An educator’s guide to French travel

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An educator’s guide to French travel

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AN EDUCATOR'S GUIDE TO FRENCH TRAVEL

A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Edward A. Marshall August 1950

UMI Number: EP46466

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP46466 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

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T h is p r o je c t r e p o r t, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the c a n d id a te ’s a d v is e r a n d a p p r o v e d by h i m , has been p re s e n te d to a n d accepted by the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree

o f M a s te r of

Science in E d u c a t io n .

D ate............................................................... .......

(L cf. A d v is e r

Dean

PREFACE This guide is written for the purpose of enriching the educational benefits which are gained from a trip to France and to solve the many problems which present them­ selves to the traveler in the course of such a trip.

In

solving these problems the writer will rely on the collected experiences of those authorities who have written guides for France and on his own personal-experience gained from one year of travel and schooling in France.

This project

is concerned primarily faith the problems of the school teacher and college student whiseli parallel those of any tourist of moderate means. Seeing France firsthand is an educational experience in itself. culture.

No other nation has contributed more to western Within the boundaries of this great nation are

found many of the historic roots of American civilization. A visit to France will bring the average American to the realization of the great debt he owes the French people. One becomes aware of how liberally Americans have borrowed from French art, music, and political philosophy. The joy of living in Paris has been adequately ex­ pressed by Pierre van Paassen. The consolation of being a resident of Paris— the greatest blessing, I think, that can befall any mortal--always remained. I am not a Frenchman, there is not a drop of French blood in my veins, but in

Paris I felt at home more than in any other place on earth. Paris is the only city where a man can be happy without a pocketful of money. It is a city to dream in, to wander in the rain, or sit and watch the flow of life move by. I never felt an hour spent in Paris wasted, even if I did not do anything. You could be silent in Paris and let the cobblestones speak. Every paving block told its story. Prom every sidewalk rose the voice of the past. . .1

1 Pierre van Paassen, Days Of Our Years (Garden City, New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc., 1940), 133 PP.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 'PART I PREPARATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION CHAPTER I.

PAGE

SHOULD YOU GO TO F R A N C E ........... Your state of mind

II.

...................

1

The c o s t ......................................

2

The time e l e m e n t ..............................

4

RED T A P E ...................................... Passports

.

6

....................................

6

V i s a s ........................................

7

.........................

Immunizations

III.

1

7

Concerning money ..............................

8

HOW TO GET TO F R A N C E ............................

9

By a i r .........................

9

By s e a ..........

10 PART II

AFTER YOU GET THERE IV.

WHERE TO STAY

.

..............................

H o t e l s .......................

. .

12 12

P e n s i o n s ......................................

13

A p a r t m e n t s ....................................

19

The cite u n i v e rsitaire .......................

20

V

CHAPTER V. VI. VII. VIII.

PAGE

LIVING ON THE LEFT B A N K ........... . . . . . .

21

GETTING ALONG WITH THE F R E N C H .................

24

FRENCH SCHOOLS FOR FOREIGNERS

.................

.26

SHOPPING IN F R A N C E ..............................

32

The flea m a r k e t ..............................

33

Shopping in g e n e r a l .........................

34

PART III SIGHTSEEING IX.

WHAT DO YOU WANT TO S E E ........................

35

X.

GETTING ABOUT IN F r a n c e ........................

37

French railroads ..............................

37

Hotels and restaurants .......................

38

PARIS AND E N V I R O N S ..............................

4l

The L o u v r e ....................................

41

de la C i t e ................................

42

XI.

He

The I n v a l i d e s .......................

44

The Eiffel T o w e r ..............................

45

Palais Challiot

46

..............................

The Tuileries, Champs-Elysees, Are de T r i o m p h e ....................................

46

V e r s a i l l e s ....................................

48

La M a l m a i s o n ..................................

49



vi CHAPTER

PAGE Fontainebleau

XII.

XIII.

........... ■.............

50

Saint Germain en L a y e .......................

51

R a m b o u i l l e t ..................................

51

C h a n t i l l y ..................... - .............

52

Compiegne

52

..............................

HOW TO S E E ......................................

53

C h a r t r e s ......................................

53

R e i m s ........................................

54

R o u e n ........................................

55

Mont Saint M i c h e l ............................

56

The Valley of theL o i r e ......................

58

Southern F r a n c e .............. -...............

59

ENTERTAINMENT,

"FRANC-LY" SPEAKING . ........

.

64

PART I PREPARATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION

CHAPTER I SHOULD YOU GO TO PRANCE YOUR STATE OF MIND ”So you're going to Prance!

How I envy you!

Couldn't

you pack me in your trunk?” These are the exclamations of the farewell travelers who are continually inspired with the glamor of strangesounding names and the excitement of the departure. these people seldom cross the great divide. they never leave home.

However

For many reasons

Often they invite your sympathy.

However it is good that they stay at home, because from their respective armchairs they continue to dream of things and places that shall never exist. Paris, for example, is a city full of ordinary people trying to eke out a living.

After the first few days the

spell wears off and you find yourself concerned with more problems than you had in Hometown.

In planning a trip one

must realize that he is not leaving this planet.

Life con­

tinues on the other side of the Atlentic in much the same manner as it does at home.

One must eat, sleep, keep warm

in the winter, and cool in the summer.

If it is comfort

you are looking for, please stay at home.

In Buenos Aires,

Manila, Marsailles, Santiago, and London I have met those

2 unfortunate wanderers who corner you in an alcove of a marvelous cathedral only to lament the absence of Crane fix­ tures in this or that God-forsaken land. ally being "taken" by merchants. nation plague them.

They are continu­

The native germs of each

To them the flea becomes French, Italian,

or even Dutch. Even though the United States is a land of great com­ forts, life could become very confining if one were re­ stricted to the safety of its national boundaries. are many wonderful things to see beyond the sea.

Yes there To see

Chartres and Mont Saint Michel can become a true emotional experience for which one will be grateful the remainder of his life.

It is unfortunate that the art of making pilgrim­

ages has fallen into such neglect.

The spirit of the pilgrim,

who rides out seeking strange sights and people is one all tourists would do well to emulate. If you are willing to sacrifice in order to gain a new world full of wonders, you will meet with success.

If

you go abroad expecting life on a silver platter you will wish that you had never left home.

THE COST The major expense will be the transportation to and from Paris.

By simply accepting third class as a decent

3 mode of travel these expenses may be cut in half. example:

For

the first class fare from New York to Le Harvre

is about $365, while comfortable third class accommodations on a ship like the Queen Mary and the lie de France are only $165.

Complete price lists of air lines, passenger steam­

ship lines, and freight lines will be included in the chap­ ter on transportation.

Contrary to common belief freighters

can be quite expensive.

By far the most economical fares

are found in the third class on all the larger liners. While traveling in France, second class railway ac­ commodations are recommended for the fairer sex and third class for the more rugged individuals.

Because of their

comfort, convenience, and dependability the railways should be used instead of the bus lines.

The latter are sometimes

more economical but are often twice as slow as the train. The fact that one can go anywhere in France for less than twelve dollars should be sufficient proof that the railroad fares are quite reasonable. Living in Paris is very inexpensive.

One may find

comfortable small hotels on the Left Bank for less than a dollar a day per person for a double room. alone costs more.

As always living

Eating in France is a real joy.

plentiful and cheap.

Food is

An excellent meal can be had for one

dollar and if you are willing to explore you will find small

k restaurants where a good meal may be enjoyed for only fifty cents.

Transportation within the city is extremely cheap.

The subway (Metro) costs about three cents'and bus fares are about five cents.

Summing it all up one can live com­

fortably in Paris for less than one hundred dollars a month, and if necessary, for about fifty dollars. Since the over-all expense of a visit to Prance in­ volves so many factors which differ with each individual case, it is almost impossible to give a valid estimate of how much the trip will cost.

Taking all expenses into con­

sideration one could not make a two months trip to Prance from Los Angeles and get home for less than $700.

However,

it is very possible to spend one year in Prance, including all transportation fees, for as little as $1600.

THE TIME ELEMENT The time element is a very important one and should be given thoughtful consideration.

The more time you allow

yourself the more you will enjoy and gain from your trip. Paris is a city os such varied interests that at least one month is required to appreciate it.

Another month

should be devoted to the historical sites of southern Prance. It is better to see a few places well than to see many places scantly.

After having paid so much for transportation

5 one should make a point of having enough time so that he will be able to get the most out of his investment. The ideal way to see France is to be able to settle down in Paris.

From there it is possible to take many in­

teresting weekend trips to places like Mont Saint Michel, Chartres and Reims.

During the week there are many fine

language schools where one may brush up on his French and fo-r the evenings there is the entertainment capital of Europe at the tourist's disposal.

Once one has become accus­

tomed to a city or country he begins to see everything through different eyes.

The attitude of the travel-weary tourist

is one to be avoided like the plague.

It is true that the

amount of enthusiasm expressed for France by the returning American is in direct ratio with the amount of time he has spent there.

CHAPTER II RED TAPE PASSPORTS Every American citizen must be armed with a passport in order to leave the United States.

A native-born or

naturalized citizen may apply for a passport before a clerk of a Federal court or a state court authorized to naturalize aliens, or before an agent of the Department of State.

