AHLAN WA SAHLAN : letters and sounds of the arabic language. [3 ed.]
 9780300233735, 0300233736

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Title
Copyright
Contents
Introduction
Acknowledgments
Unit One: الوَحدةُ الأولى
Objectives
1. Common Greetings
2. Introducing Oneself
3. Leave-Taking
4. A Quick Look at Numbers
5. The Arabic Alphabet: Read right to left
6. The Arabic Alphabet: One-Way Connectors ا، و، د، ذ، ر، ز
A. The Letter alif (ا)
B. The Letter waw ( و)
C. The Letter rā’ (ر)
D. The Letters dal ( د) and dal (ذ)
E. Combining Sounds/Letters into Syllables and Words
F. Distinguishing among Similar Letters
Vocabulary المُفْرَدات
Unit Two: الوَحدَةُ الثانِيةُ
Objectives
1. Identifying Yourself and Others
Inquiring about Someone’s Name
2. Separate Personal Pronouns
3. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ب، ت، ث، ن، ي
A. The Letters bā’ ( ب), tā’ ( ت), tā’ (ث)
B. The Letters nūn ( ن) and yā’ (ي)
C. The Letter yā’ ( ي) as a Vowel and a Semivowel
D. Different Handwriting Styles
4. Long and Short Vowels
A. Vowel Length
B. The Short Vowel fatḥa (Arabic)
C. The Short Vowel ḍamma (Arabic)
D. The Short Vowel kasra (Arabic)
Vocabulary المُفْرَدات
Unit Three: الوَحدَةُ الثالِثةُ
Objectives
1. The Morning Greeting
2. Asking about Well-Being
3. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors س، ش، ج، ح، خ، ف، ق، ة
A. The Letters sīn (س) and šīn ( ش) and Their Sounds
The س and ش in Handwriting
B. The Letters jīm ( ج), ḥā’ ( ح), ḳā’ (خ)
1. The Sound of the Letter jīm ( ج)
2. The Sound of the Letter ḥā’ ( ح)
3. The Sound of the Letter ḳā’ ( خ)
C. The Letters fā’ ( ف) and qāf (ق)
Phonetic Description of the qāf (ق)
D. The Letter tā’ marbūṭa ( ة) and Its Sound
Attaching a Suffix to a Word Ending in ة
.المُفْرَدات
Unit Four: الوَحدَةُ الرابِعَةُ
Objectives
1. Inquiring about and Identifying Place of Origin
2. Nominal Sentences
3. Separate Pronouns
4. Colloquial Arabic
5. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ص، ض، ط، ظ، ع، غ
A. The Letters ṣād ( ص) and ḍād (ض)
1. The Sound of the Letter ṣād ( ص)
2. The Sound of the Letter ḍād (ض)
B. The Letters ṭā’ ( ط) and ẓā’ (ظ)
Pronunciation of ط and ظ
C. The Letters ‘ayn ( ع) and ġayn (غ)
1. The Sound of the Letter ‘ayn ع
2. The Sound of the Letter ġayn غ
6. Inquiring about and Identifying Arab Cities and Countries
7. Arab States, Political Systems, and Capitals
المُفْرَدات
Unit Five: الوَحدَةُ الخامِسةُ
Objectives
1. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ل، ك، م، ه
A. The Letter lām ( ل) and Its Sound
B. The Letter kāf ( ك) and Its Sound
C. The Letter mīm (م)
D. The Letter hā’ ( ه) and Its Sound
2. Familiar Objects around the House
3. Describing National and Regional Affiliation
4. The Relative Noun nisba (اِسْمُ النِسب)
5. Gender in Arabic Nouns
المُفْرَدات
Unit Six: الوَحدَةُ السادِسةُ
Objectives
1. Familiar Objects in the Classroom
2. Expressing Possession
3. Attached Pronouns
Feminine Words and the Attached Pronoun
4. The Letters alif maqṣūra ( ى) and hamza (ء)
A. The Letter alif maqṣūra ( ى) and Its Sound
B. The Letter hamza ( ء) and Its Sound
5. Diacritical Marks
A. The šadda (Arabic)
B. The madda (آ)
C. The tanwīn (تَنْوين)
D. The sukūn سُكون (Arabic)
6. The Short alif
7. Colloquial Arabic: Phonological Variation
8. Representation of Foreign Sounds
المُفْرَدات
Appendix A: Arabic Alphabet and Diacritical Marks
Appendix B: A Key to the Arabic Sound System and the Transliteration System Used in the Workbook
Appendix C: Answer Key
Appendix D: Video Scripts
Cumulative Vocabulary
Illustration Credits

