An integrated program of arts and crafts for a second grade: A handbook for teachers

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Mildred A. Fisk August 1950

UMI Number: EP46308

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i S'I

This project report, w ritte n under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and app ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of E d u catio n in p a r tia l fu lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in Education.

A d vis er






THE P R O B L E M ....................................


Statement of the p r o b l e m ............


Importance of the s t u d y .....................


Organization of the remainder of the project




Values of Arts and C r a f t s ...................


Integration of Arts and C r a f t s .............



INTEGRATION OF ARTS AND CRAFTSWITH A HARBOR U N I T .........................................


O b j e c t i v e s ..................................


Pre-planning ................................


I n i t i a t i o n ................................ , .


A c t i v i t i e s ..................................


Toy b o a t s ..........


Map of. the h a r b o r .......................


Safety devices for guiding ships ..........


B u i l d i n g s ................................


Mural s ....................................


S c r a p b o o k ..............


Finger painting



C u l m i n a t i o n ................................






PAGE Bibliography and materials .................






F i g u r e s ....................................


Paper- bag f i g u r e s .......................




Stand-up figures.. ........................


Soap c a r v i n g ..............................


P a p e r - m a c h e ..............................


Figure d r a w i n g s ..............


Wire figures .

P u p p e t s .....................................


Paper doll p u p p e t ...................


Paper bag p u p p e t .........................


Clay head p u p p e t .........................



THE ROOM E N V I R O N M E N T .........................



E V A L U A T I O N ....................................


Evaluation in general



Evaluation in termsof Arts and Crafts . . .


S U M M A R Y ............... ........................


BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................




"Art is creative only when it is unique; the goal is individuality of expression . . .1,1 The modern day school is recognizing more and more the great opportunity of Arts and Crafts as a medium of self-expression for all children and not just a gifted few.

The integration of Arts and Crafts with

the Social Studies program provides a world of oppor­ tunities for children to use this means of expression in a real life situation.

It is no longer the main

concern of the schools to train children to be artists, but rather to give them a means of emotional outlet and to grow in creative ability to meet these situa­ tions . I.


Statement of the problem.

It was the purpose

of this study to prepare materials for a handbook to be used as a guide that will help the teacher in organizing

1 H. Rugg, and A. Shumaker, The Child-Centered School. (Chicago: The World Book Company, T928) p . 211.

an Arts and Crafts program, which can he integrated with the Social Studies for a second grade.

It makes an at­

tempt to show first, a psychological approach to the subject of Arts and Crafts and what can be gained through both individual and group experiences;

second, the In­

tegration of Arts and Crafts with Social Studies; and third, a selection of projects which can be used in a unit of work for second grade.

It is the responsibility

of the classroom teacher of the elementary school to so arrange the environment, that it will stimulate the needs and interests of the children.

This will be

further described in Chapter -Three-, j


The activities which are suggested are not unique as they are used in many elementary schools. However, there are teachers who still cling to the idea of Imitation or copy work In art education, or who do not feel adequate in venturing into the field of crafts. This material has been prepared with the thought of help­ ing the beginning teacher to provide a well integrated program with an interesting approach to the Arts and Crafts. Importance of the problem.

Many teachers have

given little thought to the activity side of the Social Studies program which includes the Arts and Crafts.

For them this has been the period when a sheet of paper has been passed out* and the assignment made to draw a picture.

This need not be entirely wrong, for it

might provide a way for the' teacher to know a child better. rence.

However, this should not be a daily occur­ It is necessary to know the child's background;

what kind of a home he comes from, what type of parents he has, and what seeing to be his interests both past and present.

From the accumulation of such informa­

tion it is then possible to arrive at a common point of interest for group study. ' There is a world of opportunity for group exper­ iences through the program of Arts and Crafts.


habits of the group can be developed by so leading the children that they will be aware of their respon­ sibility as a group for carrying through to the com­ pletion of a specific task.

They will learn cooper­

ation within their own group, and the need for sharing in using tools and materials.

They will be made to

realize the interdependence of one group upon another all working for a common goal. - The child will also gain as an individual.


grows to realize his responsibility to the group.


learns self-reliance in choosing materials to be used,

as well as his duty to complete a particular task in a given activity.

He will experience a release of emotion

through the use of the various art media and a real feeling of satisfaction in creating and building.


will grow in knowledge and character through evaluation of his individual work.

He will have the opportunity


develop a sense of appreciationfor aesthetic


color and design^


This type of program will show the importance of a challenging physical environment which will stimu­ late both an active participation and manipulation on the part of the child.

It will give him a background

so that he may share his interests and ideas, grow in his ability to create, and foster within him a desire to attack and solve new problems thus growing in the democratic way of life. II.


The project is divided into II

seven parts.


will give a review and summary of the literature on

Arts and Crafts for primary children with emphasis of the review on:

(l) values of Arts and Crafts, and (2)

integration of Arts and Crafts with the Social Studies program.


Chapter III will include a list of activities which can he used for the integration of Arts and Crafts in the Social Studies program.

Each activity included

in the Harbor unit will be considered from the stand­ point of motivation, procedures, materials to be used, and evaluation of the work. Chapter IV will include a list of projects which may be an individual enterprise related to any inter­ est.

These projects will include procedures and mater­

ials to be used. Chapter V will give suggestions on room envir­ onment and the problem of caring for tools and materials. Chapter VI gives general and specific evalua­ tions . Chapter VII includes the summary and conclusions.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Much has been written about art education in the elementary:

school, the psychological approach to

the subject, and how it can be effectively integrated with other subjects.

However, the most natural inte­

gration comes through the Social Studies program.


phasis has been placed on individual growth as well as worthwhile group experiences, but only a brief sum­ mary of the work of some of the authors will be given. I.


The aim in art education should be growth through guidance toward new experiences in beauty, new materials, happy and interesting experiences, creativeness and accomplishment through hard work.^

The small child's

creative ability and originality should not be hampered by teaching the principles of art, but such teaching should be rightly timed.

Small children can be dis­

couraged if they feel that they must conform to adult

1 M. Ellsworth, "Learning Comes Afterwards," American Childhood, 33:10-11* November, 19^7.

standards, but will learn the basic facts through the evaluation of their own work.

Constructive criticism

teaches factual knowledge which is necessary and can be made fun for the child. Arts and Crafts as education develops the child socially, emotionally, intellectually, and physically.


The social development of the child comes through the use of the various art media which can create for life situations.

An emotional outlet is provided through

line, form, and color in an art situation.

The child

must tax his intellect in recalling his present and past experiences, which form the basis of his art ex­ pressions.

He grows physically because art furnishes

an outlet for his energy. Thelma E. Weisleder points out that to under­ stand the child and aid in mental and social growth the teacher must know the child's personality and background.

She believes that this can be accomplished

through finger painting.

It has been observed that

the noisy child oftentimes becomes interested, quiet, and relaxed as he works, while the quiet shy child will lose himself and show excitement, and the depressed

3 H. Diehr and D. Schwentiker, "Cooperative Projects in Arts and Crafts," American Childhood, 33: 10, November, 19^7*

8 child often loses his depression. Children feel a great deal of success in finger painting and many times this is their first feeling of success, since tensions are released for the first time. It is believed that the greatest part of a personality is shown during periods of relaxation.

This is import­

ant to the teacher, since she should have a complete understanding of the child's personality, not just ap­ parent superficialities. Home background is often discovered through finger painting.

Many "confessions'' come during this

process of finger painting.

The teacher need not have

any special training to gain this rapport.

She must 4 exercise understanding, patience, and common sense. Creative expression must be a slow and gradual process If it is to build confidence in the young child, 5 writes Elsie Reid Boylston. She states that when creative expression is developed in this way it then becomes an Important factor in the mental and emotional development of the child.