Pass

port agents of the State Department can be found in New York in the Sub-Treasury Building, or in Rockefeller Center. There Is an office at 100 McAllister Street in San Francisco and in the United States Post Office Building in Los Angeles It is necessary to have the following items with you when you file your application: 1. Two photographs, full face, against a light back­ ground, printed on thin paper, size three inches square. 2. Ten dollars. 3- For naturalized citizens, naturalization papers. 4. A birth certificate or old passport for native born citizens. 5. One form describing yourself and the purpose of your trip.

7 6. If traveling oh pleasure, proof of return pas­ sage.

(For a student who plans to spend an in­

definite period abroad, this is not necessary.) 7 . One witness who has known you two years, who is a citizen of the United States, and who will appear with you in person to file your application. It generally takes from two to four weeks to receive your passport, after having applied for it. VISAS It is no longer necessary for American citizens to have tourist visas for Prance.

The prospective student may

enter Prance as a tourist and after he enrolls in school he may obtain a "Carte d'identite" which will legalize his presence in Prance as a student. IMMUNIZATIONS The United States Government requires that all per­ sons entering or re-entering the country, its own citizens included, shall be able to show certificates of smallpox vaccination not over three years old.

This is a strict

regulation, and travelers failing to produce such a certifi­ cate upon re-entry will be required to submit to a new vaccination.

8 CONCERNING MONEY There is no limit to the amount of American money one may take into Prance, nor are there any restrictions on the denominations of bills.

It is advisable to carry your money

in the form of travelers cheques which are often easier to convert into French currency than actual dollar bills. During the recent post-war years many tourists found it profitable, as well as risky, to exchange their money on the ’’free” or "black" market, which was forbidden by the French government.

However, since April, 19^9* the "free"

exchange and the legal exchange have been so similar that there is little, if any, profit in such illegal dealings. The French Government forbids the tourist to import more than 4,000 francs.

Facilities for changing money are usually

available at the docks where the tourist disembarks.

CHAPTER III HOW TO GET TO PRANCE There are two alternatives offered the prospective traveler when he considers the problem of transportation to France.

The first, which Is the most economical and the

most popular, is by sea.

In 1948 150,000 applicants for

trans-Atlantic passage were refused accommodations because of insufficient space.

The least expensive accommodations

have a habit of being sold first, so in order to avoid being disappointed one.should make his reservation at least one year in advance.

If plans are changed in the meantime one

can always cancel,the reserved space.

The second alternative

offered is by air, which costs about the same as a first class passage by sea and Is very convenient for the traveler who is pressed for time. BY AIR There are several American and foreign air lines which operate scheduled flights from New York to Prance throughout the year.

Last year the air lines carried 19,000

passengers per month between New York and Europe.

Unlike

steamship reservations, one can obtain airline space within a few weeks notice.

The trip from New York to Paris takes

10 about eighteen hours.

All lines are equipped with either

DC-4, DC-6 , or Constellation Aircraft. from New York to Paris is $370-

The one way fare

Round trip fares are com­

bined one way rates less ten per cent.

There are special

thirty day round trip excursion tickets available at off seasons which equal one and one-third of the one way fare. All lines cost the same.

The trans-Atlantic airlines have

mentioned the possibility of an air coach service to Europe which will be comparable to second class ocean travel in price.

However at present such a service is nonexistent.

BY SEA Below are listed the services offered by the major trans-Atlantic steamship lines.

Only those ships which

.-serve Prance directly are included.

There are many ships

which offer parallel service to England, Belgium, Holland and Mediterranean ports which have been omitted because this is a guide for Prance.

However if one is unable to obtain

accommodations on the vessels listed below, it is a fairly simple matter to disembark at some other port and proceed to France by railroad.

11

SERVICES OFFERED BY THE MAJOR TRANS-ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP LINES

Ship

Days in crossing

1st class

Fares* 2nd class

3rd class

Queen Mary

5

$370

$230

$170

Queen Elizabeth

5

370

230

170

Mauretania

7

330

215

165

Coronia

6

33©

210

America

7

335

220

Washington

7

one class $185

Nieuw Amsterdam

7

325

210

170

Liberte

5

370

220

165

lie de France

6

370

220

165

De Grasse

9

250

180

17.0

* The off-season rates are slightly lower than the fares listed above In addition to the above mentioned ships there are many freighters which carry twelve passengers and make the crossing in ten to fourteen days.

The fares on such ships

are generally about 200 dollars, one way.

PART II AFTER YOU GET THERE

CHAPTER IV WHERE TO STAY HOTELS Paris is literally a city of hotels.

For the economy

minded traveler there is a wide selection of moderate priced small hotels to chose from. and comfortable.

Most of the hotels are clean

You can expect running water in each room

with a toilet on each floor and perhaps one or two baths in the establishment.

However in some of the hotels listed

below such as the d'Isly,

the St. Germain des Pres, and the

St. Peres, a certain number of rooms with private baths are available. Since the war there has been a grave scarcity of coal in France.

For this reason hot running water is hard to get,

especially during the winter months when much coal is needed for heating.

While on the subject of heating we might men­

tion that the French furnace is regulated by the calendar much more than by the thermometer. first and goes off the first of May.

The heat goes on November The furnaces are used

on "off season" only in the case of extreme emergencies. A partial list of small hotels in Paris, arranged by districts, as prepared by the French National Tourist Office is given below.

The number found in parenthesis after each

13 hotel Is the arrondissment or zone number. CHAMPS-ELYSEES DISTRICT Hotel-Penslon Keppler, 12 rue Keppler (l6e) Madison-Elysees, 5^ rue Galilee (8e) Villa Moneeau, 43 rue Jouffroy (17©) OPERA DISTRICT Moliere, 21 rue Moliere (ler) Duminy, 3 rue du Mont-Thabor (ler) ETOILE DISTRICT Waldorf, 63 avenue Marceau (16) PASSY Passy, 10 rue de Passy (l6e) LEFT BANK Bourgone et Montana, 7 rue de Bourgone (7©) De Buci, 22 rue de Buci (6e) Cayre, 4 blvd. Raspall (6e) DeFleurus, 3 re de Fleurus (6e) Jacob et d'Angleterre, 44 rue Jacob (6e) d'Isly, 29 rue Jacob (6e) Lenox, 9 rue de l'Unlversite (7e) Madison, 143 blvd. St. Germain (6e) Montana, 28 rue St. Benoit (6e) St. Germain des Pres, 36 rue Bonaparte (5©) Saints Peres, 65 rue des Saints-Peres (6e) De 1 'University, 22 rue de l'Unlversite (7©) Vaneau, 85 rue Vaneau (7©) De Varenne, 35 rue de Varenne (7©) Quai Voltaire, 17 Quai Voltaire (7e)

PENSIONS For the tourist who is traveling alone the pension (boarding house) represents the most economical mode of living

14 Pensions have their draw-baeks, among jwhlch Is the fact that 0

one must eat at certain hours always at the same place. Below are listed the pensions of Paris, arranged by zones, as prepared by the French National Tourist Office. The pensions in the first, second,third,

andfourth zones

as well as those in the Latin Quarter are quitesmall with prices from about 200 to 350 franee daily for room and meals. In the more comfortable pensions such as in the ninth zone, for example, prices are from 450 to 600 francs daily for room and meals.

One dollar equals a little more than three

hundred francs. This list was formulated in 1948, so the prices in many cases have shown a slight increase. ler ARRONDISSEMENT Barnier. 14 rue des Boudonnais Genier, 191,rue St. Honore July, 21, rue du Bouloi 2erne ARRONDISSEMENT Lecros, 63* rue Ste-Anne 3eme ARRONDISSEMENT Vavasseur, 14, rue de Bretagne - ARC. 87.73 4lme ARRONDISSEMENT Boucaud, 7 , rue Castex 5eme ARRONDISSEMENT Banisso, 21 rue Valette - Odeon 15.62

15 Be.lean. 53 bd. St-Germain et 8 , rue Jean de Beauvais ODEon 42.56 Melle B o u y . 23, rue Denfert-Rochereau - ODEon 44.82 Melle Cerous, 1 Place Lucien Herr - Port-Royal 02.40 Mme Charbonnier, 9, rue Lhomond Mme Colombo. 20, rue des Ecoles Les Eeuillantines. 5 rue des Feuillantines - ODe. 65.23 Le Home, 2k, rue Tournefort - Port-Royal 25-53 Hotel Pension Rollin, 5 , rue Rollln - ODE. 69.84 Leclerc. 8b. St-Michel - DAN. 80.77 Le Logement Femlnin. 5 rue Lhomond Maison de Farnille pour .leunes gens, 7, rue des Chantiers Notre Maison. 11, rue des Feuillantines Ozana, 8 . rue Laromiguiere Parisians Pension. 4 rue Tournefort - GOB. 50.35 Pension des Grandes Ecoles, 7 3, rue du Cardinal Lemoine DAN. 79-23 Pension de la Sehola Cantorum. 269, rue St-Jacques - ODE 11.61 Florentina. 95 bd. St-Michel - ODE. 7 6 .01 Plot. 51, rue Claude Bernard - Port-Royal 07-70 Port-Royal. 10, rue Berthollet - GOB. 58.99 M m e . Pybus. 14, rue du Cardinal Lemoine S t e . Genevieve, 2, rue Mallebranche^ Les Terrasses. 32, rue du Val de Grace Terseur, 17, rue du Val de Grace - ODE. 94.90 T.jenault. 3 , rue de l'Estrapade - ODE. 07.16 M m e . Tourinier, 10, rue des Fosses St-Jacques - ODE. 58.51 6£me ARRONDISSEMENT Audrin, 76, Bd. St-Michel - DAN. 73.55 Azina,. 28, rue St-Andre des Arts - DAN. 6 8 .06 Bader. 14 rue Mayet - SUFiren 41.31 Bidault, 21, rue Jacob - ODE. 96.66 Bressot. 76, rue d'Asses Mme Carre. 75, rue de Vaugirard Mme Dessert. 5 , rue Honore Chevallier - LIT. 94.35 Melle Cotte, 77, rue de Vaugirard Domecq. 7 0, rue d'Assas - LIT. 37.47 DUlac. 35, rue Dauphine Germe ° C o . 16, rue St-Romain - LIT. 06.56 Jamin. 8^ rue Canettes - DAN. 04.65 Jeanne. 14, rue Stanislas - LIT. 06.05 Kuhn. 92, rue du Cherche Midi - LIT. 05-37 Mme Lagadeu, 78, rue d'Assas - DAN. 79*32 Laveur, 20, rue Serpente - DAN. 94.28 Maison des Etudiants de 1 1Inst. Cathol., 8 8 , rue du Cherche Midi - LIT. 15-75

