An experimental study of variables in situations involving punishment

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OP VARIABLES IN SITUATIONS INVOLVING PUNISHMENT

A T h e sis P resen ted to t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

*n P a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e M asters o f A rts in P sy c h o lo g y

B e r n a r d R e n a u l t A b le January 1950

UMI Number: EP63978

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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This thesis, w rit te n by

................. B E R N A R D A U L T . ABLE................... under the gu ida nce of h.IS... F ac u lty C o m m i t t e e , and a p p r o v e d by all its membe rs, has been prese nte d to and a c ce pte d by the Co un ci l on G ra d u ate S t u d y an d Resea rch in p a r ti a l fulfill­ ment of the requirements f o r the degre e of

MASTERS OP ARTS ............................. Date

J anji arv_. _l g 50

Faculty Committee

3EUEL,.j:.r.«............. Dean

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE ..................................

INTRODUCTION........................

1

...................................

^h e p r o b le m

2

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m • • • • • • • • M ethod o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n

.

. .

.........................

T h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n Im p ortan ce o f th e s t u d y II.

. *

• • • • • • • •

3 5

T h o r n d i k e ’ s Law o f E f f e c t

.....................

6

. . • • • • • • • • • •

ANALYSIS OP EXPERIMENTAL WORK

6

. . . . . . .

8

• . . . • • • • • • •

19

ANALYSIS OP PUNISHMENT IN MORE'COMPLEX SITUATIONS

.

.

.

P urpose o f c h a p te r

...............................................................2 7 . • • • • • • • • • • • •

A t h e o r e t i c a l e x p e rim en t

27

• • • • • • • • • •

27

C o n c l u s i o n o f c h a p t e r ................................... V.

PUNISHMENT IN ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES C o n clu sio n o f c h a p te r

V I.

2

......................

C o n clu sio n o f a n a ly s e s IV .

.

2

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

^ i l g a r d and M arq uis III.

2

.

29 .

.

• • • • • • • • • • •

.

30 32

EFFECTS OP ALTERNATE PUNISHMENT IN LEARNING..............................................................................................3 8 The p r o b le m A p p a r a tu s

• « • • • . • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

..............................

38 38

ii S u b jects

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e V II.

. . . . . . . .

RESETS OP THE EXPERIMENT 1.

.

• • •

.....................

40 40

..................................4 2

E f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon t h e number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n t h e maze

2.

• • • • • • • • • • •

42

E f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon t h e t o t a l tim e r e q u ir e d t o l e a r n th e maze

3.

45

E f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon t im e p e r t r i a l

4.

45

E f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon errors

V I**.

• • • • • • • • • • •



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS....................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY #

............................ ..... .................................... ..... .

48 50 52

CHAPTER

I

INTRODUCTION P u n is h m e n t i s

an i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e u s e d b y e x p e r i m e n t ­

e r s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e b e h a v i o r o f o r g a n is m s *

W h e th e r p u n i s h ­

m ent a s a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o r i s e f f e c t i v e , w hat t y p e s o f p u n is h m e n t s h o u l d b e u s e d t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e d e s i r e d r e su lts,

and w h e t h e r q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s

have d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s

i n p u n is h m e n t

a r e im p o r t a n t p r o b le m s t o b e c o n ­

s id e r e d in e x p e r im e n ta l s t u d ie s

o f p u n is h m e n t*

P u n is h m e n t can be o b s e r v e d i n tw o g e n e r a l t y p e s o f situ a tio n s.

In t h e f i r s t ,

p u n is h m e n t r e s u l t s m e c h a n i c a l l y

from e v e r y o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e r e s p o n s e d u r i n g t h e l i f e t i m e o f t h e o r g a n is m

( e . g . , th e n e g a tiv e r e in fo r c e m e n t produced

by to u c h in g a h o t r a d i a t o r ) .

I n t h e s e c o n d , p u n is h m e n t I s

a d m in is te r e d , u s u a l l y th r o u g h th e m e d ia tio n o f a n o th e r organ ­ i s m , f o r m a k in g some s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e d u r i n g a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f t i m e ( e . g . , p u n is h m e n t o f a c h i l d f o r g o i n g i n t o th e s t r e e t ) . The p r e s e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e th e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c

s h o c k , a d m i n i s t e r e d a s p u n is h m e n t

f o r e r r o r s , upon l e a r n i n g w i t h a d u l t s .

2 I.

THE PROBLEM

S ta te m e n t o f th e p r o b le m * was ( 1 ) t o

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s

paper

stu d y th e f u n c t io n a l i n t e r r e l a t io n s h ip s o f th e

v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i n g in s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g p u n ish m en t; t o stu d y th e e m p ir ic a l p r in c ip le s

(2 )

g o v e r n in g th e a c t io n o f

p u n is h m e n t upon t h e dyn am ic p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e p u n i s h e d r e ­ s p o n s e t o d e t e r m i n e w h at a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s a r e o p e r a t i n g t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f p u n is h m e n t i n more c o m p le x s i t u a t i o n s , as r e v e a le d th ro u g h e x p e r im e n ta l a n a l y s i s ; (3 ) t o d eter m in e th e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c

sh o ck , a d m in is te r e d

a s p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s , when t h e w ron g r e s p o n s e i s ed a l t e r n a t e l y .

and

p u n ish ­

The p r o b le m i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t was t h e

m a s t e r y o f a b o l t h e a d maze* II.

METHOD OP INVESTIGATION

M eth o d * I n s u c h a s t u d y ,

i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o

s t u d y t h e b a s i c e x p e r i m e n t s w h ere i r r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e c o n t r o lle d by th e te c h n iq u e o f e x p e r im e n ta l c o n t r o l, th e r e s u lt s

sin ce

o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l w ork on p u n is h m e n t can b e

e v a l u a t e d o n l y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e m e a s u r e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n ta k en t o en su re f u n c t io n a l i s o l a t i o n III.

o f th e v a r ia b le s .

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATION

In su ch a s tu d y , th e q u e s t io n

a r is e s

a s w h at t h e

3 effects

o f p u n is h m e n t w i l l b e -upon t h e dyn am ic p r o p e r t i e s

o f th e p u n ish e d r e sp o n se *

I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t a r e s p o n s e

can b e w e a k e n e d i n s t r e n g t h a s a r e s u l t o f an a n n o y i n g a f t e r ­ e f f e c t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s p e c i f i c m ech a n ism s i n v o l v e d .

It

r e m a in s t o be d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e w e a k e n e d r e s p o n s e i s a c t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d from t h e o r g a n i s m f s r e p e r t o i r e b y p u n i s h ­ m e n t , o r m e r e l y s u p p r e s s e d and c a p a b l e o f b e i n g r e l e a s e d a t its

f u l l o r i g i n a l s t r e n g t h a f t e r p u n is h m e n t i s

An e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n

d isc o n tin u e d .

o f n e g a tiv e r e in fo r c e m e n t r e ­

p o r t e d b y S k in n er ^ f a v o r s th e l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y . su lts

H is r e ­

i n d ic a t e t h a t th e r a t e o f r e sp o n d in g d u rin g su b seq u en t

p e r io d s w i l l d e c lin e r e g u la r ly in a n e g a t iv e ly a c c e le r a t e d c u r v e and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e c l i n e u n t i l a p e r m a n e n t l y lo w r a te is

r e a c h e d and t h e r e s p o n s e i s

g u ish e d .

That i s ,

th e o r g a n ism ^

e ffe c tiv e ly it

r e p e r to ir e .

th en s a id t o be e x t i n ­

i s no l o n g e r a p a r t o f

I f th is

i s t r u e , we w o u ld be

a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t p u n is h m e n t a c c e l e r a t e s t h e p r o c e s s o f e x t i n c t i o n o f a r e s p o n s e from an o r g a n i s m f s r e p e r t o i r e .

Any

o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t p u n is h m e n t r e s u l t s

in a

s u p p r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n an e l i m i n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r . The c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a s l o n g b e e n aw are o f t h e sig n ific a n c e

o f b e h a v io r w h ic h i s

p r e v e n t e d from o c c u r r i n g

1 S k i n n e r , B . P . , The B e h a v i o r o f O r g a n i s m s : ' An E x p e r i m e n t a l A n a l y s i s . HY: A p p l e t o n - 0 e n t u r y , 1 9 3 8 , £ p . 4 5 7 .

4 o v e r tly

’r e p r e s s e d 1 b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s , b u t w h i c h

c o n tin u e t o e x i s t in th e o r g a n ism ’s r e p e r t o ir e a t a con­ s id e r a b le s t a t e o f stren gth *

CHAPTER

II

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND I n h i s o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e la w o f e f f e c t , 2 T h o r n d ik e s t a t e d t h a t an a n n o y i n g a f t e r - e f f e c t o f an u n ­ p l e a s a n t s t i m u l u s e x e r t s a w e a k e n in g e f f e c t upon t h e p u n i s h ­ ed stim u lu s -r e s p o n s e co n n e c tio n * **0f s e v e r a l r e s p o n s e s made t o t h e same s i t u a t i o n , t h o s e w h ic h a r e a c c o m p a n ie d o r c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d b y s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e a n im a l w i l l , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , be more f i r m l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n , s o t h a t when i t r e c u r s , t h e y w i l l b e more l i k e l y t o r e c u r ; t h o s e w h i c h a r e a c c o m p a n ie d o r c l o s e l y f o l l o w ­ e d b y d i s c o m f o r t t o t h e a n im a l w i l l , o t h e r t h i n g s b r in g e q u a l, have t h e i r c o n n e c tio n s w ith th a t s i t u a ­ t i o n w e a k e n e d , s o t h a t , when i t r e c u r s , t h e y w i l l b e more l i k e l y t o o c c u r * The g r e a t e r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s c o m f o r t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o r w eak­ e n in g o f th e b o n d ...* B y a s a t i s f y i n g s t a t e o f a f f a ir s i s m eant one w h i c h t h e a n im a l d o e s n o t h i n g t o a v o i d , o f t e n d o i n g s u c h t h i n g s as a t t a i n and p r e s e r v e i t * By a d i s c o m f o r t i n g o r a n n o y i n g s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s m eant one w h ic h t h e a n im a l comm only a v o i d s and a b a n d o n s * tt3 M ost e x p e r i m e n t e r s h a v e fou n d t h a t p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s i n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s t e n d s t o im p r o v e p e r fo r m a n c e up t o t h e l e v e l o f t o l e r a n c e

f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n ism *

H o w e v er , In t h e c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g s i t u a t i o n ,

i t has

been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a c o n d it io n e d r e s p o n s e i s weakened b y p u n is h m e n t*

2 T h o r n d i k e , E . L . , The P s y c h o l o g y o f W a n t s . I n t e r e s t s . and A t t i t u d e s * NY: A p p l e t o n =U e n t u r y , 1 9 S o , “P p . b0±* ' 3 Loo. c i t .

6

T h o r n d ik e l a t e r r e v i s e d h i s

o r ig i n a l fo r m u la tio n s t o

t h e r e s u l t t h a t an a n n o y i n g a f t e r - e f f e c t n o t e x e r t a d i r e c t w e a k e n in g e f f e c t th e n in g e f f e c t

o f a c o n n e c tio n does

c o m p a r a b le t o t h e s t r e n g ­

o f a r e w a r d ; when a r e s p o n s e a p p e a r s t o h a v e

been w eakened b y p u n ish m en t, i t

is

o n l y b e c a u s e t h e o r g a n is m ,

h a s b e e n f o r c e d t o l e a r n some a l t e r n a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o th e situ a tio n .

A lth o u g h T h o r n d ik e fs r e v i s e d

been g e n e r a lly a c c e p te d , produced e v id e n c e s

f o r m u l a t i o n h as

s e v e r a l r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s have

f a v o r i n g t h e o r i g i n a l la w o f e f f e c t ,

^ i l g a r d and M a rq u is^ su m m arize t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e

o f th e

p r o b le m a s f o l l o w s :

a su b ject

The a c t i o n o f p u n is h m e n t i s

u r g e n t ly n e e d in g a d d it io n a l r e s e a r c h .

