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AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF THE BIOLOGY TEACHER IN CLASSROOM GUIDANCE ACTIVITIES
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Alice Amanda Tucker August 1950
UMI Number: EP46628
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46628 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is project report, w ritte n under the direction o f the candidate’s adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty o f the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree
of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
. A d v is e r
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER
THE P R O B L E M ...................................
II. THE NEED FOR G U I D A N C E .........................
The Purposes of E d u c a t i o n .................
The changing secondary school population . . . .
The wider range of academic ability The varied cultural backgrounds Changes In Economic and Social Life Changes in Educational Philosophy
The characteristics and need of high school students................... Adolescence— a period of change Physical growth
.................. . . . . .
9 9 9
Social and emotional g r o w t h .................. 10 Individual differences Needs of adolescents
The aims of guidance............................ 10 The guidance program of the s c h o o l .............. 12 The guidance functionaries ..................
Summary of the chapter.......................... 13 III.
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN GUIDANCE ACTIVITIES . . 15 The teacher in organized programs
PAGE The classroom as a place for guidance
What is the relationship of the guidance program to the whole s c h o o l .................. 17 The importance of the teacher
The student opinions of the helpfulness of classroom teachers .........................
Types of contributions by the classroom teacher to the guidance of s t u d e n t s .................. 22 Need for an organized guidance plan
. . . . . .
Summary of the chapter.......................... 27 IV.
GUIDANCE IN THE BIOLOGY C L A S S R O O M ................ 30 Guidance through mental hygiene The teacher1s personality Group morale
....................... . . 33
Classroom procedures ....................... Guidance through the Biology curriculum
Social p r o b l e m s .............................. 39 Recreational problems
Family relations problems
S u m m a r y ...............................
Vocational guidance related to Biological Science
PAGE Studies of occupations.................
Collecting personal data ....................
S u m m a r y ......................................60 Educational guidance through the classroom . . .
Enrollmentprocedure . . . . .
S u m m a r y .....................
Summary of the Chapter.........
V.S U M M A R Y ............................................ 74 BIBLIOGRAPHY......... ............................. .
LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE
1. Biological Sciences and Related Vocations and A v o c a t i o n s ..................................62 2. Requirements for G r a d u a t i o n ........, ..............67 3. Requirements for CollegeEntrance
4. List of Senior High. Subjects.....................
5. Course of Studies P l a n ...........
THE PROBLEM Ever since Dewey pointed out that the narrow concept of teaching subject matter must give way to the consid eration of the child and his needs and problems, there has been an ever increasing emphasis of the role of guidance in the adjustment of the individual to his life situation. This concern with "the individual student" is an inevitable consequence of social trends.
The huge hetro-
geneous student body of today presents many very different problems from the small select high school group of yester day. The new educational philosophy and the diverse student body have produced reorganization of the schools by sweeping curricular changes, the mental hygiene approach, the development of testing devices, the growth of counsel ing services.
Reorganization to provide instruction suited
to the needs of adolescent students as potential citizens in our complex social, economic and industrial organization, has emphasized the need for an adequate guidance program. Although teachers are often confused by the lack of a clear concept of guidance, it is evident that if classroom teachers have a sympathetic understanding of their students and a
consciousness of their problems beyond the narrow subject matter confines, it is impossible to keep guidance out of the classroom. It is the purpose of this project to indicate devices and methods by which a teacher of a required course in biology can develop personal and social adjustment^through individual and group guidance)by modifying the classroom activities and by building wholesome student attitudes. In order to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem, the project has been divided into three main divisions (1) to stress the growing need for guidance; (2) to survey the opinions and findings of investigators in the field, of the role of the teacher in the guidance program; and (3) to indicate methods by which a teacher of biology can apply guidance principles to the classroom.
CHAPTER I I
THE NEED FOR GUIDANCE A look at our failures— our broken families, our in stitutions full of the mentally ill, our job misfits, our misspent leisure— all indicate the need for wise guidance. These problems are a challenge to home, school, church, and government.
Parents more and more are becoming aware that
children need affection, security, and sympathetic guidance under stable, reassuring conditions quite as much as they need an adequate physical environment.
are following the recommendations for wholesome nurture. The church and school were once only concerned with the character development of children as individuals; we now are also greatly concerned with how they get along together, with their attitudes toward themselves and society.
realize that the child who is rejected by his school group is well on the way to becoming the adult who breaks the laws of society, and perhaps will add to society’s burden of institutional inmates. I.
THE PURPOSES OF EDUCATION'
Education is a process which seeks the maximum development of every boy or girl according to his unique nature and needs.
Among the basic needs of children are
4 these: physical and mental health, self-respect, social status, and understanding and appreciation of democratic privileges and responsibilities. general education?
What are the aims of
Let us consider the four qualities of an
educated person, as described by the Educational Policies Commission: (1)
EDUCATION FOR SELFREALIZATION— That is, among other things, the educated person has an inquiring mind, an appetite for learning.
EDUCATION FOR HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS— The educated person puts human relationships and welfare first in his scale of values, has a respect for humanity, is friendly, cooperative, courteous, and practices democracy.
EDUCATION FOR ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY— The educated producer knows the satisfaction of good workmanship, appreciates the value and significance of his work in a democracy, is an informed, skilful buyer.
EDUCATION FOR CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY— The educated citizen acts to correct undesirable conditions, learns to understand the meaning of democracy, is loyal to its principles, is tolerant, has a world-community ideal, and accepts civic duties.^
The importance of an educational approach which seeks the fulfilment of these needs is being recognized by psycho logists, parents, and teachers.
Harmonious life design is
Educational Policies Commission, The Purposes of Education in American Democracy (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 193#), p. 47.
5 rarely achieved unless there is a balanced expression and reasonable satisfaction for these needs. II. THE CHANGING SECONDARY SCHOOL POPULATION The following material is a summary of ideas as presented by Hamrin and Erickson in their book Guidance in the Secondary School.^ Our democratic philosophy of education has committed us to the principle of providing an education at public expense to each American youth.
As a result high school
education is no longer for the select few; it is becoming the experience of an increasing proportion of all young people.
This increased enrolment is characterized by
greater differences in academic ability, variations in cultural background, and the presence of increased numbers of atypical students.
In addition, striking changes in
our economic and social life have caused the high school to assume greater responsibility for total youth development. The diversified needs of this enlarged and diversified secondary school population make it evident that the type of secondary school adapted to the needs of all students
2 Shirley Austin Hamrin and Clifford E. Erickson, Guidance in the Secondary School (New York: D. Appleton(Jentury Company, inc. , 1V3V), pp. 37-39.
6 must of necessity be very different than that of,three or four decades ago.
As a result of this the secondary schools
are faced with the problem of providing for a different kind of student body.
The range and kind of student interests,
abilities, experiences, financial resources,, cultural backgrounds, and vocational needs have greatly increased.' The wider range of academic ability. The ability to do academic work varies greatly among high school students. The school is faced with the problem of providing stimula ting educational experiences for a more heterogeneous student body with a wider range of academic abilities.
problem of adjusting the curriculum to the acadmic ability of the pupils is increased when the school program attempts to provide the optimum stimulation for each student. The varied cultural backgrounds.
secondary school has a student body coming from a great variety of cultural backgrounds and with a wide range of past experiences. represented.
The very rich and the very poor are
Some of the students come from homes possess
ing every cultural advantage; others are from homes completely lacking almost any cultural stimulation.
Some students have
traveled extensively, read widely, and particpated in all types of educative activities.
Because of this variety,the
school must begin with the pupil as he is.
To be truly effec
tive the school must have a flexibility and range of programs so
that the educational program can be more nearly individual ized in terms of the experiences and backgrounds of all of the students. III.
CHANGES IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE
Modern secondary students are members of a very complex social order.
Major social and economic changes
have transformed the rural agrarian American life into an urban industrial, way of life.
With the shift of population
from the country to the city, there has arisen problems of health, safety, leisure-time activities, and other aspects of group living. The home, once a cooperative enterprise in which members participated in both working and playing has become largely a unit of consumption in which members work outside of the home.
Leisure and amusement too have been commer
cialized so that the indivual no longer works or plays in the home.
Modern economic and social life has resulted in
less parent-child contact, and consequently in less educa tion from the home training.
Religious influences together
with the home influences have been considerably lessened. Thus we find that the adjustment of youth to our complex society must be supplied by the school.
CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
The changing population in the secondary school, and the more complex social order has been accompanied by a change in educational philosphyv
Dewey has suggested the
need for a school curriculum which would permit individual ized
He has pointed out that the narrow con
cept of teaching subject matter must give way to the con sideration of the child, his needs and problems.
teachers must have a sympathetic understanding of their pupils, and a consciousness of their problems beyond the narrow subject matter confines.
The teacher must provide
for individual differences, goals, and abilities.
curriculum must fit the child; not the child fit a precon ceived curriculum. V.
THE CHARACTERISTICS AND NEED OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
The following information and material was obtained from the Guidance Handbook for Secondary Schools.^
3 John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916), p. 46. ^ Guidances Handbook for Secondary Schools, (Office of Los Angeles County Superintendent of 'Schools^ Division of Research and Guidance, Los Angeles: California Test Bureau, 1948), pp. 3-10.
Adolescence— a period of change. Adolescence is the period which lies between childhood with its dependence and parental control, and maturity with its independence and adult responsibility. change:
The adolescent period is one of
physical, social, and economic. Physical growth.