Citation preview

‫الحروف العربية وأصواتها‬

‫العربية الوظيفية للمبتدئين‬ ‫الطبعة الثالثة‬ ‫حروف العربية وأصواتها‬

‫ ‬ ‫مهدي العش‬

‫دار جامعة ييل للنشر‬ ‫نيو هيڤن ولندن‬

‫ألن كالرك‬

Ahlan wa Sahlan Functional Modern Standard Arabic for Beginners Third Edition Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language

Mahdi Alosh

Yale University Press New Haven and London

Allen Clark

Copyright © 2021 by Mahdi Alosh and Allen Clark. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. Project Editor: Development Editor: Production Editor: Production Controller: Designer: Typesetter:

Ashley Lago Karen Hohner Ann-Marie Imbornoni Katie Golden Mary Valencia Allen Clark

Printed in the United States of America. ISBN: 978-0-300-23373-5 This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

‫محتويات الكتاب‬ Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii Unit One ‫الوحد ُة األولى‬ َ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.. Common Greetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.. Introducing Oneself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3..Leave-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4.. A Quick Look at Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5.. The Arabic Alphabet: Read right to left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

6.. The Arabic Alphabet: One-Way Connectors ‫ز‬ ،‫ر‬ ،‫ذ‬ ،‫د‬ ،‫و‬ ،‫ا‬. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 A.. The Letter alif (‫)ا‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

B.. The Letter wāw (‫)و‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

C.. The Letter rā’ (‫ )ر‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

D.. The Letters dāl (‫ )د‬and dāl (‫)ذ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 E.. Combining Sounds/Letters into Syllables and Words . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 F.. Distinguishing among Similar Letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Vocabulary ‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Unit Two ‫الوحدَ ُة الثانِي ُة‬ َ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.. Identifying Yourself and Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 .

Inquiring about Someone’s Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.. Separate Personal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ‫ ي‬،‫ ن‬،‫ ث‬،‫ ت‬،‫ ب‬. . . . . . . . . . . . 27 A.. The Letters bā’ (‫)ب‬, tā’ (‫)ت‬, tā’ (‫ )ث‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

B.. The Letters nūn (‫ )ن‬and yā’ (‫)ي‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

C.. The Letter yā’ (‫ )ي‬as a Vowel and a Semivowel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

D.. Different Handwriting Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

v

Contents

4.. Long and Short Vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 A.. Vowel Length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

B.. The Short Vowel fatḥa ( َ‫ ) ـ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 C.. The Short Vowel ḍamma ( ُ‫) ـ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

D.. The Short Vowel kasra ( ِ‫) ـ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Vocabulary ‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Unit Three  ‫الوحدَ ُة الثالِث ُة‬ َ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1.. The Morning Greeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.. Asking about Well-Being. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ‫ ة‬،‫ ق‬،‫ ف‬،‫ خ‬،‫ ح‬،‫ ج‬،‫ ش‬،‫ س‬. . . . . . . 45

A.. The Letters sīn (‫ )س‬and šīn (‫ )ش‬and Their Sounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 .The ‫ س‬and ‫ ش‬in Handwriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

B.. The Letters jīm (‫)ج‬, ḥā’ (‫)ح‬, ḳā’ (‫ )خ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

.

. .

1. The Sound of the Letter jīm (‫)ج‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

2. The Sound of the Letter ḥā’ (‫)ح‬.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 3. The Sound of the Letter ḳā’ (‫)خ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

C.. The Letters fā’ (‫ )ف‬and qāf (‫)ق‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

.

Phonetic Description of the qāf (‫ )ق‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

.

Attaching a Suffix to a Word Ending in ‫ة‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

D.. The Letter tā’ marbūṭa (‫ )ة‬and Its Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Unit Four ‫الوحدَ ُة الرابِ َع ُة‬ َ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 1.. Inquiring about and Identifying Place of Origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 2.. Nominal Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 3.. Separate Pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 4.. Colloquial Arabic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74

Contents

vi

5.. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ‫ غ‬،‫ ع‬،‫ ظ‬،‫ ط‬،‫ ض‬،‫ ص‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74

A.. The Letters ṣād (‫ )ص‬and ḍād (‫)ض‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 .

.

1. The Sound of the Letter ṣād (‫)ص‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 2. The Sound of the Letter ḍād (‫)ض‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

B.. The Letters ṭā’ (‫ )ط‬and ẓā’ (‫ )ظ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 .

Pronunciation of ‫ ط‬and ‫ ظ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

.