It is

not c le a r at

p r e s e n t w h e t h e r i n h i b i t i o n b y p u n is h m e n t can be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n te r m s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e

from r e s p o n s e e s t a b l i s h e d b y

t h e n o x i o u s s t i m u l u s or w h e t h e r i t

rep resen ts a d iffe r e n t

and i n d e p e n d e n t form o f i n h i b i t i o n . G u th rie

5

o n l y as a g o a l ; le a r n in g is

c o n te n ts th a t th e u n p le a sa n t stim u lu s a c ts and m a i n t a i n s

d e ter m in e d b y i t s

w h ic h T h o r n d ik e h a s t r a n s l a t e d a n ce i s

f u r t h e r , t h a t th e th e o r y t h a t e f f e c t s , p l e a s u r e and p a i n , in to s a t is f a c t io n

and a n n o y ­

much more r e a d i l y and p r e c i s e l y d e s c r i b e d i n te r m s

4 H i l g a r d , E . R . , and M a r q u is , D . G . , C o n d i t i o n i n g and t e a n n l n p . NY: A p p le t o n - C e n t t i r y , 1 9 4 0 , 126. 5 G u th r ie , ftReward and P u n is h m e n t * , P s y c h o l . R e v ie w , 1 9 3 4 , 4 1 , P p . 4 5 0 - 4 6 0 .

7 o f c o n d itio n in g .

P u n is h m e n t i s e f f e c t i v e

o n l y when i t

re­

c o n d i t i o n s new r e s p o n s e s t o t h e c u e s f o r u n w a n te d b e h a v i o r , and r e w a r d i s e f f e c t i v e

o n ly th ro u g h i t s

H ence p u n is h m e n t i s e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e bad h a b i t .

It

a sso c ia tio n s.

o n ly in th e p resen ce o f cues

does n ot a c h ie v e I t s e f f e c t ,

as

T h o r n d ik e m a i n t a i n s , b y " t a k i n g away s t r e n g t h from t h e p h y ­ s io lo g ic a l b a sis

o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s •"

S a tisfie r s

do n o t

a lw a y s “ stam p i n " , n o r do a n n o y e r s a lw a y s "stam p o u t" a c o n ­ n e c tio n .

S t i m u l i a c t i n g a t t h e t im e o f e i t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n

o r a n n o y a n c e t e n d t o r e - e x c i t e w h a t e v e r b e h a v i o r was i n e v i ­ dence a t th e tim e . g Tolraan G ason

7

h a s d e n i e d t h e la w o f e f f e c t i n l e a r n i n g .

m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e w h o le h e d o n i c t h e o r y a s

to le a r n in g is

a p p lie d

illo g ic a l.

6 T o lm a n , E . C . , "The la w o f e f f e c t : a r e p l y t o D o c t o r G ood en ou gh . J o u r . Exp. P s y c h o l. . 19 3 3 , 1 6 , p . 468. 7 G a so n , H . , " S p e c i f i c s e r i a l l e a r n i n g : a s t u d y o f ba ck w a rd a s s o c i a t i o n . 11 J o u r . E x p . P s y c h o l . . 1 9 2 6 , v o l . 6 .

CHAPTER

III

ANALYSIS OP EXPERIMENTAL WORK It is sis

th e purpose o f t h i s

c h a p t e r t o p r e s e n t an a n a l y ­

o f e x p e r i m e n t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h at v a r i a b l e s a r e

o p e r a t in g i n p u n ish m en t. I n a r e c e n t p a p e r , H o n z ik and Tolm an d e n c e t h a t s u f f e r i n g p u n is h m e n t r e s u l t s

8

sh ow ed e v i ­

i n im m e d ia te l e a r n i n g *

In t h e i r e x p e r im e n ts , r a t s w ere w e l l t r a in e d t o ta k e th e s h o r t e r p a t h and a s h o c k w as a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e box* t e s t e d a fe w m i n u t e s l a t e r , chose th e o p p o site

When

a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f r a t s

( l o n g ) p a th *

In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y

’l e a r n e d 1 c o n c l u s i v e l y i n one l e s s o n t o a v o i d t h e r o u t e l e a d i n g t o t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e y h ad b e e n s h o c k e d . The v a r i a b l e s tio n .

P ood

in t h i s

'r e w a r d 1 i s

ex p erim en t r e q u ir e s, i n v e s t i g a ­

c o n sta n tly p r e se n t.

The l e a r n i n g i n ­

v o l v e s a s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e t o a new f a c t o r ( s h o c k ) . v a n ta g e o f th e ed*

short p a th in d is ta n c e i s

The a d ­

c o m p le te ly a b o lis h ­

T h e t i m e - l a g b e t w e e n p u n is h m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t c h o i c e

I s on e t o t h r e e , o r e v e n s i x , m i n u t e s . e m p h a s iz e t h e p a t h l a t e r

chosen.

The s h o c k d o e s n o t

T h e s h o c k g a v e no i n f o r m ­

a t i o n a b ou t a n y th in g o th e r th an i t s

own e x i s t e n c e .

The

8 H o n z i k , C . H . , and T o lm a n , E . C . , ttThe a c t i o n o f ‘ p u n is h m e n t i n a c c e l e r a t i n g l e a r n i n g . 11 J o u r . Comp. P s y c h o l . , 1938, 2 6 , Pp. 1 8 7 -2 0 0 . -------- -------------

r e su lts tr ia l

of th is

ex p erim en t f o llo w s th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f

and e r r o r l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s

se r v a tio n *

o b se r v e d in e v e r y -d a y ob­

The p u n i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l c e a s e s t o go t o t h e

p l a c e w h e r e h e h a s b e e n p u n i s h e d and i n s t e a d t a k e s t h e a lte r n a te

co u rse o f a ctio n *

C o n tr a d ic to r y r e s u l t s

i n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s may b e due

t o t h e c h o i c e o f s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h do n o t a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t t o a p p r e h e n d a c l e a r and u n e q u i v o c a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t p l a c e , o r a c t i o n and t h e c o n s e q u e n t p a t h . An e x p e r i m e n t r e p o r t e d b y E s t e s and S k i n n e r ^ demon­ s t r a t e d t h a t a' t o n e w h i c h p r e c e d e s a d i s t u r b i n g s t i m u l u s a c q u ir e s th e c a p a c ity t o d ep ress th e s tr e n g th o f b e h a v io r n o r m a lly o c c u r r in g in th e s i t u a t i o n even th r o u g h th e b e h a v io r has n ever been d i r e c t l y a s s o c ia t e d w ith e i t h e r s t im u lu s . th is

e x p e r i m e n t , a n x i e t y had a t l e a s t tw o d e f i n i n g c h a r a c ­

te r istic s : fea r;

In

(l)

it

is

an e m o t i o n a l s t a t e ,

som ew hat r e s e m b l i n g

and ( 2 ) t h e d i s t u r b i n g s t i m u l u s w h i c h i s p r i n c i p a l l y

r e s p o n s i b l e d o e s n o t p r e c e d e o r accom p an y t h e s t a t e b u t i s • a n t ic ip a t e d 1 in th e f u tu r e .

B oth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s need

c l a r i f i c a t i o n , w h eth er th e y are a p p lie d t o th e b e h a v io r o f man o r , a s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , t o a l o w e r o r g a n i s m .

The

8 E s t e s , W .K ., and S k i n n e r , B . P . , rtS6me q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f a n x i e t y . 11 J o u r * E x p . P s y c h o l . . 1 9 4 1 , 2 9 , P p . 3 9 0 -4 0 0 .

c h ie f d if f ic u lt y in

l i e s - i n a c c o u n t in g f o r b e h a v io r w h ic h a r i s e s

1a n t i c i p a t i o n 1 o f a f u t u r e e v e n t *

S i n c e a s t i m u l u s w h ic h

h a s n o t y e t o c c u r r e d c a n n o t a c t a s a c a u s e , we m u st l o o k f o r a cu rren t v a r ia b le in t h is

e x p e rim en t*

An a n a l o g y w i t h t h e

t y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g e x p e r i m e n t , i n w h i c h S-^, h a v i n g p r e v i ­ o u s l y b e e n f o l l o w e d b y S g , now l e a d s t o a n ' a n t i c i p a t o r y * resp o n se to S g, because i t

i s a c u r r e n t s t i m u l u s S ^ , and n o t

t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f S , w h ic h p r o d u c e s th e r e a c t i o n *

P ast in -

s t a n c e s o f Sg have p la y e d t h e i r p a r t i n b r in g in g t h i s a b o u t , but i t

i s n o t S g , w h ic h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e s p o n s e * A lth o u g h th e tem p o ra l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c l a s s i c a l con ­

d i t i o n i n g p r o v id e f o r an a c c e p t a b le d e f i n i t i o n o f a n t ic a p a tio n ,

t h e a n a l o g y w i t h p u n is h m e n t i s n o t c o m p l e t e *

p u n i s h m e n t , t h e r e s p o n s e w h ic h i s

d e v e lo p e d to

be l i k e th e o r ig in a l resp o n se to S * resp onse to

In need not

The m a g n it u d e o f t h e

a t an y g i v e n t i m e d u r i n g i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n may

depend upon th e p r e v io u s tem p o ra l r e l a t i o n s o f

a n d Sg*

The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o l l o w s t h a t a n e m o t i o n a l s t a t e i s in

s e t up

*a n t i c i p a t i o n * o f a d i s t u r b i n g s t i m u l u s , an d t h e m a g n i­

tu d e o f th e e m o tio n I s m easu red by i t s

e f f e c t upon t h e .

s t r e n g t h o f c e r t a i n h u n g e r - m o t i v a t e d b e h a v i o r , m ore s p e c i f i c ­ a l l y u p o n t h e r a t e w i t h w h ic h a r a t m akes a a r b i t r a r y r e ­ sp o n se w h ic h i s p e r i o d i c a l l y r e i n f o r c e d w it h fo o d *

Such a

r a t e h a s b e e n show n t o b e a v e r y s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e

11 s t r e n g t h o f b e h a v i o r u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and it

i s a d a p t a b l e t o e m o t io n * In an e a r l i e r

i n v e s t i g a t i o n , W arner

9

su b jected r a ts

t o r e p e a te d p r e s e n ta tio n s o f th e c o n d itio n e d stim u lu s zer or lig h t )

(b u s-

f o llo w e d by a sh o c k , under a v a r i e t y o f con­

d i t i o n s and o b s e r v e d t h e r e a c t i o n t o t h e b u z z e r o r l i g h t r e s u l t i n g fr o m t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g s

He c o n c l u d e d t h a t n o

s p e c i f i c p a r ts o f th e o r ig i n a l r esp o n se t o th e u n c o n d itio n ­ ed s t i m u l u s , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f a u t o n o m ic r e ­ a c tio n s,

su ch a s change In b r e a th in g r a t e , a r e r e g u la r ly

c o n d itio n e d #

I h e c o n d i t i o n e d s t a t e o f a n t i c i p a t i o n w h ic h

com es t o b e a r o u s e d b y a s t i m u l u s

( S ^ ) , w h ic h c h a r a c t e r i s t ­

i c a l l y p r e ce d e s a d is tu r b in g stim u lu s

(S g ),

is

th at i t

in ­

v o lv e s p a r ts o f th e o r i g i n a l u n c o n d itio n e d r e a c t io n to t o g e t h e r w i t h som e a p p a r e n t l y random a c t i v i t y , a n d t h a t i t r e s u l t s i n th e d i s r u p t i o n o f th e norm al b e h a v io r o f th e o r g a n i s m ,, i n t h e s i t u a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n s o l o n g a s p resen t.