The rate of growth during adoles
cence is more rapid than at any previous period except in infancy.
The adolescent cycle lasts for a period of approx- •
imately four to seven years. is very rapid.
During the first phase, growth
The second phase, from about sixteen to
twenty, the growth curve slows down considerable.
enter the cycle of puberty earlier than boys and progress through the various phases of growth at an earlier age. These rapid growth cycles occur at the time that the student is attending the junior and senior high school. Intellectual growth. Each student has his own rate of growth of mental maturity, just as he has his own physical groxvth rate.
The capacity for mental maturity is partly
dependent upon cultural factors and partly upon hereditary factors.
The main difference between the child and the
adolescent is the ability to reason.
The child learns by
direct experience; the adolescent had had more experience so that he can think abstractly.
10 Social and emotional growth.
Adolescence is a
period of change in relationships with family and members of.the opposite sex.
During childhood children prefer
to associate with members of the same sex, because they have mutual interests.
During adolescence students become
conscious of personal appearance, and are interested in mixed activities such as parties and dancing. also change in their relationship to older
they are no longer so dependent upon them. Individual differences.
Intellectual, physical, and
social differences in rate of growth have important implica tions for teachers.
Hereditary and environmental factors
influence each individuals growth in such
a way as to make
him unique from the norm or average of the
Needs of adolescents.
Certain needs are basic to
all human beings: affection, belonging, independence, social approval, self-esteem.
Recognition and satisfaction of
these basic needs is one of the problems of education. VI.
THE AIMS OF GUIDANCE
The following objectives of guidance were formulated at the Regional Conference on Vocational Guidance held at the University of California in January, 1934*
The broadly stated aim of guidance is that of help ing all individuals at appropriate times to plan for, select training activities for, and enter vo cational, social, and recreational activities in which they will be successful and happy and of service to society. Thus they will continuously, throughout life, be helped to utilize in full the capacities which they possess in the interests of the common good. This implies that: 1.
Individuals will be helped to secure pertinent information concerning present and probably future vocational, social, and recreational conditions and activities in order that they may be able to plan a life program of activities in each of these areas with proper recognition of social and personal values.
Individuals will be helped to discover the nature and extent of their aptitudes, interests, and needs.
Individuals will be helped to develop interest which lead to the planning and carrying out of programs of training.
Individuals will be helped to secure informa tion and to select activities which will promote the development of a normal, well-integrated personality, and to detect and remedy malad justments which may develop.
Individuals will be helped to secure informa tion concerning the nature and objectives of the offerings of the school, and of their own probabilities of success in connection with each of the offerings.
Individuals will be led to participate more actively and meaningfully in the training activities of the school through the develop ment of interests in and appreciation of the values of these activities.
Individuals will be prepared to re-examine and revise their plans as changed conditions make this advisable.
Individuals will be helped to acquire standards
of value consistent with the aspirations of a democratic society with regard to social rec reational, and vocational activities.5 VII.
THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM OF THE SCHOOL
The guidance program offers methods for diagnosing the abilities, interests, background, and needs of the individual student; it offers methods of relating such findings to the individual’s life adjustment; and in addi tion it must follow up the student to see that he makes an adequate adjustment.
The following quotation from Hamrin
and Erickson clearly indicates the role of the school guidance program. Guidance and personnel work represents an organized effort on the part of the school, equipped with both a knowledge of the pupil and information as to opportun ities of an educational, as social, and a vocational character, to help the individual pupil become adjusted to his present situation in such a way as to provide the greatest development for him and to aid him in planning his future.® The guidance functionaries.
and specialists are the guidance functionaries.
program requires an intelligent understanding on the part
5 Report made by the Regional Conference on Vocation al Guidance, held at the University of California, Berkeley, California, January 1934. ^ Shirley A. Hamrin and Clifford E. Erickson, Guidance in the Secondary School (New York: D. Appleton-Century Uompany, inc., I93V), p . 2.
of all faculty members regardless of the number of special ists employed.
The program should be unified and coordin
ated throughout the school.
The administrator superintends
and coordinates the total guidance structure.
specialist stimulates, guides and checks the guidance activities of teachers, and gives specialized expert help where necessary.
The guidance expert, who may be referred
to as the counselor, brings to the program a highly trained skill.
The teacher stimulates high ideals and goals in the
student through the curriculum and also through his personal ity and example. upon the pupil.
The school is a unit in its influence E v W y experience which the student has in
the school tends to modify his attitude toward life. SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER In the largely agrarian society of the past there was no keenly felt need for organized guidance other than that provided by the family.
The development of industries
has led to dense concentration of population in metropolitan areas and to many sociological problems.
The attempt of the
schools to keep pace with the growing social and economic need has expanded the curriculum.
And at the same time,
society has placed a much greater responsibility upon the schools for all of the young people and their training.
The increased range of school population has emphasized the differences among individuals in their potentialities for success*
A complex society, an awareness of individual
differences, and the special needs of adolescents makes an attempt at guidance in the schools inevitable.
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN GUIDANCE ACTIVITIES The teacher in organized programs.
The ideal guidance
program would seem to be one in which certain definite duties were allocated to members of the teaching staff. Such duty must vary to fit the individual teacher and the situation; however, it will be seen that the very nature of an adequate guidance plan assumes the use of the teacher as a definite part of the plan.
It appears obvious, for
instance, that if the results of the counseling of a partic ular pupil by a guidance official were not made known to the various teachers of the pupil, a united front in dealing with the child will not be effected.
It is further obvious
that the teacher, by coming into daily contact with the pupil and observing him under varying conditions, may be of inestimable help to a plan of individual guidance for him. The classroom as a place for guidance.
the term guidance came into general use, the concept which it embodies had found a place in good teaching.
seen there that guidance is no capsule or formula which can be installed within a school like some piece of apparatus.
16 It is no special device which if brought within the class room automatically accomplishes a miraculous cure for the ills that may be besetting it;
It is no one method which
can be implanted in all schools and in all situations. The principle of guidance exists first in the minds and hearts of teachers.
It must be an outgrowth of right
living and right thinking to which has been added kindness, helpfulness, and tolerance.
This is the basis of guidance;
to it must be added knowledge of techniques and devices to put these to practical and efficient use. If classroom i teachers in general have this sympathetic understanding of their pupils and a consciousness of their problems beyond the narrow subject matter confines, it is impossible to keep guidance out of the classroom. The classroom teacher is the most important guidance functionary.
Citation of proof for such an opinion would
include such statements as: 1.
The teacher is in a position to gain the trust and confidence of the pupil.
The teacher may become rather intimate with the pupil.
The teacher is in a position to gain helpful infor mation concerning a pupil.
The teacher may be al,ert to observe evidences of maladjustment.
The teacher comes in contact with far more pupils during the day and week than any other individual. I.
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM TO THE WHOLE SCHOOL?
According to Traxler: Ideally conceived, guidance enables each individual to understand his abilities and interests, to devel op them as well as possible, to relate them to life goals and finally to reach a state of complete and mature self-guidance as a desirable citizen of a democratic social order. Guidance is thus vitally related to every aspect of the school— the curriculum, the methods of instruction, the supervision of instruction, disciplinary procedures, attendance, problems of scheduling, the extracurriculum, the health and physical fitness program, and home and community relations. This of course implies the closest kind of cooperation between guidance functionaries and all the other members of the staff. . . . Although the adjustive aspects of guidance do have in some instances, obscure and technical ramifications that call for the assistance of experts, the greater part of the work of guidance is neither mysterious nor highly technical. Good teachers have always been guidance officers, as well as instructors, and they always will be. The philosphy and techniques of a guidance program are for the most part simply a means of helping the school staff do better what it would by virtue of necessity attempt to do anyway.7
7 Arthur E. Traxler, Techniques of Guidance (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945), P» 3«
13 Jones is of a similar opinion that guidance is a function of the whole school. . . . guidance is not something that can be separated from the general life of the school, nor is it some thing that can be located in some particular part of the school; it cannot be tucked away in the office of the counselor or the employment bureau. It is a part of every activity of every teacher in the system. It is then, a function that is shared by all and must be so administered. II.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TEACHER
How important is the teacher in the guidance program? The following quotations are presented as evidence of the fact that the classroom teacher is paramount in the guidance role.
Along with their conviction that guidance in schools was necessary, there has come a realization among leaders in education that a maximum of guidance of an adequate nature may be obtained only if a sympathetic and well-trained instructional staff has . the opportunity to utilize the classroom as the guidance laboratory. . . . that the separation of the function of guidance from teaching results in a loss of a vital force in child development.9 Rosecrance gives us four assumptions underlying the viewpoint that teachers as well as specialists are needed
^ Arther J. Jones, Principles of Guidance (revised edition; New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1934), p. 396. 9 E. H. Wilkins, The Orientation of the College Student, Problems of College Education (Mineapolis: tfniversity or Minesota Press), p. 2^3•
19 in the guidance program. 1.
The human organism grows as a whole, not as a conglomerate of disparate parts. This implies that each individual must be regarded as a totality in the totality of his situation.
Only that experience to which a person responds has great influence in changing him.
An individual can be understood only in the light of his background and day-to-day reactions and relationships. This emphasizes the impor tance of continuing associations with people.
Growth proceeds from within outward, a fact which is applicable equally to high-school students, teachers, and specialists.