16 Vve Melon, 78, rue d'Assas - DAN. 37*71 Mollet, 60, rue Madame - LIT. 12.21 V v e . Nicot, 120, Bd. Raspell - LIT 24,15 Pension du Luxembourg. 20 rue Servandoni - DAN. 86.48 Melie Perrier, 18. 'rue Mabillon Petit. 42 and 44, rue d'Assas - LIT. 89.72 Melie Pinson, 78, rue d'Assas Pradeau, 14 Bis, rue d'Assas - LIT. 71*15 PPandi, 125, Bd. Montparnasse Revll, 74, rue de Seine - DAN. 86.64. La Ruche N° I . 2, rue Jules Chaplain Z* Sarrazln, 12, rue de la Grande Chaumiere - DAN. 91*71 Sylvosa, 146, rue de Rennes 7£me ARRONDISSEMENT M m e . Alacaedl, 58, rue Vanneau - INV. 50.04 Bon accuell, 42, Bd. Raspail - LIT. 49.29 Ducoudray, 11 bis, rue Rousselet - Suffren 35*71 Melie Fenetrler, 150, rue de Grenelle Francois. 199, rue de Grenelle - Segur 49-25 M m e . Genoud, 116, rue St-Dominlque Locatelli, 19, Av. de la Bourdonnals Pension St-Germaln, 93* rue du Bac Villa Racine^ 76, rue de Sevres 8eme ARRONDISSEMENT "At Horne," 27, rue de Surene - ANJ. 14.60 Boccador Presldentiel House, 24, rue du Boccador - BAL. 51.24 Mme Degateau, 60, rue de Londres - EUR. 61.42 "Glenwood," 10 rue de Penthlevre - ANJ. 64^42 "Le Home, ' 3 , rue de Chateaubriand - BAL. 20.55 Meillois et Homelike. 3, rue Chauveau-Lagarde - ANJ. 26.30 Pension des Champs Elysees, 18, rue Clement Marot - ELY.7 5 .64 Pension Georfe-e V., 2, Cite Odiot et 25, rue Washington ELY. 19.25 Pension Hawkes 7, Avenue du President Wilson Pension Marignan. 15 .rue de Marignan - BAL. 21.63 Pension St-Philippe. 123, Fgb St-Honor£'- ELY. 86199 Sydney Champs Elysees, 25, rue de Washington - ELY. 66.17 Mme Thevenard, 83, rue de Leningrad - SUR. 53*82 Union des Amis de la Jeune Fille, 38, rue Laborde - LAB.2 5 .23

17 9eme ARRONDISSEMENT Mme Andreani, 8 3, rue Lafayette - TRU. 31-33 Benolst. 14, rue Pierre Semard - TRU. 66.07 Mme Heurot, 4, rue du Cardinal Mercier - TRI. 16.16 Le Home,11 12 rue Blanche - TRI. 49-41 "Le Home," 14 rue de Calais - TRI. 71.90 Laroye, 45, rue Richer - PRO. 02.10 Mme Leray, 42, rue Cadet Le Logis Fraternel. 5 , rue Cadet ^ a n o r House." 11 rue Montholon Marsan. 13, rue des Martyrs - TMU. 94.43 Pension de 1 1Europe, 2, rue de Milan - TRI. 93.81 Melle Hague~ 24, rue Buffault Hifflat, 19 rue de Li&ge Select Home, 4, avenue du Coq Vignon, 25, rue Rochechouart - TRU. 54.81 lOfeme ARRONDISSEMENT Bianchi, 33 rue d'Hauteville Grasset. 35 rue d'Hauteville Mme Herynex, 22, rue de 1'Echiquier - P R O . 68.90 "Le Home Fleuri," 8 , rue Eugene Varlin - BOT. 50.08 Lenfant, 9 rue des Petits Hotels - PRO. 50.97 de Leuwe, 94 rue Lafayette L'He&reux Buron. 62, Ebg. Poissonni&re Mme Mathieu, 20 rue Demarqpay Pension de Famille. 8 , rue de Maubeuge - TRU. 18.60 Riguet, 72 Fbg. Poissonnidre - PRO. 41.24 Sabel, 34, rue du Chateau d'Eau - BOT. 34.82 Van Lede, 21, rue du Temple 12btne ARRONDISSEMENT Margaerts, 98, Avenue de St-Mande - DID. 2 7 .08 11L 1Orangerie, 26, avenue Courteline - DID. 63.99 "Villa des Families." 74 bis, avenue St-Mande 13eme ARRONDISSEMENT Celtic. 5 rue de la Sante - GAL. 16.13 Villa Bons^.iour. 18 rue do la Glacidre - GOB. 5 0 .17 l4eme ARRONDISSEMENT Arthaud Berthot. 1 rue Leopold Robert Bondu, 34 rue d'Alesia

18 Les Bonnes Pensions de Famille, (ane.Moilaud) 85 Av.d'Orleans GOB. 49.6.9 nLa Campagne a_ Paris.” 16 roe Mouton Duvernet - SUF. 6 3 .61 "Le Foyer du Missionnaire," 170 Bd. Montparnasse Gezaud, 32 rue Boulard et rue Liancourt - SEG. 75.11 Melie Glover et Beaupuy. 2 Square Henri Delormel p SUF. 56.95 11Le Home Suisse.” 13 rue Halle - GOB. 13*93 Hueber. 8 Square Henri Delormel - SEG. 04.85 Pension Alesia, (Ste) 22 bis rue d'Aldsia - GOB. 15.22 Regnault"^ 8^ rue Henri Delormel - SUF. 25.25 15Sme ARRONDISSEMENT Bachet, 20 rue du Docteur Roux - SUF. 12.11 l6dme ARRONDISSEMENT L 1Abri. 31, Villa Mozart,- AUT. 18.25 Auteuil Lagache, 22 rue Chardon-Lagaehe - AUT. 16.21 Les Charmettes, 30 rue Cortambert - TRO. 64.47 Debrieu. 48 rue de Passy Les Fleurettes. 89 Bd. Montmorency '‘Florida,**" 11~~rue Pierre Guerin Foyer de la Femme seule, JO rue Chardon-Lagaehe - AUT. 45*34 Melle Gordon. 35 rue Singer - AUT. 16.93 Le Home Pergolese. 2 villa Dupont - PAS. 89.77 Le Home Spontini. 35 rue Spontini - KLE. 92.60 Mme Joly. 17 rue Eug&ne Delacroix Juchereau. 35 rue Ribera - JAS. 3 8.39 Mme Leger. 37 rue de la Tour Mme Lilamand, 7 rue de 1 1Assomption -JAS. 07.42 Pension SteTElysabeth, 17 rue Hamelin - PAS. 49.80 Michel Ange, 10 rue Michel Ange - AUT. 27.46 Melle Ortal, 4 rue Gustave Courbet - PAS. 84.11 Pavilion Mozart. 110 avenue Mozart Pension des Belles Feuilles, 5 rue des Belles Feuilles KLE. 8 0 .0 4 " Metropole.8 avenue Victor Hugo - PAS. 57.23 Pension du Runelagh, 49 avenue Mozart Mme Puton. l6 rue de 1 'Assomption Hotel Pension Regencia. 41 avenue Marceau Religieuses du St-Sacrement, 52 a 56 avenue Raymond Poincare Residence Galilee, 41, 43 rue Galiie'e- KLE. 87.33 Residence Passy, -8 rue Vineuse Residence des SabIons. 5 rue des Sablons - PAS. 64.68 Residence du Trocadero, 11 rue Vineuse - TRO. 54.63

19 Sabel. 27 rue Vital - TRO. 33.78 Salvanelli. 7 rue Bauches Mme Swarzbourg, 100 rue de Longchamps - PAS. 66.35 Selection, 43 rue St-Didier - KLE. 88.65 Tracadero-Residence, 28 rue Vineuse - PAS. 36.53 Velaz, 6H rue de la Hour - TRO. 59*50 Villa d'Auteull, 28 rue Poussin - AUT. 56.50 Villa des Chalets, 4 avenue des Chalets - AUT. 3 8 .61 Villa Henri Martin. 99 m e de la Pompe - PAS. 33*72 Villa Henriette, 23 rue Singer - AUT. 50.55 Villa Maguelone, 59 rue de la Pompe Villa Malakoff, 20 av. Poincare Villa Marceau, 37 avenue Marceau Villa Marbeau, 10 rue Marbeau - PAS. 32.10

APARTMENTS Because of rent controls it is extremely difficult to find apartments in Paris.

