An experimental study of the relationship between the ability to impart information orally and the primary mental abilities, verbal comprehension and general reasoning

324 58 5MB

English Pages 113

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

An experimental study of the relationship between the ability to impart information orally and the primary mental abilities, verbal comprehension and general reasoning

Citation preview

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ABILITY TO IMPART INFORMATION ORALLY AND THE PRIMARY MENTAL A B I L I T I E S , VERBAL COMPREHENSION AND GENERAL REASONING

A D issertatio n P resented to tb e F a c u l t y o f the G rad u ate S chool The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R equirem ents f o r th e D octor o f P h ilo so p h y

by Joe M a rtin B a l l June I960

Degree

UMI Number: DP31976

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI DP31976 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

I

Th.O. So. 'S I ft >67 This dissertation, written by JOE MARTIN BALL................... under the guidance of h%$.... Faculty Committee on Studies, and approved by all its members, has been presented to and accepted by the Council on Graduate Study and Research, in partial ful­ fillment of requirements for the degree of D O C T O R OF P H I L O S O P H Y

Date.

Committee on Studies

Chairman

ii I

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To D r . L e e E d w a r d T r a v i s , d isse rtatio n ,

the d i r e c t o r

of th is

the a u t h o r e x p r e s s e s h i s g r a t i t u d e

many i n s t a n c e s

o f D r. T ravis*

f o r the

p e r s o n a l and academ ic

s u p p o r t , w i t h o u t w hich t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n

a n d many o t h e r

t h i n g s w ould n o t have b e en d o n e . To D r . A l t a B. H a l l a p p r e c i a t i o n m u s t be e x p r e s s e d f o r h e r p a tie n c e and u n d e rs ta n d in g in in tr o d u c in g au th o r

to g ra d u a te

the

study.

To D r . M i l t o n C. D i c k e n s f o r h i s s u g g e s tio n s w hich a id e d g r e a t l y

in

t i m e l y and h e l p f u l

the co m p letio n of t h i s

d isse rtatio n • The a u t h o r a c k n o w l e d g e s , g i v e n h im i n D r.

also ,

s t a t i s t i c a l and s t y l i s t i c

the a s s i s t a n c e m a t t e r s by

J a c k M atthew s and P r o f e s s o r B u e ll W h i t e h i l l ,

the U n iv e rsity of P ittsb u rg h .

Jr.,

of

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

I. INTRODUCTION: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED AND IMPORTANCE OF THE S T U D Y .........................

I

In tro d u ctio n

........................................................................

1

The p r o b l e m

* ...................................................................

6

D efin itio n s

o f t e r m s u s e d .....................................

8

Im portance

of the

O rg an izatio n

s t u d y ..........................................

o f rem ain d er of the stu d y

.



9 12

II. THEORETICAL SOURCE OF THE HYPOTHESIS AND REVIEW* OF THE LITERATURE

. . . . . . . . . . . .

13

T h e o re tic a l source

of the h y p o th e sis

13

The w r i t i n g s

. . .

o f T h u r s t o n e ...............................

A fa c to r an aly sis

of verbal a b i l i t i e s .

14 .

15

The G u i l f o r d - Z i m m e r m a n A p t i t u d e S u r v e y .

18

R eview o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t study S tudies

to t h i s

......................

21

r e p o r t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n some

m easure

of speech s k i l l

and g e n e r a l

i n t e l l i g e n c e .............................................. A dvantages o f " p u re " f a c t o r te 's ts general in te llig e n c e

tests

over \ ..................... .

21

23

CHAPTER II.

PACE

CONTINUED P re ce d en t f o r using s tu d e n t

III.

d eterm in in g

the a b i l i t y

in fo rm atio n

o rally

judges in

to im part

....................................................

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE........................................... S o u r c e and n a t u r e Procedure the

of the

sam ple

general Procedure su b ject

reaso n in g

.

in

the a b i l i t y

ju d g in g

27

of each o rally . . .

29

.........................................................

of group s c o re s

m easured o r r a t e d v a r i a b l e s

32

on t h e ...............................

32

on t h e v e r b a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d

g en eral reasoning Speech r a ti n g s

tests

received

of in te r - s e c tio n

various v a ria b le s E v alu atio n

. . . . . . . .

32

and g i v e n . . . . d ifferen ces

34

on t h e

.........................................................

o f m ale and f e m a le d i f f e r e n c e s

R e lia b ility of speech ra tin g s C o n v e rsio n o f raw s c o r e s

in to

41

............................... th eir

stan in e

e q u i v a l e n t s ...........................................

36

on

t h e v a r i a b l e s .....................................................

scale

26

of

. * ...........................

to im part in fo rm a tio n

C h a rac te ristic s

A nalysis

.....................

f o r v e r b a l co m prehension and

I V . ANALYSIS OP THE DATA

Scores

26

in the m easurem ent of a p t i t u d e

su b jects

24

42

42

CONTINUED C o efficien ts

of co rre latio n

or rated v a ria b le s

.

. .

among t h e m e a s u r e d ..........................................

C o r r e l a t i o n betw een v e r b a l c o m p reh en sio n test

s c o r e s and g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g

s c ore s

test

............................... ...................................................

C o efficien ts ratin g s scores

of c o rre latio n s

receiv ed

betw een sp e e c h

and th e a p t i t u d e

....................................................

P re d ic tin g speech ra tin g s

tests

..........................

r e c e i v e d when

v e r b a l co m prehension and g e n e r a l r e a s o n ­ in g t e s t S p lit

s c o r e s a r e k n ow n

...............................

h a l f c o m p ariso n betw een th e a p t i t u d e

tests

scores

of the

u p p e r and lo w e r

tw enty-seven p e rc e n t r e c e i v e d by the m ales

of speech ra tin g s .

C om parison o f th e a p t i t u d e and speech r a t i n g s

given

* ......................... . tests

.

scores

. . . . . . . .

C o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n betw een sp e ec h ratin g s

r e c e i v e d and s p e e c h r a t i n g s

g i v e n .............................................................. .... The r e l a t i o n s h i p

betw een the y e a r s

s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d by th e and t h e i r s p e e c h r a t i n g s

of

su b jects

receiv ed

.

.

.

CHAPTER

PAGE

V. SUMMARY OP RESULTS:

CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. . . .

59

Summary o f r e s u l t s ...............................................

59

C o n c l u s i o n s ................................................................ R ecom m endations f o r f u t u r e

61

research

. . . .

64

The c o n s t r u c t i o n

of r a t i n g s c a le s

. . . .

64

The s u b s t i t u t i o n

of q u a n tita tiv e " ^ ones . . .

66

m easurem ents f o r q u a l i t a t i v e New A v e n u e s f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n

of p o ssib le

c o r r e la te s w ith speaking a b i l i t y BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A

. . .

67

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

C opies

of ra tin g

sheet APPENDIX B

scale

.

P o ly g o n s show ing d i s t r i b u t i o n s number o f y e a r s te sts

scores,

received

and s p e e c h r a t i n g s

and g i v e n f o r 221 p u b l i c .

..........................................

72

Raw s c o r e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t b y s e c t i o n on t h e

APPENDIX D

of ages,

of sc h o o lin g , a p titu d e

speaking s tu d e n ts APPENDIX C

and i n s t r u c t i o n

v ariab les

................................

78

C o pies o f th e G uilford-Z im m erm an A p titu d e S urvey, P a rt

I and P a r t

II

. . . . .

90

L I S T OF TABLES PAGE

TABLE I.

Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s

o f t h e Me ans f o r

t h e A g e s a n d Humber o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g o f M ales, Fem ales, II.

S e p a r a t e l y a n d C o m b in e d . . .

26

M eans, S ta n d a rd D e v i a t i o n s , and S ta n d a rd E r r o r s o f t h e Means o f Raw S c o r e s

on t h e V e r b a l

C om prehension and G e n e ra l R easo n in g A p titu d e T ests

f o r M a le s , F e m a le s , and B o th S ex es

C o m b i n e d .................................... . . . ................................................... 33 III.

M eans, S ta n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ,

and S ta n d a r d E r r o r s

o f t h e Means f o r M a l e s a n d F e m a l e s ,

S ep arately

a n d C o m b in e d on S p e e c h R a t i n g s R e c e i v e d a n d G iven. IV. F - R a t i o s

A l l S e c t i o n s C o m b i n e d ..................................... of S e c tio n to S e c tio n D iffe re n c e s

t h e Male S u b j e c t s

on t h e

35

for

V a ria b le s o f Speech

R a t i n g s R e c e i v e d a n d G i v e n a n d on t h e V e r b a l C o m p reh en sio n and G e n e r a l R e a s o n in g A p t i t u d e T ests F -R atio s

......................................... of S ectio n

. . . . . . . . . . . .

to S e c tio n D iffe re n c e s

th e Fem ale S u b j e c t s

on t h e V a r i a b l e s

38

for

of Speech

R a t i n g s R e c e i v e d a n d G i v e n a n d on t h e V e r b a l C o m p reh en sio n and G e n e r a l R e a s o n in g A p t i tu d e T e s t s .........................

♦ •

39

v iii TABLE

PAGE

V I. F -R a tio s

of S e c tio n

to S e c tio n D iffe re n c e s

for

Male a n d F e m a l e S u b j e c t s C o m b in e d on S p e e c h R a t i n g s R e c e i v e d a n d G i v e n a n d on t h e

V erbal

C o m p reh e n sio n and G e n e r a l R e a s o n in g A p t i t u d e T ests V II.

