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AN INDUCTION PROGRAM FOR AN UNDERPRIVILEGED SCHOOL (RITTER SCHOOL REPRESENTATIVE)
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Charles Lindley Huddleston July 1950
UMI Number: EP46366
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This project report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and ap p ro ved by h im , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School o f Ed u catio n in p a r t ia l fu lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree
of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
A d v is e r
TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER
I. THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The problem
Statement of the pro b l e m................
Limitations of the problem..............
Importance of the s t u d y ................
Definitions of terms used
Organization of the remainder of the project
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND A SURVEY OF TWO INDUCTION PROGRAMS....................
Review of the literature ................
A survey of two induction programs . . . .
TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED AND SOURCES OF DATA
Child case histories as related to induction program
Adult interviews....................... IV.
RESULTS OBTAINED FROM TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED Tabulations of the questionnaires
l8 24 26
Findings from child case histories ........
Overview of the school and community . . . .
Interviews ................ . . . . . . . .
PROPOSED INDUCTION PROGRAM ..................
PAGE Saturday meeting with principal, prior to opening of scho o l ....................
Meeting with principal and faculty at end of first
Personal conference with principal at end of first
schoolm o n t h ..............
Committee meetings at end of second school
VI. . VII.
m o n t h .................................
S U M M A R Y .........................
LIST OP TABLES TABLE I.
PAGE Induction Activities Throughout the First Semester.
A tabulation of* forty-seven
questionnaires received from twenty schools...................................
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Since psychologists and educators agree that the first few school hours of the new semester are among the most important in a child's school life, everything that can he done to make a new teacher feel secure and competent is of tremendous value to the educational program.
Statement of the problem.
Although there is a "Los
Angeles City Schools Handbook for Information" to help a new teacher entering the system, there is no plan or guide with sufficient elasticity to induct new teachers into particular type schools such as ultra West District schools vs. underprivileged South District schools. It was the purpose of this induction program (which can be mimeographed and handed to the inductee) to acquaint new teachers entering a highly individualized school for the first time with (l) the peculiarities of the school plant; (2) the peculiarities of the school community; (3) the over-all purpose of the individual school to serve the child; (4) the interpretation of publications furnished by the Board of Education so that they will be applicable to this particular type school; (3) the problems of the
2 classroom teacher in that particular school. Limitations of the problem.
Only those matters will
be handled which are of vital importance to both teacher and child so that good education is resultant.
It was not the
purpose of this induction program to go into questions of administration and supervision other than the way in which they induct the new teacher to this particular type school. Importance of the study. Many handbooks have been attempted and have served their purpose well, but they all apply to inducting a teacher into a school system rather than a specific school.
Such teachers get an impression
from these handbooks that there will be the usual problems, of course, but when they are sent to an underprivileged, foreign-speaking school they not only feel inadequate but rationalize by saying that they have been given a "bad deal". Therefore, poor teaching results for two reasons: (l) the teacher puts in time until she can get transferred at the end of the year; (2) the teacher feels that underprivileged children are hopeless and helpless anyway so why bother with them.
A mimeographed induction program would not only start
these teachers out with the right attitude but would make them feel that teaching in such a school is a challenge and a privilege.
The least to which the teacher in an under
privileged school should be entitled, is the clarification
3 of the purpose of school and. community.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
New teachers was interpreted as meaning any teacher who has not taught in this particular type underprivileged school before. Underprivileged school was interpreted as meaning a school In which the children come from homes that have in comes of less than $160 per month; where 55 per cent of the children speak Mexican before they do English; *1-0 per cent are from the Negro race, the majority of whom have come from the South and have not had the orientation of the Northern Negro.
The remaining 5 per cent are of mixed racial origins
with low socio-economic status.
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE PROJECT
Chapter II reviews the literature available in this field.
Also, included in Chapter II will be outlines of the
two induction booklets available to all Los Angeles teachers: (l) the Induction Program as outlined for the State of Cali fornia; (2) the Induction Program as outlined for the City of Los Angeles. Chapter III deals with the techniques employed and particularly the sources of data, such as questionnaires,
case histories, and interviews. Chapter IV evaluates the results obtained from the techniques employed, incorporates a tabulation of the ques tionnaires, case histories, and interviews.
Added to this
information will be a description of the community, its races, and its economic status. Chapter V establishes the proposed induction program for new teachers in an underprivileged school, Ritter. Chapter VI contains the procedure for evaluation of the proposed induction program. Chapter VII includes the summary.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE AND A SURVEY OF TWO INDUCTION PROGRAMS The literature in the field of teacher-induetion is very limited.
Much is in the process at the present time
but is not available for survey.
The two induction programs
included in this chapter are the basic ones for new teachers in this area, and were selected for this reason. Review of the literature.
In reading anent this
field the following factual findings have been found inval uable to the socio-economic and educational world. Perhaps those concerned with improving’instruction should take a cue from the findings of the comprehensive, long-time study of industrial relations conducted at one of the Western Electric plants in 1939.1
The "feelings" of
workers were found to be major determinants of their effi ciency.
When employees were given a feeling of belonging
and an opportunity to criticize their work, and working relationships, they worked better, even under poorer work ing conditions, than when this opportunity was missing.
-*■ William H. Maxwell, "Management and the Worker," Harvard University Press. June, 1939, P- 28.
