An analysis of parent-child relationship as seen in accident occurrence

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AN ANALYSIS OF PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS AS SEEN IN ACCIDENT OCCURRENCE

A T h e s is P re se n te d to t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e G r a d u a t e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l W ork U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia

In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D eg ree M a s t e r o f S o c i a l W ork

fey J a n e Hannum C a r n e g i e Ju n e 1950

UMI Number: EP66331

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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This thesis, w rit ten und er the direction of the candidatefs F a cu lt y C o m m it te e an d a p p r o v e d by all its members, has been pr es e nt e d to and a c ce p te d by the F ac u lt y of the G rad ua te Sc ho o l of So c ia l W o r k in pa rt ia l fulfilment of the re­ quirements f o r the deg ree of

MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK

Dean

Thesis

F aculty C om m ittee

Chairman

:u



TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I. II. III.

PAGE

THE. PROBLEM AND ORIGIN OF THE S T U D Y .............. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

1

. . . . . . . . . . .

7

ANALYSIS OF F I N D I N G S .................. .......................................... F e a rfu ln e ss,

t h e e a s e o f M a ry K .

. . . . .

'

23 .

23

N e u ro tic g u i l t ,

t h e c a s e o f D e n n is B .

.

..

.

30

O v e rp ro te c tio n ,

t h e c a s e o f H e l e n a D.

.

.. .

35

A u th o rita ria n ism ,

th e case o f P re s to n

N e g le c t, th e case o f

S. .

F l o y d H.....................

.

39 44

O v e r t g u i l t .................................................................................

48

M a r i t a l c o n f l i c t ........................ ..................................... .....

49

O v ert h o s t i l i t y ,

52

t h e c a s e o f A r t h u r W.

W a rm th , t h e c a s e o f H a r r i e t F .

. . .

. . . . . . .

54

S t a t i s t i c a l g r o u p i n g s o f a t t i t u d e s an d re a c tio n p a tte rn s

58

R e l a t i o n o f fo rm o f a c c id e n t to r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s ......................... .............. ........................... IV .

CONCLUSIONS...........................................................................

59 62

B I B L I O G R A P H Y .........................

68

APPENDIX

72

..............................

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ORIGIN OF THE STUDY T h e r e i s u n i v e r s a l r e c o g n i t i o n among p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f s o c i a l casew o rk o f e a r l y d e v e lo p m e n ta l in f lu e n c e s on

) hum an p e r s o n a l i t y .

B e h av io r th ro u g h o u t l i f e ,

it

i s b e lie v e d ,

e x p re s s e s r e a c t i o n t o a t t i t u d e s o f p a r e n ts and o th e r f a m ily V f ig u r e s o f c h ild h o o d . fie d ,

I f m o re c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a n d i d e n t i ­

th e r e l a t i o n o f th e s e f a c t o r s to a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e

m ig h t have a b e a r i n g on t h e c a se w o rk t r e a tm e n t o f f a m i l i e s i n w h ic h a c c i d e n t s o c c u r t o c h i l d r e n .

I t m ig h t have v a l i d i t y

n o t o n l y i n p r o b l e m s made a p p a r e n t b y t h e f a c t o f a c c i d e n t , b u t w h e r e v e r c h i l d r e n 1s b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s e x i s t . It a ll.

is

a r a r e home i n w h i c h a c c i d e n t s d o n o t o c c u r a t

T h e y come a b o u t i n t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f p h y s i c a l ,

n o m ic , fe c tiv e

situ a tio n a l,

eco­

and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w h ic h a r e e f ­

i n v a ry in g d e g re e s i n e v ery fa m ily .

We h a v e come t o

a w id e r a c c e p ta n c e , how ever, o f th e a s s u m p tio n t h a t a c c id e n ts do n o t h a p p e n e n t i r e l y by c h a n c e n o r a lw a y s b e c a u s e o f a n u n u s u a l c o m b in a tio n o f e v e n ts ; r a t h e r ,

t h a t t h e y may b e a

fo rm o f p u r p o s e f u l b e h a v io r , r e g u l a t e d

i n l a r g e m easu re by

u n c o n sc io u s m o tiv a tio n i n t h e i r v ic tim s . re m a in s to be r e t e s t e d ,

T h is p o s t u l a t e

b y m eans o f f u r t h e r e x a m in a t io n o f

a c c id e n ts w ith th e backgrounds o f th e i n d iv i d u a ls in v o lv e d , a g a in s t th e h y p o th e se s e s ta b lis h e d

i n th e l i t e r a t u r e .

It

is

th e p u rp o se o f t h i s

s t u d y t o a t t e m p t i n a s m a l l w ay s u c h

an in v e s tig a tio n . M a n u f a c tu r e r s , i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s, and t r a n s p o r t a ­ t i o n i n d u s t r i e s have c o n d u c te d i n q u i r i e s o v e r a p e rio d o f y ears in s t a t i s t i c a l stu d ie s v e n tio n *

s l a n t e d to w a rd a c c id e n t p r e ­

D r. F la n d e rs D unbar q u o te s th e r e p o r t o f th e

N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c il o n f o u r l a r g e c o m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g a b o u t 1 ,4 0 0 c o m m e r c i a l d r i v e r s

t o show t h a t f r o m 88 p e r c e n t

t o 90 p e r c e n t o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l a c c i d e n t s la te d

se e m t o b e r e ­

t o so m e th in g i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l

d riv e rs .^

I t w as d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r

i n a c c id e n t c a u s a t i o n had l e s s th e i n d i v i d u a l s

in flu e n c e i n o c cu rren ce th a n

c h o ic e o f a c t io n .

D unbar h as in c lu d e d i n P sy c h o so m a tic D ia g n o s is a c h a p te r on f r a c tu r e p e rs o n a lity is

p a tie n ts

id e n tifie d .2

i n w h ic h th e a c c i d e n t p ro n e M r s . E l i z a b e t h Mechem F u l l e r

a ls o d e fin e s in ju ry -p ro n e n e s s" as se e n i n th e N u rsery S chool o f th e I n s t i t u t e M in n e s o ta .^

o f C h ild W e lfa re o f th e U n i v e r s i ty o f

H ow ever, D u n b a r1s f i n d i n g s w e re d e r i v e d fro m

s t u d y o f i n d i v i d u a l s b e tw e e n t h e a g e s o f f i f t e e n and 1 F l a n d e r s D u n b a r , P s y c h o s o m a t i c D i a g n o s i s . (New Y o r k : P a u l B . H o e b e r , I n c . , 19A& ) , p . 175 2 Ib id ..

pp. 1 7 2-247.

3 E l i z a b e t h Mechem F u l l e r , MI n j u r y - P r o n e C h i l d r e n , ” A m e ric an J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . I S : 7 0 8 - 2 3 , O c to b e r , 1 9 4 ^ .

3 f i f t y - f i v e y e a r s o f a g e , h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r o n ly one fo rm o f in ju ry .

F u l l e r 1s w e r e f r o m c h i l d r e n o f p r e - s c h o o l a g e i n ­

ju re d on sc h o o l p re m ise s.

No m a t e r i a l i s

a v a ila b le i n th e

a re a o f a c c id e n t c a u s a tio n to c h ild r e n as a g ro u p , c h i l d r e n w hose i n j u r i e s

are u n r e s tric te d

or to

a s t o d i a g n o s i s and

lo c a tio n . The f o c u s o f t h i s c h ild re la tio n s h ip s

stu d y has been c e n te re d on p a r e n t-

i n r e c o g n itio n o f th e f a c t t h a t th e

e m o tio n a l c lim a te i n w h ic h t h e c h i l d d e v e lo p s i n t o m a t u r i t y is

c re a te d by th e a t t i t u d e s

o f p a r e n t s to w a rd c h i l d r e n and

t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n to w a rd th o s e f e e l i n g s , d isp la c e d or re p re ss e d ,

and r e - d i r e c t e d .

ex p ressed ,

A n sw ers h a v e b e e n

s o u g h t t o c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s w h ich t r a c e t h e c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n w hat i s

a lre a d y e s ta b lis h e d in th e l i t e r a t u r e

w hat th e f in d in g s o f t h i s p e rta in rig id ity

stu d y r e v e a l.

and

T hese q u e s tio n s

to th e e v id e n c e o f i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n th e p a r e n t s , in tra in in g

o f th e

c h ild ,

g u i l t and c o m p e n sa to ry

b e h a v io r i n o v e r p r o t e c t i o n and in d u lg e n c e , m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t , a n d w a r m th a n d a f f e c t i o n i n t h e hom e. c h ild re n a re a ls o

R e a c t i o n s among t h e

e x a m in e d i n te r m s o f r e b e l l i o n ,

a g g re s s iv e

a c tin g o u t, w ith d ra w a l, undue d e p en d e n ce , and n o rm a lly fr-a P P y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

T he p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p a t t e r n o f

a c c id e n t a s a fo rm o f c o n f l i c t s o l u t i o n i s a sc e rta in i t s

a ls o e x p lo re d to

p ro b a b le c o n tin u a n c e w ith o u t o v e r t in f lu e n c e

by s i t u a t i o n a l o r f o r t u i t o u s f a c t o r s .

4 T h e C h i l d r e n 1s H o s p i t a l o f L o s A n g e l e s h a s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n th e a re a o f a c c id e n t p r e v e n tio n to a s c e r t a i n b o th th e c a u s e s o f a c c id e n ts to c h i l d r e n and th e d i r e c t i o n a p r e v e n t iv e p ro g ram m ig h t t a k e .

Four s tu d e n ts o f th e

S c h o o l o f S o c i a l W ork o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i ­ f o r n i a w ere th u s a f f o r d e d th e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e s e a r c h i n th is

area.

I n c o o p e ra tio n w ith th e h o s p i t a l ,

a c c id e n t ad­

m i s s i o n s o v e r a s i x w e e k s p e r i o d , N o v em b er 1 t h r o u g h D e­ cem ber 1 2 , 1 9 4 9 , w ere u s e d a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e

stu d y .

A

c l u s t e r o f f o u r t h e s e s o n t h e w id e t o p i c o f a c c i d e n t p r e ­ v e n t i o n w as u n d e r t a k e n ; o n e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f fa c to rs

im m e d ia te ly p r e s e n t i n th e p r o d u c tio n .o f a c c id e n ts

to c h il d r e n ; a se c o n d , fo c u s in g on im p l ic a ti o n s f o r c a s e ­ w ork t r e a t m e n t a s a p a r t o f m e d ic a l c a r e , w h ere a c c i d e n t h a s o c c u r r e d ; a t h i r d e x a m in in g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h e a l t h e d u c a tio n ; w ith t h is In th is

t h e s i s m a k in g t h e f o u r t h .

s t u d y a n a t t e m p t h a s b e e n m ade t o e x p l o r e

th e f a m i l i e s 1 p s y c h o lo g ic a l and s o c i a l b ack g ro u n d s to f i n d th e c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n th e a c c id e n t and th e p a t t e r n o f f a m ily r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e tw e e n th e p a r e n t s and th e in ju re d

c h ild .

C o n c lu s io n s have b e e n draw n i n te rm s o f

th e e m o tio n a l f a c t o r s

in th e p a re n t-c h ild r e la tio n s h ip s o f

t h e a c c i d e n t . v i c t i m 1s f a m i l y g r o u p . th e y have v a l i d i t y w h e th e r i t

It

is

b e lie v e d th a t

f o r th e p r a c t ic e o f casew o rk w ith c h il d r e n ,

be i n a h o s p i t a l , a c h ild w e lfa re s e r v ic e o r

fa m ily agency , o r w h erev er p a r e n t- c h ild r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re o f fo c a l co n cern . T he d a t a u s e d i n t h i s

in q u iry in to

a c c id e n t p re v e n tio n

have been o b ta in e d th ro u g h in te rv ie w s w ith th e p a re n ts o f f o r t y c h i l d r e n a d m itte d to th e C h ild re n * s H o s p it a l f o r a c ­ c id e n ta l in ju ry .

A c tu a lly , d u rin g t h i s

p e r i o d t h e r e w ere

f o r t y - s e v e n a c c id e n t a d m iss io n s to th e h o s p i t a l . p a re n ts of seven p a tie n ts ,

T he

h o w e v er, w ere u n a b le t o a r r a n g e

a p p o in tm e n ts f o r i n te r v ie w s .

E a c h s t u d e n t m ade c o n t a c t

w i t h e i g h t f a m i l i e s , w h i l e a s t a f f m em ber o f t h e h o s p i t a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e p a r t m e n t i n t e r v i e w e d t h o s e who c o u l d n o t be re a c h e d by th e s t u d e n ts . m ade a v a i l a b l e

A l l t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d w ere

to each s tu d e n t i n th e r e s e a rc h p r o je c t.

T he p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w as f i r s t th e in te rv ie w e e s ,

in te rp re te d

to

and i n n e a r l y a l l i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r e n t s

i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n .

H o s p ita l re c o rd s ,

in ­

c l u d i n g f i n a n c i a l a n d m e d i c a l d a t a , w e r e m ade a v a i l a b l e t o su p p le m e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a in e d from th e p a r e n t s i n o rd e r to in c lu d e m a te r ia l b e a rin g on a t t i t u d e s a c c id e n t.

to w ard th e

T he p e r i o d c o v e r e d , N ovem ber 1 t h r o u g h D e c e m b e r

12, 1949, i s b e lie v e d to re p re s e n t a f a i r l y

ty p ic a l season

o f th e y e a r as to c l i m a t e , b o th te m p e ra tu re and h u m id ity , av erag e sc h o o l a tte n d a n c e ,

n u m b er o f h o l i d a y s ,

and th e ab ­

s e n c e o f p e a k o r s l a c k i n em p lo y m en t. C h a p te r I I

of th is

stu d y c o n ta in s a re v ie w o f th e

lite ra tu re

d e a lin g w ith fa m ily r e la tio n s h ip s

as th e y a re

know n t o i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n * s b e h a v i o r a n d t h e a t t i t u d e s re c o g n iz e d as a f f e c ti n g b e h a v io r p ro d u c in g a c c id e n ts . C h a p te r I I I ,

t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a r e e x a m in e d , b a s e d on t h e

in te rv ie w s o b ta in e d , w ith r e s p e c t to w hat i s th e l i t e r a t u r e . re c a p itu la tin g w h ic h a r e

In

id e n tifie d

in

C h a p te r IV , i n c o n c l u s i o n , w i l l su m m a riz e , th e f a c to r s

i n th e p a re n t- c h ild r e la tio n s h ip

se en to in flu e n c e a c c id e n t p ro d u c tio n .

CHAPTER I I

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C o n c ep ts u n d e r ly in g o u r s t i l l l i m i t e d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f h um an b e h a v i o r c a n n o t a l w a y s b e o b j e c t i ­ fie d .

E le m e n ts i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y h av e w id e ly d i f f e r e n t

o r i g i n s and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .

It

is

im p o ssib le to e s t a b l is h

c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n a n y tw o f a c t o r s a d ju s tm e n t.

in p e rs o n a lity

We c a n o n l y b r i n g t o g e t h e r a l r e a d y f o r m u l a t e d

h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h h a v e g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n a n d t h e n t e s t th e m a g a in st sp e c ific

situ a tio n s.

In th is

stu d y a g re a t d e a l i s

n o t know n a b o u t t h e f a m i l i e s w h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e x a m i n e d . We a r e d e p e n d e n t o n d a t a w h i c h c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d i n o n e c o n ­ t a c t e a c h w i t h a m e m b e r, o r a t t h e m o s t tw o m e m b e r s , o f e a c h p a t i e n t ’ s fa m ily . I n th e a tte m p t to i d e n t i f y f a c to r s i n a c c id e n t cau sa ­ t i o n from th e e m o tio n a l s t a n d p o in t t h e r e i s g roup to g e th e r e le m e n ts i n th e p e r s o n a l i t i e s

a te n d e n c y to o f p a re n ts w ith

t h o s e i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d t o d e s i g n a t e th e m a s a p a r e n t c h ild r e la tio n s h ip .

T h ere a re a t t i t u d e s

i n a p a r e n t to w ard

h i s c h i l d and t h e r e a r e a t t i t u d e s i n th e c h i l d

to w ard th e

p a re n t^ th e re i s

an i n t e r a c t i o n o f f e e l i n g and i n th e b e­

h a v io r o f each .

B u t t h e r e i s no know n r e c o g n i z a b l e e n t i t y

w h ic h c a n be i s o l a t e d

as a p a re n t-c h ild re la tio n s h ip .

It

i s r a t h e r a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s w h ic h v a r i e s w ith e a c h



i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t and c h i l d and c h an g es c o n s t a n t l y w i t h th e life

e x p e rie n c e s o f e ac h .

It

i n c l u d e s t h e m e a n in g o f a p a r ­

t i c u l a r c h i l d t o h i s m o th e r o r f a t h e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g o n ly one e le m e n t i n a c o n s t e l l a t i o n . 1

Each r e a c t s to th e o th e r i n a

p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e s p e c u l i a r t o h i s own m a k e - u p a n d e m o t i o n a l needs. We know t h a t e v e r y i n f a n t 1 s f i r s t ta c tile

and m u sc u la r,

se n sa tio n s are

t h a t th e y a r e n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t e d by

th e d eg ree, o f th e m o th e r’ s p l e a s u r e and c o n fid e n c e i n h e r ­ se lf.

T h e s e a r e c o m m u n i c a te d d i r e c t l y t o t h e b a b y t h r o u g h

her p o stu ra l t e n s io n s .2 A f i r s t

c o n c e p t,

th e n , o f g e n e ra l

a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e m o t i o n a l m ea n in g o f a c c id e n t,

c o n c e rn s th e im p o rta n c e o f th e m o th e r’ s in f lu e n c e

on th e c h ild : in to la rly

it

is

th e f i r s t

th e w o rld ; th e a t t i t u d e s

t h e c h i l d m e e t s w h e n h e com es o f th e p a re n ts ,

and p a r t i c u -

»

o f th e m o th e r, sh ap e th e c h i l d ’ s f e e l i n g s a b o u t e v e ry ­

th in g in l i f e .

The c h i l d ’ s p r i m a r y e x p e r i e n c e , h i s p a t t e r n

o f r e a c t i o n , w h e th e r i n f e a r o r t r u s t , w ith s t r u g g l e o r a c c e p ta n c e , f ig h t o r f l i g h t — t h i s and h i s m o th e r i s

i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n h im

f o r m u la te d by h e r a t t i t u d e s

Many e l e m e n t s e n t e r i n t o

and p e r s o n a l i t y .

th e c h i l d ’ s c h o ic e o f a c c id e n t a s

1 W i l l i a m S . L a n g f o r d a n d K a t h e r i n e M oore W ick h am , "T he C l i n i c a l A s p e c ts o f P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s , " Mental Hygiene. 32:85, January, 1948• 2 M a ry M. S h i r l e y , " T h e I m p a c t o f t h e M o t h e r ’ s P e r ­ s o n a l i t y o n t h e Y oung C h i l d , " S m i t h C o l l e g e S t u d i e s i n f e c i a l W o rk , 1 2 : 1 9 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 1 .

9 c o n flic t so lu tio n , fo cu s i s a lity

b u t th e i n t e n s i t y o f c o n f l i c t and i t s

i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y c r e a te d by th e m o th e r’ s p e rs o n ­

and a t t i t u d e s .

,!T he p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p

is

th e

m ost im p o r ta n t s i n g l e f a c t o r i n th e c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t i o n . ” 3 A lth o u g h th e i n f l u e n c e o f th e p a r e n t s i s

o v e rw h e lm in g

and im m e a su ra b le , e m o tio n a l and p h y s i c a l d e v elo p m e n t i s a ls o c o n tin u in g ly a f f e c t e d by th e c h i l d ’ s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e ­ d is p o s itio n to

s t r e n g t h and w e a k n e ss.

n ew -born, i n f a c t , th a t,

th e re is

W ith in e v e ry

a c o re o f te m p e ra m e n ta l q u a l i t i e s

w ith th e b i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s o f g ro w th ,

p r e v e n t h im

f r o m b e c o m in g t h e c o m p l e t e p u p p e t o f t h e f o r c e s t h a t p l a y on h im .4

T h is in c lu d e s th e in n a te a b i l i t y

to a v o id

d a n g e r - l a d e n s i t u a t i o n s w h ic h m ig h t p ro d u c e i n j u r y . s titu tio n a l fa c to rs

C on­

th u s have an in f lu e n c e i n sh a p in g th e

a c c id e n t p rone p e r s o n a l i t y .

The m o st i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s ,

from t h e s t a n d p o i n t s o f th e p h y s i c a l and e m o tio n a l s a f e t y o f th e c h ild , is

o rig in a te

i n h i s f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y , w h ic h

l a r g e l y d e te r m i n e d b y t h o s e a ro u n d h im , and h i s e m o t i o n a l

b a la n c e , w h ic h i s

e f f e c t e d from w i t h i n .

As t h e m o t h e r i s

o b v io u s ly u n a b le to s a t i s f y

i n f a n t ’ s dem ands f o r f o o d ,

care,

and a t t e n t i o n ,

a l l th e

th e p ro c e ss

o f g ro w th n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a g r a d u a l a c c e p t a n c e and 3 M a r g a r e t E v j e , ’’O u t l o o k f o r C h i l d r e n Who H a v e Had N e o -N a ta l D i f f i c u l t i e s , ” S m ith C o lle g e S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l W o rk , I 6 r 2 2 5 , J u n e , 1 9 4 6 . 4 S h irle y ,

op. c i t . ,

p. 15.

10 to le ra tio n of fru s tra tio n . c id e n t c a u sa tio n i s

Thus a seco n d h y p o th e s is i n a c ­

t h a t e v e ry c h i l d h a s a g g r e s s iv e im p u lse s

b o r n o f t h i s n a t u r a l f r u s t r a t i o n w h ic h he i s m a s te rin g d u rin g th e d e v e lo p m e n ta l p e rio d .

co n cern ed i n T he c h i l d may

s u f f e r i n j u r y by s e l f - e x p o s u r e t o d a n g e ro u s s i t u a t i o n s th ro u g h n o rm a lly a g g r e s s iv e r e a c t i o n .

He may i n c r e a s e t h e

p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c c id e n t i n a g g r e s s iv e b e h a v io r b u i l t aro u n d e ffo rts

to r e s i s t o t h e r s 1 c o n tr o l over h im .5

fu n c tio n a t th is

tim e i s

The m o th e r ’ s

n o t to e lim in a te e m o tio n a l p a in b u t

t o h e l p t h e c h i l d g a i n s u f f i c i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m m a k in g i n c r e a s i n g l y m atu re c h o ic e s to en d u re th e i n e v i t a b l e , c o m p a n y in g d i s c o m f o r t .