If the implications of these assumptions is clear it must be evident that effective guidance cannot be provided unless the classroom teacher plays a leading role.10 In Traxler again we find evidence of the position of the teacher in the guidance of students. The process of guidance, is work that the teacher already engages in and it has for its ultimate goal the same objectives that good teaching has— the maximum adjustment and growth possible for every individual. Under the normal conditions of teaching in a secondary school there can be no sharp dividing line between instruction and guidance. These two processes are inextricably related in every classroom and in every extracurriculum activity in which both pupils and teachers engage.H From Rosecrance we find additional evidence to substan tiate the role of the teacher in guidance.
10 Francis C. Rosecrance, "The Place and Activities of the Classroom Teacher in Guidance,” The High School Journal, XXIII (May, 1940), 209-211. 11 Traxler, op. cit., p. 309.
zo Some authorities assert that the chief contribution that guidance makes to education is. its emphasis on the individual student. . . . What happens to the individual student is the ultimate test of any highschool education. Every teacher should take time or be provided time in which to have conferences with students regarding their progress, plans, and problems. Looking at it from this point of view, counseling is not something that can be necessarily be set aside for a counseling period. It is something that good teachers will be doing continually through every class period, and as often and with as many students as possible. Teaching becomes then, not the importation of a prescribed set of facts, skills, and knowledges, but rather the guidance of the growth and development of young people. There can be no dichotomy between guidance process and the instructional process. Under such a concept, guidance is to designate our best efforts toward the wise influencing of a child’s own inward choices and attitudes, and the teacher along with the parent, has strategic opportunity to exert such influence.*2 Umstattd is of the same opinion as the others in re gard to the teacherb place in guidance. The teacher’s work is devi'fealiz.ed to the degree that his pupilte problems are handled by others. To that same degree does he become an automaton, mechan ically drilling meaningless facts and dead material into pupil’s minds. Any practice which accentuates this trend is to be deplored and should be checked and remedied. This can be achieved only when the teacher becomes able to understand their pupil’s problems and to use whatever there is of value in the racial experience, handed down as subjects; of study, to aid his pupils in solving those problems wisely.
cit., p. 212.
-*-3 j. g . Umstattd, Secondary School Teaching (New York: Ginn and Company, 193?), P» 53 •
21 Koos, and Kefauver as a result of their survey, came to the conclusion that the classroom teacher is an indispensible factor in effective guidance programs.
that the teacher-pupil contacts in the classrooms ”. . . af ford a basis of judgment of student’s personal makeup that is one of the most informative that we can obtain from any s o u r c e . F r o m Frown and Martin we find the following statement, In the long run the effectiveness of guidance de pends upon the classroom teacher interest in students, her receptivity to information and suggestion, her understanding and willingness to make adjustments in terms of the needs, interests, and abilities of individual student s. 3-5 III.
STUDENT OPINIONS OF THE HELPFULNESS OF CLASSROOM TEACHERS
* Not only do the leader®) in the guidance field believe strongly in the importance of the teachers in the guidance of students, but
found that students also held
■^Leonard V, Koos, and Grayson N. Kefauver, Guidance in Secondary Schools (New York: The Macmillan Company), p. jnr. 3-5 Marion Brown and Vibella Martin, ’’Anecdotal Records of Pupil Behavior,” California Journal of Secondary Education XIII (April, 193dJ, p. 203. 16 Clifford E. Erickson, The Homeroom in Secondary Education (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern TJiniversify).
this same view.
He found that 2,69# secondary school pupils
reported the persons in their respective schools who were of most assistance to them with their problems were their classroom teachers*
From another survey made by Rosecrance-*-?
we obtain the same response.
"One of the important features
of my twelve years* schooling,” said one student, "was the influence which my English teacher had upon my life.
her were to be found the qualities of poise, culture, deep insight, and willingness to help.
She created a close
understanding between her pupils and herself."
In only one
of the scores of comments about high school teachers received from these university students was reference made to what a teacher taught.
The majority, like those quoted above,
referred to what the teacher was and her interest in pupils as persons.
Whether high school teachers desire to do so or
not, they are engaging in the process of guiding the growth and development of children, and they play a very significant role in the life of the adolescent. IV.
TYPES OF CONTRIBUTIONS BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER TO THE GUIDANCE OF STUDENTS There are many things that the ordinary classroom
!? Rosecrance, op. cit., p. 209.
teacher can do to aid the guidance program of the whole school. 1.
The gathering of significant information about pupils and the detection of evidences of maladjust ments and disorders.
The following quotation from
Traxler indicates ways that the teacher may contri bute to the cumulative records. An important part of the cumulative record has to do with social adjustment, personali ty, mental and emotional factors, activities and interests, accomplishments, experiences, and'plans. Tests in these fields are still highly experimental and the main reliance for the filling out of this part of the card must be placed upon observations of persons who have contact with the pupil. The class room teachers of each student will have the best opportunity to contribute to this part of the card.lo Teachers may note pupils in need of a psychiatrist as indicated by this quotation from Traxler. Teachers may. . . improve their ability to discover individuals needing guidance in mental hygiene, although they should be careful not to arrive at hasty conclusions about the nature of the difficulties, for psychiatric symptoms usually are not overtly related to their cause but are secondary symptoms developed as a healing process. These symptoms should be recognized and reported but the teacher will seldom, if ever, be prepared to provide adequate in terpretation or treatment for them.19
cit•, pp. 311-312.
19 Traxler, ££. cit., p. 315•
24 Teachers may also keep anecdotal records of students to aid the school counselor with the cases he is working with. 2.
Teachers may also contribute to the testing program of the school.
These three quotations are from
Traxler. Teachers can make a very important contri bution to the testing program of the school through critically evaluating the achievement tests used in the light of the objectives and contents of their courses. . . ♦. A de tailed. checking of each item in the test should be made, with notations indicating whether or not the test question sanples something the school is trying to do. Such analysis should be most helpful in inter preting the results of the tests. No test can be expected to fit a particular curric ulum exactly, but the correspondence should be fairly close. The teachers can also aid with the testing program by sending information to the prin cipal, which may be passed along to the publishers, about questions which experience indicates are not valid. The actual ex perience of teachers in the field with tests is one of the best aids in their revision and improvement. Still another way in which teachers can assist in securing valid results with tests is to see to it that the pupils who have not had previous experience in taking standard ized tests are made acquainted with the general nature of objective tests before the tests are administered. A few minutes spent in making an explanation and display ing sample questions to a group of inexper ienced pupils may place them in a much better position to show their real ability when the
tests are given. Adjustment of the elasswork of the school so that it fits the needs of the individual student.
possible to manipulate the classroom experiences so as; to obtain maximum adjustment of the student.
teacher should provide remedial instruction in subject handicaps.
And also encourage and develop
The teacher can also discuss
failures, and causes of failures and methods of improvement with the students.
It is the job of
the teacher to set up objectives that are dynamic, reasonable, and worthwhile to the student and then help the student attain these objectives. Develop study habits.
The nature of study so
varies from subject to subject that probably the most effective guidance in study habits will be carried on in connection with the actual classwork. Build character through the teacher1s personality, and example.
The teacher can assist the pupil
in defining his needs, formulating his aims and achieving them through helpful, friendly, personal
Traxler, op. cit., pp. 310-311•
interest in each student.
The development of citi
zenship, leadership, and personality is just as important as teaching knowledge and skills.
teacher can deepen rapport by developing skill in the use of approval incentives and by getting better acquainted with each student. It has been suggested that the teacher who has made the greatest contribution to the development of pupils has always had the guidance viewpoint and has proceeded along lines which have as their basis the principles of guidance. Throughout a school system there may be teachers whose guidance understanding and service render invaluable assis tance to occasional pupils.
However to reach all pupils
and provide for them a program of continuous and purposive guidance there must be an organized plan. V.
NEED FOR AN ORGANIZED GUIDANCE PLAN
The importance of organization of guidance practices is very clearly stated in this quotation from Allen. The purpose of organized guidance is to assure to every child the advantages of individual treatment that have always been provided by the best teachers for the most fortunate children under the most favorable circumstances, and to improve these services through the development of a specially selected and trained personnel, improved instruments, better understood principles, and an organization within the curricu lum and program of the school which will provide the conditions necessary for the greatest possible
27 success of the work.
As a summary these are the three primary beliefs held by many investigators and writers in the field of guidance. 1.
The most universally held belief is that the present day school will fulfull its mission in the most efficient manner and with a greater degree of suc cess if all instruction is based on the guidance viewpoint.
The second belief revolves around the concept that the guidance function will be most effective if every teacher is made a part of the program and performs guidance services commeasurate with his training and ability.
The third belief is that guidance services can be best, and reach all pupils consistently only if there is conscious planning in establishing and maintaining the program. VI.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
The importance of the teacher in education has long been recognized.
The success of a school depends more on
21 Richard D. Allen, Organization and Supervision of Guidance in Public Education (New 'York: Inor Publishing Company, 1^34), P* 115•
the ability and sincerity of its teachers than any other single factor.
The presence of a fine building and adequate
facilities and a sympathetic and able administration largely come to naught if the teaching staff is incompetent.
versely, a well-trained, sympathetic teacher may compensate for a host of deficiencies.
