An experimental study of the measurement of certain aspects of stage fright by means of rating scale and motion picture techniques

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MEASUREMENT OF CERTAIN ASPECTS OF STAGE FRIGHT BY MEANS OF RATING SCALE AND MOTION PICTURE TECHNIQUES

A D i s s e r t a t io n P re s e n te d to th e F a c u lty o f th e G raduate School U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f th e R equirem ents f o r th e D egree D o cto r o f P h ilo so p h y

by C aleb W illiam P r a l l

UMI Number: DP31973

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a com plete manuscript and there are missing p ages, th ese will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI D P31973 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United S tates Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

This dissertation, w rit te n by

CALEB WILLIAM PRALL under the guidance of hIs... F acu lty C o m m it te e on Studies, and a p p r o v e d by all its members, has been pres ent ed to and a c c e p te d by the Council on G rad ua te S t u d y an d Research, in pa rtial f u l ­ fillment of requirements f o r the degree of D O C T O R OF P H IL O S O P H Y

......................... Secretary

D a te .if^ m . ^ . . 1 9 5 0 ........................

C om m ittee on Studies

lairman

(Jl^JLcuT^

January 5* 1950

To Doheny Memorial Library: Special permission has been granted to Mr* Caleb Prall to submit this disser­ tation in elite type*

Milton Dickens Chairman* Committee on Studies

G r a te f u l acknowledgm ent i s made to D r, M ilto n C. D ickens o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia f o r h is a d v ic e and u n t i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n d i r e c t i n g th e w r i t e r o f t h i s d is s e rta tio n .

The w r i t e r i s a ls o an x io u s t o re c o g n iz e

th e s u b s t a n t i a l a s s i s ta n c e o f F , P. G ibson, co-w orker th ro u g h o u t S e s s io n I o f th e e x p e rim e n tj o f members o f h i s d o c to r a l co m m ittee, and o f th e s ix ty - o n e ju d g es and f o r t y s p e a k e rs w ith o u t Ydhose p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h i s stu d y co u ld n o t have been made.

The w r i t e r a ls o w ish es t o e x p re ss

lo v e and a p p r e c i a t i o n t o h i s w if e , Tfyone A r l i e t a P r a l l , f o r h e r encouragem ent and a s s is ta n c e i n ty p in g th e f i r s t d r a f t s , ch eck in g th e s t a t i s t i c s in v o lv e d , and p ro o f re a d in g t h e m a n u s c rip t.

TABLE! OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE 1

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................... P urpose o f t h e S t u d y .................................................................................

1

T e x tu a l and P e r io d ic a l S o u rces D ealin g W ith S tag e F r ig h t .

3

F e a r R e s p o n s e .......................................................................................

4

L earned B e h a v i o r .................................................................................

5

N e u ro tic B eh av io r

......................................... •

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. •

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5

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6

In a d e q u a te R esponse P a t t e r n s



The V ig o ro u s A c tio n Theory

..............................................

The S h i f t - o f - A tte n tio n Theory



• •



.



«

«

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6





7

The R ep eated Perform ance T h e o r y ................................................

7

The H aving-a-M essage T h e o r y .............................................................

7

...........................

8

The P sy c h o d ram atic Theory

E x p e rim e n ta l S tu d ie s D ea lin g W ith S ta g e F r ig h t F h y s io lo g ic a l Changes .









.





• •

• •

• •

• •

I n tr o s p e c t i v e R e p o r t s ......................................................................... R e p o rts by O b servers II.

.........................................

.

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.

12 12 12 19

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM..........................................................................

20

A n a ly s is o f MI n th e F le s h ” D a t a ......................................................

20

PRCS S c o r e s ...............................................................................................

20

JR S co res

21

V a lid ity

'

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.

.

.................................

R e lia b ility

.................................................................................

21 21

Com parison o f Judges* R a tin g s and S peakers* I n t r o ­ s p e c tiv e R e p o rts

.................................................................... !

22

■iv CHAPTER

PAGE C om parison o f Judges Based Upon Sex D iffe re n c e s

.

.

.

22

E x p erien ced Judges Compared v /ith S tu d e n t Judges



.



22

C om parison o f Judges Based upon S e a tin g P o s i t i o n



23

Com parison o f Judges Based upon Speech-A rea S p e c ia lity •



«

*

«





«







C o n fid e n t S peakers Compared w ith F e a r f u l







'

S p eak ers

• .

23 «

24

Com parison o f C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents on S peakers I n d iv i d u a l l y

.

.

.

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.

.

24

Com parison o f I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents on S peakers C o lle c tiv e ly













D ir e c tio n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s .

















24

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24

.

A ccuracy o f Judgment P a r t i a l l y a S peaker A n a ly s is o f S i l e n t M otion P ic t u r e D ata • III.

F u n c tio n •







• •





SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES...................................................... S u b je c ts .

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S p eak ers

25 27 27 27

Judges M a te ria ls

25

.

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31

.

32

.

.

G ilk in s o n 1s G raphic R a tin g S c a le Ju d g e1s R a tin g S c a le









............................ •







L i s t o f D e s c r ip tiv e S ta te m e n ts , o r PRCS « Sound M otion P ic tu r e Equipm ent . Timing D evices

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• •

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• •

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32

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33





34

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35 35

V

CHAPTER

PAGE P ro ce d u re s Room A . Room B

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.........................................



37

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37

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38

Room C

IV .



............................................................. ......

S e s s io n I I



S e s s io n I I I



.

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«

40 41

.





.............................................................

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF "IN THE FLESH" DATA A n a ly s is o f O b tain ed R a tin g S c a le S co res

.

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41

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43

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44

PROS S c o r e s ........................................

45

S h o rt-F o rm PRCS .

47

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JR. S c o r e s ...................................... R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y

48 *

,

*

49

Com parison o f Ju d g e sT R a tin g s and S p e a k e rs 1 I n tr o s p e c t i v e R e p o rts









A n a ly s is o f S e l e c t Group Judgments















50

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52

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Com parison o f Judges Based upon Sex D if fe r e n c e s

. . .

53

E x p e rie n ce d Judges Compared v /ith S tu d e n t Judges

. . .

54

Com parisons o f Judges Based upon S e a tin g P o s itio n





Com parison o f Judges Based upon S peech-A rea S p e c i a l i t y •

58 58

O v e r - a ll A n a ly s is o f C o lle c tiv e and I n d iv id u a l Judgments

.



«





















"C o n fid e n t" and " F e a r f u l" S p eak ers Compared



• •

• •

57 •

59

Com parison o f S ix ty -o n e C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents f o r F o r ty S p eak ers I n d iv id u a ll y











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59

vi CHAPTER

PACE Com parison o f S ix ty -o n e I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r F o r ty S p eak ers C o l le c tiv e ly



D ir e c tio n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s























61

*

«









62

A ccuracy o f Judgment P a r t i a l l y a S peaker F u n c tio n V.





62

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF SILENT MOTION PICTURE DATA .

.

64



66

P r e s e n t a t i o n and A n a ly s is o f Blot io n P i c tu r e D ata O b tain ed PRCS and JR R a tin g s















«

• •



66

PRCS S c o r e s ............................................... JR S co res



















66 •





S p l i t - H a l f Com parison f o r R e l i a b i l i t y •









*



66





68

Com parison o f Judges* R a tin g s and Speakers* I n t r o ­ s p e c tiv e R ep o rts











C e r ta in S e le c t Croup Judgm ents •















68















69



Com parison o f Judges Based upon Sex D if fe r e n c e s



«

69

Com parison o f Judges Based upon S peech-A rea S p e c ia lity











*





C o lle c tiv e and I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents

• •

• •

• •

• •







71





71

Com parison o f F i f t y C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents f o r T h irty -tw o S p eak ers I n d 5 .v id u a l ly

.

72

Com parison o f F i f t y I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r T h irty -tw o S p eak ers C o lle c tiv e l y

»











72

D ir e c tio n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s .................................. Jud g in g A ccuracy as a S peaker F u n c tio n

*

73 .





.

73

v ii CHAPTER

PAGE R e - e v a lu a tio n o f " F le s h ” D ata ■with E le v e n Judges and E ig h t S p eak ers O m itted

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O b tain ed PRCS and JR R a tin g s ’ PRCS S co res JR S c o re s

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74

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74

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74







74

Com parison o f Ju d g es’ R a tin g s and Speakers* I n t r o ­ s p e c tiv e R e p o rts











C e r ta in S e le c t Group Judgm ents •

• •

• •











75











75



Com parison o f Judges Based upon Sex D if fe r e n c e s





75

C om parison o f Judges Based upon S peech-A rea S p e c ia lity

• • •













C o lle c tiv e and I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents

*

















75







76







76

Com parison o f F i f t y C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents f o r T h irty -tw o S p eak ers I n d iv id u a lly •







Com parison o f F i f t y I n d iv id u a l Judgments f o r T h irty -tw o S p eak ers C o lle c tiv e ly • D ir e c tio n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s

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J6

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J6

A ccuracy o f Judgment P a r t i a l l y a S peaker F u n c tio n • V I. COMPARISON OF "IN

THE FLESH" AND SILENT MOTION PICTURE DATA

C om parison o f O b tain ed R a tin g S c a le S co res PRCS S co res JR S c o re s



.

. . .









........................................................

J6 JQ



79

79

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79

Com parison o f Judges* R a tin g s and Speakers* I n t r o ­ s p e c tiv e R e p o rts .

























80

v iii CHAPTER

PAGE Amount o f Change i n Judgm ents Between th e Two Jud g in g S e s s io n s .

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81

D i r e c t i o n o f Changes i n Judgment Between th e Two Ju d g in g S e s sio n s

........................................

83

Com parison Between C e r ta in S e le c t Group Judgments







84

Com parison o f Judges Based upon Sex D iffe re n c e s







84

Com parison o f Judges Based upon Speech-A rea S p e c i a l i t y •

84

O v e r - a ll A n a ly s is o f C o lle c tiv e and I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents •

87

Com parison o f F i f t y . C o l l e c t i v e Judgments f o r T h irty -tw o S p eak ers I n d iv id u a l ly















87









87

C om parison o f F i f t y I n d iv id u a l Judgments f o r T h irty -tw o S p eak ers C o lle c tiv e l y







..........................................

D ir e c tio n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s

88

A ccuracy o f Judgment P a r t i a l l y a S peaker F u n c tio n y ii •

summary and





c o n c l u s i o n s ........................................

91

Summary C o n c lu sio n s

• ............................................................

S u g g e s tio n s f o r F u r th e r R esearch

91 92

.

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................

97 100

APPENDIX A.

S upplem entary D ata f o r S e s s io n ! • •

APPENDIX B*

S upplem entary D ata f o r S e s s io n I I I

APPENDIX C,

I n s t r u c t i o n S h e e ts , R a tin g S c a le s , E t c . , Used T hroughout t h e E xperim ent

89

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102











119

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138

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ix LIST OP TABLES TABLE

PAGE CHAPTER IV

I*

D ata Showing Raw, Coded and T -S caled PRCS S c o re s ; and A veraged and T -S caled JR S co res f o r S e s s io n I

II*

46

D ata S ecu red F o r V a rio u s Group Com parisons Made D uring S e s s io n I

III.



..............................................................................................

51

Mean S c o re s o f P o t e n t i a l V a r ia b le s T e sted f o r S e s s io n I t o D eterm ine T h e ir In flu e n c e on JR "A ccuracy"

*

.





55

CHAPTER V IV.

P e rs o n a l R e p o rts o f 52 S p eak ers and A verage R a tin g s o f 50 ’’E x p e rt11 Judges W hile W atching “F le s h " and " P ic tu re " S e s s io n s

V.

67

Mean S co res o f P o t e n t i a l V a r ia b le s T e ste d f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I t o D eterm ine T h e ir In flu e n c e on JR "A ccuracy"



70

CHAPTER VI V I.

D ata Showing Raw and Coded PRCS S co re s and A veraged JR S co res f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I

V I I.



















82

Mean S co res o f P o t e n t i a l V a r ia b le s T e ste d f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I t o D eterm ine T h e ir In flu e n c e on JR "A ccuracy"



85

X

PAGE APPENDIX A D ata Showing th e 2 ,440 Judges* R a tin g s S ecu red when 61 Judges R ated 40 S p eak ers F or "O b serv ab le D egrees" o f S ta g e F r ig h t































105

D ata Showing Q u a r tile I and IV Com parisons Between "Most" and " L e a s t" C o n fid e n t S p eak ers



















111



114

D ata P r e s e n tin g A Com parison o f C o lle c tiv e Judgments f o r S p e ak ers I n d iv i d u a ll y















«

»





D ata P r e s e n tin g A Com parison o f I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r S p eak ers C o l l e c t i v e ly















............................

116

D ata P r e s e n tin g Ranked PRCS and JR S co res and th e •

118

...............................................................................................

122

P o s itiv e and N eg ativ e D if fe r e n c e s Between th e Two •



APPENDIX B D ata Showing th e 1 ,600 Judges* R a tin g s S ecured when 50 Judges R ated 32 S p eak ers f o r "O b serv ab le D egrees" o f S tag e F r ig h t

D ata P r e s e n tin g A Com parison o f C o lle c tiv e Judgments f o r S p ea k e rs I n d iv i d u a lly f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I





«

*

128



150

D ata P r e s e n tin g A Com parison o f I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r S p e ak e rs C o l l e c t i v e ly f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I





.

D ata P r e s e n tin g A Com parison o f C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I o f th e E xperim ent















133



135

D ata P r e s e n tin g A Com parison o f I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r S e s sio n s I and I I I o f th e E xperim ent













xi TABLE X V III.

PAGE D ata P r e s e n tin g Ranked PRCS and JR S co res and th e P o s i t i v e and N e g ativ e D iffe re n c e s Between t h e Two f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I

137

x ii LIST OF INCIDENTAL ITEMS AGE APPENDIX C G ilk in so n * a P e rs o n a l R eport On C onfidence As A S peaker In v e n to ry

..................................

I n s t r u c t i o n s To S tu d e n t S p eak ers

139 ................................................

I n s t r u c t i o n s G iven S p eak ers I n Room A I n s t r u c t i o n s G iven S p eak ers I n Room C

.................................. •









L e tte r Of I n v i t a t i o n S en t to 85 P o t e n t i a l Judges •

• •

Judge* s I n s t r u c t i o n s F or S e s s io n I o f th e E xperim ent

145 146 147



148



149

C lo sin g I n s t r u c t i o n s to t h e Judges. F o r S e s s io n I o f th e E x p erim en t

.................................. ......

150

Judge*s I n s t r u c t i o n s For S e s s io n I I I o f th e E xperim ent .

151

R a tin g S c a le s U t i l i z e d D uring th e Two E x p e rim e n ta l S e s s io n s

152

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S e s s io n I E x p e rim e n ta l Rooms

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153

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ^ Mich h as b een w r i t t e n on s ta g e f r i g h t , i t s n a t u r e , cau ses and c u res.

N e a rly e v e r y sp eech t e x t makes some e f f o r t t o d e a l w ith t h i s

p h ase o f s p e a k e r-a u d ie n c e ad ju stm en t*

I n t e r e s t i n th e problem i s

u n d e rs ta n d a b le when i t i s remembered t h a t e v e ry t e a c h e r o f sp eech has b e f o r e him a p a s s in g p a ra d e o f s tu d e n ts who a lm o st u n i v e r s a l l y com plain of th is a f f lic tio n .

H owever, w h ile t h e pages d ev o ted t o a d is c u s s io n

o f s ta g e f r i g h t a r e c o p io u s , much t h a t has b een w r i t t e n i s a p ro d u c t e i t h e r o f a n a u t h o r ’ s own p a r t i c u l a r b ia s o r m a t e r ia l i n h e r it e d from some p re v io u s w r i t e r . p r e s e n t c h a p te r .

Some o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be review ed i n th e

A p o r tio n o f i t h as d e f i n i t e u t i l i t y t o th o s e who

te a c h b e g in n in g sp eech c l a s s e s . ~J PURPOSE OF THE STUDY D e s p ite th e e x c e l l e n t o p p o r tu n itie s f o r th e s tu d y o f s ta g e f r i g h t a s i t a p p e a rs i n c o lle g e s tu d e n t s , v e r y l i t t l e e x p e rim e n ta l ■work h a s b e en done on t h i s pro b lem .

A re v ie w o f w ork com pleted i n

t h i s f i e l d i s b r i e f l y r e p o r te d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p te r . The p r e s e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n i s an e x p e rim e n ta l a tte m p t t o s tu d y th e o v e r t m a n if e s ta tio n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t . p la c e d upon i t s v i s u a l a s p e c t s .

P a r t i c u l a r em phasis i s

I n g e n e r a l, th e e x p e rim e n ta l te c h n iq u e

was t o have ju d g e s , c o n s id e re d t o a l a r g e d e g re e t o b e e x p e rie n c e d i n ju d g in g s tu d e n t ’ s r e a c t i o n s t o a sp e a k in g s i t u a t i o n , judge s tu d e n ts

2

sp e a k in g i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e .

The ju d g e s r a t e d each sp e a k e r o b j e c t i v e l y

f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g re e s ” o f s ta g e f r i g h t .

The s p e a k e rs i n t u r n

r e p o r t e d , on a p ro v id e d s c a l e , t h e i r o m s u b je c tiv e f e e l i n g s d u rin g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sp e ak in g engagem ent.

The q u e s tio n s s p e c i f i c a l l y ask ed

i n te rm s o f t h e e x p e rim e n ta l s i t u a t i o n w ere: 1,

How r e l i a b l y and v a l i d l y can th e o v e r t m a n if e s ta tio n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t be m easured by means o f a r a t i n g s c a le te c h n iq u e a p p lie d t o c o lle g e s tu d e n t s p e a k e rs b y sp eech te a c h e r s and sp eech g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts ?

2,

What ch an g es, i f a n y , w i l l o c c u r when th e same ju d g e s r a t e m o tio n p i c t u r e s o f th e same sp e a k e rs f o r th e same p erfo rm an ce?

3,

What r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t h e r e betw een th e s e judgm ents o f th e o v e r t m a n if e s ta tio n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t and t h e s u b je c ti v e f e e l i n g s o f th e s p e a k e rs?

I n a p p ro a c h in g t h i s s tu d y , th e assu m p tio n t h a t s ta g e f r i g h t i s a sim p le o r s in g le o r c l e a r l y d e f in e d e n t i t y has been a v o id e d ./

/

R a th e r, i t h a s b een assum ed t h a t th e te rm may be used c o n v e n tio n a lly t o i n d i c a t e th o s e com plex, and u s u a lly u n p le a s a n t, e m o tio n a l s t a t e s w hich f r e q u e n t l y accompany th e e x p e rie n c e o f p u b lic p erfo rm e rs# G re e n le a f h as su g g e ste d th e f o llo w in g d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f " sp ee c h f r i g h t , " b a se d upon 789 q u e s tio n n a ir e re sp o n s e s and a p e r s o n a l in te r v ie w w ith 14 s tu d e n ts who r e p o r te d se v e re s ta g e f r i g h t : " . . . an e v a lu a tiv e d i s a b i l i t y , o c c u rin g i n s o c i a l sp e ec h s i t u a t i o n s and c h a r a c te r iz e d by a n t i c i p a t o r y n e g a tiv e r e a c t i o n s o f f e a r , a v o id a n c e , and v a r io u s i n t e r n a l and o v e r t m a n if e s ta tio n s o f t e n s i o n and b e h a v io r a l m a n if e s t a tio n s ," *

* F lo y d I* G re e n le a f, "An E x p lo r a to r y S tu d y o f S o c ia l Speech F r i g h t , " (u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r’ s T h e s is , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 1 9 4 7 ).

I t h a s b een f u r t h e r assumed t h a t ( l i k e e l e c t r i c i t y , p e rh a p s) t h e s e phenomena can be m easu red , a t l e a s t a p p ro x im a te ly , w ith o u t th e n e c e s s i t y o f f i r s t b e in g a b le t o d e f in e them p r e c i s e l y .

I t seems

v a l i d t o f u r t h e r assum e t h a t te c h n iq u e s o f m easurem ent m ust be th o ro u g h ly d ev elo p ed b e f o r e s y s te m a tic e x p lo r a tio n can be made t o d e te rm in e e x p e r im e n ta lly th e b e s t c o r r e c t iv e m e d ia .

One aim o f t h e

p r e s e n t s tu d y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o a tte m p t v a l i d a t i o n o f s u b je c tiv e and o b je c tiv e m e asu rin g d e v ic e s .

The in v e n to ry u se d by th e s p e a k e rs i n

t h i s ex p e rim en t was d ev elo ped and p a r t i a l l y v a l i d a t e d by G ilk in so n *

o

The s c a l e p ro v id e d f o r th e ju d g e s grew from t h e need f o r such a m e a su rin g d e v ic e f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p e rim e n t.

I f th e s e d e v ic e s

p ro v e t o have s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , th e way i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y paved f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s le a d in g t o m ethods o f co p in g w ith th e sp ee ch f r i g h t problem a s i t a p p e a rs i n classro o m s p e a k e rs . TEXTUAL MB PERIODICAL SOURCES DEALING WITH STAGE FRIGHT T h e o rie s a s t o th e n a tu r e and c a u se s o f s ta g e f r i g h t abound i n t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l and a r e p r e s e n t t o a l e s s e r e x te n t i n p e r i o d ic a l lite ra tu re .

P r a c t i c a l s u g g e s tio n s f o r i t s tr e a tm e n t and cu re a r e a l s o

q u ite p re v a le n t.

The f o llo w in g m a t e r ia ls p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t so u rc e s

w hich t r e a t th e t h e o r i e s and th e r a p i e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t : - —

XT

Q

^

^

"

'

Howard G ilk in s o n , ”S o c ia l F e a rs As R ep o rted b y S tu d e n ts i n C o lle g e S peech C l a s s e s ,” Speech M onographs, 9:141-160# 1942*

.

1.

C h a rle s W. Lomas, " S ta g e F r i g h t , " Q u a r te rly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 30:479-85* December, 1944*

2.

, "The P sychology o f S ta g e F r i g h t , " Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S p eech , 3 7 5 3 5 - 4 4 , F e b r u a ry , 1937.

3.

Donald C. B ry an t and K a rl R. W a lla c e , F undam entals o f P u b lic S p eak in g (New Y ork: D. A p p le to n -C e n tu ry Company, I n c . , 1947)* pp* 6 0 - 6 9 .

4.

Donald H ayw orth, An_ I n tr o d u c tio n t o P u b lic S peaking (New Y ork: The R enolds P re s s Company, 1935)* pp* 253-257*

5.

Jon E is e n s o n , The P sychology o f S peech (New Y ork: F . S . C ro fts and C o ., 1938;," p p . 260-267.

6.

H. L. H o llin g w o rth , The P sychology o f th e A udience (New Y ork: A m erican Book Company, 1935)', pp* 205-226.

7.

L e s te r T honssen and Howard G ilk in s o n , B a sic T r a in in g i n Speech (B o sto n : D. C. H eath and Company, 1 9 4 7 ), pp* 31-51

8.

R o b e rt T. O liv e r , The P sychology o f P e r s u a s iv e Speech (New Y ork: Longmans G reen and C o ., 1947)V PP* "60-89 •'

9*

Elwood M urray, ”A S tu d y o f th e F a c to r s C o n tr ib u tin g t o th e M al-B evelopm ent o f th e S peech P e r s o n a l i t y ," Speech M onographs, 3* 9 5-108, I 9 3 6 .

10.

J . C* F r u g e l, " S ta g e F r ig h t and A nal E r o tis m ," B r i t i s h J o u rn a l o f M ed ical P sy ch o lo g y , 17*189-196, 1938.

I n g e n e r a l t h e above a u th o r s s u g g e s t th e fo llo w in g t h e o r i e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e cau se o f s ta g e f r i g h t : f F e a r R esp o n se.

One th e o r y advanced i n m ost t e x t s i s t h a t

s ta g e f r i g h t stem s from a n in te n s e f e a r re s p o n s e , t h e r e a c t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t th e crow d.

T h is f e a r may be e x p re s s e d by f l i g h t ,

a g g r e s s iv e n e s s , im m o b ility , o r c o l l a p s e .

I t may a l s o , i n in d iv id u a ls

c a p a b le o f h a n d lin g th e e x p e r ie n c e , be m a n ife s te d by " m a n ip u la tiv e " a c tiv ity .

The l a t t e r h a s b e e n d e f in e d a s a c ts d i r e c t l y s e r v ic e a b le

5 t o th e s p e a k e r.

These a c t s a r e t h e norm al r e a c t i o n s o f h e a lth y

Learned B e h a v io r.

H o llin g w o rth s u g g e s ts t h a t s ta g e f r i g h t i s

cau sed by a n ne m o tio n a l r e d i n t e g r a t i o n ” i n w hich some d i s a b lin g em otion i s r e i n s t a t e d by th e p re se n c e o f some f e a t u r e o f a more com plex s i t u a t i o n i n w hich t h e em otion a r o s e .

The a u d ie n c e s i t u a t i o n

has a n elem en t o r ele m en ts i n common w ith a p a s t s i t u a t i o n w hich o r ig in a lly re s u lte d in a re a c tio n o f f e a r .

V ario u s o th e r a u th o r s

a l s o s u b s c r ib e t o t h i s t h e o r y .^ N e u ro tic B e h a v io r.

A ccording t o some a u th o r s s ta g e f r i g h t

i s th e r e s u l t o f two i n s t i n c t i v e r e a c t i o n s , th e lo n g in g f o r an au d ie n c e and t h e f e a r o f a p p e a rin g b e f o r e i t .

Whenever t h e two

te n d e n c ie s become e q u a lly p o te n t i n a n i n d i v i d u a l , th e e m o tio n a l s t r a i n b ro u g h t a b o u t by t h e i r c o n f l i c t r e s u l t s i n a n e u r o tic a p p ro a c h t o th e s p e a k e r-a u d ie n c e s i t u a t i o n . s u p p o rts t h i s th e o r y .

A s tu d y r e p o r te d by M urray

I n v e s t i g a t i n g 25 s u p e r io r and 25 i n f e r i o r

s p e a k e rs he fo u n d h ig h p o s i t i v e s c o re s on th e B e r n r e u te r P e r s o n a li ty I n v e n to ry i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and dom inence and n e g a tiv e s c o re s i n in tro v e r s io n .

The r e v e r s e o f t h i s was t r u e f o r i n f e r i o r s p e a k e r s .5

3 T h is th e o r y seems t o have o r ig i n a te d w ith W. H. R. R iv e r s , I n s t i n c t and t h e U n co n scio u s, Cambridge U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1920. A lso se e E is e n s o n , p . 2 &I5 H o llin g w o rth , p p . 209-212; B ry an t and W a lla c e , pp . 6 0 -6 7 ; and Thonssen and G ilk in s o n , pp* 31-55 I n th e s o u rc e s l i s t e d w ith in t h e t e x t o f t h i s c h a p te r . 4 H o llin g w o rth , p p . 213-217; E is e n s o n , pp* 363-3655 B ry an t and W a lla c e , p . 6 7 ; T honssen and G ilk in s o n , p . 35 (se e p . 4 . t h i s c h a p t e r ) . 5 E is e n s o n , p p . 262-265; H o llin g w o rth , p p . 212-213; B ry a n t anc W a lla c e , p p . 6 8 -6 9 ; O liv e r , p p . 62-73 (s e e p . 4 * t h i s c h a p t e r ) .

6 In a d e q u a te R esponse P a t t e r n s .

A ccording t o t h i s th e o r y s ta g e

f r i g h t i s th e r e s u l t o f p o o rly c o n tr o lle d em otions*

I t i s a m a n ife s ­

t a t i o n o f an i n a b i l i t y t o cope w ith th e sp eech s it u a t i o n *

T his

em otion d i f f e r s from o th e r sp eech em otions o n ly i n t h e d e g re e o f i n t e g r a t i o n to w ard a d e f i n i t e g o a l.

A im less b u t h ig h ly v ig o ro u s

a c t i v i t y i s o f te n th e r e s u l t o f t h i s b ro k en c o n f ig u ra tio n * 6 The above t h e o r i e s a s t o th e cau ses o f s ta g e f r i g h t o v e rla p somewhat.

Most a u t h o r s , who t r e a t th e problem i n any e x t e n t , m en tio n

them how ever.

I n some i n s ta n c e s th e te rm in o lo g y i s d i f f e r e n t and th e

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n more m in u te . I n g e n e r a l t h e a u th o r s c i t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p te r make th e f o llo w in g s u g g e s tio n s r e l a t i v e t o th e r a p y : The V igorous A c tio n Theory:

A th e o r y c a l l i n g f o r v ig o ro u s

^.

a c t i o n w h ile s p e a k in g h as i t s b a s is i n e a r ly works o f Cannon and h i s a s s o c ia te s .

I t assum es t h a t th e ch em ical c o n d itio n r e s p o n s ib le f o r

th e em otion can be worked o f f .

However, Lomas p o in ts o u t t h a t l a t e r

s tu d i e s by Cannon show t h a t w ith in c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y t h e ch em ical c o n d itio n w i l l in c r e a s e r a t h e r th a n d e c re a s e o r a t b e s t be m a in ta in e d . I f t h e r e i s any m e r it i n i n c r e a s in g th e d e g re e o f a speaker* s a c t i v i t y , Lomas b e lie v e s t h i s m e r it l i e s i n d i r e c t i n g th e a o t i v i t y to w ard th e d e f i n i t e g o a l o f p r e s e n tin g a k e e n ly f e l t m e ssa g e .^ ^ Lomas, p p . 3 5 -4 4 ; E is e n s o n , pp* 264-265 (s e e p . 4> t h i s c h a p te r)» ? Lomas, p . 42; B rig a n c e , p p . 18-19 (s e e p . 4> t h i s c h a p t e r ) .

7 The S h i f t - o f - A t t e n t i o n Theory*

E xponents o f a second th e o r y

s u g g e s t t h a t s ta g e f r i g h t can b e e lim in a te d o r a t l e a s t le s s e n e d by s h i f t i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n from one* s s e l f t o some o th e r o b je c t i n t h e im m ediate environm ent*

The s tu d e n t i s ta u g h t t o h a n d le o b je c ts i n h i s

p o s s e s s io n , ta k e a deep b r e a t h , do a l o t o f -walking upon t h e p la tf o r m , e tc *

T h is th e o r y h a s b een c r i t i c i z e d on t h e grounds t h a t th e s e

a c t i v i t i e s a r e e x tra n e o u s t o th e sp e a k in g s i t u a t i o n , an i n t e g r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y to w ard a -wrong goal*® The R ep eated P erform ance Theory*

Some te a c h e r s s u b s c r ib e t o a

th e o r y -which c a l l s f o r r e p e a te d p erfo rm an ces o f th e sp eech a c t*

They

b e l i e v e t h a t th e d o in g -o f-so m e th in g i s th e a l l im p o rta n t f a c t o r le a d ­ in g t o e m o tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t b e f o re a n au d ien ce*

I n th e phenomenon o f

e x c ite m e n t, th e s e n s a tio n te n d s t o d is a p p e a r a s soon a s some o v e r t re s p o n s e i s made t o th e s i t u a t i o n b r in g in g a b o u t th e e x c ite d s t a t e . The p erfo rm an ce o f th e o v e r t a c t i s p ro b a b ly th e f i r s t s te p i n th e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l 's r e s p o n s e s , le a d in g u l t i m a t e l y t o th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s more o r l e s s a d e q u a te f o r m e e tin g t h e s it u a t i o n *

Tfthen th e s i t u a t i o n i s a d e q u a te ly m e t, t h e

em o tio n a l s t a t e d isap p ears* ® The H aving-a-M essage Theory*

E xponents o f th e h av e-a-m essag e

th e o r y b e l i e v e t h a t i f a sp e a k e r h a s som ething he w ish es t o say b a d ly enough he w i l l c o n c e n tr a te so th o ro u g h ly on h i s m essage t h a t ® Lomas, p* 43 J E is e n s o n , p* 267 (s e e p . 4.* t h i s c h a p te r ) ., 9 E is e n s o n , p . 266 (s e e p* 4* t h i s c h a p te r)*

h© w i l l f o r g e t h im se lf*

A sp e a k e r can h o s t su cceed i f he p ic k s

s u b je c ts w hich a ro u s e i n d i g n a tio n , hum or, p i t y , sym pathy, etc *

Lomas

b e lie v e s t h i s method s u g g e s ts th e th e o r y o f c o r t i c a l c o n tr o l a t i t s b e s t , and sh o u ld be th e g o a l o f e v e ry s p e a k e r and o f e v e ry te a c h e r o f speech*

He re a c h e s th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f e m o tio n a l

a c t i v i t y tow ard th e d e f i n i t e g o al o f c a r r y in g a m essage t o an a u d ie n c e i s l i k e l y t o o f f e r a s o lu t i o n t o th e s ta g e f r i g h t p r o b le m .^ The F sy ch o d ram atio Theory*

S in c e th e p h ilo so p h y o f th e

psychodram a movement i s c o m p a ra tiv e ly new, o n ly a few p e rso n s have v e n tu re d t o p la c e on p ap er th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f any p h ase o f i t t o th e te a c h in g o f speech*

H am ilto n , i n an a r t i c l e i n th e Q u a r te rly

J o u rn a l o f S p eech , rev ie w s some s tu d ie s w hich have im p lic a tio n s f o r t h e s ta g e f r i g h t p ro b le m . ^

He r e p o r t s a s tu d y by J* G* F r i t z o f

Columbia U n iv e r s ity i n w hich 30 a d u l t s p a r t ic ip a te d * in v o lv e d two p h a s e s :

The su rv ey

One aim ed a t d e v e lo p in g a more c o n v e r s a tio n a l

to n e t o th e c la ssro o m sp eeches, and th e o t h e r so u g h t t o produce s p o n ta n e ity o f u t t e r a n c e . To a cc o m p lish th e f i r s t p u rp o s e , a s o c io m e tr ic r a t i n g o f each s tu d e n t was o b ta in e d th ro u g h c o n fe re n c e s w hich to o k p la c e b e f o r e th e fo rm a l c l a s s m e t.

The answ er t o such q u e s tio n s a s ,,1ftho s h a l l comment

on y o u r t a l k t o n i g h t ? ” w ere c a r e f u l l y stu d ie d *

T hree c h o ic e s were

Lomas, p . 43* E is e n s o n , p . 266; B rig a n c e , pp* 17-19 (se e p* 4* t h i s c h a p t e r ) . ^ John H* H am ilto n , ”The Psychodrama and I t s I m p lic a tio n s i n Speech A d ju s tm e n t,” Q u a r te rly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 29:61-67* F e b ru a ry , 1943*

9 p e r m itte d i n s e l e c t i n g th e s e key p e rso n s vdio se rv e d a s th e s p e a k e r ’ s s p e c i a l a u d ie n c e .

The c r i t i c s th u s s e le c te d aslced q u e s tio n s and

engaged i n f r i e n d l y h e c k lin g .

T his s e c tio n o f th e e x p e rim e n t proved

co n d u civ e t o an in c r e a s e d c o n v e r s a tio n a l a b i l i t y and in d u c e d th e s p e a k e rs t o t a l k t o th e c l a s s r a t h e r th a n t o an " a u d ie n c e ." To a c co m p lish t h e p u rp o se o f s e c u rin g s p o n ta n e ity , 'impromptu a c t s w ere d e v is e d . m ost e a s i l y .

These a c t s d eterm in e d w hich s p e a k e rs "warmed up"

Id e a s f o r th e a c t s w ere fu rn is h e d by th e te a c h e r and

th e s tu d e n ts worked them o u t a s th e a c t i o n p ro c e e d e d .

In o rd e r to

t r a n s f e r t h i s s p o n ta n e ity t r a i n i n g t o a c t u a l s p e e c h e s , th e s tu d e n ts , w ere ask ed t o d ra m a tiz e s i t u a t i o n s a b o u t w hich th e y w ished t o t a l k . -\

F ra n z co n clu d es t h a t t h i s m ethod may be used t o a s s i s t i n overcom ing s ta g e f r i g h t . Rudolph o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f Denver conducted a s tu d y i n w hich n i n e t y - f i v e sp eech fu n d a m e n ta ls s tu d e n ts w ere g iv e n t h e B e m r e u te r t e s t a s a means o f s e c u rin g in f o r m a tio n f o r c a s tin g them i n p a r t s d i r e c t l y o p p o s ite t h e i r norm al tem peram ent.

A f te r two w eeks’

r e h e a r s a l s , th e d ra m a tic sc e n e s were p re s e n te d t o th e c l a s s .

L a te r

th e s tu d e n ts w ere in te rv ie w e d t o d e te rm in e t h e i r g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e to w ard t h e e x e r c i s e .

Over 80% f e l t th e y had b e n e f ite d by p la y in g

th e r o l e s #13 12 j . G. F ra ii 2 , " S p o n ta n e ity T r a in in g i n P u b lic S peaking C l a s s e s , ” S o c io m e try , 2 :4 9 -5 3 . 1939* (Reviewed by H am ilto n , I b i d . ) 13 Epitom e by Howard G ilk in s o n , The T h e ra p e u tic V alue o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S h a k esp e area n S c e n e s, 1935* (R ep o rted by H am ilto n , 2EL* C i t «)

10 In summary, i t sh o u ld he n o te d t h a t th e m ost m entioned t h e o r i e s r e l a t i v e t o th e cu re o f s ta g e f r i g h t c a l l f o r v ig o ro u s a c t i o n , s h i f t o f - a t t e n t i o n , r e p e a te d p e rfo rm a n c e , and h a v e -a -m e ssa g e .

The

p sy c h o d ra m a tic th e o r y i s m entioned above a s an exam ple o f a new a p p ro a c h d ev elo p ed s p a r in g ly i n c o m p a ra tiv e ly r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e . i s p e rh a p s a f r u i t f u l f i e l d f o r r e s e a r c h .

It

P h ra se s such a s r e - e d u c a ­

t i o n , r e - c o n d i t i o n i n g , s e l f - a n a l y s i s , c o u n s e lin g , m e n ta l-h y g ie n e , and p h y s ic a l e x e r c is e i n d i c a t e o th e r m ethods o c c a s io n a lly s u g g e ste d a s a means o f g e t t i n g a t th e problem o f s ta g e f r i g h t , j^ JP o ssib ly t h e b e s t s in g l e s ta te m e n t p h ra se d i n te rm s o f a d v ic e t o s tu d e n ts on th e problem o f s ta g e f r i g h t i s o f f e r e d by B ry an t and W a lla c e ,^ A.

B.

The f o llo w in g i s an o u t l i n e o f t h e i r s u g g e s tio n s s M inim ize t h e h a z a rd : 1 , R ecognize t h a t sp e a k in g i n p u b lic does n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y from sp e a k in g i n p r i v a t e . 2. L earn a s much a s p o s s ib le a b o u t p u b lic s p e a k in g . E x p e rie n c e i s a n u n s u rp a s se d t e a c h e r . 3# R e a liz e t h a t o th e r s i n th e classro o m s h a re th e same e x p e r ie n c e . 4, B eg in p r e p a r a ti o n e a r l y and p re p a re th o ro u g h ly . C o n fro n t th e h a z a rd : 1. Adapt t h e a t t i t u d e o f d e te r m in a tio n . 2. V o lu n te e r t o sp eak i f th e o c c a s io n p r e s e n ts its e lf.

C.

R ep lace f e a r by a n o th e r em otion: 1. P ic k sp eech s u b je c ts w hich a ro u s e in d i g n a ti o n , hum or, p i t y , sym pathy.

D.

Avoid ru n n in g away movements and b o d ily ’’s e t s ” : 1. B eh av io r t o be a d a p te d i n t h e moments b e f o r e sp e a k in g :

4

*

j ^

^ D onald C. B ry a n t and K a rl R. W a lla c e , F undam entals o f P u b lic S p e a k in g , (New Y ork: D. A p p leto n —C en tu ry Company, 1947) PP• &0-6>9»

/

12 a. b. c. d. e. 2.

S i t u p rig h t* B re a th e d e e p ly and r e g u l a r l y . L e t s h o u ld e rs sag a l i t t l e and t r y t o f e e l r e la x e d ab o u t th e s h o u ld e rs and c h e s t. W alk b r i s k l y t o th e p o s i t i o n f o r s p e a k in g . ’’S e t t l e ” i n t o th e sp e a k in g p o s itio n b e f o r e s ta rtin g to ta lk .

B eh av io r d u r in g sp e a k in g : a . S te p tow ard th e a u d ie n c e w ith th e i n i t i a l rem arks o f th e sp e e c h . b . S e l e c t a s u b je c t t h a t w i l l r e q u ir e a v i s u a l a id . c . I f a memory la p s e o c c u r s , summarize w hat h a s b een p r e v io u s ly s a i d .

The above a d v ic e i s d i r e c te d tow ard t h e s tu d e n t.

P o s s ib ly th e

b e s t s in g le s o u rc e p o in tin g o u t th e te a c h e r * s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n th e a l l e v i a t i o n o f s ta g e f r i g h t i s o f f e r e d by Lomas. 1*5 J

H is s u g g e s tio n s

a r e o u tlin e d below : A.

P re v e n t s ta g e f r i g h t th ro u g h i n t e l l i g e n t p la n n in g o f th e sp ee ch c o u rse : 1 . C r i t i c i z e one th in g a t a tim e . 2 . M o tiv ate a l l assig n m e n ts th o ro u g h ly .

B.

R em edial tr e a tm e n t: 1 . F o rce a d e q u a te p r e p a r a tio n by r e q u ir in g an o u t l i n e i n advance o f th e sp e a k in g d a te and by r e q u i r i n g th e s tu d e n t t o sp e a k w ith o u t n o te s . 2 . R e fe r o c c a s io n a lly t o th e e x p e rie n c e s o f g r e a t s p e a k e rs . 3 . Devote t h e f i r s t few m in u te s o f ea c h p e rio d t o group e x e r c is e s d e sig n e d t o o f f e r r e l a x a t i o n i n b r e a t h i n g , b o d ily a c t i o n , and v o c a l c o n tr o l. 4* Im press upon th e s tu d e n ts th e need t o c o n c e n tr a te on a m essage and an a u d ie n c e r a t h e r th a n upon th e m se lv e s •

^

C h a rle s W. Lomas, ’’S tag e F r i g h t , ” Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 30:4^9-85* Decem ber, 1944. ^

12 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES DEALING- WITH STAGE FRIGHT T here a p p e a r to be t h r e e p o s s ib le a p p ro ach es t o th e m easurem ent o f s ta g e f r i g h t :

(1 ) P h y s io lo g ic a l ch an g es, (2 ) I n tr o s p e c t i v e

r e p o r t s , and (3) R e p o rts by o b s e rv e rs * P h y s io lo g ic a l Changes *

The w r i t e r i s unaware o f any p u b lis h e d

stu d y w hich p u r p o r ts to m easure p h y s io lo g ic a l changes d u rin g s ta g e 7 frig h t* W aggoner, i n an u n p u b lish e d M a s te r’ s T h e s is , r e p o r te d g a lv a n o m e tric r e a d in g s i n com paring th e b o d ily d is tu r b a n c e s o f s u p e r io r and i n f e r i o r sp e a k e rs*

16

A lth o u g h -hie s tu d y was n o t a s

c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o ll e d as m ig h t be c o n s id e re d d e s ir a b l e and th e r e p o r te d r e s u l t s w ere n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n c lu s iv e , th e s tu d y does p o in t th e m y t o p o s s ib le r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , A s tu d y o f t h i s n a tu r e i s i n f a c t now i n p r o g re s s a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ,

17

T his r e s e a r c h in v o lv e s such

v a r i a b l e s a s p u l s e , r e s p i r a t i o n , and b lo o d p re s s u re *

I t v e r y p ro b a b ly

w i l l p ro d u ce some i n t e r e s t i n g and w o rth w h ile d ata* I n t r o s p e c t i v e R e p o r ts *

By a c o n s id e ra b le m a rg in , th e g r e a t e s t

number o f s ta g e f r i g h t s tu d ie s ap p ro a c h th e problem fro m th e s ta n d p o in t o f t h e s p e a k e r ’ s own s u b je c tiv e r e a c t i o n s t o th e a u d ie n c e s it u a t i o n * 3-6 J a n ic e Yfaggoner, 11A C om parative G alv an o m etric S tu d y o f I n f e r i o r and S u p e rio r S p e a k e r s ,” (u n p u b lish e d M a s te r’ s T h e s is , The U n iv e r s ity o f D en v er, 1933)* 3-7 T h is s tu d y , a Ph.D . D i s s e r t a t i o n by W illia m R. P a r k e r , i s s t i l l i n th e p ro c e s s o f w r itin g * I t m i l be su b m itte d t o th e U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a i n th e n e a r f u tu r e *

13 H e n rik s on had 205 F undam entals o f Speech s tu d e n ts a t I o i a T each ers C o lle g e co m plete a q u e s tio n n a ir e on t h e i r s ta g e f r i g h t . IS They th u s r a t e d th e m se lv e s on a s c a le o f t e n - p o in t v a lu e w ith p o in t $ 1 i n d i c a t i n g "no f r i g h t " and c o n tin u in g th ro u g h t o p o in t $10 w hich in d i c a t e d

"a g r e a t amount o f s ta g e f r i g h t , ” These r a t i n g s w ere

se c u re d b o th

a t th e b e g in n in g and end o f t h e co u rse and f o r th e

f o llo w in g se v en ty p e s o f sp e e c h e s: 1* 2, 3« 4. 5. 6. 7.

