American English: A Bibliography 9781512814750

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American English: A Bibliography
 9781512814750

Table of contents :
Introduction
Abbreviations
Contents
1. General and Historical
2. Spelling
3. Pronunciation
4. Grammar, Syntax, and Usage
5. Dialects
6. Slang
7. Loan Words
8. Dictionaries
9. Miscellaneous
Index

Citation preview

American English A Bibliography

American English A Bibliography Compiled by

Vito J. Brenni Duquesne University

Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press

•1964 by the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 63-15008

Published in Great Britain, India, and Pakistan by the Oxford University Press London, Bombay, and Karachi

7404 Printed in the United States of America

Dedicated with lore and gratitude to my mother and father

Introduction

In 1927 Professor A r t h u r G. Kennedy of Stanford University published his Bibliography of Writings on the English language} It contains 13,402 entries covering all aspects of the subject, including such topics as English paleography, history of the study of the language, theory and method of the study of the language, and recent tendencies in English. T h e book concludes with two indexes, one for authors and reviewers, and the other for subjects. T o date this work remains the only full-length bibliography of the subject. On twelve pages of this reference work Professor Kennedy lists 424 writings on American English. Henry L. Mencken included a good many of these in his third edition of The American language2 and added a great many more in the footnotes of his fourth edition. Both of these works were very helpful in compiling this bibliography and must still be used for publications which do not fall within the scope of this work. T h e first aim of this work is to list and classify a large body of literature on American English. A second aim is to describe briefly some of the writings, especially the m a j o r studies in book form. American English is defined as the English language •Arthur G. Kennedy. A bibliography of writings on the English language. Cambridge. Harvard University Press, 1927. ' 2 Henry L. Mencken. The American language. 3rd ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1923. 4th ed.. 1936. 7

8

A M E R I C A N ENGLISH A B I B L I O G R A P H Y

spoken in the fifty states of the United States. T h e writings listed cover the whole subject except the following: foreign dialects, plant names, personal and place names, occupational jargon, recreational and sport slang, studies of individual words and phrases, foreign guidebooks, textbooks, use of the language by individual American writers and word lists from their works, publications on the teaching of English, newspaper articles, and short articles in popular magazines of the twentieth century. Exceptions to these omissions include bibliographies, reference works, publications by distinguished writers and scholars, outstanding books, pamphlets, and articles. T h e list of dictionaries published in the United States represents a selection of the more important works from the viewpoint of authority, thoroughness, and usefulness. In addition, a number of early dictionaries are included for the benefit of the student interested in the history of the American dictionary. For additional titles he should consult Professor Kennedy's Bibliography. Most of the citations were verified by personal examination of the publications; some were checked by correspondents, and those unverified are so indicated. Terminal date for inclusion is 1961. Each publication is listed once in the subject area to which it belongs. Because a number of entries overlap, the reader is advised to use the detailed index to locate all the publications on a particular topic. Some of the annotations are original; many more are taken from prefaces and introductions, book reviews, periodical articles, standard reference works, books on American English, and other sources. They include information about authors, purpose, essential content, special features, editions, revisions, etc. Many thanks are due to the many librarians throughout the country who answered my letters requesting titles of

9 theses and information about a number of entries. T o the librarians at Villanova University, Bryn Mawr College, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Free Library of Philadelphia, where the compiler did most of his work, go a debt of gratitude for many favors. T o Dr. Harold S. Stine, Professor of English, University of Pennsylvania, goes a special note of appreciation for reviewing the manuscript, making several valuable suggestions, and recommending it to the University of Pennsylvania Press. V.J.B. INTRODUCTION

Abbreviations

AS DN PADS PMLA

A merican speech Dialect notes Publication of the American Dialect Society Publications of the Modern Language Association

Contents Introduction Abbreviations 1. General and Historical 2. Spelling 3. Pronunciation General Articles and Books · Vowels · Regional and Local 4. Grammar, Syntax, and Usage Verb · Noun · Adverb and Adjective · Miscellaneous 5. Dialects General Articles and Books · Regional · Negro • Individual States 6. Slang 7. Loan Words 8. Dictionaries Dictionaries of Americanisms · English Language Dictionaries Published in the United States 9. Miscellaneous Language of the United States Armed Forces · Nicknames · Proper Names · Politics · Punctuation · Other Topics Index

ζ. General and Historical

1. The American language. (In Spiller, Robert E., and others. The literary history of the U.S. N.Y., Macmillan, 1948. V.2, p.663-75) 2. Adams, John. A letter to the President of Congress. Sept. 5, 1780. (In his Works. Boston, Little, Brown, 1852. vol. 7, p.249-51) Recommends to Congress an American academy of language. 3. Alexander, Henry. American English. Queen's quarterly 44:169-75. Summer 1937. 4. Americanisms, a study of words and manners. Southern review, n.s., 9:290-319, Apr. 1871; 9:529-60, July 1871. 5. Anglo-American vocabulary. Society for Pure English. Tract no.22:58-63. Author is probably Robert Bridges. 6. Archer, William. America and the English language. Pall Mall magazine 16:231-35, 1898; 19:188-92, 1899. Article in vol. 16 is reprinted in Living age 219: 514-19. Nov. 19, 1898. 7. . The American language. [N.Y., E. Scott Co., cl899] 16p. 8. . The American language. (In his America today. N.Y., Scribner's, 1899. p.216-60) 9. Ayres, Harry M. English language in America. (In 13

14

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16. 17.

18.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cambridge history of American literature. N.Y., Putnam, 1921. v.4, p.554-71) Barringer, George A. Etude sur l'anglais parlé aux Etats-Unis (la langue américaine). Paris. Société philologique. Actes 3:295-310. 1874. Bauer, Rudolf. Erhaltung und Förderung ursprünglich britischen Wortgutes im modernen Amerikanischen. Inaugural dissertation, University of Erlangen, 1955. 43p. Baugh, Albert C. The English language in America. (In his A history of the English language. 2d ed. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957. p.406-65) Beck, Theodoric R. Notes on Mr. Pickering's vocabulary of Americanisms. Albany Institute. Transactions 1:25-31. 1830. Reprinted in M. M. Mathews, ed., The beginnings of American English, p.78-85. Benet, W. C. Americanisms: English as spoken and written in the United States. An essay, read before the Abbeville Literary Club. Abbeville, S.C., Wilson and Wardlaw, 1880. 18p. Listed in W. J . Burke. The literature of slang, p.25. Birrell, Augustine. Americanisms and Briticisms. (In his Essays about men, women and books. N.Y., Scribner, 1902. p.200-10) Birss, John H. Some Americanisms of a hundred years ago. AS 7:96-98. Dec. 1931. Blanke, Gustav H. Der Amerikaner; une soziolinguistische Studie. Meisenheim am Glan, A. Hain, 1957. 336p. Bloomfield, Morton W. Canadian English and its relation to eighteenth century American speech. Journal of English and Germanic philology 47:59-67. 1948.

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

15

19. Borealis. English language in America. Southern literary messenger 2:110-11. Jan. 1836. 20. Bowen, Edwin VV. Briticisms versus Americanisms. Popular science 69:324-37. Oct. 1906. Reprinted in his Questions at issue in our English speech. N.Y., Broadway Publishing Company [cl909] p.82-107. 21. Boynton, H. W. The American language. Bookman 27:63-71. Mar. 1908. 22. [Brief account of barbarisms employed by Americans using the English language] Port Folio 1:247. Aug. 1, 1801.

23. Brigance, William N. American speech in this changing age. Southern speech journal 1:15-18. Oct. 1935. 24. Bristed, Charles A. T h e English language in America. (In Cambridge essays, contributed by members of the university. London J. W. Parker, 1855. p55-78) "It remains to this day, despite a few aberrations, the most intelligent brief discussion of the subject ever printed." (Henry L. Mencken, The American language, 1937, p.69) 25. Brogan, Denis W. American language. (In his American themes. N.Y., Harper [1949] p.214-18) 26 . Our uncle's tongue. (In his American themes. N.Y., Harper [1949] p.77-83) 27. Bronstein, Arthur J. Footnote to a Broadway play (speech patterns of Revolutionary times) Educational theatre journal 10:120-21. May 1958. 28. Buckhurst, Helen McM. Some recent Americanisms in standard English. AS 1:159-60. Dec. 1925. 29. Burton, Richard. American English. (In his Literary likings. Boston, Copelandand Day, 1898. p.343-61) 30 . Why do you talk like that? Indianapolis,

16

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bobbs-Merrill [cl929] 294p. Listed in W. J . Burke, The literature of slang, p.46. Chapters include the following: "British or American English", "English as she is spoke", High sounding words: an American tendency", and "Clipped words." 31. Cairns, William B. British criticisms of American writings, 1783-1815. Madison, 1918. 97p. (University of Wisconsin studies in language and literature, no. 1) 32 . British criticisms of American writings, 18151833. Madison, 1922. 319p. (University of Wisconsin studies in language and literature, no. 14) 33. Callaway, Morgan, Jr. T h e historic study of the mother tongue in the United States. University of Texas studies in English, 1925, p.5-67. 34. Campbell, N. A. Protection for our language. North American review 149:127-28. 1889. Recommends an American academy of language. 35. Candler, Isaac. T h e English language. (In his A summary view of America. London, T . Cadell, 1824. p.326-34) 36. Carpenter, Charles. Language of the depression. AS 8:76-77. Dec. 1933. 37. Carroll, John B. T h e study of language: a survey of linguistics and related disciplines in America. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1953. 289p. Surveys the branches of linguistics and their historical development in the United States; contains chapters on the relations of linguistics to psychology, social sciences, philosophy, and education. T h e author is professor of education at Harvard. 38. Carter, Alice P. American English. Critic 13:97-98. Sept. 1, 1888.

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

17

39. Channing, William. An essay on American language and literature. North American review 1:307-14. Sept. 1815. 40. Clapp, John M. T h e place of English in American life. Chicago, National Council of Teachers of English, 1926. 48p. A report of a study made by the National Council of Teachers of English. Appears also in condensed form in English journal, Feb. 1926, p.l 10-34. 41. Clark, John W.American English (In Weekley, Ernest. T h e English language. N.Y., British Book Centre [cl952] p.l 10-31) 42. Clark, John C. British and American English: some final observations. (In Partridge, Eric and Clark, John C. British and American English since 1900. N.Y., Philosophical Library, 1951. p.308-30) 43 . T h e characteristics of American English and their origin. (In Partridge, Eric, and Clark, John C. British and American English since 1900. N.Y., Philosophical Library, 1951. p.203-14) 44. Clemens, Samuel L. Concerning the American language. (In his T h e stolen white elephant. Boston, Osgood, 1882. p.219-23) 45. Collection of vulgarisms; or Yankeeisms. T h e American magazine of useful and entertaining knowledge 1:416. J u n e 1835. 46. Collier, Price. American English. (In his America and the Americans, from a French point of view. N.Y., Scribner, 1897. p. 156-68) 47. Craigie, (Sir) William A. T h e growth of American English . . . Oxford, T h e Clarendon Press, 1940. 2v. (Society for Pure English. Tract no. 56-57) 48 . American language. (In Clark, John Α., comp.

18

49 . 50. 51.

52. 53. 54. 55.

56. 57.

58.

59. 60.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

College book of essays. N.Y., Holt, 1939. p.210-18) T h e study of American English. Society for Pure English. Tract no.27:197-216. 1927. Crane, W. W. The American language. Putnam's magazine, n.s., 6:519-26. Nov. 1870. Dauncey, Enid C. The American language. Monthly review 25:25-32. Oct. 1906. Reprinted in Living age 251:654-58. Dec. 15, 1906. De Crespigny, Claude. American and English. AS 1: 490-94. June 1926. De Witt, Marguerite E. Our Americanadian problem of the spoken word. AS 1:170-80. Dec. 1925. Dilnot, Frank. The written and spoken word. (In his The new America. N.Y., Macmillan, 1919. p.22-28) Dodge, H. L. Why? Long Beach, Calif., Seaside Printing Co., 1922. 49p. Not located; listed in Arthur G. Kennedy, A bibliography of writings on the English language, entry no. 11642. Dunlap, A. R. Observations on American colloquial idiom. AS 20:12-21. Feb. 1945. Egawa, Taiichiro. Conservatism in American English. Eibungaku-kenkyu 28:234-45. 1952. Not verified; listed in Annual bibliography of English language and literature, 1950-52, p.61. Eggleston, Edward. Mother English, folklore, and literature. (In his The transit of civilization from England to America in the seventeenth century. N.Y., Appleton, 1901. p.96-140) Eliason, Norman E. The study of American English. English studies 39:154-62. Aug. 1958. Eliot, Thomas S. American literature and the American language; an address delivered at Washington

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

66.

67.

68. 69. 70. 71.

19

University on June 9, 1953. With an appendix, T h e Eliot family and St. Louis, prepared by the Department of English. St. Louis [cl953] 46p. (Washington University Studies. New series: Language and literature, no.23) Ellis, Brobury P. Standards in American speech. Saturday review of literature 29:5-6, 39-42. June 1, 1946. T h e English language in America. North American review 91:507-28. Oct. 1860. Essay protesting American innovation of the English language. Port Folio 1:386. Dec. 5, 1801. Examples of vulgarizations of the American language. Port Folio 2:268. Aug. 28, 1802. Fadiman, Clifton. On the utility of U-talk. (In his Any number can play. Cleveland, World Publishing Co. [c 1957] p.295-307) Flügel, Felix. Die englische Sprache in Nordamerika. Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprache und Literaturen 4:130-56. 1848. Follett, Wilson. Words across the sea. (In Wise, J. H., and others, eds. Essays for better reading. N.Y., Harcourt, 1940. p. 187-200) Fonblanque, Albany de. The English of America. Tinsley's magazine 29:330-34. Oct. 1881. Foster, Brian. Recent American influence on standard English. Anglia 73:328-60. 1956. Francis, Alec. American language. (In his Americans, an impression. N.Y., Appleton, 1909. p.123-29) Francis, Winthrop Ν. T h e structure of American English. N.Y., Ronald [cl958] 614p. A text for college students whose native language is American English; contains a chapter (p.480-543) on American English dialects by Raven I. McDavid,

20

72.

73.

74.

75.

76 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jr., of the University of Chicago. Appendix: Maps showing dialect areas of the United States, vocabulary isoglosses, loanword isoglosses, and grammatical isoglosses; glossary, p.589-97. Dr. Francis is professor of English at Franklin and Marshall College. Franklin, Benjamin. On modern innovations in the English language and in printing. T o Noah Webster, Jun. Esq. at Hartford. Republic of letters 1:190. 1834. Freeman, Edward A. [American English] (In his Some impressions of the United States. N.Y., Holt, 1883. p.49-91) Appeared originally in Fortnightly review 38:133-55, Aug. 1882; 38:323-46, Sept. 1882. Frings, Manfred S. Studien zur Frage der Archaismen in amerikanischen Englisch. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Köln, 1953. Galinsky, Hans. Amerikanisches und britisches Englisch; zwei Studien zum Problem der Einheit und Verschiedenheit einer Weltsprache. München, M. Hueber, 1957. 96p. (Studien und Texte zur englischen Philologie, bd.4) Die Sprache des Amerikaners: eine Einführung in die Hauptunterschiede zwischen amerikanischem und britischem Englisch der Gegenwart. Heidelberg, Kerle, 1951-52. 2v. "A detailed study and analysis of the American language as contrasted with British English. The emphasis is on the present-day situation, and not on the historical development, nor is it on dialectal variations. The first volume is divided into two sections on "Das Klangbild" and "Die Schreibung"; the second volume covers "Wortschatz und Wortbil-

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

77 .

78.

79.

í80.

.81.

:82.

83. :84. 85.

21

d u n g " and "Syntax u n d Flexion". Both volumes contain an extensive selective vocabulary. (U.S. Library of Congress. A guide to the study of the United States. Washington, 1960. p. 178) Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten des amerikanischen und britischen Englisch in der neueren Forschung. (In Sprache und Literatur Englands und Amerikas. T u b i n g e n , Niemeyer, 1952. p.29-59) Gowers, (Sir) Ernest A. Some thoughts on new words. (In English Association. Essays and studies. London, John Murray, 1957. new series, v. 10, p. 1-15) Grandgent, Charles H. Here either. (In his Prunes and prism. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1928. p. 39-48) T h e great American language. Cornhill magazine 58: 363-77. Oct. 1888. Reprinted in Living age 179:298-305. Greig, J o h n Y. English language in America. (In his Breaking Priscian's head; or English as she will be spoke . . . N.Y., Dutton [cl929] p.68-96) Healy, J. F. T h e American language. Pittsburgh, Pa., ca.1911. Not located; listed in A r t h u r G. Kennedy, A bibliography of writings on the English language, entry no. 11585. Hempl, George. T h e study of American English. Chautauquan 22:436-41. 1896. Hills, E. C. Linguistic substrata of American English. AS 4:431-33. Aug. 1929. Hoijer, Harry, and others. Linguistic structures of native America. N.Y., Viking Fund, 1946. 423p. (Viking Fund publications in anthropology, no. 6)

22

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

86. Hook, Julius N. and Mathews, E. G. The background of modern American English. (In their Modern American grammar and usage. N.Y., Ronald [cl956] p.3-46) 87. Horwill, Herbert W. American variations. Society for Pure English. Tract no. 45:175-200. 1936. 88. Howard, Leon. A historical note on American English. AS 2:497-99. Sept. 1927. 89 . Walt Whitman and the American language. AS 5:441-51. Aug. 1930. 90. Howells, William D. [A word about Americanisms] Harper's magazine 72:324-25. Jan. 1886. 91. Hülsbergen, Helmut. Studien zu den amerikanischen Neologismen des 19. Jahrhunderts. Inaugural dissertation, Universität Köln, 1956. 451p. 92. Hunter, Edwin R. The American colloquial idiom, 1830-1860. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1925. " T h e valueof the study . . . consists in a presentation of a vernacular speech with an attempt to relate it to the motives by which it was produced, or caused to depart, when it did consciously depart, from the accepted standard of speech. This dissertation is perhaps of further value and interest as a presentation in systematic form of the speech of the uncultivated people of the U.S. during an important formative period in the social history of the nation." (University of Chicago, A bstracts of theses, humanistic series 4:336.1928) 93. Inroads upon English. Blackwood's magazine 102:399417. Oct. 1867. Reprinted in Living age 95:218-31. 94. James, Henry. The question of our speech [and] the

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

23

lesson of Balzac; two lectures. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 1905. 118p. T h e address on speech was given to the graduating class at Bryn Mawr College, June 8, 1905. It is also found in Appletoris booklover's magazine, August 1905. 95. Jones, Joseph J. American English a century ago. AS 8:82. Feb. 1933. Contains selection from Marryat's Diary in America. 96. Kartzke, Georg. Die Amerikanische Sprache. Archiv 141:181-98. 1921. 97. Keaton, Anna L. Americanisms in early American newspapers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1933. 98. Kennedy, Arthur G. American speech. (In his Current English. Boston, Ginn [cl935] p.154-65) 99 . A bibliography of writings on the English language from the beginnings of printing to the end of 1922. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1927, 517p. Contains 13,402 entries, including 423 on American English. A list of additions and corrections was published in Studia neophilologica 2:117-68. 1929. 100. Krapp, George P. T h e English language in America. N.Y., Century, 1925. 2v. T h e first volume has essays on the mother tongue, vocabulary, proper names, literary dialects, style, American spelling and American dictionaries. T h e second volume takes u p the subject of pronunciation in America. T h e book has a wealth of illustrative examples and local detail. According to H. L. Mencken, "a work of very high value". {The American language, 4th ed., 1937, p.55) Reprinted in two

24 101 . 102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107. 108.

109 . 110 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

volumes in 1960 by Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. T h e mother tongue. (In his T h e English language in America, N.Y., Ungar, 1960. p.3-67) Kurath, Hans. Report of the conference on a linguistic atlas of the United States and Canada. (In Linguistic Society of America. Bulletin no. 4. p.20-47. 1929) Leacock, S. B. Our living language: a defense. (In Hintz, Howard W. and Grebanier, B. D. N., eds. Modern American vistas. N.Y., Dryden [cl940] p.428-32) Lerner, Max. American language. (In his America as a civilization. N.Y., Simon and Schuster, 1957. p.805-12) Lloyd, Donald J. and Warfel, Harry R. American English in its cultural setting. N.Y., Knopf, 1956. 553p. "It is a book for anyone who needs to understand English and how it works in American society." (Preface) T h e authors are professors of English at Wayne State University and the University of Florida respectively. Lodge, Henry C. T h e origin of certain Americanisms. (In his Democracy of the Constitution. N.Y., Scribner, 1915. p.24fr-73) Lounsbury, J. F. T h e English language in America. International review 8:472-82. Apr. 1880. Lounsbury, Thomas R. T h e English language in America. International review 8:596-608. June 1880. Linguistic causes of Americanisms. Harper 127:133-39.June 1913. What Americanisms are not. Harper's 126:

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25

618-24. Mar. 1913. 111. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. A new look at Mencken's vulgate. Ball State Teachers College forum 1:39^12. Spring 1960. 112. McKnight, George H. American English. (In his English words and their background. N.Y., Appleton [cl923] p.23-36) 113 . Beginnings of American English. (In his Modern English in the making. N.Y., Appleton, 1930. p.460-94) 114. Conservatism in American speech. AS 1:1-17. Oct. 1925. 115 . Revolt. (In his Modern English in the making. N.Y., Appleton, 1930. p.539-58) Also in Morgan, S. S. and Thomas, W. H., eds. Opinions and attitudes in the twentieth century. N.Y., Nelson, 1936. p. 176-87. 116. McMillan, James B. Historical notes on American words. AS 21:175-84. Oct. 1946. 117. Macrae, David. Americanisms. (In his The Americans at home. Edinburgh, Edmonston and Douglas, 1870. p.329-38) 118. Mallery, Richard D. Our American language. Garden City, N.Y., Halcyon House [cl947] 276p. "As an introduction to the subject, as a first book for those who may go on to Krapp and Mencken and The Dictionary of American English, Mr. Mallery's book may well serve a useful purpose." (Horace Reynolds in Saturday review of literature 31:10. Jan. 17, 1948) Mr. Mallery is a professor at New York University. 119. Malmstrom, Jean. Linguistic atlas findings versus textbook pronouncements in current American

26

A M E R I C A N ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

English. English journal 48: 191-98. Apr. 1959. 120. Marckwardt, Albert H. American English. N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1958. 194p. ". . . T h e principal aim 1. .s been to present a synthesis of the growth and development of the English language in America . . . The present study has been content to employ the excellent collections of factual data turned up by the many excellent scholars who have concerned themselves with this subject. It has, however, attempted to see and to present these in the light of a consistent interpretation centering about the fundamental relationship between language and culture." (Preface) Dr. Marckwardt is professor of English at the University of Michigan and Director of the Linguistic atlas of the North Central States. 121. Markham, S. F. American speech: an indictment. (In Hintz, H. W. and Grebanier, B. D. N., eds. Modern American vistas. N.Y. Dryden [cl940] p.424-27) 122. Marryat, Frederick. American language; excerpt from Diary in America. (In Nevins, Allan, ed. America through British eyes. N.Y., Oxford, 1948. p. 183-86) 123 . Language. (In his A diary in America. London, Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1839. V.2, p.217-47) Pages 30-40 are included in M. M. Mathews, ed., The beginnings of American English. 124. Marsh, George P. T h e English language in America. (In his Lectures on the English language. 4th ed. N.Y., Scribner [1859] p.666-84) 125. Massey, B. W. Divergence of American from English. AS 6:1-9. Oct. 1930. 126. Mathews, Mitford M. Additional comment on

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

127.

128 . 129 .

130. 131. 132

133.

27

Boucher. DN 6:360-63. 1933. "So far as I know Boucher's amusing 'Pastoral' is the earliest thing of its kind that has come to light . . . T h e only other specimen I have encountered — Fragmentof an American eclogue — appeared in the New monthly magazine for Dec. 1, 1820." (p.361-62) He quotes the eclogue with the footnotes as they originally appeared. T h e beginnings of American English; essays and comments. Chicago, University of Chicago Press [c 1931 ] 181 p. An excellent collection of essays and glossaries, including the following: the glossary of vulgarisms which was included in David Humphrey's The Yankey in England. Hartford, Connecticut, 1815; Sherwood's list of Georgia provincialisms which originally appeared in his 3d ed. of A gazetteer of the State of Georgia. Washington, P. Force, 1837. T h e new element in American English. AS 19:200-03, Oct. 1944; 20:106-10, Apr. 1945. Notes and comments made by British travelers and observers upon American English, 17701850. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1936. Mathews, William. Americanisms. (In his Literary style. Chicago, S. C. Griggs, 1881. p.320-36) Matthews, Albert. Colonial and early pioneer words. DN 4:375-85. 1917. [On early discussions of Americanisms.] Colonial Society of Massachusetts. Transactions 14: 257-64. Mar. 1912. [On the study of American English.] Colonial Society of Massachusetts. Publications 14:257-64. 1913.

28

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

134. Matthews, Brander. American English and British English. (In his Essays on English. N.Y., Scribner, 1921. p.61-77) Reprint of article in Scribner's magazine 68: 621-26. 1920. 135 . T h e American language. Munsey's magazine 40:345-49. Dec. 1909. 136 . Americanisms and Briticisms. (In his Americanisms and Briticisms. N.Y., Harper, 1892. p. 1—31) 137 . T h e future literary centre of the English language. Bookman 12:238-42. 1900. 138 . Americanisms once more. (In his Parts of speech. N.Y., Scribner, 1901. p.97-123) 139 . T h e English language and the American Academy. (In American Academy of Arts and Letters. Academy papers; addresses on language problems . . . N.Y., Scribner, 1925. p.61-93) 140 T h e English language in the United States. (In his Parts of speech. N.Y., Scribner, 1901. p.47-77) 141 . T h e outskirts of the English language. Munsey's magazine 50:260-65. Nov. 1913. 142. Mead, Leon. Neologisms by living American authors. (In his Word-coinage. N.Y., Crowell [1902] p.78-160) 143. Mencken, Henry L. American and English. (In his The American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.223-318. Supplement 1, p.440-683) 144 . T h e American language. N.Y., Knopf, 1919. 374p. 2d ed., 1921.492p. 3d ed., 1923. 489p. 4th ed., 1936. 798p.

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Supplement 1. 1945. 739p. Supplement 2. 1948. 890p. A detailed study of the American language and a standard reference work on the subject. Based on an examination of a large number of published and unpublished writings. Full footnotes and an index of words and phrases in each volume. 145 . American language. (In Clark, John Α., comp. College book of essays. N.Y., Holt [cl939] p.204-10) 146 . American language. (In Essay annual, 1937. N.Y., Scott, Foresman, 1938. p. 1-15) Reprint from Yale review. Spring 1936. 147 . Beginnings of American. (In his The American language. 4th ed. Ν.Y., Knopf, 1937. p. 104-29. Supplement 1, p. 169-226) 148. . T h e future of the language. (In his T h e American language, 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.590-615) 149. General character of American English. (In Smith, C. Α., ed. Essays on current themes. Boston, Ginn, [cl923] p.211-22) 150 T h e hallmarks of American. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.90-96) 151 . T h e language today. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.164-222. Supplement 1, p.321-439) 152 . T h e period of growth. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.l30-63. Supplement 1, p. 227-320) 153. Mesick, Jane L. American language (In her T h e English traveller in America, 1785-1835. N.Y., Co-

30

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

lumbia University Press, 1922. p.241-45) 154. Metoicos. Letter to Port Folio on correct usage of the English language by Americans and Englishmen. Port Folio 6:86-89. Feb. 15, 1806. 155. Nelson, Lawrence E. Vocabularies of nineteenth and twentieth century American prose writers: a comparative study. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1931. " T h i s study seeks to determine whether American prose writers of 1920-29 used, in a like a m o u n t of writing, a vocabulary range larger than, equal to, or smaller than, that used by American prose writers of 1840-49." (Stanford University, Abstracts of dissertations, 1930-31, p.77) 156. Nichols, T h o m a s L. Peculiarities and eccentricities. (In his Forty years of American life 1821-1861. N.Y., Stackpole [cl937] p.65-68) T h e first ed. of this work was published in two volumes in 1864. 157. N o r t h u p , Clark S. A bibliography of the English and French languages in America from 1894 to 1900. DN 2:151-78. 1901. 158. O'Brien, Robert J. Why we should have an American language. Columbus, Ohio, Heer Printing Co., 1919. 37p. Not seen. Listed by W. J. Burke, The literature of slang, p.44. 159. O u r unhappy language. Macmillan's magazine 86: 122-32. J u n e 1902. 160. Palmer, Francis W. Gleanings for the DAE supplement. AS 2:199-206. Oct. 1947. 161 . Notes on American English. AS 23:152-53. Apr. 1948.

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

31

362. Partridge, Eric and Clark, John W. British and American English since 1900. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl951] 341 p. John W. Clark wrote on American English, which is pt.2, p.203-30. 163. Partridge, Eric. T h e world of words; an introduction to language in general and to English and American in particular. London, Routledge, 1938. 354p. 2d ed. 1939; 3d ed., London, Hamilton, 1949. 201p. 164. Paul, C. Kegan. T h e American language. Month 94: 63-68. July 1899. 165. Perry, Bliss. T h e Academy and the language. (In American Academy of Arts and Letters. Academy papers; addresses on language problems . . . N.Y., Scribner, 1925. p.97-123) About the American Academy of Arts and Letters. 166. Phipson, Evacustes A. British vs. American English. DN 1:428-36. 1896. 167. Pickering, John. An essay on the English language in America. (In his A vocabulary, or collection of words and phrases which have been supposed to be peculiar to the United States of America. Boston, Cummings and Hilliard, 1816. p.9-23) Π 68. Pound, Louise. American English today. (In Caffee, Nathaniel M. and Kirby, Thomas A. Studies for William A. Read. University, Louisiana State University Press, 1938. p. 109-24) 169 . Notes on the vernacular. (In American Mercury. Readings from the American Mercury. N.Y., Knopf, 1926. p.292-304) 170. Pyles, Thomas. American and British word usages. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House [cl952] p.215-32)

32

171 .

172 .

173 . 174 .

175 .

176.

177.

178 .

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Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House, [cl952] 31 Op. "The present book is an attempt to provide for the lay reader a brief yet adequate treatment of the English language as it has been and is spoken and written by Americans." (Preface) The book describes the beginnings of the language and has chapters on coinages and adaptations, adoptions from foreign tongues, pronunciation, and stylistic characteristics (e.g. tall talk and taboo). The author is professor of English at the University of Florida. Early American speech: coinages, adaptations, and survivals. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House [cl952] p.3-27) English of vips. College English 16:356-61. Mar. 1955. Later American speech: coinages and adaptations. (In his Words and ways of American English, N.Y., Random House [cl952] p.154-90) Some characteristics of American English and their backgrounds. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House [cl952] p.56-73) Quidnunc. Letter protesting the infiltration of socalled "Americanisms" into the English language. Port Folio 6:237-39. Apr. 17, 1806. Read, Allen W. American projects for an academy to regulate speech. PMLA 51:1141-79. Dec. 1936. A long essay reviewing the literature and containing bibliographic notes. Amphi-Atlantic English. English studies 17:

GENERAL AND HISTORICAL

33

161-78. Oct. 1935. Assimilation of the speech of British immigrants in colonial America. Journal of English and Germanic philology 37:70-79. Jan. 1938. 180 . Bilingualism in the middle colonies 17251775. AS 12:93-99. Apr. 1937. 181 . British recognition of American speech in the eighteenth century. DN 6:313-34. 1933. 182 . English of Indians, 1705-1745. AS 16:72-74. Feb. 1941. 183 . Words indicating social status in America in the 18th century. AS 9:204-08. Oct. 1934. 184. Recommendation of words to be included in a "Columbian" language dictionary. Port Folio 1:325-26. Oct. 10, 1801. 185. Remarks on the English language. Gazette of the United States 2:568. Aug. 21, 1790. 186. Rhodes, Eugene M. Say now Shibboleth. (In Knickerbocker, E.V., ed. Present-day essays. N.Y., Holt [c 1923] p.236-61) 187. Robbins, (Rev.) Royal. [History of American contributions to the English language]. (In Chambers, Robert. History of the English language and literature. Hartford, Conn., Hopkins, 1837. passim) 188. Robertson, Stuart. Modern English: British and American. (In his Development of modern English. N.Y., Prentice-Hall, 1936. p.65-97) 189. and Cassidy, Frederic. American and British English. (In their T h e development of modern English. 2d ed. N.Y., Prentice-Hall, 1954. p.379-100) 190. Russell, T . Baron. American language. Gentleman's magazine 275:529-33. Nov. 1893. 179.

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191. Schelling, Felix E. American language. (In his Summer ghosts and winter topics. Phila., Lippincott, 1924. p. 106-10) 192. Scott, Fred N. T h e standard of American speech. English journal 6:1-11. Jan. 1917. 193 . English and American vernacular. McNaught's monthly 3:144-45. May 1925. 194 . The standard of speech. (In his The standard of American speech, and other papers. Boston, Allyn and Bacon [cl926] p.1-15) Published also in English journal, Jan. 1917. 195. Scott, Samuel M. American language. Harvard graduates' magazine 31:487-94. June 1923. 196. Shewmake, Edwin F. Standards and tendencies in American speech. South Atlantic quarterly. 22: 157-65. Apr. 1923. 197. Shoemaker, Robert W. Nineteenth century: watershed of American religious appellatives. AS 34: 5-10. Feb. 1959. 198. Shorey, Paul. American language. (In American Academy of Arts and Letters. Academy papers, N.Y., Scribner, 1925. p.125-89) 199. Smal-Stocki, Roman. T h e impact of Sputnik on the English language of the United States. Chicago, Shevchenko Scientific Society Study Center, 1958. (Papers no.3) Not located. 200. Spencer, Herbert. A few Americanisms. (In his Facts and comments. N.Y., Appleton, 1902. p. 16-18) 201. Stewart, George R. Language. (In his American ways of life. Garden City, Doubleday, 1954. p.27-50) 202. The Sun, New York. Curiosities of American speech. (In Gay, Robert M., ed. Fact, fancy and opinion.

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Boston, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1923. p.155-58) 203. Swinton, William. English in America. (In his Rambles among words. N.Y., Scribner, 1859. p.286-91) 204. Thomas, Charles K. T h e linguistic Mason and Dixon Line. (In Bryant, Donald C. Rhetorical idiom. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press [1958] p.251-55) 205. Thorp, Willard. T h e well of English, now defiled: a report on No-English in America. Encounter, Dec. 1959, p.29-34. 206. T o the literati of America. Royal American magazine, Jan. 1774, p.&-7. T h e author of this article proposed an academy for. the study and improvement of the English language in America. 207. Tocqueville, Alexis de. Influences of democracy upon language and literature (from his Democracy in America). (In Commager, Henry S., ed. America in perspective. N.Y., New American Library, 1947. p.38-49) 208. Trager, George L. Language of America. American anthropologist 57:1182-93. Dec. 1955. 209. Troubridge, St. Vincent. Minor notes on American speech for Oct. and Dec. 1944. Mostly in the form of notes on DAE. AS 20:211-13. Oct. 1945. 210 . Notes on DAE\ 1. Words of the colonial and revolutionary periods. AS 20:265-76. Dec. 1945. 211. Tucker, Gilbert M. American English. N.Y., Knopf, 1921. 375p. T h e book represents an extension of a chapter in the author's Our common speech. Bibliography on p.333-45. T h e author was for a number of years editor of The country gentleman.

36 212 .

213. 214.

215. 216.

217.

218. 219.

220 .

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American English: how does the average speech of all parts of the U.S. compare with that of all parts of the British Isles. (In his Our common speech . . . N.Y., Dodd, Mead, 1895. p. 151-234) T h e two tongues. Atlantic monthly 6 : 6 6 7 - 7 4 . Dec. 1860. Untermeyer, Louis. Do Americans speak English? Ball State Teachers College forum 1:59-66. Spring 1960. Wasson, Mildred. Cockney American. AS 7 : 2 5 5 - 5 6 . Apr. 1932. Watt, William C. A distribution analysis of AmericanEnglish morphemes. M.S. thesis, Georgetown University, 1959. 42 1. Weber, Carl August, ed. Sprache und Literatur Englands und Amerikas, Forschungsberichte und Einführung in die Gegenwarts-strömungen. LehrgangsVorträge de Academie Coburg. In Gemeinschaft mit A. Heidelberger, H. Metzger und G. MüllerSchwefe. Tübingen, Niemeyer, 1952. 200p. Not located. Webster, H. T . They don't speak our language. Forum 90:367-72. Dec. 1933. Webster, Noah. A letter to the Honorable John Pickering on the subject of his vocabulary; or, collection of words and phrases, supposed to be peculiar to the United States of America. Boston, West and Richardson, 1817. 60p. Dissertations on the English language: with notes, historical and critical. T o which is added, by way of appendix, an essay on a reformed mode of spelling, with Dr. Franklin's arguments on that

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221. 222.

223.

224 . 225 .

226 . 227.

228. 229.

37

subject. Boston, Isaiah Thomas and Company, 1789.410p. Contains many comparisons between pronunciation in America and England. A reprint edition appeared in 1951 with an introduction by Professor Harry R. Warfel. It was published by Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints in Gainesville, Florida. Weekley, Ernest. Americanisms. (In his Adjectives— and other words. N.Y., Dutton [cl930] p.162-83) Wellard, James H. Some observations on American speech. Nineteenth century and after 117:374-84. Mar. 1935. White, Richard G. Americanisms. Atlantic monthly 41:495-502, Apr. 1878; 41:656-64, May 1878; 42: 97-106, July 1878; 42:342-48, Sept. 1878; 42: 619-31, Nov. 1878; 43:88-98, Jan. 1879; 43: 379-92, Mar. 1879; 43:656-66, May 1879. Americanisms. Galaxy 24:376-83, Sept. 1877; 25:94-101, Jan. 1878. British English and "American" English. (In his Words and their uses, past and present. 8th ed. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 1884, p.44-62) The Federal language, being a chapter on Americanisms. Galaxy 24:681-88. Nov. 1877. Whitman, Walt. An American primer. Boston, Small, Maynard, 1904. 35p. Also in Atlantic monthly 93:460-70. Apr. 1904. Wilder, Thornton. Toward an American language. Atlantic monthly 140:29-37. July 1952. Williams, Ralph O. Some questions of good English, examined in controversies with Dr. Fitzedward Hall. N.Y., Holt, 1897. 233p. Most of the papers were reprinted from the Dial

38

230 .

