Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran: Geological, Environmental and Remote Sensing Analyses 9811920443, 9789811920448

This book presents a complete set of studies of alluvial fan sediments in southern Iran from the point of view of sedime

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Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran: Geological, Environmental and Remote Sensing Analyses
 9811920443, 9789811920448

Table of contents :
Preface
References
Acknowledgments
Book Outline
Contents
About the Authors
1 Introduction
1.1 Statement of Issue
1.2 Importance and Necessity of Studying Alluvial Fans
1.3 Review of Relevant Literature and Records
1.4 Method of Studying Alluvial Fan Sediments
1.4.1 Literature Review
1.4.2 Field Studies
1.4.3 Laboratory Studies
1.4.4 Additional Studies
1.5 Geographic Location of Alluvial Fans in Southwestern Iran
References
2 Geology of the Study Area
2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran
2.1.1 Urmia Magma Collection—Girl
2.1.2 Sanandaj-Sirjan Region
2.1.3 Folded Zagros
2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area
2.2.1 Asmari Formation
2.2.2 Gachsaran Formation in the Study Area:
2.2.3 Mishan Formation
2.2.4 Aghajari Construction in the Study Area
2.2.5 Lahbari Member in the Study Area
2.2.6 Bakhtiari Formation in the Study Area
2.2.7 Quaternary Sediments in the Study Area
References
3 Advanced Sedimentology Studies
3.1 Granometric
3.1.1 Histogram Curves and Normal Distribution
3.1.2 Cumulative Frequency Curve
3.1.3 Statistical Parameters
3.1.4 Discussion
3.2 Study of Sedimentary Facies
3.2.1 Stone Facies or Lithofacies
3.2.2 Structural Elements
3.3 Calculation of Long-Standing Hydrological Parameters with the Help of Sedimentary Properties
3.3.1 Estimate the Current Strength Using the Part Size
3.3.2 The Thickness of the Category of Diagonal Floors and Estimating the Amount of Long-Term Drainage
3.4 Classification of Alluvial Fans
3.4.1 Ramhormoz Alluvial Fan Division (in Southwestern Iran)
3.4.2 Division of Alluvial Fans of Dezful
References
4 Petrographic and Geochemical Studies
4.1 Petrography
4.1.1 Petrographic Results of the Studied Areas
4.1.2 Petrographic Properties of the Studied Sediment Samples
4.2 Geochemical Studies
4.2.1 Oxides
4.2.2 Sub-Elements
4.2.3 Rare Earth Elements
4.2.4 Discussion
4.3 Mineralogy Studies
4.3.1 Illite
4.3.2 Chlorite
References
5 Tectonic and Morphotectonic Studies of Alluvial Fans
5.1 The Concept and Scope of Structural and Morphotectonic Geology
5.2 Tectonic Analysis and How to Study Structures in Geology
5.2.1 Tectonic and Morphotectonic Properties of Ramhormoz Region
5.2.2 Another Example of Tectonic and Morphotectonic Studies (Dezful Study Area)
5.3 Discussion
References
6 Environmental Geological Studies
6.1 Environmental Pollution
6.1.1 Study of Heavy Metals
6.1.2 Study of Environmental Indicators
6.1.3 Discussion
6.1.4 Groundwater Chemistry
6.2 Environmental Hazards
6.2.1 Seismicity Studies and Seismic Related Factors in the Studied Areas
References
7 Remote Sensing Studies
7.1 Primary Studies
7.1.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
7.1.2 Factors Influencing the Formation of Satellite Imagery
7.1.3 Platforms
7.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
7.2.1 Steps of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
7.2.2 Flood Studies with the Help of Remote Sensing Data
7.2.3 Spectroscopy
7.2.4 Spectral Properties of Mineralogical Components
7.2.5 Practical Examples of Detrital Sediment Spectroscopy Studies
References
8 Basin Analysis and Modeling
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basin Assessment
8.3 Sedimentary Model
References
Appendix

Citation preview

Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences

Saeid Pourmorad Ashutosh Mohanty

Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran Geological, Environmental and Remote Sensing Analyses

Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences Series Editor R. B. Singh, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences synthesizes series diagnostigation and prognostication of earth environment, incorporating challenging interactive areas within ecological envelope of geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and cryosphere. It deals with land use land cover change (LUCC), urbanization, energy flux, land-ocean fluxes, climate, food security, ecohydrology, biodiversity, natural hazards and disasters, human health and their mutual interaction and feedback mechanism in order to contribute towards sustainable future. The geosciences methods range from traditional field techniques and conventional data collection, use of remote sensing and geographical information system, computer aided technique to advance geostatistical and dynamic modeling. The series integrate past, present and future of geospheric attributes incorporating biophysical and human dimensions in spatio-temporal perspectives. The geosciences, encompassing land-ocean-atmosphere interaction is considered as a vital component in the context of environmental issues, especially in observation and prediction of air and water pollution, global warming and urban heat islands. It is important to communicate the advances in geosciences to increase resilience of society through capacity building for mitigating the impact of natural hazards and disasters. Sustainability of human society depends strongly on the earth environment, and thus the development of geosciences is critical for a better understanding of our living environment, and its sustainable development. Geoscience also has the responsibility to not confine itself to addressing current problems but it is also developing a framework to address future issues. In order to build a ‘Future Earth Model’ for understanding and predicting the functioning of the whole climatic system, collaboration of experts in the traditional earth disciplines as well as in ecology, information technology, instrumentation and complex system is essential, through initiatives from human geoscientists. Thus human geosceince is emerging as key policy science for contributing towards sustainability/survivality science together with future earth initiative. Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences series publishes books that contain novel approaches in tackling issues of human geoscience in its broadest sense — books in the series should focus on true progress in a particular area or region. The series includes monographs and edited volumes without any limitations in the page numbers.

Saeid Pourmorad · Ashutosh Mohanty

Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran Geological, Environmental and Remote Sensing Analyses

Saeid Pourmorad Institute of Surface-Earth System Science Tianjin University Tianjin, China

Ashutosh Mohanty Madhyanchal Professional University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

ISSN 2198-3542 ISSN 2198-3550 (electronic) Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences ISBN 978-981-19-2044-8 ISBN 978-981-19-2045-5 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2045-5 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Preface

Alluvial fans are an important and fundamental factor in many sciences such as geology, environment, natural hazards, groundwater study, and agriculture and many other related sciences and play an important and key role in these sciences. Lack of accurate knowledge of their constituent sediments has always been an important problem for experts in various sciences (Pourmorad and Jahan, 2021). In fact, alluvial fans are called cone-shaped sediments that are formed on the edges of mountains. As we go from the mountains to the plains, their thickness decreases and their width increase (Pourmorad et al. 2021). From an economic point of view, the identification of alluvial fan deposits can be of particular importance. For example, alluvial deposits can be the center of groundwater accumulation and most groundwater reservoirs within the sedimentary basin are fed by water from alluvial deposits (Zhang et al. 2019). Three different sampling methods have been set based on different objectives and scope of the studied sites, which include sampling for granulation and petrography studies, sampling for geochemical studies and sampling for hydrochemical studies. In order to perform accurate sampling of the studied areas, the ideal points for sampling were selected after determining the accurate location of waterways and their ranking by the Strahler method (Strahler, 1952). Most of the gold in the world is also extracted from the deposits of ancient alluvial fans in South Africa, which have remained in placer form. In addition, large amounts of uranium placer are extracted from old alluvial fan deposits in the South African sedimentary basins (Sissakian et al. 2020). What makes this book unique is that, unlike all the various books and articles published on alluvial fans, it is not limited to just one or two specific topics. In fact, this book presents for the first time a complete set of studies of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry, tectonics, economic geology, groundwater, geomorphology, hazards and telemetry. Another noteworthy point of this book is that, unlike many other published books, this book avoids the initial topics and theory, and all the topics discussed have been done

v

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Preface

practically to serve as a model for the study of this type of sediment around the world. Tianjin, China Bhopal, India

Saeid Pourmorad Ashutosh Mohanty

References Pourmorad S, Jahan SH, (2021) A model for comprehensive studies of alluvial fan deposits, Case study: Ramhormoz Mega-fan in southwest Iran. J Earth Sci Climatic Change 12(3) Pourmorad S, Mostofa MG, Li SL, Liu CQ, Moein Z, (2021) Oil and Gas well Drilling Engineering. Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, 480 Sissakian VK, Al-Ansari N, Abdullah LH, (2020) Neotectonic activity using geomorphological features in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Geotech Geol Eng 138–149 Strahler A, (1952) Dynamic Basis of Geomorphology. Geol Soc Am Bull 63, 923–938

Acknowledgments

This book arose from the work of all the paper contributors, who are working significantly in the area of an economic perspective of the identification of alluvial fan deposits importance, alluvial deposits which center of groundwater accumulation and most groundwater reservoirs within the sedimentary basin are fed by water from alluvial deposits. We sincerely acknowledge all the professors, researchers, scientists, alluvial fan deposits and Geological Survey of Iran specialists, managers, administrators and directors without whose effort, this book could not have been written. We would like to thank the language editor at the Madhyanchal Professional University, India, for his valuable suggestions. We would like to thank the staff at Springer for their help and support. The authors owe a great debt of gratitude to Prof. Reza Moussavi Harami from Iran for reviewing this book with great effort and time. He generously donated his time to discuss the text’s complexities and encouraged us to clarify concepts, investigate specific aspects of insight work and explain the rationales for certain recommendations. We’d want to thank our colleagues and Geological Survey of Iron for never ceasing to inspire us to question how things are done in the corporate world. Finally, we owe a huge debt of gratitude to Dr. Ashutosh Mohanty and his University team for their invaluable editorial assistance and direction. June 2021