A p re p a re d sp eech w ith n o te s , A p re p a re d sp eech w ith o u t n o t e s . A memorized s p e e c h . A r e a d in g . An improm ptu sp e e c h . A sp eech t o a n au d ie n c e o f n o t o v er 25 members. A sp eech t o a la r g e a u d ie n c e .

At t h e end o f t h e c o u r s e , b u t on a d i f f e r e n t d a y , th e s tu d e n ts a l s o f i l l e d o u t a second q u e s tio n n a ir e i n d i c a t i n g th e e f f e c t t h e c o u rse o f sp e ec h had had on t h e i r s ta g e f r i g h t .

T his s c a le was worded a s

f o llo w s : 1. 2, 3♦ 4* 5.

Much l e s s a f r a i d . Less a f r a i d . U nchanged. More a f r a i d . Much more a f r a i d .

The above r a t i n g was g iv e n f o r b o th sp e a k in g and re a d in g and was compared t o th e s e f a c t o r s i n th e f i r s t q u e s tio n n a ir e .

Here a ls o

t h e s tu d e n ts i n d i c a t e d f a c t o r s t h a t had had an in f lu e n c e on t h e i r s ta g e f r i g h t .

The c o n c lu s io n s re a c h e d a s a r e s u l t o f th e s tu d y w ere

a s f o llo w s : E r n e s t H. H e n rik so n , "Some E f f e c t s on S ta g e F r i g h t o f a C ourse i n S p e e c h ," Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 29:490-491* Decem ber, 1943.

1.

Speech t r a i n i n g prom otes c o n fid e n c e ,

2.

F e e lin g s o f c o n fid e n c e a r e g e n e ra l and do n o t a p p ly a lo n e t o ty p e s o f sp e a k in g i n -which s tu d e n ts have p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r in g th e c o u rs e ,

3*

C o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c i e n t s “betw een n u m e ric a l g a in s i n c o n fid e n c e on t h e 1 0 -p o in t s c a le and v e r b a l s ta te m e n ts r e l a t i v e t o sp e a k in g to sm a ll a u d ie n c e was ^ .4 0 £ .0 4 . F o r r e a d in g t h e r_ was / , 4 1 ^£*04*

4*

T aking sp eech a c c e l e r a t e s a grow th i n c o n fid e n c e ,

5,

F a c to r s in f lu e n c in g g a in s i n c o n fid e n c e a rra n g e d i n ra n k o r d e r w ere: a . P ra c tic e , b* A t t i t u d e o f th e i n s t r u c t o r . c . The a t t i t u d e s o f th e c la s s m a te s . d . An in c r e a s e d l i k i n g f o r s p e a k in g . e . An in c r e a s e d u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e s tu d e n ts own s p e e c h . f . An e n la r g e d u n d e rs ta n d in g o f sp eech i n g e n e r a l g . F e e lin g s o f h av in g su cceed ed . h . A n a ly s is o f cau ses o f s ta g e f r i g h t .

Chenoweth^S r e p o r t s a stu d y d e sig n e d t o d e te rm in e p o s s ib le f a c t o r s i n c i d e n t t o t h e developm ent o f adequacy i n "The P ro c e s s o f A d ju stm en t t o t h e S p eak in g S i t u a t i o n .

P ro c e d u re s in v o lv e d i n

t h i s s tu d y to o k fo u r s t e p s : 1.

I n s t r u c t o r s o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, S peech I , c l a s s e s r a t e d s tu d e n ts u s in g th e f o llo w in g s c a le :

^ Eugene C. Chenow eth, "The A djustm ent o f C o lle g e Freshm en t o t h e S p eak in g S i t u a t i o n , " Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 2 6 :585-58 8 Be cem ber, 1940• ^0 A p h ra se d e f in e d a s , "The p ro c e s s by w hich t h e s p e a k e r, i n e x e c u tin g t h e sp ee ch a c t , a d j u s t s , o rg a n iz e s and c o n tr o ls th e f u n c tio n in g o f h i s b o d ily m echanism i n acc o rd a n c e w ith , i n s p i t e o f c o n d itio n s -w ithin t h e im m ediate sp eech s i t u a t i o n . " Borrowed from H. G. B a rn e s, A_ P h ilo so p h y o f Speech E d u c a tio n , B aconian L e c tu r e , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, March 18, 1938, p . 5*

15 1) I n f e r i o r 2) V ery poor 3) Poor 4) A d eq u a tely a d ju s te d 5) Good 6) V ery good 7) S u p e rio r S tu d e n ts r e c e i v in g i d e n t i c a l m arks tw ic e i n a row w ith an i n t e r v a l o f one week betw een th e s c o re s w ere s e le c t e d f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y . 2.

A c a s e - h i s t o r y q u e s tio n n a ir e was a d m in is te re d t o th e 877 s p e a k e rs th u s s e l e c t e d . I t d e a l t w ith e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l background and p re v io u s sp eech t r a i n i n g . These w ere t a b u l a t e d and a n a ly z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o th e above ra tin g s •

3*

The B e m r e u te r P e r s o n a lity In v e n to ry m s a d m in is te r e d t o 100 w e ll and 100 p o o r ly a d ju s te d s p e a k e rs .

4.

F i f t y s p e a k e rs r e p r e s e n tin g t h e ex trem es o f each group o f 100 l i s t e d above w ere th e n in te rv ie w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y .

Chenoweth found t h a t th e w e ll a d ju s te d group had had t r a i n i n g from e a r l y c h ild h o o d th ro u g h h ig h s c h o o l.

He concluded t h a t any

program o f sp eech i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u ld b e g in v e r y e a r ly i n l i f e . G re e n le a f a d m in is te re d a q u e s tio n n a ir e t o 789 Com m unication S k i l l s s tu d e n ts a t th e S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa whose re s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d s ta g e f r i g h t r e a c t i o n s H e a l s o in te rv ie w e d 14 s tu d e n ts s u f f e r i n g from s e v e re s ta g e f r i g h t .

The c o n c lu s io n re a c h e d was t h a t

t h e r e a p p e a rs t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e d eg ree o f s ta g e f r i g h t and th e number o f a v o id a n c e s o f sp eech s i t u a t i o n s , t h e number o f symptoms, t h e d e g re e t o w hich s tu d e n ts r e a c t t o a u t h o r i t y , and f a c t o r s o f e a r l y l i f e and sc h o o l d ev elo p m en t.

21 F lo y d I . G re e n le a f, “An E x p lo r a to r y S tudy o f S o c ia l Speech F r i g h t , ” (u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r’ s T h e s is , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 1 9 4 7 ).

G re e n le a f s u g g e s ts t h a t t h e r e may be a s i m i l a r i t y betw een s t u t t e r i n g and s ta g e f r i g h t i n t h a t i n b o th c o n d itio n s th e b a s ie d is tu r b a n c e may b e d e s ig n a te d a s ”a n x ie ty - te n s i o n o c c a s io n e d by m is e v a lu a tiv e r e a c t i o n s t o sp eech s i t u a t i o n s ” and t h a t s o c i a l sp ee ch f r i g h t m ig h t p o s s ib ly b e t r e a t e d th ro u g h t h e same c l i n i c a l m ethodology u sed w ith s t u t t e r i n g . I n a s tu d y r e p o r te d from S ta n fo r d U n iv e r s ity two groups o f s tu d e n t s c o m p risin g f i f t y ea c h w ere chosen by two sp eech i n s t r u c t o r s from b e g in n in g sp eech c l a s s e s on th e b a s is o f w h e th e r o r n o t th e y e x h ib ite d s ta g e f r i g h t .

22

Two ex trem es were r e p r e s e n te d i n a ” l e a s t -

f r i g h t ” and a ”m o s t - f r i g h t ” g ro u p .

The B e m r e u te r I n v e n to r y ,

S c h e lle n b e rg F req u en cy T a b le , and a q u e s tio n n a ir e w ere u sed a s a means o f g a th e r in g d a t a .

T h is s tu d y in d ic a te d t h a t s u b je c ts e x h i b i t ­

in g th e m ost s ta g e f r i g h t a r e more n e u r o t i c , more i n t r o v e r t e d , le s s d o m in an t, and l e s s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t th a n t h e s u b je c ts l e a s t s u s c e p tib le t o t h i s m alad y . Lomas s e c u re d r a t i n g s on n erv o u s b e h a v io r and i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s from one h u n d red and s ix te e n t e n t h g rad e s tu d e n ts

I t was

h i s p u rp o se t o d e te rm in e t h e e x te n t v a r io u s d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t a r e p r e s e n t i n b e g in n in g s p e a k e r s , th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e c o n d itio n p o s s e s s e d , th e changes i n t h i s c o n d itio n o c c u rin g d u r in g th e ^ M a rn e tta M. J o n e s , ”The R e la tio n s h ip o f C e r ta in P e r s o n a l ity T r a i t s t o S ta g e F r i g h t , ” (u n p u b lis h e d M aster*s T h e s is , S ta n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1947)• 23 C h a rle s W. Lomas, ”A S tu d y o f S tag e F r i g h t a s M easured by S tu d e n ts R e a c tio n ,” (u n p u b lis h e d M a s te r 's T h e sis.* ‘U n iv e r s ity o f D enver, 1933)* ~

t r a i n i n g p e r io d , and th e e f f e c t v a r io u s d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t had upon t h e q u a l i t y o f th e sp eech given*

He a r r i v e d a t t h e fo llo w in g

c o n c lu s io n s : 1*

W ith t h e group s t u d i e d , s ta g e f r i g h t m a n ife s te d i t s e l f m ost f r e q u e n tly i n g e n e r a liz e d and d if f u s e d e x p e rie n c e s r a t h e r th a n i n t h e more s p e c i f i c o n e s , o f f e r i n g some s u p p o rt t o t h e " b e lie f t h a t s ta g e f r i g h t i s an a c t i v i t y o f t h e e n t i r e body#

2*

P hobias a r e o u t o f a l l p r o p o r tio n t o th e a c t u a l number o f d i s t u r b i n g f a c to r s *

3*

S ta g e f r i g h t te n d s t o d e c re a s e w ith t r a i n i n g and in c r e a s e w ith t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new p r e s s u r e s o r c o m p lic a tin g f a c to r s *

4*

The m ild e r d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t a r e more common w ith t h e b e g in n e r th a n th e a b sen ce o f s ta g e f r i g h t o r th e more s e v e re form s o f s ta g e f r i g h t *

5*

S ta g e f r i g h t i n i t s more se v e re form s i s a s e r io u s b a r t o ach iev em en t i n speaking*

G ilk in s o n o f M in n eso ta co n d u cted a stu d y th e p u rp o se o f w hich i n p a r t was ”To d e v elo p a m ethod o f s e c u rin g r e p o r t s from s tu d e n ts on t h e em otions w h ich th e y e x p e rie n c e i n sp e a k in g b e f o re t h e i r c l a s s ­ m a te s * ” ^

fh.e in s tr u m e n t d ev elo p ed was la b e le d " P e rs o n a l R ep o rt on

C o n fid en ce As a S p eak er* ”

I t c o n s is te d o f th r e e d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f

m a te r ia ls : &re-pfcLc R a tin g S c a l e s * Two s c a l e s o f t h i s ty p e a r e p ro v id ed * On th e f i r s t th e s u b je c t i n d i c a t e s h i s f e e l i n g s j u s t b e f o r e and a t t h e b e g in n in g o f a ta lk * I n s c o r i n g , th e two r a t i n g s w ere a v e ra g e d and w ere r e f e r r e d t o a s th e PRCS R a tin g *

^ Howard G ilk in s o n , " S o c ia l P e a rs As R ep o rted by S tu d e n ts i n C o lle g e S peech C l a s s e s ,” Speech M onographs, 9*141-160, 1942; and ”A Q u e s tio n n a ir e S tu d y o f th e C auses o f S o c ia l F e a rs .Among C o lleg e Speech S t u d e n t s ,” S peech M onographs, 10:74-83* 1943*

18 2* Check L i s t o f D e s c r ip tiv e Terms* Twenty-two term s w ere p ro v id e d w hich co u ld be checked by th e s u b je c t as d e s c r i p t i v e o f h i s e x p e rie n c e b e f o r e and d u r in g h i s ta lk * I n s c o r in g , t h e ch eck m arks w ere summed and w ere r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Check L i s t S c o re , 3. l i s t o f D e s c r ip tiv e S ta te m e n ts * One hundred and f o u r s ta te m e n ts w ere in c lu d e d i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e form . The f i r s t f i f t y - f o u r r e f l e c t e d f e a r and t h e re m a in in g r e f l e c t e d c o n f i­ dence* They w ere checked by e n c i r c l i n g e i t h e r a wy e s ," " n o ,” o r ” ?M w hich a p p e a re d b e f o r e each ite m . I n s c o r in g , a w e ig h t o f m inus one was g iv e n each wy e s n re s p o n s e among th e f i r s t f i f t y - f o u r i t e m s , and a w e ig h t o f p lu s one t o th e re m a in in g item s* The s c o re was c a lc u l a te d a s t h e a lg e b r a i c sum o f th e p lu s and m inus ■values and m s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e FRCS Score* The above in v e n to r y w ith i t s t h r e e ty p e s o f m a te r ia ls was a d m in is te r e d t o 420 men and women e n r o lle d i n F undam entals o f Speech a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f M in n e so ta . tre a te d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . 1.

2.

3*

T hese d a ta w ere t a b u la te d and

The f o llo w in g c o r r e l a t i o n s were com puted:

S e lf-C o rre la tio n : a . O dd-even. b* C o rre c te d by t h e Spearman-Brown fo rm u la f o r d o u b lin g t h e le n g th o f th e m a te r ia l. c* R e te s t on 117 s u b je c ts a f t e r 4 m onths tim e la p s e . d . FRCS S co re s c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS R a tin g s . e . FRCS S co re s c o r r e l a t e d w ith Check L is t S co res. S peech S k i l l : a . S tu d e n t r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS S co res* b . Committee r a t i n g s (2 t e a c h e r s and one advanced s tu d e n t) c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS S cores* I n t e l l i g e n c e and H igh S ch o o l G rad es; a . A m erican C o u n cil P sy c h o lo g ic a l" E x a m in atio n s c o re s c o r r e la te d w ith FRCS S c o re s . b . H igh S chool p e r c e n t i l e ra n k s c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS S c o r e s .

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19 4.

P e rs o n a lity T est S co res* a* M innesota P e r s o n a lity S c a le S c o re s c o r r e l a t e d w ith PROS S c o re s i a) M oral b) S o c ia l A djustm ent c) F am ily R e la tio n s d ) E m o tio n a lity e) Economic S e c u r ity

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/.1 7 /.5 3 - .0 1 /« 3 4 -*04

As shown i n c o r r e l a t i o n s p re s e n te d a b o v e, when s u b j e c t s 1 re s p o n s e s t o t h i s in v e n to r y w ere p r o p e r ly t a b u l a t e d , PROS s c o re s w ere o b ta in e d w hich p ro v id e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e g re e o f s t a t i s t i c a l re lia b ility *

B ecause o f a la c k o f o b j e c ti v e and in d e p e n d e n t c r i t e r ­

io n a g a i n s t w hich th e " f e a r 11 and " c o n fid e n c e " v a r i a b l e co u ld be c h e c k ed , G ilk in s o n , a s m ig h t b e e x p e c te d , r e p o r te d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e q u a lly s a t i s f a c t o r y e v id e n c e o f v a l i d i t y *

However,

t h e fo re g o in g summary i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e " P e rs o n a l R e p o rt on C o n fid en ce As a S p eak er" h a s c o n s id e ra b le v a l u e , a t l e a s t f o r p u rp o se s o f re s e a rc h * R e p o rts by O b serv ers*

The w r i t e r i s unaw are o f any stu d y

w hich p la c e s p rim a ry em phasis on th e r e p o r t s o f o b s e r v e r s .

The

p r e s e n t s tu d y , h ow ever, i s a n a tte m p t t o u t i l i z e t h i s approach* The g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c p roblem s a r e s t a t e d i n d e t a i l i n th e fo llo w in g c h a p te r*

CHAPTER I I

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The o v e r - a l l problem o f _thi3 s tu d y may be s t a t e d a s f o llo w s : How r e l i a b l y and v a l i d l y call th e o v e r t m a n if e s ta tio n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t b e m easured by means o f a r a t i n g s c a le te c h n iq u e a p p lie d t o c o lle g e s tu d e n ts by sp e ec h te a c h e r s and sp eech g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts w h ile ( l ) w itn e s s in g a n " i n t h e f l e s h " p e rfo rm a n c e , and (2 ) w h ile v ie w in g s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s o f t h e same p erfo rm an ce? ANALYSIS OF "IN THE FLESH11 DATA1 The a n a l y s is o f t h e f i r s t p u rp o se r a i s e s th e f o llo w in g s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s : \ 1#

PRCS S co res*

What s c o re s w i l l be o b ta in e d on 40 s p e a k e rs

when th e s e s p e a k e rs s u b j e c ti v e l y r a t e th e m se lv e s f o r s ta g e f r i g h t , u s in g G ilk in so n * s PRCS in v e n to ry ? ^ - ’What w i l l b e th e o b ta in e d ra n g e o f t h e s e s c o re s a s opposed t o th e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum ra n g e ?

What

p e rc e n ta g e o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum w i l l th e o b ta in e d s c o re s encom­ pass?

How c a n t h e s e PRCS s c o r e s be tr a n s p o s e d i n t o a s in g le s c a le

o f p o s i t i v e v a lu e s ?

How can t h i s tra n s p o s e d s c a le be c o n v e rte d i n t o

1 H e r e a f te r th e i n i t i a l ju d g in g s e s s io n o f t h i s s tu d y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s S e s s io n I , o r a s th e " I n th e F le s h " S e s s io n . T h is w i l l s e rv e t h e p u rp o se o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from S e s s io n I I I , o r th e S i l e n t M otion P i c t u r e S e s s io n . ^ Howard G ilk in s o n , " S o c ia l F e a rs As R eported By S tu d e n ts i n C o lle g e Speech C la s s e s ," Speech M onographs, 9 :1 4 1 -1 6 0 , 1942*

a seal© o f f i v e - p o i n t v a lu e to f a c i l i t a t e com parisons betw een th e PRCS s c o re s and th e r a t i n g s o f each s e p a r a te ju d g e? dR S c o r e s .

What w i l l he each ju d g e * s o b je c ti v e r a t i n g o f

t h e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t e v id e n c e d by each i n d i v i d u a l sp e a k e r a s r e p o r te d on a f i v e - s t e p s c a le ? th e s e r a t i n g s when a v e ra g e d ?

What w i l l be th e o b ta in e d ran g e o f What p e rc e n ta g e o f th e t h e o r e t i c a l

maximum ran g e w i l l th e s e JR a v e ra g e s encompass? 3*

V a lid ity ,

What grounds a r e th e r e f o r su p p o sin g t h a t th e

PRCS in v e n to ry i s a v a l i d means by w hich t o m easure a s p e a k e r1s s u b je c ti v e f e e l i n g s o f f e a r i n a sp e a k in g s i t u a t i o n ? G ilk in s o n v a l i d a t e th e PRCS?^

How d id

Does t h e u se o f t h e in v e n to ry f o r t h i s

e x p e rim e n t f u r t h e r te n d t o v a l i d a t e th e PRCS te c h n iq u e o f m e asu rin g s ta g e f r i g h t ? 4*

R e lia b ility .

What e v id e n c e do we have from G iH anson* s

r e p o r t t h a t PRCS i s r e l i a b l e a s a m easure o f a s tu d e n t* s s ta g e frig h t?

Does th e u se o f t h i s m easu rin g d e v ic e i n th e p r e s e n t

e x p erim e n t te n d t o f u r t h e r show PRCS r e l i a b i l i t y ? I s th e f i v e p o in t s c a le used by th e ju d g e s o f th e p r e s e n t e x p erim e n t r e l i a b l e a s an o b je c tiv e m easure o f o u te r m a n if e s ta tio n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t ?

What a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e mean s c o re s

and th e c o rre s p o n d in g s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s when th e ju d g e s o f a r a t i n g s e s s io n a r e d iv id e d i n t o h a lv e s and th e means and d e v ia tio n s

5 I b i d . , p p . 157-159*

22 o f one h a l f compared w ith th o s e o f th e o th e r h a lf ?

What i s t h e

c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t betw een th e s p l i t - h a l v e s ? “What a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e mean s c o r e s and th e c o rre s p o n d in g s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s when th e ju d g es a r e d iv id e d by random d raw in g i n t o tw e lv e groups o f f i v e each and th e means o f ea ch o f th e s e g roups a r e compared s e p a r a te ly w ith th e means o f th e e n t i r e group? 5•

What c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e th u s o b ta in e d ?

C om parison o f J u d g e s 1 R a tin g s and S peakers* I n t r o s p e c t i v e

R e p o r ts > Yihat i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e mean s c o re and th e c o rre s p o n d in g s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n when th e judgm ents o f th e ju d g e s a r e p a ir e d a g a i n s t t h e sp eak ers* own r e p o r t s o f ’C o n f id e n c e ” o r ’’f e a r ? ”

What c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s betw een th e s e two s e p a r a te judgm ents? 6.

Compari son o f Judges Based Upon Sex D if f e r e n c e s .

What

means and s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s may be o b ta in e d when judgm ent com pari­ sons a r e m ade, b ased upon sex d i f f e r e n c e s ?

What c o r r e l a t i o n

c o e f f i c i e n t may be found betw een fem ale judgm ents and th e i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s o f th e sp e a k e rs ?

What c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t may be found

b etw een m ale judgm ents and th e i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s o f th e s p e a k e rs ? Gf w hat s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e th e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s ? 7.

E x p e rie n c e d Judges Compared W ith S tu d e n t Judges*

What i s

t h e mean and s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n o f th o s e ju d g es who have had a c t u a l c la ssro o m e x p e rie n c e a s t e a c h e r s o f speech?

What i s th e mean and

s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n o f th o s e ju d g e s who have done no fo rm a l cla ssro o m

23 te a c h in g ?

'What c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t may be found b etw een th e

e x p e rie n c e d ju d g e s and t h e i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s o f th e sp e a k e rs ? What c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s betw een t h e in e x p e r ie n c e d ju d g e s and th e same i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s ?

Of w hat s t a t i s t i c a l s ig n i f i c a n c e a r e

th e s e s e p a r a te r v a lu e s ? 8•

C om parison o f Judges Based Upon S e a tin g P o s itio n ^

What

i s th e mean and s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n o f th o s e ju d g e s who w ere s e a te d on th e f r o n t rows d u rin g t h e ex p erim en t?

What i s th e c o rre s p o n d in g

mean and s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n o f th o s e ju d g e s who s a t on b a c k rows d u rin g th e e x p erim e n t?

What c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t may be found

b etw een th o s e who s a t on th e f r o n t rows and th o s e who s a t on th e b a ck rows a s m easured a g a in s t th e i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s o f th e sp e a k e rs ?

What i s th e s t a t i s t i c a l s ig n i f i c a n c e o f th e two c o r r e l a ­

t i o n s th u s o b ta in e d ? 9•

Com parison o f Judges Based Upon S peech-A rea S p e c i a l i t y «

Yfhat i s t h e mean and s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n o f th o s e ju d g e s c l a s s i f i e d a s p re d o m in a te ly s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e f i e l d o f sp eech a r t s ?

What i s

t h e mean and s ta n d a rd d e v ia t io n o f ju d g e s c l a s s i f i e d a s s p e c i a l i s t s i n th e sp eech s c ie n c e a re a ?

What i s th e mean and s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n

o f th o s e ju d g e s c l a s s i f i e d a s s p e c i a l i s t s i n th e f i e l d o f p u b lic a d d re s s ?

What i s th e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t betw een each o f th e

above m e n tio n ed groups and th e speak ers* i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s ? I s t h e s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r each group o f s t a t i s t i c a l s ig n i f i c a n c e ?

24 10•

C o n fid e n t S p eak ers Compared W ith F e a r f u l S p e a k e rs .

Are

t h e ju d g e s more c e r t a i n o f t h e i r judgm ents i n th e c a se o f " c o n f id e n t0 s p e a k e rs ?

Are th e ju d g es more s u re o f t h e i r judgm ents i n th e c a se o f

" f e a r f u l " sp e a k e rs ? th e s e two groups?

What a v e ra g e s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s a r e p r e s e n t f o r What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e betw een th e s e a v e ra g e

s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s ?

What i s th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f th e d if f e r e n c e

b etw een th e s e two a v e ra g e s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s a s m easured i n te rm s o f th e t - r a t i o ? 11 . u a lly .

Com parison o f C o lle c ti v e Judgm ents on S p eak ers I n d iv id ­

How c l o s e ly w i l l o b ta in e d JR and FRCS s c o r e s m atch when th e

l a t t e r a r e g iv e n f i v e - p o i n t v a lu e s by means o f d iv id in g t h e ra n g e o f t h e i r T -s c o re s i n t o f i v e e q u a l p a r t s ?

What w i l l be th e " b e s t ”

c o l l e c t i v e judgm ent made on any one sp e a k e r? c o l l e c t i v e judgm ent? c o l l e c t i v e ju d g e s?

What -w ill be th e " w o rst”

What w i l l be th e av e ra g e judgm ent f o r th e Of w hat s ig n if ic a n c e w i l l t h i s in fo r m a tio n be

f o r c la ssro o m u se? 12• tiv e ly .

Com parison o f I n d iv id u a l Judgments on S p e a k e rs C o lle c ­

A p p ly in g th e FRCS "k e y ” t o th e J R 's , w hat w i l l be t h e " b e s t"

i n d i v i d u a l judgm ent made on t h e s p e a k e rs c o l l e c t i v e l y ? t h e " w o rst" in d i v i d u a l judgm ent? judgm ent?

What w i l l be

What w i l l be th e a v e ra g e in d iv i d u a l

What w i l l be th e s ig n i f i c a n c e o f th e s e c o m p arativ e f in d in g s

t o a t e a c h e r o f speech? 13.

D ir e c tio n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s .

When th e "k ey ” PRCS s c o re s

25 a r e m atched w ith th e JR s c o r e s , w hat w i l l be t h e t o t a l number o f d e v ia tio n s from a c c u ra c y ?

What number o f th e s e d e v ia tio n s w i l l be

o v e r e s tim a tio n s o f sp e a k e r c o n fid e n c e ?

What p e rc e n ta g e o f th e t o t a l

d e v i a t i o n s w i l l be o v er e s tim a tio n s .and u n d er e s tim a tio n s r e s p e c t i v e l y ? What w i l l be th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een t h e s e o b ta in e d p e rc e n ta g e s ? What w i l l be t h e s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f t h e d if f e r e n c e betw een th e s e two p r o p o r tio n s ?

What i s th e s i g n i f i c a n c e , i f a n y , o f t h i s in f o r m a tio n

i n r e l a t i o n t o sp eech i n s t r u c t i o n ? •**4•

A ccuracy o f Judgment P a r t i a l l y a_ S peaker F u n c tio n .

What ra n k s w i l l be o b ta in e d when a l l s p e a k e rs a r e ra n k e d , from ”m o stw t o " l e a s t ” c o n fid e n c e , a c c o rd in g t o b o th FRCS and JR s c o re s ?

What

w i l l be t h e r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e PRCS and JR ra n k s c o re s th u s o b ta in e d ? in s ta n c e s ?

What w i l l be th e a v e ra g e r a n k d if f e r e n c e i n b o th

W ill t h i s r a n k in g o f s c o re s p r e s e n t any c a s e s w here

sp e a k e rs show extrem e v a r i a t i o n b etw een JR and PRCS s c o re s ?

I f so,

w hat i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a s i t r e l a t e s t o th e te a c h in g o f speech? analysis of s il e n t motion pic t u r e data

T h is b r in g s u s t o th e second m ain problem o f t h i s s tu d y : t h a t co n cern ed w ith judgm ents o f th e s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s .

An

a n a l y s is o f t h i s problem once a g a in r a i s e s m ost o f th e 14 groups o f s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s en um erated im m ed iately a b o v e .

T his tim e , how ever,

th e s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s sh o u ld be r e s t a t e d i n te rm s o f re se m b la n c e s a n d /o r d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een judgm ents re n d e re d i n th e two s e s s io n s * I n o t h e r w o rd s, s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s become v a r i a t i o n s o f th e b a s ic

26 o n e:

*$hat c h a n g es, i f a n y , w i l l o ccu r in r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y o f

Judgm ents when s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a r e u sed r a t h e r th a n Hi n th e f l e s h ” p erfo rm an ces? Answers t o th e q u e s tio n s posed above sh o u ld a i d i n s o lv in g an a d d i t i o n a l group o f problem s w hich m ig h t be s t a t e d a s f o llo w s : 1#

Can a n i n d i v i d u a l te a c h e r d e t e c t w ith any d e g re e o f

a c c u ra c y th o s e s tu d e n ts who s u f f e r from s ta g e f r i g h t i n a classro o m s itu a tio n ? 2.

I f th e answ er t o t h e above q u e s tio n i s n e g a t i v e , w hat i s

t h e l e a s t p o s s ib le number o f com petent i n s t r u c t o r s n e c e s s a r y t o judge a g iv e n c l a s s i n o rd e r t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y may b e p la c e d upon t h e i r combined judgm ents r e l a t i n g to th e amount o f s ta g e f r i g h t e x p e rie n c e d by p a r t i c u l a r sp e a k e rs ? 3*

I s Gil3d.nson* s PRCS s c a le a n a d e q u a te and u s e f u l d e v ic e

w ith w hich t o m easure s ta g e f r i g h t i n th e classroom ?

Can G ilk in so n * s

PRCS in v e n to ry be " s tr e a m lin e d ” i n such a way t h a t i t w i l l becom e' more p r a c t i c a l f o r c la ssro o m u s e , i . e . , a s m a lle r number o f ite m s and an e q u a l number i n te rm s o f p o s it i v e and n e g a tiv e re sp o n se s# 4#

Can a more a d e q u a te m easure o f s ta g e f r i g h t be o b ta in e d

from s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s o f s tu d e n ts sp e a k in g th a n from an ”i n th e f l e s h ” perfo rm an ce?

#

CHAPTER I I I

SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES I n g e n e r a l , e x p e rim e n ta l p ro c e d u re s were a s f o llo w s :

Forty-

s e l e c t e d m ale c o lle g e s tu d e n ts gave s h o r t sp eech es b e f o r e 61 " e x p e r t” ju d g e s who r a t e d e a c h sp e a k e r on a s c a le o f ”o b s e rv a b le d e g r e e s ” o f s ta g e f r i g h t . „ Sound m o tio n p i c t u r e s w ere made.

A f te r a la p s e o f 12

w e ek s, m ost o f ' th e ju d g e s r a t e d th e s p e a k e rs a second tim e w h ile l i s t e n i n g s o le l y t o th e sound t r a c k o f th e f il m .

S ix weeks a f t e r

t h i s d a te th e ju d g e s w ere a g a in assem bled t o r a t e t h e s p e a k e rs a t h i r d tim e .

On t h i s o c c a s io n th e p i c t u r e s w ere shown w ith o u t so u n d .

The f i r s t and t h i r d o f th e s e ju d g in g s e s s io n s a r e r e p o r te d i n t h i s s tu d y .

The second s e s s i o n , i n w hich a u d ito r y a s p e c ts o f s ta g e f r i g h t

a r e r e p o r t e d , c o n s t i t u t e s a s e p a r a te s tu d y .^

'

SUBJECTS S p e a k e rs .

I t was th o u g h t w ise t o l i m i t ea c h phase o f th e

ex p e rim e n t t o one ju d g in g s e s s io n .

F o r ty s p e a k e rs i n a s in g l e

s e s s io n w ere c o n s id e re d maximum i n o r d e r to av o id undue d an g er o f ju d g e* s f a t i g u e .

The ru n n in g tim e f o r S e s s io n I , a llo w in g f o r

c h an g in g o f f i l m , p e r m ittin g tim e f < ^ ju d g e s t o m ark t h e i r b a l l o t s , g e t t i n g t h e s p e a k e rs b e f o r e th e cam era, e t c . , was two h o u rs and f i f t e e n m in u te s .

S e s s io n I I I was r u n i n 50 m in u te s a s re w in d in g was

T h is s tu d y , a Ph.D . D i s s e r t a t i o n b y F . P. G ibson, i s s t i l l i n th e p ro c e s s o f w r i t i n g . I t w i l l be su b m itte d to th e U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a l i b r a r y i n th e n e a r f u t u r e .

28 ac co m p lish e d a f t e r t h e s e s s io n and t h e r e was no problem o f sp e a k e r r e a d in e s s *

At th e same tim e 40 s p e a k e rs w ere c o n s id e re d a s u f f i c i e n t

number f o r s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t, and f o r th e p u rp o se o f m aking i t e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t f o r ju d g es t o remember i n d iv id u a l s p e a k e rs i n su b se q u e n t ju d g in g s e s s i o n s , th u s h e lp in g t o e lim in a te th e " h a lo ” e f f e c t* S in c e th e m ajo r p u rp o se o f th e e x p e rim e n t was t o t e s t th e a tte m p ts o f o b s e rv e r s i n ju d g in g " d e g r e e s ” o f s ta g e f r i g h t , th e m ost im p o rta n t c o n s id e r a tio n i n c h o o sin g s p e a k e rs was t o t r y t o p ro v id e th e ju d g e s w ith many exam ples o f speech f r i g h t .

T h e o re tic a lly , a

random sam ple o f 40 s tu d e n ts fro m sp eech c l a s s e s e n r o l li n g ov er 2 ,0 0 0 would p ro v id e m o stly s p e a k e rs w ith a v e ra g e am ounts o f f r i g h t and w ould n o t a t a l l g u a ra n te e t h a t b o th ex trem es w ould be r e p re s e n te d * I n f a c t , no m ethod o f s e l e c t i o n w ould seem t o g u a ra n te e such a w ide ra n g e s in c e any g iv e n sp e a k e r m ig h t be p o is e d d u rin g one sp eech and u n a c c o u n ta b ly lo s e t h a t p o is e i n h i s n e x t s p e e c h , o r v i c e v e r s a . W ith t h e above d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m ind, s e v e r a l hundred s tu d e n ts i n b o th b e g in n in g and advanced sp eech c o u rse s w ere ask ed t o r a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g o f s ta g e f r i g h t on G ilk in so n * s f i v e - s t e p "G rap h ic R a tin g S c a le .”

T h is s c a le i s d e s c r ib e d i n d e t a i l l a t e r i n th e p r e s e n t

o c h a p t e r .*

T hese r a t i n g s w ere s e c u re d d u rin g a ro u n d o f r e g u l a r

c la ssro o m s p e e c h e s .

F o r ty s u b je c ts w ere th e n ch o sen so a s t o p ro v id e

a p l a t y k u r t i c b e ll- s h a p e d d i s t r i b u t i o n .

2 See p . 3 2 .

29 The s p e a k e rs th u s s e le c te d ran g ed from 17 t o 38 y e a r s o f age* The mean a v e ra g e age o f t h i s group ■was 2 2 . The academ ic l e v e l a t t a i n e d by th e s p e a k e rs a t th e tim e o f th e ex p e rim e n t v a r ie d a s f o llo w s i

fre sh m e n , 8 ; sophom ores, 16; j u n i o r s ,

10; s e n i o r s , 4 ; and g ra d u a te s tu d e n t s , 1*

One o f th e s p e a k e rs f a i l e d

t o i n d i c a t e h i s academ ic s ta n d in g * F i f t e e n m ajo r d e p a rtm e n ts o f t h e U n iv e r s ity w ere r e p r e s e n te d a s f o llo w s :

F in e A r t s , M ath e m a tics, S p eech , P re -M e d ic a l, A r c h i t e c t u r e ,

E d u c a tio n , and Economics c o n tr ib u te d one sp e a k e r each*

P r e - la w ,

R e lig io n , and I n d u s t r i a l R e la tio n s c o n tr ib u te d two s p e a k e rs each* P sychology and P o l i t i c a l S c ie n c e w ere r e p r e s e n te d by t h r e e s p e a k e rs each.

F o u r o f th e s p e a k e rs w ere from A d v e r tis in g and 16 w ere from

Commerce.

One sp e a k e r r e p o r te d h im s e lf t o be u n d e c id e d a s t o m ajo r

f ie ld . The s p e a k e rs s e le c t e d w ere r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e f o llo w in g sp eech c l a s s e s :

P u b lic S p e a k in g , la b ; Advanced P u b lic S p e a k in g ,

10l a b ; and Speech F o r Club and S chool F u n c tio n s , 106*

T hree o f th e

s p e a k e rs w ere v a r s i t y d e b a te r s from th e U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a and two w ere d e b a te r s from th e Los A ngeles Campus o f t h e U n iv e r s ity o f C a l i f o r n i a . To e lim in a te one v a r i a b l e , o n ly m ales w ere c h o sen . The s u b je c ts w ere t o l d t h a t a n e x p e rim e n t i n " sp e e c h te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s " was t o be c o n d u cted ; t h a t th e y had b een chosen " a t random" a s t y p i c a l s tu d e n t s p e a k e r s .

They w ere asked t o p r e p a re

non-hum orous t a l k s o f 1 m in u te on t h e t o p i c , "The B e st S tudy Method

I fv e F ound."

A s e r i o u s v e in m s d e s ir e d , r a t h e r th a n one te n d in g t o

h e hum orous.

I t m s th o u g h t t h a t la u g h te r m ig h t in f lu e n c e judgm ents

and th u s d e s tr o y s c a l e v a l i d i t y .

A lso i t m s n e c e s s a r y t o keep a l l

n o is e a t a minimum b e c a u se sound was b e in g r e c o r d e d .

I f la u g h te r had

shown on th e sound s t r i p , i t m ight have in f lu e n c e d judgm ents made d u r in g S e s s io n I I .

The t o p i c ch o sen , upon w hich a l l s tu d e n ts were

t o s p e a k , f u r t h e r e lim in a te d t h i s humor hazard *

I t was c o l o r le s s

enough t o i n s u r e a f a i r l y s e r io u s tr e a t m e n t, y e t b ro a d enough i n scope t o p ro v id e v a r i e t y o f tr e a tm e n t and th u s keep th e ju d g e s from b e in g b o re d .

The tim e l i m i t was c lo s e ly h e ld t o one m inute f o r

se v e ra l re a so n s:

I n t h e f i r s t p la c e t h e r e was t h e problem o f ju d g e

and sp e a k e r f a t i g u e .

The e x p e rim e n t, as r e p o r te d a b o v e, l a s t e d w e ll

o v e r two h o u r s , and t h a t was p ro b a b ly c lo s e t o t h e maximum tim e i n w hich ju d g e s co u ld keep t h e i r i n t e r e s t c e n te r e d on t h e problem a t hand.

The tim e w hich t h e l a s t o f t h e f o r t y s p e a k e rs would be w i l l i n g

t o s i t and a w a it t h e i r t u r n t o sp eak was a ls o l i m i t e d .

A nother f a c t o r

in f lu e n c in g th e tim e l i m i t was t h a t o f f in a n c in g th e e x p e rim e n t.

The

c o s t o f f i l m a lo n e f o r 40 o n e-m in u te sp eech es was one hundred and n in e te e n d o l l a r s .

I t i s e a s y t o see how t h i s c o s t w ould m u ltip ly i f

th e tim e l i m i t had b e en d ou b led o r t r i p l e d .

I t was a ls o th o u g h t t h a t

s ta g e f r i g h t u s u a ll y shows t o a g r e a t e r d e g re e a t th e b e g in n in g o f a speech.

I t was assum ed t h a t ju d g es co u ld r e a c h a d e c is io n w i th in

one m in u te and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l tim e m ight r e s u l t i n boredom , v a c i l l a ­ t i o n , o r o th e r u n d e s ir a b le r e s p o n s e s . ju s tifie d .

T h is a s su m p tio n m s a p p a r e n tly

No ju d g e co m plained o f d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a c h in g a d e c is io n

31 i n one m in u te .

However, d u r in g t h e s e s s io n i n w hich m o tio n p i c t u r e s

w ere u s e d , th e f i l m f o r one s p e a k e r was c u t t o a b o u t t h i r t y s e c o n d s . Ju d g es im m e d ia te ly com plained t h a t th e tim e was n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r them t o r e a c h a d e c i s io n . A lth o u g h t h e s e r v i c e s o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l cameraman w ere s e c u re d t o r e c o r d S e s s io n I , 8 o f th e i n i t i a l 40 s p e a k e rs w ere l o s t t o S e s s io n I I I due t o f a u l t y f i l m .

T h is lo s s sh o u ld n o t be c o n s id e re d an

in d ic tm e n t o f th e u s e o f sound p i c t u r e s i n e x p e rim e n ta l w o rk .

An

i n c i d e n t o f t h i s n a tu r e i s r a r e , and i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a s shown by th e f a c t t h a t t h e company r e p la c e d t h e l o s s , was due t o th e i n f e r i o r q u a lity o f a p a r tic u la r s t r i p o f f ilm .

Those s p e a k e rs l o s t w ere

num bers 4 . 5 , 6 , 7* 8 , 2 5 , 2 6 , and 3 2 . Ju d g e s.

S in c e th e o b j e c t o f th e ex p e rim e n t was t o t e s t th e

o b s e r v a tio n a l a c c u ra c y o f " e x p e r ts ,* 1 r a t h e r th a n laym en, o n ly sp eech t e a c h e r s and g ra d u a te sp eech s tu d e n ts w ere i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The te rm "sp e e c h " a s u sed h e re was b r o a d ly d e fin e d t o in c lu d e p u b lic s p e a k in g , o r a l r e a d in g , dram a, r a d i o , cinem a, and sp e e c h c o r r e c t i o n . S ix ty -o n e resp o n d ed f o r th e f i r s t s e s s io n .

Of t h e s e , 21 w ere g ra d u a te

s tu d e n ts who had e x p e rie n c e d no fo rm a l te a c h in g , 13 w ere te a c h in g a s s i s t a n t s , and 27 w ere f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s .

S ix te e n o f th e s e ju d g e s

w ere c l a s s i f i e d a s p re d o m in a n tly i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e sp eech a r t s , 24 i n sp eech s c ie n c e , 17 i n p u b lic a d d r e s s , and 4 i n g e n e r a l s p e e c h . Of t h e 61 who resp o n d ed f o r th e f i r s t s e s s i o n , 50 r e t u r n e d t o ju d g e f o r S e s s io n I I I .

Those u n a b le to

a t t e n d w ere numbers 104* 106,

110, 113, 120, 130, 131, 142, 154, 157, and 159.