231.

232. 233.

234.

235. 236.

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and from Modern language notes between 1893-96; contains four essays on the American dialect, p. 107-65. Some peculiarities real and supposed in American English. (In his Our dictionaries and other English language topics. N.Y., Holt, 1890. p.71-128) Winburne, John N. Word and phrase patterns in current American English. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1951. 1638p. A glossary of phrasal patterns; contains 8000 entries with 20,000 citations from 3 novels, 2 nonfiction, and 2 magazines, of which American speech is one. "All these 8000 patterns were characteristic of American English . . . within the decade 1940-1950." (Dissertation abstracts, 13:400) Winship, G. P. Seventeenth century jottings. DN 4: 300-01. 1916. Witherspoon, John. Essays on Americanisms, perversions of language in the United States, cant phrases, etc. (In his Works, 2d ed. Phila., Woodward, 1802. p.458-75) Originally published as a series of essays with the title of " T h e Druid", which appeared in 1761 in Pennsylvania journal and the weekly advertiser. Nos. 5-7 contained the essays on the American language. Mr. Matthews includes them in his The beginnings of American English, p.20-30. Withington, Robert. Some neologisms from recent magazines. AS 6:277-89. Apr. 1931. List of coinages from Time and several other magazines. Yankeeisms. New England magazine 3:377-81. Nov. 1832. Yeaman, M.V.P. Speech degeneracy. AS 1:92-95. Nov. 1925.

2. Spelling

237. Allen, Walter. American spelling. Critic 18:315-16. J u n e 13, 1891. 238. Ayer, Fred C. A study of high school spelling vocabulary. Austin, Texas, Steck Company [cl945] 128p. Includes 15,542 words with comparative data from the Thorndike, Betts and Horn word lists. 239. Betts, Emmett A. Spelling vocabulary study; grade placement of words in seventeen spellers. N.Y., American Book Company, 1940. 71 p. 240. Clark, John W . American spelling. (In Vallins, George H. Spelling. London, Andre Deutsch [1954] p. 174-92) 240a. Dornbusch, Clyde H. American spelling simplified by presidential edict. AS 3 6 : 2 3 6 - 3 8 . Oct. 1961. About Theodore Roosevelt's order to the Government Printing Office to use simplified spelling. 241. Emery, Donald W . Variant spellings in modern American dictionaries. Champaign, 111., National Council of Teachers of English [1958] 43p. 242. Franklin, Benjamin. A scheme for a new alphabet and reformed mode of spelling. (In his Works. Edited by Bigelow. N.Y., Putnam, 1904. v.4, p. 198-209) 243. Krapp, George P. American spelling. (In his T h e English language in America. N.Y., Ungar, 1960. v.l, p.328-50) 244. Mary Irmina (Sister), and others. An annotated bib39

40

245. 246.

247.

248 .

249.

250.

251. 252. 253.

254 .

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liography of studies relating to spelling. Washington, Catholic Education Press, 1928. (Catholic University of America. Educational research bulletins, V.3, no.l) Matthews, Brander. As to "American spelling". (In his Parts of speech. N.Y., Scribner, 1901. p.295-316) Mencken, Henry L. American spelling. (In his The American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.379-415. Supplement 2, p.271-330) Nietz, John A. Spellers. (In his Old textbooks. [Pittsburgh] University of Pittsburgh Press [1961] p. 10-44) Webster's blue-backed spellers. (In his Old textbooks. [Pittsburgh] University of Pittsburgh Press [1961] p.14-17) Pavlak, Stephen. A critical analysis of scientific research in spelling. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1956. 238 1. Poole, William F. Websterian orthography; a reply to Dr. Noah Webster's calumniators. Boston, Crocker and Brewster, 1857. 23p. Pound, Louise. Spelling manipulation and presentday advertising. DN 5:226-31. 1923. Thurston,. Herbert. American spelling. Nineteenth century 60:606-17. Oct. 1906. Webster, Noah. An essay on the necessity, advantages and practicability of reforming the mode of spelling, and of rendering the orthography of words correspondent to the pronunciation. (In his Dissertations on the English language . . . Gainesville, Florida, Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1951. p.391-407) [Letter to Thomas Dawes on changing the

41

SPELLING

255 .

256 .

orthography of words and including Americanisms] (In Matthews, Mitford M., ed. T h e beginnings of American English. Chicago, University of Chicago Press [c 1931 ] p.48-50) A grammatical institute, of the English language,. .. designed for the use of English schools in America. In three parts. Part I containing a new and accurate standard of pronunciation. Hartford, Hudson and Goodwin [1783] 120p. This is the first ed. of Webster's spelling book, better known as the Blue-backed speller. By 1843 nearly 40,000,000 copies had been sold. "At the very beginning it took its place along with the family Bible and the household almanac, and was second only to the Bible in its wholesome and elevating influence." (Everett E. Thompson in Word, Feb. 1958, p.3) T h e American spelling book, or first part of the grammatical institute of the English language. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Young and McCulloch, 1787. 140p. "A thorough revision, some of the changes reflecting the influence of the criticisms of the earlier editions and of Part II. For the first time there is an 'Introduction to Grammar' . . ." (Emily E. Skeel, A bibliography ster, p. 11)

257 .

258 .

of the writings

of Noah

Web-

T h e American spelling book; containing the rudiments of the English language, for the use of schools in the United States. First revised impression. [Philadelphia? 1804?] 168p. .... One of the four major versions of Webster's speller. T h e American spelling book. T h e revised

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

impression, with the latest corrections. Baltimore, Cushing and Jewett, 1829. 168 p. One of the four major versions of Webster's speller.

j. Pronunciation G E N E R A L A R T I C L E S AND B O O K S

259. Alexander, Henry. Early American pronunciation and syntax. AS 1:141-48. Dec. 1925. 260. American Speech. Phonetic transcriptions from American speech. Edited by Jane D. Zimmerman, rev. ed. Ν.Y., Columbia University Press, 1939. 83p. (American Speech. Reprints and monographs, no.l) 261. Ayres, Harry M. and Greet, William C. American speech records at Columbia University. AS 5: 333-58. June 1930. 262. Bender, James F., comp. NBC handbook of pronunciation; compiled under the supervision of the National Broadcasting Company. N.Y., Crowell, 1943. 289p. Contains a foreword by James Rowland Angeli. 2d ed. N.Y., Crowell, 1951. 372p. 263 . Which "American" do you speak? (In Science digest. Science digest reader. Chicago, Windsor Press, 1947. p.82-85) 264. Bloch, Bernard. Broad transcription of general American. Maître phonétique 49:7-10. 265. Bronstein, Arthur J . Pitch and melody in American English. (In his T h e pronunciation of America English. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts [cl960] p.261-76) 266 . The pronunciation of American English; an 43

44

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introduction to phonetics. N.Y., Appleton-CenturyCrofts [cl960] 320p. " T h e analysis of current American English is presented in three major divisions. The first, 'Our language today', provides the student with certain basic concepts, definitions, and attitudes. Part two details the consonants, vowels, and complex consonant and vowel clusters of American English. Part three discusses certain aspects of our sound system: the nature and types of sound change, the pronunciation of words and the influences affecting such pronunciations, spelling pronunciations, alternative pronunciations, and the pronunciation of foreign words in American English; pitch levels, stress, and pause... (Preface p.ix) Maps, charts, and drawings; excellent bibliographies at the end of each chapter. Professor Bronstein teaches at Queens College in New York City. 267 .

Stress and pronunciation. (In his The pronunciation of American English. N.Y., AppletonCentury-Crofts [cl960] p.242-59) 268 . Trends in American pronunciation. Quarterly journal of speech 28:452-56. Dec. 1942. 269. Brueckner, Marguerite H. Variant pronunciations in modern American English. M.A.. thesis, University of Iowa, 1922. 270. Carrol, James. T h e American criterion of the English language; containing the elements of pronunciation; in five sections. For the use of English schools and foreigners. New London [Conn.] Samuel Green, 1795. 119p. Author's name is spelled James Carroll by the Library of Congress printed catalog.

PRONUNCIATION

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271. Clark, John C. Pronunciation and spelling; dialects. (In Partridge, Eric and Clark, John C. British and American English since 1900. N.Y., Philosophical Library, 1951. p. 270-88) 272. DeWitt, Margarite E. Euphon English in America. N.Y., Dutton [1924] 176p. Pt. 1 has caption and running title: "World standard English"; pt. 2, " 'Euphon' English in America". "Phonetics furthers the use or study of all forms of any language, whereas euphonetics furthers the form that is euphonious or that is internationally recognized as accepted standard or good." (Introduction, p.xiv) 273. Dunlap, A. R. Two observations on current colloquial speech. AS 14:290. Dec. 1939. The loss of k (e.g., in "except" [asept], and omission of "of" in type of person) 274 . Vicious pronunciations in eighteenth-century English. AS 15:364-67. Dec. 1940. 275. Ekwall, Eilert. American and British pronunciation. Upsala, A-b Lundequistska bokhandeln, 1946. 36p. (The American Institute in the University of Upsala. Essays and studies on American language and literature, no.2) ". . . originally read at the Anglo-American week at Upsala in the autumn of 1943." (p.7) Published by Harvard in 1947. Also in Studia neophilologica, 1945-46, p.161-90. Author's full nameis Bror Eilert Ekwall. 276. Ellis, Alexander J . American pronunciation. (In his On early English pronunciation. London, Trübner, 1875. Pt. 4, p. 1217-30) 277. Emerson, Oliver F. Sweet's phonetics and American

46

278. 279.

280.

281 . 282 . 283.

284 .

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English. Modern language notes 5:202-04. Nov. 1890. Ericson, Eston E. American pronunciation. Notes and queries 172:413. June 5, 1937. Gage, William W. Grammatical structures in American intonation. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1958. 137p. "This work is a trial formulation for a grammar of intonation analyzed according to the methods employed elsewhere in contemporary American structural linguistics. Intonation is here understood as the meaningful use of pitch in English. Also included is a treatment of the grammar of stresses on the level of units no smaller than those which can stand as independent words." (Dissertation abstracts 19:2342) Grandgent, Charles H. More notes on American pronunciation. Modern language notes 6:458-67. Dec. 1891. Notes on American pronunciation. Modern language notes 6:82-87. Feb. 1891. American pronunciation again. Modern language notes 8:273-82. May 1893. Greet, William C. Pronunciation. (In The American college dictionary. N.Y., Random House, 1953. p.xxii) World words: recommended pronunciations. N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1944. 402p. A useful guide to the pronunciation of personal and geographical names; written by a professor of English at Columbia and speech consultant for the Columbia Broadcasting System. This is the revised and enlarged edition of his War words. N.Y., Co-

PRONUNCIATION

285. 286.

287.

288 . 289.

47

lumbia University Press, 1943. T h e 2d ed. of World words, which appeared in 1948, has 608 pages. Haney, J o h n L. Our agile American accents. AS 1: 3 7 8 - 8 2 . Apr. 1926. Hanley, Theodore D. An analysis of vocal frequency and duration characteristics of selected samples of speech from general American, eastern American and southern American dialect regions. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1949. Herman, Lewis. H. and Herman, Marguerite S. Manual of American dialects for radio, stage, screen and television. N.Y., Ziff-Davis, [cl947] 326p. Aims to teach American actors how to pronounce regional native dialects; includes a discussion of intonation, stressed vowels, and consonant characteristics peculiar to each dialect. American dialects; a manual for actors, directors and writers. N.Y., T h e a t r e Arts, 1959. 328p. Hultzén, Lee S. T h e pronunciation of monosyllabic form-words in American English. (In Bryant, Donald C., and others, eds. Studies in speech and drama in honor of Alexander M. Drummond. Ithaca N.Y., Cornell University Press, 1944. p.255-84)

289a.

Communication on intonation: general American. (In Phonetic Society of Japan. Study of sounds . . . [Tokyo] 1957. p.317-33) 290. Ives, Sumner. American pronunciation in the Linguistic atlas. T u l a n e studies in English 3 : 1 7 9 - 9 3 . 1952.

291 .

Phonemics of American English. W o r k paper for T e x a s Conference on Linguistics. Unpublished 1956.

48

292.

293.

294. 295.

296 .

297.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Listed in Arthur J . Bronstein, The pronunciation of American English, p.315) Johnson, Falk S. Phonetic alphabets and phonetic texts as evidenceof American pronunciation before 1850. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1956. Johnson, Jotham. Changing American language. Scientific American 193:78-83. Aug. 1955. Mr. I. T . Richards made a reply to this article in the October 1955 issue, page 2. Kantner, Claude E. and West, Robert. English speech styles in America. (In their Phonetics, rev. ed. N.Y., Harper, 1960. p.283-316) Kenyon, John S. American pronunciation. 10th ed. Ann Arbor, Mich., George Wahr, 1950. 265p. A standard textbook of phonetics for students of English. Except for many changes in detail, this edition is substantially the same as the 6th and subsequent editions. 1st ed. 1924. 200p. 4th ed. 1930. 6th ed. 1935. 248p. (entirely rewritten) 8th ed. 1940. 248p. A guide to pronunciation. (In Webster's new international dictionary of the English language. 2d ed. unabridged. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1959. p.xxii-lxxvii) and Knott, Thomas A. A pronouncing dictionary of American English. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1944. 484p. Includes words in common use, those with variations in pronunciation, and some literary, scientific and geographical words which often appear in print,

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298.

299 . 300. 301 . 302. 303 .

304 . 305.

306.

49

a standard work. 2d ed. 1949. 484p. Krapp, George P. Pronunciation. (In his T h e English language in America. N.Y., Ungar, 1960. v.2 p.3-246) T h e pronunciation of standard English in America. N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1919. 235p. Kurath, Hans. American pronunciation. Society for Pure English. Tract no.30:279-97. 1928. A bibliography of American pronunciation. 1888-1928. Language 5:155-62. Sept.1928. .. Eastern pronunciation. Society for Pure English. Tract no.30:288-91. 1928. Origin of dialectal differences in spoken American English. Modern philology 25:385-95. May 1928. Phonemics and phonics in historical phonology. AS 36:93-100. May 1961. and McDavid, Raven I., Jr. T h e pronunciation of English in the Atlantic states. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, [cl961] 182p. (Studies in American English, v.3) An analysis of the regional and social features of pronunciation in the Atlantic states; based on the speech of 157 "cultured speakers"; contains 180 full-page maps; data derived from the collections of the linguistic atlas of the eastern United States. Larsen, Thorleif and Walker, Francis C. Pronunciation: a practical guide to American standards. London, Oxford University Press, 1930. 198p. " . . . this is primarily a book of instruction. Our aim has been to point out some of the features of good speech and to indicate some of the general principles

50

307.

308.

309.

310.

311. 312 . 313.

314.

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governing pronunciation. T h e book is not addressed to phoneticians. We have had in mind rather the layman who is conscious of defects in his speech and who wishes to correct them. . ." (Preface) Lieberman, Philip. Some acoustic correlates of word stress in American English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 32:451-54. Apr. 1960. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. Some social differences in pronunciation. (In Allen, Harold B., ed. Readings in applied English linguistics. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts [cl958] p. 174-85) McLean, Margaret (Prendergast) . Good American speech, new and completely rev. ed. N.Y., Dutton, 1952 381 p. First ed. in 1928; rev. ed., 1941. Mencken, Henry L. T h e pronunciation of American. (In his T h e American Language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.319-78. Supplement 2, p.3-270) Menner, Robert J. Hypercorrect forms in American English. AS 12:167-78. Oct. 1937. T h e pronunciation of English in America. Atlantic monthly 115:360-66. Mar. 1915. Monson, Samuel C. Representative American phonetic alphabets. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1953. 206p. Most of the phonetic alphabet studies were curiosities, but two of them were great successes: the American Phonetic Alphabet, which was supported by Benn Pitman, and the Deseret Alphabet, which was financed by the Legislature of the Territory of Utah and the Mormons. Morgan, Bayard Q. Question melodies in American English. AS 28:181-91. Oct. 1953.

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315. Neumann, Joshua H. American pronunciation according to Noah Webster (1783). cl924. 147 1. " T h e following pages constitute the third chapter of a dissertation on American pronunciation according to Noah Webster submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the doctorate in Columbia University. T h e first two chapters of the complete work dealt with the development of the early American spelling book and the history of Noah Webster's first speller, the Grammatical Institute of 1783." (Preface) 316. Palmer, Harold E., and others. Dictionary of English pronunciation, with American variants. N.Y., Appleton, 1927. 436p. First published in England in 1926. 317. Pierce, Robert M. Dictionary of hard words. N.Y., Dodd, Mead, 1910.611p. " T h e geographic variants and the peculiarities of the various levels of American speech are more carefully, though not systematically, recorded by Pierce than in any other dictionary." (Hans Kurath in Language 5:156. Sept. 1929) 318. Pike, Kenneth !.. T h e intonation of American English. Ann Arbor, 1945. 203p. (University of Michigan publications: Linguistics, v.l) " T h i s volume is largely an expansion and revision of materials which were published in the author's Pronunciation, v.l of An intensive course in English for Latin-American students by the English Language Institute of the University of Michigan." (Preface) Accompanied by two illustrative phonograph records. 319. Porter, Samuel. Guide to pronunciation. (In Web-

52

320.

321.

322.

323.

324 .

325 .

326.

327. 328. 329. 330.

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ster's International dictionary. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1890. p.lv-lxxxviii) Pound, Louise. British and American pronunciation: retrospect and prospect. School review 23:381-93. June 1915. Proctor, Richard A. English and American English. Gentleman's magazine, n.s., 27:315-25. Aug. 1881. Also in Appleton's journal, n.s., 11:315-25. Oct. 1881. Pyles, Thomas. American pronunciation. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House [cl952] p.233-70) Read, William A. Archaic character of American English. Journal of English and Germanic philology 22:220-24. Apr. 1923. Some phases of American pronunciation. Journal of English and Germanic philology 22: 217-44. Apr. 1923. Some remarks on American pronunciations. Journal of the Louisiana Teachers' Association 2: 41^45. May 1925. Robertson, Stuart. Contemporary pronunciation. (In his T h e Development of modern English. N.Y., Prentice-Hall, 1936. p.214-62) Root, Eleanor. American and British enunciation. Lippincott's magazine 88:426-27. Sept. 1911. Rositzke, Harry A. Articulation of final stops in general American speech. AS 18:39-42. Feb. 1943. Schramm, Wilbur L. Acoustical nature of accent in American speech. AS 12:49-56. Feb. 1937. Thomas, Charles K. An introduction to the phonetics of American English. N.Y., Ronald, 1947. 181p. 2d ed. N.Y., Ronald [1958] 273p.

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331 .

332 .

333. 334.

335 .

336.

53

" T h i s book deals with the pronunciation of English in the United States and is designed primarily for elementary courses in phonetics." (Preface, 1958 ed., p.iii) Dr. Thomas is professor of speech at Cornell University. Recent discussions of standardization in American pronunciation. Quarterly journal of of speech education 13:442-57. Nov. 1927. Regional variation in American pronunciation. (In his An introduction to the phonetics of American English. 2d ed. N.Y., Ronald, 1958. p.191-215) Trager, George L. What conditions limit variants of a phoneme? AS 9:313-15. Dec. 1934. Voelker, Charles H. Phonetic distribution in formal American pronunciation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 5:242-46. Apr. 1934. Technique for a phonetic frequency distri bution count in formal American speech. Archives néerlandaises de phonétique expérimentale 11 : 69-72. Feb. 1935. Weiss, Harold. Standards of American speech as reflected by radio announcers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1947. 235p. "For this study, requests were sent to representative radio stations and networks . . . Excellent recordings were received from radio stations in forty different states. T h e announcers recorded a script, devised by the author of this study. T h i s script contained many of the sounds considered by phoneticians and teachers of speech as possessing regional or controversial characteristics." (University of Wisconsin, Summaries of doctoral dissertations sub-

54

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

mitted. . . . July 1947 to June 1949, p.605) 337. West, Robert W. and Kantner, Claude E. American speech style. (In their Phonetics. N.Y., Harper [c 1941 ] p.261-83) 338. Wheatley, Katherine E. Anomalies of radio speech. AS 24:213-15. Oct. 1949. 339. White, Richard G. "American" speech. (In his Everyday English. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 1881. p.85-102) 340. Wilson, George P. Standards of correct pronunciation. Quarterly journal of speech 23:568-76. Dec. 1937. 341. Wise, Claude M. General American English: standard and substandard. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1957. p.182-204) 341a. Some contextual guides to the pronunciation of American English. (In Phonetic Society of Japan. Study of sounds . . . [Tokyo] 1957. p.351-72') 342 . Speech regions of America. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1957. p.171-81) 343. Withington, Robert. Relation of graphic accents to pronunciation. AS 26:157-58. May 1951. 344. Zandvoort, R. W. A note on American pronunciation. English studies 13:106-09. June 1931. 345. Zimmerman, Jane D. Radio pronunciations: a study of two hundred educated non-professional radio speakers. N.Y., King's Crown Press, 1946. 135p. 346 . Representative radio pronunciation in America. (In Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Proceedings. 1936, p.291-302)

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55

CONSONANTS

347. Bigelow, Gordon E. More evidence of early loss of r in eastern American speech. AS 30:154-56. May 1955. 348. Bronstein, Arthur J . T h e consonants of American English. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960. p.59-79) 349 T h e fricative sounds. (In his T h e prounuciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1960. p. 82-97) 350 . T h e frictionless consonants. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960. p.99-128) 351. Hempl, George. Loss of r in English through dissimilation. DN 1:279-81. 352 Unstressed wh. Modern language notes 6: 155-56. May 1891. 353. 'Wh' in America. Modern language notes 6:219. Nov. 1891. 354. Hultzén, Lee S. Symbol for the nonsyllabic postvocalic R of general American. Quarterly journal of speech 36:189-201. Apr. 1950. 355. Kenyon, John S. Some notes on American r. AS 1: 329-39. Mar. 1926. 356. Lehmann, W. P. A note on the change of American English/t/. (In Allen, Harold B., ed. Readings in applied English linguistics. N.Y., Appleton-CenturyCrofts [cl958] p.228-32) A reprint of the article in AS 28:271-75. Dec. 1953. 357. McDavid, Raven I., J r . Our initial consonant H. College English 11:458-59. May 1950.

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358.

and McDavid, Virginia Glenn, h before semivowels in the eastern United States. Language 28: 41-62. 1952. 359. Malécot, André. Nasal syllables in American English. Journal of speech and hearing research 3:268-74. Sept. 1960. A summary of the literature "on the subject of syllabic nasal consonants in American English, their articulation, acoustic characteristics and their role in the phonemic structure of the language . . . " (p.268) 360. Mencken, Henry L. The pronunciation of American: the consonants. (In his The American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.348-54) 361. Miller, Edna W. A palatographs study of the midwestern r. M.A. thesis, University of Denver, 1943. 48p. 362. Oswald, Victor A. Voiced t— a misnomer. AS 18: 18-25. Feb. 1943. 363.Palmer, Francis L. The superfluflous r. AS 3:466-67. Aug. 1928. 364. Read, William A. Remarks on some of the consonants. Journal of English and Germanic philology 22: 232-37. 1923. 365. Sheldon, E. S. Wh in America. Modern language notes 6:189-91. June 1891. 366. Trager, George L. Phoneme t: a study in theory and method. AS 17:144-48. Oct. 1942. 367. Van Riper, William R. T h e loss of post-vocalic R in the eastern United States. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan, 1958. 176p. Study based on data of Linguistic atlas of the United States and Canada; finds the "r-less" type

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of pronunciation predominant in four areas; spreading within some sectors of these areas and receding in others. 368. Varney, Jeanne M. Etudes sur 1 Ί américain. Paris, Les Presses Universitaires de France, 1933. 179p. Character and influence of the 1 sounds in American English. VOWELS

369. Avis, Walter S. T h e mid-back vowels in the English of the eastern United States; a detailed investigation of regional and social differences in phonic characteristics and in phonemic organization. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1956. 241p. . . T h e investigation treats the problems of phonic and phonemic changes in American English in more detail than any previous study." (Dissertation abstracts 17:140. 1957) 370. Bloomfield, Leonard. T h e stressed vowels of American English. Language 11:97-116. June 1935. 371. Bronstein, Arthur J . T h e back vowels. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts [cl960] p.162-72) 372 . T h e central vowels. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-CenturyCrofts [cl960] p. 174-84) 373. .. T h e vowel clusters: the diphthongs and triphthongs of American English. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., AppletonCentury-Crofts [cl960] p. 186-202) 374 . T h e vowels and diphthongs of the nineteenth century. Speech monographs 16:227-42. Sept. 1949.

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Based on a Ph.D. dissertation completed at New York University in 1948. 375 . T h e vowels of American English. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts [cl960] p. 131-61) 376. and Sheldon, Esther K. Derivatives of Middle English ö in eighteenth and nineteenth century dictionaries. AS 26:81-89. May 1951. 377. Cable, W. Arthur. T h e [D] vowel in American pronunciation. Quarterly journal of speech 25:423-33. Oct. 1939. 378. Caffee, Nathaniel M. Phonemic structure of unstressed vowels. AS 26:103-09. May 1951. 379. Clifford James L. New light on theorigin of eastern American pronunciation of unaccented final a. AS 10:173-75. Oct. 1935. 380. De Camp, L. Sprague. A in America. Maître phonétique no.73:2-3. Jan.-Mar. 1941. 381. Eliason, Norman E. Two notes on vowel and consonant quality. AS 17:166-68. Oct. 1942. 382. Emsley, Bert. Vowel contacts in general American. AS 11:64-67. Feb. 1936. 383. Evans, Medford. Southern 'long i\ AS 10:188-90. Oct. 1935. 384. Grandgent, Charles H. Fashion and the broad A. (In his Old and new. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1920. p.25-30) Reprinted from Nation, Jan. 7, 1915. 385 . Unaccented i. DN 1:319-23. 1894. 386. Hanley, Miles L. Observations on the broad A. DN 5:347-50.1925. 387. Heffner, R. M. Notes on the length of vowels. AS 12:128-34, Apr. 1937; 15:74-79, Feb. 1940; 15:

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388.

389. 390.

391. 392.

393. 394. 395.

396.

397. 398.

59

377-80, Dec. 1940; 16:204-07, Oct. 1941; 17: 42-48, Feb. 1942; 18:208-15, Oct. 1943. Hibbitt, George W. Diphthongs in American speech: a study of the deviation of diphthongs in the contextual speech of two hundred and ten undergraduates. N.Y., Columbia University Bookstore, 1948. 86p. Professor Hibbitt measured the duration of five diphthongs / a i / a u / o i / e i / o u / as spoken in readings of "Arthur the Rat". Hubbell, Allan F. Phonemic analysis of unstressed vowels. AS 25: 105-11. May 1950. Hultzén, Lee S. Vowel quality in unstressed syllables in American English. Quarterly journal of speech 29:451-57. Dec. 1943. Kenyon, John S. Flat A and broad A. AS 5:323-26. Apr. 1930. Lehiste, Ilse and Peterson, Gordon E. Vowel amplitude and phonemic stress in American English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 31: 428-35. Apr. 1959. Lloyd, Harriett. Note on vowel length. AS 11:188-89. Apr. 1936. Malécot, André. Vowel nasality is a distinctive feature in American English. Language 36:222-29. 1960. Mencken, Henry L. T h e pronunciation of American: the vowels. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.334-48) Peterson, G. E. and Coxe, M. S. T h e vowels [e] and [o] in American speech. Quarterly journal of speech 39:33-41. Feb. 1953. Pilch, Herbert. T h e rise of the American English vowel pattern. Word 11:57-93. Apr. 1955. Pyles, Thomas. That fine Italian A in American Eng-

60

399.

400. 401. 402.

403. 404.

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lish. (In Kirby, Thomas A. and Woolf, Henry B., eds. Philologica: the Malone anniversary studies. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1949. p.290-95) Read, William A. Aspects of some American vowels. Journal of English and Germanic philology 22:23742. 1923. Rositzke, Harry A. Vowel length in general American speech. Language 15:99-109. Apr.-June 1939. Swadesh, Morris. T h e vowels of Chicago English. Language 11:148-51. 1935. Thomas, Charles K. Dialectal significance of the nonphonemic lowback vowel variants before R . (In Bryant, Donald C., and others, eds. Studies in speech and drama in honor of Alexander M. Drummond. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press, 1944. p.244-54) Trager, George L. One phonemic entity becomes two; the case of "short a". AS 15:255-58. Oct. 1940. Wetmore, Thomas H. T h e low-central and low-back vowels in the English of the eastern United States. University, Ala., 1959. 131p. (Publication of the American Dialect Society, no.32) " T h e present study is a revision of the author's dissertation . . . for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1956. T h e revision, for the most part, has resulted merely in condensation, with one important exception: further analysis of the vowel in such words as in New York City, the Virginia Piedmont, and eastern South Carolina has led to the positing of the phoneme / a / in these words, considered in the earlier work to have been an allophone of the phoneme / a / " (Foreword). Other areas covered

PRONUNCIATION

61

are western Vermont, southeastern Pennsylvania, western North Carolina, coastal Maine, southeastern New Hampshire, and western Pennsylvania. 405. Whitehall, Harold. Elusive development of short o in early American English. AS 16:192-203. Oct. 1941. 406 . Middle English ü and related sounds; their development in early American English. Baltimore, Linguistic Society of America [1939] 79p. (Language monograph, no. 19) This is a Supplement to Language v. 15, no.4, Oct.Dec. 1939. 407 . Quality of the front reduction vowel in early American English. AS 15:136-43. Apr. 1940. R E G I O N A L AND L O C A L

New England 408. Bloch, Bernard. The treatment of Middle English final and preconsonantal R in the present-day speech of New England. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1935. Dr. Bloch is now professor of linguistics at Yale University and editor of Language: journal of the Linguistic Society of America. Between 1933 and 1942 he was assistant editor of the Linguistic atlas of New England. 409. Child, Clarence G. T h e diphthong oi in New England. Modern language notes 15:123-25. Feb. 1900. 410. Collester, Clinton H. Notes on the New England short o. Modern language notes 22:80-83. Mar. 1907. 411. Davis, Edwin B. Nasal twang [in New England] Maître phonétique no.73:4-5. Jan.-Mar. 1941.

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412. Dow, Clyde W. Short "o" vowels in American speech: Massachusetts. Speech monographs 12:74-76. 1945. 413. Grandgent, Charles H. From Franklin to Lowell. A century of New England pronunciation. PMLA 14:207-39. 1899. 414 . New England pronunciation. (In his Old and new. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, 1920. p. 121-49) 415. Haut, Lillian. Transcription of Victor phonograph record Newburyport, Massachusetts. AS 9:139-40. Apr. 1934. 415a. Hewitt, Ryland Hugh, Jr. T h e pronunciation of English in the province of Maine. Ph. D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1961. 228p. "An examination of manuscript documents written between 1636 and 1730 in the Province of Maine (the present State of Maine) yielded numerous naive spellings which suggested the ways in which speech sounds were pronounced in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in northeastern New England. T h e documents examined are the original writs, depositions, inventories, and other papers which are in the manuscript collection in the York County Courthouse, Alfred, Maine." (.Dissertation abstracts 22:2911. Feb. 1962) 416. Hill, Archibald Α., and others. Transcription of Victor phonograph record, Ellsworth, Maine. AS 9:140-41. Apr. 1934. 417. Kilpatrick, Rachel S. H. T h e speech of Rhode Island: the stressed vowels and diphthongs. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1937. 417a. Lawrence, Vivian S. Dialect mixture in three New England pronunciation patterns. Vowels and con-

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418.

419.

420.

421 . 422.

423.

424.

425.

426.

63

sonants. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1960. 228p. Lindblad, Karl E. Noah Webster's pronunciation and modern New England speech; a comparison. Upesala, Lundequistska bokhondeln; Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1954. 90p. (Uppsala. Universitet. Amerikanska seminariet. Essays and studies on American language and literature, no. 11) Orbeck, Anders. Early New England pronunciation. Ann Arbor, Mich., George Wahr, 1927. 148p. Based on a Ph.D. dissertation prepared by the author at Columbia University in 1927. Seventeenth century records of four towns in eastern Massachusetts (Groton, Dedham, Plymouth, and Watertown) were studied. Penzl, Herbert. T h e development of middle English a in New England speech. Dissertation, University of Vienna, 1934. Relics with broad a in New England speech. AS 13:45-49. Feb. 1938. Sheldon, Edward S. T h e New England pronunciation of o. American Philological Association. Proceedings, 1953, p.19. Tjossem, Herbert K. New England pronunciation before 1700. Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1956. Whorf, Benjamin L. Phonemic analysis of the English of eastern Massachusetts. Studies in linguistics 2 : 2 1 ^ 0 . Dec. 1943. Wise, Claude M. Eastern American English: standard and substandard. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1957. p.221-38) W u , Yi. A study of the cultivated pronunciation of

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New England . . . M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1947. 115p. Middle Atlantic 427. Bryant, William Cullen. Dictionary of the New York dialect of the English tongue [cl820] AS 16:15758, Apr. 1941. Contains a short list of New York pronunciations by the poet. 428. Cavanagh, Dermont. The " R " in New Yorkese. Word study 17:7. Oct. 1941. Not verified. 429. De Camp, L. Sprague. Scranton pronunciation. AS 15:368-71 .Dec. 1940. 430. Hubbell, Allan F. T h e pronunciation of English in New York City: consonants and vowels. N.Y., Kings Crown Press, 1950. 169p. Detailed description of English in New York City; includes an analysis of vowels, diphthongs and consonants. Based on the speech of informants and phonograph records of the Linguistic atlas. This is a Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1950. 430a. Monroe, B. S. T h e pronunciation of English in New York State. B.A. thesis, Cornell University, 1896. A study of the speech of Cornell University students. Not seen. 431. T h e pronunciation of English in the State of New York. DN 1:445-56. 1896. An abridgment of the above thesis. Only the results and the method used are described in the article. 432. Thomas, Charles K. New York City pronunciation. AS 26:122-23. May 1951.

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433 .

Pronunciation in downstate New York. AS 17:30-41. Feb. 1941; 17:149-57, Oct. 1942. 434 . Pronunciation in upstate New York. AS 10: 107-12. Apr. 1935. 435. Wise, Claude M. Speech of New York City: standard and substandard. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1957. p.280-92) 436. Zimmerman, Jane D. Transcription of Columbia phonograph co. record 6 7 - P [100196], American speech — East Side New York City type. AS 8:62-66. Feb. 1933. South 437. Atwood, F.. Bagby. Some eastern Virginia pronunciation features. (In Bowers, Fredson, ed. English studies in honor of James Southall Wilson. Charlottesville, University of Virginia, 1951. p.l 11-24) 438. Caffee, Nathaniel M. A phonological study of the speech of a homogenous group in Charlottesville, Va. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Virginia, 1934. 439 . Some notes on consonant pronunciation in the South. (In Studies for William A. Read. Edited by Nathaniel M. Caffee and Thomas A. Kirby. University, La., Louisiana University Press, 1940. p. 125-32) 440 . Southern "1" plus a consonant. AS 15:259-61. Oct. 1940. 441 . Transcription of a phonograph record of the speech of a Negro between 70 and 75 years old and a life-long resident of Charlottesville, Va. AS 10:298-99. Dec. 1935. 442. Duke, Francis. Long I in Richmond speech. (In

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443 .

444. 445. 446. 447.

448.

449.

450.

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Humanistic studies in honor of John Calvin Metcalf. Charlottesville, University of Virginia, 1941. p.314-18) A phonetic study of Italo-American speech in Richmond, Virginia. Ph.D dissertation, University of Virginia, 1938. "In every detail of pronunciation there is a striking similarity between American-born Italian subjects and Americans of native stock. Where the former differed from Richmond usage, it was in the direction of general American speech rather than of the speech of native-born Italians." (University of Virginia, Abstracts of dissertations, 1938. p.17) Edgerton, William B. Another note on the southern pronunciation of 'long i'. AS 10:190. Oct. 1935. Grandgent, Charles H. English sentences in American mouths: Kentucky. DN 1:203. Greet, William C. A phonographic expedition to Williamsburg, Virginia. AS 6:161-72. Feb. 1931. Hale, Lulu C. A study of English pronunciation in Kentucky. M.A. thesis. University of Kentucky, 1930. 60 1. Hall, Joseph S. T h e phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain speech. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1941. N.Y. King's Crown Press, 1942. 110p. (American speech. Reprints and monographs, no.4) Based mainly on phonograph records, local manuscripts, novels and sketches. Idol, Harriett R. A strobophotographic study of southern intonation. Ph.D. dissertation. Louisiana State University, 1937. Ives, Sumner. Vowel transcriptions in a Georgia field record. Tulane studies in English 4:147-69. 1954.

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451. Johnson, T . Earle. Nasality in southern speech. Southern speech journal 17:30-39. Sept. 1951. 452. Kurath, Hans. Southern pronunciation. Society for Pure English. Tract no.30:291-96. 1928. 453. Lowman, Guy S. T h e treatment of / a u / in Virginia. Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Proceedings, 1935, p. 122-25. 454. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. Application of the Linguistic atlas method to dialect study in the South-Central area. Southern speech journal 15:1-9. Sept. 1949. 455. Derivatives of Middle English [o:] in the South Atlantic area. Quarterly journal of speech 35:496-504. Dec. 1949. 456 . Low back vowels in the South Carolina Piedmont. AS 15:144-48. Apr. 1940. 457 . Post vocalic / - r / in South Carolina; a social analysis. AS 23:194-203. Oct.-Dec. 1948. 458 . r and y in the South. Studies in linguistics 7:18-20. 459 . T h e unstressed syllabic phonemes of a southern dialect. Studies in linguistics 2:51-55. Summer 1944. " T h i s paper is an outgrowth of attempts to analyze the unstressed vowels of my own speech, a dialect spoken in Greenville, in the Piedmont section of South Carolina." (p.51) 460. McMillan, James B. Vowel nasality as a Sandhi-form of the morphemes -nt and -ing in southern American. AS 14:120-23. Apr. 1939. 461. Perritt, Margaret F. T h e Louisiana R . Southern speech journal 9:102-06. Mar. 1944. 462. Primer, Sylvester. T h e Huguenot element in Charleston's pronunciation. P M L A 4:214-244. 1899.