It may be recalled that Aristotle
taught beneath the trees of Athens; Jesus drew the thousands to him along the shores of the Sea of Galilee, in rude inns, and crowded market places; a rough stable within the sight of the Notre Dame Cathedral was the classroom of Abelard. These teachers, among the greatest the world has known, needed no fine surroundings in their efforts to bring truth and understanding to their pupils. Perhaps no place in the scope of formal education does the teacherfs place seem more strategic than in the performance of guidance services.
Although he may be un
qualified for technical guidance work, though he may be entirely ignorant of the steps in counseling proposed by guidance specialists, though his teaching load be such that he finds little time for individual guidance work, neverthe less, he remains solidly placed as the most important guidance functionary. A guidance program, then, that does not recognize the necessity of including the teacher in its processes seems
29 built upon an insecure basis and cannot function in an adequate manner.
GUIDANCE IN THE BIOLOGY CLASSROOM Every carefully formulated statement of educational aims made has stressed the high school1s responsibility for providing an education based upon individual needs and social demands.
Some schools, however, are trying to
make the common concerns of youth one criterion for deter mining the curriculum content.
There is an effort to
reorganize the course content to secure integration of the new material with the old.
Many high schools are unable to
break away from a subject-matter curriculum and move toward one based upon the common life experiences.
such schools teachers are not required to give guidance during the time set aside for instruction of subject matter. In other schools, a special time is set aside for guidance. This time is usually called a "home-room period.0
show that, in the main, the °home-room° is an ineffectual means of providing guidance because teachers are not per forming the two functions instruction and guidance with the same student at the same time.
The answer to the problem
lies in reorganization, by sweeping curricular changes, and by the mental hygiene approach practiced ideally by all teachers in all classrooms.
GUIDANCE THROUGH MENTAL HYGIENE
A missing ingredient in many citizenship-education programs is the mental-hygiene approach.
There is a fail
ure to recognize that the mental-hygiene concept of the well-adjusted person is fundamental to all other aspects of citizenship programs. The assumption that courses in literature, history, government— essential as they are— will develop good citizen ship is naive.
Fundamental to all other considerations,
if schools are to develop better citizens, is the honest recognition that ’’adjustment” is the best clue we now have to solving our citizenship problems.
As emotional blocks
are removed, children tend to read better, do mathematics better, and also to develop more fully the characteristics of the good citizen. The efforts of the last two decades to learn more about the growth and development of children and to help teachers understand their pupils and themselves better are fruitful advances for citizenship education.
subject to many strains in life, some major, some minor, some acute, some chronic; illness, failures, disappointments, grief are the common lot of human beings.
to meet these inner emergencies is one of the goals of education, and one of the fields of guidance.
32 Jane is a poor citizen because she gets no love and affection from parents, teachers, or friends. Tom is a poor citizen because he fails in too many tasks. Mary suffers from overburdening fear. Jim’s feelings of guilt will crush him. Mike is hungry, and sleepy; he lacks the fundamentals of economic security. Joe does not respect himself; he has been pushed around too much. Terry is confused; the teachings of his church do not jibe with what he sees happening in the world. These are the children who will become nonvoters or produce a headline as juvenile delinquents or end up playing pool, bridge or golf aimlessly with no thought of civic responsibility. What can the teacher do to help these children become better adjusted? The teachers’s personality. A good teacher guides through exemplification of the qualities possessed by an educated person.
It behooves each teacher to be a good
example for his students by his own daily observance of the highest standards of conduct.
He should exemplify by
word, action, and attitude the standards of culture, speech,
and democracy -which are characteristic of a truly educated person.
To do less is to betray the profession to which he
He should discuss with his students the commonly
accepted standards and ideals to such relationships and so organize his activities that there will be a life-like opportunity for practice by all. *
He should be a living
example of the type of person he expects his students to be. In some instances, however, it will be necessary to work individually and confidentially with certain students regarding their conduct. Group morale. Basie to all effective teaching is a human, personal consideration for students.
leads immediately to vitalized teaching since it gives primacy to human values over subject-matter emphasis.
after subject matter is forgotten there will remain the wholesome influence of the good teacher whom the student came to know and respect as an individual, not just as a teacher. A good classroom atmosphere is basic.
It is the
duty of every teacher to create a psychological atmosphere in the classroom that is conductive to enjoyment and satisfaction on the part of the student. The teacher can do this by respecting each individual in the classroom.
The student should be made to feel that
he is welcome; that he is a part of the group; that he can express his own viewpoints.
The student should have freedom
of thought and expression and yet there should be self- ' control and a willingness to cooperate.
There should be
tolerance and patience with the immature student who is careless in thought and action, for those who do not respond or learn readily.
Yet, suitable regard for worth
while standards of c'onduct and achievement must be nurtured and maintained*
Approval and commendation for worthy action
and achievement should be given. dispelled wherever possible.
Discouragement should be
And challenging jobs and ideas,
new worlds to conquer, should be kept before the students. All students should participate even the slow and backward. Basic is the teachers interest in his students as individuals.
This interest should bring out the good
qualities and subordinate the less desirable attitudes.
single thing will undermine confidence of students and lead to maladjustment quicker than a feeling of insecurity. When sincerity,.fairness, impartiality and understanding are displayed by the teacher, students are far more willing to assume responsibility in the class activities.
under such circumstances that a feeling of satisfaction and security develop, because the students are made to feel that they are recognized as important members of the
Only on sueh a foundation is it possible to develop
classroom morale for effective teaching and guidance. Classroom procedures.
The teacher should motivate
the work of the class in such a manner that students are aware of the practical life values of the knowledges, techniques, skills and attitudes toward work which the subject provides.
The teacher must clearly set the class
room activities through proper motivation.
is important in helping students to see the relationship between school life and life outside of school, for both present and future.
Subjects and activities should be
presented from the utilitarian standpoint in so far as their inherent.nature permits. Students should be shown how the subject functions in their lives today; how it helps them to meet future requirements for school or occupations; how it serves as a background for more advanced courses to come; and how people in certain occupations' use the material in their work. Teachers who would avoid disciplinary problems and prevent cases of student maladjustment from arising should plan activities carefully. 'Care should be exercised to see that these activities are educationally valuable.
this implies thorough and persistent planning and preparation
with goals clearly in mind. also to motivation.
Definite attention must be given
Also there must be careful timing in
the use and presentation of materials.
The important thing
is that the classroom periods be kept full of worthwhile activities. Students should know exactly what they are expected to do.
Which means that assignments must be clearly made
The use of a part of the class period for
supervised study is an excellent practice, since it gives the student a chance to get a good start on his assignment before he leaves the teacher.
Hence, if questions arise
he can get assistance from the teacher at once.
assignments should be reasonable in time consumption otherwise they defeat their own purpose and undermine the health of the student. The teacher should also make sure that the student knows how to study effectively.
All students should have
goals set at such a level that even the poorest students achieve some worth-while goals.
The ultimate aim of all
teaching should be to encourage students to achievement in proportion to their respective abilities.
If the student’s .
attainments do not correspond with the class standards, the teacher should adapt the work to the student's needs rather than endeavor to mold him to fit a pattern for which
37 he is not adapted.
Modification of class assignments for
poorer students, use of the contract plan, and adoption of the unit assignment approach, are convenient devices for individualization of instruction. As a check on whether teachers are providing con ditions favorable to the best development of their students, Strang has developed a set of self appraisal questions. 1.
Does every student in my classes have work so suited to his abilities and needs that he can succeed with reasonable effort?
Is my room free from an intensely competitive atmosphere? Do I help students to get recognition for the use of their abilities?
Do my students feel free to express their feelings about school, thus avoiding tension and a clash of wills that might divert their energy from study?
Do I really like the boys and girls in my classes? Do I realize that much of the be havior, that makes teaching difficult, represents a student’s attempt to find a way out of a difficulty?
Do I treat my students with as much courteous consideration as I show to my friends and professional associates?
Do I respect each individual’s personality and have faith in the realization of his best potentialities?
Do I provide group experiences in which students develop a sense of responsibility for group enterprises and get satisfaction from the success of others? Do I use school and community resources to meet individuals’ needs?
Do I stimulate students to discover and evaluate
38 their own abilities, strengths, and weaknesses, and to meet difficulty of criticism in a constructive way? 9. Do I arouse students* interest in my subject and acquaint them with its cultural and vocational values? 10. Do I cooperate with the students, counselor, and other teachers, as well as with the principal and guidance specialists? 11. Do I avoid labeling a student or making a generalization about him on the basis of a single incident or limited observation? 12. Do I try to understand him rather than judge him?22 Teachers in every subject have a contribution to make to the individual development and guidance of students in their classes.
They are not guidance specialists.
task is developmental guidance.
By their understanding of
the needs of their students and by their skill in meeting these needs through the experiences provided in their classrooms, they prevent maladjustment and help every student to develop his potentialities. II.
GUIDANCE THROUC-H THE BIOLOGY CURRICULUM
Curriculum revision has made speedy progress toward the desired ideal situation in which every teacher has an
Ruth Strang, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935), PP. 164-16$.
important role in personnel work.
In the new curriculum
plans, aims are formulated that are not confined to subject fields but are defined in terms of social functionalism and of the optimum development of the individual.
unified experiences are being provided with a wider variety of and a greater continuity of learning experiences. Increased attention is being given to the development of the attitudes and skills considered essential for democratic living and development in self-direction is being made possible through greater participation by pupils in planning and evaluating their experiences.