32 MATERIAIS G ilk in s o n 1s G raphic H a tin g S cale*

As r e p o r te d ab o v e,

G ilk in so n * s ’’G rap h ic R a tin g S c a le ” m is u s e d a s th e d e v ic e f o r s e l e c t in g th e 40 s p e a k e rs t a k i n g p a r t i n th e e x p e rim e n t,

T h is s c a le h a s

f i v e s t e p s , la b e le d a s fo llo w s : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

E x trem ely f r i g h te n e d and co n fu sed F r ig h te n e d , d o u b tf u l o f a b i l i t y Somewhat w o rrie d b u t w i l l i n g t o t a l k A l i t t l e n erv o u s b u t e a g e r t o sp eak E n t i r e l y c o n f id e n t and e a g e r t o t a l k

Two s c a l e s i d e n t i c a l t o th e one above w ere p r o v id e d .

On one o f them

t h e s u b je c t i n d i c a t e d th e f e e l i n g s e x p e rie n c e d j u s t b e f o re and a t th e b e g in n in g o f h i s t a l k .

On t h e second he in d ic a te d f e e l i n g s

e x p e rie n c e d d u r in g th e r e s t o f th e t a l k .

Two s c a le s w ere u sed on

t h e a ssu m p tio n t h a t th e e x p e rie n c e o f a n t i c i p a t i o n m ig h t d i f f e r frpm t h a t o f a c t u a l l y s p e a k in g . ra tin g s .

They w ere s c o re d b y a v e ra g in g th e two

U sing t h i s s c o r in g m ethod, s tu d e n ts w ith t h e f o llo w in g

G raphic S c a le ra n k s w ere s e le c te d ! S c a le S te p 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

S c a le S co re I 8 8 11 2

F iv e i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e d e b a te r s d id n o t f i l l i n th e G raphic R a tin g S c a le ,

They w e re , how ever, chosen on th e assu m p tio n t h a t , had th e y

^ Howard G ilk in s o n , ’’S o c ia l F e a rs a s R ep o rted By S tu d e n ts i n C o lle g e S peech C l a s s e s ,” S peech M onographs, 9 :1 4 4 , 1942,

33 co m pleted th e form d u r in g a r e g u l a r c la ssro o m sp eeo h , th e y would have ra n k e d th e m se lv e s a s ’’e n t i r e l y c o n f id e n t and e a g e r t o t a l k , ”— s c a l e s te p number 5* I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t one s e r io u s w eakness o f G ilk in so n * s ’’G raphic H a tin g S c a le ” i s t h e xise o f two d e s c r i p t i v e te rm s p e r s c a le ste p *

On s te p $ 1 , f o r ex am p le, some o f our s tu d e n ts s a id th e y were

’’f r i g h t e n e d b u t n o t c o n f u s e d ,” w h ile o th e r s s a id th e y f e l t ’’c o n fu sed ” b u t n o t ’’f r i g h t e n e d . ”

A n o th er s e r io u s w eakness i s th e f a c t t h a t th e r e

i s no s in g l e v a r i a b l e ru n n in g a lo n g th e s c a le from ’’m o st" t o " l e a s t . ” T hus, s te p $1 i s i n te rm s o f " f r i g h t ” and ’’c o n f u s io n ,” w hich changes on s te p -tf3 t o "w o rry ” and " w illin g n e s s to s p e a k ,” and on s te p §5 to " c o n f id e n c e ” and " e a g e r n e s s .” f o r u se i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t.

C o n seq u en tly a new s c a le was developed I t was u t i l i z e d d u rin g th e v a r io u s

ju d g in g s e s s io n s by th o s e ju d g in g th e s p e a k e r s , and f o r co n v en ien ce was la b le d J u d g e 's R a tin g S c a le , o r ” JH .” Judge*s R a tin g S c a le .

The s c a le d ev elo p ed f o r u se i n th e

e x p e rim e n ts h e re r e p o r te d was c o n s tr u c te d a s f o llo w s t 1 V i r t u a l l y no o b s e rv a b le d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

2 3 L ess th a n A verage a v e ra g e d e g re e o f d e g re e o f s ta g e s ta g e f r i g h t f r i g h t

4 More th a n a v e ra g e d eg ree o f s ta g e f r i g h t

The i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t f o r ju d g e s r e a d , i n p a r ts

5 Extrem e d e g re e o f s ta g e frig h t "We a r e r e l y in g

upon y o u r p a s t o b s e r v a tio n s o f s tu d e n t sp eech es t o p ro v id e a ’ stan d ard * o r 'fra m e o f re fe re n c e * f o r y o u r ju dgm ent.

Jn o th e r w o rd s, you a r e

ask ed t o ju d g e ea ch s p e a k e r i n com parison w ith t h e l a s t 100 o r so

34 c o lle g e s p e a k e rs you have h e a r d . "4 Each ju d g e was p ro v id e d w ith a b o o k le t o f f o r t y p a g e s , one copy o f t h e s c a le on each p a g e . L i s t o f D e s c r ip tiv e S ta te m e n ts o r PRCS. C h a p te r I ,

As r e p o r te d i n

t h i s " L i s t o f D e s c r ip tiv e S ta te m e n ts " was fo rm u la te d by

G ilk in s o n f o r u se i n h i s by c o lle g e s tu d e n t s .^

i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l f e a r s a s r e p o r te d

The s c a le c o n ta in s 104 s ta te m e n ts by w hich a

s p e a k e r can d e s c r ib e h i s e x p e rie n c e i n a sp e a k in g s i t u a t i o n .

I t has

b e e n la b le d PRCS, th e l e t t e r s s ta n d in g f o r " P e rs o n a l R ep o rt on C o n fid en ce a s a S p e a k e r."

The f i r s t 54 ite m s o f th e s c a l e a r e

in te n d e d t o r e f l e c t v a r y in g d e g re e s o f " f e a r , ” and t h e re m a in in g 50 a r e in te n d e d t o r e f l e c t d e g re e s o f " c o n f id e n c e ."

Some o f th e s e

s ta te m e n ts r e f e r t o em otions e x p e rie n c e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f s p e a k in g , o t h e r s t o e x p e r ie n c e s w h ile s p e a k in g , and o th e r s to f e e l i n g s a t th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e s p e e c h .

Each o f t h e 104 d e s c r i p t i v e s ta te m e n ts i s

p r e fa c e d by " y e s ," " n o ," and

The sp e a k e r i s ask ed to s c o re th e

ite m s i n t h e f o llo w in g m anner: 1.

E n c ir c le " y e s" f o r a l l s ta te m e n ts \vhich you can a c c e p t a s d e s c r ib in g y o u r e x p e r ie n c e .

2.

E n c ir c le "no" f o r th o s e w hich do n o t d e s c r ib e y o u r e x p e r ie n c e .

3*

E n c ir c le "? " i f f o r any r e a s o n you a r e n o t s u re ■what y o u r e x p e rie n c e s w e re .

4 See A ppendix C, p . 149 f o r th e com plete i n s t r u c t i o n s . The com plete PRCS I n v e n to ry may be found i n A ppendix C, p p . 139-144.

35 I n s c o rin g t h i s s c a le a w e ig h t o f - 1 was g iv e n t o each ’’y e s ” re sp o n s e among th e f i r s t 54 ite m s , and a w e ig h t o f / l was g iv e n each f,y e s ” re sp o n s e among th e l a s t 50 ite m s .

The s c o re was th e n c a lc u la te d as

t h e a l g e b r a i c sum o f th e p lu s and m inus v a l u e s .

T h is s c o rin g method

was recommended by G ilk in s o n .^ Sound M otion P ic tu r e E quipm ent.

To r e c o r d th e f i r s t s e s s i o n

o f t h e e x p e rim e n t, a 16mm S in g le System A u ric o n M otion P ic tu r e Camera was u s e d .

I t was e q u ip p ed w ith a w ide a n g le 15mm Eastm an

Kodak le n s u s in g a n F /4 e x p o s u re .

The cam era was o p e ra te d a t a •

sp eed s l i g h t l y i n e x c e s s o f 3 6 f e e t p e r m in u te . S in g le p e r f o r a t e d sound f i l m o f th e r e v e r s a l ty p e was u s e d . T h is f il m w as, t h e r e f o r e , p ro c e s s e d by th e r e v e r s a l m ethod; i . e . t h e f i n a l f i l m was th e same f ilm ru n i n th e cam era.

The v a r i a b l e

a r e a ty p e r e c o r d in g was u s e d . F o r l i g h t i n g p u rp o se s n in e R s p ., $ 2 , b u i l t - i n r e f l e c t o r G. E. b u lb s w ere u s e d . lig h t.

T h is r e p r e s e n te d a p p ro x im a te ly 4500 w a tts o f

These l i g h t s w ere p la c e d ab o u t t e n f e e t from th e s u b j e c t . Tim ing D e v ic e s .

e x p e rim e n t. a u d ie n c e .

T hroe m ethods were u t i l i z e d f o r tim in g th e

One had th e p u rp o se o f g e t t i n g th e s p e a k e r b e f o r e th e A r e d l i g h t , f la s h e d i n th e room w here th e s p e a k e rs w ere

c o n g re g a te d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t th e tim e had a r r i v e d f o r a sp e a k e r t o g iv e h i s s p e e c h .

"""

T h is l i g h t was o p e ra te d by an e x p e rim e n te r i n th e

^ O p V C i t . , 146-148.

36 room -where t h e sp eech es w ere g iv e n .

When th e cam era s t a r t e d , t h i s

e x p e rim e n te r would s a y , “T h is i s s p e a k e r number o n e ,” and \vould a t th e same tim e p r e s s th e b u t t o n , s ig n a lin g th e s p e a k e r.

T h is sp e a k e r

th e n came from th e n e x t room , sto o d b e f o re th e a u d ie n c e , and b eg an h i s sp e e c h . A nother tim in g d e v ic e was u se d a s a s ig n a l f o r t h e cam era man.

Each r o l l o f f i l m c o n ta in e d f i v e m in u te s r e c o r d in g tim e .

T hus, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , f i v e o n e-m in u te sp eech es co u ld have b een r e ­ co rd ed on a s in g l e r o l l .

I t v/as f e l t , how ever, t h a t t h i s im posed

r a t h e r s t r i c t tim e l i m i t s .

F o r one t h i n g , th e e x p e rim e n te rs f e l t

t h a t th e tim e ta k e n t o r e c o rd th e a n n o u n c e r’ s v o ic e s t a t i n g th e n e x t s p e a k e r number sh o u ld n o t be ta k e n from th e m in u te a llo w e d each s p e a k e r.

A ls o , i t seemed d e s i r a b l e t o p h o to g ra p h i n p a r t th e

s p e a k e r ’ s e n tra n c e and e x i t .

I t m s , t h e r e f o r e , d e c id e d t o l i m i t

th e number o f s p e a k e rs f o r each r o l l t o f o u r and th e amount o f f il m tim e f o r each t o lij- m in u te s ,

I n o rd e r t o keep th e p h o to g ra p h e r

w i t h i n t h e s e s e v e re l i m i t s , an a s s i s t a n t s a t n e a r him w ith a s to p ­ w a tc h ,

When th e cam era s t a r t e d , t h i s a s s i s t a n t c lo ck ed t h e f ilm a t

l x m i n u t e s , and t h e n , by to u c h in g th e o p e r a to r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t tim e was u p .

The cam era sto p p ed i n s t a n t l y . A n o th er d e v ic e u sed t o tim e th e ex p erim en t had th e p u rp o se o f

s to p p in g th e s p e a k e r a t th e end o f h i s s p e a k in g tim e , m s p la c e d on a p o s t b e f o re and n e a r th e s p e a k e r.

A r e d b u lb

The a s s i s t a n t

w ith th e s to p -w a tc h p r e s s e d a b u tto n when i t was tim e f o r th e sp e a k e r t o end h i s s p e e c h .

T h is o p e r a tio n f la s h e d th e r e d l i g h t , and th e

37 s p e a k e r co n clu d ed h i s sp eech i n s t a n t l y # B ecause t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n o f th e e x p e rim e n t c a l le d f o r s i l e n t p i c t u r e s and B ecause t h i s w ould e lim in a te th e a n n o u n c e r’ s v o ic e s t a t i n g , "T h is i s s p e a k e r o n e ," i t was d e c id e d t o r e c o rd s p e a k e r num bers an a d d i t i o n a l way#

To e f f e c t t h i s a second a s s i s t a n t p la c e d

la r g e number c a rd s b e h in d , and t o th e s p e a k e r ’ s l e f t #

These la r g e

num bers, t h e r e f o r e , w ere re c o rd e d on a l l o f t h e f il m p i c t u r i n g each p a r t i c u l a r s p e a k e r. I t was f u r t h e r th o u g h t n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o r d tim e u t i l i z e d th ro u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e ex p erim en t#

To e f f e c t t h i s a la r g e c lo c k h a v in g

a n 18 in c h d ia m e te r and la r g e numbers was p la c e d j u s t above th e sp e a k e r number c a rd s m en tio n ed i n th e p re c e d in g p arag rap h #

T his

c lo c k w as, t h e r e f o r e , p h o to g rap h ed a lo n g v d th a l l o f th e sp eak ers# PROCEDURES The e x p e rim e n t to o k p la c e on th e second f l o o r o f one o f th e Speech B u ild in g s # a v a ila b le #

H ere t h r e e rooms co n n ected by sw inging d o o rs w ere

The p ro c e d u re fo llo w e d i n each room was a s f o llo w s :

Room A#

■« F o r ty s p e a k e rs w ere g a th e re d i n Room A u n d er th e

s u p e r v is io n o f one o f th e e x p e rim e n te rs#

I n th e h a l l , p r i o r t o

e n t e r i n g t h i s room , each s p e a k e r was handed a c a rd on w hich h i s name m s typed#

A t th e same tim e he drew a t random a s p e a k in g o r d e r

number w hich i n t u r n was in s c r i b e d on th e c a rd c o n ta in in g h i s name# T h is c a rd a l s o c o n ta in e d t h e "G raphic R a tin g S c a le " number by w hich t h e sp e a k e r had o r i g i n a l l y b e e n s e le c te d #

E ach sp e a k e r was th e n

38 t o l d t o go i n t o Room A -where he would f in d a c h a ir on w hich h i s s p e a k e r number was i n s c r i b e d .

These c h a ir s were a rra n g e d i n n u m e ric a l

o rd e r. The e x p e rim e n te r i n Room A i n s t r u c t e d t h e 40 s p e a k e rs a s f o llo w s : 1,

They w ere shown a d iag ram d e t a i l i n g t h e i r p r o g re s s th ro u g h th e t h r e e room s, They w ere shown by d iag ram th e l o c a t i o n o f t h e podium, th e cam era, t h e s ig n a l b u lb , and th e au d ien ce# They w ere i n s t r u c t e d t o s ta n d n e a r th e podium b e c a u se th e m icrophone hung j u s t above i t , and w ere w arned o f p o s s ib le g l a r e fro m t h e f l o o d l i g h t s , They w ere t o l d t o s to p sp e a k in g i n s t a n t l y when t h e s ig n a l b u lb f la s h e d r e d and t o th e n p ro c e e d i n t o th e n e x t room w here th e y w ould be ask ed t o f i l l o u t a n in v e n to r y s h e e t.

2, 3# 4#

P ro ce d u re f o r k e e p in g th e s p e a k e rs i n r e a d in e s s was s t r i c t l y m a in ta in e d .

A t t h e b e g in n in g o f th e e x p e rim e n t s p e a k e rs $1 and $2

s to o d b e f o r e t h e d oor le a d in g t o Room B,

When th e s ig n a l b u lb i n

Room A f la s h e d r e d , s p e a k e r $1 w alked th ro u g h th e d o o r, f a c e d th e a u d ie n c e o f 61 ju d g e s , and b eg an t o sp e a k . sto o d w ith $ 2 . Room B,

S p eak er 7/3 th e n came and

Thus two s p e a k e rs w ere i n r e a d in e s s a t a l l tim e s . S ix ty -o n e ju d g e s w ere assem b led i n Room B,

They had

i n t h e i r p o s s e s s io n e n v e lo p e s c o n ta in in g b o o k le ts o f 40 f i v e - p o i n t s c a le s .

The f a c e o f th e s e e n v e lo p e s c o n ta in e d b la n k s w h ich , when

f i l l e d i n , i n d i c a t e d t h e ju d g e* s name, s e x , p r e s e n t v o c a tio n , and aoadem ic s t a t u s .

The ju d g e s were a l s o ask e d t o p la c e t h e i r names on

t h e f i r s t o f t h e 40 b a l l o t s a lo n g w ith a number i n d i c a t i n g th e row i n w hich th e y s a t . tio n s ,

The e n v e lo p e f u r t h e r c o n ta in e d ju d g in g i n s t r u c ­

These i n s t r u c t i o n s w ere re a d a lo u d by th e e x p e rim e n te r i n

39 c h a rg e o f t h e room*

He a ls o c a u tio n e d th e ju d g e s t h a t sound m is

b e in g re c o rd e d and undue n o is e m is t h e r e f o r e t o be guarded a g a in s t* A t t h e f r o n t o f Room B m s a speaker* s s ta n d , above w hich a m icrophone was su sp e n d e d , and upon w hich f l o o d l i g h t s shown*

On th e

■wall im m e d ia tely b e h in d th e s p e a k e r m s th e la r g e e l e c t r i c c lo c k and c a rd s c o n ta in in g th e code numbers o f th e sp e a k e rs*

A bout f i f t e e n

f e e t i n f r o n t o f th e s ta n d m s th e sound camera* A t a s i g n a l from th e cameraman, t h e e x p e rim e n te r i n c h a rg e o f Room B would c a l l o u t t h e code number o f th e s p e a k e r a b o u t t o be h e a r d , and s im u lta n e o u s ly p r e s s a b u t to n w hich f la s h e d a l i g h t i n Room A*

On t h i s s i g n a l , th e sp e a k e r w ould come th ro u g h t h e d o o r ,

go t o t h e ro s tr u m and b e g in h i s speech*

A t th e end o f 1 m in u te , i f

t h e sp e a k e r had n o t f i n i s h e d , th e r e d l i g h t im m ed iately i n f r o n t o f t h e s ta n d w ould f la s h *

The s p e a k e r w ould co n clu d e a t once*

C ro s s in g

4

t o th e o th e r s id e o f t h e room , he w ould go th ro u g h a n o th e r sw in g in g d o o r i n t o Room C* P au ses b etw een s p e a k e rs w ere p ro v id e d f o r ju d g e s t o m ark b a l l o t s , t h e a s s i s t a n t t o change th e number c a r d , and o c c a s io n a lly f o r th e cameraman t o change r e e ls * Upon f i r s t r e f l e c t i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n a s d e s c rib e d h e ro m ig h t seem e x tre m e ly se v e re *

The c r i t i c i s m m ig h t b e made t h a t f l o o d l i g h t s ,

g r in d in g cam era, and a c r i t i c a l a u d ie n c e would be enough t o f r i g h t e n t h e m ost c o n f id e n t.

I t sh o u ld be n o te d , how ever, t h a t th e p u rp o se o f \

t h e e x p e rim e n t la y n o t i n t e s t i n g th e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t e x p e rie n c e d by th e s p e a k e r.

The p u rp o se e x p e r im e n ta lly was r a t h e r t o

40 t e s t w h e th e r a g r o u p o f " e x p e r t s " c o u ld d e t e c t t h e e m o t i o n a l d i s ­ t u r b a n c e s w hen i t d i d a p p e a r a n d t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s

d is tu rb a n c e .

I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e o c c a s i o n p r o v e d r a t h e r s t r e n u o u s f o r m o st o f th e s p e a k e rs .

H o w ev er, t h i s

s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e a u d i e n c e w as d e s i r a b l e .

I t w as n e c e s s a r y t h a t s t a g e f r i g h t b e p r e s e n t i n some s p e a k e r s t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e j u d g e 's a b i l i t i e s t o re c o g n iz e i t s

e x is te n c e .

A lth o u g h t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s h o u ld seem ­

i n g l y make i n c r e a s e d d e g r e e s o f t e n s i o n o b v i o u s , t h e

" e x p e rts "

d i d n o t a g r e e r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n t o r am ount w hen t h e i r o b j e c t i v e ju d g m e n ts w e re m e a s u re d a g a i n s t t h e s u b j e c t i v e ju d g m e n ts o f t h e s p e a k e rs th e m s e lv e s .

T h is l a t t e r f a c t i s t o

be d e v e lo p e d i n d e t a i l

in c h a p te rs p r e s e n tin g th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f se c u re d d a ta . added th o u g h t, i t

is in te re s tin g

As a n

t o n o t e t h a t t h e c o m p la in t s m o st

u n i v e r s a l l y u t t e r e d b y t h e s p e a k e r s w e re n o t d i r e c t e d to w a r d t h e m e c h a n ic a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r im e n t b u t r a t h e r w e re s t a t e d i n te r m s o f a n u n r e s p o n s i v e a u d i e n c e . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t t h e ju d g e s w e re g i v e n a l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g th e m t o th e ir sp eech es,

r e f r a i n fro m d i s c u s s i n g th e s p e a k e r s o r

-^his w as d o n e a s a p r e c a u t i o n a r y m e a s u re d e s ig n e d

t o h e l p p r e v e n t a " h a l o " o r m emory p a t t e r n w h ic h m ig h t i n f l u e n c e ju d g m e n ts i n S e s s i o n s I I a n d I I I o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t .

Room C .

Upon e n t e r i n g Room C, e a c h s p e a k e r w as h a n d e d a c o p y

o f G i l k i n s o n 's " l i s t o f D e s c r i p t i v e S ta t e m e n t s " (PROS I n v e n t o r y ) .

41 T h is h as b e e n d e s c rib e d a b o v e .^

The e x p e rim e n te r i n c h arg e o f Room C

e x p la in e d t h a t s p e a k e rs w ould be g iv e n a code number i n th e m a t e r ia l -which -would b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y t r e a t e d , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , co u ld be a s s u r e d t h a t a l l names and - w ritte n re s p o n s e s w ould be k e p t anonymous. The i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t , in c lu d e d w ith th e s c a l e , was re a d t o each sp e a k e r and e v e ry e f f o r t was made t o s e c u re c o r r e c t and h o n e s t a n sw e rs. S e s s io n I I .

A f te r a la p s e o f 12 w eeks, m ost o f th e ju d g e s

r a t e d t h e s p e a k e rs a second tim e .

Upon t h i s o c c a s io n o n ly t h e sound

t r a c k o f t h e f i l m was p la y e d , and ju d g e s , u s in g th e f i v e - p o i n t s c a le p r e v io u s ly r e p o r t e d , r a t e d e m o tio n a l d is tu r b a n c e s i n te rm s o f w hat th e y h e a r d .

T h is a u d ito r y phase o f th e stu d y i s r e p o r te d i n a

s e p a r a te d i s s e r t a t i o n . 8 S e s s io n I I I .

A f te r a la p s e o f a n o th e r 6 w eek s, 50 o f th e

ju d g e s w ere a g a in assem b led t o r a t e e v id e n c e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t a s i t a p p e a re d i n a s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e o f th e i n i t i a l o c c a s io n .

They

w ere g iv e n b o o k le ts o f f i v e - s t e p s c a l e s and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s w h ieh a sk e d them t o r a t e th e s p e a k e rs i n te rm s o f w hat th e y saw i n th e s i l e n t f i l m . I t was th o u g h t p r a c t i c a l t o u se i d e n t i c a l ju d g e s b e c a u s e o n ly a c t u a l o r p r o s p e c tiv e sp eech t e a c h e r s w ere t o b e t e s t e d and t h e i r number was l i m i t e d .

T h is l i m i t a t i o n a ls o made i t i m p r a c tic a l t o t r y

7 See p . 3 4 . ® F* P . G ibson, o p . c i t .

42 t o s e c u re two d i f f e r e n t "m atched” g ro u p s la r g e enough f o r s t a t i s t i c a l p u rp o ses*

By u s in g 40 s p e a k e rs and by s p a c in g th e s e s s io n s weeks

a p a r t , i t m s b e lie v e d t h a t " h a lo ” e f f e c t s co u ld be red u ced t o a minimum*

Any l o s s o f v a l i d i t y due t h i s f a c t o r , how ever, sh o u ld be

o f f s e t by g a in s o f v a l i d i t y due t o e li m in a t io n o f q u e s tio n s o f e q u iv a ­ le n c e o f g ro u p s w hich would have a r i s e n had th e e x p e rim e n te rs a tte m p te d t o s e c u re "m atched” g ro u p s. F o r re a s o n s a lr e a d y g iv e n , f ilm s f o r e ig h t o f t h e s p e a k e rs were d is c a r d e d and e le v e n o f th e ju d g e s d id n o t s e rv e f o r S e s s io n I I I . T h e re f o re , f o r t h i s e x p e rim e n ta l s e s s i o n , 50 ju d g e s r a t e d 32 s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t " w h ile w itn e s s in g a s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e . S e s s io n I o f t h i s ex p erim en t i s r e p o r te d i n C hapter IV . S e s s io n I I i s r e p o r te d a s a s e p a r a te

s t u d y .9

S e s s io n I I I i s r e p o r te d

i n C h ap ter V, w h ile C h ap ter VI a n a ly z e s and com pares d a ta s e c u re d d u r in g S e s s io n s I and I I I .

9 r p id »

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF "IN THE FLESH" DATA S e s s io n I o f t h e e x p e rim e n t h as b een la b e le d an " i n th e f l e s h " p erfo rm an ce t o s e p a r a t e i t from S e s s io n I I -which u t i l i z e d a sound f il m t r a c k and S e s s io n I I I , u t i l i z i n g v i s u a l im p re s s io n s from th e s i l e n t scre en * s e s s io n .

S ix ty -o n e ju d g e s w ere p r e s e n t f o r t h e i n i t i a l ju d g in g

They r a t e d 40 s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g re e s " o f s ta g e

f r i g h t u s in g th e f i v e - s t e p s c a le d e s c rib e d i n C h a p te r III.-*Im m ed iately f o llo w in g t h e sp eech and w h ile t h e ju d g e s perform ed t h e i r d u t i e s a s r a t e r s , t h e s p e a k e rs i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s u b je c tiv e f e e l i n g s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n by f i l l i n g o u t G illdL nson's " P e rs o n a l R e p o rt o f C onfidence as a S p ea k er" (PROS) in v e n to ry *

T h is in v e n to r y i s

d e s c rib e d i n C h a p te rs I and I I I , and th e com plete in v e n to r y i s in c lu d e d i n A ppendix C.

2

D ata p r e s e n te d h e r e a r e i n g e n e r a l d iv id e d i n t o t h r e e mains e c tio n s .

S e c tio n one p r e s e n ts an a n a l y s is o f o b ta in e d r a t i n g s c a le

s c o r e s , s e c t io n two c o n ta in s an a n a l y s is o f s e l e c t group ju d g m en ts, and s e c t i o n t h r e e i s a n o v e r - a l l a n a ly s is o f c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l ju d g m e n ts. I n g e n e r a l , a n e f f o r t has b e e n made t o p r e s e n t th e d a ta and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a s sim p ly a s p o s s i b l e .

T his h a s b een done to av o id

1 See p* 3 3 . 2 C h ap ter I , p p . 17-19; C h ap ter I I I , p p . 3 4 -3 5 . A ppendix C, p p . 139 -1 4 4 .

44 c r e a t i n g a n im p re s s io n o f v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and f i n a l i t y -which m ig h t be t h e p ro d u c t o f a h ig h ly r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l te c h n iq u e .

In

m ost i n s t a n c e s th e c o r r e l a t i o n s have b een r e s t r i c t e d t o a c o e f f i c i e n t o f th e mean a v e ra g e s o f t h e s e p a r a te g ro u p s.

F or each group o f d a ta

th e m eans, s ta n d a rd d e v i a ti o n o f th e m eans, c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , and s ta n d a rd e r r o r s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n te d .

I t s h o u ld be

n o tic e d t h a t i n m ost i n s t a n c e s , th e means have b een rounded t o one p la c e beyond th e d e c im a l.

F o r th e sak e o f p r e s e n tin g th e e n t i r e

p i c t u r e some t a b l e s show t h e d a ta rounded to th e t h i r d d e c im a l.

The

r e a d e r i s , how ever, c a u tio n e d a g a i n s t im p u tin g s ig n i f i c a n c e beyond th e f i r s t f i g u r e . F o r th e m ost p a r t t h e f o llo w in g fo rm u las from G u ilfo rd ^ have s e rv e d i n th e c o m p u ta tio n s:

The product-m om ent c o r r e l a t i o n ,

p p . 202 f f . j M cCall*s T - s c a le , p p . 99 f f . ; t - r a t i o , p p . 130-137; s ta n d a r d e r r o r o f a c o r r e l a t i o n , p p . 208 f f . j s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n , p . 5 1 $ s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e m ean, p p . 125-128$ s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een m eans, p . 1 3 5 *

A fo rm u la from a second so u rc e

w hich e n a b le s one t o f in d th e s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een p r o p o r tio n s was a l s o u s e d .^ ANALYSIS OF OBTAINED RATING SCALE SCORES D ata accom panying t h i s a n a l y s is a r e in c lu d e d i n th e f o llo w in g ^ J . P . G u ilf o r d , F undam ental S t a t i s t i c s i n P sy ch o lo g y and E d u c a tio n , M cGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c . , New Y ork, (1 9 4 2 ). 4 H e r b e rt A rk in and Raymond R. C o lto n , An O u tlin e o f S t a t i s t i c a l M ethods, B arnes and N o b le, I n c . , New Y ork 71939)* p*122.

45 ta b le s : T ab le I*

The f i r s t column o f T ab le I i d e n t i f i e s th e s p e a k e rs

-who spoke i n random o r d e r and w ere a s s ig n e d numbers coded from 1 t o 40,

Column 2 g iv e s t h e i r PROS s c o r e s , t a b u l a t e d i n a c c o rd a n c e w ith

G ilk in s o n ’ s d i r e c t io n s *

Column 3 t r a n s l a t e s th e s e s c o re s i n t o a

s in g le s c a le o f p o s i t i v e v a lu e s * sc o re s*

Column 5 t r a n s l a t e s th e s e s c o re s i n t o a s in g le s c a l e o f

p o s i t i v e v a lu e s # sc o re s*

Column 4 g iv e s th e S h o rt-F o rm FRCS

Column 6 t r a n s l a t e s th e 40 PRCS s c o re s i n t o T - s c a le

Column 7 g iv e s th e a v e ra g e J u d g e d R a tin g s (JR s c o re s )*

Column 8 t r a n s l a t e s th e s e JR s c o re s i n t o T - s c a le v a lu e s t o make them com parable w ith PRCS*

The box a t t h e f o o t o f th e T ab le g iv e s th e

mean a v e ra g e s c o re and s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n f o r ea c h o f th e s e groups* T able -II*

The f i r s t column o f T ab le I I i d e n t i f i e s v a r io u s

g roups c o r r e l a t e d t o d e te rm in e s c a le r e l i a b i l i t y *

The re m a in in g

colum ns i d e n t i f y t h e mean s c o r e , s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , and s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e r r e s p e c tiv e ly * PRCS S co res* PRCS s c o r e s .

F i r s t c o n s id e r a tio n may b e g iv e n t o t h e o b ta in e d

G i l k in s o n 's in v e n to r y co m p rises 50 s ta te m e n ts ,

r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r y in g d e g re e s o f " c o n f id e n c e ,” and 54 s ta te m e n ts , r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r y in g d e g re e s o f " f e a r *"5

H is recommended s c o r in g

method i s t h e a l g e b r a i c sum o f th e " y e s" re s p o n s e s w here ’’c o n fid e n c e " ite m s a r e co u n te d a s p lu s v a lu e s and " f e a r " ite m s a s m inus v a lu e s * 5 See A ppendix C, p p . 139-1 4 4 , f o r a copy o f th e com plete in v e n to ry • ^ Howard G ilk in s o n , " S o c ia l F e a rs As R ep o rted by S tu d e n ts i n C o lle g e Speech C la s s e s ," Speech M onographs, IX (1 9 4 2 ), p p . 147-148*

46 TABLE I DATA SHOWING HAW, CODED AND T-SCALED PRCS SCORES; AND AVERAGED AND T-SCALED JR SCORES FOR SESSION I S p eak er Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10, 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. M SD

PRCS S co re s - 5 /4 0 /ll -2 1 /2 5 -10 / 1 - 2 /3 7 /2 3 / 7 -2 4 / 2 /2 4 -17 /2 6 -1 5 -1 2 -10 -3 8 /3 4 /1 7 / 9 - 9 0 /4 3 /3 7 - 6 - 4 -17 -1 0 -2 8 - 9 - 3 -2 4 / 6 -1 8 /4 1 /2 9 -2 3

Coded PRCS 1 5g"T 11 40 72 26 61 50 53 14 28 44 75 49 27 68 25 66 63 61 89 17 34 42 60 51 8 14 57 55 68 61 79 60 54 75 45 69

10 22 74 4 8 .3 2 5 2 1 .6 4 5

S h o rt Form PRCS r - 7 /2 3 / 4 -1 1 /1 5 - 9 - 1 - 4 /2 2 /1 4 - 1 -17 0 /1 2 -15 /1 6 -1 4 -10 - 8 -2 1 #2 / 7 / 5 - 7 - 1 /2 5 /2 5 -1 1 - 7 -1 3 -10 -1 8 - 5 - 6 -1 8 - 3 -1 5 /2 3 /1 5 -1 8

Coded S h o rt Form 33 3 22 37 11 35 27

30 4 12 27 43 26 14 41 10 40 36

34 47 4 19 21 33 27 1 1 37 33 39 36 44 31 32 44 29 41 3 11 44 26.550 13.910

A veraged JR S co res 2 .8 2 .1 6 6 .4 5 5 .2 3 .1 3 9 .7 2 .7 1 .8 5 8 .4 4 6 .1 3*7 5 1 .9 3 .1 4 .2 5 0 .7 6 4 .5 1 .9 5 6 .7 3 .9 5 3 .9 4 .3 2 .8 3 7 .2 5 2 .5 2 .9 , 1 .7 5 7 .5 4 2 .5 3 .9 2 .1 5 9 .4 4 .2 4 3 .3 3 .0 4 4 .1 4 6 .1 2 .4 3 .6 3 0 .4 2 .0 6 1 .5 5 6 .0 1 .4 5 4 .6 3 .2 4 7 .5 3 .3 2 .2 5 1 .3 7 2 .0 1 .9 6 4 .5 1 .5 4 8 .1 4 .1 2 .2 4 9 .4 4 .8 4 2 .5 4 6 .1 3 .0 3 3 .6 2 .4 4 7 .5 3 .3 2 .8 5 0 .0 3 7 .2 2 .4 5 3 .2 2 .4 4 0 .6 3 .5 6 9 .6 1 .4 2 .6 6 0 .4 4 .4 3 8 .5 5 0 .7 3 3 2 .8 7 5 9 .6 4 6 .894

T - s c a le FRCS 4 8 .7

T - s c a le JR 5 1 .3 5 8 .4

4 7 .5 5 1 .9 6 2 .8 4 2 .5 4 7 .5 3 8 .5 6 1 .5 4 1 .6 3 5 .6 5 1 .3 4 9 .4 6 4 .5 4 1 .6 5 8 .4 3 8 .5 4 8 .7 5 5 .2 4 3 .3 5 9 .4 69 .0 4 6 .1 4 5 .5 5 6 .7 6 1 .5 6 6 .4 3 9 .7 5 6 .7 3 0 .4 4 8 .7 5 5 .2 4 5 .5 5 1 .3 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 4 4 .1 6 9 .0 5 2 .5 3 3 .6 50.793 9 .5 2 2

47 T hus, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum ra n g e i s from / 5 0 t o -54*

The o b ta in e d

FRCS s c o r e s f o r th e 40 s p e a k e rs ra n g e d from / 4 3 t o - 3 8 , o r 78.1/£ o f th e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum. S in c e G -ilk in so n t s s c o re s a r e b o th n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e i n i

s i g n , and s in c e ze ro i s a s c o r e , d a ta i n such form a r e in c o n v e n ie n t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l m a n ip u la tio n .

T h e r e f o r e , f o r th e p r e s e n t e x p e rim e n t

th e FRCS s c o re s w ere tra n s p o s e d i n t o a s in g le s c a le o f p o s i t i v e v a lu e s i n w hich 1 c o rre s p o n d s w ith G ilk in s o n t s / 5 0 j 2 w ith /4 9 s 3 w ith / 4 8 ; e t c .

I n t h i s new p o s i t i v e s c a le th e s c o re 51 r e p la c e s

z e r o , end 105 c o rre s p o n d s w ith -54* w ere c a l l e d ’'Coded PRCS S c o r e s .”

A f te r t h i s t r a n s p o s i t i o n , d a ta

The two m ethods o f r e c o r d in g FRCS

s c o re s a r e shown i n colum ns 2 and 3 o f T able I . S h o rt-F o rm FRCS.

A t t h i s p o i n t , a c o r r e l a t i o n was computed

t o see i f G ilk in so n * s in v e n to r y m ig h t n o t be s u c c e s s f u lly " s tre a m ­ l i n e d ” f o r p r a c t i c a l c la ssro o m u s e .

The l i s t o f 104 ite m s i s to o

le n g th y f o r o r d in a ry u se and t h e u n e x p la in e d u n b a la n c e , i . e . , f o u r more " f e a r " th a n " c o n fid e n c e " it e m s , i s somewhat c o n f u s in g .

T here­

f o r e , u s in g G i l k i n s o n t own d a ta on ite m a n a l y s i s , ^ 25 " c o n fid e n c e " and 25 " f e a r ” ite m s w ere chosen whose "y es" r e s p o n s e s c o r r e l a t e d m ost s i g n i f i c a n t l y w ith t o t a l s c o r e s .^

The 40 PRCS p a p e rs w ere th e n

r e - s c o r e d and re -c o d e d i n te rm s o f th e s e 50 ite m s o n ly .

Columns 4

7 I b i d . , p p . 1 4 9 -154. ® These ite m s a r e i d e n t i f i e d by a s t e r i s k s p la c e d b e f o r e c o rre s p o n d in g num bers i n G i l k i n s o n t in v e n to r y , A ppendix C, pp. 1 3 9 -1 4 4 .

48 and 5 o f T a b le I show th e new s c o r e s .

These s h o r t- f o r m s c o re s w ere

c o r r e l a t e d w ith th e o r i g i n a l s c o r e s , p ro d u c in g a n r_ o f / . 9 9 T h is was so h ig h as t o s u g g e s t t h a t a n ev en s h o r t e r form can p ro b a b ly b e d e v is e d w h ich m ig h t p ro v e u s e f u l a s a r e g u la r c la ssro o m te a c h in g te c h n iq u e .

T h a t i s , i f a s h o r t form co u ld be d e v is e d w hich

had s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y , a t e a c h e r o f b e g in n in g sp eech co u ld a d m in is te r th e form e a r l y i n a te r m .

T h is w ould s e rv e t o i n d i c a t e

■which s tu d e n ts have t h e m ost t r o u b l e i n te rm s o f a d ju stm e n t t o th e a u d ie n c e s i t u a t i o n and t h e e x te n t and d e g re e o f t h e p ro b lem .

The

form c o u ld b e a g a in a d m in is te r e d n e a r th e end o f th e te rm a s a means o f ch ec k in g t h e e x te n t o f im provem ent.

I t w o u ld , t h e r e f o r e , seem

d e s i r a b l e t o e x p lo re t h i s p r o b a b i l i t y more th o ro u g h ly by t e s t i n g w ith l a r g e r num bers o f s u b je c ts and i n o r d in a r y c la ssro o m s p e a k in g s itu a tio n s . JR S c o r e s .

F o llo w in g t h e f i r s t e x p e rim e n ta l s e s s i o n , th e

s c o re s o b ta in e d b y t h e ju d g e 1s r a t i n g s , b a s e d upon " i n th e f l e s h " o b s e r v a t i o n s , w ere t a b u l a te d and la b e le d "JR" s c o r e s T h e 61 judges* r a t i n g s f o r eac h o f th e 40 s p e a k e rs were a v e ra g e d .

Range

o f t h e s e a v e ra g e d JR* s was from 1 .4 t o 4 « 8 , o r 8 8 .0 ^ o f th e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum. 7 o f T a b le I . g ra tify in g .

These a v e ra g e d JR s c o re s a r e shown i n Column

The b r e a d th o f t h i s s p re a d i s b o th s u r p r i s i n g and A common c r i t i c i s m o f th e f i v e - p o i n t s c a le i s t h a t

s te p s 1 and 5 &**© o f t e n o m itte d .

The s c a l e w as, t h e r e f o r e , u sed

9 The i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents on ea c h in d iv i d u a l s p e a k e r may be fo u n d i n T ab le I , A ppendix A.

49 w i t h some m i s g i v i n g s .

T h e s e d a t a , h o w e v e r, i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e j u d g e s

u t i l i z e d n e a r l y t h e w h o T e '* sc a le r a n g e ; '

R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y .

T a k in g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e n a t u r e o f

t h e JR s c a l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , ^ a n d a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g t h e unknow n n a t u r e o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s t a g e f r i g h t , a h i g h d e g r e e o f JR r e l i a b i l i t y w as n o t e x p e c t e d .

H o w ev er, a c h e c k f o r i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y ,

in

w h ic h j u d g e s w e re a r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y a n d o d d n u m b e rs c o r r e l a t e d w ith e v e n , p ro d u c e d an r v a lu e o f The s u r p r i s i n g

£. 98 £ . 0 0 6 .

c o n s is te n c y r e f l e c t e d b y th e above s p l i t - h a l f

c o m p a r is o n made a t e s t o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f q u i t e s m a l l j u d g i n g g r o u p s seem d e s i r a b l e .

T0 e f f e c t t h i s ,

j u d g e s 1 n u m b e rs w e re d raw n

fro m a b a s k e t i n ran d o m g r o u p s o f f i v e . se c u re d .

Twre l v e g r o u p s w e re t h u s

The m ean s c o r e o f e a c h w as t h e n c o r r e l a t e d a g a i n s t t h e

m ean s o f t h e w h o le g r o u p o f 6 1 . s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s , r v a lu e s , each o f th e s e g ro u p s .

T a b le I I p r e s e n t s t h e m ean s c o r e s , and s ta n d a r d e r r o r o f th e r ’ s f o r

I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t t h e l o w e s t r v a l u e

o b t a i n e d i s /* 9 2 £ .0 2 5 a n d t h e h i g h e s t i s

/.9 &

£»0 0 6 .

T 'h is s u g g e s t s

t h a t t h e JR s c a l e , a s h e r e u s e d , p r o v i d e d a r e m a r k a b ly s t a b l e m e a s u r ­ i n g t e c h n i q u e e v e n w hen ju d g m e n ts w e re a v e r a g e d f o r g r o u p s o f j u d g e s a s s m a ll a s f i v e .

I t m ay , t h e r e f o r e , b e recom m ended f o r f u r t h e r

u s e , a t l e a s t i n e x p e r i m e n t a l w o rk . S ee C h a p t e r I I I , p . 33* A p p e n d ix C a l s o c o m p le te i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e j u d g e s , p . 149*

c o n ta in s th e

50 Com parison o f J u d g e s 1 R a tin g s and S p e a k e rs 1 I n t r o s p e c t i v e R e p o r ts .

An e f f o r t ' 7/as n e x t made t o d e te rm in e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p

b etw een th e PRCS and JR s c o re s *

The PRCS s c o re s f o r th e 40 s p e a k e rs

w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith th e 40 mean a v e ra g e JR* s . o f /* 5 9 2f«104#

T h is gave an r v a lu e

Such a c o e f f i c i e n t m ust be i n t e r p r e t e d w ith c a r e .

PRCS p u r p o r ts t o m easure how th e s p e a k e rs f e l t ; JR p u r p o r ts t o m easure how th e y lo o k ed and sounded.

These a r e o b v io u s ly d i f f e r e n t

phenom ena, and t h e r e w ould seem t o be re a s o n a b le grounds f o r h y p o th e c a tin g t h a t (when g ro u p s o f s p e a k e rs a r e t e s t e d ) th e two would n e v e r show o n e -to -o n e c o r r e l a t i o n .

F o r exam ple, common

e x p e rie n c e s u g g e s ts t h a t some s p e a k e rs may q u it e s k i l l f u l l y c o n c e a l t h e i r in n e r t r e p i d a t i o n s .