68 463 .

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T h e pronunciation of Fredericksburg, Va. PMLA 5:185-99. 1890. 464. Read, William A. Some variant pronunciations in the new South. DN 3:497-536. 1911. Reprinted in Louisiana State University. University bulletin, n.s., vol. 3, no.5. May 1912. 465 . T h e southern R. Louisiana State University bulletin, n.s., vol.1, no.2. 1910. 13p. This is a reprint from Louisiana school review, Feb. 1910. 466 . T h e vowel system of the southern United States. Englische Studien 41:70-78. 1910. 467. Reinecke, George F. New Orleans pronunciation among school children and educated adults. M.A. thesis, Tulane University, 1951. 468. Reynolds, Jack. The pronunciation of English in southern Louisiana. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1934. 469. Shewmake, Edwin F. Distinctive Virginia pronunciation. AS 18:33-38. Feb. 1943. 469a. English pronunciation in Virginia. [Davidson? N.C., 1928] 45p. Also Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1927. Abstracted in the article: "Laws of pronunciation in eastern Virginia." Modern language notes 40: 489-92. Dec. 1925. 470 . How to find [ A I ] in eastern Virginia. AS 20: 152-53. Apr. 1945. 471. Smith, Harley A. A recording of English speech sounds at three age levels in Ville Platte, Louisiana. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1936. I59p. 472. Smith, Rebecca W. A Tennesseean's pronunciation in

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1841. AS 9:262-63. Dec. 1934. 473. Stephenson, Edward A. Early North Carolina pronunciation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1958. 474. Tresidder, Argus. Notes on Virginia speech: the d i p h t h o n g / a u / . AS 16:112-20. Apr. 1941. 475 . Sounds of Virginia speech. AS 18:261-72. Dec. 1943. 476. Walsh, Chad. Broad a in Virginia. AS 15:38. Feb. 1940. 477. Wheatley, Katherine E. Southern standards. AS 9: 36-45. Feb. 1934. 478. Williams, Cratis. T h e " R " in mountain speech. Mountain life and work, Spring 1961, p.5-8. 479. Wilson, George P. Some unrecorded southern vowels. AS 9:209-13. Oct. 1934. 480. Wise, Claude M. Southern American English: standard and substandard. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1957. p.205-20) 481. , and others. T h e southern American diphthong / a i / . Southern speech journal 19:304-12. May 1954. West 482. Bloch, Bernard. Phonemic overlapping in midwestern American English. AS 16:278-84. Dec. 1941. 483. Clifton, Ernest E. Some [u]—[ju] variations in Texas. AS 34:190-93. Oct. 1959. 483a. Crawford, Robert P. Pronunciation of 165 selected words by Utah radio announcers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1951. " I t was the purpose of this thesis to study the pro-

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nunciation of the radio announcers in the State of Utah through the use of 165 selected words that are commonly mispronounced and that the announcers are expected to know." (University of Utah. Abstracts of doctoral dissertations

1947-1956.

p.239)

484. De Camp, David. Pronunciation of English in San Francisco. Orbis 7:372-91, Dec. 1958; 8:54-77, June 1959. 484a. The pronunciation of English in San Francisco. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, 1954. 485. Hanley, Miles L. T h e Texas L. DN 5:247. 1923. 486. Kurath, Hans. Western pronunciation. Society for Pure English. Tract no.30:286-88. 1928. 487. Lehiste, Ilse. An acoustic phonetic study of internal open structure. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1959. 161p. "The purpose of this study was to explore the phonetic manifestations of internal open juncture in standard midwestern American English." (Dissertation abstracts 20:2279)

488. Marckwardt, Albert H. Middle English wa in the speech of the Great Lakes region. AS 17:226-34. Dec. 1942. 488a. Marckwardt, Albert H. Middle English ö in American English of the Great Lakes area. Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 26:561-71. 1941. 489. Merritt, Francine. West Texas pronunciation—an investigation. Southern speech journal 9:59-62. Jan. 1944. 490. Nail, William A. T h e phonology of the speech of Crawford, Texas. M.A. thesis, University of Texas,

PRONUNCIATION

71

1948. 134p. 491. Parmenter, C. E. and Trevino, S. N. The length of the sounds of a Middle Westerner. AS 10:129-33. Apr. 1935. 492. Pound, Louise. Intentional mispronunciation in the Central West. DN 5:133-38. 1922. 493. Randolph, Vance and Ingleman, Anna A. Pronunciation in the Ozark dialect. AS 3:401-07. June 1928. 494. Reed, Carroll E. Pronunciation of English in the State of Washington. AS 27:186-89. Oct. 1952. 495. Seymour, N. P. New England pronunciations in Ohio. DN 1:17. 496. Sleator, Mary D. Phonology and morphology of an American English dialect. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1957. 146p. An analysis of the speech of a 70-year-old lady, a native of southern Indiana. 497. Wise, Claude M. Mountain speech. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1957. p.303-21)

¿μ Grammar, Syntax, and Usage 498. Aadland, Gordon R . Some tendencies in grammar found in novels of the 1930's and 1940's. M.A. thesis, State University of South Dakota, 1949. 84p. 499. Clark, John W. Idiom and syntax. (In Partridge, Eric and Clark, John W. British and American English since 1900. N.Y., Philosophical Library, 1951. p.255-69) 500. Curme, George O. College English grammar. Richmond, Va., Johnson Publishing Company [cl925] 414p. A textbook by a distinguished American theologian which presented the language as it was spoken and written in the 1920's. 500a. Parts of speech and accidence. Boston, Heath [cl935] 370p. (A grammar of the English language, vol.2) 500b. Syntax. Boston, Heath [cl931] 616p. (A grammar of the English language, vol.3) 501. Darling, K. G. Journalistic foibles of rhetoric. AS 16: 68-69. Feb. 1941. 502. Evans, Bergen and Evans, Cornelia. A dictionary of contemporary American usage. N.Y., Random House [cl957] 567p. " T h i s dictionary is intended as a reference book on current English in the United States. It is designed for people who speak standard English but are 72

C R A M M A R , S Y N T A X , A N D USAGE

503.

504.

505.

506.

73

uncertain a b o u t some details. It a t t e m p t s to list the questions that most people ask, a b o u t what is n o w good practice and to give the best answers available. It also contains a full discussion of g r a m m a r . . ." (Preface, p.vii) Dr. Evans is professor of English at Northwestern University, a n d Cornelia Evans is his sister. Fries, Charles C. American English g r a m m a r . N.Y., Appleton C e n t u r y [cl940] 313p. (National Council of T e a c h e r s of English. English m o n o g r a p h , no. 10) " T h e grammatical structure of present-day American English with especial reference to social differences or class dialects" (subtitle) " T h i s book is u n i q u e . It is the first grammatical survey of a civilized language to be m a d e in a truly objective way." (Martin Joos in Language 17:274) H a b e r , T o m B. A writer's h a n d b o o k of A m e r i c a n usage. N.Y., Longmans, Green, 1942. 152p. "By mere reason of n u m b e r s , Americans have a right to call the language they use the A m e r i c a n language. T o describe this language briefly is t h e aim of this Handbook. It aims to give deserved though not exaggerated a t t e n t i o n to examples of usage that are recognized as peculiarly A m e r i c a n . " (Introduction) H i l l , W i l l i a m H . Some aspects of eighteenth a n d nineteenth century grammars. M.A. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1953. 96 1. F o u r American g r a m m a r s are i n c l u d e d in t h e study. H o o k , J u l i u s N . a n d Mathews, E. G. M o d e r n American g r a m m a r a n d usage. N.Y., R o n a l d [cl956] 475p.

74

507.

508.

509.

510.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

"A textbook for college classes and a guide for the general reader interested in American English." (Preface) Horwill, Herbert W. A dictionary of modern American usage. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1935. 360p. T h e author had three classes of readers in mind when he wrote this work: (1) English people traveling in America or reading American publications; (2) Americans who wish to understand the English; (3) language students. T h e book includes about 2000 words and expressions. Slang and foreign loan words are not covered. No phonetic or diacritical marks to indicate pronunciation. Emphasis is on meaning and illustrations. Quotations are from modern books, newspapers, and periodicals. The 2d edition was published in 1944. Johnson, Samuel. T h e first easy rudiments of grammar, applied to the English tongue. By one who is extremely desirous to promote good literature in America, and especially a right English education. For the use of schools, N.Y., J. Holt, 1765. 36p. "This volume of 36 pages appears to have been the first grammar prepared by an American and published in America. (Rollo L. Lyman, English grammar in American schools before 1850, p.35) Kennedy, Arthur G. Current English; a study of present-day usages and tendencies, including pronunciation, spelling, grammatical practice, word coining, and the shifting of meanings. Boston, Ginn [cl935] 737p. Leonard, Sterling A. Current English usage. Chicago, National Council of Teachers of English, 1932. 232p. (English monograph, no.l)

GRAMMAR, SYNTAX, AND USAGE

511.

512.

513.

514 .

515 .

516.

517.

518.

75

A study of English usage among teachers, editors, authors, linguists, and business men. Lloyd, Donald J. O u r national mania for correctness. (In Dean, Leonard F. and Wilson, Kenneth G., eds. Essays on language and usage. N.Y., Oxford, 1959. p.285-91) Long, Ralph B. A grammar of American English. Austin, Texas, n.p., 1952. pt.l, 155p.; pt.2, p. 156-285. "This grammar is an attempt to outline the patterning of standard contemporary American English as accurately and fully as its length permits." Preface of pt.l) Lyman, Rollo L. Chronological catalog of English grammars in America before 1800. (In his English grammar in American schools before 1850. Washington, 1922. Appendix A, p. 155-57) English grammar in American schools before 1850. Washington, D.C., 1922. (U.S. Bureau of Education bulletin, 1921, no.12) Textbooks in grammar. (In his English grammar in American schools before 1850. Washington, D.C., 1922. p. 163-65) McDavid, Raven I., and McDavid, Virginia G. Grammatical differences in the North Central States. AS 35:5-19. Feb. 1960. Marckwardt, Albert H. and Walcott, Fred G. Facts about current English usage . . . including a discussion of current usage in grammar from Current English usage by Sterling A. Leonard. New York, Appleton-Century [cl938] 144p. (National Council of Teachers of English. English monograph, no.7) Mencken, Henry L. T h e common speech. (In his

76

519.

520.

521.

522.

523.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

The American language. 4th ed. Ν.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.416-73. Supplement 2, p.332-95) Nicholson, Margaret. A dictionary of American-English usage; based on Fowler's Modern English usage. N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1957. 671p. Some of the entries in the old Fowler still stand untouched in this volume. T h e new entries bring that work up to date and show variations, pronunciation, and idiom. The author is senior editor at Macmillan. Nietz, John A. Grammars. (In his Old textbooks. Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh [1961] p. 106-39) Partridge, Eric. Usage and abusage, a guide to good English. N.Y., Harper [1942] 369p. "Prof. W. Cabell Greet has annotated this work with such comment on American usage as seemed useful for the reader." (Publisher's note) Pence, Raymond W. A grammar of present-day English. N.Y., Macmillan, 1949. 383p. "Present-day students need a book that will be so explicit that it may seem very elementary to him who chances to be well-trained in grammar. They need a book so complete that it may serve as a reference book after it has filled its original function as a classroom text. The present volume attempts to meet just such needs." (Preface) Pooley, Robert C. Grammar and usage in textbooks on English. Madison, Wis., 1933. 172p. (University of Wisconsin. Bureau of educational research. Bulletin no. 14) Based on Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1932.

GRAMMAR, SYNTAX, AND USAGE

77

524. Robertson, Stuart. British-American differentiations in syntax and idiom. AS 14:243-54. Dec. 1939. 524a. Sledd, James. A short introduction to English grammar. Chicago, Scott, Foresman, [cl959] 346p. 525. Tyler, Priscilla. Grammars of the English language to 1850: with special emphasis on school grammars used in America. Ph.D. dissertation, Western Reserve University, 1953. 2v. "The thesis consists of four studies relevant to the history of school grammars in America before 1850. T h e first is a check list of works on language by 491 authors who published before 1855. T h e second list is a chronological list of titles by subjects. T h e third study is an arrangement by years of all the American editions of the authors who published before 1800. T h e fourth study is divided into two parts. T h e first is based on a survey of the material represented by the titles in the check list and the books in the bibliography. The second part is composed of three studies in the noun, the verb, and syntax, based on an analysis of the material given in forty-five books selected from the bibliography of primary sources." (From the abstract of the thesis at the end of volume 2) 526. Unangst, M. L. T h e doctrine of correctness in English usage as related to the intellectual and social mores of the people of the United States. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1959. 146p. 527. Webster, Noah. Grammatical institute of the English language, comprising an easy, concise, and systematic method of education . . . In three parts. Part 2. Containing a plain and comprehensive grammar . . . Hartford, Hudson and Goodwin, 1784. 139p.

78

528 .

529.

530.

531.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

2d ed. 1785. 3d ed., revised and amended. 1787.132p. 4th ed., revised and amended. 1787? 129p. ". . . The first American textbook on the subject to attain wide circulation." (Rollo L. Lyman, English grammar in American schools before 1850, p.77-78) A philosophical and practical grammar of the English language. New Haven, Oliver Steel and Co., 1807, 250p. "First truly modern grammar of our common tongue." (Harry R. Warfel in Festschrift für Walter Fischer, p.264) Wentworth, Harold. Mr. Horwill and American language levels. PMLA 54:624-27. June 1939. A review of Herbert W. Horwill's A dictionary of modern A merican usage. Weseen, Maurice H. Crowell's dictionary of English grammar and handbook of American usage. N.Y., Crowell [cl928] 703p. Contains many American slang and colloquial expressions; special list of American college slang, p. 123-28. Whitford, Robert C. and Foster, James R. Concise dictionary of American grammar and usage. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl955] 168p. "This Concise dictionary is primarily a manual for people who aspire to write a clear and forceful American in accord with current good use." (Foreword) The authors are professors at Pratt Institute of Technology in Brooklyn.

GRAMMAR, SYNTAX, AND USAGE

79

VERB

531a. Abbott, Orville L. Formal subjunctive in seventeenth-century American English AS 36:181-87. Oct. 1961. 532 . Preterit and past participle of strong verbs in seventeenth-century American English. AS 32: 31-42. Feb. 1957. 533. A study of verb form and verb uses in certain American writings of the seventeenth century. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1954. "As a basis for this study samplings were made from writings of the New England area from c.1630 to C.1700." (Dissertation abstracts 14:361) 534 . Verbal endings in seventeenth-century American English. AS 33:185-94. Oct. 1958. 535. Anthony, Edward M„ Jr. Test frames for structures with "up" in the modern American English. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1954. 135p. A study of the locutions which are usually called two-word verbs (e.g. "get up", "act up", etc.) 536. Atwood, E. Bagby. A survey of verb forms in the eastern United States. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1953. 53p. (Studies in American English, no.2) "This book is a companion volume to Kurath's Word geography of the eastern United States. Both monographs are based on the materials of the Linguistic atlas of New England plus those of the uncredited atlases of the Middle and South Atlantic States." (Albert H. Marckwardt in Language 30: 426) 537. Bevier, Thyra J . American use of the subjunctive.

80 538 . 539. 540.

541.

542. 543.

A M E R I C A N ENGLISH A B I B L I O G R A P H Y

M.A. thesis, Ohio State University, 1930. 16p. American useof the subjunctive. AS 6: 207-15. Feb. 1931. Carballosa, L. T h e American subjunctive. AS 7: 455-56. Aug. 1932. Hirobe, Mitsuo. T h e use of may, might, can, and could in contemporary English. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1953. 51 p. McDavid, Virginia G. Verb forms of the North Central States and Upper Midwest. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1956. 293p. abstracts 17:1549. Short abstract in Dissertation 1957. Menner, Robert J . T h e verbs of the vulgate. AS 1: 230-40. J a n . 1926. Tazoe, Kaneko. T h e four defective verbs of constraint in contemporary American English: must, shall, should, ought. M.A. thesis, University of T e x a s , 1957. 100p. NOUN

544. Burnham, Josephine M. G r o u p genitives. AS 2:84-85. Nov. 1926. 545. Byington, Steven T . T h e attributive noun becomes cancerous. AS 2:34-38. Oct. 1926. 546. Eyestone, Maxine A. T e s t s and treatment of comp o u n d substantives in modern American English with special emphasis on stress and intonation patterns. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1954. 140p. 547. Krapp, George P. Inflection and syntax. (In his T h e English language in America. N.Y., Ungar, 1960.

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81

p.255-71) 548. Minton, Arthur. Implied selective reference to the one or the other of a married couple. AS 33:106-08. May 1958. 549. Plank, R. R. A descriptive study of some inflections for number, case, and mood in standard American English, with especial reference to American English grammar. Master's thesis, University of Connecticut, 1952. 550. Prenner, Manuel. Current tendency toward denominative verbs. AS 13:193-96. Oct. 1938. 551. Reddick, John E. An analysis of usage of the relative pronoun in current written educated American English. M.A. thesis, University of Denver, 1956. 62p. 552. Svartengren, T. Hilding. T h e feminine gender for inanimate things in Anglo-American. AS 3:83-113. Dec. 1927. 553 . T h e use of personal gender for inanimate things. DN 6:7-56. 1928. 554. Tabusa, Takemitsu. A study of the use of the genitive in contemporary American English. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1953. 44p. 555. Thomas, Russell. The inflected genitive in modern American prose. (In Allen, Harold B., ed. Readings in applied linguistics. N.Y., Appleton-CenturyCrofts [cl958] p.286-91) Reprinted from College English 14:236-39. Jan. 1953. 556. Traver, Alice A. T h e modificational patterns of the substantive head construction in present-day American English. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1945.

82

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY A D V E R B AND

ADJKCTIVE

557. Hungerford, Harlan Murray. T h e verb head construction and its modifícational patterns in presentday English with special reference to the marked infinitive and single-word adverbs. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1950. "This study employs the informal letters used by Professor Charles C. Fries as the basis for his American English Grammar and supplements them by using speakers of Standard English (including the writer) as informants. It presents an attempt to find the modifícational patterns of single-word adverbs in relation to the marked infinitive as it appears in the verb head construction. The problem is considered primarily one of word order . . (Microfilm abstracts 10:2:104) 558. Kawamata, Kunihiro. Adverb-equivalents in modern English. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1953. 48p. 559. Matthews, Patricia E. A further study of the order characteristics of modifiers in noun-headed phrases. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1960. 87p. 560. Sheldon, Esther K. T h e rise of the incomplete comparative. AS 20:161-67. Oct. 1945. MISCELLANEOUS

561. Bolinger, Dwight L. Interrogative structures of American English. (The direct question) University, University of Alabama Press, 1957. 184p. (Publication of the American Dialect Society, no.28) 562. Christensen, Francis. Number concord with what clauses again. AS 33:226-29. Oct. 1958.

Gl AM M A R , S Y N T A X , AND USAGE

83

563. Curtis, Roy G. An investigation of some of the structures of independent utterances in modern American English. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1948. 564. Galinsky, Hans. Amerikanisch-britische Unterschiede im Gebrauch der Präpositionen. Neuphilologische Zeitschrift (Hannover) 2:203-14. 1950. 565. Johnson, Marguerite. T h e verbid clause in current English. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1960. 113 1. A study of the substantive plus participle construction in English, or, as it is sometimes called, the nominative absolute. Many of the clauses quoted are from American writers. 566. Owen, William H. Some developments in the American English sentence during the past 130 years. M.A. thesis, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1922. 567. Schuelke, Gertrude L. Slipping in indirect discourse. AS 33:90-98. May 1958. 568. Williams, Theodore. Soap opera grammar. AS 32: 151-54. May 1957.

5· Dialects G E N E R A L A R T I C L E S AND B O O K S

569. Aycock, Etholine G. Americanisms in the traditional ballads of the eastern United States. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1940. 132p. 570. Babcock, Clarence M. Social significance of the language of the American frontier. AS 24:256-63. Dec. 1949. Mr. Babcock wrote an M.A. thesis, "A study of the social significance of the American frontier", University of Denver, 1946. 571. Baily, Nina. Objective analysis of pitch and time variations of certain regional American dialects. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1930. 572. Bartlett, John R . American dialects. (In his Dictionary of Americanisms . . . N.Y., Bartlett and Welford, 1848. p.xv-xxvii) 573. Blair, Walter. Inquisitive Yankee descendants in Arkansas. AS 14:11-22. Feb. 1939. Contains colloquialisms from frontier days. 574. Bondurant, Alexander L. Dialect in the United States. Dial 18:104-05. Feb. 16, 1895. 575. Bronstein, Arthur J . T h e dialects of American English. (In his T h e pronunciation of American English. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960. p.39-51) 576. Burt, (Rev.) N. C. T h e dialects of our country. Appleton's journal, n.s., 5:411-17. 1878. 84

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85

577. Cassidy, Frederic G. Language on the American frontier. (In Wyman, Walker D. and Kroeber, Clifton B., eds. Frontier in perspective. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1957. p. 185-204) 578. Combs, Josiah H. Dialect of the folksong. DN 4: 311-18. 1916. 579. Dawson, Richard L. American dialect. Writer 4 : 2 7 - 2 9 Feb. 1890. 580. Dear, Ruth. Some queries about regionalisms. AS 35:298-300. Dec. 1960. 581. Dondore, Dorothy. Big talk! the fly ting, the gäbe, and the frontier boast. AS 6:45-55. Oct. 1930. 582. Drake, James A. T h e effect of urbanization on regional vocabulary. AS 36:17-33. Feb. 1961. 583. Eggleston, Edward. Folk speech in America. Century magazine 48:867-75. Oct. 1894. 584. Fowler, William C. American dialects; causes of existing dialectal diversities. (In his English grammar. N.Y., Harper, 1859. p.l 19-29) 585. Francis, Winthrop Ν. T h e present state of the American dialect atlas. Yorkshire Dialect Society. Transactions, 1957, pt. 67, p.36-41. 586. Gepp, Edward. Essex speech in some dialects of the United States. Essex review 31:97-104. Apr. 1922. 587. Gray, Giles W. American modes of speech. (In Morgan, Stewart S. and Thomas, W . H., eds. Opinions and attitudes in the 20th century, rev. ed. N.Y., Nelson, 1938. p.220-32) 587a. Heil, Johann A. "Die Volkssprache im Nordosten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika". (In Giessner Beiträge zur Erforschung der Sprache und Kultur Englands und Nordamerikas, v.3, p.205-311. 1927)

86

AMERICAN ENGLISH A B I B L I O G R A P H Y

588. Hempl, George. American dialects. Modern language notes 9:124-25, Feb. 1894; 9:310-13. May 1894. 589 . Local usage in American speech. Dial 16:263. May 1, 1894. 590. Higginson, Thomas W. English sources of American dialect. American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings, n.s., 4:159-66. 1886. 591. Hopkins, E. W. Dialect study in America. Dial 18: 136. Mar. 1, 1895. 592. Hopkins, Melville. Frontier speech. Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1951. 394p. " T h e thesis of this study is that the frontier developed a particular type of speech conditioned by the physical environment, the culture of the environment, and the socio-psychological relations existing among the frontiersmen. T h e frontier examined . . . is the Ohio Valley 1790-1840." (Pennsylvania State College, A bstracts of doctoral dissertations, 1951, p.509) 592a. Ives, Sumner. A theory of literary dialect. Tulane studies in English. 2:137-82. 1950. 593. Johnson, Falk. How we got our dialects. American mercury 64:66-70. Jan. 1947. 594. Krapp, George P. Literary dialects. (In his The English language in the United States. N.Y., Ungar, 1960. p.225-73) 595. Kurath, Hans. Folk song and folk speech. AS 20: 122-25. Apr. 1945. A review of John and Alan Lomax's Our singing country: a second volume of American ballads and folk songs. N.Y., Macmillan, 1941. Dr. Kurath cites and illustrates certain characteristics of folk speech.

DIALECTS

596.

597 .

598.

599 .

600 .

601.

87

.. T h e American languages. Scientific American 1 8 2 : 4 8 - 5 1 . J a n . 1950. Contains a small linguistic map of the eastern states. Linguistic regionalism. (In Wisconsin University. Regionalism in America. Edited by Merrill Jensen. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1951. p . 2 9 7 - 3 1 0 ) .. Dialect areas, settlement areas, and cultural areas in the United States. (In Ware, Caroline, ed. Cultural approach to history. N.Y., Columbia University, 1940. p . 3 3 1 - 4 5 ) T h e English of the eastern states: a perspective. (In his W o r d geography of the eastern U n i t e d States. [Ann Arbor] University of Michigan Press, 1949. p . 1 - 1 0 ) T h e speech areas of the eastern states. (In his W o r d geography of the eastern United States. [Ann A r b o r ] University of Michigan Press, 1949. p. 1 1 - 4 9 ) A word geography of the eastern United States. [Ann Arbor] University of Michigan Press, 1949. 88p. (Studies in American English, no. 1) " A technical report of the distribution of regional and local expressions . . . T h e evidence was gathered by trained field workers who . . . interviewed two speakers, one old-fashioned and unschooled and the other taught in the elementary or high school of the neighborhood. In addition, one or more cultured persons of the larger cities was e x a m i n e d . " (N. Y. Times, J a n . 22, 1950, p.22) " T h e present investigation is concerned with the regional and local vocabulary of the Eastern states" (Preface)

88

AMERICAN ENCLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

602. Linguistic atlas of the United States and Canada. First proposed by the Modern Language Association and launched by Dr. Ε. H. Sturtevant of Yale University who interested the American Council of Learned Societies in it in 1928. Project has received grants from Carnegie Corporation, the General Education Board, and the Rockefeller Foundation. T h e Linguistic atlas of New England (q.v.) is the only part thus far to be edited and published. For a description of the principles of the Linguistic atlas, see Dr. Raven I. McDavid's chapter in Winthrop Ν. Francis, The structure of American English, p.488-94. Also in the same chapter, p.494-99, is an account of the progress made as of 1958 on the Atlas. 603. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. American English dialects. (In Francis, Winthrop Ν. The structure of American English. N.Y., Ronald [cl958] p.480-543) 604. Dialect differences and intergroup tensions. Studies in linguistics 9:27-33. June-Sept. 1951. 605 . Class dialects. (In Francis, Winthrop Ν. The structure of American English. N.Y., Ronald Press, [cl958] p.534-40) 606 . Forces underlying dialect distribution in America. (In Francis, Winthrop Ν. T h e structure of American English. N.Y., Ronald Press, [cl958] p.500-11) 607 . The principal dialect areas of the United States. (In Francis, Winthrop Ν. T h e structure of American English. N.Y., Ronald Press, [cl958] p.511-27) 607a. The second round in dialectology of North American English. Journal of the Canadian Lin-

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guistic Association 6:108—15. Fall 1960. T h e study of American dialects. Lancashire Dialect Society journal no.8:5-19, Jan. 1959; no.9: 1 3 - 2 8 , J a n . 1960. 609. Marckwardt, Albert H. Principal and subsidiary dialect areas in the north-central states. PADS no.27: 3-16. 1957. 610. Mead, Leon. Provincialisms and Americanese. (In his Word-coinage. N.Y., Crowell [1902] p.192-210) 611. Mead, William E. T h e American dialect dictionary. P M L A 29:225-35. 1914. 612. Menner, Robert J . T w o early comments on American dialects. AS 13:8-12. Feb. 1938. 613. Moore, Arthur K. Southern dialect notes. AS 22:73. Feb 1947. 613a. Pilch, Herbert. Dialekte im amerikanischen English. Anglia 75:334-46. 1957. 614. Randel, William. Edward Eggleston on dialect. AS 30:111-14. May 1955. 615. Reeves, Henry. On provincialisms. Lippincott's magazine 3:310-21. Mar. 1869. 616. Richardson, William R . T a l l talk in America in the nineteenth century. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1927. 617. St. Louis Public Library. Books containing American local dialects. 1914. 618. Stephenson, George M. T h e effect of movements of population upon American dialects. Linguistic Society of America. Bulletin no.4, p.22-25. 1929. An abstract of a paper delivered at the Conference on a Linguistic Atlas of the U.S. and Canada, held at New Haven, Aug. 2-3, 1929. 608 .

619. Thomas, Charles K. Americana: dialects, how they got

90

AMERICAN ENGLISH Λ BIBLIOGRAPHY

that way. American mercury 75:43-48. Dec. 1952. 620. Thompson, William F. Frontier tall talk. AS 9:187-99. Oct. 1934. 621. Warnock, Elsie. A study of terms of approbation and eulogy in American dialect speech. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1912. 25p. 622 . Terms of approbation and eulogy in American dialect speech. DN 4:13-25. 1913. 623. Wentworth, Harold. T h e mapping of American English. W. Va. University Studies. Philological papers, ser.37, no.4-1, p.49-53. Oct. 1936. 624. Wilke, Walter H. and Snyder, Joseph F. Attitudes toward American dialects. Journal of social psychology 14:349-62. Nov. 1941. 625. Wise, Claude M. Speech regions of America. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., PrenticeHall, 1957. p. 171—81)

REGIONAL

NEW

ENGLAND

626. Allen, Frederic D. Contributions to the New England vocabulary. DN 1:18-20. 627. Briggs, L. B. R. A few New England words. DN 1: 209-11. 1891. 628. Choate, Isaac B. New England dialect. New England magazine 6:583-94. Oct. 1888. 629. Cole, Arthur H. Social significance of New England idiomatic phrases. Worcester, Mass., American Antiquarian Society, 1960. 68p.

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Reprint from the American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, Apr. 1960. 629a. The charming idioms of New England; an essay upon their significance, together with a compilation of those current in the region around 19001910. Freeport, Me., Bond Wheelwright Co., 1961. 52p. 630. Danieli, Moses G. New England notes. DN 1:211-13. 1892. 631. Dieth, Eugen. Linguistic geography in New England. English studies 29:65-79. June 1948. This article is a review of the Linguistic atlas of New England and the Handbook of the linguistic geography of New England. 632. England, George A. T h e real dialect of northern New England. Writer's monthly 27:195-200. Mar. 1926. 633. Kurath, Hans, and others. Handbook of the linguistic geography of New England. Providence, R.I., Brown University, 1939. 240p. " T h e Handbook has a double purpose. It presents a concise outline of the regional and social dialects of New England, and it provides the apparatus for the critical evaluation and the historical interpretation of the materials contained in the Linguistic atlas of New England." (Preface) 634 . Linguistic atlas of New England . . . Hans Kurath, director and ed., Miles L. Hanley, associate director, Bernard Bloch, assistant ed., Guy S. Lowman, Jr., principal field investigator, Marcus L. Hansen, historian. Sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies and assisted by universities and colleges in New England. Providence,

92

635. 636. 637.

638. 639. 640. 641. 642. 643.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

R.I., Brown University, 1929-43. v. 1-3 in 6v. (Linguistic atlas of the United States and Canada) This is the only atlas to have appeared thus far of the projected and monumental Linguistic atlas of the United States and Canada. McQuesten, Gertrude. Yankee twang—New England dialect. Emerson quarterly, Mar. 1925. p.9-11. Mathews, William. Early New England words. AS 15:225-31. Oct. 1940. Mencken, Henry L. [New England dialogue] (In his T h e American language. Supplement 2. N.Y., Knopf, 1948. p.l 12-14) Newell, William W. Proverbs and phrases. Journal of American folklore 2:153-54. Apr.-June 1889. Perrin, P. G. New England provincialisms, 1818. DN 5:383-84. 1926. Read, Allen W. Two New England lists of 1848. DN 6:452-54. 1935. Sheldon, E. S. A New Engländers English and the English of London. DN 1:33-42. Whiting, B. J . New England dialogue. AS 19:227-28. Oct. 1944. Wolfe, Julia W. Some New England neologisms. AS 5:134-36. Dec. 1929. SOUTH

644. Andrews, E. F. Cracker English. Chautauquan 23: 85-88. Apr. 1896. 645. Arnold, Oren. [Southern speech]. (In Howard, Robert W., ed. This is the South. Chicago, Rand McNally [cl959] p.l76-78) 646. Berrey, Lester V. Southern mountain dialect. AS 15:

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4 5 - 5 4 . Feb. 1940. Contains a bibliography of 37 titles. 647. Brooks, Cleanth. T h e English language in the South. (In Beatty, Richmond. A Vanderbilt miscellany, 1919-1944. Nashville, T e n n . , Vanderbilt University Press, 1944. p. 179-87) 648. Campbell, J o h n C. Speech of the southern highlander. (In his T h e southern highlander and his homeland. N.Y., Russell Sage Foundation, 1921. p. 144-46) 649. Carpenter, Charles. Variation in the southern mountain dialect. AS 8 : 2 2 - 2 5 . Feb. 1933. 650. Carson, William P. Literary dialect of the southern highlander. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1926. 651. Chapman, Maristan. American speech as practiced in the southern highlands. Century 117:617-23. Mar. 1929. 652. Clark, J . D. Similes from the folk speech of the South. Southern folklore quarterly 4 : 1 1 9 - 3 3 . Sept. 1940. 653 . Similes from the folk speech of the South: a supplement to Wilstach's compilations. Southern folklore quarterly 4 : 2 0 5 - 2 2 6 . 1940. Frank J . Wilstach is the author of A dictionary of similes, rev. ed. N.Y., Grosset and Dunlap, 1924. 654. Combs, Josiah H. T h e language of the southern highlanders. P M L A 4 6 : 1 3 0 2 - 2 2 . Dec. 1931. 655 . Old, early and Elizabethan English in the southern mountains. DN 4 : 2 8 3 - 9 7 . 1916. 656. A ïvord list from the southern highlands. PADS n o . 2 : 1 7 - 2 3 . 1944. 657. Comments on "Word-lists from the South". PADS n o . 3 : 7 - 1 2 . May 1945.

94

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Refers to studies by Dennis, Combs, Laughlin, Williams, Hayes, Wilson, Bey, and Dingus. 658. Dearden, Elizabeth J. Dialect areas of the South Atlantic States as determined by variation in vocabulary. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1943. 658a. Dunbar, Gary S. A southern geographical word list. AS 26:293-96. Dec. 1961. 659. Graves, John T., II. Southern speech. Southern speech journal 4:5-6. Nov. 1938. 660. Greet, William C. Southern speech. (In Couch, William T., ed. Culture in the South. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1934. p.594-615) ". . . best general survey of Southern American." (H. L. Mencken, The American language, 4th ed., v.l, p.362) 661 . Southern speech — which way? Southern speech journal 1:1-4. Mar. 1936. 662. Hall, Joseph S. Mountain speech in the Great Smokies Washington, D.C., 1941. 12p. (National Park Service. Popular study series. History no.5) 663. Harris, Alberta. Southern mountain dialect. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1948. "In this thesis she compares the Ozark speech with that of the Appalachians and the hill country of East Texas." (Randolph and Wilson's Down in the holler, p.307. 664. Kephart, Horace. T h e mountain dialect. (In his Our southern highlanders. N.Y., Outing Publishing Co., 1913. p.276-304) 665. Kroll, Harry H. A comparative study of upper and lower southern folk speech. M.A. thesis, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1925.

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666. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. T h e linguistic atlas of the South Atlantic states: its history and present status. Southern folklore quarterly 12:231-40. Dec. 1948. 667. Provincial sayings and regional distribution. AS 18:66-68. Feb. 1943. 668. Mathews, Mitford M. Some sources of Southernisms. University, Ala., University of Alabama Press, 1948. 154p. (Alabama College, Montevallo. Dancy lectures, 1947) Discusses three sources of southernisms: Nahuatl, Muskhogean (both American Indian) , and African 669. Morley, Margaret W. T h e speech of the mountains. (In her T h e Carolina mountains. Boston, Houghton Mifflin [c 1913] p. 170-81) 670. Polk, William T . Uncle Remus spake Queen's English (In his Southern accent. N.Y., Morrow [cl953] p.57-71) 671. Raine, James W . Mountain speech and song. (In his T h e land of saddle-bags . . . N.Y., Council of Women for Home Missions and Missionary Education Movement of the United States and Canada [cl924] p.95-124) 672 . T h e speech of the land of saddle-bags. Quarterly journal of speech education 10:230-37. June 1924. "Portions of the subject matter of this article have appeared . . . in a book . . . The land of the saddlebags .. . (p.230) 673. Reeves, Henry. Southern states. Lippincott's magazine 3:317-18. Mar. 1869. 674. Reinhardt, ]. M. Speech and balladry of the southern highlands. Quarterly journal of the University of North Dakota 16:139-47. Jan. 1926.

96

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675. Smith, Charles F. Southern dialect in life and literature. Southern bivouac, n.s., 1:343-51. Nov. 1885. 676. Tidwell, James N. T h e literary representation of the phonology of the southern dialect. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1948. 677. Westover, J. H. Highland language of the Cumberland coal country. Mountain life and work, Fall 1960, p. 18-21. 678. Wise, Claude M. Southern American dialect. AS 8: 37-43. Apr. 1933. 679. Wood, Gordon R. An atlas survey of the interior South (U.S.A.) Orbis 9:7-12. 1960. 680 . Heard in the South: the progress of a word geography. Tennessee Folklore Society bulletin 26:1-7. Mar. 1960. 680a. Word distribution in the interior South. PADS no.35:1-16. Apr. 1961. WEST

681. Aldrich, Ruth. Annexation words from the Midwest. AS 29:79-82. Feb. 1954. 682. Allen, Harold B. Minor dialect areas of the upper Midwest. PADS no.30:3-16. Nov. 1958. 683 . Pejorative terms for midwest farmers. AS 33:260-65. Dec. 1958. 684 . Semantic confusion: a report from Atlas files. PADS no.33: 3-13. 1960. 685. Burnham, Josephine M. Some observations upon the middle western speech. DN 5:391-96. 1926. 686. Carlisle, Rose J. A southwestern dictionary. M.A. thesis, University of New Mexico, 1939. 398p. 687. Chapin, Florence A. Spanish words that have become

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Westernisms. Editor 46:121. July 25, 1917. 688. Davidson, Levette J . Vocabulary of a Westerner. Southwest review 24:62-74. Oct. 1938. 689. Davis, Alva L. A word atlas of the Great Lakes region. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1949. " T h e study is limited to the folk terms for 100 concepts in the speech of older people with common school education. Seventy-eight communities are represented. They form essentially a record of rural speech." ( M i c r o f i l m abstracts 9:1:128) 690. Hale, Edward E. Geographical terms in the Far West. DN 6:217-34. 1932. 691. Harvey, Bartle T . A word-list from the Northwest. DN 4:26-28, 162-64. 1913-1914. 692. Hyacinth, Socrates. South-western slang. Overland monthly 3:125-31. Aug. 1869. Also in M. M. Mathews, ed., The beginnings of American English, p. 151—62. 693. Kimmerle, Marjorie M., and others. Problems of linguistic geography in the Rocky Mountain area. Western humanities review 5:249-64. Summer 1951. 694. Lehman, Benjamin H. A word list from northwestern United States. DN 5:22-29. 1918. 695. . Additional words from the Northwest. DN 5:181. 1922. 696. Lindsay, Dorothy N. Language of the saints. AS 8: 30-33. Apr. 1933. 696a. McLean, John. Western Americanisms. (In his Indians: their manners and customs. Toronto, Briggs, 1889. p.197-201) 697. Marckwardt, Albert H. T h e survey of folk speech in the Great Lakes Area and Ohio River Valley.