It is

is

e v id e n t, th e n , th a t a d is tu r b in g or tra u ­

m a t ic s t im u lu s a r o u s e s a changed s t a t e o f t h e o r g a n ism o f t h e t y p e commonly t e r m e d ’ e m o t i o n a l 1 a n d t h a t

th e s t im u lu s

p r e se n te d sim u lta n e o u s ly w ith th e d is tu r b in g stim u lu s

9 W a r n e r, C. J # , a n d D iam on d , S . A . , ,rA p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f d e l a y e d p u n is h m e n t o n l e a r n i n g i n t h e w h i t e r a t # 1* J o u r # G e n e t# P s y c h o l * , 1 9 3 1 , 3 9 , Pp# 4 5 5 462.

12

becom es a c o n d it io n e d

stim u lu s

c a p a b le o f i t s e l f a r o u s in g

t h e same e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n o r s t a t e

o f subsequent o c c a s io n s .

In a d d i t i o n t o a g e n e r a l i z e d e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n ,

a

d i s t u r b i n g s tim u lu s u s u a l l y a r o u se s a w ith d ra w a l r e s p o n s e . *n an e x p e r i m e n t b y B u g e l s k i and Miller"**0 , i t h a s b e e n e s t a b ­ l i s h e d t h a t t h e w i t h d r a w a l r e s p o n s e beco m es c o n d i t i o n e d t o a n y s t i m u l u s w h ic h i s u lu s.

c o n tig u o u s w ith th e d is tu r b in g stim ­

I n many s i t u a t i o n s

i n v o l v i n g p u n is h m e n t t h e r e i s

op­

p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e w i t h d r a w a l r e s p o n s e t o becom e c o n d i t i o n e d t o t h e same s t i m u l i w h ic h p r e v i o u s l y a r o u s e d t h e p u n i s h e d resp on se.

P a rt o f th e e f f e c t

o f p u n is h m e n t i s

p ro b a b ly a

r e s u l t o f c o n f l i c t b etw een th e c o m p etin g r e s p o n s e s , d is tu r b in g stim u lu s i s

^ f th e

o f s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i t y , th e w ith ­

d r a w a l r e s p o n s e becom es p r e p o t e n t and t h e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e te m p o r a r ily c e a se s to o c cu r.

H o w e v er , t h e p r e s e n t

stu d y has

dem on strated t h a t th e o r i g i n a l r e sp o n se i s n o t e lim in a t e d from t h e o r g a n i s m ’ s r e p e r t o i r e , b u t c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t a t a sta te is

o f c o n sid e r a b le la t e n t

stren g th .

d is c o n tin u e d , e x p e rim en ta l e x t i n c t i o n

resp on se b e g in s;

W h en ever p u n is h m e n t o f th e w ith d ra w a l

and a s t h e w i t h d r a w a l r e s p o n s e i s w e a k e n e d ,

10 B u g e ls k i, , and M i l l e r , H . E . , ®A s p a t i a l g r a d ­ i e n t i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f a v o i d a n c e r e s n o n s e s . 8t J o u r . E x p . P s y c h o l. . 1 9 3 8 , 2 3 , Pp. 4 9 4 -5 0 5 .

th e o r ig in a l resp on se r ec o v er s

in s t r e n g t h .

It

is

lik e ly

th a t th e s u p e r i o r i t y o f p e r i o d i c a l l y a d m in iste r e d p u n is h ­ ment o v e r p u n is h m e n t w h i c h f o l l o w s e v e r y o c c u r r e n c e o f a resp onse i s

due t o t h e r e s u l t i n g p e r i o d i c a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t

o f t h e r e s p o n s e o f w i t h d r a w a l from t h e r e g i o n o f t h e l e v e r . D u n la p

11

t r e a t s p u n is h m e n t i n p a r t i n te r m s o f f e e l i n g

r a t h e r th a n o f a n n o y a n ce. “w i t h o u t t h o u g h t , i s

“T h a t f e e l i n g i n i t s e l f , ” h e s a y s

o f a n y im p o r t a n c e i n i m p r o b a b l e , e x c e p t

i n s o f a r a s f e e l i n g may b e an o r g a n i c c o n d i t i o n w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e and i n t e n s e p u n is h m e n t p o s s i b l y u n f a v o r ­ a b l e , b u t we h a v e no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a n y s p e c i f i c t y p e o f fe e lin g

is

any d if f e r e n t in I t s e f f e c t

S tep h en

12

from a n y o t h e r . ”

f o u n d t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p u n is h m e n t i s

due t o a p o s s i b l e s t a m p i n g - i n e f f e c t o f t h e p h y s i c a l medium b y w h i c h b o t h t h e p u n i s h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e w a r d i n g in fo r m a tio n w ere c o n v e y ed .

C o n se q u e n tly any sta m p in g -o u t

t e n d e n c y o f p u n is h m e n t m ust c o n t e n d w i t h t h e s t a m p i n g - i n i n f l u e n c e o f t h e medium.

C o n v e r s e ly any sta m p in g -in i n ­

f l u e n c e o f r e w a r d w o u ld b e e n h a n c e d b y t h e i n f l u e n c e w ard i n t h e m edium .

H is r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s

of re­

(1) th a t t h is

p h y s i c a l medium when d e v o i d o f a l l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f s u c c e s s

1 1 D u n la p , K . , H a b i t s , T h e i r M aking and U n m aking. NY: 1 9 3 2 , P . 3 0 . ' '."V. ---- ;................ — ......... , 1 2 ,| S t e p h e n s , J ,M . "The i n f l u e n c e o f p u n is h m e n t upon l e a r n i n g .. J o u r . t x p . P s y c h o l. , 1 9 5 4 , 1 7 , Pp. 5 3 6 -5 5 5 .

14 or f a ilu r e ,

d id have a s ta m p in g - in i n f l u e n c e ;

(2 ) t h a t th e

s t a m p i n g - i n i n f l u e n c e o f t h e medium p l u s p u n is h m e n t m ig h t be r e g a r d e d as l e s s

t h a n t h a t o f t h e medium a l o n e ; and ( 3 )

t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e medium p l u s r e w a r d i s

d e fin ite ly

g r e a t e r t h a n t h a n o f t h e medium a l o n e . The m ain p r o b le m h e r e i s w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t w h e n e v e r p u n is h m e n t d o e s s t r e n g t h e n a b o n d , s u c h s t r e n g t h e n ­ i n g may be due t o t h e

i n c i d e n c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l medium b y

w h i c h t h e p u n is h m e n t w as c o n v e y e d * su lts,

In th e v iew o f th e r e ­

t h e e f f e c t o f p u n is h m e n t no l o n g e r a p p e a r s t o be

a n o m a lo u s .

When m e a s u r e d , t h e r e s u l t s

in d ic a te s

ment and r e w a r d seem s t o h a v e d i s t i n c t l y o p p o s i t e

t h a t p u n ish ­ , i f not

e q u a l, e f f e c t s . W arner Brown

13

r e p o r t e d an e x p e r i m e n t on human l e a r n ­

in g in a m ec h a n ica l m aze. pared:

(a )

The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s a r e com­

c o n t r o l , no s h o c k ;

( b ) s h o c k on c o r r e c t ,

one s h o c k a t e a c h c h o i c e - p o i n t ; ( c )

s h o c k on t h e

i.e .,

f i r s t key

tou ch ed a t e a c h c h o ic e - p o in t w ith o u t regard t o c o r r e c t n e s s . H is c o n c l u s i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d more p u n is h m e n t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g made b e t t e r r e c o r d s t h a n t h o s e who r e c e i v e d l e s s p u n i s h m e n t .

1 3 Brow n, W . , tlThe p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f p u n i s h m e n t . ” J o u r . Pomp. P s y c h o l . . 1 9 3 9 , 2 8 , P p . 1 7 - 2 2 .

15 The e x p e r i m e n t s o f Warden and A y l e s w o r t h

14

show s a

g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on p u n is h m e n t a s an a i d t o l e a r n i n g t h a n p r e v io u s e x p erim en ts in t h i s th a t i f

paper*

The a p p a r a t u s w as s u c h

t h e r a t s e n t e r e d a p a t h m arked b y a b r i g h t l i g h t ,

t h e y r e c e i v e d an e l e c t r i c

s h o c k from a g r i d .

e d a p a t h m arked b y a much l e s s

I f th ey e n te r ­

b r ig h t p a th , th e y r e c e iv e d

no s h o c k , and w as r e w a r d e d b y f o o d . There w ere th r e e s e r i e s w ard s e r i e s

o f e x p e rim e n ts.

In t h e r e ­

(B ) t h e r i g h t r e s p o n s e was r e w a r d e d and t h e

w r o n g r e s p o n s e was f o l l o w e d b y r e m o v a l o f t h e r a t s from t h e goal box.

In th e p u n ish e d s e r i e s

( p ) t h e r i g h t r e s p o n s e w as

f o l l o w e d a s t h e w ron g one was i n t h e s e r i e s R, and t h e w ron g r e s p o n s e w as f o l l o w e d b y an e l e c t r i c w as r em o v ed from t h e g o a l b o x . se r ie s

I n t h e r e w a r d and p u n is h m e n t

(HP) t h e r i g h t r e s p o n s e w as r e w a r d e d and t h e w rong

r e s p o n s e w as p u n i s h e d . ra ts

s h o c k and t h e n t h e r a t

At t h e b e g i n n i n g , e i g h t o u t o f t e n

i n e a c h g r o u p flsh o w ed a p r e f e r e n c e

fo r th e illu m in a te d

p a t c h o r no p r e f e r e n c e a t all** i n t w e n t y t r i a l s w i t h f o o d i n b o t h c o m p a r tm e n ts and no s h o c k , **the o t h e r tw o s h o w in g o n ly a s l i g h t p re fere n c e

f o r t h e d a r k p a tc h .* * 1 5

1 4 W a r d e n , C . J . , and A y l e s w o r t h , M e r c y , **The r e l a ­ t i v e v a l u e o f r e w a r d and p u n is h m e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a v i s u a l d i s c r im in a t io n h a b it in th e w h it e r a t.* 1 J o u r . G en et. P s y c h o l ., 1 9 3 1 , 3 9 , Pp. 4 5 5 -4 6 2 . 15

Ib id . » p. 120.

16 The r a t s t h a t w e r e p u n i s h e d b y t h e s h o c k r e s p o n d e d o fte n th e r e a f t e r b y e n te r in g n e ith e r passagew ay, but s t a y ­ in g in th e r e a c t i o n cham ber.

I f one d i d t h i s

u t e s , h i s t r i a l w as c o u n t e d a s a f a i l u r e , from t h e

goal box.

f o r f i v e m in ­

and he w as rem ov ed

I f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k had b e e n n o t t o

e n t e r t h e w r o n g p a s s a g e w a y , t h e p u n i s h e d r a t s w o u ld h a v e s u r p a s s e d th e rew arded r a t s even g r e a t e r .

The r e w a r d - p u n i s h -

m ent r a t s may b e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n t a u g h t b y t h e p u n is h m e n t t o a v o i d t h e w r o n g p a s s a g e w a y , and b y t h e r e w a r d t o a v o i d s t a y i n g f o r f i v e m in u te s in th e r e a c t i o n cham ber, as w e l l a s t o go t o t h e r i g h t p a s s a g e w a y .

The r e s u l t s

are g iv en

i n more d e t a i l i n T a b l e I . The s l o w n e s s o f l e a r n i n g i n t h e R s e r i e s may b e due t o th e fa c t th a t th e re

is

a d i f f e r e n t i a l b e t w e e n tw o r e w a r d s ;

r e l e a s e p l u s f o o d and r e l e a s e a l o n e .

The l e a r n i n g o f t h e

P s e r i e s may b e e x p l a i n e d w i t h o u t s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e s h o c k w eakens a n y th in g d i r e c t l y .