A t t h e same tim e , i t would seem l o g i c a l

t o e x p e c t some d e g re e o f p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n .

The o b ta in e d

c o e f f i c i e n t s a t i s f i e s t h e s e s e v e r a l c o n s id e r a tio n s .

Column 1 o f

T ab le I I I p r e s e n ts t h e s e JR d a t a . F u r th e r l i g h t i s shed upon th e p ro b a b le r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een o v e r t and c o v e r t m a n i f e s ta t io n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t when ne x c e p tio n a l” c a s e s a r e c o n s id e re d .

I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e d a ta i n T ab le X I I , A ppendix

A w i l l r e v e a l t h a t S p e a k e rs 10, 11, 3 2 , and 35 showed e x t r a o r d in a r y d is c r e p a n c ie s b etw een t h e i r PRCS and JR s c o re s*

I m p lic a tio n s o f

t h e s e f o u r c a s e s w i l l be d is c u s s e d more f u l l y i n a n o th e r c o n n e c tio n b elo w .

Assuming f o r th e moment t h a t th e r e a r e grotinds f o r c o n s id e r ­

in g th e s e c a s e s e x c e p t i o n a l, and rem oving them from th e d a t a , th e c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een FRCS and JR f o r t h e re m a in in g 3 6 c a s e s O'02*1? 15 upw ard t o / . 7 4 £*016*

51 TABLE I I DATA SECURED FOR VARIOUS CROUP COMPARISONS MADE DURING SESSION I Croups Odd

M 2 .8 4 3

SD.

£_

SB

)

£ -9 7 5

£ .0 0 6

)

/ .9 6 9

£ .0 0 9

.926

Even

2 .9 0 5

.8 7 1

Croup I 61 Judges

2 .8 7 5

.894

5 Judges

2 .9 4 5

.89 6

Group I I

2 .8 2 0

.812

/•9 2 2

£ .0 2 5

Group I I I

2 .9 2 0

.9 4 6

/• 9 5 9

£ .0 1 3

Group IV

3 .0 9 0

.9 9 4

/• 9 5 7

£ .0 1 3

Group V

3.120

.901

£ .9 7 1

£ .0 0 9

Group VI

3 .0 4 0

.775

£ .9 4 3

£ .0 1 9

Group V II

2 .8 3 5

.974

£ .9 5 5

£ .0 1 3

Group V I II

2 .5 8 5

.954

£ .9 4 4

£ .0 1 9

Group IX

2 .9 4 0

.333

/ .9 6 8

£ .0 0 9

Group X

2 .8 1 5

.323

£ .9 8 0

£ .0 0 6

Group XI

2 .8 2 5

.944

£ .9 3 8

£ .0 1 9

Group X II

2 .7 4 5

.915

£ .9 2 4

£ .0 2 5

5 0 .7 3 3

9 .6 4 6

)

£ .5 6 8

£ .1 0 8

5 0 .7 93

9 .5 2 2

)

/ .7 4 1

£ .0 7 6

)

/.9 S 7

£ .0 0 3

T - s c a le d PRCS T -s c a le d JR PRCS JR

4 7 .4 1 7 (#*s 1 0 , 11, 3 2 , 35 o m itte d ) 2 .8 3 9

S h o rt Form PRCS Long Form PRCS

21.490 .888

26.550

13.910

4 8 .3 2 5

21.645

52 A t t h i s p o in t a c o r r e l a t i o n m s computed betw een PRCS and JR T - s c a le v a l u e s .

The o b ta in e d c o e f f i c i e n t m s v e r y n e a r l y t h e same

a s t h a t found f o r th e raw s c o re c o r r e l a t i o n m en tio n ed ab o v e. £ v a lu e was / . 5 7

108•

T his

The d i f f e r e n c e o f / . 0 2 ^£*004 i s o b v io u s ly

n o t s ig n if ic a n tly s m a lle r.

The two £ v a l u e s , t h e r e f o r e , i n d i c a t e a

s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een JR and PRCS s c o r e s .

These d a ta

a r e t o be found i n T ab le I I . I n g e n e r a l , i t m ig h t b e co n clu d ed t h a t t h e FRCS and JR te c h n iq u e s te n d t o v a l i d a t e one a n o th e r , b u t t h a t w ith f u r t h e r re fin e m e n t o f e i t h e r o r b o th , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s m ight b e e x p e c te d t o in c r e a s e somewhat and t h e s ta n d a rd e r r o r s t o d e c r e a s e .

F u rth e r,

i t m ig h t be p o in te d o u t t h a t , w h ile groups o f sp eech te a c h e r s may c l o s e ly a g re e w ith o th e r gro u p s i n e s tim a tin g th e o v e r t m a n if e s ta ­ t i o n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t , th e y sh o u ld n o t make t h e m is ta k e o f su p p o sin g t h a t t h e i r ju d g m en ts, even when a v e ra g e d , w i l l a l s o a g r e e w ith th e s p e a k e r ^ s u b je c ti v e f e e l i n g s . ANALYSIS OF SELECT GROUP JUDGMENTS I t was th o u g h t t h a t c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s m ig h t in f lu e n c e t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e JR s c o re s ( " a c c u ra c y ” b e in g d e f in e d a s c o rre s p o n d ­ en ce w ith PRCS s c o r e s ) .

The f o llo w in g v a r i a b l e s w ere t e s t e d :

sex,

y e a r s o f te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e , d is ta n c e from s p e a k e r s , and s p e e c h a r e a o f m ajor i n t e r e s t . D ata accom panying t h e a n a l y s is o f th e s e p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n ta in e d i n th e f o llo w in g t a b l e :

53 T a b le I I I .

The f i r s t co lu m n o f T a b l e I I I p r e s e n t s t h e s p e a k e r

n u m b e rs a s c o d e d fro m 1 t o 4 0 .

Colum n 2 g i v e s t h e m ean a v e r a g e JR

f o r e a c h s p e a k e r a s c o m p u te d fro m t h e s c o r e o f 61 j u d g e s .

C olum ns 3

a n d 4 g i v e t h e m ean a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r 42 m a le a n d f o r 19 f e m a le ju d g e s .

C olum ns 5 a n d 6 g i v e t h e m ean a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r 24

e x p e r i e n c e d a n d f o r 21 i n e x p e r i e n c e d j u d g e s .

C olum ns 7 a n d 8 g i v e

t h e m ean a v e r a g e J R ’ s f o r j u d g e s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o p o s i t i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l ro o m . 23 b a c k row ju d g e s w e re u s e d .

s e a tin g

N in e t e e n f r o n t row j u d g e s an d

C olum ns 9> 1 0 , a n d 11 g i v e t h e m ean

a v e r a g e J R ’ s f o r 1 7 ju d g e s c l a s s i f i e d a s i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c a d d r e s s , 16 i n s p e e c h a r t s , an d 24 i n s p e e c h s c ie n c e r e s p e c t i v e l y .

In a l l

c a s e s t h e m eans h a v e b e e n ro u n d e d t o o n e p l a c e b e y o n d t h e d e c im a l p o in t.

The b o x a t t h e f o o t o f t h e T a b le g i v e s m ean a v e r a g e s c o r e s ,

s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n , c o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c ie n t , and s ta n d a rd e r r o r f o r each o f th e s e g ro u p s.

C o m p a ris o n o f J u d g e s B a se d Upon S e x D i f f e r e n c e s .

As s e e n i n

Colum n 3 o f T a b le I I I ,

t h e m ean a v e r a g e J R ’ s f o r t h e 4 2 m a le ju d g e s

on a l l t h e s p e a k e r s i s

2 .8 8 5 .

C olum n 4 o f t h e sam e t a b l e sh o w s t h i s

m ean a v e r a g e f o r t h e 1 9 f e m a le j u d g e s t o b e 2 . 8 4 5 . d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s e m ean s a r e

The s t a n d a r d

.8 7 3 a n d .9 4 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y .

The

d i f f e r e n c e s s t a t i s t i c a l l y b etw een t h e s e m e an s a n d d e v i a t i o n s a r e n o t s ig n ific a n t.

When t h e a v e r a g e J R 's o f t h e 4 2 m a le j u d g e s w ere

c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e PRCS s c o r e s a n r o f / . 5 7 j^ .IO S w as o b t a i n e d . When s c o r e s f o r t h e 1 9 f e m a le j u d g e s w e re s i m i l a r l y c o r r e l a t e d ,

54 th e r^ was /* 6 0

The d if f e r e n c e o f /# 0 3 j£*006 w hich e x i s t s

b etw een th e two groups i s n o t o f s t a t i s t i c a l s ig n if ic a n c e #

However,

a s w i l l be n o te d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , th e le a d h e ld by fe m a le fu d g es i s m a in ta in e d th ro u g h o u t th e ex p erim en t#

S t a t i s t i c a l l y t h i s may mean

t h a t , i f l a r g e r num bers o f ju d g e s o f b o th se x e s v^ere u s e d , f e m a le ju d g m en ts would p ro v e more a c c u r a te th a n th o s e o f t h e m ales# E x p e rie n c e d Ju d g es Compared W ith S tu d e n t J u d g e s #

I t was

th o u g h t a l s o t h a t t h e amount o f te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e d by e a c h ju d g e m ig h t in f l u e n c e th e a c c u ra c y o f t h e J!R s c o re s# had t a u g h t b etw een 2 t o 28 y e a rs # e x p e rie n c e d # ”

T w en ty -fo u r ju d g e s

They w ere c l a s s i f i e d a s "m ost

The " l e a s t e x p e rie n c e d " ju d g e s com prised 21 i n d i v i d u a l s

who had had no fo rm a l te a c h in g #

As s e e n i n Columns 5

6 of

T a b le I I I , t h e mean a v e ra g e JR f o r t h e 24 " e x p e rie n c e d ” ju d g e s was 2#918 and f o r th o s e c l a s s i f i e d a s " in e x p e r ie n c e d " was 2*933« S ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n s f o r th e s e r e s p e c t i v e means w ere .897 and #942# T here i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betw een th e s e means and s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s #

VJhen th e a v e ra g e JR*s o f th e 24 "m ost e x p e rie n c e d "

ju d g e s w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e PRCS s c o re s th e o b ta in e d :r was /# 5 9 £#104#

T8hen JR and PRCS f o r t h e 21 " l e a s t e x p e rie n c e d " ju d g e s

w ere c o r r e l a t e d t h e £ o b ta in e d was /* 6 0 ^£.102# n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n ific a n t#

T h is d i f f e r e n c e i s

The f in d i n g s u g g e s ts t h e p r a c t i c a l

p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s tu d e n ts i n a sp eech c la s s may r a t e one a n o th e r w ith s a t i s f a c t o r y v a l i d i t y #

The p o s s i b i l i t y sh o u ld be e x p e r im e n ta lly

t e s t e d by com paring s tu d e n t w ith f a c u l t y judgm ents#

55 TABIS I I I MEAN SCORES OF POTENTIAL VARIABLES TESTED FOR SESSION I TO DETERMINE THEIR INFLUENCE ON JR "ACCURACY"

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. M SD r SE

Ju d g e1s E x p e r- In e x p e r­ R a tin g Male Fem ale ie n c e ie n c e 2 .8 2 .8 2 .8 2 .8 3 .0 2 .1 2 .2 2 .1 2 .0 2 .4 2 .8 3 .2 3 .0 3 .2 3 .1 2 .8 2 .7 2 .5 2 .7 2 .9 1 .8 1 .8 1 .8 1 .7 1 .9 3 .8 3 .7 3 .7 3 .7 3 .5 3 .2 3 .0 3 .1 3 .4 3 .1 4 .2 4 .2 4 .1 4 .1 4 .1 2 .1 1 .8 1 .9 1 .9 1 .7 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 3 .8 3 .9 4 .2 4 .2 4 .4 4 .5 4 .3 2 .8 2 .8 2 .9 2 .9 2 .9 2 .9 3 .0 3 .0 2 .7 2 .9 1 .6 1 .8 1 .7 1 .7 1 .7 3 .8 4 .0 4 .0 3 .9 3 .9 2 .1 2 .1 2 .0 2 .0 2 .3 4 .2 4 .0 4 .1 4 .4 4 .4 3 .0 3 .0 3 .0 3 .1 3 .3 2 .3 2 .6 2 .4 2 .4 2 .5 3 .6 3 .6 3 .7 3 .5 3 .9 2 .1 2 .0 2 .0 1 .8 1 .9 1*4 1 .3 1 .3 1 .5 1 .5 3 .2 3 .0 3 .1 3 .4 3 .3 3 .2 3 .2 3 .5 3 .3 3 .3 2 .2 2 .1 2 .2 2 .2 2 .3 1 .8 2 .1 2 .0 1 .9 1 .7 1 .6 1 .3 1 .5 1 .7 1 .3 4 .2 4 .1 4 .1 4 .1 ■4.3 2 .2 2 .2 2 .2 2 .3 2 .3 4 .8 4 .8 4 .8 4 .9 4 .9 3 .0 3 .2 3 .0 2 .9 3 .1 2 .4 2 .4 2 .4 2 .5 2 .3 3 .2 3 .4 3 .3 3 .3 3 .3 2 .8 2 .0 2 .8 2 .7 2 .9 2 .5 2 .4 2 .5 2 .3 2 .3 2 .2 2 .6 2 .6 2 .4 2 .3 3 .8 3 .4 3 .5 3 .5 ■3.5 1 .2 1 .4 ‘ 1 .5 1 .5 1 .4 2 .6 2 .6 2 .7 2 .5 2 .5 4 .4 4 .7 4 .4 4 .5 4 .5 2 .8 7 5 2 .8 8 5 2 .8 4 5 2 .9 1 8 2 .9 3 3 .9 4 8 .942 .894 .897 .873 .596 .568 .590 .589 .597 .102 .102 .108 .104 .104

F ro n t Rows 3 .1 2 .3 2 .8 2 .5 1 .8 3 .7 2 .9 4 .1 1 .9 3 .8 4 .1 2 .6 3 .1 1 .6 3 .8 2 .4 4 .3 3 .1 2 .4 3 .6 2 .1 1 .2 3 .6 3 .3 2 .2 1 .8 1 .8 3 .9 2 .3 4 .8 3 .4 2 .4 3 .4 2 .6 2 .9 2 .4 3 .5 1 .1 2 .7 4 .6 2 .8 9 8 .900 .5 9 6 .1 0 2

Back P u b lic Rows A ddress 2 .7 2 .9 2 .0 1 .8 3 .2 3 .3 2 .8 3 .0 1 .8 1 .8 3 .7 3 .9 3 .3 3 .5 4 .3 4 .3 1 .9 1 .9 4 .0 3 .9 4 .2 4*4 3 .0 2 .9 2 .9 2 .9 1 .8 1 .6 4 .0 3 .9 2 .4 1 .9 4 .2 4 .1 3 .0 3 .4 2 .5 2 .5 3 .9 3 .5 1 .8 1 .9 1 .4 1 .4 3 .2 3 .1 3 .4 3 .5 2 .2 2 .3 2 .0 1 .9 1 .6 1 .3 4 .1 4 .3 2 .1 2 .2 4 .9 4 .7 2 .8 3 .0 2 .5 2 .3 3 .4 3 .3 2 .7 2 .9 2 .6 2 .0 2 .6 2 .5 3 .6 3 .6 1 .2 1 .5 2 .6 2 .4 4 .5 4 .5 2 .9 0 5 2 .9 1 3 .9 2 2 .947 .620 .595 .102 .098

S peech S peech A r ts S c ie n c e 2 .8 2 .8 2 .6 1 .9 2 .8 3 .2 2 .8 2 .4 2 .0 1 .5 3 .6 3 .6 3 .5 2 .3 4 .2 3 .9 1 .6 1 .9 3 .6 4 .0 4 .1 4 .4 2 .9 2 .4 2 .8 2 .9 1 .8 1 .4 3 .6 3 .9 2 .0 1 .8 4 .1 4 .3 2 .8 2 .9 1 .9 ' 2 .6 3 .7 3 .7 2 .1 1 .8 1 .2 1 .5 3 .2 3*2 2 .8 3 .3 2 .4 1 .7 2 .1 1 .5 1 .3 1 .5 3 .9 4 .3 2 .4 1 .9 4 .8 4 .8 3 .4 2 .9 2 .1 2 .5 3 .2 3 .3 2 .6 2 .8 2 .2 2 .3 2 .1 2 .3 3 .6 3 .3 1 .2 1 .5 2 .5 2 .4 4 .4 4 .4 2 .k 5 3 2 .9 4 0 .9 2 2 .884 .560 .588 .1 1 0 .104

56 C om parisons o f Judges Based Upon S e a tin g P o s itio n #

»«■!!■ ||» lA i—

fc..n ■« I U ll W 11— 1 l« ll#

S in c e t h e

room i n w hich t h e e x p e rim e n t m s conducted -was 2 9 f e e t lo n g and t h e f l o o r m is n o t i n c l i n e d , o n ly th o s e fu d g es i n th e f r o n t row s co u ld see th e w hole sp ea k er#

V is io n i n r e a r rows was r e s t r i c t e d t o th e

u p p e r h a l f o f t h e sp eak ers* t o d i e s .

C o n seq u en tly i t was d e c id e d t o

t e s t t h e a c c u ra c y o f judgm ent o f th o s e ju d g e s who s a t i n th e f r o n t t h r e e row s and th e ju d g e s s e a te d i n th e r e a r t h r e e rows# 19 ju d g e s s e a te d i n th e f i r s t group and 23 i n t h e l a t t e r .

There w ere As se e n

i n Columns 7 and 8 o f T ab le I I I , th e mean a v e ra g e JR f o r th e “f r o n t row” ju d g e s was 2 .8 9 8 and f o r "b ack row" ju d g e s was 2.905* s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s f o r t h e s e groups w ere .900 and #947* d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t s ig n i f i c a n t #

R e s p e c tiv e These

When th e a v e ra g e JR*s f o r each o f

t h e s e g ro u p s were c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS s c o r e s t h e o b ta in e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r b o th g roups w ere / . 6 0 ^£#102.

These two i d e n t i c a l

c o e f f i c i e n t s s u g g e s t t h e h y p o th e s is t h a t t h e judgm ents w ere b ase d upon t h e sp e a k e r* s g e n e r a l e f f e c t o r g e s t a l t , r a t h e r th a n upon s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , such a s , tr e m b lin g k n e e s , s h u f f l i n g o f f e e t , e t c . Com parison o f Judges Based Upon S peech-A rea S p e c i a l t y . . The m ajo r f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t f o r 17 o f t h e ju d g e s was p u b lic a d d r e s s . S ix te e n o f t h e ju d g e s w ere s p e c i a l iz in g i n sp eech a r t s and 24 i n sp eech s c ie n c e #

As shown i n Columns 9 s 10, and 11 o f T ab le I I I , t h e

mean a v e ra g e JR r a t i n g and th e c o rre s p o n d in g s ta n d a r d d e v i a tio n f o r each group was a s f o llo w s :

51

P u b lic a d d re s s S peech a r t s S peech s c ie n c e

M 2 .9 1 3 2 .6 5 3 2.940

These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .

SD •322 .922 .884 When th e a v e ra g e JR’ s f o r

ea c h o f th e s e g ro u p s were c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS s c o r e s , th e c o e f f i c i e n t s becam e: r

P u b lic a d d re s s Speech a r t s S peech s c ie n c e

/.S2 /•5 9 /•5 6

Rone o f th e above d i f f e r e n c e s ex ce e d s even I X SE a n d , t h e r e f o r e , may n o t be c o n s id e re d s t a t i s t i c s . l l y p ro b a b le t o a h ig h d e g r e e . S in c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , how ever, a r e i n a l o g i c a l d i r e c t i o n , th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s su g g e ste d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . OVER-ALL ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE AM) INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS A t t h i s p o in t i t was th o u g h t p e r t i n e n t t o a n a ly z e judgm ents on " f e a r f u l ” and " c o n f id e n t” s p e a k e r s .

The 61 in d i v i d u a l judgm ents

on 40 s p e a k e rs c o l l e c t i v e l y and th e 61 c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents on th e 40 s p e a k e rs i n d i v i d u a l l y w ere a ls o a n a ly z e d .

I n a d d i t i o n , an

a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n o f ju d g in g e r r o r s was made. D ata p r e s e n tin g t h i s m a t e r ia l may b e found i n t h e f o llo w in g ta b le s : T a b le V I I I , A ppendix A.

The e ig h th t a b l e , A ppendix A,

p r e s e n ts th e 2 ,4 4 0 judgm ents o f t h i s s e s s i o n . s p e a k e r number a s coded from 1 t o 4 0 .

Column 1 g iv e s th e

Column 2 g iv e s th e "k ey ”

s c o re w hich i n d i c a t e s th e s c o re each s p e a k e r sh o u ld have r e c e iv e d

58 i f o b j e c t i v e and s u b je c tiv e judgm ents w ere t o a g r e e

The re m a in in g

colum ns p r e s e n t t h e a c t u a l r e p o r te d JR*s f o r ea c h i n d i v i d u a l judge* T a b le IX , A ppendix A.

The n in t h t a b l e , A ppendix A, p r e s e n ts

com p lete q u a r t i l e co m p arisons f o r th e m ost C o n f i d e n t ’* and th e m ost " f e a r f u l” sp e a k e rs.

Column 1 g iv e s th e coded ju d g e num bers.

Columns

2 t o 6 g iv e t h e s u c c e s s iv e s te p s le a d in g t o t h e s ta n d a rd d e v ia t io n o f th e s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n f o r Q u a r tile I .

R em aining Columns g iv e

i d e n t i c a l s te p s f o r Q u a r t i le IV . T able X, A ppendix A.

The t e n t h t a b l e , A ppendix A, p r e s e n ts

th e c o l l e c t i v e JR d e v i a tio n s from " a c c u ra c y ” on each i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r.

Column 1 g iv e s th e Coded sp e a k e r num ber.

t h e t o t a l number o f "0" d e v ia tio n s from " a c c u r a c y ."

Column 2 g iv e s Column 3- g iv e s

t h e t o t a l number o f p o s i t i v e d e v i a t i o n s , and Column 4 g iv e s th e t o t a l number o f n e g a tiv e d e v ia tio n s from " a c c u r a c y .”

Column 5 g iv e s

t h e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n from " a c c u ra c y ” ( p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e co m b in ed ). T a b le X I, A ppendix A.

The e le v e n th t a b l e , A ppendix A,

p r e s e n ts t h e i n d i v i d u a l JR d e v ia tio n s from " a c c u ra c y ” f o r th e s p e a k e rs c o l l e c t i v e l y . fro m 101 t o 161.

Column 1 g iv e s th e ju d g e s number a s coded

R em aining Columns g iv e th e z e r o , p o s i t i v e ,

n e g a t i v e , and t o t a l d e v ia tio n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T ab le X I I , A ppendix A*

The t w e l f t h t a b l e , A ppendix A, g iv e s

PRCS and JR ra n k e d s c o re s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een th e tw o .

^ The m ethod o f s e c u r in g t h e s e "k ey ” s c o r e s i s d e s c rib e d on l a t e r pages o f t h i s c h a p te r .

59 Column I g iv e s th e s p e a k e r number a s coded from 1 t o 4 0 . g iv e s th e FRCS ran k ed s c o r e s .

Column 2

Column 3 g iv e s th e JR ra n k e d s c o r e s .

Column 4 g iv e s d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e ran k ed s c o re s o f Columns 2 and 3 * “ C o n fid e n t” and “F e a r f u l ” S p eak ers Compared.

A n a ly z in g th e

d a t a fro m t h e f o r e g o in g v ie w p o in t, i t was n o te d t h a t th e ju d g e s seem ed much more c e r t a i n o f t h e i r judgm ents i n th e c a se o f " c o n f id e n t” s p e a k e rs th a n o f th o s e r e p o r t i n g e x te n s iv e " f e a r " e x p e r ie n c e s .

To

e x p lo r e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e 40 s p e a k e rs w ere d iv id e d i n t o u p p e r and lo w er q u a r t i l e s . ^

co m p rised t h e 10 m ost " c o n f id e n t" s p e a k e r s , a s

m easu red b y t h e i r FRCS s c o r e s j w h ile " f e a r f u l."

com prised t h e 10 m ost

To m easure c o n s is te n c y , t h e s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s f o r th e

a v e ra g e d JR’ s w ere com pared.

T ab le IX , A ppendix A p r e s e n ts t h e e n t i r e

d a ta u s e d f o r t h i s c o m p a riso n .

The a v e ra g e s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n f o r

Q-j_ 'was

I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e d i f f e r e n c e

66 an^

Q/j. ‘WB-s .99*

o f .3 3 i s a t h i r d t o a h a l f a s g r e a t An o b ta in e d t - r a t i o o f 8 .5 f a r o f t h i s d iffe re n c e .

as th e f ig u r e s b e in g com pared.

ex ceed s t h a t r e q u ir e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e

I t may be co n clu d ed t h a t ju d g e s v a c i l l a t e t o a

g r e a t e r d e g re e i n r a t i n g " f e a r f u l " s p e a k e rs th a n " c o n f id e n t" o n e s . C om parison o f S ix ty -o n e C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents f o r F o r ty S p eak ers I n d iv id u a 1 l y . XP

S in c e some sp eech t e a c h e r s a c t on th e c o n v ic tio n t h a t

The code num bers f o r s p e a k e rs r a t e d a s " c o n f id e n t" a r e 2 , 5 , 9 $ 1 4 , 1 6 , 2 1 , 2 6 , 2 7, 3 8 , and 3 9 . Code numbers f o r " f e a r f u l " s p e a k e rs a r e 4 , 1 2 , 1 5 , 1 7 , 2 0 , 3 0 , 3 2 , 3 5 , 5 7 , suid 4 0 *

60 th e y a r e a b le t o gauge a s tu d e n t sp e a k e r* s e m o tio n a l s t a t e sim p ly by o b s e rv in g him g iv e a s p e e c h , i t was th o u g h t d e s ir a b l e t o a tte m p t some m easurem ent o f t h e a c c u ra c y o f a s in g le ju d g e on t h e e n t i r e group o f s p e a k e rs and th e a c c u ra c y o f th e e n t i r e group o f ju d g e s on a s in g le sp e a k e r.

D ata p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e com parisons a r e p r e s e n te d i n T a b le s X

and X I, A ppendix A.

To make t h i s com p ariso n p o s s ib le i t -was n e c e s s a r y

t o d e v is e a "k ey ” PRCS s c o re w hich would m atch th e f i v e - s t e p JR s c a l e . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t t h e FRCS s c o re s had a t h e o r e t i c a l ran g e o f from /5 0 t o - 5 4 o r , a s Coded, from 1 t o 105#

The p ro b lem became one

o f b r e a k in g t h i s ra n g e i n t o f i v e p a r t s w hich would " a p p ro x im a te ly ” m atch t h e d i v i s i o n s i n t h e s c a le u sed by t h e ju d g e s . by w hich t h i s m ig h t b e ac co m p lish e d w ere e x p lo r e d .

S e v e r a l m ethods The one s e le c te d

a s m ost a d e q u a te f o r th e n eed s o f t h i s e x p e rim e n t was a s f o llo w s : The FRCS s c o r e s w ere c o n v e rte d i n t o T -s c o re s by means o f th e McCall T - s c a le m e t h o d .^ 8 o f T a b le I .

PRCS and JR T -s c o re s a r e shown i n Columns 6 and

The ra n g e o f t h e s e T -s c o re s was d iv id e d i n t o f iv e

e q u a l p a r t s and e q u iv a le n t JR v a lu e s w ere a s s ig n e d t o e a c h a r e a . These new s c o re s th e n became th e ”key” FRCS v a lu e s w h ich co u ld be compared t o th e JR*s and w h ic h , when th u s com pared, e n a b le d one t o d e te rm in e a j u d g e 's p lu s o r m inus d e v ia ti o n from " a c c u r a c y ."

The

f i r s t Columns o f a l l p ag es c o m p risin g T a b le s V I I I , A ppendix A, and X I I I , A ppendix 33, p r e s e n t t h i s "k ey ” PRCS s c o r e .

U sin g t h i s m ethod

i t sh o u ld be m en tio n ed t h a t even a c o r r e c t m a tc h in g b etw een ju d g e s and ”k ey ” i s o n ly a r e f l e c t i o n t h a t th e ju d g e i s a p p ro x im a te ly r i g h t . ^

J . P . G u ilf o r d , Op. C i t . , p p . 99-104*

U sin g t h e above p r o c e d u re , i t was p o s s ib le t o check th e amount o f d e v i a t i o n fro m a c c u ra c y -which a l l 61 ju d g e s showed i n r e l a t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r s p e a k e r.

These d a ta a r e shown i n T ab le X, A ppendix A*

The c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents ran g ed from a ,fb e s t lf o f 44 on s p e a k e r number 38 t o a ’’w o r s t” o f z ero on s p e a k e rs 1 0 , 1 2 , 3 2 , and 35* c o l l e c t i v e judgm ent was 2 0 .8 .

The a v e ra g e

These m arg in s o f e r r o r a r e so g ro s s

a s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t la r g e numbers o f " e x p e r t” ju d g e s a r e u n a b le t o d e t e c t e m o tio n a l d is tu r b a n c e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s p e a k e r -with any d e g re e o f a c cu racy * C om parison o f S ix ty -O n e I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r F o r ty S p e a k e rs C o lle c tiv e ly *

Looking a t th e s e d a ta a second way i t i s

p o s s ib le t o ch eck t h e d e v i a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r ju d g e on t h e c o lle c tiv e sp e a k e rs.

H ere i t was found t h a t t h e ’’b e s t ” o f th e 61

ju d g e s was ’’a p p ro x im a te ly r i g h t ” i n 19 o f t h e 40 c a s e s ; th e a v e ra g e ju d g e i n 13*6 c a s e s ; t h e " w o rs t” ju d g e i n o n ly 9 c a s e s .

I t sh o u ld

be n o te d t h a t by chance a ju d g e sh o u ld g e t one r i g h t o u t o f f i v e — o r e i g h t o f th e 4 0 .

By t h i s s ta n d a r d , some o f th e ju d g e s would have

done a lm o st a s w e ll i f th e y had f li p p e d c o in s . a p p ro x im a te ly r i g h t o n ly h a l f th e tim e .

The b e s t ju d g e m s

Even w ith a l l p o s s i b le

q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e e x p e r im e n ta l s e t - u p , th e s e m arg in s o f e r r o r a r e so g ro s s a s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a sp eech te a c h e r sh o u ld p la c e l i t t l e f a i t h i n h i s u n s u p p o rte d judgm ent a s t o th e em otions f e l t by a g iv e n s tu d e n t i n a g iv e n s p e e c h . sh o u ld b e b a se d upon su ch ju d g m e n ts.

C e r ta i n ly no s e r io u s th e r a p y The above com parison i s p r e ­

s e n te d i n d e t a i l i n T able X I, A ppendix A.

62 D i r e c t i o n o f Ju d g in g E rro rs *

As w e ll a s d e te rm in in g amounts

o f ju d g in g e r r o r s , i t -was a l s o p o s s ib le t o d is c o v e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f su ch e r r o r s , i* e * , p o s s i b l e te n d e n c ie s e i t h e r t o o v e r e s tim a te o r u n d e r e s tim a te th e s p e a k e r s ' r e p o r te d f e a r - f e e l i n g s * d a ta r e v e a le d a s tr o n g l y m arked tre n d *

On t h i s q u e s tio n ,

On a t o t a l o f 2 ,4 4 0 judgm ents

i n S e s s io n I , t h e r e w ere 2 ,2 4 0 s c a le s te p s o f d e v i a t i o n from ^ a c cu ra cy * "

Of t h e s e , 1,339* o r 59*&%> were u n d e r e s tim a tio n s o f

s tu d e n ts * f e a r s , w h ile 9 0 1 , o r 40*25©, w ere o v e r e s tim a tio n s *

T h is

d i f f e r e n c e o f 13*6% may b e ro u g h ly e v a lu a te d f o r s ig n i f i c a n c e by a p p l i c a t i o n o f a cu sto m ary fo rm u la f o r s ta n d a rd e r r o r o f t h e d if f e r e n c e b etw ee n p r o p o r tio n s * ^

S in c e th e d i f f e r e n c e i s 13*2 X SE, i t may be

c o n s id e re d h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t *

I n te rm s o f c la s sro o m p r a c t i c e s , i t

w ould seem more d an g ero u s t o u n d e re s tim a te th a n t o o v e r e s tim a te a s t u d e n t ’ s e m o tio n a l u p s e t s .

I f s o , th e d a ta s u g g e s t t h a t t h e

a v e ra g e t e a c h e r w i l l be n o t m erely in a c c u r a te i n ju d g in g s tu d e n ts * f e a r s b u t u s u a l l y in a c c u r a te i n th e more d an g ero u s d i r e c t io n *

T o ta ls

shown f o r e i t h e r T a b le s X o r X I, A ppendix A, a r e s o u rc e s f o r th e s e d a ta * A ccuracy o f Judgment P a r t i a l l y a_ S p eak er F u n c tio n *

The

a c c u ra c y o f ju d g e s i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t w as, o f c o u r s e , p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t io n o f t h e sp e a k e rs* t h a t p o i n t o f view* r e p o r te d h ere* 14

The d a ta w e re , t h e r e f o r e , a n a ly z e d from

T ab le X I I , A ppendix A, p r e s e n ts th e com parisons

N a t u r a l l y , s p e a k e rs who v a r ie d i n ex trem e d e g re e

63 fro m t h e i r JR s c o r e s w e re s c r u t i n i z e d . th is

As h a s a l r e a d y b e e n i n d i c a t e d ,

s c r u ti n y re v e a le d f o u r c a se s o f e x t r a o r d in a r y d is c re p a n c y

b e tw e e n PRCS a n d JR s c o r e s .

P ro b a b ly th e

s i m p l e s t w ay t o

d i s c r e p a n c i e s w o u ld b e i n te r m s o f r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s . s p e a k e rs w e re r a n k e d , fro m m o st t o

s ta t e th e s e

When a l l

l e a s t c o n f id e n t, a c c o rd in g t o

b o th PRCS a n d JR s c o r e s , i t w as n o t i c e d t h a t s p e a k e r s 32 a n d 35 w e re t i e d w i t h s p e a k e r s 19 a n d 36 f o r 1 4 . 5th . r a n k s b y t h e i r JR s c o r e s , y e t r a n k e d 39 a n d 3 7 .5 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r PRCS s c o r e s .

R ank

d i f f e r e n c e s w e re t h u s 2 4 .5 a n d 2 3 .0 r e s p e c t i v e l y (w h e re 39 w o u ld b e t h e maximum r a n k d e v i a t i o n p o s s i b l e ) .

On t h e o t h e r e x tr e m e , s p e a k e r s

1 0 a n d 11 r a n k e d 33*5 a n d 3& th b y JR s c o r e s , a s co m p ared w i t h 1 1 th a n d 1 5 t h b y PRCS, a r a n k d i f f e r e n c e o f 2 2 .5 a n d 2 3 . 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The u n u s u a l e x t e n t o f t h e s e f o u r d e v i a t i o n s i s

c l a r i f i e d w hen i t

is

c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e o t h e r 36 s p e a k e r s w as o n ly 6 .6 ra n k s ,

f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e c a s e s w ere s e p a r a t e d o n b o t h

e x t r e m e s b y n o t i c e a b l e g a p s fro m t h e n e x t n e a r e s t d i s c r e p a n c i e s . T h e s e d a t a s u g g e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t w h en a s p e a k e r ’ s d e v i a t i o n fro m h i s j u d g e s ’ r a n k i n g s e x c e e d s tw o o r t h r e e t i m e s t h e a v e r a g e d e v i a t i o n o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b er o f o t h e r s p e a k e r s , s u c h d i s c r e p a n c y m ay p r o v i d e a d i a g n o s t i c t e c h n i q u e b y w h ic h " p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b le m s " m ay b e l o c a t e d ,

^ h is s u g g e s tio n i s b a s e d upon t h e

a s s u m p ti o n t h a t r a d i c a l v a r i a n c e s i n

s e l f - a p p r a i s a l may b e a f u n c t i o n

o f " a b n o rm a l" o p e r a t i o n o f s u c h m e c h a n ism s a s i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s , d e fe n se o f ego, e tc .

CHAPTER V

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF SILENT MOTION PICTURE DATA As a l r e a d y e x p la in e d , 50 ju d g e s w ere a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e ju d g in g s e s s i o n i n w hich s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s w ere shown. **• These ju d g e s , u s in g t h e f i v e - s t e p s c a l e d ev elo p ed f o r th e " f l e s h " s e s s i o n , judged 32 s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g re e s " o f s ta g e f r i g h t .

S e c tio n I o f

th e c u r r e n t c h a p te r p r e s e n ts an d a n a ly z e s th e s e ju d g m e n ts. To make th e P i c t u r e and " F le s h " d a ta d i r e c t l y co m p arab le, i t became n e c e s s a r y to r e - c a l c u l a t e th e l a t t e r , u s in g o n ly t h e d a ta f o r th e 50 ju d g e s and 32 s p e a k e r s , i n s t e a d o f th e 61 ju d g e s and 40 s p e a k e rs a s r e p o r te d i n C h ap ter IV .

S e c tio n I I o f t h i s C h ap ter

p r e s e n t s th e s e r e - e v a l u a t i o n s . D ata accom panying t h e a n a l y s is o f " f l e s h " and r e - c a l c u l a t e d " p i c t u r e " s e s s io n s a r e p r e s e n te d i n th e f o llo w in g t a b l e s ; T a b le IV . by code n um bers.

The f i r s t Column o f T able IV i d e n t i f i e s th e s p e a k e rs I t w i l l b e n o te d t h a t s p e a k e rs 4 . 5* 6 . 1* 8 , 2 5 .

2 6 , and 30 w ere l o s t t o t h i s s e c t io n o f th e s tu d y . raw PRCS s c o re s f o r ea c h s p e a k e r.

Column 2 g iv e s th e

Column 3 g iv e s th e s e s c o r e s coded.

Column 4 g iv e s t h e mean JR s c o re s f o r th e " F le s h " p e rfo rm a n c e . 5 g iv e s t h e mean JR s c o re s f o r th e " P ic t u r e " p e rfo rm a n c e .

Column

The box a t

t h e f o o t o f t h e t a b l e g iv e s th e mean s c o r e s , s ta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n , and s ta n d a r d e r r o r o f th e r^ v a lu e s f o r ea c h o f t h e g ro u p s. 1 See C h ap te r I I I , p . 31*

65 T a b le V. num ber.

The f i r s t Column o f T ab le V g iv e s th e coded s p e a k e r

R em aining Columns g iv e t h e P i c t u r e and " F le s h ” mean s c o re s f o r

t h e f o llo w in g g ro u p s:

m a le , f e m a le , p u b lic a d d r e s s , a r t s and s c ie n c e .

The box a t t h e f o o t o f t h e T ab le g iv e s th e mean a v e ra g e s o o r e s , s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , and s ta n d a r d e r r o r f o r e a c h o f th e s e g ro u p s. T a b le V I I I , A ppendix A,

The e ig h th T ab le o f A ppendix A p r e s e n ts

t h e 2 ,4 4 0 judgm ents o f t h e " F le s h " s e s s i o n .

The 1,600 JR* s f o r th e

rew orked " F le s h " d a ta a r e s e c u re d by o m ittin g ju d g e s number 104# 106, 110, 11 5 , 1 2 0 , 1 5 0 , 15 1 , 14 2, 154, 157# and 159 and s p e a k e rs 4 , 5 , 7* 8 , 2 5 , 2 6 , and 32*

Column 1 g iv e s th e s p e a k e r num ber.

Column 2 g iv e s

t h e "k e y ” s c o re w hich i n d i c a t e s t h e s c o re each s p e a k e r sh o u ld have r e c e iv e d i f o b j e c t i v e and s u b je c ti v e judgm ents w ere t o a g r e e .

The

re m a in in g columns p r e s e n t th e a c t u a l r e p o r te d JR’ s f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l ju d g e . T ab le X I I I , A ppendix B p r e s e n ts i d e n t i c a l d a ta f o r th e " p i c t u r e " s e s s io n . T a b le XIV, A ppendix B,

The f o u r t e e n t h t a b l e o f A ppendix B

p r e s e n ts t h e d e v ia tio n s from " a c c u ra c y " o f 50 c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents on 32 i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s . coded fro m 1 t o 4 0 ,

Column 1 g iv e s th e s p e a k e r number a s

Columns 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 g iv e "fche " 0 " , p l u s , m in u s,

and t o t a l d e v ia tio n s fro m " a c c u ra c y " f o r th e " F le s h " s e s s i o n . Columns 6 , 7 , 8 , and 9 g iv e t h i s d a ta f o r th e P i c t u r e s e s s i o n . T a b le XV, A ppendix B,

The f i f t e e n t h t a b l e , A ppendix B,

p r e s e n t s th e d e v ia tio n s from a c c u ra c y o f 50 i n d i v i d u a l ju d g e s on 32

66 c o l l e c t i v e sp e a k e rs*

Column 1 g iv e s th e coded judges* number*

Columns

2 , 3» 4# and 5 g iv e t h e " 0 ” , p l u s , m in u s, and t o t a l d e v ia tio n s from ’’a c c u ra c y 1' f o r th e " F le s h " s e s s i o n . Columns 6 , 7# 8 , and 9 g iv e t h i s d a ta f o r th e P i c t u r e s e s s i o n . f a b l e X V III, A ppendix B*

The e ig h te e n th t a b l e , A ppendix B,

p r e s e n t s ran k ed PRCS. and JR sc o re s* number*

Column 1 g iv e s th e coded sp e a k e r

Column 2 g iv e s th e PRCS ran k e d s c o r e s .

ra n k e d s c o re s f o r th e " F le s h ” s e s s i o n .

Column 3 g iv e s th e JR

Column 4 g iv e s th e d i f f e r e n c e s

b etw een th e s c o re s o f Columns 2 and 3* Column 5 g iv e s JR ra n k ed s c o re s f o r th e P i c t u r e s e s s i o n . Column 6 g iv e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e betw een s c o re s o f Columns 2 and 5« PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF MOTION PICTURE DATA M a te r ia ls f o r t h i s s e c t io n a r e p r e s e n te d u n d er t h r e e m ain h e a d in g s w h ich a n a ly z e ( l ) o b ta in e d PRCS and JR r a t i n g s , (2 ) c e r t a i n s e l e c t group ju d g m e n ts, and (3 ) c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l ju d g m en ts. O b ta in ed PRCS and JR R a tin g s PROS S co res*

As n o te d i n th e p re v io u s C h a p te r, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l

maximum ra n g e o f G ilk in s o n ’ s in v e n to r y c o m p risin g 104 s ta te m e n ts i s /5 0 t o -54*

The o b ta in e d PRCS s c o re s f o r th e 32 s p e a k e rs p r e s e n t i n

t h e f il m d a ta i s / 4 I t o - 3 8 , o r 7 6 *2^ o f th e maximum ra n g e p o s s i b l e . JR S c o r e s .