Thelma E. Weisleder, Establishing Rapport Through Finger Painting,” The Elementary School Journal, October, 1947, pp. 82-87. ^ Elsie Reid Boylston, "Creative Expression and Child Art," School Arts, 47:294-96, May, 1948.

9 Anna Dunner shows the great importance of the child feeling confident in himself before we can expect him to show much development in self-expression.^ Should the confidence be broken by some well-meaning adult, it is the work of the teacher to rebuild that confidence.

This may be done by both teacher and

group evaluation of the child’s work, always finding the thing to be praised.

The use of a variety of art

media, also, builds confidence. Anna Dunner makes an interesting summary of how timidity in a child is shown by pale drab colors, strag­ gling lines, small objects, empty spaces and much erasing. Natalie Cole has written a very fascinating book 7 on creative art in the class room. She has found that the distortions of the work of children is the quality whieh makes it charming.

She believes, as do many of

the other authors that the principles of art should be taught only when the need arises.

The growing pro­

cess is more important than the end result.

The stan­

dards should be kept high but not above the ability of

^ Anna Dunner, "Building Confidence Through Art,” American Childhood,. 33: March, 1948. 7 Natalie Robinson Cole, The Arts in the Class­ room, (New York: The John Day Company, 19^0).


10 the small child.

If the subject is interesting, the

child will want to put it on paper and through the work of any phase of art

the teacher will gaina new and

better rapport with

the child.

Grace Tietje

has given a

resume of a

number of

authors' writings on creative expression, emphasizing the importance of guidance in furthering creative expression in the young child.


She found through her

study that viewpoints regarding the guidance of creat­ ive expression vary, and suggests the following:


The child should have time to finish what he starts. (2)

Little should be said about his work except praise,

when warranted.


child's inspiration.

Flattery is apt to shatter the The teacher should make the child

aware of the world about him and then furnish him with materials to express his ideas.

This article gives

many very helpful suggestions in the teaching of creative expression. Lee and Lee believe that in order to have creat9 ive art work the children's experiences must be rich.


Grace Tietje, "Creative Expression," Art for Today's Child, Bulletin of the Association for Childhood Education, Washington, B.C., 1935, pp. 17-19. 9 J. Murry Lee, and Doris May Lee, The Child and His Curriculum. (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1940J, pp. 564-68.

Materials should be many and placed where there is room for physical freedom.

While there may be no special

problem for a group of children, occasionally they 3.

might all work for a special effect fiving their con­ ception of some particular character or incident.


though the child should be left to pursue his own in­ terests, he should be given guidance when the need for techniques arises.

They believe that the most impor­

tant factor in developing creative expression is the teacher herself.

It is through her personal living

that she will be able to guide the child. II.


"Art education is not the hand-maiden of any other subject in the curriculum."10

Edna M. Hatch

feels that "integration," Meaning "wholeness" or "one­ ness" of subject matter can be over-done.

She states

that when integration comes naturally it can then be considered good.

Integration of subject matter is

often found in the elementary school. Art education strengthens the powers of observa­ tion.

However, care must be taken not to over-emphasize

10 Edna M. Hatch, "Art Curriculum and the Child," School Arts, 47:303-304, May, 1948.

12 observation, thus destroying the child's creative ability.

It should be noted that observation depends

on all the senses: kinesthesis.

smell, hearing, taste, sight, and

Art should give the opportunity for re­

membering things seen and felt.

It should help the

child verify his own concepts with further observation when he feels this need.

It should provide model ob­

jects which may be looked at and handled freely. Many art media should be made available so that the child may have the opportunity of many inter­ ests.

Going from one interest to another helps the

child find himself.

In summary, Edna Hatch states

that art education contributes to the well being of the whole child, and should not be subordinated to other subjects, but should blend with the whole pro­ gram. Rugg and Shumaker have done valuable work in discussing the program for the new school,

They believe

that a program of work should start from the child's needs and interests relating as closely as possible to a real life situation.

The organization of the program

would be around centers of interest rather than around academic subjects.

This would necessitate a wide var­

iety of materials— materials for dramatic play, supplies for art centers, construction materials and tools.

With such an environment provided the child will be given the opportunity to engage in an activity where he can have freedom to originate and create.

The auth­

ors believe that the creative impulse is the major con­ cern, while materials and tools should be subordinated to the impulse. In such a program the child is given opportunity to develop his creative power growing out of centers of interests, thus Integrating one Interest with an­ other through a felt need.11 W. C. Lucas, Principal of Lee School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, has written an article on the many problems that could be solved in the school room, which grow out of the heritage of the state of Wisconsin. Even though his article is localized to one state his suggested approach to interests which could be used as units of study could be easily adapted to other loc­ alities.

He emphasizes that such activities offer ex­

cellent materials for art and social studies integra­ tion.

11 Rugg and Shumaker, op. cit., pp. 61-211. T? W. C. Lucas, "Wisconsin, A State of One People from Many Nationalities," School Arts, 47: 218-19, March, 1948. :

It is his belief that the outcomes, of such a unit of study, can be abetted through a series of actity experiences based on research, especially creative activities.

He continues his discussion by pointing

out that he shares the thought of other writers that children do possess an innate urge to create.


satisfy this urge through their love to dramatize, paint, draw, sing, talk, write or reproduce some ex­ perience . Louis V. Newkirk has done outstanding work in compiling valuable information on the integration of Handwork in the elementary schools. ided into two parts.

His book is div­

Part One deals with handwork as

an integral part of educational method in the element­ ary schools.

He gives information on the teaching

procedures and sample activity units. Part Two is a teachers guide in handwork tech­ niques.

He has compiled a large variety of projects

in handwork with definite directions for carrying out the projects and which can be used in relation to any center of interest.*3


Louis V. Newkirk, Integrated Handwork for Elementary Schools. (New York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 19W), p. 14.

15 Louis Newkirk states that:

"Handwork is most

effectively used when it is presented as a part of the content and procedure of an activity unit." After a careful reading and correlation of the literature in the field, the following conclusions might be drawn:


The child must have an idea to express

before we can expect any creative growth to take place. (2)

The teacher must provide an environment that will

be interesting and thought-provoking for the child. (3)

The teacher must guide and not drive the child to

participate in the work of the class.


While Arts

and Crafts have a place of their own in the program of the elementary school, there is a still greater oppor­ tunity for the motivation of self-expression through skillful integration of subjects. The social studies offer a greater and wider scope of interests to the child than does any other one single subject.

It is natural and logical that

Arts and Crafts blend with the unit being studied.

CHAPTER III INTEGRATION OF ARTS AND CRAFTS WITH THE HARBOR UNIT Experiences and opportunities are wide and varied for the integration of Arts and Crafts with the unit of study of the harbor. In the city of San Diego, where this unit has been originated, the harbor is a vital part of the com­ munity, since it provides a livelihood for many of the people of that city. This chapter will give some suggested ideas which can be used to make a functional program of Arts and Crafts integrated with the social studies. I. A.


Objectives for Social Studies.

One of the most

Important objectives of the entire social studies unit of work is to build desirable characteristics among children. 1.


Here is an opportunity for child­

ren to work together on matters of common in­ terest and concern.

The activity work will in­

clude committee work, excursions, construction,

drawing, painting and reading.

Emphasis will

need to be placed on cooperation with committee chairman and with each other, being fair in sharing tools and materials, working quietly and making good use of their time. Participation.

Each child needs to have a

part in formulating standards for neat’, accur­ ate work, planning together, developing habits of following directions and listening atten­ tively, committee work, and knowledge of growth through group and self-evaluation. Leadership.

Each child needs to contribute

something of his knowledge and skills in solv­ ing problems.

Each child needs to contribute

something in art, construction, written lang­ uage or in other particular aptitudes.


ization of the leadership ability of children will need to be used as widely as possible. Critical thinking.

Questions will need to

be discussed, selecting those that will best serve the purpose of the unit of study.


weighing of values and the seeing of relation­ ships will need to be practiced.

