An English-Arabic Lexicon 9781463213442

Badger’s historic English-Arabic lexicon has long been noted for its feature of rending English words into literary and

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An English-Arabic Lexicon
 9781463213442

Table of contents :
PREFACE
KEY THE ORTHOGRAPHICAL SYMBOLS, LEXICOGRAPHICAL TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, ETC., USED IN THE FOLLOWING WORK
ENGLISH-ARABIC LEXICON
A
B
C
D

Citation preview

An English-Arabic Lexicon

ifrrni! J>

vi

.

V. v

GORGIAS H I S T O R I C A L D I C T I O N A R I E S

12

An English-Arabic Lexicon

G E O R G E PERCY BADGER

VOLUME 1

A-DOCTRINE

GORGIAS PRESS

2008

First Gorgias Press Edition, 2008 The special contents of this edition are copyright © 2008 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC. Published in the United States of America by Gorgias Press LLC, New Jersey

This edition is a facsimile reprint of the original edition published by C. Kegan Paul & Co., London, 1881 ISBN 978-1-59333-728-5 (Set) ISBN 978-1-59333-729-2 (Volume 1) ISBN 978-1-59333-730-8 (Volume 2) ISBN 978-1-59333-731-5 (Volume 3) ISBN 978-1-59333-732-2 (Volume 4) ISSN 1935-3189

& GORGIAS PRESS 180 Centennial Ave., Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA www.gorgiaspress.com

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standards. Printed in the United States of America

DEDICATED, WITH BEST WISHES TOR THEIR

SUCCESS,

TO

O R I E N T A L STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AND

E N G L I S H STUDENTS OF A R A B I C IX

THE

EAST

AND

WEST,

BY

GEORGE PERCY

BADGER.

PREFACE.

scholars have always recognized the great importance of the study of the Arabic, not only in respect of philological and antiquarian researches, but also as the best mean* of acquiring a correct knowledge of the bent and development of the Eastern mind. It is, undoubtedly, the most perfect of Oriental tongues, possessing a vast literature—albeit now somewhat antiquated—in almost • every department of science. Arabic is, furthermore, the sacred language of the Muslims throughout the world, and sinec the early conquests of Islam has formed an integral part of several of the living languages of the East. The modern Persian, Turkish, and Hindustan}' are so permeated with it that a thorough mastery of those tongues can hardly be attained without a competent acquaintance witli the Arabic. ORIENTAL

Within the last century students of Arabic have been provided with the Arabic-Latin lexicons by Golius and Freytag,—most valuable aids of their kind. English students have had, in. addition, Eichardson's Persian, Arabic, and English Dictionai y, first, published in 1777, in folio, and reprinted by Dr. Charles Wilkins in 1806, in quarto. In 1829 Professor Francis Johnson published a revised edition of the same for the Honourable East India Company, and in 1852 another containing 30,000 additional words. This edition Mr. Johnson called by his own name. Such students are now being supplied with the Arabic-English Lexicon by the late Mr. Edward William Lane, compiled from the writings of upwards of one hundred Arabian lexicographers. This marvellous work in its fullness and richness, its deep research, correctness, and simplicity of arrangement, far transcends the lexicon of any language ever presented to the world. Its perfection in all these respects leaves nothing to be desired. But while so much has been and is still being done to render Arabic into English, the only aid which students possess for acquiring the equivalents of English words and phrases is Eichardson's English, Persian, and Arabic Dictionary, 1810, " w i t h numerous additions and improvements,' Arabic-English

1

first printed in 1780, and reprinted, in by Dr. Wilkins,

if we except Catafago's

Dictionary, published by Mr. Quaritch, which at best is merely a compendious

vocabulary, forming a useful hand-book for ordinary travellers ii, the East, but utterly inadequate as an aid to the English-speaking student or writer who seeks to convey his thoughts in Arabic.

T'KEiíACE.