Saeid Pourmorad Ashutosh Mohanty

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Book Outline

Alluvial fans are an important and fundamental factor in many sciences such as geology, environment, natural hazards, groundwater study, and agriculture and many other related sciences and play an important and key role in these sciences. Lack of accurate knowledge of their constituent sediments has always been an important problem for experts in various sciences (Pourmorad and Jahan, 2021). In fact, alluvial fans are called cone-shaped sediments that are formed on the edges of mountains. As we go from the mountains to the plains, their thickness decreases and their width increases (Pourmorad et al. 2021). From an economic point of view, the identification of alluvial fan deposits can be of particular importance. For example, alluvial deposits can be the center of groundwater accumulation and most groundwater reservoirs within the sedimentary basin are fed by water from alluvial deposits (Zhang et al. 2020). Most of the gold in the world is also extracted from the deposits of ancient alluvial fans in South Africa, which have remained in placer form. In addition, large amounts of uranium placer are extracted from old alluvial fan deposits in the South African sedimentary basins (Sissakian et al. 2020). What makes this book unique is that, unlike all the various books and articles published on alluvial fans, it is not limited to just one or two specific topics. In fact, this book presents for the first time a complete set of studies of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry, tectonics, economic geology, groundwater, geomorphology, hazards and telemetry. Another noteworthy point of this book is that, unlike many other published books, this book avoids the initial topics and theory, and all the topics discussed have been done practically to serve as a model for the study of this type of sediment around the world. This book consists of 8 main chapters which briefly include the following: Chapter 1: This chapter presents the generalities of the book and methods and other basic information. Chapter 2: In this chapter, the field geological studies method and the study model of southwestern Iran are introduced. In this chapter, we have tried to introduce the most important geological formations in southwestern Iran. The introduction of these formations is important for two reasons: first, to serve as a model for other studies ix

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of alluvial fans, and second, to make the readers of this book more familiar with the names of formations and study areas, and the practical examples will be more understandable. Chapter 3: This chapter includes advanced sedimentology studies of alluvial fans. In this chapter, sediment granulation, different sedimentary curves, sedimentary facies, structural elements, statistical parameters, estimation of ancient hydrological parameters, sediment segmentation methods, sedimentary structures and other alluvial sediment information of practical alluvial fans in southwestern Iran have been explained. Chapter 4: This chapter includes petrographic and geochemical studies of alluvial fan sediments. This chapter first deals with the preparation and interpretation of sedimentary sections and then studies the types of geochemical studies of these sediments. The most important geochemical studies described in practice in southwestern Iran include the study of oxides, major elements, minor elements, heavy metals, weathering of sediments, ancient climate, tectonic status and mineralogical studies. Chapter 5: This chapter includes the tectonic and morphotectonic properties of alluvial fan sediments with a practical explanation in southwestern Iran. Chapter 6: This chapter includes environmental geological studies. In this season, environmental pollution, heavy metals, environmental indicators, groundwater chemistry and seismic hazards. In this chapter, a practical model in southwestern Iran is used. Chapter 7: This chapter includes remote sensing studies. This chapter describes some of the methods used in alluvial sediment remote sensing studies, including the AHP method and spectroscopy. Chapter 8: This chapter includes the interpretation and modeling of the region. In this chapter, the interpretation of the data and the final modeling of the study area are taught in practice. This book is the result of our many years of experience as a researcher in major Iranian scientific institutes such as the Geological Survey of Iran and the Iranian Oil Company, also as a lecturer in Iranian universities and Thailand schools. The practicality of this book has made it possible for all topics to be expressed in simple language for researchers and students. Finally, we have to be grateful to all the friends who helped me to prepare this book. We especially need to be grateful to Prof. Reza Mousavi Harami for his great help as the scientific editor of this book. We also need to thank my friends at the Geological Survey of Iran. We will also be grateful to Prof. R. B. Singh sir, who reviewed the whole paper, Ms. Sushree Sangita Dash to bring it to the Springer format and necessary corrections and Dr. Ashutosh Mohanty for contributing to the whole publication and editing process of the whole book. For any future references and research correspondence, please contact Dr. Saeid Pourmorad.

Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Statement of Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Importance and Necessity of Studying Alluvial Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Review of Relevant Literature and Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Method of Studying Alluvial Fan Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 Field Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.3 Laboratory Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.4 Additional Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Geographic Location of Alluvial Fans in Southwestern Iran . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 7 8 8

2 Geology of the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Urmia Magma Collection—Girl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Sanandaj-Sirjan Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Folded Zagros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Asmari Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Gachsaran Formation in the Study Area: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Mishan Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Aghajari Construction in the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Lahbari Member in the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.6 Bakhtiari Formation in the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.7 Quaternary Sediments in the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 13 13 14 20 22 22 26 27 30 31 33 38

3 Advanced Sedimentology Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Granometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Histogram Curves and Normal Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Cumulative Frequency Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Statistical Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41 41 41 43 46 xi

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3.1.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Study of Sedimentary Facies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Stone Facies or Lithofacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Structural Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Calculation of Long-Standing Hydrological Parameters with the Help of Sedimentary Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Estimate the Current Strength Using the Part Size . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 The Thickness of the Category of Diagonal Floors and Estimating the Amount of Long-Term Drainage . . . . . . 3.4 Classification of Alluvial Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Ramhormoz Alluvial Fan Division (in Southwestern Iran) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Division of Alluvial Fans of Dezful . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Petrographic and Geochemical Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Petrography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Petrographic Results of the Studied Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Petrographic Properties of the Studied Sediment Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Geochemical Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Sub-Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Rare Earth Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Mineralogy Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Illite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Chlorite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49 55 55 69 74 76 77 80 80 86 92 95 95 96 99 101 103 103 104 109 129 130 130 131

5 Tectonic and Morphotectonic Studies of Alluvial Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 The Concept and Scope of Structural and Morphotectonic Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Tectonic Analysis and How to Study Structures in Geology . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Tectonic and Morphotectonic Properties of Ramhormoz Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Another Example of Tectonic and Morphotectonic Studies (Dezful Study Area) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Environmental Geological Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Environmental Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Study of Heavy Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Study of Environmental Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151 151 152 152 154

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6.1.4 Groundwater Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Environmental Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Seismicity Studies and Seismic Related Factors in the Studied Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156 161

7 Remote Sensing Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Primary Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Factors Influencing the Formation of Satellite Imagery . . . . 7.1.3 Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Steps of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Flood Studies with the Help of Remote Sensing Data . . . . . . 7.2.3 Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.4 Spectral Properties of Mineralogical Components . . . . . . . . . 7.2.5 Practical Examples of Detrital Sediment Spectroscopy Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

167 167 168 169 170 170 171 172 183 184

8 Basin Analysis and Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Basin Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Sedimentary Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195 195 196 198 199

161 165

188 192

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

About the Authors

Dr. Saeid Pourmorad an Iranian citizen, was born in 1983 and has a doctorate degree in geology with a focus on sedimentology and sedimentary geochemistry. In addition to having a doctorate and a master’s degree in geology, he has a master’s degree in Remote Sensing and GIS from the best universities in Iran. His most important scientific and professional backgrounds include the following: Thirteen years of teaching experience at Payame Noor University of Iran as a teacher; 7 years’ experience for work in the Geological Survey of Iran as a senior geologist; 4 years’ experience in Iran Oil Company as a wellsite geologist; 2 years’ experience in the Ministry of Industry and Mines of Iran as a mine exploration expert; 1 year experience as a teacher in Thailand schools; Author of three specialized books in Persian with the names: (1) Geochemical Explorations of Sediments, (2) Geology with Help of Log Plot Software, (3) Drilling Fluids; Author of several domestic and international articles in prestigious journals; he has prepared several geological and geomorphological maps in the scales of 1:25000 and 1:10000. His main specialties are sedimentary geochemistry, petroleum geology, sedimentology and environmental studies. He is currently pursuing a second Ph.D. in environmental sciences at Tianjin University in China. Dr. Ashutosh Mohanty is presently working at Centre for Environment and Economic Development (CEED), New Delhi, and Professor Madhyanchal Professional University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ratibad, Bhopal-462044, Madhya Pradesh. Dr. Ashutosh Mohanty, an International Researcher, is professor, mentor and practitioner and has 19 years of academic and professional experience in more than 15 countries with different capacities in the fields of holistic Disaster Risk Management, Strategic Emergency Policy and Risk Governance, human and institutional capacity development, Multi hazard Early warning System, Resilience and Sustainability, Humanitarian practice, Social Protection & Legal implications, IWRM, Urban Environmental Management and Climate Resilience strategies in Asia, US and Europe. He is also a Resource person and member of The Consortium for Capacity Building, CCB, INSTAAR, University of Colorado, USA, and xv

xvi

About the Authors

Co-Principal Investigator, National Geographic Explore grant USA (2020–2021). He was assigned as Director of Disaster Management and Climate Change, Shoolini University, one of the premier Himalayan universities with interdisciplinary expertise to teach Ph.D. and Master’s students and prior to this, he was with Truman Graduate School-Public Affairs, Mongolia International University, and joint Graduate School Programme with University of Missouri, USA. He did his Ph.D. in Urban Environmental Risk Governance under the mentorship and research support from Dr. Michael H. Glantz, Director, Consortium for Capacity Building (CCB), INSTAAR, University of Colorado, USA, and M.Sc. in Urban Environmental Risk Management at Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, under USAID/RUDO Fellowship. He lead a number of River Basin programmes including Amudariya Basin (Tajikistan, Afghanistan), Indus (India, Pakistan and Afghanistan), Ganges and Brahmaputra (India, Bhutan and Bangladesh), etc. He served as visiting faculty for Master’s studies at the International humanitarian and social work programme, Department of Christian Social Work, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic, as well as in Beijing Normal University, as faculty of Geo Sciences (2019). Ha served as Regional Capacity Development Officer at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal, and coordinated research-based University network called Himalayan University Consortium, HUC-Center of Excellence, contributing toward sustainable mountain development among the 8 Himalayan countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, China, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Myanmar) of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. Being University committee team leader and international DRM export developed course curriculum for 5 universities in 4 countries along with developed Post Graduate Disaster Management courses for Odisha State Open University, Govt. of Odisha. He is associated with international research centers like University Consortium for Atmospheric Research, USA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA, FK-Norway, National Science Foundation, USA, and ECODIT USA. He published more than 21 International Scopus/SCI Indexed Scientific Research paper/journals and 2 Books and many are under process internationally. He coordinated, hosted and lead more than 180 Skill-based Modular Trainings and capacity development programmes with Government Officials, Community Leaders, NGOs and INGOs, and Training of Trainer (ToT) Professionals.