In le a rn in g to b ear i t ,

r e s p o n s e w i l l be p a t t e r n e d fru stra tio n .

ac­

th e c h ild ’ s

a f t e r h is p a r e n t ’ s r e a c t i o n to

T he a c c i d e n t h a b i t may o r i g i n a t e h e r e ,

in

i m i t a t i o n o f th e p a r e n t ’ s fo rm o f c o n f l i c t s o l u t i o n a s an a c tin g o u t o f a g g re s s iv e im p u lse s. T he c h i l d * s e a r l i e s t a w a r e n e s s o f h i s m o t h e r i s an e x te n sio n o f h im s e lf. i d e n tif ic a tio n w ith h er i s s e lf is

b u ilt in to

as

H is s e n s e o f c o m p le te n e s s o f changed l i t t l e

a se p a ra te id e n tity .

by l i t t l e

As t h e m o t h e r ’ s

s e r v i c e t o th e c h i l d t a p e r s o f f and he becom es l e s s p h y s ic a lly dependent on h e r,

a s th e

and l e s s

he g r a d u a l ly r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s

5 F r e d e r i c k H. A l l e n , P s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h C h i l d r e n . (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n a n d C om pany, I n c . , 1 9 4 2 ) j p . 2 0 3 .

II dem ands.

He l e a r n s t o m ake c o n c e s s i o n s b u t o n l y a s t h e

p a r e n t s 1 l o v e m akes i t

p l e a s a n t t o p l e a s e th em .

Fear of

t h e new a n d d i s c o m f o r t w i t h u n m e t d e m a n d s m u s t b a l a n c e w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n fro m th e f a m i l i a r .

T h is c a p a c i t y to en d u re

f r u s t r a t i o n f o r th e lo v e o f th e p a r e n t s becom es th e c h a r a c ­ te r,

th e i n d i v i d u a l i t y ; and th e d e s i r e

t o becom e l i k e

th o se

he l o v e s , h i s p a r e n t s , becom es th e c h i l d ’ s c o n s c ie n c e o r super ego.

F ro m t h e e a r l i e r f e e l i n g o f t h e w r o n g n e s s o f

b e in g d i f f e r e n t fro m h i s m o th e r, th e c h i l d d e v e lo p s a s e n se o f b a d n e ss i n b e h a v io r o r a f e e l i n g o f n o t b e in g ap p ro v ed b y h i s own c o n s c i e n c e . r e a l and i t s

T h e r e a c t i o n o f g u i l t b e c o m e s m o re

p r e s s u r e o n h im s t r o n g e r .

c id e n t an e x te rn a liz in g by th e b u rd en o f t h i s

D unbar se es i n ac­

o f t h e p u n i t i v e m ech an ism dem anded

g u i l t g e n e ra te d i n th e

c o n sc ie n c e , a

form o f r e s o l u t i o n o f o th e r w is e u n b e a r a b le c o n f l i c t .6 The c h i l d ’ s d e c r e a s i n g i n t i m a c y o f c o m m u n ic a tio n w i t h h i s m o t h e r may t h r e a t e n t h e t r u s t a n d c o n f i d e n c e he r e p o s e s in h er.

T h i s i n s e c u r i t y m ay b e m a n i f e s t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f

d efen ses.

In a d d itio n to a c tiv e h o s t i l i t y ,

t h e r e may b e

m o re p a s s i v e f o r m s o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r s u c h a s n e g a t i v i s m , stu b b o rn n e ss,

and d i s o b e d ie n c e , r e s u l t i n g

fro m th e p a r e n t s ’

a t t e m p t s t o im p o se t h e i r w i l l u p o n t h e c h i l d . t o o m uch, h e p r e s e r v e s h i s d i s t a n c e , 6 D u n b a r , op * c i t . . p . 224*

”K e p t a f t e r ”

a fo rm o f s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n ,

12 i n t h i s way.*'* w h ic h s t i r

A c h i l d may n e e d t o w i t h d r a w f r o m s i t u a t i o n s

up f e e l i n g s p ro m o tin g f o r b id d e n a g g r e s s io n .

m ay b u i l d a b o u t h i m s e l f a w a l l o f f e a r ,

He

h i g h ly p e rm e a b le t o

th e c u r r e n ts o f e n v iro n m e n ta l e x p e rie n c e , y e t p r o t e c ti v e o f th e eg o, a s t a tu s - p r e s e r v i n g m e c h a n is m .^

T h e r e may b e a

rig id

r e p r e s s io n , d isp la c e m e n t, or d e n ia l o f h o s t i le

in g s,

a rev e rsa l in a ltr u is tic

w ith th e p a re n t f ig u r e .

fe e l­

s u r r e n d e r and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n

Some o f t h e s e d e f e n s e s may b r i n g

c o m m e n d a tio n fro m t h e f e a r e d and t o - b e - p l a c a t e d p a r e n t ,

but

th e y i n t e r f e r e w ith h e a l th y c h a r a c t e r d e v e lo p m e n t, f r e ­ q u e n tly p ro d u c in g b e h a v io r d i s o r d e r s o r so m a tic e x p re s s io n s o f in n e r c o n f lic t such as a c c id e n ta l in ju r y . F ears o f p o ss ib le r i v a l s a ris in g

are a c tiv e

in a l l c h ild re n ,

i n r e l a t i o n t o th e t h r e a t o f l o s s o f lo v e and o f

p u n ish m e n t by th e p a r e n t ’ s a n g e r .

S ib lin g r i v a l r y th u s

becom es one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ’ s i n s e c u r i t y w i t h h i s p a r e n t s , w h ic h i s

th e fo u n d a tio n o f u n s u c c e s s fu l and, in

a c c id e n t o c cu rren ce p h y s ic a lly d an g ero u s, r e la tio n s h ip s w ith th e e n v iro n m e n t.

By t h e a g e o f t h r e e , i t

becom es a n o rm al

e x p re s s io n o f th e c h i l d ’ s c o m p e titio n f o r th e lo v e o f p a re n ts.

W h eth er t h e p a r e n t s i n c r e a s e i t ,

7 Jam es S . P l a n t , The E n v e lo p e w e a lth Fund, 1 9 5 0 ), p . 4 7 .

o r h e lp th e c h ild

(New Y o r k s T h e Common­

8 Jam es S . P l a n t , P e r s o n a l i t y and th e C u l t u r a l P a t ­ te rn .

(New Y o r k : T h e C o m m o n w e a lth F u n d , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 1 2 1 -2 2 .*

to d is s ip a te

i t b y r e a s s u r a n c e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g may a f f e c t

h is need to a c t o u t f e e l i n g s o f in a d e q u a c y i n a c c id e n t. S i b l i n g s may b e h a t e d b e c a u s e t h e i r p r e s e n c e d i m i n i s h e s t h e p a r e n t s ’ c a r e o r t h e y may b e l o v e d a s o b j e c t s o f p r o t e c t i o n fro m th e p a r e n ts * g e sts

je a lo u s y i s

The c h i l d ’ s bad, but h is

h e d o aw ay w i t h t h e i n t r u d e r . ^ th e r e la tio n s h ip com er i s

c o n sc ie n c e , o r su p er ego, im p u lse , o r id ,

sug­

su g g e ststh a t

The c o n f u s i o n a r i s i n g

fro m

o f h i s p a r e n t s t o h i m s e l f a n d t h e new ­

im p o r ta n t i n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f g u i l t , w h ic h i n

tu r n s tro n g ly in flu e n c e s th e p ro d u c tio n o f s e lf-p u n is h in g a c c i d e n t . 3-0 Some p a r e n t s ,

not su re o f t h e i r c h ild re n ’ s a f f e c tio n ,

may e v e n p r o m o t e r i v a l r y

among t h e i r

c h ild re n , p re fe rrin g

t h a t th e y n o t g e t a lo n g w e ll t o g e t h e r o r w ith p a r e n t s u r ­ ro g a te s.

T h e y may o u t b i d e a c h o t h e r f o r o n e c h i l d ’ s a f ­

fe c tio n .

P a r e n t s u s u a l l y m anage t o

in s p ir e i n c h ild r e n th e

r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r own u n e x p r e s s e d n e e d s . 3-3-

T he c h i l d may

a tte m p t to re s o lv e h is i n s e c u r i ty w ith h is p a re n ts i n v a rio u s w ays.

I n s te a d o f open

j e a l o u s y t h e r e may b e a

9 L u c i l l e N . A u s t i n , ’’Some P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s U n d e r l y i n g C a s e W ork w i t h C h i l d r e n , " C a s e W ork S y m p o s iu m . E le a n o r C l i f t o n and F lo re n c e H o l l i s , e d i t o r s , (New Y o r k : The F a m ily S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e ric a , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 1 10 P l a n t , The E n v e lo p e . p . 2 3 1 . 11 M e l i t t a S c h m id e b e rg , " P a r e n t s a s C h ild r e n ,* ’ The P s y c h i a t r i c Q u a r te r ly S u p p le m e n t, 2 2 :2 1 1 -1 2 , 194 8 .

U d isp la c e m e n t i n f e a r f u ln e s s w ith s tr a n g e r s .

In c re a sin g a

c h ild * s u n c e r t a i n t i e s p ro m o te s h i s im p u ls e f o r s e l f - i n j u r y , a m e th o d o f e n s u r i n g h im t h e p a r e n t s *

c a r e and a t t e n t i o n .

A n o th e r w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e i n o u r k n o w led g e o f t h e m e a n in g o f b e h a v i o r i s so u rc e o f p a re n ts*

th e u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e

d iffic u ltie s

w ith t h e i r

c h i l d r e n , many

o f w h ic h a r e fo u n d t o be i n f l u e n t i a l i n a c c i d e n t p r o d u c t i o n . A p a r e n t i s n o t o n ly a p a r e n t; he i s ,

first

of a ll,

who w as s h a p e d b y h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , f o r h e , p a re n ts.

H is i n s e c u r i t i e s ,

no l e s s

th a n h is

a p erso n

t o o , had c h ild re n * s ,

d a t e b a c k to a c h ild h o o d i n f lu e n c e d by r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s own p a r e n t f i g u r e s . p a re n ta l in a d e q u a c ie s, b ility ,

o v e rp ro te c tio n ,

We s e e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g fe a rfu ln e ss ,

c la rity th a t

e v a sio n o f re s p o n s i­

in d u lg e n c e , n e g le c t,

a r e n o t so

m u ch d u e t o w i l l f u l m a l i c e o r i g n o r a n c e , b u t a r e t h e e x ­ p re s s io n s o f u n re so lv e d p e r s o n a lity c o n f l i c t s

o f th e ir o w n .^

P a r e n t s f r e q u e n t l y s e e i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h e i r own p a r e n t s , f o r we u s e o t h e r s , o u rse lv e s.

The l e s s

h i s own p a r e n t s , th e m .

a p p ro p ria te ly o r n o t,

to c a rry p a rts o f

t h e p a r e n t w as a b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h

t h e m o re h e w i l l i d e n t i f y h i s c h i l d r e n w i t h

C h i ld r e n h av e a lw a y s b e e n c o n s id e r e d a t h r e a t by

p a r e n t s and by s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . - ^

C h i l d r e n who e x p o s e

12 H i l d a B r u c h , ”The R o le o f t h e P a r e n t i n P s y c h o ­ t h e r a p y w i t h C h i l d r e n ,*1 P s y c h i a t r y . I l r l 6 9 , M ay, 1 9 4 ^ . 13 B e r t a B o r n s t e i n , * * E m o tio n al B a r r i e r s i n t h e U n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g a n d T r e a t m e n t o f Y oung C h i l d r e n , ** A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . I 8 r 6 9 3 , O c t o b e r , 194& .

15 th e m se lv e s to i n j u r y o r e x p re s s in n e r d i f f i c u l t y may h a v e b e e n p r e c i p i t a t e d p a re n ts1 in se c u ritie s

in to

in a c c id e n t

c o n f lic t th ro u g h t h e i r

as p a re n ts . ‘

T h e c h i l d may r e p r e s e n t t o h i s f a t h e r o r m o t h e r n o t o n ly th e p a re n t f ig u r e b u t th e id e a liz e d a re e v id e n t,

se lf.

Illu s tra tio n s

i n th e d a t a re v ie w e d h e r e , o f v a r i o u s fo rm s o f

p ro je c tio n of p a re n ta l s p e c ific a tio n s fo r c h ild re n . c h ild f a l l s

sh o rt,

he j u s t i f i e s

and i s b u rd e n e d w i t h a f e e l i n g a re le a se re s u lt.

I f th e

h is f a th e r ’ s rep ro ach es o f in a d e q u ac y .

A c c id e n t,

as

o f a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e o r a s s e l f - p u n i s h m e n t , may A m o t h e r who w a n t s t o g i v e h e r d a u g h t e r e v e r y t h i n g

she d id n o t h a v e, i s

n o t o n ly a tte m p tin g t o b in d th e c h ild

to h er w ith e te r n a l g r a titu d e , b u t i s c h ild her b e tte r

se lf,

th e

p ro je c tin g

s e l f s h e w o u ld l i k e

in to

th e

to b e .

T he

c h i l d ’ s b e h a v i o r may r e p r e s e n t i n t u r n s h o r t c o m i n g s i n p a re n th o o d o r i n m a rria g e .

H is need to s e p a r a t e h im s e lf

f r o m h i s p a r e n t i n t h e move t o w a r d i n d e p e n d e n c e may p r o v e t o o a l a r m i n g , o r t h e p a r e n t may b e d r i v e n i n a c o m p e t i t i v e striv in g

t o g e t t h e b e s t f o r h i s own c h i l d r e n .

se c u rity is titu d e s

t h u s t h r e a t e n e d i n many w a y s b y p a r e n t a l a t ­

and u n re s o lv e d c o n f l i c t s .

ta b lis h e d

t h a t i n s e c u r i t y and i t s

a g g re ss iv e n e s sl3 i s

C h ild .

A c h ild ’ s

It

has been firm ly e s­

h ig h c o r r e l a t i o n w ith

a p rim a ry cau se o f m a la d ju stm e n t,

one

13 W e r n e r W o l f f , T h e P e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e P r e s c h o o l (New Y o r k : G r u n e a n d S t r a t t o n , 1 9 4 ? ) , P* 4 7 .

16 o f w hose fo rm s o f e x p r e s s i o n i s

t h e a c c i d e n t h a b it* .

F e a r o f o n e 1 s own p a r e n t ,

and g u i l t a r i s i n g fro m t h a t

q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , may p r o d u c e a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , w h i c h is

s e e n among t e n p a r e n t s i n t h i s

su lts

g ro u p .

T h is to o o f t e n r e ­

i n th e c h i l d f s o v e r t c o m p lia n c e , w ith a tu r n in g i n ­

w ard o f a g g r e s s i v e im p u ls e and t h e n e e d t o p u n i s h h i m s e l f . P a r e n t s a r e p a s s i n g o n t h e i r own u n c e r t a i n t i e s

i n d e m a n d in g

i m p l i c i t o b e d i e n c e w h e n t h e s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t r e q u i r e i t . -*4 T oo m any r u l e s p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c h i l d o f a b ility

t o m ake j u d g m e n t s , t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e n h e i s

fro m i n j u r y ,

safe

and t o ta k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h im s e lf .

Too

s t r o n g a c o n t r o l may p r o v i d e h im w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y t o b reak i t

fo r

se lf-a sse rtio n ,

i n ex p o su re to a c c id e n t.

S o m e ti m e s t h e p a r e n t s 1 g u i l t a n d f e a r p r e v e n t th e m from e x e r c i s i n g n o rm al a u t h o r i t y .

T h i s u n c o n s c i o u s f e a r may

be e x p re s s e d i n c o m p u lsiv e r u s h i n g , o v erw h elm ed w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , re a c tio n s.

in a fe e lin g

o f b e in g

o r i n tim id , o v e rly n erv o u s

T h e r e may b e a s e n s e o f i n f e r i o r i t y ,

id e n tify in g

th e c h i l d w it h th e bad p a r t o f th e s e l f ,

fe e lin g

o v er h o s t i l e w ish e s and d e p e n d e n t t i e s .

Such p a re n ts c an n o t

f e e l a n y r i g h t t o im p o se o b e d i e n c e . ^ ten d to

g u ilty

O p e n ly h o s t i l e

p a re n ts

s o l v e t h e i r own a g g r e s s i v e w i s h e s t o w a r d f i g u r e s

in

1 4 S u s a n I s a a c s , T h e N u r s e r y Y e a r s . ‘ (New Y o r k : T he V anguard P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 3 2 J, p . 1 0 2 . S c h m id e b e rg , o p . c i t . . p . 2 0 9 .

17 th e p a s t by u t i l i z i n g

th e c h ild as an o b je c t o f a g g re s s io n .

F e a r f u l p a r e n t s may b e p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r own f e a r s , th e c h i l d w i l l b e a r t h e p u n ish m e n t th e y d e s e r v e . n ific a n c e o f th e se p a re n ta l a ttitu d e s

b e lie v in g The s i g ­

in a c c id e n t c a u sa tio n

lie s i n th e i n s e c u r i t y c o rr e s p o n d in g ly d e v elo p ed i n th e c h ild . The te r m ,

^ re je c tin g

p a r e n t , ” i n t h e o p i n i o n o f m an y ,

h a s b eco m e t o o g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d a n d t o o l o o s e l y u s e d , f o r re je c tio n

c h a r a c t e r i z e s o n ly th e l e s s m a tu re p a r t o f th e

p e rs o n a lity .

It

refers

t o u n c o n s c i o u s m ec h an ism s w h ic h a r e

se ld o m c o n c l u s i v e l y m a n i f e s t e d .

T he p a r e n t i s r a r e who a t l£> no t i m e show s some p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g t o w a r d t h e c h i l d . It is

n o rm a l to have b o th n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s

onet s c h ild .

The p r e s e n c e o f h o s t i l i t y ,

about

so o f t e n m is ta k e n

f o r r e j e c t i o n , may h a v e n o r e l a t i o n t o a b a s i c a l l y p o s i t i v e 17 a ttitu d e . T h e m o t h e r who r e a l l y r e j e c t s h e r c h i l d c o n ­ tin u o u s ly ,

f e e l s b o th h o s t i l e

p u n i s h b o t h h im a n d h e r s e l f . p re se n t,

a n d g u i l t y a n d c o n t i n u e s to P a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n , w h en

a r i s e s fro m o r i g i n a l e x p e r ie n c e and i s

to a second g e n e r a tio n .

c a rrie d over

A g a in , th e i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e

^ W i l l i a m S . L a n g f o r d a n d K a t h e r i n e M o o re W ick ham , ”The C l i n i c a l A s p e c ts o f P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s , ” M e n ta l H y g ie n e . 3 2 :8 6 , J a n u a ry , 1948. 17 E v j e , o p .

c it.,

p . 243.

H a m ilto n , p p . c i t . . p . 277.

18 c h il d o f o p e n ly h o s t i l e

p a r e n t s h e i g h t e n s h i s own n e e d f o r

f i g h t i n g b a c k , o r f o r t h e d e p en d e n ce he i s

d e n ie d , i n

se lf-in ju ry * An i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e t h i n k i n g b e h a v io r p ro b lem s o f c h i l d r e n , e x is te n c e o f o v e rp ro te c tio n . c e n te r in g on h o s t i l e

th e r e c o g n itio n o f th e

G u ilt,

a ttitu d e s

b y t h e i r own p a r e n t s i s sa to ry a ttitu d e .

is

aro u n d

c o n sc io u s o r u n c o n sc io u s ,

and f e e l i n g s o f d e p r i v a t i o n

o fte n tra n s la te d in to th is

com pen­

U ndue c o n c e r n f o r t h e c h i l d ' s w e l f a r e may

b e t h e m ask o f a f e a r o f e x c l u s i o n fro m t h e p a r e n t ' s fid e n c e .

A tte m p ts t o i s o l a t e

con­

th e c h i l d from s o c i a l c o n t a c t s

may h a v e s p r u n g f r o m a p p r e h e n s i o n a r o u n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y r e b e l l i o n e n c o u ra g e d by o t h e r s .

O v e rp ro te c tio n i s m a n ife s te d

i n e x a g g e ra te d p h y s ic a l and s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , a lw a y s t h e r e " in a n c e .

a ttitu d e ,

of

in fa n tiliz a tio n ,

a " m o th e r i s

i n d u l g e n c e , o r dom­

E x c e s s iv e s u p e r v i s i o n o f p la y and c o n s i s t e n t o v e r­

e v a l u a t i o n a r e f a m i l i a r e x a m p le s,

seen in th is

stu d y .

Such

b e h a v io r on th e p a r t o f th e p a re n t te n d s to p re v e n t b o th d e v e lo p m e n t o f in d e p e n d e n c e and th e f o r m a tio n o f s o c i a l r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p s o u t s i d e t h e hom e, r e s u l t i n g to r e la te

s u c c e s s fu lly w ith o t h e r s . ^

o fte n in an i n a b i l i t y Ten o f th e f o r t y

ac­

c i d e n t v i c t i m s w i t h whom we a r e c o n c e r n e d w e r e f e a r f u l , w ith d ra w n , and tim id c h i l d r e n , w h ile th e p a r e n t s o f s e v e n o f 1 9 D a v i d M. L e v y , M a t e r n a l Q v e r p r o t e c t i o n . Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 ) , pp* 71 f f .

(.New

19 th e m i n d i c a t e d o v e r p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s .

The d e g r e e o f o v e r ­

p r o t e c t i o n o f th e c h il d a t th e b i r t h o f a s i b l i n g and th e c o n s e q u e n t t h r e a t t h e n e w c o m e r ’ s a r r i v a l r e p r e s e n t s , m ay b e a le a d in g cause o f i n s e c u r ity e x p ressed i n

sib lin g r iv a lry ,

fo u n d i n tw e lv e o f th e a c c id e n t p a t i e n t s . T h e a n x i o u s c h i l d u n c o n s c i o u s l y c h o o s e s t h e way m o s t s a tis fy in g

to h is

ego t o r e l e a s e

f e e l i n g s o f f e a r and i n ­

se c u rity .

I t may b e i n a g g r e s s i v e a c t i n g

o r i n b o d i l y sy m p to m s — e a c h a l o n e , se lf-in ju ry .

o u t, w ith d ra w a l,

o r i n c o m b in a tio n w ith

’’S o m e ti m e s t h e c h i l d ’ s i n n e r t r o u b l e s a r e e x ­

p ressed not in a c tu a l illn e s s

b u t i n a h a b i t o f a c c i d e n t . ”21

T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s m ade o f t h e s o u r c e o f th e a n x i e t y a c t e d o u t i n t h i s way. s e lf -in ju r y to is

th e c h ild

is

T h e e m o t i o n a l m e a n in g o f

se e n as p u n ish m e n t:

if

th e c h ild

h u r t , f o r e x a m p l e , i n d o i n g s o m e t h i n g h e kno w s h e s h o u l d

n o t d o , he i s

e x te rn a liz in g

m o tio n by th e s u p e r e g o .^ ^ b ru ise s,

t h e p u n i t i v e m ech an ism s e t i n In ju ry ,

in c lu d in g

s c r a t c h e s and

p ro v id e s a s o c i a l l y a c c e p ta b le e x cu se f o r e n jo y in g

a p a r e n t a l i n d u l g e n c e w h i c h may o t h e r w i s e b e d e n i e d t h e c h ild .^

An i m p a s s e c r e a t e d b y t h e c o n f l i c t i n g

20 I b i d , ,

fo rces of

p. 23.