Till

Eichardson was unquestionably very limited, and bis English, backwards

to the Arabic

a painstaking man,

Arabic,

from

and Persian

t h e Latin

b u t his knowledge of Arabic was

Dictionary,

glossary

compiled mainly b y reference

of Golius, is a jumble

of Arabic and

Persian words, so confusedly thrown together that the English student in looking for an Arabic equivalent is puzzled at every step which regards Arabic, that Dictionary

to select.

For all practical

purposes, indeed, as

is useless, and the same may fairly be said of the later edition

by Willi i ns. It is. undoubtedly, Arabic

owing to this want that so few Englishmen—otherwise

scholars — are able to translate

English

into

Arabic.

Many

natives

tolerable

of t h e East,

moreover, who are desirous of acquiring a knowledge of our language, experience the greatest difficulty in the attempt, owing to the. same want. than among t h e educated Muslims of India.

But nowhere, perhaps, is this lack more felt

Thousands of this class are now well read in

English, and it would be deemed a great boon by them to be supplied wich an English-Arabic lexicon as the most ready and effectual medium of aiding them to learn the language of their sacred book, the al-Kur-án. The idea of supplying this want has long been entertained by the Author of the present work.

H i s first essay to carry it out was made nearly forty years ago in conjunction with

A'hmad Fáris, Eiendi,

t h e Proprietor and Editor of the Arabic newspaper, the al-Jaivmb,

who

besides being allowedly one of the most learned Arabic scholars living is perfectly familiar with English.

I t was resumed from time to time during the Author's protracted residence i n different

parts of the East, and the work of compilation was begun in the midsummer of 1872.

Twelve

hours a day were devoted to that task and to revisions of the manuscript and press-proofs from that time until now.

Freylag, and especially Lane, as far as his admirable Lexicon has been

published, are his principa! authorities for what may be termed the classical portions of the work. To these are added, especially in the latter part, frequent appropriate quotations from the al-Kur-an, by way of illustration.

The Muliiiu-l-Muhit,

a voluminous Arabic Dictionary,

b y Bútros, al-

Bustánv, printed at Bairut in 1869, comprising as it does the literary, vernacular, and vulgar forms of' speech, as also a large number of post-classical words and phrases, called

Muivutladah,

borrowed from various sources, has been of the utmost use to t h e Compiler, who regrets not having become acquainted with it till a considerable part of his Lexicon had passed through the press.

Mons. A. Caussiu de Perceval's revised edition of Bocthor's Dictionnaire Franrais-Arahe

been of great service as regards the colloquial dialects of Egypt and Syria. English

and Turkish

Lexicon,

de Scldechta-Wssehrd,

and the Manual

has

Redhouse's admirable

Terminologique Frunzáis-Ottoman,

by the Baron 0 .

owing to t h e krgo number of Arabic terms relating to politics, law.

jurisprudence, and diplomacy used in Turkish and more or less generally adopted throughout the East, have been frequently referred to. iu Syria and Egypt,

Further, the numerous publications of the Arabic press

and mote especially the newspapers,

wherein modern mudes of thought,

:

modern invein ons, and mocbrn sciences are expressed in appropriate native nomenclature, have supplied the Author with a large stock

of equivalents for English

phraseology

and scientific

PREFACE, terminology.

IX

These he has utilized to the; best of his ability, and the order genera 11

in the compilation is t h i s : — W h e r e v e r

two or more Arabic

the more recondite, the last the colloquial or vulgar. labour and friend,

added

equivalents are given, the first is

Albeit the doing so entailed considerable

largely to the cost of printing he eventually acted

upon

the advice of

a

well versed in Oriental lore, and has attached the Arabic vowel and other orthographical

points throughout the entire work. what

observed

relates to the

small craft

I t is not his fault if the Arabic nautical phraseology, beyond of the

Arabs, is meagre

and

unsatisfactory.

lie

has

been

obliged in most cases to adopt the terms used in the Turkish and Egyptian navies, which, regards the Mediterranean, are generally derived from the Italian.

as

I n the Eastern seas they are

sometimes Arabicized from the English and sometimes from the Hindustâny.

