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An introductory course in public school administration and organization

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AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN PUBLIC SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of

Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Lloyd Franklin Early February 1950

UMI Number: EP56128

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

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T h is thesis, ‘w r itte n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the •







C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been p resen ted to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f the U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . October 10, 19^9

D a te .......................

D ean Guidance Com m ittee

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S fis l­

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE PART I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM

I . Introduction ...................................

2

PART II THE NATURE OF AMERICAN PUBLIC EDUCATION II.

The Significance of the History ofAmerican .........................

11

The Scope of Education in A m e r i c a ...........

14

Education III.

PART III ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK IV. V. VI.

The Federal Government and PublicEducation The State and Public Education The County as an Administrative Unit

.

18

..........

22

. . . . .

26

VII.

Local Districts in E d u c a t i o n .................

29

VIII.

Adult E d u c a t i o n ..............................

32

Higher E d u c a t i o n ................ ..............

35

Secondary Education

..............

38

XI.

Elementary Education ..........................

4l

XII.

Pre-elementary Education ......................

44

IX. X.

. . . . .

iii CHAPTER

PAGE PART IV ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK

XIII.

The Educational- Program

...............

48

XIV.

Business Administration

....................

51

XV. XVI. XVII.

Special S e r v i c e s ........................... Financial Support of Education

.

...............

54 59

Teacher Participation inAdministration . . . .

62

XVIII.

Administration

of Supervision .................

65

XIX.

Administration

of Public Relations

...........

69

XX.

Administration

of Pupil Personnel .............

74

XXI.

Administration

of P e r s o n n e l ...................

79

PART V SUMMARY XXII.

S u m m a r y .........................................

B I B L I O G R A P H Y ..........................................

83 86

PART I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Courses are seldom taught to assist teachers to place themselves in the position of the administrator.

Such a course, if it

were taught, would teach administration as a service which attempts to do the thing that is best for the whole group of pupils, parents, and teachers.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I.

The Problem A.

Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study to de­ termine what basic areas and concepts should be included in a beginning course in Public School Administration and Organization.

B.

Importance of the study. For a long time there has been a need for a systematic organization of the field of educa­ tional administration and organization on the level of the beginning student in education. There are courses offered in school administration for those who plan to enter school administration as a eareer.

The first course for such people is

usually an introduction to school administration, but there have been no courses offered to acquaint the teacher or potential teacher with school ad­ ministration and organization from the viewpoint of the teacher.

With the increasing emphasis on

democratic administration of the public school, the administrator often finds himself in the posi­ tion of wanting to practice democratic procedure,

3 but he is handicapped by the teacher's failure to play his role intelligently.

There is also the need

for the teacher to enlighten himself about the total role of education, so that he may develop a critical understanding of the teaching profession.

The

teacher needs to familiarize himself with the other governmental agencies and their relation to the structure of the educational system, and to each other, if education is ever going to attain the posi­ tion it deserves. Many teachers look upon the administrator and his work as necessary evils and they do not have much understanding of the over-all function arid oiganization of public education.

Specialization

within each subject field or teaching level has caused many teachers to lose sight of the ultimate goal of our educational system.

Finally, the

experienced teacher evidences a need for reorienta­ tion when he begins to refer to supervisors as "snoopervisors” or when he makes other similar re­ marks.

It appears that our teacher training insti­

tutions have not stressed enough the need for the teacher first to adjust himself to his school, his work, and his community.

Unless he "fits in” first

he may not last to have his ideas accepted and the resulting change accomplished. C.

Definition of terms used. Scope.

In addition to the literal use of this

term, scope is used here to refer to extension of school services, such as medical, welfare, and transportation. 2. Organizational framework.

The structure which

assigns definite duties and responsibilities among pupils, staff, and community for optimum p educational results. 3 . Administrative framework.

Administrative frame­

work as used in this study refers to the struc­ ture through which service activities are proc­ essed in order to operate a complete and effi­ cient educational p r o g r a m . ^

* Elden C. Stimbert, "Why Teachers Lose Their Jobs,” (unpublished Master*s Thesis, University of Nebraska, 1938), p. 52. 2 Fred Englehardt, Public School Organization and Administration (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931), p. 499. 3 Arthur Moehlman, School Administration (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 19*10), p. 261.

4. Democratic school administration.

"Democracy

in administration implied that the intellectual resources of the entire staff were accessible and employed for determining policies and procedures which affected the entire group. II.

„li

Review of the Literature. There have been numerous books written on school administration and organization.

Only some of

the more important ones will be mentioned here. Englehardt^

wrote a text book in 1931 on school

organization and administration.

It dealt largely

with school districts and has been referred to by many as the "bible" in school administration and organiza­ tion because of its comprehensive coverage of the lit­ erature and practices in the field since the beginning of the century, which was also the beginning of any serious effort to train men and women for administra­ tive positions.

National Education Association and American Asso­ ciation of School Administrators, Educational Policies Commission, The Structure and Administration of Education in American Democracy (Washington, D. C: The Commission,

I93B)V'P. 67:-----5 Fred Englehardt, Public School Organization and Administration (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931).

zr Graves

takes the position that education ad­

ministration can justify itself only so far as it can make the work of the pupil and teacher more effective. As a result he has organized his text book in the re­ verse order of most other writers by beginning with the pupil and teacher and developing gradually to more remote activities of administration. Bolton^ has written a comprehensive text on ad­ ministration from the standpoint of the superintendent. All phases of school administration are covered un­ usually well.

This work is directed to superintendents

of large systems with few implications for teachers. o

Moehlman

considers instruction as the supreme

purpose of the schools and says that all activities should be considered as contributory to this.

This ia

a voluminous work which could best be used as a reference. Reeder's^ book is primarily for the board and

^ Frank P. Graves, The Administration of American Education with Special Reference to Personnel Factors (New York: The Macmillan Company,“T 9 32). 7 Fredrick E. Bolton, Thomas R. Cole, and John W. Jessup, The Beginning Superintendent (New York: The Mac­ millan Company, 1937)• ® Arthur B. Moehlman, School Administration Houghton Mifflin Company, 1946).

(Boston:

9 Ward G. Reeder, The Fundamentals of Public School Administration (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941).

superintendent.

The author discusses the urgent and

recurring problems encountered in the administration of the local school system. D e Y o u n g ^ has an excellent text for newcomers to the field of education.

It is aimed at orienting

bhe prospective teacher or layman without going into too much detail.

The multisensory bibliography at the

conclusion of each chapter is very unique and should be helpful. Chamberlain and Kindred

11

in their revised

edition have done a good job of showing the need for teachers to learn about and participate in the actual administration of the school.

It is

more than this

for it covers the scope and general character of the American public school system.

Finally, more than any

other work discovered by the writer,

this text more nearly

approaches the theme of this thesis.

1® Chris A. DeYoung, Introduction to American Public Education (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1942). H Leo M. Chamberlain and Leslie W. Kindred, The Teacher and School Organization (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 19^9).

8 III.

Procedure. This was a library study which utilized the various sources in school organization and administra­ tion to document it. include:

Sources referred to in the study

Text books in school administration, articles

written by different specialists in several educational periodicals, publications of learned organizations, and some unpublished material.

Such a procedure should

prove valuable to future students of school organization and administration, by enabling them to organize'more quickly their thinking on the problems set forth in the study. IV. Organization of the study. The study has been divided into five parts, with chapters making up each part.

Each chapter contains an

introduction written in prose, followed by an outline of that chapter.

A bibliography follows each chapter.

Each of the five parts deals with the following phases of the study.

(1) The problem, organization of

the problem, definition of terms, related literature, procedure, and organization of the remaining parts. (2) An introduction to public education in the United States.

(3) The organization of public education in

the United States, which included the different areas

the schools encompass.

(4) The administrative

framework of public education* with chapters devoted to special problems in the administrative field. (5)

The summary and bibliography.

PART II THE NATURE OP AMERICAN PUBLIC EDUCATION An orientation for the beginning student to the whole field of public education should prove helpful.

It is usually necessary to know

something about what has gone on before our time in order that a contribution may be made for improving a situation.

CHAPTER II THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN EDUCATION The purpose of studying any history is to seek out the problems which confronted peoples in other times, in order to learn how they solved them.

The problems of men

never change, but the solutions to the problems do vary from time to time and from place to place.

Many people

think that the support of public education in this country was settled long ago.

However, the problem has appeared

on the scene again in the form of the debates in Congress about giving public money to private and parochial schools. The sectarian battle has been reopened with the "Released Time" periods each week in our schools. Every teacher should know who is friendly and who is hostile to public education.

Unless he is well informed

he can hardly be expected to be an ardent supporter of his work, and he will most likely be a weak link in the chain of organization toward a strong educational system for a better America. I.

The battle for tax supported schools in America. A.

Miscellaneous, voluntary, philanthropic, permissive and compulsory support.

12 1. Early support:

Community chest plan, land

endowments, matching, local taxes, appropria­ tions, licenses, tuitions, lotteries, and special taxes. 2. State funds, started by older states. 3. Taxing of districts for paupers. 4. Local effort required for state aid. 5. Right to tax for support settled by 1850. 6 . Federal government and matching. B. Elimination of pauper school idea. 1. Struggle between free school legislation and pauper idea. 2. Abolition of rate bills, further equalizing of opportunity. C. Battle continues for free education. 1. Text books not free in many states. 2. Dues and fees, exist in many schools. II.