40

t - R a t i o s betw een th e D i f f e r e n c e

o f t h e M eans

, o f M ales and F em ales f o r S p e e ch R a t i n g s R e c e iv e d and G iven and th e V e rb a l C om prehen­ s i o n and G e n e ra l R e a s o n in g T e s t s S c o r e s V III.

P ercen tag es D iv isio n s

. . .

41

o f Raw S c o r e s E q u i v a l e n t t o t h e of the S ta n in e S c a le

...............................

43

IX . V e rb a l C om prehension T e s t S c o re s and T h e i r S tan in e E q u iv a le n ts

f o r Males and F e m a l e s .

A l l S e c t i o n s C o m b i n e d ........................................................ X.

44

G e n e ra l R e a s o n in g T e s t S c o re s and T h e i r S t a n i n e E q u iv alen ts

f o r M ales and F e m a le s .

A ll 44

S e c t i o n s C o m b in e d X I. A v erag e S p e e c h R a t i n g s R e c e iv e d and T h e i r S t a n i n e E q u i v a l e n t s f o r M ales and F e m a le s .

A ll 45

S e c t i o n s C o m b in e d X II.

C o efficien ts

o f C o r r e l a t i o n and E s tim a te s

of

P r e d i c t i o n C om prehension T e s t S c o re s and G eneral R easoning T est S co res f o r M ales, F e m a l e s a n d B o t h S e x e s C o m bin ed

. . . . .

47

ix TABnE X III.

PAGE C o e ffic ie n ts

of C o r r e la tio n and E stim a te s

of

P r e d i c t i o n betw een S p eech R a ti n g s R e ce iv e d and th e V e rb a l C om prehension and G e n e ra l R easoning T e s ts S co res f o r M ales, F em ales, .

47

B o t h S e x e s C o m b in e d ..............................................................

50

a n d B o t h C o m b in e d

. .

XIV . M u l t i p l e C o e f f i c i e n t s E stim ates

.

..............................

. .

o f C o r r e l a t i o n and

of P r e d i c t i o n betw een Speech

R a tin g s R eceiv ed and a C o m bination o f the A p titu d e

T ests

S cores, w ith T h eir I n t e r ­

c o r r e la tio n s C onsidered,

f o r t h e M ales and

XV. t - R a t i o s b e t w e e n D i f f e r e n c e s

o f t h e Means o f

t h e S u b - s a m p l e s o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g on t h e V ariab le

o f Speech R a tin g s R eceiv ed

.....................

57

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION; STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM; DEFINITION OF TERMS USED; AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY I. There i s

INTRODUCTION

scarcely a s k ill

or a b ility

u tilize d

in

our

s o c i e t y w h o s e e f f e c t i v e n e s s d o e s n o t d e p e n d t o some e x t e n t upon th e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n term ed p h y s i c a l , e m o tio n a l, p a rticip a tio n

of these

or i n t e l l e c t u a l .

facto rs

o f c o u r s e , d e p e n d upon t h e

o f f a c t o r s w h i c h may be The d e g r e e

of

in a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l w i l l ,

n atu re

of th a t s k i l l .

The t a s k s

p e rfo rm ed by the m anual l a b o r e r w i l l r e q u i r e a p r e p o n d e r ­ ance

o f the p h y s ic a l

f a c t o r , w i t h o n ly m inor p a r t i c i p a t i o n

by th e i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l . field s

of the s o c ia l

is

in te lle ctu al

the

o r p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s may f i n d t h a t i t f a c t o r w hich m ust p re d o m in a te

e n d e a v o r s a r e t o be c a r r i e d geon,

the a ir p la n e p i l o t ,

coach w ill a ll

three

The r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e

on e f f e c t i v e l y .

Yet the s u r ­

and p e r h a p s e v e n th e f o o t b a l l

fin d th a t h is e ffe c tiv e n e s s

i s d e p e n d e n t upon

o f th e g ro s s f a c t o r s m entioned above.

In e s s e n c e , t h e n , any com plex s k i l l be a n a l y z e d from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f th e a b llitie s

i f such

o r a b i l i t y may

facto rs

m aking s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s

or sub-

to the o v e ra ll

effectiv en ess tio n s

of th a t a b ility *

One o f t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u ­

o f m odern p s y c h o lo g y has b e e n th e a n a l y s i s

c o n stitu e n t facto rs

or a b i l i t i e s

necessary fo r

f u l c o m p le tio n of a g iv e n t a s k and th e ment of t e s t s

designed to p r e d ic t

an I n d iv id u a l In i t s

of those

the

success­

subsequent develop­

the p ro b a b le

success

of

com pletion*

The p s y c h o l o g i s t m a k i n g s u c h a n a n a l y s i s d e p e n d s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t upon p e r i p h e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n engaged in Prom h i s

the p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e

of in d iv id u a ls

ta s k under c o n s id e r a tio n .

o b s e r v a t i o n s , he e x t r a c t s

certain

hypotheses as

the r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f the

to

task .

i

H aving e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s e

h y p o t h e t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , he

e i t h e r uses e s t a b l is h e d m easuring d e v ic e s o r c o n s tr u c ts s p e c i a l m e a su rin g in s t r u m e n t s w hich w i l l d e te rm in e

the

presence

or absence o f the h y p o th e tic a l f a c t o r o r f a c t o r s

in

in d iv id u als

th ose

u ltim ate

c h e c k on h i s

success or f a ilu r e

seeking

to

undertake th e

task *

h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be found i n

to perform e f f e c t i v e l y

the

i n d iv i d u a ls p o s s e s s in g the h y p o th e t ic a l s k i l l ,

The

the

t a s k by th o s e a b ility ,

or

fac t o r . O bviously,

the v a l i d i t y

in s o fa r as p re d ic tio n

is

enhanced by the p re se n c e io n o f e ffe c tiv e n e s s

in

of such t e s t i n g

concerned, is

d e v ic es,

co n sid erab ly

o f some s i m p l e ,

o b jectiv e

the c o m p letio n o f th e

task .

c riter­ The

degree ratio ness.,

of v a lid ity to

of the

test

the s u b j e c t i v i t y

W here t h e r e

the g ro ss f a c t o r s

is

or t e s t s

of th e c r i t e r i o n

p l e t i o n w i l l be m o r e d i f f i c u l t Those i n t e r e s t e d

of e ffe c tiv e ­

in

the

of its

train in g

n e ss a g a i n s t w hich to t e s t th e T his

o f t e n t i m e s d i v e r g e n t view s

|

!

of in d iv id u als th is

U n fo rtu n ate ly ,

b e en no u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d

for

observa­ th e r e has

of speech e f f e c t i v e ­

h y p o th etical fa c to rs

i s due p a r t l y , p e r h a p s , of the n a tu re

As a c u l t u r a l d e r i v a t i v e ,

thought to th e

of speech i t s e l f .

in p a r t,

th ere are

1

o b s e r v e r s *who h a v e f e l t a n d f e e l t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s s p e e c h d e p e n d s u p o n t h e m a n n e r a n d mode o f i t s They f e e l

ex p ressio n

facto rs,

these

as a p ro d u ct, p rim a rily ,

ap p lica tio n

his

d e liv ery .

rate,

In

of the p h y sic a l f a c to r s . speaker is

o f the v a rio u s te c h n iq u e s

lo u d n ess,

sk illfu l

o r a perform ance.

term s o f

o b se rv ers see speech e f f e c tiv e n e s s

w ould s a y t h a t th e e f f e c t i v e

p itc h ,

of

t h a t s p e a k i n g , a s an end p r o d u c t , s h o u l d be a

form of a r t i s t i c our g ro ss

|

s u c c e s s f u l com-;

have used t r a d i t i o n a l l y

to i t .

of

to a c h ie v e .

t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s mode o f a t t a c k .

cru cial

o f f in

in the co m p letio n o f a t a s k ,

o b j e c t i v i t y c o n c e rn in g the c r i t e r i o n

to .b e

fall

o b v io u s ly a com plex i n t e r a c t i o n

in vo lv ed

speech e ff e c tiv e n e s s

w ill

so because

They of his

of voice such as

and q u a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s ; because o f

use o f g e s t u r e s and body m ovem ents; o r p e r h a p s

4 because

of the e x p re s s iv e elem en ts p r e s e n t

e x p r e s s io n s and g e n e r a l p o s t u r e . p o in t

in h is

In s h o r t ,

th is

\

facial i s a view ­

t h a t p l a c e s t h e s p e a k e r and h i s p h y s i c a l t e c h n i q u e

above th e c o n te n t o f h i s

speaking,

b e in g ex p ected to respond p r im a r ily sp ectiv e

the au d ien ce to the

or a u d ito r s !

speaker,

irre -

| < I !

of th e c o n te n t of h is sp e a k in g ,

A n o t h e r g r o u p o f o b s e r v e r s may f e e l t h a t s p e a k i n g i i

should serv e as a v e h ic le

f o r th e exchange

b etw een a s p e a k e r and h i s a u d i t o r s . f a c t o r involved in

t h i s exchange i s

a b ility

of the

various

in te lle ctu al su b -a b ilitie s.

of in fo rm atio n

To t h e m , the

the c r u c i a l

in te lle ctu al

s p e a k e r a s r e v e a l e d by h i s e m p l o y m e n t o f T h eir c r i t e r i a

1

of

i

e f f e c t i v e n e s s may r e v o l v e a r o u n d s u c h c o n c e p t s a s a u d i e n c e - ' understanding of c o n te n t or co n te n t r e te n tio n , o p in io n s

or a tt i tu d e s ,

or sp ecific

responses

t h e a u d i e n c e a s d e s i r e d by t h e s p e a k e r . t h i s p o i n t o f view i s

on t h e a u d i e n c e .

and s p e e c h - c o n t e n t a d a p t a t i o n stressed .

