An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England

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An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England

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AN APOLOGY FOR

r&

non

effigiem art quern Qestgnat aSora.

;

:

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. tially the

Name

same

Church

as that yet given in the Anglican

of Jesus

respect

31

;

shown

and

to the throne

deck of a man-of-war.

by the external

paralleled in temporal matters

is

in

the House of Peers, or the quarter-

Sacred imagery

of the highest powers of art

to the holy

a noble field for the exercise

is

and painting and sculpture, when devoted

;

to the service of the Church, are calculated to

improve and elevate the

religious feelings of a nation in a surprising degree.

Now

to

sum

up.

If,

have shown, the Anglican Church requires

as I

bell towers, spires, naves, chancels, screens, fonts, altars, sacred

and ornaments,

symbols

whether the types of these various features

will ask

I

are to be found in the ancient pointed churches of England, or in the classic

temples of antiquity

Surely no one can hesitate to admit at

?

once that, in the former, we have perfect models for imitation in the latter,

we cannot

and

therefore, even in its present position,

and

rubrics, the

Anglican Church

is

by

its

own

while,

existing canons

bound, consistently, to work ex-

clusively on the principles of Christian architecture, all

;

find one corresponding arrangement or detail

and

to

renounce

pagan adaptations whatsoever.

With regard

the collegiate establishments which have continued

to

from the time of their original foundation,

in uninterrupted succession

and which are yet supported by the pious munificence of

and profess

to be

their founders,

governed by their ancient statutes, there cannot exist

a doubt as to the propriety,

such buildings as they

may

not the absolute duty, of their erecting

require, in the

same

accommodation of

originally raised for the spirit as well as style

if

for it is

style

their

and

spirit as those

predecessors.

I

say

not merely sufficient to cut tracery and

build buttresses and pinnacles, for that has been done at a vast cost

and with miserable

effect

at King’s

and other

colleges at Cambridge,

but to preserve that scholastic gravity of character, that reverend and

solemn appearance, that parture

from

Catholic

is

found in the ancient erections.

antiquity

in

a

college

frequent daily services in the chapel, the assembly of the

©

_

-

Any

unpardonable

is

.

_

:

de-

the

community

®

ON THE REVIVAL OF

32

in the refectory, the enclosure, the academical costume, the celibacy of

many

the inmates, are so

relics

demand

of ancient discipline which

continuance of the original architecture

and

;

miserable failure and cester, or the

compound

a

new quadrangle

New

instant with Merton,

or

semble sick hospitals or barracks of the piety and learning.

not a

is

Are Queen’s, Wor-

of anomalies.

compared

of Christ Church, to be

College,

where

in those instances

been neglected, not one can be pointed out which

this has

a

Magdalene

?

for

one

They rather

re-

than the abodes of

last century,

Colonnades, pediments, and heathen gods, are but

sorry substitutes for solemn cloisters, high turrets, and images of reverend

founders and saintly patrons.

During the early part of the Laudian school,

more consistent

spirit

of the seventeenth century,

some

collegiate buildings

windows

tracery five

and angels ;

Among

is

is

remarkable

:

these, the

the detail

is,

a very successful attempt for the period

filled

with

stained

glass

;

the

east

containing the Crucifixion of our Lord, with

lights,

corbels

it

are

were erected in a far

than the more recent examples.

chapel of Peter-house, at Cambridge, course, debased, but

under the influence

in the tracery.

The roof

is

;

of

the

window, of

many

saints

waggon-headed, supported on

the western bay forms an antechapel, being divided off by an

oak screen

;

within this are double rows of oak

stalls,

with a large

sanctuary.

This chapel must have been far richer in decoration when originally

founded; say,

as,

“We

in the report of the

went

“ with wings,

to

Peter-house 'and pulled

down two mighty

angels

and divers other angels, with the four evangelists, and

“ Peter with his keys, “

parliamentary writers in 1643, they

on the chapel door, together with about one

hundred cherubim, and many superstitious

letters

in

gold/’

This

account will show the correct intentions which actuated the collegiate builders of even that period, and

from their designs is

m

so

much

:

it is,

indeed,

better understood,

how completely paganism was excluded monstrous, now that the ancient detail

and the

facilities of

execution far greater,

®

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. to

see

compounds of

vile

Italian

details

rising

33

amid the

Catholic antiquity in both Oxford and Cambridge. lation,

however, to

know

show

galleries

of

some conso-

;

and

I

much

question

if

they

be allowed to remain even for that purpose, when the true prin-

more generally disseminated among

ciples of Catholic architecture are

the

glories

that neither of these edifices are intended for

collegiate purposes, but as will

It

is

members

of the University.

Hospitals for the poor ought, undoubtedly, to be erected in a style at once simple for sheltered

chambers,

and

religious

exercise,

—a

and a chapel

the aged should be provided with cloisters

:

common for

hall

and kitchen,

devotion

daily

;

—separate

religious

lodging

emblems and

memorials of their benefactors should constitute the only decorations, interspersed with

pious

and moral legends.

scriptures

Beautiful ex-

amples of these truly Christian institutions are to be found in the ancient hospitals of Stamford, Leicester, Northampton, and Coventry, or even in the later foundations of Whitgift at Croydon,

and Abbott

at Guildford. I

trust

I

have now

England,

set

forth

enough to prove that the religious

consistently designed, should

be arranged on

the same principles as the ancient buildings erected

by our Catholic

edifices

of

forefathers.

if

They must,

of course,

fall far

short of the glorious solemnity

that can alone be attained in a truly Catholic position

they go, they should have

all

in

common with

;

but, as far as

English antiquity, and

not the slightest accordance with classic arrangement and detail. o o

^cptikbraf jlemortais. These are so intimately connected with it

ecclesiastical architecture, that

seems necessary to enter upon some details on the subject before pro-

ceeding to other matters.