Battle continues for non-sectarian schools: a gradual process.

III.

A.

Text books and materials secularized first.

B.

Public funds withheld from sectarian schools.

C.

Battle reopened with Federal Aid proposal

Program extended. A.

High school established.

13

IV.

B.

Unlimited opportunity and the Dartmouth Case.

C.

Kindergarten.

D.

Junior High School and Junior College.

Internal, A.

reorganization.

European influence. 1. Pestalozzi, Herbart, Froebel. 2. Manual training. 3 . Psychology. 4. Methodology. 5 . Theory. 6 . Philosophy. a. Application: Greek spirit of free inquiry. b. Social change for social betterment.

V.

References. 1.

Cubberly, E. P., Changing Conceptions of Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914.

2.

Cubberly, E. P., Public Education in the States.

United

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1934,

p . 180. 3 . Cubberly, E. P., The History of Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920. 4. Reisner, E. H., Nationalism and Education. York: The Macmillan Company, 1932.

New

CHAPTER III THE SCOPE OP EDUCATION IN AMERICA There is an increasing danger of teachers becoming lost in the profession. orientation.

This stems partly from a lack of

Teachers have but a faint conception of the

tremendous size of the educational program with which they are associated.

It is imperative that teachers gain a

better understanding of the organization of education in this country in order to make the contribution that is ex­ pected of them.

Teachers need to know more about the total

function of education in order to interpret the reasons be­ hind the organized educational efforts;; of/this nation, and the significance of its place in the economic, social, political, and cultural life of the American people. I.

Cost of education. A.

Development of educational finance. 1 . Pees and subscriptions. 2. State-wide systems. 3. Equalization pf opportunity.

B.

Reasons for higher taxes. 1. Decrease in purchasing power of the dollar. 2. Increased attendance. 3 . Increased services.

15 C.

Basis for any tax. 1. Easy to collect. 2. Broad base. 3. Pair 4. Stable.

II.

Types of schools. A.

Public:

Nursery, kindergarten, elementary, secondary,

continuation, adult, college, university. B.

Private:

Church, business, vocational, college,

university. III.

IV.

Personnel. A.

Pupils.

B.

Teachers.

C.

Non-certificated.

D.

Boards.

E.

Lay advisors.

F.

Professional specialists.

Curriculum. A.

Course of study.

B.

Curricular activities. 1. Public recreation. 2. Relief programs.

16

C.

Effect of World War II on education. 1. Changing social and economic conditions. 2. Rapid urban growth.

D.

Compulsory attendance laws. 1. Increased school population. 2. Forced change of curriculum,

V.

References. A.

Educational Policies Commission.

The Structure

and Administration of Education in American Democracy.

Washington: National Education Associa­

tion and the American Association of School Ad­ ministrators, 1938. B.

Mort, Paul R., and Walter C. Reusser, Public School Finance.

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com­

pany, 1941. C.

Chamberlain, Leo M . , and Leslie W. Kindred, The Teacher and School Organization. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1949-

New York:

PART III ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK The controlling agencies of educa­ tion and the various levels into whieh students have been classified for best in­ structional purposes* is a subject about whieh students of education and laymen have devoted endless amounts of time and effort. It is hoped that the beginning student will be able to grasp from this section of the study some of the significance of the problem and present trends.

CHAPTER IV THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC EDUCATION At the moment there are two bills before the Congress which would grant Federal aid to education.

These bills

are opposed by certain groups for two main reasons.

The

first group says that Federal control could automatically follow the Federal money.

This is not necessarily true, for

the record shows that the Federal Government has been in ed­ ucation for a long time and there has been little or no con­ trol.

The second group does not want to see Federal money

go to public education, because they will not get any and they do not want to see any one else have any assistance. No one wants to see Federal control come into educa­ tion.

During the hundred and fifty years which have elapsed

since Section 16 was given out of each township in Ohio for the public schools, we have learned more and more about writ­ ing laws which would prevent the Federal Government from setting educational policy.

If the state and church are united

it would necessitate changing our whole philosophy of govern­ ment, as well as the Constitution. I.

Education and the Constitution of the United States. A. Education in the several colonies previous to 1787.

19 1. Relation of schools to ideals of the colonies. 2. Reasons for unwillingness to change schools. B. Constitutional provision covering education. 1. Location of responsibility and controlling authority. II.

Relation of Federal Government to education. A. Relation of the form of government to education. 1. Foundation principles of American democracy, a. Relation of these to education. 2. Extent of Federal Government's interest in education. B. Relation of Federal contributions to state control of education. 1. Early attempts at Federal participation. (National University)

III.

Federal contributions to American education. A. The Public Domain and provisions for education. 1. Acquisition and early surveys. 2. Ordinances of 1785* 17&7* an^ Ohio Enabling Act of 1802. 3. Public land grants for elementary education. a. .Type of grants. b. Amounts of land granted.

20 c. Attempts to equalize. d. Disposal of school lands. e. Present values. 4. Other land subsidies for elementary education. 5 . Land grants for higher education. a. Early seminary grants. b. Morrill Acts. B. Distribution of surplus revenue and its use for

'

education. C. Special Federal legislation subsidizing schools. 1. For experiemtnal and extension work. 2. For agricultural, industrial, and other work in the secondary schools.

(Smith Hughes and

other acts). 3. For all other types of education. D. Educational activities of other Federal departments. 1. Number. 2. Nature of work.

3 . Overlapping of functions. IV.

Federal contributions to education during and after World Wars I* and II. A. Work done through established departments and agencies.

21 B. Work done by special boards and other such agencies, 1. During the World Wars, 2. After the Wars. 3. Probable future. -\

V.

References. 1. Keith, J. A., and William C. Bagby, The Nation and the Schools.

New York: The Macmillan Company, 1920.

2. Bourne, Edward C., History of Surplus Revenue of 1837.

New York: G. P. Putnam and Sons, 1885.

3 . Mort, Paul R., Eugene S. Lawler, and Associates, Principles and Methods of Distributing Aid for Education.

Advisory Committee on Education.

Study No. 5 . 1939.

Staff

Washington: Government Printing Office,

CHAPTER V THE STATE AND PUBLIC EDUCATION Education is a function of the state.

It is the

duty of the state to define the platform upon which the public schools stand and the philosophy upon which they shall grow.

The state must equalize school privileges

throughout its jurisdiction and seek to equalize taxation for the ordinary running expenses of the schools because those who are educationally or financially strong must be required to help the weak. The educational functions of the state transcend the schools and seek to disseminate information and en­ lightenment wherever possible.

This may be manifested In

public assemblages, libraries, art galleries, scientific research, and other ways which seek out the truth. I.

Responsibility of states for education. A. Variety of educational provisions in the states. B. Variety in state organizations for the control of education. C. Development of centralization in the control of education. 1. Arguments for and against centralization in educational control. 2. History of development In Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania.

23 II.

State Board of Education. A. Development of the idea of state control through a Board. B. Composition of the State Board of Education. 1. How members are selected. 2. Qualifications. 3. Number. 4. Term. 5. Remuneration. C. Organization of the State Board of Education. D. Meetings of the State Board of Education. E. Powers and duties of the State Board.

III.

State Superintendent or Commissioner. A. Relation of State Superintendent to the State Board of Education. B. Selection and tenure of State Superintendent. 1. Present practices. 2. Best methods. C. Qualifications of the State Superintendent of Education. 1. Prescribed by laws. 2. Preparation. a. Actual. b. Desired.

2k

3. Personal. D. Powers and duties of the State Superintendent. 1. Legislative. 2. Executive. 3 . Judicial. IV.

State Department of Education. ♦

A. Relation to State Board and to State Superintendent. B. Departmental organization. 1. Staff. 2. Functions. 3 . Coordination. C. Departmental publications. 1. Special reports and bulletins. 2. Annual reports. a. Functions. b. Contents. c. Form. 3 . Other publications. V.

References. 1. Chambers, M. M., "State Centralization Goes On,” Nation1s Schools, 19*33-3^* June, 1937* 2. Cocking, Walter D., and Charles H. Gilmore, Organization and Administration of Public Education.

25 The Advisory Committee on Education, Staff Study No. 2. 1938.

Washington: Government Printing Office, Chapter 5 .

3 . Cubberley, Ellwood^P., State School Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, I9 27 .

Chapters

V, XI. 4. Dutton, S. T., and D. Snedden, The Administration of Public Education in the United Stages. York: The Macmillan Company, 1908.

New

Chapters IV, V.

5 . Graves, Prank P., The Administration of American Education with Special Reference to Personnel Factors.

New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932.

6 . State School Finance Systems, Research Bulletin, National Education Association, Volume XX, No. 5 . Washington: National Education Association, November, 1942.

CHAPTER VI THE COUNTY AS AN ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT A few states use the county as a local administra­ tive unit, but most states have set it up as an inter­ mediate agency in so far as its authority over the schools is concerned.

The states which have adopted the county

unit have done so because it cuts down considerably the op­ eration costs.