Chapter 1

Introduction

Abstract The alluvial fan is conical or funnel-shaped alluvium deposited at the edge of the mountains, whose thickness decreases and width increases from the mountains toward the plains (Pourmorad et al. 2021). The average slope of an alluvial fan is about 5°, but may change by more than 25° (Li et al. 2020). The radius of the alluvial fan may vary from less than a few hundred meters to more than 150 km (Tavanaei et al. 2020). Alluvial fan deposits are often red in color due to the fact that they form in an oxidizing environment (Kumar et al. 2020). The shape of these sediments depends on the tectonic and climatic conditions of the region (Bowman 2019). However, most alluvial fan sediments are formed in areas with arid and semi-arid climates with low vegetation, very low rainfall and rapid erosion. These sediments are not specific to the climate and are formed in different regions (Pourmorad and Jahan 2021). Economically, the identification of alluvial fan deposits can be of particular importance. For example, alluvial sediments can be the center of groundwater accumulation, and most groundwater reservoirs within the sedimentary basin are fed by water from alluvial sediments (Zhang et al. 2020). Most of the gold in the world is also extracted from the deposits of ancient alluvial fans in South Africa, which have remained in placer form. In addition, large amounts of uranium placer are extracted from old alluvial sediments in South African sedimentary basins (Sissakian et al. 2020). This book has a comprehensive study of alluvial fan sediments, which seeks to introduce all the sedimentary and geochemical properties of the alluvial fan. Here, an attempt has been made to study and evaluate the alluvial fan sediments of southwestern Iran as a master case with full practical application. A detailed study including sedimentology, lithology, geochemistry and morphotectonics of alluvial fans of southwestern Iran has been described in this book. These studies will contribute significantly to the identification of similar sedimentary environments and will provide a clear view of the environmental, mineral, agricultural and urban hazards of different regions. Keywords Field studies · Sampling · Laboratory studies · Geochemical studies

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022 S. Pourmorad and A. Mohanty, Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran, Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2045-5_1

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1.1 Statement of Issue The identification of alluvial sediments is economically important. For example, alluvial sediments serve as groundwater reservoirs and supply water within sedimentary basins. In addition, most of the world’s gold is mined in the form of placer from ancient alluvial deposits such as in South Africa. In addition, large amounts of placer uranium are extracted from the sediments of ancient alluvial fans. The study of alluvial fans is also of great importance in terms of geological hazards because alluvial fans are considered as important areas of damage caused by floods, so their accurate identification is of great importance for flood prevention, environmental and agricultural sectors. Alluvial fans can also provide valuable information on neotectonics and seismic assessment of the area. Therefore, this book aims to first study all the sedimentary properties, lithology and geochemistry of these sediments along with their origin and sedimentary environment. Then for its application, groundwater and technical studies are carried out, and finally by examining the geomorphological properties of these alluvial fans and combining the data, a general conclusion is made about the hazards and investment of the mineral sector of these sediments.

1.2 Importance and Necessity of Studying Alluvial Fans Alluvial fans are important sources of groundwater, mineral resources such as sand and placer deposits, and help in geological hazard assessment, which is especially important for the residential areas around them. However, most of the studies that have been done on this type of sediments are either based on geomorphological properties or basic sedimentological studies, so this book shows the identification and comprehensive study of these sediments in terms of sedimentology, petrology, geochemistry and morphotectonics in each region. The comparison and examination of these regions with each other not only give a complete view of the sedimentological properties of the region but also on a practical scale help for mining purposes, agriculture, biohazard risk and drinking water supply for rural areas around them.

1.3 Review of Relevant Literature and Records In general, studies on alluvial fans have been carried out from different perspectives, including geomorphology, geology, hydrology and tectonics, due to its importance all around the world. The most important studies on alluvial fans include the following: the role of climate change in the development of alluvial technology in Mexicoby Dorn (2009); on the hazards of alluvial fans (Mazzorana et al. 2020); on the sedimentary properties

1.4 Method of Studying Alluvial Fan Sediments

3

of alluvial deposits in Yunnan Province, China (Sanchez et al. 2015; Li et al. 2020); on the assessment of groundwater resources in northwestern China alluvial fans (Xu et al. 2019); on the tectonic properties of alluvial fans California (Darcy et al. 2015; Miall 2014; Rachocki 1981) on the study of alluvial fans.

1.4 Method of Studying Alluvial Fan Sediments The studies are based on fieldwork, land surface data and the results from geochemical and hydrochemical studies. In general, the stages of this research can be divided into four sections: data collection, field studies, laboratory studies and supplementary studies, each of which is examined separately. The following section provides an example of proposed studies for this type of sediment.

1.4.1 Literature Review This section includes the collection of data such as relevant reports, valid articles, aerial and satellite imagery (including Google Earth imagery) and other necessary initial studies such as the collection of information from local residents about hazards and runoff in different seasons in the studied areas. The collected data were used after planning and initial analysis of planning for harvesting and field studies.

1.4.2 Field Studies This stage of the study includes two sections: fieldwork and sample collection, each of which is examined in the following sub-sections.

1.4.2.1

Fieldworks

All the sedimentary properties of the studied alluvial fans were inspected in terms of sorting, rounding, grain size, color, texture and other sedimentary properties. In addition, Miall’s (2014) naming method is used to investigate the properties, changes and lateral and vertical connections of the studied facies. In addition to sedimentological studies, this book show studies related to tectonic and morphotectonic properties, and all tectonic features including faults, folds, anticlines, synclines, examined tectonic factors, joints, fractures and slopes.

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1.4.2.2

1 Introduction

Sampling

Three different sampling methods have been set based on different objectives and scope of the studied sites, which include sampling for granulation and petrography studies, sampling for geochemical studies and sampling for hydrochemical studies. In order to perform accurate sampling of the studied areas, the ideal points for sampling were selected after determining the accurate location of waterways and their ranking by the Strahler method (Strahler 1952). The following sections describe each. Method For the study conducted in southwestern Iran, ~360 sediment samples were collected from the northern regions (Dezful city) and central Khuzestan province (Ramhormoz city), southwestern Iran. About 260 samples were harvest samples, collected from the floor of three selected canals: ~1 m in Dezful region (northwest of Andimeshk), 1.8 m (northeast of Dezful) and 3.2 m (north of Dezful). The other 100 samples were collected from the floor of two selected canals in the Ramhormoz area with approximate depths of 3.8 m and 2.6 m (Figs. 1.1 and 1.2). In these samples, the sections were selected in such a way that to a large extent, the desired sediments are included from the top to the downstream parts of these alluvial fans. The section in the Dezful region has a North–South trend, and in the Ramhormoz region the trend is from northwest to southeast. These samples were taken from the

Fig. 1.1 Location of sampling points taken from the canal floor in southwestern Iran for geochemical and granulometric studies (in the north of Khuzestan province)

1.4 Method of Studying Alluvial Fan Sediments

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Fig. 1.2 Location of sampling points taken from the canal floor in southwestern Iran for geochemical and granulometric studies (in the center of Khuzestan province)

bottom of the canal with the help of a sample shovel with a cylindrical volume of 20 cm diameter and a depth of 25 cm. The geographic location of each sample were recorded using a GPS device. Sampling was performed at 500 m intervals in two 30-day intervals in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Iran. About 268 samples were taken for geochemical studies. These samples were taken at distances of 500–800 m from each other following the principles of sediment sampling for geochemical studies, which include sampling from a depth of 25 cm and generally from canal floor sediments. In addition, for hydrochemical studies and groundwater quality assessment in the study areas, 80 water samples were taken from water wells in the study sites (location of water wells are shown in Figs. 1.3 and 1.4). These samples were taken at random intervals of 20 days from areas where there was access to water wells, covering all parts of the alluvial fan from top to bottom.

1.4.3 Laboratory Studies This includes laboratory studies related to sedimentology, geochemistry and hydrochemistry, each of which is discussed in the following sub-section.

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1 Introduction

b

a

c

Fig. 1.3 Laboratory studies of granulation. a Separation of gravel and sand samples, (b and c) Hydrometric studies of fine silt and clay particles from alluvial sediments of Ramhormoz and Dezful regions

1.4.3.1

Sedimentological Studies

At this stage, the hydrometric method or other granulation methods can be used to separate gravel particles from sand using standard sieves, and granulation studies of fine silt and clay particles were also carried out. Folk’s (1980) method was used to calculate skewness and mean.

1.4.3.2

Geochemical Studies

For geochemical studies, an XRF device that uses Energy Dispersive X-diffraction (EDX) spectroscopy was used to study oxides and main elements in sediments. To perform mineralogical studies, X-ray Diffractometer (model XRD-7000) was used. To study rare earth elements, the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method and ICP-MASS device were used by the Geological Survey of Iran. To study the hydrochemistry of groundwater samples in the study areas, hydrochemical devices such as PH meter, flame photometer (for measuring mass of elements such as sodium, potassium and calcium) and potassium meters were from the laboratory of the Geological Survey of Iran. Using these devices, different hydrochemical properties (such as water acidity, pH; water hardness, TH; electrical conductivity, EC; sulfate, SO4; potassium, K; sodium, Na; and calcium, Ca) of groundwater

1.4 Method of Studying Alluvial Fan Sediments

7

Fig. 1.4 Aerial distribution of alluvial fans in Khuzestan plain (Green: alluvial fans of White Vein; Y: alluvial fans of Omidiyeh; Red: alluvial fans of Shushtar to Ramhormoz; Blue: alluvial fans of Andimeshk and Dezful)

were measured. The duration of geochemical and hydrochemical tests was 6 months from the preparation of the samples to the receipt of the results.

1.4.4 Additional Studies The final stage of the study includes data collection and data analysis. A detailed review of the results from field studies, granulometry, petrography, geochemistry and hydrochemistry have been compared and analyzed. Various software such as CorelDRAW, SPSS, Adobe Illustrator, ArcGIS, ArcMap, Word and Excel have been used.

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1.5 Geographic Location of Alluvial Fans in Southwestern Iran The distribution of alluvial fans in southwestern Iran (Khuzestan plain from northwest to southeast) can be divided into four parts: I. II. III. IV.

White-anticline alluvial fans. Omidiyeh alluvial fans. Alluvial fans from Shushtar to Ramhormoz. Andimeshk to Shushtar alluvial fans.