F l a n d e r s D u n b a r , Y o u r C h i l d ’ s M in d a n d B o d y . Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 225* 22 I b i d . .

(New

p. 208.

^ B r u n o B e t t e l h e i m , " S o m a t i c S ym ptom s i n S u p e r e g o F o r m a ti o n ,” A m erican J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . 1 3 :6 5 0 , O c t o b e r , 19 4 ^ *

20

a g g r e s s i v e im p u ls e s and d e p e n d e n c y n e e d s c a n be c ir c u m v e n te d by i n c a p a c i t a t i o n , w h ic h p e r m its d e p en d en cy w ith o u t l o s s o f sta tu s th e

as a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p erso n *

S e l f - in j u r y can p ro v id e

c h ild w ith an o u t le t f o r d e fe n siv e h o s t i l i t y i n p re ­

v e n tin g to o s tro n g a d e s i r e to a t t a c k a n o th e r,

h is in c a p a c i­

t a t i o n a c tin g as a p r o h ib itio n o f u n a c c e p ta b le b e h a v io r. may b e u s e d a g g r e s s i v e l y , a c t i n a c e r t a i n w ay. own h o s t i l i t y

a g a i n s t a p a r e n t t o c o m p e l h im t o

When t h e c h i l d

and g u i l t ,

It

c a n n o t e sc a p e fro m h i s

a g g r e s s i v e n e s s may b r e a k o u t i n t h e

im p u lse to p u n is h e i t h e r h im s e lf o r th o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h is f r u s t r a t i o n . i f

h i s d e f e n s e s have pro v ed in a d e q u a te ,

h e u n c o n s c i o u s l y s e a r c h e s f o r som e o t h e r s o l u t i o n . th ro u g h p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t y o r s u f f e r in g , s titu te

is

A c c id e n t,

seen a s a sub­

f o r a m o re a d e q u a t e f o r m o f e x p r e s s i o n .

A c co rd in g

to D unbar, th e i n a b i l i t y to v e r b a l iz e p e r s o n a l e x p e rie n c e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f a c c i d e n t i n m o m e n ts o f p a n i c *25

T h i s t e n d e n c y among t h e i n j u r y p r o n e t o e x p r e s s

te n s io n d ir e c tly c re a te s

s i t u a t i o n s w h ic h , th o u g h p h y s i c a l l y

p o t e n t i a l l y d a n g e r o u s , a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s a f e r to th em . The o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a lity

is

o f th e i n j u r y pro n e p e rs o n ­

th e h a b it o f ex p o su re to i n ju r y la d e n s i t u a t i o n s

w h ic h t h e n o n - p r o n e w o u ld a v o i d . 24 D u n b a r, P sy c h o so m a tic D i a g n o s i s , p . 2 2 5 . 25 I b i d . .

26

F u lle r,

p. 222. op. c i t . ,

p . 710

U nder p r e s s u r e o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y o r i n r e a c t i o n t o a b lo w a t s e l f - e s t e e m ,

c h ild re n o fte n re a c t in s e l f ­

d e s tr u c tiv e p a tte r n s o f b e h a v io r.

F ro m o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g

.o f t h e d y n a m ic s o f b e h a v i o r and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n th e p u b lis h e d s tu d ie s on a c c id e n t p ro n e n e s s , i t

se e m s c l e a r

t h a t c h i l d r e n who h a v e a c c i d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y a r e i n w a r d l y t r o u b l e d ; t h e y a r e i n some w ay a t o d d s w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n ­ m e n t.

T h is s tu d y i n d i c a t e s ,

a s em p h a size d i n F u l l e r f s ob­

se rv a tio n s o f n u rse ry school c h ild re n ,

th a t th e in ju ry

p r o n e t e n d t o b e t h o s e who h a v e o t h e r p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d

to

h a rm o n io u s g ro u p l i v i n g . ^

ad­

m is sio n s c r y s t a l l i z e s its

D unbar*s s tu d y o f f r a c t u r e

th e th e o ry t h a t a c c id e n t p ro n en ess has

r o o t s i n t h e s e e a r l y c h ild h o o d p a t t e r n s

p aren t fig u re s .

o f r e a c tio n to

F ro m 80 p e r c e n t t o 9 0 p e r c e n t o f h e r

p a t i e n t s h a d h a d som e s p e c i f i c w o r r y i n t h e i r own l i f e a tio n s p re c e d in g th e a c c id e n t,

e sta b lis h in g

situ ­

th e th e o ry t h a t

i

a c c i d e n t o c c u r s w h e n e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e d r a m a t i z e s t h e COn28

f l i c t i n c o n c re te fo rm . ° I n th e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s w h ic h h ave s i g n i f i ­ cance in th e p a r e n t- c h ild r e la tio n s h ip ,

s h a p i n g t h e c h i l d 1s

p e r s o n a l i t y and e x e r t i n g a p o w e rfu l i n f l u e n c e on h i s b e ­ h a v io r,

t h e p a r e n t s T own p a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a m i l y 2? I b i d . .

pp.

710 -11 .

2° D u n b ar, P sy c h o so m a tic D i a g n o s i s , p . 206

22

fig u re s,

th e ir r e la tio n to

each o th e r,

o b j e c t i v i t y and. s u b j e c t i v i t y ,

t h e i r d eg ree o f

a l l a re o b serv ed i n o p e ra tio n

among t h e p a r e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s

stu d y .

The v a r y i n g

r e a c tio n s to th e s e in flu e n c e s in th e ir c h ild re n , a c tin g o u t, n e g a tiv ism , f re q u e n tly n o te d . re la tio n sh ip s

a g g re ssiv e

s i b l in g r i v a l r y , w ith d ra w a l,

a re as

E x a m p le s o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d

a re p re s e n te d i n th e fo llo w in g

c h a p te r.

CHAPTER I I I

ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s have s u f f e r e d

s t u d y o f f o r t y c h i l d r e n who

a c c id e n ts te n d to u n d e r lin e a f i r s t p rem ise

i n s o c i a l c a s e w o r k :: p e o p l e a r e i n d i v i d u a l s . d iffic u lty

i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith t h e i r e n v iro n m e n t

can c la s s if y w ork i s in its

th e m i n t o m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e g r o u p i n g s .

in fa m ilia r te r r ito r y

i n d e a lin g w ith t h is

C ase­

p ro b le m

c o n v i c t i o n t h a t h a v in g a p a r t i c u l a r k in d o f d i f f i ­

c u l t y d o es n o t c o m p le te ly d i f f e r e n t i a t e ; and t h e i r f a m i l i e s

p sy c h ia tric ,

a c c id e n t v ic tim s

show i n some d e g r e e t h e f o r m s o f m a l a d ­

ju stm e n t, o f p e rs o n a lity

w here.

No o n e f o r m o f

fa m ily ,

s t r e n g t h o r w eakness fo u n d i n

and c h i l d g u id a n c e c a s e lo a d s e v e r y ­

H e re, as i n o th e r e x p re s s io n s o f f a u l t y a d ju s tm e n t

t o t h e e n v iro n m e n t, th e p ro b lem s a r i s e w i t h i n th e p a r e n t c h ild re la tio n s h ip

t o w h ic h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s

have c o n tr ib u te d .

I n a c c i d e n t p r o d u c t i o n , t h e c h i l d 1s

te m p e ra m e n t, h i s free d o m o r c o n s t r i c t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s d r i v e s , w h ic h c o n t r o l e x p r e s s i o n o n t h e m o to r l e v e l , s h a p e d b y t h e e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e o f t h e h o m e.

and

is

The f o l l o w i n g

p a g es a r e d e v o te d t o e x a m in a tio n o f th e p a r t i c u l a r fo rm s o f m a la d ju s tm e n t and t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s w h ic h im p e l le d t h e c h ild re n in th is

stu d y to s tr u g g le

i n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e w ays.

a g a i n s t th e e n v iro n m e n t

T h e o n e common d e n o m i n a t o r o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i s sa tis fie d

in n e r need.

se en to be un­

W h e re p a r e n t s h a v e f a i l e d

a d e q u a te e m o tio n a l s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ,

to p ro v id e g e n e ra tin g

c o n f l i c t s w h ic h i n t u r n r e q u i r e a c t i n g o u t i n th e form o f ex p o su re to i n ju r y ,

f a u l t m ust be a t t r i b u t e d

p e r s o n a l i ty p ro b le m s.

T h i s d o e s n o t a l w a y s m ea n t h a t t h e

p a r e n t 1s p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e ra th e r,

to p a re n ts 1

is

e n tire ly

t o b lam e; i t

is,

t h e w ay h i s p r o b l e m s i n f l u e n c e b o t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p

w ith h is c h ild

and th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d ’ s r e a c t i o n

p a tte rn s . At th e o u t s e t i t m ust be s a id t h a t th e c h i l d ’ s i n ­ s e c u r ity w ith h is p a re n ts i s b a s ic In th is

stu d y ,

it

i s fo u n d t o ste m fro m s e v e r a l k in d s o f

p a re n ta l a ttitu d e s ; fe a r, p ro te c tio n ,

to an a c c id e n t p a tte r n .

n e u r o t i c and o v e r t g u i l t ,

a u th o rita ria n ism ,

in d u lg e n c e ,

o v er-

and n e g l e c t .

The

p a r e n t s o b s e r v e d h e r e e x h i b i t e d m any d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of fe e lin g s

to w a rd t h e i r

c h ild re n .

p r o te c tio n w ith in d u lg e n c e , ta ria n ism , o th e rs ,

Some m a n i f e s t e d o v e r ­

som e f e a r f u l n e s s w i t h a u t h o r i ­

n e g le c t and n e u r o t i c

g u ilt,

o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w ith a p p re h e n sio n as to

a r e a l sense

th e p a re n t r o l e .

The g r o u p i n g s w h ic h f o l l o w a r e b y no m eans c l e a r - c u t , m u tu a lly e x c lu s iv e . tra te ,

The e x a m p le s s e l e c t e d

h o w e v e r , how a t t i t u d e s

nor

se rv e to i l l u s ­

i n p a re n ts a f f e c t th e a c tin g -

o u t b e h a v io r se e n i n a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e .

T h e tw o m o s t

25 common a t t i t u d e s , fe a rfu ln e ss ,

e a c h fo u n d i n s e v e n t e e n f a m i l i e s , w ere a

e x p r e s s e d i n a s e n s e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and i n ­

a d e q u a c y , and a r e p r e s s e d g u i l t , t o b lam e o t h e r s , B o th r e p r e s e n t ,

c irc u m s ta n c e s, p sy c h o lo g ic a lly ,

a n d may b e i n t e r p r e t e d ,

in th is

e v id e n c e d i n th e n e c e s s i t y o r F a te f o r th e a c c id e n t. an e v a sio n o f r e s p o n s i b i li t y situ a tio n ,

as a t le a s t an

a m b iv a le n c e to w a rd th e p a r e n t a l r o l e . F e a rfu ln e ss. a fe e lin g

A p p re h e n s io n a s t o th e p a r e n t a l r o l e ,

o f b e in g o v erw h elm ed w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,

u n c e rta in ty as to tra in in g

t h e c h i l d w ere s e e n i n a l a r g e

g ro u p o f p a r e n t s o f th e a c c id e n t v i c t i m s .

T h e ir c h ild re n

responded in v a rio u s m a n ife s ta tio n s o f th e r e s u ltin g se c u rity . th is

and

in ­

M r s . K . i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n sh o w s how

a ttitu d e

a d d s t o t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e c h i l d who f i n d s a

m eth o d o f r e l e a s e

in a c c id e n ta l in ju ry .

M a ry K . , n i n e y e a r s o l d , l i v e s w i t h h e r y o u n g e r s i s t e r , ag ed e i g h t , and h e r m o th e r and s t e p f a t h e r . H e r own p a r e n t s w e r e d i v o r c e d w h e n s h e w as tw o y e a r s of age. H er n a t u r a l f a t h e r n e g l e c t e d t h e f a m i ly and w as p h y s i c a l l y a b u s i v e o f M a r y , who r e m e m b e r s h im v i v i d l y , h e r m o t h e r r e c a l l i n g how t h e c h i l d t r i e d t o a v o i d c o n t a c t w i t h h i m , arid r e p o r t i n g t h a t s h e s t i l l r e c o i l s f r o m p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h a n y o n e . M r s . Kf s m o th e r l i v e s w i t h th e m , h e l p i n g w i t h t h e h o u sew o rk and ta k in g a k e e n i n t e r e s t i n th e r e a r i n g o f th e c h ild re n . M r. K . i s s a i d t o b e a f f e c t i o n a t e w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n b u t s t r i c t , and t h e c h i l d r e n a d o re h im . M ary p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w s h im a r o u n d l i k e a p u p p y . He t a k e s t h e f a m i l y o n f r e q u e n t o u t i n g s , m o s t l y t o s p e c t a t o r s p o r t s , and a c c o rd in g t o M rs. K ., h a s p r o ­ v id e d th e c h i l d r e n w ith th e o n ly h a p p in e s s th e y have e v e r known. He d o e s n o t o b j e c t w h e n s h e t e l l s h im t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s w e l f a r e m u s t come b e f o r e h i s .

26 M a ry i s a t o m b o y , h y p e r a c t i v e a n d a w k w a rd . She f a l l s o f t e n , th o u g h u s u a l ly w ith o u t s e r io u s c o n se ­ q u e n c e , p e r p e t u a l l y b r u i s i n g , s k in n in g , and c u t t i n g h e r a rm s a n d l e g s . S h e t h r u s t h e r a rm t h r o u g h a g l a s s w in d o w a t t h e a g e o f f o u r f o r no k n o w n r e a s o n , an d was e n o rm o u s ly p ro u d o f t h e s e v e n t e e n s t i t c h e s re q u ire d . H er s i s t e r a l s o h a s a h i s t o r y o f m in o r in ju rie s . M a ry i s p o p u l a r i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d , t h e r e c o g n iz e d l e a d e r o f a l a r g e g ro u p o f c h i l d r e n o f w id e r a n g e i n a g e , and c o n s i d e r e d a d a r e d e v i l by t h e i r p a re n ts. S h e d o e s n o t c a r e m uch f o r s c h o o l b e c a u s e sh e i s n e a r l y a lw a y s b e h in d h e r c l a s s a c h ie v e m e n t l e v e l , h a v i n g b e e n k e p t a t home f o r c o n s t a n t c o l d s a n d t h e t h r e a t o f t u b e r c u l o s i s w h i c h r a n i n h e r own f a t h e r f s f a m i l y , b u t sh e i s l i k e d by h e r t e a c h e r s and p a rtic ip a te s in school a c t iv i t ie s . M a ry a n d h e r s i s t e r m a in ta in an open r i v a l r y . When e i t h e r o n e i s d i s c i p l i n e d , t h e o t h e r dem ands s im u lt a n e o u s and e q u a l p u n ish m e n t. On t h e d a y o f t h e a e c i d e n t , M a ry a n d h e r y o u n g e r s i s t e r w e r e p l a y i n g i n t h e a l l e y w i t h t h e i r d o g , w hen M rs. K . c a l l e d th em . M a ry i m m e d i a t e l y r a n i n t h e o p ­ p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , w h ic h h e r m o th e r p o i n t s o u t i s a t y p i c a l r e a c t i o n , stu m b le d o v e r t h e dog and f e l l , s u f f e r i n g a c e r e b r a l c o n c u s s io n and s e v e r a l l a c e r a ­ tio n s . M rs. K. d ro v e h e r t o th e h o s p i t a l a t o n c e . M a r y Ts r e a c t i o n s t o h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n c h i e f l y c e n t e r e d o n h e r c o n c e r n f o r h e r d o g , a n d e a g e r n e s s t o g e t home t o c a r e f o r t h e i n j u r y sh e had c a u s e d h im . She a ls o h o p ed t o h ave t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f s t i t c h e s o n t h e w ard . M rs. K . i s o p e n ly f e a r f u l f o r M ary1 s f u t u r e . She w onders i f su c h a s t r o n g - w i l l e d , r e b e l l i o u s , u n t r a i n a b le c h ild w i l l e v e r l i v e to a d u lth o o d . She sa y s s h e i s a t a l o s s t o know w h a t t o d o w i t h h e r . She i s a p p a r e n t l y i n d u l g e n t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e y se em t o b e i n c o n s i s t e n t l y h a n d l e d b y M r. K . , h e r m o t h e r , and h e r s e l f . M r s . K . w i s h e s M a ry w e r e m o re d e m o n s t r a ­ t i v e , and d o es n o t f e e l c lo s e to h e r , b u t t r i e s to r e a l i z e th a t th e c h ild has n o t f o r g o tte n h er f a t h e r f s c r u e l t y and t h a t i t i s n a t u r a l f o r h e r t o be u n a b le to t r u s t anyone f u l l y , as y e t . M rs. K. i s r e m o r s e f u l a b o u t t h e c h i l d r e n 1s u n h a p p y s t a r t i n l i f e , b l a m i n g h e r s e l f f o r n o t h a v in g l e f t t h e i r f a t h e r b e f o r e th e dam age had b e e n d o n e . She d e s c r i b e s h e r p r e s e n t m a rria g e as an i d e a l l y happy o n e, sa y in g h e r husband i s good t o th em , e v e n th o u g h h o t - te m p e r e d and

27 fre q u e n tly i r r i t a b l e . S h e t e l l s h im o f t e n t h a t i t i s h e r m i s s i o n i n l i f e t o ’’m ake i t u p t o t h e c h i l d r e n . ” The K .s a r e w e l l l i k e d i n t h e i r n e ig h b o r h o o d — o n c l o s e , b o rro w in g te rm s w ith s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s . M rs. K. b e l i e v e s th e y g e t a lo n g w e ll b e c a u s e th e y p r a c t i s e th e G o ld e n R u le . M rs. K ., e x e m p lify in g th e a p p re h e n s iv e p a r e n t , u s e s v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n o f g u i l t and re m o r s e a s a d e v i c e o f p r o ­ t e c t i o n fro m i t s

r e a l im p lic a tio n s .

It

is

e a s ie r to t a l k

o u t t h a n t o a c t o n h e r o b l i g a t i o n f o r M ary*s s o c i a l t r a i n ­ in g .

B l o c k e d b y h e r . own u n c e r t a i n t i e s

as a p a re n t,

fe e ls

g u i lt y f o r th e e a r l y abuse o f th e c h i l d . «

a p p e a r s m o re a s a m a s o c h i s t i c

su ffe rin g

she

But th is

i n t h e m em ory o f

h e r own p a r t i n t h e c h i l d ’ s p h y s i c a l p a i n | i t

e a se s th e

b u rd e n o f g u i l t g e n e r a te d by h e r u n c o n s c io u s w ish to evade th e r e s p o n s ib ilitie s

o f p a re n th o o d .

t h e c h i l d ’ s f u t u r e m ay r e p r e s e n t t h e in g th e p u n ish m e n t s h e ,

M rs. K . ’ s a n x ie ty f o r s e n s e o f M ary’ s b e a r ­

h e rs e lf, d eserv es.

t h i s w ay c o n s t a n t l y r e a c t i v a t e s

The c h i l d

in

g u ilt fo r her fa ilu re s

as

a w ife and m o th e r. M ary’ s d e f i a n t b e h a v i o r i n t e n s i f i e s

h e r m o th e r’ s

f e a r f u l n e s s and a s p i r a l o f i n s e c u r i t y d e v e lo p s j d is tu r b a n c e in th e c h ild ,

and f u r t h e r i n s e c u r i t y i n t h e ^ p a r e n t .

T he

c h i l d ’ s d i s o b e d i e n c e m ay r e p r e s e n t h e r own u n c o n s c i o u s a t ­ titu d e

to w a rd h e r m o th e r, w h ic h sh e c a n n o t e x p r e s s d i r e c t l y .

M a r y ’ s b a d n e s s may b e t o l e r a t e d ”b ad n ess” i n h e r s e lf .

as a p r o j e c ti o n o f th e

The c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n t h e n e ed b o th

to p r o j e c t and to p u n is h h e r s e l f ,

and h e r g u i l t i n th e

28 c h i l d 1 s s u f f e r i n g m a i n t a i n h e r own p r o b l e m s o f i n s e c u r i t y . W ith f e a r f u l n e s s , M rs. K. i n d i c a t e s a n i n d u l g e n t a t ­ titu d e

to w ard th e c h i l d ,

as i f

sh e w ere p o w e r le s s to e n f o r c e

a c o n s i s t e n c y i n M a r y 1s s o c i a l , t r a i n i n g . h e r own m o t h e r i n t h e h o u s e h o l d ,

The p r e s e n c e o f

and h e r h u s b a n d 1s s t r i c t n e s s

i n d i s c i p l i n e may a d d t o h e r u n c e r t a i n t i e s .

T he n e e d t o

o p p o s e h i s m e t h o d s o f h a n d l i n g t h e c h i l d r e n may b e f e d b y th e m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t e v id e n c e d h e r e .

M rs. K. i s

aw are o f a

d i v i d e d l o y a l t y b e tw e e n h e r h u sb an d and h e r c h i l d r e n , c o n f l i c t i n h e r r o l e s a s w ife and p a r e n t . and a c c e p ta n c e , how ev er, i n th e K .s . th e ir c h ild re n ,

and e x te n d t h e i r

T h ere i s

of a

a w a r m th

They e n jo y b e in g w ith

g iv in g o f th e m se lv e s

to w ard n e ig h b o rs , m a in ta in in g an e a sy p o p u l a r i t y i n th e c o m m u n i ty . I t w as n o t p o s s i b l e

in th is

stu d y to c o r r e l a t e

p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s d i r e c t l y w i t h c h i l d r e n 1s r e a c t i o n s .

M ore

th a n h a lf o f th e t h i r t e e n a g g re s s iv e ly d e f ia n t c h ild r e n , f o r e x a m p le , had f e a r f u l ,

a p p re h e n siv e p a r e n ts .

H a lf o f

t h e s i x t e e n a g g r e s s i v e and p o p u la r c h i l d r e n w ere a l s o fo u n d among t h e f e a r f u l p a r e n t s , w h i l e f i v e c h i l d r e n r e a c t e d t o th is

p a re n ta l a ttitu d e

i n t i m i d and w ith d ra w n b e h a v io r *

M ary K . c o m b i n e s s e v e r a l o f t h e r e a c t i o n s f o u n d t o f e a r f u l p a re n ta l b e h a v io r.