6 If this simple conclusion applies to teachers as well as to factory workers, then educators have been mistaken in making the new teacher in particular feel unimportant.
teachers, supervisors, principals, and the staff as a whole, want the new teacher to promote rather than retard progress, let them consult the new teacher, let them seek and utilize the contributions the new teacher has to make. "Just as much as any other worker, the beginning teacher needs some degree of confidence and success, some expectation of respect for his potential contributions, some feeling of freedom from imposition. Teachers are turning to the study of communities and community problems as a basis for educational improvement both for their classes and for themselves.
can benefit from conferences with experienced teachers whose interpretations of community problems is conditioned by their knowledge of the children of the community.
experienced teachers must recognize their responsibilities in these conferences.
"For many experienced teachers forget
that they were once young and beginners in this business, and would have appreciated help."^
2 w. M. Alexander, "Should the Beginning Teacher Get A New Deal?", National Education Association Journal, 10: 611-16, April, 1941. 3 J. w. Caswell, "The Beginning Teacher and the New Environment," Teachers College Journal. 14:97-107, May, 1943.
7 Beginning teachers must have a sufficiently broad understanding of race culture to utilize subject matter as needed, if they sire to implement functional plans of organ izing instruction.
These new teachers frequently complain
that their knowledge of the technics of using varied in structional materials is too limited. An important phase of any plan for inducting new teachers is that of facilitating their proper guidance by school administrators.
This fact was supported by Alexander^
in surveying the problems of new teachers.
He found the
following miscellaneous practices to be extremely helpful to new teachers: 1.
Holding of conferences with new teachers at the beginning of the year to discuss general educa tional policies of the system.
Arrangement for new teachers to submit, periodi cally, questions and suggestions regarding poli cies and procedures.
Provide beginners with special visiting days to observe the work of experienced teachers.
Designate some experienced teacher in the build ing to serve as an advisor to each beginner.
^ Alexander, 0£. cit., p. 6l4.
Conduct a study of the comparative responsibili ties assigned experienced and inexperienced teachers.
Hold group conferences of new teachers to dis cuss problems encountered.
A survey of two induction programs.
induction program has been found adequate for the State of California, and includes the following requisites: A.
The purposes of Elementary Education 1.
To develop the basic skills and understandings essential to the effective use and comprehension of language, both oral and written
To promote the development of character and right social conduct through activities which give satis fying experiences in cooperation, self-control, and fair play
To provide instruction and practice leading to the building of habits conducive to health, safety, and physical well-being
To help children learn how basic human needs for food, clothing, shelter, and comfort are met in their community and in typical regions elsewhere, and thus to lead them to an understanding of the simpler relationships and interdependence of agri cultural, industrial, and other essential services
9 in civilized society B.
The creation of a stimulating classroom environment 1.
Create a challenging environment and, through that, provide vital experiences for the children
The children should assume some of the responsibility for the attractive appearance and functional arrange ment of the classroom
Work and interest centers help to create a stimu lating classroom environment
What the teacher should strive to learn about each child in the group 1.
Physical development, mental ability, social and emotional developments
Home and environmental contacts
History of school attendance, and kind and variety of educational experiences
What the teacher should learn about the community 1.
Natural resources, historical and cultural back ground of the community
Community status, occupational and industrial activ ities within the community
The available social service, public health, and character-forming agencies
The scheduling of activities of the school day 1.
The length of the periods and the daily program
Time allotment to be determined by the needs of the children
Subjects taught in the Elementary School 1.
What the daily program shall include
Subjects required by law
The value of dramatic play 1.
The satisfaction of a basic need
Social, mental, and physical growth
The objectives of reading in the Elementary School 1.
To contribute to the wholesome development of the child and to provide for gradual
and complete growth
in reading 2.
To make available to the child a
him pleasure in
printed material, and to give
Reading readiness 1.
Factors comprising reading readiness
Remedial reading 1.
Program of instruction provided for children who show a disability in reading
The objectives of oral and written expression 1.
To gain wider experiences, growth of ability to communicate, and to think of speaking and writing as a means of expressing himself
How the teacher can stimulate effective oral and writ ten expression 1.
Providing of new and shared experiences
Development of written and oral expression as a gradual process
The objectives of handwriting instruction ■ 1.
Skill in writing which conforms to reasonable social requirements
make writing fluent and automatic
Todevelop a liking for writing
The objectives of spelling 1.
To develop a strong and active desire to spell correctly all the words he writes
To develop the habit, in studying words, of using certain specific skills which provide for the association of the visual, auditory, and muscular reactions used in writing them
The objectives of music education 1.
Todevelop a love for and an appreciation of
Todevelop ability to sing, play or listenintelli gently according to individual interests and ability
To develop standards of taste for worthy and beauti ful music
The objectives of art education 1.
Opportunity for explanatory experiences in many
12 mediums such as paint, clay, cloth, wood, paper, and nature materials 2.
A workable understanding of the terms, forms, and techniques of art
The teacher's responsibility with regard to the organi zation and supervision of the playground 1.
The teacher should organize the playground activi ties to insure the development of cooperation, good sportsmanship, good conduct, and consideration for the safety of others
The teacher's responsibility for the health of the pupils 1.
Healthful environment, care of accidents, program for prevention and control of communicable diseases, and encouragement of periodic health examinations
The guidance function of the teacher 1.
All-round guidance of the whole child is one of the most important functions of teaching
Know the child and treat each individually and with under standing
The responsibility of the teacher with regard to the keeping of records 1.