It is neces-

sary at this point to plan, facing the prob­ lems and agreeing as to their solution and the carrying out of the plans. 5*


It is important to make a choice of

activities worthwhile to the- child and then provide meaningful opportunities for the child pursuant to their execution. 6.


If properly motivated, child­

ren will accept the responsibility of discussion and committee work.

Through skillful formula­

tion of group standards and the acceptance of those standards, each child is made aware of his part in the successful completion of a group project. 7-

Respect toward others.

Given proper guidance,

children will express themselves freely in drawing and construction, as well as in dis­ cussion, planning and evaluation of the work of the individual and of the group. 8.

Appreciations and Interests.

The children will

develop interests and appreciation for things in the world about them, the work of people and

its effects on each individual and the process of working together for a goal which is common to all. 9.


The children will grow in factual

knowledge concerning the ships in the harbor and what work they do.

They will learn how

the harbor affects the community and the work of the men

and machines along the waterfront.

They will gain

facts about safety devices and

traffic rules of the harbor and they will learn how to construct forms needed for a definite purpose. 10.


They will develop skills in identi­

fying ships and boats.

They will show growth

in recognizing safety devices used in the har­ bor.

They will learn to make careful observa­

tion and become more skillful in using the various art media such as paints, clay, crayons and chalk in drawing and constructing forms needed for Objectives for

the unit of study. the Harbor Unit.

The unit sets

forth the following major objectives or understand­ ings to be gained:


The harbor is an important part of our com­ munity.


The harbor is a place where boats and ships load and unload their cargoes.


San Diego Harbor has influenced the growth of the city.


There are warehouses- and canneries for the storage and processing of cargoes.


There are many kinds of boats used for dif­ ferent purposes, such as work, leisure, and protection.


It is necessary to have different types of workers, both man and machine, to carry on these activities.


Safety of boats, ships, and men is provided for in the harbor.


The harbor offers opportunities for recrea­ tion and adds to the beauty of the city.



Man has played an important part in the im14 provement and maintenance of the harbor.

San Diego City Schools Monograph, Plan for Teaching a Unit on Community Life Centered Around the Harbor,~Grade II. San Diego, California: San Diego City Schools, 1946.

21 C.

Objectives for Arts and Crafts.

An essential part

Of art education for a full, rich, successful life is the development of good taste and an appreciation of the fitness for purpose.

Let us consider the

following objectives which will help establish a vitalized program for Arts and Crafts. 1.

To provide a wholesome means of expressing ideas.


To develop skills in the use of tools and mat­ erials .


To stimulate imagination, dexterity and invent­ iveness.


To promote originality, creative expression, and resourcefulness.

To foster an’awareness of good design, line, form, and color. II.



Careful teacher planning.

The teacher should de­

termine in advance what activities will be most significant and plan a careful introduction of all materials.

In the case of the Harbor unit, child­

ren's attention should be called to such Important areas of study as are set forth under the major objectives.


Stimulating environment.

The teacher will so

plan her environment as to stimulate curiosity and interest. C.


Through the. environment the child

will develop an awareness of the unit of work to be explored. D.

Overview of work.

In an overview of the unit at

hand, the teacher will gain a perspective of the scope of the study. E.

Focusing on the significant aspects of the unit. After the scope has been determined, then the em­ phasis will be placed on the important areas of the study.

When the children are ready to gain

understandings, they are also ready to pursue act­ ivities.

At this point it is necessary for the

teacher to tactfully give them a sense of direction by presenting questions: "How can we best show what we have learned about -the .harbor?" "In planning our work what are some activities important enough for us to do?" The words "best" and "important" prepare the chil­ dren to carefully consider activities.

They should

be led to realize when the best time will be to

23 undertake such activities and to give the feeling of their importance.

Selection of appropriate act­

ivities should be accompanied by a careful review of standards such as responsibilities, cooperation and clean up. III.


During the Initiation of the unit of work it becomes the job of the teacher to discover and capital­ ize on previous experiences of the children.


will be a wide variety of materials used to stimulate interests. A*


Set up an exhibit showing in miniature

several ships in the bay.

Some of the ships are

anchored; one is. coming into anchor.

A tug is

guiding it. Bulletin boards.

Set up a class bulletin board

with pictures of ships..

Designate a place for dally

work plans which are suggested by the children for the next day's work.

Designate a place for child­

ren's work, drawings and paintings of their exper­ iences in relation to the unit of work.


Display a large study print showing a

picture of an oceanliner or some other large ships seen in the bay.

Put out stereoscope pictures of

ships on a small table for observation. Books.

Set up a library center with the display

of books centering around the different kinds of r boats and ships. Materials for dramatic play.

Arrange 'large build­

ing blocks to form the outline of the harbor, with some blocks serving as piers. boats in the harbor.

Place toy ships and

Place toy cars, trucks, trac­

tors, dredges, boxcars around the harbor.

Put out

pipestem and stand-patter dolls. Supplies for the art center.

Set up an art center

with tempera paint at the easel.

Arrange tables

with modeling clay, wet chalk and finger painting materials. Construction materials and tools.

There should be

available blocks of soft wood sawed into proper lengths for different kinds of boats, cars, trucks, and tractors. 1.

Large and small wheels.


Large and small dowelling.

25 3*

Sandpaper and files.


Coping and primary saws.




Tiny nails.


Pliers, hammers, scissors, rulers, and pencils.



A. Motivation.

TOY BOATS " ^ Before the initiation of the unit

is over, children usually have become interested in mak­ ing toy boats.

As they engage in dramatic play and dis­

cussion periods in their Social Studies, they will have discovered that there are many different kinds of ships in the harbor, and that each ship has a particular function to perform. Pictures which have been brought in by the child­ ren and by the teacher can be shown and discussed, not­ ing the work that each ship is engaged in, and the dif­ ferences in the ships. Through this conversation and after the play they will be anxious to have various kinds of ships to make their play more meaningful.

26 Materials.

The following materials will be 15 found useful for the activity: Blocks of soft wood sawed into proper lengths. /Liner, 18" x 4" x l£" Freighter, 14" x 4" x 1$" Tanker, 14" x 4" x l £ ' Ferry boat, 12" x 5” x. lir'* Barge, 10".x 4" x l£" Tugboat, 8" x 4" x 1-J" Spools. Small and large doweling. Sandpaper and files. Tiny nails. Hammers. Rulers, pencils and paper. Heavy string or cord. Procedure.

The children will first make a plan

on paper using pencils and rulers.

The block of wood

will first be measured to determine the length of the plan.

A rectangle is drawn the length of the block of


Next, find the center of one end by using the

ruler making a dot to indicate it.

Now, draw a straight

line from the point to each side of the paper.

15 Ibid., pp. 19-20.


27 along each straight line.

The pattern is complete.

Now place it on the block of wood and mark off the pointed end. wood.

Remove the pattern and saw the block of

When this is done the basic part of the ship is

made. Shorter blocks of wood nailed on to the basic part served as the cabin of the ship.

The size of the

cabins will be determined by the kind of ship being constructed.

The spools or small blocks of wood stood

upright serve for smoke stacks.

If a freighter is be­

ing constructed, use small or large dowelling, accord­ ing to the size of the freighter, and nail it with tiny nails standing upright at either end of the ship for the derricks.

Tie a piece of cord at the top of

the derrick to be used as the pulley. The next step is to sandpaper or file all rough places on the surfaces of the wood.

When these are

smoothed down the ship is ready to be painted.


tempera or enamel can be used for painting; however, for the small child, tempera is more successful. Evaluation.

The simplicity of construction is

purposely used so that all children will feel adequate to make a ship of their own choosing, even though it may result in a very crude one. Some of the specific outcomes which can be

expected from this project are: 1.

Children have had experience in the use of a ruler.


Children have observed the differences in sizes of ships.