Many of the administrative problems remain,

for while the county unit brings a more equitable distribu­ tion of per capita wealth and local tax burden, it creates peculiar attendance areas on its borders.

Whether to adopt

a county unit or not must be decided in the light of local, state, and nation-wide planning on sound educational, economi­ cal, and sociological bases. As an intermediate unit, which is the case in most states at the present, the county is charged by law with rendering certain educational services.

One of the more

important functions of the county office of education is the handling of certain funds from the state.

Other functions

include maintaining certain educational standards and gather­ ing and disseminating information for better instructional practices.

There are some states which have weakened the

county unit to the extent that it has very little contribution

27 to make to public education.

In that case, the state

department of education transacts most of its business directly with the local school district. I.

The several types of county unit organization. A. Development of the county as an educational unit. 1. History. 2. Where developed. 3. Relation to township system. B. Present practices in county school organization. 1. Disadvantages.

Reasons for present practices.

2 . Advantages and limitations. 3. The county unit in operation. C. Relation of county organization to city districts within the county. II.

The County Board of Education. A. Organization of present Boards. B. Composition of County Unit Board. 1. Selection. 2. Qualifications of members. 3. Number. ^ . Term» 5 • Pay.

28 C. Powers and duties of the County Superintendents. IV.

Other offleers of the County Board of Education. A. Relation to the County Superintendent. B. Relation to State Departments.

V. .“References. 1. Chamberlain, Leo and Leslie W. Kindred, The Teacher and School Organization. Inc., 1949.

New York: Prentice-Hall,

pp. 92-93*

2. Cubberley, E. P., Public School Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1929.

Chapter

XXVIII. 3 . Cubberley, E. P., State and County Educational Re­ organization. 1915.

New York: The Macmillan Company,

Chapter II.

4. Deffenbaugh, W. S., and Timan Covert, School Admin­ istrative Units with Special Reference to the County Unit. 1933*

U. S. Office of Education, Pamphlet No. 34,

CHAPTER VII LOCAL DISTRICTS IN EDUCATION The states have subdivided their domains into school districts for purposes of education of their citizens and future citizens.

School districts are generally referred

to as quasi-corporations, because they derive their powers from the state legislative statutes, and are interested primarily in the execution of state policy. Education in this country was first organized on the local level. ties

These local districts vary in size from coun­

and one teacher schools in the Southern states toareas

as large as New York

City.

They may be coterminuswith or

independent of towns, cities, and townships or any other municipality.

The state officials, who are responsible for

the educational program in each district, are called the Board of Education and its administrators.

As a rule the

local school district is fiscally independent and autonomous. I.

District organization of schools. A. History and development of the district. 1. During the

Revolutionary period.

2. During the

19th century.

3. Present trends.

30 B. National status of district organization. 1. States using district systems. 2. States combining district systems with other units. 3. Legislation in various states concerning reorganization. C. Pros and Cons of the district system. 1. From actual practice in the field. 2.

From change of educational philosophy.

3.

As a result of recent legislation.

D. Organization and administration of districts. 1. Determination of districts. a. By location. b. By population. c. By property values. 2. Types of local districts. a. Attendance and administrative units. b. Different sizes. 3. Organization of school districts. a. Officers, number, selection, duties. b.

Relation to state and state officials.

c.

Relation to county or other municipal system.

d. Variations by sizes, kinds, and location. E. Functions of the local district.

31 1. To provide for the present welfare of children through its program of public education, 2. To provide for the future welfare of the community, .1 X

II.

4

References, 1. Cubberley, E. P., and E. C. Elliott, State and County School Administration.

Source book.

Macmillan Company, 1915*

New York: The

Vol. II, Chapters VI, VII,

VIII. 2. Deffenbaugh, Walter, S., Know Your Board of Education. U. S. Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, Leaflet No. 47.

Washington: Government Printing Of­

fice, 1939. 3. Education Policies Commission, The Structure and Ad­ ministration of Education in American Democracy. Washington: National Education Association, 1938. Chapter II. 4. "School Boards in Action."

Twenty-fourth Yearbook,

American Association of School Administrators.

Wash­

ington: National Education Association, 1936. Chapters I, II, III. 5* School Survey, Arcadia, California.

Arcadia City

School District, Arcadia, California, 1947.

CHAPTER VIII ’ ADULT EDUCATION Adult education in the United States has most of its history before it.

Just as the elementary school developed

in the last century, and the secondary school has come into its own during the first half of this century, so may it be that adult education may expand comparably during the last half of the twentieth century. It is recognized, by most leaders, that there is a need for everyone to keep abreast of the rapidly changing patterns of living.

World War II proved what adult education

can accomplish.1 Hutchins feels that in this fast moving age, there may not be time enough to wait for the education of the young people to become effective, and therefore he advocates adult *■ •

education because of its expedient values.2 Adult education most often consists of the following activities: vocational, leisure, civic, health, and guidance.

American Council on Education; Commission on Implica tions of Armed Services Educational Programs. The Armed Services and Adult Education. Washington, D.C.: The Council,

19^7 . 2 Robert M. Hutchins, "The Issues in Education," Educa tional Record. 27:365-75* July* 19^6.

33 There is still a need for a statement of the objectives in adult education, a better arranged program, a better educated corps of teachers, adequate financing, and a better coordinated plan of action. I.

3

Introduction. A. Definition of term. B. History of the movement in the United States. 1. Leaders. 2. World War I effects.

II.

Scope. A. Curriculum. 1. Types of schools. 2. Methods of instruction. B. Purposes. C. Federal government in adult education. 1. Different programs. 2. Types of instructors.

Ill.

Future trends. A. Relation to other areas of education. B. Television and adult education.

3 Chris A. DeYoung, Introduction to American Public Education (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1942"JT

3^

IV.

References. 1. Bryson, Lyman, Adult Education. Book Company, 1936.

New York: American

Chapters X, XII.

2. Debatin, Frank M., Administration of Adult Education. New York: American Book Company, 1938. 3. Thorndike, Edward L., Adult Learning. The Macmillan Company, 1928.

Part III. New York:

Chapter XIII.

4. "The Expanding Role of Education,” Twenty-Sixth. Yearbook of the American Association of School Ad­ ministrators . ciation, 1948.

Washington: National Education Asso­ Chapter IV.

5 . ”Youth Education Today," Sixteenth Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Washington: National Education Association, 1938. Chapter VIII.

CHAPTER IX HIGHER EDUCATION Higher education has the oldest history of any level of education existing today.

It is concerned

with instruction in the more advanced phases of our social culture.

It may be thought of as a vanguard

standing on the threshold between the known and the u n ­ known world, with its emphasis on research.

In addition,,

to this, higher education is constantly seeking to revise conservative and settled patterns of thought and as a result it creates interest and provokes controversy on many occasions.

This issue of academic freedom to pur­

sue a thought wherever it may lead in order to get at the truth, if possible, is before us at the present in the form of loyalty oaths for university professors. The problem of support and control of the American college is now before us.

We are passing through a

transitional period when enrollments have increased greatly in state schools.

This is, no doubt, due to the inability

of private schools to meet the cost of expanding their programs.

36

Introduction. A. History. 1. European. 2. American. II.

Expansion. A. Scopb of higher education. 1. Enrollment. 2. Types of instruction. B. Articulation with other units. 1. Accrediting agencies. 2. Curriculum. a. Upper and lower divisions. b. Senior College and Graduate.

III.

Objectives. A. Liberal. B. Preprofessional and professional. C. Vocational.

IV.

References. 1. Butts, R. Freeman, The College Charts Its Course. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1939Chapter XIV.

Haskins, Charles H., The Rise of Universities. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1923* Chapters II, III. Hutchins, R. M., The Higher Learning in America. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press,

CHAPTER X SECONDARY EDUCATION The development of the secondary school in America is of extreme significance.

No other country in the

history of civilization has experienced universal, free education at such a high level.

When the history of

this nation Is complete, the secondary school will command a decisive place In it. The Latin Grammar School served as our first second­ ary school.

Its curriculum was founded in the classics and

Its purpose was college preparatory.

The academy succeeded

it and was characterized by a broader curriculum with boys and girls included.

The academy was still a private school

and so did not suit the democratic philosophy of the nation. As a result, the public school continued to broaden its curriculum and reduce its fees for attendance, and thus be­ came popular.

The horizontal expansion has been accompanied

in recent years by a vertical expansion, until secondary education today includes grades seven through fourteen. The secondary school is not without its problems.

At

no other level in our total educational system is there greater need for curriculum revision.

This is a job that requires the

cooperation of professionally trained people and laymen alike.

39 I.

Introduction. A. History (European). B. History in this country.

II.

Growth and development. A. Scope of secondary education. 1. Various types of secondary schools: private high schools. 2. Future trends. 3. Increase in enrollment. 4. Articulation with other units.

III.

Objectives. A. Seven cardinal principles. B. Issues in secondary curriculum. 1. Co-curriculum or extra-curriculum. 2. Philosophy and aims. C. Instructional organization. 1. Internal divisions. 2. Personnel. a. Administrative trends.

IV.

References. 1. Briggs, Thomas H., Improving Instruction. York: The Macmillan Company, 1938. XI, XII.

New

Chapters

4o 2. Koos, Leonard V., J. M. Hughes, P. W. Hutson, and W. C. Reavis, School.