I t may s t r e n g t h e n t h e t e n d e n c y

t o s t a y i n t h e r e a c t i o n ch a m b er. T h o rn d ik e ,

16

u s i n g as r e w a r d t h e a n n o u n ce m en t

and a s p u n is h m e n t t h e an n o u n ce m en t ta in

’r i g h t 1,

’w r o n g ’ , fo u n d t h a t c e r ­

form s o f l e a r n i n g c a n b e e x p l a i n e d i n I t s

e n t i r e t y on

1 6 T h o r n d i k e , S . L . , F u n d a m e n ta ls o f L e a r n i n g . . B u rea u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o i l e g e , 0 o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 13.Y: 19321

17

TABLE I THE NUMBER OF RIGHTS ( D ) , WRONGS ( L ) , AND 5-MIFUTE DELAY (NR) PER RAT ON EACH DAY

R SERIES d 1 "T7F"'' “'3 7 5 ' " 1 ,4 3 .6 3 .2 1 .8 3 .4 1 .6 3 .1 1 .9

■ 'T ' 2 3 4 5

„a 2 .1 0 .5 1 .2 2 .2 2 .3

P SERIES 1 nr 0 .5 0 .7 0 .9 0 .9

RP SERIES d 1 nr 072“ ....... 0.*7 ' T . Y ’ s . r 4 .0 2 .0 1 .3 1 .7 3 .1 2 .1 1 .3 1 .6 3 .1 1 .0 1 .9 0 .9 1 .8 1 .0 3 .4 0 .6

"“"272

6 7 8 9 10

1 .6 2*2 4 .2 4 .5 4 .7

3 .4 2 .8 5 .8 5 .5 5 .3

2 .8 2 .6 5 .7 5 .1 5 .5

0 .7 0 .4 1 .1 0 .7 1 .0

1 .5 2 .0 3 .2 4 .2 3 .5

3 .2 4 .2 8 .4 8 .0 9 .5

1 .5 0 .7 1 .5 2 .0 0 .5

0 .3 0 .1 0 .1 0 .0 0 .0

11 12 13 14 15

4 .3 4 .7 4 .8 4 .5 5 .4

5 .7 5 .3 5 .2 5 .5 4 .6

5 .9 5 .6 5 .4 7 .1 6 .7

0 .6 0 .4 0 .6 0 .9 1 .2

3 .5 4 .0 4 .0 2 .0 2 .1

8;e 8 .7 9 .0

1 .2 1 .0 0 .0

1 0 .0

0 .0

0 .2 0 .3 1 .0 0 .0 0 .0

16 17 18 19 20

4 .7 4 .8 5 .2 5 .5 5 .7

5 .3 5 .2 4 .8 4 .5 4 .3

8;o 8 .6 7 .5 6 .0 8 .5

1 .0 0 .6 1 .3 1 .2 1 .2

1 .0 0 .8 1 .2 2 .8 0 .3

21 22 23 24 25

6 .3 5 .8 5 .2 4 .9 5 .8

3 .7 4 .2 4 .8 5 .1 4 .2

*

io ;o o;o

’ 8.3* 1 0 . 7 ‘ i;o 8 .0 1 .5 0 .5 8 .0 1 .0 1 .0 7 .0 2 .0 1 .0 1 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0

Warden and A y l e s w o r t h , o p , o i t . ,

p. 122.

18 t h e b a s i s o f t h e p o t e n c y o f t h e r e w a r d and t h a t a p u n i s h ­ m ent may do more harm b y o c c u r r i n g t h a n i t s e l i m i n a t i n g t h e w ro n g r e s p o n s e .

The r e s u l t s

d o e s good b y of th is

e x p e r i­

m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n on l e a r n i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l t h e l e a r n i n g m ust be c r e d i t e d t o t h e

s t r e n g t h e n in g by th e an­

n o u n cem en t o f

no i n d i c a t i o n

su lts

•r ig h t* •

T here i s

t o show t h a t t h e a n n o u n cem en t o f

in th e r e ­

fw rong* w e a k e n e d

t h e s e c o n n e c tio n s enough t o c o u n te rb a la n c e th e s t r e n g t h th e y g a i n e d from j u s t o c c u r r i n g . r e la tiv e

The w r o n g c o n n e c t i o n s wane i n

fr e q u e n c y , n o t b e c a u se t h e y w eaken i n t r i n s i c a l l y ,

but b e ca u se t h e y are su p p la n ted by th e r ig h t c o n n e c tio n s . The n e t r e s u l t i s

th a t th e occu rren ce o f a c o n n e c tio n p lu s

p u n is h m e n t d o e s a s much harm b y t h e c o n n e c t i o n ’ s o c c u r r i n g as i t

d o e s g ood b y s t i m u l a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o ch a n g e h i s

sponse.

T here i s

not a p a r tic le

re­

o f e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t

p u n is h m e n t d i r e c t l y and i n e v i t a b l y w e a k e n s t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o w h ic h i t

b e lo n g s.

The l e a r n i n g se em s e n t i r e l y due t o t h e

s t r e n g t h e n in g o f th e rew arded c o n n e c tio n s *

He c o n c l u d e s

t h a t t h e c h a n c e s a r e 9 9 t o 1 t h a t t h e r e w a r d s had a g r e a t e r v

* «■

i n f l u e n c e i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h a n t h e p u n is h m e n t had i n w e a k ­ e n in g th e c o n n e c tio n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e c o r r o b o r a t e d b y L o r g e ^ , who

and o f Ho. 2, April, 1935, Fp. 177-207.

19 w i d e n e d t h e r a n g e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b y d i f f e r e n t form s o f l e a r n i n g , and s u b j e c t e d t h e d a t a t o t h e more r i g o r o u s

a n a ly ­

sis • Dodson^® i n h i s

i n v e s t i g a t i o n on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n

l e a r n i n g , f o u n d t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f an e le c tr ic

s h o c k u s e d a s p u n is h m e n t w as more f a v o r a b l e t o

l e a r n i n g when t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o b e l e a r n e d was e a s y . In t h e e x p e r ir a e n t s o f B u nch

IQ

a s t r o n g sh ock g iv e n

a t t h e e n d o f e a c h c u l de s a c r e d u c e d e r r o r s

i n human s u b ­

j e c t s l e a r n i n g ’ a m a z e , p a r t l y b y m akin g them more c a u t i o u s , p a r tly by it s

i n f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e , and p a r t l y , p r e s u m a b l e ,

b y i n c l i n i n g them t o t u r n and go b a c k a t c e r t a i n p l a c e s . t h e s e e x p e rim en ts th e r e i s

In

no m eth od f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e s e

t h r e e $ y p e s o f v a r i a b l e s , o r o f d e t e r m i n g how f a r p r o c e e d i n g w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g t h e s e v e r e s h o c k s may h a v e come t o b e a p o ten t s a t i s f i e r . T o lm a n , H a l l and B r e t n a l l

20

fo u n d t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n

1 8 D o d s o n , J . D . , ^ R g l a t i v e v a l u e s o f r ew a r d and pu n­ ish m en t in h a b it fo r m a t io n . P sy c h o b io lo g y . V o l. 1 . P p .231276. 19 B u n c h , M .E . , ^The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c s h o c k a s p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s i n human m a z e - l e a r n i n g . 11 J o u r . Pomp. P s y c h o l. . V o l. 8 , Pp. 3 4 3 -3 5 9 . 2 0 T o lm a n , B . C . , H a l l , C . S . , and B r e t n a l l , E . P . f ttA d i s p r o d f o f t h e la w o f e f f e c t and a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e la w o f e m p h a s i s , m o t i v a t i o n and d i s r u p t i o n . Jour. E xper. P s y c h o l., 1 9 3 2 , 1 5 , Pp. 6 0 1 -6 1 4 . — —

of e le c tr ic

sh o ck t o a b e l l s i g n a l f o r th e wrong r e s p o n s e

w as l e s s e f f e c t i v e

t h a n t h e b e l l s i g n a l a l o n e ; and t h a t t h e

a d d itio n o f e l e c t r i c resp onse is

sh ock t o a b e l l s i g n a l fo r th e r ig h t

n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s

s i g n a l a lo n e *

The s u b j e c t s

e ffe c tiv e

th an th e b e l l

in t h i s e x p e rim en t w ere c o l l e g e

stu d en ts• T h i s e x p e r i m e n t w as r e p e a t e d and e x t e n d e d b y Muen21 z in g e r . e le c tr ic

The p r o b le m i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w as t h e s t u d y o f s h o c k i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e p u n c h b o a r d maze*

c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r o f a human s u b j e c t i s

He

im b ed d ed

in a t e n s io n produced b y l a b o r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n s - p e r c e p t i o n o f g o a l,1 th a t i s ,

th e con sen t t o

fo llo w

in s tr u c tio n s tak es

t h e p l a c e o f t h e h u n g e r d r i v e i n t h e r a t , and i n p l a c e o f f o o d a s t h e g o a l we h a v e t h e m ere a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e a c h i n g th e g o a l* situ a tio n e le c tr ic

I n o t h e r w o r d s , human s u b j e c t s i n a l a b o r a t o r y are so w e l l m o tiv a te d a lr e a d y t h a t th e a d d it io n o f s h o c k h a s no e f f e c t upon t h e i r l e a r n i n g e f f i c i e n c y *

In o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e number o f t r i a l s

and e r r o r s

f o r w h i t e r a t s l e a r n i n g a v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n h a b i t one h a s t o add t o t h e u s u a l r e w a r d f o r t h e r i g h t r e s p o n s e some p u n ish m en t,

s u c h as e l e c t r i c

s h o c k , f o r t h e w ro n g r e s p o n s e *

21 M u e n z in g e r , K .F * , t% The f u n c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c s h o c k f o r r i g h t and w ron g r e s p o n s e s i n human s u b j e c t s . J o u n . Comp P s y c h o l* , 1 9 3 4 , 1 7 , P p. 439-448* * ' ------

21 T h i s f a c t and s i m i l a r o n e s h a v e b e e n t h e m ain s u p p o r t f o r th e g e n e r a liz a t io n

fo r m in g , a p a r t o f t h e l a w o f e f f e c t , name­

l y , t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f p u n is h m e n t i s t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e d r o p p in g o u t o f t h e p u n i s h e d r e s p o n s e ,

in o th e r w o rd s, p u n ish ­

m ent t e n d s t o i n h i b i t t h e p u n i s h e d r e s p o n s e and t o th e a c q u is it io n th is

is

o f some a l t e r n a t i v e r e s p o n s e .

fa c ilita te

To b e s u r e ,

t h e o l d and o r t h o d o x s t a t e m e n t o f t h e la w o f e f f e c t ;

b e l o w I s h a l l r e f e r t o on e o f i t s more r e c e n t f o r m u l a t i o n s * As a m a t t e r o f m e t h o d o l o g y i t p o in t out th a t t h i s

is

perhaps r e le v a n t to

g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s b a s e d on a s e t o f

f a c t s t h a t have n o t been s u b je c te d t o t h a t s y s te m a tic v a r ia ­ t i o n w h ic h i s

o f n e c e s s i t y in c o n n e c tio n w ith o th e r p sych o­

l o g i c a l p ro b lem s.

It

i s th e s o - c a lle d

h a s a lw a y s b e e n p u n i s h e d i n s i t u a t i o n s

“w r o n g ** r e s p o n s e t h a t in w h ic h t h e c o n d i­

t i o n s o f p l a c i n g t h e r e w a r d f a v o r e d t h e p e r fo r m a n c e o f some a lt e r n a t iv e , th e s o - c a lle d

^right** r e s p o n s e .

s u r e t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f p u n is h m e n t i s in h ib itio n

In o rd er t o be

r e a l l y th a t o f th e

o f t h e p u n i s h e d r e s p o n s e , we o u g h t t o p u n i s h t h e

r e s p o n s e f a v o r e d b y t h e r e w a r d , t h e “ r i g h t 11 r e s p o n s e .

In

s u c h a c a s e we w o u ld e x p e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e la w o f e f f e c t , t h a t a c o n f l i c t i n g t e n d e n c y b e s e t up i n a r e s p o n s e t h a t i s b o t h r e w a r d e d and p u n i s h e d , t h a t i s ,

a f a c i l i t a t i n g and i n ­

h i b i t i n g t e n d e n c y w h i c h w o u ld m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a s l o w i n g down o f t h e c o u r s e o f l e a r n i n g .