The t o o l s

p ro c e sse s are the

and e m o tio n a l f a c t o r s

on t h e p a r t

a n a ly s is are

f o r th e accom plishm ent o f b o th th ese

T his i s are

of,

The e m p h a s i s i n

^

o f r e a s o n i n g and

not to say t h a t the p h y s ic a l

ig n o re d , b u t r a t h e r t h a t they are

t o be a c c e s s o r y f u n c t i o n s s u b o r d i n a t e

lec tu a l.

in

A udience a n a l y s i s

in te lle ctu al a b ilitie s

v e r b a l co m p reh en sio n .

felt

to th is

sh ifts

to

the i n t e l ­

A t h i r d g ro u p view s s p e a k in g e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s th e resu lt

o f the i n t e g r a t i o n

endowment o f t h e

o f th e p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l

sp e ak e r under th e d o m in atio n o f the

em otional f a c t o r .

T h is a p p r o a c h m ig h t be term ed t h e m e n ta l

hygiene p o i n t of view .

T h e ir re a s o n in g ru n s a lo n g the l in e

t h a t t h e more a d j u s t e d a n i n d i v i d u a l i s in tr a personal re la tio n s h ip s , ity

to b rin g in to focus h is

endow m ent. ness

in

to h is

i n t e r and

th e g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s a b i l ­

i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l

T h is g ro u p would ju d ge th e

term s of th e c r i t e r i a

speaker^

effectiv e­

d iscu ssed p re v io u sly

under

the p red om inantly i n t e l l e c t u a l approach. C lear,

sharp l in e s

among t h e s e g r o u p s .

o f d e m a r c a t i o n may n o t b e d r a w n

A great deal

of o v erlap p in g e x i s t s .

H ow ever,

i t may b e s a i d t h a t t h e s e

d e te cted

the presence

p h y sical,

of a l l

in te lle c tu a l,

com plex and i n t a n g i b l e ev alu atio n effectiv e

the g ro s s f a c t o r s

and e m o tio n a l

speaking i s

ta s k of speaking.

the v a r ia b le

av aila b le

at

of the

in the r e l a t i v e l y No d i f f e r e n t i a l

of th e r o l e s p la y e d by th ese g ro ss

C e rta in ly , effectiv e

o b s e r v e r g ro u p s have

facto rs

in

the p r e s e n t tim e .

o f th e a u d ie n c e and i t s

ro le

in

s p e a k i n g m u s t be s u b m i t t e d t o m o r e p r e c i s e

e v a l u a t i o n and m easurem ent. T his in te lle ctu al

stu d y proposes

to ex p lo re

t h e dom ain o f th e

f a c t o r as e x h i b i t e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l

' a b ilities

of th e

s p e a k e r, and th e m easured r e a c t i o n

a u d ie n c e , w herein the

in te lle ctu al

a b ilitie s

of the

o f s p e a k e r and

a u d i t o r a l i k e may b e c a l c u l a t e d , a n d t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n e s tim a te d and c o n je c tu r e d

upon.

b e t o e s t a b l i s h some p r e d i c t i v e lec tu a l a b ilitie s An a t t e m p t speaking a b i l i t y a b ility

to s im p lify

the v e rb a l d e f i n i t i o n

of

^the

to im p a rt in fo rm a tio n o r a l l y . M T his d e f i n i t i v e f u r th e r in

the re m a in in g pages

of

ch ap ter.

The b a s i c

tra it

r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een i n t e l ­

h a s b e e n a t t e m p t e d by t e r m in g i t

II.

th at

u ltim a te purpose w i l l

and sp e a k in g a b i l i t y .

t e r m w i l l be c l a r i f i e d th is

Its

the a b i l i t y rath er

s t u d y was t o

THE PROBLEM

h y p o th e s is w h ich prom pted t h i s

to im part in fo rm a tio n o r a l l y i s a u n ita r y

th an a com plex o f t r a i t s . t e s t one a s p e c t o f t h i s

T h is stu d y

has l i m i t e d

the p rim ary m en tal a b i l i t i e s in te lle c t.

s t u d y wa s

itse lf

The p r o b l e m o f t h i s

h y p o th esis. to a c o n sid eratio n

of

w i t h i n t h e dom ain of th e

I t has been l i m i t e d f u r t h e r t o a s c e r t a i n i n g

r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een the a b i l i t y

the

to Im part in fo rm a tio n

o r a l l y and two o f t h e p r i m a r y m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s ,

v e r b a l com­

p r e h e n s io n and g e n e r a l r e a s o n in g . S u b o rd in a te problem s w e re : p red ic tiv e

n atu re

(1)

o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p ,

to in v estig ate and

(2)

the

to determ ine

i

the com parative itie s

in flu en ce

on t h e a b i l i t y

of th ese

two p r i m a r y m e n t a l a b l l -

t o im part in fo rm a tio n

The f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ,

in d ire c tly

o rally . rela te d

u n d e r l y i n g h y p o t h e s i s , w ere deemed s u f f i c i e n t l y to w a r r a n t i n c l u s i o n in

th is

stu d y :

(1 )

to

the

im p o rtan t

to d ete rm in e

the

c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een an i n d i v i d u a l ’s p rim a ry m e n ta l a b i l ­ itie s,

v e r b a l co m p re h en sio n and g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g , and h i s

j u d g m e n t o f a n o t h e r 1s a b i l i t y (2)

t o exam ine t h e

to im part in fo rm a tio n o r a l l y ;

r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een judgm ents o f an

i n d i v i d u a l fs a b i l i t y

to im part in fo rm a tio n

p e r s o n ’ s judgm ent of a n o t h e r ’ s a b i l i t y tio n o ra lly ;

(3)

to d eterm ine th e

i n d i v i d u a l ’s a b i l i t y number o f y e a r s

to im part

o r a l l y and t h a t

to im p art inform a­

c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n an

i n f o r m a t i o n o r a l l y and t h e

o f s c h o o l i n g he h a s c o m p l e t e d .

P h r a s in g th e s e problem s

in q u e s tio n form :

(1) W i l l

a n i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i n g s u p e r i o r endowment o f th e p r i m a r y m ental a b i l i t i e s ,

v e r b a l com prehension and g e n e r a l r e a s o n ­

i n g , a l s o p o s s e s s s u p e r i o r endowment o f t h e a b i l i t y im part in fo rm a tio n a b ilitie s,

w hich i s

o rally ?

(2 )

to

Of t h e s e t w o p r i m a r y m e n t a l

th e more i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g

the a b i l i t y

to im part in fo rm a tio n

the a b i l i t y

of o th e rs to im part

o rally ?

(3 )

In

the

ju dging

in fo rm atio n o r a lly ,

w ill

the i n d i v i d u a l w ith s u p e r i o r p rim a ry m ental a b i l i t i e s d i f f e r from th e

in d iv id u a l w ith i n f e r i o r prim ary a b i l i t i e s ?

( 4 ) How d o e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l

j u d g e d t o be s u p e r i o r i n t h e

a b ility

to im p a rt in fo rm a tio n o r a l l y tend t o

a b ility

in

oth ers?

(5)

judge t h a t

D oes t h e n u m b e r o f y e a r s

of sch o o l­

i n g c o m p l e t e d by a n i n d i v i d u a l b e a r a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p a b ility

to

to h is

im part in fo rm a tio n o r a l l y ? III.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

The p r i m a r y m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s .

A prim ary m ental

a b i l i t y may be d e f i n e d a s t h e e n d o w m e n t o f a n i n d i v i d u a l w ith an i s o l a b l e , d e fin e d a b i l i t y com plete

su ccessfu lly c e rta in

been d em o n strated

o b jec tiv e ly

necessary fo r th e ir The a b i l i t y study,

w h ic h e n a b l e s him t o

task s; th at

t a s k s where i t

the d e f in e d a b i l i t y

to im p art in fo rm a tio n

as b e in g the a b i l i t y

im part in fo rm a tio n

prove, or c l a r i f y

speech.

T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was a h a r b i t r a r y

n o t Intended to i n f e r t h a t

f o llo w , the

w ill

be u s e d a s i f

d e fin itio n .

o rally

In t h i s is d efined 1

th e m ain p o i n t o f a o n e - p o i n t

i t wa s t h e

im part in fo rm a tio n

th at

o rally .

of an in d iv i d u a l to e f f e c t i v e l y

ex p la in ,

to

is

su c c e ss fu l com pletion.

the a b i l i t y t o

the a b i l i t y

has

one.

Its

U36 was

only d e f i n i t i o n

o rally .

of

In the pages

^ a b i l i t y t o i m p a r t i n f o r m a t i o n o r a l l y 1* it

were synonymous w i t h t h e above

I t was h o p e d t h a t

the

use o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n

would s e r v e d elin eate,

to d e l i m i t the to

some d e g r e e ,

scope o f t h i s

s tu d y and t o

the a p p l i c a t i o n

of its

co nclu­

sions . V erbal com preh ensio n. com prehension i s a c tiv ity

As u s e d i n t h i s

t h a t a b i l i t y w hich i s

th a t req u ires

u nderstanding

study,

verbal

im p o rta n t in any

o r m eanings

of words

or v e rb al c o n ce p ts,^ G eneral re a s o n in g . im p o r ta n t In any a c t i v i t y d iag n o sis

o f problem s.

co n trib u tio n c ip les It

to

T his

is

th at re q u ire s

in sim ple IV.