L ik e D u n b ar’ s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

11s o c i a l g o o d f e l l o w ” among t h e f r a c t u r e p a t i e n t s , M a ry i s frie n d ly ,

o u tg o in g , and te n d s to w ard im p u ls iv e a c t i n g o u t .

29 L ik e th e t y p i c a l a c c id e n t p ro n e p e r s o n a l i t y ,

th is

c h ild

has

b e e n h a n d ic a p p e d i n fo rm in g s e c u r i t y - g i v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith p a re n t f ig u r e s .

For h er,

a f a th e r p erso n i s

to be

f e a r e d ; a m o th e r n o t t o be d e p en d e d u p o n ; c o n f l i c t w i t h a u th o rity fa llin g ,

to be a v o id e d . is

H er aw k w ard n ess, th e h a b i t o f

th e e x te rn a l m a n ife s ta tio n o f in n e r te n s io n .

U n a b le t o e x p r e s s h e r f e e l i n g s v e r b a l l y , e x e r t i o n t o a c t th e m o u t .

she ch o o ses p h y s i c a l

As a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e

t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h e r own f a t h e r ,

she c a n n o t t r u s t

p h y s ic a l c o n ta c t o ffe re d i n d e m o n s tra tio n o f a f f e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , s h e sh o w s how s h e w o u l d l i k e la v is h in g a f f e c t i o n on h er dog. th e f e e lin g re tu rn ,

she cannot b e a r to

fro m th o s e she l o v e s .

p a re n ts1 a ffe c tio n s is

t o be t r e a t e d by

T h is i s

a s u b s titu tio n fo r

e x p re ss b u t lo n g s to have i n T h at she i s u n su re o f h e r

i n d i c a t e d i n t h e u n u s u a l fo rm o f s i b ­

l i n g r i v a l r y b e t w e e n M a ry a n d h e r s i s t e r .

The f a c t t h a t

b o t h dem and e q u a l p u n i s h m e n t w h e n e i t h e r i s

t o be d i s c i p l i n e d

m ig h t r e p r e s e n t e x p i a t i o n f o r t h e i r f o r b i d d e n , m u tu a l h o s ­ tility .

P u n ish m e n t, o u tw a rd ly u n d e s e rv e d ,

e a se s th e b u rd en

on th e su p er ego. T h e re a r e e le m e n ts i n M ary1 s a c c i d e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e use o f s e l f - i n j u r y as an o u tle t f o r d e fe n siv e h o s t i l i t y . S h e sh o w s a g g r e s s i v e n e s s i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p by h e r p la y m a te s .

S in c e she c an n o t r i s k

she i s

acco rd ed

th e ir d isa p p ro v a l,

a w i s h t o a t t a c k may h a v e b e e n t u r n e d i n w a r d i n a c c i d e n t .

30 H er n e g a t iv i s m to w a rd h e r m o th e r i s s iv e a g g re s s iv e im p u lse s. sta tu s

a ls o an i n d ic a t i o n o f p a s ­

C ra v in g a t t e n t i o n ,

and l a c k i n g

a t h o m e, M a ry n e e d s t o e x c e l i n som e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n .

She n e e d s e v e n t o h av e t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f s t i t c h e s

among

th e c h i l d r e n i n h e r h o s p i t a l w ard. A t t h e r o o t o f t h e m e a n in g t o M ary o f h e r n e e d t o ex p ress h e r c o n f lic ts

i n t h e fo rm o f s e l f - i n j u r y ,

is

her

b a sic in s e c u r ity ; fo r

she i s u n e asy i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s

w ith a u t h o r i t y and u n s u r e o f h e r w o rth and p l a c e i n h e r p a re n tsT a ffe c tio n s . N e u ro tic g u i l t .

T h e s e v e n t e e n f a m i l i e s who g a v e

e v id e n c e o f u n c o n s c io u s g u i l t i n th e a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e d isp la y e d t h i s f e e lin g

i n v a rio u s c o m b in a tio n s.

Each

p a re n t,

h o w ev er, m a n if e s te d h i s i n n e r d is c o m f o r t by r e ­

v e rsa l,

p ic tu rin g

so m e o n e e l s e , c h ild

h i m s e l f t h e good p a r e n t ,

and th e b a d , i n

d is p la c in g r e s p o n s i b i li t y f o r th e in ju r y h is

su ffered ,

o u tsid e h im se lf.

B o t h t h e f a t h e r an d

g ra n d m o th e r o f D e n n is B . i n t h e f o llo w in g i l l u s t r a t i o n u s e t h i s m ech an ism t o a v o id t h e n e c e s s i t y o f f a c i n g o p e n ly t h e i r p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n s and t o e a s e t h e p a i n w h ic h u n ­ c o n sc io u s g u i l t has g e n e ra te d .

T h e y show t h e i r i n s e c u r i t i e s

a s p a r e n t f i g u r e s i n o t h e r w a y s : d e p e n d e n c e , i n M r. B . ; i n ­ d u lg e n c e and o v e r p r o t e c t io n , i n h i s m o th e r. w e ll to o th e rs in t h e i r fa ilu re

or re b u ff.

so c ia l s itu a tio n ,

N e ith e r r e l a t e s fe a rfu l of risk in g

B o th c o n s i s t e n t l y o v e re v a lu a te th e

31 c h ild * D e n n is B ., n e a r l y e i g h t y e a r s o l d , l i v e s w ith h i s f a t h e r and th e y o u n g e st o f t h r e e y o u n g er s i b ­ lin g s . H i s p a r e n t s a r e s e p a r a t e d a n d tw o o l d e r s i s t e r s , a g e d f i v e a n d s i x , a r e w i t h h i s m o t h e r , who l i v e s i n a n o t h e r c o m m u n ity w i t h h e r p a r e n t s . D e n n is1 p a t e r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r , who l i v e s i n t h e a p a r t m e n t a b o v e a n d ow ns t h e b u i l d i n g , r e p r e s e n t s t h e m o t h e r i n t h i s fa m ily c o n s t e l la t io n . M r. B . , now t w e n t y sev en , m arrie d a t n in e te e n a g a in s t h is p a r e n t s 1 w ish e s. H is w i f e , a c c o rd in g t o D e n n is ’ g ra n d m o th e r, t h e i n f o r m a n t , i s t h r e e y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n M r. B . a n d s t i l l v e r y i m m a t u r e , t i e d t o h e r own m o t h e r a n d u n w i l l i n g t o m ake t h e s a c r i f i c e s n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p a home t o g e t h e r . M r. B . i s d i s c o u r a g e d a b o u t h i s m a r­ r ie d l i f e , says i t i s ” jin x e d ,” b u t has nev er con­ sid e re d d iv o rc e . He h i r e s a h o u s e k e e p e r b y t h e d a y b e c a u s e , a s h i s m o th e r p u t s i t , she i s n o t s t r o n g en o u g h p h y s i c a l l y t o do t h e w o rk f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . H o w e v e r, s h e e x p r e s s e s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o h e l p s h a r e h e r s o n 1s b u r d e n s a n d s p e n d s m o s t o f h e r t i m e w i t h h is fa m ily . M r. and M rs . B . , S e n i o r , h a v e p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d D e n n i s ’ f a m i l y e v e r s i n c e M r. B . m a r r i e d . D e n n i s w as p l a y i n g , a s h e u s u a l l y d o e s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s u n t i l h i s f a t h e r g e t s home f r o m w o r k , i n t h e s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d , w h e r e a t e a c h e r whom h e know s was on d u t y . He f e l l o f f a s l i d e h e h a s o f t e n u s e d , a n d f r a c t u r e d h i s l e f t a r m . H i s g r a n d m o t h e r , w h en n o t i f i e d by th e t e a c h e r , im m e d ia te ly to o k o v er th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o b ta in in g m e d ic a l c a re f o r th e c h ild . M r. B . w a s s o u p s e t a b o u t t h e a c c i d e n t t h a t h e w as u n a b l e t o go b a c k t o w o r k f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . D e n n is h a s h ad o ne p r e v i o u s a c c i d e n t , when he was h i t by a c a r a t th e age o f f o u r . B o t h M r. B . a n d h i s m o t h e r b l a m e t h e s c h o o l a u t h ­ o r i t i e s f o r th e a c c id e n t, th ro u g h in a d e q u a te su p e r­ v is io n o f th e p la y g ro u n d . They a l s o b lam e, i n d i r e c t l y , s t a t e and c i t y g o v e rn m e n ts f o r c o n g e s t i o n and l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s i n p r o p o rtio n to th e in c re a s e d p o p u la tio n . None o f t h e a d u l t B . s p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o m m u n ity a c t i v i t y a l t h o u g h t h e g r a n d m o t h e r b e l i e v e s m u ch c o u l d b e d o n e i n t h e w ay o f a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n t h r o u g h g r o u p a c tio n . T h e y c o m p a r e t h e i r p r e s e n t c o m m u n ity a n d n e ig h b o rs u n fa v o ra b ly w ith th o s e i n t h e i r p a s t ex­ p e rie n c e .

32 M r. B . m akes D e n n is h i s c o n s t a n t c o m p a n io n , t a k i n g a l l h is r e c r e a t i o n w ith th e c h ild i n w a lk s, p i c n i c s , and s p e c ta to r s p o r t s . He a s k s D e n n i s o f t e n w h i c h p a r e n t h e w o u ld p r e f e r t o l i v e w i t h , a n d t h e c h i l d a l w a y s a n s w e r s t h a t h e w o u ld l i k e t o b e w i t h h i s m o th e r i f h i s d ad d y c o u ld be t h e r e , t o o . D e n n is i s s a i d t o be a happy c h i l d , q u i e t and w e ll-m a n n e re d . He p r e f e r s t o p l a y w i t h c h i l d r e n o l d e r b y tw o t o f o u r y e a r s , w i t h whom h e i s p o p u l a r . He i s d e s c r i b e d a s o l d e r t h a n h i s a g e a n d 11s m a r t e r t h a n o t h e r e i g h t - y e a r - o l d s . ” The c h i l d i s t i m i d w i t h a d u l t s o th e r t h a n th e f a m ily group b u t i s w e ll l i k e d by h i s t e a c h e r s . He e n v o y s s c h o o l a n d s c h o o l a c t i v i ­ tie s. D e n n is i s p r o t e c t i v e o f h i s y o u n g e r s i s t e r , s e e m s p r o u d o f h e r , a n d l i k e s t o show h e r o f f . He d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o m i s s t h e o t h e r tw o s i s t e r s a n d w i l l n o t s a y t h a t he m is s e s h i s m o th e r when a s k e d . He o f t e n n o t i c e s t h i n g s a b o u t women h e r a g e , h o w e v e r , c o m p a r i n g th e m w i t h h e r . In th is

f a m i l y g r o u p t h e f a t h e r 1s a t t i t u d e s

a r e m o re

d i r e c t l y f e l t t h a n i n m o s t h o m e s , M r. B . c o n t r i b u t i n g m o re im m e d ia te ly , p e rh a p s ,

to th e p a re n t- e h ild r e la tio n s h ip

any f a t h e r in c lu d e d i n t h i s

stu d y .

th a n

I n b lam in g th e s c h o o l

a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r h i s c h i l d 1s i n j u r y ,

he i s

u n c o n s c i o u s l y m o t i v a t e d b y a n e e d t o e a s e h i s own i n n e r g u i l t r a t h e r th a n by th e f a c t s

o f th e a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e .

M r. B . c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e f e a r f u l i n s e c u r e p e r s o n a l i t y i n m any w a y s .

He m a r r i e d y o u n g , p e r h a p s i n a n a t t e m p t t o r e b e l ,

b u t r e t u r n e d t o th e p r o t e c t i o n and d o m in a tio n o f h i s m o t h e r a s i t y i e l d s h im a m o re c o m f o r t a b l e r o l e o f h u s b a n d a n d h e a d o f h i s own f a m i l y .

th a n th a t

I n a p p e a lin g to th e

c h i l d f o r t h e a s s u r a n c e o f b e i n g l o v e d m o re t h a n h i s w i f e , he i s u s in g D e n n is a s a p a r e n t f i g u r e .

H e, to o , i s u n su re

33 o f b e in g lo v e d .

I n s e c u r e i n t h e c h i l d 1s a f f e c t i o n ,

t o c o m p e te f o r i t w i t h h i s w i f e . h ere i s re v e rs e d , c h ild

he n eed s

The p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h p

i n th e se n se t h a t th e p a re n t i s u s in g th e

to g r a t i f y dependency needs — a d i s t o r t i o n o f th e

m e a n in g -of a p a r e n t t o t h e c h i l d . C o n tin u in g o v e r p r o t e c t i o n by h i s m o th e r h a s p e r p e t u a ­ t e d i n M r. B . t h e c h ild h o o d c r a v i n g f o r d e p e n d e n c e w h ic h he was n e v e r a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e

i n a m a tu re w ay.

He n e e d s t o

b la m e F a t e f o r o t h e r s o u r c e s o f u n h a p p i n e s s £ h i s m a r r i e d life it,

is

’’ j i n x e d , ” h e d o e s n o t s e e h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n

and he lo o k s t o t h e s c h o o l sy s te m f o r h i s

He h a s n e v e r l e a r n e d t o f a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

so n ’s s a f e ty . The a c c i d e n t

o c c u r r e n c e i t s e l f g e n e r a t e d s o m u ch g u i l t i n h im t h a t h e i s u n a b le to f a c e ,

f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , r e a l i t y d e m a n d s o n h im

a s p a r e n t - p r o v i d e r ; he i s

i n c a p a c i t a t e d f o r e m p lo y m e n t f o r

s e v e r a l days fo llo w in g th e a c c id e n t. M r s .'B ., S r . ,

t h e c h i l d ’ s g r a n d m o t h e r , may h a v e p r o ­

v id e d h i s f a t h e r w ith t h i s

p a tt e r n o f d isp la c e m e n t o f

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n b lam in g o t h e r s ; s h e , t o o , and c i t y and s t a t e in ju ry .

a u th o ritie s re sp o n sib le

H er i n s e c u r i t y a s a m o th e r f i g u r e

h e r n e e d , w i t h b o t h s o n and g r a n d s o n , in d u lg e n c e . i n M rs. B .,

h o ld s th e s c h o o l fo r th e c h ild ’ s is

in d ic a te d in

to buy a p p ro v a l w ith

T h i s c o m p e n s a t i n g b e h a v i o r may b e a d e f e n s e , a g a in s t a sense of f a i l u r e

t o m a i n t a i n a home f o r h i s c h i l d r e n .

in her son’s in a b ility It

is

e a sie r fo r her

34 to

c o n tin u e o v e rp r o te c tin g

h im t h a n t o f a c e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s

o f h e r own m i s t a k e s . The B . s do n o t f e e l s e c u r e i n w id e r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ­ sh ip s.

T h e y d o n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o m m u n ity a c t i v i t y *

nor

t r y t o g e t a c q u a i n t e d i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d * f o r t h i s w o u ld in v o lv e to o g r e a t a r i s k . an in a b ility

to r e la te

re s p o n sib ilitie s

to o th e rs e a sily *

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t o o , m ig h t e n t a i l .

h id e

and a f e a r o f t h e I n t h e i r o v er­

a n o th e r f a c e t o f i n a b i l i t y

to a e c e p t

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e x p l o i t i n g h im t o m e e t t h e i r own s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ,

t o m ake u p

f o r t h e i r own f e l t d e f i c i e n c i e s , w h e n t h e y b o a s t o f h i s i n t e l le c t u a l s u p e rio rity over o th e rs h is age. D e n n is r e a c t s t o

th is

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n m any w a y s . th e in d u lg e n t a tt i tu d e

n e u r o t i c g u i l t and e v a s io n o f A c h i l d n e e d s l i m i t a t i o n s and

o f h i s f a t h e r and g ra n d m o th e r i n ­

c r e a s e s f e a r o f h i s own a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e s .

U n a b le t o r e ­

t u r n " b a d n e s s ” f o r t h e i r " g o o d n e s s ” t o h im , t h e s e m u st be tu rn e d in w a rd .

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in fa llin g ,

a c ts

as a d efen se a g a in s t p ro h ib ite d h o s tile a c tin g o u t. It 1 p re v e n ts th e d e s ir e to a tta c k . T he c h i l d c a n n o t e x p r e s s o p e n l y how m u ch h e m i s s e s h i s m o t h e r . d i r e c t e x p re ss io n o f t h i s fe e lin g rem em b ers h e r v i v i d l y and i s

is

He h a s l e a r n e d t h a t n o t a p p ro v ed .

B u t he

re m in d e d o f h e r i n t h e m o th e r

^ B e tte lh e im , op. c i t . . p . 652.

35 f ig u r e s he sees*

To a c h i l d ,

a p a re n t* s ab sen ce u n c o n sc io u s ly

r e p r e s e n t s p u n i s h m e n t f o r h i s own ’’b a d n e s s . ” is

in c re a s e d by h is f a th e r * s

m ore.

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c o n trib u te s h e a v ily to

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fe a rfu l­

a ttitu d e

c o m p e titio n w ith

to w a rd h e r ,

th u s e a rn ­

in g h i s p a r e n t ’ s a p p r o v a l and p r o t e c t i o n fro m h i s f a t h e r ’ s an g er.

But he d i s p l a c e s h i s d re a d o f l o s s o f lo v e i n f e a r p o f s t r a n g e r s who r e p r e s e n t p a r e n t f i g u r e s t o h i m . D e n n is i s d e n ie d g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f d e p en d e n cy n e ed s i n h i s f a t h e r ’ s own u n m e t n e e d s f o r l o v e .

A c c id e n ts ,

th is

is

th is

b a s ic r i g h t o f c h ild h o o d f o r d ep en d en ce.

o f w h ich

t h e s e c o n d , p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h a w ay t o

en fo rce

The l a c k o f

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h i s p a r e n t f i g u r e s i n m e e tin g th e c h i l d ’ s i n n e r n e e d s o f s e c u r i t y h a s h e lp e d D e n n is f o r m u la te a p a t ­ t e r n w h ic h w i l l e a s e t h e p r e s s u r e s o f i n n e r d em ands. O v e rn ro te c tio n .

% h e o v e rp r o te c tiv e g ro u p ,

th re e

2 Is a a c s , op. c i t . , p. 86. 2 A lth o u g h v a r io u s a s p e c t s o f p a r e n t a l f e e l i n g a re fo u n d w ith o v e r p r o te c tio n , t h i s a t t i t u d e i s i s o l a t e d f o r d i s ­ c u ssio n h ere because o f i t s in flu e n c e in a c c id e n t p ro d u c tio n . a n d i t s f r e q u e n c y o f i n c i d e n c e among t h e p a r e n t s s t u d i e d .

36 o u t o f ev ery e ig h t, fu l,

o r n e a r l y a s l a r g e a num ber a s t h e f e a r ­

and th e n e u r o t i c a l l y g u i l t y p a r e n t s , m a n ife s te d t h i s

form o f c o m p e n sa to ry b e h a v io r i n d u l g e n t ; f i v e w ere a u t h o r i t a r i a n , d is c ip lin e ;

s e v e r a l w ays. rig id

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in tra in in g

and

t h r e e w e r e w arm a n d a f f e c t i o n a t e ; w h i l e tw o

w ere a lw a y s r u s h i n g , p ro te c tio n is

o v e r w h e lm e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

O ver­

s e e n a s a c o m p e n s a tin g m ech an ism , a r e v e r s a l

of h o s tility .

The t o t a l b u rd e n o f t h e c o n c o m ita n t g u i l t i s

s o g r e a t t h a t i t m u s t b e d e n i e d a n d c h a n g e d t o a m o re a c ­ c e p ta b le fo rm ,

an undue c o n c e rn f o r th e c h ild * s w e lf a r e .

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t h i s m ec h an ism

p la y s i n a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e .

H e le n a D. i s s i x y e a r s o l d and l i v e s w i t h h e r m o t h e r , who i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m h e r h u s b a n d . T hey a r e s u p p o r t e d b y A id t o N e e d y C h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h e x t r a s a r e p r o v i d e d b y M r s . D . Ts p a r t - t i m e e m p lo y m e n t a s a m u sic t e a c h e r . M rs. D. i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c a p a b le and p r id e s h e r s e l f on b e in g w e ll r e a d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C h ild P sy c h o lo g y . S h e h a s r e a r e d H e l e n a o n S po ck * s Baby and C h ild C a r e : e v e n t h e c h i l d i s f a m i l i a r w i t h it* R e c e n tly M rs. D .f s p e d i a t r i c i a n " c lic h e d " h e r , as t h e m o th e r p u t i t , a s a n o v e r p r o t e c t i v e m o th e r . T h is a p p a r e n t l y m ade a n i m p r e s s i o n o n h e r a s s h e l a t e r c o n n e c te d th e a c c id e n t w ith h e r a tte m p t to f o llo w th e im p lie d a d v ic e . M rs. C. d e s c r i b e s h e r husband as " to o s m a ll-to w n is h ," and h as e x p la in e d t h e i r s e p a r ­ a t i o n to H e len a on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r q u a r r e l i n g to o m uch. She p l a n s t o a r r a n g e a m e e tin g o f t h e c h i l d and h e r f a t h e r l a t e r o n , so t h a t he w i l l n o t re m a in . m e r e l y 11a f a t h e r f i g u r e i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n . " M rs. D. sp e ak s r e m o r s e f u lly o f h e r e a r l i e r i r r i ­ t a t i o n w i t h H e le n a w hen sh e c r i e d a t n i g h t a s an i n f a n t , and a t t r i b u t e s t o t h i s th e c h ild * s n ig h t t e r r o r s w h i c h c o n t i n u e d u n t i l s h e w as n e a r l y f i v e y ears o ld . A y ear ago, a p p a re n tly in an e f f o r t to o b t a i n p e rm a n e n t e m p lo y m en t, t h e m o th e r p l a c e d H e le n a

37 i n a f o s t e r hom e. T h i s w as t h e c h i l d ’ s f i r s t s e p a r ­ a t i o n f r o m h e r m o t h e r a n d s h e w as v e r y u n h a p p y i n t h e p l a c e m e n t . M r s . D . re m o v e d h e r i n f o u r d a y s ’ t i m e , g iv in g as h e r r e a s o n th e f o s t e r m o th e r’ s a u th o r i­ t a r i a n a t t i t u d e and h e r ig n o r a n c e o f m odern c h i l d p sy c h o lo g y . She b lam ed t h e c a s e w o r k e r f o r t h e u n ­ s u c c e s s f u l p la c e m e n t. H e l e n a ’ s a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e d w h en s h e w as r o l l e r s k a tin g . S h e h a d ra s k e d h e r m o t h e r t o h e l p h e r l e a r n t o s k a t e , b u t M rs. D ., s m a rtin g fro m th e p e d i a t r i c i a n ’ s c o m m e n t, h a d r e f u s e d . When t h e c h i l d f e l l , f r a c t u r i n g t h e l e f t hu m eru s, M rs. D . r e a c t e d q u i c k l y i n th e em ergency, r e f e r r i n g t o S pock’ s boo k on c h il d c a r e , t h e n t a k in g th e c h i l d im m e d ia te ly t o th e C h i ld r e n ’ s H o s p ita l. The m o th e r b lam ed h e r s e l f f o r r e f u s i n g t o accom pany t h e c h i l d s k a t i n g , b e l i e v i n g t h a t w ith h e r s u p e r v i s i o n th e a c c id e n t c o u ld have b een p r e v e n te d . She f e e l s t h a t p a r e n t s a r e u s u a l l y t o b lam e f o r c h ild re n ’ s a c c id e n ts . H e len a p l a y s w e l l w ith o t h e r c h i l d r e n , i s co n­ s i d e r e d c o o p e r a t i v e and i s happy i n s c h o o l. She i s f e a r f u l , h o w e v e r, w hen h e r m o th e r i s n o t w i t h h e r o r n earb y . H e r f i r s t r e a c t i o n t o t h e h o s p i t a l w as t h a t i t r e m i n d e d h e r o f t h e f o s t e r home w h e r e s h e w as f r i g h t e n e d and l o n e l y . She h a s had one p r e v io u s a c c i d e n t , a d o g b i t e , w hen s h e p e t t e d a d o g who w as u su a lly frie n d ly . M rs. D . ’ s o v e r p r o t e c t i o n i n th e fo rm o f e x c e s s iv e s u p e r v i s i o n i s r o b b in g H e len a o f th e o p p o r t u n it y to d e v e lo p ju d g m en t and in d e p e n d e n c e . t i o n by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s :

It

is

re in fo rc e d in th is

e c o n o m ic i n s e c u r i t y ,

to th e c h ild f o r th e la c k o f a f a th e r f ig u r e , n eed f o r lo v e and a p p r o v a l.

situ a ­

c o m p e n sa tio n a n d h e r own

H er s e n s e o f f a i l u r e

p ro m p ts h e r t o o v e r r e a c t i n t h e r o l e o f m o th e r .

as a w ife T h is

p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s b eco m e c h a r g e d w i t h e m o t i o n t o w h ich n e i t h e r c a n a d e q u a te ly r e s p o n d . o n H e len a a r o l e

th e c h ild

cannot f i l l ,

M rs. D. h a s f o r c e d w h ile she h e r s e l f i s

38 b e c o m in g e n m e s h e d i n a s o c i a l b o n d t h a t l o o s e n s a l l o t h e r s *4 T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s m e c h a n i s m h a s b e co m e e s s e n t i a l t o h e r p sy c h ic e q u ilib riu m

is

illu stra te d

i n h e r rem o v in g t h e

a f t e r o n l y f o u r d a y s i n a f o s t e r home*

c h ild

H er o v e rc o n e e rn and

p re o c c u p a tio n w ith th e c h ild e a se s th e c o n f l i c t h er uncon­ sc io u s h o s t i l i t y

c re a te s.