T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d

22 22 i n an e x p e r i m e n t c o n d u c t e d b y M u e n z in g e r . ' of th is

The p u r p o s e

e x p e r i m e n t w as t o p u n i s h a g r o u p o f a n i m a l s f o r t h e

r i g h t r e s p o n s e i n t h e v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n h a b i t and t o com pare i t s

c o u r s e o f l e a r n i n g w i t h t h a t o f a n o th e r group

t h a t w as p u n i s h e d f o r t h e w ron g r e s p o n s e and a l s o w i t h t h a t o f a t h i r d g r o u p t h a t was n o t p u n i s h e d a t a l l .

U sin g a T -

sh a p e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b o x , t h r e e g r o u p s o f r a t s w e r e t a u g h t a b la c k -w h ite d is c r im in a tio n h a b it w ith th e u su a l hu ngerfo o d t e n s i o n .

The f i r s t

group was sh o c k ed w h ile

i t tra v ers­

e d t h e c o r r e c t a l l e y , t h e s e c o n d w as s h o c k e d i n t h e o r t h o d o x f a s h io n w h il e i n th e w rong a l l e y ,

and t h e t h i r d w as n o t

sh ock ed a t a l l . The r e s u l t s

sh ow ed t h a t t h e n o - s h o c k g ro u p was d e f i ­

n i t e l y i n f e r i o r t o t h e tw o s h o c k g r o u p s , b o t h i n r e g a r d t o t h e number o f e r r o r s made d u r i n g t h e t h e number o f t r i a l s le a r n in g .

fir s t

100 t r i a l s

r e q u ir e d t o reach ed th e c r i t e r i o n

T h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e

and of

o v e r la p p in g in th e d i s t r i ­

b u t i o n o f e r r o r s and t r i a l s b e t w e e n t h e t h i r d and t h e f i r s t tw o g r o u p s .

The d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t r i a l s

and e r r o r s o f t h e

tw o s h o c k g r o u p s w e r e p r a c t i c a l l y c o - e x t e n s i v e , a l t h o u g h t h e a v e r a g e s o f t h e s h o c k - w r o n g g ro u p w e r e s l i g h t l y b e t t e r t h a n th o se o f th e sh o c k -r ig h t group.

22 M u e n z in g e r , K . F . , ftE l e c t r i c s h o c k « f o r c o r r e c t resp o n se in th e v is u a l d is c r im in a tio n h a b it , i a m . . Onmp_, P s y c h o l. . V o l. 1 7 , Pp. 2 6 7 -2 7 7 .

23 The r e s u l t s

c o n t r a d i c t t h a t p a r t o f t h e la w o f e f f e c t

w h ic h d e a l s w i t h t h e a f t e r - e f f e c t s On t h e

b a sis o f th e se fa c ts

o f ann oyers. one may s a y t h a t t h e

f u n c t i o n o f m od erate e l e c t r i c sh o ck i n t h e v i s u a l d is c r im in a ­ t io n h a b it i s

g e n e r a l r a t h e r th an s p e c i f i c , t h a t i s ,

it

a f­

f e c t s t h e t o t a l p e r fo r m a n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e p a r t - r e s p o n s e i t a c co m p a n ies.

In o t h e r w o r d s , i t s

f u n c t i o n i s t o make t h e

a n im a l r e s p o n d more r e a d i l y t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c u e s In t h e lea r n in g s itu a tio n

r a t h e r th a n t h a t o f i n h i b i t i n g o r f a c i l -

a t a t i n g t h e r e s p o n s e w h ic h i s *n an I n v e s t i g a t i o n Kuo

23

sh ock ed .

i n a n im a l l e a r n i n g r e p o r t e d b y

i t w as fo u n d t h a t a d m i n i s t e r i n g an e l e c t r i c

sh ock f o r

c e r t a i n u n s u c c e s s f u l a c t s r e s u l t e d in t h e s e b e in g f i r s t in 24 th e order o f e lim in a tio n . Johanson i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n c e n t i v e a n d p u n ish m e n t on r e a c t i o n t im e w i t h human s u b j e c t s r e p o r t s a 1 4 . 8 p e r c e n t im p ro v em en t e f 2*5 fe c te d w ith e l e c t r i c sh o ck . B unch" a d m in is te r e d a d e f i n i t e i n t e n s i t y o f an e l e c t r i c

s h o c k a s p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s In

2 3 K u o , tfThe n a t u r e o f u n s u c c e s s f u l a c t s and t h e i r o r d e r o f e l i m i n a t i o n i n a n im a l l e a r n i n g . 11 J o u r . Como. P s y c h o l - . v o l . 2 , 192 2 , Pp. 1 -2 8 . -----2 4 J o h a n s o n , A .M ., ffTh|| I n f l u e n c e o f i n c e n t i v e and p u n is h m e n t up on r e a c t i o n t i m e . Ar c h . P s y c h o l . . 1 9 2 2 . ? p . 5 4 -9 2 . -------- — ----- * * * iHg*

2 5 B u n c h , M . S . , ttB f f e c t o f p u n is h m e n t i n m a z e - l e a r n J o u r . Comp. P s y c h o l . . V o l . 8 , 1 9 2 8 , P p . 3 4 3 - 3 5 9 .

24 maze l e a r n i n g , w i t h human a d u l t s .

The e f f e c t

o f s h o c k upon

l e a r n i n g was d e t e r m i n e d b y a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e r e c o r d s o f a ‘ c o n t r o l o r n orm al g r o u p w i t h t h e r e c o r d s made b y a g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s who w e r e p u n i s h e d f o r e r r o r s

d u rin g l e a r n i n g ,

and

fo u n d t h a t t h e p u n i s h e d g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s a v e r a g e d a la rg e

in c r e a se

o v e r t h e u n p u n i s h e d o r n o rm al g r o u p ,

o b ta in ed s i m i l i a r r e s u l t s

a d m in iste r in g e l e c t r i c

R exford

sh ock f o r

in a c c u r a c y in c o n tin u o u s m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e r e a c t i o n s • A f a i r l y c a r e f u l r e v ie w o f th e l i t e r a t u r e and anirnal l e a r n i n g h a s f a i l e d t o l o c a t e su ita b le

fo r th e a n a ly se s

p u n ish m en t.

on human

fu r th e r m a te r ia l

o f th e co m p a ra tiv e in f l u e n c e

of

The e x p e r i m e n t a l w ork s o f O o lb u rn and Y e r k e s

f o r c r o w s , and2 8 f o r p i g s ,

27

t h o s e o f Y e r k e s 29 f o r m o n k e y s ,

and t h o s e o f S a d o v i n k o v a 50 f o r c a n a r i e s , h a v e n o t b e e n s u b ­ j e c t e d t o a n y e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s e s b e c a u s e o f an i n a d e q u a c y 2 6 R e x f o r d , O . K . , 11A d m i n i s t e r i n g e l e c t r i c s h o c k f o r in a c c u r a c y in co n tin u o u s m u lt ip le - c h o ic d r e a c t i o n s . n J o u r . E xp er. ^ s y c h o l. , 1926, V o l. 9 , Pp. 1 -1 8 . 27 O obu rn , G . A . , and Y e r k e s , R. M. , 11A s t u d y o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e crow A m e riea n u s (Audubon) b y t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e m e t h o d . 11 J o u r . A nim al B e h a v . , V o l . 5 , P p . 1 1 3 . 2 8 Y e r k e s , R. M. , and O o b u rn , O . A . , "A s t u d y o f t h e b e h a v io r o f th e p ig $us s e r o f a by th e m u lt ip le - c h o ic e m e t h o d . * J o u r . A nim al B e h a v . . v o l . 5 , P p . 1 8 5 - 2 2 5 . apes.

29 Y e r k e s , R. M. , ^The m e n t a l l i f e o f m onkeys and B e h a v . M o n o g r a p h s, v o l . 3 , N o . 1 2 , P p . 1 - 1 4 5 .

30 S a d o v i n k o v a , M , p . , WA s t u d y o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f b i r d s b y t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e m e t h o d . 11 J o u r ♦ Cdmp. P s y c h o l . , v o l . 3 , Pp. 2 4 9 -2 8 2 .

P fi

25 in r e s u l t s

and d a t a .

The n e t r e s u l t o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s o f p u n is h m e n t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p u n is h m e n t on le a r n in g le a d s to th e as f o l l o w s :

F ir st,

fo rm u la tio n o f th e e m p ir ic a l p r i n c ip l e s

a s a t i s f y i n g a f t e r - e f f e c t w h ic h b e lo n g s

t o a c o n n e c tio n can be u s e d t o s t r e n g t h e n th e c o n n e c t io n . S e c o n d , an a n n o y i n g a f t e r - e f f e c t u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n h a s no c o n s t a n t w e a k e n i n g e f f e c t .

In c e r t a i n e x p e rim en ts

s u c h a s t h o s e o f W arden and A y l e s w o r t h , i t w as sh ow n ed t h a t an a n n o y i n g a f t e r - e f f e c t d o e s w eaken t h e t e n d e n c y w h ic h p r o ­ duces i t .

T h i r d , when i t

produces i t , in d ir e c t.

its

d o e s w eak en t h e t e n d e n c y w h ic h

m eth od o f a c t i o n i s

That i s ,

o f t e n perhaps a lw a y s,

t h e p e r s o n o r a n im a l i s l e d b y t h e a n ­

n o y i n g a f t e r - e f f e c t t o do s o m e t h i n g ^ e l s e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h makes him l a t e r l e s s l i k e l y t o f o l l o w t h e o r i g i n a l c o n ­ n e c tio n .

F o u r t h , w h at he i s

l e d t o do d i r e c t l y i s

o ften

(l)

e i t h e r t o make a n a t i v e o r a c q u i r e d r e s p o n s e t o t h e p a r t i ­ c u l a r t y p e o f p u n i s h m e n t , o r ( 2 ) t o h a v e an i d e a o f t h e u n d e r s ir a b ilit y o f th e r esp o n se.

F i f t h , w h a t an a n im a l i s

l e d t o do d i r e c t l y b y an a n n o y e r n e e d n o t make him l a t e r l e s s l i k e l y to fo llo w th e o r ig in a l

c o n n e c tio n .

Th e i n f l u e n c e up on l e a r n i n g due t o p u n is h m e n t d e p e n d s upon w h a t r e s p o n s e t h e a n im a l w i l l make t o t h e a n n o y i n g s i t u a ­ tio n or stim u lu s.

A s a t i s f i e r w h ic h i s

attach ed to a c e r ta in

26 m o d if ia b le c o n n e c tio n a lw a y s , or a lm o st a lw a y s , c a u s e s th e a n im a l t o do s o m e t h i n g w h ic h s t r e n g t h e n s t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o w h ic h th e s a t i s f i e r i s th is

so m e th in g i s *

a t t a c h e d ; b u t we do n o t know w h a t

I t may b e t o m a i n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s ­

tu rb ed th e p h y s io lo g ic a l b a s is to r e ta in

it

o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n ; i t may b e

l o n g e r t h a n g e n e r a l l y w o u ld b e t h e c a s e ;

may b e t o r e s t r i c t i t b y some m e t a b o l i c e f f e c t *

it

P u n is h m e n t

a t t a c h e d t o a c o n n e c t i o n may f o r c e t h e a n im a l t o r e s p o n d t o t h a t p a r t i c u la r typ e

o f p u n is h m e n t *

H o w e v er , t h e r e i s

no

e v i d e n c e t h a t i t t a k e s aw ay s t r e n g t h from t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n i n a n y w a y c o m p a r a b le t o t h e w a y i n w h i c h a r e w a r d add s s t r e n g t h t o i t . t h a t a n n o y in g a f t e r - e f f e c t s rew ard s, but are s p e c ia liz e d

Th e r e s u l t s

d em on strate

are n o t d y n a m ic a lly o p p o s it e s to in t h e i r a c tio n *

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF PUNISHMENT IN MORE COMPLEX SITUATIONS It is

th e purpose o f t h i s

c h a p te r t o d eterm in e th e

v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f p u n is h m e n t o f a r e s p o n s e upon e x t i n c ­ t i o n i n more c o m p le x s i t u a t i o n s

i n v o l v i n g p u n i s h m e n t , and

t o s e t u p a t h e o r e t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t t o show w h a t c o n d i t i o n s o p e r a t e upon e x t i n c t i o n . I t h a s b e e n shown e a r l i e r i n t h i s

paper th a t th e

r a t e o f r e s p o n d i n g o f an o r g a n is m t o p u n is h m e n t d u r i n g a g iv en p e r io d o f tim e , w i l l d e c lin e in a n e g a t i v e l y a c c e le ­ r a t e d c u r v e and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e c l i n e u n t i l a lo w r a t e is

e sta b lish e d .