White vein anticline alluvial fans are seen in the southeast of Khuzestan along the White Vein fault, and their sediment originates from Aghajari Formation. Omidiyeh alluvial fans start near Mashrageh and continue to Sardasht. These alluvial fans are found along the Aghajari fault, and the source of their sediments are from Gachsaran, Mishan and Aghajari formations. The alluvial fans of Shushtar to Ramhormoz are located along the Ramhormoz fault and their origin is mostly Gachsaran and Mishan formations. Andimeshk to Shushtar alluvial fans are located along Lehbari fault and between Bakhtiari Formation and Khuzestan plain (Fig. 1.6). In general, the study areas which include alluvial fans of Dezful and Ramhormoz are large alluvial fans that are located in the northern and central parts of Khuzestan province. Ramhormoz alluvial fan is located in the central parts of Khuzestan province, which includes a very large and typical alluvial fan (more than 30 km long and 11 km wide) and is located in the city of Ramhormoz. Dezful alluvial fans also include a large number of small to medium size alluvial fans (5–15 km long and less than 5 km wide) that start from the northwest of Andimeshk and continue to the northeast of Dezful and near Shushtar (Fig. 1.6). It is very difficult to study the origin and changes in sedimentological properties of these alluvial fans because of their small sizes.

References Bowman B (2019) Principles of alluvial fan morphology. Springer, Netherlands, p 151 Darcy M, Roda Boluda DC, Whittaker AC, Carpineti A (2015) Dating alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California, using weathering fractures in boulders. Earth Surf Process Landf 40(4):487– 501 Dorn RI (2009) The role of climatic change in alluvial fan development. In: Parsons AJ, Abrahams AD (eds) Geomorphology of desert environments. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 723–742 Folk E (1980) Petrography of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill Publishing Company, p 182 Kumar A, Roy SS, Singh CK (2020) Geochemistry and associated human health risk through potential harmful elements (PHEs) in groundwater of the Indus basin, India. Environ Earth Sci 79:86–97 Li K, Deng Q, Hou M (2020) Geochronology and sedimentology of the Huashan Group in the northern Yangtze Block: implications for the initial breakup of the South China. J Earth Sci 167–179

References

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Mazzorana B, Ghiandoni E, Picco L (2020) How do stream processes affect hazard exposure on alluvial fans Insights from an experimental study. J Mt Sci 17:753–772 Miall AD (2014) Fluviall depositional systems. Springer International Publication, p 316 Pourmorad S, Harami R, Solgi A, Ale Ali M (2021) Sedimentological geochemical and hydrogeochemichal studies of alluvial fans for mineral environment purposes. Lithology and Mineral Resources 56:89–112 Pourmorad S, Jahan SH, (2021) A model for comprehensive studies of alluvial fan deposits, Case study: Ramhormoz Mega-fan in southwest Iran. J Earth Sci Climatic Change 12(3) Rachocki AH (1981) Alluvial fans: an attempt at an empirical approach. Wiely, p 391 Sanchez-Nunez JM, Macías JL, Saucedo R (2015) Geomorphology, internal structure and evolution of alluvial fans at Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico. Geomorphology 230:1–12 Sissakian VK, Al-Ansari N, Abdullah LH (2020) Neotectonic activity using geomorphological features in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Geotech Geol Eng 138–149 Strahler A (1952) Dynamic basis of geomorphology. Geol Soc Am Bull 63:923–938 Tavanaei F, Hassanpour J, Memarian H (2020) The behavior and properties of Tehran alluvial soils under cyclic loading of urban vibrations-a case study: Arash-Esfandiar tunnel. Bull Eng Geol Environ 189–197 Zhang Y, Ye W, Ma C (2020) Middle to Late Holocene changes in climate, hydrology, vegetation and culture on the Hangjiahu Plain, southeast China. J Paleolimnol

Chapter 2

Geology of the Study Area

Abstract It is vital to have sufficient knowledge of the geology of the region, including the type of sediments, sediment origin, formation and morphology of the region, and other geological and environmental information about the region (Pourmorad and Jahan 2021). In terms of sedimentary and tectonic properties, Iran has several basins and sub-basins, of which the most important is the Zagros Basin (Fig. 2.1). The Zagros Basin is characterized by a thick sequence of 7–14 km of sedimentary sediments in large dimensional areas along the north-northeastern edge of the Arabian plate (Bagheri Moghadam and Kharazian 2020). The Zagros Basin has been a stable part of the Gondwana subcontinent during the Paleozoic, and the inactive margin was formed during the Mesozoic (Alavi 2004). The collision between the Iranian and Arabian plates during the Cenozoic led to the formation of the foldthrust Zagros belt and the associated Foreland Basin (Alizadeh et al. 2020). This folded-trust belt has long been considered due to its huge oil and gas resources and extensive studies have been conducted on it (Pash et al. 2020). Due to the geographical location of the study areas, which is in the folded Zagros, in this chapter we have tried to explain the Zagros tectonics (structural evolution of the Neottis Basin) and the Zagros stratigraphy. Keywords Zagros basin · Sanandaj-Sirjan region · Folded Zagros · Tertiary stratigraphy

2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran Geographically, the Zagros Basin is in the upstream part of the alluvial fans, which can be divided into three regions: Fars province (central part of Iran), Khuzestan province (southwestern Iran) and Lorestan province (western Iran) (Berberian 1995). The Zagros Basin can be divided into two parts: southeast or Hormoz Basin and northwest or Ahvaz Basin, which is located in the boundary between these two fault basins called Qatar-Kazerun fault (Seraj et al. 2020). Geomorphologically, from northeast to southwest, Zagros includes high Zagros (inner Zagros), folded Zagros and Khuzestan plain (Berberian 1995). According to Alavi (2004), the Zagros orogenic belt in Iran is composed of three tectonic units from northeast to southwest (Fig. 2.2). © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022 S. Pourmorad and A. Mohanty, Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran, Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2045-5_2

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Fig. 2.1 Major sedimentary-structural zones of Iran (Aghanbati 2016)

Fig. 2.2 The tectonic framework of the folded belt—Zagros Trust—showing the major fault zones along with the distribution of oil and gas fields (Sepehr and Cosgrove 2004)

2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran

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– Urmia Magma Collection—Girl; – Sanandaj-Sirjan region; – Slightly folded Zagros belt.

2.1.1 Urmia Magma Collection—Girl This complex is composed of about 4 km thick inner and outer igneous rocks, which are spread almost all along the Zagros. This assemblage is interpreted as the Andeantype magmatic arc (Alavi 2004) and includes various lithological units including gabbro, granodiorite, granite and smaller and larger plutonic sections. In addition, it includes a wide distribution of basaltic lava flows, trachyted basalts, andesite, dacite, trachyte and pyroclastic basalts (Berberian 1995). The Triassic or younger thrust faults are located in the northeastern margin of this complex, and volcanic rocks present there are covered by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments (Alavi 2004). Boge gravity maps show a negative anomaly in this area. The calculation of thickness in this region has shown that on average, the thickness in this region is about 5– 10 km more than the average thickness calculated for the Iranian crust (50–45 km). This increase is probably the result of magmatic activity and trust to the northeast (Berberian 1995).

2.1.2 Sanandaj-Sirjan Region This region is located in the southwest of Urmia Dokhtar magmatic arc in Iran and has an average width of 150–250 km. The northeastern boundary of the SanandajSirjan region is determined by the lateral location of a number of faults (such as Shirkuh fault; Partabian et al. 2020). The southern boundary of this region does not correspond to the main Zagros fault, but this boundary is defined by slightly curved folds, which are located in front of the thrust sheets, and are miles away from the main Zagros fault (Alavi 2004). The negative gravity anomaly and calculated depth of Moho show an increase in the average crust thickness in this area compared to its average in Iran by 15 km (Sheikholeslami 2015). The only volcanoclasts observed in the Sanandaj-Sirjan region, which include subvolcanic lenses of diabases, thin layers of basalts and rhyodacites, are interbedded with shales in the shallow and coastal areas of Carboniferous, Permian and the Lower Triassic (Alavi 2004). This indicates that the stratigraphic units of Sanandaj-Sirjan, with the exception of the marine sequence to the Middle–Lower Triassic, are mainly volcanic and sediments of inactive and shallow continental margins (Shafaii Moghadam et al. 2013). The middle to Late Triassic is also the time of magmatic activity that exists in the form of gabbro intrusions, granitoids and theolithic lava flows in this zone. It seems that the transformation of the Middle Triassic to the late and the magmatic activity are related to the expansion processes that led to the formation of the Neuttis

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Fig. 2.3 Tectonic division of the Zagros orogenic belt (Alavi 2004). In this figure, zones (C, B and A) represent the Urmia-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage, Sanandaj-Sirjan region and the slightly folded Zagros belt, respectively

ocean. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in this region are medium to low metamorphic rocks. They are non-metamorphic as green schists. It is believed that the metamorphic phase occurred during the Late Cretaceous (Alavi 2004) (Fig. 2.3).

2.1.3 Folded Zagros The folded Zagros (outer Zagros) has a width of 150–250 km, and forms the marginal and cratonic depression of the Saudi shield (Zaberi et al. 2019). The folded Zagros is continuously subsiding during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and with the accumulation of thick sequences of sediments (Aghanbati 2016). In the Zagros, the folds of Precambrian to Middle Triassic rocks form the Gondovanai facies, which are similar to other parts of Iran, while the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences have rocky facies compared to simultaneous sediments in other parts of Iran, which are also biologically different and mostly represent the southern facies of the young Tethys (Elias et al. 2019). This fact shows that, from the Middle Triassic onwards, the sedimentary conditions prevailing in the folded Zagros have been different from other regions of Iran (Fig. 2.4). Ancient geographical studies show that the folded Zagros does not have the same geological features everywhere (Ehsani and Arian 2015). Figure 2.4 show a comparison between the thicknesses of the stratified Zagros sequences with the high Zagros, which are explained in different sections, summarized below.

2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran

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Fig. 2.4 Comparison of the thickness of stratified Zagros Triassic stratigraphic sequences with high Zagros (Szabo and Kheradpir 1978)

2.1.3.1

Lorestan Area

A part of the Zagros is folded, the general trend of which is along the drift zone (high Zagros; Zaberi et al. 2019). The northeastern border is bounded by the Genoa border without drifts, eastern border corresponds to a curvature and western–northwestern border corresponds to the southernmost Zagros anticline, which coincides with the Iran–Iraq border strip. The most important features of the Lorestan region according to Matiei (1993) are – The northwest-southeast trend has structures consisting of alternating large anticlines (such as Kabir Kooh) and smaller anticlines consisting of the Bangestan Group in the south and Amish Flesh Formation and Garou Formations in the north. – Large landslides (e.g. Seymareh landslide). – Gravitational collapses.