A s s u m in g t h a t H e l e n a w as p l a c e d

so t h a t th e m o th e r c o u ld resu m e f u l l - t i m e

e m p lo y m en t, p e r ­

haps u rg e d by th e p u b lic a s s i s t a n c e w o rk e r, rem o v al o f th e c h i l d may h a v e s e r v e d a n o t h e r p u r p o s e , a l s o , a v o id in g th e r i s k o f f a i l u r e

i n th e sen se of

i n c o m p e t i t i v e e m p lo y m en t.

M rs. D. n e e d s t o p u n is h h e r s e l f o p e n ly , by assu m in g d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r H e l e n a 1s i n j u r y , b u t o n a n u n ­ re a lis tic

b a sis.

She c a n n o t a c c e p t th e p i c t u r e o f h e r s e l f

p a i n t e d by th e p e d i a t r i c i a n ; he m ust be p ro v e d w rong.

H e len a

was h u r t b e c a u s e sh e a llo w e d h e r s e l f t o f o l l o w h i s a d v i c e . B ecause o v e r p r o te c tio n i s

so n e c e s s a r y to h e r in n e r b a la n c e ,

M rs. D . c o n t i n u e s t o g e n e r a t e i n s e c u r i t y i n t h e c h i l d , w hose m eans o f r e l e a s i n g

th e p re s s u re on h e r s e lf i s

exp o su re to

in ju ry . H e le n a r e a c t s t o t h i s

q u a l i t y o f 11s m o t h e r l o v e TT i n

a p p a r e n t l y d e m a n d in g b e h a v i o r .

An o v e r d e p e n d e n c e i n t h i s

>

c h i l d m ig h t e a s i l y h a v e o r i g i n a t e d i n e a r l y c h il d h o o d w hen h e r m o th e r * s p s y c h o m o t o r t e n s i o n s c o m m u n i c a te d t o t h e c h i l d t h e m o th e r* s a n x i e t i e s a ro u n d p a r e n th o o d . 4 Levy, op.

c i t . . p . 16

M rs . D. i s

co rrect

39 i n a s s u m i n g t h a t o p e n i r r i t a t i o n w i t h t h e c h i l d d i d n o t im ­ p ro v e t h e s i t u a t i o n w h ic h had a l r e a d y b e g u n t h e c y c le o f u n ­ c o n sc io u s h o s t i l i t y

a n d i n s e c u r i t y r e a c t i n g o n th e m b o t h .

The n e c e s s a r y d e c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l c a r e and a t t e n t i o n t h e n o n ly s e r v e s t o d e c r e a s e H e le n a * s c o n f id e n c e i n h e r m o th e r a n d i n t u r n i m p e l s h e r t o a m ea n s o f e n f o r c i n g h e r m o t h e r ’ s c a re th ro u g h a c c id e n ta l i n ju r y . I n w id e r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , H e le n a i s

c o o p e ra tiv e ,

c a r r y in g o u t a p a t t e r n o f c o n fo rm in g , i n h e r need t o be a c ­ c e p te d .

I n o r d i n a t e and unm et n e e d s a r e n o t in v o lv e d h e r e ,

a n d t h e c h i l d r e l a t e s w e l l w i t h p l a y m a t e s a n d t e a c h e r s , who h av e no e m o t i o n a l i n v e s tm e n t a t s t a k e . U n a b le t o e x p r e s s n o rm a lly a g g r e s s iv e im p u ls e s w h ic h w o u ld i n c u r p a r e n t a l d i s a p p r o v a l and t h r e a t e n a l o s s o f l o v e , g u i l t and h o s t i l i t y

a re g e n e ra te d in t h i s

m ust be d i s g u i s e d and r e c h a n n e le d .

c h i l d , w h ich

U n c o n sc io u s w is h e s to

p u n i s h h e r m o t h e r a n d h e r s e l f may b e t h e c a u s e o f t h e i n ­ c re a s e d m u sc u la r t e n s i o n , consequent f r a c tu r e .

se ttin g

th e s ta g e f o r h e r f a l l and

S e l f - i n j u r y a p p e a rs to be H e le n a ’ s a t ­

tem p t a t c o n f l i c t s o l u t i o n . A u th o rita ria n ism .

A n o th e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e g ro u p

o f p a re n ts , o n e -fo u rth o f th o se in te rv ie w e d , t a r i a n r e la tio n s h ip s w ith t h e i r c h ild re n .

sh o w e d a u t h o r i ­

A fo rm o f o v e r ­

p r o t e c t i o n , t h i s u s u a l l y o r i g i n a t e s i n f e a r and h o s t i l i t y

40 t o w a r d o n e f s own p a r e n t . sc io u s a t t i t u d e fo rm .

G u ilt is

g e n e ra te d i n t h i s uncon­

a n d r e q u i r e s a r e d i r e c t i o n a n d d e n i a l i n som e

P a r e n t s becom e a n x io u s i n t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f p s y c h i c

en erg y r e q u ire d to m a in ta in i t .

The e x a m p le o f M rs . S . ,

w h ic h f o l l o w s , p a i n t s a p i c t u r e o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f th is

c o n flic t. P r e s t o n S . , e ig h t y e a r s o ld , h as one s i b l i n g , a b r o th e r aged f o u r . H is f a t h e r i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r ­ so n and t h e f a m i ly h as a f a i r l y h i g h s t a n d a r d o f liv in g . P re s to n i s d e sc rib e d as a q u ie t c h ild , h i g h - s t r u n g and n e rv o u s . He i s s a i d t o r e s e m b l e h i s m o th e r i n d i s p o s i t i o n w h ile h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r i s p i c t u r e d by h i s f a t h e r , th e in f o r m a n t, a s m is c h ie v o u s , h a p p y - g o - l u c k y , a n d J u s t l i k e h i m s e l f w h e n h e w as a c h ild . P r e s t o n i s d o u b l e - j o i n t e d a n d a w k w a rd . He f a l l s o f t e n b u t h i s o n l y p r e v i o u s s e r i o u s i n j u r y w as a b u rn , a t th e age o f f i v e . M r. S . r e p o r t s o n l y o n e o th e r a c c id e n t to th e fa m ily gro u p , to h im s e lf. The a c c i d e n t u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o c c u r r e d when P r e s t o n w as o n h i s w ay home f r o m s c h o o l , h a v i n g j u s t l e f t h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d , t h e c o m m u n ity to m b o y , a g i r l h i s own a g e . He s t u m b l e d a n d f e l l , f r a c t u r i n g h i s e lb o w . M rs . S . seem ed t o o f r i g h t e n e d a t f i r s t to t a k e a c t i o n , p h o n i n g M r. S . a t w o r k . He i m m e d i a t e l y to o k c h arg e o f th e s i t u a t i o n , o b ta in in g m e d ic a l c a re f o r th e c h il d a s soon a s p o s s i b l e . A fte r h is p a re n ts had l e f t t h e h o s p i t a l P r e s t o n c r i e d i n f e a r and l o n e ­ lin e s s . M r. S . h a s . b e e n w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e c h i l d f s t i m i d i t y e v e r s in c e he le a r n e d t h a t P r e s t o n a v o id e d c e r t a i n s t r e e t s i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y , h a v in g becom e t h e t a r g e t o f th e n e ig h b o rh o o d b u l l i e s . He d e c i d e d t o g i v e t h e c h i l d b o x in g l e s s o n s so t h a t he c o u ld l e a r n t o d e fe n d h im se lf. He r e p o r t s t h a t P r e s t o n c a n w a l k o n a n y s t r e e t , a l o n e , n o w . T he b o y se e m s m uch h a p p i e r i n s c h o o l , t o o , w i t h t h e c o n c u r r e n t im p ro v e m e n t i n g r a d e s . W h ile M rs. S . b la m e s h e r s e l f f o r t h e a c c i d e n t , M r. S . b e l i e v e s h i s w i f e h a s b e e n t o o s t r i c t w i t h t h e c h ild r e n , sa y in g t h a t th e tr o u b le w ith P r e s to n i s ” j u s t a c a s e o f t o o m u ch m o t h e r . 11 M r s . S . i s d e s c r i b e d a s

41 a m e tic u lo u s h o u se k eep er, i n s i s t i n g on im p lic it o b e d ie n c e and good m a n n e rs. She h a s t a u g h t t h e c h i l d r e n t o be t i d y , and t o k e ep t h e i r p l a y t h i n g s i n t h e i r own r o o m . They a r e p e r m i tt e d t o p l a y u n d e r h e r v i g i l a n t s u p e r v i s i o n o n l y o n t h e i r home p r e m i s e s w here t h e r e i s e x p e n s iv e p l a y e q u ip m e n t. T h e tw o c h i l d r e n g e t a l o n g f a i r l y w e l l t o g e t h e r now , a l t h o u g h P r e s t o n s e e m s t o r e s e n t h i s l i t t l e b r o t h e r 1s t a g g i n g a lo n g . M r. S . r e m e m b e r s t h a t P r e s t o n d i d show some j e a l o u s y o f h i s b r o t h e r w hen t h e l a t t e r was b o r n , b u t b e l i e v e s he h a s o u tg ro w n i t . T h e S . f a m i l y h a s no f r i e n d s i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d . M r. S . k e e p s u p h i s s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h c o l l e a g u e s and M rs. S . r a r e l y l e a v e s t h e h o u s e . She d i s a p ­ p r o v e s o f n e i g h b o r s who s i t c h a t t i n g o v e r c u p s o f c o f f e e , c o n f i n i n g h e r i n t e r e s t s t o h e r home a n d fa m ily . S h e h a s o n l y o n e c l o s e f r i e n d , a woman t e n y ears h er s e n io r. She i s a ” w o r r i e r , ” a c c o r d i n g to M r. S . ; s h e t a k e s t h i n g s s e r i o u s l y a n d d o e s n o t e n j o y p a rtie s. He r e p o r t s t h a t t h e y h a v e no r e c r e a t i o n i n common a n d t h a t ” t h i s m a k e s f o r f r i c t i o n , s o m e t i m e s . ” M rs. S . was so u p s e t a b o u t P r e s t o n * s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n t h a t s h e c o u l d n o t b e a r t o v i s i t h i m , s a y i n g i t w o u ld o n l y m ake i t h a r d e r f o r h i m . On t h e d a y s u r g e r y w as p e rfo rm e d , she b ro u g h t th e younger so n w ith h e r , b u t w a i t e d f o r M r. S . o u t s i d e t h e h o s p i t a l . E a r l i e r e m o t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n i n M r s . S . may h a v e p ro d u ced an u n c o n sc io u s w ish to even th e sc o re i n P r e s to n . U n k n o w i n g l y , s h e may s e e i n t h e c h i l d t h e f a t h e r whom s h e feared

and h a te d .

H er e x c e s s iv e ly c lo s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e

c h i l d r e n may s e r v e a s c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e h i d d e n h o s t i l i t y f e l t to w a rd th em , e a s i n g t h e p a i n i n f l i c t e d b y a p u n is h in g super ego.

Not h a v in g r e s o l v e d

w i t h h e r own p a r e n t ,

s u c c e s s fu lly th e c o n f lic t

s h e p a s s e s o n h e r own u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s

a p a r e n t i n dem ands f o r i m p l i c i t o b e d ie n c e o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n to th e

situ a tio n .

R e q u ire m e n ts o f o r d e r l i n e s s

and p e r f e c t

m an n ers a r e a n o th e r p a r t o f th e c o m p u ls iv e n e s s w h ic h r e l i e v e s

42 h e r p sy c h ic te n s io n s .

D e n y in g P r e s t o n in d e p e n d e n c e , sh e 5 r e v e a l s h e r d e p e n d e n c e o n h im , and f o r c e s t h e c h i l d t o f i n d a w ay o f c o n t r o l l i n g h e r ,

th ro u g h th e te n d e n c y to

se lf-

in ju ry . M rs. S . v e r b a l i z e s g u i l t and a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r th e a c c id e n t,

but in an u n s a tis fy in g ,* d iffu s e fe e lin g

in a d e q u a c y a s a p a r e n t . th e h o s p i t a l , is

She c a n n o t b e a r t o

th e re m in d e r o f h e r f a i l u r e

see th e c h ild

g iv e .

in

t o p r o t e c t h im .

to o p a i n f u l f o r h e r t o f a c e h i s f e a r and l o n e l i n e s s ,

need f o r th e com fort h e rs i s

of

to o c o n s t r i c t e d

It

h is

a p e r s o n a lity to

An i n f l e x i b l e p e r s o n , s h e i s u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s a

w a rm th and l o v e w h ic h h a v e n e v e r b e e n g e n e r a t e d i n h e r s e l f . M r. S . h a s s e t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r P r e s t o n a n d , w h i l e n o t so r i g i d

a d is c ip lin a r ia n as h is w ife ,

make t h e c h i l d

co n fo rm .

He i s

asham ed o f a t i m i d b o y ,

one so u n l i k e h i s p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f . no g i v i n g o f h i m s e l f ,

so m e­

B o x in g l e s s o n s r e q u i r e

and w h ile t h e y do m eet e x t e r n a l and

adequacy needs i n th e c h ild * s a b i l i t y o u tsid e a tta c k ,

h e f i n d s a w ay t o

to d e fe n d h im s e lf fro m

th e c h ild * s in n e r s e c u r ity i s

a f f e c te d o n ly

b y h i s f a t h e r *s i n c r e a s e d a p p r o v a l . The m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n M r. and M rs. S . i s

a fu r­

t h e r t h r e a t t o t h e c h i l d , w hose r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a r e n t s is u n c e rta in .

S ib lin g r iv a lr y i s

a n a d d i t i o n a l sym ptom o f

h i s f e a r o f n o t b e in g lo v e d en o u g h .

P re s to n senses

5 S c h m i d e b e r g , ojo. c i t . . p . 2 0 9

43 h i s f a t h e r f s g r e a t e r a f f e c t i o n t o w a r d a n d h i s m o t h e r ’ s m o re r e la x e d h a n d lin g o f h is b r o th e r . sib le

T h e s e i n t u r n a r e made p o s ­

t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y o f t h e m o re a p p e a l i n g ,

s u n n y -d isp o s itio n e d c h ild w ith h is p a re n ts .

The h a p p y - g o -

l u c k y e v a s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may b e t h e y o u n g e r b r o t h e r ’ s p a tte rn o f re a c tio n to lik e ly

sev ere a u th o rity ,

but i t

is

n o t so

t o i n c u r d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith th e e n v iro n m e n t a s P r e s t o n ’ s

w i t h d r a w a l and t h e m u s c u la r aw kw ardness w h ic h p r o v i d e s th e m eans o f s e l f - i n j u r y . P re sto n is

an in a r tic u la te

to ex p ress h is f e e lin g s .

is

t o h e l p h im s a y w h a t h e w a n t s

s a y ,^ b u t M rs. S . c a n n o t r e l e a s e f e e l i n g

S. is

n o t a t ease w ith P re s to n .

stitu te

i n th e

been is o la te d

He h a s n o t l e a r n e d

One o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s

a p a re n t does fo r h is c h ild to

c h ild .

h e rse lf,

a n d -Mr.

He f i n d s a n , i n a d e q u a t e s u b ­

s o m a tic e x p r e s s i o n o f a c c i d e n t . S in c e he h a s in p la y ,

th e c h ild does n o t r e l a t e

o t h e r s and h a s few f r i e n d s .

H is c l o s e s t c o m p a n io n i s

c o m m u n ity t o m b o y , who p e r h a p s t h r e a t e n s h im l e s s m a t e s o f h i s own s e x .

w e ll to th e

th a n p la y ­

P r e s to n has b u i l t aro u n d h im s e lf a

w a l l o f f e a r , w h ic h s e r v e s a s a p r o t e c t i v e b a r r i e r a g a i n s t 7 e x te rn a l p re ssu re s. P re s to n ’s f e e lin g s o f in s e c u r ity a re ex p ressed in p sy c h o m o to r t e n s i o n s ; he f a l l s

o fte n .

In ju ry re p re se n ts a

6 D u n b a r , Y o u r C h i l d ’ s M in d a n d B o d y , p . 7

17.

Plant, Personality and the Cultural Pattern, pp. 15-16.

44 s a f e t y v a l v e t o h im , r e l e a s i n g g u ilt,

th e p r e s s u r e s o f a n x ie ty and

and u n c o n s c io u s ly b r i n g in g on h im s e lf a p u n ish m en t

dem anded by t h e s u p e r e g o . a n o th e r p u rp o se .

I t may a l s o

serv e th e c h ild

I t p r o v i d e s h im a w ay n o t o n l y t o p u n i s h

h i s p a r e n ts b u t to f o r c e p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y to m eet h i s d e ­ p e n d e n c y n e e d s, i n a s o c i a l l y a p p ro v e d way. w h ic h a r e

so u s e f u l t o

re a d y have e s ta b lis h e d N e g le c t. show ed l i t t l e ju re d .

T hese f a c t o r s ,

t h e c h i l d 1 s p s y c h i c e c o n o m y , m ay a l ­ th e a c c id e n t h a b it.

F o u rte e n p a re n ts o f th e f o r t y c ase s s tu d ie d

c o n c e r n f o r t h e c h i l d who w as a c c i d e n t a l l y i n ­

T h e i r a t t i t u d e s ra n g e d fro m i n d i f f e r e n c e

s p o n s ib ility to n e g le c t.

As i n o t h e r q u a l i t i e s

p a re n t-c h ild re la tio n s h ip , g ro u p in g o f a t t i t u d e s

o f th e

e a c h p a r e n t i n d i c a t e d an, i n d i v i d u a l

and t r a i t s .