In brief, the principal
objective in the new curriculum is to produce the kind of behavior changes necessary to meet both individual needs and social demands. The field of biology lends itself very nicely to the process of assisting each individual to recognize his potentialities as a means of accomplishing maximum benefit to himself and society.
The author has tried to indicate
specific ways that the biology curriculum may be related to life problems and goals. Social problems.
In the future, as at present, a
student will live in a world of people; for this reason he will need to think of himself in relation to others. Getting along with others will require him to make adjust-
40 ments, to suit his behavior to friends and neighbors, to business associates, and even to strangers.
individual is associated with others he will find these adjustments necessary, whether at work, on the street, at a community gathering, or in a game of checkers.
experience of living with people is to be exciting and joyful, a person must adjust himself pleasantly to those around him. Friendliness is only one side of good citizenship. There is another and even more important side.
citizen is filled with the spirit of cooperation, the desire to unite his efforts with those of others to improve the general conditions of society.
To this end he helps to
solve community problems, follows approved patterns of living, observes laws and public regulations, and exercises his right to vote.
He takes a genuine interest in the affairs
of his community, his state, and his nation. What is more lovely than a "model city," where freshly painted houses are surrounded by beautiful lawns, dotted here and there with flowers and shrubs?
there seems to radiate an atmosphere of beauty and cleanli ness.
Keeping a community up to high standards requires
the training of its citizens.
It calls for group co
operation through governmental agencies. of today comprehend these problems?
Will the students
Will they be able to
41 take their place in our complicated society? Our natural resources are being spent at an alarming rate.
Soil, forests, minerals, wild life- what of these?
It is through a knowledge of biology that we can work intelligently for the conservation of our natural resources. Our coal mines, oil supply, forests, and other natural resources will be depleted altogether too soon unless every effort is put forth to use them and their products wisely, thus doing away with that element of waste which is often prevalent today.
Forests furnish us with paper, building
materials, clothing, turpentine, rosin, and dozens of other products, to say nothing of their beautifying and healthgiving qualities.
Also regions which have been deforested,
are barren in many places, and thus subject to floods thus resulting in damage to the soil by erosion. Also there are problems in the struggle for existence. As the population of the world increases, it is evident that there must be an increase in foodstuffs.
the study of biology, man has learned how to improve his wheat crops; how to raise poultry which produce more eggs, or cattle which produce larger quantities of milk or beef, as he desires; how to control insects and weeds which are destroying his crops or making his lands useless; and numerous other things which are essential to the day and age in which we live.
Thus not only has food production
42 been increased, but we have more health-giving varieties of food from which to choose.
The very struggle for existence
is a co-operative affair, and depends upon the ability to get along with others in solving the problems together. Also a person faces group responsibilities in a health program because the problem of health is of public concern.
People everywhere realize that by cooperative
effort they can achieve far more in certain phases of health than any one person can achieve alone.
voluntary and governmental agencies they pool their interests to the end that all are benefited.
Among the many co
operative activities which benefit the public are the purification of drinking water, the inspection of meat,, the pasteurization of milk, and the disposal of sewage.
a person may have no direct part in carrying on these activities, he will wish to lend them support because of their general good. medicine.
Another health problem is socialized
As a major problem before our people today,
what concepts will the students develop? to think the problem through carefully?
Will they be able Do they know some
of the advantages and some of the disadvantages involved? All of these problems call for group action. ment is playing a larger and larger part in affairs.
these students be able to analyse and vote intelligently on these political problems of a social nature?
call for unification of subject matter— laws, principles, and concepts, with modern government trends.
of these relationships should be a major goal in a practical biology course; and can only be achieved through careful selection of the subject matter, methods of instruction, and the constant practice of individual guidance on the part of the teacher. Recreational problems.
John L. Lewis and his three
day work week emphasizes the need for more diverse recrea tion.
A study of biology helps students to find a world
of interesting things about them. to numerous hobbies and diversions.
Such a study can lead The pressure of urban
living with the increase of mental and nervous disorder, the rate is now one person out of ten spending time in a mental institution, all indicate the growing place of hobby and nature therapy in our complex lives.
are beginning to realize the theraputic values in a fishing pole.
If the author, as a teacher, can make biology alive
and stimulating, and guide youths into better and more profitable use of leisure time the course is certainly worthwhile.
Such interests can only be aroused by
individual contact, and constant encouragement of the student on the part of the teacher, and can not be relegated to a counselor.
One teacher can not reach all
44 students, but through the classroom, and clubs mutual friend ships can blossom to the benefit of both teacher and student. Regardless of what kind of life the student leads in the future, he is certain to have many hours of leisure. By planning he can use these hours for a variety of profitable and enjoyable experiences.
There is no real
pleasure in being idle; rather, it is unpleasant, for it tends to breed discontent.
A person who has nothing to
do is inclined to become out of sorts with himself and the world. As a person plans his leisure-time activities he should think of their contribution to his welfare, and how they will benefit his health, add to his knowledge, or enable him to share pleasures with others.
A person who
gets little physical exercise at work, should engage in certain forms of physical recreation, such as tennis and golf.
To add to a persons knowledge, he should read,
listen to the radio, attend an occasional movie, and travel as conditions permit.
In this connection also he should
engage in a few hobbies, such as woodworking, gardening, collecting objects of interest, and exploring nature.
is a most interesting world of living things, yet many people have not learned fully to appreciate it.
If too much
of an individuals leisure time is spent in the "movies” or on some like form of amusement, he will miss the thrill of
mountain climbing, or taking boat trips on mountain lakes or streams, of a visit to the seashore, or of hiking through the woods where deer, moose, rabbits, partridge, beavers, and other forms of wild life are abundant.
country, of course, is ideal for nature study, but with a little training a person can have interesting experiences with plants and animals even in the city.
Have you ever
watched a fish fancier with his tropical fish, or a gardener with his prize begonias, roses, or tulips? hobby is ridden so often or so hard as gardening.
No The joy
of growing things seems most satisfying to many people. Flowers are the pride of their growers, lovely to look upon, the solace of many a weary spirit.
They breathe an atmos
phere of tranquility and quiet worship.
A patch of earth,
a package of seed, toil, and loving care, and one can make substantial what was only a dream of beauty. There are m e n .and women who delight in taking a fishing trip.
It is not the fish they are after so much
as the joy of the fragrant woods, the solitude of a lovely stream or of a wide expanse of rocking water, bed under the stars.
Their memories are
pictures of firelight and warm friendships. chair before the winter fire they tinker
In an easy
with rod, or reel,
or flies and while away many hours. Then there is the collector.
One can see him on the
46 beach with trousers rolled up, pockets bulging.
person manifests any interest, he Will show the lovely angel wing that he has just found.
Or a person may meet him in
the woods, knapsack on back, plant-press in hand; perhaps, with encouragement, he will tell of his lore. Religious problems. A study of biological science often conflicts with the student’s religious beliefs. Theories of evolution, and heredity necessitate careful presentation.
Many ideas and beliefs are deeply rooted,
and must not be destroyed.
The student must be guided into
a wider concept of religion— to add to what he has.
is danger involved in tearing down; the student is left with nothing.
The old idea that religion - the Bible and
scientific evidence are exactly opposing concepts- that if you believe one you can’t reconcile the other, must be broken down.
This can be done by showing how man’s quest
for truth has evolved. of creation.
Every culture has a fable, a story
The teacher should present some of these
to show how man’s concepts have grown.
The teacher can
also present earlier scientific theories, and show how these have been added to and modified with time and under standing.
The fact that the answer still isn’t solved
should be stressed.
The problem isn’t solved by an either
or solution, but by a continuing wider and wider concept
47 of the world, life, and creation.
It is also helpful to
show that most scientists are not atheists as is commonly believed, but are deeply religious men and women. A person enjoys spiritual security when he feels right with himself, right with others, and right with his God.
Once he acquires this abiding sense, he looks
hopefully to the future; he is unafraid to faee whatever comes because he has strength of character.
security comes through the influence of the church and other agencies which promote the finer qualities of living. It comes through association with right-minded people and through unselfish activity for the welfare of others.
is something that a student must acquire of his own choosing and out of his own experience.
A teacher can not
give religious security to a student, but he can not over look the need of presenting the evolution of life in such a manner as to prevent many problems of adjustment. Health problems.
The study of biology helps a
student to think scientifically, to reason clearly from facts and observations, to draw conclusions when there is sufficient evidence, and to stamp out superstition and prejudice.
Thus the solution of numerous health problems
which confront everyone depends upon the ability of the individual to think clearly and to apply the knowledge he
has gained through the study of biology. Health is one of the foremost problems for students to consider because of its relation to everything that the student hopes to do or to become.
From past experiences he
realizes how health dominates situations in life—
one can carry out many cherished ambitions, but without it one is stranded.
Illness can keep a person from carrying
out coveted plans for life.
Health must be guarded day after
day; one cannot neglect it today with the calm assurance that one will have it tomorrow. In safe guarding health there are personal responsi bilities for the direct care of the body in such matters as diet, exercise, and rest.
The better one understands how
his body functions and what it needs, the more intelligently he can establish a good health code.
To meet this need the
biology course of study allows for an elementary unit on human physiology.
Of all of the units that are studied, the
students like this one best, and there are many opportunities for guidance as many personal questions always arise. Since this paper is concerned with the guidance phases of the biology curriculum, and it is not a curriculum study, the details of an elaborate physiology unit will be omitted. The course of study also includes a unit about the nature of disease, and how it attacks the human body.
days now past, or even in this age among uncivilized peoples, disease has been considered as a mysterious enemy, or as being due to supernatural causes which were beyond man’s control.