98

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Studies in linguistics 1:2-3. Apr. 1943. 698. Mullen, Kate. Westernisms. AS 1:149-53. Dec. 1925. 699. Pardoe, T. Earle. Some studies of Rocky Mountain dialects. Quarterly journal of speech 21:348-55. June 1935. 700. Pearce, Thomas M. T h e English language in the Southwest. New Mexico historical review 7:210-32. July 1932. 701 . The Southwestern word box. New Mexico quarterly 2:263-68, Aug. 1932; 2:340-44, Nov. 1932. 702. Reeves, Henry. T h e western states. Lippincott's magazine 3:318-21. Mar. 1869. 703. Woodbridge, Hensley C. Handful of western Americanisms. AS 33:140-42. May 1958. NEGRO

704. Banks, Ruth. Idioms of the present-day American Negro. AS 13:313-14. Dec. 1938. 705. Beckham, A. S. Characteristics and decline of Negro dialects. M.A. thesis, Ohio State University, 1917. 28p. 706. Brewer, J. Mason. Old-time Negro proverbs. (In Boatright, Mody C., and others, eds. Texas folk and folklore. Dallas, Southern Methodist University Press, 1954. p.219-23) 707. Cunard, Nancy. Some Negro slang. (In her Negro anthology. London, Wishart and Co., 1934. p.75-78) 708. Eggleston, Edward. T h e dialect of the Negro. Unpublished manuscript at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

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709. Farrison, William E. T h e phonology of the illiterate Negro dialect of Guilford County, N.C. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1937. 710. Gillespie, Elizabeth. T h e dialect of the Mississippi Negro in literature. M.A. thesis, University of Mississippi, 1939. 162p. 711. Harrison, James A. Negro English. Anglia 7:232-79. 1884. 712. Herriford, Merle. Slang among Nebraska Negroes. AS 13:316-17. Dec. 1938. 713. Hucks, J . Jenkins. Plantation Negro sayings on the coast of South Carolina in their own vernacular. Georgetown, S.C., Charles W . Rouse, 1899. p.? Listed in Charles Haywood, Bibliography of North American folklore and. folksong, p.442. 714. Johnson, James W. [Negro speech], (In T h e book of American Negro spirituals, edited by James W . Johnson. N.Y., Viking, 1931. p.42-46) 715. Kane, Elisha K. T h e Negro dialects along the Savannah River. DN 8:354-67. 1925. 716. Krapp, George. English of the Negro. American mercury 2:190-95. J u n e 1924. 717. McDavid, Raven I. and McDavid, Virginia G. Relationship of the speech of American Negroes to the speech of Whites. AS 26:3-17. Feb. 1951. 718. McDowell, Tremaine. Notes on Negro dialect in the American novel to 1821. AS 5:291-96. Apr. 1930. 719. Martin, S. Rudolph, J r . Four undescribed verb forms in American Negro English. AS 35:238-39. Oct. 1960. 720. Meredith, Mamie. Negro patois and its humor. AS 6; 317-21. June 1931.

100

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721. Pardoe, T . Earl. An historical and phonetic study of the Negro dialect. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1937. 722. Read, Allen W. The speech of Negroes in colonial America. Journal of Negro history 24:247-58. July 1939. 723. Scarborough, William S. Negro folklore and dialect. Arena 17:186-92. Jan. 1897. 724. Seidelman, Morton. Survivals in Negro vocabulary. AS 12:231-32. Oct. 1937. 725. Stanley, Orna. Negro speech of East Texas. AS 16: 3-16. Feb. 1941. 726. Thom, William T . Some parallelisms between Shakespeare's English and the Negro — English of the U.S. Shakespeariana 1:129-35. Mar. 1884. 727. Van Patten, Nathan. The vocabulary of the American Negro as set forth in contemporary literature. AS 7:24-31. Oct. 1931. 728. Walker, Saunders E. A dictionary of the folk speech of the East Alabama Negro. Ph.D. dissertation, Western Reserve University, 1956. " T h e purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to describe the procedures employed in collecting the words and expressions Negroes living in the twelve counties that form the eastern boundary of Alabama use in daily conversation, and (2) to compile the collected items into a dictionary that indicates the frequency of usage county by county." (Western Reserve University, Bibliography of publications and abstracts of dissertations, 1956-58, p.403) 728a. Walser, Richard. Negro dialect in eighteenth century drama. AS 30:269-76. Dec. 1955.

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729. Williamson, Juanita V. A phonological and morphological study of the speech of the Negro of Memphis, Tennessee. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan, 1961. 139p. " T h e study is limited to a description of the segmental phonemes, their occurrence in the speech of both the educated and of those who have had little or no formal education and to certain features of the morphology." (Dissertation abstracts 21:3777-78. June 1961) 730. Wise, Claude M. Negro dialect. Quarterly journal of speech 19:522-28. Nov. 1933. 731 . Substandard southern Negro speech. (In his Applied phonetics. Englewood, N.J., PrenticeHall, 1957. p.293-302) INDIVIDUAL STATES

ALABAMA

732. Brooks, Cleanth. T h e relation of the AlabamaGeorgia dialect to the provincial dialects of Great Britain. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University, 1935. 91 p. (Louisiana State University Studies, no.20) "He has set out the phonology of the dialects with the aid of phonetic symbols, using particularly the work on Negro speech of the author of Uncle Remus as compared with the recent findings of L. W. Payne in his A word-list from East Alabama." (Year's work in English studies, 1935, p.62) Mr. Brooks was an assistant professor of

102

733.

734.

735.

736.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

English at Louisiana State University when he wrote this study. He is now a professor at Yale and a distinguished literary critic. Dennis, Leah A. A word-list from Alabama and some other southern states. PADS no.2:6-16. Nov. 1944. McMillan, James B. Phonology of the standard English of east central Alabama. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1946. Payne, Leonidas W., Jr. A word list from east Alabama. Austin. 1909. 391 p. (University of Texas bulletin, no. 123. Reprint series, no.8) Reprint from DN 3:279-328, 343-91. 1908-09. Tinkler, Mary C. Newspaper English of Marshall County, Alabama. Southern folklore quarterly 21:154-59. Sept. 1957. ARKANSAS

737. Carr, Joseph W. A list of words from northwest Arkansas. DN 2:416-22, 1904; 3:68-103; 124-65; 205-38; 392-406; 407-18. 1905-09. 738. Skillman, Billy G. Phonological and lexical features of the speech of the first generation native-born inhabitants of Cleburne County, Arkansas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Denver, 1953. 232p. 739. Warner, James H. Word-list from southeast Arkansas. AS 13:3-7. Feb. 1938. CALIFORNIA

740. Adams, Owen S. Proverbial comparisons from California. California folklore quarterly 5:334-38.

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1946. 741. Grant, Rena V. T h e localized vocabulary of California verse. California folklore quarterly 1: 253-90. July 1942. 742. Hamilton, Marian. California gold rush English. AS 7:423-33. Aug. 1932. 743. Hills, E. C. Irradiation of certain suffixes. American speech 1:38-39. Oct. 1925. 744 . New words in California. Modern language notes 38:187-88. Mar. 1923. 745. Lehman, B. H. A word-list from California DN 5:109-14. 1921. 746. Mencken, Henry L. California. (In his T h e American language. Supplement 2. N.Y., Knopf, 1948. p. 133-34) 747. Owen, Douglas, and others. Californian English. Notes and queries, series 10, 6:381-82. Nov. 17, 1906. 748. Reed, David W. Eastern dialect words in California. PADS no.21:3-15. 1954. 749. Shulman, David. Some Californian contributions to the American vocabulary. AS 24:264-67. Dec. 1949. 750. Taylor, Archer. Proverbial comparisons and similes from California. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1954. 97p. (University of California publications. Folklore studies, no.3) 751. Taylor, James W. A glossary of colloquial words and phrases used in California from 1848-1855. M.A. thesis, Stanford University, 1932. 752. Watkins, Sheila M. and Mulhall, James E. Some California words. AS 26:224-25. Oct. 1951.

104

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY COLORADO

753. Hankey, Clyde T . A Colorado word geography. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1960. 154p. 753a. Semantic features and eastern relics in Colorado dialect. AS 36:26&-70. Dec. 1961. 753b. Jackson, Elizabeth H. An analysis of certain Colorado atlas field records with regard to settlement history and other factors. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 1956. "This study is an over-all description of the linguistic geography of Colorado. T h e source of data is the field records collected for the Linguistic atlas of Colorado. Attention here is focused chiefly upon the distribution of vocabulary and grammatical features that are important either because they are limited in their spread throughout the state or because they have appeared significant to American dialects in the East and Midwest." (Dissertation abstracts 21:339. Aug. 1960) Published also in part in PADS 34:1-82. Nov. 1960 754. Kimmerle, Marjorie. Influence of locale and human activity on some words in Colorado. AS 25:161-67. Oct. 1950. 755. and Gibby, Patricia M. A word-list from Colorado. PADS no.l 1:16-27. Apr. 1949. 756. Swinburne, Louis. T h e bucolic dialect of the plains. Scribner's magazine 1:505-12. Oct. 1887. CONNECTICUT

757. Babbitt, Ε. H. List of verbs from western Connecti-

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105

cut. DN 1:276-78. 1893. T h e dialect of western Connecticut. DN 1: 338-43. 1893. 759. Fuller, M. Cordelia. Word list from Danbury, Conn. DN 6:283-84. 1932. 760. Mead, William E. and Chase, George D. A central Connecticut word list. DN 3:1-24. 1905. 758 .

DELAWARE

761. Greet, W. C. Delmarva speech. AS 8:56-63. Dec. 1933. DISTRICT OF

COLUMBIA

762. Putnam, George N. and O'Hern, Edna M. T h e status significance of an isolated urban dialect. Baltimore, Linguistic Society of America at the Waverly Press, 1955. 32p. Catholic University of America dissertation. This is a Supplement to Language, v.31, no.4, pt.2, Oct.-Dec. 1955. FLORIDA

763. Allen, F. S. Florida [word-list, chiefly from St. Petersburg] DN 4:344-45. 1916. 764. Ayers, Lucille, and others. Expressions from rural Florida. PADS no,14:74-80. Nov. 1950. 765. Friedman, Lillian. Minorcan dialect words in St. Augustine, Fla. PADS ηο.14:81. Nov. 1950. 766. Hicks, Joseph L. Florida and Tennessee. AS 15: 215-16. Apr. 1940. 767. McMullen, Edwin W., Jr. English topographic terms in Florida 1563-1874. Gainesville, University of

106

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Florida Press, 1953. 227p. Based on his Ph.D. dissertation completed at Columbia University in 1950. " T h e results of this research are recorded in two parts: namely, an introduction and a glossary. T h e latter comprises the definition and illustration of each term, while the former purports to answer the following questions: What portion of the Floridian topographical vocabulary has been borrowed from the Indian, French, or Spanish inhabitants of the state? What British dialectal forms have been preserved in the topographic literature of the area? What topographic terms now obsolete in British speech were in use in Florida prior to 1875? What changes in meaning occurred in the transplanting of such words from England? Which terms included in this study can be classified as Americanisms, Southernisms, or Floridian localisms? How were the new terms formed? Finally, what significant facts come to light when Floridian topographic terms are analyzed on the basis of related features?" (Introduction, p. 1-2) 768. Reid, Thomas R., Jr. A philologist's paradise. Opportunity (a journal of Negro life) 4:21-23. Jan. 1926. 769. Thompson, Marion. A study of yeoman speech of Leon County, Florida, and near-by areas: a contribution to a dialect dictionary. M.A. thesis, Florida State University, 1951. 134p. GEORGIA

770. Coleman,

Wilma.

Mountain

dialect

in

North

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107

Georgia. Master's thesis, University of Georgia, 1936. 771. Sherwood, (Rev.) Adiel. Provincialisms. (In his Gazetteer of the State of Georgia. 3d ed. Washington, P. Force, 1837. p.79-82) Also in Mathews, Mitford M. "Sherwood's provincialisms". DN 5:416-20. 1927. IDAHO

772. Jensen, Paul. Desert rats' word-list from eastern Idaho. AS 7:119-23. Dec. 1931. ILLINOIS

773. Allison, Lelah. Folk speech from southeastern Illinois. Hoosier folklore 5:93-102. Sept. 1946. 774. Harris, Jesse W. Dialect of Appalachia in southern Illinois. AS 21:96-99. Apr. 1946. 775. Peck, John Mason. [Glossary of Americanisms] (In his Emigrant's guide and gazetteer of the State of Illinois. Publisher ? 1834) For information about this glossary, see Davis, Elrick B. "John Mason Peck and the American Language". AS 2:20-33. Oct. 1926. Mr. Peck was a Baptist minister and prolific writer in Illinois. 776. Penzl, Herbert. A Pennsylvania German Sprachinsel near Arthur, Illinois, 's Pennsylfawnisch deitsch Eck. Mar. 12, 1938. 777 . The Pennsylvania German dialect in Sterling, Illinois, 's Pennsylfawnisch deitsch Eck. Apr. 10, 1937. 778. Rice, William D. T h e pioneer dialect of southern

108

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Illinois. DN 2:225-49. 1902. 779. Shoemaker, A. L. Studies on the Pennsylvania German dialect of the Amish community in Arthur, Illinois. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1940. 780. Smith, Grace P. Heard in the Illinois Ozarks. AS 26: 74-75. Feb. 1951. 780a. Speech currents in Egypt (southern Illinois) AS 17:169-73. Oct. 1942. INDIANA

781. Bloom, Margaret. Eggleston's notes on Hoosier dialect. AS 9:319-20. Dec. 1934. 782. Bond, Richmond P. Animal comparisons in Indiana. AS 2:42-58. Oct. 1926. 783. Brewster, Paul G. Folk Sayings from Indiana. AS 14:261-68. Dec. 1939. 784 . More Indiana sayings. AS 16:21-25, Feb. 1941; 17:130, Apr. 1942. 785 . Still another batch of Indiana sayings. AS 19:155-56. Apr. 1944. 786 . Words, phrases, and sayings in PADS 6 current in Indiana. PADS no.8:13-16. Nov. 1947. 787. Brown, Rollo W. A word-list of western Indiana. DN 3:570-93. 1912. 788. Eggleston, Edward. T h e Hoosiers and the Hoosier language. Unpublished manuscript at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 789. Gibbens, V. E. Notes on Indiana speech. AS 19: 204-06. Oct. 1944. 789a. Progress reporton word geography of Indiana. Midwest folklore 11:151-54. Fall 1961.

109

DIALECTS

790. Green, Marjory T . Proverbs from Greene County, Indiana. Hoosier folklore bulletin 4:1-10. Mar. 1945. 791. Hanley, O. W. Dialect words from southern Indiana. DN 3:113-23. 1906. 792. McAtee, Waldo L. Rural dialect of Grant County, Indiana, in the nineties. Privately printed, 1942. 81p. ". . . his account of the language of his native village in his boyhood is one of the most searching and valuable reports on an American dialect ever made. It gives not only an extensive vocabulary, but also conspectus of the local pronunciation and some account of grammatical vagaries." ( H . L. M e n c k e n , The

793 .

794 . 795 . 796 . 797.

798.

American

language,

Sup-

plement 2, p. 143-44) Comments on Mrs. Nixon's list (PADS 5) and Dr. Woodard's list (PADS 6) PADS no.8: 17. Nov. 1947. Additional dialect of Grant County, Indiana. Privately printed, 1943. 15p. Grant County, Indiana; speech and song. [Chicago, Privately printed, 1946] 26p. Gleanings from the dialect of Grant County, Indiana. PADS ηο.15:51-64. 1951. Marckwardt, Albert H. Folk speech in Indiana and adjacent states. Indiana history bulletin 17:120-40. Feb. 1940. Nicholson, Meredith. T h e rural type and dialect. (In his The Hoosiers. N.Y., Macmillan, 1900. p.29-62)

110

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY IOWA

799. Bender, Ruth. A study of the Pennsylvania German dialect as spoken in Johnson County, Iowa. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1929. 78p. 800. Buxbaum, Katherine. Some Iowa locutions. AS 4: 302-04. Apr. 1929. 801. Mott, Frank L. A word-list from pioneer Iowa and an inquiry into Iowa dialect origins. Philological quarterly 1:202-21. July 1922. 802 . An additional word-list from pioneer Iowa. Philological quarterly 1:304-10. Oct. 1922. 803. Palmer, Francis W. Iowa words in a word-list from Virginia and North Carolina (PADS 6) . PADS no.8:18-21. Nov. 1947. 804. Rush, Laura B. A lexical survey of twelve selected terms in Iowa. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1951. KANSAS

805. Bell, Elizabeth. Study of Kansas vocabulary. Master's thesis, University of Kansas, 1929. 806. Carruth, William H. Dialect word-list. Kansas University quarterly 1:95-100. Oct. 1892. 807 . Dialect word-list no.2. Kansas University quarterly 1:137-42. Jan. 1893. 808 . Dialect word-list no.3. Kansas University quarterly 6: Series B: 51-58. Jan. 1897. 809. and Wilkinson, Paul. Dialect word-list no.3. Kansas University quarterly 6: Series B: 85-93. Apr. 1897. 810 . Foreign settlements in Kansas: a contribu-

DIALECTS

811.

812. 813. 814.

111

tion to dialect study in the state. Kansas University quarterly 1:71-84. Oct. 1892. Crawford, Nelson A. A note on the Kansas language. (In his We liberals. N.Y., R. R. Smith, 1936. p.76-84) M.J.M. Kansas speech. AS 17:281. Dec. 1942. Randolph, Vance Wet words in Kansas. AS 4:385-89. June 1929. Ruppenthal, J . C. A word-list from Kansas. DN 4: 319-31. 1916. KENTUCKY

815. Broaddus, James W. The folk vocabulary of Estill County, Kentucky. M.A. thesis, University of Kentucky, 1957. 89 1. 816. Cleaves, Mildred P. King's English reigns in the Kentucky knobs. Kentucky 10:35. 1946. Listed in Hensley C. Woodbridge, Tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech, p.20. 817. Combs, Josiah H. Early English slang survivals in the mountains of Kentucky. DN 5:115-17. 1921. 818 . Kentucky items. DN 5:118-19. 1921. 819 . Addenda from Kentucky. DN 5:242-43. 1923. 820. Combs, Mona R . Archaic English words used in northeastern Kentucky. A paper prepared for Ed. 570 at Morehead State College. Morehead, Kentucky. 1958. 59 1. (mimeo) Listed in Hensley C. Woodbridge, Tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech, p.24. 821. Dalton, Alford P. Elizabethan left-overs in Allen County. M.A. thesis, Western Kentucky State

112

822 .

823. 824. 825.

826.

827.

828. 829 . 830.

831 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

College. 1936. 52 1. Listed in Hensley C. Woodbridge, Tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech, p.20. Elizabethan left-overs in Allen County. Kentucky Folklore Society bulletin. Jan. 1938. p. 13-16. A word-list from southern Kentucky. PADS no,13:22-23. Apr. 1950. Dudley, Fred A. 'Swarp' and some other Kentucky words. AS 21:270-73. Dec. 1946. Edmiston, William C. T h e speech of the hill people of Todd County, Kentucky. Kentucky folklore and poetry magazine 5:3-9. Oct. 1930. A study of provincialisms from northern Todd County, Kentucky. M.A. thesis, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1929. According to Hensley C. Woodbridge, Tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech, p.25, no copy can be located. Forrester, Christine D. A word geography of Kentucky. M.A. thesis, University of Kentucky, 1952. 105 1. Listed in Hensley C. Woodbridge, Tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech, p.25. Fruit, John P. Kentucky words and phrases. DN 1: 63-69. 1890. Kentucky words. DN 1:229-34. 1892. Halpert, Herbert. Language of the Pine Mountain area. Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School 2:1-2. 1924. Listed in Hensley C. Woodbridge, Tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech, p.25. A pattern of proverbial exaggeration from

DIALECTS

832 .

833. 834.

835. 836. 837. 838.

839.

840.

841.

113

west Kentucky. Midwest folklore 1:41-47. Apr. 1951. Some wellerisms from Kentucky and Tennessee. Journal of American folk-lore 69:115-22. 1956. Hench, Atcheson L. Kentucky pioneers. AS 12: 75-76. Feb.1937. Howren, Robert R., Jr. T h e speech of Louisville, Kentucky. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1958. 187p. The lexicon of Louisville speech is composed approximately of one part southern words, three parts northern words, and five parts midland words. T h e study describes the lexicon and phonology of the dialect of fifteen selected native white and negro residents of Louisville, Ky. Lloyd, John U. T h e language of the Kentucky negro. DN 2:179-84. 1901. Matthias, Virginia P. Folk speech of Pine Mountain, Kentucky. AS 21:188-92. Oct. 1946. Owens, Bess A. Folk speech of the Cumberlands. AS 7:89-95. Dec. 1931. Petit, Herbert H. Terms in a word-list from Virginia and North Carolina (PADS 6) common in the blue grass region of Kentucky. PADS no.8:21-23. Nov. 1947. Roberts, Leonard. Additional exaggerations from east Kentucky. Midwest folklore 2:163-66. Fall 1952. Sanders, Martha D. Proverbial exaggerations from Paducah, Kentucky. Midwest folklore 1:191-92. Fall 1951. Shearin, Hubert G. An eastern Kentucky dialect

114

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

word list. DN 3:537-40. 1911. 842. [Specimens of Kentucky slang], Atkinson's casket 8:335. July 1833. 843. T h e speech of our fathers. Kentucky folklore and poetry magazine 2:6-7. July 1927. 844. Weeks, Abigail E. T h e speech of the Kentucky mountaineer as I know it. M.A. in Ed., Teachers College, Columbia University, 1921. 845 . A word list from Barbourville, Kentucky. DN 3:456-57. 1910. 846. Williams, Cratis D. A word-list from the mountains of Kentucky and North Carolina. PADS no.2: 28-31. 1944. 847. Wilson, Gordon. Down our way: tell us what it's like. Kentucky folklore record 2:1-3. Jan.-Mar. 1956. 848. Woodbridge, Hensley C. Tentative biblography of Kentucky speech. PADS no.30:17-36. Nov. 1958. In a revised form this biblography will appear in a bibliography of Kentucky folklore which the author and D. K. Wilgus are preparing. Contains entries for general studies, phonetics, syntax, word lists, glossaries, personal and place names, riddles, proverbs, similes, wellerisms, samples of Kentucky dialect, and linguistic studies on individual works and authors. Many descriptive annotations. Mr. Woodbridge is librarian at Murray State College, Murray, Ky. 849. Woodson, Anthony. Kentucky similes. Kentucky Folklore Society bulletin, 1925, p.8-11.

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115

LOUISIANA

849a. Babington, Mima and Atwood, E. Bagby. Lexical usage in southern Louisiana. PADS no.36:l-24. Nov. 1961. 850. Barnhill, Viron L. A linguistic atlas type investigation in western Louisiana. M.A. thesis, Tulane University, 1950. 851. Broussard, James F. Louisiana Creole dialect. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University, 1942. 134p. 852. Cohen, Hennig. Terminology of Mardi Gras. AS 26: 110-15. May 1951. 853. Fenn, Johnnye A. T h e speech of Haynesville, Louisiana, at three age levels. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1942. 854. Fisher, Hilda B. A study of the speech at Jackson, Louisiana, at three age levels. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1938. 232p. 855. Fluke, Dorotha L. A study of the speech of Dutchtown, Louisiana, using three age levels. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1938. 137p. 855a. Folk, Lucille P. A word atlas of North Louisiana. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1961. 856. George, Albert D. Some Louisiana isoglosses, based on the work of the Louisiana dialect atlas. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1951. 857. George, Donald. Graduate study and research in linguistic geography: some Louisiana isoglosses. Southern speech journal 18:87-95. Dec. 1952. 858. Hunt, Elise. A study of the speech of a Haynesville, Louisiana, family. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1938. 189p.

116

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

859. Hughes, Herbert L. Older English in Louisiana. AS 11:368. Dec. 1936. 860 . A word-list from Louisiana. PADS no. 15: 69-71. Apr. 1951. 861. Ingledue, Harriett. A study of the speech of three generations of three different families in Monroe, Louisiana. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1938. 862. Kriger, Albert. A study of the speech of Clinton, Louisiana, at three age levels. M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1942. 156p. 863. La Fargue, André. Louisiana linguistic and folklore backgrounds. Louisiana historical quarterly 24: 744-55. July 1941. 864. Lumeansky, R. M. New Orleans slang in the 1880's. AS 25:28-40. Feb. 1950. 865. Pearce, J. W. Notes from Louisiana. DN 1:69-72. 1890. 866. Riedel, E. New Orleans word-list. DN 4:268-70. 1916. 867. Rontt, James. Louisiana gleanings. DN 5:243-44. 1923. " T h e name of the author of this article is given as Rontt at the head of it and as Rouse on the cover of Dialect notes, but he seems to be identical with . . . James Routh . . ." (H. L. Mencken, The American language, Supplement 1, p.320) 868. Routh, James. Louisiana [word-list] DN 4:346-47. 1916. 869 . Terms from Louisiana. DN 4:420-31. 1917. 870. Tinker, Edward L. Gombo, the Creole dialect of Louisiana. American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings 45 (pt.l) : 101-42. Apr. 1935.

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117

Contains a bibliography on the subject, p.31-46. Louisiana gombo. Yale review 21:566-79. Spring 1932. 872. Wise, Claude M. The dialect atlas of Louisiana: a report of progress. Studies in linguistics 3:37-42. June 1945. 873 . Louisiana speech under many flags. Southern speech journal 4:8-13. Mar. 1939. 874 . Specimen of Louisiana French-English; or Cajun dialect in phonetic transcription. AS 8: 63-64. Oct. 1933. 871. -

MAINE

875. Carr, Joseph W. and Chase, George D. A word-list from Aroostook. DN 3:407-18. 1909. 876 . A word-list from eastern Maine. DN 3: 239-51. 1907. 877. Chase, George D., and others. Lists from Maine. DN 4:1-6, 149, 151-53, 239. 1913-14. 878. England, George A. Rural locutions of Maine and northern New Hampshire. DN 4:67-83. 1914. 879. Greet, William C. Record from Lubec, Maine, and remarks on the coastal type. AS 6:397-403. Aug. 1931. 880. Maxfield,. Ezra K. Maine dialect. AS 2:76-83. Nov. 1926. 881. . Maine list. DN 5:385-90. 1926. 882. Perkins, Anne E. More notes on Maine dialect. AS 5:118-31. Dec. 1929. 883 . Vanishing expressions of the Maine coast. AS 3:134-41. Dec. 1927. 884. Vanishing expressions of the New England

118

885. 886. 887.

888 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

coast. (In Abbatt, William. Colloquial who's who. Tarrytown, 1924. vol. 1, p.101-07) Shapleigh, F. E. [Word-list from Maine]. DN 4: 54-55. 1913. White, Ε. B. One man's meat: Maine language. Harper 182:107-08. Dec. 1940. Whiting, B. J. Words from a Glossary of Virginia words (by Phyllis J . Nixon) current in Maine. PADS no.6:44-46. 1946. Word list from Morrill, Maine. AS 23: 111-16. Apr. 1948. MARYLAND

889. Boucher, (Rev.) Jonathan. Absence, a Pastoral: drawn from the life, from the manners, customs and phraseology of planters (or, to speak more pastorally of the rural swains) inhabiting the banks of the Potomac, in Maryland. (In his Glossary of archaic and provincial words . . . London, Black, Young, and Young, 1832. pt.l, p.xlix-1) . . written solely with the view of introducing as many of such words and idioms of speech, then prevalent and common in Maryland, as I conceived to be dialectal, and peculiar to those parts of America. It is marred by certain pastoral conventions . . . but nevertheless it is important for its lexical evidence, antedating as it does Witherspoon's Druid papers by at least six years." (Allen W. Read in DN 6:353. 1933) 890. Eshleman, Cyrus H. T h e Pennsylvania German dialect in Maryland, 's Pennsylfawnisch deitsch Eck. Feb. 26, 1938.

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119

891. Kuethe, J. L. Words from Maryland. AS 15:451-52. Dec. 1940. 892. Read, Allen W. Boucher's linguistic pastoral of colonial Maryland. DN 6:353-60. 1933. Contains the words of the poem "Absence, a pastoral . . ." with Boucher's explanatory notes. 893. Warnick, Florence. Dialect of Garrett County, Maryland. Privately printed, 1942. 16p. Copy in New York Public Library. 894. Zimmermann, Η. E. Maryland [word-list] DN 4:343. 1916. MASSACHUSETTS

895. Adams, W. P. Nantucket [word-list] DN 4:156-57. 1914. 896. Alexander, Henry. T h e language of the Salem witchcraft trials. AS 3:390-400. June 1928. 897. Chase, George D. Cape Cod dialect. DN 2:289-303, 1903; 2.422-29, 1904; 3:419-22, 1909. 898. Denham, Edward. Expressions, chiefly of whalers, noted at New Bedford, Mass. DN 4:240-42. 1915. 899. Ernst, C. W. Words coined in Boston. Bostonian Society. Proceedings, 1897, p.19-27; 1900, p.39-47. 900 . Words coined in Boston. Writer 12:145-47. Oct. 1899. 901. McCormick, S. D. Survivals in American educated speech: Bostonisms. Bookman 12:243-46. Nov. 1900. 902. Macy, William F. More old Nantucket sayings. Nantucket Historical Association. Proceedings, 1935, p.27-29. 903. and Hussey, Roland B. Expressions and

120

904. 905. 906.

907 . 908.

909.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

idioms. (In their T h e Nantucket scrap basket. 2d ed. Boston, Houghton, 1930. p.l 19-63 Read, Allen Walker. Nantucketisms of 1848. AS 10: 38-^2. Feb. 1935. Rees, Byron J. Word-list—Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, Mass., 1917. DN 5:15-17. 1918. Smith, Herbert W. Addenda to the Cape Cod lists from Provincetown and Brewster, Mass. DN 4:5558, 155-56. 1913-14. Notes from Cape Cod. DN 4:263-67. 1916. Stevens, William O. Old Nantucket idioms and customs. (In his Nantucket, the faraway island. N.Y., Dodd, Mead, 1936. p. 135-37) Thurston, Helen S. Sayings and proverbs from Massachusetts. Journal of American folk-lore 19:122. Apr.-J une 1906. MINNESOTA

910. Davis, LeRoy G. Some frontier words and phrases. Minnesota history 19:241^6. Sept. 1938. 911. Klaeber (Father). A word-list from Minnesota. DN 4:9-12. 1913. 912. Randel, William. Minnesota localisms. AS 20:15354. Apr. 1945. MISSISSIPPI

913. Shands, H. A. Some peculiarities of speech in Mississippi. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Mississippi, 1893. 77p. 914. Weilenman, W. E. Southern plantation terms. AS 25:230. Oct. 1950.

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121

MISSOURI

915. Arnold, Charles. T h e Missouri Ozarks as a field for regionalism. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1925. Contains a brief discussion of the Ozark dialect on p. 130-40. 916. Barker, Catherine S. [Ozark dialect] (In her Yesterday today; life in the Ozarks. Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton Printers, 1941. p. 126-32) 917. Bess, Charles E. Podunk in southeast Missouri. AS 10:80. Feb. 1935. 918. Bey, Constance, and others. A word-list from Missouri. PADS no.2: 53-62. 1944. 919. Crumb, D. S. T h e dialect of southeastern Missouri. DN 2:304-37. 1903. 920. Dale, Edward E. T h e speech of the pioneers. Arkansas historical quarterly 6:117-31. Summer 1947. 921. Dorrance, Ward A. Senator's revenge. (In his We're from Missouri. Richmond, Missouri, Missourian Press, 1938. p.31-35) 922. Faries, Rachel B. A survey of the vocabulary of seven northeast central Missouri counties. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1954. 174p. 923. Hoskins, Jewel M. A survey of the vocabulary of seven eastern Missouri valley counties. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1954. 181p. 924. Lyon, Marguerite. Lick your calf over. (In her Fresh from the hills. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill [cl945] p.131-37) "A discussion of the Ozark speech, with amusing comments on twenty local words and expressions."

122

925. 926.

927. 928 .

929 . 930 . 931 . 932 . 933 . 934 . 935 . 936 . 937 . 938 . 939.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Vance Randolph and George P. Wilson, Down in the holler, p.307 Morris, Robert L. More Ozark speech. AS 23:304-05. Oct. 1948. Nelson, Joseph. Backwoods teacher. Phila., Lippincott [1949] 288p. Comments on Ozark speech on several pages. Randolph, Vance. T h e grammar of the Ozark dialect. AS 3:1-11. Oct. 1927. T h e Ozark dialect. (In his T h e Ozarks: an American survival of primitive society. N.Y., Vanguard Press [cl931] p.67-86, T h e Ozark dialect in fiction. AS 2:283-89. Mar. 1927. Is there an Ozark dialect? AS 4:203-04. Feb. 1929. Literary words in the Ozarks. AS 4:56-57. Oct. 1928. Possible source of some Ozark neologisms. AS 4:116-17. Dec. 1928. Verbal modesty in the Ozarks. DN 6:57-64. 1928. A word-list from the Ozarks. DN 5:397-405. 1926. More words from the Ozarks. DN 5:472-79. 1927. A third Ozark word-list. AS 5:16-21. Oct. 1929. A fourth Ozark word-list. AS 8:47-53. Feb. 1933. and Clemens, Nancy. A fifth Ozark wordlist. AS 11:314-18. Dec. 1936. and Wilson, George P. Down in the holler;

DIALECTS

123

a gallery of Ozark folk speech. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [cl953] 320p. " T h e present work began with a series of fifteen articles which I contributed to Dialect Notes and American Speech during the period of 1926-36. Several papers . . . were written with the help of Miss Anna A. Ingleman, Miss Patti Sankee, and Miss Nancy Clemens. Some of the same material was printed in my book The Ozarks published by the Vanguard Press in 1931. Since 1936 I have made many radical changes, corrected many errors of my own, and added a lot of hitherto unpublished data. Except for some historical references in Chapter 4, I have tried to confine myself to a descriptive study of the Ozark speech. My purpose is to write down what I heard the Ozark hillman say, how he said it, and what he meant by it." (Preface) Chapter 9, p.222-301, contains an Ozark word list. An excellent annotated bibliography and index complete the book. 940. Rayburn, Otto E. [Ozark dialect] (In his Ozark country. N.Y., Duell, Sloan and Pearce [cl941] p. 10,16,43-44,49) 941. Read, Allen W. Attitudes toward Missouri speech. Missouri historical review 29:259-71. July 1935. 942 . T h e strategic position of Missouri in dialect study. Missouri alumnus, Apr. 1932, p.231-32. Cited by H. L. Mencken, The American language, Supplement 2, p. 172. 943. Rosa, Bess N. Terms and sayings in Dr. Woodard's list (PADS 6) current in Missouri. PADS no.8: 26-30. Nov. 1947. 944. Sanders, Gordon R . A survey of the vocabulary of

124

945.

946. 947. 948. 949. 950.

951 .

952.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

seven northeast Missouri counties. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1957. 153p. Shull, Bettie Bronson. A survey of the vocabulary of eight western Missouri valley counties. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1953. 143p. Strainchamps, Ethel R. Ozarker's reaction to formal language. AS 23:262-65. Oct. 1948. Taylor, Jay L. B. Snake County talk. DN 5:197-225. 1923. Tozer, G. The Ozark Dialect. Master's thesis, University of Kansas, 1932. Weeks, R. L. Notes from Missouri. DN 1:235-42. 1892. Wilson, Charles M. Beefsteak when I'm hungry; mountain dialect. Virginia quarterly review 6: 240-50. Apr. 1930. Backwoods language. (In his Backwoods America. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press [cl935] p.61-71) Wilt, Napier. Ozark words again. AS 12:234-35 Oct. 1937. MONTANA

953. Glossary of common speech in Montana. Frontier and midland 18:246-48. 1938. Listed in W. J . Burke, The literature of slang, p. 140. 954. Hayden, Marie G. A word-list from Montana. DN 4:243-45. 1915.

DIALECTS

125

NEBRASKA

955. Burwell, M. A. Expressions from Boyd County, Nebraska. AS 6:230-31. Feb. 1931. 956. Grill, Erma V. More Nebraska sandhill talk. AS 8:80. Feb. 1933. 957. Odell, Ruth. Nebraska smart sayings. Southern folklore quarterly 12:185-95. Sept. 1948. 958. Pound, Louise. Dialect speech in Nebraska. DN 3:55-67, 1905; 3:541-49, 1911; 4:271-82, 1916. 959. Prescott, Russell T . Middlewestern farm English. AS 12:102-07. Apr. 1937. 960. Van den Bark, Melvin. Nebraska cow talk. AS 5: 52-76, Oct. 1929. 961 . Nebraska pioneer English. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1930. 94p. 962 . Nebraska pioneer English. AS 6:237-52, Apr. 1931; 7 : 1 - 1 7 , Oct. 1931; 7:161-71, Feb. 1932. 963 . Nebraska sandhill talk. AS 4:125-33. Dec. 1928. NEW

HAMPSHIRE

964. Allan, Philip F. A sample of New Hampshire dialect. PADS 15: 65-68. Apr. 1951. 965. Carr, Joseph W. A word-list from Hampstead, S. E. New Hampshire. DN 3:179-204. 1907. 966. England, George A. Items from South Weare, New Hampshire. DN 5:295. 1924. 967. Greenough, C. N. Terms from S.E. New Hampshire. DN 4:54. 1913. 968. Russell, Jason A. Colloquial expressions from Hills-

126

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

borough County, New Hampshire. AS 5:418-20. June 1930. 969. Wiener, Leo. New Hampshire word-list. DN 4: 153-55. 1914. NEW

JERSEY

970. Lee, Francis B. Jerseyisms . . . shall they be preserved? Trenton, N.J., 1889. (A circular) Not seen. 971 . and others. Jerseyisms. DN 1:327-37. 1893. 972. and Skillman, W. J . Jerseyisms—additions and corrections. DN 1:382-83. 1894. 973. Reeves, Henry. New Jersey. Lippincott's magazine 3:313-14. Mar. 1869. 974. Shetter, William Z. Final word on Jersey Dutch. AS 33:243-51. Dec. 1958. NEW

MEXICO

975. Contributions to the language. (In Writers' Program, New Mexico. New Mexico; a guide to the colorful state. Revised by Joseph Miller and edited by Henry G. Alsberg, 1953. p.107-119) 976. Dickinson, Donald I. Speech characteristics of the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. M.A. thesis, University of New Mexico, 1952. 188p. 977. Heflin, Woodford A. Characteristic features of New Mexico English between 1805 and 1890. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1945. 61 p. This is part of a Ph.D. dissertation prepared by the author at the University of Chicago in 1941. 978. Pearce, Thomas M. T h e English proverb in New Mexico. California folklore quarterly 5:350-54. 1946.