Children have manipulated tools.


Children have had experience In selecting colors.


Children have had to choose materials to be used.


Children have felt the satisfaction of creat­ ing. B.


MAP OF HARBOR Some child will discover through

his play,, group discussion or picture books that boats need a place to load and unload the cargo.

Through this

discovery the children will want to improve their play and make it more authentic by laying out a harbor. This will raise the question of how we can get a true picture of our Jiarbpr.

Properly guided, the

class will find that they can take an excursion and actually see the outline of water and land which makes the harbor or that they could study a commercial map.

29 Through guidance they should arrive at the conclusion that both means would be helpful in constructing their own map. Materials.

The following materials will be useful

in the work of the activity: Heavy wide butcher paper. Chalk. Commercial map. Rulers. Masking tape. Tempera paint— marine blue, brown, and green. Procedure.

Place as many widths of the paper

on the floor as are needed to give the desired size of the map.

Splice the paper together with masking tape.

Study and observe carefully the main points to be used as guides in laying out the map. with a cross on the paper.

Mark these points

Now start to draw the outline

of the map with chalk as this can be easily erased if need be.

Indicate on the map by using a circle, places

that affect the industry of the community, subh"as fish canneries, Naval Training Center, main docks, piers, and warehouses. The map is now ready to be painted.


which is the land area and which the water area.


the land green and brown, and the water area marine blue, leaving the circles marking the points of industries white. Evaluation.

It should be remembered that there

are other ways of laying out a harbor.

This fact alone

makes possible creative expression on the part of interested pupils.

This activity provides a way by which

map making can be fun.

It also encourages children to

locate places which community.

them and their

The children have learned incidentally

some basic facts of geography about their immediate loc­ ale . The following are some outcomes which can be expected from the activity: 1.

Children have experienced map making.


Interest has been developed in locating places on a map.


Pacts have been learned from geographic in­ terpretation.


Children have experienced cooperation in working together on a common interest.

31 C.



During dramatic play there will

arise difficulties of bringing ships in and out of the harbor safely.

This will raise the question of how ships

can be brought in and out of the harbor in safety.

It is

here that the teacher will direct the discussion, trans­ posing the known land safety devices and traffic rules into the rules of travel on the water.

After the inform­

ation has been gathered they will find that buoys in the water and the lighthouse on the land are the two main cfevices which are used for safety in the water.

We will

consider the construction of the buoys which mark the channel of any harbor. Materials for the buoys.

The following materials

will be needed: Powdered clay which has been mixed and properly aged for. using. Clay container, pottery crock or galvanized'can or bucket. Sheets of chip board for base on which to model. Modeling tool, such as orange sticks, tongue depressors, nails, or pencils. Cloth for cleaning up and for covering unfinished clay.

32 Container for water. Tempera paint. Paint brush, one-fourth inch. Old newspapers. Procedure.

Before beginning to model a form the

child should explore his material.

He will find out what

it is like, what it will do, and how it will work best for him. Encourage the child to use the entire ball of clay.

Help him to see the thing which he wishes to make,

then the size of the ball. Avoid just sticking parts together.

Shape your

clay into the general proportions of the object to be made.

In modeling the "can buoy," shape the clay into

a roll about an inch and one-half in circumference and about three inches in length.

Next, smooth off each

end so that they are flat and the clay resembles a large can.

The appearance is what gave the buoy its name. In making the "cone buoy" proceed in the same

manner, except mold one end into a point so that it re­ sembles a large ice cream cone.

This, also, is where

this buoy gets its name. Smooth all surfaces with the- fingers or a flat tool to ensure nice rounded smooth flat surfaces.


33 let the buoys stand in a warm place and dry naturally until they are hard and dry throughout; then they are ready to paint.

Tempera or calcimine paint works very

well on the clay. It is important to develop good habits of clean­ ing up after such an activity.

Gather all scraps from

the tables and roll them into one large ball.


the unused portion of clay in a wet rag to keep it so that it may be used at another time. The children should rub their hands together until they are dry and all particles of clay have fallen on the newspaper which has covered their tables.


the papers so that the bits of clay will not fall on the floor and deposit the paper in the waste can. Evaluation.

Clay can be used for modeling many

things seen in and around the harbor; the lighthouse, ships, and dolls used for workers along the waterfront. Clay is an art medium which furnishes the child an emotional outlet. pression for all ages.

It Is a desirable medium of ex­ It satisfies a creative urge

regardless of the ability of the individual.

It helps

in sound construction and is less concerned with de­ tails.

An entire group may start making the same things,

but none will develop the same.

The child can find

34 inner harmony through this means of expression. Some specific outcomes which can be expected from this activity are: 1.

Satisfaction through manipulation and selfexpression.


Children have experienced release from ten*

sions. 3.

Children have grown in developing good work habits.


Children have had the joy of exploring a new art medium.

D. Motivation.

BUILDINGS While planning and playing at load­

ing and unloading ships in the harbor, the children will have discovered that there is a need for buildings for storage of the cargo, which will necessitate the con­ struction of warehouses, piers, docks and wharves. As this need arises the teacher can lead the dis­ cussion as to where the main warehouses are to be lo­ cated and where the most used wharves, docks, and piers are found.

This discussion should lead into the loca­

tion of other important buildings along the harbor front.

The children will see the need of buildings to

35 make their harbor more purposeful for their play. Materials.

The following materials will be

useful in working out this activity: Light weight carboard. Tag board. Construction paper. Scissors. Stapler. Paste. Glue. Tempera paint of assorted colors. Paint brushes of different sizes. Rulers. Pencils. Cardboard cartons. Procedure. ings.

Boxes may be used to construct build­

Shoe boxes, milk cartons, various sizes of card­

board cartons .

The easiest for children's use is to

select a carton of the correct size for the building that they wish to construct.

Turn the box upside down,

thus eliminating the cutting of the stiff, hard box. Windows and doors may be cut from the construction paper any size desired.

The child should measure the

36 area to be used for the windows and doors so that he will draw plans for the correct size.

Emphasis should

be placed on the fact that doors and windows have straight strong sides and that his drawing and cutting should show strength.

He should also be instructed to observe that

windows of a business building such as a warehouse usu­ ally have regularity in the size of the windows.


child must determine where these should be placed before pasting. Tag board or construction paper cut to the cor­ rect size may be used for a roof.

The roof may be flat

by simply pasting it on the flat surface of the box, or it may be folded in the center to give the slanting roof effect, and glued, pasted, or stapled to the box. Unusual shaped buildings can be made by using different sizes and shapes of boxes planing them at different angles.

They can be held together by using

glue or staples, depending on the material of the boxes. After the building has been constructed, windows, doors, and roof pasted or glued, it is then ready to be painted.

Tempera paint is a good paint for small chil­

dren to use; however, enamel can be used if it is desired. Small boxes can'be used for piers, docks, and wharves simply by turning the box upside down and fast­

37 ening a number of identical boxes together by gluing or stapling them end to end, in order to make them long enough to get out into the water as far as is needed. If desired, the boxes may be painted the color of real docks which is usually brown. Boxes can be constructed and then used for build­ ings.

Some small boxes can be made from a single sheet

of light-weight cardboard, construction paper or tag board.

Any size of a square or rectangular box can be

made by starting with the sixteen fold.

A box can be

made stronger by reinforcing parts with other pieces of paper or cardboard. Evaluation.

Box construction is a craft that

deserves consideration in that it serves so many dif­ ferent purposes.

It is also a craft that the small

child can handle successfully with little help from others.

This gives the child personal satisfaction

from completing a task by himself and to his own liking. Children show much freedom in self-expression in making buildings, since every one sees a building differently. After the child has mastered the art of making a simple sixteen-inch fold box he will soon find many uses he can make of boxes other than constructing buildings. It also is a project that can be geared to any level

Construction using ready-made cartons has value in that the child has an opportunity to create something through his own manipulation. The following list gives some of the expected out­ comes of this- project: 1.