The

principal reasons assigned by sculptors for resorting to classic

costume in their monumental designs has been the unsightly form of

®

© F

0 N THE REVIVAL OF

34

modern

which would render the

habits,

effigy of the deceased ludicrous

in appearance, if represented with them.

This would be perfectly true

if

were necessary, or even correct,

it

to adopt the ordinary costume of domestic scarcely possible to find

warrant an

who

effigy,

ecclesiastical,

any person

solemn

effect

;

ones

the ancient

to

than to envelope them in the

said, architecture

and

it

ciples,

and

situation,

official

18 .

effigies little

either if

inferior

To represent persons of the

present century in the costume of the fourteenth, sistent

it is

the robes and insignia of which,

properly and severely represented, would produce in

but

;

sufficiently dignified in station to

not hold some

does

military

or

civil,

in such cases

life

Roman

toga.

little

is

As

I

less incon-

have before

art should be a consistent expression of the period,

will not be difficult to show, that, adhering strictly to these prin-

we can

in the present age revive the

memorials of the dead

most solemn and Christian

19 .

ECCLESIASTICAL PERSONS. For the English clergy, there

communion

in

is

not the slightest difficulty

;

those

with the Holy See using the same number and character

of sacred vestments as of old.

Bishops.

— Amice,

albe, stole, tunic

or cope, mitre Priests.

—Amice,

and

buskins and sandals.

staff,

albe, plain or apparelled, stole,

holding a chalice with the

18

The ancient monumental

effigies

Kings, bishops,

to express

most fully their dignities and

19

maniple and chasuble,

most Holy Sacrament.

invariably represent the deceased persons in their robes

of state.

of their birth

and dalmatic, maniple, with chasuble

priests, nobles,

knights and their ladies, are habited in a manner

office,

with a profusion of heraldic devices illustrative

and descent.

The present female costume

annexed Plate three

are engraved,

is

by no means ill-adapted

which

are accurately copied

position of the hands contributes greatly to the solemn effect.

for sepulchral brasses.

from those in

use.

(See Plate V.)

In the

The devout

v

r

BESSHES

SEP7LCHRSL

TO

fidRPCEO

CQSTVME

ED3EM

OF

fDGSHELES

r

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. Deacons.

— Amice,

albe,

and dalmatic,

35

and maniple, holding the

stole

book of the Holy Gospels. Sub-deacons.

— Amice,

Ostiarius

/

Minor

I

(

These various dignities fleury,

with the pastoral

chalice.

keys.

Lector Exorcist Acolyth

)

orders.

and maniple, with an empty

albe, tunic

in surplices

may

with

-

book.

hands joined in prayer, cruets and candlestick.

be expressed, without

staff, chalice,

by

effigy,

a cross

book, or other instruments repre-

sented by the side.

The Anglican churchmen should be habited Bishops



in cassock, rochet, with a cope

;

as follows

and

:

there are instances of

the pastoral staff even in the seventeenth century.

— Deacons — Priests

in cassock, albe (plain),

in

an

with a cope or chasuble.

albe.

Effigies of clergy habited in surplices, correct,

with hoods

20 ,

would be perfectly

and of these there are many ancient examples.

These habits would be rather in accordance with Anglican rubrics than practice

;

but they are enjoined by the present canons, and, though long

neglected, through the combined influence of indifference

and puritan

principles, they will be doubtless restored with the revival of reverence

and solemnity.

CIVIL PERSONAGES.

The Sovereign should be represented

in the

Royal robes which are

still

used in the coronation, and which are precisely the same in number and description as those used in the days of St. Edward. for not substituting appropriate

of those 20

There

is

no reason

and better designed ornaments

in lieu

which are generally embroidered, and a more beautiful form

The present manner

They should come

close

of wearing hoods hanging half

up

as represented in the old

to the neck,

monumental

down

the back

is

most absurd.

with the ends falling from each shoulder in front,

brasses.



ON THE REVIVAL OF

36 of

crown

tlian that actually in use

robes, with the

21 :

a recumbent effigy, habited in these

orb and sceptre, would not be inferior in dignity and

monuments

effect to those truly royal

and would form an admirable contrast

in

Westminster Abbey Church,

to the miserable

memorials of the

English sovereigns of the last century at Windsor.

The various ranks

of nobility should be represented in the state robes

peculiar to their several degrees, wdtli their various family badges and heraldic distinctions

;

those

who were Knights

orders, with their mantles, collars,

emblems of courage and

fidelity,

and other

of the Garter or other

insignia,

couchant at their

tombs, the niches round the sides

may

— the

and dog,

lion

When

feet.

be most appropriately

on high

by

filled

smaller effigies of relations, habited as mourners for the deceased, with their several shields of arms.

These are frequently introduced round the

ancient monuments, and might be revived with the greatest propriety.