The Author acknowledges the great obligation he is under to his old friend the learned Shaikh Ahmad Fans, whom he consulted on several occasions, and who kindly sent him a list of Arabic titles for the work, from which that adopted was selected.

For the Arabic Eulogy he

is indebted to the late Kizku-'llah-IIassun, whose untimely death left a sad blank in the ranks of Oriental poets, literati, and caligraphists.

"lie offers Ids best thanks also to tin; Rev. John

Louis Sâbunjv, a Syrian ecclesiastic and Arabic journalist, whose acquaintance he made after the Lexicon was compiled, but whose assistance has been very useful in the revision of the manuscript and proof-sheets.

Messrs. Stephen Austin and Sons, the printers, deserve much praise., not only for the typography of the work, b a t for their enterprising readiness to adopt, at their own cost, many suggestions for the improvement of their Arabic fount of types. in writing, their admiration of specimens of More surprising to the

the

Arab caligraphists have frequently expressed, Lexicon which have fallen into their hands.

Author has been the comparative freedom from

even in the first proofs submitted to him, which

iu. most

compositors'

mistakes,

cases have not exceeded

those in

ordinary English composition. The Author regrets the long list of Errata, work, which is appended to this volume. apology which he ventures to adduce

Il

mainly referable to the first part of

n\t/ a que le premier

pas

,/tii coûte is the only-

for the deformity, beyond the expression of a hope

the difficulty of the task undertaken will be adequately appreciated 1-y his critics. adage says. ''"Perfection belongs to God only."

the

Ail

that

Arabic

1ST» one can be more sensible than the Author

of the imperfections of his work ; nevertheless he confidently believes that it far surpasses, 111 every way, any attempt, of the k i n d

hitherto made, and that it will be found eminently useful

to those for whom if was primarily intended.

W i t h pardonable pride he quotes the following

opinions of the merits of the work, as expressed on some specimen extracts of the same, before the last improvements were adopted by the Author.

The late lamented Edward William

Lane

wrote as follows : — " Considering I)r. Badger's long and very extensive intercourse with Arabicspeaking peoples, and the well-known facility winch he has acquired in writing their

language h

PREFACE.

X

as well as of conversing in it, I feel confident that his English-Arabic Dictionary will supply a

great desideratum

of

travellers,

official men, and students, in

various

Eastern

countries."

The Athenaeum published this t e s t i m o n y : — " D r . Badger's Lexicon, as far as we can judge from the

specimen before us, is well worthy of his profound scholarship, and will be welcomed by

all whom business or pleasure calls to the East.

The Lexicon is not merely a bare

series

of Arabic equivalents for English words, but contains under each word all the idiomatic sentences into which it enters, with an equally idiomatic rendering of the same in Arabic, so that work will form a complete repository of colloquial and literary Arabic."

the

To these favourable notices

may be added the following translation of an extract from the al-Jcwdib,

on the completion of

sheet 125 of this work: " W e are delighted to know that the English-Arabic Lexicon, the compilation of which was undertaken by that eminent, scholar Dr. Badger many years ago, will soon be published.

I t is a work which no student of the two languages can dispense with, and one

which will perpetuate the memory of its author for ages to come." The Author thankfully recognizes a grant of £ 5 0 0 from the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for India

in

Council, promised on the completion of this Lexicon, towards defraying

the heavy cost of printing and publishing the same. GEORGE P E R C Y

LOMJOX,

20TH

JAXUARY,

1881,

23, Leamington-Road

Villas,

Wesibourne Park.

W.

BADGER.

TsT TP "V

. I V

JlL

X

TO THE ORTHOGRAPHICAL SYMBOLS, LEXICOGRAPHICAL TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, ETC., USED IN THE FOLLOWING WORK.