T his (1)

stro n g est

w hich em phasize

th a t the p r in c ip le s

a r i t h m e t i c - r e a s o n i n g problem s a r e in v o lv ed

successful

the p r i n p of a r ith m e tic - r e a s o n in g problem s.

s h o u ld n o t be i n f e r r e d

ples

the

I t p r o b a b l y makes i t s

those a c t i v i t i e s

ch aracteristic

th e a b i l i t y w hich i s

the

of

same a s t h e p r i n c i ­

num erical o p e ra tio n s .

IMPORTANCE OP THE STUDY

s t u d y may c a r r y I m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r :

u n d erstan d in g b e tt e r the

n atu re

of the s p e a k e r - l i s t e n e r

1 J . P . G u i l f o r d a n d Wayne S . Zim m erm an, f,The G uilford-Z im m erm an A p titu d e S u r v e y ,” J o u r n a l o f A pplied P s y c h o lo g y . 3 2 :2 7 , F e b ru a ry , 1948. 2 Ib id .,

p.

27.

rela tio n sh ip j th e r o l e s lec tu a l,

(2) p r o p o s i n g a d i f f e r e n t i a l e v a l u a t i o n

p l a y e d by th e f a c t o r s

of the p h y s i c a l ,

and e m o tio n a l in s p e a k i n g ; and

fundam ental s k i l l s

involved

in p u b lic

The m o s t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t shed a d d i t i o n a l

lig h t

(3 )

j

in te l-

teaching

i

the

|

speaking.

of th is

upon t h e n a t u r e

of

s t u d y w i l l be

to

of speaking i t s e l f . i

Along th e l i n e s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n i t m ay be p o s s i b l e

in te lle ctu al

I t m u s t be k e p t i n m ind

i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c to r as recep tiv e

facto r

is

n o t only the

u tilize d

in te lle ctu ality

in te lle ctu al a b ilitie s

speaker*s a p p lic a tio n

of

in e f f e c t iv e

th at i t

by th e s p e a k e r b u t a l s o t h e 1 I o f th e a u d ie n c e w hich i s in v o lv ed .

Do t h e m em b er s o f a n a u d i e n c e r e s p o n d h is

in tro d u ctio n ,

to propose a d i f f e r e n t i a l e v a lu a tio n

t h e p a r t p l a y e d by th e speaking.

the

to a speaker*s

use o f

to a g r e a t e r d e g re e th a n t o the

of h is p h y sic al

and e m o t i o n a l f a c e t s ? ^

Does s u p e r i o r e n d o w m e n t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y sp e a k e r tend

to n e u tra liz e

the e f f e c t s

the p h y s i c a l

or e m o tio n al realm ?

in a

o f a d e fic ie n c y in

Do m e m b e r s o f t h e

a u d ie n c e p o s s e s s i n g s u p e r i o r endowment o f th e r e a s o n i n g o r verbal a b i l i t i e s d if f e r members i n

th e ir recep tio n

relatio n sh ip in d ic ate d ,

from th e

less

lib e ra lly

of a speaker?

o r a low o r d e r r e l a t i o n s h i p

I f la c k of is

found or

the a ssu m p tio n t h a t sp eak in g a b i l i t y

s e v e r a l more b a s i c sta n tia tio n .

sk ills

en d ow ed

subsumes

w ould have g r e a t e r s u b ­

The t e s t s study are

fa c to r ia lly v alid

tiv e ly easily a b ility ,

of prim ary m ental a b i l i t i e s

adm in istered .

as such,

a b ly because

and r e l i a b l e ,

used

and a re r e l a ­

The d e t e r m i n a t i o n

i s much m o re d i f f i c u l t

of speaking

to m easure r e l i ­

the v a rio u s e x te r n a l m a n ife s ta tio n s

been su b je cted

to re fin e d

in t h i s

in stru m e n tatio n .

have n o t

Thus i f

verbal

c o m p r e h e n s io n and g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g a r e fo u n d t o be g r e a t l y in v o lv ed in the a b i l i t y

to im part

w ould need o n ly t o m ea su re

in fo rm atio n o r a l ly ,

one

them i n o r d e r t o have a good

index o f speaking a b i l i t y . I f a high d e g re e b etw een

these p rim ary m ental a b i l i t i e s

im part in fo rm a tio n

o rally ,

sp e a k in g could d i r e c t way a s

of re la tio n sh ip

the

th eir

and the a b i l i t y

in stru cto rs

in such a

w i t h minimum e x p e n d i t u r e

I f a s t u d e n t w e r e f o u n d t o be d e f i c i e n t i n s p e a k ­

ing a b i l i t y , d e f i n i t e

rem ed ial in s t r u c t i o n

in v e r b a l

c o m p re h en sio n and g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g m ig h t su c c e e d b e tte r in g h is

o ra l perform ance.

tim e

t h e c l a s s r o o m on s p e a k i n g ,

sp e n t in

gun** a p p r o a c h w h e r e b en efit

to

of p u b lic

tr a in in g procedures

t o p r o d u c e maximum r e s u l t s

of tim e.

i s found to e x i s t

It

is

in

The e x c e s s i v e a m o u n t s o f

hoped t h a t

using a " s c a t t e r -

some s u g g e s t i o n s w i l l

o r a p p l y t o e a c h s t u d e n t , w o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d .

P re-testin g

fo r the presence

of these

prim ary m ental

a b ilitie s

would i n s u r e a c c u r a t e

and im m ediate a p p r a i s a l

th e s t u d e n t ’ s p r o b le m s , and o u t l i n e procedures

of ■

i

c le a r l y the rem ed ial

'

t o be a p p l i e d .

I

If, absence

on t h e

of c o rr e la tio n s are

would i n d i c a t e

the a b i l i t y

m ight s u g g e s t p u b lic

f o u n d among t h e s e

facto rs,

th a t th e s e p rim a ry m ental a b i l i t i e s ,

m easured in t h i s to

o th e r hand, high n e g ativ e c o r r e la tio n s

study, are

to

not co n trib u tin g

im part in fo rm a tio n

orj

it

as

su b sta n tia lly

o rally .

T his

in

] \

tu rn

t h a t m any o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f t e a c h i n g

s p e a k in g w hich s t r e s s

s h o u ld bes c r u t i n i z e d from th e

th ese

i n t e l l e c t u a l elem en ts

sta n d p o in t of p r a c tic a l

|

v a l ue •

I »

I

V. ORGANIZATION OP REMAINDER. OP STUDY

source th is

C h a p te r I I w i l l p r e s e n t a re v ie w o f the

th eo retical

of th e h y p o th e s is and o f th e

p e r tin e n t to

study.

lite ra tu re

C h ap ter I I I w i l l d e s c r i b e r a t i n g p ro c e d u re s

used i n d e te r m in in g th e a b i l i t y

to im part in fo rm a tio n

o r a l l y , and th e p ro c e d u re fo llo w e d in a d m i n i s te r i n g ap titu d e' t e s t s . tech n iq u es

C h a p t e r IV d e s c r i b e s

the s t a t i s t i c a l

used i n a n a l y z i n g th e d a t a and in com puting

co rre latio n s

among t h e v a r i a b l e s .

su m m a r y o f r e s u l t s , in te rp re ta tio n s areas

the

a d iscu ssio n

of these

re su lts,

C hapter V p r e s e n ts a of th e

i m p l i c a t i o n s and

and an i n d i c a t i o n

in w h ic h f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w ould be p r o f i t a b l e .

of the J

CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL SOURCE OF THE HYPOTHESIS AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I.

THEORETICAL SOURCE OF TEE HYPOTHESIS

**One o f t h e d escrib e

and a c c o u n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s

a b i l i t i e s . tf^ field

o l d e s t p s y c h o l o g ic a l problem s i s

speech is r e p l e te

w ith s tu d ie s

in th e f i e l d

of

seek in g to account f o r the

o f o f g o o d , m e d i o c r e , and p o o r s p e a k e r s and

g ood, m e d io c re , and p o o r s p e e c h e s . these

i n human

T his problem has n o t been c o n fin e d t o th e

o f p sy c h o lo g y , f o r the l i t e r a t u r e

co -ex isten ce

to

A ll

have f e l t

th at

if

i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r

factu ally ,

then the

com plex p ro b le m o f t r a i n i n g

in d iv id u als

t o be g o o d s p e a k e r s w o u l d b e s o l v e d . As s t a t e d

in C h ap ter I ,

the stu d y is t h a t e f f e c t i v e l y im part

there

e x ists

the fu n d am en tal p o s t u l a t e a m easurable a b i l i t y

to

i n f o r m a ti o n o r a l l y and f u r t h e r t h a t

a b ility

i s made up o f s e v e r a l a b i l i t i e s

sid ered

in te lle c tu a l

in n a tu re .

in t h i s

s e c t i o n w i l l s e r v e t o a c q u a in t the r e a d e r w ith the th e o r e tic a l source

of th is

h y p o th esis as

th is

w h i c h may b e c o n ­

The m a t e r i a l

it

in v o lv es

3 L. L. T h u rsto n © , ^ p rim a ry M ental A b i l i t i e s P sy ch o m e tric M onographs. 1 : 1 , 1938 (C h icag o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1938)

of

,n

prim ary a b i l i t i e s

in perform ance.