O th e r f a c t o r s

s t e l l a t i o n o f fa m ily r e l a ti o n s h i p s aro u n d th e a c c id e n t o c c u r r e n c e . l u s t r a t i o n p r e s e n te d b e lo w ,

and i r r e ­

in th e

con­

e n te re d in to th e f e e lin g s

M rs. H .,

in th e case i l ­

sh o w s a p a t t e r n o f n e g l e c t o v e r

a c o n s id e ra b le p e rio d o f tim e . F lo y d H ., n e a r l y f o u r y e a r s o l d , h a s a tw in b r o t h e r and one o l d e r s i s t e r , aged s i x . H is f a t h e r i s aw ay f r o m home m o s t o f t h e t i m e a n d h i s m o t h e r assum es a lm o st th e e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e c h i l d r e n 1s u p b r i n g i n g . She e x p r e s s e s l i t t l e f e e l i n g f o r h e r h usband and d o m in a te s th e h o u s e h o ld . The f a m ily l i v e s n e a r F lo y d * s m a te r n a l a u n t; h is m a te r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r l i v e s i n a n a d j o i n i n g c o m m u n i ty . The c h i l d r e n a r e a l l o w e d t o p l a y o n l y o n t h e i r own p r e m i s e s o r . w i t h m a te r n a l c o u s in s on t h e i r s , so t h a t p l a y i s s u p e r v i s e d by e i t h e r M rs. H. o r h e r s i s t e r . M r s . H. e x p la in s t h i s by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r n e ig h b o rh o o d a s

45 u n d e s i r a b l e , a p p a r e n tly b e c a u se i t i s p o p u la te d by o t h e r r a c i a l g r o u p s , who a r e " d i r t y a n d n o i s y . T} S h e l o o k s dow n o n h e r n e i g h b o r s , s e e s a s l i t t l e o f th e m a s p o s s i b l e , a n d t a k e s n o p a r t i n a n y c o m m u n ity a c tiv ity * M r s . H. d e s c r i b e s F l o y d a s r e b e l l i o u s a n d i n a t ­ t e n t i v e to h e r , sa y in g she i s h e lp l e s s i n te a c h in g h im t o o b e y . He e n j o y s p l a y i n g w i t h M r. H. o n h i s i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s a t h o m e, a n d i s i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m h is tw in . He f i g h t s w i t h h i s p l a y m a t e s a n d a l t h o u g h h e kno w s f e w c h i l d r e n , h e e n j o y s t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s h i p . A l l t h r e e o f t h e H. c h i l d r e n h a v e b e e n b u r n e d f r e q u e n tly by c o n ta c t w ith an open s to v e i n th e l i v ­ i n g room . F l o y d Ts l a s t p r e v i o u s i n j u r y , h o w e v e r , w as c a u s e d b y s p i l l i n g b u r n i n g g r e a s e f r o m a g r i d d l e w h ic h he p u l l e d fro m t h e k i t c h e n s t o v e . On t h e d a y o f th e a c c id e n t u n d er c o n s id e r a tio n , he s lip p e d o u t o f th e house to j o i n h is c o u sin s i n t h e i r back y a rd . W h ile p l a y i n g t h e r e , he f e l l a g a i n s t a n o i l c a n i n w h i c h r u b b i s h w as b e i n g b u r n e d a n d s u f f e r e d t h i r d d e g r e e b u r n s o n h i s f a c e , s h o u l d e r , and arm . M r s . H . a t f i r s t r e a c t e d h y s t e r i c a l l y , l a t e r m ade l i g h t o f th e in c id e n t. She t r i e d im m e d ia te ly to r e a c h h e r d o c to r by phone and f a i l i n g t h i s , d ro v e w ith F lo y d t o h e r m o th e r* s f o r a d v i c e . On h e r m o th e r* s s u g g e s t i o n sh e s t a r t e d o u t f o r th e R e c e iv in g H o s p ita l, b u t sto p p e d en r o u te f o r f i r s t a i d . N e a rly a m o n th l a t e r , w h e n s h e n o t i c e d t h a t t h e b u r n s w e r e n o t h e a l i n g , sh e to o k th e c h i l d t o t h e C h ild re n * s H o s p ita l. M r s . H. k e e p s a s u p p l y o f o i n t m e n t o n h a n d a g a i n s t t h e c h ild r e n * s p r o p e n s i t y f o r b u r n s and i t was n o t u n t i l i t was e x h a u s t e d t h a t sh e t h o u g h t o f m ed ica l a t t e n t i o n . M r s . H. b e l i e v e s h e r s i s t e r w as t o b l a m e f o r t h i s a c c id e n t th ro u g h h e r la x s u p e rv is io n i n p e rm ittin g th e c h il d r e n to p la y n e a r a b u rn in g i n c i n e r a t o r . How­ e v e r, she th in k s a c c id e n ts to c h ild r e n a re an i n ­ e v i t a b l e p a r t o f t h e i r g ro w in g up an d l i t t l e c a n be done t o p r e v e n t th em . F lo y d h as le a r n e d t o b e a r p a in s t o i c a l l y a n d t h i s i s t h e o n e q u a l i t y i n h im h i s m o th e r seem s t o a p p r o v e . M rs. H. h as a c o n c e p tio n o f p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , as se e n i n h e r f i r s t r e a c t i o n to th e c h ild * s p l i g h t , fin d in g

46 a w ay a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e o f e a s i n g h i s p h y s i c a l p a i n . w ith th e

sense o f danger p a s t,

But

h er co n cern i s d i s s i p a te d .

F l o y d 1s c o n d i t i o n e s c a p e s h e r n o t i c e u n t i l t h e s u p p l y o f o i n t ­ m ent r u n s o u t . b ilitie s

is

T h at she i s u n easy w ith p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i­

o b v io u s i n h e r a tte m p t to p la c e t h e d e c i s i o n f o r

a c t i o n o n h e r m o th e r*

S t i l l d ep en d en t on h e r f o r a u th o r i ty ,

M rs. H. r e v e r t s u n d e r s t r e s s

to th e c h ild h o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p

w ith h e r. M r s . H . may r e s e n t h e r h u s b a n d ^ her in h is

c o n t i n u e d a b s e n c e s fro m t h e hom e.

d ir e c t h er h o s t i l i t y to it

se em in g r e j e c t i o n o f

on h e r c h ild r e n .

its

o b je c t,

U n a b le t o

s h e may b e d i s p l a c i n g

H a v in g b e e n p u n is h e d b y h e r h u s b a n d ,

she needs to p u n ish i n r e t a l i a t i o n .

H er e x c e s s iv e s u p e r ­

v i s i o n o f t h e c h i l d 1s p l a y m ay r e p r e s e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r h e r th in ly v e ile d h o s t i l i t y

to w a rd h im .

c o n s is te n t co n cern fo r h is w e lfa re , lo w e d t o p l a y r e g u l a r l y

But th is

as th e

not a

c h ild re n are a l­

in d o o rs n e a r o b v io u s f i r e

Her h e l p l e s s n e s s i n t r a i n i n g

is

h azard s.

th e c h ild r e n to s a f e ty

h a b i t s m ay b e n o t o n l y a n a s p e c t o f h e r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e m , b u t a n e v a s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d e v e l o p e d i n h e r own r e ­ l a tio n s h ip s w ith h er p a r e n ts .

It

i s as i f

to

h er p a re n ts to o k over r e s p o n s i b i li t y f o r h e r, re p re se n ts

th e p a re n t to

fo r h im se lf. a c tu a lly

say t h a t sin c e t h e c h i l d who

h e r m ust ta k e o v e r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y

H e r c h i l d r e n 1s s u f f e r i n g

i n r e p e a t e d b u r n s may

e a se th e c o n f l i c t c r e a te d by h e r need to p u n ish h e r

. 4?

own p a r e n t s . M r s . H. n e e d s t o p l a c e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c c id e n t to F lo y d on h e r s i s t e r , p a re n ts

a ffe c tio n s,

th e p a re n ta l r o l e .

a c h ild h o o d r i v a l f o r h e r

i n a n o th e r i n d ic a t i o n o f d isc o m fo rt i n As f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f h e r own i n s e c u r ­

i t y , M rs. H. d i s p l a y s a s u p e r i o r a t t i t u d e b o rs.

It

is

to w a rd h e r n e ig h ­

e a s i e r f o r h e r t o re m a in a l o o f ,

w ith d ra w a l i n c r i t i c i s m b e in g a c c e p te d .

d isg u isin g her *

th a n to r i s k th e f a i l u r e

H er s o c i a l l i f e

is

lim ite d ,

of not

as she i n t u r n

lim its her c h ild r e n s . lik e

th e m a j o r i t y o f D u n b ar* s p a t i e n t s , F lo y d r e a c t s

to u n lo v in g a u t h o r i t y ,

e x e m p lifie d by n e g le c t,

d e s tr u c tiv e b e h a v io r.

H is p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s

in s e lf ­ a r e fo u n d

m ost f r e q u e n t l y i n F u l l e r * s n u r s e r y s c h o o l i n j u r y p ro n e — t r a d i t i o n a l l y ap p ro v ed y e t o f t e n u n a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s and in d e p e n d e n c e .

H is d e f i a n c e

serv es as a

p a r t i a l o u t l e t f o r a g g re s s iv e im p u lse s, w h ile h is r e s is ta n c e to

so c ia l tra in in g

is

t h e c o r o l l a r y o f h i s m o t h e r 1s u n l o v i n g

a t t e m p t s t o im p o se h e r w i l l o n h i s . re le a se

I n p l a y , F lo y d f i n d s

and r e d i r e c t i o n o f h i s p s y c h ic and p h y s ic a l e n e rg y

and a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o w in a c c e p t a n c e by t h e g r o u p ; he e n jo y s and i s

lik e d by h i s p la y m a te s.

seen in h is

T h at he n eed s a p p ro v a l i s

sh o w in g o f f h i s b u r n s ,

h id e h is p a in , A c h ild

and i n h i s

a tte m p ts to

t h e one t r a i t h i s m o th e r a d m ir e s i n h im . o fte n fe e ls

h o stile

t o t h o s e who a r e t r a i n i n g

48 h im , b e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s a r y f r u s t r a t i o n i n v o l v e d . th e p a re n t r e tu r n s s o n a lity needs,

th is

h o stility ,

r e i n f o r c e d b y h e r own p e r ­

f e a r and g u i l t a re in c r e a s e d

and d r iv e n i n ­

w a r d u n t i l t h e y b r e a k o u t i n some o t h e r f o r m * p a tte r n o f re p e a te d

When

I n F lo y d ’ s

e x p o s u r e t o b u r n s , w h ic h t h e e m o t i o n a l l y

s e c u r e c h i l d w o u ld a v o i d t h r o u g h t h e i m p u l s e o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , p h y sic a l s u ffe rin g

a to n e s f o r g u i l t and e a s e s t h e c o n f l i c t

b e tw e e n lo v e and h o s t i l i t y O v ert g u i l t * fo rty

to w a rd h i s m o th e r*

A h ig h p ro p o rtio n o f th e

a c c id e n t v ic tim s ,

p a re n ts o f th e

th re e out o f ev ery e ig h t,

ex p ressed

p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n th e fo rm o f s e l f - b l a m e f o r th e a c c id e n t.

I n c o n t r a s t w i t h M r. B . a n d h i s m o t h e r , who

ra tio n a liz e d th e ir

t o a n e x tre m e d e g re e t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to f a c e g own g u i l t , M r s . D . r e p r o a c h e s h e r s e l f f o r n o t p r e v e n t ­

in g H e le n a fro m f a l l i n g re s p o n sib ility th e

h ere i s

w h ile she le a r n e d to

s k a te .^

n o t s o m uch r e a l a s i t

is

The

n e u ro tic

in

s e n s e o f M r s . D . ’ s own n e e d t o d e n y h e r u n c o n s c i o u s

h o s tility .

A lre a d y g u i l t y and th r e a te n e d a s a p a r e n t by th e

p e d i a t r i c i a n ’ s c o m m e n t, s h e m u s t show h e r s e l f t h e g o o d p a r e n t and th e l a b e l ,

fa lse .

f o r th e c h ild ,

c e m e n tin g t h e o v e r p r o t e c t i v e

M rs. S . ,

S h e m a k e s a n o u t w a r d sh o w o f h e r l o v e p a tte rn .

to o , v e rb a liz e s re s p o n s ib ility

^ S u p r a , p p . 30 -35* 9

Supra* pp. 36-39.

fo r th e a c c id e n t

49 t o P r e s t o n who c o u l d n o t , h i m s e l f , t h i n k o f a n y r e a l r e a s o n 10 f o r t r ip p in g on th e sid e w a lk . T h is i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n an u n re a l, d iffu se p a re n t.

sense,

a g en eral fe e lin g

o f in a d e q u ac y as a

Y e t s h e c o n n e c t s m o re d i r e c t l y h e r p a r e n t a l i n s e ­

c u r i t y w i t h t h e a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e n c e t h a n M r s . D . , who n e e d s to fin d

in i t

a w ay t o

ju stify

h e rse lf.

The l a t t e r

h y p o th e ­

s i z e s a n u n r e a l i s t i c w ay o f p r e v e n t i n g t h e a c c i d e n t , w h i l e M rs. S . f e e l s m is e r a b le and g u i l t y .

M rs. K ., w h ile n o t

c o n n e c tin g h e r p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w ith th e a c c id e n t to M ary, i s r e m o r s e f u l a b o u t h e r i n a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t t h e and h e l p l e s s n e s s i n t r a i n i n g

h er in h a b its o f sa fe ty *

T he f a c i n g o f g u i l t f e e l i n g s , aro u n d th e p a r e n t a l r o l e ,

is

in d ic a tin g

c h ild

11

a n x ie ty

n o t a lw a y s t h e m o st d i r e c t

fa c in g o f r e s p o n s ib ility as a p a re n t.

T he o v e r t l y g u i l t y

m ay b e a s i n s e c u r e a s t h o s e who e s c a p e i n d i s p l a c e m e n t o f b la m e , and c r e a t e , a s s u r e l y ,

th e c lim a te i n w h ic h th e c h i l d

d e v e l o p s t h e a c c i d e n t h a b i t a s h i s own p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e to

in se c u rity . M a rita l c o n f lic t .

A lth o u g h m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t i s

r e s u l t o f f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s re la tio n sh ip s,

it

is

a

i n a s e p a r a t e a r e a o f ' hum an

s e e n t o a f f e c t th e c h i l d and h i s

s e l f - d e s t r u c ,t i v e te n d e n c y i n th e p ro d u c tio n o f a c c id e n t.

S u p ra , p p. 40 -4 4 •

^

Supra, pp. 25-30.

In

50 th is

stu d y e le v e n ,

or over o n e -fo u rth ,

in te rv ie w e d gave in d ic a tio n s o f t h i s

o f th e f o r ty p a re n ts

fo rm o f i n s e c u r i t y .

T hey i n c l u d e d f o u r w hose s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e , o r r e m a r r i a g e i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s

to w a rd t h e i r c h i l d r e n .

M rs. K. f i n d s h e r s e l f t o r n b e tw e e n c o n f l i c t i n g lo y a ltie s,

d ic h o to m iz in g h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

fa m ily .-^

That th is

is

a p ro b lem f o r h e r i s

to w a rd h e r apparent in

h e r n e e d t o r e i t e r a t e M r. K . f s k i n d n e s s i n g i v i n g th e m s u c h a happy l i f e .

I n t h i s m e c h a n is m o f d e n i a l i s

seen her

a w a r e n e s s o f h i s d i s c o m f o r t a n d h e r own u n e a s i n e s s i n p l a c ­ in g th e c h ild r e n f i r s t .

The i n c r e a s e d i r r i t a t i o n

home a n d t h e p a r e n t a l d i s c o r d p r e s e n t s th r e a t to

th e c h ild

i n th e

j u s t a s m uch o f a

a s b e in g u n w a n ted i n d e s e r t i o n .

S te p ­

p a r e n t s do n o t a n sw er th e b e lo n g in g n e s s n e e d s , ^ w h ic h i n M a ry f o r m t h e b a s i s o f h e r a c t i n g - o u t b e h a v i o r i n i n j u r y . The S . f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e a l s o m a rita l d i s c o r d .^

M r. S . i s

c o lo re d by

a c u t e l y aw are o f th e p ro b le m ,

v e r b a l i z i n g h i s d i s c o m f o r t i n t h e i r l a c k o f s h a r i n g common in te re s ts c h ild re n .

and o f u n a n im ity i n h a n d lin g t h e t r a i n i n g " T h is m akes f o r f r i c t i o n , "

f a r as to id e n t i f y th e q u ie t, w ife ,

and th e l o v a b l e ,

le ss

he s a y s .

a ttra c tiv e

He g o e s s o c h ild w ith h is

a p p e a lin g c h ild w ith h im s e lf.

^ S u p ra . pp. 2 5-30. 13 P l a n t , T h e E n v e l o p e . p . 23 14

Supra, pp. 40-44*

o f th e

T hat

51 th is

has an e f f e c t on th e a c c id e n t v ic tim

is

re c o g n iz e d by

M r. S . who d i a g n o s e s t h e p r o b l e m a s !,a c a s e o f t o o m uch m o th e r.w

T here i s

little

doubt th a t P re sto n i s

fin d in g

a

w ay i n a c c i d e n t t o f i g h t b a c k a g a i n s t t h e w a r r i n g p a r e n t s . M r. B . i s H is a t t i t u d e

o p e n ly d is c o u ra g e d w ith h i s m a rrie d X i f e .x ^

in th e

situ a tio n is

re a s s u r a n c e by th e c h i l d , m o re t h a n h i m s e l f .

e x h ib ite d

i n h is need f o r

f e a r in g t h a t h i s w ife i s

lo v ed

He d o e s n o t t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s

s h a r e i n d e p r i v i n g th e c h i l d o f h i s m o th e r, b la m in g F a te f o r th e unhappy m a rria g e .

E m o tio n a l im m a tu rity f o s t e r e d by h is

m o t h e r 1 s o v e r p r o t e c t i o n a n d d o m i n a n c e , p r e v e n t s h im f r o m a ssu m in g a s e c u r i t y - g i v i n g r o l e f o r th e a c c i d e n t v i c t i m . D e n n isT g u i l t i n h is m o th e r s

se em in g d e s e r t i o n o f h im ,

p u n i s h i n g h im f o r h i s nb a d n e s s , 11 i s

a c te d o u t in s e l f - i n j u r y .

The a b s e n c e o f a f a t h e r f i g u r e f o r H e le n a i s i n M rs. D . ! s o v e r p r o t e c t i o n o f th e c h i l d .

a fa c to r

A l t h o u g h we d o

n o t know t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n Mr-, a n d M r s . D . , we s e e d e f e n s e s a g a i n s t u n c o n s c i o u s h o s t i l i t y w h i c h may have in flu e n c e d th e m a r ita l as w e ll as th e p a r e n ta l r e ­ la tio n sh ip .

S e x u a l m a la d ju stm e n t s tr e n g th e n s r a t h e r th a n 17 w eakens m a te rn a l o v e r p r o t e c t io n . M rs. D. i s n o t a g iv in g p e r s o n ^ h e r h u s b a n d w as n t o o

^

S u p ra , pp. 31 -3 5 .

^

Supra. pp. 36-39.

17

Levy,

ojd.

s m a l l t o w n i s h , fI a n d s h e c o u l d

c i t . . p. 157.

52 n o t m eet o r s h a re h is f e e l i n g g e th e r.

e n o u g h t o k e e p t h e i r home t o ­

The e f f e c t o n t h e c h i l d

is

to in c re a s e h er a tte m p ts

to r e a s s u r e h e r s e l f o f h e r m o th e r’ s lo v e th ro u g h f o r c in g h er p h y sic a l c a r e .in in c a p a c ita tio n . O vert h o s t i l i t y .

O n ly s i x o f t h e t o t a l num ber o f

p a r e n t s w ere s e e n t o e x p r e s s h o s t i l i t y c h ild re n . refers

o p e n ly to w a rd t h e i r

T h i s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m ean r e j e c t i o n ,

to u n c o n sc io u s f e e l i n g .

does n o t p re c lu d e p o s itiv e so u rc e o f open c o n f l i c t , ly in g a n x ie ty . and d e s t r u c t iv e in se lf-in ju ry

w h ic h

The p r e s e n c e o f h o s t i l i t y

a ttitu d e s , but i t

is

o fte n th e

and a c t s a s a d e fe n s e a g a i n s t u n d e r­

H o s t i l i t y i n p a r e n t s may b e g e t a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e s i n c h i l d r e n , w h i c h may b e r e l e a s e d o r ex p o su re to a c c id e n t.

fo llo w s o f p a r e n ta l h o s t i l i t y

An i l l u s t r a t i o n

o p e n ly d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t th e

a c c id e n t v ic tim . A r t h u r W. i s t w e l v e y e a r s o l d . L i t t l e i s k now n o f h i s f a m ily b a c k g ro u n d o r o f f a c t o r s w h ich m ig h t th ro w l i g h t on t h e a c c i d e n t p r o d u c t i o n . M r. a n d M r s . W ., w h e n a p p r o a c h e d d u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e h o s p i t a l a s to t h e i r i n te r e s t in p a r tic ip a tin g in th is i n v e s ti ­ g a tio n , ap p eared a n ta g o n is tic . They c la im e d t h a t A r t h u r ’ s i n j u r y w o u l d h a v e no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a c c i ­ d e n t r e s e a r c h a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u ld h a v e no tim e to d i s c u s s i t . T h e c h i l d w as a d m i t t e d t o t h e h o s p i t a l o n i t s f u l l r a t e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t th e fa m ily h as an a d e q u a te to h ig h sta n d a rd o f l i v i n g . The p a r e n t s ’ a p p e a r a n c e and d r e s s added w e ig h t t o a n im p r e s s io n t h a t th e y may p l a c e e m p h a s i s o n e x t e r n a l v a l u e s . The o n l y f a c t s c o n c e rn in g th e a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e n c e a r e ta k e n fro m th e h o s p ita l r e c o r d .

53 W h i l e A r t h u r w as a t a J u n i o r F o r e s t r y Camp o n a s h o r t o u t i n g , h e f r a c t u r e d h i s a rm i n a f i g h t w i t h a n o th e r ho y . M r . W ., w o n d e r i n g how m uch t h e i n t e r ­ v i e w e r kn ew o f t h e i n c i d e n t , c o m m e n te d , ” T h e l e s s s a i d a b o u t t h i s , th e b e t t e r , ” im p ly in g a f e e l i n g o f h u m il­ i a t i o n , -p ro b a b ly c e n t e r i n g a ro u n d h i s s o n ’ s d e f e a t . M r. W .f s r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ’ s o u t l i n e o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w a s t h a t t h e o n l y way t o p r e v e n t a c c i d e n t s t o b o y s w o u ld b e t o s t o p h a v i n g b o y s , a d d i n g ” T h i s m i g h t b e a g o o d i d e a . ” M r s . W. d i d n o t c o n ­ t r i b u t e to th e d i s c u s s i o n a t a l l e x c e p t to c lo s e th e i n te r v ie w by a s k in g w hat e o u ld be c o v e re d i n th e t h r e e m in u te s re m a in in g b e fo r e th e y l e f t th e h o s p i t a l . A rth u r i s u n p re p o s se ss in g i n a p p e a ra n c e , i n con­ t r a s t to h is p a re n ts , b o th p h y s ic a lly a t t r a c t i v e -p e o p le . He a p p e a r e d t o b e c h e e r f u l a n d c o o p e r a t i v e , th o u g h n o t s u b m iss iv e i n m anner. We know t o o l i t t l e

o f M r. a n d M r s . W. t o t r a c e t h e

d e v elo p m e n t o f t h e i r o b v io u s h o s t i l i t y

to w a rd A r th u r .

d i r e c t l y b lam in g t h e c h i l d f o r th e a c c i d e n t i s re lie v e p a re n ts.

In ­

an a tte m p t to

th e m o f t h e g u i l t t h e y f e e l a r o u n d t h e i r f a i l u r e

as

T h e i r a d e q u a c y and e v e n t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s a p p e a r s

t o be t h r e a t e n e d by th e c h i l d ’ s l o s i n g i n a f i g h t w ith a n o th e r boy.

B u t i n t h e o p e n s h o w in g o f t h e i r

and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n h im , t h e y cem en t h i s

h u m ilia tio n

in se c u rity .

C h i l d r e n who a r e b a s i c a l l y l o v e d a n d r e s p e c t e d , o n t h e w h o l e u s e l e s s d e s t r u c t i v e ways o f a c t i n g o u t a g g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e s .

1a

A lth o u g h A r th u r m ig h t n o t have e a rn e d th e d e g re e o f n e g a tiv e fe e lin g

e x p r e s s e d d i r e c t l y t o h im h a d h e w on a n d e s c a p e d i n ­

ju ry i n th e f i g h t ,

h is p a re n ts

show l i t t l e

w a rm th , sy m p a th y ,

o r a c c e p ta n c e o f th e f a c t t h a t a g g re s s iv e b e h a v io r i s

not

I S A . H. M a s lo w , ”A C o m p a r a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o t h e P r o b l e m o f A g g r e s s i v e n e s s , ” P s y c h i a t r y . 5 : 5 1 9 , N o v e m b e r , 194-2.