The only hope for Americans is

that of subletting an apartment at prices which are geared to American incomes and therefor out of the rdach of French­ men.

The best bet is the New York Herald Tribune's Classi-

fied-add section.

The London Daily Mail is also helpful. .

Both of these periodicals are published daily in Paris for the English speaking population.

There are numerous real

estate agencies where one may submit applications. nett runs an agency which caters to Americans.

Mrs. Ben­

It is possible

for those who are determined to search, to find comfortable apartments whose rents are in the neighborhood of fifty dol­ lars a month.

As at home, it is more economical for two or

mor people to live in apartments than in hotels or pensions.

20 THE CITE UNIVERSITAIRE For the students enrolled in school in' Paris there is a large Cite Universitaire, composed of a number of dormitories and a social center.

One of the dormitories,

the Foundation des Etats-Unis, is especially for American students.

Its address Is 15 Boulevard Jordan.

F o r Lfurther information concerning housing problems and up-to-date information on conditions In France one may request such information from the French National Tourist Office, 611 Fifth Avenue, New York.

CHAPTER V

LIVING ON THE LEFT BANK There is no other great city in the world where one can accept rather modest surroundings with such joy as in Paris.

Quite often English and Americans will be found rav­

ing about "their quaint little hotel," which if transported to their respective homelands, they would condemn as tene­ ments unfit for habitation by self-respecting individuals. It is actually a fact that one can find comfort in the small hotels of the Left Bank.

Perhaps the plumbing will be a bit

primitive, but the fact.that the building dates back to the Seventeenth Century seems to pacify most civil people. Anyone who is looking for the varied educational benefits Paris has to offer should seek the Left Bank as his domicile. of the city.

For here he will find the intellectual heart The Sorbonne with its venerable schools, the

Academy of Fine Arts, The National Theater, the many fine schools of art, and small art galleries.

Here one can settle

down to enjoy the wonderful life of Paris keeping a safe distance from the Place d 1Opera where the pleasure-mad tourist distorts the atmosphere.

In the small sidewalk

cafes you can feel at home mingling with young and old stud­ ents from all nations. Left Bank.

The t§te £ tete was born on the

Too often one thinks of the Left Bank as being an ancient and picturesque slum area only to be visited by -the tourist in the search of things quaint. the truth.

This is far from

The Left Bank contains some of the most delight­

ful residential districts of Paris.

It may come as a sur­

prise to many that the Left Bank is the home of Parisian Aristocracy.

Here one will find the ancient and luxurious

’’Nobles Hotels.”

There are many fine Boulevards which are

lined by the majestic apartments of the Bourgeoisie.

How­

ever just off the spacious Place St. Michel one encounters Eliot Paul’s narrow rue de la Huchette and the unbelievably narrow rue Venise.

Such interesting alleys are hardly

recommended as stopping places for the germ-conscious American. One of the most enjoyable advantages of the Left Bank is that of informal living.

The inhabitants of this quarter

look upon clothes as merely a protection against the ele­ ments.

Ensembles which would certainly stop traffic on

Hollywood Boulevard are considered conservative at Place St. Germain des Pres.

This Bohemian spirit is contagious and

once you have succumbed, a liberated feeling is your. Because the Left Bank provides the living quarters for more than fifty thousand students

there are numerous

small restaurants where complete wholesome meals are served

for less than fifty cents.

Les Beaux Arts restaurant on

the corner of rue Bonaparte and rue Beaux Arts Is frequented by the students of the Academy of Pine Arts.

Raffy's restau­

rant on rue Dragon is popular with the foreign students. Le Petite St. Benoit on rue St. Benoit is a good example of a middle class restaurant.

Le Quatrieme Republique and Les

Assasins on rue Jacob are small inexpensive restaurants which are popular with foreign students of limited means. In all the above mentioned restaurants the service is ex­ tremely informal and the customer is treated like one of the family. The Alliance Francaise, The Institut and the Institut

Britannique

du Pantheon, which comprise the three

most popular schools of French language for foreigners are all located on the Left Bank.

CHAPTER V I

GETTING ALONG WITH THE FRENCH The cardinal rule of French etiquette is to shake hands-

This'is done at every possible opportunity.

If you

are unable to offer your hand you are expected to extend your little finger.

Failing to proffer your hand may result

in hurting someone's feelings. their hands first.

Ladies are expected to offer

A gentleman still raises his hat clear

off his head in saluting a lady on the street. On being invited to one's home the guest should al­ ways arrive armed with flowers.

The greater the occasion

the finer the flowers should be.

For example, a small

bouquet of violets will suffice for a tea invitation. Going through a door may end up as a ceremony.

In

case you have forgotten, ladies and elderly people first. In comparison to the informal Americans, the French tend to stand on ceremony. Concerning the natural functions of the body the French are more mature than the Anglo-Americans who are still in the- process of shaking off their Victorian tabus. A young lady should not be embarrassed if she is asked to wait while her French escort steps into what might appear to be an all too public "pissoir."

Time alone accustoms

the foreigner to such un-American activities.

25 For the French wine is one of the necessities of life. White wine is taken with fish and fowl and red wine with meat.

Champagne comes with dessert.

are usually served with each meal.

Several kinds of wine This sometimes comes as

a strain to the unaccustomed stomach.

Unfortunately the

French look upon the Americans as a race of heavy drinkers even though statistics have proven that the per capita con­ sumption of alcoholic beverages is twice as high in France as in the United States.

You will be doing your race a great

service if you manage to convince just a few French people that Americans as a rule are a rather sober lot.

If you

are entertaining a French guest it would be a grave error to omit the wine from your menu.

CHAPTER V I I

FRENCH SCHOOLS FOR FOREIGNERS The following information for students wishing to study in France has been prepared by the French Services Du Conseiller Cultural.

For any further information one

should write to the French Consular Office at 93^ Fifth Avenue, New York 21. 1. University Study: A. Undergraduate courses for foreign students: a. Cours de civilisation francaise: given at the Universities of Bordeaux, Dijon, Grenoble, Lyon, Paris, Toulouse. Two semester course, Nov. 1 to Feb. 28; Mar. 1 to June 30. No specific educa­ tional prerequisites, though a fair knowledge of French is recommended, especially for the course given at the Sorbonne. By examination, students may receive the Diplome d ’Etudes de Civilisation fran9aise. Requests for detailed information and for admission should be sent to the individual universities. b. Cours de vacances: given at the Universities of Aix-Marseille (at Cannes), Bordeaux (at Pau), Caen, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Monpellier, Nancy, Paris, Poitiers (at Tours), Rennes (at Saint-Malo), Strasbourg, Toulouse. Courses in French language and civilisation, especially planned for foreign students. Usually given in July and August, in 2 or 4 week units, so that students may enter at almost any date convenient to them. September and October courses offered at the Universities of Grenoble, Montpellier and Poitiers. No educational prerequisites, though a fair knowledge of French is recommended, especially for the course given at the Sorbonne. Requests for detailed information and applications for admission should be sent to the individual universities.

27 c. Gours publics; all French universities offer some eourses in each field which are open to the public. Such courses do not lead to degrees. B. Graduate courses: a. Regular courses in the various Faculties (Lettres, . Droit, Sciences): all regular courses in French universities are on the graduate level, and are open only to students who have an A.B. or B.S. degree. All French universities, including that of Algiers, offer the same degrees: 1. Certificat d *Etudes Superieures: usually a year of study is required to obtain this degree, plus the passing of a written and oral examination. Awarded by the Faculty of Letters and the Faculty of Sciences. 2. Diplome d'Etudes Universitaires: degree awarded after written and oral examination (in French) to students attending regular courses in the Faculty of Letters for two years. 5. Licence-es-Lettres. Licence-es. Sciences. Licence en Droit: . two years1 time and the passing of four certificates are required for the first two; the Licence en Droit takes three years of study and the passing of examinations at the end of each year. The oral and written examinations are -rigorous, and only those students with a good command of French should attempt to obtain this degree. The Licence is not very often taken by Americans because a university doetorate may be secured by well-prepared students in the same length of time. Doctorat de 1 'Universite: any American stu­ dent holding an American B.A., B.S. or the equiva­ lent may be a candidate for this doctorate in the Faculty of Letters. The regular time required is two years. A thesis must be written in French. The Faculty of Law likewise offers this degree to foreign students, but requires the preliminary acquisition of the French Licence or of an American degree considered equivalent, after examination of the individual case.

28 5. Doctorat d 'Etat: this is a degree only in­ frequently attained, which requires years of pre­ paration and the contribution of a really signi­ ficant thesis. American students wishing to b e ­ come a candidate for the State Doctorate in letters, science or law, must possess an M.A. or M.S. degree or its equivalent from an accredited American college, university, or technical sehool of good standing. Because of the length of time required to obtain this degree, foreigners generally restrict themselves to working for the Doctorat d'Universite. Degrees in medeclne. dentistry and pharmacy are also awarded by French universities, but are of little interest to Americans, because of the lack of international recognition of this sort of degree, and because of the extremely difficult preliminary examinations in French. b. Special graduate degrees of interest to foreign students: 1. Certificat d'Aptitude a. 1 'Enseignement du Franyals a 1 'Etranger: awarded to students of the Ecole Superieure de Preparation et de Perfectionnement des Professeurs de Franeais a 1 'Etranger (45, rue Saint Jacques, Paris, 5e}« Attached to the Faculty of Letters of the University of Paris, this school has a one-year course which is especially designed for those who plan to teaeh French outside of France and has proven to be very valuable to American students and teachers of French. American applicants must possess a bachelor's degree and are required to pass a competitive examination for admission. A good knowledge of the French language is a prerequisite. American graduate students who wish to learn French may attend the preparatory section of the school, which serves as an experimental class for student-teaehers of the school proper. Similar courses are offered by the Universities of Grenoble, Lille, Marseille, Poitiers, and Toulouse.