Today with our high-powered microscopes and
many applications of biological knowledge, great strides have been made in discovering the cause of disease and in effecting its cure. of disease.
But health means more than the absence
It is here that biology makes notable con
tributions to knowledge of diet, exercise, fresh air, sun shine, and habit formation, all working together to build strong minds and healthy bodies. Family relations problems.
The study of heredity
always brings out points in the selection of a marriage mate.
The farmer is very particular about the kind of
seed corn which he sows, but the farmer’s children are not nearly so critical of their future mates.
laws seem to operate as well in human beings as in the case of lower animals.
Individuals often show more interest
in the pedigree of the pup they are buying than they ever do in the ancestry of their marriage mate.
The studies of
identical twins and the Dione quintuplets results in some serious thought on the students' part. Probably the most important decision in any individual’s life concerns the choice of a mate who is to
share future joys and sorrows and to contribute an equal share to the make-up of the children of that marriage. It seems apparent, therefore, that one should exercise all the intelligence and knowledge available in the selection of a suitable mate.
"Falling in love” is an extremely
dangerous business and may entirely wreck one's chance for future happiness if there is not some serious thought along with the falling in love.
In general, the two
contemplating marriage should have similar tastes and interests, be of about the same age, of the same race, and speak the same language, belong to the same social group, and be equal or nearly equal in education and culture.
happy marriages both husband and wife are equals in most of the desirable qualities which go together to make successful marriages. It is the biology teacher's responsibility to give young people the information that they need so that they do not through ignorance marry carelessly or blindly. The young people should know that at birth the baby is provided with all of the brain materials which determine the intellectual capacity of the individual.
the very beginning of the baby's life, when the sperm cell and egg cell unite to produce the embryo, the new individual's characteristics are determined by the genes which make up the chromosomes of these reproductive cells.
51 All babies have characteristics which are similar to those of their ancestors, and what could be more important than choosing the best possible marriage mate in order to insure sound children. Hot to over emphasize the role of heredity in the development of characteristics, the importance of environmental influences should be stressed.
surroundings of an individual are very important because they determine the degree to which the hereditary characteristics of children may be developed.
individual is a product of both heredity and environment; an individual’s inherited characteristics are fixed, but his acquired characteristics, or those which he acquiresthrough education and experience, are flexible.
an individual rounds out his total self with acquired characteristics depends on how successfully he makes adjustments to his environment. The home influence upon the young should be thoroughly understood by the students who will be future parents, and will be setting up the home environment for the future children of our nation.
Also youths should
not be led into thinking that because they might possibly have poor heredity that they are doomed to the same fate as their parents.
They should be encouraged to make the
most of what they have, and to believe that their future
is largely what they are willing to make it.
that they are willing to put into their training, the more certain they are of ultimate victory and success in this experience of living.
Many students are burdened with
fears about their backgrounds, and through understanding conferences with teachers that they trust are helped to understand these real, magnified, or sometimes imagined problems in the proper perspective.
Many a student has
been relieved to find out that certain disease or defects are not hereditary, and he has left feeling confident to face the future.
The wise teacher finds unlimited
opportunities for offering guidance to his students, but it takes an alert interest in every student to find these opportunities. Reproduction is a topic that the students are often very reticent about discussing, and yet one they are very curious about. Many of the students have queer ideas and smutty attitudes that they have picked up during childhood This attitude is one that every biology teacher must help the students to face and overcome.
This can be done by a
straight forward approach, following an adequate build up of vocabulary.. The subject of reproduction should be taught incidently throughout the year, and not presented as a unit for several weeks at a time.
The author feels
that the reproductive system should be studied along with
53 the other systems in both the plant and animal kingdoms; that to separate the reproductive system as something apart from the other systems puts an undue emphasis that is unnatural upon the subject. Most textbooks include paragraphs here and there as they fit into the study of the frog, crayfish, mammal and so forth.
Others delegate all such material to a
speeial chapter on reproduction to be taught if the teacher so desires.
Still others include it as a supplement, not
under the same cover as the textbook, but as material to be presented as a special study if the school board approves. To isolate the study, or to separate the boys from the girls, only invites home and church opposition; and over curiosity and stimulation of the students.
By including information
all through, the year, no special attention is called to reproduction, and no repercussions follow. Summary.
In Ameriea young people look enthusiasti
cally and confidently to the future because this country affords them an opportunity to think and to plan.
can set goals of their own choosing and move on constantly toward happier, richer, and better ways of living.
sets goals out of his desire to move forward, to grow and progress in the affairs of life.
But how can he set goals
without adequate knowledge of himself, the world, and all of the possibilities that confront him?
It is the classroom
54 teacher who through example and understanding challenges the student to meet the problems*of today in order to realize the hopes of tomorrow. XII.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE RELATED TO BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
Always there is the problem of a vocation.
the major fields that are related to biology should be discussed.
The importance of biology to daily living
should be stressed.
The students should be aware of the
various occupations related to the field of biology, and they should know why it is one of the major sciences taught in high school. Biology is a broad science affecting the work of a great many people.
It has a place in agriculture, forestry,
health, and many other fields.
Many of these fields require
college or technical training.
Choosing a life work is an
important procedure- one that calls for critical thinking. Every classroom teacher should be aware of the opportunities in his teaching field and be able to help the students explore the many possibilities.
Only after a comprehensive
study of himself and promising fields is a student able to choose his life work. To choose a vocation, a person must find out what he is best fitted to do, or what he can become trained to do.
55 He must consider his abilities and interests, and certainly he must consider his limitation.
The first step is to make
a choice, and the second is to prepare.
There is no end to
vocational guidance possibilities. According to the principles adopted by the National Vocational Guidance Association in 1921, revised in 1924, in 1930, and again in 1937: Vocational guidance is the process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation, prepare for, enter upon and progress in it. It is concerned primarily with helping individuals make decisions and choices involved in planning a future and building a career— decisions and choices necessary in effecting satisfactory vocational adjustment.23 In discussing vocational guidance it is necessary to recognize two sets of differences.
On the one hand are
the well-known differences among individuals-differences in physical characteristics, general intelligence, special aptitudes, special limitations, personality traits, and the like.
On the other hand are differences in the
requirements and opportunities of hundreds, even thousands, of occupations.
The problem of vocational guidance is
that of assisting an individual who possesses certain assets, liabilities, and possibilities to select from these many occupations one that is suited to himself and then to aid
^ Report on the Committee of the National Vocational Guidance Association, Occupations: The Vocational Guidance Magazine, XV (May, 1937), p. 772.
56 him in preparing for it, entering upon, and progressing in it. It is not a single act or a brief series of acts involved in telling one what vocation he should follow. It includes acquainting the student with a wide range of information concerning himself and concerning occupations, by means of which he can proceed in accordance with that plan. Vocational education and vocational guidance work hand in hand, but they should not be confused.
guidance involves assistance in choosing both the vocation and a plan of preparation for it before the preparation begins. Vocational education means preparation for a vocation after it has been chosen. More than two million young people of various ages and varied education become available each year for employment of some kind, about three-fourths of them for wage-earning employment.
These young people face the
necessity, before leaving school or very soon thereafter of deciding what occupations they will follow. Studies of occupations.
The classroom teacher has
many opportunities to present studies of occupations related to the unit under consideration.
The following outline would
be typical for the study of an occupation:
importance of the occupation. soeiety?
How does it serve
How many people does it employ?
this number increasing or decreasing?
widely distributed, or localized, in what principal centers is it carried on?
briefly is its history? Mature of the work.
What does the worker do?
the work highly repetitive or quite varied?
it tend to stimulate growth? Working conditions. outdoors?
Is the work indoors or
Does the worker stand or sit?
are the general sanitary conditions? of fellow workers will one have? working hours?
What are the
What kind of organization is
there among the workers?
How important is
membership in this organization? Personal qualities needed.
qualities are necessary - strength, endurance, hearing, eyesight, etc.?
What degree of
intelligence and emotional stability are required?
What personality traits-initiative,
cooperation, persistence, leadership, and so forth are highly important? Preparation needed.
What general education and
special training are necessary or desirable?
and where may the special training be obtained? 6. Opportunities for advancement. the occupation?
How does one enter
At what age approximately?
What are the average periods of service at different levels of the occupation?
supervisory or administrative jobs in the field lie ahead?
What are the principal related
occupations in which one might seek advancement? 7. Compensation. at first?
What annual earnings may one expect
What are the average earnings of
experienced workers? earnings?
What are exceptional
How are earnings affected as one
advances in age?
How is the compensation paid?
Are there also commissions on sales?
on goods purchased from the employer by the worker?
or retirement provisions are in effect?
other compensations, such as unemployment insurance sick benefits, vacations? 8 . Advantages and disadvantages.
This is mainly
a summary under which the more outstanding features of the occupation are brought together. Collecting personal data. After the student has considerable knowledge of occupations, it is necessary to
59 know more about the student’s assets and liabilities.
is done through collecting data. 1. Physical data-information concerning the individual’s health and physical characteristics. 2. Psychological data-information concerning the individual’s mental characteristics such as intelligence, aptitudes and personality traits. 3. Social environment data-information concerning home and other social environment conditions and factors that influence or seem likely to influence the individual in his vocational plans. 4. Achievement data-information concerning what the individual has done both in school and outside of it. 5. Data concerning the individual’s educational and vocational plans. An analysis of the data will suggest different vocations which the student might consider, and also provides other information which should be helpful to the student in reaching a decision. Now the student is ready to take an inventory of himself to see what he has to work with.
an inventory he can not attempt to live up to his full possibilities, or he may make the mi stake of ’’biting off
60 more than he can chew."