Administering the Secondary

New York: American Book Company, 1940.

Chapter XII. 3. Moehlman, Arthur B., School Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940.

Chapter

24. 4. Kandel, I. L., History of Secondary Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.

Chapters

VI, IX. 5. Seashore, Carl E., The Junior College Movement. New York: Holt and Company, 1940. 6 . Spears, Harold, The Emerging High School Curriculum and its Direction. 1940.

Chapter VI.

New York: American Book Company,

CHAPTER XI ELEMENTARY EDUCATION The Elementary School has two major functions to perform.

The first is that of imparting the ’tool subjects,*

for we have no other institution which is charged with this responsibility.

These subjects enable the child to gain con­

trol over the arts of communication, and they are taught in the form of reading, writing, and arithmetic. The second thing that the Elementary School should give to the child is the ability to become an Intelligent member of society.

In order to accomplish this, the child

must know and observe the laws of physical and mental health. He should be given the opportunity to develop emotionally and socially as well.

The functions of the Elementary School,

then, ate not unique.

The greatest difference lies in its

method, organization, and curriculum, because it is dealing with a particular age-group of children. I.

Introduction. A. Historical development. 1. Causes of development. 2. Unique development in the United States. 3. Relation to other units.

42 II.

Purposes and Scope. A. Number of years included. B. Immediate and general' objectives.

III.

The Curriculum. A. Content of the curriculum. 1. Provision for revision. 2. Current issues.

IV.

Organization. A. Philosophy and methodology. B. Support and control. C. Provision for extending downward and upward.

V.

Administration. A. Program of instruction. 1. Present practices. 2. Future tendencies.

VI.

References. 1. Cole* Luella, Teaching in the Elementary School. Farra, 1939•

Chapters II, III.

2. Cubberley, E. P., Public School Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1929* XXII, XXIII.

Chapters

^3 3. Hockett, John A., and E. W. Jacobsen, Modern Practices in the Elementary School, Ginn and Company, 1938.

Boston:

Chapter I.

4. Otto, Henry,.J., Elementary School Organization and Administration. Company, 1934.

New York: D. Appleton-Century

Chapters I - IV.

5. Wrightstone, J. Wayne, Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices.

New York: Teachers College,

Columbia University, 1938.

Chapter XV.

CHAPTER XII PRE-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Early training in human development is not new. It began as early as Plato1s time when he advocated it in his ideal state.

Its earlier promoters include the

names of Comenius, Locke, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel.

In more recent times the Twenty-eighth Yearbook

of the National Society for the Study of Education was de­ voted to pre-school development and education.

The follow­

ing is a statement from that publication: Infancy and early childhood are held to be of funda­ mental and far-reaching importance for the entire development of the individual— of importance, that is to say, not only with respect to his physique, his physical well-being, but even more with respect to his mental well-being, his temperamental and emotional outlook upon life.l Public education has not extended itself downward to include the education of pre-elementary children to any great extent.

The Federal government set up nursery school

units in thirty-seven states in 1933* but the enrollment was not large.

It is quite likely that this part of the total

educational program will continue to grow because of the

1 "Preschool and Parental Education, 11 Twenty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 1929, p. 9-

^5 wide variety of professional people and laymen who are interested in it. I.

Introduction. A. Place in total educational program. 1. Basie foundation. 2. Fundamental importance.

II.

History in America. A. Child study movement. 1. Federation for child study. 2. American Child Hygiene Association. 3. National Committee on Mental Hygiene. k. Children*s Bureau. B. Yale Psycho-Clinic. C. Iowa Child Welfare Research Station. D. Twenty-Eighth Yearbook of N.S.S.E. E. Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial. F. Committee on Child Development.

III.

Early home care. A. Prenatal supervision. B. Effects of home environment of preschool child.

IV.

The nursery school. A. Scope.

46 B. Objectives. C. Curriculum. D. Relation to other units. V.

The Kindergarten. A. Scope. B. Objectives. C. Curriculum. D. Relation to other units.

VI.

References. 1. Arlett, Ada Hart, Our Homes. Parents and Teachers, 193&.

National Congress of Parts III, IV.

2. Poster, Josephine C., and Marion L. Mattson, Nursery School Education.

New York: Appleton-Century Company,

1939. 3. Gesell, Arnold, The First Five Years of Life. ~

0

York: Harper Brothers, 1940.

New

Chapter I.

4. "Preschool and Parental Education," Twenty-Eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education.

Bloomington, Illinois: Public School

Publishing Company, 1929*

Chapters V, VIII, IX.

5 . Updegraff, Ruth et al., Practice in Preschool Ed­ ucation. I938.

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Chapters I, II, XI.

6 . Washburne, Carleton, A Living Philosophy of Education. New York: John Day Company, 1940. Chapter VIII.

PART IV ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK The problems of running or managing a school are seldom handled the same way in any two different localities.

However, there are

certain basic principles which can and do apply generally.

The more important problems of

school administration have been included in this part of the work.

CHAPTER XIII THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM This is the reason for the existence of the schools. Administrators are often like college students in that they make all the preliminary preparations but fail to carry through their most important duty of providing the best possible learning situation.

Often college students

will spend hundreds of dollars and much valuable time in attending classes, but refuse to spend an additional five dollars for a text book or other necessary material. There are few instructional programs that cannot be improved upon. personnel.

This is the primary duty of the professional

It is the responsibility of the Superintendent

and principals, supervisors, and teachers to make a continu­ ous study of the community in order to keep the curriculum up to date.

There must be incorporated within the curricu­

lum a means of evaluating and appraising it. The pupil has his place in the formation of the curriculum, and the implementation of the instructional program, for if the teacher fails to take into account the pupils* needs and problems of the moment, there is not likely to be much learning going on.

49 I.

General principles. A. Democratic purpose. B. Provisions for change and improvement.

II.

State authority and responsibility. A. Legal protection.'. B. Required courses. 1. Time allotment. 2. Place of county course of study.

III.

Organization of program. A. Types. 1. Core subjects. 2. Special teachers. B. Grouping students. 1. Promotion policy. 2. Adjustments within a grade.

IV.

Appraising results. A. Techniques of evaluation. 1. Objective. 2. Subjective. B. Public relations. 1. Reporting to parents. 2. Interpretation of educational program.

50 V.

References. 1. Harap et al., The Changing Curriculum.

New York:

D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937* 2. Harris, Pikins E., The Curriculum and Cultural Change. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937. 3. Norton, John K . , and Margaret A., Foundations of Curriculum Building.

Boston: Ginn and Company,

1936. School Survey, Arcadia, California.

Arcadia City

School District, Arcadia., California, 19^7*

CHAPTER XIV BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Administering the business affairs of a school district falls into two categories.

The first may be

called the legislative function which belongs to the Board of Education.

The second becomes the duty of

the superintendent and is referred to as the executive function because he puts the money to work.

Actually,

the board and superintendent work very closely together in an effort to do an efficient job.

Large districts

have educators who have been trained in business to administer the business affairs of the schools. In all districts it has been recommended that the educational program precede and govern the expenditures and financing plans.*1- Further, it is strongly urged that the business manager or the superintendent in charge of business always be responsible to the superintendent, and never be given coordinate authority.

I

Chris A. DeYoung, Budgeting Practices in Public School Administration (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Contributions to Education, School of Education Series No. 8), p. 2.

Organization. A. Unit type. 1. Superintendent directs whole organization. 2. Business employees subordinate to superintendent. 3. Centralized control. 4. Coordinates effort. B. Fiscally independent boards. 1. Board has legal right to levy taxes. 2. Board has legal right to spend income. C. Administering school funds. 1. Securing all revenue to which schools are entitled. 2. Proper safeguarding of funds until spent. D. The budget. 1. Philosophy of the budget. a. Preparation. b. Presentation. c. Administration. E. School supplies. 1. Guiding principles for purchasing. a. Need for businesslike practices. b. Need for cooperative purchasing. F. Bonds and indebtedness. 1. Purpose of issuing bonds. 2. Types of bonds.

53 3 . Conditions necessitating indebtedness. 4. Pay as you go plan. G. Principles of accounting. 1. Formulates policy. 2. Ascertains efficiency. 3. Guarantees fidelity. II.

References. 1. Englehardt, Fred, Public School Organization and Administration.

Boston: Ginn and Company, 1930.

2. Mort, Paul R . , and Walter C. Reusser, Public School Finance.

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Inc., 1941. 3* School Survey, Arcadia, California.

Arcadia City

School District, Arcadia, California, 19^7* 4. Whitehead, Willis A., and W. R. Flesher, "Designing Secondary Classrooms for General Use," School Executive, 66:57-60, November, 1946.

CHAPTER XV SPECIAL SERVICES In the constantly emerging curriculum, there is always a group of activities which have not been incorpor­ ated into the curriculum proper.

Some never will be, others

will take a long time, and still others,

will probably be­

come part of the curriculum in a short time.

One of the

outstanding examples of how our schools are letting a wonderful opportunity pass by unused is in the cafeteria. There is no better life-like situation for a learning ac­ tivity and yet most schools look upon the lunch hour as a necessary break in the instructional program. Special services refer to those activities which are conducted by the school and do not directly pertain to the instructional program.