29 2. Certificat d 1etudes pratiques de phonetiaue fran^aise: awarded after examination to students taking a one year course In phonetics and diction for foreign students, whieh is given at the Institute de Phonetique (part of the University of Paris). 3. Certificat d 1etudes fra^aises: awarded after -at least one year of study. Written and oral exami­ nations include translation, composition, explica­ tion de texte, French literature and history. Given at the Universities of-Aix, Bordeaux, Dijon, Grenoble, Lyon, Paris, Toulouse. II. Schools of A r t : Ecole Natlonale Superieure des Beaux-arts. 17 Qua! Malaquais: .courses in drawing, painting, sculpture and architecture. Students may register by letter as "eleves libres". Regular admission to courses leading to a degree is by competitive examination. Ecole du Louvre. 3^ quai de Louvre: courses in the history of Art and Archeology. Admission is by competi­ tive examination, but students may register by letter as "eleves llbr.es11. Fontainebleau School of Fine Arts: courses in architec­ ture, painting, mural painting and fresco, sculpture, and applied arts. This is a summer school, staffed by French teachers but organized especially for American students. The New York office of the school is at 1B2 East 58th St. Ecole Natlonale Super!eure des Arts Decoratifs. 31 rue d'Ulm: trains designers in the fields of furnishings, interior and windo'w decorating, fashion, jewelry, etc.; also painters and sculptors in the field of architecture. Admission by competition. Course leads to a diploma. Other schools of art are described in the Yearbook of the French Ministry of Education, which may be consulted at the Office of the.Freneh Cultural Counselor or at any French consulate in the United States. A list of private schools of art may be obtained from the office of the Freneh Cultural Counselor.

30

H i s Schools of Music; Conservatoire Natlonale de Muslaue. 14 rue de Madrid: - receives only advanced students and holds competitive examinations for entrance. By special arrangement, foreign students may attend certain courses without passing the examinations. Ecole Normale de Musloue. 114 bis Boulevard Malesherbes; gives complete instruction in instrumental and vocal music by excellent professors. A brief entrance examination is given for classification purposes. Prepares students for the conservatoire entrance examination. Fontainebleau School of Music: the counterpart of the Art School mentioned above. Summer course only (July 1 to September 1). The number of students received each year is limited. Candidates for admission should apply early at the school’s New York office, 122 East 53th St. Other schools of music are described in the Yearbook 'of the French Ministry of Education, which may be consulted ‘ at the Office of the French Cultural Counselor or at any French consulate in the United States. IV. Summer Study; The universities of Aix-Marseille (at Cannes), Bordeaux (at Pau), Caen, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Montpellier, Nancy, Paris, Poitiers (at Tours), Rennes (at Saint~Malo), Strasbourg and Toulouse give courses in French language and civilization for elementary, intermediate and advanced students of French. Courses are planned so that students may enter at almost any date, for a two weeks' period or longer, during the months of July and August. At the University Qf Grenoble, the courses continue through September, and the University of Montpellier has a special autumn session f^om Mid-September to the end of October. The Institut de Touraine, 1 rue de la Grand!ere, Tours, which is connected with the University of Poitiers, has courses in French’.language and civilization which may be entered at any period of the year. Diplomas- are awarded upon completion of these courses, after examination. There are no educational prerequisites for these courses, although in most cases some preliminary knowledge of the

31 language Is necessary. The University of Bordeaux (at Pau) and the University of Poitiers (at Tours) offer special courses for beginning French students. At the University of Paris, the summer course in French civili­ zation is for.intermediate and advanced students only. Elementary and brush -

u p

courses in French are offered at:

Alliance Fra^aise, 101 boul. Raspail, Paris 6e Institut Britannicjue, 6 rue de la Sorbonne, Paris Institut de Pantheon, 31 rue du Sommerard, Paris 5e (These three schools employ the direct method of language instruction.)

CHAPTER V I I I

SHOPPING IN PRANCE Handling French money often becomes a problem.

Since

the liberation the largest bill printed by the French government is the one thousand franc note which is worth about three dollars.

Next comes the five hundred franc note

worth approximately one dollar and a half, and then the one hundred franc note equalling thirty cents.

The rub comes in

handling a fist full of five, ten, twenty, and fifty franc notes along with their copper, brass, and aluminum equi­ valents.

The smallest coin is the fifty centime piece which

is worth one-sixth of a penny.

Unless you make a point of

pawning off this loose change at every possible opportunity, you will find your pockets literally overflowing with devalued francs. Since the franc is worth about one third of a cent, the best way to change French priees into American money is to divide by three and then mark off two decimal points. By this method, a pair of gloves priced at 960 francs would cost three eollars and twenty cents. Since the. value of the franc is in a continual state of flux it is not wise to exchange too much money at any given time.

The daily rate of exchange Is quoted in prac­

tically all the daily papers.

33 THE PLEA MARKET Pew guide books mention the Marche Puces (Plea Market), but for the tourist who is searching for momentos to take home from Prance it is a God-send.

Here every

Saturday, Sunday, and Monday is assembled what is probably one of the greatest "hock shops" in the world.

It is an

open air market which covers several square miles and includes stalls which supply the shopper with sueh articles as second-hand screw drivers, nuts and bolts, faded Chinese tapestries, and complete Louis XIV bedroom suites.

In fact

there are very few articles, if any, which cannot be found here.

It is the bargain hunter's paradise because the prac-

tice of fixed prices is unheard of by the local merchants. However, in order to reeeive a fair price a great deal of bargaining is necessary for each transaction. first quoted priee would be sheer folly.

To pay the

In order not to

feel conspicuous one should wear his old elothes to the Plea Market.

Comfortable walking shoes are also advisable.

The market is reached by the Port de Clignancourt Metro line and by any bus marked Port de Clignancourt.

54 SHOPPING IN GENERAL Parisian shops and department stores are world renowned so it would be useless to deal with their descriptions here. of luxury goods.

Paris is a world market for all types Everyone is aware of the fact that it

pays to buy perfumes in Prance.

However, the United States

Customs has a complicated list of restricted brands so it is advisable to consult this list which is obtainable at all the larger eosmetie shops before one purchases such articles for import to the United States.

The American

Express Office in Paris has a complete list of all custom regulations which is very helpful for the tourist.

PART III SIGHTSEEING

CHAPTER I X

WHAT DO YOU WANT TO SEE? If you wished to see all of France it would be a lifetime job.

There are too few nations in the world like

France, which have so much to offer the tourist in the way of scenery and historic landmarks.

The most the tourist

of limited means and time can hope to do is to hit the high spots.

One month is the minimum time that should be

allotted to seeing Paris and its environs.

Another month

should be put aside for touring the provinces. Although there are many "musts” for the tourist who is visiting France, the best procedure to follow is to see the things that interest you the most.

Too often people

waste their valuable time visiting places they have no interest in.

Too often guide books are written in an

authoritative manner which eompel the reader to do thus and such.

This is not the aim of this project.

The average

school teacher and college student has a good idea of what he or she wants to see.

By seeing these things they will

certainly gain the most from their trip to Franee. One can gain a great deal of experience by simply sipping coffee in the sidewalk cafes which are found all over France.

Others will find ecclesiastic buildings to

their liking, and still others will prefer visiting the

36 many palaces, chateaus, and castles of Pranee.

The ideal

tourist will enjoy seeing all of these things, hut he, like all things ideal, is extremely scarce.

CHAPTER X

GETTING ABOUT IN PRANCE For those unfortunates who are visiting Prance with no knowledge of the language, the American Express and C o o k ’s Tours are their main hope.

On the other hand with

only a smattering of the language one can feel free to go where he wishes, when he wishes, as he wishes.

The trans­

portation system of Prance is excellent and it is very simple to get around the country.

By using the railroads,

whieh offer fast comfortable transportation to all major and minor cities, one cannot go wrong.

FRENCH RAILROADS The fares on the French railroads are figured accord­ ing to mileage and the class used.

One way fares per kilo­

meter are: 4.95 francs in first class, 5*21 francs in second class, and 2.25 in third class.

At the present rate

of exchange this equals: 1.68 cents per mile in first class, 1.09 cent per mile in second class, and .77 cent per mile in third class.

These rates are considerably lower than the

eurrent railroad fares in the United States. reduction on round trip fares.

There is no

There are special reduc­

tions for students of high schools, colleges, and universi­ ties.

Group tickets are available with a reduction of

38 thirty per cent for a minimum of ten people traveling together.

Information concerning such reductions can be

obtained from the French National Railroads office at 610 Fifth Avenue, New York.

If one wishes to change his class

of accomodations after he has boarded the train he may do so by paying the difference in fares to the conductor. While reservations are not ne’cessary on the shorter runs, one may obtain them for longer trips at a flat price of twenty-five cents.