TIJE

different Arabic

equivalents

given of

an English word

UR

sentence are divided

by

A

long

dash

[_•--), and

the same symbol is used in lieu of repeating throughout a sentence the English word in its rendering's into Arabic.

A

smaller dash, or hyphen, is placed after transitive verbs, when coupled with a particle, to indicate the place of the appropriate suffixed nouns or pronouns, singular, dual, or plural; e.g., ^ c ^ j o j i - _

_ ^Jj-uJ^lS

—^-jiJi .

In like

niacnci, after the iisigo of Arab lexicographers, the words idS and ^ l i or to such an a,:tioxij such an one.

^ix-^^t»- He

J U - ^ i He stirred (him. her, both, you, them} ogrun.it

In some cases, where these vocables would be inappropriate, 3 different • -;pedient has been resorted to, and

the word S^yi has been introduced to present any misconception of t-fjo gender cf the noun, with which the \-eri> must agree; e.g

¿.^srYj

u u i l l The thing studied or had the smell of a or an . . .

¿¿V,

j _ *uio ¿ ¿ J

_ « ^ T f ¿y*

-

— J — ¡¡jf —

— AJ p

...

J^letc-

&

After the expedient adopted by Lane the changeable vowel of tbo aorist of the first form is expressed by the symbols - 7 - attachedvto the preterite. LLJij for. \lJiji

_ J i ? for J S aor. J-AJ

are indicated thus Ja0 ;

_

^ ^

2

generally of the

C l i i J J » ^ ¡-a

.

• To give

To

J)

"

)

ABE 2

Abate, v.i To become less, J Ì ; _ ^¿£3

_ ^JkïSi — (JüLD j

ï o become assuaged, of heat, anger, a fever, etc., To

L S ^ - J i •

, as in price, hó-

p p.

The waters abated, ¿IjUj ! I

:

.

2

Abeyance, ». S U-! j _ jjlzii' _

«or.

_ L.JS

2

_ U

Abhor, ».i. ' A

•JJ . Their anger abated, i l j •

- . The wind abated, çr>J!

\ _ ^.U^ _

Abatement, as of price, U u i j i

¿ui _

Abattis. ».

. H e made him

c

s

i

n . J S ô

Abbot,

y L J j

Abbreviated,

v.i. J ^ - ' i ]

J i b *

J

J

'

'

,

-

j

^

j j ó-iliì. L5;>

^iJl .

-

l

;

by

o\5 _ ^

Abdominal,

¡ij

; .

Ability,

_ ^»Jsj .



; .

u *

>

a creed, _ J Li .

¿1

_

_



.

_ Aii _ c^J _

'¿jSUft





Z j J



— i^lkA .

2



1

J a j ? __

jJi .

I have

' 'j. Each one according to his —,

—^

• Abjuration, as of

¡3Ì ^ j ] , •

Abjure, ».i. iXsr?" - _ 'jLj /

_ ¿Tl^i ; of the mind, ï p à

_

. To —.

— ul^UJjtj' _ J i U - i —

Abjuration, ». A^rT —

J .

y ^

Capacity, cleverness,

not the — to do that, < ! i G J> O '"l / ^ ,'à s » \ s . ^mvI

Abed, ad.

Aberration, n. ï J L i



¿¿¡\jIs. H e exerted h i s — ,

> -

p

— J j — -I.

" 1Ì

«

and p l .

— ¿KijJi^ _

- J 1

To take up onii's residence in, to sojourn in, û J j

Î J L 2 j .

pl.

Abbreviate,

.

.

Abbey, n.Jà n . j ù

The income of

£

Not to cease doing, etc., lI-Js^J —

\

( >

.

Abbacy, ». Condition of an abbot, ^ j û t ^ J , .

Abbess.



¿jili £ . ¿ ¿ S i

an abbot, p , ^ ¿ ¿ j

2

WÙ7

I

^jiiî

v u l g .

i _ j - i i X i - ] - fó

Abide, v.i. and i. To continue in the same state or place, ^¿¡J - _

- .