At t h i s

sta te,

th e r e sp o n se i s

s a i d t o be

e x tin g u ish e d . L e t u s assum e t h a t t h e r e i s p e r im e n ta l c o n t r o l i s u s e d .

an e x p e r i m e n t w h ere e x ­

T h e r e a r e tw o g r o u p s o f r a t s

w h ic h have b een p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d f o r g i v i n g a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e , and t h a t t h e r a t s h a v e a t t a i n e d e q u a l means o f r e ­ sp o n d in g u n d er p e r i o d i c r e in f o r c e m e n t .

In th e su b seq u en t

p e r io d o f th e e x p e rim en t, r e in fo r c e m e n t i s th e c o n tr o l group.

d isc o n tin u e d fo r

The r a t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a r e

s e v e r e l y p u n ish ed f o r a c e r t a in r e s p o n s e .

At t h i s

t h e e x p e r i m e n t , t h e r e s p o n d i n g r a t e w o u ld d e c l i n e

sta g e o f in a

28 n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d c u r v e a s shown b y s k i n n e r . 51

T h is

w o u ld d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t b y u s i n g p u n i s h m e n t , e x t i n c t i o n w o u ld b e r e a c h e d i n a much s h o r t e r t i m e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p under c o n d it io n s o f sim p le n o n -in fo r c e m e n t. be c o n s i d e r e d i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i s o f t h e r e s p o n s e and i t s

I t r e m a in s t o a r e lia b le

d y n a m ic p r o p e r t i e s ; t h a t i s ,

in d e x if

t h e s e r a t s w o u ld b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a t s u b s e q u e n t p e r io d s as w ere t h o s e in th e c o n t r o l grou p , w i l l th e r a t e o f r esp o n d in g ( l )

c o n t i n u e a t a lo w v a l u e ;

(2 ) r is e

im m e d ia te ly

a f t e r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p u n is h m e n t had b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d ; (3) rec o v er s

g r a d u a l l y on s u b s e q u e n t d a ys u n t i l a t some

l a t e r p o i n t t h e c u r v e w o u ld r e j o i n t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ; o r (4 ) d u r in g r e c o v e r y r i s e

above th e r a t e o f th e c o n t r o ls

f o r a t i m e s o t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s o c c u r r i n g d u rin g e x t i n c t i o n

is

e q u a l t o t h a t w h i c h w o u ld h a v e r e s u l t e d

i f n o p u n is h m e n t h ad b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d ? 2-f t h e r a t e o f r e s p o n d i n g c o n t i n u e s a t a lo w l e v e l , it

c o u l d b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t p u n is h m e n t a c c e l e r a t e s t h e p r o ­

c e s s o f e x t i n c t i o n o f a r e s p o n s e from an o r g a n i s m * s r e p e r ­ to ir e * su lts

Any o t h e r r e s u l t w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t p u n is h m e n t r e ­ i n a s u p p r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n an e l i m i n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r .

3 1 S k i n n e r , B . P . , The B e h a v i o r o f O r g a n is m s : An E x ­ p e r i m e n t a l A n a l y s i s * N** ^ p p l e t o n - ^ e n t u r y , 1 9 ^ 8 , P • TF3*

29 ^he o t h e r p o s s i b l e

c o n t i n u a t i o n s do r o t a f f e c t t h e t o t a l

amount o f t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r e x t i n c t i o n , and d i f f e r among th e m se lv e s c h i e f l y in th e e x te n t o f r e d u c tio n in th e t o t a l number o f e l i c i t a t i o n s

o f th e resp onse n e c e ssa r y fo r e x ­

tin c tio n * The s e v e r i t y , ju d g e d b y i t s

or in t e n s it y ,

o f t h e p u n is h m e n t i s

m om en tary e f f e c t upon t h e a n i m a l f s b e h a v i o r *

Two t y p e s o f s h o c k w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s o f p u n is h m e n t*

^ ild *

e x p e r im e n ta l stu d y

p u n is h m e n t w as a s h o c k j u s t s t r o n g

enough t o produce a r e l i a b l e

r e d u c tio n in th e r a t e o f r e ­

s p o n d i n g , and n o t g i v e n s t r o n g e n o u g h t o p r o d u c e c o m p l e t e in h ib itio n

o f th e resp o n se.

fS e v e r e 1 p u n is h m e n t w as a s h o c k

w h ic h r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e in r a t e o f r e s p o n d in g t o a z e r o l e v e l w ith in a v e r y s h o r t p e r io d o f tim e .

A fte r te r m in a tio n

o f th e sh o ck , th e s tr e n g th o f th e resp o n se b e g in s to r e c o v e r w i t h i n a few m i n u t e s . C o n c l u s i o n . The e f f e c t ish m en t i s

o f a s h o r t p e r i o d o f m i l d pun­

a tem p o ra ry d e p r e s s io n

in th e r a t e o f r e s p o n d in g ,

fo llo w e d l a t e r by a com p en satory in c r e a s e in r a te t h e t o t a l number o f e l i c i t a t i o n s f o r co m p lete e x t i n c t i o n

such th a t

o f th e r e sp o n se n e c e ss a r y

i s e q u a l t o t h a t w h i c h w o u ld b e n e c -

c e s s a r y i f no p u n is h m e n t w as a d m i n i s t e r e d .

CHAPTER V PUNISHMENT IN ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES The e x p e r i m e n t s p r e s e n t e d f o r a n a l y s i s has been

concerned w ith s it u a t io n s

r e sp o n se s are a v a i l a b l e , ’w r o n g * .

stu d y

i n w h ic h tw o a l t e r n a t i v e

one w h i c h i s

The c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s

in t h is

• r i g h t 1 and t h e o t h e r

o f many o f t h e s e s t u d i e s

on t h e u s e o f p u n is h m e n t i n l e a r n i n g may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t s h a v e b e e n s e t up t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f tw o a l t e r n a t i v e r e s p o n s e s i s

• l e a r n e d ’ r a t h e r th an

t r a c in g th e changes in s tr e n g th o f e a ch resp o n se r e s u l t i n g from t h e a c t i o n o f p u n is h m e n t* T h i s s i t u a t i o n w as d e m o n s t r a t e d In t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l 32

in v e s tig a tio n s by E stes.

rn

*he s u b je c ts in t h i s

w e r e tw o g r o u p s o f f o u r r a t s .

e x p e rim en t

The a p p a r a t u s c o n s i s t e d

of

an e x p e r i m e n t a l b o x w i t h tw o l e v e r s , o n e s i t u a t e d t o t h e le ft

and one t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e f o o d t r a y .

B oth l e v e r s

w ere r e t r a c t a b l e so t h a t e i t h e r o b u ld be p r e s e n t e d a l o n e . A f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y c o n d i t i o n i n g , e a c h r a t was g i v e n tw o h o u r s o f p e r i o d i c r e i n f o r c e m e n t on e a c h l e v e r .

The r e s u l t s

o f th e

e x p e r im e n t are p r e s e n t e d in T a b le I I .

32 E s t e s , W .E . , ^ E f f e c t s o f p u n is h m e n t i s a s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g more t h a n on e r e s p o n s e . 11 P s y c h o l . M o n o g r a p h s, 3 7 , no. 156, P. 31. -------- --------— *

31

TABLE I I * MEAN PERIODIC RATES AND EXTINCTION RECORDS

E x t i n c t i o n P e r io d

No. O f P e r io d ic rate su b jects

X A

4

2 2 0 .3

X B

4

1 3 4 .9 1 .9 5

t-r a tio

P r o b a b ilit y .1 0

3? A

4

2 2 0 .3

X

4

220 . 3

b

1

2

R

Raw R

2 2 .5 ■ L 2 0 .8 .1 2

4 6 .0 L 1 8 .3 1 .3 0

3 D a ta R 4 7 .3 L 1 7 .0 1 .4 1

4

5

R

L

6 7 .8 L 2 4 .8 1 .1 0

48. 3 R 6 5 .3 .5 1

.2 1 .3 4 • 31 .6 3 .9 1 C orrect fo r p e r io d ic r a te L R R R R 4 6 .0 2 2 .5 4 7 .3 4 8 .3 6 7 .8 L L L R L 4 0 .4 1 0 6 .4 2 9 .8 3 3 .9 2 7 .7

* ib id .. p . 3 1 .

“ ‘" T T T l-F r "

1 9 .5 -4 0 .5 2 .5 8 . 04

1 9 .5 -6 6 .0

32 Two r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t e f f e c t s d istin g u ish e d fir st

from t h e r e s u l t s

o f p u n is h m e n t can be

o f t h i s ex p e rim en t*

The

i s n o t s p e c i f i c t o th e p u n ish e d r e s p o n s e , b u t a f f e c t s

t o a b o u t t h e same e x t e n t t h a t a n y b e h a v i o r n o r m a l l y o c c u r r i n g in th e s i t u a t i o n

i n w h i c h t h e p u n is h m e n t w as

a d m in iste r e d .

^ h e s u b s e q u e n t c o u r s e o f r e c o v e r y , and i n t h e m arked c h a n g e s i n s t r e n g t h when t h e p r e v i o u s l y r e t r a c t e d l e v e r s w e r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e f i f t h

day o f e x t i n c t i o n ,

show t h a t a p a r t o f t h e

e f f e c t o f p u n is h m e n t i s q u i t e s p e c i f i c t o t h e p u n i s h e d r e ­ sp on se.

The r e c o v e r y i n s t r e n g t h o f t h e u n p u n i s h e d r e s p o n s e

d u rin g th e

fir st

fo u r days o f e x t i n c t i o n

in th e c a se o f

Group A t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s h a r p r i s e i n r a t e o f r e s p o n d i n g f o r Group B on t h e f i f t h

d a y when t h e r i g h t l e v e r w as p r e ­

s e n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n , show t h a t t h e g e n e r a liz e d e f f e c t

o f t h e u n p u n ish ed r e s p o n s e a d a p ts ou t

a b o u t t h e same r a t e d u r i n g s u b s e q u e n t p e r i o d s w h e t h e r t h e resp onse i s

e lic ite d

or n o t .

C o n c l u s i o n . I f tw o e q u a l l y s t r o n g r e s p o n s e s

and

K2 , w h i c h h a v e p r e v i o u s l y b e e n r e i n f o r c e d i n a g i v e n s i t u a ­ tio n ,

R-^ i s p u n i s h e d t o t h e p o i n t o f t e m p o r a r y s u p p r e s s i o n ,

t h e i n i t i a l e f f e c t o f t h e p u n is h m e n t i s i z e d t o R2 *

c o m p le te ly g e n e r a l­

D u r in g s u b s e q u e n t p e r i o d s o f e x t i n c t i o n , t h e

r e c o v e r y o f Rg from t h e e f f e c t s

o f p u n is h m e n t i s

c o n sid e r ­

a b l y a c c e l e r a t e d o v e r t h a t o f R j , and a p p e a r s t o p r o c e e d a t

33 a b o u t t h e same r a t e d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f e x p o s u r e t o t h e e x ­ p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n w h e t h e r K2 i s

a c tu a lly e lic it e d

or n o t .

The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t show t h a t p a r t i a l r e c o v e r y from p u n is h m e n t o c c u r s d u r i n g s u b s e q u e n t p e r i o d s o f p a s s i v e e x p o su r e t o t h e e x p e r im e n t a l s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , co m p lete recovery is

c o n t i n g e n t upon a s u f f i c i e n t number o f a c t u a l

e lic ita tio n s

o f th e r esp o n se.

