSTEM FOR MAINTAINING A CONTINUOUS ATTENDANCE RECORD AND A 'RESULT-OF-INSTRUCTION1 RECORD FOR EACH CHILD ENROLLED?"

Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

dl 16 32 49

19 5

14 4 5 7

16

1

1

No No opinion mark

N

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 ^ 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

2 1

id

5

i

1

l 9

4 3

3 4

2

137 24 43 73 id

]lED CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH. LOCA1 I II III IV V VI VII VIII II X II Not designated

15 24

2 6

11 16 22

2 1

1 6 2 2 3

5 3

2 2

15 13 15

3

6 2 1

6

1

3

14 35 S

10 2

3

1

1

141 50 3

21

24

7

6 1

16 12 1

4 $4 79 24 3

1 12

1 10

15 4

15 3

3

3

1 1 2 2 1 1 1

2

23 43 14

26 31 25

21 20 11 16 52 13

4

SEX Male Female Not designated

6 7

20d d2 5

AGE

Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

15 a 4

3

6 4

6 124 123 39 3

399

TABLE 53 (Continued)

Personal data

Yes

No

54

7 17

5 15

13

1 2 1

4 7

4

Doubt­ ful

No opinion

No mark

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

101 4

6 29

10 2

3 9

1

62 152 5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION

7 years or less 6 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

50 24

2

3 9

16 6

3

2

52

14

6 2 2 6

4

10 n 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

23

2

3

2

31

20

3

4

4

31

46 19

17

6 6

9 4 5

64

5

7 25

3

11

2 2

13

3

6

1

9

2 5

1 6

a i

4

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

1

26

4

5

2

31 40 7

6

6

32

4

3

50

6

1

1

47 59

10 11 6 1

15 5 5 5 7

5

5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

46 23 56

5

6 6 6 2 6

6 1

66 62

4

69 31 79

3

400

TABLE 53 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

12 178

6 21 1

6 23 2

20 g

2g 3

No No opinion mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

4

1 6 21 1

1 12

1 31 255 g

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong, Not designated

166 21 7

25 3 1

12

15 7 6

9 2

1

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

112

Total cases

20 16 5

13 6 6 2 1

13 11 5 2

194

2g

31

41

1

1 1

162 67 37 21 g

29

13

295

401

TABLE 54. OPINIONS, STATED NUMERICALLY, TO THE QUESTION: MSHOULD THIS BOARD (ITEM 21) PREPARE AND DIRECT A CONTINUOUS PROGRAM TO EDUCATE ADULTS CONCERNING THE IMPORTANCE OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION?Tf Personal data

Yes

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

97 15 35 52 17

a 2 1

7 4

1

4

5

3

11

No mark

N

6 1 2 2

137 24 43 73 ia

3

4

6

1

23 43 14

9

1 2 1 2

31 25

SIZE OF COMMUNITY

10,000 f* 2,500-10,000 Less than 2,500 Rural Not designated

19

2

1

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT IN WHICH LOCATED I II III IV V VI VII VIII II X XI Not designated

13 30 13 13

3

3 3

1 3

1

2

2

19 13 17

3

2 2

1

a

1

2

24

14 42

10

3 3

2 2 2

1 1

7

13 3

12

24

4

10 2

a 6 2

6

16

a

15 5

26 21 20 11 16 52 13

SEX Male Female Not designated

153 60 3

6 5

20S £2 5

3 4 4

6 124 123 39 3

AGE Under 20 20-39 40-59 Over 60 Not designated

6 91 90 26 3

2

402

TABLE 54 (Continued) Personal data

Yes

No

Doubtful

No No opinion mark

5B 111 5 10 32

3 10

3 10

15 15

3

5 1

7 30 11 12 9 5$ 26 id 6 59

3

1 1 1 1 6

23

N

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS Democrat Republican Prohibitionist Other Not designated

1 2

a2

3 6

152

2

5 16 40

FORMAL EDUCATION 7 years or less d years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 or more

a

4

7

2 4 2 5

2 2

10 3d 15 20 10 75 31 25 11 79

3

1

3

1

31

23

2

2

4

56 23 2S 6 5 39

a

6 2 1

11 4 9 1 1 3

2 1 4 2 2

6 2 a

2

OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS I II

Professional Semi-professional, managers III Clerical, skilled trades IV Farmers V Semi-skilled VI Slightly skilled VII Day laborers VIII Housewives Students, retired, etc. Not designated

1

1

3

5 a

1

1

59

4

a

66 4& 23

4 1 3 6

1 3 3 3

31 3 1 2 4

d4

31

40 7 6 50

5 10

NUMBER HAVING CHILDREN None Under 6 In grade school In high school Out of school

61

11 10 13

4 1 4

a6 a2 69

2 6

3

31 79

403

TABLE 54 (Continued)

Personal data

les

No

Doubt­ No ful opinion

No mark

N

CHURCH PREFERENCE Jewish Catholic Protestant Not designated

16 196 4

4 11 1

iaa 21 7

12 4

4 12

1 5 27 3

2 9

15 1

27 9

9

1 31 255 a

CHURCH MEMBERSHIP Belong Do not belong Not designated

2

251 35 9

ANNUAL CHURCH ATTENDANCE More than 30 times 10-30 times Less than 10 Not at all Not designated

125 17 5

2 2 1

Total cases

216

16

46 23

3 a

a 4 3 1

16

1

1 1

162 67 37 21 a

36

11

295

ia a

a

1

9

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