The w r i t i n g s in

the developm ent

itie s,

of the

a s opposed t o

The f i r s t its

o f T h u rsto n e.

fu ll

The o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e

concept of prim ary m ental a b i l ­

u n itary in te llig e n c e ,

treatm en t

is

T hurstone.

of m u ltip le -fa c to r a n a ly s is ,

m ath em atical fo u n d a tio n s ,

upon w h i c h t h e

concept

and is

b a s e d was p u b l i s h e d b y h i m i n 1 9 3 5 . ^ In 193S, T h u rsto n e p r e s e n t e d ap p licatio n s

C hicago s t u d e n t s .

tests

rep resen ted a v a rie ty

n u m e r i c a l , and v i s u a l

r e s u l t s were s u b j e c t e d

tiv e

o f the v e rb a l f a c t o r ,

number f a c t o r ,

a d e fin ite

( d e d u c t i o n was l e s s

c le arly

of

task s.

The

t o m u l t i p l e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and

c e r t a i n p r im a r y f a c t o r s w ere i d e n t i f i e d two a s p e c t s

He a d m i n i s t e r e d

t o one h u n d r e d U n i v e r s i t y o f

These t e s t s

m easures co v erin g v e r b a l,

were :

f i r s t p rac tic al

of m u ltip le -fa c to r a n a ly sis.^

a b a tte ry of f i f t y - s i x

te st

the

in d u ctiv e

ten tativ ely .

They

a h ig h ly r e s t r i c ­ reasoning

facto r,

i n d i c a t e d ) , and a v i s u a l

space

fa c to r.® F ollow ing s e v e r a l stu d ies,

years

The C h i c a g o T e s t 3

o f more r e f i n e d

o f P r im a r y M e n ta l A b i l i t i e s were

4 L . L . T h u r s t o n e , The V e c t o r s o f Mind The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) 5 T hurstone, 6 Ib id . , p.

Op. c i t . , v

and c r u c i a l

p.

1

(C hicago:

pub lish ed .* ^ a b ilities

T his b a t t e r y c o n ta in e d

tests

f o r the

N (num ber), V (v e rb a l m e a n in g ), S (s p a c e ),

W ( w o r d - f l u e n c y ) , R ( r e a s o n i n g ) , and M (memory). in clu d ed a l l

the te n t a t i v e

In 1 9 4 7 ,

a b ilitie s

These

estab lish ed e a r lie r .

t h e SRA P r i m a r y M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s b a t t e r y fo r general te s tin g

sh o rte r e d itio n

o f th e C hicago T e s t s ,

for a ll

in I t s p re d e c e s s o r w ith the ex cep tio n

t h e memory f a c t o r .

In a d d i t i o n .

t e s t s were a v a i l a b l e percep tu al

use.

Q

became a v a i l a b l e

facto rs

I

I t was a

but co n tain ed t e s t s of

I t wa s a n n o u n c e d t h a t

f o r m otor a b i l i t i e s

and th e a b i l i t y

of(

speed.

T his b r i e f coverage

j ! ;

o f t h e ?/orks o f T h u r s to n e d o e s

n o t r e p r e s e n t a co m prehensive re v ie w

of h is e f f o r t s .

It

is

known t h a t a d d i t i o n s t o

t h e s e b a t t e r i e s w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g

a s m ore p r i m a r y f a c t o r s

are

A F acto r A nalysis

id en tified .

of V erbal A b i l i t i e s .

so u g h t to d eterm in e th e p la c e , a b ilitie s, m u n icatio n .

of th e 9

in

oral a b ilitie s

U s i n g 110 c o l l e g e

C arro ll

th e dom ain o f v e r b a l in v o lv ed

a d u lts,

I n e v e r y d a y com-

he a d m i n i s t e r e d a

7 t , . i i . T h u r s t o n e a n d T h e l m a G u i n n T h u r s t o n e , The C hicago T e s ts of P rim ary M ental A b i l i t i e s . (C hicago: S c ie n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , 1943) 8 L . L . T h u r s t o n e a n d T h e l m a G u i n n T h u r s t o n e , The SRA P r i m a r y M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s ( C h i c a g o : S cience R esearch A s s o c i a t e s , 1947) 9 J o h n B. C a r r o l l , *A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f V e r b a l A b ilities P s y c h o m e t r i c a , 6 :2 79 » O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 1 .

; i

J

b a ttery

of fo rty -tw o

s u b je c te d the resu lts

of the v e rb a l a b i l i t i e s

i

His

I

of T h u rsto n e!s M fa c to r b u t I

t h a t T h u r s t o n e f s V f a c t o r c o u l d b e b r o k e n down

two a n d p o s s i b l y t h r e e

H is r e s u l t s a l s o fluency)

and

to m u ltip le -fa c to r a n a ly sis.

confirm ed th e e x is te n c e

in d icated in to

re su lts

tea ts

in d ic ate d

new f a c t o r s : C,

J,

a n d G.

t h a t T h u r s t o n e Ts W ( w o r d -

f a c t o r s e e m e d t o b e c o m p o s e d o f two f a c t o r s , A a n d :

E. C arro ll rich n ess

in terp reted

h is 0 f a c to r as re p re s e n tin g the

of an i n d i v i d u a l 's l i n g u i s t i c

rep resen ted

the a b i l i t y

of the

sem an tic r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

responses,

in d iv id u al

w hile

J

j

to h an d le

The f a c t o r G w a s n o t c l e a r a n d no

i

c o n c l u s i o n s were d raw n . The A a n d ( j ? f a c t o r s , G a r r o l l c o n c l u d e d , r e p r e s e n t e d the

speed

o f a s s o c i a t i o n f o r common w o r d s w h e r e t h e r e

h ig h degree

of r e s t r i c ti o n

an a s s o c i a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y i n g was t h a t

the

as to ap p ro p riate where th e

is a

r e s p o n s e s , and

only r e s t r i c t i o n e x i s t ­

r e s p o n s e be s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o h e r e n t . / " “N

New f a c t o r s and f l u e n c y i n ap p ro p ria te rep re se n tin g

i

r e p o r t e d b y G a r r o l l w e r e : 4J

o r a l s p e e c h , a n d H, f a c i l i t y

names o r sy m b o ls

to s t i m u l i .

\J9 f a c i l i t y L

in a lio tin g

A new f a c t o r , D,

s p e e d o f a r t i c u l a t o r y m o v e m e n t s , was a l s o

rep o rted . The f a c t o r s , E a n d P , a r e

of p a r t i c u l a r

in te rest

to

th is

study*

Among t h e b a t t e r y

C a r r o l l w ere two t e s t s speech:

co m m o n ly u s e d i n t h e

Know er’s S p eech A t t i t u d e

Graded S p eech T e s t s . expert

o f t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d by

judges

rep resen ted

The l a t t e r ,

of the

f o r speech a ttitu d e a b ility ,

ro tated

o f .01 and

S p eaking

F; p ercentage . 3 5 on E a n d

te st,

on t h e E a n d F f a c t o r s :

the d e s c r i p t i o n ,

.2 3 ,

f a c t o r i a l m atrix

a s m easured by th e p i c t u r e d e s c r i p t i o n

o f r e l e v a n t words i n

by

of p ictu res,

a n d f a c t o r s E and F . ^

the fo llo w in g p r o je c tio n s

. 2 4 on E a n d

h ad

number . 6 1 on

of r e l e v e n t w ords t o t o t a l number o f w o rd s , . 5 8 on F ; a n d r a t i n g s

o ral d e scrip tio n

o f the p i c t u r e s ,

The p r o j e c t i o n s

o f the q u a l i t y o f th e . 0 2 on E a n d

of speech a ttitu d e s

f a c t o r s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d jec tio n s

along w ith r a t i n g s

P ro je ctio n s

r e s p e c t i v e l y , w e r e f o u n d on t h e

of

S c a l e a n d S t i n c h f i e l d 1s

oral d e scrip tio n s

speaking a b i l i t y .

field

sig n ific a n t,

on t h e s e

There i s

the v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s , some r e l a t i o n s h i p

11

two

b u t the p r o ­

of the m easures of sp eak in g a b i l i t y

F was s i g n i f i c a n t .

. 5 5 on F .

ju stific a tio n

on t h e f a c t o r

fo r co n sid erin g

r e p r e s e n te d by f a c t o r F, as b e a r in g

to o r a l com m unication in v o lv e d i n e v e r y ­

day sp e ec h . 10 I b i d . ,

T able 4 , p . 305

11 I b i d . ,

T able 4 , p . 305

|

The w a r t i m e

need f o r a c c u r a t e

ap p raisal

ual c a p a b i l i t i e s brought about an a c c e le r a tio n of prim ary f a c to r s th is

and a b i l i t i e s .

A d irect

of in d iv id ­ in

the

study

outgrow th of

n e e d a n d o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new t e c h n i q u e s o f

f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was th e p u b l i c a t i o n

of the G u ilfo rd -

Zimmerman A p t i t u d e S u r v e y * c The Gui 1 f o r d - Z i m m e r m a n A p t i t u d e sid erin g c la rify

th is b a tte ry

i t m i g h t be w o r t h w h i l e

®pure f a c t o r 11 t e s t s .

whe n d e s c r i b i n g

te sts,

so c o n s t r u c t e d and d e s ig n e d lim its

B efore con­ to

and d e f i n e a te r m w h ic h w i l l be u se d f r e q u e n t l y i n

the p a g es to f o l lo w ; facto r,

of t e s t s ,

Survey.

i t m easures

in d ic ate s

The t e r m , p u r e

t h a t the t e s t

th a t w ith in c e rta in

one f a c t o r o r a b i l i t y

is

un av o id ab le

a n d one o n l y .