To develop freedom through self-expression.


To develop self-reliance through individual choice of materials and tools.


To provide experiences with color and design while engaging in a meaningful activity.


To provide a means through which the indi­ vidual has contributed to an activity com­ mon to the group.

E. Motivation.


As the children complete many dif­

ferent things to .make their play more authentic on Isteer* floor plan of the— harbor-, the question of how, perhaps, can we show the -city which surrounds the harbor, or the activities of the workers along the-wa'ter front, or some of the safety devices that help the harbor but are in the distance. Here the teacher will guide the children in seeing that the authors of books show us what they want

39 us to see by having the artist paint his thoughts— those thoughts which he hasn't put into words*


child will then discover that the group could show other concepts of the unit by making a large picture. Through group planning and discussion, common agreement of what the mural will portray will be de­ cided upon.

Next, a committee must be chosen for this

phase of the work.

Several children may work at one

time, depending on the size of the mural.


starting to work through group discussion, decisions are made of what will be the interesting points of the mural and that the things of greatest interest will be made first and largest.

Next, the group will have a

discussion of balancing the picture; this should not be done by

using terms too advanced for the age level

of the children, but rather, by pointing out that the picture must not look too heavy on one side and that objects in the picture must not seem to fall off the bottom of the paper.

This group discussion, should not

be too long or too detailed, which might result in having the feeling that they must measure up to. adult standards, and lose their freedom for self-expression and originality. project is theirs.

They must have the feeling that the

40 Materials.

The following materials will be used

in the completion of the project: Butcher paper. • Art media:

tempera paint or colored chalk.

Paint brushes of different sizes. White .chalk. Procedure.

When the subject has been decided

upon for the mural, the committee is ready to go to work. This small group of two or three children should meet as a group and discuss what they consider the important thing to start with in the painting.

It is wise to have

a chairman of the small group who has the ability of planning the scheme of work.

The children may sketch

with white chalk the interesting objects in the mural or they may start painting or using colored chalk. This will be left to the committee. It Is well to divide the work on the mural Into several days' plan, having the committee work for one phase of the project at one work period.

The children

should be allowed to finish that one phase before they are asked to stop.

After the phase is completed, then

the small committee is ready' for group evaluation, and teacher-pupil planning for the next phase.

This is

also the time for the report of the chairman of the

41 committee to the group as to the cooperation of the small group of children.

This, too, will be evaluated

by the group. A workable plan which has been used by the writer in making a mural or a frieze is to divide, the work into: (l) the large, interesting portions,

(2) the major points

of interest in the background, and (3) the minor points of background interest. It is at this time that element of the use of color comes.

Through conversation show the children

that the bright, strong colors should be used in the main part of the picture and that the more dulled, sub­ dued colors should be used in the background.


evaluation and discussion, lead the children to observe that *the contrast of light and dark gives a desired effect. Evaluation.

Imaginative drawing such as is

encouraged in murals, helps children to apply factual knowledge.

It develops their awareness of things about

them as they really are. This type of activity does incidental teaching of line, form and color, and gives opportunity for free bold motion in creative self-expression. Specific outcomes to be gained through this

activity are: 1.

Develops recognition of the ability of others.


Promotes growth in the selection of color combinations and the value of light and dark.


Provides opportunity for the initial step in learning perspective.


Develops personality traits.


Promotes a desire for individual easel painting.

P. Motivation.

SCRAPBOOK Children have been collecting pic­

tures from magazines and papers, throughout their study, and these illustrate the various phases of the unit of work.

Some areas for which pictures can be collected

are men working along the water front, the machines they use in their work, and the buildings commonly seen N

in this locality. Such an activity promotes a pictorial gathering of factual material engaged in as a group enterprise /

and contributed to by each individual in the group. The question will then be raised, and by the teacher, if necessary, as to how these pictures can best be saved.

A scrapbook is usually suggested, which

43 leads into the making of a book to preserve the pic­ tures . Children also enjoy drawing pictures about •wat-e-nr -front activities and about the excursion they them­ selves take.

These pictures may also be compiled and

kept in a book.

Here, then, are two needs which have

arisen from the work of the children to make a scrap­ book. Materials for constructing the book.

The follow­

ing materials will be useful for work on the scrapbook: Cardboard or chip board. Tape. Glue. Paste. Scissors. Punch. Manila paper. Materials for the covering. Construction paper. Butcher paper. Wall paper. Paper toweling.

44 Materials for tying. Shoe laces. Cord. Raffia. Procedure.

Lay the cardboard side by side, al­

lowing enough space between them to accomodate the number of pages to be used in the book.

Normally there should

be allowed one-half inch or more. Cut the tape long enough so that the edges can be turned both top and bottom.

The tape should be

three or four inches wide to ensure a strong back.


the tape to each piece of board and turn down both top and bottom and glue on the inside of the book. Cut a second piece of tape the length of the book leaving very small margins at top and bottom to be turned under to give a more finished look, and reinforce the back of the book by pasting or gluing this piece of tape on the inside of the first piece of tape.

This will

give greater strength to the hinge of the book. Now the back of the book is ready to be covered. The chosen material should be cut about two Inches longer and wider than the cardboard, so that all sides may be folded over to give a nice smooth edge, and should be pasted or glued to the board.

This makes the outside

of the cover.

Now paste a square or rectangle accord­

ing to the shape of the book on the inside of the cover allowing about an inch margin around all four sides. In this way there are no uneven or poorly cut edges showing.

This inside piece may be of the same color

as the outside cover or it may be of a contrasting color.

The back of the book is now complete. Next punch two holes opposite each other both

top and bottom in the tape.

This will serve to fasten

all pages of the book together by running a heavy cord through the corresponding holes of the pages in the book and tie. Manila paper serves very well for the pages of the book. ily.

It is of good weight and paste adheres read­

In pasting the pictures making the content of the

book these points on pasting should be helpful: 1.

Paste should be smooth and flow freely from the brush*


Some paste should be diluted with water for covering certain materials.


A pasting job should not be rushed.


needs time to stretch evenly from the moist­ ure in the paste before being applied to the cardboard. 4.

Apply paste to the smaller of two pieces

that are to be pasted together. 5.

Apply paste to middle of paper to

be pasted

and brush evenly to edges. 6.

Cover the entire surface of the page is to be pasted with an even coat


of paste.

Any spot that is neglected causes a bump. 7.

Hub out all air bubbles and wrinkles by lay­ ing a clean paper over the pasted article and

rubbing with your hands or a soft, clean

cloth. 8.

Avoid using too much paste as it squeezes out from under the edges of the pieces being pasted together.

Evaluation. pasting.A skill that they useit in

This activity involves cutting and all children have need of, since

so many phases of their daily lives.


also is the beginning step of compiling factual knowl­ edge in a systematic scientific way. Another way children have of recording knowl­ edge is through drawings.

A great deal can be gained

from children's pictures as to what concepts and facts they have learned.

They seem to find working quietly

with crayons a restful relaxation.

Drawing in such an

activity has been educative, since the children have

47 been expressing their own ideas working independently, which develops spontaneous free-expression. Some specific outcomes to be expected from this activity are: .1.

Developing good work habits in a specific area, i.e., cutting and pasting.


Promoting growth in learning organization of factual material and arranging it in an attractive and artistic way.


Providing means of learning how to draw.


Fostering growth in free-expression and spontaneity through independent work periods.


Promoting the feeling of self-satisfaction in making something that is functional.


Developing craftsmanship in the construction of the book.

G. Motivation.

FINGER PAINTING During the study of the harbor,

the class will have science lessons about plant and animal life of- the sea.

They will have exhibits of

shell collections and specimen of sea animals on dis­ play.

This is a natural time for .the teacher to present

a finger painting lesson, since this art medium provides

48 a means of easy free motion.