Judges should, of course, be represented their

tabards,

degrees,

and

— Doctors

— Aldermen and

for private

and Music,

For the humbler

— Heralds,

in

in the habit of their

civic functionaries, in their

gowns

gentlemen even, a long cloak, disposed

would produce a solemn or crafts, with

of Medicine

in their robes,

of office

;

in severe folds,

effect.

classes, a cross,

with the instruments of their trades

marks and devices, would be

and, in a rural district, a mere

wooden

sufficient

and appropriate

or stone cross, with the

name

;

of

the deceased.

There

time consistent and Christian monuments for

present

persons 21

The

not, in fact, the least practical difficulty in reviving at the

is

22 ,

and

at the

present crown

a lamp top.

all

classes

of

same cost now bestowed on pagan abominations,

is far

too

heavy and clumsy, and

Still it is consoling to see that it is

is

not very dissimilar in form to

surmounted by a

cross

;

and the

yet alternated with crosses and fleurs-de-lis, emblematic of our Divine

circlet is

Redeemer and

Blessed Lady. 22

The annexed Plate

character, that

represents brasses and other sepulchral

have been lately revived.

monuments

of a Christian

(See Plate VI.)

®

SEF/LCHRALT BEF5SES p

;

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.

37

which disfigure both the consecrated enclosure which surrounds the

and the

church,

the

of

interior

building

sacred

Surely the

itself.

must be the most appropriate emblem on the tombs of those who profess to believe in God crucified for the redemption of man and it is almost incredible, that while the dead are interred in conCross

secrated ground, and in the ancient position,

—prayers

for their souls’

repose acknowledged to be of apostolical antiquity, and the office recited at their

interment composed from the ancient ritual,— the types of

modern

sepulchral

broken

pillars,

monuments should be

essentially

extinguished lamps, inverted

should have been substituted for recumbent of

pagan

;

all

and urus,

and sarcophagi,

torches,

effigies, angels,

and emblems

mercy and redemption.

CitJil Architecture.

not be

It will

Buildings In

the

roofs,

now

first

light,

cisely the

difficult to

show that the wants and purposes

are almost identical with those of our English forefathers. place,

climate,

which necessarily regulates the pitch of

warmth, and internal arrangement, remains of course pre-

same

Secondly,

as formerly.

same laws and same system of

political

we

are governed

and Commons,

— the judges

titles

— the

nobility,-

lands are held, and the privileges they enjoy, civic functionaries,

There

is

— are

all

— the

Houses of Peers

of the various courts of law,

and rank of the

essentially the

tenures

— the

same

by nearly the

The Sovereign, with

economy.

the officers of state connected with the crown,

trial,—the

of Civil

and form of

by which

their

corporate bodies and

as in former days.

no country in Europe which has preserved so much of her

ancient system as England.

We

still

see the grey tower of the parochial

church rising by the side of the manorial house

;

and, in

many

instances,

the chantry chapel yet remains, with a long succession of family monu-

ments, from the armed crusader to that of the parent of the actual possessor.

;

ON THE REVIVAL OF

38

The palace of the Sovereign

of such a country should exhibit the

evidence of dignified antiquity in every detail. cession

and

Surely the long suc-

of our kings, — their noble achievements, —-the

that

charges

they

bore,

— would

form

honourable badges

which

subjects

would

naturally suggest themselves for the decorations of the various halls

How

and apartments.

and national would a building thus

truly grand

designed and ornamented appear, where not only the general character,

but every

detail,

was expressive of the dignity of the country, and an

illustration of its history

to be found

And

are not the examples for such an edifice

in the ancient glories of St.

habitations of our

former, in

!

its

Edwards and Henrys

?

Stephen’s and Windsor, the

— The

mere diningdiall of the

present denuded state, without tapestry, glass, or enrich-

ment, conveys a far grander impression to the mind of the beholder than the most gorgeously decorated chambers of modern times

what

a splendid effect would be produced

;

and

one of those ancient palaces,

if

monarch, were restored, with

so suited for the residence of a Christian

appropriate furniture and decorations The same remarks apply with equal force

all its

!

nobility

How

and gentry.

painful

is it

to the residences of the

to behold, in the centre of a fine

old English park and vast domain, a square unsightly mass of bastard Italian, without

How

owner! with

ancestral

one expression of the faith, family, or country of the contrary to the spirit of the ancient mansions, covered

badges and memorials, and harmonizing

irregularity with the face of nature

Any modern bility,

beautiful

!

invention which conduces to comfort, cleanliness, or dura-

should be adopted by the consistent architect

;

to

copy a thing

absurd as the imitations of the modern Our domestic architecture should have a peculiar expression

merely because gjagans.

in

it is

illustrative of our

old, is just as

manners and habits

baronial mansion, so

it

may

:

as the castle merged into the

be modified to suit actual necessities

and

the smaller detached houses which the present state of society has generated, should possess a peculiar character

:

they are only objectionable

hdeeeh:

HT

smita

~KRt:HiTKfrrvRvr

sqhesekx

sot

tst

riprrrr

wuH

~

mrOTSTrNT

mrr

T

;

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. when made

And

it

39

to appear diminutive representations of larger structures.

not only possible, but easy, to work on the same consistent

is

principles as our ancestors in the erection of all our domestic buildings. It

would be absurd, with our present resources,

to build

which originated with the superabundance of that material

in towns,

and the

in former times,

difficulty of transporting stone or brick

brick fronts, adapted perfectly to internal convenience,

with the legal provisions for town buildings, capable of producing excellent

effect, if

nated by the natural form of the gable

There

is

may

and

;

but

in accordance

be erected, which are

consistently treated, and termi-

23 .

no reason in the world why noble

possible convenience of drainage, water-courses,

may

wooden houses

cities,

combining

all

and conveyance of gas

24 ,

not be erected in the most consistent and yet Christian character.