The teacher should see that sufficient and accurate records of the child's school history are collected and recorded
Agencies in the community having organized programs for child welfare, recreation, or character development
The Code of Ethics for the teaching profession
Sources of help available to teachers
State textbooks with which the teacher should be acquainted Excellent as is this induction for new teachers of
the California School System, it still needs to be aug mented by a more specific induction.
Nearest to meeting
this need is the "Handbook of Information of Elementary School Teachers in Los Angeles". The following induction program has been found ade quate for the Los Angeles City School System, and includes the following requisites: A.
Facts about Los Angeles Elementary School Districts 1.
Educational point of view and purposes of Elementary Education
Los Angeles City Elementary School District and Community
Subjects taught and time allotment Basic publications and how they can be secured
Additional instructional guides and how they may be secured
Ethics of the teaching profession
Establishing classroom environment
Importance, and how It can be made functional and inviting
Sharing of responsibilities
Planning the teaching program 1.
Necessity of, importance of, hours of, and a typical day's program
Understanding pupil disciplines and developing selfcontrol 1.
Meaning of, important types of, and how the elementary teacher can develop self-control or self-discipline in pupils
Knowing and using the essential elements of effective teaching 1.
The essential elements of effective teaching in the elementary school
Teaching the elementary school subjects 1.
Social Studies (Geography, History, Civics, or Citizenship)
Language Arts (Reading, Language, Spelling, and Handwriting)
Arithmetic, Science, Music, Art, Practical Arts, Health, Physical Education, and Spanish
Youth Services, Safety and Fire Prevention, Thrift, Conservation, and School Savings
Understanding the characteristics of the Elementary School Child 1.
Necessity of, and the patterns for growth and development
The exceptional child and his needs
Educational facilities for the exceptional child and the teacher's responsibilities
Evaluating pupil progress 1.
The meaning of evaluation, procedures
The preparation of report cards and the reasons for preparation
Strengthening community relations 1.
The importance of how the teacher can help
Worth-while community activities, cultural and recreational opportunities
Opportunities provided by the community for teachers
Sources of instructional help for teachers 1.
Services of the Curriculum Division, Library and Textbook Section, sources of information listing California State Testbooks and supplementary readers, services by the Audio-Visual Section, and instruc tional services rendered to the teaching personnel by the Auxiliary Services Division
This latter handbook, although very helpful and
16 certainly more specific than the first, does not, however, meet the needs of the Individual school.
are filled with a wealth of information, but the new teacher still is faced with the question of "how does all this apply to me iii my particular situation?”
She should have
the policies and purposes of the new school clarified for her.
"Teachers like to know what is expected of them."
^ Robert Lane, The Principal in the Modern Elementary School (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933 ) , p. 28.
CHAPTER III TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED AND SOURCES OP DATA There is so much theoretical material available for teacher induction programs and so little that is practical, that the following techniques and sources of data for an induction program to an underprivileged school have been utilized but with one purpose, practicability.
representative example of technique and source of data will be given under each heading.
Many studies were made, how
ever, before these formats and sources were decided upon since the primary purpose of this project is to make the induction of a new teacher to a special type, underprivi leged school the most efficient for both her and the child. These are the things that were done in order to accomplish this purpose. Questionnaires. The type of questionnaire which was sent out to the teachers in the field of underprivileged schools was used for two reasons (l) the unsigned,
answer method would encourage the teacher to express her self freely; (2 ) from the trials and errors of other teach ers who had entered underprivileged school situations, the major constructive deductions can be made for an efficient teacher-induction program for an individual type of ele mentary school.
18 A questionnaire was sent with administrative per mission, to twenty schools in the immediate area, because many of these plants are facing the sane problems of in duction as Ritter. Questionnaire"
The form sheet was titled "Inductive
and was headed by this question: What things
were available and what was done to help induct you, as a new teacher, in your particular school?
Under this query
were the following major headings: A.
Before the semester started
first day of school
first week of school (day by day helps until
The major induction for the entire first semester
The major headings for this questionnaire were chosen after many interviews with principals and teachers who had realized the lack of proper inductions and who had made some attempts to correct the situation.
The time element
is emphasized for A, B, C, D, because it is the speed with which an induction program is initiated that is extremely important.
Speed, however, is used merely in relation to
good educational practice. Child case histories as related to induction program. A child case history is a most necessary factor in an under privileged community and a teacher new to this type of field
19 should be made to see that it is not what she teaches that is so vital, but whom she teaches and how she teaches.
knowledge of the child, such as is gained from this repre sentative case history, will determine the ’’whom" and "how" of what she teaches.
The type of child case historypresent
ed herewith is streamlined to be functional. I.
Background of Experiences A.
Home 1. Has the child a feeling of security in his a.
Personal relationships in the home (1) Degree of freedom existing (2) Degree of initiative existing (3) Degree of harmony between parents (4) Degree of care and control
b . Limitations (1) Physical (a) Deafness (b) Blindness (c) Other disabilities or illness of a member of the family c.
Mental defect or mental disorder (1) Racial, national or religious differences (2) Poster, institutional, or broken home
Is his economic environment stable?
Has he had many and varied experiences?
20 B . Language 1.
Has he a good reading knowledge of the English language?
Can he talk fluently in good English? . a. b.
Sentence structure good Adequate vocabulary
Nursery school experience
Usual experience beyond kindergarten
Physical conditions and maturity (see Health Cards. Are recommendations being followed?). A.