These reservations must be made not

later than one day before the scheduled departure.

Since

sleeping car fares are quite expensive and distances are comparatively short, it is not worthwhile for the economyminded tourist to use such facilities.

However, for over­

night trips the French railroads offers couchette accomoda­ tions for the additional fee of about one dollar regardless of the length of the trip.

The couchette accomodation

simply allows the passenger to lie down while traveling at night.

Because of the lack of privaey most Americans shun

this service.

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS For his stay in Paris this guide has suggested that the tourist seek out the small inexpensive student hotels. However, when traveling in the provinces the shoe is on a

59 different foot.

Only in the largest cities such as Rouen

and Nice may the economy-minded search for second class hotels where he will pay slightly higher rates than in the' hotels which were recommended for Paris.

In places such as

Tours, Chartres, and Mont Saint Michel, there is no alterna­ tive.

The tourist must simply condescend to pay what is

asked by the best hotels.

Things could be worse though,

for these comfortable dwellings seldom charge more than three dollars a night for a double room. For the traveler who is seeing France on his own, the Guide Michelin is indispensable.

This guide is pub­

lished by the Michelin Tire Company whose inspectors have visited 10,000 French hotels, and have included 8,000 of these hotels in the Guide Michelin. The classification of hotels and restaurants follows in all cases the designation awarded by the Service Tourisme Michelin.

Because of possible price changes and the fluc­

tuation of the franc, no costs are listed.

However, the

French government awards its own classification to each hotel, which generally corresponds to the Michelin designa­ tion, and maintains an official price ceiling according to grade.

Price lists arranged by categories, are available

from the Commissariat General au Tourisme, 8 Avenue de I'Opera, in Paris, and in the provinces, from the loeal tourist

40 information bureaus. Prance is a nation of fine food,and eating while traveling will come as a pleasure rather than a problem. There is an abundance of fine restaurants to be discovered in every part of the nation.

CHAPTER X I

PARIS AND ENVIRONS The Louvre When speaking of things to see in Paris it is natural to begin with the Louvre, which is found in the heart of the city and contains much of the heart of French history and culture. The Louvre was originally a fortified dungeon built by Philippe Auguste in 1204 for the purpose of lodging his wife, his soldiers, his treasures, and his prisoners while he was absent on a crusade; nothing is left of this feudal construction except a low-eeilinged room which was unearthed in 1885.

Up to 1876 every king and emperor, not to mention

the Republic, has been responsible for the construction, enlargement of improvement of one part or other of this great palace. Today it is the most important pubiic building in Paris, both architecturally and on account of its treasures of art.

Strangely enough this great palace derives its

name from an ancient rendezvous of wolf hunters, known as the Louverle. To give one an idea of the magnitude of this building it is well to mention that there are some sixteen miles of

42 galleries in the Louvre.

During the war 4,000 pictures were

sent to the chateaus in the country for safe-keeping.

All

the works are back now and can be seen six days a week, every day but Tuesday. Even for those who have little interest for museums, the Louvre is a must, if for no other reason than that of being the present abode of Venus de Milo.

Every type of

art from Egyptian statuary to French impressionist painting is here for the sightseer's pleasure. The amount of time one spends here is a question of individual taste. visit.

Only the most calloused would give it one

The best time to see the art exhibit is in the

morning when there is sufficient light.

Yes, the artificial

light is so poor that on cloudy days the great gallery is often closed.

"C'est la guerre."

ILE DE LA CIT£ The lie de la Cite certainly deserves second place on the tourist's roster.

On this small plot of ground is the

historic birth cite of Paris.

The Cathedral of Notre Dame,

the Sainte-Ghapelle, and the Palais de Justice, which con­ tains the Chapel are the three main points of interest. However, Jthis island in the middle of the Seine is more than a container of great monuments.

It is the jewel-like soul

43 of Paris.

In the springtime the little park "du Vert

Galant", at the tip of the island, is one of the most beau­ tiful spots in Paris.

The Place Dauphin, the flower market,

and the little garden behind the cathedral are all wonder­ ful places to stroll on a summer afternoon. Notre Dame is the most remarkable religious edifice in Paris.

Excepting the groundwork of the bell tower of

St. Germain des Pres, it is the oldest monument in-the Capitol.

It was begun at the desire of Archbishop Maurice

de Sully in 1163 and completed in 1330.

A magnificent

Gothic structure, Notre Dame Is 426 feet long, 157 feet wide, and 115 feet high..

The two towers are 226 feet high.

The interior is unusually dark, being Illuminated only by the very soft light which is filtered through the marvelous stained glass windows. you feel like it.

This Is a place to come only when

D o n ’t rush!

Just sit and listen to the

voices of the stone people who surround you.

It is only

fitting that the Age of Paith should develop a style of architecture that would inspire men for centuries to come. You might even wonder what style we will leave for posterity. In front of the cathedral is the Place de Paris which dates from Napoleon- III, and is the geographical starting point for all roads radiating from the capitol.

Here is

found an impressive equestrian statue of Charlemagne in all his barbaric glory.

44 The pile which

Palais de Justice, like the Louvre, is a great has been in the process of reconstruction for

centuries on end.

It now harbours the Civil Law Courts and

some departments of the Prefecture de Police.

Part of the

building is the Conciergerie on the Quai de l ’Horlage, which housed Marie Antoinette during the fateful days when she awaited her execution.

Apart from the Louvre, there is

no other monument in Paris so rich in historical associa­ tions as the Palais de Justice. The Gothic

Saint Chapelle is world renowned as a gem of

architecture.

It was built by Saint Louis in 1249

as a royal chapel for the kings of France in the Palais de Cite which

is now

who then resided

the Palais

de Justice.

The windows of this chapel are among the most beautiful of their period. Just behind the lie de la Cite is found the small lie St. Louis which is worth visiting for the simple charm of its quiet streets.

THE INVALIDES In 1674 Louis XIV inaugurated a huge palace which had been designed to serve as aveterans home abled soldiers.

Originally

it was

for the many dis­

ealledthe Hotel de Mars

and today it is known as the Invalides.

This building,

45 which covers over thirty-one acres, has today lost its original destination and is presently a huge war museum and also serves as the tomb of Napoleon.

It is rather

ironic that the tomb of Napoleon should be called "the invalides."

After all he did rather well in the line of

producing invalids for his time.

The actual tomb is prob­

ably the most impressive in the world.

Even the little

Corsican must consider it a worthwhile remembrance.

THE EIFFEL TOWER At the north end of the Champ de Mars Is found that grotesque, yet beautiful, Eiffel Tower. from the Exhibition of 1889.

The Tower dates

It-is 984 feet high, (about

the heighth of the Empire State Building) weighs 7*000 tons, is made up of 12,000 pieces of steel fastened together by 2 ,500,000 rivets, and rests on a square, each side of which is 528 feet long. To the Parisians, as well as to the foreigners, the Eiffel Tower symbolizes Paris and although it has been the object of criticism from an aesthetic standpoint one cannot picture Paris without it.

Surprisingly enough this struc­

ture is privately owned and is reputed to be a rather good investment. The view from the top is worth the harrowing trip.

k6 On a clear day this view reaches as far as sixty-two miles from the capitol.

However, if one is subject to motion

sickness or has an undue fear of great heights, the view is not worth the trip in the glassed-in elevator which manages to give everyone a thrill and many a good scare.

PALAIS CHALLIOT The best view of the tower is from the beautiful terrace of the Palais Chaillot.

Prom this same terrace

Hitler had his picture snapped so his friends could compare him with the lofty and more secure tower.

The Palais

Chaillot was built on the site of the old Trocadero for the Exhibition of 1957-

Like its neighbor,, the museum of

Modern Art, it is considered a good example of the new French School of Architecture.

It contains one of the

finest theaters in Paris and a very worthwhile museum.

The

19^8 meetings of the United Nations were held in this building.

THE TUILERIES; CHAMPS-ELYSEES, ARC de. TRIOMPHE To walk from the Tuileries Gardens to the Arc de Trlomphe one passes through the beautiful heart of Paris. 1

The promenade is undoubtedly the most impressive one in the world.

47 Leaving the Tuileries one crosses the Place de la Concorde which is one of the largest squares in the world. It was designed by Gabriel, the famous architect in the reign of Louis XV.

During the Revolution of 1789* the

guillotine was erected here.

This was the spot where Louis

XVI, Marie Antoinette, Danton and thousands of others last saw the light of day. The famous Champs-Elysees Avenue, with its popular Punch and Judy shows, its children playing about the green, and idlers basking in the afternoon sun, gives the impression of being more like a great park than an avenue.

To the left

as one faces the arch is found the Grande and Petite Palais. In these two buildings are held most of the exhibitions which are staged on the average of one a month.

Along the

Avenue are found many fine shops, automobile agencies, famous cafes, and moving picture theaters. Above all this stands the Arc de Triomphe, nearly 164 feet high, 148 feet wide and 72 feet thick.

Under its

vaults the "Flamme du Souvenir" keeps watch over the Unknown Soldier.

It was erected for the purpose of p e r ­

petuating the glory of Napoleon's army.

The spot where the

Arch is located is called the Place de l'Etoile and is the focal point for no less than twelve great avenues which radiate from the Arch.

48 Standing near the eternal flame one may look hack toward the Louvre and enjoy one of the grandest vistas in Paris. VERSAILLES Like its older sister, the Louvre, Versailles was originally a hunting lodge.