^

I n —, JJa*,» —

horrent to, inconsistent with, J ¿ r i ^ » — J

.

of wintl,_jjJ>; of anger

; of courage or of a fever, >

_ ^

Abhorrent, a. Hateful,

The quantity taken away by —, \ S J ^

an — of BO much, 1 j J ô ¿J

_

Abhorrence, ». « ¿ l l l i

The

Abatement, ». The act of lessening, ^ a i j — ^ ¿ ¿ ¿ J _ J,.iljlj'.

fire,

¿J I»-.

Tobein-,^1.

fever abated, , JLs) ' C ^ î - W i - .

or

ABL

Ablactate, ¡;.i. To wean, ji-ki 7.

—u ^ j ?1 — To graft,

.

Ablactation, «. Act- of weaning, ^ILi ; of grafting, ^ J Ü . J Abet, v.t. To aid, •

' ¿ V J

. To move, incite, ^ ¿ j i i . _ •.

Abetment, ». A i d

'%j. /'aid

»

. He was — to wriic,

business, ilillx-i ^J]

_ Jlkjl _ t U ^ j .

Abominable, a.

w

cause,

¿yi^ ysT.

To go — seeking for, ^L:J.3J Ji^- - ~ Uj^J:

Abolitionist, n. Of slavery, $Jp] J.ikL'l)

conduct.'J'

aor.

— to do it. ? —

Abstract, a. Separated from something else, of mental percep-

Abstractly,



Abundantly, ad.

See Abstemious, a.

To separate, as ideas, ete., iJJiJL1 l i ^ i - l c ^ _



3f^ii,

Ssj . A day

Abstract, v.t. To take one thing from another, ¡^jst-jLi?

. ¿iilàj _ ,

accused of such a thing,

Accuser, ».



_

LS^"*



cr^'*



_

-

Lli

. To b-.wome acid,

S}*3 ~

Acidulate, J . Acknowledge, v.t To own to the knowledge of, ' — 1 .

He is aecustomcd to it, .Js

to, J

To make to

or

He became accustomed io the .. •

.

-jJ

him.

s ^ i

_ Leisi.

-•

State of reality, \ x j _

^xj } \ .

To

To — upon, to incite,

'-V^-'

A document, ¡ X ^ p l . operation, ¿ i L ^ c .

.

To personate, s - j ^ z s ^

~ —

A comedian,

^ p

Add,



! ' J J Adamant, n. Adamantine, a. A.dapt, v.t, Jit _

J

CiL*'

«or.

wjU _ J

— Jjsw —

^ To

Iii-'A

To — a petition,

«

-

J j _ J>;.ixterity? ¿A?*- — * •Lhti

^ ... ,

. T o u must — your^eif to such a u one,

Address, n. Verbal application;

'•Ä-'w-^v^-

J

To — the.

v

T o u r letter addressed u . . . . , ,

1. J i - J à j ì

Adapted, «. Adapted to,

1 —

T o — o n e ' s self to, prepare for. J

«... . wapjilyy to, . . , ,. 1 . p .. U p ' . To

7.

Extremely hard,

Adaptation,

- _

Address, v.i. To apply to with words,

I J I»-.

I !l i.



Addle-headed, a. dub — |

| put the — , as on a letter, ^ f *

¿1 Iii* •

JJI

To he addled,

LS A

ZA

Jli^!

.

.

wits of, ;JJJ> - .

Acuteness

] aJ j ; of touch, ^uwtlii ( A i U j « - }

A.D. (Anni- Domini),

Addle, v.t. jXJ

Power of intellect,

wUj _



. Adi!ress_,

To pav one's addressee to, to cirart, ù-)«."

This is the — whic ii was read over to

. . hy . . . , 1 j>&

ADI ^cjjl by . . . , ^js* f

i p

(

32

1 , They presented him with an — signed p p \ulk^\\ ^^ . îLJ\

well to the world !