Habits (thumb sucking, nail biting, etc.)
6 . Hearing 7.
Physical maturity a.
Large or small for age
Physically mature for age
Good muscular coordination when walking, skipping, using scissors, etc.
Mental maturity A.
Interest is basic to mental maturity.
the reaction of attention, controlling its strength and direction.
In turn, attention produces the
reaction of observation. B.
Three functions related to maturity and determinants of mental output
Well-developed interests for his age
Interests which secure sustained attention
Evidence of increasingly mature observation
Social maturity (emotional adjustment) A.
Aggressive or ’’protest” behavior 1 . Temper tantrums
Submissive or recessive behavior 1 . Jealous
Lack of attention
Normal behavior as characterized by 1.
Self control a.
Developed sense of security
Controlled behavior in conformity with rights and comforts of others
Achieving a feeling of success in school work
Reactions to school situations
Truthful, admits error when wrong
Sense of responsibility
Social attitudes and habits (social relations to others) 1.
Does he play normally with other children?
Does he participate in group activities?
Does he have a sense of humor?
Is he a good leader and follower?
Does he have consideration for others?
Has he had adequate recognition?
Dominant interests A.
Writing poetry or stories
8 . Music B.
Caring for small children
Caring for animals
3 . Making collections 4.
Constructive (woodcraft, airplanes, etc.
24 In this case history, stresses are laid upon the child’s environment and heredity, and throughout the health element is accented.
The format used was chosen because in
many cases the teacher can fill- in by a check or with a word or two. Adult interviews. Effective as questionnaires and case histories may be, they must be enriched by person to person contact.
The following people were interviewed in
order to bring all the requisite data to this project:
principal of the underprivileged school, members of the faculty, workers in the community organizations such as boys clubs, girls clubs, parent-teacher groups, and heads of Civic Centers. All the aforementioned techniques and sources of data were regarded as matters of public and school interest, and the information was kept in the files of the school office. The complexity and quantity of the techniques and sources of data indicate that It takes time to work out a worthwhile teacher-induction program for an underprivileged elementary school. It takes time to become a good teacher for we learn much with each new child, each new experience. learn for instance
that the "child on the other side of
25 the tracks, the one with fewer clothes and less money, or the homely or bashful child is the quickest to sense par tiality.
7 Maurice V. Howes, "Greetings New Teacher," National Education Association. 30.:171, June, 19^1, p. 16.
CHAPTER IV RESULTS OBTAINED PROM TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED The findings from the techniques employed were very carefully checked and evaluated, since it is these findings which serve as the foundation for a teacher-induction pro gram in an underprivileged type of elementary school.
passing from one series of findings to the next, the results were measured by their contribution to the facility with which a new teacher can take over an underprivileged room.
carefully considered were the contributions to the emo tional, physical, mental, and social well being of the child.
TABULATIONS OP THE QUESTIONNAIRES
Sixty questionnaires were sent out to twenty schools. Of these sixty, forty-seven replies were received.
previously the teachers were requested not to sign their names or the names of their schools on the questionnaires in order to secure more accurate responses.
ness with which these questionnaires were returned and the teachers' attempts to answer the questionnaires in full indicated that they had suffered, in most cases, from the lack of a planned induction program. as per Table I.
The tabulations were
27 TABLE I
INDUCTION ACTIVITIES THROUGHOUT THE FIRST SEMESTER Activity A.
Before school started 1 . Nothing done 2. Conference scheduled 3- Invitational cards sent by the principal 4. Faculty meeting, 8:00, quick overview 5. Conference (principal and faculty) 6. Given name and address of sponsor The first day of school 1 . No help 2. Conference with teacher who previously had class Assistance from school secretary 3. 4. Assistance from the teacher next door ■5- Too many bulletins causing confusion 6. Mimeograph sheet of instructions for the first day and overview of the buildings 7. Faculty meeting after close of the first day First week (day by day help) 1 . No help 2. Principal new, suggested help from an older teacher New teachers realized in the same 3. situation; helped each other 4. Teacher meeting toward the end of week 5. Faculty meetings for first three days (new teachers only) Overall induction for entire first semester 1 . None 2. First faculty meeting given plan of school, list of teacher load, policy of school and community 3. Given faculty sponsor for entire term 4. Conferences with principal
23 15 16 10 14 8 18 8 27 2b 5 6 29 18 2 7 9 6 23 3 10 7
28 These following conclusions were warranted by the data received and tabulations of the same: (a) a definite induction program is necessary in an underprivileged school (b) a great number of schools do not give time to orienting new teacher; (c) the feeling of insecurity on the part .of the new teacher is great.
The deductive conclusion from
the three already mentioned was that rapport, a most neces sary factor, between principal and new teacher did not exist.
It was also evident that some schools had made
miscellaneous attempts at induction programs, but no such definite procedure as handing a new teacher a mimeo graphed outline of induction for her to follow accompanied by working plans of the school.
FINDINGS FROM CHILD CASE HISTORIES
Background of experiences A.
Has the child a feeling of security in his home? Thirty-two children had feeling of insecurity due to broken homes and unemployment. Two children felt insecure due to bullying of older brothers and sisters. Other six had average home conditions. (Note: Figures based on a class of forty children.) a.
Limitations Two children attend lip reading class due to progressive deafness. One child is in a sight saving class. There are two cardiac
29 cases due to rheumatic fever. The rest of the group have average or good health histories. b.