54 uncom m on i n f i g h t s

b e tw e e n boys o f t h i s

age as a n o u t l e t f o r

m o to r e n e r g y . A r t h u r h a s f o u n d a w ay o f r e a c t i n g

to th e fe e lin g o f

b e in g u n w a n ted ! he n e e d s a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t h i s i n s e c u r i t y w ith h is p a re n ts . p a re n ts, h is

U n a b le t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s

a g g re s s iv e b e h a v io r w ith r e s u l ti n g

s u b s titu te , W a rm th .

in c lu d e d i n th e

to w a rd h i s

se lf-in ju ry is

an o u tle t fo r d e fe n siv e h o s t i l i t y . N o t a l l t h e q u a l i t i e s f o u n d among t h e p a r e n t s s t u d y w ere n e g a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r .

p a r e n t s , o r one f o u r t h th e t o t a l ,

Ten

a p p e a r e d t o b e warm a n d

a f f e c tio n a te i n r e l a ti o n s h i p s w ith t h e i r c h ild r e n . o f th em w ere a l s o o v e r p r o t e c t i v e ; t h r e e , th e need to d is p la c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,

fe a rfu l;

tw o , w i t h

a lth o u g h f iv e

se lf-b la m e f o r th e a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e .

M rs. F .

T hree

ex p ressed

p re se n ts a

p i c t u r e o f u n d e r s ta n d in g and a c c e p ta n c e o f h e r c h i l d r e n a s in d iv id u a ls ,

a s sh o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e .

H a r r ie t , aged s i x , i s th e second o f f o u r g i r l s i n th e F . fa m ily . T hey l i v e i n a crow ded s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y w here t h e r e i s l i t t l e sp a c e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o p la y and w h ere f a m i l i e s l i v e c l o s e t o g e t h e r . The s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g m ig h t be d e s c r i b e d a s m a r g i n a l , a l ­ th o u g h th e p a r e n ts a re a m b itio u s i n a tte m p tin g to p ro ­ v id e t h e i r c h il d r e n w ith th e a d v a n ta g e s t h e i r f i n a n c i a l re so u rc e s w il l p e rm it. They a r e s t r u g g l i n g w i t h l a r g e i n s t a l l m e n t p a y m e n t s o n t h e i r h o m e, c a r , p i a n o , a n d i n d u s t r ia l in su ra n c e . The a c c i d e n t w as d i r e c t l y c a u s e d by a n o p e n g a s g r a t e w h ic h th e c h i l d r e n had b e e n t a u g h t t o a v o id . H a r r ie t , i n h ig h s p i r i t s w h ile d r e s s in g f o r s c h o o l, backed in to th e h e a te r . N e a r l y h e r e n t i r e b o d y w as b u rn e d w hen h e r n ig h tg o w n c a u g h t f i r e . M r s . F*. b u r n e d

55 h e r own a rm s a n d c h e s t w h i l e r i p p i n g o f f t h e gown a n d r o l l i n g th e c h ild i n a b la n k e t* She r e p o r t s t h a t she a c t e d m e c h a n i c a l l y , n o t r e a l i z i n g how s c a r e d s h e w as u n t i l s h e saw t h a t s h e n e e d e d e m e r g e n c y t r e a t m e n t h e rse lf* S h e summoned h e l p f r o m a n e i g h b o r whom s h e h ad h e lp e d i n a s i m i l a r e m e rg en c y t h e w eek b e f o r e , and to o k th e c h il d im m e d ia te ly to a r e c e iv in g h o s p i t a l . M rs* F . a n d h e r h u s b a n d b o t h s p e a k r e m o r s e f u l l y a b o u t t h e h e a t e r , w h i c h t h e y w o u ld h a v e r e p l a c e d l o n g s in c e i f th e y had n o t b e e n so f i n a n c i a l l y o b lig a te d * T h e y p l a n t o b o r r o w e n o u g h m oney t o i n s t a l l a m o d e r n one im m e d ia te ly . The F . s b e l i e v e t h a t a c h i l d ’ s t r a i n i n g and h i s p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d in g s a r e e q u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n a c c id e n t p ro d u c tio n . T h e c h i l d r e n e n j o y p l a y i n g w i t h M r. F . , who ro m p s w i t h th e m e v e r y n i g h t . He p r e f e r s s p e n d i n g h i s s p a r e tim e w i t h th em , t o any o t h e r fo rm o f r e c r e a t i o n . A ll a r e e q u a lly h ap p y , f r i e n d l y , and a c t i v e . T he t h r e e o l d e r g i r l s seem p r o t e c t i v e o f t h e y o u n g e s t a n d none i s e i t h e r fo rw a rd o r tim id i n m anner. H a r r ie t has a lw a y s l i k e d o p e n ly e x p r e s s e d a f f e c t i o n b u t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y d e m o n s tra tiv e , h e rs e lf* She e n jo y s s c h o o l , h a s m any p l a y m a t e s h e r a g e , a n d i s l i k e d b y her te a c h e rs. M rs. F . h a s c l e a r i d e a s on a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n i n w h i c h s h e h a s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d f o r some t i m e p r i o r t o th is a c c id e n t. She b e l i e v e s i n lo n g te rm p la n n in g by c o m m u n ity g r o u p s , w h i c h s h e i s p r o p o s i n g i n t h e c l u b s t o w h ic h sh e b e l o n g s . E d u c a tio n on s a f e t y m easu res i n c l a s s e s f o r p a r e n t s and o t h e r s , a s w e l l a s r a d i o a n d n e w s p a p e r p u b l i c i t y , w e r e among h e r s u g g e s t i o n s . The F . s t h i n k t h a t c o m m u n itie s s h o u ld b e a r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l s o c i a l p ro b le m s. Except fo r t h e i r n e g l i g e n c e i n p o s t p o n i n g p u r c h a s e o f a new h e a t e r , th e y f e e l th e y have done a l l th e y can to p re ­ v e n t a c c id e n t to t h e i r c h ild r e n . The F . s

are a p p a re n tly r e l a t i v e l y

secu re p a re n ts .

They do n o t f e e l undue g u i l t beyond e x p r e s s in g

o p e n ly t h e i r

r e g r e t i n c a u s in g th e c h i l d p a in by h a v in g p o stp o n e d p u rc h a s e o f a m odern h e a t e r . lim ita tio n s

T h e y seem t o a c c e p t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l

and to p la n as a m b itio u s ly as p o s s i b l e to

im p ro v e

56 t h e c o m f o r t s o f t h e i r hom e.

They a p p a r e n t ly e n jo y t h e i r

c h i l d r e n , w i t h o u t u n due e m o t i o n a l d e p e n d e n c e on th em , t r e a t ­ i n g th em a s i n d i v i d u a l s ,

and h e lp in g to i n c r e a s e

a p p ro p ria te ly

t h e i r m u tu a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . M r. F . d o e s show a d e g r e e o f u n s u r e n e s s i n la tio n sh ip s, c h ild re n .

if

he ta k e s m ost o f h i s r e c r e a t i o n w ith h i s

T he c h i l d r e n m ay i n t h a t c a s e p r e s e n t l e s s o f a

t h r e a t t o h im t h a n h i s own c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . tru e

so c ia l r e ­

th a t th e F .s ,

I t may h e a s

f i n a n c ia l ly o b lig a te d as th e y a re , de­

l i b e r a t e l y d e n y t h e m s e lv e s o u t s i d e a m u sem en ts. lo w t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e l a t i v e l y f r e e p l a y , e x e r c i s e a s m uch j u d g m e n t a s t h e

The F . s a l ­

and t r u s t

s i t u a t i o n a llo w s .

th e m t o As l o n g

a s t h e o p e n h e a t e r h a s b e e n i n t h e hom e, n o n e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , u n t i l th e a c c id e n t i n q u e s tio n o c c u rre d , burn ed h e r s e l f on it.

T h e H.. c h i l d r e n ,

i n c o n t r a s t , b u rn th e m se lv e s on th e 19 open h e a te r c o n tin u a lly . H a r r i e t 1s b u r n may r e p r e s e n t , m o re t h a n a n y o t h e r a c c i d e n t r e p o r t e d h e r e ,

a situ a tio n a lly

as opposed to an e m o tio n a lly c a u se d i n j u r y . The F .

c h i l d r e n r e s p o n d t o t h e w a r m th a n d a f f e c t i o n

i n t h e i r home w i t h f r e e d o m f r o m f e a r a n d f r o m g u i l t - c r e a t e d a g g re ss iv e b e h a v io r.

H a r r ie tf s d e v ia tio n ,

i n p erh ap s un­

c o n s c i o u s l y c o l l i d i n g w i t h t h e h e a t e r , may r e p r e s e n t a r e ­ le a se

o f h o s t i l i t y w h ich t h e

a f f e c t i o n o f th e p a re n ts does

n o t p e rm it h e r to e x p re ss d i r e c t l y .

^

Supra. pp.

T h is i n c i d e n t w o u ld

57 n o t a p p e a r t o be th e b a s i s f o r a n a c c i d e n t h a b i t from t h e d a t a we h a v e , h o w e v e r , a s s h e h a s no s t e r n a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t w h i c h th e re i s

a need to r e b e l and, i n t u r n ,

D e p e n d e n c y n e e d s se e m t o b e g r a t i f i e d , n o t se e m t o b e a f a c t o r ,

to re q u ire

se lf-p u n is h m e n t.

s i b l i n g r i v a l r y w o u ld

a n d t h e r e a r e no u n d u e p r e s s u r e s o n

h e r w h ic h n eed i n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n . T h e w a r m t h s e e n i n o t h e r h om es a n d p a r e n t s , serv es tiv e

a ls o ,

t o c o u n t e r a c t i n some d e g r e e t h e f u l l f o r c e o f n e g a ­

and t h r e a t e n i n g

I n t h e K. f a m i l y ,

e le m e n ts i n th e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p .

t h e a f f e c t i o n sh o w n t h e c h i l d r e n may h e l p

t o n u l l i f y t h e f e e l i n g i n M a ry o f b e i n g r e j e c t e d b y h e r own 20 fa th e r. H e r ow n a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t o o t h e r s may b e p a r t l y i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w ith h e r p a re n ts* i n th e n e ig h b o rh o o d .

frie n d ly re la tio n s h ip s

A lth o u g h t h e a c c e p ta n c e i n M rs. B .,

a n d h e r s o n may c o v e r u n c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g s o f h o s t i l i t y ,

S r., it

d o e s y i e l d D e n n is t h e m ea su re o f a c c e p ta n c e w h ic h h a s d e 21 v e lo p e d t h e h a p p y d i s p o s i t i o n h e show s i n p l a y . He i d e n t i f i e s w ith h is fa th e r* s a ttitu d e siste r,

i n u n sp o k en g r a t i t u d e f o r b e in g lo v e d , th e s t a b i l i z i n g

fa c to r in h is p ro te c tiv e a b ility

to w a rd t h e y o u n g e r

s u p e r ego d e v e lo p m e n t.

o f H e le n a , p ro v id e s th e

to r e la te

M r s . D . , who i s

sam e b a s i s f o r h e r c h i l d * s

to o th e r p la y m a te s and to

Supra, pp* 25-30. Supra, pp. 30-35*

a ls o

th e a d u lts i n h er

53 e n v iro n m e n t. tiv e

fe e lin g

lih o o d th e r e

22

in

T he m o re g e n u i n e a n d u n c o m p l i c a t e d t h e p o s i ­ th e p a re n t-c h ild

th e le s s

i s o f a d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n j u r y p r o n e n e s s .

v a rio u s e m o tio n a l q u a l i t i e s in th is

re la tio n sh ip

T he

of fa m ily r e la tio n s h ip s re v e a le d

s tu d y e m p h a size th e f a c t t h a t a c c i d e n t s o c c u r i n a l l

so rts of s itu a tio n s . a ttitu d e s

A lth o u g h b o th p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e

a r e i n f l u e n t i a l and a r e p r e s e n t i n e a c h , i t

is

i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f th e m h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t e f ­ f e c t on th e p r o d u c tio n o f a c c id e n t. S t a t i s t i c a l g ro u p in g s o f a t t i t u d e s p a tte rn s.

and r e a c t i o n

F e a r f u l p a r e n ts a re found i n t h i s

duce b o th r e b e l l i o n and f r i e n d l i n e s s eq u al in c id e n c e .

stu d y to p ro ­

in th e ir

c h ild re n ,

in

T hose im p e lle d t o d i s p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

h a v e m o re o f t h e f r i e n d l y , o th e r r e a c tio n g ro u p in g .

p o p u la r c h ild r e n th a n o f any T he w i t h d r a w n a n d i s o l a t e d

c h ild re n

f o r m t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r among t h e o v e r p r o t e c t e d , w h i l e a u t h o r i t a r i a n and n e g l e c t f u l p a r e n t s te n d t o p ro d u c e th e ” s o c i a l good f e l l o w ” a t t r i b u t e fin d in g s , to

in th e ir

c h ild re n .

These

a lth o u g h none d e c i s i v e l y h ig h i n fre q u e n c y ,

ten d

c o rr o b o r a te D u n b a r! s c o n c lu s io n s as to th e a c c id e n t p rone

p e rs o n a lity . Four o u t o f e v e ry t e n c h il d r e n o b se rv e d h e re have had p re v io u s a c c id e n ts , w h ile le s s ^

Supra, pp. 36-39.

th a n a th ir d

o f th e fa m ilie s

lik e ­

59 h a d a c c i d e n t h i s t o r y among o t h e r f a m i l y m e m b e r s .

N in e

c h i l d r e n o f t h e t o t a l o b s e r v e d come o f f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h o t h e r m em b ers h a d a l s o

su ffered a c c id e n ta l in ju ry .

The

p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e h a v in g th e h ig h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w ith p r e ­ v io u s a c c id e n t i s

fe a rfu ln e ss o f p a re n ta l re s p o n s ib ility ;

te n p a tie n ts in th is

s tu d y w ith a c c id e n t h i s t o r y w ere fo u n d

i n th e s e se v e n te e n f a m i li e s . fe c tio n a te p a re n ts, c id e n t. th is

Among t h e t e n warm a n d a f ­

o n ly one c h ild had had p re v io u s a c ­

T h o s e who a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n s e c u r e a s p a r e n t s ,

in

s tu d y , te n d to p r o v id e a c lim a te m ost f a v o r a b l e to

a c c id e n t p ro d u c tio n i n t h e i r c h ild r e n . A c c i d e n t a s a p a t t e r n o f c o n f l i c t s o l u t i o n se e m s m o re a p p a r e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ’ s r e a c t i o n g r o u p i n g s among t h e a g g r e s s iv e and p o p u l a r , in g s.

a g a in c o n fir m in g D u n bar’ s f i n d ­

Seven o f th e t h i r t e e n i n t in s

p re v io u s in ju r y .

W ith d ra w n c h i l d r e n ,

group have had su c h n u m b erin g t e n o f t h e

t o t a l o b se rv ed , in c lu d e d f iv e w ith a c c id e n t h i s t o r y . m ore s o c i a l l y a c t i v e c o n c lu sio n s,

c h ild re n ,

The

as s u b s ta n t ia t e d by F u l l e r ’ s

a r e t h e m o re v u l n e r a b l e t o i n j u r y .

R e l a t i o n o f fo rm o f a c c id e n t t o r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n . D u rin g th e s i x w e ek s’ c o v e ra g e o f a c c i d e n t a d m is s io n s t o th e C h i l d r e n ’ s H o s p i t a l o f L os A n g e le s , t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f a c c id e n ts f e l l i n th e f r a c tu r e cases.

g ro u p , th r e e o u t o f e ig h t

D u n b ar’ s f i v e y e a r s e r i e s i n th e P r e s b y t e r i a n H o s p ita l

60 o f New Y o r k sh o w e d a m uch h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e , o f e ig h t,

or fo rty -n in e

w ere c a u se d t o c u ssio n ,

c h ild re n in th is

c o n tu s io n ,

e x te r n a l a g e n t. th e f r a c tu r e

p e r c e n t .2^

n e a rly fo u r out

N in e a d d i t i o n a l i n j u r i e s

s tu d y by a b r a s i o n ,

a n d r u p t u r e c a u s e d b y t h e b lo w o f a n

C o n s i d e r i n g th e m s o m e w h a t a l i k e

and a l l i e d

th re e o ut of f iv e .

con­

in n a tu re ,

a d m issio n s b r in g th e in c id e n c e to

M ore c h i l d r e n i n t h i s

l a r g e r g ro u p in g

h av e a c c i d e n t h i s t o r y t h a n i n an y o t h e r form o f i n j u r y . p e rs o n a lity re a c tio n ty p e s, was m o st o f t e n f o u n d i n t h i s

Of

th e a g g re s s iv e ly f r ie n d ly c h ild fra c tu re

and a l l i e d

g ro u p in g .

I n g e s t i o n o f f o r e i g n b o d ie s , fo llo w e d by b u rn s , have th e n e x t h ig h e s t in c id e n c e i n a d m iss io n s .

D e f ia n t and d i s ­

o b e d i e n t c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e l a r g e s t num ber o f a n y r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n among i n g e s t i o n a d m i s s i o n s , w h i l e p e r s o n ­ a lity

t y p e s among t h e s i x c a s e s o f b u r n s w e r e s c a t t e r e d . On

t h e w h o le , a g g r e s s iv e r e a c t i o n s p re d o m in a te i n a l l fo rm s o f in ju ry . Among t h e f o r t y a c c i d e n t a d m i s s i o n s s i x t e e n w e r e cau sed by f a l l s ,

in c lu d in g fiv e

c h i l d r e n who f e l l ,

o v er o b je c ts w ith o u t o b se rv a b le c a u se . P re sto n S.

25

trip p e d

L i k e M a ry K . 2 ^ a n d

, t h e s e c h i l d r e n may b e u n c o n s c i o u s l y m o t i v a t e d

2 ^ D u n b a r , P s y c h o s o m a t i c D i a g n o s i s , p . 551* ^ S u p ra , pp. 2 5 -3 0 . 25

Supra, pp. 40-44*

61 by th e need to p u n is h e i t h e r fo r th e ir fru s tra tio n .

th e m se lv e s o r th o s e r e s p o n s ib le

O n ly s i x i n j u r i e s ,

fa lls,

w ere c a u s e d b y a u to m o b i le s ,

lie f.

E x tra n e o u s o b j e c t s ,

c la s s ifie d

as

c o n tr a r y to p o p u la r be­

in c lu d in g c o l l i s i o n w ith an in ­

c i n e r a t o r a n d p u l l i n g dow n a h e a v y w in d o w b o x , w e r e re sp o n sib le fo r in ju ry in fo u r c a se s. T h is a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d

re la tio n sh ip

i n a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e n c e w o u ld p o i n t up f i r s t

seen

th e p resen ce o f

a m b i v a l e n c e among t h e p a r e n t s t o w a r d t h e i r p a r e n t a l r e ­ sp o n s ib ilitie s th is

and,

se c o n d ly ,

fu n d a m e n ta l i n s e c u r i t y ,

p u n i t i v e m ec h a n ism .

i n th e c h i l d r e n s

re a c tio n s to

an e x te q u a liz a tio n o f th e

T h is s tu d y u n d e r lin e s

th e im p o rta n c e

o f u n c o n s c io u s m o t i v a t i o n i n a n a r e a w h ic h h a s b e e n con­ s id e re d , u n t i l c o m p a ra tiv e ly r e c e n tly , situ a tio n a lly

c o n tro lle d .

p re d o m in a n tly

P h y sic a l s a f e ty f o r th e c h ild

d e r i v e s i n l a r g e m easu re from in n e r b a la n c e and t r a n q u i l l i t y i n t h e h o m e.

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS I n th e p a s t te n y e a rs th e re has been an in c re a s in g ly e v id e n t co n cern i n th e f i e l d s w ith th e i s o l a t i o n o f t r a i t s

o f p s y c h i a t r y and s o c i a l w ork w h i c h a s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n make

up a c c id e n t o r i n j u r y p ro n e n e s s .

T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e tw o

p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s w h ic h have b e en re v ie w e d h e re a r e n o t e n t i r e l y b o rn e o u t by t h i s r e p o r t .

I n such a sta te m e n t,

h o w e v e r , i t m u s t b e k e p t i n m in d t h a t t h e c o n t r o l s i n e a c h s t u d y w ere n o t i d e n t i c a l .

D unbar*s s e r i e s o f a c c id e n t ad ­

m issio n s in c lu d e d th e ages f i f t e e n to f i f t y - f i v e , c o n cern ed w ith f r a c t u r e ta in e d

p a tie n ts.

a n d w as

F u l l e r ’ s m a t e r i a l w as o b ­

i n a n u r s e r y sc h o o l,- w h ic h e x c lu d e d a c c i d e n t s o c c u r ­

r in g o u ts id e th e sc h o o l p re m ise s, p re -sc h o o l c h ild re n . o f in d iv id u a ls ,

a n d w as l i m i t e d

to

B o th s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d a l a r g e r num ber

a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e , a n d m o re d e t a i l e d

back g ro u n d m a t e r i a l th a n h as b e en p o s s ib le i n t h i s

stu d y .

E x p o su re to a c c id e n t o r i n j u r y a s a co n firm ed h a b i t o f con­ flic t

s o l u tio n c an n o t be d e f i n i t i v e l y p o s tu la te d h e re ,

m any o f t h e c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d , n o r e p e t i t i v e e s ta b lis h e d .

as in

p a t t e r n w as

T he f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w e r e b a s e d

o n th e f a c t o f one a c c id e n t i n

j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e known

e le m e n ts i n th e fa m ily r e l a t i o n s h i p .

Although the seeds of the personality are planted in

63 e a r l y c h ild h o o d w ith in th e p a r e n t - c h i ld a tio n s i n th e i n d i v i d u a l s

re la tio n sh ip ,

a lte r­

r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n m ay b e a n t i c i p a t e d .

I n a n y e v a l u a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n 1s b e h a v i o r t h e r e

i s m uch t h a t

re m a in s u n p r e d i c ta b l e th ro u g h th e v a ry in g i n f lu e n c e s o f con­ s t i t u t i o n a l s t r e n g t h and p r e d i s p o s i t i o n ,

in n e r a d ju stm e n t

and e x t e r n a l ,

T h ere i s

ib ility

even f o r tu ito u s , f a c to r s .

a fle x ­

a b o u t t h e hum an p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t d e f i e s p r e s c i e n c e ,

p r o v i d i n g u s w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g w hen b a s e d o n a c c o m p lis h e d fa c t,

b u t d e n y in g u s th e c o m p le te s e c u r i t y o f f o r e s i g h t . Not o n ly i s

it

a p o s s ib ility

an a c c id e n t d u rin g our l i f e

t h a t a n y o f u s may h a v e

tim e b u t th e p r o b a b i l i t y i s

s tr o n g t h a t th r o u g h a c o m b in a tio n o f p h y s i c a l and s i t u a t i o n a l fa c to rs, ju ry .