As i n t h e " F le s h ” s e s s i o n , th e s c o re s o b ta in e d by

t h e judges* r a t i n g s , b a se d upon o b s e r v a tio n s o f th e p i c t u r e s w ere

67 TABLE IV PERSONAL REPORTS OF 32 SPEAKERS AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF 50 "EXPERT" JUDGES WHILE WATCHING “FLESH" AND "PICTURE" SESSIONS ,

S p eak er Number 1. 2. 3* 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. IB . 19. 20. 21. 22. 23 . 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. M SD *r SE

PRCS S co re ~ 5

Ao /ll /3 7 /2 3 / 7 -24 / 2 /2 4 -17 /2 6 -15 -1 2 -10 -3 8 /3 4 /1 7 / 9 - 9 /3 7 - 6 - 4 -1 7 -10 - 9 - 3 -24 / 6 -1 8

Al

/2 9 -2 3

Coded PRCS 56 11 40 14 28 44 75 49 27 68 * 25 66 63 61 89 17 34 42 60 14 57 55 68 61 60 54 75 45 69 10 22 74 4 7 .9 0 6 2 1 .5 8 8

" F le s h 11 s: j r S c o re s 2 .8 2 .0 3 .0 1 .9 3 .8 4 .3 2 .7 2 .9 1 .7 3 .9 2 .1 4 .1 3 .0 2 .3 3 .6 1 .9 1 .4 3 .2 3 .1 1 .5 4 .1 2 .2 4 .8 3 .0 3 .4 2 .8 2 .4 2 .4 3 .5 1 .4 2 .6 4 .5 2 .8 8 4 .9 1 7 .634 .108

P ic tu re JR S c o re s 2 .5 1 .7 3 .5 2 .4 2 .2 3 .8 2 .9 2 .8 1 .5 3 .9 2 .4 4 .2 3 .7 2 .4 3 .6 1 .8 1 .7 2 .3 3 .5 1 .9 3 .6 2 .1 4 .7 3 .1 3 .2 2 .5 2 .4 2 ,7 2 .7 1 .8 1 .9 4 .1 2 .7 9 7 .838 .690 .075

♦ C o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s ta n d a rd d e v ia ti o n s fo u n d by c o r r e l a t i n g r e s p e c t i v e JR S c o re s m t h PRCS S c o r e s .

68 t a b u l a t e d and a v e ra g e d .

These a v e ra g e d s c o re s ra n g e from l.f? t o 4*7*

o r 84*0^ o f th e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum.

I t , t h e r e f o r e , may be co n clu d ed

t h a t b o th PROS and JR s c o re s s p re a d o v er a s a t i s f a c t o r y p o r ti o n o f th e p ro v id e d s c a l e s and t h a t th e s e m e a su rin g d e v ic e s p roved a d e q u a te a s te c h n iq u e s by -which s p e a k e rs and ju d g e s co u ld r e p o r t s u b je c ti v e and o b j e c t i v e " d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t . " S p l i t - H a I f Com parison f o r R e l i a b i l i t y ,

The i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y

o f JR s c o re s -was checked by a r r a n g in g t h e ju d g e s a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and c o r r e l a t i n g t h e i r odd and e v en mean s c o re ju d g m e n ts.

The c o e f f i c i e n t

o b ta in e d by means o f t h i s s p l i t - h a l f com parison -s'/as / . 9 4 £*021»

The

c o n s is te n c y r e f l e c t e d b y t h i s £ v a lu e s u g g e s ts t h a t th e s c a le u sed i s a h ig h ly r e l i a b l e d e v ic e f o r m ea su rin g " d e g re e s " o f s ta g e f r i g h t -when s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a r e b e in g u s e d . C om parison o f Judges* R a tin g s and S p e a k e rs 1 I n tr o s p e o t iv e R e p o r ts .

The r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een PRCS and JR s c o re s was checked by

c o r r e l a t i n g t h e coded s c o re s w ith th e 32 mean s c o r e s . * The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t th u s o b ta in e d -was / . 6 9 ^£.075*

T h is £_ v a lu e s u p p o rts th e

assu m p tio n t h a t th e tw o s c o re s w ould te n d t o v a l i d a t e one a n o th e r .

It,

t h e r e f o r e , seems w a rra n te d t o s t a t e t h a t t h e s c a l e used i s a v a l i d m e a su rin g d e v ic e i n a s i t u a t i o n i n w h ich s i l e n t p i c t u r e s a r e u sed a s a m edia th ro u g h w hich t o o b se rv e d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t . shown i n Columns 2 and 5 o f T ab le IV .

These d a ta a r e

69 C e r ta in S e l e c t Group Judgm ents C e r ta in v a r i a b l e s w ere t e s t e d a s a means o f d is c o v e r in g w h e th e r t h e y in f lu e n c e d fu d g in g a c cu racy * a r e a o f m a jo r i n t e r e s t .

(1 ) s e x and (2 )

I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t two v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d

f o r t h e i n i t i a l d a ta w ere o m itte d . one o f t h o s e .

Those t e s t e d w ere:

“Y ears o f te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e ” i s

I t was n o t in c lu d e d f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t few t e a c h e r s , i f

a n y , have had e x p e rie n c e i n ju d g in g s ta g e f r i g h t a s e v id e n c e d th ro u g h t h e medium o f s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s .

The d is ta n c e f a c t o r a n a ly z e d i n

t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n d a ta was a l s o o m itte d b e c a u s e th e p i c t u r e s w ere shown i n a l a r g e p r o j e c t i o n room on an e le v a te d s c re e n and t h e r e w as, t h e r e ­ f o r e , no p ro b le m o f t h e ju d g e b e in g u n a b le t o see a sp e a k e r i n h i s e n tire ty . C om parison o f Judges B ased Upon Sex D if f e r e n c e s .

The f o llo w in g

d a ta t a k e n from Columns 2 and 4 o f T a b le V w ere s e c u re d i n t h i s co m p ariso n : Male Fem ale D if f e r e n c e s

M 2 .8 1 6 2 .8 7 ? 0 .0 5 6

SD .9 3 7

.7 9 8 , .1 3 9

r /.^ 7 £ .7 2 /C 0 5

SE £ .0 9 6

£ .0 8 6 £ .0 1 0

Hone o f t h e above d i f f e r e n c e s a r e o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .

However,

3 6 men s e rv e d a s ju d g e s f o r t h i s e x p e rim e n t and o n ly 14 women.

The

f a c t t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r fe m a le ju d g e s was g r e a t e r i n s p i t e o f th e s m a lle r number o f c a s e s may mean t h a t fem ale ju d g e s would p ro v e s u p e r io r t o m ale ju d g e s i n t h i s ty p e o f ju d g in g i f l a r g e r g roups w ere u s e d . p o s s i b i l i t y i s a problem t o be d e c id e d by f u r t h e r e x p e r im e n ta tio n .

T h is

70 TABIS V MEAN SCORES OF POTENTIAL VARIABLES TESTED FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I TO DETERMINE THEIR .INFLUENCE ON JR "ACCURACY” S p eak er Number 1. 2. 3. 9. 10. 11. 12 . 13. 14 • 15. IS . 17. 18. 13. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. M SD r* * sis**

Male *p 2*5 1 .8 3 .6 2 .4 2 .1 3 .3 2 .8 2 .9 1 .4 3*8 2 .1 4 .3 3 .7 2 .2 3 .7 1 .7 1 .6 2 .2 3 .5 1 .9 3 .6 2 .1 4 .7 3 .0 4 .7 2 .4 2 .4 2 .6 2 .8 1 .8 1 .8 4 .2 2 .816 .937 .670 •0 9 6

Fem ale F 2 .8 2 .1 3 .2 1 .9 3 .7 4 .2 2 .6 2 .9 1 .5 3 .8 2 .1 4 .0 3 .0 2 .2 3 .6 1 .8 1 .4 3 .1 2 .9 1 .6 4 .1 2 .2 4 .8 3 .1 3 .4 2 .8 2 .5 2 .2 3 .6 1 .4 2 .7 4 .5 2 .8 6 6 “ .9 1 5 .603 .115

? 2 .6 1 .6 3 .3 2 .2 2 .3 3 .3 3 .2 2 .6 1 .7 3 .9 2 .6 4 .1 3 .9 2 .7 3 .6 1 .9 1 .9 2 .3 3 .7 2 .0 3 .5 2 .3 4 .6 3 .2 3 .5 2 .8 2 .4 3 .1 2 .6 1 .9 2 .1 4 .0 2 .8 7 2 .798 .721 .0 8 6

F 2 .6 1 .8 2 .7 1 .9 4 .0 4 .4 3 .0 2 .8 2 .1 4 .1 2 .0 4 .4 3 .1 2 .6 3 .8 1 .9 1 .2 3 .1 3 .4 1 .2 4 .2 2 .0 4 .9 2 .9 3 .3 2 .8 2 .2 2 .7 3 .3 1 .2 2 .4 4 .4 2 .8 8 8 .986 .655 .101

P u b lic A ddress P F 3 .0 2 .7 1 .3 1 .7 3 .7 3 .1 2 .8 2 .0 2 .3 3 .9 4 .2 3 .8 2 .9 2 .5 2 .9 3 .0 1 .2 1 .9 3 .7 3 .9 2 .5 2 .3 4 .2 4 .3 3 .4 3 .9 2 .3 2 .5 3 .7 3 .5 1 .9 1 .7 1 .5 1 .3 2 .8 3 .2 3 .6 3 .5 2 .0 1 .7 3 .7 3 .9 2 .0 2 .0 4*6 4 .8 2 .7 3 .1 3 .4 3 .5 2 .7 2 .9 2 .6 2 .7 2 .8 2 .7 2 .9 3 .5 1 .7 1 .3 2 .7 1 .9 4 .3 4 .5 ’2 .8 5 6 2 .9 3 1 .892 .924 .6 5 2 .671 .1 04 .099

S peech A rts P F £ .8 2 .0 1 .6 1 .8 3 .2 2 .5 2 .0 1 .7 2 .0 3 .4 3 .8 4 .1 2 .9 2 .3 2 .8 2 .8 1 .5 1 .5 3 .8 3 .7 1 .8 2 .5 4 .1 4 .1 2 .8 3 .5 2 .2 1 .9 3 .6 3 .7 1 .3 1 .5 1 .2 1 .8 2 .0 3 .0 3*2 2 .8 1 .7 1 .3 3 .9 3 .5 1 .8 2 .0 4 .9 4 .7 3 .2 3 .5 3 .2 3 .2 2 .2 2 .7 2 .1 2 .3 2 .2 2 .5 2 .6 3 .4 1 .2 1 .9 1 .8 2 .5 4 .2 4 .5 2 .666 2.731 .903 .957 .6 6 4 .6 5 8 .101 .1 0 1

Speech S c ie n c e P F ‘2 .7 2 .5 2 .6 2 .0 3 .5 3 .3 1 .8 2 .4 2 .1 3 .9 3 .7 4 .3 2 .8 3 .1 2 .8 2 .8 1 .6 1 .8 4 .0 3 .8 2 .1 1 .8 4 .1 4 .3 2 .8 3 .8 2 .6 2 .3 3 .6 3 .3 1 .8 1 .7 1 .6 1*3 2 .1 3 .1 3 .2 3 .7 1 .9 1 .3 4 .1 3*5 2 .3 2 .3 4 .6 4 .9 3 .0 2 .9 3 .3 3 .3 2 .6 2 .7 2 .2 2 .4 2 .2 2 .7 3 .6 2 .7 1 .4 1 .7 2 .4 1 .9 4 .4 3 .9 2 .7 9 4 2 .8 5 9 .832 .9 1 7 .7 0 0 .6 1 0 .092 .113

*P i d e n t i f i e s t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n and F th e " F le s h ” S e s s io n . ♦ ♦ C o r re la tio n c o e f f i c i e n t s and S ta n d a rd e r r o r s o b ta in e d vdien means o f th e v a r io u s g ro u p s vmro c o r r e l a t e d -with PRCS S c o r e s .

71 Com parison o f Judges Based TJpon S p eech-A rea S p e c i a l i t y .

F ifte e n

o f t h e 17 ju d g e s c l a s s i f i e d a s s p e c i a l i s t s i n th e f i e l d o f p u b lic a d d r e s s ; 13 o f th e 16 s p e c i a l i s t s i n sp eech a r t s ; and 18 o f th e 24

|

s p e c i a l i s t s i n sp e ec h s c ie n c e w ere p r e s e n t f o r th e P i c t u r e S e s s io n o f th e e x p e rim e n t.

T h e ir a v e ra g e d JR* s w ere com pared w ith t h e PRCS s c o re s

o f t h e 32 s p e a k e r s .

The f o llo w in g d a ta w ere o b ta in e d th ro u g h t h i s

co m p ariso n ! M P u b lic A d d ress Speech A r ts S peech S c ie n c e

2 .8 5 6

2 .6 6 6 2 .7 9 4

SD .892 #903 .832

r /.5 7 /.6 6 /* 7 0

These d a ta a r e shown more c o m p le te ly i n Columns 6 , 8 and 10 o f T ab le V, Hone o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .

I t was n o tic e d

t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h ich d id ap p e a r w ere p r o g r e s s i v e , b e g in n in g w ith th e lo w e s t r v a lu e c r e d i t e d t o th e Speech A rts group and p r o g r e s s in g ^ mmm

th ro u g h P u b lic A ddress and S peech S c ie n c e i n t h i s o r d e r .

F u r th e r

r e s e a r c h , u s in g l a r g e r g ro u p s , m ig h t r e v e a l a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e h e r e . C o l l e c t i v e and I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents A t t h i s p o i n t t h e judgm ents made d u r in g t h e s e s s io n i n w hich s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s w ere shown w ere a n a ly z e d c o l l e c t i v e l y and in d iv id u a lly .

The 50 i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents f o r 32 s p e a k e rs and th e 50

c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents f o r t h e same s p e a k e rs i n d i v i d u a l l y w ere s tu d ie d * I n a d d i t i o n a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n o f ju d g in g e r r o r s was made and ju d g in g a c c u ra c y a s p a r t i a l l y a s p e a k e r f u n c tio n was i n v e s t i g a t e d .

72 C om parison o f F i f t y C o lle c ti v e Judgm ents f o r T hirty-T w o S p e a k e rs I n d i v i d u a l l y * A m easure o f t h e a c c u ra c y o f c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents made .d u rin g t h i s p a r t o f t h e e x p e rim e n t was made i n a m anner i d e n t i c a l t o o t h a t d e s c r ib e d f o r t h e f i r s t e x p e rim e n ta l s e s s io n * The "key" p ro d u ced b y d i v i d i n g t h e PRCS T -s c o re v a lu e s i n t o f i v e p a r t s , t o c o rre s p o n d t o t h e f i v e - s t e p s c a l e u sed b y th e ju d g e s , m s a p p lie d t o e a c h r a t i n g . The d a ta p roduced by t h i s te c h n iq u e a r e p r e s e n te d *i n T a b le X I^, A ppendix B* U sing t h i s p r o c e d u re , i t was fo u n d t h a t t h e " b e s t ” c o l l e c t i v e judgm ent m s 32 o u t o f a p o s s ib le 50 f o r s p e a k e rs 13 and 15*

The

" w o rst" s e t o f c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents a p p e a re d i n th e case o f s p e a k e rs 12 and 35 i n w h ich none o f t h e 50 judgm ents m atch t h e PRCS s c o re s * The a v e ra g e c o l l e c t i v e judgm ent m s 1 7 »5*

These s c o re s i n d i c a t e t h a t

a c o l l e c t i o n o f " e x p e r t" ju d g e s num bering a s h ig h a s f i f t y c a n n o t be r e l i e d upon t o ju d g e e m o tio n a l d is tu r b a n c e s i n a s p e a k e r d u r in g a ju d g in g s e s s i o n i n w hich s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a r e u sed a s a m edia th ro u g h w h ich judgm ents a r e made* C om parison o f F i f t y I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r T hirty-T w o S p e a k e rs C o lle c tiv e ly *

Looking a t th e d a ta a n o th e r m y , (T ab le XV) i t m s

p o s s ib le t o d is c o v e r t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents on th e c o l l e c t i v e sp e a k e rs*

H ere i t m s found t h a t t h e " b e s t" o f t h e 50

ju d g e s was " a p p ro x im a te ly r i g h t " i n 18 o f th e 32 c a s e s ; th e a v e ra g e ju d g e i n 1 1 .2 c a s e s ; t h e " w o rst" ju d g e i n o n ly 6 c a ses* ^ See C h a p te r IV , pp* 59-61*

The s c o re s

73 t h u s r e c e i v e d i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i n g l e ju d g e c a n n o t r e l y u p o n h i s a c c u r a c y vrhen ju d g m e n ts o f s t a g e f r i g h t a r e m ade f r o m s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s o f a s p e a k in g s i t u a t i o n .

D ir e c t io n o f J u d g in g E r r o r s .

O f t h e t o t a l o f 1 ,6 0 0 ju d g m e n ts

m ade i n S e s s i o n I I I , t h e r e w e re 1 ,4 0 0 s c a l e s t e p s o f d e v i a t i o n f r o m " a c c u r a c y ."

Of t h e s e ,

$85 o r 6 3 - 2 $ w e re u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t

f e a r s , w h ile 5 1 5> o r 3 6 .8 $ w e re o v e r e s t i m a t i o n s .

T h is d i f f e r e n c e o f

2 6 .4 $ i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 4 X SE a n d , t h e r e f o r e , m ay be c o n s i d e r e d g re a tly s ig n ific a n t.

As i n t h e

t h a t a te a c h e r tr y i n g to

" f l e s h " p e r f o r m a n c e , i t m ay b e c o n c lu d e d

e s tim a te

" f e a r " i n a s p e a k e r w i l l be i n a c c u r a t e

an d t h i s i n a c c u r a c y w i l l b e i n t h e m ore d a n g e r o u s d i r e c t i o n .

J u d g in g A c c u r a c y a s a S p e a k e r F u n c t i o n .

I t w i l l b e rem em b ered

t h a t s p e a k e r s 1 0 , 1 1 , 3 2 , a n d 35* . p r e s e n t e d u n u s u a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e tw e e n t h e i r PRCS an d JR s c o r e s a s c o m p ile d f o r S e s s i o n fo u r,

s p e a k e r n u m b er 3 2 w as l o s t t o t h i s

PRCS s c o r e s ,

Of t h e s e

s e s s io n o f th e e x p e rim e n t.

The t h r e e o t h e r s , h o w e v e r, r e m a in a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . s p e a k e r s w e re r a n k e d f r o m " m o s t" t o

I .

When a l l

" l e a s t " c o n f id e n t, a c c o rd in g to

s p e a k e r s 1 0 , 1 1 , a n d 35 r a n k e d 1 1 t h , 1 5 t h , a n d 37*5

re s p e c tiv e ly .

T h e i r , r e s p e c t i v e JR r a n k s w e re 9 . 0 , 2 8 . 0 , a n d 1 2 . 5 .

R ank d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n PRCS a n d JR s c o r e s w e re t h u s - 2 . 0 , / 1 3 . 0 , a n d - 2 5 .0 (w h e re 31 w o u ld b e t h e maximum r a n k d e v i a t i o n p o s s i b l e ) . ^ h e e x t e n t o f t h e tw o l a t t e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e m a g n i f i e d w h en i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e o t h e r 29 s p e a k e r s w as o n ly 6 .0 r a n k s .

S p e a k e r #11 d e v ia te d s l i g h t l y i n e x c e s s o f tw ic e

74 t h i s f i g u r e -while th e d e v i a t i o n o f sp e a k e r $35 -was s l i g h t l y i n e x c e s s o f f o u r tim e s th e a v e ra g e r a n k d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e o th e r 29♦ no lo n g e r showed u n u s u a l d isc re p a n c y *

S p eak er $10

These d a ta f u r t h e r b e a r o u t th e

c o n c lu s io n re a c h e d e a r l i e r t h a t s p e a k e rs p r e s e n tin g u n u s u a l FRCS-JR d e v i a t i o n s may r e p r e s e n t r e a l p e r s o n a l i t y problem s and t h a t t h i s m ethod o f f i n d i n g r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een s u b je c tiv e and o b j e c tiv e r e p o r t s o f sp e a k e r f r i g h t may be p o t e n t i a l l y a method o f d e t e c t i n g s p e a k e rs h a v in g r e a l p e r s o n a l i t y p ro b le m s. RB-EVALUAT1ON OF "FLESH" DATA WITH ELEVEN JUDGES AND EIGHT SPEAKERS OMITTED E ig h t o f th e 40 s p e a k e rs o f S e s s io n I w ere l o s t t o S e s s io n I I I b e c a u s e o f f a u l t y f i l m and 11 ju d g e s w ere n o t a v a i l a b l e .

I t th e re fo re

became n e c e s s a r y t o re -co m p u te s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s on th e re m a in ­ in g 32 s p e a k e rs and 50 ju d g e s so t h a t t h e s e d a ta c o u ld b e d i r e c t l y com pared w ith S e s s io n I I I d a t a .

The fo llo w in g g r a p h i c a l l y p r e s e n ts

t h e changes b ro u g h t a b o u t b y t h i s r e -c o m p u ta tio n o f " F le s h " d a t a . O b tain ed PRCS and JR R a tin g s PRCS S c o re s T h e o r e tic a l Maximum Range " F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32 D if f e r e n c e s

/4 3 /4 1 2

-5 4 -3 8 -3 8 0

78:1% 76.2% 1*9%

1 .0 1 .4 1 .4 0 .0

5*0 4 .8 4*8 0 .0

88.0% 88.0% 0 .0

/5 0

JR S c o r e s . T h e o r e tic a l Maximum Range " F le s h ” 61 - 40 " F le s h " 5 0 - 3 2 . D if f e r e n c e s

C om parison o f J u d g e s 1 R a tin g s and S p e a k e rs 1 I n tr o s p e c t i v e R e p o r ts . " F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h ” 50 - 32

0 .0 0 9

SD *894 .917 K\ CM O»

D if f e r e n c e s

M 2 .8 7 5 2 .8 8 4

r /* 5 9 £*63 /.0 4

SE £*104 £ .1 0 8 £ .0 0 4

C e r ta in S e l e c t Group Judgm ents C om parison o f Judges B ased Upon Sex D if f e r e n c e s . Male " F le s h ” 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32

M 2 .8 8 5 2 .8 6 6

D if f e r e n c e s

0 .0 1 9

SD *873 .915 .042

SE £ .1 0 8

r £ .5 7 £ .6 0

2*115

£ .0 3

£ .0 0 7

Fem ale " F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32

M 2 .8 4 5 2 .8 8 8

SD .948 .986

£ .io £ .6 6

SE £ .1 0 2 £ .1 0 1

D if f e r e n c e s

0 .0 4 3

.038

£ .0 6

£ .0 0 1

Com parison o f Judges Based TJpon S peech-A rea S p e c i a l i t y . P u b lic A ddress " F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32

M 2 .9 1 3 2 .9 3 1

D if f e r e n c e s

0 .0 1 8

.924

/.I 2 /.6 5

SE £ .0 9 8 2 * 104

♦002

/.0 3

£*008

.957

r £ .5 9 £ .6 6

SE £ .1 0 4 2*101

.035

£ .0 7

£ .0 0 3

SD .884 .917

£ .§ 6 £ .6 1

£ .1 1 0

.035

£ .0 5

£ .0 0 3

SD .9 2 2

S peech A r ts " F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32 D if f e r e n c e s

M 2 .6 5 3 2.7 3 1 0 .0 7 8

SD .9 2 2

Speech S c ie n c e " F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32 D if f e r e n c e s

M 2 .9 4 0 2.8 5 9 0 .0 8 1

SE 2 .1 1 3

76

C o ll e c t iv e and I n d iv i d u a l Judgm ents C om parison o f

C o lle c tiv e Judgm ents f o r T hirty-T w o S p eak ers

In d iv id u a lly . " B e s t" Judgm ent 44 36 8

" F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32 D if f e r e n c e s

"W orst" Judgm ent 0 0 0

A verage Judgment 2 0 .8 1 7 .7 3 . ‘i

C om parison o f F i f t y I n d iv i d u a l Judgm ents f o r T hirty-T w o S p eak ers C o lle c tiv e ly . " B e st" Judgm ent 19 16 3

" F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32 D if f e r e n c e s

"W orst" Judgm ent 9 7 2

A verage Judgment 13. 1 1 .3 2 .3

D i r e c t i o n o f Judging; E r r o r s .

" F le s h " 61 - 40 " F le s h " 50 - 32 D if f e r e n c e s

T o ta l Judgm ents 2 ,4 4 0 1 ,6 0 0 840

O vere s ti m a t i o n 901 582 319

U ndere s tim a ti o n 1 ,339 824 515

T o ta l D e v ia tio n 2 ,2 4 0

1 ,4 0 6 834

A ccu racy o f Judgm ent P a r t i a l l y a_ S p eak er F u n c tio n .

" F le s h " " F le s h "

S p eak er &10 JR PRCS D i f f . 6 1 -4 0 3 % 5 llV o"""/22^5~ 50-32 2 6 .0 1 1 .0 / l 5 . 0

S p eak er #11 JR PRCS D i f f . "W .O 1 5 7 0 ^ /2 3 .0 3 0 .0 1 5 .0 /l5 .0

S p eak er #35 JR PRCS D i f f . 1 4 .5 3 7 .5 - 2 3 .0 1 1 .5 3 7 .5 - 2 6 .0

Looking a t a l l o f th e above d a t a , i t may b e s e e n t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s t a t i s t i c a l l y a r e p re s e n t*

Yfliat d i f f e r ­

en ces t h e r e a r e i n t h e d a ta a r e p ro b a b ly due t o two f a c t o r s :

( l ) The

f a c t t h a t a s m a lle r g roup o f judgm ents w ere c a s t f o r a s m a lle r group o f sp e a k e rs.

Where 2 ,2 4 0 JR1 s w ere c a s t i n t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a , b u t

1 ,4 0 6 w ere c a s t i n t h e re-\TOrked d a t a .

(2 ) A lso th e f a c t t h a t one o f

77 t h e f o u r s p e a k e rs who p r e s e n te d u n u s u a l d is c r e p a n c y b etw een FRCS and JR s c o re s was l o s t t o t h i s r e - c a l c u l a t i o n * ^ The m ain a d v a n ta g e o f r e - d o in g th e " F le s h 11 61-40 d a ta and th u s e x t r a c t i n g o u t o f i t t h e “F l e s h ” 50-32 d a ta was t h a t th u s i t became p o s s i b l e t o g e t m a t e r i a l s w hich m atched* s e s s io n s th u s became e a s i l y com parable*

The " F le s h ” and P ic tu r e The p u rp o se o f th e n e x t

c h a p te r w i l l be t o make t h i s com parison*

3 S p eak er $ 3 2 , se e C h ap ter IV , p p . 62-63*

CHAPTER V I

COMPARISON OF "IN THE FLESH" AND SI IE NT MOTION PICTURE DATA

The f o l l o w i n g p a g e s a r e d e v o t e d t o a c o m p a r is o n o f d a t a s e c u r e d d u r i n g S e s s i o n I o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , i n w h ic h 50 ju d g e s r a t e d 3 2 s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g r e e s " o f s ta g e f r i g h t , and S e s s io n I I I ,

in

w h ic h t h e same ju d g m e n ts w e re m ade d u r i n g t h e s h o w in g o f a s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e .

^h e p r o b le m p o s e d i s t h a t o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c h a n g e s ,

i f any, in r e l i a b i l i t y

a n d v a l i d i t y o f ju d g m e n ts w hen t h e tw o m e d ia

a re u sed f o r r a tin g s e s s io n s . m a te ria l f o r t h i s

D a ta c o m p ile d i n C h a p te r V s e r v e a s

c o m p a r a ti v e a n a l y s i s .

T h ey a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e

fo llo w in g t a b l e s : T a b le V I . tw o s p e a k e r s .

C olum n 2 g i v e s t h e i r PRCS s c o r e s .

th e s e s c o re s in to th e

The f i r s t C olum n o f T a b le V I i d e n t i f i e s t h e t h i r t y C olum n 3 t r a n s l a t e s

a s in g le s c a le o f p o s itiv e v a lu e s .

a v e r a g e JR s c o r e s f o r t h e " F l e s h " p e r f o r m a n c e .

a v e r a g e JR s c o r e s f o r t h e P i c t u r e p e r f o r m a n c e .

C olum n 4 g i v e s C olum n 5 g i v e s t h e

The b o x a t t h e f o o t o f

t h e T a b le g i v e s t h e m e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , a n d s t a n d a r d e r r o r f o r e a c h c o lu m n o f t h e t a b l e . T a b le V I I . sp e a k e rs.

The f i r s t co lu m n o f T a b l e V I I i d e n t i f i e s t h e

C olum ns 2 an d 3 g i v e t h e J R ’ s f o r .m ale ju d g e s f o r " F l e s h "

and P ic t u r e p e rfo rm a n c e s . ju d g e s .

C olum ns 4 a n a 5 g i v e t h e s e J R ’ s f o r f e m a le

C olum ns 6 an d 7 g i v e a v e r a g e JR s c o r e s f o r j u d g e s c l a s s i f i e d

a s s p e c i a l i s t s i n p u b l i c a d d r e s s ; C olum ns B a n d 9 g i v e J R ’ s f o r t h o s e c la s s ifie d

as s p e c i a l i s t s in sp eech a r t s ,

a n d C olum ns 1 0 a n d 11 g i v e

79 JR’ s f o r s p e c i a l i s t s i n sp e e c h s c ie n c e .

The m eans, s ta n d a rd d e v i a t i o n s ,

c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , and s ta n d a r d e r r o r s f o r each group a r e g iv e n i n t h e box a t t h e f o o t o f t h e ta b le * The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n g e n e r a l d iv id e d i n t o t h r e e m ain s e c t i o n s . S e c tio n one com pares o b ta in e d JR and PRCS s c o r e s f o r " F le s h 1* and P ic tu re s e s s io n s .

S e c tio n two c o n ta in s a com parison o f s e l e c t g ro u p s .

S e c tio n t h r e e p r e s e n t s a n o v e r - a l l a n a l y s is o f c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l ju d g m e n ts. COMPARISON OF OBTAINED RATING- SCALE SCORES PRCS S c o r e s .

The raw PRCS s c o re s a r e p r e s e n te d i n Column 2 o f

T a b le V I, and th e s e s c o r e s a s coded i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e co m p ariso n b e tw ee n PRCS and JR s c o re s a r e g iv e n i n Column 3 .

The ra n g e o f th e s e

s c o r e s may be shown a s f o llo w s : T h e o r e t i c a l Maximum Range " F le s h " S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n

/5 0 /4 1 /4 1

to to to

-5 4 -3 8 -3 8

or o r 76*2^

The s c a l e sp re a d f o r th e two s e s s io n s i s o f c o u rse i d e n t i c a l b e c a u se th e JR s c o r e s o f t h e two w ere m easured a g a i n s t t h e one s e t o f PRCS p a p e rs o b ta in e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s p e a k in g s i t u a t i o n .

These s c o re s have

b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d i n p r e v io u s c h a p te r s JR S c o r e s .

The J u d g e s ’ R a tin g s f o r t h e two s e s s io n s w ere a s

f o llo w s :

* C h a p ter IV , p . 4 5 and C h a p te r V, p . 6 6 .

80 T h e o r e t i c a l Maximum Range ’’F l e s h ” S e s s io n F i c t u r e S e s s io n

1 .0 1 .4

1 .5

to to to

5 .0 4«8

4»7

or or

8 8 . 0%

84«0%

S e s s io n I ju d g e s la c k e d . 6 o f a s c a le s te p o f u s in g th e e n t i r e s c a l e 5 -while t h e ju d g e s f o r S e s s io n I I I la c k e d . 8 . is not s ig n ific a n t.

T h is d if f e r e n c e o f 4.0%

I t may be c o n c lu d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t th e f i v e -

p o in t s c a l e u se d b y t h e ju d g e s pro v ed a d e q u a te f o r b o th ju d g in g s e s s io n s .

The e n t i r e group o f mean a v e ra g e s c o re s f o r t h i s co m p ariso n

a r e p r e s e n te d i n Columns 4 and 5 o f T ab le V I. C om parison o f Judges* R a tin g s and S peakers* I n tr o s p e c t i v e R e p o r ts .

I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s betw een PRCS and

JR s c o re s f o r t h e two s e s s i o n s , th e o b ta in e d r _ v a lu e s in d i c a t e d th e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t ju d g e s w ere more ’’a c c u r a t e ” when ju d g in g m o tio n p i c t u r e s a lo n e th a n when ju d g in g th e a c t u a l p e rfo rm a n c e s .

These

d i f f e r e n c e s w ere a s fo llo w s t SB ’’F l e s h ” S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s The above i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s a r e w e ll w it h in c h a n c e .

The h y p o th e s i s ,

h o w ev er, i s s u g g e s te d t h a t sp eech t e a c h e r s may b e a b le t o make more o b j e c t i v e and v a l i d ju d g m en ts o f s tu d e n ts * e m o tio n a l d is tu r b a n c e s i f s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a r e made and ju d g e d on a l a t e r d a t e .

The c lu e s

h e r e p ro v id e d p r o b a b ly sh o u ld be checked w ith l a r g e r numbers o f c a s e s . D ata p r e s e n te d above a r e shown more c o m p le te ly i n Columns 4 and 5 o f T a b le VI and i n t h e box a t t h e f o o t o f t h e s e colum ns.

81 i

Amount o f Change i n Judgm ent Between t h e Two Ju d g in g S e s s io n s . T here w ere a t o t a l of* 3*200 Judgm ents made d u r in g t h e two e x p e rim e n ta l s e s s io n s .

I f * t h e r e f o r e , th e JR* s f o r S e s s io n I w ere t o be i n com plete

ag reem en t w ith S e s s io n I I I , t h e r e w ould be 1*600 i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s .

Of

t h i s p o t e n t i a l , 717 ju d g m e n ts, o r 4 4 *8% w ere a l i k e . The a v e ra g e number o f i d e n t i c a l c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents f o r an y one p a r t i c u l a r s p e a k e r f o r th e two s e s s io n s was 2 2 .4 .

L ooking a t th e

d a ta i n t h i s l i g h t , S p eak er -$30 r e c e iv e d th e m ost c o n s i s t e n t tr e a t m e n t. I n h i s c a s e 36 o u t o f th e 30 JR f s c a s t w ere i d e n t i c a l .

S p eak er $10 had

t h e l e a s t number o f i d e n t i c a l judgm ents p la c e d f o r him — 9 o u t o f 5 0 . These d a t a may be fo u n d i n T ab le XVI, o f A ppendix B. The a v e ra g e number o f i d e n t i c a l i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents f o r s p e a k e rs c o l l e c t i v e l y f o r t h e two s e s s io n s was 14.3*

The ju d g e m ost

c o n s i s t e n t was Judge $119 who gave 23 s p e a k e rs i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s .

The

m ost d e v i a t i o n b etw een t h e s e s s io n s i n te rm s o f JR* s was shown b y Ju d g es 107 and 144. f o r t h e two s e s s i o n s .

They e a c h produced o n ly 7 i d e n t i c a l judgm ents T hese d a ta a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T ab le XVTI,

A ppendix B. I n c o n c lu s io n , i t i s n o te d t h a t l e s s th a n h a l f o f t h e judgm ents f o r th e s e s s io n s w ere i d e n t i c a l , 4 4 *8% t o be e x a c t .

On a n a v e r a g e ,

22*4 o f 5 0 c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents w ere th e same f o r t h e two s e s s io n s and 14*3 o f t h e 32 i n d i v i d u a l ju d g m e n ts.

I f th e s e f ig u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a ­

t i v e , i t may b e co n clu d ed t h a t t h e amount o f c o n s ta n t ag reem en t b etw een ju d g in g s e s s io n s su ch a s d e s c r ib e d i n t h i s p a p e r w ould c lo s e ly a p p ro x im a te 50^ o f t h e jud g m ents c a s t .

82 TABLE VI

DATA SHOWING RAW AND CODED PRCS SCORES AND AVERAGED JR SCORES FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I S p eak er Number 1. 2. 3. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. M SD r SE

PRCS S co re - 5 /4 0 /3 7 /2 3 /? -2 4 / 2 /2 4 “,1T /2 6 -15 -1 2 -1 0 -3 8 /3 4 /1 7 / 9 “/ 9 /3 7 - 6 - 4 -1 7 -1 0 - 9 - 3 -2 4 / 6 -1 8 /4 ! /2 9 -23

Coded PRCS 56f 11 40 14 28 44 75 49 27 68 25 66 63 61 89 17 34 42 60 14 57 55 68 61 60 54 75 45 69 10 22 74 4 7 .9 0 6 2 1 .5 8 8

A verage JR f o r S e s s io n I 2 .8 2 .0 3 .0 1 .9 3 .8 4 .3 2 .7 2 .9 1 .7 3 .9 2 .1 4 .1 3 .0 2 .3 3 .6 1 .9 1 .4 3 .2 3 .1 1 .5 4 .1 2 .2 4 .8 3 .0 3 .4 2 .8 2 .4 2 .4 3 .5 1 .4 2 .6 4 .5 2 .8 8 4 .917 .634 .108

A verage JR* s f o r S e s s io n I I I 2 .5 1 .7 3 .5 2 .4 2 .2 3 .8 2 .9 2 .8 1 .5 3 .9 2 .4 4 .2 3 .7 2 .4 3 .6 1 .8 1 .7 2 .3 3 .5 1 .9 3 .6 2 .1 4 .7 3 .1 3 .2 2 .5 2 .4 2 .7 2 .7 1 .8 1 .9 4 .1 2 .7 9 7 .8 3 8 .690 .075

S3 D i r e c t i o n o f C h an g e o f J u d g m e n t B etw ee n t h e Two J u d g in g

Of t h e 1 * 6 0 0 p o t e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l ju d g m e n ts f o r t h e tw o

S e s s io n s .

s e s s i o n s , 883 o r 5 5 * 2 $ w e re u n a l i k e . e ffo rt to

T h e s e w e re i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a n

d i s c o v e r w h e th e r J R ’ s f o r t h e P i c t u r e S e s s i o n w e re m ore

s e v e r e o r m o re l e n i e n t t h a n t h o s e m ade d u r i n g t h e To do t h i s ,

’’F l e s h " S e s s i o n .

t h e ju d g m e n ts made b y e a c h ju d g e o n t h e 32 s p e a k e r s d u r i n g

S e s s i o n s I a n d I I I w e r e c o p i e d i n p a r a l l e l c o lu m n s . w e re t h e n c o n s i d e r e d " k e y " s c o r e s .

The " F l e s h ” J R ’ s

I f th e s c o re g iv e n a s p e a k e r on th e

5 - s t e p s c a l e f o r t h e P i c t u r e S e s s i o n w as m o re t h a n t h a t g i v e n f o r t h e " F l e s h " Se s s i o n , a m in u s v a l u e w as g i v e n t o i t ,

if

l e s s a p lu s v a lu e .

T hus t h e s c o r e s o f ju d g e # 1 w e re r e c o r d e d i n p a r t a s f o l l o w s :

3

" F le s h " S e s sio n 2 2 3

y 10

1 5

Speaker N um ber

1 2

P ic tu re S e s sio n 2 •2 ■4 3

D iffe re n c e s B etw een S e s s i o n s

0 0 -1 -2

2

E tc When s c o r e s f o r e a c h ju d g e on e a c h s e s s i o n w e re t h u s t a b u l a t e d , i t becam e p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r w h e th e r t h e

ju d g e s '

" e s tim a te d " f e a r

r e s p o n s e s d e c r e a s e d o r i n c r e a s e d on t h e s p e a k e r s d u r i n g t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n .

The sum o f t h e s e s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s XVI a n d X V II,

A p p e n d ix B.

T he 883 ju d g m e n ts w h ic h w ere n o t i d e n t i c a l f o r t h e tw o

s e s s i o n s p r o d u c e d 1 ,0 9 4 s c a l e s t e p s o f c h a n g e . w e re i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d l e n i e n c y .

O f t h e s e 6 0 6 , o r 55*4$* The r e m a in in g 4&& s c a l e

s t e p s o f c h a n g e , o r 4 4 * 6 ^ , w e re i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s e v e r i t y .

It

may b e c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a te n d e n c y

84 f o r ju d g e s t o r a t e c l o s e r t o th e " c o n f id e n c e ” end o f t h e f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e when p i c t u r e s o f a n o r i g i n a l s e s s i o n a r e shown* COMPARISON BETWEEN CERTAIN SELECT CROUP JUDGMENTS C om parison o f Judges B ased Upon Sex D i f f e r e n c e s ♦

Com paring 36

m ale ju d g e s and 14 fem ale ju d g e s , th e f o llo w in g d a ta w ere s e c u re d : Male Judges ^ F le s h 11 S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

0 .0 5 0

.022

/.0 7

/.0 1 9

0 .0 1 6

.1 8 8

/.0 6

/ .0 1 5

Fem ale Judges ttF le s h ft" S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

I t w i l l he n o te d t h a t c o e f f i c i e n t s in c r e a s e d f o r b o th s e t s o f ju d g e s d u r in g t h e P i c t u r e S essio n *

These d i f f e r e n c e s , a lth o u g h n o t s i g n i f i ­

c a n t l y l a r g e , may i n d i c a t e t h a t b o th men and women become more r e l i a b l e a s ju d g e s when ju d g in g s ta g e f r i g h t w ith s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a s th e medium th ro u g h w hich o b j e c t i v e judgm ents a r e reac h e d * These co m p u ta tio n s a r e shown i n d e t a i l i n Columns 2 , 3* 4 , and 5 o f T ab le V I I , and i n t h e box a t th e f o o t o f t h e s e colum ns. C om parison o f Ju d g es Based Upon S p eech-A rea S p e c ia l ity *

When

t h e a v e ra g e d JR f s , f o r 15 ju d g e s c l a s s i f i e d f o r each o f th e two s e s s io n s a s s p e c i a l i s t s i n p u b lic a d d r e s s ; 13 c l a s s i f i e d i n sp eech a r t s ; and 18 i n sp eech s c ie n c e , w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith PRCS s c o r e s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een th e o b ta in e d c o e f f i c i e n t s o f each s e s s i o n w ere n o t o f s t a t i s t i c a l s ig n if ic a n c e *

These d i f f e r e n c e s , ta k e n from

85 TABLE V II

MEAN SCORES OF POTENTIAL VARIABLES TESTED FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I TO DETERMINE THEIR INFLUENCE ON JR "ACCURACY*1 S p eak er Number 1. 2.

3. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14 . 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39* 40. M SD r SE

Male *P 2 .5 1 .8

F 2 .8 2 .1

Fem ale P F 2 .6 1 .6

2 .6 1 .8

3 .3

2 .7 1 .9 4 .0 4 .4 3 .0

P u b lic A ddress P F 3 .0 2 .7 1 .7 1 .3 3 .7 3 .1

3 .8

3 .2 1 .9 3 .7 4 .2

2 .8

2 .6

2 .9 1 .4 3 .8

2 .9 1 .5 3 .8

1 .7 3 .9

2 .1

2 .1

2 .6

2 .0

4 .3 3 .7

4 .0 3 .0

4 .4 3 .1

2 .2

2 .2

3 .7 1 .7

3 .6 1*4 3 .1 2 .9

4 .1 3 .9 2 .7 3 .6 1 .9 1 .9 2 .3 3 .7

3 .1 3 .4

3 .5

3 .6 2 .4 2 .1

1*6 2 .2

1 .8

2 .2

2 .3 3 .8 3 .2 2 .6

2 .8 2 .1

4 .1

2 .6

3 .8 1 .9 1*2

2 .8

2 .0

2 .3 3 .8 2 .5 2 .9

3 .9 4 .2 2 .9 3 .0 1 .9 3 .9 2 .3 4 .2 3 .4 2 .5 3 .5 1 .7 1 .3 3 .2 3 .6 1 .7 3 .9

1*2

3 .7 2 .5 4 .3 3 .9 2 .3 3 .7 1 .9 1 .5 2 .8

3 .5 1 .9 3 .6

1 .6

2 .0

1 .2

2 .0

4 .1

3 .7

2 .2

4 .7 3 .0 4 .7 2 .4 2 .4

4 .8 3 .1 3 .4

3 .5 2 .5 4 .6 3 .2 3 .5

4 .2

2 .1

2 .8

2 .8

2 .6 2 .8 1 .8 1 .8

2 .2

2 .5

4 .2

3 .6 1 .4 2 .7 4 .5

2 .8 1 6

2 .8 6 6

.9 3 7 .670 .0 9 6

.915’ .605 .115

2 .4 3 .1

2 .0 1*6

2 .8 1*8

3 .2

2 .5 1 .7 3 .4 4 .1

2 .0 2 .0

3*8 2 .9 2 .8

1 .5 3 .8 2 .5 4 .1 3 .5 1 .9 3 .6 1 .5 1*8 2 .0

3 .2 1 .7 3 .5

2 .3 2 .8

S peech S c ie n c e P F , 2*5 2 .7 2 .0

2 .6

3 .5 2 .4

3 .3

2 .1

3*9 4 .3

3 .7 3 .1

1 .8

1 .5 3 .7

2 .8 1 .6

2*8 2 .8 1 .8

4 .0

3 .8

1 .8

2 .1

1 .8

4 .1

4*3 3 .8

4 .1

2 .8 2 .2

3 .7 1 .8 1 .2

3 .0 2 .8

1*3 3 .9

2 .6

3 .3 1 .7 1 .6 2 .1

3 .7 1 .9 3 .5 2 .3 4 .6 3 .0 3 .3

2 .8

2 .3 3 .6 1 .8

1 .3 3 .1 3 .2 1 .3 4 .1 2 .3 4 .9 2 .9 3 .3 2 .7

2 .0

2 ,0

2 .0

1 .8

2 .0

4 .9 2 .9 3 .3

4 .6 3 .1 3 .4 2 .7 2 .7

4 .8 2 .7 3 .5 2 .9

4 .9 3 .2 3 .2 2 .2 2 .1

4 .7 3*5 3 .2 2 .7 2 .3

2 .5

2 .2

2 .8

2 .2 2 .2

2 .6

3 .4

1 .9

1 .2

1*8

2 .5 4 .5 2 .7 3 1 .9 5 7

2 .7 1 .7 1 .9 3 .9 2 .7 9 4 .8 3 2 .700 .092

3 .6 1 .4 2 .4 4 .4 2 .8 5 9 .9 1 7 .610 .113

2 .8 2 .2

2 .6

2 .7 3 .3

1 .9

1 .2

2 .1 4 *0 2 .8 7 2

2 .4 4 .4

.7 9 8 .7 2 1 .0 8 6

S peech A r ts P F

2 .8 8 8 •9 8 6

.655 .1 0 1

2 .8

2 .9 1 .7 1 .9 4 .3 2 ,8 5 6 .8 9 2

.671 .099

2 .6

2 .7 3 .5 1 .3 2 .7 4 .5 2 .9 3 1 .924 ;652 .104

4 .2 2 ."6"66 .9 0 3 .6 5 8

.101

*664

.101

*P i d e n t i f i e s t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n and F t h e " F le s h ” S e s s io n .