Mental deficiencies or disorders The average I. Q. in the room was eightysix. Two children have I. Q. 1s of one hundred and five. There are five potential development cases. Twenty-seven children are of Mexican descent, eleven are Negro children, and two Caucasian. Much racial intolerance exists, minority group against minority group.
Economic environment of most of the children inclined to be unstable due to occupation of family, seasonal, and unskilled labor.
Approximately twenty of the children have never left their community. Thirteen of the children travel from county to county during fruit and nut season. Remainder have had some travel experiences.
B . Language Majority of Negro children have merely a talking knowledge of the language due to migration from the deep south. Mexican element of the class has severe language handicap due to Spanish being spoken at home. One boy, recently from Mexico, speaks no English. C.
School Since twenty of the children have never left the neighborhood, they have attended Ritter from kindergarten through the fifth grade. Five of the group never attended kindergarten. Fifteen of the ' children have had nursery school experience due to the employment of the mother.
Physical conditions and maturity (See health cards. Are the recommendations being followed?) A.
See Item I b
Malnutrition is the principal problem of the group due to poor diet.
Rest is the second major problem due to crowded living conditions and sleep disturbances.
Physical maturity is average, group being small for age, but good muscular coordination except in a few isolated cases.
Mental maturity A.
See I c.
Group evidenced increasing interest in school due to principal's attempts at a good induction program for the teachers.
Social maturity A. Aggressive or
There were four bullies in the class and three children who stole consistently. The rest of the group is making a fairly normal emotional adjust ment in spite of the preliminary findings in these case histories. Truancy is almost an unknown factor due to the school's careful policy of checking on attendance and the fact that the child is happier in school than he is in his home. B. Submissive or
Interest span is short due to malnutrition and tiredness of group.
Group is easily discouraged, probably due to home conditions.
Two of the Negro children had persecution complexes.
Normal behavior Since a temporary induction program has been in
31 effect at Ritter School for five years, the selfcontrol, self-confidence, and dependability of the group were very evident, except in a few isolated cases. D.
Social attitudes and habits 1.
See IV C.
Dominant interests A.
Creative This group, without exception, is interested in the creative things, such as music, dancing, painting, and drawing. Five children are non-readers, one child has no number concept, the rest are average.
Social One boy belonged to the Cub Scouts; six boys were members of the Woodcraft Rangers; six belonged to the Thunderbirds. Five girls were members of the Crossed Arrows; three belonged to the Camp Fire Organization. Three boys earned money selling papers; one sold candied apples. Two boys worked in stores.
Scientific This group was characteristic of almost all the children in this underprivileged school. They were not interested in such scientific things as inventions, hobbies, collections, etc. Only one child had a stamp collection. The results from these case histories, which were
taken from a representative underprivileged Fifth Grade class (40 children), again point out that the teacher must know ’'whom'1 she teaches in order to know nhow" to teach them.
OVERVIEW OF THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY
In an underprivileged community the Elementary School Is the focal point.
Parents, business people, and Civic
leaders come to the principal and her staff with their problems.
A knowledge of the school's facilities as well
as a study of the community's possibilities and limitations are most important for an induction program in an under privileged elementary school. A.
Principal and Vice-principal
Faculty consists of sixteen regular teachers, six special training teachers.
ing rooms include children with an I. Q. of eighty or below, with a maximum of fifteen children to a room.) c.
Additional certificated personnel (1)
School nurse comes to the school two days a week and averages six home visits per day, due to poor health and poor living conditions of the children.
Counselor is called upon at least twice a week to give Binet tests.
Head custodian and two helpers
Cafeteria manager and three helpers (Average lunch is twenty-five cents. Twelve children are on free lunch.)
After school playground director (3i00 to 5:00 daily, Saturdays 10:00 to 5:00)
Physical plant a.
Main building for
Annex for primary rooms
Bungalows for special classes
Playground area lessened by addition of bungalows
Plant inadequacies (l)
No school library, auditorium, or suffi cient play space
Community The average size family in the five and one half.
are one hundredand thirty
families of which eighty per cent are living in rented homes.
The employment situation divides itself into
unskilled labor for the men and domestics for the women.
Eighteen per cent of the people are on relief.
Fifty-five per cent of the community is Mexican, forty per cent Negro, and five per cent Caucasian.
34 The aforementioned one hundred and thirty families plus families who do not have children going to school total approximately eight hundred and seventy-five and are crowded into an area of five by eleven blocks. There are the usual Civic Centers, including Fire Department, Police Department, and Post Office, of which the Police Department is the most heavily staffed.
There are no extra civic opportunities for
these people such as city recreational centers, public libraries, and no Health Center.
These people have to
go to the next community for such services. This community is approximately ten miles from the City of Los Angeles and its only transportation link is the Red Car Line.
A bus service connects it with
the next community. The school takes an active interest in the community, but exercises almost complete initiative in the matter. The people look to the school and, as far as possible, receive help in almost every kind of problem.
however, the ties between school and community are not strong due to the language handicap and ever present economic lack.
An outstanding example of this social
problem is the fact that it was very difficult to get a PTA program started.