DIALECTS NEW

127

YORK.

979. Babbitt, Ε. H. T h e English of the lower classes in New York City and vicinity. DN 1:457-64. 1896. 980. Bowen, B. L. A word-list from western New York. DN 3:435-51. 1910. 981. Crowningshield, Gerald. Dialect of northeastern New York. AS 8:43-45. Apr. 1933. 982. Emerson, Oliver F. T h e Ithaca dialect: a study of present English. Boston, Printed by J . S. Cushing & Co., 1891. 84p. This is a Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1891; also published in DN, pt.3, p.85-173. T h e author was an instructor of English at Cornell in 1891. At the time it was published, it was the most complete study of an American dialect. 983. Frank, Yakira H. The speech of New York City. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1949. " T h e study is based upon records of the Linguistic atlas of the United States. Features common to all types of speakers as well as social differences and age differences in speech are treated and discussed." (Microfilm abstracts 9:1:129) 984. Gardner, Emelyn E. Folklore from the hills of Schoharie County, New York State. Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters. Papers 21:13-20. 1936. 985. Hawkins, Jane D. The speech of the Hudson River Valley. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1941. 986. Kirby, Thomas A. Notes on Virginia and North Carolina words (PADS 5 and 6) familiar in western New York. PADS no.8:23-26. Nov. 1947. 987. T h e local vernacular. (In New York panorama. N.Y., Random House [cl938] p.152-61)

128

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

988. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. T h e folk vocabulary of New York State. New York folklore quarterly 7:173-92. Autumn 1951. 989 . Midland and Canadian words in upstate New York. AS 26:248-56. Dec. 1951. 990. Mencken. Henry L. New York. (In his The American language. Supplement 2 N.Y., Knopf, 1948. p. 183-93) 990a. Mead, (Mrs.) Jane T . Proverbs: sayings from Westfield, Chautauqua Co. New York folklore quarterly 10:226-27. Autumn 1954. 991. Russell, Jason A. Erie Canal colloquial expressions. AS 6:97-100. Dec. 1930. 992 . Colloquial expressions from Madison County, New York. AS 5:151-53. Dec. 1929. 993. Shapleigh, F. E. Word-list from Roxbury, New York. DN 4:54-55. 1913. 994. Sonkin, Robert. In re 'Jewish dialect and New York dialect'. AS 8:78-79. Feb. 1933. 995. Strunsky, Simeon. Folk speech. (In his No mean city. N.Y., Dutton [cl944] p.42-49) An essay on New York City speech. 995a. Studer, Norman. Folk speech in the valley. New York folklore quarterly 12:199. Autumn 1956. The valley is near Arena, N.Y. 996. Thomas, Charles K. The place of New York City in American linguistic geography. Quarterly journal of speech 33:314-20. Oct. 1947. 997 . Jewish dialect and New York dialect. AS 7:321-26. June 1932. 998. Thompson, Harold W. Proverbs. (In his Body, boots and britches. Phila., Lippincott, 1940. p.481-504)

DIALECTS

129

999 .

Proverbs and sayings. New York folklore quarterly 5:230-35, Autumn 1949; 5:296-99, Winter 1949. 1000. White, Henry A. A word-list from central New York. DN 3:565-69. 1912. 1000a. Wyld, Lionel D. Notes for a Yorker dictionary of Canalese. New York folklore quarterly 15: 264-73. Winter 1959. 1000b. Zafra, Carlos de. Proverbial comparisons and expressions from rural life. New York folklore quarterly 11:217-18. Autumn 1955. NORTH

CAROLINA

1001. Atherton, H. E. and Gregg, Darrell L. A study of dialect differences. AS 4:216-23. Feb. 1929. 1002. Brewer, Fisk P. Peculiar usages of English observed in North Carolina. Nation (N.Y.) 16:148-49, 183. Feb. 27, 1873. 1003. Buxbaum, Katherine. Heard in North Carolina. AS 10:156-57. Apr. 1935. 1004. Cobb, Collier. Early English survivals on Hatteras Island. University magazine (North Carolina), n.s., 27:3-10. Feb. 1910. 1005. Davison, Zeta C. A word-list from the Appalachians and the Piedmont area of North Carolina. PADS ηο.19:8-14. 1953. 1006. Eliason, Norman E. Tarheel talk: an historical study of the English language in North Carolina to 1860. Chapel Hill, N.C., University of North Carolina Press [cl956] 324p. A scholarly study based on the manuscript material in the Southern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina; many quotations; appendix of word usages and significant spell-

130

1007.

1008. 1009. 1010. 1011.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

ings. Dr. Eliason is professor of English at the University of North Carolina. Gehrke, William H. The transition from the German to the English language in North Carolina. North Carolina historical review 12:1-19. Jan. 1935. Hayes, Francis C A word-list from North Carolina. PADS no.2:32-37. Nov. 1944. Kephart, Horace. A word-list from the mountains of western North Carolina. DN 4:407-19. 1917. Laughlin, Hugh C. A word-list from Buncombe County, North Carolina. PADS no.2:24-27. 1944. Steadman, J . M., Jr. A North Carolina word list. DN 5:18-21. 1918. OHIO

1012. Davis, Alva L. and McDavid, Raven I., Jr. Northwestern Ohio: a transition area. Language 26: 264-73. June 1950. 1013. Hart, J . M., and others. Notes from Cincinnati. DN 1:60-63. 1890. 1014. Heffner, R. M. S. Maine dialect in Ohio. AS 13: 74-76. Feb. 1938. 1015. Kurath, Hans. A specimen of Ohio speech. Language monographs no.7:92-101. Dec. 1930. 1016. Miller, William M. Words from a Glossary of Virginia words (PADS 5) currently used in southwestern Ohio. PADS no.8:30-34. Nov. 1947. 1017. Ondis, Lewis A. Dialectal peculiarities of Athens, Ohio. AS 20:232-33. Oct. 1945. 1018. Parry, W. H. Dialectal peculiarities in southeastern Ohio. DN 4:339-42. 1916.

DIALECTS

IBI

1019. Potter, Edward E. The dialect of northwestern Ohio: a study of a transition area. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1955. OKLAHOMA

1020. Olevitch, J . P. Proverbial comparisons from Oklahoma and Missouri. Hoosier folklore bulletin 3:37. June 1944. OREGON

1021. Gibbs, George. A dictionary of the Chinook jargon, or trade language of Oregon. N.Y., Cramoisy Press, 1863. 43p. (Shea's library of American linguistics, no. 12) 1022. Gill, John K. Dictionary of the Chinook jargon with examples of its use in conversation. 10th ed. Portland, Oregon, J . K. Gill and Co., 1884. 60p. 15th ed. 1909. 84p. 17th ed. 1933. 80p. 1023. Hale, Horatio. A manual of the Oregon trade language, or Chinook jargon. London, Whittaker and Co., 1890. 63p. 1024. Hausen, T . J . Wallowa County, Oregon, expressions. AS 6:229-30. Feb. 1931. 1025. Leechman, Douglas. The Chinook jargon. AS 1: 531-34. July 1926. 1026. Mills, Randall V. Oregon speechways. AS 25:81-90. May 1950. 1027. Pearce, Helen. Folk sayings in a pioneer family of western Oregon. California folklore quarterly 5: 229-42. 1946. 1028. Pilling, James C. Bibliography of the Chinookan language (including the Chinook jargon) Wash-

132

1029.

1030. 1031 .

1032 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

ington, Government Printing Office, 1893. 81 p. (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of Ethnology. Bulletin no. 15) Shaw, George C. T h e Chinook jargon and how to use it . . . Seattle, Rainier Printing Company, 1909. 65p. Thomas, Edward H. Chinook dictionaries. AS 3: 182-85. Feb. 1928. Chinook; a history and dictionary of the northwest coast trade jargon . . . Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan Press, 1935. 179p. T h e Chinook jargon. AS 2:377-84. June 1927. PENNSYLVANIA

1033. Allen, W. H. Pennsylvania word-list. DN 4:157-58. 1914. 1034. Ashcom, Β. B. Notes on the language of the Bedford, Pennsylvania, subarea. AS 28:241-55. Dec. 1953. 1035. Comfort, Anne W. Some peculiarities of Quaker speech. AS 8:12-14. Feb. 1933. 1036. Heydrick, B. A. Pennsylvania [word list] DN 4: 337-39. 1916. 1037. Hibbitt, George W. Pennsylvania English. AS 14:43. Feb. 1939. 1038. Maxfield, E. K. Speech of southwestern Pennsylvania. AS 7:18-20. Oct. 1931. 1039. Newlin, Claude M. Dialects on the western Pennsylvania frontier. AS 4:104-09. Dec. 1928. 1040. Page, Eugene R. English in the Pennsylvania German area. AS 12:203-06. Oct. 1937.

DIALECTS

133

1041. Philips, Edith. Polite address in Pennsylvania. AS 2:458. Aug. 1927. 1042. Reeves, Henry. Pennsylvania. Lippincott's magazine 3:314-17. Mar. 1869. 1043. Seronsy, Cecil C. Some uses of "on" and "to" in Pennsylvania English. AS 34:148. May 1959. 1044. Shoemaker, Henry W. T h e origins and language of central Pennsylvania witchcraft . . . An address given at a meeting of the Woman's Study Club, Montgomery, Pa., Apr. 8, 1927 . . . [Reading, Pa., Reading Eagle Press, 1927] 23p. 1045. , comp. Thirteen hundred old time words of British, continental or aboriginal origins, still or recently in use among the Pennsylvania mountain people. Altoona, Pa., T h e Times T r i b u n e Press, 1930. 75p. (Pennsylvania Folklore Society. Publications no. 12) Cited by H . L. Mencken, The American language, Supplement 2, p.206. 1046. Tibbals, Kate W. T h e speech of plain friends. AS 1:193-209. Jan. 1926. 1047. Tucker, R. Whitney. Linguistic substrata in Pennsylvania and elsewhere. Language 10:1-5. Mar. 1934. 1048 Notes on the Philadelphia dialect. AS 19: 37-42. Feb. 1944. The Pennsylvania

German language

1049. Buffington, Albert F. Pennsylvania German: a grammatical and linguistic study of the dialect. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1937. " T h e purpose of this dissertation . . . is to present

134

1050.

1051. 1052. 1053 .

1054 . 1055.

1056.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

a true and complete picture of the Pennsylvania German dialect. I refer constantly to the representative literature of the dialect, and endeavor to illustrate the various forms by examples from the literature. Previous discussions of Pennsylvania German contain little or no reference to the literature of the dialect." (Harvard University, Summaries of theses, 1937. p.291) and Barba, Preston A. A Pennsylvania German grammar. Allentown, Pa., Schlechter, 1954. 167p. " T h e present volume is intended to serve a dual purpose: 1. It is designed to be used as a textbook in beginning classes in Pennsylvania German. 2. It is to serve as a reference grammar for the layman and the scholar." (Preface, p.iv) Follin, Maynard D. Pennsylvania Dutch. AS 4: 455-60. Aug. 1929. Frey, John W. Amish triple-talk. AS 20:85-98. Apr. 1945. The German dialect of eastern York County, Pa. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1942. Contains a vocabulary of about 3000 words. A simple grammar of Pennsylvania Dutch. Clinton, S.C., J . W. Frey, 1942. 140p. Grumbine, Lee L. Provincialisms of the Dutch districts of Pennsylvania. American Philological Association. Proceedings, 1886, p.xii-xiii. Haldeman, Samuel S. Pennsylvania Dutch: a dialect of South German with an infusion of English. Phila., Reformed Church Publication Board, 1872. 69p.

DIALECTS

1057.

1058.

1059.

1060.

1061.

1062.

1063.

1064.

135

"First attempt at a descriptive presentation of Pennsylvania German." (A. F. Buffington and P. A. Barba, A Pennsylvania German grammar, Preface, p.iii) Mr. Haldeman was professor of comparative philology in the University of Pennsylvania. Home, Abraham. Home's Pennsylvania German manual; how Pennsylvania German is spoken and written, for pronouncing, speaking and writing English. 3d ed. Allentown, Pa., T . K. Hörne, cl905. 363p. Learned, Marion D. Pennsylvania German dialect. Part I. Baltimore, Press of Isaac Friedenwald, 1889. 114p. Lins, J . C. Common sense Pennsylvania German dictionary; containing nearly all the Pennsylvania German words in common use. 2d ed. Reading, Pa., 1895. 170p. Mencken, Henry L. Non-English dialects in American: Germanic. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.616-21) Oswald, Victor A. T h e phones of a Lehigh County dialect of Pennsylvania German. Ph.D. dissertation. Columbia University, 1949. 91p. Prettyman, William. Dialectal peculiarities in the Carlisle vernacular. German-American Annals 5:67-79. 1907. Rauch, Edward H. Rauch's Pennsylvania Dutch hand-book /Rauch's Pennsylvania deitsch HondBooch. Mauch Chunk, Pa., E. H. Rauch, 1879, 238p. Reed, Carroll E. T h e Pennsylvania German dialect spoken in the counties of Lehigh and Berks:

136

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

phonology and morphology. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1949— Vol. 1 is a reprint from Modern language quarterly, V.8, no.3. Sept. 1947; and v.9, nos.3-4, Sept. and Dec. 1948. 1065. Schach, Paul. Comments on some PennsylvaniaGerman words in the Dictionary of Americanisms. AS 29:45-54. Feb. 1954. 1066 . Hybrid compounds in Pennsylvania German. AS 23:121-34. Apr. 1948. 1067. Seifert, Lester W. Causes of the dialect differences between and within western Berks and Lehigh Counties, Pa. 's Pennsylfawnisch deitsch Eck. July 26, Aug. 2, 1941. 1068 . Dialect differences between and within western Berks and western Lehigh Counties, Pa. 's Pennsylfawnisch deitsch Eck. Mar. 15, 22, 29, 1941. 1069. Shoemaker, Henry W. The language of the Pennsylvania German gypsies. AS 1:584-86. Aug. 1926. 1070. Springer, Otto. T h e study of the Pennsylvania German dialect. Journal of English and Germanic philology 42:1-39. Jan. 1943. Contains a bibliography, p.31-39. A working bibliography for the study of 1071 . the Pennsylvania German language and its sources. University of Pennsylvania, 1941. Mimeo. 1072. Stahr, J. L. Pennsylvania German. Mercersburg review 17:618-34. 1870. Not located. 1073. Struble, George G. The English of the Pennsylvania Germans. AS 10:163-72. Oct. 1935. 1074. Werner, W. L. English words in the Pennsylvania-

DIALECTS

137

German dialect. AS 6:123-24. Dec. 1930. 1075. Wilson, Arthur H. English spoken by Pennsylvania Germans in Snyder County, Pa. AS 23:236-38. Dec. 1948. R H O D E ISLAND

1076. Daddow, J. The speech of Chepachet, R.I. Master's thesis, Brown University, 1935. 1077. Simpson, Claude M„ Jr. T h e English speech of early Rhode Island, 1636-1700. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1936. 314p. SOUTH

CAROLINA

1078. Bennett, John. Gullah: a Negro patois. South Atlantic quarterly 7:332-47, Oct. 1908; 8:39-52 (pt.2), Jan. 1909. 1079. Blok, H. P. Annotations to Mr. Turner's Africanisms in the Gullah dialect (1949). Lingua 8: 306-21. Sept. 1959. 1080. Bradley, Francis W. Word list from South Carolina. PADS ηο.14:3-73. Nov. 1950. 1081 . Supplementary list of South Carolina words and phrases. PADS no.21:16-41. 1954. 1082 . South Carolina proverbs. Southern folklore quarterly 1:57-101. Mar. 1937. 1083. Cohen, Hennig. Southern colonial word list; addenda to the DA. AS 27:282-84, Dec. 1952; 28: 304-06, Dec. 1953. T h e DA is the Dictionary of Americanisms. T h e words are from the Charleston, S.C., area. 1084. Gonzales, Ambrose E. A Gullah glossary. (In his

138

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

T h e black border; Gullah stories of the Carolina coast. Columbia, S.C., The State Company, 1922. p.277-340) 1085. Johnson, Guy B. Gullah: the dialect of the Negroes of St. Helena Island. (In his Folk culture on St. Helena Island, South Carolina. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1930. p. 3-62) 1086. McDavid, Raven I., Jr. Grist from the Atlas mill. AS 24:105-14. Apr. 1949. This article contains a word list from South Carolina and Georgia. 1087 . T h e position of the Charleston dialect. PADS no.23:35-49. 1955. 1088. Parler, Mary C. Word-list from Wedgefield, South Carolina. DN 6:79-85. 1930. 1089. Primer, Sylvester. Charleston provincialisms. Modern Language Association. Transactions, 1887, p.84-99. A revision of this article appears in American journal of philology 9:198-213. 1888. Same article in Phonetische Studien 1:227-44. 1888. 1090 . [Word list mainly from Charleston, S.C.] DN 1:58-59. 1091. Smith, Reed. Gullah. Columbia, S.C., 1926. 45p. (University of South Carolina. Bulletin no. 190) A thorough study of the dialect, including a history of it and an analysis of the literature. 1092. Turner, Lorenzo D. Africanisms in the Gullah dialect. [Chicago] University of Chicago Press [cl949] 317p. 1093 . Notes on the sounds and vocabulary of Gullah. PADS no.3:13-28. May 1945.

DIALECTS

139

1094. Wilkinson, Lupton A. Gullah vs. grammar. North American review 236:539-42. Dec. 1933. SOUTH

DAKOTA

1095. Language of the West. (In Federal Writers' Project. South Dakota; a guide to the state. 2d ed. Revised by M. L. Reese. N.Y., Hastings, 1952. p.83-86) TENNESSEE

1096. Blair, Marion E. T h e prevalence of older English proverbs in Blount County, Tennessee. Texas Folklore Society bulletin 4:1-24. 1938. 1097. Bosh ears, Frances. Proverbial comparisons from an east Tennessee County. Tennessee Folklore Society bulletin 20:27-41. 1954. 1098. Brown, Calvin S. Dialectal forms in Tennessee. Modern language notes 4:410-17. Nov. 1889. 1099 . Dialectical survivals in Tennessee. Modern language notes 4:409-417. Nov. 1889. 1100 . Other dialectal forms in Tennessee. PMLA 6:171-75. 1891. 1101 . Tennessee [word-list from Obion County] DN 4:345-46. 1916. 1102. Bruce, J. D., and others. Terms from Tennessee. DN 4:58. 1913. 1103. Edson, Η. Α., and others. Tennessee mountains. DN 1:370-77. 1894 1104. Farr, T . J. Folk speech of middle Tennessee. AS 11:275-76. Oct. 1936. 1105 . More Tennessee expressions. AS 15: 446-48. Dec. 1940 1106. Halpert, Herbert. Proverbial comparisons from west Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore Society bulle-

140 1107.

1108. 1109. 1110.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

tin 17:49-61. 1951. Moffat, Adelene. The mountaineers of middle Tennessee. Journal of American folk-lore 4:314-20. Oct.-Dec. 1891. Neitzel, Stuart. Tennessee expressions. AS 11:373. Dec. 1936. Pollard, Mary O. Terms from the Tennessee mountains. DN 4:242. 1915. Wood, Gordon R. A list of words from Tennessee. PADS no.29:3-18. 1958. TEXAS

1111. Atkinson, Mary J . Familiar sayings of oldtime Texans. (In Boatright, Mody C., and others, eds. Texas folk and folklore. Dallas, Southern Methodist University Press, 1954. p.213-29) 1112. Bierschwale, Margaret. English of the Texas range. Master's thesis, Columbia University, 1920. 1113. Bourke, John G. Notes on the language and folkusage of the Rio Grande Valley. Journal of American folk-lore 9:81-115. Apr.-June 1896. 1114. Braddy, Haldeen. Tall talk of the Texas TransPecos. AS 15:220-22. Apr. 1940. 1115. Bryson, Artemisia B. Homely words in Texas. AS 9:70-71. Feb. 1934. 1116 . Some Texas dialect words. AS 4:330-31. Apr. 1929. 1117. Buckner, Mary Dale. Ranch diction of the Texas panhandle. AS 8:25-32. Feb. 1933. 1118. Chalk, Sarah C. A vocabulary study of Dallas County, Texas. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1958. 196p.

DIALECTS

141

1119. Crow, C. L. [Terms from Parker Co., Texas] DN 4:347-48. 1916. 1120. Currie, Eva G. Linguistic and sociological consideration of some populations of Texas. Southern speech journal 15:286-96. May 1950. 1121. Hardy, Zelma B. A vocabulary study of Kerr County, Texas. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1950. 132p. 1122. Haynes, Randolph A. A vocabulary study of Travis County, Texas. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1954. 181p. 1123. Hogan, Charles H. Yankee comments on Texas speech. AS 20:81-84. Apr. 1945. 1124. Klipple, [Florence] C. Speech of Spicewood, Texas. AS 20:187-91. Oct. 1945. 1125. A study of the speech of Spicewood, Texas . . . M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1944. 119p. 1126. Krumpelmann, John T . Some Americanisms from Texas in 1848. AS 19:69-70. Feb. 1944. 1127. Ladd, Mary P. A vocabulary study of early Texas English . . . M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1943. 81 p. 1128. Norman, Arthur M. Migration to southeast Texas: people and words. Southwestern social science quarterly 37:149-58. Sept. 1956. 1129 . A southeast Texas dialect study. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1955. 345p. 1130. O'Quinn, Trueman E. Colloquialisms along the Sabine. Texas Folklore Society publication 13: 245-49. 1937. 1131. Rollins, Hyder E. A west Texas word-list. DN 4: 224-30, 347-48. 1915-16. 1132. Sawyer, Janet B. Aloofness from Spanish influence

142

1133 .

1134.

1135.

1136 . 1137.

1138.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

in Texas English. Word 15:270-81. 1959. A dialect study of San Antonio, Texas: a bilingual community. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1957. 323p. A contribution to the survey of the dialect areas of the U.S.; compares the use of English between native English speaking informants and informants of Spanish speaking background. Study was supervised by Dr. E. Bagby Atwood, who is directing that portion of the Linguistic atlas covering Texas and surrounding areas. Smith, Mrs. Morgan and Eddins, A. W. Wise saws from Texas. Texas Folklore Society publication 13:239-44. 1937. Stanley, Oma. T h e speech of east Texas. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1936. "A thoroughly scholarly monograph, Mr. Stanley's book is based upon extensive field work in fourteen counties in East Texas, plus twenty-five or thirty years of previous residence in the area." (Claude Simpson in Southwest review 22:425. July 1937) Speech of East Texas. AS 11:3-36, 145-66, 232-51, 327-55. Feb.-Dec. 1936. Tallichet, H. A contribution towards a vocabulary of Spanish and Mexican words used in Texas. DN 1:185-95, 243-53, 324-26. Tarpley, Fred A. A word atlas of northeast Texas. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1960. 506p. "A word atlas of northeast Texas is a lexical study - with phonological observations - based

143

DIALECTS

on interviews with two hundred native informants in twenty-six counties in the northeastern corner of Texas. T h e survey is intended primarily as a study of the geographical distribution of folk synonyms for 127 concepts; other goals are to consider pronunciation and meaning, to preserve expressions which are disappearing, and to show relationships betwen the age, sex, education, or community size of the informant and his vocabulary."

(Dissertations

abstracts,

21:2289.

Feb.

1961) 1139. Tidwell, James N. Comments on word-lists in PADS. PADS no. 13:16-21. Apr. 1950. 1140 . A word-list from west Texas. PADS n o . l l : 3-15. Apr. 1949. 1141. Wheatley, Katherine E. and Stanley, Oma. Three generations of east Texas speech. AS 34:83-94. May 1959. UTAH

1142. Mencken, Henry L. Utah. (In his T h e American language. Supplement 2. N.Y., Knopf, 1948. p.221-22) VERMONT

1143. Hughes, Muriel J. A word-list from Vermont. Vermont history 27:123-67. Apr. 1959. 1143a. Vermont proverbs and proverbial sayings. Vermont history 28:113-42, Apr. 1960; 28: 200-30, July 1960. 1144. Words from West Brattleboro, Vermont. DN 3:

144

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

452-55. 1910. VIRGINIA

1145. Adams, Minnie H. A survey of the general characteristics of Virginia dialects. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1940. 1146. Brydon, G. M. Comments on some Virginia words in Dr. Woodard's list. (PADS 6) PADS no.8: 34-36. Nov. 1947. 1147. Davis, Arthur K. and Hill, Archibald A. Dialect notes on records of folk songs from Virginia. AS 8:52-56. Dec. 1933. 1148. Dingus, L. R. A word-list from Virginia. DN 4: 177-93. 1915. 1149. Green, Bennett W. Word-book of Virginia folkspeech. Richmond, W. E. Jones, 1899. 435p. new ed. Richmond, W. E. Jones, 1912. 530p. 1150. Greet, William C. and Meloney, William B. Two notes on Virginia speech. AS 6:94-96. Dec. 1930. 1151. Hays, H. M. On the German dialect spoken in the valley of Virginia. DN 3:263-78. 1908. 1152. Laubscher, G. G. Terms from Lynchburg, Va. DN 4:302. 1916. 1153. Lucke, Jessie R. A study of the Virginia dialect and its origin in England. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1949. 1154. McCormick, S. D. Survivals in American educated speech: the Virginia dialect. Bookman 11:446-50. July 1900. 1155. Mcjimsey, George D. Topographic terms in Virginia. N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1940. 151 p. (American Speech. Reprints and mono-

DIALECTS

1156 . 1157. 1158.

1159.

1160.

1161. 1162. 1163.

145

graphs, no.3) Based on a Ph.D. dissertation which the author completed at Columbia University in 1939. Topographic terms in Virginia. AS 15: 3-38, 149-79, 262-300, 381-419. Feb.-Dec. 1940. Man, A. P., Jr. Virginia. DN 4:158-60. 1914. Mencken, Henry L Virginia. (In his T h e American language. Supplement 2. N.Y., ..Knopf, 1948. p.223-32) Nixon, Phyllis J . Glossary of Virginia words. Greensboro, N.C., 1946. 46p. (Publication of the American Dialect Society, no.5) Contains a preface by Hans Kurath. Thornton, Richard H. Comment on "A word-list from Virginia" by L. R. Dingus. DN 4:349-50. 1916. Tresidder, Angus. Speech of the Shenandoah Valley. AS 12:284-88. Dec. 1937. Wilson, George P. A word list from Virginia and North Carolina. PADS no.2:38-52. Nov. 1944. Woodard, C. M. A word-list from Virginia and North Carolina. PADS no.6:4-43. Nov. 1946.

WASHINGTON

1164. Adams, John F. Ranching terms from eastern Washington. AS 33:266-73. Dec. 1958. 1165. Brengelman, Frederick H. T h e native American English spoken in the Puget Sound area. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1956. 225p. " T h e data used for the study were the phonetic

146

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

transcriptions of interviews of thirty life-long residents of Puget Sound towns and rural areas. T h e interviews were made as part of the research for the Linguistic atlas of the United States." (Dissertation abstracts 18:1420. 1958) 1166. Garrett, Robert M. A word-list from the Northwest. DN 5:54-59, 1919; 5:80-84. 1920. T h e words are mainly from the Seattle area in Washington. 1167. Reed, Carroll E. Washington words. PADS no.25: 3-11. 1956. WEST

VIRGINIA

1168. Axley, Lowry. West Virginia dialect. AS 3:456. Aug. 1928. 1169. Barker, Howard F. West Virginia dialect. AS 3:68. Oct. 1927. 1170. Carpenter, Charles. West Virginia expletives. West Virginia review 13:346-47. Aug. 1936. 1171 . T h e evolution of our dialect. West Virginia review 7:9. Oct. 1929. 1172 . Remnants of archaic English in West Virginia. West Virginia review 12:77-78. Dec. 1934. 1173. Krumpelmann, John T . West Virginia peculiarities. AS 14:155-56. Apr. 1939. 1174. Lyman, Dean B. Idioms in West Virginia. AS 11:63. Feb. 1936. 1175. Mockler, William E. Localisms. AS 15:83. Feb. 1940. 1176. Pendleton, Paul E. How the "wood hicks" speak; some observations made in Upshur County, West Virginia. DN 6:86-89. 1930.

DIALECT

147

1177. Primer, Sylvester. Dialectical studies in West Virginia. PMLA 6:160-70. 1891. 1178. Woofter, Carey. Dialect words and phrases from west-central West Virginia. AS 2:347-67. May 1927. WISCONSIN

1179. Cassidy, Frederick G. From Wisconsin sources. AS 15:326-27, Oct. 1940. 1180 . More notes from Wisconsin. AS 22: 298-300. Dec. 1947. 1181. Some New England words in Wisconsin. Language 17:324-39. Oct.-Dec. 1941. 1182. Mills, Randall V. Words in Mrs. Nixon's list (PADS 5) current in Wisconsin and some other western states. PADS no. 8:36-38. Nov. 1947. 1183. Savage, Howard J. Word-list from southwestern Wisconsin. DN 5:233-40. 1923. WYOMING

1184. Brunner, Helen and Francis, Frances. A short word-list from Wyoming. DN 3:550-51. 1911. 1185. Clough, Wilson O. Notes on dialect in the Uinta Mountains of Wyoming. AS 11:190-92. Apr. 1936. 1186 . _ Some Wyoming speech patterns. AS 29: 28-35 Feb. 1954. 1187. Cook, Dorothy. More Yellowstone lingo. AS 10: 75-76. Feb. 1935. 1188. Petersen, Sarah C. Yellowstone Park language. AS 7:21-23. Oct. 1931.

148

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY ALASKA AND

HAWAII

1188a. Carr, Elizabeth. A recent chapter in the story of the English language in Hawaii. Social process in Hawaii (University of Hawaii) 24:54-62. 1960. 1189. Colby, Merle E. Vocabulary of Alaska terms. (In his A guide to Alaska: last American frontier. N.Y., Macmillan, 1939. p.xxxix-xli) 1189a. Kasdon, Lawrence M. and Smith, Madorah E. Pidgin usage of some preschool children in Hawaii. Social process in Hawaii (University of Hawaii) 24:63-72. 1960. 1189b. Lind, Andrew W. Communication: a problem of island youth. Social process in Hawaii (University of Hawaii) 24:44-53. 1960. 1190. Reinecke, John E. and Tokimasa, Aiko. T h e English dialect of Hawaii. AS 9:48-58. Feb. 1934; 9:122-31, Apr. 1934. 1191. Smith, William C. Pidgin English in Hawaii. AS 8:15-19. Feb. 1933.

6. Slang

1192. Babbitt, E. H. College words and phrases. DN 2: 21-70. 1900. 1193. Barrére, Albert and Leland, Charles. A dictionary of slang, jargon and cant, embracing English, American and Anglo-Indian slang, pidgin English, tinkers' jargon, and other irregular phraseology. Edinburgh, Printed for subscribers only at Ballantyne Press, 1889-90. 2v. 2d ed. London, George Bell 8c Sons, 1897. 1194. Baum, S. V. Formal dress for initial words. AS 32:73-75. Feb. 1957. 1195. Berrey, Lester V. and Van Den Bark, Melvin. The American thesaurus of slang; a complete reference book of colloquial speech. N.Y., Crowell, 1942. 1174p. An exhaustive reference work of colloquial speech arranged according to concepts and relationships; includes special lists of slang of the underworld, of trades and occupations, railroading, sports, Western life, and the Army and Navy; detailed word index; foreword by Louise Pound. The 1947 ed. has a supplement containing a vocabulary of World War II and teen-age and jive talk. 2d ed. N.Y., Crowell, 1953. 1272p. 1196. Brocklehurst, J. H. Slang, and pamphlet no.24 of the Society for Pure English on American slang. 149

150

1197. 1198.

1199.

1200 .

1201. 1202.

1203.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

(In Manchester Literary Club. Papers. Manchester, 1928. v.53, p.247-67) Brogan, Denis W. T h e conquering tongue. (In his American themes. N.Y., Harper [1949] p.181-85) Burgess, Gelett. A defense of slang. (In his T h e romance of the commonplace. San Francisco, Paul Elder and Morgan Shepard [1902] p.72-76) Burke, William J. American slang—where to find it; a selected reference list. Wilson bulletin 8: 220-21. Dec. 1933. T h e literature of slang. N.Y., New York Public Library, 1939. 180p. Reprinted from the Bulletin of the New York Public Library, 1936-38. An annotated bibliography with references to reviews. Contains many entries for articles in newspapers and popular magazines not included in the present work. Burley, Dan. Dan Burley's original handbook of Harlem jive. N.Y., 1944. 158p. Carnoy, Albert J. The semasiology of American and other slangs. Levensche Bijdragen 13:49-68, 181-212. 1921. "A technical analysis filled with philological jargon, but highly important as a scientific approach. Copy in Columbia University Library." (W. J. Burke, The literature of slang, p.46) Darling, Charles H. T h e jargon book. [Aurora, Illinois, Aurora Company, cl919] 57p. "Contains over two thousand odd, unique and novel expression words and phrases, and verbal shortcuts used by high class people, and slang words and phrases, nicknames, single and double by-words in daily use by the public at large and

SLANG

1204.

1205.

1206.

1207.

1208.

1209.

1210.

1211.

151

also jargon, words, phrases and parlance adopted and used by the police and those classed as the underworld." (From the title page) Flexner, Stuart B. [American slang] (In Wentworth, Harold and Flexner, Stuart B. Dictionary of American slang. N.Y., Crowell [cl960] Preface, p.vi-xv) Giles, Richard. Slang and vulgar phrases and forms as used in the different states of the Union. N.Y., Hurst and Co., 1873. 30p. Graham, George F. Slang and Americanisms. (In his A book about words. London, Longmans, Green, 1869. p. 169-84) Hall, Benjamin H. A collection of college words and customs . . . Cambridge, John Bartlett, 1851. 319p. rev. ed. 1856. 508p. Many of the slang words come from American colleges; full definitions with quotations. Hayden, Marie Gladys. Terms of disparagement in the American dialect. DN 4:194-23. 1915. Marie Gladys Hayden is very probably the same writer who wrote the thesis on the same subject. Hayden, Myrtle Gladys. Terms of disparagement in American dialect speech. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1914. 67p. Hildreth, Charles L. American slang. Belford's monthly 7:451-58. Dec. 1891. Listed in W. J. Burke, The literature of slang, p.33. Hogan, Homer. Dictionary of American synonyms. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl956] 388p. Many of the equivalents are words from modern American slang.

152

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

1212. Kuethe, J. Louis. Modern slang. AS 11:293-97. Dec. 1936. 1212a. Maitland, James. American slang dictionary embodying all American and English slang phrases in current use, with their derivation and philology. Chicago [R. J. Kittredge] 1891. 308p. 1213. Maurer, David W. Argot of the race track. Greensboro, N.C., 1951. 70p. (Publication of the American Dialect Society, no. 16) 1214 . War and the language. New republic 113: 907-09. Dec. 31, 1945. 1215. Mead, Leon. Slang. (In his Word-coinage. N.Y., Crowell, 1902. p.161-91) 1216. Mencken, Henry L. American slang. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.555-89. Supplement 2, p. 643-786) 1217 . American profanity. AS 19:241-49. Dec. 1944. 1218. Pollock, F. Walter. T h e current expansion of slang. AS 2:145-47. Dec. 1926. 1219. Pound, Louise. T h e Kraze for "K". American speech 1:43-44. Oct. 1925. 1220. Lucas, Edward V. Of slang — English and American. (In his Cloud and silver. N.Y., George H. Doran Co. [cl916] p.94-100) 1221. Partridge, Eric H. Dictionary of slang and unconventional English; colloquialisms and catchphrases, solecisms and catachreses, nick-names, vulgarisms and such Americanisms as have been naturalized. 5th ed. London, Routledge and Paul, 1961. 2v. First ed. in 1937; 2d ed. 1938; 3d ed. 1950; 4th ed., 1956. Comprehensive; dated entries with bib-

SLANG

1222 .

1223.

1224 . 1225.

1226.

1227.

1228.

153

liographical references; v.2 of the 5th ed. incorporates the addenda of the 2d, 3d, and 4th eds. and new material. Slang today and yesterday. With a short historical sketch and vocabularies of English, American, and Australian slang . . . London, George Routledge 8c Sons, 1933. 476p. 2d ed., carefully revised [and] somewhat augmented. London, George Routledge & Sons, 1935. 476p. 3d ed., 1950. 476p. Scott, Fred N. English and American vernacular. (In Rankin, Thomas E., and others, eds. Further adventures in essay reading. N.Y., Harcourt [cl928] p.391-96) American slang. Society for Pure English. Tract no.24: 118-27. 1926. Smiley, Jack. Hash house lingo. Easton, Pa., the Author, 1941. 59p. Not seen. Copy in Library of Congress. Utter, Robert P. T h e idiom of democracy. (In his Pearls and pepper . . . New Haven, Yale University Press, 1924. p.61-81) Weingarten, Joseph A. An American dictionary of slang and colloquial speech. N.Y., Privately Printed, 1954. 390p. "In compiling this dictionary I set myself two objectives: (1) to present a comprehensive picture of general American slang and colloquial speech within prescribed limits; (2) to adduce the earliest dating for every word or phrase listed herein." (Foreword) Wentworth, Harold and Flexner, Stuart B. Die-

154

1229.