2 .6

2 .4

86

T ab le V I I , a r e shown b elo w ; P u b lic A d d ress ttF l e s h kf S e s s io n P i.c tu re S e s s io n

M 2 .9 3 1

SD .924 •8 9 2

r /.^ 5 /.6 7

SE 7 .1 0 4 £ .° 9 9

2 .8 5 6

D if f e r e n c e s

0 .0 7 5

.032

/.0 2

7 .0 0 5

S peech A r ts ^ F le s h ’* S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

M 2 .7 3 1

SD .957 .903 .0 5 4

2 .6 6 6 0 .0 6 5

S peech S c ie n c e ^ F le s h 1’ S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

M 2 .8 5 9 2 .7 9 4 O.O65

SD .917

/ .I S ; /.6 6

/.0 0

♦832

r /.F l /.7 0

.0 8 5

7 .0 9

SE /.lo i Z .1 0 1 £ . ooo SE 7 .1 1 3 7*092 7 .0 2 1

I t w i l l be n o tic e d t h a t , f o r th e " F le s h ” p e rfo rm a n c e , th e group l i n e ­ up i n te rm s o f JR-PRCS ag reem en t i s S peech A r t s , P u b lic A d d re s s , and S p eech S cien ce# P i c t u r e S essio n #

T h is o r d e r I s r e v e r s e d f o r d a ta grow ing from th e P u b lic A ddress th u s o c c u p ie s a p i v o t a l p o s itio n #

I n e a c h i n s t a n c e , h o w ev er, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w ere p r o g r e s s iv e a n d , f o r ea c h s e p a r a te g ro u p , m ig h t p ro v e s i g n i f i c a n t i f t h e r e w ere a l a r g e r number i n t h e sam ple# Com paring t h e g ro u p s f o r t h e two s e s s i o n s , i t was n o te d t h a t t h e r v a lu e rem ain ed t h e same th ro u g h o u t f o r Speech A rts and a lm o s t t h e same f o r P u b lic A ddress# was c o n s id e ra b le #

The i n c r e a s e , how ever, f o r S peech S c ie n c e

T h is may mean, t h a t f o r te a c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d , a

c l o s e r JR-PRCS ag reem en t can b e re a c h e d from v i s u a l im p re s s io n s a lo n e# A l l th e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s sh o u ld be t e s t e d th ro u g h th e u s e o f l a r g e r num bers o f s u b je c ts #

87 OVER-ALL ANALYSIS OP COLLECTIVE AND INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS C om parison o f F i f t y C o ll e c tiv e Judgm ents f o r T hirty-T w o S p eak ers In d iv id u a 1 l y .

Looking a t t h e d a ta from th e s ta n d p o in t o f th e JR1s o f

a l l t h e Ju d g es d i r e c t e d to w ard ea c h s p e a k e r s e p a r a t e l y t h e f o llo w in g d i f f e r e n c e s "between th e two s e s s io n s were founds " B e s t” " F le s h " S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

38

32 4

A verage 17*7 17*5 »2

"W orst” 0 0 0

The above d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e a n in c r e a s e i n a c c u r a c y f o r th e " F le sh " S e s s io n ,

They a r e n o t l a r g e , b u t i n d i c a t e some s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h i s

means o f Ju d g in g o v er t h e P i c t u r e p e rfo rm a n c e .

Com plete d a ta f o r t h i s

co m parison may b e fo u n d i n T ab le XIV, A ppendix B, Com parison o f F i f t y I n d iv id u a l Judgm ents f o r T hirty-T w o S p eak ers Co 1 l e c t i v e l y ,

Com paring t h e JRf s o f an in d i v i d u a l Judge f o r t h e 32

s p e a k e rs th e f o llo w in g d i f f e r e n c e s w ere e v id e n c e d : " F le s h " S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

" B e s t" A verage "W orst" 16 1 1 ,3 7 IS_________ 1 1 ,2 _________ 6 2 ,1 1

The above d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y l a r g e .

T hese d i f f e r e n c e s ,

h o w ev er, p r e s e n t an in c r e a s e d a c c u ra c y f o r t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n ,

The

i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t p erfo rm a n c e s re c o rd e d on f i l m a r e p ro b a b ly s u p e r io r t o o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n s a s a means by w hich e m o tio n a l d is tu r b a n c e s can b e d is c o v e re d b y i n d i v i d u a l Ju d g es i n b e g in n in g s p e a k e r s . w ere ta k e n .fr o m .T able XV, A ppendix B.

T hese d a ta

88

D i r e c t i o n o f Ju d g in g E r r o r s :

D u rin g each o f th e s e s s io n s

compared* 50 ju d g e s r a t e d each o f 32 s p e a k e rs f o r s ta g e f r i g h t .

T h is

means t h a t a t o t a l o f 1 ,600 judgm ents w ere made f o r ea c h s e s s i o n .

The

d i r e c t i o n w hich t h e s e judgm ents to o k i n te rm s o f o v e r o r u n d e re s tim a ­ t i o n o f s ta g e f r i g h t a s m easured a g a i n s t th e s p e a k e rs own r e p o r t e d f e a r f e e l i n g s may be shown a s f o llo w s : Zero D e v ia tio n s " F le s h 11 S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n D if f e r e n c e s

567

561 *1%

O vere s tim a tio n s 582 515 6>7

U ndere s tim a tio n s 824 885

6>1

T o ta l D e v ia tio n s 1 ,4 0 6 1 ,4 0 0 6>

As shown a b o v e , ju d g e s d u r in g t h e " F le s h ” S e s s io n su cceed ed i n m a tc h in g o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c ti v e s c o re s on 6 more s p e a k e rs th a n was t h e c a s e f o r th e P i c t u r e S e s s io n , d e v i a t i o n s a r e c o n s id e re d . s e s s io n .

The o p p o s ite i s t r u e when t o t a l

T here w ere 1 ,6 0 0 judgm ents c a s t i n e a c h

S u b tr a c tin g th e number o f "Z ero D e v ia tio n s " fro m t h i s f i g u r e

i t i s fo u n d t h a t 1 ,0 3 3 and 1 ,0 3 9 OR*s f o r F le s h and P i c t u r e S e s s io n s d e v ia te d from th e PROS "k ey ” s c o r e s .

Each o f th e s e w ere r e p r e s e n te d

b y 1 ,4 0 6 and 1,400 s c a l e s te p s o f d e v i a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y , a d i f f e r e n c e o f 6 i n e x c e s s f o r th e " F le s h ” S e s s io n , T here w ere 582 o r 41*4/£, s c a l e s te p s o f o v e r e s tim a te d f e a r d u r in g th e " F le s h ” S e s s io n and 515* o r 3 6 , 8 / 0, f o r th e P i c t u r e S e s s io n , I t may b e assum ed t h a t i t i s l e s s d an g ero u s f o r a te a c h e r t o o v e r ­ e s tim a te a s tu d e n t* S e m o tio n a l u p s e t s .

The P i c tu r e S e s s io n w as,

t h e r e f o r e , 67 s c a l e s te p s c l o s e r t o t h e " s a f e ” s id e f o r t h i s c o m p a riso n . The d i f f e r e n c e b etw een t h e s e two p r o p o r tio n s was 4 * 6 , T h ere w ere 8 2 4 , o r 5 8 . 6^ , s c a l e s te p s o f u n d e r e s tim a te d f e a r

89 d u r in g th e “F l e s h ” S e s s io n and 885* o r 63*2^, f o r th e P ic tu r e S e ssio n * I t may be assum ed t h a t i t i s more d an g ero u s f o r a t e a c h e r t o u n d e r­ e s tim a te a s t u d e n t ’ s e m o tio n a l u p s e ts *

The " F le s h ” S e s s io n , t h e r e f o r e ,

-was 61 s c a le s te p s c l o s e r to th e " s a f e ” s id e f o r t h i s com parison* d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e s e two p r o p o r tio n s was lik e w is e 4*8*

The

D ata d i s ­

cu sse d above a r e p r e s e n t i n th e t o t a l s a t th e f o o t o f T ab les XIV and XV, A ppendix B* A ccu racy o f Judgm ent P a r t i a l l y a_ S p eak er F u n c tio n ,

The s p e a k e rs

p r e s e n t i n g u n u s u a l d is c r e p a n c ie s b etw een PROS and JR S c o re s w ere t h e f o llo w in g t JR S co re

PROS S co re

D iffe ren c e s

S p eak er #10 “F le s h 11 S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n

2 6 ,0 9*0

1 1 ,0 11*0

13*0 2*0

S p eak er #11 “F le s h 1* S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n

3 0 .0 2 8 .0

15*0 15*0

15*0 13*0

S p ea k er #35 “F le s h 7* S e s s io n P i c t u r e S e s s io n

11*5 12*5

37*5 37*5

2 6 .0 25*0

Yftien th e 3 s p e a k e rs above a r e s u b tr a c te d from th e 32 u sed f o r t h e s e e x p e rim e n ta l s e s s i o n s , th e a v e ra g e PRCS-JR d i f f e r e n c e f o r th e re m a in in g 29 i s 6*0 and 6*4 f o r “F l e s h ” and P i c t u r e S e s s io n s r e s p e c ­ tiv e ly *

A ssum ing t h a t a f i g u r e p r e s e n ti n g a d e v i a t i o n o f two o r t h r e e

tim e s t h e a v e ra g e PRCS-JR d i f f e r e n c e s i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a b n o r m a lity , e a c h o f th e above t h r e e s p e a k e rs w ere ex trem es f o r th e “F le s h ” S essio n * S p e a k e rs #10 and 11 w ere s l i g h t l y o v e r tw ic e t h i s a v e ra g e and #35 was

90 s l i g h t l y o v e r fo u r tim e s t h i s a v e r a g e .

These i d e n t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s

a p p e a re d f o r th e P i c t u r e S e s s io n w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f S p eak er -ylO* H is PKCS-JR s c o re s no lo n g e r showed extrem e d if f e r e n c e s * I t may be co n clu d ed t h a t c e r t a i n u n u s u a l c a s e s such a s th o s e o f S p e a k e rs 11 and 35 above may a p p e a r i n e i t h e r ty p e o f ju d g in g s e s s i o n and t h a t t h e i r a p p e a ra n c e may p ro v id e a means o f i d e n t i f y i n g s p e a k e rs who e x p e r ie n c e s e v e re p e r s o n a l i t y problem s when f a c e d w ith a n e x p e rie n c e su ch a s p r e s e n te d i n a s p e a k e r-a u d ie n c e o c c a s io n . S t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n te d i n th e f o r e g o in g a n a l y s i s a r e ta k e n from T a b le X V III, A ppendix B.

They i n d i c a t e t h e somewhat s u r p r i s i n g

p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t ju d g e s w ere more a c c u r a te when ju d g in g t h e s i l e n t p i c t u r e th a n when ju d g in g th e o r i g i n a l p e rfo rm a n c e .

T h is tr e n d i s n o t

s u p p o rte d b y a h ig h d e g re e o f s t a t i s t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y , b u t i s so s tr o n g t h a t t h e c lu e s h e re p ro v id e d p ro b a b ly sh o u ld be th o ro u g h ly checked w ith l a r g e r num bers o f c a s e s .

The h y p o th e s is i s s u g g e s te d t h a t

sp ee ch t e a c h e r s may be a b le t o make more o b j e c ti v e and v a l i d judgm ents o f s tu d e n ts * e m o tio n a l d is tu r b a n c e s i f s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a r e made and ju d g ed l a t e r on*

A p o s s i b l e e x p la n a tio n f o r t h i s i s t h a t a ju d g e

sy m p a th iz e s and e m p a th iz e s w ith th e sp e a k e r l e s s when th e s p e a k e r i s a c o ld f i g u r e on a s c r e e n th a n when h e i s p r e s e n t i n a Mf l e s h ” s it u a t i o n * F u tu re e x p e r im e n ta tio n may answ er t h i s and o th e r q u e s tio n s r e g a r d in g s ta g e f r i g h t *

CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Much h a s b e e n w r i t t e n r e l a t i n g t o t h e n a t u r e , c a u s e s , and c u re s o f s ta g e f r i g h t #

An i n s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , how ever,

stem s from e x p e r im e n ta l i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

The p r e s e n t s tu d y h as b e e n a n

a tte m p t t o m easu re e x p e r im e n ta lly one o f th e p ro b lem s i n t h i s a r e a . SUMMARY The p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y was t o d is c o v e r th e d e g re e o f r e l i a b i l ­ i t y and v a l i d i t y o f jud g m en ts when t e a c h e r s and g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts o f s p e e c h , u s in g a r a t i n g s c a l e te c h n iq u e , r a t e d c o ll e g e s tu d e n t s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g r e e s " o f s ta g e f r i g h t #

T h is problem was a p p lie d t o

two o c c a s io n s i n w h ich judgm ents w ere s e c u re d :

(1 ) An " i n t h e f l e s h ”

S e s s io n and (2) a S e s s io n i n w hich s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s o f th e o r i g i n a l o c c a s io n w ere shown and ju d g e d .

I t was f u r t h e r th e p u rp o se o f

t h i s s tu d y t o d e te rm in e th e amount and d e g re e o f change e x h ib ite d b etw een t h e two ju d g in g s e s s io n s # The d a ta w ere g a th e re d when 61 ju d g e s r a t e d 40 s p e a k e rs on a 5 - s t e p s c a l e f o r d e g re e s o f s ta g e f r i g h t e v id e n c e d w h ile d e l i v e r in g a o n e -m in u te s p e e c h .

These 40 s p e a k e rs i n t u r n s u b j e c t i v e l y r e p o r t e d ,

re s p o n d in g t o G ilk in so n * s FRCS in v e n to r y , t h e d e g re e o f f r i g h t th e y e x p e rie n c e d i n t h i s s p e a k e r-a u d ie n o e s i t u a t i o n .

These two ty p e s o f

r a t i n g s w ere th e n t a b u l a t e d and s t a t i s t i c a l l y com pared i n an e f f o r t t o d e te rm in e t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f JR and PROS s c a le s and

92 t h e a c c u ra c y o f t h e fu d g es*

At th e tim e t h e o n e-m in u te sp e e c h e s w ere

d e l i v e r e d a m o tio n p i c t u r e was t a k e n .

On a second d a te th e same

ju d g e s w ere a g a in i n v i t e d t o r a t e e a c h s p e a k e r a s he a p p e a re d i n th e s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e , u s in g th e same 5 - p o i n t s c a l e . g ro u p , 50 ju d g e s r e t u r n e d t o ju d g e 3 2 s p e a k e r s .

Of th e o r i g i n a l

T hese d a ta w ere

t a b u l a t e d and s t a t i s t i c a l l y compared t o t h e o r i g i n a l FRCS s c o r e s i n a m anner i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t u s e d f o r t h e i n i t i a l ju d g in g s e s s i o n .

The

d a t a f o r t h e tw o o c c a s io n s w ere i n t u r n compared t o d e te rm in e w hich s e s s i o n made f o r th e g r e a t e s t d e g re e o f JR “a c c u r a c y .”

For each

ju d g in g s e s s i o n v a r i a b l e s su c h a s s e x , amount o f te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e , s e a t i n g p o s i t i o n , and a r e a o f th e ju d g e s 1 m ajor f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t w ere t e s t e d t o d is c o v e r w h e th e r th e y e x e r c is e d an in f lu e n c e on JR a c c u r a c y . The d a t a w ere lik e w is e a n a ly z e d i n te rm s o f ”f e a r f u l ” and “c o n f id e n t” s p e a k e r s , co m p ariso n s o f i n d i v i d u a l and o f c o l l e c t i v e ju d g m e n ts, d i r e c t i o n o f ju d g in g e r r o r s , and t h e s p e a k e r ’ s i n d i v i d u a l in f lu e n c e on t h e a c c u ra c y o f th e ju d g e s . CONCLUSIONS 1.

FRCS s c o r e s s p re a d a d e q u a te ly o v e r th e t h e o r e t i c a l !

maximum s c a l e r a n g e .

S c o re s u t i l i z e d f o r t h e ”f l e s h ” S e s s io n c o v e re d

7 8 . 1 % o f t h e p o t e n t i a l ra n g e w h ile th o s e u s e d f o r th e ”p i c t u r e ”

S e s s io n s p re a d o v e r 76*2% o f th e a v a i l a b l e s c a l e .

These f a c t s i n d i c a t e ,

a s w as a c t u a l l y t h e c a s e , t h a t s p e a k e rs h a v in g w ide v a r i a t i o n s fro m ex trem e f e a r t o ex trem e c o n fid e n c e w ere s e c u re d f o r th e e x p e rim e n t.

93 2.

The p r a c t i c a l i t y o f d e v e lo p in g a s h o r t- f o r m FRCS in v e n to r y ,

r e q u i r i n g fe w e r th a n h a l f t h e p r e s e n t number o f ite m s , was d e m o n s tra te d . ■When t h e 40 FRCS p a p e rs f o r th e 25 "m ost c o n f id e n t” and t h e 25 “m ost f e a r f u l ” w ere r e - s c o r e d and re -c o d e d a n ar o f / . 9 9 ^£*005 was p ro d u c e d . 3*

The a d e q u a cy o f t h e 5 - p o in t s c a le u sed by t h e ju d g e s was

d e m o n stra te d b y t h e sp re a d o f JR s c o r e s o v e r m ost o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum r a n g e .

I n th e o r i g i n a l s e s s io n u t i l i z i n g 61 ju d g e s th e s c o re s

co v ered 8 8 .0 ^ o f t h e p o t e n t i a l r a n g e .

The recom puted s c o re s f o r th e

50 ju d g e s co v ered a n i d e n t i c a l p o r t i o n o f t h e p o s s ib le r a n g e ; w h ile

th e 50 m atc h in g ju d g e s u sed 8 4 .0 ^ o f t h e ra n g e f o r th e P i c tu r e S e s s io n . I t was f e a r e d t h a t t h e 5 - p o in t s c a le m ig h t p ro d u ce grouped s c o r e s . These f e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , d id n o t m a t e r i a l i z e .

A lth o u g h n o t o f s t a t i s ­

t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e sp re a d was s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r f o r th e " F le s h ” S e s s io n . 4.

The r a t i n g s c a l e te c h n iq u e h e r e d e v e lo p e d p ro v id e d a

re m a rk a b ly s t a b l e in s tr u m e n t f o r m e a su rin g o v e r t m a n if e s ta ti o n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t .

S p l i t - h a l f co m p ariso n o f 61 ju d g e s i n th e " F le s h "

S e s s io n gave a n jr v a lu e o f /* 9 8 ^£*006, w h ile t h e same ty p e co m p ariso n f o r 50 ju d g e s o f t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n produced a n £ o f / . 9 4 j£ .0 2 1 . 5.

The JR te c h n iq u e was h ig h ly r e l i a b l e when r a t i n g s o f a s

few a s f i v e ju d g e s w ere a v e ra g e d .

The h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t o b ta in e d

fro m a group o f 12 th u s com puted, m s / . 9 8 ^£.006 and th e lo w e s t was / • 9 2 ^£.025.

T hese £ v a lu e s a r e so h ig h a s t o s u g g e s t t h a t th e JR

s c a l e may be recommended f o r f u r t h e r u s e , a t l e a s t i n e x p e rim e n ta l w ork o f t h i s n a t u r e .

94 6*

When th e ou tw ard m a n if e s ta tio n s o f s ta g e f r i g h t , a s m easured

by th e JR te c h n iq u e , w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e s u b je c ti v e f e e l i n g s o f s p e a k e r s , a s m easured by G ilk in so n * s FRCS in v e n to r y , a c o e f f i c i e n t o f / • 5 9 £ . 104 was s e c u re d f o r t h e o r i g i n a l s e s s i o n .

The r _ v a lu e s s e c u re d

from th e re-co m p u ted " F le s h ” S e s s io n and th e P i c tu r e S e s s io n w ere / • 6 3 £ 1 0 8 and / » 6S £ 0 7 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y .

"When f o u r o f t h e s p e a k e rs who showed u n u s u a l d is c r e p a n c y b etw een JR and PROS w ere o m itte d from t h e d a ta and JR1s w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e re m a in in g

th e c o e f f i c i e n t jumped upwards t o / . 7 4 £ 0 7 6 .

T - s c a le d JR s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d w ith T - s c a le d PROS s c o r e s pro d u ced a n r_ o f £ .5 7 £ .1 0 8 . 7* a n o th e r*

I n g e n e r a l PROS and JR te c h n iq u e s te n d t o v a l i d a t e one W ith f u r t h e r re fin e m e n t o f e i t h e r o r b o t h , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s

m ig h t b e e x p e c te d t o i n c r e a s e and th e s ta n d a rd e r r o r s t o d e c r e a s e . 8.

The a c c u ra c y o f JR s c o re s d id n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n

te rm s o f t h e amount o f judges* te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e .

The JR*s o f

e x p e rie n c e d ju d g e s c o r r e l a t e d w ith PROS / . 5 9 A 104; th o s e o f in e x p e r ie n c e d ju d g e s / . 6 0 £ l 0 2 .

T h is s u g g e s ts t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t

s tu d e n t r a t e r s may be a b le t o p ro d u ce v a l i d r a t i n g s w here judgm ents o f t h i s ty p e a r e d e s i r e d . 9.

Two i d e n t i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r f r o n t row ju d g e s and ju d g e s

s e a te d i n b a ck rows d u r in g S e s s io n I o f th e e x p e rim e n t s u g g e s ts th e h y p o th e s is t h a t judgm ents w ere b a se d upon th e s p e a k e rs g e n e r a l e f f e c t o r g e s t a l t , r a t h e r th a n upon s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , such a s tr e m b lin g k n e e s , s h u fflin g o f f e e t , e t c .

T hese c o e f f i c i e n t s were / , 6 0 £ l 0 2 .

95 10.

T h ere -was i n d i c a t i o n , a lth o u g h o f low s t a t i s t i c a l

p r o b a b i l i t y , t h a t fe m a le ju d g e s a r e s u p e r io r t o m ale ju d g e s i n r a t i n g s o f t h i s ty p e *

The JR-FRCS c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r men and women f o r th e

o r i g i n a l " F le s h " S e s s io n w ere /* 5 7 ^£*108 and /* 6 0 ^£*102 r e s p e c ti v e ly * These c o r r e l a t i o n s , when s c o re s w ere recom puted t o m atch i n number t h e ju d g e s o f th e P i c t u r e S e s s io n , became /* 6 0 ^£«H5 and / . 6 6 ^*101* The c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e P i c tu r e S e s s io n w ere / * 6 7 ^£*096 and /* 7 2 2£*0 8 6 * 11*

The d a t a su g g e ste d th e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a c c u ra c y m ig h t be

p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e judges* m ajo r f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t and e x p e r i­ ence*

F o r t h e o r i g i n a l s e s s i o n , p u b lic a d d re s s ( / . 6 2 ) , sp eech a r t s

( /• 5 9 ) » and sp e e c h s c ie n c e (/* 5 6 ) b ack g ro u n d s r e f l e c t e d d e c r e a s in g d e g re e s o f a c c u ra c y i n t h a t o rd e r*

The o r d e r f o r th e " F le s h ” S e s s io n

a f t e r s c o re s w ere re-co m p u ted t o m atch th e P i c t u r e d a ta w as:

sp eech

a r t s ( / . 6 6 ) , p u b lic a d d re s s ( / * 6 5 ) , and s p e e c h s c ie n c e ( / . 6 l ) .

For

t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n , sp e e c h s c ie n c e ( /* 7 0 ) , p u b lic a d d r e s s ( /* 6 7 ) , and sp e e c h a r t s (/* 6 6 ) b ack g ro u n d s r e f l e c t i n g d e c r e a s in g d e g re e s o f a c c u ra c y i n t h a t o rd e r*

I t i s to be n o te d t h a t th e sp eech a r t s gro u p

p ro d u ced i d e n t i c a l s c o re s f o r each s e s s i o n compared*

The sp eech

s c ie n c e group in c r e a s e d i n a c c u ra c y d u r in g t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n by /* 0 9 and p u b lic a d d r e s s by /# 0 2 *

T hus, a lth o u g h t h e sp eech a r t s group

showed g r e a t e s t c o n s is te n c y th e y w ere a l s o th e m ost a c c u r a te o f th e g ro u p s d u r in g t h e " F le s h " S e s s io n and t h e l e a s t a c c u r a te d u rin g t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n . 12*

T here was m ark ed ly g r e a t e r v a c i l l a t i o n by ju d g e s i n r a t i n g

" f e a r f u l " s p e a k e rs th a n " c o n f id e n t" ones a s m easu red by t h e i r PRCS

96 s c o re s *

The a v e ra g e s ta n d a r d d e v ia tio n -w a s *66 and *99 f o r t h e s e

r e s p e c t i v e groups*

The o b ta in e d t - r a t i o o f 8*5 f a r ex ceed s t h a t

r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e .33 d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t i n g betw een th e s e d e v ia tio n s . 13*

A n a ly s is o f c o l l e c t i v e r a t i n g s r e v e a le d su ch g ro s s

in a c c u r a c ie s a s t o s u g g e s t t h a t a group o f sp eech te a c h e r s a r e n o t t o b e r e l i e d u p on, i f c a l l e d upon d u r in g e i t h e r ty p e o f ju d g in g s e s s i o n h e r e r e p o r t e d , a s ju d g e s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r* s e m o tio n a l e x p e rie n c e v /h ile s p e a k in g .

The a v e ra g e o f t h e s e c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents f o r ‘‘F l e s h ”

and P i c t u r e S e s s io n s was 17*7 and 17

re s p e c tiv e ly .

The “b e s t ”

judgm ent i n t h e “F l e s h ” S e s s io n was 3 6 m atched JR-FRCS s c o r e s o u t o f a p o s s i b l e 5 0 , -while t h e “b e s t ” f o r th e P i c t u r e S e s s io n was 32* The " w o rs t” f o r each o f t h e S e s s io n s was a “0 ” o u t o f th e p o s s i b le 50* 14*

A n a ly s is o f i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s le a d t o t h e c o n c lu s io n t h a t

a sp e e c h t e a c h e r can p la c e l i t t l e f a i t h i n h i s u n s u p p o rte d judgm ent a s t o t h e em o tio n s f e l t by a g iv e n s tu d e n t i n a g iv e n s p e e c h .

The

a v e ra g e o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents f o r “F l e s h ” and P i c t u r e S e s s io n s was 11*3 and 1 1 .2 ; th e “b e s t ” la b e le d 16 and 18 o u t o f a p o s s ib le 32 c o r r e c t ; th e “w o r s t” g o t 7 and 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y .

T h u s, a lth o u g h n o t

s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e ju d g e s were s l i g h t l y more a c c u r a te f o r t h i s co m p ariso n d u r in g t h e “F le s h ” S e s s io n . 15.

Judges te n d e d t o u n d e r e s tim a te s tu d e n t f e a r s r a t h e r th a n

t o o v e r e s tim a te th em .

The p e rc e n ta g e o f o v e r e s tim a tio n f o r th e

“F l e s h ” S e s s io n m s 41*4/£ and t h e p e rc e n ta g e o f u n d e r e s tim a tio n was 58.6% , 63 * 2/&»

The co m p arab le f i g u r e s f o r t h e P i c t u r e S e s s io n w ere

and

97 16*

M ien a s p e a k e r ’ s s e l f a p p r a i s a l o f e m o tio n a l u p s e t d e v i a te s

fro m h i s Judges* r a t i n g s b y two o r t h r e e tim e s th e a v e ra g e d e v i a t i o n o f a c o n s id e r a b le number o f o th e r s p e a k e r s , such a d is c r e p a n c y may p ro v id e a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l by w hich s e r io u s p e r s o n a l i t y m a la d ju s tm e n ts may b e lo c a te d # 17*

T here was i n d i c a t i o n , a lth o u g h o f low s t a t i s t i c a l

p r o b a b i l i t y , t h a t J u d g e s 1 r a t i n g s w ere more a c c u r a te when b a s e d upon s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s a lo n e th a n when b ased upon o b s e r v a tio n s o f ”i n t h e f l e s h ” p erfo rm an ces# 18#

I n g e n e r a l , e x p e r ie n c e w ith m o tio n p i c t u r e equipm ent m s

e n c o u ra g in g , and i t i s t o be recommended a s a d e v ic e f o r f u r t h e r e x p e r im e n ta l work# SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH * ' The p r e s e n t s tu d y r e v e a le d t h a t Judgm ents c a s t by Ju d g es h a v in g no te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e c o r r e l a t e d w ith FRCS s c o re s s l i g h t l y more c l o s e l y t h a n d id th o s e h a v in g had 2 t o 28 y ears* e x p e rie n c e i n t h e classro o m #

T hese r e s p e c t i v e v a lu e s w ere / . 6 0 ^*102 and /# 5 9 ^*104*

The p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s te d t h a t s tu d e n ts i n a sp e e c h c la s s may be a b le to r a t e one a n o th e r w ith s a t i s f a c t o r y v a l i d i t y #

T h is

p o s s i b i l i t y sh o u ld be e x p e r im e n ta lly t e s t e d by com paring s tu d e n t and f a c u l t y Judgm ents# T hroughout t h e e x p e rim e n t th e fe m a le Judges wore c o n s i s t e n t l y more a c c u r a t e th a n w ere t h e m ale Judges#

A lth o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e

shown was s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , th e tr e n d b e a r s f u r t h e r

98 in v e s tig a tio n .

I t m ig h t h e t h a t a r e t e s t u s in g a l a r g e r number o f

p a r t i c i p a n t s ■would r e v e a l a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e . An i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f i e l d s o f m ajo r i n t e r e s t and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n f lu e n c e s a c c u ra c y o f ju d g m en t.

F u r th e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ith l a r g e r

num bers o f s u b j e c t s i s t h e r e f o r e s u g g e ste d i n a n e f f o r t t o l e a r n w h e th e r t h e r e i s a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e a c c u ra c y o f t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e sp eech a r t s , sp eech s c ie n c e , and p u b lic a d d re s s fie ld s • The f a c t t h a t some s p e a k e r s 1 s u b je c tiv e r e p o r t s o f c o n fid e n c e d e v ia te d from t h e i r ju d g e s 1 r a t i n g s by two o r t h r e e tim e s th e av e ra g e d e v i a t i o n o f a c o n s id e r a b le number o f o th e r s p e a k e rs s u g g e s ts th e h y p o th e s is t h a t such a d is c r e p a n c y may p ro v id e a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l by w h ich s e r io u s p e r s o n a l i t y p roblem s may b e l o c a t e d .

T h is p o s s i b i l i t y

n e ed s t o be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d . I f i t can be assum ed t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y h a s d e m o n stra te d th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e FRCS and JR s c a l e s , t h e way i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y paved f o r a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f v a r io u s c la s s ro o m te c h n iq u e s aim ed a t t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f s ta g e f r i g h t i n b e g in n in g s tu d e n ts .

T h e ra p e u tic m easu res b r i e f l y c l a s s i f i e d i n C h ap ter I o f

t h i s s tu d y may be t e s t e d e x p e r im e n ta lly and t h e i r v a lu e s c i e n t i f i ­ c a l l y d e te rm in e d . I n t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y a s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t ju d g e s b a s e t h e i r judgm ents upon t h e s p e a k e r ’ s g e n e r a l e f f e c t o r g e s t a l t r a t h e r t h a n upon s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s was e v id e n c e d . b e w o rth y o f f u r t h e r s tu d y .

T h is p o s s i b i l i t y m ig h t

99 I t w ould seem p r o f i t a b l e t o d e v e lo p e x p e r im e n ta lly a FRCS s c a le w h ich Y/ould co m p rise fe w e r ite m s th a n th e in v e n to r y u se d i n t h i s study# Such a fo rm , i f p ro v en v a l i d and r e l i a b l e w ould p ro v e u s e f u l a s a te c h n iq u e th ro u g h w hich s tu d e n ts h a v in g e m o tio n a l pro b lem s co u ld be d e t e c t e d i n sp e e c h c la s s e s # The p r e s e n t s tu d y p o in te d t o t h e c o n c lu s io n t h a t ju d g in g a c c u r a c y in c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y when s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n w ere shown.

T h is tr e n d n eed s t o b e f u r t h e r s tu d ie d w here

l a r g e r numbers o f s u b je c ts a r e used# I n g e n e r a l, t h i s e x p e r ie n c e w ith m o tio n p i c t u r e eq u ip m en t i n d i c a t e s th e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h i s ty p e o f stu d y f o r e x p e r im e n ta tio n in speech.

Such e x p e rim e n ta l w ork sh o u ld n o t be lim ite d t o th e s ta g e

f r i g h t problem #

A la r g e p r o p o r ti o n o f th e problem s found i n th e

sp e ec h f i e l d m ight* i n f a c t , le n d th e m se lv e s t o t h i s “ty p e o f study# The p o s s i b i l i t y sh o u ld be i n v e s t i g a t e d th o ro u g h ly by th o s e i n t e r e s t e d #

BIBLIOG-RA.PHY

100 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS A rk in , H e r b e rt and Raymond R. C o lto n , An O u tlin e o f S t a t i s t i c a l M ethods, Hew Y ork; B arnes and H o b le, I n c . , 1939* B a rn e s , H. G ., A P h ilo so p h y o f Speech E d u c a tio n , B aco n ian L e c tu r e , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, lia rc h 1 8 , 1938* B r y a n t, D onald C ., and K a rl R. W a lla c e , F undam entals o f P u b lic S p e a k in g , Hew Yorks D. A p p le to n -C e n tu ry Company, I n c . , 1947* E is e n s o n , J o n , The P sy ch o lo g y o f S p eech , Hew Y ork: C o ., 1938.

F . S . C r o f ts and

G u ilf o r d , J . P . , F u n d am en tal S t a t i s t i c s i n P sy c h o lo g y and E d u c a tio n , Hew Yorks M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1942. H ayw orth, D on ald , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P u b lic S p e a k in g , Hew Yorks The R enoIds P r e s s Company, 1935. H o llin g w o rth , H. L . , The P sy c h o lo g y o f t h e A u d ie n c e , Hew Yorks A m erican Book Company, 1935* O l i v e r , R o b e rt T . , The P sy c h o lo g y o f P e r s u a s iv e S p e e c h , New Yorks Longmans G reen and C o ., 1947* T h o n sse n , L e s t e r , and Howard G ilk in s o n , B a sic T r a in in g i n S p e e c h , B ostons D. C. H ea th and Company, 1947* B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Chenow eth, Eugene C ., "The A d ju stm en t o f C o lle g e Freshm en t o th e S p eak in g S i t u a t i o n , ” Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 2 6 s5 8 5 -5 8 8 , D ecem ber, 1940. F r a n z , J . G ., " S p o n ta n e ity T r a in in g i n P u b lic S p eak in g C la s s e s ," S o c io m o try , 2 s 49-53# 1939* F r u g e l, J . C ., " S ta g e F r i g h t and Anal E r o tis m ," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f M edical P sy c h o lo g y , 1 7 : 189-196 , 1938•

A P P E N D I X A

101 G ilk in s o n , Howard, "A Q u e s tio n n a ir e S tu d y o f th e C auses o f S o c ia l F e a rs Among C o lle g e S peech S t u d e n t s , 11 Speech M onographs, 1 0 :7 4 -8 3 , 1943# ______ , “S o c ia l F e a r s As R e p o rte d by S tu d e n ts i n C o lle g e Speech C l a s s e s ," Speech M onographs, 9 :1 4 1 -1 6 0 , 1942. H a m ilto n , John II*, "The Psychodram a and I t s I m p lic a tio n s i n Speech A d ju s tm e n t," Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S peech, 2 9 :6 1 -6 7 , F e b r u a ry , 1943. H e n rik s o n , E r n e s t H ., "Some E f f e c t s on S ta g e F r i g h t o f a C ourse i n S p e e c h ,” Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 2 9 :4 9 0 -4 9 1 , D ecem ber, 1943* Lomas, C h a rle s W. , " S ta g e F r i g h t , " Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 3 0 :4 7 9 -8 5 > D ecem ber, 1944* ___________________ , "The P sy chology o f S ta g e F r i g h t , " Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p eech , 3 7 :3 5 -4 4 , F e b r u a ry , 1937* M u rray , Elw ood, "A S tu d y o f th e F a c to r s C o n tr ib u tin g t o th e M al-D evelopm ent o f t h e S peech P e r s o n a l i t y , ” S peech M onographs, 3 :9 5 -1 0 8 , 1936. Tfrenn, C. G i l b e r t , L eonard W. F e rg u s o n , and John L. K ennedy, " I n t e l l i g e n c e L evel and P e r s o n a l i t y ," J o u rn a l o f S o c ia l P sy c h o lo g y , 7 :3 0 1 -3 0 7 3 A u g u st, 1936. G, UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS G r e e n le a f , F lo y d I . , "An E x p lo r a to r y S tu d y o f S o c ia l S peech F r i g h t , " U n p u b lish ed M aster* s T h e s is , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Io-wa, 1947* H en n in g , J . H ., "A S tu d y o f S ta g e F r i g h t Through th e C om parison o f S tu d e n ts* R e a c tio n s and I n s t r u c t o r * s O b s e rv a tio n s i n t h e Speech S i t u a t i o n , " U n p u b lish ed M aster* s T h e s is , N o rth w e ste rn U n i v e r s i t y , 1934. J o n e s , M a rn e tta M., "The R e la tio n s h ip o f C e r ta in P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s t o S ta g e F r i g h t , " U n p u b lish ed M aste r* s T h e s is , S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1947# Lomas, C h a rle s W ., "A S tu d y o f S ta g e F r i g h t As M easured By S tu d e n t R e a c tio n s To t h e Speech S i t u a t i o n , " U n p u b lish ed M aster* s T h e s is , N o rth w e ste rn U n i v e r s i t y , 1934. Yfaggoner, J a n ic e , "A C om parative G alv an o m etric S tu d y o f I n f e r i o r and S u p e rio r S p e a k e r s ," U n p u b lish ed M aster* s T h e s is , U n iv e r s ity o f D en v er, 1933 *

102

APPENDIX A p r e s e n t s i n t a b l e form t h e f o llo w in g d a ta se c u re d d u r in g S e s s io n I o f t h e e x p e rim e n t: T a b le V I I I *

The e ig h th t a b l e c o n ta in s t h e 2 ,4 4 0 judges* r a t i n g s s e c u re d when 61 ju d g e s r a t e d 40 s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e rv a b le d e g r e e s ” o f s ta g e frig h t.

T ab le IX .

The n i n t h t a b l e p r e s e n ts q u a r t i l e ^ 1 and $4 co m p ariso n b etw een "m ost" and " l e a s t " c o n f id e n t s p e a k e r s •

T a b le X. .

The t e n t h t a b l e p r e s e n ts a com parison o f c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents on s p e a k e rs in d iv i d u ­ a lly .

T a b le X I.

The e le v e n th t a b l e p r e s e n ts a com parison o f i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents on s p e a k e rs c o l l e c t i v e l y .

T ab le X I I .

T ab le tw e lv e p r e s e n ts ra n k e d PRCS and JR s c o re s and th e p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een th e tw o .

103 NOTES fo r TABLE V I II Note I t Judge Number* The f i r s t column r u n n in g h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s t h e t o p o f t h e f o llo w in g t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s th e ju d g e number a s coded .from 101 t o 16 1 . Though t h e r e w ere o n ly 61 ju d g e s i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t, i n o r d e r t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n b etw een them and t h e S p eak er Number t h e i r num bers have b een coded 101, 103, e t c * , th u s m aking t h e l a s t number i n t h i s h o r i z o n t a l t a b u l a t i o n 161. N ote 2: S p e ak e r Number. The f i r s t colum n ru n n in g v e r t i c a l l y i n th e f o llo w in g t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e sp e a k e r number a s coded from 1 to 40. Note 3s Key. The second colum n ru n n in g v e r t i c a l l y c o n ta in s t h e s c o re w hich e a c h sp e a k e r sh o u ld have r e c e iv e d a s d e te rm in e d by a T - r a t i o a p p lie d t o th e s p e a k e r ’ s own s u b je c ti v e r a t i n g o f h i s f e e l i n g s o f s ta g e f r i g h t * Note 4* Judges* R a tin g s . The re m a in in g v e r t i c a l columns o f t h e t a b l e r e p r e s e n t t h e a c t u a l r a t i n g s g iv e n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l sp e a k e r by eac h i n d i v i d u a l ju d g e . Note P u b lic A d d re ss . Code num bers 101, 105, 113, 114, 118, 1 2 1 , 122, 1 2 3 , 134, 136, 1 4 1 , 142, 147, 150, 15 2 , 155, and 158 r e p r e s e n t th o s e whose f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i t y was P u b lic A d d re ss . Note 6s S c ie n c e . Code num bers 102, 10 3 , 106, 108, 109, 110, 1 1 5 , 116, 1 2 4 , 1 2 6 , 1 2 8 , 129, 130, 131, 132, 13 8 , 139, 14 0 , 143, 153. 1 5 4 , 15 7 , and 161 r e p r e s e n t th o s e whose f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i t y was S peech S c ie n c e . Note 7s

A rts .

Code numbers 104, 111, 117, 119, 120, 125, 133,

1 3 7 , 145, 146, 14 8 , 149, 151, 156, 159, and 160 r e p r e s e n t th o s e

ju d g e s whose f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i t y was Speech A r t s . Note 8 : G e n e ra l I n t e r e s t C roup. Code num bers 107, 11 2 , 12 7 , and 137 r e p r e s e n t th o s e ju d g e s whose f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t was so g e n e r a l t h a t th e y c o u ld n o t be p la c e d i n any o f th e above t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Note 108, 1 1 2 , 13 1 , 13 2 , 149, 1 5 0 , e x p e rim e n t.