The G u i l f o r d - Z i m m e r m a n A p t i t u d e S u r v e y c o n t a i n s seven pure f a c t o r t e s t s ; reaso n in g ,

num erical o p e r a tio n s , p e r c e p tu a l speed,

o rien tatio n , edge.

v e rb a l com prehension, g e n e r a l

sp a tia l

T his stu d y i s

v isu a liza tio n ,

and m e c h a n ic a l know l­

co n cern ed w ith v e r b a l com prehension

and g e n e r a l r e a s o n in g t e s t s

from t h i s

b a ttery .

l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n was d i c t a t e d by t h e testin g

sp a tia l

tim e a v a i l a b l e ,

T his

s m a ll amount o f

and the b e l i e f t h a t th e s e

two

12 J . P . G u i l f o r d a n d Wayne S . Z im m erm an , The G u i l ­ f o r d - Z im m e r m a n A p t i t u d e S u r v e y ( B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a ; The S h e r i d a n S u p p l y C o . , 1947}

f a c t o r s , among t h e sh ip

to

the a b i l i t y

s e v e n , would b e a r th e

to im part in fo rm a tio n o ra lly *

The v e r b a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t m ark ed by th e p r e s e n c e e a c h w ord.

of fiv e

Bach a l t e r n a t i v e

d i f f i c u l t y e q u iv a le n t to a ltern a tiv e

c lo sest re la tio n ­

responses are

m eant the e l i m i n a t i o n ,

13

is

a ltern a tiv e

response

a power t e s t responses fo r

has a l e v e l

of

t h e .word b e i n g d e f i n e d .

A ll

o f t h e same p a r t o f s p e e c h .

to a la r g e e x t e n t ,

r e s p o n s e s from g u e s s i n g by th e s u b j e c t s , )

(T his

of co rrect and,

fu rth er,

it

was v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o make t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e by mere e l i m i n a t i o n

of o b v io u sly i n c o r r e c t

The a p p r o x i m a t e d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l

ones.

o f e a c h w o r d was d e t e r ­

m ined by the

use o f th e T horn dik e and L orge l i s t s . 14 The g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g t e s t was a l s o a p o w e r t e s t .

T h is

t e s t em p h asizes the p r i n c i p l e s

a r ith m e tic - r e a s o n in g problem s. presen ted p i c t o r i a l l y r a t h e r than in restric t

in

ch aracteristic

The p r o b l e m s a r e

term s o f v i s u a l u n i t s

term s o f num bers.

of

often

of q u a n tity ,

An a t t e m p t was made t o

th e n eed f o r number w ork t o a s low a p o i n t a s

p o ssib le • 13 J . P . G u i l f o r d a n d Wayne S . Z im m e r m a n , wThe G uilford-Z im m erm an A p titu d e S u r v e y ,w J o u r n a l o f A pplied P s y c h o l o g y . 3 2 : 2 9 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 48 14 I b i d . ,

p . 30

The f a c t o r i a l

v a l i d i t y f i g u r e s f o r v e r b a l com -

p r e h e n s i o n was e s t i m a t e d * 6 0 .^

These f i g u r e s

w ell the

t o be , 8 0 ;

serve

two t e s t s m e a s u r e

In terco rrelatio n

to g iv e

These I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a re

tio n

j

some i n d i c a t i o n

j

the p rim a ry a b i l i t i e s

.19

o f how

inv o lv ed .

(H o f 8 4 ) ; b e t w e e n g e n e r a l

r e a s o n in g and n u m eric a l o p e r a t io n s ,

of th e

fo r g en eral reasoning

f i g u r e s betw een v e r b a l com prehen­

s io n and g e n e r a l r e a s o n in g ,

d irectio n s

«

.1 9

(N o f 1 4 2 ) . 1 6

of in te r e s t

f o r the g e n e ra l re a s o n in g

v a rio u s problem s a re a l l

since

the

t e s t and the

v erb alized ,

statem en t

and th e

so lu ­

t o some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g

tests 1

demand a c e r t a i n a m ount o f nu m b ers w o r k . These p rim a ry m e n ta l a b i l i t i e s

tests

from the

G u ilfo rd -Z im m e rm a n A p t i tu d e S u rv e y were used in p r e f e r e n c e to

t h e SHA P r i m a r y M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s b a t t e r y ,

f e lt th at

the

G ullford-Zim m erm an

tests

because

f o r v e r b a l com pre­

h e n s i o n a n d g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g w ere more a p p l i c a b l e co lleg e p o p u latio n .

verbal p a rts

found t h a t a l l T hurstone

to a

W hile no f o r m a l c o m p a ris o n o f t h e

b a t t e r i e s wa s a t t e m p t e d , the

I t wa s ,

the e x p e r i m e n t e r d id a d m i n i s t e r

of both b a t t e r i e s

to f o u r s u b j e c t s and

s u b j e c t s made p e r f e c t

scores

on t h e

t e s t b u t r a n g e d o n l y f r o m f a i r t o g o o d on t h e

15 I b i d . .

p . 32

15 I b i d . , p . 33

tw o

21

i

G uilford-Z im m erm an t e s t . the p u b l is h e r s a b ility

The e x p e r i m e n t e r was i n f o r m e d b y

of th e T hurstone

on t h e s e

b attery

th at te s ts

of a d u lt

v a r i a b l e s were n o t a v a i l a b l e .

The t h e o r e t i c a l

source f o r the

h y p o th esis

of th is

s t u d y h a s b e e n d e r i v e d fro m th e p i o n e e r i n g work done by T hurstone

in

the developm ent o f th e

m ental a b i l i t i e s ;

the e x p e rim e n ta l

i n he i s o l a t e d c e r t a i n

asp ects

im p o rtan t to o ra l a b i l i t i e s

concept of prim ary study of G a rro ll,

of verbal a b i l i t i e s

w here­

as b ein g

involved in everyday c o n v e rsa ­

t i o n ; and from th e

G uilford-Z im m erm an A p titu d e S u rv e y ,

whose c o n s t r u c t i o n

seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t a b l e

needs of t h i s II.

to the

study. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PERTIBENT TO THIS STUDY

S t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g ; c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n some m e a s u r e o f sp e ec h s k i l l and g e n e r a l

in te llig en c e .

West and L a r s e n

rep o rted a c o rre la tio n

o f .33 b e tw e e n s e m e s te r sp e e c h

grades

s tu d e n ts and th e g e n e r a l

f o r 474 c o l l e g e

gence le v e l ratin g s

of ths

of the

su b jects.

17

Knower u s e d

speaking a b i l i t i e s

and com pared t h e s e

speech a b i l i t y

in stru cto rs1

of f i f t y - f i v e ratin g s

in te lli-

stu d e n ts

w i t h s c o r e s made

17 R. W e s t a n d H. L a r s e n , wSome S t a t i s t i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s in the F ie ld of S p e e c h ,” Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l of S p eech . 7:373-382

22 o n th© N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e V ocabulary* tiv e ly . a b ility

18

T ests

The c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e

and I n g e l ’s T e st o f .3 5 and .2 8 ,

respec-

G i l k i n s o n a n d K n o w er c o m p a r e d t h e s p e a k i n g

of c o lle g e

C o lleg e A p titu d e

stu d en ts w ith scores

T ests,

on t h e M i n n e s o t a 19 and found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .1 6 .

Dow u s e d t h e Armp A l p h a ,

th e A m erican C o u n c il o f

E d u c a tio n P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m in a tio n , and th e M a s s a c h u s e tts A p t i tu d e T e s t s , and compared s p e e c h i n s t r u c t o r s ’ r a t i n g s s t u d e n t s p e a k e r s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s c o r e s on t h e s e 20 N e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r e p o r t e d . U sin g 156 s t u d e n t in s tru c to rs ’ ratin g s

speakers,

of

te sts.

E c k e r t a n d Keys c o m p a r e d

o f t h e i r sp e a k in g a b i l i t y w ith the

stu d en t scores

on t h e ACE P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n , 21 found a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .3 2 .

and

Dow a n d Kapp made a s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een th e r e a d in g a b i l i t y two c o l l e g e

and language a b i l i t y

sp e a k e rs and t h e i r

of th ir ty -

sp e ak in g a b i l i t y a s m easured

18 P . H. K n o w e r , ‘’P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s i n P u b l i c S p e a k i n g , * The Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h . 1 5 : 2 1 7 - 2 2 2 , 1929 1 9 H. G i l k e n s o n , a n d F , K n o w e r , **A S t u d y o f S t a n d ­ a r d i z e d P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t s a n d S k i l l i n S p e e c h , 1* J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 3 2 : 1 6 1 - 1 7 5 , 19 41 2 0 G. W. Dow, “ I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d A b i l i t y i n P u b l i c P e r f o r m a n c e , “ Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h . 2 7 : 1 1 0 - 1 1 5 , 1941 21 R . G. E c k e r t a n d N. K e y s , “ P u b l i c S p e a k i n g a s a C lue t o P e r s o n a l i t y , Jo u rn a l of A pplied Psychology. *--------3 2 : 1 6 1 - 1 7 5 , 1 9 4 1 . ---------------------------

by se m ester grades Speech*

M u ltip le

S p ea k in g , and

i n P u b l i c S p e a k in g and F u n d a m e n ta ls o f co rrelatio n s

r e p o r t e d were

.32 f o r F u n d a m en tals

of Speech.