The indirect relation of special

services to the instructional program makes It an area for which the administration must provide, if the instructional program is "going to succeed.

In fact, there are at times

possibilities of making the most of these functions by turning them into learning situations.

55 Attendance. A. State and county organization. 1. Legal standards - length of term, age. 2. Necessary records - where and by whom kept. 3. Method of enforcing - notifications * reports. 4. Follow-up system. II.

Health. A. State responsibility. 1. Growth in the United States. 2. Ralation to attendance, to learning. B. Present status. 1. State laws. 2. Hgte of increase. 3. Supervised play and physical education program.

III.

Atypical children. A. State*s responsibility to all pupils. 1. Methods of supervision and control. 2. Personnel - preparation necessary. B. Forms of special education. 1. Physically and mentally handicapped. 2. Delinquents. 3. Americanization. 4. Adult.

56 IV.

Library. A. Organization. 1. Provisions for circulation.. 2. Methods of distribution. B. Standards. 1. Equipment. 2. Library budget.

V. .Cafeteria A. Philosophy. 1. Teacher guidance. 2. Special counselor. B. Organization of program. C. Techniques. VI.

Transportation of pupils. A. Need for transportation of pupils. 1. Equalization of school opportunity. B. Responsibility for it. 1. Local. 2. State. B. Costs. 1. Transportation insurance. 2. Operation, maintenance, capital outlay. 3. Auxiliary use of buses.

57 D. Personnel. 1. Adult chauffers. 2. Student drivers. 3. Driver training program. VII.

Recreation. A. Changing attitude toward recreation. 1. Part of the curriculum. 2. School facilities extended to the community. B. The camping program and the schools. 1. Extension of the school year. 2. Problems involved. 3. Cooperation with other agencies. C. Physical education. 1. Education for worthy use of leisure. 2. Improvement of mental health.

VIII.

References. 1. Chamberlain, Leo, and L. W. Kindred, The Teacher and School Organization.

New York: Prentice Hall, Inc.,

19^9. 2. Dutton, S. T., and David Snedden, Administration of Public Edication in the United States. The Macmillan Gompany, 1908.

New York:

Chapters XXII-XXVI.

58 3* Education Code, State of California.

Sacramento,

California: California State Department of Education, 1947.

Documents Section.

4. Foster, E. M., and Elsie H. Mortens, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1934-36.

Washing­

ton: U.S. Office of Education, Bulletin, 1937* No. 2. 5* School Survey, Arcadia, California.

Arcadia City

School District, Areadia, California, 1947* 6. Compulsory Attendance.

Washington: U.S. Bureau of

Education, Bulletin No. 2, 1914.

CHAPTER XVI FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION Laymen often ask teachers questions about the school; questions which go right to the heart of the purpose of education.

Many of the questions center around costs and

expenditures for education.

In order for the teacher to

become an effective participant in the process of educating the youth of the land, and to answer intelligently the questions concerning basic information regarding school costs, it becomes necessary for him to enlighten himself about tax methods, sources of educational revenues, and the financial problems involved in the support of public schools. We do not have completely free schools at this stage of our development.

There are fees for various activities

within the curriculum, such as locker fees, text book rentals, and the like.

However, there are two problem areas which mark

the struggle for better financial support to our schools. They are:

(l) extending the opportunities for a publicity

supported program of education to the pre-elementary, college, continuation, and adult levels; and (2) the equalization of educational opportunity and burden, through state and national funds.

The equalization of educational opportunity does not

imply an even and impartial distribution, but does take into consideration costs, needs, inequalities, and local effects.

60 I.

Sources of school incomes. A. Local. 1. Relation to public finance. 2. Percentage not uniform. a. Size and wealth of district. b. Ratio of assessed to true valuation of property, e. Number of children to be educated. 3. Taxation. a. Characteristics of a good tax system. b. Need for revisions. 4. Miscellaneous sources. B. State aid. 1. Proportion of assistance. 2. Present trend toward state aid. C. Federal Aid. 1. Present practices. 2. Proposed legislation.

II.

Distribution of school funds. A. Various bases of distribution. 1. Single. 2. Combination. 3. Effort and need.

61 III.

Teacher and budget. A. Relation to his educational efficiency. B. Relation to the community.

IV.

References. 1.

Chamberlain, Leo, and Leslie Kindred, The Teacher and School Organization. Inc., 19^9*

New York: Prentice-Hall,

Chapter 17.

2. DeYoung, Chris A., Introduction to American Public Education. 19^2.

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Chapter 16.

3. Mort, Paul R., and Walter Reusser, Public School Finance. 1941.

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Chapters 9, 23, 24.

4. Moehlman, Arthur B., School Administration. York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940.

New

Chapter 20.

CHAPTER XVII TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN ADMINISTRATION There have been studies which reveal that teachers desire* more than anything else, the right to be happy in their work.

Job status is a powerful motivating force.

Social psychologists tell us that all people have the desire to belong.

If the teacher feels that he has a voice

in policy making, he will develop the feeling of belonging­ ness.

Teachers who help to determine a given policy will

axiomatically execute that policy better, because they feel as thoughhthey have a personal interest at stake. In some schools, much of the work of administration is being placed in the hands of teachers who perform this work as individuals or as members of committees.

In order

to accomplish this, the teacher must have a vast knowledge of school administration.

Often the participation is very

informal; suggestion may be offered in private conference, in teachers' meetings, or in committee meetings.-*-

Whatever

the form may take, the modern administrator knows that he must depend upon his staff for carrying out the policies and he finds that he is most likely to secure intelligent

Emma Reinhard, and Prank Beu, An Introduction to Education (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 19357T Chapter XIII.

63

cooperation if the teachers have a part in determining them. I.

Philosophy. A. Group development. 1. Purpose of the school. 2. Aims of the school. 3. Principles of procedure.

II. Organization. A. Functional. 1. Participation by all persons concerned with activity. 2. Faculty organization. a. Relation to student organization. b. Relation to community organization. B. Types of building committees. 1. Teacher affairs. 2. Curriculum activities. 3. Community relations. 4. Socialization. C. System organization. 1. Coordinate building units. 2. Equal representation. III. Practical problems. A. Lack of democratic leadership.

64

B. Lack of teacher cooperation. 1. Authoritarian background. 2. Dislike for extra duties. C. Authority and responsibility. 1. Administrator retains veto for: a. Teachers1 contribution. b. Students’ contribution. IV. References. 1. “Changing Conceptions in Educational Administration," Forty-Fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I I . Chicago Press, 1946.

Chicago:

University of

Chapter IV.

2. Donelly, Clarence M., “Headaches in Democratic Adminis­ tration,” School Executive, 64:46, August, 1945. 3. Koopman, G. Robert, Alice Miel, and Paul J.- Misner, Democracy in School Administration.

New York:

D.

Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1943. 4. Mehl, Mary, and E.D. Kennedy,

"Three Teachers Replace

One Supervisor,11 Nation’s Schools, 34:47-48, December, 1944. 5. Williams, O.S., "Administrative Activities in which Teachers Participate Democratically,” American School Board Journal, 105:40-41, September, 1942.

CHAPTER XVIII ADMINISTRATION OP SUPERVISION The Supervisor is an expert. He is the bestinformed person in the school system with respect to existing conditions in his field and the person best equipped to solve the special problems which may arise. The Supervisor is expected to be a constructive thinker who stands ready to contribute the results of his creative effort for the benefit of the entire school system. Not only is he charged with maintaining the existing levels of efficiency in instruction, but he has the further responsibility of organizing systematic attempts to improve the efficiency of instruction. It is also his duty to discover and conserve advances in instruction made by individual teachers or principals in the school system and to provide agencies through which these advances may be made of value to the system as a whole.1 I.

Evolution of supervision. A. Changes in supervision. 1. Aims and purpose . 2. Personnel. 3. Techniques. B. Administrator supervisor. 1. Ultimate responsibility. 2. Delegation of responsibility. a. Building supervisor. b. Special supervisor.

1 C.L. Spain, WA New. Definition of the Functions of Supervision,n Elementary School Journal, 26:A99> July, 1926.

G.

Principles of supervision. 1. Philosophic. 2. Cooperative. 3. Creative. 4. Scientific. 5. Effective.

Methods of supervision. A. Subjective. 1. Personal observation. a. Done by whom. b. Frequency of visits. c. Length of visits. d. Criteria of judgement. e. Reliability of findings. f. Follow-up. 2. Personal observation and conferences. a. Occasional visits. (1) Advantage s . (2) Disadvantages. b. Follow-up visits and conferences. (1) Method of observation. (2) Method of consultation. (3) Frequency of use. (4) Personnel required.

67

3 . Classroom visiting by teachers. a. Advantages. b . Di sadvantage s . c. Methods of making them constructive. B. Use of measuring instruments. 1. Score cards for rating teachers. a. Validity and reliability of score cards. b. Application of score card by teacher himself. c. Application of results. 2. Hating of teachers by teachers. a. Results. b. Advantages. c. Possibilities. 3. Pupil progress. a . Factors. b. Variables. c. Application of results. III. References. 1. Barr, A.S., and others, Elementary School Standards for the Improvement of Teaching.