It was Louis XIV who conceived

the idea of building what is today one of the most elaborate residences in the world.

Its cost, reputed to be over

100,000,000 dollars, did much in creating the bankrupt state which fell on the founder's grandson Louis XVI. The Hall of Mirrors, the Salon of Apollo, and the queens bedroom are probably the most famous rooms of the palace.

In the Salon of Apollo, so called because Louis

fancied himself as the Sun King, His Highness held court proclaiming to the nobles, "L'Etat c'est m o i ."

The Hall of

Mirrors with its grand proportions and magnificent view of the gardens, is by far the most impressive room of the palace.

Historically it stands out, for here in 1871

William I was proclaimed Emperor of Germany,and in 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was signed.

The bedroom of the queen

was the place where some nineteen princes and princesses were, according to French law, born in public view.

In

1789 this room was defended against a mob who had marched down from Paris to let their Royal Highnesses know how they

49 felt about conditions in Prance. More awe-inspiring than this great chateau are the unbelievably beautiful gardens which surround it.

It took

30,000 workmen seven years to build these gardens.

The

tourist will find himself rushed if he does not allow the better part of a day to view the gardens.

Here on summer

Sundays the fountains play and the French bourgoisie promenade.

The scene is one of happiness and peace which

can be rarely duplicated in today's Europe.

The Trianon,,

the Petite Trianon,-, and the hamlet, so dear to the pleasure loving Marie Antoinette, are among the many added-attrac­ tions of the gardens.

If one is fortunate he might attend

the Grande Fete de Nuit which is performed today upholding the traditions of a more extravagant era in honor of the beginning and the end of the summer season at Versailles. This spectacle has all the ingredients of an epic by Cecil B. De Mille. LA MALMAISON Although Malmaison is located near Versailles it is not generally advisable for the tourist to see both these places in the same day. Malmaison was bought by Josephine Bonaparte and became Napoleon's home when he was First Consul. divorce from Josephine he gave her Malmaison.

After his

Napoleon was

50 essentially a modest individual in his private life, and historians like to compare the opulence of Versailles with the simplicity of the Chateau of Malmaison. . It is only fitting that in Napoleon's home there should be many fine examples of furniture from the First Empire period.

Ineidently this period is extremely popular

in modern France and outrageous prices are being attached to any piece of bric-a-brac dating back to the First Empire.

FONTAINEBLEAU There are two generally accepted ways to get to Fontainebleau.

The most rapid is by train which has fre­

quent departures from the Gare de Lyon. about one hour.

The trip takes

The most enjoyable way is by bus which

passes through the town of Barbizon where one may lunch at one of the many inns.

The bus takes slightly longer than

the train. The Chateau of Fontainebleau ranks with Versailles as a royal residence.

The building was originally a twelfth

century fortress and was reconstructed by Francois I in the sixteenth century into an Italian renaissance palace.

The

building is very beautiful and in extremely good state of repair.

The park which surrounds the chateau contains

42,000 aeres of forest which is supposed to be the most beautiful in France.

51 Fontainbleau became a favorite residence of Napoleon and much of the furnishings date from the days when he lived there with Josephine.

It was at Fontainebleau on

April 11, l8l4 that Napoleon formally abdicated.

The court

yard in which he bid farewell to his guard was ever after­ wards known as La Cour des Adieux.

SAINT GERMAIN EN LAYE To the northwest of Paris lies the old commune of St. Germain en Laye which is linked to the-capitol by a number of avenues and streets.

The Chateau de St. Germain

played an important part in the royal history of France. Louis XIII died here and Louis XIV was born here.

From the

terrace of this chateau a magnificent panorama of the Paris basin may be enjoyed.

RAMBOUILLET By fine modern electric trains one may reach the pleasant village of Rambouillet in about one hour.

Here is

found the beautiful chateau which serves as a hunting lodge for the President of the Republic.

During the spring and

summer the park which surrounds the chateau is a favored excursion point for the Parisians.

Tours are conducted

52 through the chateau by government guides at regular inter­ vals during the day.

CHANTILLY The setting of the chateau of Chantilly is one of splendor.

The chateau is surrounded by an artificial lake.

The main building dates back to the ninth century.

Today

it belongs to the Institut de Prance to which it was willed by the Due d'Aumaley In 1886.

The chateau is especially

famous for its impressive museum, the chief treasures of which include drawings by Jean and Francois Clouet, and the manuscripts of an important library. The town of Chantilly is located to the northeast of Paris and Is reached by numerous commuter trains which take a little over an hour to make the trip.

These trains leave

Paris from the Gare du Nord.

COMPIEGNE The Chateau de Compiegne was designed by Gabriel during the reign of Louis XI.

Its importance as a royal

residence may be claimed by the fact that it was here that Louis XVI first met Marie Antoinette and Napoleon met Marie Louise of Austria.

In 1852, It was again at Compiegne that

Napoleon III and Eugenie de Montys were introduced.

CHAPTER X I I

HOW TO SEE

CHARTRES The cathedral of Chartres, without doubt, is the finest Gothic church in all France.

It is strange that in

a land of so many monumental cathedrals that one should be chosen by critics and tourists alike as the number one object of their veneration. According to legend the ancient Druids were supposed to have worshipped the "Virgin who shall bear a Son."

When

the first Christian missionaries discovered this Druid altar they built a small, church upon the site and thus began the cathedral of Chartres.

As if to increase the glory of

Chartres a large piece of silk, which was reported to have been the veil of the Virgin Mary, was given to Charlemagne by the Byzantine Emperor Constatine Porphyrogenetus and eventually found its way to this cathedral for safekeeping. It is fitting that the medieval civilization should outdo itself in constructing a temple to stand on this site and to house these relics. The windows, the towers, and the entire architectural beauty of this building cannot be fully appreciated in an hour, a day, or a week.

However, the tourist must see it

to the best of his ability and therefore he must decide how

54

much time he can allow himself.

It is only good sense to

allot a comparatively longer period to seeing Chartres than the other monuments of France. Fortunately for the tourist the town of Chartres is easily reached by modern electric trains which leave the Gare Montparnasse at regular intervals throughout the day. The trip requires about one hour and thirty minutes.

REIMS Reims, the largest city of Champagne, is a fine modern city which has risen from the ruins of the first world war. second war.

Fortunately the city was spared during the However, the great cathedral bears the wounds

it received from the German artillerymen just thirty-six years ago. Regretfully one must admit that this cathedral, the site of those splendid French coronations, has lost much of its original beauty.

The ancient windows are gone and the

few that have been replaced lack the grace and color of those created by the medieval artisans.

It is only natural

that the average tourist will not see fit to allow too much time to this sad edifice which speaks of modern folly and ancient faith.

55 The one cheerful note left to the great cathedral Is the statue of Gabriel which is found in front of one of the minor doors of the west portal.

This statue wears a smile

that bespeaks the paradise to which this granite angel is leading St. Nicaise who is standing at Gabriel's side with the top of his head cut off.

It is interesting to know that

the face of this medieval statue has often been used on twentieth century travel posters with the appropriate caption:

"The Smile of Reims Bids You Come to Prance."

ROUEN The great Norman city of Rouen has many titles, among which may be mentioned;

"The city of a hundred towers, the

capitol of gastronomy, the Florence of the north, and the greatest port of Prance." This city is located seventy miles from the sea on the river Seine.

The setting is one of extreme beauty.

The city has preserved a certain medieval aspect in spite of its commercial importance. large and varied in style.

The cathedral is extremely

The latest addition, a great

central spire 510 feet high, was built during the nineteenth century, to the chagrin of many critics.

Aside from the

cathedral there are the churches of St. Ouen and St. Maclou which demand even the most hasty tourist's attention.

Many

56 experts consider St. Ouen as the most beautiful Gothic church in existence.

(Baedeker is included among these.)

The food of Rouen is rich. are:

Its special features

milk, butter, cream, sea fish, fowl, cheese, eggs,

cider, and calvados (apple brandy).

The very mention of

this Norman city to most Frenchmen brings forth exclamations of the fine foods one may obtain there. The eity of Rouen, like all Norman cities, suffered greatly during the last war.

It was necessary'for the

Allies to bomb this great shipping center and, as fate will have it, the great churches were hit by bombs which were intended for strategic bridges and docks. From the Gare St. Lazare, in Paris, frequent express trains leave for Rouen taking less than two hours to com­ plete the journey,

MONT SAINT MICHEL This is the most popular tourist site in France and is reputed to be second only to the Niagra Falls in drawing powers.

The approach to the Mount is extremely impressive

because it rises from the tide lands of the English Channel to give the impression of tremendous heighth. The abby which surmounts the rock was begun in the seventh century and like "Topsy" it just grew and grew.

57 During the spring and summer the tides come rolling in at about ten miles per hour creating a spectacle which brings to mind the title of that musical composition, "Engulfed Cathedral." Like the Niagara Falls, the Mount has become dis­ gustingly commercialized.

There are cafes, bars, souvenir

shops, and seven hotels clinging like leeches to the founda­ tion of this "Marvel of the West."

In spite of the commer­

cial attitude of the inhabitants of the rock, the average tourist is bound to receive a real thrill on climbing the ramparts and gazing out to sea.

One becomes aware that

this was a holy eitadel of the Middle Ages. Like Chartres, the early history of Mont Saint Michel is connected with the Druids who retreated to this rocky island in a vain effort to preserve their religion from the Christian missionaries.