The tabulations of questionnaires, findings from the Child Case Histories, and the school and community picture were secured to some extent from school and community files. The most vital information came from the interviews. When the interview was arranged for, the interviewer divided his questions into two big headings: (l) factual data, and (2) what can be done to help these children. Under the latter classification, the interviewer asked school and social service workers the following questions: 1. How does your agency serve this community? 2. How can the school more capably serve the community? 3. How can the teacher more capably serve the child? 4. In what ways can the child be made to realize his responsibilities to the school and community? 5. What can be done to help a teacher new to this school and community? Without exception, all the people interviewed felt: first, that there must be more recreational facilities for the children; second, there must be adult education in regard to health and the school’s program in the community. The faculty (principal and teachers) added to these above statements the fact that an induction program such
36 as was now employed had been very helpful to them when new to Ritter. Since this temporary program has been in operation for approximately five years the teachers were convinced that their experience, findings, and understandings of the problems of an underprivileged school could form the basis of a definite induction program for an underprivileged type of school.
PROPOSED INDUCTION PROGRAM The brevity of the induction program here presented is to provide both efficiency and security for the new teacher who is so often overwhelmed by an assignment to an underprivileged school.
The outline format is used to allow
for quick reading and also for marginal notes to be made by the teacher during her acquaintanceship with the program. This program will be mimeographed and appropriate sections will be given to her each time she meets with the principal or committees.
She will be urged to have it with her for
conferences and the first few faculty meetings.
will be made to enclose this copy and any additional form material such as bell schedules, yard duty assignments, etc. The principal, of course, will be the one to initiate this program.
Since its underlying thought and practices
are democratic, she will call upon various members of her staff, both certificated and non-eertificated, to explain the program.
The school nurse, for example, will be asked
to present the health program and invite new teachers to make home calls with her wherever practical; the cafeteria manager will explain the nutrition program; the school secretary will explain how supplies are kept and ways and means of checking materials in and out of the office.
38 The material to follow will be headed: The Induction Program for Ritter School.
Section I is to be given to the
new teachers when they meet with the principal on the Satur day preceding the opening of the school term from 9:00 a. m. to 12:00 noon.
The following items are to be covered:
SECTION I I . First meeting We of the Ritter Staff are happy to welcome you into our program.
The work is not easy but compen
sates by being very gratifying in its results.
underprivileged child needs your help. A.
A general picture of our community 1.
The home environment, types of employment, and other pertinent data
The recreational environment
Civic, business, and transportation facilities
Social agencies at work
An introduction to the Ritter School child 1.
Races, nationalities, and characteristics of these people
The home environment of the child, such as food, clothing, sanitary facilities, and heating
The health problems
The child’s physical, emotional, mental, and
39 social security as a result of his environment C.
A general view of the school program 1.
Play areas (a)
Problem of teacher supervision of areas due to limited space
Awareness that the underprivileged minor ity group child is highly emotional, almost an extremest, in his playground reactions (he either plays too hard, or is totally indifferent.)
Discussion of playground diagram
School library and textbook procedures (a)
Specific dates when books are picked up from or sent to Ritter from the Los Angeles City School Library
State texts and supplementary books avail able in the building
Methods of checking books in and out
Location of nearest public library
System of bells (a)
First bell, "stand-still bell", and why (Highly emotional children need a calming period before entering the building.)
Second bell for children to gather at main
40 steps of building in their assigned areas
This system used to facilitate handling of outdoor programs (There is no auditorium at Ritter.)
Recess bells (l)
Staggered recess (This is due to confined play areas.)
Yard duty for teachers
Staggered noon (1)
Where children with lunches from home eat and supervision of same
Cafeteria program and supervision
Provisions for those going home for lunch
Provisions for scheduled games and care of physical education equipment (1)
Due to the staggered play periods, a mimeographed sheet given you as to time and area for your class
Each room to have its own physical education equipment
System of allocating school supplies and equip ment
Since you are new, your first requisitions made out by the office (Prom now on you will submit them.)
Requisitions to be made each month and handed to the school clerk
Teacher load and how handled (a)
List of extra curricular activities to be posted on the office bulletin board
Teachers to sign up for preference (Where two sign for the same job, seniority is: given preference.
Duties will be rotated.)
Duties characteristic of Ritter School (1)
Many gifts of clothing and food for school from authorized agencies and a teacher assigned to distribution of same
Underprivileged children proud of their culture (Mexican dancing and square dancing are very popular at noon and are supervised by a teacher.)
Provisions for severe weather conditions
Provisions for the principal's office hours
Provisions for all agencies engaged in health work (Ritter considers the health of the child its most important program.)
Provisions for school secretary-teacher relationships (System of colors used by which each room is identified for office records.)
Provisions for custodial-teacher relation ships
Discussion of floor plan diagrams of buildings
Tour of the school plant, closing with the new teacher assigned to her room
Section II is to be a meeting of the principal and faculty at the end of the first school day.
Section II of
the induction program is given to the new teachers at this time.
The principal will introduce the new teachers to the
regular members of the faculty.
The following items are to
SECTION II II.
Second meeting A.
Big brother or big sister (experienced teachers on the staff) assigned to help each new teacher
Familiarization with rules, regulations, and poli cies of the School Board as applied to Ritter School. 1.
No advertising or solicitation of funds in the
school (No salesmen or vendors are permitted to operate in the school.) Only approved lectures and exhibits permitted School exits and use, fire drill schedule, and other pertinent points of school law Stipulation of first aid regulations (Many children suffer abrasions during the game periods due to loose fitting clothing, shoes that are worn out or too large, lack of shoe laces, etc.) Stipulation of school attendance regulations (a)
Excuses for absences and tardinesses (Some parents are inclined to keep children home without sufficient reason.)