A person is most happy when he
sets goals of such height that he can attain some of them and always have others left to carry him forward. The student’s inventory should consist of two parts: first, a health examination; and second, a survey of personal qualities, or characteristics.
examination will shed light on his physical well-being and uncover many facts concerning his total self.
survey of personal qualities will reveal his abilities and interests, and indicate which of them he may expect to develop through education and experience. Summary.
One of the greatest problems that confronts
all boys and girls on leaving school is the choice of the kind of work they are going to do.
The selection of an
occupation determines so largely a persons usefulness and happiness.
Some persons decide upon their occupations
by trial and error.
They try this job, then that, drifting
from one to another.
By good luck, they may finally find
the one thing for which they are best fitted, but the chances are not great for such a happy outcome. procedure is very wasteful of time and effort.
Such a Rather
should one study his own tastes and abilities, then learn all he can about the requirements of the many lines of work open to him, and make his decision on the basis of
61 all the facts in the case. The study of biology will give a student a better idea of the work carried on in forestry, medicine, conservation and many other fields.
If a student's
mind naturally takes to the scientific method of thinking, and he is interested in biological phenomenon, then he may care to know something of the life occupations that deal with living things, and the hobbies that are allied to biology.
Even if he cannot follow a biological
vocation, he may enjoy an avocation with a biological flavor.
Therefore the author has included in Figure 1
a list of occupations related to biology that may assist the student in his quest for information. IV.
EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE THROUGH THE CLASSROOM
When a variety of courses are offered to the students, many youths are completely lost as to the best course to take.
The bewildered students with the help of
their families, or entirely on their own initiative, sign up for subjects that look interesting, or easy, or that their friends are taking.
Very seldom do pupils know
enough about themselves, the courses offered, or the relation of school subjects to vocational fields, or the requirements of advanced schools to plan the program that
ENTOMOLOGY State Inspector National Inspector Parasitoligist Insect Control Specialist
PHARMACY Registered Pharmacist Pharmacognosist Pharmaceutical Botanist
MEDICINE Doctors Nurses Health Officers
BACTERIOLOGY Technician Government Hospital Commercial
BIOLOGICAL SPECIALTIES Supply Go. Collector Supply Co. Technician Taxidermist Museum Curator FORESTRY State and National Forest Ranger Forest Nurseryman Forest Supervisor Forest Examiner Consulting Forestor HORTICULTURE Orchardist Nurseryman Truck Gardner Tree Surgeon
BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Plant Pathologist Animal Pathologist Sanitary Engineer Food Inspector Soil Expert Immunologist SURVEY State and National Conservation Specialist Agriculture Specialist Biological Survey Office Workers Field Workers
FLORICULTURE Landscape Architect Tree Surgeon Nurseryman Florist
FIGURE 1 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND RELATED VOCATIONS AND AVOCATIONS
fits them best.
Many inappropriate ehoiees are made
because parents have fixed ideas of the vocation their child should follow.
Frequently their choice is neither
appropriate nor congenial to the child.
combined with high ambition frequently leads to in appropriate choices.
Many high school students with I.Q.'
below 100 are attempting college preparatory courses. In planning a high school course of study, it is necessary to consider the student's age, his I. Q,., his scholastic achievement, and his vocational plans. Here is where the educational guidance program comes to the rescue to help the student find himself, and thus direct his energies in the right direction to reach his goals.
Sometimes high ability coupled with a low level
of aspiration creates an equally serious problem as the low student with ambition.
The student who does many
things so well that he cannot decide on a major has many opportunities, but he often needs assistance in making up his mind. Students are usually not very practical about their educational and vocational objectives.
original, but as a sequence of vocational objectives in life, they rather hit the nail on the head. 1. To be just like mom or dad.
64 2. To
be a cowboy.
be an airplane pilot.
befamous (girls particularly
want to be movie
stars or great singers). 5. To
be wealthy, to be great, to have power.
earn enough to
pay the stacksand stacks
family bills, and 7. To hang on long enough to get the promised pension. Adolescent students are definitely beyond the first stage.
In their eyes, there could be nothing worse
than being a carpenter or a shoe salesman like dad. few youths are at the third level of development.
students are just waiting and loafing until they are seventeen and can join the navy— then they are going to set the world on fire.
Most of the students are at the
fourth or fifth level— that of being famous or wealthy. The girls won’t settle for being anything less than a famous dress designer, a model, or an air line hostess. And the boys have aspirations of being professional football players, engineers, or doctors; they are going to Cal. Tech., no less, even if they have pick and shovel ability. It is good to have dreams and aspirations; and youth is the time for dreaming; but many young people
are due for heart ache and frustration unless they oan be led to more practical goals.
In order to find success and
happiness, students need to know more about further educational opportunities.
College, vocational school,
trade school, and apprenticeship training are often not thoroughly understood by the student.
The youth frequently
decides to go to college simply because that is the thing to do, or because his friends are going.
should face the problem of financing long expensive train ing; and he should analyze what the college has to offer him before he makes such a major decision. Educational guidance is positive.
The problem is
to reveal the student's capacities and to help the student to develop them.
Counseling should not aim to make the
student accept a predetermined program, but should enlighten and help the student to make an appropriate program.
According to Strang this involves:
1. The student's appraisal of his learning capacity. 2. The exploration of his vocational potentialities and interests. 3. The obtaining of information about all kinds of educational resources in the school and the community. 4. The selection of a training center, school, or college that provides educational opportunities in keeping with the student's capacities and interests. 5. The detection leading to the correction of
66 conditions that are interfering -with his advantageous use of educational opportunities.2**How can the schools provide methods for achieving the desired results?
The junior high schools can and do
offer a variety of courses in order that the student may become more familiar with himself.
Batteries of tests may
be given to aid the student, the teacher, and the counselor to gain enlightenment as to the student’s capacities, achievement, and interests.
Knowledge of the student may
be gained through standardized tests, teacher-made tests, personal interviews, and case studies. Enrollment procedure.
Explanations may be made to
the students in groups, and as individuals, as to required subjects, electives offered, requirements for graduation, and requirements for college entrance.
Attached to the
report are examples of forms that might be used, Figures 2, 3, A and 5.
These forms should be carefully explained to
The students should be encouraged to take
these sheets home, and discuss the information with parents, older brothers and sisters, or anyone who is in a position to help the youth make a decision.
The student should then
talk over his plans with his class advisor.
^ Ruth Strang, Educational Guidance: Its Principles and Practice (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947)> p. 1$.
67 REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION
Credit must be earned in 12 full year Senior High Subjects, (120 semester hours), or the equivalent in one semester subjects, besides 3 years of Physical Education. At least 60 semester hours must be from the list of 11th and 12th grade subjects.
Oredit must be earned in the
following Senior High Subjects: Subject
Credits in Semester
yrs. 2$ (Unless exempt from Senior English)
2. U. S. History -
3. Senior Problems
5. Life Science
7. Physical Education
Five semester hours are earned for each hour long class that meets for five days per week for one full semester.
FIGURE 2 A LIST OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS FURNISHED TO H. S. STUDENTS FOR EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
68 REQUIREMENTS FDR COLLEGE ENTRANCE 1.
Junior College —
2 yr. vocational course —
School Diploma only. 2.
University Course, (whether to be taken at Junior College or elsewhere) should include: English
30 Semester Periods
10 Semester Periods
10 Semester Periods
20 Semester Periods
U. S. History
10 Semester Periods
Chemistry or Physics
10 Semester Periods
Additional Math., Language or Science
10 Semester Periods
An average grade of nB" for these 10 subjects must be earned. Requirements .for admission to other colleges may differ somewhat and students should study the catalogs from these colleges.
FIGURE 3 A LIST OF COLLEGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS FURNISHED 'TO H. S.'STUDENTS FOR EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
English 10 Life Science Driving Education P. E.
English 11 U. S. History P. E.
Civics (1 Sem.) English (1 Sem.) Senior Problems. P. E;
Algebra I Bookkeeping I Business Arith. Geometry Latin I or II Spanish I or II Speech and Drama World History World Geography Art I or II Crafts Clothing I Me ch. Draw. I Band Orchestra Glee Club Auto Shop Welding Typing I
Algebra lib and Trig. Bookkeeping II Chemistry Geometry Journalism Latin I or II Spanish II or III Speech Shorthand Art II or III Crafts Clothing II Meeh. Draw. II or III Band Orchestra Glee Club Machine Shop Welding Vocational Shop Typing II
Algebra Ila (1 Sem.) Solid Geom. (1 Sem.) Dramatics English Literature Physics Senior Math (1 Sem.) Vocational Shop Office Practice Library Practice (Also, any 11th grade subject and certain 10th grade subject by permission).