—u j r^r. . To —, as an > • O j. ** I . , ' , H e adduced an instance to him, /

The she-ass is dead, Adieu to the Pilgrimage !

Adduce, v.t. J w argument, < ) f"s 9s lis*

\

2 -

Adit, n. As to a mine,

9

Adequately, ad. Lili _ U J Ï -- U i l ^ .

1 l

Adjacent, a. J^J > _ ^Ij l* — (J^U--* —

Adequacy, ».

of, J J j U -

ad. il^Jl

Adipose, a.

Adducent, a. ¿ j y * . t s 9

The same idea is expressed by the verb

to pass away, as in the proverb,

?

Adducible,

ADJ

)

Adjuration, fi, ^aiaJ

jAJ.



Adjure, v.t.

\

• To bid — to, ^ J . _

—i slid . — A-ili — u - j i s - — i

I





Adieu ! as uttered | you by the faithfulness of God, ¿JJ! &j U | ¿ S 3 % . oj --si ^ ^ 5) ^ S^ by a person who takes leave of another, ^ t » ! l 5 ^ _ ^ j j j Adjust, v.t. To put in order, ^aj — — JAc . to you !

.

As an equivalent for Good morning J To make accurate, !alc _ ^ ^ _ ¿¿ta _ J S ^ _

'¿sJf* ; for Good evening to you ! i J J b ^ * .

inn .reply to the preceding compliments, ¿^»LlJ! ^.l^tb.

Adieu !

_ ^ t « ! ti.

'—;

i

^¡li _ J

-

—^j^'ujj

To which the visitor subjoins,

«Oil —

! Li-J I, i.e. May God give you joy ! You are the honourer.

Adieu! as an e xclamation of despair,

IjjJl

i.e. r are-

- a measure, ( J - x J 1 a ^ J L . c (JjiVu — hi^Jj Adjustment n.

rUi^j !

of one s person, l i T V

.

~ J"C.

To — one's person, ¿¿j-i' — ^ ¿ J .

The person visited generally says after these i justed the difference between them,

replies, U^uJ I _ — Uai Uii^-ii, i.e. STou have delighted us; you have honoured us.

To make conformable to,



H e ad-



— ^J

iUj; ; of a difference, ¿sil^

Adjutancy, n. , J J l i l J j i (Turkish).

— Tc

ADM -- > i i i l t „ , Ls>U,

J

Adventurous,

i Daring, >3 „ _ Adventuresome, ) i S ^ - —

^

5.

Advertiser, n. A proclaimer,

— (»UJ> _ ^ U S r • Pull of hazard,



the press, A-CtUa-fll c - i j W ® !

. 'f.

— i—»Js

°I

— —

w J p - ; a negative—, ^



An

r

j Ji Ui l ^

O

. An — phrase, i

-aT

!

ie's —,

ySvr'f —

of denoting place or time —, Adversary, n. pi. .. Li , ? . ( l . 1^ i | _ — i—ajlsr ' ~ [•}

'

_ J a c pi. ^ ^I ' '1" . To be an — to, _ I I

_

.

9

• — 5'wi-» —

Advise, v.t. To counsel, i—J
-(

~ ^ i"y tyi .

. They

J J i.i . 1 -.._j ^ - ' • To deem

jLi' .

T

•iSl.

A v- G 3-

« «or. lix.' . To inform of, j U \ _ i«-_

.¿Advised, it- "Well — j •

^_ - ^-(Uli^l> To take

' 0"( t

Advise, v.i. To consult with,

fy-

To

They took — of each other

— ZtJ.L* _ liuil V» .

Adversitive, a. An — particle, ¿•¿¿V* Adverse, a. Contrary,



Advisableness,

The quality

_

•• -si

,

" ^ i ...

Advisable, «(??.

sJ?

.

"

,

(of two), . A letter o f - , ^