Issue of transfers (The teacher is to keep constant check on the class.
seasonal occupations of the families many children are moved from school without transfers making it very difficult to maintain records.) Consultations with parents on pupil's work by principal and teacher (In many cases this con ference will call for the aid of a sixth grade pupil as an interpreter.) Pupil adjustment and basis for such adjustment
Grade placement of pupils
Demotion of pupils
Suggestions from teachers in adjusting pupils
Methods for the child's social adjustment (The underprivileged child needs to gain a great amount of status in school to make up for the complete lack he experiences at home.)
Methods to allow for individual differences Plans for remedial work for weak pupils
Section III is to be a personal conference with the principal in her office at the end of the first school month, to be arranged at the teacher's convenience.
of the Induction plan wiil be given to the new teacher at this time.
The following items are to be covered:
SECTION III III.
Third meeting A.
Method for supervision of the teacher's professional growth 1.
Maintenance of professional standards
Individual teaching (a)
Experimental teaching (This type of teach ing is used to great advantage, as many ways must be devised to meet the varied problems.)
Professional library (Pertinent material is kept in the teacher’s room.)
Professional reading and study
5. Encouragement and advice regarding further training 6.
Professional activities of teachers (a)
7 . Discussion of teacher’s strength and weakness B.
Arrangement of supervisory visits and observations 1.
Schedule for supervisory visits
Provision of pertinent professional literature
3. Encouragement of teacher to request supervisory observation (The problems in an underprivileged school are many and varied.
It is not an ad
mission of weakness to request help.) 4.
Individual supervisory conferences (a)
Office hours for teachers needing help (The office is always open.
46 of the underprivileged school requires almost daily principal-teacher consulta tions. ) (b)
Conferences after supervisory observations (Teachers are assured that underprivileged children are not rated or compared in accordance with norms of standardized tests due to environmental problems and language handicaps.)
Conferences after principal's observations
Plans for faculty meetings (a)
Provision for teacher participation (Planned reports by teachers where room problems are thrown into open discussion.)
Keeping of records of the meetings (Teachers will keep their own notebook. Further pertinent items will be mimeo graphed to be filed in induction notebook.)
Distribution of other supervisory officers1 bulletins
C . Demonstration lessons 1.
Demonstration lessons on. request (a)
Much more grouping to account for indi vidual differences than in a regular school
Plans for teacher demonstrations (a)
Experienced teachers to "double up" allow ing new teachers a chance to visit other rooms
Plans for intervisitations by teachers (a)
Schedule of visitations
See C 2 above
Assistance to teachers in preparing for obser vations (a)
A mimeographed outline form handed to visiting teacher such as follows: (1)
Purpose of lesson
How teacher handled rest of room while working with groups
Ideas that could be applicable to own class situation
Assistance to teachers in preparing for demonstrations
Classroom management 1.
Planning the daily and weekly program
Organization of routine activities
Advice on arrangement of the classroom (a)
Stress on making classroom as much like
48 a comfortable living room as possible, due to children's poor home environment (b)
Improvement of classroom appearance
Adjustment of furniture and equipment
Suggestions for room control
Section IV is to be a meeting at the end of the second school month by committees of all grades and the new teachers' grade level. ized by the principal.
The committees will be organ
The chairmanship of each committee
will be appointive by its four or five members.
IV of the induction program will be given to the new teacher at this time.
The following items will be covered:
SECTION IV IV.
Fourth meeting A.
The supervision of pupil adjustment 1.
Coordination of the work of the grades
Interviewing of pupils under the classroom teacher's guidance
Case studies of pupils' work under the classroom teacher's guidance
How studies are conducted of the pupils' home conditions
Adapting the course of study to local conditions
Meeting the specific needs of the pupils
Meeting community needs and problems
Determining community influences
The supervision of tests and measurements 1.
Assistance in selecting tests
Assistance in giving tests
Diagnosis based on the measurement program
Utilizing the results of measurement
Planning and direction of experimentation 1.
Experiments to test teaching methods
Experiments to determine grade placement of subject matter
Experiments to determine the difficulty of reading matter due to language handicap
Experiments to meet individual differences
Personal conference (not a committee meeting) between principal and teacher 1.
Discussion by teacher as to her particular needs and accomplishments
Discussion by principal as to teacher's con tributions to the Ritter program, suggestions for increasing her capabilities, or sugges tions for improving her work
New teachers at Ritter, having the aforementioned
50 induction program as their guide, would have little doubt or misgiving as to what to do the first day, the first week, and the remainder of the semester.
and all-too-short time element in the classroom will be conserved and the child will profit thereby. The success of this induction program rests on both the principal and staff alike.
Complete rapport has to
exist in an underprivileged school to make its work func tional to the child.
The staff has many unusual emotional,
physical, social, and mental child-problems to meet con stantly and would not be equal to the task unless there was cooperation, which factor is increased under careful planning.
CHAPTER V I
EVALUATION The present project represents an effort to deter mine the problems of a new teacher when entering Ritter School, the environmental factors which contributed to these problems, and a practical program to mitigate the same.
Into consideration was taken the temporary program
for induction now in use at Ritter in order to propose a permanent induction program with the required flexibility. The temporary program was used as a basis, enriched by the background material gathered from the question naires, case histories, interviews, and the tabulated findings of same.