The e f f e c t s

o f p u n is h m e n t a r e c o n t i n g e n t upon a c l o s e

a s s o c ia t io n o f th e d is tu r b in g stim u lu s w ith th e s t im u li w h i c h n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e an o c c a s i o n f o r t h e o c c u r e n c e o f t h e resp onse.

T here i s no e v id e n c e t h a t th e c o r r e l a t i o n o f th e

p u n is h m e n t w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e p e r s e i n t h e r o l e o f a ’N e g a ­ t i v e r e in fo r c e m e n t1 i s

im p o rta n t.

The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e t o t a l number o f u n r e i n f o r c e d e lic ita tio n s

o f a response n e c essa ry fo r e x tin c tio n

g i v e n l e v e l o f d r i v e can b e r e d u c e d b y p u n is h m e n t i s

at a a jo in t

f u n c t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s o f p u n i s h m e n t , and t h e v a r i a b l e s o f p r e v io u s p o s i t i v e r e in fo r c e m e n t.

A r e s p o n s e can be p e r ­

m a n e n t l y w e a k e n e d o n l y b y a s u f f i c i e n t number o f u n r e i n f o r c e d e lic ita tio n s

and t h i s p r o c e s s o f e x t i n c t i o n

w h ile a resp o n se i s

cannot p roceed

s u p p r e s s e d as a r e s u l t o f p u n ish m en t.

When a r e s p o n s e w h i c h h a s b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d b y p e r i o d i c r e i n ­ f o r c e m e n t i s p u n i s h e d f o r a t im e and t h e n d u r i n g s u b s e q u e n t p e r io d s i s

n e it h e r p u n ish ed nor r e i n f o r c e d , th e f o llo w in g

34 r e la tio n s h ip s h o ld s:

(l)

a p e r i o d o f m i l d p u n is h m e n t p r o ­

d u ces a tem p o ra r y d e p r e s s io n in r a t e o f r e s p o n d in g w h ic h i s f o l l o w e d b y a c o m p e n s a t o r y i n c r e a s e s o t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f u n re in fo r ce d e l i c i t a t i o n s tio n is

not a lte r e d ;

n e c e s s a r y f o r co m p lete e x t i n c ­

( 2 ) when s e v e r e p u n is h m e n t i s

c o n tin u ed

t o th e p o in t o f su p p r e ssio n o f th e r e s p o n s e , th e p r o c e ss o f r e c o v e r y from t h e i n i t i a l l y m ent i s

d e p r e s s in g e f f e c t o f t h e p u n ish ­

a t a con stan t r a te . The r e s u l t o f a p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h p u n i s h m e n t i s

as­

s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t i m u l i w h i c h n o r m a l l y a c t a s an o c c a s i o n fo r th e o ccu rren ce o f th e r esp o n se i s

a d e p r e ssio n in s tr e n g th

o f t h e r e s p o n s e d u rin g su b se q u e n t p e r io d s o f e x t i n c t i o n v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o d u c e d b y a p e r i o d o f a c t u a l p u n is h m e n t o f th e r e sp o n se . In a d d i t io n t o a g e n e r a l i z e d e m o tio n a l r e a c t i o n , a d i s t u r b i n g s tim u lu s u s u a l l y a r o u s e s a w ith d ra w a l r e s p o n s e . It

is

e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t th e w ith d r a w a l r e sp o n s e becom es con­

d i t i o n e d t o a n y s t i m u l u s w h ic h i s

c o n tig u o u s w it h th e d i s ­

tu r b in g stim u lu s. The i n f l u e n c e o f p u n is h m e n t i s

due t o a p o s s i b l e

s ta m p -

i n g - i n e f f e c t o f t h e p h y s i c a l medium b y w h i c h b o t h t h e p u n i s h ­ i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e w a r d e d w e r e c o n v e y e d . medium when d e v o i d o f

T h is p h y s i c a l

a l l c o n n o ta tio n s o f su c c e ss or f a i l u r e ,

35 lia s a s t a m p i n g - i n i n f l u e n c e *

The s t a m p i n g - i n i n f l u e n c e o f

t h e medium p l u s p u n is h m e n t m ig h t b e r e g a r d e d a s l e s s t h a t o f t h e medium a l o n e * rew ard i s

th an

The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e medium p l u s

d e f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e medium a l o n e .

W henever p u n is h m e n t d o e s s t r e n g t h e n a b o n d , s u c h str e n g th e n in g i s

a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l medium b y w h ic h

t h e p u n is h m e n t was c o n v e y e d *

R e s u lt s i n d i c a t e s t h a t p u n ish ­

m ent and r e w a r d h a v e d i s t i n c t l y o p p o s i t e , i f

not e q u a l,

effects. T here i s

no i n d i c a t i o n

o f e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t p u n i s h ­

m ent d i r e c t l y w e a k e n s t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o w h i c h i t l e a r n i n g a p p e a r s t o b e due t o t h e

b e lo n g s,

^he

s t r e n g th e n in g o f th e rew ard­

e d c o n n e c tio n s* The i n f l u e n c e o f p u n is h m e n t on l e a r n i n g d e p e n d s upon t h e r e s p o n s e t h a t t h e a n im a l w i l l make t o tio n or stim u lu s.

an a n n o y i n g s i t u a ­

P u n is h m e n t a t t a c h e d t o a c o n n e c t i o n may

f o r c e t h e a n im a l t o r e s p o n d t o w h a t e v e r may b e i n h i s r e ­ p e r to r y as

a r e s p o n s e t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r ty p e o f p u n ish m en t.

P u n is h m e n t i s

n o t d y n a m ic a lly o p p o s it e s t o rew a rd s, but i s

s p e c ia liz e d in i t s

a c tio n .

The r a t e o f r e s p o n d i n g o f an o r g a n i s m t o a s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g p u n is h m e n t d u r i n g a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e , w i l l d e ­ c lin e

in a n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d cu rve and w i l l

co n tin u e

36 t o d e c l i n e u n t i l a lo w r a t e t h e n , no l o n g e r e x i s t s I f th e r a te it

co u ld

is

e sta b lish e d *

The r e s p o n s e ,

i n t h e o r g a n i s m ’s r e p e r t o i r e *

o f r e s p o n d i n g c o n t i n u e s a t a lo w l e v e l ,

c o n c l u d e d t h a t p u n is h m e n t a c c e l e r a t e s t h e p r o ­

cess o f e x tin c tio n

o f a r e s p o n s e from an o r g a n i s m ’ s r e p e r ­

to ir e . The e f f e c t o f a s h o r t p e r i o d o f m i l d p u n is h m e n t i s a tem p orary d e p r e s s io n in th e r a t e o f r e s p o n d in g ,

fo llo w e d

l a t e r b y a com p en satory in c r e a s e in r a t e su ch t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f e l i c i t a t i o n s p le te e x tin c tio n

is

o f t h e r e s p o n s e n e c e s s a r y f o r com­

e q u a l t o t h a t w h ic h w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y

i f n o p u n is h m e n t w as a d m i n i s t e r e d . The d i s a d v a n t a g e o f s e v e r e p u n is h m e n t l i e s g e n e r a liz a tio n

in th e

o f th e c o n d itio n e d e m o tio n a l r e a c t io n a ro u sed

b y th e d is t u r b in g stim u lu s t o o th e r stim u lu s a c t in g a t th e tim e .

The e m o t i o n a l s t a t e

is

as e f f e c t i v e

in d e p r e s s in g th e

s t r e n g t h o f o t h e r b e h a v i o r w h i c h w o u ld n o r m a l l y o c c u r i n t h e situ a tio n

i n v o l v i n g p u n i s h m e n t , a s In d e p r e s s i n g t h e s t r e n g t h

o f th e p u n ish e d r e s p o n s e . P u n is h m e n t i s

e ffe c tiv e

a s an a i d i n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n

o f an u n d e r s i r e d r e s p o n s e o n l y i f is h m e n t i s

a d ju sted

th e s e v e r i t y o f th e pun­

i n s u c h a manner t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e c o n ­

t in u e s t o o c c u r , bu t a t a reduced r a te ; under t h i s

c o n d itio n ,

57 a c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g may b e e f f e c t e d r e in fo r c e d e l i c i t a t i o n s

i n t h e number o f u n ­

o f th e resp o n se n e c e s s a r y fo r e x ­

t i n c t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l amout o f t i m e r e q u i r e d c a n n o t be r e d u c e d . I n c a s e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s w h er e t h e f a c t o r s

o f rew ard

c a n n o t b e b r o u g h t u n d e r c o n t r o l , p u n is h m e n t o f s u i t a b l e

in ­

t e n s i t y can be u s e d t o h o l d t h e r e s p o n s e a t a low s t r e n g t h , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f p u n is h m e n t w i t h t h e r e ­ sp o n se can be m a in ta in e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . I n a l l i n s t a n c e s , p u n is h m e n t ca n be e x p e c t e d t o w e a k ­ en a r e s p o n s e o n l y i f

it

is

te m p o r a lly c o n tig u o u s w ith th e

d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l i f o r t h e r e s p o n s e and w i t h t h e m ove­ m ent i n v o l v e d i n m a k in g i t ,

or w ith b o th .

E d u c a t o r s and

a n im a l t r a i n e r s _ h a y e f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d t h a t p u n is h m e n t i s u su a lly in e ffe c tiv e o f th e r e sp o n se . th at i t

is

if

d ela y ed t o o lo n g a f t e r th e o ccu rren ce

H ow ever, t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y has i n d ic a t e d

n o t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e p u n is h m e n t w i t h t h e

resp on se per se th a t i s

im p o rta n t, but th e c o n t i g u i t y o f

t h e p u n is h m e n t w i t h t h e s t i m u l i w h ic h f o r m e r l y a r o u s e d t h e resp onse.

CHAPTER

VI

EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE PUNISHMENT IN LEARNING I.

THE PROBLEM

S ta te m e n t o f th e p r o b le m ,

^ h is p o r tio n o f th e i n ­

v e s t i g a t i o n w as c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f e l e c ­ tr ic

s h o c k , a d m i n i s t e r e d a s p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s i n tw o

groups o f s u b j e c t s .

One g ro u p m a s t e r e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f a

b o l t h e a d maze w i t h c o n s e c u t i v e p u n is h m e n t f o r t h e e r r o r s , and w i l l b e te r m e d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p .

The s e c o n d g r o u p

l e a r n e d t h e maze w i t h a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s , and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as th e e x p e r im e n ta l group. m e n t a l g r o u p s h o u l d show t h e e f f e c t s

The e x p e r i ­

o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t

i n l e a r n i n g v e r s u s c o n s e c u t i v e p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s i n t h e l e a r n in g o f a b o lth e a d m aze. II.

APPARATUS

The maze u s e d i n t h i s Th e p a n e l i s sq uare.

e x p e r i m e n t w as a b o l t h e a d m a z e .

f i v e - p l y p l y w o o d , o n e cm. t h i c k and 2 8 cm.

The b o l t s a r e 1 / 4 i n . x 1 / 2 i n . r ou n d b r a s s h e a d .

T h e r e a r e 1 2 1 o f them i n row s o f 1 1 s e t 2 1 / 2 cm. a p a r t , c e n te r t o c e n te r , ea ch way. h o m o-gen eou sj th e p o i n t s

To t h e e y e , t h e s u r f a c e i s

are i d e n t i c a l in s i z e ,

fo r m , and t h e i r s p a c i n g i s

r e g u la r .

c o lo r ,

One o f t h e p o i n t s

and is

39 d e sig n a te d as th e s t a r t , se c u tiv e lin e

and t h e s u b j e c t i s

o f p o in ts ex ten d s

t o ld th a t a con­

from t h a t s t a r t *

T hese

p o i n t s may b e c o n s i d e r e d a s m a r k e r s a l o n g an i m a g i n a r y p a t h ; c o n n e c t e d i n o r d e r , t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e p o i n t s w o u ld form a s in g le ,

co n tin u o u s

cover th is d ir e c tio n

se r ie s

of

so t h a t he

w o r d s, he i s

p a th .