Children will be eager

to use a new medium to show the many things they may have seen during a day at the beach. Materials. Finger paint. Butcher or some other smooth surfaced paper. Old newspaper. Painting aprons* Facilities for washing hands. Procedure.

Finger paint is a smooth paste-like

material used on wet paper which has a glazed surface. It can be bought from commercial firms, but if it isn't furnished a very good substitute can be made with laun­ dry starch or cornstarch and colored with tempera or poster paint.

The following recipe can easily be made.

To one and one-half cups of laundry or corn­ starch add cold water to make a paste.

Stir in one

quart of boiling water and cook until clear. tinually. flakes.

Stir con­

Cool and add one and one-half cups of soap Pour into jars with tops.

Color with tempera

or poster paint. Cover the tables with old newspapers.

Move all

chairs away from the tables so that the children will

49 have freedom -for motion by standing. Each child should wear some type of apron which will cover him well.

Then each child is given a sep­

arate sheet of a smooth slick-surfaced paper.


size is determined by the use for which it is intended. Before starting the painting lesson the child- ' ren should assemble as a group and have a short quick discussion of the many things they have seen or done at the beach that they would like to express in picture language.

This would be a typical lesson where the

entire class starts out with group instruction and yet each child will complete something which is different in effect. During the discussion period the teacher may stress good work habits in handling the paints.


can at this time make suggestions that will help to insure beauty in line, form and design. Evaluation.

Finger painting is considered by

some one of the best techniques in establishing rap­ port with children.

The emotional release offered

through this medium tends to break tensions and re­ straints 'which sometimes exist between the teacher and the child. There are three steps worth consideration in a

50 finger painting lesson:


the child's own action

in the process itself and his reaction to the teacher's demonstration,


the picture itself, and (2)


evaluation. Finger painting furnishes a means of self-ex­ pression which can be used for decorative purposes for craft work or pictures.

For example, finger painting

would make a nice cover for the back of the scrapbook. Expected specific outcomes would include: 1.

Growth through release of emotion.


Expdriance through another art medium for creative expression.


Establishing a common ground for mutual understanding between the child and the x

teacher. 4.

Growth and development in art skills through the incidental teaching of rhythm, color and design.



A commonly used culmination is organizing and giving information of facts and experiences learned to another class or to the parents.

Art again plays an

important part in arranging and giving such a program.

Dramatic play consisting of children moving a liner through the channel and into the dock with the help of the tugboat.

They may pass

other ships in the channel and the child must give proper signals before docking.


activity involved in such play could take form in making simple caps of the workers on the various boats. Dramatization where children may work out a simple playlet based on the facts they have learned in the study of the— hahhox.

This will

necessitate making scenery and costumes ap­ propriate for the play. Short reports given about the ships in the harbor which the children have constructed during the unit of work, thus utilizing craft work which had been done previously. Social hour gives the children an opportunity to plan and serve a light lunch of punch and wafers.

This will entail making the napkins

and decorating paper plates. best for this use.

Crayons are

Work in design pertaining

to the unit of study develops through this activity.

Children who have been chosen to

52 serve the luneh may make aprons ]using the large sailboat or other motif relating to the unit for a pattern.) 5.

In addition to the many activities completed throughout the study which have created the atmosphere of the life along the waterfront, the children may make sailor hats to be worn throughout the program.

This gives added

color to the situation.



Most evaluation should be mental notes on the part of the teacher.

But the child himself should re­

cognize his improvement from time to time.

It should

be remembered that long periods of evaluation are more harmful than helpful. The following points are worthy of consideration in the process of evaluating. 1.

Watch for interest and skills in building concrete form even though crude.


Observe the child to see if his building is suitable to the purpose for which it is be­ ing made.

3 . Watch for growth in ability to select a de­

53 sign suitable for a craft article. 4.

Observe children and note ability in select­ ing an idea for self-expression.


Watch for growth in interest of experiment­ ing and becoming acquainted with various art media.


Note if the child feels satisfaction in creating and building and if he fosters a desire to improve his skills.


Observe if the children have shown growth in helping to make the room attractive and cheerful.


Observe if the child has developed in his ability to work with others.

9 . Note if the child has able to give and take 10.

shown growth in being criticism objectively.

Observe if the child has grown in ability to face new problems,

and if he fosters a

desire to aid in solving them.




Cartwright, Charles E . , Boys 1 Book of Ships.


54 York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1925* Good diagrams. Chatterton, E. Keble, Sailing Ships. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippineott Company, 1909Has beautiful pictures and detailed information on sailing ships. Knowlton, Murray, and George E. .Phone, Tuna Industry Pictures. San Diego: San Diego City Schools Curriculum Center, 1937* Good pictures of the tuna clipper and of the fishing industry and its activities. San Diego City Schools Scrapbook, Ships. San Diego, California: San Diego City Schools Curriculum Center, 1937This book has excellent pictures that will help Identify ships. Van Metre, T. W . , Tramps and Liners. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1931. This book contains detailed information on ships, and good pictures. Collins, Francis A., Our Harbors and Inland Waterways. New York: Century Company, 1924. Contains very good pictures. Port of San Diego. San Diego, California: Department, 1936. Excellent pictures and a good map.


Burrow, Clayton, Community Life in the Harbor. Unit of work developed in first grade at the University of California at Los Angeles. Sacramento, Cal­ ifornia: California State Printing Office, 1933. Has information about how to make small boats, and good illustrations. Curtis, Neil C., Boats♦ New York: Rand> McNally and Company, pp. 41-54. Contains information on the construction of small boats.

55 Bourgeois, City, 1935Gives fying

Florence, Beachcomber Bobbie. Garden. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, information and excellent help in identi­ sea shells.

Huntington, Harriet E . , Let's Go t_o the Seashore . New York: Junior Literary Guild and Doubleday, Doran and Company, 19^1* Has excellent pictures with short, simple stories which can be read to the children. Kearney, Paul W . , Strange Fishes. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1933Contains good stories and short articles. Boat Scenes in Color. San Diego: Curriculum Center, 1937* B. 1.

City Schools


Movies. Our Harbor. Transportation on the Great Lakes. The Harbor. Methods of Shipping Cargo. Ocean Liners. Boats (with sound). Men and the Sea (with sound).


Slides Ocean and the Surf. Harbor Views. Ships— Transportation— Types of Vessels. Harbor Activities.

(Shows docks, piers, ships.)

56 3.

Film Strips. Ships. Ocean Freight. Transportation Water.


Stereoscopes. Ship Life, Primary, Our Harbor. Ships. Ships--Transportation— Water. The foregoing books and visual-aid materials have

been selected with emphasis on helps to further the pro­ gram of Arts and Crafts through observation for the Harbor unit of the Social Studies program.

CHAPTER IV OTHER ARTS AND CRAFTS ACTIVITIES The activities dealt with in this chapter may be used as an individual enterprise related to any interest. I. A.


Paper Bag Figures. Materials.

The following materials are used in

the construction of figures from paper bags: A large brown paper bag for the body. A smaller brown paper bag for the head. Four cardboard tubes approximately one and onehalf inches in diameter for the legs and arms. Straight pins. Scotch tape. Newspaper to shred. Yarn or heavy string. Tempera or water colors. Crepe paper. Procedure.

First shred plenty of newspaper and

then stuff the paper bags.

Fasten the two bags for the

body and head together with scotch tape or pins.


cut two slits in the lower part of the body and insert the tubes for legs.

Cut two slits in the upper part

of the body for arms.

Fasten the arms and legs securely

with the scotch tape.

Lastly, add the additional feat­

ures, such as hair and facial features.

Either yarn,

heavy string or crepe paper can be used for the hair. Use water color or tempera for the eyes, nose and mouth. B.

Wire Figures. Materials.