M oore f o u n d a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n

on i n t e l l i g e n c e

C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n *

te sts

p O

b e tw e e n good and

p o o r s p e a k e r s , a s m e a su re d by two j u d g e s , scores

*27 f o r P u b l i c ,

and t h e

I i i . I

speakers’

p r e p a r e d by th e n a t i o n a l

The o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n ,

however,

was s m a l l * B r y a n a n d W i l k e r e p o r t e d no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n 24 i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s and s p e a k in g a b i l i t y . These s t u d i e s

seemed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

of in v e s tig a i

tio n s

o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een g e n e r a l

speaking a b i l i t y .

In g e n e r a l,

in tellig en ce

p rev io u s in v e s tig a tio n s

t h i s a r e a have found o n ly sm a ll c o r r e l a t i o n s

and in

betw een th e

tw o. A dvantages of " p u re ” f a c t o r t e s t s in tellig en ce

te sts.

over g en eral

The g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e

in using

"pure”

2 2 C ♦ W. Dow a n d S . R. P a p p , "T he R e l a t i o n s h i p o f R ead in g A b i l i t y and Language A b i l i t y to Speech A b i l i t y , " S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s . 1 0 : 1 0 7 , 1 94 3 2 3 W. E* M o o r e , " F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o A c h i e v e m e n t a n d I m p r o v e m e n t i n P u b l i c S p e a k i n g , 11 Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , 2 9 : 2 1 3 , A p r i l , 1943 2 4 A. I . B r y a n a n d W. H. W i l k e , " A u d i e n c e T e n d e n c i e s in R a tin g P u b lic S p e e c h e s ,” J o u rn a l of A pplied P sychology, 5 : 8 0 - 9 0 , 19 4 1

24 ! facto r te s ts

comes f r o m t h e d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f t h e

test

j

re su lts,

i

^When a f a c t o r i s m e a s u r e d b y a t e s t t h a t i s u n i q u e f o r t h a t f a c t o r , * s a y s G u i l f o r d , **We know r a t h e r d e f i n ­ i t e l y what the sc o re m eans. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f a s i n g l e t e s t m e a s u r e s t w o o r m o re common f a c t o r s , a n i n d i v i d u a l ’ s s c o r e c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c o n ­ fid en ce. A b e t t e r - t h a n - a v e r a g e s c o r e i n t h e t e s t may b e d u e t o one e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g a b i l i t y c o m b i n e d w i t h one o r m o r e w e a k a b i l i t i e s , o r i t m i g h t j u s t a s w e l l be due t o e q u i v a l e n t s t r e n g t h s i n a l l a b i l i t i e s m easured. F o r use i n v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , t e s t s s h o u ld y i e l d m axim al d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw ee n s c o r e s f o r e a c h person. T h i s i s b e s t a c h i e v e d by m e a n s o f f a c t o r t e s t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e x p e r i e n c e h a s sh o w s c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t c o m p l e x t e s t s d o n o t m e a s u r e a n y one f a c t o r a s w e l l a s d o f a c t o r i a l l y ”p u r e tf t e s t s . ” 2 5 It te sts

is

hoped t h a t t h r o u g h th e

in t h i s

s t u d y , more

sp ecific

use o f ^ p u r e ” f a c t o r i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be

f o r t h c o m i n g on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s a b ility

to im part in fo rm a tio n

in flu en cin g

the

o rally .

P re c e d e n t f o r u sin g s tu d e n t judges in d e te r m in in g the a b i l i t y

of an i n d i v i d u a l t o im p a rt In f o r m a tio n o r a l l y .

B ryan and W ilke untrained rise

26

have r e p o r te d

judges in

j u d g i n g s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y was f o u n d t o

in d ir e c t p ro p o rtio n

The l e a s t

t h a t a g r e e m e n t among

number o f j u d g e s

to th e number o f ju d g e s e m p lo y ed . fo r any speaker in

was t w e l v e . 2 5 G u i l f o r d -Zim m erm an, 2 6 B r y a n a n d W i l k e , _0£ .

o jd

.

c i t . . p . 25

c i t .,

th is

study

i

25 M o r e o v e r , M onroe, Remmers, a n d L y l e re lia b ility ty p ic al

of the

sum o f a v e r a g e s o f

speech c la s s ,

P *7

found t h a t

the s t u d e n t s

thej

in a

when j u d g i n g g e n e r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s

of \

speaking,

is

o f the

the r e l i a b i l i t y

o r d e r . 9 and com pares f a v o r a b l y w ith

of the b e t t e r s t a n d a r d i z e d p s y c h o lo g ic a l

i n s t r u m e n t s now a v a i l a b l e . The r a t i n g

s c a l e em ployed i n

from a s i m i l a r s c a l e

th is

s t u d y was a d a p t e d

s u g g e s t e d by P e n l a n d , 28 a l t h o u g h n o t

u sed b y him i n g a t h e r i n g

his d a ta .

------------- 2 T T . " H, M o n r o e , H, H. R e m m e r s , a n d E . V. L y l e , ^ M easuring the E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f P u b l i c Speech i n a B eg in n in g C o u rse B u l l e t i n of Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , 37, S t u d i e s i n H igher E d u c a t i o n , “2 9 * 2 7 , Septem ber, 1936.

,n

2 8 V. P e n l a n d , **An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y t o M e a s u r e E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n O r a l R e a d i n g b y Means o f a R a t i n g S c a l e T e c h n i q u e , w Ph.D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1948.

*

CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE I.

SOURCE AMD NATURE OP THE SAMPLE

A ll s tu d e n ts . ing c o u rse a t the sp rin g stu d y . 221

en ro lled

in the b e g in n in g p u b lic

speak-

the U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n i a d u rin g

s e m e s t e r o f 1949 were u sed a s s u b j e c t s

The t o t a l n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s

in

th is

i n t w e l v e s e c t i o n s was

(187 m a le s and 3 4 f e m a l e s ) . Ages f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s co m b in ed r a n g e d fro m

eig h teen

to f o r t y - f i v e

stan d ard d e v ia tio n

y e a r s , w i t h a mean o f 2 4 . 1 , a n d a

of l.lfe.

The n u m b e r o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , sexes,

ranged from n in e t o n i n e t e e n ,

and a s ta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n

of

f o r t h e com bined

w i t h a mean o f 1 3 . 7 ,

.41 .

TABLE I MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OP THE MEANS FOR THE AGES AND NUMBER OP YEARS OP SCHOOLING OP MALES AND FEMALES. - .-.^1 _SEPARATELY AND COMBINED M ales (187) F e m a l e s (3 4 ) C o m b in e d ( 2 2 1 ) M M M cJ

7

2 3 .5 8

Y ears 14.2 of S chooling

1.27 .43

VV A T l . J n / g M

C

a

Ages

il.I V

20.1 7

.43 .

2 4 .1

1.12

1 3 .8

.13

1 3.7

.41

F ig u r e 1 , A ppendix B, p r e s e n t s ages to

the d i s t r i b u t i o n

of

th e n e a r e s t y e a r o f t h e com bined m ale and fe m a le

su b jects

used i n t h i s

stu d y .

The w i d e d i s p e r s i o n

a g e s may b e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e p r e s e n c e atten d in g ju n io r,

the

o f m an y v e t e r a n s

u n i v e r s i t y and by th e p r e s e n c e

s e n i o r , and g ra d u a te

stu d en ts

of these

o f m any

in a course

in b e g in -

0

ning p u b lic

speaking.

F i g u r e 2 , A p p e n d i x B, p r e s e n t s th e

years

su b jects

of sch o o lin g f o r of th is

study.

the

the d i s t r i b u t i o n

com bined male and f e m a le

T h e r e w a s one s u b j e c t who r e c e i v e d

h i s e le m e n ta r y e d u c a tio n a b ro a d and h i s d e s i g n a t i o n elev en y ears

of

o f s c h o o l i n g was a r r i v e d a t a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n

w ith the e x p e rim e n ter. s ix te e n years grad u ate

of

Those p e r s o n s

in d icatin g

m or e t h a n

of s c h o o l i n g were s u b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d as

stu d e n ts

o r . s u b j e c t s who h a d c o m p l e t e d one r

b a c h e l o r ^ d e g r e e and were

s e e k in g the c o m p le tio n of

an o th e r in a d i f f e r e n t f i e l d

of sp e c ia liz a tio n .

I I . PROCEDURE IN THE MEASUREMENT OF APTITUDE OF THE SUBJECTS FOR VERBAL COMPREHENSION AND GENERAL REASONING P arts S u rv e y were

I and I I o f t h e G u ilfo rd -Z im m e rm a n A p t i t u d e used to m easure th e a p t i t u d e

f o r v e r b a l com prehen sion (part

II).