The proposed plan outlined in this
project, although devised to be specific in use, will be looked upon as an experiment to be evaluated at the end of each school semester by the new members of the faculty. They will be asked to state the adequacies of inadequacies of the present induction program by answering the follow ing questions: 1.
What parts of the induction program for Ritter are most helpful to you?
Do you have any suggestions for the new teachers in February?
Do you feel that you share In the formulation of school policy?
Are your faculty relationships congenial and relaxed?
Do you feel that working with underprivileged children requires any more information about the child, school, and community than was given to you during your first semester?
Do you feel more secure in your teaching?
Are the children in your room learning to the best of their ability?
The principal will also evaluate this induction program.
She will measure it by the following points:
Was time saved in the schoolroom?
Do the children have a greater sense of security?'
Has the new teacher’s room control improved?
Is there any way that I as an administrator can produce greater efficiency in the induction program, such as the saving of my time as well as the teacher’s, and the saving of materials?
Is the new teacher developing a social service attitude toward the underprivileged child?
The entire program utilizes this basic mental hygiene tenet:
no tension can exist in a school environment where
53 mutual helpfulness predominates; no bitterness can injure a relationship where there is understanding and freedom. The teacher's security in a school starts in the adminis trator's office and is carried by her into the classroom, to give the child a sense of security which his home in the Ritter area lacks.
CHAPTER V I I
SUMMARY The object of this study was to determine the need for a specific program of induction for a new teacher in an underprivileged school, to find what had already been done in the field, and to suggest a specific program for teacher-induction.
The result of this study cannot supply
a highly formalized plan, since any specific induction program requires elasticity to permit future growth in educational needs.
The plan suggested here is a core
outline upon which an underprivileged school can build its own program of induction according to the school’s indi vidual problems. Chapter II presents a review of the literature in the field and a survey of the two major induction programs now generally in use in the State of California, namely "The California State Program of Induction", and the "Los Angeles City Handbook of Induction".
None of the litera
ture surveyed nor the two major handbooks lend themselves to an induction program to be used in an underprivileged school. In Chapter III are found the techniques that were employed and the sources of data.
The fundamental educa
tional premise underlying these techniques and sources was
55 as follows:
in an underprivileged school a new teacher has
to know not only what and how she teaches but whom she teaches. Chapter IV includes the results obtained from tech niques employed and was the determinant for the portions of the suggested program to be used at Ritter where childneeds and community-needs are the predominant factors. The aforementioned results pointed to one thing:
is the greatest single social agency in an underprivileged district. Chapter V presents the proposed induction program for new teachers at Ritter School.
The outline format was
utilized so that this program could be mimeographed and presented in sections to the new teacher at specific inter vals.
The program provided that her orientation to the
underprivileged school was to be pleasant and gradual so that she would not be overwhelmed by her challenging re sponsibilities . Chapter VI treats of the evaluation of the proposed induction program for new teachers.
The tremendous lack
of any specific teacher-induction plans for underprivileged schools made the semi-annual checking against the inade quacies and adequacies of the present program practically a requirement on the part of both principal and teachers. This induction program proposed for underprivileged
56 schools is an initial attempt at a definite program in this field.
The social significance of a school in an under
privileged community has "been clearly demonstrated and it is safe to predict that its principal and faculty have a tremendous educational challenge in that they are not only teachers but social workers and humanitarians as well. The children, the primary consideration in any school plan ning, are the final recipients of this proposed teacherinduction program.
To them should come a feeling of secur
ity, a respect for school and faculty, a mitigation of community inadequacies, and an improvement in their learn ing situation.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
57 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, William M., "Should the Beginning Teacher Get a New Deal?" National Education Association Journal, 10:611-16, April, 1941. Berkson, Ira B., Education Paces the Future. New York: Harper and Brothers, 19^3* California Curriculum Commission, Elementary Teachers Handbook of Induction. Sacramento: State Department Qf Education, 1942. California Curriculum Commission, Teachers Guide to Child Development in the Intermediate Grades. Sacramento: California State Department of Education, 1936. Caswell, John W., "The Beginning Teacher and the New Environment," Teachers College Journal, 14:97-107. May, 1943. Hockett, J. A., and Earl W. Jacobsen, Modern Practices in the Elementary School. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1944 (rev.). Howes, Maurice V., "Greetings New Teacher," National Education Association, 30:171, June, 1941, p. 16. Lane, Robert W., The Principal in the Modern Elementary School. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933. Los Angeles Teachers Committee, "Los Angeles Elementary Teachers Induction Handbook," printed by the Los Angeles City School System, 1946. Maxwell, William H., Management and the Worker. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1939* National Education Association, Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction, "Leadership at Work," Fifteenth Yearbook, Washington, D. C.: 1943. Prall, Charles E., and Claude L. Cushman, "Teacher Educa tion in Service," prepared for the Commission on Teacher Education. Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education, 1944.
58 Prescott, Daniel A., "Emotion and the Educative Process," Report of the Committee on the Relation of Emotion to the Educative Process, American Council on Education, Washington, D. C.: 1938. Teigs, E. W., and Barney Katz, Mental Hygiene in Education. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1942. Travis, Lee E., and Dorothy W. Baruch, Problems of Every day Lifer Practical Aspects of Mental Hygiene. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Incorporated, 19^1. Wahlquist, John T., Philosophy of American Education. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 19^2.
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