Every building

that is treated naturally, without disguise or conceal-

ment, cannot fail

to look well.

If our present domestic buildings

were only designed

in

accordance

with their actual purposes, they would appear ecpially picturesque with the old ones

Each

!

would

edifice

tell

its

own

tale,

and, by diversity

of character, contribute to the grand effect of the whole.

fHoDcrn Sntoentions anD fRerijantcal Emptouement#. In matters purely mechanical, the Christian architect should gladly avail himself of those

improvements and increased

The steam engine

gested from time to time. for sawing, raising,

and cleansing

The old masons used wheels buildings

:

this

23

See Plate VII.

24

A gas lamp, if

but

when

it is

incense tripod,

a

is

stone, timber,

that are sug-

most valuable power

and other

materials.

of great diameter in the erection of their

was, of course, a great increase of power over mere

designed simply with reference to

composed it

facilities

of a

Roman

becomes perfectly

altar,

its use,

would be an inoffensive object

surmounted by the

fasces,

and terminated by an

ridiculous. £$?

ON THE REVIVAL OF

40

manual strength

and had they been acquainted with a greater, they would undoubtedly have used it. Why should ten minutes be expended

in raising a

;

body which could be equally well done

and cheaper the mechanical

part

;

and

if I

required

heights.

By

shafts,

and

The readier

?

were engaged in the

up an engine that would

erection of a vast church, I should certainly set

saw blocks, turn detached

two

can be rendered, the

of building

greater will be the effect for the funds

in

raise the various materials to the

saving and expedition in

these matters, there

would be more funds and a greater amount of manual labour on enrichments and variety of

expend

to

detail.

The whole history of Pointed Architecture is a series of inventions time was when the most beautiful productions of antiquity were novelties.

:

It is only

tends

to

when mechanical invention intrudes on

subvert the principles which

objectionable.

it

the confines of art,

should advance, that

Putty pressing, plaster and iron casting

for

it

and

becomes

ornaments,

wood burning, &c., are not to be rejected because such methods were unknown to our ancestors, but on account of their being opposed in their very nature to the true principles of art and design, by substituting mo-



notonous repetitions for beautiful variety, flatness of execution for bold relief,

encouraging cheap and

principles of ornamental

false magnificence,

and reducing the varied

design, which should be in strict accordance

with the various buildings and purposes in which

ready-made manufacture.

But

it is

while, on the one hand,

reject the use of castings as substitutes

for

used, to a

we should

mere

utterly

ornamental sculpture, we

should eagerly avail ourselves of the great improvements in the working of metals for constructive purposes.

Had iron,

want

the old builders possessed our

means

they would have availed themselves of of proper ties has occasioned

it

of obtaining

to a great extent.

and massiveness of the work causing there

is

The

most serious settlements, and even the

destruction of some of the finest Christian edifices,

And

and working

it

— the

very weight

frequently to settle

and

give.

scarcely a tower of great dimensions erected during the

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. middle ages, which

it

has not been necessary to

41

together by iron

tie

Now,

must be evident that if these ties were built in the first instance in the body of the work, they would be free from the action of atmosphere, and prevent both fissures and the spreading of the work which would render their ultimate chains and key wedges at a subsequent period.

employment

it

necessary.

In a cruciform church these precautions are most necessary. lateral thrust of nave, transept,

and choir arches, both of

aisles

The

and

tri-

forium, rest against the four great central pillars, which are only enabled to resist the pressure

But

many

this in

by the weight

cases

was

of the great tower resting on them.

insufficient, and,

has hastened their destruction.

when they began

Hence the inverted arches

to give,

at Wells,

and

the screens at Salisbury and Canterbury, which have been added long

subsequently to the erection of the original buildings, to confine the pillars

from

giving inwards.

At Amiens they

are tied

by immense

chains extending!; the whole length of the nave and choir.

Had

this point

been considered in the original structures, the pressure

might have been

effectually counteracted,

centre of the great piers, and chains from

by inserting

them

iron shafts in the

in the thickness of the

triforium and clerestory, reaching to the four extremities of the building. I

merely mention

this

one

fact,

adduced, to show that we possess

amongst a number that might be

facilities

and materials unknown to our

and which would have greatly added

ancestors,

structures they erected.

We

do not want

to

to the stability of the

arrest the course of in-

ventions, but to confine these inventions to their legitimate uses,

prevent their substitution for nobler

We

it

as the

mock useful i

for

for masons’ skill.

in brick walling, while

erections of the day.

ments of

for constructive purposes, while

meagre substitute

employ Roman cement

We

We would

we abominate

it

we

gladly in

the

consider branding irons exceedingly

marking owners’ and makers’ names on trade, but

to

arts.

approve highly of cast iron

denounce

and

we cannot allow them

G

carts

and imple-

to replace the carver’s art.

ON THE REVIVAL OF

42 In a word,

we should

neither cling pertinaciously to ancient methods

of building, solely on the score of antiquity, nor reject inventions be-

by sound and

cause of their novelty, but try both

consistent principles,

and act accordingly.