1230.

1231. 1232.

1233 .

1234.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

tionary of American slang. N.Y., Crowell [cl960] 669p. Contains 8000 entries with numerous dated quotations from novels, short stories, and periodicals; introductory essay on slang; appendix that deals with technical matters, such as the morphology of slang. Weseen, Maurice H. Dictionary of American slang. N.Y., Crowell, 1934. 556p. Contains about 15,000 words and phrases and classifies them in 21 categories: college, theater, radio, baseball, soldiers' slang, etc. Mr. Weseen, who is a professor of English at the University of Nebraska, is the author of Crowell's Dictionary of English grammar. Whibley, Charles. T h e American language. Bookman 26:533-39. 1908. Also in Blackwood's magazine 183:118-26. Jan. 1908. Whitman, Walt. Slang in America. North American review 141:431-35. Nov. 1885. Wittman, Elizabeth M. Clipped words: a study of back formations and curtailments in present day English. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1914. 57p. Examples are cited from American periodical sources, such as Nebraska State journal, Saturday evening post, etc. Clipped words: a study of back formations and curtailments in present-day English. DN 4:115-45. 1914. Wood, Clement and Goddard, Gloria. A dictionary of American slang. Girard, Kansas, Halde-

SLANG

1235. 1236 .

1237.

1238. 1239 . 1240.

1241.

1242.

155

man-Julius, 1926. 64p. Brief definitions; strong in sports slang. The Language of the Cowboy Adams, Ramon F. Cowboy lingo. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1936. 257p. Western words: a dictionary of the range, cow camp and trail. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1944. 182p. Contains almost 3000 words. Allen, Jules V. Cowboy dictionary. (In his Cowboy lore. San Antonio, Texas, Naylor Printing Company, 1933. p.57-61) Braddy, Haldeen. Cowboy lingo of the Big Bend. DN 6:617-21. Dec. 1937. Some southwestern cowboy lingo. AS 12: 153. Apr. 1937. Jenkins, Thelma A. A study of cowboy diction with a glossary of terms. M.A. thesis, University of New Mexico, 1931. 127p. McCarthy, Donald, ed. "Language of the mosshorn"; a glossary of cowboy lingo, rodeo terms, dude ranch jargon, range profanity and other western expressions. Compiled by native authorities; illustrations by Will James and Dale Petit. [Billings, Mont., T h e Gazette Printing Company, cl936] 19p. The Language of Crime and Criminals Dictionary of American underworld lingo. Edited by Hyman E. Golden, Frank O'Leary and Morris Lipsius. N.Y., Twayne Publishers [cl950] 327p. Compiled in an American prison by more than thirty convict editors under the direction of a chaplain; sentences illustrate use of words.

156

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

1243. Fricke, Charles W. 5000 criminal definitions, terms and phrases. Los Angeles, O. W. Smith [c 1941]

86p. "An authoritative reference manual embracing the fundamentals of criminal law and procedure in all its branches, knowledge that is now required of all peace officers." (Subtitle) 1244. Gill, Merle A. Underworld slang. [Kansas City, Mo., South Side Printing Co.] cl929. 30p. 1245. Irwin, Godfrey, ed. American tramp and underworld slang . . . London, E. Partridge Ltd. at Scholartis Press, 1931. 263p. "Words and phrases used by hoboes, tramps, migratory workers, and those on the fringes of society with their uses and origins. With a number of tramp songs. With essays on the slang and the songs. With a terminal essay on American slang and its relation to English thieves' slang by Eric Partridge." (Subtitle) 1246. Kane, E. K. T h e jargon of the underworld. DN 5:433-67, 1927. 1247. Maurer, David W. Whiz mob; a correlation of the technical argot of pickpockets with their behavior pattern. Gainesville, Fla., American Dialect Society, 1955. 199p. (Publication of the American Dialect Society, no.24) 1248 . A word-finder list for whiz mob. PADS no.31:14-30. 1959. 1248a. Argot of the underworld. AS 7:99-118. Dec. 1931. 1249. Monteleone, Vincent J. Criminal slang; the vernacular of the underworld lingo, rev. ed. Boston, Christopher Publishing House [1949] 292p.

SLANG

157

Author was a law enforcement officer. 1250. Partridge, Eric. T h e American underworld and English cant. (In Irwin, Godfrey, ed. American tramp and underworld slang. N.Y., Sears Publishing Company, 19? p.255-64) 1251 . A dictionary of the underworld, British and American, being the vocabularies of crooks, criminals, racketeers, beggars and tramps, convicts, the commercial underworld, the drug traffic the white slave traffic, spivs. London, Routledge and Paul, 1950. 804p. Also published by Macmillan in 1950. 1252. Pollock, Albin J. T h e underworld speaks; an insight to vice - crime - corruption. San Francisco, Calif., Preventive Crime Bureau [cl935] 288p.

y. Loan Words

1253. Beckman, Robert. Notes on Swedish-American. AS 3:448-50. Aug. 1928. 1254. Benardete, Dolores. Immigrant speech - AustrianJewish style. AS 5:1-15. Oct. 1929. 1255. Bentley, Harold W. A dictionary of Spanish terms in English, with special reference to the American Southwest. N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1932. 243p. (Columbia University studies in English and comparative literature) A study of the influence of Spanish on English, especially in the American Southwest; more than half of book is composed of a list of Spanish terms and phrases used in English. Includes a list of Spanish place names in the United States, a list of bull-fighting terms, and a bibliography. Based on Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1932. 1256. Carlson, Harold G. Loan words from German. AS 12:232-33. Oct. 1937. 1256a. Recent American loan words from German. AS 15:205-08. Apr. 1940. 1257. Carpenter, William H. Dutch contributions to the vocabulary of English in America; Dutch remainders in New York State. Modern philology 6:53-68. July 1908. 1258. Chamberlain, Alexander F. Algonkian words in American English: a study in the contact of the 158

LOAN WORDS

159

white man and the Indian. Journal of American folk-lore 1 5 : 2 4 0 - 6 7 . Oct. 1902. 1259. Chase, G. D. Russian words in Kansas. DN 4: 161-62. 1914. 1260. Eggleston, Edward. Wild flowers of English speech in America. Century magazine 4 7 : 8 4 8 - 5 6 . Apr. 1894. Discusses contributions of the Germans, the Dutch, and the North American Indians. Reprinted in Sylva Clapin's A new dictionary of Americanisms, p.518-39. 1261. Gerard, William R . Virginia's Indian contributions to English. Lancaster, Pa., New Era Printing Co., 1907. A reprint from American anthropologist, n.s., 9 : 8 7 - 1 1 2 . Jan.-Mar. 1907. 1262. Harris, Jesse W . German language influences in St. Clair County, 111. AS 2 3 : 1 0 6 - 1 1 0 . Apr. 1948. 1263. Hutson, Arthur E. Gaelic loan-words in American. AS 2 2 : 1 8 - 2 3 . Feb. 1947. 1264. Krumpelmann, J o h n T . More words from Mexico. AS 3 2 : 1 7 6 - 7 9 . Oct. 1957. 1265. Kurath, Hans. German relics in Pennsylvania English. Monatshefte für deutsche Unterricht 37: 9 6 - 1 0 2 . Apr.-May 1945. 1266. Lounsbury, T h o m a s R . Scotticisms and Americanisms. Harper 1 2 6 : 4 1 7 - 2 4 . Feb. 1913. 1267. Mencken, Henry L. T h e first loan words. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p. 104-13) 1268 . Loan words and non-English influences. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. P. 150-63)

160

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1269. Meroney, Howard. Gaelic loan words in American. AS 22:289-91. Dec. 1947. A reply to Mr. Hutson's article on the same subject. 1270. Meyer, A. W. Some German-American isms from the Middle West. AS 2:134. Dec. 1926. 1271. Neumann, J . H. T h e Dutch element in the vocabulary of American English. Journal of English and Germanic philology 44:274-80. July 1945. 1272. Norris, Philetus W. Glossary [of Indian names, words, and western provincialisms] (In his The calumet of the Coteau. Phila., Lippincott, 1883. p.223-33) 1273. Northrop, Stuart A. Terms from the Spanish. AS 12:79-81. Feb. 1937. 1274. Pound, Louise. T h e jocularizing of French words and phrases in present-day American speech. DN 5:77-79. 1920. 1275 . T h e pluralization of Latin loan words in present-day American speech. Classical journal 15:163-68. Dec. 1919. 1276. Pyles, Thomas. Early American speech: adoptions from foreign tongues. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House, 1952. p.28-55) 1277 . Later American speech: adoptions from foreign tongues. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random House, 1952. p.191—214) 1278. Rockwell, Leo L. Older German loan words in American English. AS 20:247-57. Dec. 1945. 1279. Rothenberg, Jules G. Some American idioms from the Yiddish. AS 18:43-48. Feb. 1943.

LOAN WORDS

161

1280. Schulman, David. Spanish words in American English. AS 30:227-31. Oct. 1955. 1281. Sorvig, Ralph W. Topical analysis of Spanish loanwords in written American English of the American Southwest. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Denver, 1952. 295p. 1282. Stone, Ruth M. Studien über den deutschen Einflusz auf das amerikanische Englisch. Ph.D. dissertation, Marburg, 1934. 1283. Trumbull, J. H. Words derived from Indian languages of North America. American Philological Association. Transactions, 1872, p. 19-32. 1284. Upson, John F. French loan-words in American English. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1940. 54 1. 1285. Veltman, Peter. Dutch survivals in Holland, Mich. AS 15:80-83. Feb. 1940. Dutch flavor of English in neighborhood of Holland, Mich.

8. Dictionaries

Dictionaries

of

Americanisms

1286. Aubrey (Dr.) Americanisms. (In Clapin, Sylva. A new dictionary of Americanisms. N.Y., Weiss, Louis, 1902. p.509-17) 1287. Bartlett, John R. Dictionary of Americanisms: a glossary of words and phrases, usually regarded as peculiar to the United States. N.Y., Bartlett and Welford, 1848. 412p. 2d ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 1859. 524p. 3d ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 1860. 524p. 4th ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 1877. 813p. This work is the first lengthy dictionary of American speech. The 1848 edition contains about 3725 words and phrases "which are used in familiar conversation, but seldom employed in composition - all the perversions of language, and abuses of words into which people, in certain sections of the country, had fallen, and some of those remarkable and ludicrous forms of speech which have been adopted in the United States." (Introduction, p.iv) John Bartlett was a Rhode Island antiquarian and bibliographer who published the John Carter Brown Catalogue and 162

DICTIONARIES

163

several notable works on Rhode Island history. A review of his Dictionary appears in Blackwood's magazine 89:421-39. Apr. 1861. 1288. Boucher, (Rev.) Jonathan. Boucher's glossary of archaic and provincial words; a supplement to the dictionaries of the English language, particularly those of Dr. Johnson and Dr. Webster . . . Edited by Rev. Joseph Hunter and Joseph Stevenson. London, Printed for Black, Young, and Young, 1832-33. Parts 1-2. [176]p. " T h e first writer, so far as is now known, who gave much attention to the American English which he heard in use in this country was Jonathan Boucher who came to Virginia in 1759 to act as tutor in the household of a Captain Dixon. Boucher made his home in America until the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. About 1770 he drew up a list of some American words and expressions which he heard used in Virginia and Maryland." (Mitford M. Mathews, A survey of English dictionaries, p.50-51) It was designed to be a large work but only two parts were published. 1289. Clapin, Sylva. A new dictionary of Americanisms: being a glossary of words supposed to be peculiar to the United States and the Dominion of Canada. N.Y., Weiss, Louis, 1902. 581p. "He proposed to augment preceding works on the same subject by adding terms from the fauna and flora of America, and newspaper and political terms." (Mitford M. Mathews, A survey of English dictionaries, p.56) The Dictionary contains Dr. Aubrey's Americanisms and Edward Eggles-

164

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

ton's essay "Wild flowers of English speech in America". Mr. Clapin was a Canadian who had previously published a Dictionnaire canadienfrancais. Montreal, 1894. 1290. A dictionary of American English on historical principles. Edited by Sir William Craigie . . . with the collaboration of James R. Hulbert . . . George Watson, associate ed., Mitford M. Mathews, assistant ed. and Allen Walker Read, assistant ed. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1936-44. 4v. One of the chief aims of this work is to show "clearly those features by which the English of the American colonies and the United States is distinguished from that of England and the rest of the English speaking world. It includes not only words and phrases which are clearly or apparently of American origin, or have a greater currency here than elsewhere, but also every word denoting something which has a real connection with the development of the country and the history of its people . . . T h e end of the nineteenth century has been selected as a fitting point at which to terminate the admission of new words . . . T h e illustration of those already current before that date, however, is frequently carried into the first quarter of the present century. It has also been found necessary to restrict the inclusion of slang and dialect words to those which are of early date or special prominence . . ." (Preface, p.v) Etymology and pronunciation are not given Quotations illustrating the use of the words are dated and arranged chronologically.

DICTIONARIES

165

Bibliography, p.2530-52. 1291. Weingarten, Joseph Α., comp. Supplementary notes to the Dictionary of American English. N.Y. [1948] 95 p. Includes additional quotations for about 700 of the entries in the DAE, some antedating those in the latter work. 1292. A dictionary of Americanisms on historical principles. Edited by Mitford M. Mathews. Chicago, University of Chicago Press [cl951] 2v. " T h e purpose of this dictionary is to treat historically as many as possible of those words and meanings of words which have been added to the English language in the U.S." (Preface) Contains 50,000 entries; etymologies and pronunciation given for many words. Chronological arrangement of quotations and definitions; illustrations by Mr. Irwin Studney; bibliography, p.1916-46. 1293. Diehl, Anna T . Two thousand words and their definitions; not in Webster's dictionary. N.Y., J . S. Ogilvie [cl888] 222p. See James N. Tidwell's article about this work in AS 35:266-69. Dec. 1960. 1294. Dunglison, Robley. Americanisms. (In Mathews, Mitford M., ed. T h e beginnings of American English. Chicago, University of Chicago Press [c 1931 ] p.99-112) Cpntains his glossary which first appeared in the Virginia literary museum and journal of belles lettres, arts, sciences, Dec. 1829 and Jan. 6, 1830. Glossary is also in DN 5:422-32. 1927. Dr. Dunglison (1798-1869) was professor of medicine at the University of Virginia.

166

AMERICAN ENGLISH Λ BIBLIOGRAPHY

1295. Edwards, Eliezer. Words, facts and phrases; a dictionary of curious, quaint, and out-of-the-way matters. Philadelphia, Lippincott [1881] 631 p. Contains many Americanisms. 1296. Elwyn, Alfred L. Glossary of supposed Americanisms. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1859. 122p. " H e confined his glossary to archaic English words surviving in America, and sought only to prove that they had come down from our remotest ancestry and were thus undeserving of the reviling lavished upon them by English critics." (H. L. Mencken, The American language, 4th ed., p.99) T h e author was a physician who did not practice his profession but instead devoted his time to the study of history, philology, and botany. He was born in Portsmouth, N.H., in 1804 and died in Philadelphia in 1884. 1297. Fallows, (Rev.) Samuel. A complete handbook of synonyms and antonyms, or synonyms and words of opposite meaning. Chicago, Standard Book Compay, 1883. 512p. Contains a dictionary of Americanisms and Briticisms, etc. p.294-342; published also in separate format in 54p. in the same year. The author was a clergyman and writer in Wisconsin and Illinois. He was an Englishman who moved to America in 1848. 1298. Farmer, John S. Americanisms, old and new; a dictionary of words, phrases and colloquialisms peculiar to the United States, British America, the West Indies, etc. London, T . Poulter and Sons, 1889. 564p. Contains about 5000 terms; full definitions;

DICTIONARIES

1299.

1300.

1301.

1302.

167

numerous quotations from American periodicals, many from the year 1888. Humphreys, David. [Glossary of Americanisms] (In Mathews, Mitford, M., ed. T h e beginnings of American English. Chicago, University of Chicago Press [cl931] p.56-63) Appeared first as an appendix to his play The Yankey in England (1815). T h e author thought the talk of Doolittle, the Yankee, would not be understood without it; contains 275 words and expressions, some of them not strictly Americanisms. Both Bartlett and the Oxford English Dictionary derived some words from this glossary. Larson, Cedric. Drinkers dictionary; one of the earliest lists of colonial American colloquialisms. AS 12:86-92. Apr. 1737. "The drinkers dictionary" appeared first in the Pennsylvania gazette, Jan. 6, 1737, p. 1-2; later it was reprinted in the South Carolina gazette, Apr. 30, 1727, p.1-2. Mathews, Mitford M. American words. Cleveland, World Publishing Company [1959] 246p. A dictionary of words like chewing gum, coyote, Annie Oakley, malted milk, pony express, etc. A full explanation of the origin and significance of each word is given. Pickering, John. A vocabulary or collection of words and phrases which have been supposed to be peculiar to the United States of America . . . Boston, Cummings and Hilliard, 1816. 206p. T h e first dictionary of Americanisms; originally published in the Memoirs of the American

168

1303. 1304.

1305.

1306.

1307.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Academy of Arts and Sciences 3:439-536. 1815. Author was competent scholar in several languages. Mr. Mathews writes in The beginnings of American English, p.64, as follows: "Shortly after his death, John Pickering was referred to as the most distinguished philologist to which the western continent has given birth." He lived from 1777 to 1846. T h e notes which John Drayton wrote in the margins of Pickering's vocabulary in a copy of the Memoirs are included in an article by Hennig Cohen in 4 S 31:264-70. Dec. 1956. Russell, T . Baron. Current Americanisms. London, Saxon and Co., 1893. 158p. Santamaría, Francisco J. Diccionario general de Americanismos . . . Méjico, D. F. Editorial P. Robredo, 1942 [i.e. 1943] 3v. Schele De Vere, Maximilian. Americanisms; the English of the new world. 2d ed. N.Y., Scribner, 1872. 685p. First ed. in 1871; contains about 4000 terms. Author was a professor of languages at the University of Virginia. Tallman, Marjorie. Dictionary of American folklore. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl959] 324p. Contains many regional words and expressions. Taylor, Anna M. T h e language of World War II. rev. and enl. ed. Ν.Y., Wilson, 1948. 265p. First edition was published in 1945. Includes abbreviations, quotations, slogans, titles, and other terms and phrases. Definitions and quotations come from American books and periodicals. T h e author was the head of the literature divi-

DICTIONARIES

169

sion of the Rochester Public Library at the time she compiled this dictionary. 1308. Thornton, Richard H. An American glossary. Being an attempt to illustrate Americanisms upon historical principles. Phila., Lippincott, 1912. 2v. At his death he left material which was later edited by Percy W. Long and published in Dialect notes, vol.6, pts.3-18, 1931-39. Although an old work, it is still an important record of American dialects; contains many quotations, especially from the Congressional record. T h e author died in 1925. 1309. Waldhorn, Arthur. A concise dictionary of the American language. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl 956] 186p. Includes words originating in the United States and English words which have acquired a new meaning among Americans. Mr. Waldhorn is in the department of English of the City College of New York. 1310. Wentworth, Harold. American dialect dictionary. N.Y., Crowell, 1944. 747p. "This dictionary is primarily concerned with variations — vocabular, phrasal, semantic, phonological, and morphological — in the English language as spoken and written by natives of North America, and especially with those variations that are due to, or coincident with, geographical location. In other words this book deals mainly with dialect in the sense of localisms, regionalisms, and provincialisms; folk speech, urban as well as rustic; New England and southern United States dialects viewed in their deviations from

170

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

General Northern, or Western, American English typified by the dialect of central New York State (Cortland ) native to the editor; the speech of the Appalachians typified by the Monongahela River valley, in which he has lived nine years; conventional and traditional dialect; locutions and usages having a dialectal flavor or association; those on the fringe of colloquiality; old-fashioned, archaic, and poetic turns of expression . . . and to some extent . . . the class and cultural dialects." (Preface) Contains 15,000 terms and 60,000 quotations. Slang and occupational words are not included. 1311. Whitford, Harold C. and Dixson, Robert J. Handbook of American idioms and idiomatic usage. N.Y., Regents Publishing Company [1953] 155p. "This handbook lists and defines more than 4,500 idioms of the American language and illustrates their use in sentences." (from the title page) 1312. Woods, Henry F. American sayings; famous phrases, slogans and aphorisms, rev. and enl. ed. Ν.Y., Duell, Sloan and Pearce [cl949] 312p. "The arrangement of this book is topical and chronological in each of the several classifications. Its purpose is to explain the origin and occasion of phrases and sayings which are, or have been, current in this country, which are frequently alluded to, or which are familiar to most Americans although they may have forgotten, or may never have known, the identity of the authors or the occasions of the quotations." (Foreword)

DICTIONARIES

171

ENGLISH LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES PUBLISHED IN T H E UNITED STATES

Nineteenth

Century

1313. Alexander, Caleb. Columbian dictionary of the English language: in which many words, peculiar to the United States, and many words of general use, not found in any other dictionary, are inserted . . . Boston, Thomas and Andrews, 1800. 556p. "This was the first dictionary to boast of its Americanism." (George P. Krapp, The English language in America, v.l, p.358) 1314. Allison, Burgiss. T h e American standard of orthography and pronunciation, and improved dictionary of the English language, abridged for the use of schools. Burlington, N.J., J. S. Meehan, 1815. 390p. 1314a. The American encyclopedia dictionary; a most complete and thoroughly modern dictionary of the English language . . . also a comprehensive encyclopedia of all branches of knowledge with numerous illustrations; the entire work prepared and arranged by an editorial staff of distinguished American scholars, assisted by a corps of specialists . . . Unabridged ed. Chicago, W. B. Conkey Co., 1896. 4v. Published also in 6 vols, in 1895. 1315. The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language; prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney

172

1316.

1317.

1318.

1319.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

. . . N.Y., Century Co. [1889-91] 6v. In 1894 The Century cyclopedia of names was published, and in 1897, The Century atlas of the world. Contains a vocabulary of about 200,000 words. . . it remains the most elaborate American attempt in the field of lexicography." (George P. Krapp, The English language in America, v.l, p.374) Coxe, Richard S. The new critical pronouncing dictionary of the English language . . . T o which will be prefixed. Mr. Walker's principles of English pronunciation . . . Burlington, N.J., Allinson, 1813. 941 p. Elliott, John and Johnson, Samuel, Jr. A selected pronouncing and accented dictionary. 2d ed. Suffield, Conn., Printed by Edward Gray, 1800. 223p. Listed in Charles Evan's American bibliography, no.37355 Johnson, Samuel. A dictionary of the English language: in which the words are deduced from their originals, and illustrated in their different significations, by examples from the best writers. T o which are prefixed a history of the language, and an English grammar. 1st American, from the 11th London ed. . . . T o which are added Walker's principles of English pronunciation. Philadelphia, Moses Thomas, 1818, 2v. . Johnson's dictionary of the English language in miniature . . . 2d American ed. Boston, W. Andrews, 1806. 276p. 3d American ed. Boston, West and Blake, 1810.

DICTIONARIES

1320 .

1321.

1322.

1323.

1324.

276p.

173

Johnson's English dictionary, as improved by Todd and abridged by Chalmers; with Walker's pronouncing dictionary, combined . . . Philadelphia, Kimber and Sharpless, 1841. 1156p. Johnson's dictionary, improved by Todd, abridged for the use of schools . . . and an appendix of Americanisms. Boston, Jenks and Palmer, 1839. Appendix of Americanisms, p.384-95. Johnson, Samuel, Jr. A school dictionary, being a compendium of the latest and most improved dictionaries, and comprising an easy and concise method of teaching children the true meaning and pronunciation of the most useful words in the English language . . . New Haven, Edward O'Brien, 1798. 198p. " T h e first English dictionary made and published in America . . . Of this book only two copies are known to be in existence, one in the Yale University Library, imperfect, and one in the British Museum." (George P. Krapp, The English language in America, v.l, p.356) Jones, Stephen. A general pronouncing and explanatory dictionary of the English language, for the use of schools, foreigners learning English . . . Philadelphia, 1806. Listed in George P. Krapp, The English language in America, v.2, p.278. Perry, William. Royal standard English dictionary. 4th ed. Worcester, Mass., 1796. " T h e first American Worcester ed. of Perry was dated Jan. 1, 1788." (George P. Krapp, The

174

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

English language in America, v.2, p.281) 1324a. Sheridan, Thomas. A complete dictionary of the English language, both with regard to sound and meaning one main object of which is to establish a plain and permanent standard of pronunciation. T o which is prefixed a rhetorical grammar 4th ed. Carefully revised and corrected by the Rev. John Andrews . . . Phila., Printed by William Young, 1789. 6th ed. Phila., 1796. 1325. Smalley, Daniel S. An American phonetic dictionary of the English language, adapted to the present state of literature and science . . . Cincinnati, Longley Bros., 1855. 776p. Designed by Nathaniel Storrs; introduction by A. J. Ellis. Definitions are in phonetic alphabet devised by Benn Pitman, Elias Longley, and A. J. Ellis. 1326. A standard dictionary of the English language, upon original plans . . . prepared by more than two hundred specialists and other scholars, under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk . . . editor-in-chief, Francis A. March . . . consulting editor . . . N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1893-95. 2v. 1327. Walker, John. Critical pronouncing dictionary and expositor of the English language. Phila., Printed by Budd and Bartram, 1803. 990p. "For two generations it was the leading authority on pronunciation and it was edited and published in countless forms and adaptations." (George P. Krapp, The English language in America, v.l, p.356) First published in London in 1791. 1328. Webster, Noah. A compendious dictionary of the

DICTIONARIES

1329 .

1330 .

175

English language. From Sidney's Press. For Hudson & Goodwin, Hartford, and Increase Cooke & Co., New Haven. 1806. 408p. A dictionary of the English language; compiled for the use of common schools in the United States. 1807. 306p. An American dictionary of the English language: intended to exhibit 1. T h e origin, affinities and primary signification of English words, as far as they have been ascertained, 2. T h e genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage, or to just principles of analogy, 3. Accurate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations. T o which are prefixed, an introductory dissertation on the origin, history, and connection of the languages of Western Asia and of Europe, and a concise grammar of the English language. N.Y., S. Converse, 1828. 2v. ". . . its merits at once gave it first place among English dictionaries. It marks, indeed, a definite advance in the science of lexicography. Webster established once for all the practice, already begun in his first dictionary, of freely recording non-literary words, even though he did not push his principles to their logical conclusion and record all words whatsoever . . . He justly based his definitions upon the usage of American as well as British writers and speakers, and did not hesitate to record 'Americanisms' which he deemed worthy. As a whole, Webster's American Dictionary was a scholarly achievement of the first order, richly deserving of its great reputation

176

1331 .

1332 . 1333 .

1334 .

1335 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

at home and abroad." (Kemp Malone, "Noah Webster", Dictionary of American biography 19:597) Contains about 70,000 words. A dictionary of the English language; abridged from T h e American dictionary, for the use of primary schools and the counting house. N.Y., White, Gallaher & White, 1830. 532p. A dictionary for primary schools . . . N.Y., N. and J . White, 1833. 341p. An American dictionary of the English language; first edition in octavo, containing the whole vocabulary of the quarto, with corrections, improvements, and several thousand additional words; to which is prefixed an introductory dissertation on the origin, history, and connection of the languagesof western Asia and Europe, with' an explanation of the principles on which languages are formed. New Haven, the Author, 1841. 2v. A high school pronouncing dictionary of the English language, abridged from the American dictionary, of Noah Webster . . . by William G. Webster. New York, Huntington and Savage, 1849. 360p. A pronouncing and defining dictionary of the English language, abridged from Webster's American dictionary . . . By Chauncey A. Goodrich . . . T o which are added Walker's key to the pronunciation of classical and Scripture proper names; a vocabulary of modern geographical names . . . by J . Thomas . . . Phila., Lippincott, 1856. 61 Op.

DICTIONARIES

177

1336. Webster's international dictionary of the English language, being the authentic edition of Webster's unabridged dictionary, comprising the issues of 1864, 1879 and 1884, now thoroughly revised and enlarged under the supervision of Noah Porter. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1890. 201 lp. 1337. Webster's collegiate dictionary; a dictionary of the English language . . . mainly abridged from Webster's international dictionary . . . Springfield, Mass., Merriam [1898] 1062p. 1338. Webster, William G. An elementary dictionary; containing a selection of the most useful words in the English language; being a sequel to Webster's Elementary spelling book. N.Y., George F. Cooledge and Brother, 1844? 168p. 1339. Woodbridge, William. A key to the English language. Middletown, Conn., 1801. 1340. Worcester, Joseph E. Comprehensive pronouncing and explanatory dictionary of the English language. N.Y., 1830. 400p. . . written chiefly for the use of cultivated speakers and writers, and was based mainly on Johnson and Walker. This work was revised and enlarged in 1835, 1860, and 1864, was popular and was sold at the rate of some eight thousand copies a year." (Leah R. Glas, "American dictionaries", p.73) 1341 . A universal and critical dictionary of the English language: to which are added Walker's Key to the pronunciation of classical and Scripture names, much enlarged and improved; and a pronouncing vocabulary of modem geographi·

178

1342 .

1343 .

1344 .

1345.

1346.

1347 . 1348 . 1349 .

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

cal names. Boston, Wilkins, Carter, 1850. 956p. A primary pronouncing dictionary of the English language . . . Boston, Jenks, Palmer and Co., 1850. 352p. A pronouncing, explanatory and synonymous dictionary of the English language . . . Boston, Hickling, Swan, and Brown, 1855. 565p. Comprehensive dictionary of the English language. Boston, Hickling, 1860. 1786p. "The vocabulary in this 1860 edition consisted of some 19,000 words, from many sources, in addition to the words found in the 1846 volume, making the total number of words in the vocabulary 104,000, which was greater than had been included in any preceding American dictionary. This was partly accounted for by the fact that compound words, the meaning of many of which is obvious, and many words with the prefix un, were included in the list. (Leah R. Glas, "American dictionaries", p. 75) An elementary dictionary of the English language. New ed. Phila., Lippincott [cl 860] 412p. . A primary dictionary of the English language. Boston, Swan, Brewer and Tileston, 1861. 384p. A school dictionary of the English language . . . Phila., Lippincott [cl883] 390p. A new school dictionary of the English language . . . Phila., Lippincott [cl883] 390p. A new primary dictionary of the English language; a pronouncing and defining dictionary of the words in popular use. Phila., Lippincott

DICTIONARIES

179

[1902] 348p.

Twentieth

THE

WEBSTER

Century

DICTIONARIES

1350. Webster's collegiate dictionary. 2d ed. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1903? 3d ed. 1916. 1222p. 4th ed, 1931. 1222p. 5th ed. 1936. 1274p. 1351. Webster's new international dictionary of the English language, based on the international dictionary of 1890 and 1900. Now completely revised in all departments, including also a dictionary of geography and biography, being the latest authentic quarto edition of the Merriam series. W . T . Harris, Ph.D., LL.D., editor-in-chief, F. Sturges Allen, general editor. Springfield, Mass., G. & C. Merriam, cl909. 2620p. "Contains twice as many entries as the previous edition." (Publisher's weekly 151:159. Jan. 11, 1947) 1352. Webster's elementary-school dictionary. N.Y., American Book [cl914] 702p. 1353. Webster's new international dictionary of the English language. 2d ed., unabridged. An entirely new book . . . A. Merriam-Webster, William Allan Neilson, editor-in-chief; Thomas A. Knott, general editor; Paul W. Carhart, managing editor. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1934. 3210p. " . . . Merriam believes that this edition repre-

180

1354. 1355.

1356.

1357.

1358.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

sented the most ambitious project of co-operative scholarship undertaken in America u p to that time. T h e dictionary . . . was prepared by 207 special editors who worked on it for eight years. It contained more than 600,000 entries and 12,000 illustrations and cost $1,300,000 before a single copy was sold. Copyrights on new material were taken out in 1939 and 1945 and a Reference History was later added to the dictionary material to comprise 'Webster's New International Dictionary Second Edition With Reference History' which is sold by subscription." (.Publishers' Weekly, 151:159. Jan. 11, 1947) Webster's elementary dictionary. N.Y., American Book Co. [cl935] 739p. Webster's student's dictionary for upper school levels. N.Y., American Book Company, 1938. 1001p. Webster's tower dictionary and atlas; a complete vocabulary of clear, concise definitions, supplemented by selected reference material and a full section of world maps in color . . . Cleveland, World Publishing Co. [1946] 378p. First issued in 1942. Webster's new collegiate dictionary: a MerriamWebster based on Webster's new international dictionary, 2d ed. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1949. 1209p. Webster's new World dictionary of the American language. Encyclopedic ed. [General editors, Joseph H. Friend and David B. Guralnik; etymological editor, Harold E. Whitehall] Cleveland, Ohio, World Publishing Co., 1951. 2v.

DICTIONARIES

181

1359. Webster's new World dictionary of the American language. College ed. Cleveland, World Publishing Co. [1953] 1724p. Published in 1928 under title New World dictionary. 1360. Webster's new World dictionary of the American language. David D. Guralnik, general editor. Concise ed. Cleveland, World Publishing Co. [cl956] 882p. Based upon and includes material from Webster's new World dictionary, college ed. 1361. Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language unabridged, utilizing all the experiences and resources of more than one hundred years of Merriam-Webster dictionaries. Philip Babcock Gove, Ph.D., editor-in-chief. Springfield, Mass., Merriam [c 1961 ] 2662p. Completely new dictionary; contains more than 450,000 entries, of which 100,000 are new words or new meanings never before included in the Webster unabridged dictionary; 3000 black and white illustrations and 20 color plates; more than 200,000 usage examples, including quotations from well-known people in many walks of life. FUNK & WAGNALLS

DICTIONARIES

1362. Funk and Wagnalls new standard dictionary of the English language . . . prepared by more than three hundred and eighty specialists and other scholars, under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk . . . editor-in-chief, Calvin Thomas . . . Consulting editor, Frank H. Vizetelly . . . managing editor . . . N. Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1913. 2808p.

182

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

1363. Funk and Wagnalls practical standard dictionary of the English language. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1934. 1309p. Published also under title College standard dictionary. 1364. Funk and Wagnalls standard high school dictionary of the English language . . . Edited by Frank H. Vizetelly and Charles E. Funk. N.Y., Row, Peterson, 1939 1008p. 1365. Funk and Wagnalls standard junior school dictionary of the English language . . . Edited by Charles E. Funk, N.Y., Row, Peterson. 1940. 752p. 1366. Funk and Wagnalls new standard dictionary of the English language, prepared by more than 380 specialists and other scholars under the supervision of I. K. Funk, Calvin Thomas, F. H. Vizetelly. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1947. 2814p. 1367. Funk and Wagnalls standard high school dictionary of the English language. Edited by Frank H. Vizetelly and Charles E. Funk. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1947. 1008p. First published under title of The high school standard dictionary of the English language. 1368. Funk and Wagnalls new college standard dictionary. Charles E. Funk, ed. Emphatype ed. Ν.Y., Funk and Wagnalls [1947] 1404p. Based on the Funk and Wagnalls new standard dictionary. First published under the title The college standard dictionary of the English language. 1369. Funk and Wagnalls new comprehensive standard dictionary of the English language . . . edited by Frank H. Vizetelly and Charles E. Funk. N.Y.,

DICTIONARIES

137). 1371.

1372.

1373.

1374.

183

Funk and Wagnalls, 1947. 1008p. First published under title The comprehensive language. standard dictionary of the English Concise standard dictionary of the English language. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1952. 585p. Funk and Wagnalls student's standard dictionary of the English language. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls [1953] 1309p. Based on the College standard dictionary. Funk and Wagnalls desk standard dictionary of the English language. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1953. 918p. Funk and Wagnalls new practical standard dictionary of the English language. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls [1953] 1572p. Funk and Wagnalls new practical standard dictionary of the English language. Charles E. Funk, editor. Britannica world language ed. N.Y., Funk and Wagnalls, 1956. 2v. 2065p. THE

CENTURY

DICTIONARIES

1373- T h e Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language, prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney . . . N.Y., Century Co., 1901. LOV. v.1-8, the Century dictionary. V.9, the Century cyclopedia of names. v.lO, the Century atlas of the world. 1376. . . . T h e Century dictionary and cyclopedia, with a new atlas of the world; a work of general reference in all departments of knowledge . . . Rev. and enl. ed. N.Y., Century Co. [cl911] 12v. v.1-10, the Century dictionary v. 11, the Century cyclopedia of names

184

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V.12, the Century atlas of the world. In 1911 it was the most comprehensive and detailed dictionary. Contains more than 530,000 words; large amount of encyclopedic information; excellent illustrations, maps, plates, and typography. 1377. The new Century dictionary of the English language, based on matter selected from the original Century dictionary and entirely rewritten, with the addition of a great amount of new material, and containing the great mass of words and phrases in common use. Edited by H. G. Emery and K. G. Brewster. N.Y., Century [cl927] 3v. 1378. New Century dictionary of the English language; based on matter selected from the original Century dictionary and entirely rewritten, with the addition of a great amount of new material, and containing the great mass of words and phrases in ordinary use. Edited by H. G. Emery and K. G. Brewster, new ed. Ν.Y., Appleton-Century, 1938. 2v. 1379. The new Century dictionary of the English language, based on matter selected from the original Century dictionary and entirely rewritten . . . Edited by H. G. Emery and K. G. Brewster; revision editor, Catherine B. Avery. N.Y., Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1952. 2v. 2820p. THE

WINSTON

DICTIONARIES

1380. The Winston simplified dictionary, advanced ed. Phila., Winston, [cl926] 1260p. 1381. Winston simplified dictionary for children. Phila.,

185

DICTIONARIES

Winston, 1937. 1382. T h e Winston simplified dictionary, college ed. Phila., Winston, 1937. 1260p. 1383. Winston simplified dictionary. Comprehensive ed. Phila., Winston, 1937. 940p. 1384. T h e Winston dictionary, college ed. Phila., Winston, 1946. 1260p. 1385. Winston dictionary for children. Phila., Winston, 1948. 644p. 1386. T h e new Winston dictionary for children. Phila., Winston, 1956. 950p. "Based upon the Winston dictionary for schools" (Preface) T H E THORNDIKE AND BARNHART

DICTIONARIES

1387. Barnhart, Clarence L., ed. American college dictionary. N.Y., Random House, 1947. 1432p. "In general the ACD's definitions are terse, precise, clear — and in arrangement, better than the orthodox order of Webster's unabridged. Likewise, the ACD makes generous use of the illustrative phrase, indispensable to lucid definition. It provides excellent discriminations between numerous synonyms . . . In matters of usage generally, the ACD is modern, scientific and descriptive, based on careful appraisals of current practice. In handling pronunciation the ACD has ventured certain departures from the traditional system of diacritical marks, especially in its use of the schwa or inverted 'e* . . ." (From C a r l e t o n F. Wells in Saturday

review of

literature

31:19-20. Jan. 24, 1948). T h e Dictionary compiled by 355 authorities and specialists.

was

186

A M E R I C A N ENGLISH A B I B L I O G R A P H Y

1388. —

1389 .