9s B a l e s . Coded 11 3 , 114, 1 1 5 , 117, 13 3 , 1 3 4 , 13 6 , 137, 15 1 , 1 5 2 , I 5 6 , 1 5 7 ,

num bers 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 118, 11 9 , 12 1 , 1 2 2 , 124, 126, 127, 130, 138, 139, 1 4 0 , 14 1 , 143, 145, 146, 147, 1 5 9 , and 161 a r e t h e m ale ju d g e s o f t h e

104 T a b le I N otes (C o n t.) Note 1 0 s F e m a le s. Code num bers 106, 109* 11 0 , 111, 116, 120, 1 2 3 , 125, 128, 129, 135, 1 4 2 , 144, 14 8 , 153, 155, 1 5 8 , and 160 a r e t h e fe m a le ju d g e s o f th e e x p e rim e n t. Note 11: F r o n t Rows. Code numbers 104, 106, 110, 1 1 4 , 117, 121, 1 3 1 , 13 3 , 136, 137, 140, 141, 145, 146, 147, 151, 1 5 6 , 160 and 161 r e p r e s e n t th o s e ju d g e s •who s a t i n t h e f i r s t two ro w s. N ote 12: Back Rows. Code num bers 108, 109, 1 1 1 , 113, 115, 116, 1 2 3 , 124, 1 2 ^ T T 2 8 , 1 3 0 , 13 5 , 138, 139, 143, 14 4 , 149, 15 0 , 1 5 3 , 15 5 , 158, and 159 r e p r e s e n t t h o s e ju d g e s who s a t i n t h e l a s t two ro w s. Note 13: E x p e rie n c e . Code num bers 102, 104, 108, 110, 111, 11 2 , 11 3 , 11 4 , 121, 12 2 , 1 2 3 , 124, 125, 128, 130, 131, 132, 1 3 4 , 136, 1 3 8 , 141, 147, 148, and 158 r e p r e s e n t th o s e ju d g e s who had had from 2 t o 28 y e a r s o f fo rm a l t e a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e . N ote 14: I n e x p e r ie n c e . Code numbers 101, 103, 106, 107, 115, 11 6 , 1 1 7 , 118, 13 3 , 135, 1 3 9 , 140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 153, 157, an d 1 5 6 r e p r e s e n t th o s e ju d g e s who had had no fo rm a l te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e .

105 TABLE V III DATA SHOWING THE 2 ,4 4 0 JUDGES* RATINGS' SECURED "WHEN 61 JUDGES RATED 40 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES" OF STAGE FRIGHT Key 1. 2# 34. 5. 6* 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

3 1 3 4 2 4 3 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 • 4 5 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

101

102

105

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

2 2 3 3 2 3 3 4 1 5 4 2 2 1 3 1 4 4 2 4 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 2 3 2 2 2 4 1 2 5

2 3 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 1 4 1 3 3 2 4 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 4 3 5 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 1 3 4

3 2 4 4 1 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 3 1 4 2 4 3 2 4 2 1 4 3 3 2 1 4 2 5 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 1 3 4

4 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 1 3 3 4 3 2 4 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 5 3 2 3 2 3 2 4 1 2 4

2 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 4

3 2 3 3 2 3 4 5 2 5 5 3 3 2 4 2 5 2 4 5 3 1 4 5 3 2 1 4 2 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 3 5

3 2 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 4 5 3 4 1 4 2 4 2 3 4 3 2 4 4 2 3 1 5 3 5 5 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 5

2 3 4 3 2 4 4 5 1 4 5 3 5 1 4 2 5 3 2 4 1 1 3 4 3 1 1 4 2 5 3 2 3 4 2 3 5 2 3 5

3 2 2 3 3 5 4 5 3 4 5 3 3 1 5 2 5 2 3 5 3 1 3 3 2 3 1 5 2 5 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 1 2 4

4 3 1 3 2 3 4 5 2 4 4 3 4 2 4 3 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 2 2 3 4 4 5 4 2 3 4 3 3 4 1 2 5

4 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 2 5 5 2 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 3

4 2 3 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 5 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 4

106 TABLE V III (Continued) DATA SHOWING THE 2 ,4 4 0 JUDGES* RATINGS SECURED WHEN 61 JUDGES RATED 40 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES" OF STAGE FRIGHT

1. 2. 3. 4• 5. 6* 7. 8. 9. 10* 11. 12. 13. 14. 19. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Key

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

3 1 3 4 2 4 3 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

4 2 4 4 1 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 1 4 3 4 3 2 4 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 3 5 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 1 2 5

3 2 4 3 2 4 3 5 3 5 4 3 4 2 5 3 4 3 3 4 1 1 3 4 2 1 2 5 1 5 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 1 3 5

2 2 3 4 1 4 4 4 1 4 5 4 3 1 5 2 4 3 4 4 3 1 4 3 3 2 1 5 2 5 2 3 4 3 2 2 4 1 3 5

2 2 3 2 2 4 3 4 1 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 4 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 2 4

3 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 3 3 2 2 1 4 1 4 3 1 3 1 1 4 3 1 1 3 3 2 5 4 3 4 4 3 2 3 1 3 5

3 1 4 4 1

1 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 3 1 4 1 3 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 4 1 5 2 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 5

4 3 4 2 1 4 3 5 1 5 5 2 2 1 4 1 5 3 1 4 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 4 2 5 2 2 3 3 3 1 4 1 3 4

2 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 2 4 4 2 3 1 4 3 4 4 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 .4 2 5 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 1 3 5

3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 4 2 2 1 4 2 5 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 5

3 1 3 3 2 4 4 5 2 4 5 4 3 3 5 2 5 4 3 5 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 5 1 5 2 3 3 3 2 4 4 1 3 5

3 3 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 5 3 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4

4

4 5 1 4 4 3 3 2 5 2 5 4 3 4 1 3 3 4 2 3 2 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 5

107 TABLE V III (Continued) DATA SHOWING THE 2 ,4 4 0 JUDGES* RATINGS SECURED WHEN 61 JUDGES RATED 40 SPEAKERS FOR ”OBSERVABLE DEGREES” OF STAGE FRIGHT

1. 2. 3* 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26* 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Key

125

126

127

128

129

13?

131

132

3 1 3 4 2 4 3 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

2 1 1 2 1 4 2 4 1 4 5 3 3 1 4 1 5 3 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 4 1 5 1 1 3 1 1 3 4 1 2 5

3 4 5 3 2 2 3 4 1 3 4 3 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 5 2 2 4 2 1 1 3 1 2 4

3 3 4 4 2 4 3 5 3 4 5 4 3 2 5 3 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 4 4

3 2 3 2 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 2 3 4 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 2 4 1 2 5

2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 4 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 2 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 4

3 2 4 4 3 5 4 5 3 5 5 4 4 3 5 2 5 4 3 4 2 1 4 4 3 3 2 5 2 4 3 3 3 3 1 3 4 3 2 5

3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 5 4 3 3 3 4 3 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 5 3 5 3 4 4 3 2 3 5 2 3 5

3 3 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 4

133

134

• 2 • 3 2 3 2 4 2 3 1 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 1 3 4 4 4 5 3 3 2 5 1 3 4 3 2 2 4 5 3 3 2 2 2 5 2 2 1 1: 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 1 4 3 2 3 5 5 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 5 3

135

136

2 1 3 4 1 3 3 4 1 3 5 4 3 2 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 1 4 4 3 2 1 4 1 5 3 1 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 5

3 1 2 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 2 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 5 2 1 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 5 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 1 3 5

108 TABLE V III (C ontinued) DATA SHOWING THE 2 ,4 4 0 JUDGES * RATINGS SECURED WHEN 61 JUDGES RATED 40 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES" OF STAGE FRIGHT ;

Key

1. 3 2. 1 3 3. 4. 4 2 5? 6, 4 7. 3 8. 3 1 9. 2 10. 11 . 3 12. 5 13. 3 2 14. 15. , 4 2 16. 4 17. 18. 4 4 19. 20. 5 21. 2 22. 2 23. 3 24. 3 25. 3 26. 1 1 27. 28. 3 29. 3 30. 4 4 31. 32. 5 3 33. 34. 3 35. 5 36. 3 4 37. 1 38. 2 39. 40. 5

137

138

139

140

141

142

4 2 3 3 1 4 2 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 4 2 1 4 3 2 2 1 4 2 4 4 1 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 4

2 1 3 3 1 3 3 4 2 4 5 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 5 2 5 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 5

3 2 3 4 1 4 2 4 2 4 4 1 2 1 3 1 4 3 2 4 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 4 2 5 3 2 3 2 1 1 3 1 2 4

4 3 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 5 4 3 2 4 2 4 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 3 2 2 4 3 5 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 2 3 4

3 2 2 1 3 4 4 4 1 4 4 2 3 1 4 2 3 4 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 3 2 4 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 3

4 4 4 2 2 4 3 4 1 3 4 2 1 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 1 4 2 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 3 4

143

144

145

146

' 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 5 2 5 4 3 4 3 5 2 5 3 3 5 2 2 3 4 2 4 1 4 3 5 3 3 4 3 2 2 4 3 2 5

3 4 4 2 2 2 4 5 2 5 5 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 3 5 2 1 •4 3 2 2 1 4 1 5 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 5

4 1 3 2 2 4 1 4 1 3 5 1 2 3 4 1 5 3 1 5 3 1 4 3 1 2 2 5 3 5 5 2 3 3 4 1 3 1 3 5

3 2 2 2 1 4 3 4 1 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 3 1 4 2 5 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 1 3 5

147 2 3 3 4 1 4 4 4 2 4 5 3 2 1 4 3 5 3 2 4 1 2 4 4 2 1 3 5 1 5 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 1 2 5

148 3 1 2 3 1 3 3 4 2 4 4 3 2 1 4 2 4 3 3 4 1 1 3 3 2 1 1 5 2 5 3 2 3 3 2 2 4 1 2 4

109 TABLE V III (C ontinued) DATA SHOWING THE 2 ,4 4 0 JUDGES* RATINGS SECURED WHEN 61 JUDGES RATED 40 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES'* OF STAGE FRIGHT Key 1. 3 2. 1 3. 3 4. 4 2 5. 6. 4 7. 3 8. 3 1 9* 2 10. 11. 3 12. 5 133 2 14 . 4 15. 16. 2 4 17. 18. 4 4 19. 20. 5 2 21. 2 22. 3 23. 24. 3 25. 3 26. 1 1 27. 28. 3 29. 3 30. 4 4 31. 32. 5 33. 3 34. * 3 35. 5 36. 3 4 37* 38. 1 2 39. 40. 5

149

150

151

152

3 2 4 3 2 3 1 4 2 3 5 3 3 2 4 1 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 4 3 4 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 4

3 1 3 3 2 4 4 5 2 3 4 2 2 1 3 2 5 3 2 5 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 4 2 5 2 1 3 3 2 3 4 1 3 4

4 2 4 3 2 4 1 4 2 4 3 2 3 1 4 3 4 3 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 4 1 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 1 3 5

3 1 3 2 2 4 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 4 1 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 1 3 4

153 4 ' 3 4 2 2 4 3 2 3 5 5 4 4 1 5 2 5 4 2 3 1 1 3 4 4 2 1 5 3 5 4 2 4 4 3 2 3 1 3 5

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

16:

2 1 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 1 3 2 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 3

3 1 2 3 1 4 3 5 2 5 4 3 3 2 4 1 4 3 3 4 2 2 4 4 2 3 1 3 2 5 2 4 4 3 2 3 4 1 3 4

3 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 5 5 3 3 2 4 3 5 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 3 5

3 4 2 3 3 4 4 5 2 5 5 4 3 2 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 5 2 5 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 2 4 4

3 1 4 4 2 4 3 5 2 4 5 4 4 2 4 2 5 4 4 3 2 1 4 5 3 2 1 5 3 5 4 3 5 4 3 4 4 1 3 5

1 1 3 3 1 3 4 4 1 4 4 3 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 5 1 5 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 1 1 4

3 2 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 3 3 2 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 1 4 3 2 2 1 4 2 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 4

2 1 3 1 2 3 2 4 1 3 3 2 3 1 3 1 4 2 2 2 2 1 4 3 3 2 1 3 3 5 3 3 4 2 3 2 4 1 2 4

110

NOTES fo r TABLE IX

Not© 1 : The f i r s t colum n o f T able IX g iv e s th e ju d g e number a s coded fro m 101 t o 161. Note 2 : Q u a r t i le ffil. Columns two t o s i x g iv e c o m p u ta tio n s f o r 10 ^ m o s t c o n f i d e n t ” s p e a k e r s , a s m easured by t h e i r FRCS s c o r e s . N ote 3? Q u a r t ile 4-* Columnssev en t o e le v e n g iv e c o m p u ta tio n s f o r 10 b l e a s t c o n f i d e n t ” s p e a k e r s .

I ll TABLE IX DATA SHOWING QUARTILE I AND IV COMPARISONS BETWEEN “MOST” AND 11LEAST11 CONFIDENT SPEAKERS Judge ________ QUARTILE A.D. S .D . Number H 4 .8 101* 1 .4 .4 9 1 0 2 . 1 .7 7 .0 .7 8 .6 4 103* 1 .7 5 .3 4 .0 104* 2 .0 .6 3 4 .8 1 0 5 . 2 .4 .4 9 10 6 . 2 .0 4 .0 .6 3 6 .4 .75 107* 2*2 7 .0 10 8 . 1 .7 .7 8 7 .2 .8 3 109* 2 .1 4 .8 .6 0 110. 2 .2 .6 7 6 .0 111. 1 .5 5 .0 .5 0 112. 2 .5 .6 4 5 .6 113. 1 .7 6 .0 2 .0 114. .7 7 7 .0 .7 8 115. 1 .7 1 1 6 . 1 .9 5 .4 '.84 7 .0 .7 8 117. 1*7 5*6 1 1 8 . 1 .7 •64 0 .0 .0 0 1 1 9 . 0 .0 .8 1 120. 1 .5 7*0 12 1 . 1 .8 6 .4 .75 •64 12 2 . 1 .7 5 .6 1 2 3 . 1 .9 .70 5 .4 4 .8 .6 0 2 .8 124. 1 .8 .3 0 1 .1 125. 126. 1 .7 .9 0 7 .0 .7 0 127. 2 .9 5 .4 3 .6 128. 2 .1 .5 4 3 .6 .5 4 1 2 9 . 1 .9 .5 0 5 .0 130. 2 .5 .7 0 5 .4 131. 2 .9 2 .0 1 3 2 . 2 .0 .4 5 .6 6 6 .0 133. 1 .6 6 .0 .6 7 13 4 . 2 .5 1 .8 6 .4 .75 135. .9 8 1 3 6 . 2 .2 8 .4 5 .6 .6 4 137. 1 .7 1*2 .4 0 3 .2 13 8 . 5 .0 .50 139. 1 .5 .7 0 1 4 0 . 2 .1 5 .4

I __________ D D^ mm .1 7 2 .8 9 / .12 1 .4 4 - .0 2 .04 - .03 .09 - .17 2 .3 9 - .03 .09 .81 A .09 1 .4 4 / .1 2 2 .8 9 / .1 7 .0 6 .3 6 .01 .01 / .1 6 2 .5 6 - .02 .04 1 .2 1 .11 r .12 1 .4 4 3 .2 4 / .18 1 .4 4 / .12 .02 .04 .6 6 4 3 .5 6 2 .2 5 .1 5 .81 / .09 .02 .04 .1 6 .04 7 .06 .3 6 - .36 1 2 .9 6 A .2 4 5 .7 6 .1 6 / .04 - .12 1 .4 4 - .12 1 .4 4 - .16 2 .5 6 .16 / .04 .21 4 .41 .00 0 .0 0 .0 1 .0 1 / .8 1 .09 / .32 1 0 .2 4 / .0 2 .04 - .26 6 .7 6 - .1 6 2*56 .1 6 / .04

M 3 .4 3 .3 3 .7 3 .5 3 .8 3 .7 3 .8 3 .8 3 .9 3 .7 2 .5 3 .4 3 .9 3 .9 4 .0 3 .2 3 .5 4 .1 2 .7 3 .5 3 .1 3 .1 4 .1 3 .8 3 .3 3 .0 4 .1 3 .7 3 .1 3 .9 4 .0 3 .2 3 .7 2 .9 3 .7 3 .8 3 .0 2 .6 3 .1 3 .5

QUARTILE XV A .D . S.D . D 1 0 .0 i . i i 1 / .1 2 1 .4 4 .0 1 .0 1 9 .0 1 .0 0 / - .21 6 .2 .7 8 4 .4 1 .81 7 .0 - .1 8 3 .2 4 - .5 9 3 4 .8 1 .40 3 .2 1 1 .0 1.1 9 / .2 0 4 .0 0 - .24 6 .4 5 .7 6 .7 5 1 0 .4 1.1 7 A .1 8 3 .2 4 9 .2 1 .0 4 .2 5 A .0 5 1 .0 0 .0 1 9 .0 A .0 1 .2 1 1 0 .0 1 .2 0 4 .4 1 A8*0 .92 .0 7 .4 9 - •16 2 .5 6 5 .6 .83 - .16 2 .5 6 7 .2 .83 1 .0 0 - .10 6 .0 .8 9 .1 2 8 .0 1 .4 4 .87 - .07 8 .0 .92 .49 2 .5 6 - .1 6 7 .2 .83 1 3 .6 1 .5 5 A .5 6 3 1 .3 6 1 .1 2 1 0 .0 Af .13 1 .6 9 1.2 2 5 .2 9 1 1 .2 .23 9 .4 1 .1 4 A .15 2 .2 5 9 .0 1 .0 4 .2 5 / .0 5 - .39 1 5 .2 1 4 .8 .60 1 3 .0 1 .4 5 A •46 2 1 .1 6 .0 1 1 .0 0 6 .0 A .01 - .45 2 0 .2 5 3 .6 .54 - .09 .8 1 .90 7 .6 .05 .25 *94 7 .4 1 .1 4 7 .6 A. .15 2 .2 5 .0 1 1 .0 0 8 .0 A .0 1 1 5 .2 1 4 .8 - .39 .6 0 4 .0 0 1 1 .0 1.1 9 / .2 0 - ♦05 .25 7 .2 .9 4 8 .2 1.1 0 A .11 1 .2 1 1 0 .8 1 .2 5 A .2 6 6*76 1 .0 0 .8 9 6 .0 i ao 1 1 .2 1 1 .3 6 A •3 7 3 .6 9 1 1 .0 1 .3 0 A .3 1 9 .6 1 1 .0 2 9 .0 .0 9 A .0 3

(C o n t. n e x t p ag e)

112 TABLE IX (Continued) DATA SHOWING QUARTILE I AND IV COMPARISONS BETWEEN "MOST” AM) "LEAST” CONFIDENT SPEAKERS Judge Number M 141. 1 .7 1 4 2 . 1 .9 1 4 3 . 2 .4 14 4 . 1 .9 14 5 . 1 .9 1 4 6 . 1 .9 1 4 7 . 1 .8 1 4 8 . 1 .3 149. 1 .7 150. 1 .8 151. 1 .8 152. 1 .8 15 3 . 1 .9 154. 1 .7 155. 1 .7 156. 2 .5 15 7 . 2 .7 1 5 8 . 1 .8 1 5 9 . 1 .0 160. 2 .1 161. 1 .4

QUARTILE A.D. S .D . 5 .6 •6 4 9 .0 1 .0 4 6 .8 .8 0 .8 2 5 .4 7 .2 .8 3 7 .2 .83 8 .0 .8 7 4 .2 .4 6 ♦46 4 .2 .6 0 4 .8 6 .4 .7 5 4 .8 .6 0 7 .2 .83 *64 5 .6 7 .0 .7 8 .8 1 7 .0 9 .0 1 .0 0 4 .8 .6 0 0 .0 .0 0 *70 5 .4 4 .8 .4 9 .6 6

I D / / / / / / / / / / / -

.0 2

.3 8 .14 .16 .17 .1 7 .21 .20 .20 .0 6 .09 .0 6 .1 7 .0 2 .1 2 .1 5 .34 ♦06 •66 / .04 - .1 7

D2.0 4 1 4 .4 4 1*96 2 .5 6

2 .8 9 2 .8 9 4 .4 1 4 .0 0 4 .0 0 .3 6

.81 .3 6 2 .8 9 .04 1 .4 4 2 .2 5 1 1 .5 6 .3 6 4 3 .5 6 .1 6 2 .8 9 2 .2 3 4 4

M 2 .8

3 .0 4 .1 3 .4 3 .6 3 .5 3 .9 3 .5 3 .1 3 .4 3 .3 2 .9 3 .7 3 .0 3 .7 3 .7 3 .8 4 .0 3 .0 3 .5 3 .1

' "QtTAR'TlW A.D. S .D . 6'.o .8 7 8 .0 .8 9 9 .0 1 .0 4 1 4 .0 1 2 .8 8 .0

7 .4 8 .0 7 .2 1 2 .0

7 .6 5 .4 1 1 .0 4 .0 6 .2 9 .0 6 .8 6 .0 6 .0 7 .0 9 .2

1 .5 0

1 .4 2 .9 2 *94 .9 2 •94 1 .3 6 .90 .70 1 .1 9 .6 3

•78 1 .0 0 .8 7 .7 7 1 .0 0 .8 1 1 .1 4 .9 9

IV D » A / / / / / /

.1 2

.10 .0 5 .5 1 .4 3 .0 7 .0 5 .0 7 .0 5 .3 7 .0 9 .2 9 .2 0 .3 6 .2 1 .0 1 .1 2 .22 .0 1 .18 .15

0

D^ 1 .4 4 1 .0 0 .2 5 2 6 .0 1 1 8 .4 9 .4 9 .2 5 .4 9 .25 1 3 .6 9 .8 1 8 .4 1 4 .0 0 1 2 .9 6 4 .4 1 .0 1 1 .4 4 4 .8 4 .0 1 3 .2 4 2 .2 5 3.3003

113

NOTES fo r TABLE X

Not© Is The f i r s t colum n o f T ab le X g iv e s th e s p e a k e r number a s coded fro m 1 t o 40• N ote 2 : Zero D e v ia tio n s . The seco n d column p r e s e n ts t h e number o f ju dgm ents w hich a g re e d w ith s p e a k e r 1s PROS ”keyM s c o r e s . Note 3 : P lu s D e v ia tio n s . The t h i r d column p r e s e n ts th e number o f p o s i t i v e JR d e v ia tio n s fro m a c c u ra c y a s m easured i n te rm s o f ag reem en t w ith th e PROS ”key” s c o r e s . Note 4: Minus D e v ia tio n s . The f o u r t h column p r e s e n t s t h e number o f n e g a tiv e JR d e v i a ti o n s fro m a c c u r a c y . N ote 3* T o ta l D e v ia tio n s . The f i f t h column p r e s e n ts t h e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s fro m a c c u r a c y , n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e com bined.

1X4 TABIE X DATA PRESENTING A COMPARISON OF COLLECTIVE JUDGMENTS FOR SPEAKERS INDIVIDUALLY S p eak er Number 1* 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 13. 16. 17. 18, 19. 20. 21, 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. = 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. T o ta ls

Zero D e v ia tio n s 32 17 27 11 32 40 27 4 18 0 6 0 33 21 35 25 30 13 4 9 33 14 28 33 17 17 38 8 22 10 14 0 35 28 0 25 29 44 23 31 833

P lu s D e v ia tio n s 11 70 21 0 8 2 23 72 53 114 77 0 13 10 9 21 21 0 1 0 14 5 23 23 . 2 56 30 69 1 50 4 0 23 10 0 2 2 23 38 0 901

Minus D e v ia tio n s 21 0 17 78 21 22 15 1 0 1 0 134 20 30 18 16 11 60 98 83 16 42 10 7 52 0 0 0 50 1 62 159 4 24 159 40 30 0 3 34 1339

T o ta l D e v ia tio n s 32 70 38 78 29 24 38 73 53 115 77 134 33 40 27 37 32 60 99 83 30 47 33 30 54 56 30 69 51 51 66 159 27 34 159 42 32 23 41 34 2240

115

NOTES fo r TABLE XI

Not© Is The f i r s t column o f T ab le XI g iv e s th e ju d g e number a s coded from 101 t o 161* N ote 2: Zero D e v ia tio n s * The second column p r e s e n ts t h e number o f judgm ents -which a g re e d w ith s p e a k e r ’ s PROS "k e y ” s c o re s * N ote 3s P lu s D e v ia tio n s* The t h i r d column p r e s e n ts t h e number o f p o s i t i v e d e v ia tio n s fro m a c c u ra c y a s m easured i n te rm s o f a g ree m en t w ith th e PROS "k e y ” s c o re s * N ote 4s Minus D e v ia tio n s * The f o u r t h colum n p r e s e n ts t h e number o f n e g a tiv e JR d e v ia tio n s fro m a c c u r a c y . N ote 5s T o ta l D e v ia tio n s * The f i f t h column p r e s e n ts t h e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s fro m a c c u r a c y , n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e combined*

116 TABLE XI DATA PRESENTING A COMPARISON OF INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS FOR SPEAKERS COLLECTIVELY Judge Number 101 ♦ 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 10 8 , 109. 110. 11 1 . 11 2 . 113. 11 4 . 115. 11 6 . 117. 11 8 . 11 9 . 120. 121. 12 2 . 12 3 . 124. 12 5 . 126. 127. 12 8 . 129. 130.

Zero P lu s Dev. Dev. 13 9 11 13 14 14 11 13 12 19 13 19 20 15 12 20 12 20 12 21 6 11 18 14 16 14 12 20 16 15 18 9 12 11 16 17 12 4 15 13 12 14 12 10 16 . 18 14 24 8 14 11 10 14 29 14 17 8 '13 27 13

Minus Dev. 31 25 19 23 11 19 14 19 19 18 41 17 15 17 16 20 26 12 47 27 25 28 16 10 37 36 7 15 29 12

T o ta l Dev. 40 38 33 34 30 38 34 39 39 39 47 35 29 37 32 29 37 29 51 42 37 38 34 34 45 47 36 29 37 39 T o ta ls

Judge §Serb P lu s Minus Tot( Number Dev. Dev. Dev. Dev, 10 40 131. 31 .9 16 132. 23 32 9 22 14 133. 13 35 40 23 134. 14 17 14 135. 15 19 33 16 16 136. 17 33 11 10 137. 25 35 138. 50 41 9 9 10 9 139. 33 43 140. 18 19 37 13 16 8 1^*1 t 27 35 26 X4 2 • 11 14 37 12 36 24 15 143. 12 18 144. 47 29 16 40 24 13 145. 16 146. 10 20 30 12 18 21 39 147. 8 148. 32 24 15 10 34 24 149. 15 150. 22 15 35 13 11 36 151. 25 15 26 152. 17 7 33 18 11 41 23 153. 26 154. 14 7 33 16 18 32 14 155. 22 I 56. 14 15 37 12 12 27 39 157. 22 158. 8 30 19 11 8 36 44 159. 160. 30 17 15 13 16 161. 6 28 34 2240 853 901 1339

117

NOTES fo r TABLE X II

Not© Is The f i r s t column o f T ab le X II g iv e s th e s p e a k e r number a s coded from 1 t o 40* N ote 2 : BRCS Ranked S c o r e s # The second column p r e s e n ts PROS ra n k e d s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f th e 40 s p e a k e rs # N ote 3 : JR. Ranked S c o r e s * The t h i r d column p r e s e n t s OR ra n k e d s c o re s f o r e a c h o f t h e s p e a k e rs # Note 4s D if fe r e n c e s # The f o u r t h colum n p r e s e n ts p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een th e ra n k e d FRCS and JR s c o re s #

118 TABLE XII DATA PRESENTING- RANKED PROS AND JR SCORES AND THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO S p eak er Number 1. 2. 3* 4. 5. 6. 7. 8, 9. 10, 11. 12. 13* 14. 13* 16. 17* 18. 19* 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25* 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31* 32. 33* 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39* 40.

PROS Ranked S c o re s 23*0

3 .0 1 3 .0 35*0 9*0 2 8 .0 1 8 .0 2 0 .0 4*5 1 1 .0 15*0 37*5 1 7 .0 1 0 .0 3 2 .5 8 .0 3 1 .0 3 0 .0

2 8 .0 4 0 .0 6 .0 1 2 .0 14 .0 25*0

19*0 1 .0 4 .5 24*0 2 2 .0 3 2 .5 2 8 .0 3 9 .0 2 5 .5 2 1 .0 3 7 .5 1 6 .0 3 4 .0 2 .0 7*0 3 6 .0

JR Ranked S c o re s 20 . 0 9 .5 2 5 .5 1 8 .0 5 .0 '

3 2 .0

2 5 .5 3 6 .5 6 .6 3 3 .5 3 8 .0 2 0 .0 2 2 .0 4 .0 3 3 .5 9 .5 3 6 ,5 2 3 .5 1 4 .5 3 1 .0 8 .0 1 .5 27*0 2 8 .5 1 1 .5 6 .6 3 .0 3 5 .0 1 1 .5 4 0 .0 2 3 .5 1 4 .5 2 8 .5 2 0 .0 1 4 .5 1 4 .5 3 0 .0 1 .5 1 7 .0 3 9 .0

D if f e r e n c e s In Rank - 3 .0 / 6 .5 / 1 2 .5 - 1 7 .0 - 4 .0 / 4 .0 / 7 .5 / 1 6 .5 / 2 .1 / 2 2 .5 / 2 3 .0 - 1 7 .5 / 5 .0 - 6 .0 / 1 ,0 / 1 .5 / 5 .5 - 6 .5 - 1 3 .5 - 9 .0 / 2 .0 - 1 0 .5 / 1 3 .0 / 3 .5 - 7 .5 / 5 .6 - 1 .5 /Il.O - 1 0 .5 / 7 .5 - 4 .5 - 2 4 .5 / 3 .0 - 1 .0 - 2 3 .O - 1 .5 - 4 .0 "/ *5 / 1 0 .0 / 3 .0

A P P E N D I X B

119

APPENDIX p r e s e n t s i n t a b l e fo rm d a t a s e c u re d d u rin g S e s s io n I I I o f t h e ex p erim e n t* T hese d a ta a r e a rra n g e d so t h a t com parisons b etw een S e s s io n s I and I I I can b e e a s i l y made* T a b le X I I I .

The t h i r t e e n t h t a b l e c o n ta in s t h e 1 ,6 0 0 ju d g e s 1 r a t i n g s s e c u re d when 5 0 ju d g e s r a t e d 32 s p e a k e rs f o r " o b s e r v a b le d e g r e e s " o f s ta g e frig h t.

T a b le XIV.

The f o u r t e e n t h t a b l e p r e s e n t s th e c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents on s p e a k e rs i n d i v i d u a l l y .

T a b le XV.

The f i f t e e n t h t a b l e p r e s e n ts t h e i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents on s p e a k e rs c o l l e c t i v e l y .

T a b le XVT.

The s i x t e e n t h t a b l e p r e s e n ts a com parison o f c o l l e c t i v e judgm ents f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I o f t h e ex p erim en t*

T a b le XVTI.

The s e v e n te e n th t a b l e p r e s e n ts a com p ariso n o f i n d i v i d u a l judgm ents f o r S e s s io n s I and I I I .

T a b le X V III.

The e i g h te e n th t a b l e p r e s e n ts ran k ed PROS and JR s c o re s and th e p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een t h e tw o .

120 NOTES fo r TABLE X I I I Not:© Is Judge Number. The f i r s t column ru n n in g h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s t h e to p o f t h e f o llo w in g t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s th e jd&ge number a s coded fro m 101 t o 161. As t h i s t a b l e p r e s e n ts t h e r a t i n g s o f each ju d g e on e a c h s p e a k e r f o r th e s e s s io n i n w hich s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e s w ere u s e d , and b e c a u s e some o f th e ju d g e s w ere n o t p r e s e n t f o r t h i s s e s s i o n , t h e f o llo w in g code num bers a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e t a b l e s : 104, 106, 110, 113, 120, 1 3 0 , 131, 142, I 5 4 , 157, and 159, Note 2 : S p eak er Number. The f i r s t qoluran ru n n in g v e r t i c a l l y i n t h e f o llo w in g t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p e a k e r number a s coded from 1 t o 4 0 . Due t o d e f e c t i v e f i l m , t h e f o llo w in g s p e a k e rs w ere l o s t t o t h i s p a r t o f th e e x p e rim e n t: 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 2 5 , 2 6 , and 3 2 . Note 3s PROS 11Key11a The second column ru n n in g v e r t i c a l l y c o n ta in s t h e s c o re w hich e a c h s p e a k e r s h o u ld have r e c e iv e d a s d e te rm in e d by a T - r a t i o a p p lie d t o th e s p e a k e r 1s own s u b je c t i v e r a t i n g o f h i s f e e l i n g s o f s ta g e f r i g h t . N ote 4s J u d g e s 1 R a tin g s ; The re m a in in g v e r t i c a l colum ns o f t h e t a b l e r e p r e s e n t t h e a c t u a l r a t i n g s g iv e n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l sp e a k e r by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l ju d g e . N ote 5 : P u b lic A d d re ss . Code num bers 101, 105, 114, 118, 12 1 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 3 , 134, 136, 141, 147, 150, 1 5 2 , 155, and 158 r e p r e s e n t t h o s e ju d g e s whose f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i t y was P u b lic A d d re s s . N ote t h a t ju d g e s 113 and 142, c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s group f o r S e s s io n I o f th e e x p e rim e n t, w ere l o s t i n t h i s round o f ju d g m e n ts. N ote 6 :

Speech S c ie n c e .

Code numbers 102, 103,

108, 10 9 ,

1 1 5 , 1 1 6 , 1 2 4 , 126, 1§8, 1 2 9 , 1 3 2 , 1 3 8 , 1 3 9 , 140, 14 3 . 14 4 , 15 3 . and

161 r e p r e s e n t th o s e whose f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i t y was S peech S c ie n c e . Note t h a t ju d g e s 106, 110, 130, 13 1 , 154, and 157, c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s group f o r S e s s io n I o f th e e x p e rim e n t, w ere l o s t i n t h i s ro u n d o f ju d g m e n ts. N ote 7 : S peech A r t s . Cod© num bers 111, 117, 119, 125, 133, 1 3 7 , 14 5 , 146, 148, 14 9 , 151, 1 5 6 , and 160 r e p r e s e n t t h o s e ju d g e s whose f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i t y was S peech A r ts . N ote t h a t ju d g e s 104, 120, and 15 9 , c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s gro u p f o r S e s s io n I o f t h e e x p e r i ­ m e n t, w ere l o s t i n t h i s ro u n d o f ju d g m e n ts. Note 8 : G e n e ra l I n t e r e s t G roup. Code num bers 107, 112, 127, and 135 r e p r e s e n t t h o s e ju d g e s whose f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t was so g e n e r a l t h a t th e y c o u ld n o t be p la c e d i n any o f th e t h r e e above c la s s if i c a t i o n s •

121 Table X III N otes (C o n t.) Note 9 : M a le s. Code members 101, 102, 10 3 , 105, 107, 108, 115, 1 1 7 , 11 8 , 119, 121, 122, 124, 126, 12 7 , 132, 133, 134, 13 6 , 137, 1 3 8 , 139, 140, 141, 143. 1 4 5 , 146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 1 5 6 , 1 6 1 , a r e th e m ale ju d g e s o f t h e e x p e rim e n t. Note t h a t ju d g e s 1 0 4 , 1 1 3 , 13 0, 13 1 , 1 5 7 , ^ d 1 5 9 , c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s group f o r S e s s io n I o f t h e e x p e rim e n t, -were l o s t i n t h i s round o f ju d g m e n ts. 1 1 2 , 114,

N ote 10s F e m a le s . Code num bers 109, 111, 116, 123, 12 5 , 1 2 8 , 12 9 , 1 3 5 , 144, 148, 153, 15 5 , 158, and 160 a r e th e fem ale ju d g e s o f t h e e x p e rim e n t. Note t h a t ju d g e s 106, 110, 120, 142, and 154, c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s group f o r S e s s io n I o f th e e x p e rim e n t, ■were l o s t i n t h i s round o f ju d g m e n ts.

122 TABLE X III BATA SHOWING THE 1 ,6 0 0 JUDGES’ RATINGS SECURED WHEN 50 JUDGES RATED 32 SPEAKERS FOR 11OBSERVABLE DEGREES" OF STAGE FRIGHT

1 .

2. 3* 9* 10. 11. 12. 13* 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Key

101

102

103

3

2 2 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 2 5 4 2 4 1 1 2 3

2

2

1

1

4 2 1 4 3 3 1 4 1 5 5 5 3 2

3 2

1

3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 3 4

1

1

5 2 5 1 4 2 2 1

3 4 2 3 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 2

2

1

1

5

4

1

3 1

1

3 2 2 1 3 2 4 3 1 4 1

2 ( 3

VI 2— - " 1

4 2 3 2 1 3 2

105 4 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 1 3 2 4 4 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 // 4

2 5 3 3 1 3 3 2

107

108

109

111

112

114

2 2 3 1 4 4 4 3 1 5 3 5 4 3 5 2

3 3 2 2 2 4 3 4 1 4 3 4 5 2 3 1 1 3 4 1 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 3 4 2

4

1 1 3 3

3 1 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 5 3 2 3 3 4 3 2 2 4

3

1

2 3 1

4 1

5 1

2 1 2 3 3

1

1

1

1 raj

3 4

1

1

4

3

1

3 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 4 2 1

2 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 4

1

4 3 3 2 3 3 5 5 3 5 2 2 1 3 2 4' 2 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 4

1

4 3 2 4 3 3 1

4 2 4 4 3 4 1 1 3 4 2 4 2 5 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 1 4

123 TABIE X III (C ontinued) DATA SHOWING THE 1 ,6 0 0 JUDGES * RATINGS SECURED WHEN 50 JUDGES RATED 32 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES" OF STAGE FRIGHT

1. 2. 3. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14* 15* 16. 17* 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Key

115

116

117

118

119

121

122

123

124

125

3 1 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

2 2 4 3 3 5 4 3 1 5 3 5 4 2 5 2 2 3 4 2 4 2 5 2 4 5 3 3 4 1 1 5

3 2 4 3 1 4 3 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 4 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 3

2 2 4 2 1 3 1 2 1 4 2 5 4 2 4 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 5 4 4 2 2 2 3 1 3 5

3 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 1 4 3 4 4 2 4 3 2 3 4 2 4 3 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 2 5

1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 4 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 3

2 1 4 3 3 4 2 3 1 5 3 5 4 3 3 3 1 3 4 2 4 1 5 3 4 3 2 2 2 1 2 5

3 2 4 3 2 4 2 2 1 3 3 4 3 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 4 2 5 3 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 5

4 1 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 5 4 2 5 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 5

3 2 4 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 1 2 4 3 3 2 5 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 5

1 1 2 1 2 5 3 2 1 4 2 5 4 3 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 2 5 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 3

124 TABLE X III (C ontinued) DATA SHOWING THE 1 ,6 0 0 JUDGES* RATINGS SECURED WHEN 50 JUDGES RATED 32 SPEAKERS FOR OBSERVABLE DEGREES” OF STAGE FRIGHT

!• 2. 3. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13* 14. 15. lb . 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23* 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Key

126

127

128

129

132

133

134

135

136

137

3 1 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

3 2 3 3 1 3 3 2 1 3 2 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 5 1 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 4

3 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 5 2 5 4 3 5 4 4 2 5 3 4 4 5 4 3 3 2 3 2 4 2 5

3 1 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 4 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 3

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 4 2 4 5 4 4 2 2 2 5 2 4 2 5 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 4

1 2 4 2 3 4 2 3 1 4 2 4 4 2 3 1 1 2 4 1 3 3 5 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 4

2 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 4 3 5 3 1 5 1 1 2 3 2 3 3 5 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 1 5

3 2 3 3 2 4 3 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 3 5 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 4

2 1 3 1 2 4 3 4 1 4 2 5 3 2 4 1 2 3 4 2 4 1 5 4 4 3 4 3 2 2 3 4

4 1 3 4 1 4 3 4 2 3 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 4 2 4 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 4 1 2 4

2 1 4 3 1 4 3 3 1 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 4 1 3 1 5 4 4 3 2 3 3 2 1 4

125 TABLE X III (C ontinued) DATA SHOWING THE 1,600 JUDGES* RATINGS SECURED WHEN 50 JUDGES RATED 52 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES" OF STAGE FRIGHT

Key 138 1. 2* 3* 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 19. 16, 17. IS . 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

3 1 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

2 1 4 1 2 3 3 2 1 4 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 5

139

140

141

143

144

145

146

147

148

3 2 4 2 1 4 2 2 1 4 1 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 5 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2

3 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 4 3 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 3

3 1 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 1 2 3

1 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 2 5 3 3 3 2 3 2 4 3 4 2 5 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 5

3 2 4 2 3 2 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 4 3

1 1 3 1 3 4 2 3 1 4 2 4 5 3 4 2 2 2 4 1 5 1 5 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 5

3 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 2 4 2 4 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 4 2 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 4

3 1 4 3 4 3 2 3 1 4 3 4 5 1 5 2 1 4 3 3 5 2 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 2 4

2 2 3 2 1 4 2 1 1 4 3 3 4 2 3 1 2 2 4 3 4 2 5 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 4

126 TABLE X III (C ontinued) DATA SHOWING THE 1,600 JUDGES* RATINGS SECURED WHEN 50 JUDGES RATED 32 SPEAKERS FOR "OBSERVABLE DEGREES” OF STAGE FRIGHT

Key 1* 2. 3. 9. 10 . 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19 . 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

3 1 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 3 4 1 2 5

149 3 1 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 5 2 4 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 5 3 3 2 1 2 3 . 2 3 4

150 3 1 4 3 2 4 2 3 1 4 3 3 4 2 3 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 2 1 4 :

151

152

153

155

156

158

160

161

1 2 4 2 1 4 3 3 1 4 2 5 4 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 4 1 5 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 5

2 1 3 2 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 3

2 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 2 4 2 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 4 1 4 3 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 2 5

2 1 3 2 2 4 2 3 1 3 3 3 4 3 4 2 1 2 5 1 3 2 5 2 4 3 1 3 3 2 1 5

3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 5 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 5

4 1 4 2 2 4 4 4 1 4 3 5 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 2 5 2 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 2 5

3 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 3 3 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4

3 2 4 2 1 4 3 3 1 4 2 5 4 3 4 3 2 2 5 2 4 2 5 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 5

127

NOTES fo r TABLE XIV Not© I s The f i r s t colum n o f T ab le XIV g iv e s t h e s p e a k e r number a s coded from 1 t o 4 0 . N ote 2 : Z ero D e v ia tio n s ♦ The second colum n p r e s e n t s th e number o f judgm ents o f S e s s io n I -which a g re e d -with s p e a k e r ’ s PROS ’’k ey ” s c o r e s . Not© 3s P lu s D e v ia tio n s . The t h i r d colum n p r e s e n ts th e number o f p o s i t i v e JR d e v ia t io n s from a c c u ra c y f o r S e s s io n I a s m easu red i n te rm s o f ag ree m en t -with t h e PROS Mk e y M s c o r e s . Note 4 : Minus D e v ia tio n s . The fo u rth , colum n p r e s e n t s th e number o f n e g a tiv e d e v i a t i o n s fro m a c c u ra c y f o r S e s s io n I . Note 5 : T o ta l D e v ia tio n s . The f i f t h colum n p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s fro m a c c u r a c y , n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e combined a s fo u n d i n S e s s io n I . Note 6 : S e s s io n I I I . Columns 6 t o 9 p r e s e n t th e d a ta m en tio n ed i n N otes 2 t o 3 above f o r S e s s io n I I I .