Another great mistake of modern times

is

the supposition that Christian

architecture will not afford sufficient scope for the art of sculpture. far

from

this,

while a Greek temple admits only of such decoration in the

pediment and round the

frieze,

animal, and the

and

human

figure, in

in

groups of high

relief,

At the entrances

most majestic character.

in subjects of the

— vegetable,

wonderful diversity of position and

sometimes single in niches, sometimes

;

may

every portion of a Christian church

and should be covered with sculpture of the most varied kind, aspect

So

of

the church, the lessening arches, which form the vast recesses, are lined

with

angels,

fessors

25

patriarchs,

prophets,

martyrs,

kings,

bishops,

and con-

above the doorways, the genealogy of our Divine Redeemer,

;

doom

his birth, passion, the

or final judgment,

— subjects which,

it

must

be admitted, afford the fullest scope for the developement of the highest

powers of

human

skill.

While the whole exterior of the sacred

even to the summit of the towers,

may

edifice,

be covered with images and

sculpture, the interior presents an equally extensive field for the exercise

of art in

all

possible variety of size

and

position,

from the minute groups

of the stall seats, to the long line of sacred history that surrounds the choir

;

from the enrichments of the

walls,

aisle

level

with the eye, to

the sculptured bosses, luxuriant in foliage and rich in imagery, that key

the vaulted roof at an

25

immense

elevation.

Casts from some of these images at Notre

Dame,

Flaxman 26 was the

Paris,

which have

over to the School of Design, are wonderful examples of Christian 215

Had Flaxman lived a few years later, he would have been a day men never thought it possible to do any thing fine in

in his

from paganism

:

lately

first

of

been brought

art.

great Christian artist; but art that

was not derived

hence his great powers were unhappily expended in illustrating fables of

classic anticprity, instead of

embodying edifying

truths.

His observations on the excellence of

our Catholic ancestors, and his lamentations on the destruction of their works, are heartfelt

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. who

the modern school

43

bore testimony both to the excellence of Christian

sculpture and the scope that was afforded for the exercise

pointed structures.

in

admirable works

executed in

ference of principle between

in

There

Italy.

human

;

the difference

But

to talk of Gothic

principle, is absurd

;



which the

and Grecian drapery

middle ages for those of

of the classic is

in the objects

latter,

from

to

21 .

a grand expression of produced by the change of habits

We

classic antiquity.

There

have the cope is

also a great

the various stuffs, the square folds of the

Christian images being produced

by the material then

in

Different

use.

circumstances and systems must generate different expressions Phidias himself, had he worked under the faith,

the

is

instead of a toga, and the chasuble for a tunic. difference in the texture of

dif-

in sculpture as distinct in

the art of either period is

no

The pagans wished

the Christians, the divine

nature, and the distinct character in the

fact

art

The principal object of the

artists.

figure,

Christian principle of modesty, rather concealed.

human feelings,

in

is

the fine draperied works

represented and the motives of the

former was to display the

cathedrals, even while

English

the

and those of the middle ages

perpetuate

the art

His lectures contain several remarks on the

was at a comparatively low ebb

sculptors

of

would have exhibited equal

skill

influence

in abstract art,

of

the

of art.

Christian

but with a very

different developement.

The great art,

error of

modern sculptors

is

their servile imitation of classic

without endeavouring to embody existing principles in their works.

Unless art

and eloquent

is

;

the expression of the system

and when we consider that

at the period

it

should

illustrate, it loses

he wrote, the most glorious works

of the middle ages were treated with apathy and even derision, the Christian

present time must feel grateful for the good he effected

We

by

can only regret that he did not follow out his convictions to their legitimate

least in the sepulchral

monuments

See Plate VIII.

results, at

that were intrusted to him, for he does not appear to have

executed one which had the slightest reference to Catholic traditions. 27

artist of the

setting forth neglected truth.

ON THE RE 1VAL OF

44

on admiration, and

at once its greatest claim

of

sympathy

fails to

awaken any

feelings

in the heart of the spectator.

made

Since the fifteenth century, the saints of the Church have been

heathen

to resemble, as closely as possible,

The

divinities.

Christian

mysteries have been used as a mere vehicle for the revival of 'pagan

forms and

the exhibition

of the

artist’s

anatomical

longer productions to edify the faithful, but to the author

and

;

unworthy end

The albe

this

for

28 .

and chaste

girdle were

human

indecent costume, to exhibit the

and

advance the fame of

consistency and propriety was sacrificed

all

of purity

opera dancer

They were no

skill.

;

ideas, that

and modern

exchanged

figure after the

were so imbued with

artists

when they attempted

to

work

for the

and often

for light

manner

of an

classic design

Church, their repre-

sentations of the mysteries of religion were scarcely recognisable from

the fables of mythology

29 .

the works or style of any the devotion, majesty,

tending

;



it is

not a

and style,

We

do not want

correct

but a principle.

figure can be engrafted

naked figure

Surely

all

but

;

ive

accordance

with

;

it is

are con-

the improvements

anatomy and the proportions

on ancient excellence

costume, and treated in

would afford equal scope

revive a facsimile of

repose of Christian art, for which

that are consequent on the study of

human

to

particular individual, or even period

of the

and an image,

Catholic

in

traditions,

for the display of the sculptor’s art as a half-

in a distorted attitude,

more resembling

who had

a maniac

hastily snatched a blanket for a covering than a canonized saint.