1390.

1391 .

1392 . 1393 .

1394 .

1395 . 1396 .

Thorndike-Barnhart comprehensive desk dictionary. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday [1951] 896p. Thorndike-Barnhart concise dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman, 1956 544p. Based on the Thorndike-Barnhart comprehensive desk dictionary. Thorndike, Edward L. Thorndike Century beginning dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [1945] 645p. Based on the Thorndike-Century junior dictionary. T h e Thorndike-Century junior dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [cl935] 970p. rev. ed. 1942 940p. Thorndike-Century senior dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [cl941] 1065p. and Barnhart, Clarence L. ThorndikeBarnhart advanced junior dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [1957] 946p. Thorndike-Barnhart beginning dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [1952] 645p. A revision of the Thorndike Century beginning dictionary. Thorndike-Barnhart high school dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [1952] 1096p. Thorndike-Barnhart junior dictionary. Chicago, Scott, Foresman [1952] 784p. A revision of the Thorndike Century junior dictionary

DICTIONARIES OTHER

187

TITLES

1397. Macmillan's modern dictionary, complied and edited under the supervision of Bruce Overton. N.Y., Macmillan, 1938. 1466p. rev. ed. 1943. 1494p. rev. school ed. 1951. 1509p. 1398. Scott, George R., ed. Swan's Anglo-American dictionary. N.Y., Library Publishers [1952] 1514p. "Giving, as it does, the different meanings and spellings, featuring specific Americanisms on the one hand, and specific Britishisms on the other, Swan's Anglo-American dictionary, it is hoped, will prove of widespread interest . . . Where any word, in its current usage, is restricted to America or to Britain, this fact is clearly stated; where a word is of American origin but used also in Britain with the same significance, the derivation is indicated . . ." (Introduction) 1399. Stein, Jess M., ed. T h e American everyday dictionary. N.Y., Random House [1949] 570p. Based upon the American college dictionary. 1400 . The American high school dictionary. N.Y., Oxford Book Co. [1950] 586p. Based upon the American college dictionary. Articles, Books, etc., Containing Information about American Dictionaries 1401. Craigie, (Sir) William A. Sidelights on the Dictionary of American English. (In English Association, London. Essays and studies. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1944. v.30, p. 100-13) 1402. Gibson, Martha J . America's first lexicographer, Samuel Johnson, Jr., 1757-1836. AS 12:19-30.

188

1403. 1404.

1405.

1406.

1407.

1408.

1409.

1410.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Feb. 1937. Identifying Samuel Johnson, Jr. New England quarterly 9: 688-89. Dec. 1936. Glas, Leah R. American dictionaries. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1940. 140p. Carries the record of the making of American dictionaries through 1939, thereby serving as a supplement to Dr. Steger's dissertation; contains a list of most of the editions of Webster's dictionary on p.68-71. Hefling, Woodford A. A dictionary of American words and meanings. AS 24:124-26. Apr. 1949. About Mathews's essay on the DAE in English Institute Essays, 1947, p. 76-96. Howard, Leon. Towards a historical aspect of American speech consciousness. AS 5:301-05. Apr. 1930. About attack on Webster's proposed American dictionary. Hulbert, James R. Dictionaries British and American N.Y. Philosophical Library [1955] 107p. Contains a brief history of the major English language dictionaries. T h e author was coeditor of the Dictionary of American English. Ives, Sumner. A review of Webster's third new international dictionary, a Merriam-Webster. Word study 37:1-8. Dec. 1961. Kahn, E. J. G. and C. Merriam and 100 years of dictionaries. School and society 65:205-06. Mar. 22, 1947. Krapp, George P. American dictionaries. (In his T h e English language in America. N.Y., Ungar, 1960. v.l, p.351-77)

DICTIONARIES

189

1411. Leavitt, Robert Κ. Noah's ark, New England Yankees, and the endless quest; a short history of the original Webster dictionaries, with particular reference to their first hundred years as publications of G. and C. Merriam. Springfield, Mass., Merriam, 1947. 106p. 1412. [Letter terming absurd the plan of Noah Webster to issue a dictionary of the American language] Gazette of the United States, June 10, 1800. Not verified. 1413. Malone, Kemp. A linguistic patriot. AS 1:26-31. Oct. 1925. About Noah Webster's unabridged dictionary published in 1828. 1414. Mathews, Mitford M. Problems encountered in the preparation of a dictionary of American words and meanings. (In English Institute Essays, 1947. N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1948. p. 76-96) About the DAE. 1415. 100 years of Merriam-Webster dictionaries. Publishers' weekly 151:156-60. Jan. 11, 1947. 1416. Read, Allen W. Noah Webster as a euphemist. DN 6:385-91. 1934. 1417. Skeel, Emily E. A bibliography of the writings of Noah Webster. N.Y., New York Public Library, 1958. 655p. 1418. Stanton, Theodore. American dictionaries. Westminster review 139:610-15. June 1893. Chiefly a description of the Century dictionary. 1419. Steger, Stewart A. American dictionaries . . . Baltimore, J . H. Fürst Company, 1913. [150]p. This is a Ph.D. dissertation completed at the University of Virginia in 1913.

190

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1420. Warfel, Harry R. Noah Webster and the dawn of linguistic science. (In Festschrift für Walther Fischer. Heidelberg, Universitätsverlag, 1959. p.258-69) 1421. Webster, Noah. Preface to An American dictionary of the English language. (In Spiller, Robert E. and Blodgett, Harold. The roots of national culture, rev. ed. N.Y., Macmillan, 1949. p.445-49) 1422. Wilson, George P. American dictionaries and pronunciation. AS 13:243-54. Dec. 1938.

g. Miscellaneous

Language of T h e United States Armed Forces 1423. Colby, Elbridge. Army talk; a familiar dictionary of soldier speech. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1942. 232p. 2d. ed., 1943. 1424. Engler, Leo F. A glossary of United States Air Force slang. AS 30:115-20. May 1955. 1425. Fraser, Edward and Gibbons, John. Soldier and sailor words and phrases, including slang of the trenches and the Air Force; British and American war-words and Service terms and expressions in everyday use: nicknames, sobriquets, and titles of regiments, with their origins; the Battle Honours of the Great War awarded to the British Army. London, Routledge, 1925. 372p. "A number of American service words and expressions, particularly some that became familiar among British troops during the war, have been included." (Prefatory note) 1426. Hietsch, Otto. G.I. slang: an analysis of U.S. Army slang of World War II. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Vienna, 1948. 1427. Howard, Donald. United States Marine Corps slang. AS 31:188-94. Oct. 1956. 1428. Jackson, James L. Air Force language in the making. Quarterly journal of speech 42:14-18. Feb. 191

192

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

1956. 1429. Jenkins, Henry H. T h e diction of Yank: colloquial speech of the American soldier of World W a r II as found in Yank magazine. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, 1957. 228p. T h e major part of the study is the glossary of words found in Yank, the soldier's weekly magazine in World War II. 1430. Keeley, Mary P. A.E.F. English. AS 5:372-86. J u n e 1930. 1430a. Kendall, Park and Viney, Johnny, comps. Dictionary of army and navy slang. N.Y., Mill [cl941] 30p. Not seen; copy in Library of Congress. Johnny Viney is a pseudonym. 1430b. Norman, Arthur M. Army speech and the future of American English. AS 31:107-12. May 1956. 1430c. Rule, George L., Jr. T h e special vocabulary of the United States Air Force. M.A. thesis, Stanford University, 1957. 68p. Nicknames 1431. Shankle, George E. American nicknames, their origin and significance. N.Y., Wilson. 1937. 599p. "Not limited to nicknames of persons, but includes also those applied to places, institutions or objects, arranged by real names with cross references from nicknames. Information under the real names includes some explanation of the nicknames and their origin with reference to sources of information given in footnotes." (Constance M. Winchell, Guide

to reference

books, 7th ed.,

MISCELLANEOUS

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p.363) 2d ed. 1955. 524p. Proper Names 1432. Gannett, Henry. American names. Washington, Public Affairs Press, 1947. 334p. A guide to the origin of place names in the United States. T h e author was formerly a geographer for the United States Geological Survey. 1433. Holt, Alfred H. American place names. N.Y., Crowell [cI938] 222p. A pronouncing dictionary of queer place names in the United States; some humorous comments. 1434. Krapp, George P. Proper names. (In his T h e English language in America. N.Y., Ungar, 1960. v.l, p. 169-224) 1435. Mencken, Henry L. Proper names in America. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.474-554. Supplement 2, p.396-642) 1436. Sealock, Richard B. and Seely, Pauline A. Bibliography of place name literature: United States, Canada, Alaska and Newfoundland. Chicago, American Library Association, 1948. 331 p. T w o supplements which bring this work up to date are in Names 3:102-16, June 1955; and 6 : 2 6 - 5 0 , Mar. 1958. 1437. Smith, Elsdon C. Dictionary of American family names. N.Y., Harper [cl956] 244p. Gives derivation, variants, and brief explanation of common family names in this country. 1438. Stewart, George R . Names on the land; a historical account of place-naming in the United States, rev. and enl. ed. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1958.

194

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51 lp. First ed. in 1945; revised edition contains new chapters on Alaska and Hawaii. Politics 1439. Meredith, Mamie J . Names and nicknames of political parties in the United States formed on the issues of Negro slavery and its consequences. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1929. 167 1. 1440. Norton, Charles L. Political Americanisms: a glossary of terms and phrases current at different periods in American politics. N.Y., Longmans, Green, 1890. 135p. 1441. Oliver, Robert T . Electionisms. AS 8:20-22. Feb. 1933. 1442 . Electionisms of 1936. AS 12:3-9. Feb. 1937. 1443. Smith, Edward C. A dictionary of American politics. Comprising accounts of political parties, measures, and men . . . N.Y., A. L. Burt Company, 1924. 496p. Contains many slang words and phrases used in American politics from the early days to the 1920's. 1444. and Zürcher, Arnold J. A dictionary of American politics. N.Y., Barnes and Noble, 1944. 358p. About 3,020 entries; illustrations; maps 1444a. New dictionary of American politics, rev. ed. N.Y., Barnes and Noble, 1955. 437p. (Everyday handbook series) 1445. Trittschuh, Travis E. T h e semantics of political

MISCELLANEOUS

1446.

1447.

1448.

1449. 1450.

1451 .

1452.

195

cartoon and slogan in America 1876-1884. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1953. Sports Nichols, Edward J. An historical dictionary of baseball terminology. Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1939. Stork, Willis. T h e jargon of sports writers; a linguistic study. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1934. 55 1. Proverbs, Maxims, and Wellerisms Hardie, Margaret. Proverbs and proverbial expressions current in the United States east of the Missouri and north of the Ohio rivers. AS 4: 461-72. Aug. 1929. Jente, Richard. T h e American proverb. AS 7: 342-48. June 1932. Kin, David, ed. Dictionary of American maxims. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl955] 597p. Introduction by J. Donald Adams. Real name of author is David George Plotkin. Dictionary of American proverbs. N.Y., Philosophical Library [cl955] 290p. Contains a preface by Mark Van Doren. The real name of the author is David George Plotkin. Taylor, Archer and Whiting, Bartlett J. A dictionary of American proverbs and proverbial phrases 1820-1880. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1958. 418p. An authoritative collection of proverbs found in the works of American writers between 1820 and 1880. These authors were chosen as representative of various regions and for their popularity.

196

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1453. Whiting, Bartlett J. American wellerisms of the golden age. AS 20:3-11. Feb. 1945. Punctuation 1454. Byington, Stephen T . Certain fashions in commas and apostrophes. AS 20:20-77. Feb. 1945. 1455. Mencken, Henry L. Punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviation. (In his T h e American language. 4th ed. N.Y., Knopf, 1937. p.413-15. Supplement 2, p.320-31) 1456. Summey, George, Jr. American punctuation. N.Y., Ronald Press, 1949. 182p. Deals chiefly with structural punctuation. T h e author is from the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. Other Topics 1457. Bradley, Francis W. T h e press as an ally in collecting folk speech. PADS no. 17:29-39. Apr. 1952. On South Carolina dialect as well as the press (newspapers) . 1458. Carr, Elizabeth B. T r e n d s in word-compounding in American speech. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1954. 1459 . Word-compounding in American speech. Speech monographs 26:1-20. Mar. 1959. 1460. Cassidy, Frederic G. R e p o r t of a recent project of collecting. PADS no.29:3-18. 1958. Has extracts from responses to a letter asking for information on the vocabulary and rhymes of children's games.

MISCELLANEOUS

197

1461. Collitz, Klara H . Alliteration in American English. AS 7:204-18. Feb. 1932. 1462. Ericson, Eston E. Apocope in American English. Notes and queries 188:190. May 5, 1945. O u r American blend-habit. Words 7: 1463 . 12-14. Mar. 1941. 1464. Frank, F.rika O. Modern American language in the service of present day advertisement: a survey of linguistic means available for the psychology of selling. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Vienna, 1947. 1465. Gohdes, Clarence. American liquor lingo of days gone by. Georgia review 13:53-57. Spring 1959. 1466. Haller, John M. Edward Eggleston, linguist. Philological quarterly 24:175-86. Apr. 1945. 1467. Hanford, G. L. Metaphor and simile in American folk-speech. DN 5:149-80. 1922. 1468. Hardin. Achsah. Volstead English. AS 7:81-88. Dec. 1931. 1469. Hills, E. C. Exclamations in American speech. DN 5:253-84. 1924. 1470 . T h e irradiation of certain suffixes. AS 1: 38-39. Oct. 1925. 1471. Hornberger, Theodore. T h e automobile and American English. AS 5:271-78. Apr. 1930. 1472. Kaplan, Milton A. American speech in radio poetry. AS 19:28-32. Feb. 1944. 1473. Loomis, C. Grant. Traditional American word play: wellerisms or yankeeisms. Western folklore 8:1-21. 1949. 1474 . Traditional American word play: the epigram and perverted proverbs. Western folklore 8:348-57. 1949.

198 1475 . 1476.

1477.

1478.

1479.

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Traditional American word play. Western folklore 9:147-52. Apr. 1950. McLeod, Florence G. Interjections in American English. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1935. 128 1. Masson, Thomas L. Speech, common and preferred. (In Shepard, Odell and Hillyer, Robert, comps. Essays of today (1926-1927). N.Y., Appleton-Century [cl928] p. 19-36) Meredith, Mamie. Inexpressibles, unmentionables, unwhisperables, and other verbal delicacies of mid-nineteenth century Americans. AS 5:285-87. Apr. 1930. Milic, Louis T . Chipman: a little known student of Americanisms. AS 25:168-86. Oct. 1950. Contains a list of words which Rev. L. Manning Chipman (1806-93) added to the 2d ed. of B a r t l e t t ' s Dictionary

of

americanisms.

1480. Morgan, B. Q. Simile and metaphor in American speech. AS 1:271-74. Feb. 1926. 1481 . Simile and metaphor: addenda. DN 5: 289-91. 1482. Pound, Louise. Vogue affixes in present-day wordcoinage. DN 5:1-14. 1918. 1483 . Word coinage and modern trade names. DN 4:29-41. 1913. 1484 . American euphemisms for dying, death, and burial. AS 11:195-202. Oct. 1936. 1485. _ . T h e American Dialect Society: a historical sketch. PADS no.l7:3-28. Apr. 1952. 1486. Pyles, Thomas. Some stylistic characteristics: tall talk, turgidity and taboo. (In his Words and ways of American English. N.Y., Random

MISCELLANEOUS

199

House, 1952. 125-53) 1487. Read, Allen W . Lexical evidence from folk epigraphy in western North America, a glossarial study of the low element in the English vocabulary. Paris, Privately printed. 1935. 83p. Listed in W . J . Burke, The literature of slang, p.152. 1488. Schultz, John R . Chautauqua talk. AS 7:405-11. Aug. 1932. 1489. Steadman, John M. Affected and effeminate words. AS 13:13-18. Feb. 1938. 1490 . A study of verbal taboos. AS 10:93-103. Apr. 1935. " T h e characteristics of verbal taboos: (1) coarse, obscene words (2) words of an unpleasant suggestion and (3) innocent words that have become contaminated." (p.93) 1491. Thorndike, Edward L. T h e teacher's word book. N.Y., Teachers College, Columbia University, 1921. 134p. 1492 . A teacher's word book of the 20,000 words found most frequently and widely in general reading for children and young people. N.Y., Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1931. 182p. 1493 . and I.orge, Irving. T h e teacher's word book of 30,000 words. N.Y., Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1944. 274p. " T h i s book is a greatly improved extension of the Thorndike Teacher's word book, published in 1921, and of the extension of it to include 20,000 words published in 1931. It includes the

200

AMERICAN ENGLISH A BIBLIOGRAPHY

data of these two counts and also of three other counts of over 4i/2 million words each. It enables a teacher to know not only the general importance of each word so far as frequency of occurrence measures that, but also its importance in current popular reading for adults, as shown by the Lorge magazine count, and its importance in such juvenile reading as schools and libraries approve." (Preface) 1494. Weber, Robert H. Interjections and exclamations in twentieth century American English. M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1940. 97 1. 1495. Withington, Robert. Some new portmanteau words. Philological quarterly 9:158-64. Apr. 1930. 1496 . More portmanteau coinages. AS 7:200-03. Feb. 1932.

Index (Numbers in this index refer to bibliographic entries in the text.) Aadland, Gordon R., 498 Abbeville Literary Club, 14 Abbott, Orville L., 531-34 Abbreviation, 1455 Accent: American, acoustical nature of, 329; graphic accents, 343 Adams, John, 2 Adams, John F., 1164 Adams, Minnie H., 1145 Adams, Owen S„ 740 Adams, Ramon F., 1235, 1236 Adams, W. P., 895 Adaptations, 172, 174 Adjective: comparative degree, 560 Adverb, 558 Advertisement, 1464 Affected words, 1489 Alabama: dialect, 732-36; east central, 734; Negro dialect, 728; Marshall County, 736; pronunciation, 734; word list, 733, 735 Alaska: word list, 1189 Aldrich, Ruth, 681 Alexander, Caleb, 1313 Alexander, Henry, 3, 259, 896 Allan, Philip F., 964 Allen, F. Sturges, 763, 1351 Allen, Frederic D„ 626 Allen, Harold B„ 682-84 Allen, Jules V., 1237 Allen, Walter H „ 237, 1033 Allen County, Ky.: Elizabethan left-overs, 821, 822 Allison, Burgiss, 1314

Allison, Lelah, 773 Alliteration, 1461 America: linguistic structures of, 85 American Academy of Arts and Letters, 139, 165 American Academy of language, 2, 34, 177, 206 American Dialect Society: history, 1485 American English: 17th century, 210, 232, 532, 533, 534; 18th century, 18, 27, 129, 131, 153, 183; 19th century, 91, 92, 95, 129, 152, 153, 155, 172, 1478; archaism in, 74; background, 86; bibliography, 99, 157; British recognition of, 181; conservatism in, 57, 114; contribution to the English language, 187; curiosities of, 202; degeneracy, 236; future of, 148; general characteristics, 149,150, 175; history, 1, 9, 12, 24, 43, 47,48, 86, 88, 101, 104, 112, 113, 118, 120, 124, 147; influence of democracy on, 207; influence on standard English, 69; linguistic cause, 109; linguistic substrata, 84; modem, 11, 76, 77, 119, 128, 151, 155, 162, 168, 174, 188, 222, 231; peculiarities of, 230; standards, 61, 192, 194, 196; structure, 71; study of, 33, 59, 83, 133; vulgarization of, 64 American fiction: Negro dialect, 718

201

202

INDEX

American folklore: dictionary, 1306 American literature, 60; British criticism of, 31, 32; vocabularies, 155 American speech: phonetic transscriptions from, 260 Americanisms, 4, 14-16, 20, 22, 28, 45,90,91,97, 106, 110, 117, 130, 136, 138, 200, 221,223, 224, 226, 233, 235; dictionaries, 1286-1312 Amish: speech, 1052 Andrews, E. F., 644 Anthony, Edward M., Jr., 535 Apocope, 1462 Appellatives, religious, 197 Archer, William, 6 Arkansas: Cleburne County, 738; dialect, 737-39; northwest, 737; southeast, 739; word list, 737, 739 Arnold, Charles, 915 Arnold, Oren, 645 Aroostook: word list, 875 Arthur, 111.: Pennsylvania German dialect, 779 Articulation: final stops, 328 Ashcom, B. B., 1034 Athens, Ohio: dialect, 1017 Atherton, H. E.: 1001 Atkinson, Mary J., 1111 Atlantic states: pronunciation, 305, 455 Atwood, E. Bagby, 437, 536, 849a Aubrey (Dr.), 1286 Automobile, 1471 Avery, Catherine B„ 1379 Avis, Walter S„ 369 Axley, Lowry, 1168 Ay cock, Etholine G„ 569 Ayer, Fred C., 238 Ayers, Lucille, 764 Ayres, Harry M., 9, 261

Babbitt, E. H., 757, 758, 979, 1192 Babcock, Clarence M„ 570 Babington, Mima, 849a Baily, Nina, 51 Banks, Ruth, 704 Barba, Preston Α., 1050 Barker, Catherine S„ 916 Barker, Howard F., 1169 Barnhart, Clarence L.: dictionaries, 1387-89,1393-96 Barnhill, Viron L„ 850 Barrère, Albert, 1193 Barringer, George Α., 10 Bartlett, John R., 572, 1287 Baseball: terminology. 1446 Bauer. Rudolf, 11 Baugh, Albert C., 12 Baum, S. V., 1194 Beck, Theodore R., 13 Beckham, A. S., 705 Beckman, Robert, 1253 Bedford, Pa.: dialect, 1034 Bell, Elizabeth, 805 Benardete, Dolores, 1254 Bender, James F., 262, 263 Bender, Ruth, 799 Benêt, W. C., 14 Bennett, John, 1078 Bentley, Harold W„ 1255 Berks County, Pa.: Pennsylvania German language, 1064, 1067, 1068 Berrey, Lester V., 646, 1195 Bess, Charles E., 917 Betts, Emmett Α., 239 Bevier, Thyra J., 537, 538 Bey, Constance, 918 Bierschwale, Margaret, 1112 Big Bend, Tex.: cowboy slang, 1238 Bigelow, Gordon E., 347 Bilingualism: 18th century, 180 Birrell, Augustine, 15

INDEX

Birss, John H., 16 Blair, Marion E., 1096 Blair, Walter, 573 Blanke, Gustav H., 17 Blend words, 1463 Bloch, Bernard, 264, 408, 482, 634 Blok, H. P., 1079 Bloom, Margaret, 781 Bloomfield, Leonard, 370 Bloomfield, Morton W., 18 Blount County, Tenn.: proverbs, 1096 Bolinger, Dwight L., 561 Bond, Richmond P., 782 Bondurant, Alexander L., 574 Borealis, 19 Boshears, Frances, 1097 Boston, Mass.: words coined, 899, 900 Boucher, (Rev.) Jonathan, 126, 889, 1288 Bourke, John G.. 1113 Bowen, B. L., 980 Bowen, Edwin W., 20 Boyd County, Neb.: dialect, 955 Boynton, H. W„ 21 Braddy, Haldeen, 1114, 1238 Bradley, Francis W„ 1080-82, 1457 Brattleboro, Vt.: word list, 1144 Brengelman, Frederick H., 1165 Brewer, Fisk P., 1002 Brewer, J. Mason, 706 Brewster, K. G„ 1377-79 Brewster, Paul G„ 783-86 Brewster, Mass.: word list, 906 Bridges, Robert, 5 Brigance, William N., 23 Briggs, L.B.R., 627 Bristed, Charles Α., 24 British English, 15, 20, 42, 75, 76, 77, 125, 134, 136, 143, 166, 170, 188, 189, 225 British travelers: comment on

203

American English, 129 Broaddus, James W., 815 Brocklehurst, J. H., 1196 Brogan, Denis W„ 25, 26, 1197 Bronstein, Arthur J., 27, 265-68, 348-50, 372-76, 575 Brooks, Cleanth, 647, 732 Broussard, James F., 851 Brown, Calvin S., 1098-1101 Brown, Rollo W., 787 Bruce, J. D„ 1102 Brueckner, Marguerite H., 269 Bruner, Helen, 1184 Bryant, William C., 427 Brydon, G. M., 1146 Bryson, Artemisia, 1115, 1116 Buckhurst, Helen McM., 28 Buckner, Mary D., 1117 Buffington,Albert F., 1049,1050 Buncombe County, N. C.: word list, 1010 Burgess, Gelett, 1198 Burke, William J., 1199, 1200 Burley, Dan, 1201 Burnham, Josephine M., 544, 685 Burt, (Rev.) N. C., 576 Burton, Richard, 29, 30 Burwell, Μ. Α., 955 Buxbaum, Katherine, 800, 1003 Byington, Steven T., 545, 1454 Cable, W. Arthur, 377 Caffee, Nathaniel M., 378, 438-^1 Cairns, William B„ 31, 32 Cajun dialect, 874 California: dialect, 740-52; gold rush English, 742; proverbs, 740, 750; San Francisco, 484, 484a, 741; similes, 750; vocabulary of poetry, 741 ; word list, 745, 748, 751, 752; Callaway, Morgan, Jr., 33 Campbell, John C., 648 Campbell, Ν. Α., 34 Canadian English, 18, 53

204

INDEX

Candler, Isaac, 35 Cape Cod: dialect, 897, 907 Capitalization, 1455 Carballosa, L„ 539 Carhart, Paul W„ 1353 Carlisle, Rose J., 686 Carlisle, Pa.: Pennsylvania German language, 1062 Carlson, Harold G., 1256, 1257 Carnoy, Albert J., 1202 Carpenter, Charles, 36, 649, 1170-72 Carpenter, William H., 1257 Carr, Elizabeth B„ 1458, 1459, 1188a Carr, Joseph W. 737, 875, 876, 965 Carrol, James, 270 Carroll, John B„ 37 Carruth, William H., 806-10 Carson, William P., 650 Carter, Alice P., 38 Cassidy, Frederic G., 577, 117981, 1460 Cavanagh, Dermont, 428 Century dictionaries, 1315, 137579 Chalk, Sarah C., 1118 Chamberlain, Alexander F., 1258 Channing, William, 39 Chapín, Florence Α., 687 Chapman, Maristan, 651 Charleston, S. C.: dialect, 1083, 1087, 1089, 1090; pronunciation, 462 Charlottesville, Va.: pronunciation, 438, 441 Chase, George D., 760, 875, 877, 897, 1259 Chautauqua 1488 Chepachet, R. I.: dialect, 1076 Chicago, 111.: pronunciation, 401 Child, Clarence G.. 409 Children: games, 1460; reading

vocabulary, 1491-95 Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, Mass.: word list, 905 Chinook jargon, 1021-23, 1025, 1028-32 Chipman, L. Manning, 1479 Choate, Isaac B., 628 Christensen, Francis, 562 Cincinnati: word list, 1013 Clapin, Sylva, 1289 Clark, J. D„ 652, 653 Clark, John C., 42, 43, 271 Clapp John M„ 40 Clark, John W„ 41, 162, 240, 499 Clauses, 562 Cleaves. Mildred P., 816 Cleburne County, Ark.: pronunciation and lexical features, 738 Clemens, Nancy, 938 Clemens, Samuel L., 44 Clifford, James L„ 379 Clifton, Ernest E„ 483 Clinton, La.: dialect, 862 Clipped words, 1232, 1233 Clough, Wilson O., 1185, 1186 Cobb, Collier, 1004 Cohen, Hennig, 1083 Colby, Elbridge, 1423 Colby, Merle E„ 1189 Cole, Arthur H., 629, 629a Coleman, Wilma, 770 College slang, 530, 1192, 1207 Collester, Clinton H„ 410 Collier, Price, 46 Collitz, Klara H„ 1461 Colloquial usage, 56, 92 Colorado: dialect, 753-56; word list, 753, 753a, 755 Combs, Josiah H., 578, 654-56, 817-19 Combs, Mona R., 820 Comfort, Anne W„ 1035 Comma, 1454

INDEX

Connecticut: central, 760; Danbury, 759; dialect, 757-60; verbs, 757; western, 757, 758; word list, 760 Consonants, 347-68; fricative, 349; frictionless, 350; quality, 381; syllabic nasal, 359; h, 357, 358; k, words beginning with, 1219; 1, 368, 440, 485; r, 347, 351,354, 355, 361, 363, 367, 408, 428, 457, 458, 461,465, 478; t, 356, 362, 366; wh, 352, 353, 365; y, 458 Cook, Dorothy, 1187 Cowboy slang, 1235-41 Coxe, M. S., 396 Coxe, Richard S., 1316 Craigie, (Sir) William Α., 47-49, 1290, 1401 Crane, W. W., 50 Crawford, Nelson Α., 811 Crawford, Robert P., 483a Crawford, Tex.: pronunciation, 490 Creole dialect, 851 Crime and criminals: slang, 1242-51 Crow, C. L„ 1119 Crowningshield, Gerald, 981 Crumb, D. S., 919 Cumberland Plateau, 837 Cunard, Nancy, 707 Curme, George O., 500-500b Curric, Eva G.. 1120 Curtis, Roy G., 563 DA see Dictionary of Americanisms DAE see Dictionary of American English Daddow, J., 1076 Dale, Edward E., 920 Dallas County, Tex.: vocabulary study, 1118 Dalton, Alford P., 821-23

205

Danbury, Conn.: word list, 759 Danieli, Moses G„ 630 Darling, Charles H., 1203 Darling, K. G., 501 Dauncey, Enid C., 51 Davidson, Levette J., 688 Davis, Alva L„ 689, 1012 Davis, Arthur K., 1147 Davis, Edwin B., 411 Davis, Le Roy G., 910 Davison, Zeta C., 1005 Dawson, Richard L., 579 DeCamp, David, 484, 484a DeCamp, L. Sprague, 380, 429 DeCrespigny, Claude, 52 DeWitt, Margarite E., 272 DeWitt, Marguerite, 53 Dear, Ruth, 580 Dearden, Elizabeth J., 658 Delaware: dialect, 761 Delmarva Peninsula: dialect, 761 Denham, Edward, 898 Dennis, Leah Α., 733 Dialects, 229, 569-1191; regional, 626-703; Negro, 704-31; state, 732-1191 Dickinson, Donald I., 976 Dictionaries: history, 1404, 1407, 1409-11, 1415, 1419; English language, 1313-1400; see also Century, Thorndike, Barnhart, Funk and Wagnalls, Webster, Winston, and slang dictionaries Dictionary of American English, 1290, 1291, 1401, 1405, 1414 Dictionary of Americanisms, 1292 Diehl, Anna T., 1293 Dieth, Eugen, 631 Dilnot, Frank, 54 Dingus, L. R., 1148 Diphthongs, 373, 374, 388, 409,

206

INDEX

417, 453, 474, 480; nineteenth century, 374; Rhode Island, 417; ai, 481; au, 453, 474; oi, 409 Direct question, 561 Disparagement terms, 1208, 1209 District of Columbia: dialect, 762 Dixson, Robert J., 1311 Dodge, H. L., 55 Dornbusch, Clyde, 240a Dorrance, Ward Α., 921 Dow, Clyde W., 412 Dondore, Dorothy, 581 Drake, James Α., 582 Dudley, Fred Α., 824 Duke, Francis, 442, 443 Dunbar, Gary S., 658a Dunglison, Robley, 1294 Dunlap, A. R., 56, 273, 274 Dutch language: loan words from, 1257, 1260, 1271, 1285 Dutchtown, La.: dialect, 855 Eddins, A. W „ 1134 Edgerton, William B., 444 Edmiston, William C., 825, 826 Edson, Η. Α., 1103 Edwards, Eliezer, 1295 Effeminate words, 1489 Egawa, Taiichiro, 57 Eggleston, Edward, 58, 583, 708, 788, 1260, 1466 Egypt, 111.: speech, 780a Ekwall, Eilert, 275 Elertionisms, 1441, 1442 Eliason, Norman E„ 59, 381, 1006 Eliot, Thomas S., 60 Elliott, John, 1317 Ellis, Alexander, 276 Ellis, Brobury, 61 Ellsworth, Me.: pronunciation, 416 Elwyn, Alfred L„ 1296

Emerson, Oliver E„ 277, 982 Emery, Donald W „ 241 Emery, H. G„ 1377-79 Emsley, Bert, 382 England, George Α., 632, 878, 966 Engler, Leo F., 1424 Enunciation: American, 327; British, 327 Epigram, 1474 Ericson, Eston E., 278, 1462, 1463 Erie Canal: word list, 991, 1000a Ernst, C. W„ 899, 900 Eshleman, Cyrus Η., 890 Essex speech: in the U.S., 586 Estill County, Ky.: dialect, 815 Euphemism, 1484 Euphonetics, 272 Evans, Bergen, 502 Evans, Cornelia, 502 Evans, Medford, 383 Exclamation, 1469, 1494 Eyestone, Maxine Α., 546 Fadiman, Clifton, 65 Fallows, (Rev.) Samuel, 1297 Family names, 1437 Faries, Rachel B., 922 Farmer, John S., 1298 Farr, T . J., 1104, 1105 Farrison, William E„ 709 Fenn, Johnnye Α., 853 Fisher, Hilda B„ 854 Flexner, Stuart B., 1204, 1228 Florida: dialect, 763-69; Leon County, 769; Minorcan dialect, 765: rural, 764; St. Petersburg, 763; topographic terms, 767, word list, 763 Flügel, Felix, 66 Fluke, Dorotha L., 855 Folk, Lucille P., 855a Folk epigraphy, 1487 Folk song, 578, 595

INDEX

Folie«, Wilson, 67 Follín, Maynard D„ 1051 Fonblanque, Albany de, 68 Form-words: pronunciation, 289 Forrester, Christine D„ 827 Foster, Brian, 69 Foster, James R., 531 Fowler, William C., 584 Francis, Alee, 70 Francis, Frances, 1184 Francis, Winthrop Ν., 71, 585 Frank, Erika O., 1464 Frank, Yakira H., 983 Franklin, Benjamin, 72, 220, 1425 Fraser, Edward, 1425 Fredericksburg, Va.: pronunciation, 463 Freeman, Edward Α., 73 French language: loan words from, 1274, 1284 Frey, John W „ 1052-54 Fricke. Charles W.. 1243 Friedman, Lillian, 765 Friend, Joseph H., 1358 Fries, Charles C., 503 Frings, Manfred S., 74 Fruit, John P., 828, 829 Fuller, M. Cordelia, 759 Funk, Charles E„ 1364, 1365, 1367-69, 1374 Funk, Isaac K„ 1326, 1362. 1366 Funk and Wagnalls: dictionaries, 1326, 1362-74 Gaelic language: loan words from, 1263, 1269 Gage, William W., 279 Galinsky, Hans, 75, 77, 564 Gannett, Henry, 1432 Gardner, Emelyn E., 984 Garrett, Robert M., 1166 Garrett County, Md.: dialect, 893 Gehrke, William H „ 1007

207

Gender, 552, 553 Genitive, 544, 554, 555 George, Albert D„ 856 George, Donald, 857 Georgia: dialect, 732, 770, 771; mountain dialect, 770; north, 770; pronunciation, 450; word list, 771, 1086 Gepp, Edward, 586 Gerard, William R„ 1261 German language: loan words from, 1256, 1256a, 1260, 1262, 1265, 1270, 1278, 1282 Gibbens V. E., 789, 789a Gibbons, John, 1425 Gibbs, George, 1021 Gibby, Patricia M., 755 Gibson, Martha J., 1402, 1403 Giles, Richard, 1205 Gill, John K.( 1022 Gill, Merle Α., 1244 Gillespie, Elizabeth, 710 Glas, Leah R., 1404 Goddard, Gloria, 1234 Gohdes, Clarence, 1465 Golden, Hyman E., 1242 Gombo, 870, 871 Gonzales, Ambrose E., 1084 Gove, Philip B„ 1361 Gowers, (Sir) Ernest Α., 78 Glenn, Virginia, 358 Graham, George F., 1206 Grammar: correctness, 511, 526; dictionaries, 502, 530, 531; in novels, 498; soap opera, 568; textbooks, 500, 505, 506, 508,513,515, 520, 522, 523, 524a, 525, 527, 528 Grandgent, Charles H., 79, 28082, 384, 413, 414, 445 Grant, Rena V., 741 Grant County, Ind.: dialect, 792, 794-96 Graves, John T., II, 659

208

INDEX

Gray, Giles W., 587 Great Britain: dialects, 732 Great Lakes; pronunciation, 488, 488a Great Smoky Mountain: pronunciation, 448 Green, Bennett W., 1149 Green, Marjory T., 790 Greenough, C. N„ 967 Greenville, S. C.: dialect, 459 Greet, William C., 283, 284, 446, 660, 661, 761, 879 Gregg, Darrell L., 1001 Greig, John Y„ 81 Grill, Erma V., 956 Grumbine, Lee L., 1055 Guilford County, N.C.: Negro dialect, 709 Gullah, 1078, 1079, 1084, 1085, 1091-94; Africanisms in, 1079, 1092; glossary 1084; history, 1091; St. Helena Island, 1085; sounds, 1093; vocabulary 1093 Gumbo see Gombo Guralnik, David B„ 1358 Haber, Tom B., 504 Haldeman, Samuel S., 1056 Hale, Edward E„ 690 Hale, Horatio, 1023 Hale, Lulu C., 447 Hall, Benjamin H„ 1207 Hall, Joseph S„ 448, 662 Haller, John M„ 1466 Halpert, Herbert, 830-32, 1106 Hamilton, Marian, 742 Hampstead, N.H.: word list, 965 Haney, John L., 285 Hanford, G. L„ 1467 Hankey, Clyde T., 753, 753a Hanley, Miles L., 386, 485, 634 Hanley, O. W„ 791 Hanley, Theodore D„ 286 Hansen, Marcus L., 634 Hardie, Margaret, 1448