In constructing wire figures the

following materials are used: Any kind of wire which can be bent easily. Newspapers. Paste and water mixed to the consistency of cream. Candy sucker sticks. String. Yarn, string or crepe paper. Procedure.

Roll a piece of newspaper around

each of four lengths of wire.

The size- of the figure

determines the length of the wire.

Tie the four to­

gether and bend the roll to give the frame of the body. Now take paper strips dipped into the water and paste mixture and build up the entire figure by wrapping them around the frame.

59 Model the head over an extra roll or wad of newspaper tied to the frame and allow the figure to dry.

The hair may be made of yarn or string, or it

may be painted on in the same manner as the facial features. C.

Stand-up Figure from Cardboard. Materials: Heavy scissors or paring knives. Cardboard. Tempera or calcimine paint. Procedure.

Fold the cardboard in half and draw

the figure on it with the fold at the top of the back. Cut it out and the figure will stand.

Next, paint the

figure. D.

Soap Carving. Materials; Bar of white soap. Paring knife. Manicure sticks. Procedure.


Apply the pattern to both sides, if

The silhouette is cut or sawed.

Carving and

finishing is carried out in three dimensions to give a figure which is complete on all sides.

Carving is

easier and the surfaces are smoother if the soap is occasionally rinsed under the faucet.

The carving can

he colored with water colors, if the brush is kept rather dry to prevent forming of bubbles. E.

Paper-Mache Figures. Materials: Newspapers. Boiling water. Flour. Salt. Tempera paint. Procedure.

Shred twenty-five sheets of newspaper.

Pour boiling water over it in a pail or pan.

Stir until

it is cool and dip the paper out into a clean flour sack. Beat the paper in the sack with sticks on a clean board or cement.

When it has been beaten into a pulp, add four

cups of flour and two cups of salt. stir.

Now beat again and

.If it is desired, add one cup of tempera to give

a creamy tone. The body may be a core and the core covered with r

the paper-mache.

Mailing tubes can be used for legs

61 and arms and covered with the mixture.

It may be put

on with the hands or with flat sticks.

The best work

is done, however, when it is. put on with the hands, modeling lines so that they will be curved and round. P.

Figure Drawings. Materials: Manila paper or newsprint. Crayons. Procedure.

Have the child measure his head and

body with his hands, thus getting the shape and the pro­ portion.

Next, talk about the arms and legs, calling

attention as to where they fasten onto the trunk of the body.

Allow a child to stand in front of the class and

bend his arms and legs.

This will show the children

where joints are and what positions the legs and arms take when walking and running. The children should feel of their hair.


will help them realize that it should not look like a hard flat surface when it is colored. The class is now ready to start their drawing. Each child should proceed as he wishes, helped by the teacher only upon request.

62 II. A.


Paper Doll. Materials: Cardboard. Crayons or paint. Stick about twelve inches long. Scissors or paring knife. Procedure.

Draw the doll on the cardboard or i


heavy paper and color with crayons or paint.

Cut the

doll out and paste or tape to the stick. Use any simple one-piece screen with an opening near the top for the stage.

The puppeteer sits below

the level of the stage and manipulates the paper doll above the stage level so as to provide the proper ef­ fect . B.

Paper 'Bag Puppet. Materials: Paper bags. Cotton or newspapers. Crepe paper. Paper or wooden spoons. Crayons. Pins.

63 Procedure.

Draw the face on the upper part of

the bag with crayons. old newspaper.

Stuff the bag with the cotton or

Tie a string around the neck.

crepe and add it for the hair. near the neck for arms. feet.

Shred the

Cut holes in the side

Pin on paper arms, hands and

Paper or wooden spoons can be used for the hands.

Pin on crepe paper clothes. To manipulate the puppet the child places his fore-finger in the head, his thumb in the left arm and his middle finger in the right arm. The same kind of stage can be used as described in the paper doll puppet. C.

Clay Head Puppet. Materials. Clay. Tag board. Crepe paper. Pins. Procedure.

Make a head out of clay.

finger upward into the lower part of the clay.

Push the Next

make a collar of tag board and fit it into the hole to form the neck.

Make the clothes of crepe paper and pin

them on to the tag board collar.

Pin on tag board

arras, hands and .feet.

The manipulation is the same as

that described in the paper bag puppet. The activities dealt with in this chapter have not exhausted the possibilities of individual projects which the child can engage in.

These activities can be

related to any of the work that the group might be undertaking.

CHAPTER V THE ROOM ENVIRONMENT The entire surroundings of the classroom can be used as a center to further Arts and Crafts through the common point of interest, the social studies unit.


bulletin boards and other centers of interest, all play a part In furthering art education. Through guidance small children can share in planning to make their room look attractive and cheer­ ful.

Color combinations for backgrounds can be selected

with suggestions, of the group considered.

The teacher

should show the children that some colors are hard on the eyes and should not be used.

Red, yellow and purple

should be avoided for background use.

Very pale colors,

where there is little or no contrast, are also very hard on the eyes.

Children should be allowed actually

to see colors which are pleasing and attractive. Children may add to the new environment of the room by bringing materials from home.

Some may have

books which are pertinent to the study which they will want to add to the library center.

Others may bring

pictures from magazines to be used on the bulletin board; still others will bring exhibits for display

66 which can he arranged to make attractive centers.


materials children bring to school,, the materials the school itself provides and materials which can be ob­ tained from such agencies as the audio-visual center a school room can become a living thing. Care should be taken not to over-crowd a room. When this happens, the room loses its attractiveness and the 'children become over-stimulated or restless. Children will learn

to appreciate beauty through simp­

licity and organization if they live in such an envir­ onment.

They should have a reasonable share of the .

responsibility in keeping the various centers in the room neat and clean.

They are made aware that clean­

liness and neatness add to the attractiveness of the room. Here may be stated some desirable arrangement of a room.

The bulletin boards and centers where cov­

erings are needed should all have the same color com­ binations used.

Heavy construction paper or mexicana

paper make good mounting materials, especially for the base mounting.

A lighter weight paper such as poster

paper can be used for the second mounting.


used should be of the size that can be readily seen and read from almost any point in the room.

They should

be short and catchy in their content and mounted with

67 the same colors and In the same manner as the pictures. Some captions which could be used for the harbor unit are:

"Around the Harbor,"

"How Many Ships Can You Name?"

"Fun at the Beach," "News About the Harbor,"

"Reading Is Fun," and many, many others which can be used with appropriateness to the center. The centers for cutting, easel .painting, water color and plasticine modeling should be placed in a group arrangement in one part of the room with space enough to have freedom of motion.

To make the room

well balanced the reading center should be placed in another area of the room.

This is advisable, since

it is a different type of activity. As the unit of study progresses, the children will make many interesting projects.

These can re­

place the commercial pictures and exhibits from visual-aids department.


It should be noted that com-


mercial pictur'es and the children's work should not be displayed oh the same bulletin board.

When the

unit is completed the room will reflect creative selfexpression in a functional situation.

These activities

have provided art experiences in which all children have had a part. Care of tools and materials.

Tools should be

68 kept in a case or cupboard where they will be dry and safe*

They should be arranged so that every tool has

a place.

A common method is to label the case, -drawer

or cupboard with the name of the tools that are kept in that particular place. The children should be taught to put every tool away dry and clean for the next user. Materials and extra tools should be kept in a central compartment of the closet or cupboard.


materials should be grouped according to type and hung on the wall or placed in shelves. The materials for immediate use are usually stored in the classroom in some spot designated for that purpose.

Children named as monitors should be

taught to oversee the care of materials and tools.


monitor of each individual group should pass materials and tools, and oversee the cleaning up and putting away of tools after work periods. Here is an opportunity for teaching orderly habits to the children.

Tools should always be cleaned

before they are put away, and materials should be care­ fully placed and not stuffed into shelves and drawers. Attention called to the housekeeping phase teaches the child to preserve the materials and to have a respect for their supplies.