128 TABLE XIV BATA PRESENTING A COMPARISON OF COLLECTIVE JUDGMENTS FOR SPEAKERS INDIVIDUALLY FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I

S p e ak e r Zero Number Dev. 28 1. 2. 15 23 3* 15 9* 0 10. 11. 5 0 12. 27 13. 18 14. 28 13. 21 16. 26 17. 10 18. 2 19. 8 20. 21. 27 12 22. 22 23. 29 24. 32 27. 28. 7 29. 19 30. 7 11 31. 27 33. 24 34. 0 35. 36. 19 24 37. 36 38. 19 39. 26 40. T o ta ls 5 6 7

SESSION I Minus T o ta l P lu s Dev. Dev* Dev. I T " 18 24 0 52 52 16 30 14 0 44 44 1 90 89 0 63 63 0 113 113 16 11. 27 8 32 24 8 15 23 16 30 14 10 15 25 0 49 49 0 84 84 0 69 69 8 23 15 38 3 35^ 28 19 9 22 18 4 0 23 23 0 55 55 42 42 0 42 1 43 4 57 53 21 24 3 8 27 19 128 128 0 2 36 34 26 1 25 0 19 19 2 33 31 0 27 27 1406 582 824

* Z ero Dev. 22 24 19 6 20 13 0 32 19 32 25 28 26 2 7 23 21 16 23 15 17 13 4 12 28 20 0 29 9 19 19 18 561

SESSION I I I P lu s Minus Tot! Dev. Dev, Dev. 30 35 5 0 35 35 28 32 4 68 1 67 10 27 37 1 40 39 106 106 0 20 15 5 32 29 3 6 19 13 22 25 3 6 22 16 20 25 5 82 2 84 70 0 70 28 19 9 30 23 7 42 39 3 2 31 29 46 46 0 36 3 33 2 47 45 10 40 50 48 2 50 6 18 24 38 25 13 0 127 127 22 17 5 63 0 63 4 39 35 32 19 13 0 45 45 1400 885 515

129

NOTES fo r TABIE XV Not© l i Th© f i r s t colum n o f T a b le XV g iv e s t h e ju d g e number a s coded fro m 101 t o 161# N ote 2i Zero D e v ia tio n s , The second 001-03101 p r e s e n ts t h e number o f judgm ents o f S e s s io n I -which a g re e d -with s p e a k e r ’ s FRCS "k e y ” sc o re s * Note 3* P lu s D e v ia tio n s * The t h i r d column p r e s e n ts th e number o f p o s i t i v e d e v i a t i o n s fro m a c c u ra c y d u rin g S e s s io n I a s m easu red i n te rm s o f ag reem en t -with t h e PROS “key” s c o re s * N ote 4 : Minus D e v ia tio n s * The f o u r t h column p r e s e n ts t h e number o f n e g a tiv e JR d e v i a t i o n s from a c c u ra c y f o r S e s s io n I* N ote 5* T o ta l D e v ia tio n s * The f i f t h colum n p r e s e n t s t h e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s from a c c u r a c y » n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e combined* Note 6s S e s s io n I I I * m en tio n ed i n N otes 2 t o 5

Columns 6 t o 9 p r e s e n t th e d a ta S e s s io n I I I *

130 TABLE XV DATA PRESENTING- A COMPARISON OF INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS FOR SPEAKERS COUECTIVBLY FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I

Judge Number 101. 102. 103* 105* 107. 108. 109. 111. 112. 114. 11 5 . lib . 117. 118. 119. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 13 7 . 138. 139. 140. 141. 143. 144. 145.

Eero Dev. 11 10 12

9 12 8 12

9 11 8 12

15 9 14 10 12 10

13 10 12 8

9 16 10

13 13 11 12 12 10

7 7 10

15 12 11 11

SESSION I P lu s Minus Dev. Dev. 24 7 10 18 11 14 9 15 10 17 17 15 13 15 29 6 16 11 18 13 13 13 14 7 10 12

3 10 8

15 21

7 9 24 10

20

9 35 18 21 11 8

27 28 6 10

T o ta l Dev* 31 28 25 24 27 32 28 35

13

9

12

11

27

9

14

31 26

12 10 10 11 12 8 8 10

15 9

15

11

10 10 8 12

13 5 7 23

20

16 12 11 12

6 10

21

30 21

38 28 29 26 29 34 37 30

12

15

11

8 8 8

17 33 26 13 21

25

9

27 34 29

14

16 4 18 14 14

20

15

9

10 12

30 26 26 32 25 26 25 41 34 29

11

12 12

SESSION I I I P lu s Minus D ev. Dev. 23 9 14 9 2 30 18 13

10 11

23 19 15 18 13

7 7

Zero D ev. 9

(C o n t. n e x t page)

13 11 16 11

9 6

14 13 7 11

13

20

8

14 13 15 14 15

17

11

11

19

7 16

21 8

1

43 18 20 10

Toti Dev. 32 23 32 31 30 26 22

26 28 23 28 30 28 24 44 33 29 21

7 7 9 9

14 30 27 9 18 17 23 18 16 16

27 35 34 32 24 27 30 25 25 25

10 8

12 20

22

7 9

25 30

8

16 20 16 12 16

9 18 15 9

28 32 39 24 29 34 27 25

131 TABLE) XV (C ontinued) DATA PRESENTING A COMPARISON OF INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS FOR SPEAKERS COLLECTIVELY FOR SESSIONSl I AND I I I

Judge Number 146, 147. 148. 14 9 . 190. 191. 152* 15 3 . 153. 156. 158. 160. 161. T o ta l

Zero Dev# 14 9 13 12 12 12

13 8

14 13 14 13 14 567

SESSION I P lu s Minus Dev* Dev. 14 7 16 16 7 17 17 9 9 17 18 10

T o ta l Dev. 21

6 21 10

20 12

18 19 4

10 6 11 21

32 24 26 26 28 26 33 24 28 25 22 25

582

824

1406

11

14

Zero Dev* 15 13 8 11

14 9 13 12 11

18

SESSION I I I P lu s Minus Dev. D ev. 8 15 14 14 9 23 12 18 11 14 10

5 18 8 8

8 12

18

9 561

13 515

8

22 20 11 20 10

9 15 13 885

T o ta l Dev. 23 28 32 30 25 32 25 29 28 18 27 23 26 1400

232

NOTES fo r TABLE XVT N ote I r The f i r s t colum n o f T a b le XVI g iv e s th e sp e a k e r number a s coded from 1 t o 40* Note 2s Zero D e v ia tio n s * number o f z e ro d e v i a t i o n s betw een

The second colum n p r e s e n ts S e s s io n s I and I I I *

th e

N ote 3: N e g a tiv e D e v ia tio n s * The t h i r d column p r e s e n ts t h e number o f d e v i a t i o n s f o r S e s s io n I I I w hich w ere l e s s t h a n th o s e o f S e s s io n I* Note 4 : P o s i t i v e D e v ia tio n s * The f o u r t h colum n p r e s e n ts t h e number o f d e v ia tio n s f o r S e s s io n I I I w hich w ere more th a n th o s e o f S e s s io n I* N ote 5s T o ta l D e v ia tio n s ♦ The f i f t h colum n p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l number o f d e v i a t i o n s w hich S e s s io n I I I showed a s m easured a g a i n s t S e s s io n I , n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e combined*

133 TABLE XVI DATA PRESENTING A COMPARISON OF COLLECTIVE JUDGMENTS FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I OF THE EXPERIMENT S p eak er Number 1. 2* 3. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22* 23. 24 . 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37* 38. 39. 40. T o ta l “

Zero D if f e r e n c e s 26 25 16 21 9 26 25 23 26 25 19 22 21 23 18 22 19 18 25 22 23 22 36

24 26 22 21 30 16 20 16 28 717

Minus D if f e r e n c e s 11 6 30 28 1 3 17 13 9 15 26 19 37 19 20 14 25 1 20 29 3 15 6 16 10 11 17 22 3 28 8 6 488

P lu s D if fe r e n c e s 22 23 8 6 81 28 10 18 17 12 9 13 2 15 19 16 9 47 7 6 28 16 10 13 16 24 15 2 42 8 42 22 5oS

T o ta l D if f e r e n c e s 33 29 38 34 82 31 27 31 26 27 35 32 39 34 39 30 34 48 27

35 31 31 16 29 26 35 32 24 45 36 50 28 1094

134

NOTES fo r TABLE XVII Not© Is Th© f i r s t colum n o f T able XVII g iv e s t h e ju d g e number a s coded fro m 101 t o 161* Note 2s Zero D i f f e r e n c e s * The second colum n p r e s e n ts th e number o f in s t a n c e s i n -which J R 's a g re e d i n S e s s io n s I and I I I . Not© 3s N e g a tiv e D if fe r e n c e s # The t h i r d colum n p r e s e n ts th e number o f d e v i a t i o n s f o r S e s s io n I I I w h ich w ere l e s s th a n th o s e o f S e s s io n I . N ote 4 : P o s i t i v e D if f e r e n c e s . The f o u r t h colum n p r e s e n ts t h e number o f d i f f e r e n c e s f o r S e s s io n I I I w hich w ere more th a n th o s e o f S e s s io n I . N ote 5* T o ta l D iffe re n c e s * The f i f t h colum n p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l number o f d i f f e r e n c e s w hich S e s s io n I I I showed a s m easured a g a i n s t S e s s io n I , n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e com bined.

135 TABLE XVII DATA PRESENTING A COMPARISON OF INDIVIDUAL JUDGMENTS FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I OF THE EXPERIMENT Judge Zero Minus P lu s T o ta l Number D i f f . D i f f . D i f f . D i f f . 101. 14 15 9 23 102. 12 27 13 15 28 11 1 103. 27 11 24 105. 19 9 26 8 34 10 7 . 7 108. 14 9 23 15 11 11 14 109. 25 6 111. 9 25 31 6 112. 11 17 17 16 2 11 4 . 14 19 22 8 14 14 1*15. 116. 21 11 10 15 12 18 8 20 117. 6 118. 11 17 17 12 2 14 119. 23 18 12 1 . 14 9 5 12 2 . 12 20 11 9 21 12 12 3 . 9 15 11 124. 19 24 5 12 18 125. 19 7 126. 12 12 13 25 11 127. 24 13 13 128. 22 17 5 15 16 6 129. 13 19 16 18 11 132. 7 T o ta ls

Judge Zero Minus P lu s T o ta l Number D i f f . D i f f . D i f f . D i f f . 21 133. 14 15 7 16 8 134. 9 17 18 11 135. 15 7 12 136. 10 23 13 16 8 29 137. 13 26 11 138. 11 15 21 14 15 7 139. 140. 4 15 15 19 21 8 141. 15 13 21 14 17 7 143. 42 144. 7 17 25 12 18 11 30 145 • 146. 18 16 8 8 10 10 20 14 147. 22 148. 9 13 13 16 8 149. 17 9 12 150. 14 9 23 22 151. 9 15 13 12 152. 20 7 5 12 22 10 153. 15 22 7 155. 15 15 12 156. 19 3 15 18 158. 11 17 7 6 160. 17 13 19 161. 6 8 30 24 6 o T '‘ 1094 488 717

136

NOTES fo r TABLE XVTII N ote 1 : The f i r s t colum n o f T ab le XVTII g iv e s t h e s p e a k e r num bers a s coded from 1 t o 4 0 * Note 2 : HICS Ranked S c o r e s * The second column p r e s e n ts PRCS ran k e d s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e 40 sp e a k e rs * Note 3 1 JR Ranked S c o r e s , “F le s h ” . The t h i r d column p r e s e n t s JR ra n k e d s c o re s f o r each s p e a k e r o f S e s s io n I* N ote 4 : D i f f e r e n c e s * The f o u r t h colum n p r e s e n ts p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een t h e ra n k e d FRCS and JR s c o re s o f S e s s io n I* N ote 5: JR Ranked S c o r e s , P ic tu r e * The f i f t h colum n p r e s e n ts JR ra n k e d s c o re s .f o r e a c h s p e a k e r f o r S e s s io n I I I * Note 6 : D i f f e r e n c e s . The s i x t h colum n p r e s e n ts p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een t h e ra n k e d PROS and JR s c o re s o f S e s s io n I I I *

137 TABLE XVIII DATA PRESENTING RANKED PROS AND JR SCORES AND THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO FOR SESSIONS I AND I I I

S p ea k er Number I. 2. 3. 9. 10. 11 . 12. 1^?. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20 . 21. 22. 23. 24. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

FRCS Ranked S co re s 2 3 .0

3 .0 1 3 .0 4 .5 1 1 .0 1 5 .0 3 7 .5 1 7 .0 1 0 .0 3 2 .5 8 .0 3 1 .0 3 0 .0

2 8 .0 4 0 .0 6 .0 1 2 .0 1 4 .0 2 5 .0 4 .5 2 4 .0 2 2 .0 3 2 .5 2 8 .0 2 5 .5 2 1 .0 ' 3 7 .5 16 .0 3 4 .0 2 .0 7 .0 3 6 .0

SESSION I JR D if fe r e n c e s Ranked in Rank S c o re s 1 5 .5 - 7 .5 7 .0 / 4 .0 / 6 .0 1 9 .0 • / 1 .0 5 .5 26*0 / 1 5 .0 3 0 .0 / 1 5 .0 1 4 .0 - 2 3 .5 0 0 .0 1 7 .0 - 6 .0 4 .0 2 7 .0 - 5*5 8 .0 0 .0 - 2 .5 2 8 .5 1 9 .0 -1 1 .0 - 1 8 .0 1 0 .0 2 5 .0 - 1 5 .0 - .5 5 .5 1 .5 -1 0 .5 / 8 .0 2 2 .0 2 1 .0 — 4 .0 3*0 - 1 .5 2 8 .5 / 4 .5 9 .0 - 1 3 .0 3 2 .0 - .5 - 9 .0 1 9 .0 2 3 .0 - 2 .5 5 .5 1 5 .5 2 6 .0 1 1 .5 - 4 .5 1 1 .5 2 4 .0 - 1 0 .0 - .5 1 .5 1 3 .0 / 6 .0 - 5 .0 3 1 .0

----------s g g g r o n i r ....... . JR D if f e r e n c e s Ranked in S c o re s Rank 1 5 .5 - 7 .5 2 .5 - .5 2 3 .5 / 1 0 .5 / 8 .0 1 2 .5 9 .0 - 2 .0 2 8 .0 / 1 3 .0 2 0 .0 - 1 7 .5 1 9 .0 / 2 .0 1 .0 - 9 .0 2 9 .0 - 3 .5 1 2 .5 / 4 .5 3 1 .0 0 .0 2 7 .0 - 3 .0 1 2 .5 -1 5 .5 2 5 .5 -1 4 .5 4 .5 - 1 .5 2 .5 - 9 .5 1 0 .0 — 4 .0 - 1 .5 2 3 .5 6 .5 / 2 .0 2 5 .5 / 1 .5 8 .0 -1 4 .0 3 2 .0 - .5 2 1 .0 - 7 .0 2 2 .0 - 3 .5 - 5 .5 15 .5 - 2 5 .0 1 2 .5 1 7 .5 / 1 .5 - 1 6 .5 1 7 .5 / 2 .5 4 .5 6 .5 - .5 - 6 .0 3 0 .0

A P P E N D I X

138 APPENDIX C PRESENTS THE FOLLOWING.ITEMS UTILIZED DURING S e s s io n s I and I I I o f th e e x p e rim e n t: Ite m I .

The f i r s t ite m p r e s e n ts G ilk in so n * s P e r s o n a l R e p o rt On C o n fid en ce As A S peaker (FRCS) in v e n to ry *

Ite m I I*

The second ite m p r e s e n ts a p a r t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t g iv e n t o each sp e a k e r a t t h e tim e he was i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e ex p erim en t*

Ite m I I I ,

The t h i r d ite m p r e s e n ts th e i n s t r u c t i o n s g iv e n ea c h s p e a k e r i n Room A a t th e tim e th e e x p e rim e n t was c o n d u c te d •

Ite m IV*

The f o u r t h ite m p r e s e n ts th e i n s t r u c t i o n s g iv e n e a c h sp e a k e r i n Room C a t t h e tim e th e e x p e rim e n t was c o n d u c te d •

Ite m V*

The f i f t h ite m p r e s e n ts th e l e t t e r o f i n v i t a t i o n s e n t t o 85 p o t e n t i a l ju d g es* I t i s in c lu d e d b e c a u se o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p la n a to r y m a t e r ia ls w hich i t c o n ta in s r e l a t i v e t o th e study*

Ite m V I,

The s i x t h ite m p r e s e n ts th e i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t g iv e n e a c h o f 61 ju d g e s a t th e b e g in n in g o f S e s s io n I o f th e ex p e rim en t*

Ite m V I I ,

The s e v e n th ite m p r e s e n ts i n s t r u c t i o n s g iv e n th e ju d g e s a t th e c lo s e o f S e s s io n I*

Ite m V I I I .

The e ig h t h ite m p r e s e n ts th e i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t g iv e n e a c h o f 50 ju d g e s a t th e b e g in n in g o f S e s s io n I I I o f th e e x p e rim e n t.

Ite m IX ,

The n i n t h ite m p r e s e n ts th e r a t i n g s c a le s u sed th ro u g h o u t t h e e x p e rim e n t.

Ite m X,

The t e n t h ite m p r e s e n ts a f l o o r p la n o f t h e e x p e rim e n ta l room s.

ITEM I

1* *2, 3* *4*

GILKINSON* S PERSONAL REPORT ON CONFIDENCE AS A SPEAKER INVENTORY •i A udience seem b o red -when I s p e a k . I f e e l dazed w h ile sp eak in g * I l i k e t o p ic k o u t some f r i e n d l y p e rs o n i n t h e group t o whom t o a d d re s s my rem arks* I am c o n t i n u a l l y a f r a i d o f m aking some e m b a rra s s in g o r s i l l y s l i p o f t h e tongue*

5*

My f a c e f e e l s f r o z e n w h ile s p e a k in g .

6*

I ha-ve a d eep se n se o f p e r s o n a l w o r th le s s n e s s w h ile f a c in g a n a u d ie n c e *

*7..

Owing t o f e a r I c a n n o t t h i n k c l e a r l y on my f e e t .

8*

The p r o s p e c t o f f a c i n g an a u d ie n c e a ro u s e s m ild f e e l i n g s a p p re h e n sio n *

of

9*

I g e t up t o sp e a k w ith t h e f e e l i n g t h a t I s h a l l s u r e l y f a i l .

10*

T/lhile m aking a sp e e c h I f e e l more c o m fo rta b le i f I c an s ta n d b e h in d a t a b l e .

11,

T ih ile p r e p a r in g a sp e e c h I am i n a c o n s ta n t s t a t e o f a n x i e t y .

12*

I f e e l e x h a u s te d a f t e r a d d r e s s in g a group*

13*

M&r h an d s tre m b le when I t r y t o h a n d le o b je c t s on th e p la tf o r m ,

14•

I am a lm o st overw helm ed by a

d e s ire to e sc a p e .

*15*

I am i n c o n s ta n t f e a r o f f o r g e t t i n g my s p e e c h .

*1 6 .

I d i s l i k e t o u se my body and v o ic e e x p r e s s iv e ly *

*17*

I f e e l d is g u s te d w ith m y s a lf a f t e r t r y i n g t o a d d r e s s a group o f p e o p le •

^ Each o f t h e 104 ite m s o f t h i s in v e n to r y w e re , i n t h e form u sed d u r in g th e e x p e rim e n t, p re c e d e d by " y e s , ” " n o ," and " as f o llo w s : 1* y e s no ? A udience seem b o red vdien I speak* * Ite m s in tr o d u c e d by an a s t e r i s k were u sed i n t h e S h o r t Form PROS I n v e n to ry d e s c r ib e d i n C h a p te r IV , pp. 47-48*

140 ITEM I (C o n t.) GILKINSON’S PERSONAL REPORT ON CONFIDENCE AS A SPEAKER INVENTORY '*18'.

I f e e l t e n s e and s t i f f

-while s p e a k in g .

*19*

I- am so f r i g h t e n e d t h a t I

s c a r c e ly know w hat I

am s a y in g .

20.

I h u r r y w h ile sp e a k in g

to

g e t th ro u g h and

out of

s ig h t.

21.

I p r e f e r t o have n o te s speech.

on

th e p la tf o r m i n

c a se

f o r g e t ray

22.

mind becom es b la n k b e f o r e a n a u d ie n c e and I am s c a r c e ly a b le t o c o n tin u e *

23.

I p a r t i c u l a r l y d re a d s p e a k in g b e f o r e a group who oppose my p o in t o f v ie w .

*24. 25* 26.

I

I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o ca lm ly s e a r c h my mind f o r t h e r i g h t word t o e x p r e s s ray th o u g h ts . v o ic e sounds s tr a n g e t o me when I a d d r e s s a g ro u p . I f e e l more c o m fo rta b le i f I can p u t my hands b e h in d ray b a c k o r i n ray p o c k e ts .

*27.

ify th o u g h ts become c o n fu se d and jum bled when I sp e a k b e f o re a n a u d ie n c e .

*2 8 .

I am c o m p le te ly d e m o ra liz e d when su d d e n ly c a l l e d upon t o s p e a k .

29.

I f i n d i t e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t t o lo o k a t ray a u d ie n c e w h ile s p e a k in g .

*30.

I am t e r r i f i e d a t t h e th o u g h t o f s p e a k in g b e f o r e a group o f p e o p le .

*31#

I become so f r i g h t e n e d a t tim e s t h a t I lo s e th e th r e a d o f ray th in k in g •

*3 2 .

]%■ p o s tu r e f e e l s s t r a i n e d and u n n a t u r a l .

*33 •

Mr le g s a r e w o b b ly .

* I b id .

141 ITEM I (C ont.) GILKINSON'S PERSONAL REPORT ON CONFIDENCE AS A SPEAKER INVENTORY *34.

F e a r o f f o r g e t t i n g c a u s e s me t o jum ble my sp e e c h a t tim e s*

*35.

I am f e a r f u l and te n s e a l l th e iE £ iile I am s p e a k in g "before a g roup o f p e o p le .

*36 .. I f e e l awkward. 31.

I p e r s p i r e v /h ile s p e a k in g .

38.

I g asp f o r b r e a t h a s I b e g in t o s p e a k .

33.

I p e r s p i r e and tre m b le j u s t b e f o r e g e t t i n g up t o s p e a k .

40.

I am a f r a i d t h e a u d ie n c e w i l l d is c o v e r my s e l f - c o n s c io u s n e s s .

*41.

I am a f r a i d t h a t my th o u g h ts w i l l le a v e me.

*42.

I f e e l co n fu sed w h ile sp eak in g *

*43.

1 n e v e r f e e l t h a t I have a n y th in g w o rth s a y in g t o an a u d ie n c e .

44.

The f a c e s o f my a u d ie n c e a r e b lu r r e d when I lo o k a t th em .

*45.

I f e e l t h a t I am n o t m aking a f a v o r a b le im p re s s io n when I speak.

46.

I f in d i t e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t t o s ta n d w h ile s p e a k in g .

47.

I f e e l d e p re s s e d a f t e r a d d r e s s in g a g ro u p .

*48. 49. *50.

I alw ay s av o id sp e a k in g i n p u b lic i f p o s s i b l e . I am i n a s t a t e o f n e rv o u s t e n s i o n b e f o r e g e t t i n g up t o s p e a k . I become f l u s t e r e d when so m eth in g u n e x p e c te d o c c u r s .

51.

I lo s e c o n fid e n c e i f I f i n d th e a u d ie n c e i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n my s p e e c h .

*52.

A lth o u g h I t a l k f l u e n t l y w ith f r i e n d s I am a t a l o s s f o r words on t h e p la tf o r m .

53.

My v o ic e sounds as th o u g h i t b e lo n g s t o someone e l s e . * I b id .

142 ITEM I (C o n t.) GILKINSON’S PERSONAL REPORT OR CONFIDENCE AS A SPEAKER INVENTORY *54•

At th e

c o n c lu s io n o f th e sp eech I f e e l t h a t I have f a i l e d .

*5 5 *

I lo o k

fo rw a rd to a n o p p o r tu n ity t o sp eak i n p u b l i c .

*5 6 .

I l i k e t o e x p e rim e n t w ith v o ic e and a c t i o n t o produce a n e f f e c t upon a n a u d ie n c e .

57*

I u s u a l l y f e e l t h a t I have so m eth in g w o rth s a y in g .

58.

I s e e k o p p o r tu n i t i e s t o sp e a k i n

*5 9 *

I am f a i r l y f l u e n t .

60.

I f e e l e la te d a f t e r

p u b lic .

a d d r e s s in g a g ro u p .

61.

I c an r e l a x and l i s t e n t o th e s p e a k e rs who p re c e d e me on th e p la tf o r m .

62.

I am n o t g r e a t l y d i s tu r b e d i f I t h i n k t h e a u d ie n c e does n o t a g r e e w ith me.

6 3 * I f i n d i t e a sy t o move a b o u t on th e p la tf o r m .

*6 4 .

-Jfy mind i s c l e a r -when I f a c e a n a u d ie n c e .

65*

I hav e no f e a r o f f a c in g an a u d ie n c e .

66.

P u b lic sp e a k in g i s my f a v o r i t e hobby.

6 7 * U nexpected o c c u rre n c e s w h ile s p e a k in g do n o t f l u s t e r me.

68.

I hav e no s e r io u s d i f f i c u l t y i n fo llo w in g th e o u t l i n e speech.

*6 9 .

I f e e l p o ise d and

a le r t* when I f a c e an a u d ie n c e ,

*70.

I e n jo y p r e p a rin g

a ta lk .

o f my

*7 1 * I f e e l r e la x e d and c o m fo rta b le w h ile s p e a k in g . *72.

I l i k e t o o b se rv e th e r e a c t i o n s o f my a u d ie n c e * I b id .

to my s p e e c h .

143 ITEM I (C o n t.) GILKINSON’S PERSONAL REPORT ON CONFIDENCE AS A SPEAKER INVENTORY 73.

I l i k e t o u s e humorous s t o r i e s and a n e x d o te s .

*74.

I have a f e e l i n g o f a l e r t n e s s i n f a c i n g a n a u d ie n c e .

*75.

Id e a s and w ords come t o mind e a s i l y -while s p e a k in g .

76.

A lth o u g h I do n o t e n jo y sp e a k in g i n p u b lic I do n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y d re a d i t .

77.

I do n o t mind s p e a k in g b e f o r e a g ro u p .

78.

I l i k e t o sp e a k d e l i b e r a t e l y t h in k i n g my Yray th ro u g h my s u b j e c t .

*79.

A lth o u g h I am n erv o u s j u s t b e f o re g e t t i n g up I soon f o r g e t my f e a r s and e n jo y t h e e x p e r ie n c e .

*80.

I f e e l s a t i s f i e d a t t h e c o n c lu s io n o f th e s p e e c h .

81.

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e a r c h f o r e f f e c t i v e ways o f p h r a s in g a th o u g h t.

*82.

I have a f e e l i n g o f m a s te ry o v er m y se lf and my a u d ie n c e .

*83.

A t t h e c o n c lu s io n s o f a sp eech I f e e l t h a t I have had a p le a s a n t e x p e r ie n c e .

34.

New and p e r t i n e n t id e a s come t o me a s I s ta n d b e f o r e a n a u d ie n c e .

*85.

I f a c e t h e p r o s p e c t o f m aking a sp eech w ith co m p lete c o n fid e n c e .

*8 6 .

I ta k e p r id e i n my a b i l i t y t o sp e a k i n p u b l ic .

*87.

A udiences i n s p i r e m e.

*88

.

A u d ien ces seem i n t e r e s t e d i n w hat I have t o s a y .

*89.

S p eak in g i n p u b lic i s p le a s a n t l y s ti m u l a t i n g .

*90.

I f e e l p u r p o s e f u l and calm as I r i s e t o s p e a k .

*91.

I f e e l e x p a n s iv e and f l u e n t w h ile b e f o r e a n a u d ie n c e . * I b id .

144 ITEM I (C o n t.) GILKINSON'S PERSONAL REPORT OR CONFIDENCE AS A SPEAKER INVENTORY 92.

I ta k e g r e a t e r p le a s u r e i n sp e a k in g th a n i n any o th e r a c t i v i t y .

93.

I am n o t d i s tu r b e d by th e p r o s p e c t~ o f sp e a k in g i n p u b l i c .

94•

S p eak in g i n p u b lic i s a n e x c i t i n g a d v e n tu r e .

95•

I am n e i t h e r e x c ite d n o r f r i g h t e n e d by t h e p r o s p e c t o f sp e a k in g in p u b lic •

96.

I seldom have any d i f f i c u l t y f in d i n g w ords to e x p re s s my t h o u g h ts .

*97.

I f e e l t h a t I am i n co m p lete p o s s e s s io n o f m y se lf w h ile s p e a k in g .

98.

I f o r g e t a l l a b o u t m y se lf s h o r t l y a f t e r I b e g in s p e a k in g .

99*

A lth o u g h I do n o t e n jo y s p e a k in g i n p u b lic I u s u a ll y a c c e p t a n i n v i t a t i o n t o do s o .

100. *101. 102.

S p e ak in g i n p u b lic i s a p le a s u r a b le e x p e rie n c e unaccom panied by any d o u b ts o r f e a r s . I th o ro u g h ly e n jo y a d d r e s s in g a group o f p e o p le . A u d ien ces seem f r i e n d l y when I a d d re s s them*

*103*

A t t h e c o n c lu s io n o f my rem ark s I f e e l t h a t I would l i k e t o c o n tin u e t a l k i n g .

*104#

I f i n d t h e p r o s p e c t o f s p e a k in g m ild ly p l e a s a n t .

* I b id .

145

ITEM I I INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENT SPEAKERS The sp ee ch e s f o r t h e e x p e rim e n t m i l b e g iv e n on December 14» 1948* betv/een t h e h o u rs o f 4 :0 0 P.M. and 6s00 P.M. i n Speech B u ild in g B, Room 204* ! • L ength o f sp e e c h : 2* Topic o f s p e e c h : 3 . Type o f s p e e c h :

One m inute* The B e st S tu d y Method I ’v e Found* One p o in t sp e e c h TO INFORM. (E x p la in th e b e s t s i n g l e s tu d y m ethod y o u ’v e fo u n d * ) NOT make t h i s a humorous sp e e c h , o r i n t e n t i o n a l l y in c lu d e any humor* I t sh o u ld b e s e r i o u s so t h a t th e ty p e s o f sp e e c h e s m i l be s im ila r *

146

ITEM I I I INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN SPEAKERS IN ROOM A The e x p e rim e n te r i n Room A i n s t r u c t e d th e 40 s p e a k e rs a s f o llo w s : 1*

They w ere shown a d iag ram d e t a i l i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s th ro u g h th e t h r e e rooms*

2#

They w ere shown "by diagram t h e l o c a t i o n o f th e podium , th e cam era, th e s i g n a l b u lb , and t h e au d ien ce*

3.

They w ere i n s t r u c t e d t o s ta n d n e a r th e podium b e c a u se t h e m icrophone hung j u s t above i t and w ere w arned o f p o s s ib le g la r e fro m th e f lo o d l i g h t s *

4*

They w ere t o l d t o s to p s p e a k in g i n s t a n t l y when t h e s i g n a l b u lb f la s h e d r e d and t o th e n p ro ceed i n t o t h e n e x t room whore th e y w ould be ask ed t o f i l l o u t a n in v e n to r y s h e e t .

147 ITEM IV INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN SPEAKERS IN ROOM C P e rs o n a l D ata The e x p e rim e n te r i n Room C i n s t r u c t e d th e 40 s p e a k e rs t o f i l l t h e f o llo w in g b la n k s i n c a r e f u l d e t a i l : Name

____________

Stu d e n t i n Speech

D ate

Age

J$r P r e s e n t M ajor i s

_____ ___ _________ _____

I am now a_______________ ( H is t* , R e lig io n , e t c • ) (F re s h * , S o p h ., e t c •)

I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r C om pletion o f PECS The f o llo w in g m a t e r i a l h a s r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r e x p e r ie n c e s w h ile s p e a k in g b e f o r e t h e g ro u p TODAY*

P le a s e l e t y o u r an sw ers t o th e

s ta te m e n ts r e f l e c t , a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , y o u r a c t u a l e x p e rie n c e s IN THIS ONE PARTICULAR SPEECH, r a t h e r t h a n t h e t o t a l i t y o f y o u r p re v io u s e x p e r ie n c e s i n p u b lic sp eak in g *

I n re s p o n d in g t o th e

f o llo w in g ite m s : 1*

E n c ir c l e ”y e s ” f o r a l l s ta te m e n ts w hich you c a n a c c e p t a s d e s c r ib in g y o u r e x p e rie n c e s *

2*

E n c ir o le ’’n o ” f o r th o s e w hich do n o t d e s c r ib e y o u r e x p e rie n c e s *

3*

E n c ir c le " ? ” i f f o r any r e a s o n you a r e n o t s u re w hat y o u r e x p e rie n c e s were*

148 ITEM V LETTER OF INVITATION SENT TO 85 POTENTIAL JUDGES

De a r

:

An e x p e rim e n ta l s tu d y m i l be co nducted on December 14* 1948, b etw een t h e h o u rs o f 4 :1 5 P»M. and 6 :0 0 P.M. i n Speech B u ild in g B, 932 W est 3 7 th S t r e e t , Room 2 0 4 * Your s e r v ic e as a ju d g e f o r t h i s stu d y would be g r e a tly a p p re c ia te d . The e x p e rim e n t i s t o b e an a u d io - v is u a l s tu d y o f s ta g e f r i g h t and m i l s e rv e a s p a r t i a l re q u ire m e n ts f o r d i s s e r t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s . About t h i r t y s p e a k e rs -w ill d e l i v e r o n e-m in u te s p e e c h e s . The ju d g es v d .ll b e ask ed t o r a t e , on a p ro v id e d s c a l e , th e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t e v id e n c e d . D u rin g t h e tim e th e s p e a k e rs a r e t a l k i n g t h e i r sp eech es w i l l be re c o rd e d by a so u n d -m o tio n p i c t u r e cam era. At a l a t e r d a te t h e ju d g e s w i l l 'b e a sk e d t o r a t e th e s e same s p e a k e rs on th e r a t i n g s c a le w h ile l i s t e n i n g t o sound a lo n e . A t s t i l l a l a t e r d a te s i m i l a r r a t i n g s m i l b e ta k e n w h ile th e ju d g e s w itn e s s th e p i c t u r e s w ith o u t so u n d . You w i l l n o te t h a t t h i s s tu d y se e k s t o m easure th e a c c u ra c y and s t a b i l i t y o f y o u r e s tim a te o f d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t . Q u e stio n s r e g a r d in g th e n a tu r e o f s ta g e f r i g h t , i t s c a u s e s , c u r e s , e t c . , a r e n o t in v o lv e d . The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s tu d y i s d e p e n d e n t, n o t on t h e number o f s p e a k e r s , b u t on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e ju d g e s . T h e r e f o r e , we p la n t o u s e te a c h e r s o f sp eech and g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts i n s p e e c h . Due t o th e f a c t t h a t th e number o f su ch ju d g es i s l i m i t e d , we s i n c e r e l y hope you w i l l be a b le t o s e r v e . You w i l l a l s o be ask ed t o s e rv e on th e two f u r t h e r o c c a s io n s s u g g e s te d ab o v e . H owever, due t o th e f a c t t h a t t h e sp eech es w i l l by t h i s tim e be re c o rd e d on sound f i l m , i t w i l l be p o s s ib le t o s ta g e t h e n e x t two m e e tin g s , t o a d e g re e a t l e a s t , a t y o u r c o n v e n ie n c e . May we depend upon you a s a ju d g e f o r t h i s ex p e rim e n t? R e s p e c tf u lly y o u r s ,

149 ITEM VI JUDGE’S INSTRUCTIONS FOR SESSION I OF THE EXPERIMENT W ith a s much c a re a s p o s s i b l e , you a r e r e q u e s te d to f i l l o u t b la n k s u n d e r 11P e r s o n a l D a ta” on th e f a c e o f th e en v elo p e i n y o u r p o s s e s s io n * Your name m i l b e k e p t anonymous and v / i l l u n d e r no c o n s id e r a t i o n be u se d i n t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n s . I t i s , how ever, n e c e s s a r y t h a t we have t h e com plete d a ta on ea c h ju d g e f o r th e p u rp o se o f m a in ta in in g c o r r e c t r e c o r d s . T h is i s a s tu d y o f th e e v a lu a t io n o f th e a u d i o - v is u a l symptoms o f s ta g e f r i g h t # You a r e r e q u e s te d t o i n d i c a t e th e d e g re e o f f r i g h t you t h i n k th e s p e a k e r e x p e rie n c e d on t h i s o c c a s io n . " S ta g e f r i g h t 11 i s h e r e u sed b r o a d ly , a s a c o n v e n ie n t c o n v e n tio n a l te r m , and v d .ll be u n d e rs to o d t o mean t h a t u n p le a s a n t complex e m o tio n a l s t a t e w hich f r e q u e n t l y accom panies t h e e x p e r ie n c e o f p u b lic p e r fo r m e rs . WE ARE RELYING ON YOUR PAST OBSERVATIONS OF STUDENT SPEECHES TO PROVIDE A "STANDARD” OR "FRAME OF REFERENCE” FOR YOUR JUDGMENT. IN OTHER WORDS, YOU ARE ASKED TO JUDGE EACH SPEAKER IN COMPARISON WITH THE LAST 100 OR SO COLLEGE SPEAKERS YOU HAVE HEARD. YOU ARE CAUTIONED NOT TO REACT IN TERMS OF WHETHER YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE SPEAKER’S MESSAGE, FOR THIS IS SOLELY A STUDY OF STAGE FRIGHT. You a r e i n p o s s e s s io n o f a r a t i n g s c a le f o r each s tu d e n t t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t. Each sp eak er v d l l b e in tr o d u c e d by a num ber. P le a s e p la c e t h a t number i n t h e space p ro v id e d on t h e s c a l e . Do n o t make any f u r t h e r m arks u n t i l t h e sp eak er i s th r o u g h . Im m e d iate ly a f t e r each sp e e c h p le a s e r a t e th e sp e a k e r on th e p ro v id e d s c a le by e n c i r c l i n g t h e number r e p r e s e n t i n g , i n y o u r ju d g m en t, th e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t t h e sp e a k e r e x p e r ie n c e d . FOR EXAMPLE: I f s p e a k e r No. X showed "More th a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t , " th e A ra b ic 4 i s e n c i r c l e d t h u s : S p eak er No. X

V i r t u a l l y no o b s e rv a b le d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

Less t h a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

A verage d e g re e o f s ta g e frig h t

More th a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

Extrem e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

150

ITEM ¥11 CLOSING INSTRUCTIONS TO THE JUDGES FOR SESSION I OP THE EXPERIMENT Dear Ju d g e : The r a t i n g s o f th e s p e a k e rs to d a y r e p r e s e n te d y o u r judgm ent o f th e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t p r e s e n t i n t h i s ” i n th e f l e s h ” p erfo rm ­ ance# To co m p lete t h i s e x p e rim e n t i t m i l he n e c e s s a r y t o o b ta in two more s i m i l a r r a t i n g s . I n a p p ro x im a te ly f o u r w eeks we w i l l a s k you t o r a t e t h e s p e a k e rs w h ile l i s t e n i n g t o t h e v o ic e a lo n e and a t s t i l l a l a t e r d a te w h ile v ie w in g t h e p i c t u r e s w ith o u t so u n d . IT IS THEREFORE REQUESTED THAT BETWEEN THESE PERIODS OF TIME YOU FOREGO THE PLEASURE OF TALKING ABOUT THE SPEAKERS OR THEIR SPEECHES. THIS IS NECESSARY IN ORDER TO INSURE AGAINST SUCH DISCUSSION INFLUENCING FUTURE JUDGMENTS. The e x p e rim e n te rs w ish t o th a n k you f o r y o u r tim e and f o r y o u r c o o p e r a tio n i n t h i s m a t t e r . R e s p e c tf u lly y o u r s ,

151 ITEM V III JUDGE*S INSTRUCTIONS FOR SESSION I I I OF THE EXPERIMENT P le a s e w r i te y o u r name on th e f a c e o f th e en v elo p e i n y o u r p o s s e s s io n and on th e f i r s t b a l l o t o f th e b o o k le t w ith i n th e envelope# Your name w i l l be k e p t anonymous and m i l u n d e r no c o n s id e r a tio n be u se d i n th e d i s s e r t a t i o n s . I t i s how ever, n e c e s s a r y t h a t we know th e name o f each ju d g e f o r t h e p u rp o se o f m a in ta in in g c o r r e c t re c o rd s * T h is p h ase o f th e stu d y h a s t o do w ith th e v i s u a l symptoms o f s ta g e f r i g h t * You a r e r e q u e s te d t o i n d i c a t e t h e d eg ree o f f r i g h t you t h i n k e a c h s p e a k e r e x p e rie n c e d ju d g in g a lo n e from w hat you see# f,S ta g e f r i g h t " i s h e r e u sed b ro a d ly a s a c o n v e n ie n t c o n v e n tio n a l te r m , and w i l l be u n d e rsto o d t o mean t h a t u n p le a s a n t complex e m o tio n a l s t a t e w hich f r e q u e n t l y accom panies th e e x p e rie n c e o f p u b lic p e rfo rm e rs* WE ARE RELYING ON YOUR PAST OBSERVATIONS OF STUDENT SPEAKERS TO PROVIDE A "STANDARD” OR "FRAME OF REFERENCE” FOR YOUR JUDGMENT. IN OTHER WORDS, YOU ARE ASKED TO JUDGE EACH SPEAKER IN COMPARISON WITH THE LAST 100 OR SO COLLEGE SPEAKERS YOU HAVE SEEN. YOU ARE CAUTIONED NOT TO TRY TO REMEMBER HOW YOU RATED THESE SPEAKERS IN OTHER SITUATIONS IN WHICH YOU SERVED AS JUDGE! RATE EACH SPEAKER ONLY IN TERMS OF WHAT YOU SEE. You a r e i n p o s s e s s io n o f a r a t i n g s c a l e f o r each s tu d e n t t a k i n g p a r t in- t h i s e x p e rim e n t. A number a p p e a rs i n th e f i l m f o r each s p e a k e r . W atch c l o s e l y f o r t h a t number and p la c e i t i n th e sp a c e p ro v id e d on t h e s c a l e . As SOME NUMBERS AND THE ACCOMPANYING SPEECH ARE MISSING, PLEASE LOOK CAREFULLY FOR THE CORRECT NUMBER FOR EACH SPEECH. Do n o t make any f u r t h e r m arks u n t i l th e s p e a k e r i s th r o u g h . Im m ed iately a f t e r ea c h sp eech p le a s e r a t e th e s p e a k e r on th e p ro v id e d s c a le by e n c i r c l i n g th e number r e p r e s e n t i n g , i n y o u r ju d g m en t, t h e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t th e s p e a k e r e x p e rie n c e d * FOR EXAMPLE: I f s p e a k e r No. X showed "m ore th a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t , ” th e A ra b ic 4 i s e n c i r c l e d t h u s : S p eak er No. X 1 V i r t u a l l y no o b s e rv a b le d e g ree o f s ta g e f r i g h t

2 Less th a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

3 A verage d eg ree o f s ta g e frig h t

More th a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

Extrem e d e g re e o f s ta g e frig h t

152 - ITEM IX RATING- SCALES UTILIZED DURING THE TWO EXPERIMENTAL SESSIONS GILKINSON'S GRAPHIC RATING SCALE Check th e fo llo w in g s c a l e t o I n d i c a t e : a . P e e lin g s j u s t b e f o r e and a t b e g in n in g o f sp e e c h

b* F e e lin g s d u rin g b a la n c e o f sp eech

1 . E x tre m ely f r i g h t e n e d and co n fu sed 2* F r ig h te n e d , d o u b tf u l of a b ility 5* Somewhat w o r r ie d , b u t w illin g to t a l k 4* A l i t t l e n e rv o u s b u t e a g e r to sp e a k 5 . E n t i r e l y c o n f id e n t and eager to t a l k GILKINSQN1S FRCS INVENTORY T h is co m plete in v e n to r y i s p r e s e n te d a s Ite m I o f t h i s A ppendix, JUDGE *S RATING SCALE 1 V i r t u a l l y no o b s e rv a b le d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

^

2 Less th a n a v e ra g e d e g re e o f s ta g e f r i g h t

A verage d e g re e o f s ta g e frig h t

4 More t h a n a v e ra g e d eg ree o f s ta g e f r i g h t

5 Extrem e d e g re e o f s ta g e frig h t

ITEM X SESSION I EXPERIMENTAL ROOTS

ROOM A

ROOM B

ROOM C

x CAMERA

SPEAKERS:

Ready to speak.

JUDGES:

Ready to r a t e each s p e a k e r.

ENTRANCE

SPEAKERS:

Completed th e PRCS in v e n to ry . EXIT

x SIGNAL LIGHT x SPEAKER

SWINGING DOOR

SWINGING DOOR