Hardin, Achsah, 1468 Hardy, Zelma B„ 1121 Harlem jive, 1201 Harris, Alberta, 663 Harris, Jesse W„ 774,1262 Harris, W. T., 1351 Harrison, James Α., 711 Hart, J. M„ 1013 Harvey, Bartle T., 691 Hash house: lingo, 1225 Hatteras Island: early English survivals, 1004 Hausen, T. J., 1024 Haut, Lillian, 415 Hawaii: dialect, 1188a, 1189b, 1190; Pidgin English, 1189a, 1191 Hawkins, Jane D., 985 Hayden, Marie G., 954, 1208 Hayden, Myrtle G., 1209 Hayes, Francis C., 1008 Haynes, Randolph Α., 1122 Haynesville, La.: dialect, 853, 858 Hays, Η. M„ 1151 Healy, J. F., 82 Heffner, R. M., 387, 1014 Heflin, Woodford Α., 977, 1405 Heil, Johann Α., 587a Hempl, George, 83, 351-53, 588, 589 Hench, Atcheson L„ 833 Herman, Lewis H„ 287 Herman, Marguerite S., 287 Herriford, Merle, 712 Hewitt, Ryland H„ Jr., 415a Heydrick, Β. Α., 1036 Hibbitt, George W„ 388, 1037 Hicks, Joseph L., 766 Hietsch, Otto, 1426 Higginson, Thomas W., 590 Hildreth, Charles L„ 1210 Hill, Archibald Α., 416, 1147 Hill, William H„ 505

INDEX

Hills, E. C„ 84, 743, 744, 1469, 1470 Hillsborough County, N.H.: word list, 968 Hirobe, Mitsuo, 540 Hogan, Charles H., 1123 Hogan, Homer, 1211 Hoijer, Harry, 85 Holt, Alfred H„ 1433 Hook, Julius N., 86, 506 Hopkins, E. W„ 591 Hopkins, Melville, 592 Hornberger, Theodore, 1471 Home, Abraham, 1057 Horwill, Herbert W„ 87, 507 Hoskins, Jewel M., 923 Howard, Donald, 1427 Howard, Leon, 88, 89, 1406 Howells, William D., 90 Howren, Robert R„ Jr., 834 Hubbell, Allan F., 389, 430 Hucks, J. Jenkins, 713 Hudson River Valley: dialect, 985 Hughes, Herbert L., 859, 860 Hughes, Muriel J., 1143, 1143a Hulbert, James R„ 1290, 1407 Hulsbergen, Helmut, 91 Hultzén, Lee S„ 289, 289a, 354, 390 Humphreys, David, 1299 Hungerford, Harlan M., 557 Hunt, Elise, 858 Hunter, Edwin R„ 92 Hutson, Arthur E., 1263 Hyacinth, Socrates, 692 Idaho: word list, 772 Idol, Harriett R., 449 Illinois: the Amish, 779; dialect, 773-80a; Egypt, 780a; Ozarks, 780; Pennsylvania German dialect, 776; southern, 774, 778; Sterling, 777; word list, 775 Immigrants, British; in colonial

209

America, 179 Indiana: animal comparisons, 782; dialect, 781-98; folk sayings, 783-86; Grant County, 792, 794-96; Greene County, 790; pronunciation, 496; southern, 496, 791; western, 787; word list, 787, 801-03 Indians of North America: eighteenth century, 182; loan words from, 1258, 1260, 1272, 1283 Indirect discourse, 567 Inflection, 547, 549 Ingledue, Harriett, 861 Ingleman, Anna Α., 493 Interjections, 1476, 1494 Internal open structure: in midwestern American English, 487 Intonation, 279, 289a, 318, 449, 546 Iowa: dialect, 799-804; Johnson County, 799; Pennsylvania German dialect, 799; word list, 801-03 I talo-Americans: pronunciation, 443 Ithaca, N.Y.: dialect, 982 Ives, Sumner, 290, 291, 450, 592a, 1408 Jackson, Elizabeth H., 753b Jackson, James L., 1428 Jackson, La.: dialect, 854 James, Henry, 94 Jenkins, Henry H., 1429 Jenkins, Thelma Α., 1240 Jensen, Paul, 772 Jente, Richard, 1449 Jersey Dutch, 974 Jewish dialect, 994, 997, 1254 Johnson, Falk, 292, 593 Johnson, Guy B„ 1085 Johnson, James W., 714 Johnson, Jotham, 293

210

INDEX

Johnson, Marguerite, 565 Johnson, Samuel, 1318-21 Johnson, Samuel, Jr., 1317, 1322, 1402, 1403 Johnson, T . Earle, 451 Johnson County, la.: Pennsylvania German dialect, 799 Jones, Joseph J., 95 Jones, Stephen, 1323 Kahn, E. )., 1409 Kane, Elisha K„ 715, 1246 Kansas: dialect, 805-14; foreign settlements, 810; word list, 806-09; 814 Kantner, Claude E., 294, 337 Kaplan, Milton Α., 1472 Kartzke, Georg, 96 Kasdon, Lawrence M., 1189a Kawamata, Kunihiro, 558 Keaton, Anna L., 97 Keeley, Mary P., 1430 Kendall, Park, 1430a Kennedy, Arthur G., 98, 99, 509 Lloyd, John U., 835 Kentucky: archaic English, 820; Allen County, 821, Barbourville, 845; bibliography of speech, 848; Cumberland River, 837; dialect, 815-49; early English slang, 817; eastern, 837, 841; Estill County, 815; Louisville, 834; mountains, 817; Negro dialect, 835; northeastern, 820; Paducah, 840; Pine Mountain, 830, 836; pronunciation, 445, 447; proverbs, 831; similes, 849; slang, 842; southern, 823; Todd County, 825, 826; wellerisms, 832; western, 831; word list, 823, 827-29, 838, 841, 846 Kenyon, John S„ 295-97, 355, 391

Kephart, Horace, 664, 1009 Kerr County, Tex.: vocabulary study, 1121 Kilpatrick, Rachel S., 417 Kimmerle, Marjorie M., 693, 754, 755 Kin, David, pseud., 1450, 1451 Kirby, Thomas Α., 986 Klaeber (Father) , 911 Klipple, Florence C., 1124, 1125 Knott, Thomas Α., 1353 Krapp, George P., 100, 101, 243, 298, 299, 547, 594, 716, 1410, 1434 Kriger, Albert, 862 Kroll, Harry H., 665 Krumplemann, John T., 1126, 1173, 1264 Kuethe, J. Louis, 891, 1212 Kurath, Hans, 102, 300-05, 452. 486, 595-601, 633, 634, 1015, 1265 Ladd, Mary P., 1127 La Fargue, André, 863 Larsen, Thorleif, 306 Larson, Cedric, 1300 Latin language; loan words from, 1275 Laubscher, G. G., 1152 Laughlin, Hugh C., 1010 Lawrence, Vivian S., 417a Leacock, S. B., 103 Learned, Marion D., 1058 Leavitt, Robert K., 1411 Lee, Francis B„ 970-72 Leechman, Douglas, 1025 Lehigh County, Pa.: Pennsylvania German language, 1061, 1064, 1067, 1068 Lehiste, Use, 392, 487 Lehman, Benjamin H., 694, 695, 745 Lehman, W. P., 356 Leland, Charles, 1193

INDEX

Leonard, Sterling Α., 510 Lerner, Max, 104 Lieberman, Philip, 307 Lindblad, Karl E.. 418 Lind, Andrew W „ 1189b Lindsay, Dorothy Ν., 696 Linguistic atlas of New England, 634 Linguistic atlas of the U n i t e d States and Canada, 602, 634; conference on, 102, 119; method, 454; pronunciation, 290 Linguistics, American, 37 Lins, J. C., 1059 Lipsius, Morris, 1242 Liquor: lingo, 1465 Lloyd, Donald J., 105, 511 Lloyd, Harriett, 393 Loan words, 1253-85 Lodge, H e n r y C., 106 Long, R a l p h B„ 512 Loomis, C. Grant, 1473-75 Lorge, Irving, 1493 Louisiana: Clinton, 862; Creole dialect, 851, 870; dialect, 850-74; dialect atlas, 872; Dutchtown, 855; Haynesville, 853, 858; isoglosses, 856; Jackson, 854; linguistic backgrounds, 863; Mardi Gras, 852; Monroe, 861; New Orleans, 467, 864; north, 855a; pronunciation, 461, 467, 468, 471; southern, 849a; Ville Platte, 471; western, 850; word list, 860, 866-69 Louisville, Ky.: dialect. 834 Lounsbury, J. F., 108 Lounsbury, T h o m a s R., 108-10, 1266 Lowman, Guy S., 453, 634 Lubec, Me.; dialect, 879 Lucas, Edward V., 1220 Lucke, Jesse R., 1153

211

Lumeansky, R . M., 864 Lyman, Dean B., 1174 Lyman, Rollo L., 513-15 Lynchburg, Va.: word list, 1152 Lyon, Marguerite, 924 M., J. M., 812 McAtee, W a l d o L., 792-96 McCarthy, Donald, 1241 McCormick, S. D., 901, 1154 McDavid, Raven I., Jr., I l l , 305, 308, 357, 358, 454-59, 516. 603-08, 666, 667, 717, 988, 989, 1012, 1086, 1087 McDavid, Virginia G., 541, 717 McDowell, Tremarne, 718 Mcjimsey, George D„ 1155, 1156 McKnight, George H.. 112-15 McLean, J o h n , 696a McLean, Margaret (Prendergast,) 309 McLeod, Florence G., 1476 McMillan, James B., 116, 460, 734 Macmillan Company: dictionary, 1397 McMullen, Edwin W „ Jr., 767 McQuesten, Gertrude, 635 Macrae, David, 117 Macy, William F., 902, 903 Madison County, N.Y.: word list, 992 Maine: Aroostook, 875; dialect, 875-88; eastern, 876; Lubec, 879; Morrill, 888; pronunciation, 415a; word list, 876-78, 881, 883-85, 887 Maitland, James, 1212a Malécot, André, 359, 394 Mallery, Richard D„ 118 Malmstrom, Jean, 119 Malone, Kemp, 1413 Man, A. P., Jr., 1157 March, Francis Α., 1326 Marckwardt, Albert H „ 120, 488,

212

INDEX

488a, 517, 609, 697, 797 Mardi Gras, 852 Markham, S. F., 121 Marryat, Frederick, 122, 123 Marsh, George P., 124 Marshall County, Ala.: newspaper English, 736 Martin, S. Rudolph, Jr., 719 Mary Irmina (Sister), 244 Maryland: dialect, 889-94; Garrett County, 893; Pennsylvania German dialect, 890; word list, 891, 894 Mason and Dixon line, 204 Massachusetts: Boston, 899, 900, 901; Cape Cod, 897, 906, 907; Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, 905; dialect, 895-909; eastern, 424; Nantucket, 895, 902, 904, 908; New Bedford, 898; Newburyport, 415; pronunciation, 415, 424; proverbs, 909; Salem witchcraft, 896; saying, 909 Massey, B. W„ 125 Masson, Thomas L., 1477 Mathews, E. G., 86, 506 Mathews, Mitford M., 126-29, 668, 1290, 1292, 1301, 1414 Mathews, William, 130, 636 Matthews, Albert, 131-33 Matthews, Brander, 134-41, 245 Matthews, Patricia E., 559 Mathias, Virginia P., 836 Maurer, David W., 1213, 1214, 1247, 1248, 1248a Maxfield, Ezra K„ 880, 881, 1038 Maxims, 1450 may, might, can, could, 540 Mead, Leon, 142, 610, 1215 Mead, Jane T., 990a Mead, William E„ 611, 760 Meloney, William B„ 1150 Memphis, Tenn.: Negro dialect,

729

Mencken, Henry L., 143-52, 246, 310, 360, 518, 746, 990, 1060, 1142, 1158, 1216, 1217, 1267, 1435, 1455 Menner, Robert J., 311, 312, 542, 612 Meredith, Mamie J., 720, 1439, 1478 Meroney, Howard, 1269 Merritt, Francine, 489 Mesick, Jane L., 153 Metaphor, 1467, 1480, 1481 Metoicos, 154 Meyer, A. W„ 1270 Middle Atlantic states: pronunciation, 427-36 Middle English: a, 420; o, 488a; o, 455; R, 408; wa, 488 Midwest: verb forms, 541 Milic, Louis T., 1479 Miller, Edna W., 361 Miller, William M„ 1016 Mills, Randall V., 1026, 1182 Minnesota: word list, 910-12 Minton, Arthur, 548 Mississippi: Negro dialect, 710; peculiarities of speech, 913; plantation terms, 914 Missouri: dialect, 915-52; northeastern, 944; Ozarks, see Ozark dialect; proverbs, 1020; Snake County, 947; western, 945; word list, 918 Mockler, William E„ 1175 Moffat, Adelene, 1107 Monroe, B. S., 430a, 431 Monroe, La.: dialect, 861 Monson, Samuel C., 313 Montana: word list, 953, 954 Monteleone, Vincent J., 1249 Moore, Arthur K., 613 Morgan, Bayard Q„ 314, 1480, 1481

INDEX

Morley, Margaret W., 669 Morphemes, 216 Morrill, Me.: word list, 888 Morris. Robert L., 925 Mott, Frank L., 801, 802 Mulhall, James E., 752 Mullen, Kate, 698 must, shall, should, ought, 543 Nail, William Α., 490 Nantucket: idioms, 908; sayings, 902; word list, 895, 904 Nasal twang, 411 Nasality, 451 National Broadcasting Company: handbook, 262 National Council of Teachers of English, 40, 510 Nebraska: Boyd County, 955; dialect, 955-63; Negro slang, 712; sayings, 957 Needham, Mass.: dialect, 630 Negro dialect, 704-31; Alabama, 728; in American fiction, 718; characteristics, 705; colonial America, 722; decline, 705; historical study, 721; humor, 720; Memphis, T e n n . , 729; Mississippi, 710; Nebraska, 712; phonetic study, 721; Savannah River, 715; Shakespeare, 726; South Carolina, 713; substandard southern, 731 Neilson, William Α., 1353 Neitzel, Stuart, 1108 Nelson, Joseph, 926 Nelson, Lawrence E., 155 Neologisms, 172, 174; by American authors, 142; in magazines, 234 Neumann, Joshua H „ 315, 1271 New Bedford, Mass.: dialect, 898 New England: dialect, 6 2 6 4 3 ; diphthong oi, 409; Linguistic

213

atlas, 634; Linguistic geography, 631, 633; Middle English a, 420; Middle English R , 408; nasal twang, 411; northern, 632; pronunciation, 40826; proverbs, 638; short o, 410, 412; verb forms and uses, 533 New Hampshire: dialect, 878, 964-69; Hampstead, 965; Hillsborough County, 968; South Weare, 966; southeastern, 967; word list, 878, 967, 969 New Jersey: dialect, 970-74; Jersey Dutch, 974; word list, 971, 972 New Mexico: dialect, 975-78; proverb, 978; R i o Grande Valley, 976 New Orleans, La.: pronunciation, 467; slang, 864 New York: Canadian words, 989; central, 1000; dialect, 979-1000b; Erie Canal, 991, 1000a Hudson Valley, 985; Ithaca, 982; Jewish dialect, 994, 997; Madison County, 992; Midland words, 989; New York City, 979, 983, 995-97; northeastern, 981; pronunciation, 427, 430, 430a, 431-36; proverbs, 990a, 998, 999, 1000b; Roxbury, 993; sayings, 990a, 999; Schoharie County, 984; western, 980. 986; word list, 980, 1000 New York City: dialect, 979, 983, 995-97; pronunciation, 430, 432, 435, 436 Newburyport, Mass.: pronunciation, 415 Newell, William W., 638 Newlin, Claude M., 1039 Newspapers, American: Americanisms in, 97 Nichols, Edward J . , 1446

214

INDEX

Nichols, Thomas L., 156 Nicholson, Margaret, 519 Nicholson, Meredith, 798 Nicknames, 1431 Nieu, John Α., 247, 248, 520 Nixon, Phyllis J., 1159 Norman, Arthur M„ 1128, 1129, 1430b Norris, Philetus W„ 1272 North Carolina: Appalachians, 1005; Buncombe County, 1010; dialect, 1001-11; Piedmont area, 1005; pronunciation, 473; transition from German to English language in, 1007; western, 1009; word list, 846, 1005, 1008, 1009, 1011, 1162, 1163 North Central states: grammar, 516; verb forms, 541 Northrop, Stuart A. 1273 Northup, Clark S., 157 Norton, Charles L., 1440 Noun, attributive, 545 Obion County, Tenn.: word list, 1101 O'Brien, Robert J., 158 Odell, Ruth, 957 O'Hern, Edna M., 762 Ohio: Athens, 1017; Cincinnati, 1013; dialect, 1012-19; frontier speech (1790-1840), 592; northwestern, 1012, 1019; pronunciation, 495; southeastern, 1018 Ohio River Valley: folk speech, 697; frontier speech (17901840), 592 Oklahoma: proverbs, 1020 O'Leary, Frank, 1242 Olevitch, J. P., 1020 Oliver, Robert T., 1441, 1442 Ondis, Lewis Α., 1017 O'Quinn, Trueman E., 1130

Orbeck, Anders, 419 Oregon: Chinook jargon, 102123, 1028-32; dialect, 1021-32; sayings, 1027; Wallowa County, 1024; western, 1027 Oswald, Victor Α., 362, 1061 Owen, Douglas, 747 Owen, William H., 566 Owens, Bess Α., 837 Ozark dialect, 915, 916, 920, 921, 924-33, 939, 940, 946, 948, 950-52; grammar, 927; pronunciation, 493; word list, 934-39 Paducah, Ky.: proverbs, 840 Page, Eugene R., 1040 Palmer, Francis L., 363 Palmer, Francis W„ 160, 161 803 Palmer, Harold E., 316 Pardoe, T. Earle, 699, 721 Parker County, Tex.: dialect, 1119 Parler, Mary C., 1088 Parmenter, C. E., 491 Parry, W. H., 1018 Partridge, Eric H., 162, 163, 521, 1221, 1222, 1250, 1251 Paul, C. Kegan, 164 Pavlak, Stephen, 249 Payne, Leonidas W., Jr., 735 Pearce, Helen, 1027 Pearce, J. W., 865 Pearce, Thomas M., 700, 701, 978 Peck, John M., 775 Pence, Raymond W„ 522 Pendleton, Paul E„ 1176 Pennsylvania: Bedford, 1034; dialect, 1033-48; language of witchcraft, 1044; linguistic substrata, 1047; Pennsylvania German, 1049-75; Philadelphia, 1048; pronunciation, 429; Quaker speech, 1035,

INDEX

1046; Scranton, 429; word list, 1033, 1036, 1046 Pennsylvania German language, 1049-75; Berks County, 1064, 1067; bibliography, 1071; Carlisle, 1062; dictionary, 1059; grammar, 1049, 1050, 1054, 1056-58; Lehigh County, 1061, 1064, 1067; Snyder County, 1075; York County, 1053 Penzl, Herbert, 420, 421, 776, 777 Perkins, Anne E„ 882-84 Perrin, P. G„ 639 Perritt, Margaret F., 461 Perry, Bliss, 165 Perry, William, 1324 Petersen, Sarah C., 1188 Peterson, Gordon E., 392, 396 Petit, Herbert H., 838 Philadelphia, Pa.: dialect, 1048 Philips, Edith, 1041 Phipson, Evacustes Α., 166 Phonemics, 291, 304, 333, 482 Phonetic alphabet, 292, 313 Phonetics, 266, 277, 292, 297, 313, 316, 317, 330, 334, 335 Phrase patterns, 231 Phrases: noun-headed, 559 Pickering, John, 13, 167, 219, 1302 Pierce, Robert M., 317 Pike, Kenneth L„ 318 Pilch, Herbert, 397, 613a Pilling, James C„ 1028 Pine Mountain: dialect, 830, 836 Pitch, 265 Place names. 1432. 1433, 1438; bibliography, 1436 Plank, R. R„ 549 Plotkin, David G., 1450, 1451 Politics, 1439-45; cartoons and slogans, 1415; dictionaries,

215

1440, 1443, 1444, 1444a Polk, William T., 670 Pollard, Mary O., 1109 Pollock, Albin J., 1252 Pollock, F. Walter, 1218 Poole, William F., 250 Pooley, Robert C., 523 Porter, Samuel, 319 Portmanteau words, 1495, 1496 Potter, Edward E., 1019 Pound, Louise, 168, 169, 251, 320, 492, 957, 1219, 1265, 1274, 1275, 1482-85 Prenner, Manuel, 550 Preposition, 564 Prettyman, William, 1062 Primer, Sylvester, 462, 463, 1089, 1090, 1177 Proctor, Richard Α., 321 Profanity, 1217 Pronoun, relative, 551 Pronunciation, 220, 259-497; 17th century, 419; 18th century, 274, 292; 19th century, 292; archaic, 323; bibliography, 301; British, 275, 320; changes, 293; colloquial, 273; dialects, 287, 288, 303, 342; eastern United States, 286, 302, 305, 425; general American, 286, 341; Middle Atlantic states, 427-36; New England states, 408-26; midwestern states, 482, 487, 491; question melodies, 314; social differences, 308; southern states, 286, 437-81; western states, 482-97; standardization, 331; standards, 340; stress, 267, 307, 546; trends, 268; see also names of individual states, counties, and cities Proper names, 1434, 1435

216

INDEX

Proverbs, 1448-52, 1474; Negro, 706 Provincetown, Mass.: word list, 906 Puget Sound area: dialect, 1165 Punctuation, 1454-56 Putnam, George N., 762 Pyles, Thomas, 170-75, 322, 398, 1276, 1277, 1486 Quakers: speech, 1035, 1046 Quidnunc, 176 Race track, 1213 Radio: poetry, 1472; pronunciation, 336, 338, 345, 346 Raine, James W „ 671, 672 Randel, William, 614, 912 Randolph, Vance, 493, 813, 927-39 Rauch, Edward H., 1063 Rayburn, Otto E„ 940 Read, Allen W., 177-83, 640, 722, 892, 904, 941, 942, 1290, 1416, 1487 Read, William Α., 323-25, 364, 399, 464-66 Reddick, John E., 551 Reed, Carroll E„ 494, 1064, 1167 Reed, David W „ 748 Rees, Byron J., 905 Reeves, Henry, 615, 673, 702, 973, 1042 Reid, Thomas R „ Jr., 768 Reinecke, George F., 467 Reinecke, John E., 1190 Reinhardt, J . M., 674 Reynolds, Jack, 468 Rhode Island: Chepachet, 1076; dialect, 1077; pronunciation, 417 Rhodes, Eugene M., 186 Rice, William D., 778 Richardson, William R „ 616 Richmond, Va.: Italo-American speech in, 443; pronunciation,

442 Riedel, E., 866 R i o Grande Valley: dialect, 976, 1113 Robbins, (Rev.) Royal. 187 Roberts, Leonard, 839 Robertson, Stuart, 188, 189, 326, 524 Rockwell, Leo L.. 1278 Rocky Mountains: dialects, 693, 699 Rollins, Hyder E„ 1131 Rontt, James, 867 Roosevelt, Theodore: order to the Government Printing Office to use simplified spelling, 240a Root, Eleanor, 327 Rosa, Bess N„ 943 Rositzke, Harry Α., 328, 400 Rothenberg, Jules G., 1279 Routh, James, 868, 869 Roxbury, N.Y.: word list, 993 Rule, George L., Jr., 1430c Ruppenthal, J . C., 814 Rush, Laura B„ 804 Russell, Jason Α., 968, 991, 992 Russell, T . Baron, 190, 1303 Russian Language: loan words from, 1259 Sabine River: colloquialisms, 1130 St. Augustine, Fla.: Minorcan dialect words, 765 St. Clair County, 111.: German language influence, 1262 St. Louis Public Library, 617 Salem, Mass.: language of witchcraft trials, 896 San Antonio, T e x . : dialect, 1133 San Francisco: pronunciation, 484, 484a, 741 Sanders, Gordon R., 944 Sanders, Martha D., 840

INDEX

Santamaria, Francisco J., 1304 Savage, Howard J., 118S Savannah River: Negro dialects, 715 Sawyer, Janet B„ 1132, 1133 Scarborough, William S., 723 Schach, Paul, 1065, 1066 Schele de Vere, Maximilian, 1305 Schelling, Felix E., 191 Schoharie County, N.Y.: dialect, 984 Schramm, Wilbur L„ 329 Schuelke, Gertrude L., 567 Schulman, David, 749, 1280 Schult/. J . R., 1488 Scott. Fred N„ 192 94, 1223 Scott, George R „ 1398 Scott, Samuel M„ 195 Scottish language: loan words from, 1266 Scranton, Pa.: pronunciation, 429 Sealock, Richard B„ 1436 Seattle, Wash.: word list, 1166 Seely, Pauline Α., 1436 Seidelman, Morton. 724 Seifert, Lester W „ 1067, 1068 Sentence, 566 Seronsy, Cecil C., 1043 Seymour, N. P., 495 Shands, Η. Α., 913 Shankle, George E., 1431 Shapleigh, F. E„ 885, 993 Shaw, George C., 1029 Shearin, Hubert G., 841 Sheldon, E. S., 365, 422, 641 Sheldon, Esther K„ 376, 560 Shenandoah Valley: dialect, 1161 Sheridan, Thomas, 1324a Sherwood, (Rev.) Adiel, 771 Shetter, William Z„ 974 Shewmake, Edwin F., 196, 469, 469a, 470

217

Shoemaker, A. L., 779 Shoemaker, Henry W „ 1044, 1045, 1069 Shoemaker, Robert W., 197 Shorey, Paul, 198 Shull, Bettie B„ 945 Simile, 652, 653, 1467, 1480, 1481 Simpson, Claude M., Jr., 1077 Skeel, Emily E., 1417 Skillman, Billy G„ 738 Skillman, W. J „ 972 Slang, 1192-1234; bibliography, 1199, 1200; clipped words, 1232, 1233; college, 1192, 1207; dictionaries, 1193, 1195, 1201, 1203, 1207, 1211, 1212a, 1213, 1221, 1222, 1225, 1227-29, 1234; hash house lingo, 1225; Negro, 707, 712; race track, 1213; southwestern, 692; see also cowboy slang and crime and criminals Sleator, Mary D„ 496 Sledd, James, 524a Slogans: political, 1445 Smal-Stocki, Roman, 199 Smalley, Daniel S., 1325 Smiley, Jack, 1225 Smith, Charles F., 675 Smith, Edward C„ 1443 1444a Smith, Elsdon C„ 1437 Smith, Grace P., 780, 780a Smith, Harley Α., 471 Smith, Herbert W„ 906, 907 Smith, Madorah E„ 1189a Smith, Mrs. Morgan, 1134 Smith, Rebecca W„ 472 Smith, Reed, 1091 Smith, William C., 1191 Snake County, Mo.: dialect, 947 Snyder, Joseph F., 624 Snyder County, Pa.: Pennsylvania German language, 1075

218

INDEX

Social status: eighteenth century, 183 Sonkin, Robert, 994 Sorvig, Ralph W„ 1281 South Carolina: Charleston, 462, 1083, 1087, 1089, 1090; dialect, 1078-94, 1457; Gullah, 1078, 1079, 1084, 1085; 109194; Negro sayings, 713; pronunciation, 456, 457, 459, 462; proverbs, 1082; Wedgefield, 1088; word list, 1080-82 South Dakota: dialect, 1095 South Weare, N.H.: word list, 966 Spanish language: loan words from, 1255, 1263, 1273, 1280, 1281

Speech styles: American, 294, 337 Spelling, 237-58; in advertising, 251; bibliography, 244; in dictionaries, 241; high school, 238; scientific research, 249; simplified, 240a; spellers, 247, 248, 255-58; vocabulary studies, 238, 239; Webster, 248, 250, 253-58 Spencer, Herbert, 200 Spicewood, Tex.: dialect, 1124, 1125 Sports, 1446, 1447; baseball, 1446; race track, 1213; sports writers, 1447 Springer, Otto, 1070, 1071 Sputnik: impact on American English, 199 Stahr, J. L„ 1072 Stanley, Oma, 725, 1135, 1136, 1141 Stanton, Theodore, 1418 Steadman, John M„ 1011, 1489, 1490 Steger, Stewart Α., 1419 Stein, Jess M„ 1399, 1400 Stephenson, Edward Α., 473

Stephenson, George M., 618 Sterling, 111.: Pennsylvania German dialect, 777 Stevens, William O., 908 Stewart, George R., 201, 1438 Stone, R u t h M., 1282 Stork, Willis, 1447 Strainchamps, Ethel R., 946 Struble, George D„ 1073 Strunsky, Simeon, 995 Studer, Norman, 995a Subjunctive, 531a, 537-39 Substantive-head construction, 556 Suffixes, 1470 Summey, George, Jr., 1456 T h e Sun, N.Y.C., 202 Svartengren, T. Hilding, 552 Swadesh, Morris, 401 Swedish language, 1253 Swinburne, Louis, 756 Swinton, William, 203 Tabusa, Takemitsu, 554 Tall talk, 616, 620, 1114, 1486 Tallichet, H „ 1137 Tallman, Marjorie, 1306 Tarpley, Fred Α., 1138 Taylor, Anna M„ 1307 Taylor, Archer, 750, 1452 Taylor, James W., 751 Taylor, Jay L., 947 Tazoe, Kaneko, 543 Teachers word books, 1491-93 Tennessee: Blount County, 1096; dialect, 1096-1110; eastern, 1097; Obion County, 1101; pronunciation, 472: proverbs, 1106; western, 1106; word list, 1102, 1105, 1108-10 County, 1118; dialect, 1111-41; Thorn, William T., 726 Thomas, Calvin, 1362 Thomas, Charles K., 204, 330-32,

INDEX

402, 432-34, 619, 996 Thomas, Edward H., 1030-32 Thomas, Russell, 555 Thompson, Harold W„ 998, 999 Thompson, Marion, 769 Thompson, William F., 620 Thorndike, Edward L., dictionaries, 1388-96; word books, 1491-93 Thornton, Richard H „ 1160, 1308 T h o r p , Willard, 205 Thurston, Helen S„ 909 Thurston, Herbert, 252 Tibbals, Kate W „ 1046 Tidwell, James N„ 676, 1139, 1140 Tinker, Edward L„ 870, 871 Tinkler, Mary C., 736 Tjossem, Herbert K., 423 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 207 T o d d County, Ky.: dialect, 825, 826 Tokimasa, Aiko, 1190 Tozer, G., 948 Trager, George L„ 208, 333, 366, 403 Traver, Alice Α., 556 Travis County, Tex.: vocabulary study, 1122 Tresidder, Argus, 474, 475 Triphthongs, 373 Trittschuh, Travis E., 1445 Troubridge, St. Vincent, 209, 210 Trumbull, J. H„ 1283 Tucker, Gilbert Μ., 211, 212 Tucker, R. Whitney, 1047, 1048 Turner, Lorenzo D„ 1092, 1093 Tyler, Priscilla, 525 Uinta Mountains: dialect, 1185 Unangst, M. L„ 526 U. S. Armed Forces language, 14231430c; Air Force, 1424, 1428, 1430c; Army, 1423, 1426,

219

1430a, 1430b; Marine Corps, 1427; Navy, 1430a Untermeyer, Louis, 214 Up, 535 Upshur County, W . Va., 1176 Upson, J o h n F., 1284 Utah: dialect, 1142; pronunciation, 483a Utter, Robert P., 1226 Van Den Bark, Melvin, 960-63, 1195 Van Patten, Nathan, 727 Van Riper, William R „ 367 Varney, J e a n n e M., 368 Veltman, Peter, 1285 Verb head construction, 557 Verbal taboos, 1486, 1490 Verbid clause, 565 Verbs: denominative, 550; eastern U. S., 536; two-word, 535; of constraint, 543 Vermont: proverbs, 1143a; West Brattleboro, 1144; word list, 1143 Ville Platte, La.: pronunciation, 471 Texas: Crawford, 490; Dallas eastern, 663, 1135, 1136, 1141; Kerr County, 1121; Mexican words, 1137; Negro dialect, 725; northeast, 1138; Parker County, 1119; pronunciation, 483, 485, 489, 490; Rio Grande Valley, 1113; Sabine River, 1130; San Antonio, 1133; sayings, 1111, 1134; southeast, 1128, 1129; Spanish influence on English, 1132; Spanish words, 1137; Spicewood, 1124, 1125; tall talk, 1114; Travis County, 1122; western, 1140; word atlas of northeast, 1138; word list, 1115, 1116, 1126,

220

INDEX

1127, 1129, 1131 Viney, Johnny, 1431 Virginia: Charlottesville, 438, 441; dialect, 1145-63; Fredericksburg, 463; German dialect, 1151; Lynchburg, 1152; pronunciation, 437, 442, 443, 446, 453, 469, 469a, 474-76; Richmond, 442, 443; Shenandoah Valley, 1161; topographic terms, 1155, 1156; Williamsburg, 446; word list, 1148, 1149, 1159, 1162, 1163 Vizetelly, Frank H., 1362, 1364 Voelker, Charles H., 334, 335 Vowels, 369-407; back vowels, 371, 402, 404, 456; central vowels, 372, 404; front reduction vowel, 407; length, 387, 393, 400; mid-back vowels, 369; nasality, 394, 460; patterns, 397; quality, 381, 390; stressed, 370; unstressed, 378, 389; vowel clusters, 373; a, 379, 380, 384, 386, 391, 398, 403, 420, 421, 476; e, 396; i, 383, 385, 442, 444; o, 376, 396, 405, 410, 412, 422, 455, 488a; u, 406, 483 Walcott, Fred G., 517 Waldhorn, Arthur, 1309 Walker, Francis C., 306 Walker, John, 1327 Walker, Saunders E„ 728 Wallowa County, Ore.: word list, 1024 Walser, Richard, 728a Walsh, Chad, 476 Warfel, Harry R„ 105, 220, 1420 Warner, James H „ 739 Warnick, Florence, 893

Warnock, Elsie, 621, 622 Washington: dialect, 1164-67; eastern, 1164; pronunciation, 494; Puget Sound, 1165; Seattle, 1166; word list, 1164, 1166, 1167 Wasson, Mildred, 215 Watkins, Sheila M., 752 Watson, George, 1290 Watt, William C„ 216 Weber, Carl Α., 217 Weber, Robert H., 1494 Webster, H. T., 218 Webster, Noah: bibliography, 1417; dictionaries, 1328-37, 1350-61, 1406, 1409, 1411-13, 1415, 1420, 1421; Dissertations on the English language, 220; euphemist, 1416; grammar, 527, 528; letter to John Pickering, 219; pronunciation, 315, 418; spelling, 253-58 Webster, William G., 1334, 1338 Wedgefield, S. C.: word list, 1088 Weekley, Ernest, 221 Weeks, Abigail E„ 844, 845 Weeks, R. L„ 949 Weilenman, W. E„ 914 Weingarten, Joseph Α., 1227, 1291 Weiss, Harold, 336 Wellard, James H., 222 Wellerisms, 1453, 1473 Wentworth, Harold, 529, 623, 1228, 1310 Werner, W. L„ 1074 Weseen, Maurice H „ 530, 1229 West, Robert, 294, 337 West Virginia: archaic English, 1172; dialect, 1168-78; expletives, 1170; idioms, 1174;

INDEX

Zürcher, Arnold J., 1444, 1444a peculiarities, 1173; Upshur County, 1176; west-central, 1178; word list, 1178 Westernisms, 698, 701, 703 Westfield, N.Y.: proverbs, 990a Westover, J. H „ 677 Wetmore, Thomas H „ 404 Wheatley, Katherine E., 338, 477, 1141 VVhibley, Charles, 1230 White, E. B., 886 White, Henry Α., 1000 White, Richard G„ 223-26, 339 Whitehall, Harold, 405-07, 1358 Whitford, Harold C., 1311 Whitford, Robert C., 531 Whiting, Bartlett J., 642, 887, 888, 1452, 1453 Whitman, Walt, 89, 227, 1231 Whitney, William D., 1375 Whorf, Benjamin L., 424 Wiener, Leo, 969 Wilder, Thornton, 228 Wilke, Walter H., 624 Wilkinson, Lupton Α., 1094 Wilkinson, Paul, 809 Williams, Cratis, 478, 846 Williams, Ralph O., 229, 230 Williams, Theodore, 568 Williamsburg, Va.: pronunciation, 446 Williamson, Juanita V., 729 Wilson, Arthur H „ 1075 Wilson, Charles M„ 950, 951 Wilson, George P., 340, 479, 939, 1422, 1162 Wilson, Gordon, 847 Wilstach, Frank J., 653 Wilt, Napier, 952 Winburne, John N., 231 Winship, G. P., 232 Winston Company: dictionaries, 1380-86 Wisconsin: dialect, 1179-83;

221

southwest, 1183 Wise, Claude M„ 341, 341a, 342, 425, 435,480, 481,497, 625, 678, 730, 731, 872-74 Witherspoon, John, 233 Withington, Robert, 234, 343, 1495, 1496 Wittman, Elizabeth M., 1232, 1233 Wolfe, Julia W„ 643 Wood, Clement, 1234 Wood, Gordon R., 679-680a, 1110 Woodard, C. M., 1163 Woodbridge, Hensley C., 703, 848 Woodbridge, William, 1339 Woods, Henry F., 1312 Woodson, Anthony, 849 Woof ter, Carey, 1178 Worcester, Joseph C.: dictionaries, 1340-49 Word coinage, 1482, 1483 Word-compounding, 1458, 1459 Word patterns, 231 World War (1939-45) : language, 1307 Wu, Yi, 426 Wyld, Lionel D., 1000a Wyoming: dialect, 1184-88; speech patterns, 1186; Uinta Mountains, 1185; word list, 1184; Yellowstone Park, 1187, 1188 Yank: diction, 1427 Yankey in England, 127 Yeaman, Μ. V. P., 236 Yellowstone Park: dialect, 1187, 1188 York County, Pa.: Pennsylvania German language, 1053 Zafra, Carlos de, 1000b Zimmerman, H. E., 894 Zimmerman, Jane D., 260, 345, 346, 436