The s u b j e c t s

ta sk is

p o i n t s and t o rem em ber t h e i r can s e l e c t them c o r r e c t l y ;

ask ed t o le a r n

to d is­ o r d e r and

in o th e r

th e im a g in a r y p a t h .

The h e a d s o f t h e s c r e w s p r o j e c t b e l o w t h e p a n e l 3 / 3 2

If

a l l o w i n g am ple s p a c e f o r w i r i n g t h e t r u e p a t h and t h e e r r o r d o m a in s . sta r t is

The o r d e r and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p o i n t s

from t h e

d e t e r m i n e d , and t h e s e t r u e p o i n t s a r e w i r e d on t h e

b o t t o m s i d e b y s o l d e r i n g a w i r e on e a c h c o r r e c t s c r e w c o n ­ se c u tiv e ly ; th is

lin e

o f c o n n ected tr u e p o in ts

is

e d i n c i r c u i t w i t h a l i g h t and a t h i m b l e s t y l u s .

th en p la c ­ When t h e

s u b j e c t to u ch es a c o r r e c t p o in t w it h th e th im b le , th e l i g h t fla sh e s on.

The p o i n t s c o n t i g u o u s t o t h e c o r r e c t p o i n t s a r e

w ir ed in s e r i e s

a l s o and p l a c e d i n c i r c u i t w i t h a G enco

c o u n t e r and t h e same t h i m b l e s t y l u s ,

^ h ese are th e e r r o r s ;

when t h e s u b j e c t t o u c h e s a w rong p o i n t , t h e c o u n t e r r e c o r d s th e e r r o r .

The a l t e r n a t e w rong r e s p o n s e i s

p u n ish e d by

s h o c k t h r o u g h an e l e c t r o d e on t h e w r i s t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , and t h e w r o n g r e s p o n s e i s ed a t e a c h c u l de s a c .

th e

c o n t r o l group i s p u n is h ­

40 III.

SUBJECTS

S i x t y U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s s e r v e d as s u b j e c t s . o f tb e in g .

Hon©

s u b j e c t s b a d b a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n maze l e a r n ­ The s u b j e c t s w e r e d i v i d e d e q u a l l y i n t o tw o g r o u p s o f

t h i r t y e a c h , a c c o r d i n g t o a g e , s e x , k n o w le d g e o f p s y c h o l o g y , a t t a i n m e n t i n s c h o o l , and s e n s i t i v i t y t o e l e c t r i c

sh ock .

E a c h g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t e e n men and f i f t e e n wom en, t h e number b e i n g k e p t t h e same t o e q u a l i z e p o s s i b l e ences.

sex d i f f e r ­

One g r o u p l e a r n e d t h e maze w i t h c o n s e c u t i v e p u n i s h ­

m ent and w i l l b e t e r m e d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p .

The o t h e r g r o u p

l e a r n e d t h e maze w i t h a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t and w i l l be r e ­ fe r r e d t o as th e e x p e r im e n ta l group. IV .

METHOD OP PROCEDURE

The s u b j e c t s w as s e a t e d d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e maze and a s n e a r a s p o s s i b l e .

The d i r e c t i o n s w e r e g i v e n o r a l l y

and w e r e t h e same f o r t h e tw o g r o u p s .

The s u b j e c t s

in th e

e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w e r e n o t t o l d t h a t t h e y w o u ld r e c e i v e an a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t f o r an e r r o r ,

^he s u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n ­

t r o l group r e c e i v e d sh o ck f o r e v e r y e r r o r .

E v e r y e f f o r t w as

made t o k e e p t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h e same f o r t h e tw o g r o u p s . I f s h o c k , a d m in is te r e d as p u n ish m en t, sh o u ld p ro v e t o b e an i n c e n t i v e

i n l e a r n i n g a b o l t h e a d maze o f t h i s t y p e ,

it

seem s r e a s o h a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t som ew h ere b e t w e e n t h e e x t r e m e s

41 o f th e l e a s t p e r c e p tib le co u ld

it

stan d

I*

s h o c k and t h e m o st t h e s u b j e c t

w o u ld b e t h e o p t i m a l i n t e n s i t y a s an i n c e n t i v e .

As a r e s u l t o f p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t s

i t was fo u n d t h a t an

i n t e n s i t y o f 2 7 v o l t s A .C . g a v e a r a t h e r d e c i d e d s h o c k b u t w as l e s s

t h a n t h a t p o i n t a t w h i c h m o st i n d i v i d u a l s u s u a l l y

s a y “t h a t i s

a b o u t a l l t h a t I ca n s t a n d . 11

w as u s e d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s

T h is i n t e n s i t y

f o r p u n is h m e n t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t s ,

•^ ersum ab ly t h e e f f e c t o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n s e n s i t i v ­ i t y t o s h o c k w as b a l a n c e d o u t b y t h e number o f s u b j e c t s u s e d . R e c o r d s w e r e k e p t o f t h e number o f t r i a l s

n ecessary

t o l e a r n t o run t h e maze- f o u r t i m e s o u t o f f i v e w i t h o u t an e r r o r , o f t h e t im e r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h t r i a l , e r r o r s m ade. errors:

and o f t h e

I t w as n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h tw o t y p e s o f

T ype A - a n y r e t r a c i n g o v e r a w h o le o r a p a r t o f t h e

t r u e p a th w a y :

T ype B— co m in g i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e e n d o f a

b lin d a lle y . $ o t e s t i n g w as e v e r done w i t h v i s i t o r s p r e s e n t , and n o i n t e r r u p t i o n w as p e r m i s s i b l e p e r im e n t. s e ttin g .

d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f an e x ­

I n e v e r y c a s e t h e maze was m a s t e r e d a t a s i n g l e

V II. 1.

RESULTS OP THE EXPERIMENT

E f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon t h e number of tr ia ls

r e q u ir e d t o le a r n th e m aze.

The d i s t r i b u t i o n tr ia ls

o f e a c h g r o u p f o r t h e number o f

r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e maze i s

shown i n f i g u r e 1 .

It

w i l l b e s e e n from a g l a n c e a t t h e tw o c u r v e s t h a t t h e o n e f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a p p r o x i m a t e s a n orm a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i l e t h e on e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i s

c o n sid e r a b ly

skew ed.

The r a n g e f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i s

from 7 t o 51

tr ia ls.

The r a n g e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i s

238 t r i a l s . d iv id u a ls

from 1 0 t o

N i n e t y - s e v e n and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t o f t h e

in ­

i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , com p ared t o 50 p e r c e n t o f

t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , m a s t e r e d t h e maze i n l e s s t h a n 4 0 tr ia ls.

It

is

o b v io u s t h a t t h e r e i s

t r o l group w h ic h i s E v id e n tly ,

a g ro u p in g in th e con­

n o t p r e s e n t in th e e x p e r im e n ta l gro u p .

one o f t h e e f f e c t s w h i c h a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t

h a d upon t r i a l s w as t o i n c r e a s e v a r i a b i l i t y . A fu r t h e r stu d y o f th e r e s u l t s

o f t h e tw o g r o u p s

sh ow s a g r e a t d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t r i a l s

r e q u ir e d by

t h e s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d c o n s e c u t i v e p u n is h m e n t f o r e r r o r s in le a r n in g th e m aze. 20 t r i a l s . tr ia ls.

The m e d ia n f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w as

The m ed ia n f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p was 40

The mode w as 2 0 and 40 t r i a l s

f o r t h e c o n t r o l and

43

18 17 16 15 14 12 11

10

subject

freq u en cy

13

10 4 0 30 VO S *

tit* '7o *§a *90 DISTRIBUTION OF TRIALS

b o 'to 9 0 90 *— HO 'A o / t o *Vo /SO

FIG. 1 .

c o n t r o l group e x p e r im e n t a l group

J/o lZaJ3+ J Not*&£t\ TKt/\U%

44 e x p e r im e n ta l group, r e s p e c t i v e l y .

The a v e r a g e number o f

t r i a l s w as 2 0 . 6 f o r t h e c o n t r o l a s com pared t o 5 8 . 3 f o r t h e e x p e rim en ta l group.

A c c o r d i n g t o a n y one o f t h e m e a s u r e s o f

c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t e f f e c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 50 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t r i a l s m a ster th e b o lth e a d m aze.

r eq u ir e d to

S in c e th e d is t r ib u t io n

f o r t h e e x p e r im e n t a l group i s

of tr ia ls

n o t a n o rm a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ,

m e a s u r e o f v a r i a b i l i t y w o u ld b e u n r e l i a b l e ,

any

h ow ever, sh o u ld

c o m p u t a t i o n s b e made t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e c o n t r o l and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w as fo u n d t o be 4 . 6 6 t i m e s t h e s ig m a o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e .

T h is v a lu e o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y

o f th e o b ta in e d d i f f e r e n c e can n o t be a c c e p t e d , s i n c e th e tr ia ls

f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p do n o t g i v e a n o rm a l d i s t r i b u ­

tio n .

The d i f f e r e n c e

i n t h e number o f t r i a l s

t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e tw o g r o u p s i s

r e q u ir e d by

so g r e a t, how ever, th a t

t h e f a c t t h a t a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t e f f e c t e d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t r i a l s n e c e s s a r y t o l e a r n t h e maze c a n n o t b e q u e s tio n e d .

The sk ew ed d i s t r i b u t i o n

o f one g ro u p d o e s n o t

p e r m it a n u m e r ic a l s ta te m e n t o f th e v a lu e o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e o b ta in e d d if f e r e n c e . The e f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon t r i a l s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 50 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e number r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e m a z e , and an i n c r e a s e

in v a r i a b i l i t y .

45 2.

E f f e c t o f a l t e r n a t e p u n is h m e n t upon t h e t o t a l tim e r e q u ir e d t o le a r n th e m aze.

F ig u r e 2 g iv e s th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s

f o r t h e tw o g r o u p s

o f t h e t o t a l t im e i n s e c o n d s r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n t h e m a z e . ^he s u b j e c t s

i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p m a s t e r e d t h e maze i n l e s s

t i m e th a n d i d t h e

s u b je c ts o f th e e x p e r im e n ta l group.

The

m ed ia n t i m e i n s e c o n d s w as 7 9 8 f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p and 1144 fo r th e e x p e rim en ta l group.

The a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d

t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o b le m w as 1 7 5 1 . 2 s e c o n d s f o r t h e e x p e r i ­ m e n t a l g r o u p a s com p ared t o 1 0 6 5 . 2 s e c o n d s f o r t h e c o n t r o l group.

An i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l t i m e o v e r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i s

e v id e n t.

On a c c o u n t o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s b e i n g sk e w e d a n y

m e a s u r e o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y w o u ld be u n r e l i a b l e . th e d if f e r e n c e

H ow ever,

i n t h e mean o f t h e tw o g r o u p s w i l l b e fo u n d

t o be 2 . 8 8 tim e s th e

s ig m a o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e .

A c co r d in g t o

a n y one o f t h e m e a s u r e s o f c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y t h e r e was an i n ­ c r e a s e o f a p p r o x im a te ly 30 p e r c e n t o v e r t h e c o n t r o l group in t h e t o t a l tim e r e q u ir e d t o le a r n th e m aze. 3.

E f f e c t o f p u n is h m e n t upon t i m e p e r t r i a l .

The a v e r a g e t i m e p e r t r i a l f o r t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e tw o g r o u p s i s mean o f t h e is

shown i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n

in

fig u r e 3 .

The

i n d i v i d u a l a v e r a g e s in th e e x p e r im e n t a l group

3 6 * 3 s e c o n d s a s com pared t o 5 5 . 0 s e c o n d s i n t h e c o n t r o l

freq u en cy su b je c t , »■

«

,

\ xr i w

r \ >i

ye* Mi0 8 aoloooi\°o *voo /too /too 30*0 n

•p 6

>0>SAO

i f

30

3 S'

90

V4T S 't

* S ' *>° t ' f r o ' / S W

J5 1 9 o f / < o o / i S wo

/»jr /a