Ann Arbor, Michigan:

Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1924. 2. Barr, A.S., W.H. Barton, and L.J. Brueckner, Supervision:

Principles and Fractices in the Improvement

of Instruction. 1938 .

New York:

D. Appleton-Century Company,

68

3. Butler* P.A.* "Standard Items to Observe for the Improvement of Teaching in Classroom Management**1 Journal of Educational Method* 9:517-527, 1930. “Current Problems of Supervision*" Third Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction of the National Education Association. New York:

Teachers College* Columbia University*

1930. 5. Dunn* Fannie W.* "How Should We Supervise?" Educational Leadership* 2:155-156, January, 19^5* 6. Pittman* M.S.* The Value of School Supervision. York:

New

Warwick and York, 1921.

7. Redit* Edith E.* Teachers * Appraisal of Rural School Supervisors1 Work in California.

Bulletin No. 16 of

the Department of Education* Sacramento* California* 1933.

CHAPTER XIX ADMINISTRATION OP PUBLIC RELATIONS The people of any given community are going to find out something about what is going on in the school * therefore it may as well be the truth.

The fact that school affairs

are concealed from the public is usually enough to bring on an attack against the school.

The adage of "an ounce of

prevention” is quite applicable to public school relations. This has been borne out in many instances by the lay advisory councils studied by Hull.^

This is a common sense approach

of inviting in lay groups, as advisors only to the school board.

Advocates of this trend in public education claim

that the opportunity for each group within the community to be heard eliminates most of the friction among the patrons of the school concerning policy and administration.

If the

people are taken into the confidence of school officials and employees through a practical public relations program and told the purposes, accomplishments, and needs of the schools, they are likely to lend their support to the schools.

Con-

trarily, if the public is not informed about the schools, experiences from the depression days of the thirties demon­ strate that the schools are the first to feel the economic

Henry Hull, "Lay Advisory Councils to Boards of Education,” (unpublished Doctorfs dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^9).

TO

pinch.

The public furnishes the children and the money to

operate public education, so why not let it in on a job that needs all the help it can muster? I.

Need for a Public Relations Program in a Democracy. A. Relation of schools to democratic government. B. Relation of schools to ideals of the public. 1. Need for informing the public bn school achieve­ ments . 2. Need for informing the public on needed and proposed changes. 3. Need for raising the status of the teaching profession. 4. Need to propound 1classless schools for all*.

II. History of public school publicity. A. Nature of early school reporting. B. School reports and development of public education. 1. Number issued. 2. Material contained. 3. Purpose of reporting. 4. By whom issued. C. Present status of public relations. 1. Regular reports and publications. 2. Special campaign reports.

71

3. Continuous publicity. III. Types of publicity issued regularly. A. The form it takes concerning: 1. Function. 2. Frequency of publication. 3. Its circulation. B. Authorship. 1. A designated official. 2. A group of persons. a. Who contributes. b. Who assembles material. C. Content. 1. Functional. 2. Length of articles, publication, number of items included. 3. Amount of censorship. IV. Special campaigns. A. Organizing a campaign and publicity. 1. Collecting data. 2. Tying in data with the campaign. 3. Various types of publicity. B. Variations according to types of campaigns. V.

Making publicity continuous.

72

A. Present practices. B. Various methods used. 1. Merit of special

publications.

2. Merit of regular channels. C . The budget and public relations. VI. References. 1. Farley, B.M., What to Tell the People about the Public Schools.

New York:

Teachers College,

Columbia University, 1929. 2. Kindred, Leslie W.,

editor, MPublic Relations

in

Secondary Schools,*1 The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, Vol. 32, February, 1948. 3 . Martz, Henry B., "School-Community Relations,” The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principles, 28:25-30, March, 1944. 4. Moehlman, Arthur B., Social Interpretation. York:

New

D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1938.

5 . "Teacher and Public," Eighth Yearbook, Department of Classroom Teachers.

Washington:

National

Education Association, 1934. 6 . "The Principal and His Community," Eleventh Yearbook, Department of Elementary School Principals. National Education Association, 1932.

Washington:

Chapters VIII,

73

IX, X. 7 . Waller, J. Flint, Public Relations for the Public Schools.

Trenton, New Jerseys

Quigley Company, 1933.

MacCrellish and

CHAPTER XX ADMINISTRATION OP PUPIL PERSONNEL Education, as a function of the state, implies that it is also the duty of the state to enforce the school attendance laws of the state.

Most school laws require

children of compulsory school age to attend either a public or a private school.

Green has found that, in order to

administer the law of the state, a continuous census is practically the only solution to the problem."**

Such a

survey would inform the administrator of how many children there are of each age within the district, who they are,where they are, and whether or not they are attending school. The enforcement of attendance laws encounters deeper problems than truancy.

Moehlman has found that attendance problems

embrace such things as health, social and economic conditions, o and institutional maladjustment. These factors have caused a change in the type of personnel who are employed in this work.

Formerly, retired police officers were used, but

gradually the work has been turned over to teachers and

1 H.A. Green, The School Census Extension Bulletin, No. 121, 1925)7 2 A.B. Moehlman, Child Accounting Brothers Press, 1924), p. 11.

(University of Iowa, (Detroit:

Priema

75

social workers. The classification and grouping of children for instructional purposes is a constant problem before every school administrator.

The average grade level contains

pupils whose abilities range from one to four years. Recognizing this problem and doing something about meeting the need for individual differences are two different things. Formerly the emphasis was placed upon extra attention for the duller pupils in order to avail every opportunity for their improvement, but recently the emphasis has turned to the brighter pupils, because it was realized that they will be the real leaders of s o c i e t y . 3 I.

School census and compulsory attendance. A. Elements of a census. 1. Permanency. 2. Continuity. 3. Data included. A. Accuracy. B. Procedure of taking a census. C. Record of census. 1. Filing system.

3 Ward G. Reeder, The Fundamentals of Public School Administration (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941), p . 505*

76

2. Location of files. D. Functional value of census. II. School census and compulsory attendance. A. Relation of compulsory education and democracy. B. School census and public support of education. C . Local and state control of census and attendance. III. Compulsory attendance. A. History of compulsory attendance. 1. Legal status. 2. Age limits. 3. Enforcement. B. Functions of attendance department. C. Its organization. D. Relation to other 'child welfare' departments. 1. Child labor. 2. Regulation of pupil employment. IV. Legal status of pupil. A. Pupil rights and duties controlled by state. 1. Equal, not identical, educational opportunities for all pupils. 2. Expulsion and suspension of pupils. a. Power of teachers to suspend. b. Power of board to expel.

3. Grounds for either or both. B. Control of pupils outside of school hours. 1. Control to and from school. 2. Conduct reflecting on school welfare. C. Corporal punishment. 1. Teacher stands "in loco parentis” . 2. Reasonable punishment. D. Legal residence of pupil. Classification and progress. A. History in the United States. 1. Methods used in the beginning. 2. Results obtained. 3. Later changes. B. Present methods of classification and progress. 1. Homogeneous grouping. 2. Special classes. 3. Unit assignment. 4. Relation of class size to pupil progress. C. Age grade studies and tables. 1. Standards for age grade placement. a. When taken. b. Value and use made of data. D. Promotions and failures.

78

1. Types of promotions used. a. Merits and weaknesses of each. 2. Relation to educational philosophy. 3. Significance of accumulative records. VI. References. 1.

Anderson, H.A.,

nA Day-by-Day Census,” Nation1s

Schools, 16:36-39, September, 1935. 2. Broady, K.O., School Provisions for Individual Differences.

New York:

Teachers College, Columbia

University, 1930. 3. Ensign, F.C., Compulsory School Attendance and Child Labor.

Iowa City, Iowa:

Athens Press, 1921.

4. Hick, A.O., Administration of Pupil Personnel. Boston:

Ginn and Company, 1929.

Chapters XIV to XX.

5 . Jacobson, Paul B., and William C. Reaves, Duties School Principals. 1942.

of

New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,

Chapter XIV.

6. Kyte, George C., The Principal at W o r k , Ginn and Company, 1941.

Boston:

Chapter VIII.

7. Moehlman, Arthur B., School Administration. Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1940.

Boston:

Chapter XIII.

CHAPTER XXI ADMINISTRATION OP PERSONNEL The certificated personnel of the public school have an interesting history.

Slowly, through legislation and

public opinion, the status of the teacher has grown and increased, not for its own well-being, but because of a sincere desire on the part of the adults of this nation to improve the lot of their children.

Wherever this was

done, the qualifications and security bf the teacher have been increased.

The courts, for example, have ruled that

teacher tenure is legal, because tenure of the teacher will enable the district to employ and maintain a higher type of individual to instruct the pupils.

A very vital function

of school administration is that of employing competent certificated personnel.and keeping them happy on the job. Formerly, the non-certificated personnel were not screened closely beyond the qualifies necessary to perform their work.

In more recent times, educators have begun to

realize the influence which custodians, cafeteria workers, and others have on pupils.

Accordingly, greater importance

has been attached to the selection of these people whose work brings them very close to the pupils, and whose example forms a lasting impression on the lives of children.