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Fars Area and Post-Arid Bandar Abbas

In general, the Persian Gulf is divided into coastal and inland Fars. Many geologists consider Fars to be located between the Kazerun fault in the west and Minab fault in the east, but Matiei (1993) considered the geological feature of the eastern part of Fars to be different because of the dryness of Bandar Abbas Hinterland. Thus, the western border of the Fars area is closed to Kazerun fault zone and its eastern border is linear, which continues from Nakhilo port and near Fino Mountain, to north of Abbas port to the main thrust of Zagros. The northern border of the Persian Gulf is the drift zone, and the southern border is the coastline of the Persian Gulf. The most important geological features of the Fars region are – Having platform conditions due to the continuity of Saudi Arabia, which reaches Persia from Qatar and is referred to as bullfighting. – Anticlines with different orientations of east–west and even northwest that the change of structures is the result of the operation of piston faults or rotation of the Arabic plate vector relative to the Iranian plate. 2.1.3.3

Izeh Area

Part of the Zagros is folded, which is limited from the north to the southern border of the driving zone, from the south to the northern border of the Dezful depression, from the east to the Kazerun fault and from the west to the hypothetical length of the Balaroud fault (Matiei 1993). One of the characteristics of this zone is that it contains Izeh fault, which is a kind of transverse fault along the right slip and is similar to Kazerun fault. As a result, the Izeh zone is divided into northwestern and southeastern parts (Sarkarinejad et al. 2017). In the northwestern part, the core of the anticlines is composed of Bangestan Group structures and has no oil traps, but in the southeast, the limestone of the Asmari Formation is the core of the anticlines, which shows less uplift and erosion.

2.1.3.4

Abadan Plain

It is a structural zone located at the southwestern end of the Zagros. Its northern and northeastern borders are limited to the Zagros stratigraphic front (southern edge of Susangard anticlines, Ab-e-Timur and Mansouri), and after crossing the south of Rage-Sefid Square, it enters the Persian Gulf and its southern border is Abadan plain, Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia (Aghanbati 2016). Differences in the construction process and deformation style in sedimentary cover are the cause of the separation of Abadan plain and the collapse of Dezful. Pyongyang maps do not show a clear boundary between these two geological zones. The border between these two areas is marked by gentle anticlines that have a northwest-southeast trend (Matiei 1993).

2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran

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Fig. 2.5 Dezful depression location in the folded Zagros belt (Bahroudi and Koyi 2003)

2.1.3.5

Dezful Fall

Dezful depression is a geological structure in the southwest of the Zagros Trust that covers most of Iran’s oil fields (Fig. 2.5). Initially, this was a topographic depression, but in general it refers to an area of the Zagros in which the Asmari Formation has no protrusions (Matiei 1993). The Dezful depression is located between three building phenomena that include the upward bending zone, the mountain front bending zone and the Kazerun bending fault zone. This zone is part of the Zagros Pit and has a slope between 3000 and 6000 m, but it is more stable and less folded in terms of tectonics and folding compared to neighboring areas (Carrubal et al. 2006). The oldest structural evidence in this area belongs to the Upper Cretaceous, but the structures around the Dezful depression and the fractures within it were probably active in the Jurassic and even earlier. These linear structures were still active until the Oligocene or Middle Miocene (Matiei 1993). This area is more stable than its neighboring areas, so it is less wrinkled than Lorestan, Fars and Bandar Abbas districts. According to studies, the shortening of the folded Zagros thrust belt in this area is about 85 km (Pash et al. 2020). Co-thickness maps of Aghajari and Bakhtiari formations clearly show that this area is subsiding due to the thickening of these formations in the area.

2.1.3.6

Main Faults in Zagros Basin

Previous models presented on the expansion of the Zagros shortening only understand how the deformation front migrates to the southern regions in different proportions. In these studies, no attempt was made to explain the facies and sediment thickness at the same time as the tectonic activity in the foreland Zagros basin at the time of shortening and reactivation of piston faults. According to a new tectonic model, during the

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Cenozoic, the collision between the Arabian plate and Iran caused reactivation of the piston faults and also shortening of the piston (Sarkarinejad et al. 2017). Pesang faults are located in two sets of longitudinal and transverse faults along the northwest-southeast (Bahroudi and Koyi 2003). Longitudinal faults with a northwestsoutheast trend are almost perpendicular to the direction of shortening with a northeast trend and probably in the form of inverted faults with high angle and slopeslip movements during the formation of the folded belt—the Zagros Trust operated (Fig. 2.6). Pisang transverse faults are divided into two groups with north–south and northwest-southeast trends (Sarkarinejad et al. 2017). Considering the importance of reactivated Pesang faults in the formation of sedimentary basins of Gachsaran Formation, the main Pesang faults that have been reactivated are introduced.

Fig. 2.6 The major faults of Pesang and the linear structures of the Arabian plate including Diba fault (DA), Rab al-Khaimah basin (RKB), Bastan fault (BSF), Bastak fault (BAF), Trans-Arab highway (TAF), Kazerun Fault (KF), Qatar Arc (QA), Mountain Front Fault (MFF), Khaneqin Fault (KHF), Hill Gara Arch (HRA), Tabuk Basin (TSB), Mardin Height (MH), Arabian Central Graben (CAG), ManderLekhwir Elevation (MLA), Route Line (MLA), Hadromat Arc (HA), Mocal Arc (MA), Graben Sadegh (SG), Makran Ascending Wedge (MAW) and Eastern Anatolian Fault (EAF). In this figure, the lines are the same thickness as the Gachsaran Formation in terms of feet (adapted from Bahroudi and Koyi 2003)

2.1 Structural Divisions of Zagros Basin in Iran

19

Diba Fault This fault is in the eastern boundary of the Zagros Foreland Basin. It not only separates the Persian Gulf from the Oman Sea at the eastern end of the Strait of Hormuz, but also the eastern boundary of severe and extensive earthquakes in the foldedthrust Zagros belt (Bahroudi and Koyi 2003; Fig. 2.6). Rock facies maps and the thickness of the Zagros Basin have clearly shown that the Diba fault has acted on sedimentation as an important facies divider in the late Mesozoic (Zaberi et al. 2019). The southern regions of Rab al-Khali fault, which is an extended depression along the southeastern desert of Saudi Arabia, can be considered as a southern sequence of Diba fault (Bahroudi and Koyi 2003).

Fault Along the Arabic Landslide—Bastana This fault is located on the west side of Diba fault with northeast trend, and is composed of two parts, one along the Arab slip and the other along the Bastaneh fault (Matiei 1993). These two are probably connected on Qeshm Island. Bostaneh fault with a length of about 250 km has caused the lateral displacement of the left side of the Zagros anticlines up to distances between 30 and 50 km. Upper Cretaceous– Miocene facies-lithic maps of the Zagros Basin show the effect of this fault on sedimentation in this area (Murris 1980).

Kazerun Fault-Diameter Among the transverse faults with a north–south trend, the Kazerun-Qatar fault is the most well-known active Pesang fault. This fault has a long history of reactivation along the southern fold-thrust belt of the Zagros, the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula (Murris 1980). Facies boundaries have shown that the Kazerun-Qatar fault has been repeatedly activated during the expansion of the Zagros Basin. The QatarKazerun fault has limited the Dezful depression to the western regions. It seems that the Kazerun-Qatar fault has caused a lateral displacement of the right side of the Zagros mountain front fault by 140–150 km and 6 km to the west (Aghanbati 2016).

Khaneqin Fault Part of the border between Iran and Iraq corresponds to the Khaneqin fault. This fault caused the collapse of Dezful from the area behind the mountain (Lorestan province) that separates in the east. This fault has caused a lateral displacement of the right-side fault of Zagros mountain front fault by 130 km. The thick lines of some periods (for example, Jurassic and Upper Triassic) have shown that the sedimentary trends of the region are consistent with the Khaneqin fault (Matiei 1993).

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2 Geology of the Study Area

Fig. 2.7 Schematic three-dimensional diagram showing the effect of normal bedrock faults on the sedimentary environment of Permotrias Formations (Bahroudi and Koyi 2003)

Hill Gara Fault This fault is one of the most important regional trends in the northwestern border of the Foreland Basin of the Zagros (Fig. 2.6). Early to Late Ordovician and Early Silurian rock facies and thick lines have shown that this linear structure has a great effect on the facies and thickness of Phanerozoic sediments (Aghanbati 2016). It seems that the linear structure of Hill Gara has divided the Iraqi part of the Zagros orogenic belt into two structural blocks, Mosul and Kirkuk. This fault has affected the amount of sediment in these two blocks in such a way that more than 4 km of Phanerozoic sediments have been deposited in Kirkuk block compared to Mosul block (Matiei 1993) (Fig. 2.7).

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area The outcrop formations in the study area are mostly Tertiary, which are described in detail here. In general, Tertiary Zagros sediments can be studied in two parts: Lower Tertiary (Paleocene–Middle Miocene) and Upper Tertiary (Upper Miocene–Pliocene) (Matiei 1993). Two sedimentary cycles can be detected in the Lower Tertiary. These cycles include the Jahrom cycle (Paleocene–Eocene), and the Asmari cycle (Oligocene– Early Miocene). The Upper Tertiary corresponds to the mega-sequence of the 11 folded belts of the Zagros Trust (Alavi 2004), and generally consists of a sequence of seabed sediments that extends from the Upper Miocene to the Pliocene (Fig. 2.8). This section has a summary of the history of existing formations and a detailed study of these formations.

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

Fig. 2.8 Stratigraphic columns of Zagros in different regions (Sepehr and Cosgrove 2004)

21

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2 Geology of the Study Area

2.2.1 Asmari Formation Asmari Formation is the youngest oil reservoir rock in the Zagros Basin (Matiei 1993). The name of this formation is adapted from Asmari Mountain (southeast of Masjed Soleiman) and its type section is located in Tang-e Gol-e Torsh in this area (Matiei 1993). The thickness of this formation is 314 m and includes resistant limestones, cream to brown in color. This formation is generally located on the Pabdeh Formation, but in the center of Lorestan, with erosive discontinuity, it is located on the Shahbazan Formation and its upper boundary is formed by the Gachsaran Evaporation Formation. The Asmari Formation has two parts: Ahvaz sandstone and Kalhor evaporation. The pattern cut of Ahvaz sandstone section in well number 6 of Ahvaz and its reference cut in well number one in Timur water field (Matiei 1993). In general, the sandstones of Asmari Formation are divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part sandstones consist of large lenses within the Asmari sedimentary basin but have no outcrop due to their spread on a regional scale. The age of these Late Eocene to Oligocene sediments has been determined. The sandstones of the upper part are a continuation of the sandstone formation of the Iraqi cave, which has entered the Asmari sedimentary basin from the southeastern regions of Iraq and from the north of Kuwait. The evaporative part of Kalhor exists only in the southwest of Lorestan. This section is 118.8 m thick and includes gypsum at the bottom, marl with thin layers of lime in the middle, and gypsum containing two layers of lime at the top. The evaporating part of Kalhor is seen laterally interfering with the Asmari carbonate sequence. A small continuation of this section called Asmari basal anhydrite can be seen along Masjed Soleiman, NaftSefid, Haftgel and Parsi fields (Matiei 1993).