Throughout the development of any unit

of study, the teacher needs to serve as a guide in all activities.

As the unit progresses the children will

show growth in knowledge, understandings, skills and attitudes.

In such a situation children learn the

true meaning of democracy through living.

CHAPTER VI EVALUATION This paper has been written in an attempt to describe how art can be an integrated part of the social studies program in the second grade.

The foregoing

activities can be made functional when they grow out of the child's own experiences.

The main concern of

any project is the process of growth and not the end result.

Through an integrated program provision is

made for originality or creative self-expression which serves to fill a need of satisfaction in the individual himself.

Thus, art becomes a living, vital part of

the school curriculum. The teacher need not be an artist herself but a guide ready to suggest, encourage and direct in a specific way when needed.

She must at all times dis­

play sympathy, understanding and patience.

She should

foresee and then carefully plan experiences which will fill the child's needs.

In order to execute such a

program successfully, the teacher's philosophy should be that art is not a part of education but education in itself, and can be made more meaningful when Integrated where there is a common point of interest for all.

71 I.


Every educational program finds continuous eval­ uation necessary if it is to meet the changing needs of society and the individual.

The school must evaluate

its techniques, methods and procedures of teaching cur­ riculum content and the materials used in order to keep pace with the philosophy of the modern school. Today’s school is first concerned with the growth and development of the child.

Evaluation is used as

guidance for the child and as a tool to improve the ed­ ucational program. Yesterday's school thought of growth in skills, such as reading, writing, arithmetic and language usage for a measuring stick of the child's growth.

The test­

ing program was designed to measure these skills and it was from the results of definite learnings which de­ termined the advancement to a higher grade. Since the modern elementary school has accepted the criterion that measurement should be in terms of child growth and development, the demand of increasing numbers of records is necessary. A cumulative record should be kept from the time the child enters the school and follow him as long as he is in an educational institution.

In addition to

72 this record special notation regarding family back­ ground, health records, achievement test results, in­ telligence tests, social and character ratings are all considered and should be kept intact to give a more complete picture of the child. The principal and his staff of teachers have a great responsibility in conducting a worthwhile evalu­ ation program.

It is, however, the efficiency with which

a program is carried on that makes it beneficial. Lee and Lee, in their summary of the effective­ ness of an evaluation program, seem to be in accord with 17 present practices of the modern elementary school: The effectiveness of any evaluation program depends upon cooperation between principal and teacher. They must make sure that (l) the uses of the evaluation instrument are carefully planned; (2) the measurements selected will furnish information which can be used to im­ prove the learning of children; (3) they are given at the proper time; and (4) an adequate program of follow-up work is carried on.



Growth comes through evaluation and this should follow each lesson.

The small child's work should be

evaluated in terms of fundamental issues.


Lee and Lee, op. cit., p. 622.


Did the child enjoy the enterprise?


Did the child show courage in a new enterprise


Did the child have a desire of expressing himself?


Did the child's work evidence imagination and invention?


Did the child's work have vigor and force?


Did the child show growth in initiative and orderliness ?1^

The teacher has no measuring stick to measure the child's growth other than observation and recording the child's reactions.

These fundamental issues carefully

watched over a period of time should give the specific growth that the child has made. It should be remembered that evaluation should not alone be the teacher's concern but the concern of the group.

Many times children's criticism carries as

many good suggestions as that of the teacher.


though children's ideas differ from the adult they should be respected and considered.

The gross exag­

gerations in art is the element that makes it child­ like and we should be ever mindful that we are eval­ uating on a child's standard and not on that of an -1 O

Pay Adams and Edith Noblitt, Manual for Teach­ ers in Elementary Education. No. 20A1-9. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Bookstore.

74 adult. Such an evaluation is serving a two-fold purpose in that the child is developing in the principles of art education and also in social behavior. ing to defend his point of view objectively.

He is learn­ He is

developing good work habits through responsibility for others.

CHAPTER VII SUMMARY The experiences suggested in this paper are by no means the final word in the integration of Arts and Crafts with a Social Studies program, but they may serve as a guide or point of departure for the teacher. is no set pattern to teach any one subject.


The teacher

must use her own initiative, originality and ingenuity in presenting and carrying out a lesson. Literature from various authors has been re­ viewed in the light of the value of Arts and Crafts in the school program and their place as an integrated part in the Social Studies program. The objectives for Social Studies and for Arts and Crafts have been set forth.

A group of activities

for a Harbor Unit have been given, showing how Arts and Crafts can be made an integral part of the Social Studies. Many times a child does not have a particular interest in the unit being studied or has finished one activity which has contributed to the group study, but is interested in working with another project.

A group

of activities are given which could be related to any interest through which a child can have the opportunity

76 to create and construct. The care of the room is a major part of the teacher's responsibility.

She must make -every part

alive, functional, attractive and cheerful.

In this

respect a number of suggestions have been given for the arrangement and*care of materials and tools. Evaluation in terms of the total school program and each child's growth is necessary to maintain a progressive modern school. In final conclusion, attention may be focused on the following: 1.

Art is not part of education but is rather

education in itself.




Crafts are an important part of the Art pro-


The integration of Arts and Crafts with the


Social Studies gives a point of interest as a departure for creative expression.

19 20


H. Diehr and H. Schwentiker, op. cit., p. 22.

„ Los

Angeles City Schools, Crafts Manual, Number Los Angeles: Board of Education, 1948, p. 11.




Adams, Pay, Educating America *s Children. The Ronald Press, 1946.

New York:

Cole, Natalie Robinson, The Arts in the Classroom. York: The John Day Company ,""T940T Cole, Louella, The Elementary School Subjects. York: Rinehart and Company, 19463



D ’Amlco, Victor, Creative Teaching in Art. Textbook Company, 1942.


Dewey, John, Art as Experience. Balch and Company, 1934.


New York:

Hockett, J., and E. Jacobson, M o d e m Practices in the Elementary School. New York: Ginn and Company,


Lee, J. Murry, and Dorris May Lee, The Child and His Curriculum. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., 1940. McGaughy, J. R., An Evaluation of the Elementary School. New York: Bo’bbs-Merrill Company, "1937• Newkirk, Louis V., Integrated Handwork for Elementary School. New York: Silver Burdett Company, 1940. Rugg, Harold, and A. Shumaker,* The Child Centered School. New York: The World Book Company, 1928. Wesley, Edgar Bruce, Teaching Social Studies in Element­ ary Schools. New York: D. C. Heath andUompany,



Boylston, Elsie Reid, "Creative Expression and Child Art," School Arts, 47:294-296, May, 1948.

79 Biehr, H . , and D. Schwentiker, "Cooperative Project in Arts and Crafts," American Childhood, 33:10, November, 1947. Dunner, Anna, "Building Confidence Through Art," American Childhood, 33:4-6, March, 1948. Ellsworth, M . , "Learning Comes Afterwards," American Childhood, 33:10-11, November, 1947Hatch, Edna M . , "Art Curriculum and the Child," School Arts, 47:303-304, May, 1948. Tietje, Grace, "Creative Expression," Art for Today's Child, Bulletin of the Association for Childhood Education. Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1935Lucas, W. C., "Wisconsin, a State of One People from Many Nationalities," School Arts, 47:216-219* March, 1948. Weisleder, Thelma E . , "Establishing Rapport Through Finger Painting," The Elementary School Journal, October, 1948, p p ."'82-87'! C.


Adams, Fay, and Edith Noblitt, Manual for Teachers in Elementary Education, No. 20A1-9* Cos Angeles: University of Southern California Bookstore. Los Angeles City Schools, Monograph, Art— Third Grade. Los Angeles: City Board of Education! 1949* _______ , Crafts Manual, Number 455* Board of Education, 1948.

Los Angeles:

San Diego City Schools, Social Studies Monograph, Community Life Centered Around the Harbor. San Diego: Board of Education, 1945V '