Did our

time work with the

artists of the present

humility as the old men, and strive rather than their

28

29

own peculiar

to

same

faith

and

express the doctrines of the Church

notions,

we might soon have

a school

See Plate IX. It

is

but just to remark, that the modern German school, with the great Overbeck, are

not only free from this reproach, but deserving of the warmest eulogiums and respect for their glorious revival of Christian art

and

traditions.

P IX

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;

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. and devotion, and superior

of sculpture equal in sentiment

which existed during the ages of

correctness, to that

In conclusion,

ancient architecture in this country consistent principles.

faith.

It is

society.

is

dearest associations

based on the soundest and most

warranted by

religion,

government, climate,

It is a perfect expression of all

nor

;

is

we should hold

there in the whole world a country which

better calculated for the revival of ancient excellence

than England.

We

ground,



;

Sounder views and opinions are daily gaining

feelings of reverence for the past increasing in

and, with

and solemnity

have immense power, vast wealth, and great though

often misdirected zeal.

degree

of

honourable, and national, and connected with the holiest and

sacred,

is

in anatomical

must appear evident that the present revival

it

and the wants of

15

all

her faults,

we must remember

an extraordinary

that England, while

she was the last to abandon Christian architecture, has been foremost

Even in the worst and darkest times of pagan and protestant ascendancy, some of her sons were found able and willing advocates of her ancient glory and, notwithstanding the repeated mutilations they have undergone, and the sad destruction of in hailing

and aiding

its revival.

;

the monastic churches, our ecclesiastical edifices exhibit far traces of their ancient beauty than

is

more perfect

many continental hammer of the fanatic,

to be found in

buildings, which, although they have escaped the

have been more fatally injured from the chisels and pencils of revived

pagan

We

artists.

should not try the deeds of England during the last three centuries

by those which preceded them, but by the corresponding history of surrounding nations and we shall find that throughout the Christian world, the period which has intervened since the sixteenth century has been one

of bitter trial

and degradation

to the Church.

Wherever we

the great ecclesiastical works arrested at the same period, erected, naves unfinished, details uncarved,



go,

we

— towers

§

half

either a total stoppage of

works, or bastard pagan productions that had far better have been

undone.

see

left

For a while throughout Europe, Catholic art and traditions lay

-m

ON THE REVIVAL OF

46

neglected and despised, while paganism ruled triumphantly

penetrated the

cloister,

and even raised

its

in

the palace,

detested head under the vaulted

cathedrals and over the high altars of Christendom.

When

these lament-

able facts are considered, together with the fearful scourge in the form

of

war and revolution that has passed over the countries of the continent,

involving abbey and ruin,

common

cathedral, church and convent, in one

and reducing the most dignified clergy of France

to the condition

of stipendiary clerks, sharing a miserable pittance with

the Calvinist

minister and Jewish rabbi, received from the hands of a government official,

—not one rood of land

left for priest or altar, of all

which ancient piety had bequeathed,

— we may find cause

that matters are not worse than they are in our

The

spirit of

that of

Dunstan, of Anselm, and

Cranmer could have

St.

We

prevailed.

own

the vast estates

for thankfulness

country.

Thomas, were extinct

must not

ere

forget that this

country was separated from the Holy See by the consent of the canonically clergy of this realm, with a few noble but rare exceptions.

instituted

The people were actually betrayed by

their

own

lawful pastors.

There

were no missionaries from the Holy See to dispense the sacraments to those

who remained

the least external

broached

till

And

faithful.

demonstration

some

:

protestant opinions were not even

years after the schism

remained precisely the same

;

;

the externals of religion

and even when open scenes of

and violence began, they were conducted

mass was sung by the old clergy its

change was effected without

this vital

in

in

some measure by authority

Canterbury, while the bones

saintly martyr were burning in the garth, and his

were

the country faith,

by the

erased ;

while

sacrilege

name and

of family

and

distinction, professing the

and receiving the sacraments according

to

the

ancient

of

festival

churchmen from every missal and breviary

men

:

in

old

ritual,

And if we may judge arisen, many who bear the

shared the property of the Church with avidity.

from the disgraceful

name

of Catholic

as eagerly

trials

that have lately

would rob the Church

and with as

little

in her present

need and poverty,

remorse as they did in the days of her

®

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. former possessions. error, into

which

I

47

mention these things, because

I

was formerly

who

Catholic hierarchy of this land,

a

is

common

whole odium of the

led, to cast the

England on the king and

of the ancient faith in

it

loss

nobles, whereas the

basely surrendered the sacred charge

they should have defended even to death, essentially contributed to the sad change.

It

is

true they never contemplated the possibility of such

a state of things as

base compliance

but too

it

which shortly succeeded to their

see, or, indeed,

and many who had weakly consented afterwards

It is

late.

so indeed

;

we

a true saying, “ C’est,

turned out, to our bitter

le

rallied, ”

'premier pas qui coute

and

;

cost.

Regarding, therefore, the state of religion for the last three centuries as a

punishment

but

feel grateful

of the

cesses

for the unfaithfulness of the

that,

notwithstanding

holy place.

There

is

tion of the ancient titles in

office

the

cathedrals

honour of the ancient

something surely providential in the reten-

and

and

saints,

dignities, colleges,

patron,

St.