FIGURE A LIST OF SENIOR HIGH SUBJECTS OFFERED IE THE SCHOOL USED UT THIS STUDY
70 COURSE OP STUDIES PLAN FOR
___ _ (Name}
Present Plans and Choices Date___________________ Vocational Interests 1.________________________________________ 2 ._____________________________ Advanced Preparation. Check. 1. College or University (4 yrs.) 2. Jr. College— Vocational (2 yrs.) _3. Trade School Extra Class Activities 1. Clubs ________________________________ 2. Jobs, etc.____________________________ 3. Athletics ____________________________
10th Grade 1. 2.
P. E. English 10
3. Life Science 4-* ' 5. ____________
P. E. English 11 Speech or Journalism 3. U. S. History 4. ____________ ■5. ____________
12th Grade 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Approved by Parent
P. E. Senior English (1 Sem.) Civics (1 Sem.) Senior Problems _________________
7. ZZZZZZZZZZZI Alternate__________ _____
Parent signature Date
FIGURE 5 ACTUAL ENROLLMENT SHEET FOR THE STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOL USED IN THIS STUDY
days, tlie student should fill out the course of study plan as to his actual choices.
The course of study plan should
be carefully analysed by the class advisor, for unwise decisions.
Special interviews should be held when it is
deemed advisable to recommend another course of study for the student.
The course of study plan should be sent home
for parental approval.
In this way, the parent knows
exactly what his child is planning to study.
If the parent
has any questions, or changes to suggest, this is his opportunity to do so. The advantage of such a system is that it doesn^ hurry the student, or parent into making quick decisions in the turmoil of enrollment. in advance.
All decisions are made well
Also this plan gives the class advisor
opportunity to councel the student wisely as to his choices.
A third advantage is that it gives the administra
tion ample time to work out the scheduling of classes, and all of the routine of providing books, teachers, and available classroom space. Summary
One of the greatest problems that confronts
all boys and girls is the choice of subjects that they are going to persue.
Some persons seem to know from the
beginning what particular niches they should fill in life. From early childhood they are dominated by interests which
72 lead them to set definite goals for the future.
no time in exploring other fields but move directly toward their goals.
Other persons are unable, even when fully
grown, to decide what they should do or become.
pass through a succession of interests and explore a variety of fields before they can make up their minds. The fact that they require time for decision is no handi cap, provided they finally reach a decision.
Sad is the
plight of a person who puts off making a choice and fails to find his niche. In the complicated list of studies offered in most high schools today, educational guidance is needed so that the student knows himself, and he knows educational opportunities, and that he is helped in making appropriate choices.
Advice and counsel continually offered through
the year builds rapport and confidence, and is superior to a counseling period set aside once a year. SIMMARY OF THE CHAPTER Individual development for happy and useful living is one of the true goals of education, and therefore one of the major fields of guidance.
Guidance to be effective,
must be an integral part of the school program.
must be designed to serve all of the students - not merely those who appear to be misfits or problems of disciplinary
Therefore a guidance program must have the
sympathetic support of all the faculty and be an integral part of all classroom activities. Many problems in guidance may be solved by re designing the curriculum, and by developing the mental hygiene approach in the classroom.
Teachers often fail
to assume responsibility for the life activity aims because they have been instructed in the fundamental processes of particular academic subjects, not for pre paring students for successful induction into the surrounding adult life.
When classroom teachers have
received the training needed, they usually accept the guidance viewpoint and make it a'classroom objective. Teachers need to have faith that the procedures of guidance work.
They need conviction that, in the long run
and from the standpoint of personal development,.love is more potent than hate or indifference, discerning praise is more efficacious than punishment, and knowledge of the individual causes of student behavior is better than ignorance.
Without this faith and conviction, teachers
are likely to become discouraged at the ups and downs of human behavior that exist even in the best-regulated classrooms.
SUMMARY One of the outstanding characteristics of student guidance problems is the fact of complexity.
students in need of guidance service exhibit, not one problem in a restricted adjustment area, but two or more problems in two or more areas of adjustment.
reason, no single, specialized type of guidance service will be adequate to meet the needs of students.
in its complexity is concerned with every variety of student adjustment.
Guidance is therefore a central m
feature of an effective educational program.
counseling in a school system is not the worh of any single individual.
It represents the combined and
integrated effort of many individuals.
Ideally it includes
every teacher with whom the student comes in contact and should represent cooperation with the parents. Schools and society are trying to devise ways and means of helping students to find their niche in life and to become worthy members of society.
But the most
important factor in the entire process is the youth himself. He must not be considered as an inert substance to be molded and fashioned by other’s wills.
selection of a life career, of an attitude toward humanity
75 and its problems should be determined by himself.
young people should be surrounded by opportunities to know the world of possibilities; he should be stimulated to want to accomplish something worthy in life; and finally he should become conscious that the responsibility for the ultimate choice is his.
He is not to be pushed or pulled,
but to be self-propelled by inner determination through the ideals, choices and standards selected by himself. It is the writers conclusion that as teachers we are guilty of trying to do the impossible, to redesign the student.
This method invariably is due to our lack of
understanding of his basic motivations.
What can more
easily be done - with a much greater degree of hope - is to awaken the student as to his own nature.
understanding of his own potentialities, the student will proceed under his own power. The attainment of adulthood is a difficult and complex process.
Parents, teachers, administrators, and
specialists have the responsibility to provide the specific help needed by the student to achieve social, emotional, and economic maturity.
BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Allen, Richard D., Organization and Supervision of Guidance in Public Education. New York: Inor. Publishing Company, 1934. 420 pp. Burton, William Henry, The Guidance of Major Specialized Learning Activities' Ifithin the Total Learning Activity. Cambridge, Mass. 1944. 173' pp. Cox, W. L., John Carr Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1941. 535 pp. Parley, John G., Testing and Counseling in the High School. Science Research Associates, Chicago, 1943. Davis, Frank Garfield, B. Carnall Davis, Guidance for Youth. Boston, New York etc.: Ginn and Company, 1928. 3$7 pp. Dewey, John, Democracy and Education. New York: MacMillan Company, 1916. 434 PP.
Dunsmoor, C. C., L. M. Miller, Guidance Methods for Teachers. Scranton: International Book Company, ^ 1942. 332 pp. Educational Policies Commission, The Purposes of Education in American Democracy. Washington, D. C., National Education Association, 1933. Forrester, Gertrude, Methods of Vocational Guidance. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1944. Hamrin, Shirley A., Guidance Talks to Teachers. 111., McKnight and McKnight, 1947. 249 pp.
Hamrin, Shirley Austin, Clifford E. Erickson and Margaret W. O'Brien, Guidance Practices in Public High Schools. Bloomington, 111.: McKnight and McKnight, 1940. 68 pp. Hamrin, Shirley A., Clifford E. Erickson, Guidance in the Secondary School. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1939” 465 pp.
78 Jones, Arthur J., Principles of Guidance. Revised edition; New York: McGraw-Hill -Book Company Inc., 1934. 456 pp. Koos, Leonard V., Grayson N. Kefauver, Guidance in Secondary Schools. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1932. 640 pp. Lefever, D. Welty, Principles and Techniques of Guidance. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1941. Lewis, Ralph H., Guidance in Secondary Schools. Ryerson Press, 1946. H>3 PP.
Los Angeles County Schools, Guidance Handbook for Secondary Schools. Los Angeles: California Test Bureau, 1948. Morrison, Henry C., The Practice of Teaching in the Secondary Schools. Revised edition; Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1931. 688 pp. Myers, George E., Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance. New York: Mac Graw-Hill Book Company, 1941. Paterson, Schneidler, and Williamson, Student Guidance Techniques. New York: Mac Graw-Hill Book Company, 1938. Reed, Anna Y., Guidance and Personnel Services in Education. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1944. Strang, Ruth, Educational Guidance; Its Principles and Practice. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947. ________, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College Columbia University, 1935. 417 pp. ______ , Every Teacher* s Records. New York: Coilege, Columbia University,' 1936.
Traxler, Arthur E., Techniques.of Guidance. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945. 394 pp. Umstattd, J. G., Secondary School Teaching. New York: Ginn and Company, 1937. 449 pp. Wilkins, E. H., The Orientation of the College Student, Problems of College Education. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1928.
79 PERIODICALS Brown, Marion, Vibella Martin, "Anecdotal Records of Pupil Behavior,” California Journal of Secondary Education, XIII (April, 193$), 205-208. Bratton, Dorothy, "Classroom Guidance of Pupils Exhibiting Behavior Problems," Elementary School Journal, XLV (January, 1945), 236-292. Davis, Anna L., Margaret E. Bennett, "The Counselor in the High School,” The High School 'Journal, XXIII (May, 1940), 203-2037 --------------Davis, Frank G., and Raup, Zura, "Technique for Bringing the Classroom Teacher into the Guidance Picture," Buckneli Journal of Education, XVI (November. 1941) 9-11, 14-15. Fahey, George L., "What Every Teacher Can Do for Guidance," School Review, L (September, 1942), 516-522. Flory, Charles D.; Elizabeth Allen; and Madeline Simmons, "Classroom Teachers Improve the Personality Adjustment of Their Pupils,” Journal of Educational Research, XXXVIII (September, 1944) 1-^. Kefauver, Grayson N., "The Organization of Guidance in Secondary Schools," The High School Journal (May, 1940), 218-223. ” i Rosecrance, Francis C., "The Place and Activities of The Classroom Teacher in Guidance", XXIII (May, 1940) 208-212. High School Journal Ruch, G. M . , "Individual Analyses in Guidance," School Journal. XXIII (May, 1940) 197-202..
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