(part

I)

of each su b je c t

and g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g

The t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h o f t h e s e c t i o n s by th e e x p e r i m e n t e r .

tw elve

A pproxim ately tw e n ty -fiv e

m in u te s were a llo w e d f o r th e c o m p le tio n o f e a c h p a r t i n a ll

sectio n s.

c alled

D irectio n s fo r ad m in isterin g

for a th irty -fiv e

e ra l reaso n in g , the

testin g

in

m inute

but since one c l a s s

tim e a llo w a n c e f o r g e n ­

i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e hour,

the

f o r g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g was u s e d . Dr* G u i l f o r d , h is

on a b a s i s

In sp ectio n

tim e a llo w a n c e

In a c o n v e rs a tio n w ith

the g e n e r a l

survey,

reaso n in g t e s ts

The g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g item s.

Five

of F igure

jec t a tta in e d

be s c o r e d

co n sisted

s u b je c ts attem p ted a l l

4, A ppendix

a score

test

B, r e v e a l s

of tw en ty -fiv e,

g en eral reasoning t e s t b ears

th e im posed tim e

of

item s.

t h a t one s u b

and f u r t h e r ,

th e mean and g e n e r a l l y norm al d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e

i t was

o f t h e g r e a t e s t number o f i te m s a t t e m p t e d by

any s u b j e c t . tw e n ty -fiv e

lesser

a c o -a u th o r of the a p titu d e

su g g estio n th a t

the t e s t s

o f the

th at scores

ou t the adequacy of

lim it.

P r io r to tak in g

the

te sts,

the

s u b j e c t s were t o l d

t h a t d a t a g a t h e r e d would be u sed by t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s ev alu ate

b e tter

i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p p r o b le m s

n e c t i o n w ith c l a s s w ork. of th e ir p a rticip a tio n

to

in con­

The s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t i n f o r m e d

in th is

experim ent*

-29

I I I . PROCEDURE IN JUDGING THE ABILITY OP EACH SUBJECT TO IMPART INFORMATION ORALLY

! 1 j i

The a b i l i t y

of each s u b je c t to im part in fo rm a tio n

o r a l l y was d e t e r m i n e d cum ulative

on a b a s i s

of th e average

of the

judgm ents o f h i s c l a s s m a t e s .

The f r a m e

of re fe re n c e

was t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s

u s e d by t h e

s tu d e n t judges

of the speaker in th e

p ro o f» or c la r if ic a tio n

o f the m ain p o i n t

e x p lan atio n ,

of h is

speech.

E a c h j u d g e wa s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s f r a m e

of referen ce

by

v irtu e

of th e fram e

of

of his

reference

own p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n

in p rev io u s

in stru ctio n U n iv ersity

In a l l

classro o m speaking a ssig n m e n ts.

sectio n s

s e c tio n s fo llo w ed

sectio n s

su p erv isio n

M ethodology and c o n t e n t f o r a l l

c lo s e ly the lin e s

a t w eekly s t a f f m e e tin g s . a ll

s u g g e s t e d b y D r . D ic k e n s

As a r e s u l t

stre sse d p ractice

in the

of t h i s

su p erv isio n ,

c o m p o s i t i o n and

d e l i v e r y o f o n e - p o i n t sp e e c h e s where th e p u rp o s e s p e e c h was t o e x p l a i n , stu d en t,

th en ,

liste n ed

to

had d e l i v e r e d

or c l a r i f y

such sp eech es and in

o f h i s and o th e r# '

the s t u d e n t

o f the

the p o i n t .

the r a t i n g

e a c h s u b j e c t h a d h ad t h e b e n e f i t

and c r i t i c i s m stan d p o in t,

prove,

s im ila r speeches p r io r to

In a d d it i o n ,

The

of b e g in n in g speech a t the

o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a was u n d e r t h e

o f Dr. M ilto n D ic k e n s .

'

effo rts.

Each

t u r n had sessio n s.

of a n a ly s is

F ro m t h i s

ju d g e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d

q u alified

to ren d er

reference.

The f r a m e

an eye t o i t s ju d g es.

same t i m e ,

re fe re n c e p o in ted seemed m o st

of referen ce,

m ean in g fu ln ess to

At th e

a b ilitie s

judgm ents b ased

the

to

fram e

of

s p e a k in g w hich

t h e v e r b a l and r e a s o n i n g

ju d g m e n t s i t u a t i o n was a

t a l k d e v e l o p i n g one p o i n t t h r o u g h t h e

use o f v e r b a l form s o f s u p p o r t . s p e e c h was p l a c e d

a ll

was w o r d e d w i t h

u n so p h isticated

of the to

of

speakers.

f i v e m in u te

analogy.

th ese

up t h a t a s p e c t

The s p e e c h u s e d i n t h e th ree

th en,

use o f t h i s

lo g ically re la te d

of the

on t h e f r a m e

on t h e

The e m p h a s i s

use o f s t a t i s t i c s

in t h i s

c la rified

by the

T h i s p a t t e r n was a s t a n d a r d c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t i n

tw elv e

sectio n s.

E a c h s u b j e c t had t h e

ch o ice

of

d e v e l o p i n g th e m ain p o i n t o f h i s s p e e c h a l o n g e i t h e r inductive

or d e d u ctiv e l i n e s .

A l t h o u g h n o a t t e m p t w a s made t o v ariab les

such as

rrh a l o e f f e c t , ** ' ' a p p e a l s

v o ic e and a r t i c u l a t i o n , p lic ity of the

of the

tro ls

e tc .,

speech p a tte r n

judgm ent fram e

m inim ize

c o n tro l ex tran eo u s

the e f f e c t s

i t was f e l t

to p reju d ice ,* ' th a t the

a s s i g n m e n t and t h e

sim ­

sim p licity

o f r e f e r e n c e w ould t h e o r e t i c a l l y of th ese

v a r i a b l e s f o r -which no c o n ­

had been e s t a b l i s h e d . The j u d g m e n t s w e r e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s

number s e l e c t e d

from a s e v e n - p o i n t r a t i n g

o f a w hole

scale.

The s c a l e

r a n g e d f r o m 1 - Among m o s t e f f e c t i v e effectiv e.

The

judges re c o rd e d

s p e a k e r on a s e p a r a t e b a l l o t . s p e a k e r was t h e mean o f a l l the r a t i n g

scale

i n A p p e n d i x A.

th e ir evaluations

i n s t r u c t o r made i t

to

c lear

judgm ents r e n d e r e d . for

the r a t i n g s to his

its

A copy o f

use w i l l be fo u n d

o f the s p e a k e r s ,

sectio n

t h a t the

rendered

on a s p e a k e r w o u l d h a v e n o i n f l u e n c e

assigned

by th e

in stru cto r

of each

The s u b j e c t 1s r a t i n g a s a

and i n s t r u c t i o n s P rio r

t o 7 - Among l e a s t

to each speaker.

each

judgm ents

on t h e g r a d e s

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA I.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUP SCORES ON THE MEASURED OR RATED VARIABLES

Scores

on t h e

te sts.

v e r b a l c o m p re h e n s io n and g e n e r a l

Raw s c o r e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t

on t h e s e

t e s t s were d e te r m i n e d by a s c o r i n g f o r m u la i n c l u d e d p u b lish ed d ir e c tio n s

f o r the a d m in is tr a tio n

f o r d - Z im m e r m a n A p t i t u d e S u r v e y . r i g h t m inus o n e - f o u r t h

in

of the G u il­

The f o r m u l a wa s t h e n u m b e r

t h e number w ro n g .

O m issio n s were

not p en alized . V e rb al co m prehension s c o re s

f o r m ales and fem ales

com bined r a n g e d from s i x t o

six ty -fiv e ,

3 5 .2 8 , a stan d ard d e v ia tio n

of 1 1 . 7 4 , and a s t a n d a r d e r r o r

o f t h e mean o f

.7 9 .

mean was 3 5 . 1 8 ;

the

stan d ard e rr o r

w i t h a mean o f

F o r t h e m ale s u b j e c t s standard d e v ia tio n ,

of th e mean,

.9 8 .

the

standard d e v ia tio n ,

the

1 3 .4 8 ; and th e

When t h e

fe m a le s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y , 3 5 .0 2 ;

sep arately ,

sc o re s f o r the t h e mean was

1 2 .1 2 ; and th e

standard

e r r o r of th e mean, 2 .1 1 . G e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g s c o r e s f o r b o t h s e x e s com bined r a n g e d from z e r o t o t w e n t y - f i v e , stan d ard d e v ia tio n

w i t h a mean o f 1 1 . 9 6 , a

o f 5 .7 8 , and a s t a n d a r d e r r o r

of the

33 mean o f

.3 9 .

On t h i s

v ariab le,

th e d i s t r i b u t i o n

o f m ale

s c o r e s r e v e a l e d a mean o f 1 1 . 5 8 , a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 4 .6 7 , and a s ta n d a r d e r r o r scores

o f t h e m ea n o f . 3 4 .

of

The f e m a l e

s h o w e d a mean o f 8 . 1 4 , a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n

of 5.5 7 ,

and a s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e mean o f . 9 8 . T able

II p resen ts

and s ta n d a r d e r r o r s ap titu d e

tests

the m eans,

standard d e v ia tio n s ,

o f t h e means o f raw s c o r e s

f o r m ales,

fem ales,

on t h e

and b o t h s e x e s c o m b in e d ..

TABLE I I MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND STANDARD ERRORS OP THE MEANS OP RAW SCORES ON THE VERBAL COMPRE­ HENSION AND GENERAL REASONING APTITUDE TESTS FOR MALES, FEMALES, AND BOTH SEXES COMBINED

A p titu d e test

M ales (N-187) M

V. G.

G. R .

Fem ales (H-34) M