Certificated personnel. A. Certification. 1. Standard for certification. 2. Authorizing agency. B. Employment. 1. The contract. 2. Salary; other factors. C. Tenure and retirement. 1. Principles and purposes. 2. Rights under tenure. 3. Controlling body of tenure. D. Professional ethics. 1. Professional organizations. 2. Standards for professional status. E. Special teachers. 1. Exceptional pupils. 2. Special schools. 3. Specialized subjects. 4. Special methods. F. In-service teacher education. 1. Supervision of instruction. 2. Exchange teachers. 3. Institute or teachers1 meetings. 4. Summer study.

81

II. Non-certificated personnel. A. The custodian. 1. Duties and responsibilities. 2. Custodian's schedule. 3. Relation to teachers. 4. Relation to pupils. B. Clerks and secretaries. 1. Qualifications. 2. Various duties. C. Cafeteria and lunchroom workers. 1. Importance of cafeteria manager. 2. Qualifications. 3. Duties. III. References. 1. DeYoung* Chris A.* Introduction to American Public Education.

New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Company* 1942.

2. Hamilton* Robert R.* and Paul R. Mort* The Law and Public Education.

Chicago:

The Foundation Press*

Inc.* 1941. 3. Kyte, George C.* The Principal at Wor k .

Boston:

Ginn and Company* 1941. 4. Reeder* Ward G.* The Fundamentals of Public School Administration. 1941.

New York:

The Macmillan Company*

PART V SUMMARY An attempt is made here in a short space to give a description of what has been and is being done in the field of school administration^ which is considered a service branch of the educational system.

CHAPTER XXII SUMMARY Public education in the United States did not Just happen.

It has come about as a result of the dreams and

tireless labor of many distinguished leaders who were willing to devote their time and effort to the common good. The struggle continues today on several fronts of the con­ stantly changing scene.

New conceptions of what education

ought to be are shaping the direction the schools shall take in the future.

At the present time there is a con­

tinuing trend away from the strictly academic curriculum toward the vocational and practical a rts.

However, regard­

less of the subject matter taught, the schools in many communities throughout this country are the largest organi­ zation within that locality.

There are, in some communities,

more children in the school than there are workers in the village stores and shops, and usually the head of the school unit earns a higher salary than any other public servant. Education may be considered “big business” . The organization of our national system of education was stated clearly in the tenth amendment of the constitution. This amendment left education to the states and thus was derived the concept of education as a function of the state.

84

The federal government has been vitally concerned about education and has been actively engaged in it since the early days of our republic.

Most public education is

carried on by the states as provided for in their consti­ tutions and enacted by their legislatures.

It is impossible

for the central law-making body or any central department of education to carry out the many details of such a program. These duties are delegated to the county and local school officials who derive their power from the state legislatures. Such an organization allows the schools to be kept close to the people, yet insures a minimum standard throughout the state. Adult education in this country has been confined mostly to the cities.

There are some who believe that this

branch of education will advance in the next quarter century with a pace equal to that of the secondary field in the past twenty-five or more years. Higher education has gone through a change by admitting women and broadening its curriculum to include vocational training as contrasted to a liberal arts offering for cen­ turies.

Secondary education is still marked by its lack of

giving only lip service to individual differences and meeting the needs of the students.

At the lower levels the organi­

zation for instructional purposes has been better accomplished.

85

Probably more psychological experimentation has been conducted and put into practice at these levels than any of the others. The administration of public schools in America has been characterized by change.

Horace Mann is generally con­

sidered the first important figure in American public school administration.

From his time until the beginning of the

twentieth century the administrative program was rather haphazard.

New services were added to catch up with the

already expanded population.

At the beginning of the present

century^ a serious effort was begun to plan for the financial support of education and to use scientific methods in the administration of the public schools.

New services have

been added until the present day schools would hardly be recognized by the founding fathers of this country.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

Arlett, Ada Hart, Our Homes. Washington: of Parents and Teachers, 193&.

National Congress

Discusses the important place the home occupies in the total educational picture. Barr, A.S., and others, Elementary School Standards for the Improvement of Teaching. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1924. Presents the standards for the improvement of teachers employed in the Detroit Public Schools as presented by the department of supervision of that system. Barr, A.S., W.H. Barton, and L.J. Brueckner, Supervision; Principles and Practices in the Improvement of Instruc­ tion. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 193b. A must for a complete picture of supervision, its principal purposes and organization. Bourne, Edward C ., History of Surplus Revenue of 1837. New York: G.P. Putnam and Sons, 1885. Shows the interest of the federal government in our public schools during the past. Briggs, Thomas H., Improving Instruction. Macmillan Company, 1938.

New York:

The

A good general reference in the field of supervision. Bryson, Lyman, Adult Education. C ompany, 1938.

New York:

American Book

Discusses the public school in relation to adult education and the schools set up by the federal government. Broady, K.O., School Provisions for Individual Differences. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930.

87

Present practices in meeting individual needs and necessary improvements needed. Butts, R. Freeman, The College Charts Its Course. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1939.

New York:

Increasing influence of the college, and the demands made of it. Victory for the elective principle in higher education. Chamberlain, Leo, and Leslie W. Kindred, The Teacher and School Organization. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,, 1949. Presents: Scope and general character of the American public school system, organization and administration, and the administrative tasks in which the classroom teacher may be expected to participate. Cole, Luella, Teaching in the Elementary School.

Farra, 1939.

Aims, objectives, and program of the elementary school. Cubberley, E.P., Changing Conceptions of Education. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914.

Boston:

An historical treatment of the problem of educational reconstruction. , Public Education in the United States. ^ppughton Mifflin Company , 1934.

Boston:

All but the first two chapters deal with the educational development since the beginning of our national period. There are problems in education and accounts of their attempted solution, with a look ahead. , Public Schobl Administration. Mifflin Company, 1929.

Boston:

Houghton

Explains the psychological reactions to teacher participation in school policy development. , State and County Educational Reorganization, York: The Macmillan Company, 1913*

New

88 This is a proposed form of government for the hypothetical state of Osceola. Cubberley, E.P., and E.C. Elliott, Administration. Source Book. Company, 1915.

State and County School New York: TheMacmillan

Expression of certain fundamental principles relating to the administration of public edu­ cation in the United States as set forth for the hypothetical state of Osceola. Cubberley, Ellwood P., State School Administration. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1927.

Boston:

A book of principles, lines of action and direction of future progress in terms of an evolutionary series, rather than primarily to describe what states are now doing. , The History of Education. Company, 1920.

Boston:

Houghton Mifflin

A comprehensive treatment of the history of education by an outstanding educational authority. Debatin, Frank M . , Administration of Adult Education. York: American Book Company, 1 9 3 ^

New

Pertains to setting up the program with . consideration given to teachers, administra­ tors, and students. DeYoung, Chris A . , Budgeting Practices in Public School A d ­ ministration. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern Uni­ versity, 1932. Much uniformity in state and city budget requirements, but still room for more uni­ formity was noted. _______ , Introduction to American Public Education. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1942. A good book for orientating the beginning teacher or layman to the field of public education.

New York:

89

Dutton, S.T., and D. Snedden. The Administration of Public Education in the United States. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1908. An historical account of state administration of education which should prove interesting. Englehardt, Fred, Public School Organization and Administration. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931. A comprehensive coverage of literature and practices of the organization and administration of public education in the United States since the beginning of the century. Ensign, F.C., Compulsory School Attendance and Child Labor. Iowa City, Iowa: Athens Press, 1921. Good history of these subjects. Farley, B.M., What to Tell the People about the Public Schools. New York: Teachers.College, Columbia University. A study of school patrons’ interest compared with the school news topics which newspapers publish. Foster, Josephine C., and Marion L. Mattson, Nursery School Education. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1939. Presents convincing evidence of the tremendous progress that nursery school education is making. Gesell, Arnold, The First Five Years of Life. Harper Brothers, 19^0.

New York:

Measured records of the growth and development of children during these ages. Very valuable for studying and understanding the child of this age. Graves, Frank P ., The Administration of American Education with Special Reference to Personnel Factors.. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932. This work deals with administration as a service function, justifiable only to the extent that it makes the work of the teacher and pupil more effective.

90

Hamilton,, Robert R., and Paul R. Mort, The Law and Public Education. Chicago: The Foundation Press, Inc., 19^1. A valuable compilation of court cases which have governed educational administration. Harap et a l ., The Changing Curriculum. Century Company, 1937*

New York:

D. Appleton-

Subject matter barriers are gradually being lowered or obliterated as the life needs of pupils are being realized by secondary schools. Harris, Pikins, E., The Curriculum and Cultural Change. New York: D. App 1eton-C entury Company, 1937An effort to aid teachers, supervisors, and administrators in grasping more fully the social and psychological factors affecting curriculum development. Deals with procedures, not techniques, in an effort to provide a basis of criticism and evaluation, Haskins, Charles H., The Rise of Universities. ‘Henry Holt Company, 1923.

New York:

Describes the role of student and professor in the first European Universities. Heck, A.O., Administration of Pupil Personnel. Ginn and Company, 1929*

Boston:

Methods of classification, reporting, and the general adjustments of children. Hockett, John A., and E.W. Jacobsen, Modern Practices in the Elementary School. Boston: Ginn and Company, 193BT Accepted by many elementary specialists as an outstanding statement of the present out­ look for future elementary education. Hutchins, R.M., The Higher Learning in America. Connecticut: Yale University Press'^ 193&.