It

e a c h o f u s w i l l s u f f e r som e f o r m o f a c c i d e n t a l i n ­ is

u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e e m o t i o n a l c o m p o n e n ts o f o u r

r e l a ti o n s h i p s w i l l p ro v id e an e x p la n a tio n i n e v ery c a s e . is

b e c o m in g c l e a r e r ,

It

h o w e v e r, t h a t few a c c i d e n t s t o c h i l d r e n

o r a d u lts o c c u r e n t i r e l y by c h a n c e .

We a r e b e c o m in g m o re

c o n f i d e n t t h a t o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f hum an b e h a v io r i s

as v a lid i n th e a re a o f a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e as

i n o t h e r f o r m s o f h u m an a c t i v i t y .

We r e m a i n s e c u r e i n o u r

c o n v ic tio n t h a t a c h ild h o o d r e l a t i v e l y f r e e is

o f in n e r c o n f lic t

a h e a lth y f o u n d a tio n f o r p h y s i c a l and e m o tio n a l w e ll h e in g . T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s

s tu d y o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and

s o c i a l backg rou nd s o f th e f o r t y f a m ilie s u n d e r c o n s id e r a tio n w a s t o f o r m u l a t e som e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a r t t h a t

64 th e p a re n t-c h ild r e la tio n s h ip

p la y s i n a c c id e n t o c c u rre n c e .

W h e re c e r t a i n e m o t i o n a l e l e m e n t s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s i t ­ u a tio n s under o b se rv a tio n , a tio n .

o t h e r s m ig h t have b e e n i n o p e r ­

We c a n o n l y p u t t o g e t h e r t h e f a c t o r s o f a d m i t t e d

i n f l u e n c e am ong t h e p a r e n t s a n d t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e r e a c t i o n s among t h e i r

c h ild re n , w ith th e ta n g ib le

A r e l a t e d n e s s w as s e e n i n t h i s a ttitu d e s

e v id e n c e o f a c c i d e n t .

s tu d y b e tw e e n p a r e n t a l

and e m o tio n a l d is c o m f o r t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n .

In

t h e f a c t o f t h e a c c i d e n t i t may b e a s s u m e d t h a t e a c h c h i l d h a s u se d i n j u r y a s one w ay, i f in g p sy c h ic e q u ilib riu m .

n o t t h e o n ly w ay, o f e s t a b l i s h ­

W h e th e r o r n o t a c c i d e n t w i l l becom e

t h e p a t t e r n o f c o n f l i c t s o l u t i o n o f e a c h , c a n n o t be d e t e r ­ m in e d .

Among t h e f o r t y c a s e s r e v i e w e d ,

six te e n p a tie n ts

t w e l v e o t h e r f a m i l y m em b ers d e c l a r e d h i s t o r i e s

and

o f a c c id e n t.

The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e h w i t h p r e v i o u s a c c i d e n t w as f o u n d among p a r e n t s who w e r e f e a r f u l o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i ­ b ilitie s , th e

w h i l e warm a n d a f f e c t i o n a t e p a r e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d

s m a l l e s t num ber i n t h e r e p e t i t i v e

tw e n ty -fo u r,

For over

o r m o re t h a n h a l f t h e t o t a l i n c l u d e d i n t h e

s tu d y , ho w ev er, t h i s ju ry .

g ro u p .

in c id e n t re p re s e n te d th e f i r s t

I n a s m a l l num ber o f t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d ,

such in ­

e m o tio n a l

m a l a d j u s t m e n t was n o t a p p a r e n t fro m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . The c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p e rs o n a lity c h a ra c te ris tic s .

stu d y in c lu d e d a v a r i e ty o f G ro u p in g s i n o r d e r o f s i z e

in ­

c lu d e d t h e f r i e n d l y and p o p u l a r , d o m in e e rin g and r e b e l l i o u s ,

65 j e a l o u s , w ith d ra w n , q u i e t and c o o p e r a t i v e ,

and d e p e n d e n t.

Some o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e o v e r l a p p i n g s

f o r e x a m p le , f i v e

p o p u la r c h i l d r e n w ere fo u n d t o he a s s e r t i v e ; c h i l d r e n w ere a l s o

happy and c o o p e r a t i v e ;

w ere fo u n d i n e a c h g r o u p .

d e riv e ,

je a lo u s c h ild re n

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g r o u p in g was s i x t e e n , t h e s m a l l e s t , The c o n f l i c t s

tw o w i t h d r a w n

fiv e .

e v i d e n t among t h e c h i l d r e n se e m e d t o

a s i n o t h e r fo rm s o f m a la d ju s tm e n t, fro m a v a r i e t y

o f c a u s e s i n c l u d i n g f r u s t r a t i o n o f n o rm a l d r i v e s and e m o tio n a l h u n g e r,

a n d u n m e t n e e d , a r i s i n g f r o m c o u n t l e s s com­

b i n a t i o n s o f i n t e r n a l s t r a i n and e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e .

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c re a s e d m a te rn a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y due to th e absence o f th e f a t h e r f r o m t h e h o m e, t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s t e p - p a r e n t ,

th e

e x i s t e n c e o f e c o n o m ic n e e d w i t h t h e a t t e n d a n t s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o t h e r e c e i p t o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , w e r e among t h e e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h t e n d e d t o s h a p e som e o f t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n ­ sh ip s-

E m o t i o n a l i m b a l a n c e among t h e p a r e n t s a n d c o n s t i ­

t u t i o n a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n i n th e c h i l d r e n w ere i n f l u e n t i a l i n o th e rs. o b serv ed .

E le m e n ts o f b o t h w ere s e e n I n s e v e r a l o f t h e f a m i l i e s W h ile d is h a r m o n y was o b v io u s i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f

th e se s itu a tio n s ,

p r o b l e m s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w e r e m o re d e e p l y

b u r i e d i n a f e w , w i t h som e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c e rn ib le p a th o lo g ic a l im p lic a tio n s .

la c k in g any d i s ­

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m in d t h a t a c c i d e n t s a r e n o t c a u s e d e n t i r e l y fa c to rs.

by e m o tio n a l

W h e re a n i n j u r y p r o n e p a t t e r n h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d ,

66 h ow ever, th e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p u n d o u b te d ly h as b e e n in flu e n tia l.

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to w a rd c l a r i f y i n g

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p r e v e n t i v e w o r k may b e b a s e d . A c c id e n t i s

p o s tu la te d i n r e l a t i o n to th e c h ild re n

s t u d i e d h e re as a so m a tic e x p r e s s io n o f e m o tio n a l i n s e c u r i t y ; a s a s e l f - p u n i s h i n g m ec h an ism , a fo rm o f d e f e n s i v e h o s t i l i t y , a t u r n i n g in w a rd o f a g g r e s s i v e im p u ls e s , and c o n t r o l l i n g th e p a r e n t s , g ra tific a tio n . th is

a w ay o f c o m p e l l i n g

and a s a s o u rc e o f d ep en d en cy

The p a r e n t s 1 a t t i t u d e s w h ic h c o n t r i b u t e d to

fo rm and d e g re e o f r e a c t i o n i n c lu d e d ,

o rd er,

i n n u m e ric a l

f e a r f u ln e s s — an u n c o n sc io u s e v a s io n o f p a r e n t a l

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; o v e r p r o t e e t i o n — m a s k in g u n c o n s c i o u s h o s tility

to w a rd t h e c h i l d ,

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in c lu d in g a u th o rita ria n is m and n e g l e c t .

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a p p e a re d a l s o t o be a f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l c lim a te

w h ic h f a v o r e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a c c i d e n t .

l a r g e s t g ro u p in g in c lu d e d s e v e n te e n , th e s e a ls o o v e rla p p e d .

th e s m a lle s t,

The seven;

Some p a r e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e

b o th a p p re h e n s iv e and o v e r p r o t e c t i v e , w h ile th o s e i n m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t w ere fo u n d s c a t t e r e d

among a l l g r o u p i n g s .

fo u n d im p o s s ib le to c o r r e l a t e

th e s e p a r e n ta l a t t i t u d e s w ith

p e rs o n a lity s tru c tu re c h ild re n . p o p u la r,

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o r r e s p o n s i v e b e h a v i o r among t h e

T h e tTs o c i a l g o o d f e l l o w , 11 t h e s e l f - a s s e r t i v e th e a g g re s s iv e ly h o s t i l e ,

and

th e happy and c o o p e r a tiv e ,

67 and t h e w ith d ra w n w ere fo u n d i n a l l p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e g o rie s.

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s tr e n g th s and w eaknesses in flu e n c e d th e

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stu d y i s

a n a tte m p t t o th ro w l i g h t on

a p a r t i c u l a r form o f b e h a v io r d i s t u r b a n c e i n c h i l d r e n ,

it

p o i n t s m o re e m p h a t i c a l l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t c h i l d r e n who have a c c id e n ts have o th e r d i f f i c u l t i e s e n v iro n m e n t a s w e l l .

in r e la tio n to

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T he

c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n q u i r y f o r t h e m o s t p a r t m ay h a v e used a c c id e n ta l in ju r y f o r t h i s p u rp o se .

I f th is

t o b e c o m e t h e i n d i v i d u a l *s p a t t e r n o f d e f e n s e , te s te d

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in n e r c o n f lic t.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

68 A.

BOOKS

A l l e n , F r e d e r i c k H . , P s y c h o th e r a p y W ith C h i l d r e n , New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n a n d C o m p an y , I n c , , 1 9 4 2 . 311 pp. B a r t l e t t , H a r r i e t t M ., Some A s p e c t s o f S o c i a l C a s e W o rk i n a M e d ic a l S e t t i n g . C h ic a g o : G eorge B a n ta P u b l i s h i n g C om pany, 1 9 4 0 > 2 7 0 p p . D u n b ar, F la n d e r s , P s y c h o so m a tic D ia g n o s is . B , H o e b e r , I n c . , 194& . 7 4 1 PP*

New Y o r k : P a u l

. . Y o u r C h i l d * s M in d a n d B o d y . A P r a c t i c a l G u i d e f o r P a r e n t s . New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 4 9 • 3 2 4 PP* G o r e r , G e o f f r e y , The A m e ric a n P e o p l e . New Y o r k : N o r t o n a n d C o m p an y , I n c . , 1 9 4 ^ . 246 p p . G r u e r i b e r g , S i d o n i e M a t s n e r , We t h e P a r e n t s . H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 194 8 * 309 p p .

W. W.

New Y o r k :

H a m ilto n , G ordon, P s y c h o th e r a p y i n C h ild G u id a n c e . C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 . 340 p p . I s a a c s , S u s a n , The N u r s e r y Y e a r s . P re s s , I n c ., 1932. 138 p p .

New Y o r k :

New Y o r k :

The V an g u ard



K o r n e r , A n n e l i e s e F r i e d s o n , Some A s p e c t s o f H o s t i l i t y i n Y oun g C h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : G r u n e a n d S t r a t t o n , 1 9 4 9 . 1 9 4 PP * L e v y , D a v id M ., M a t e r n a l O v e r p r o t e c t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 943 * 4 1 ? PP*

New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a

L e v y , J o h n , an d R u th M u n ro e, The H appy F a m i l y . A l f r e d A. K n o p f, 1 9 4 0 . 319 p p .

New Y o r k :

P l a n t , Jam es S . , P e r s o n a l i t y and th e C u l t u r a l P a t t e r n . Y o r k : T h e C o m m o n w e a lth F u n d , 1 9 3 7 . 432 p p . _______ T he E n v e l o p e . 1950. 29 9 p p .

New

New Y o r k : T h e C o m m o n w e a lth F u n d ,

T a f t , J e s s i e , e d i t o r , F a m ily C asew o rk and C o u n s e l in g , a F u n c tio n a l A p p ro ach . P h ila d e lp h ia : U n iv e r s ity o f Penn­ s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1948* 303 p p .

69 W o lf f , W e rn e r, The P e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e P r e s c h o o l C h i l d , Y o rk : G rune an d S t r a t t o n , 1 9 4 7 . 34^- p p . B.

New

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

B a r a u e k , A l i c e W ., L o r n a C . B r a n g w i n , a n d J e a n n e E . H a m i l ­ t o n , TTC a s e w o r k f o r T r o u b l e d P a r e n t s , ” S o c i a l C a s e w o r k . XXXI, N o . 3 , ( M a r c h , 1 9 5 0 ) , 1 1 2 - 1 6 . B e t t e l h e i m , B r u n o , ” S o m a t i c Sym ptom s i n S u p e r e g o F o r m a t i o n , ” A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . X V I I I , N o. 4 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 -8 ;, &4 9 - 5 S . B o r n s te in , B e r ta , " E m o tio n a l B a r r i e r s i n th e U n d e rsta n d in g a n d T r e a t m e n t o f Y oun g C h i l d r e n , ” A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . X V I I I , N o. 4> ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 $ ) y 6 9 1 - 9 7 . B r u c h , H i l d a , ” T he R o l e o f t h e P a r e n t i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h C h i l d r e n , ” P s y c h i a t r y . I I , N o. 2 , (M ay, 1 9 4 8 } , 1 6 9 - 7 5 . C u s h i n g , J . G. N . , a n d M a ry M c K i n n i s s C u s h i n g , ” A C o n c e p t o f t h e G e n e s is o f H o s t i l i t y , ” B u l l e t i n o f t h e M e n n in g e r C l i n i c . 1 3 , N o. 3 , (M ay, 1 9 4 9 ) , 9 4 - 1 0 0 . F u l l e r , E l i z a b e t h M echem , " I n j u r y - P r o n e C h i l d r e n , ” A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . X V I I I , N o. 4 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 8 ), 7 0 8 -2 3 . G a r d n e r , G e o r g e E . , ” T h e C o m m u n ity a n d t h e A g g r e s s i v e C h i l d , ” M e n t a l H y g i e n e . XXXIV. N o . 1 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 0 ) , 4 4 - 6 3 . G r e c o , M a r s h a l l C . , a n d I r v i n g B* F e c h e r , " F u n d a m e n t a l s o f P s y c h o t h e r a p y a n d a New O r i e n t a t i o n , ” A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . X V I I , No. 3 , ( J u l y , 1 9 4 7 ) , 4 3 9 - 4 3 . G re e n , R o s e , ”The T r e a tm e n t o f P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s , ” A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . 1 8 , N o. 3 , ( J u l y , 1 9 4 8 ), 442- 4 6 . L a n g f o r d , W i l l i a m S . , a n d K a t h e r i n e M oo re W ic k m a n , ” T he C l i n i c a l A s p e c ts o f P a r e n t - C h i ld R e l a t i o n s h i p s , ” M e n ta l H y g ie n e . X X X III, No. 1 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 8 ) , 8 0 - 8 8 . L i n e , W i l l i a m , " A n x i e t y a n d G u i l t i n t h e M o d e r n C o m m u n i t y ,” P s y c h i a t r y . 1 2 , No. 1 , ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 9 ) , 2 7 -3 5 *

L o w e n s te in , S o p h ie F . , " D is tu r b e d and U n d is tu r b e d C h ild r e n i n t h e Same F a m i l y , " T h e s i s , Sim m ons C o l l e g e , 1 9 4 ^ * J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l W o rk , 1 9 , N o. 1 , (S um m er, 1 9 4 9 ) , 43 - 4 4 * M a s lo w , A . H . , T,A C o m p a r a t i v e . A p p r o a c h t o t h e P r o b l e m o f D e s t r u c t i v e n e s s , ” P s y c h i a t r y . V o l. 5 , (N ovem ber, 1 9 4 2 ) , 5 17 -2 2 . N ic h o ls o n , M a ria n B ., "D e v e lo p m e n ta l D i f f i c u l t i e s i n C h ild r e n U nder T h r e e ," A m e ric an J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . X I I I , N o. 1 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 3 ) , 4 5 - 5 0 . R o b in s o n , J . F r a n k l i n , " C u r r e n t T re n d s i n C h ild G u id a n ce C l i n i c s , " M e n t a l H y g i e n e . XXXIV, N o . 1 , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 0 ) , 106- 1 6 . R o s s , H e l e n , a n d A d e l a i d e M. J o h n s o n , " P s y c h i a t r i c I n t e r p r e ­ t a t i o n o f t h e G r o w th P r o c e s s , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l C a s e ­ w o r k . XXX, N o . 3 , ( M a r c h , 1 9 4 9 ) , B 7 - 9 2 . S c h m i d e b e r g , M e l i t t a , " P a r e n t s a s C h i l d r e n , " T he P s y c h i a t r i c Q u a r t e r l y S u p p l e m e n t . 2 2 , P a r t 2 , ( 1 9 4 ^)> 2 0 7 - 1 S . S u l l i v a n , H a rry S ta c k , "T heory o f A n x ie ty ," No. 1 , ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 9 ) , 3 - 1 2 .

P s y c h ia try . 12,

Sym onds, P e r c i v a l M ., "T he R e l e a s e o f R e p r e s s e d T e n d e n c i e s , " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . X V I I , N o. 3 , ( J u l y , 1 9 4 7 ), 4 0 4 -1 5 . V a n O p h u i j s e n , J . H . W ., " G u i d a n c e o f C h i l d r e n P r e s e n t i n g A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o r D i s o r d e r s , A S y m p o s iu m ," T h e News­ l e t t e r o f t h e A m e ric an A s s o c i a t i o n o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l W o r k e r s , X I I , N o. A> ( S p r i n g , 1 9 4 3 ) , 9 3 - 1 0 5 . C.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

A l l e n , C o r n e lia H o p k in s, " C o n s t r u c ti v e H a n d lin g o f H o s t i l i t y i n C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n W o r k ," S m i t h C o l l e g e S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l W o rk , X IV , N o . 1 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 3 ) , 1 5 9 - 7 2 . C l i f t o n , E le a n o r , and F lo r e n c e H o l l i s , e d i t o r s , C h ild T h e r a p y . A C a s e W ork S y m p o s iu m . New Y o r k : F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e ric a , 194S . 217 p p .

71 E v ^ e , M a r g a r e t , " O u t l o o k f o r T r e a t m e n t o f C h i l d r e n Who H a v e Had N e o - n a t a l D i f f i c u l t i e s , ” S m i t h C o l l e g e S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l W o rk , X V I, N o . 4 , ( J u n e , 1 9 4 6 ) , 2 2 3 - 6 4 . G a r r e t t , A n n e t t e , " E g o P s y c h o l o g y i n C a s e W o r k ," S m i t h C o l ­ l e g e S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l W o rk . X IV , No. 1 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1943) , 9 0 -9 7 . S h i r l e y , M a ry M ., " T h e I m p a c t o f t h e M o t h e r 1s P e r s o n a l i t y o n t h e Y oung C h i l d , ” S m i t h C o l l e g e S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l W o rk , X I I , N o. 1 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 1 ) , 1 5 - 6 4 .

A P P E N D I X

72 STUDY OF ACCIDENT CASES ADMITTED TO CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL DURING MONTH OF NOVEMBER SCHEDULE IDENTIFYING INFORMATION 1.

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S o u rce o f in f o r m a tio n (a) d o c to r (b ) n u r s e ( e ) r e c o r d {&) s o c i a l ’ (e) o th e r - s p e c if y

la ) (e)

d o c to r (b) r e c o r d o th e r - sp e c ify

CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE ACCIDENT 28.

D e s c rip tio n o f th e a c c id e n t

29.

P erso n s p re s e n t

30.

A c tio n s o f p e rs o n s p r e s e n t

31.

R e la tio n s h ip to p a tie n t o f p e rso n re s p o n s ib le

w orker

74 (3) 32.

W h erea b o u ts o f p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e

33.

I f n e i t h e r p a r e n t w a s ~ p re s e n t, w h e re a b o u ts

34.

D e s c r ip t i o n o f e v e n ts im m e d ia te ly f o llo w in g a c c id e n t

35*

Im m e d ia te

re a c tio n s

of p a tie n t

36.

Im m e d ia te

re a c tio n s

o f p a re n ts

37.

Im m e d ia te

re a c tio n s

of o th e rs p re se n t

38.

Im m e d ia te

re a c tio n s

o f o t h e r m em b ers o f t h e f a m i l y

MEDICAL CARE 39.

T im e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n a c c i d e n t a n d s e e k i n g o f m e d ic a l a id

40.

P erso n c a lle d

41 *

T im e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n a c c i d e n t a n d s e c u r i n g o f m e d ic a l a id

42.

K in d o f m e d ic a l c a r e g i v e n i n t h e i n t e r i m

43.

S o u r c e o f r e f e r r a l o f p a t i e n t t o t h e C h i l d r e n 1s H o s p ita l

44 *

M eans o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o h o s p i t a l

45*

F i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n a s a f a c t o r i n s e c u r i n g im m e d ia te m e d ic a l a id

FAMILYTS PRESENT ATTITUDES 46.

T o w a rd a c c i d e n t

47.

T o w a rd p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n ( a ) h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , (b ) c o n v a l e s c e n c e , (c ) p r e s e n t and p o s s i b l e p a irm e n t o f c h i l d , (d ) p erm an en t e f f e c t s

48.

T o w a rd a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n (a) w ith r e g a r d t o p re s e n t a c c id e n t (b ) w ith r e g a r d to f u t u r e a c c id e n ts

49.

T o w a rd i n t e r v i e w

situ a tio n

im ­

75 (4) GENERAL ATTITUDE OF THE INFORMANT 50.

T o w a rd p a t i e n t

5 1 ..

T o w a rd o t h e r m em b ers o f t h e f a m i l y

52.

T o w a rd t h e n e i g h b o r s

53.

T o w a rd s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

RELATIONSHIPS OF PATIENT 54*

T o w a rd i n f o r m a n t

55*

T o w a rd o t h e r p a r e n t

56.

T o w a rd s i b l i n g s

57.

T o w a rd a n y o t h e r r e l a t i v e s sp e c ify re la tio n s h ip

58.

T o w a rd o t h e r c h i l d r e n

59.

T o w a rd o t h e r s - s p e c i f y

p r e s e n t i n t h e home -

OTHER INFORMATION 60*

D e sc rip tio n

o f p re v io u s a c c id e n ts o f p a tie n t

61.

D e sc rip tio n f a m ily

o f a c c i d e n t s o f o t h e r m em b ers o f t h e

62.

I n d i c a t i o n s o f n eed f o r s o c i a l w ork t r e a t m e n t (a ) Yes ( b ) No

63.

R e f e r r a l t o S o c i a l S e r v i c e d e p a r t m e n t (a ) Y es (b )

64.

R e a c tio n o f se rv ic e

65.

No

th e in fo rm a n t to a v a i l a b i l i t y o fs o c i a l

S p o n ta n e o u s e x p r e s s io n o f a w a re n e ss o f a c c id e n t p u b l i c i t y o r l a c k o f i t (a ) Y es (b ) No N ovem ber 8* 1 9 4 9 U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia P ro je c t H e le n B oardm an D iv . o f S o c i a l S e r v ic e