Also like Chartres, Mont Saint

Michel remains as a monument to the faith of medieval man. Mont Saint Michel is not near a main line railroad to Paris, so consequently it is advisable to take a bus instead of the train.

There are organized tours that leave

Paris daily, spending the night on the Mount and returning through Normandy- by way of the invasion beaches.

If one

takes the train it involves two transfers and about six hours traveling time in each direction. is more economical.

As usual the train

58

THE VALLEY OF THE LOIRE This is the garden spot of France, a land of chateaux, wine, and sun, which is located Just three hours, by car or train, to the southwest of Paris.

The hub of the chateau

country is Tours. Touraine originally became castle country because it was rich interior land, relatively safe from invasion.

As

France became more centralized these medieval castles were transformed into luxurious chateaux for the pleasure of the wealthy nobility.

It is said that even the peasants of

this section have never known privation and consequently are an unusually cheerful lot. Because the chateaux are distributed up and down the valley, the problem of transportation is experienced by the average tourist without a private auto.

However, there are

many well organized tours of the chateaux country which are operated by the French railroads and other large tourist organizations such as Cooks and American Express.

Most

excursions leave from Tours which is the logical starting point.

A typical tour of the Chateau country is listed

below. 1. Full day. Leave tours 8:50 A.M. via Marmoutier, Rochecorbon, Bouvray-les Vins. Visit chateaux of Amboise and Chenonceaux. Lunch at Montrichard.

59 Afternoon: visit chateau so Montresor, the Foret de Loches, the Chartreuse du Liget, the chateau of Loches, and return to Tours by the Vallee de L ’Indre, arriving about 7:00 P.M. 2. Pull day. Leave Tours 8:45 A.M. Visit chateau of Villandry and its gardens, visit chateau of Azay-leRideau and its park, visit ruins of Chinon. Luneh and visit old city of Chinon. Visit cheateau Rigny-Usse, eha-teau Langeais, return via Cinq Mars Luynes, arriving in Tours about 6:30 P.M. 3. Half day. Leave Tours 1:30 P.M. Visit Villandry, Azay-le-Rideau, Langeais, and return to Tours by 6:15 P.M. For the young and economy-minded tourist it is pos­ sible to carry his bicycle to Tours on the train and see the country with ease and thrift.

This sort of outing is

extremely popular with the French people who often camp for days along the banks of the Loire.

There are many youth

hostels in this area.

SOUTHERN FRANCE Southern France has little in common with the northern half of the nation.

This difference is almost as great as

that of New York State and Southern California.

In many

ways the Southern Californian feels at home in Southern France.

This is amazing when one realizes that the city

of Nice, the capitol of the Riviera, is actually further north than the city of Boston. The educational benefits that might be derived from

60 a visit to the Riviera must be slight, but a student who purposely misses this pleasant corner of Prance cannot boast of a liberal education.

Here, along what certainly

may be called the most beautiful stretch of seascapes in the world, Western civilization has built a string of lush resorts that have no equal.

Prom San Thropez to Menton one

passes through town after town clutched to the cliffs over­ hanging what must be the bluest of seas.

Flowers are every­

where in profusion, there is a flood of sun, and multi­ colored villas are a dime a dozen.

Only when one realizes

that for the past fifty years this coast has been the play ground of the world is he able to explain the wealth of the Cote d'Azur.

This was the chosen habitat of Par Eastern

potentates, Slavic nobility, French Haut Bourgeois, and Nordic aristocracy.

The old days are gone forever.

Only

the few surviving Scandinavian nobles are able to recreate the splendor of the days when Queen Victoria "wintered” at Nice.

Today the French white collar worker is doing his

best to catch a tan on his short vacation.

American movie

stars and the cafe society seem to be a, bit ill-at-ease among the regal trappings of Europe's dead nobility. the world transition seems to manifest itself. Grand Dukes are willing to drive taxis.

Here

Former

Time-battered para­

mours manage modest pensions for Parisienne models.

The

6l French language is gaining ground on the Cote d ’Azur.

If

the Riviera could speak, it would probably ask ’’Where do I go from here?”

One might mention the names of Pompei or

Capri. For the student who would like to spend a couple of weeks on the beaeh after surviving a damp winter in Paris, there are many economical resorts along the Riviera. Menton is quite popular with the tourist of modest means. Here one may obtain a pleasant room with pension for as little as fifteen dollars a week. same class as Menton.

San Thropez is in the

Nice is the only large commercial

city (300,000) on the Riviera. is slightly less than in Paris.

The cost of living in Nice Nice is an extremely

beautiful city, however, it cannot be recommended as a bathing resort because it has not one sandy beach.

Cannes

is best avoided by those who have bank accounts not ranging in the six digit class.

Monte Carlo is a "must” for the

curious. To the northeast of the Riviera lie the three ancient cities of Provence: Avignon.,. Nimes, and Arles.

The last

two mentioned have some of the finest Roman ruins to be found in Europe. cemetery.

Arles has a fine Roman amphitheater and

The Roman amphitheater of Nimes is reputed to be

the best preserved of all the world's seventy such

62 structures.

Also in Nimes are found the Temple of Diana and

the Maison Carree which presently houses a collection of Roman artifacts. Avignon., was the great city of medieval France.

Here

the French Popes built what must be one of the largest palaces to be constructed during the middle ages. is completely enclosed by a medieval wall.

Avignon

It is somewhat

of a shock to pass through these ancient battlements only to find a modern French city leading a normal life with neon lights and other such improvements. Southern France is reached by excellent trains which complete the run from Paris to the Mediterranian in about fourteen hours.

The trip should be made during the day for

reasons of scenery and economy.

As has already been men­

tioned, sleeping ear accommodations are extremely expensive in France.

There is a fine bus service which leaves daily

from Paris taking two full days to make the trip to Nice. However, if one is subject to motion sickness they should steer clear of such a mountainous journey.

63 For further information concerning travel in France the following books are highly recommended. Ogrizek, Dore, France. Faris and the Provinces. New York: MeGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1948. 462 pp. Sutton, Horace, Footloose in France. New York: and Company, Inc., 1948. 382 pp.

Rinehart

Clark, Sydney, Today in Cathedral France. New York: Robert M. McBride and Company, 1948. 301 pp.

CHAPTER XIII ENTERTAINMENT, "FRANC-LY" SPEAKING For those who will learn to count their francs as though they were pennies there is a Paris that has been created for their special diversion.

Without doubt, the

most popular form of entertainment is simply sipping coffee at some sidewalk cafe.

There are three such cafes at St.

Germain des Pres which often seem to assume the attitude of being the center of the world.

The Deux Magots, the Flore,

and the Lipp offer coffee, tea, and beer at reasonable prices.

The Lipp Is by the far the most economical of the

three.

It is on the shady side of the boulevard and offers

a fine view of the Deux Magots and the Flore.

These three

cafes are the aristocrats of the Left Bank and have been in business for the better part of the last century.

Here you

can enjoy a cup of coffee for twenty-five francs, a glass of beer for thirty-five francs, and cognac for eight francs. UP', on the Boulevard Montparnasse the Dome, of Hemingway fame, and the newly redocorated Rotonde offer more economical refreshments with a quieter crowd.

Of the five cafes, only

the Rotonde and the Lipp have dining facilities which, unfortunately, are beyond the price range of the average student.

The Deux Magot, the Flore, and the Dome serve

only light refreshments.

65 For dinner, there's Henriette's on the Rue LeopoldRobert, a little street just down ffom the Dome-Rotonde corner.

This is an ancient student restaurant which has

old student murals on the walls, sweet and motherly waitresses, and good French food at prices below compare. Inez Cavanaugh runs one of the most popular chez in Paris. She has taught the Indo-Chinese cook how to prepare fried red beans (100 francs), fried chicken and rice (200 francs), and barbequed spareribs and baked apples.

Although Inez Is

an American expatriate, she is as much a sight to see in Paris as the Eiffel Tower.

Aside from serving good food

Inez keeps the customers electrified with her fine humor and unusual singing.

Chez Inez is small and extremely popular,

so it is wise to arrive early and plan to wait for a table. The Left Bank abounds with small caves (caveaux) such as the Club St. Germain and the Tabou.

These smoke filled

dens are peculiar to Paris and offer a great deal of atmo­ sphere at affordable prices. . In spite of its infamous reputation, Montmarte is inclined to strike the modern tourist as extremely commer­ cial and unworthy of the price of admission.

However,

on summer nights it is indeed pleasant to spend an evening sitting under the trees at the Place du Terrtres watching the depraved excursioners arrive and depart on their care­ fully scheduled "Paris by Night" tours.

66

The secondhand book stalls which are found along both sides of the Seine between Pont Neuf and Pont Royal may well be included as a place of entertainment.

Here one can spend

a pleasant afternoon just browsing through books and maps of yesterday and the century before.

You needn't feel cheap

if you have ho intention of buying, for here the expression "sales pressure'91 is unknown. Because this guide holds no interest for the retired banker and his associates, the deluxe establishments of the Right Bank, which certainly are world renowned, have been purposely omitted.

Unfortunately many other fine little

places have been overlooked simply because it would take a series equal in size to the Encyclopedia Britanica to do justice to all:the small cafes, chez, restaurants, bars, and caveaux which were created and exist for the sole pur­ pose of making life easier for their franc-counting guests.