2.2.2 Gachsaran Formation in the Study Area: Gachsaran Formation is the first formation of Fars group (Mahmoodabadi 2020). This rock formation is considered as Asmari Formation and is equivalent to formations in Iran and Iraq. Gachsaran Formation consists of a sequence of evaporitic rocks such as salt, anhydrite, and red and gray marls. The thickness of this formation varies, but the thickness of its complete sequence sometimes reaches 1600 m (Hashemi et al. 2020). According to Alavi (2004), the Gachsaran Formation is far from the source of the wedge-top accumulation zone. The combined section of wells of different fields is introduced as a model (informal) section which consists of 7 sections (Table 2.1) (Fig. 2.9). Since none of the fossils of the Gachsaran Formation are among the time index fossils, they do not help much in determining the age of this formation. Therefore, according to the age of the lower and upper classes, this formation has been aged (Monjezi et al. 2019). According to the studies, the base of Gachsaran Formation along the Foreland Zagros Basin is two periods and becomes younger to the northwest with increasing evaporation in this formation (Rahimi et al. 2020). In Qeshm region,

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

23

Table 2.1 Pattern cutting (informal) of Gachsaran formation (Matiei 1993) Thickness (m) Petrology

Section

137

Alternation of anhydrite, gray marl and limestone (can be divided into 7 5 zones)

278

Anhydrite, red marls and lime (bottom), rock salt (middle) Anhydrite 6 and red marl (top)

308

Alternation of anhydrite, red marl, salt rock and thin layers of limestone

5

5/834

Thick rock rotation, gray marls, Anhydrite and quantitative layers of lime

4

225

Anhydrite, thick gray marls

3

5/113

Rock salt, anhydrite, gray marl and thin limestone bands

2

40

5 evaporation cycles including anhydrite, marl, lime and bituminous shale

1

Fig. 2.9 Close view of a part of marl, sandstone, gypsum and limestone rotation in the dominant marl section of Gachsaran Formation (northwest of Ramhormoz-southwest of Iran)

the lower limit of Gachsaran Formation, Pabdeh and Jahrom Formations have been reported (Monjezi et al. 2019). Therefore, the time of sedimentation of Gachsaran Formation in this area is Oligocene (Hashemi et al. 2020). Around the mountain, its age is Early Miocene and along Bushehr (where the second salt basin begins) its age is Early Miocene (Matiei 1993). This formation is also spread in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey and has a Middle Miocene age in these areas (Fig. 2.10). In summary, it can be concluded that the Gachsaran Formation has been deposited along

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2 Geology of the Study Area

Fig. 2.10 Distribution of facies and temporal equations of Gachsaran Formation along Zagros Basin ( adapted from Bahroudi and Koyi 2003). 1—Gachsaran salt facies, 2—Gachsaran non-salt facies, 3—Razak Formation, 4—Gachsaran Formation

the Foreland Zagros Basin for a period of 20 million years (from Oligocene–Middle Miocene) (Rahimi et al. 2020). This formation is the oldest stratigraphic unit in the study area in Ramhormoz city, which has the largest outcrop in the Persian anticline in the northeast of the region, and is located on Aghajari and Mishan formations due to Ramhormoz drift (Fig. 2.11). This unit is mostly composed of evaporitic facies such as gypsum and anhydrite with alternations of greenish to reddish-gray marls, between which thin to medium layers of limestone and sandstone can be seen. Parasitic folds are also seen in this formation. This formation generally consists of two parts, gypsum and greenish-gray marl in the lower part, and red marl and gypsum in the upper part. In the lower part (greenish-gray gypsum and marl), the alternation of medium, thick to very thick layers of gypsum and anhydrite with gray to greenish-gray marls is alternated (Fig. 2.12a). In some places, the nodular structure is also found within the marls (Fig. 2.12b). The predominant lithology of gypsum in this unit has increased the layering disorder, and parasitic folds become visible. The upper part of the Gachsaran Formation consists of a period of red marls, and the middle layers are thick to very thick gypsum (Fig. 2.12c). Gray marl layers are also seen in small numbers in this unit, especially in the vicinity of gypsum layers. Thin to medium layers of limestone sandstone and sandstone limestone with cubic fractures are seen in the highest part of Gachsaran Formation (Fig. 2.12d). The predominant marl lithology and red color are the features of this section. There is less clutter in this unit, and it has more regular layering than the lower parts. The lower contact of this formation is not seen in the study area, but outside the study area with Asmari Formation it has an erosive discontinuity. Its

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

25

Fig. 2.11 Location of Gachsaran Formation in Ramhormoz area (green) in relation to Ramhormoz city (the center of Ramhormoz large alluvial fan) and Quaternary sediments (dark and light brown). Gachsaran Formation is located on Aghajari and Mishan Formations due to Ramhormoz drift and as a result this formation is observed in the vicinity of Quaternary (Pourmorad and Jahan 2021)

upper contact outside the area has alternating marl and Gachsaran limestone to marl and limestone of the formation Mishan, and the slope is steep and gradual. Due to the surface protrusion of gypsum in this formation and re-dehydration of anhydrite, often secondary gypsum in the form of alabaster, enterolithic texture is seen, which is caused by contact with groundwater in arid rocks (Tucker 1981; Fig. 2.12f). Other constructions in gypsum include poultry netting, porphyrotopic texture, satin spar and selenite gypsum in cavities (Fig. 2.12g).

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a

b

c

d

e

f

g

Fig. 2.12 Lithology of Gachsaran Formation in the northeast of Ramhormoz. a Red marl, gypsum and gray marl alternation in the northern edge of the Persian anticline (northeast view). b Nodular texture in Gachsaran Formation. c Red gypsum and marl rotation of the upper part of Gachsaran Formation (northeast view). d Calcareous sandstones with a cubic fracture in Gachsaran Formation (looking to the northwest). e Intra-rock texture in gypsum in Gachsaran Formation. f View of secondary alabaster gypsum in Gachsaran Formation. g Construction of poultry net in rock Gypsum Formation in Gachsaran Formation

2.2.3 Mishan Formation This formation has no outcrop in Ramhormoz and Dezful areas, but has been described as a part of Tertiary stratigraphy in Zagros. The name of this formation is taken from Mishan village located 50 km southeast of Gachsaran in Kohkiluyeh province, and its pattern section is introduced along the road that passes through the southern edge of Gachsaran oil field (Fig. 2.13). Toward the end of Bordigalin, the

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

27

Fig. 2.13 Pathways of Mishan Formation in Baghmalek region of Khuzestan (Pourmorad 2018). a Fault boundary and expulsion of Asmari Formation on Mishan Formation (northeast view). b Alternation of red marl and gray sandstone to the middle cream layer of Mishan Formation in the southwest of Barangerd village (northwest of Ramhormoz area). c Periodically from gray marl, thin to medium layer cream sandstone and between layers of thin layer limestone in the northwest of Baghmalek (northwest view)

subsidence of the area is located between the Persian platform and the collapse of Dezful, where the marine environment has expanded, and the Gachsaran Formation has been covered with a progressive and shallow sea. The pattern section of Mishan Formation (in Gachsaran oil field) includes 710 m of gray marl and clay limestones consisting of fossil shells and other shell fragments (Matiei 1993). The lower part of the Mishan Formation (~60 m thick) is mostly offwhite limestone, named as worm-layered layers, and to the southeast it is replaced by reef limestone in the Guri section of the Mishan Formation. In previous studies, this part was called Gori Formation or Apercolina Lime (Matiei 1993).

2.2.4 Aghajari Construction in the Study Area The name of this formation is adapted from Aghajari city in southwestern Iran (Aghanbati 2016). In this section, Aghajari Formation is 2966 m thick, with repetitive rotation of cycles that are granulated upwards, and is located on a slope below Bakhtiari Formation (Fig. 2.14). In Dezful depression, this formation has the highest thickness, but to the east and southwest, the thickness of this formation decreases. The

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Fig. 2.14 Location of Aghajari Formation: (Aj) below Bakhtiari Formation, and (Bk) with discontinuity in northeast of Andimeshk

age of Aghajari Formation is from the Late Miocene to Pliocene based on the age of the fossils present in this formation (Matiei 1993). The predominant lithology of this formation with a thickness of about 1350 m includes a period of thick red marl and medium to thick layer sandstones, cream to gray color, with layers from mudstone to silt. Medium to thin red sandstone is also found in this section (Aghanbati 2016). In the study area, the dominant lithology of this formation consists of a period of thick red marl and medium to thick layer sandstones, cream to gray in color, and layers from mudstone to siltstone. A thin layer of red sandstone is found in this collection (Fig. 2.15). Sedimentary sequences of this formation have a finite upward trend and show different sedimentary structures in different parts of the sequence (Fig. 2.15), and a change in grain size, depth and viscosity. The flow and geometry of waterways are at different times (Jalilian 2018). The largest volume of sediments in Aghajari Formation are red marls and lichens. These sediments are related to the sedimentation of the suspended load of the river in the flood section (Miall 2014),

Fig. 2.15 From the rotation of red marl and thin to thick sandstones (view from northeast of Andimeshk)

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

29

which sometimes exists between the layers of fine-grained sandstone with medium to thin layering, which is related to the formation of wide crosses in this area (Obeid et al. 2016; Fig. 2.16). The rock layers of this formation are exposed in the northeast of Dezful region and have formed moderate ridges in which many joints are perpendicular to each other (Figs. 2.7 and 2.18). This formation is not observed in Ramhormoz region due to being covered by Gachsaran Formation because of Ramhormoz drift. Sedimentary sequences of this formation in Dezful and Andimeshk regions have a finite upward trend with different sedimentary structures that can be seen, which show the change in grain size, depth and viscosity of flow and waterway geometry, formed at different times (Jalilian 2018) (Fig. 2.17).