George,

— the

— the

daily chant of the divine

— the

dedication of churches in

— the consecration of ground

dead,—the preservation

of the

the repeated efforts and suc-

many traces of the ancient paths those who are now striving to regain

bitterest puritans, so

have yet been preserved, to guide the

all

English Church, we cannot

of the chapel

and

festivals,

anointing of the sovereign at the coronation.

seem ever

;

so

many

for there

pledges that is

and order of England’s

Catholic character of

liturgy, with its calendar of fasts

God

will not be

many

portions of the

— the solemn angry with

for the past,

Peter, from

service

many

These, and

awaken

in the breasts of her children a love

and to lead them back

to

whence the day-star of truth

Dugdale, Spelman, Bingham,

Collier,

and

more,

this land for

no other instance of a country having

the miserable state of protestantism, having retained so calculated to

for the burial

fallen

much

into

that

is

and reverence

union with the see of blessed first

beamed upon

Ashmole, and

us.

many

illustrious

English antiquaries and historians, might be cited to prove the great reverence for Catholic antiquity that was occasionally manifested in this

®

ON THE REVIVAL OF

48

country, even while the puritan faction was proceeding to violence. spirit of

Dugdale’s text and plates

most Catholic

is

Monasticon might have been written in a

;

The

every line of his

cloister of ancient Benedictines,

while his History of St. Paul’s exhibits a depth of piety and devotion

towards the glory of God’s Church, worthy of more ancient days.

Spelman, in his works, expresses himself on the subject of sacrilegious spoliation in a

manner that must

of those Catholics

who would

themselves the children

;

strike

shame and

terror into the hearts

Church of which they profess

spoil the

and he draws a

fearful but true picture of the

dismal disasters that befel the plunderers of the Church at the period of the general dissolution. It is

who had been

almost inconceivable that men,

of the Church,

who had partaken

ancient faith,

principles of the

and knelt at

sake of stone, timber,

and

its altars,

educated in the

of the sacraments

should have demolished, for the

lead, edifices

whose beauty and

have secured them from injury even in

this

skill

would

generation, and

which

should have possessed in their eyes the highest claim on their veneration

;

and we

can

only account

for

the

atrocities

which

accom-

panied the ascendancy of protestantism in England, by supposing the perpetrators

blinded

punishment of God.

to

the

To hear

enormity of

own

their

actions

by the

of the choirs of vast churches stript and

—tombs of prelates and nobles ransacked lead,— brass rent of the sanctuary profaned and from graves, — the consecrated and martyrs burnt, — the images of our melted, — the bones of for

roofless,

vessels

saints

Divine Redeemer trodden under

vestments converted burnt,

— and

all

this

to

foot,

domestic use,

dragged about and consumed,—

— monastic

libraries pillaged

without foreign foe or invasion, in once and then

but lately Catholic England, and perpetrated by

born and bred in the Catholic Church, almost incredible

;

and now the sad

— seems

men who had been

like a fearful

dream, and

recital of destruction alone,

us more than even the record of ancient glory prostrate pillars

and

:

moves

we lament over the

and scattered fragments of some once noble

pile,

— we

®

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. the fallen cross,

raise

—bare

the ancient legend on the wall,

the fragments from the shattered panes, and

so associated with ancient piety

is

clear

The study

from moulded base and tomb.

soil

49

and holy

collect

the accumulating

of Catholic antiquity

recollections, that the soul is

drawn from the contemplation of material

insensibly



objects to spiritual

truths.

An Englishman faith

needs not controversial writings to lead him to the

of his fathers

;

written on the wall, on the window, on the

is

it

Let him but look on the tombs of those

pavement, by the highway.

who occupy



-the

the most honourable position in the history of his country,

devout, the noble, the valiant, and the wise,

them with clasped hands invoking the

saints of

— and

he will behold

Holy Church, whilst

the legend round the slabs begs the prayers of the passers-by for their souls’

At Canterbury he beholds the pallium, emblem of the

repose.

jurisdiction conferred of this land

Gregory on the blessed Austen,

St.

on buttress, parapet, and

wall.

ruin that does not bear

some badge of ancient

the crosses on the walls dedication, in

tomb teaches

sculptured

in

ghostly food,

the

— the

by pious

apostles,

and

glory.

Now

sacraments seven, and regeneration

font, of

of altar

wall,

bears

and

effigies,

the chalice and

sacrifice

;

host over

the iron-clasped ambry,

of holy Eucharist reserved for

record

and Galilee of hallowed water, and

stoups in porch, ;

;

while window, niche, spandril, and tower set that

glorious

company

of angels,

prophets,

martyrs, and confessors, who, glorified in heaven, watch over

and intercede

The Cross and gable

faith

the legend on the bell inspires veneration for

:

purification before prayer forth,

Scarcely one village church or crumbling

consecrated heralds of the Church

priestly

primate

of anointings with holy chrism and solemn

tell

— the sculptured

the laver of grace

these

first

York, the keys of Peter, with triple crowns, are carved

at

;

by

;

for the faithful

upon

earth.

—that emblem of a Christian’s

in flaming red it

hopes



still

surmounts spire

waves from the masts of our navy, over the

towers of the sovereign’s palace, and

is

® H

blazoned on London’s shield.

ON THE REVIVAL OF

50

The order of of famous

St.

memory,

George, our patron saint, founded by King Edward is

yet the highest honour that can be conferred

sovereigns on the subject

Our

solemnly.