New Haven,

The author champions the cause of liberal arts education as opposed to the vocational movement in American colleges and universities.

91

Jacobson, Paul B . , and William C. Reaves, Duties of School Principals. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1942. Discusses pupil school progress and the factors which relate to it along with types of promotions. Kandel, I.L., History of Secondary Education. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.

Boston:

Traces the development of the high school in Europe and America. Keith, J.A., and William C. Bagby, The Nation and the Schools. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1920. Applying the principle of federal aid to education. Koopman, G. Robert, Alice Miehl, and Paul J. Misner, Democracy in School Administration. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1943. An attempt to show how schools can translate democracy into action. Koos, L.V., J.H. Hughes, P.W. Hutson, and W.C. Reavis, Administering the Secondary School. New York: American Bo ok C ompany, 1940. A comprehensive treatment of problems of internal organization and management of the secondary school with consideration of large and small types of schools. Kyte, George C., The Principal at W o r k . Company, 1941.

Boston:

Ginn and

Stresses supervisory role but covers all aspects of the principal*s duties. It is based upon educational research, educational philosophy, reported sound practice, and tested recommendations. Moehlman, A.B., Child Accounting. Press, 1924.

Detroit:

Priema Brothers

92

A discussion of the general' principles underlying educational child accounting together with the development of a uniform procedure. _______ , School Administration. Company, 1940.

Boston:

Houghton Mifflin

A comprehensive and voluminous work which covers in detail the field of school administra­ tion. Should be used as a reference. _______ , Social Interpretation. Century Company, 193*3.

New York:

D. Appleton-

A functional concept of interpretative activity as basic and complementary to all institutional planning and progress. Mort, Paul R., and Walter C. Reusser, Public School Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,’ 1941. A dynamic approach to the theme that educational finance is subservient to the purposes of edu­ cation which are in turn governed by the everchanging conceptions of education. Norton, John K., and Margaret A. Morton, Foundations of Curriculum Building. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1936. An extensive compilation of curriculum research in relation to the major high school subject fields. Otto, Henry, Elementary School Organization and Administration. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1934. An analysis of the best research of the past decade and a realistic interpretation of progressive trends and philosophy. Pittman, M.S., The Value of School Supervision. Warwick and York, 1921.

New York:

The zone plan of supervision is demonstrated. Reeder, Ward G., The Fundamentals of Public School Adminis-tration. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941.

93

An account of the urgent and recurring problems encountered in the administration of the local school system from the viewpoint of the board and superintendent. Reisner, E.H., Nationalism and Education. Macmillan Company, 1922.

New York:

The

Elaboration of the history of education from the social and political point of view. Seashore, Carl E., The Junior College Movement. Henry Holt Company, 1940.

New York:

Covers this interesting trend in American education. Spears, Harold, The Emerging High School Curriculum and Its Direction. New York: American Book Company, 1940. A discussion of what small high schools are doing to meet the needs of the students. Thorndike, E.L., Adult Learning. Company, 1928.

New York:

The Macmillan

This work disproved the theory that adults could not learn very well. The slow decline in mental alertness after thirty is not significant. Updegraff, Ruth, et_ a l ., Practice in Preschool Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1938. An excellent account and description of the Iowa clinic, its work, and educational program. Waller, J. Flint, Public Relations for the Public Schools. Trenton, New Jersey: MacCrellish and Quigley Company, 1933. This book gathers together much.of the best practice in public relations and organizes it for use in different situations. Washburne, Carleton, A LiVing Philosophy of Education. York: John Day Company, 1940.

New

94 A description of the Winnetka nursery school. Wrightstone, J. Wayne, Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices. New York: Teachers College, Columbia Uni­ versity, 1938. Lists several of the latest practices in the elementary field.

B.

PERIODICALS

Anderson, H.A., nA Day-by-Day Census,'1 Nationfs Schools, 16:36-39* September,1935. A description of a continuous census. Chambers, M.M., "State Centralization Goes On," Nation1s Schools, 19:33-34, June, 1937Takes a position in favor of increased centralization of educational authority in state departments of public instruction. Dannelly, Clarence M., "Headaches in Democratic Administra­ tion," School Executive, 64:46, August, 1945Discusses reasons why teachers fail to participate in administration. Dunn, Fannie W., "How Should We Supervise?" Leadership, 2:155-156, January, 1945.

Educational

By pass rating scales for teachers in order to devote the time to more important matters. Mehl, Mary, and E.D. Kennedy, "Three Teachers Replace One Supervisor," Nation's Schools, 34:47-48, December, 1944. Three teachers do different parts of the total duties usually assigned'to a principal. Spain, C.L.,"A New Definition of the Functions of Supervision," Elementary School Journal, 26:499* July, 1926.

95

Outline plan of organization for supervision which has operated in Detroit for several years. Williams,, O.S., “Administrative Activities in which Teachers Participate Democratically," American School Board Journal, 105:40-41, September^ 1942. A report of how democratic administration has been conducted in several schools.

C.

PUBLICATIONS OP LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

"Changing Conceptions in Educational Administration," FortyFifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II:.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. Ways and means of securing teacher partici­ pation in administration. Coching, Walter D., and Charles H. Gilmore, Organization and Administration of Public Education. The Advisory Committee on Education, Staff Study No. 2. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1938. A discussion of education at the state level, including the board, superintendent, and the state government. Compulsory Attendance. Washington: Bulletin No. 2, 1914.

U.S. Bureau of Education,

Attention is called to a few arguments for such laws and some of the factors necessary for their enforcement'. "Current Problems of Supervision," Third Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction of the National Education Association. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. An analysis of the current problems of supervision.

96

Deffenbaugh* Walter S., Know Your Board of Education. U.S. Office of Education* Federal Security Agency* Leaflet No. 47. Washington: Government Printing Office* 1939. Gives in detail the duties of a hoard of education. Deffenbaugh* W.S.* and Timon Covert* School Administrative Units with Special Reference to the County Unit. U.S. Office of Education* Pamphlet No. 34* 1933Legal and school tax provisions to states that have adopted the county as the adminis­ trative unit. Education Code* State of California. Sacramento* California: California State Department of Education* 1947A compilation of the laws of California pertaining to education. Educational Policies Commission* The Structure and Adminis­ tration of Education in American Democracy. Washington: National Education Association and the American Associ­ ation of School Administrators* 1938. A brief but compact volumn in which every sentence is packed full of meaning for the student of organization and administration of American education. Foster* E.M.* and Elsie H. Mortens* Biennial Survey of Education in the United States* 1934-367 Washington: U.S. Office of Education* Bulletin* 1937* No. 2. Statistics dealing with special schools and classes for exceptional children. Kindred* Leslie W.* editor* “Public Relations in Secondary Schools*11 The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals. Vol. 32* February* 19^3. Discusses different phases of public relations of the school. Martz* Henry B.* “School-Community Relations*11 The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals* 26:25-30* March* 1944.

History, principles, and techniques of public relations. Mort, Paul R., Eugene S. Lawler, and associates, Principles and Methods of Distributing Aid for Education. Advisory Committee on Education, Staff S^udy No. 5 . Washington: Government Printing Office, 1939. Concerned primarily with methods of distributing federal aid for education without federal control. "Preschool and Parental Education,“ ,Twenty-Eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1929. Summarizes the day school, nursery school, and kindergarten up until 1929. Redit, Edith E., Teachers1 Appraisal of Rural School Superb visors * Work in California. Bulletin No. 16 of the Department of Education, Sacramento, California, 1933. A Master’s thesis sponsored by Dr. George Kyle of the University of California and Helen Heffernan, of the State Department of Education. On the whole, teachers have found rural super­ vision helpful. "School Boards in Action ,n Twenty-Fourth Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Washington National Education Association, 1936• Considered one of the better statements on the role the school board plays in our democracy. Also gives the relationship of the board and superintendent. State School Finance Systems, Research Bulletin, National Education Association, Vol. XX, No. 5 . Washington: National Education Association, November, 19^2. A good chapter on apportionment of state aid for schools, which should be helpful to beginning teachers.

98

“Teacher and Public," Eighth Yearbook, Department of Classroom Teachers. Washington: National Education Association,

19W. What the teacher may do about public relations, and some means of getting it done. "The Expanding Role of Education," Twenty-Sixth Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Washington: National Education Association, 1948. Expounds the theme that education must reach more people in this country because of our new position in world leadership. "The Principal and His Community," Eleventh Yearbook, Depart­ ment of Elementary School Principals. Washington: National Education Association, 1932. Public relations of the school with other social agencies. "Youth Education Today," Sixteenth Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Washington: National Education Association, 1938. The school is responsible for the continuation education of those youths who do not or cannot attend regular school.

D.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS.

School Survey, Arcadia, California. Arcadia City School District, Arcadia, California, 19^7 • A group of school specialists give a comprehensive and detailed report on the operation of a school district, with recommendations for improving certain practices. Stimbert, Elden C., uWhy Teachers Lose Their Jobs." Un­ published Masterfs thesis, University of Nebraska, 1938. This study lists the most prevalent reason for teachers losing their jobs as the failure to adjust to the community.

fU tfe o ra ity of Bomhmrn CsslHfcral* U fm m