Fig. 2.16 Massive red marls with intermediate to thin sandstone layers. This part of the facies belongs to the flood plain and the edge of the canal (View from northeast of Dezful)

Fig. 2.17 Face-forming sandstone ridges alternating with marl

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Fig. 2.18 Perpendicular joints in the middle of the sandstone layers. The southern edge of Dali Mountain in the north of Andimeshk

2.2.5 Lahbari Member in the Study Area The pattern cut of this member is measured in Tang-e-Takab, located 10 km northeast of Haftgel city, which includes 1575 m of siltstone, silt-gypsum marl, carbonate sandstone and gypsum, where one of its features is large. The seeds grow upwards. This member is pea to earth in color, which is difficult to separate from the younger units resulting from the erosion of Aghajari Formation and Bakhtiari Conglomerate. The study on Hipparion horse belongs to Pliocene, among the works found in Lehbari (Matiei 1993). This member is observed in the study areas only in the northwest of Andimeshk region and is considered as one of the sources of alluvial deposits of alluvial fans in this region. The lithology of this member consists of Aghajari Formation with a thickness of about 800–1350 m, mainly red marl and siltstone marls and siltstone, which alternate with sandstone, conglomerate and mudstone, and is medium to thick layered (Fig. 2.19). The color of the sandstone and mud layers is cream to gray and the conglomerate layers are gray. The general appearance of this formation is dilapidated and often hilly, and in places where the thickness of hard layers such as sandstone or conglomerate increases, it has formed not very high ridges (Fig. 2.19a). The highest extent of this member is in the west and northwest of Andimeshk and from the west of Andimeshk to the northern parts of the region, the frequency between conglomerate layers decreases and the thickness between sandstone layers increases. In some parts, with the complete predominance of marl and mud layers, gypsum laminates in the form of selenite and satin spars, and some unripe brown coals are also observed (Fig. 2.19b). This member, like Aghajari Formation, is not visible in Ramhormoz region due to the drift of Gachsaran Formation.

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

a

31

b

Fig. 2.19 The appearance of Lehbari member in Andimeshk region. a The appearance of a flat and soft hill, with medium and relatively steep layers of conglomerate—toward the northeast of Andimeshk

2.2.6 Bakhtiari Formation in the Study Area Bakhtiari Conglomerate Formation is characterized by alluvial-foothill sediments resulting from elevation erosion, which mostly consists of conglomerate and calcareous sandstone that is sometimes deposited on high slopes and sometimes steeply on older formations. The pattern section of this formation in the north of Masjed Soleiman (Godar Lander) includes 550 m of conglomerate with parts in the boulder area, of various ages, which are cemented with coarse calcite and clay. The thickness of this formation is different in different regions, so the Bandar Abbas area is 1027 m and Behbahan (well number 11) is 1330 m (Matiei 1993). The lithology of this formation is about 740 m thick, consisting of medium to very thick layers of conglomerate, gray to cream in color. This formation is observed in Dezful study area in the northern part of Andimeshk and Dezful cities and borders with Aghajari Formations and Lahbari section and is considered as the main source of sediment supply in these areas. In Ramhormoz region, this formation has no outcrop, and the sediment is deposited through rivers such as Mal Agha from Baghmalek and Izeh counties, which are considered as the source of sediments in these areas. The lower boundary of this formation in Andimeshk region is gradually located on Lahbari member everywhere (Fig. 2.20a). This formation in the study area mainly has horizontal and lens-shaped layers (Fig. 2.20b). In the study area, the conglomerate layers are cream to light brown in color and thick to layered maroons and greenish-gray to pea-colored. The layers of the conglomerate are composed of calcareous gravelly grains and to a lesser extent grazing. The space between the layers is filled with carbonate cement. The roundness of the rubble is good but the sorting is poor. Calcareous gravels are larger and have a better sphericity compared to snails. Gradual and cross-stratified grain structures are seen within the conglomerate (Fig. 2.21).

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Fig. 2.20 a The boundary of Bakhtiari Formation with Lahbari member in a deformed form in the northwest of Andimeshk (northwest view). b Existence of horizontal and lens-shaped layering in gravel channels of bed load sediments in Bakhtiari conglomerate of Dezful and Andimeshk regions (northwest view)

a

b

Fig. 2.21 View of Bakhtiari Formation (as a source rock) in Andimeshk region. a Northeast of Andimeshk, and b North of Shushtar

The cement and binding materials are mostly calcareous, and snooze materials are scattered with the grains (Fig. 2.22a). The conglomerate layers of this section are thick to medium, convex–concave shaped and jagged contacts due to their high compaction. One of the salient features of these layers in terms of geomorphology is the production of large rock blocks, which have created many debris on steep slopes (Fig. 2.22b). As mentioned, the most abundant sedimentary structures observed in these layers are horizontal stratification and embossing (Fig. 2.22c). The presence of parts with good roundness and medium sphericity is a sign of transportation and high current strength (Jalilian 2018). The support grain texture and the presence of the impregnation fabric indicate the deposition of these sediments by the tensile currents and the bed load of the cut rivers and alluvial fans (Miall 2014). Petrographically, these rocks are composed of relatively rounded limestone fragments that are present among the limestone cement particles. There are snooze and radiolarity pieces in the space between the grains, and a few sand-sized quartz have also been observed in this collection.

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

a

33

bb

c

Fig. 2.22 Lithological properties of Bakhtiari Formation in Andimeshk. a Existence of red nap pieces in the conglomerate layer. b Large stone blocks from the conglomerate layers located in the northeast of Andimeshk. c Close view of the conglomerate stone blocks in the northwest of Andimeshk

2.2.7 Quaternary Sediments in the Study Area These sediments are namely a collection of tangled and mostly destructive sediments (debris) that results from the destructive and erosive activities, and are transported to the depo-center by transfer agents such as water and wind. All the downstream and sloping areas, including the bed of canals and flat lands, are covered by these sediments. Lithologically, the composition of this complex is different and is mostly a function of lithology and the type of rock units that are exposed upstream, and it includes sedimentary, alluvium and alluvial sediments that are due to the destruction of sedimentary rocks in Gachsaran, Aghajari and Bakhtiari formations in the basin. The sediments have been released in the form of rock and gravel fragments and have gradually accumulated in low-slope and downstream areas of the slopes and heights. Another group of materials forms alluvial sediments, as a result of the destruction of existing formations that have been transported to downstream areas by running water or during floods. These sediments in Ramhormoz region originated mainly from rivers named ‘Ala and Khanami’. These are the cut rivers, having a length of 18 km and flowing from northwest to southeast from the heights of Gachsaran Formation toward the flood plain. The sediments of the bed of these rivers are mainly in the parts close to the

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2 Geology of the Study Area

Fig. 2.23 View of alluvial sediments in the study area—northeast of Ramhormoz

altitudes, including coarse-grained parts with medium sorting and rounding, which increase their circulation as they move away from the top of this river. In the northern parts of Andimeshk, alluvial sediments are mainly caused by floods, which are coarse-grained and cover the bed of the canal. A significant part of these sediments is the result of destruction of Bakhtiari Conglomerate Formation. In flooding conditions, different sediments move at high speed from the heights of the mentioned areas to downstream of the basin, as well as while passing through low-slope areas due to energy loss, depending on their grain sizes. The sediments deposited in these areas formed the cone shape of the existing alluvial fans. The volume and size of the detrital material decrease from the top of the cone to the bottom. The suspended load of runoff has also deposited over long distances and provided lands with suitable soil texture for agriculture (Fig. 2.23). In general, Quaternary sediments are relatively widespread in the study areas and include sediments of alluvial fans, alluvial barracks, riverbed sediments and slope debris that are observed in the slopes of the formations in the study region. Except for alluvial fan deposits, which are the main subject of this research, the following section describes other Quaternary sections in the study areas.

2.2.7.1

Fluvial Terrace

Alluvial or river barracks are geomorphological complications caused by rivers (Sugai 2016). In a valley, due to the lowering of the river basin level in its sediments, the remains of alluvial sediments overlook the current bottom of the river, thus creating an alluvial garrison and the river flows at a lower level (Pourmorad and Jahan 2021).

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area Fig. 2.24 A view of the expansion of alluvial barracks in the Ramhormoz area along the Khanami River (southwest view—Primary Source)

35

Qt2

Qal

According to previous studies conducted in Ramhormoz region, three types of alluvial barracks with the names Qt2, Qt3 and Qal can be identified, which in Andimeshk region are generally recognizable as Qal section.

Qt2 Alluvial Terrace This unit is one of the complications that are observed dominantly at the study site and is considered as one of the main factors of sediment transport. The rapid erosion of the deposits of the Fars group, especially the Gachsaran Formation, which has increased as a result of the Ramhormoz drift, has caused the accumulation of these deposits. In Dezful region, this part consists of silt and clay along with some fine-grained sand in the form of a mass. Gravel fragments are also observed in the form of a dominant matrix that gradually transform into dominant grain gravel fragments. These deposits are composed of fine-grained upward sedimentary sequences, each of which begins with a conglomerate horizon at the base and ends in mud (silty-clay) deposits at the top. In Ramhormoz region, these deposits are sometimes seen in the form of conglomerate lenses. The upper fine-grained sections in Ramhormoz region are sometimes gypsum due to the abundance of gypsum crystals. Erosion of these deposits has caused the appearance of satellite hills in some parts. The height of these barracks reaches more than 3 m above the base level of the Shifa and Khani rivers (Fig. 2.24).

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2 Geology of the Study Area

a

b

Fig. 2.25 Outline of Qt3 alluvial units in the studied areas. a In the middle of Gachsaran Formation (view from northeast in Ramhormoz region). b Outcrop of Qt3 alluvial units in Andimeshk region (view from northeast—Primary Source)

Alluvial Unit Qt3 This unit has deposits of young alluvial barracks found around most of the waterways and rivers in the study regions. It is mostly composed of fine silty-clay deposits with sand and gravel lenses, especially in its lower parts. Its height is ~2–3 m from the base level of waterways, which has created suitable areas for agricultural activities (Fig. 2.25a, b).