;

and

his chapel is glorious,

towns, and

cities,

localities,

the

and

by

his feast kept

rocky islands which

surround our shores, are yet designated by the names of those saints of old through

whose

martyrdoms, or benefactions, they have become

lives,

famous.

The various seasons these holy tides.

by the masses of

of the year are distinguished

Scarcely

is

there one noble house or family whose

honourable bearings are not identical with those blazoned on ancient

church or window, or chantry tomb, which are so pious deeds and faith of their noble ancestry. is

many

witnesses of the

Nay, more, our sovereign

solemnly crowned before the shrine of the saintly Edward, exhorted to

follow in the footsteps of that pious king, and anointed with

oil

poured

from the same spoon that was held by Canterbury’s prelates eight centuries ago.

In

short,

Catholicism

is

so

interwoven with

every thing sacred,

honourable, or glorious in England, that three centuries of puritanism, indifference,

and

infidelity,

It clings to this land,

have not been able effectually to separate

and developes

itself

better feelings of a naturally honourable

What

into sin.

!

from time to

man who had been

an Englishman and a protestant

parricide, to sever those holy ties that

!

it.

time, as the

betrayed

Oh, worse than

bind him to the past, to deprive

communion of soul with those holy men, now blessed spirits with God, who brought this island from pagan obscurity who covered its once dreary face to the brightness of Christian light, who gave those lands with the noblest monuments of piety and skill, which yet educate our youth, support the learned, and from whom we

himself of that sweet



received

all

we have yet

left

that

is

glorious, even to our political govern-

ment and privileges. Can a man of soul look on the cross-crowned chime of distant

bells, or



spire,

and

listen

to the

stand beneath the lofty vault ol cathedral

:

r

rr ;

MMiJ

bsg

CHVKCH

WRNI7WKFT

SENSES

725!

BIRflMSEKET

i».

CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. on long and lessening

choir, or gaze

aisles,

51

or kneel

by ancient tomb,

and yet protest against aught but that monstrous and unnatural system that has mutilated their beauty

And

not.

and marred

their fair design

Surely

?

truly such feelings of reverence for long-despised excellence

has been awakened

men, that we

among

may begin

so

many

and devout country-

of our learned

to hope, indeed, that our

redemption draws nigh.

"We have already lived to hear the name of Canterbury’s blessed martyr

pronounced with accents of veneration

;

—a

hundred pens, most ably

wielded, are writing in defence of ancient piety and practice voices are raised against the abominations of

land

is,

;

— a thousand

modern innovation.

indeed, awakening to a sense of her ancient dignity

and

to appreciate the just merits of the past,

The

future.

few years must, or ought

last

to,

she begins

;

work eagerly

to

Engfor the

have worked a great

change in the feelings of English Catholics towards the Anglican church-

men

;

and

it is

to be restored,

of Zion than

evident that, it

will

if it

be God’s

will that

departed glories are

be effected rather by rebuilding the ruined walls

by demolishing the poor remains that

are

seems providentially stayed.

God

forbid

The

left.

common

popular innovation that so lately threatened us with

tide of

destruction

we should endeavour

to obtain

a transept in a scramble with dissenters, but rather prove ourselves to

possess the feelings of the true mother in Solomon’s judgment,

give up

all,

than see what we hold so dear divided

;

and

freely

and by perfecting

ourselves,

and carrying out true Catholic principles

and

hasten forward that union to which, in the words of an eccle-

zeal,

siastical

periodical,

we may even begin

in charity, devotion,

to look forward,

and which

is

rather to be obtained through the sacrifice of the altar and midnight supplication, than

by the clamours

of

an election platform or the tumult

of popular commotion.

ilaus

Deo!



——

DESCRIPTION OF THE

REVIVED CHURCH ORNAMENTS FIGURED IN PLATE In the centre, a lectern of carved oak, surmounted by a cross

A

turning on the shaft.

Psalter and book of the

bosses of gilt metal, enamelled and engraved, are

Immediately over the lectern

is

fleury,

X.

with a double desk

Holy Gospels, bound with

shown lying on

a corona or circlet for lights,

clasps,

and

it.

and on either side an

altar

lamp.

On

the altar are various examples of altar candlesticks, and a small tower tabernacle for the reservation of the blessed Eucharist.

The

frontal

represents the four Evangelists and other sacred

On

needle-work and gold.

the step,

emblems embroidered

two high standing candlesticks

in

for consecration

tapers.

Curtains suspended to rods are shown on each side of the altar; and, immediately behind the candlesticks and tabernacle, a small reredos of gilt or embroidered work, over which is

On

a ferettum or portable shrine.

the right side of the altar

A processional cross. A pastoral staff. A faldistorium, with A monstrance. Three

A On

it.

chalices.

standing altar

cross.

the left side of the altar

A A A A A On

a precious mitre lying on

processional cross and a standing altar cross. pastoral staff.

verge or cantor’s

staff.

ciborium.

pax and an Agnus Dei

case.

the pavement

Two thuribles,

with a ship

for incense,

a chrismatory, enamelled,

These ornaments, and authorities

by the

many

care of a devout

by the ancient methods

of

and

others,

and

two holy water

vats, a processional candlestick,

a sacrying bell.

have been most faithfully revived from ancient skilful goldsmith of

working metals.

Birmingham, and are produced

* *