Qal Alluvial Unit It contains loose and isolated deposits in the bed of the Madani and Shifa rivers, studied rivers in Ramhormoz region. In Andimeshk region, it can be seen in the bed of seasonal rivers. They are composed of silt clay, and the grains are mostly carbonate, sandstone and to a lesser extent in Ramhormoz region gypsum crystals that have originated from Fars group. These deposits become finer in grain from the heights to the plains of Ramhormoz and Dezful (Fig. 2.26).

2.2.7.2

Deposits of Alluvial Plain

These deposits, which can be seen in the southern part of Ramhormoz, and the western part of Dezful, include fine-grained silty-clay and sandy sediments that are in the continuation of alluvial fan deposits, which results from the gradual conversion of alluvial fans. These deposits are finer in the plain than the alluvial fan, which consists of lenses and horizons of coarse-grained sandy deposits.

2.2 Tertiary Stratigraphy of Zagros and the Study Area

37

b a

Fig. 2.26 Qal alluvial unit deposits in the studied area. a Qal unit deposits along the Shifa River toward the north. b Qal deposits near the city of Andimeshk—toward the northwest of Andimeshk (Primary Source)

This unit has a relatively smooth appearance and a very mild topographic slope in both study areas, which has been used as agricultural land in many areas, especially in the Andimeshk region. In some places, especially in the vicinity of large waterways, these deposits have a worn appearance and a mound due to erosion (Fig. 2.27).

Fig. 2.27 Sediments of alluvial plain in Ramhormoz plain—southwest of Darvishan village (view toward the northeast)

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2 Geology of the Study Area

a

b

Fig. 2.28 Regulations of Ramhormoz region. a Northeast of Shifeh village (look to the east). b In the middle of Gachsaran Formation (Primary Source)

2.2.7.3

Regulite Soils in Ramhormoz Region

It contains alluvial deposits, including hard and non-hard rock materials that cover the surface of the bedrock. This unit, which is mostly visible in Ramhormoz area, is the result of bedrock erosion, and is often surrounded by rock outcrops. These deposits are often transported, which make their grains somewhat angular. The color of these sediments is affected by bedrock, and is often the color of marl of the Gachsaran Formation (Fig. 2.28).

References Aghanbati A (2016) Geology of Iran. Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration Organization, Tehran, 1st edn, 708 pp Alavi M (2004) Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt of Iran and its Proforeland evolution. Am J Sci 304:73–97 Alizadeh A, Hormozi H, Moghadam M, Seraj M (2020) DEM-derived geomorphic indices for assessment of tectonic activity at the Dara anticlinal oil structure within the Zagros fold-thrust belt, southwestern Iran. Arab J Geosci 13:192–212 Bagheri Moghadam H, Kharazian N (2020) Morphologic and chemotaxonomic studies of some Teucrium L. (Lamiaceae) in Zagros region, Iran. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Sci. Online Bahroudi A, Koyi HA (2003) Tectono-sedimentary framework in the Zagros foreland basin. Mar Pet Geol 33:1–16 Berberian M (1995) Master “blind” thrust faults hidden under the Zagros folds: active basement tectonics and surface morphotectonics. Tectonophysics 241:193–224 Carrubal S, Perottil CR, Buonaguro R, Calabro R, Carpi R, Naini M (2006) Structural pattern of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Dezful Embayment (SW Iran). Geological Society of America, pp 69–87

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Ehsani J, Arian M (2015) Quantitative analysis of relative tectonic activity in the Jarahi-Hendijan basin area, Zagros, Iran. Geosci J 19(4):751–765 Elias Z, Sissakian VK, Al-Ansari N (2019) Assessment of the tectonic activity in northwestern part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by using geomorphic indices. Geotech Geol Eng 1–13. Hashemi et al (2020) Jalilian A (2018) Advanced sedimentary environments. Payame Noor University Press, 347 pp Mahmoodabadi RM (2020) Facies analysis, sedimentary environments and correlative sequence stratigraphy of Gachsaran formation in SW Iran. Carbonates and Evaporates 35:25–39 Matiei H (1993) Geology of Iran, Zagros Stratigraphy. Geological Survey of Iran, 536 pages Miall AD (2014) Fluviall depositional systems. Springer International Publication, 316 pp Monjezi N, Amirshahkarami M, Bakhtiar HA (2019) Palaeoecology and microfacies correlation analysis of the Oligocene-Miocene Asmari formation, in the Gachsaran oil field, Dezful Embayment, Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran. Carbonates and Evaporates 34:1551–1568 Murris RJ (1980) Middle East, stratigraphic evolution and oil habitat. Am Asso Petrol Geol Bull 64:598–617 Obeid MA, Khalil AES, Azer MK (2016) Mineralogy, geochemistry and geotectonic significance of the Neoproterozoic ophiolite of Wadi Arais area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Int Geol Rev 58:687–702 Partabian A, Bagheri S, Morshedi F (2020) Documentation of the SirjanOrocline in the southeast Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran. J Earth Sci 108:365–389 Pash RR, Sarkarinejad K, Ghoochaninejad HZ (2020) Accommodation of the different structural styles in the foreland fold-and-thrust belts: northern Dezful Embayment in the Zagros belt, Iran. Int J Earth Sci (GeolRundsch) 109:959–970 Pourmorad S (2018) Sedimentary mineral resources exploration. Danaeshyaran Publication, Iran, Teharn, p 385 Pourmorad S, Jahan SH (2021) A model for comprehensive studies of alluvial fandeposits, Case study: Ramhormoz Mega-fan in southwest Iran. J EarthSci Clim Change 12(3) Rahimi MR, Mohammadi SD, Beydokhti AT (2020) Effects of mineral composition and texture on durability of sulfate rocks in Gachsaran formation, Iran. Geotech Geol Eng 38:2619–2637 Sarkarinejad K, Zafarmand B, Oveisi B (2017) Evolution of the stress fields in the Zagros Foreland Folded Belt using focal mechanisms and kinematic analyses: the case of the Fars salient, Iran. Int J Earth Sci 107:611–619 Sepehr M, Cosgrove JW (2004) Structural framework of the Zagros Fold–Thrust Belt, Iran. Mar Pet Geol 21:829–834 Seraj M, Faghih A, Motamedi H (2020) Major Tectonic lineaments influencing the oilfields of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, SW Iran: insights from integration of surface and subsurface data. J Earth Sci 31:596–610 Shafaii Moghadam H, Robert JS, Rahgoshay M (2013) The Dehshirophiolite (central Iran): geochemical constraints on the origin and evolution of the Inner Zagros ophiolite belt. Geol Society of America Bulletin 75083-0688 Sheikholeslami MR (2015) Deformations of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks in southern Sirjan, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran. J Asian Earth Sci 106:130–149 Szabo F, Kheradpir A (1978) Permian and Triassic stratigraphy, Zagros basin, south – west Iran. J Pet Geol 1:57–82 Tuker ME (2001) Sedimentary Petrology: an introduction to the origion of sedimentary rocks. Blackwell, Scientific Publication, London, p 260 Zaberi M, Grutzner C, Navabpour P, Ustaszewski K (2019) Relative timing of uplift along the Zagros Mountain Front Flexure (Kurdistan Region of Iraq): constrained by geomorphic indices and landscape evolution modeling. Solid Earth 10:663–682

Chapter 3

Advanced Sedimentology Studies

Abstract Sedimentary rocks have precipitated in the past period of geology in different natural environments that are nowadays (Pourmorad 2018). The study of the terms and their sediments and processes helps to understand more of their old equivalent (Sarraj and Mohialdeen 2020). Environment and sedimentary processes, old geography and old weather can all be deduced from the study of sedimentary rocks (Li et al. 2020). In this chapter, it is attempting to provide accurate recognition of all sediment properties of these sediment properties, grain size studies, petrographic studies and facies studies, according to extensive studies in studies. Keywords Sedimentary facies · Granometric · Hydrological parameters · Classification of alluvial fans

3.1 Granometric Granulometry (granulometry) is the measurement of particle diameter and density ratio of grains. In this study, samples are screened after preparation by al-Locks (Hernandez-Hinojosa et al. 2019). Particle size analysis can be used to determine the sedimentary environment and identify sediment and flow processes (Morales 2019). In studies in the southwest of Iran, in order to accurately study the studies that are based on all sediment studies, samples prepared from the listed areas were analyzed (Table 3.1). In this section, the results of the analysis of the grains and the statistical data are discussed.

3.1.1 Histogram Curves and Normal Distribution Histogram is a stretching method, with the relative frequency of particle size by different regions (Roy and Banerjee 2002). The normal distribution curve is also a stretching method that is obtained from the binding of the data points. In this study, the histogram and normal distribution curves for each of these sections are separately mapped and examined. For this purpose, 6 samples from different departments of © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022 S. Pourmorad and A. Mohanty, Alluvial Fans in Southern Iran, Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2045-5_3

41

D7

32° 27 2.24 –48° 27 54.27

6.49

8.02

10.19

14.88

12.74

9.14

8.57

7.19

9.11

5.62

8.05

52.32

39.63

8.05

D8

32° 26 57.4 –48° 27 36.70 E

6.21

9.77

10.29

13.19

12.34

10.11

9.14

8.07

9.11

5.19

6.58

51.8

41.62

6.58

8.75

37.36

53.89

8.75

5.83

9.09

7.26

8.02

7.16

13.09

14.47

10.12

9.14

7.07

32° 27 30.11 –48° 28 27.18

D6

8.52

36.39

55.09

8.52

6.07

8.04

6.02

9.14

7.12

13

15.19

10.42

10.12

6.36

32° 27 30.11 –48° 28 27.18

D5

8.42

38.29

54.29

7.42

6.19

8.19

7.83

9.01

7.07

12.34

14.32

10.54

9.96

7.13

32° 27 22.41 –48° 29 4.19

D4

Table 3.1 Results of some samples in Dezful, southwest of Iran (primary source)

10.49

37.36

52.15

10.49

6.16

8.89

7.54

8.43

6.34

12.09

14.11

10.14

7.16

8.65

32° 27 24.31 –48° 29 30.19

D3

10.08

33.8

56.12

10.08

6.31

7.34

6.31

7.37

6.47

11.98

15.82

11.02

8.25

9.05

32° 27 48.38 –48° 29 54.49

D2

8.07

36.32

55.61

8.07

6.21

7.16

6.34

8.27

8.34

12.86

15.19

10.29

8.13

9.14

32° 28 34.17 –48° 30 7.35

D1

Mud %

Sand %

Gravel %