1. The Sound of the Letter ‘ayn (‫)ع‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88

C.. The Letters ‘ayn (‫ )ع‬and ġayn (‫)غ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 .

2. The Sound of the Letter ġayn (‫ )غ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88

6.. Inquiring about and Identifying Arab Cities and Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 7.. Arab States, Political Systems, and Capitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 ِ Unit Five ‫الخامس ُة‬ ُ ‫الوحدَ ة‬ َ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

1.. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors ‫ ه‬،‫ م‬،‫ ك‬،‫ل‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 A.. The Letter lām (‫ )ل‬and Its Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

B.. The Letter kāf (‫)ك‬ and Its Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 C.. The Letter mīm (‫)م‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

D.. The Letter hā’ (‫ )ه‬and Its Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

2.. Familiar Objects around the House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 3.. Describing National and Regional Affiliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.. The Relative Noun nisba (‫النِسبة‬ ‫)اِ ْس ُم‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

5.. Gender in Arabic Nouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 ِ Unit Six ‫السادس ُة‬ ُ ‫الوحدَ ة‬ َ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

1.. Familiar Objects in the Classroom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 2.. Expressing Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 3.. Attached Pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 .

vii

Feminine Words and the Attached Pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Contents

4.. The Letters alif maqṣūra (‫ )ى‬and hamza (‫ )ء‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 A.. The Letter alif maqṣūra (‫ )ى‬and Its Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

B.. The Letter hamza (‫ )ء‬and Its Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

5.. Diacritical Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 A..The šadda (‫ )ـّـ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

B..The madda (‫)آ‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 C..The tanwīn (‫) َتنْوين‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

D..The sukūn ‫ ) ْ( ُسكون‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

6.. The Short alif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 7.. Colloquial Arabic: Phonological Variation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 8.. Representation of Foreign Sounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Appendix A: Arabic Alphabet and Diacritical Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Appendix B: A Key to the Arabic Sound System and the Transliteration System Used in the Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Appendix C: Answer Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Appendix D: Video Scripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Cumulative Vocabulary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Illustration Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

Contents

viii

Introduction Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language has been designed as a workbook to accompany Ahlan wa Sahlan, Third Edition, but it may also be used independently as an introduction to Arabic orthography, phonology, basic words and phrases, and culture. This workbook is divided into six units; most units begin with a presentation of some basic language functions (e.g., greeting people, introducing oneself, describing one’s place of origin) accompanied by comprehension exercises based on the audio program (indicated by this symbol ) and the video (indicated by this symbol ). Cultural notes describe some of the conventions related to these conversational exchanges; the workbook also contains an introduction to the Arab states and political systems, as well as a discussion of some regional differences in Arabic. The introduction of these basic conversational exchanges achieves a threefold objective: establishing a communicative classroom, honing learner listening and speaking skills, and whetting the student’s desire to hold authentic conversations outside of class. Video scenes support all of the workbook’s communicative activities and offer a window into how the phrases are used in context. After viewing the video scenes, students are provided with communicative exercises that not only help them learn the phrases, but also foster a sense of community by promoting authentic interaction with their classroom peers. The Arabic script is introduced letter by letter, with groupings dependent on the shape of the basic form or shell. Each letter progresses through a six-phase introduction: (1) providing a chart that illustrates the letter’s four positions (initial, medial, final, and independent); (2) presenting a diagram of how the letter is drawn, using shaded arrows for guidance; (3) tracing the letter in all of its positions in words accompanied by illustrations; (4) practicing the letter in all of its positions; (5) tracing full words; and then (6) writing those words. Listening exercises such as word recognition and dictation reinforce the relationship between the letters introduced in that unit and their associated sounds. Units conclude with recognition exercises in which the letters are used within an authentic context such as maps, newspaper clippings, or advertisements. We include four appendixes at the back of the workbook for easy reference: Appendix A contains the Arabic alphabet and diacritical marks with the different forms of the letters according to their positions in the word and the Roman symbol representing each letter. Appendix B contains a key to the sound system of Arabic and the transliteration system used in this workbook (that is, the Roman symbols used to represent Arabic letters). Appendix C contains an answer key to all of the discrete-answer exercises in the workbook, including listening and video exercises. Appendix D contains the video scripts. At the end of the book, there is a cumulative glossary, or dictionary, containing all the words found in the vocabulary lists at the end of the units, as well as key words from the listening and video passages. The vocabulary in the cumulative glossary is marked with the lesson number where each word first appears. Although in the initial stage (see ix

Introduction

the vocabulary list at the end of each unit) we use transliteration in order to facilitate the learning process for the beginner, we use it sparingly, to exemplify sounds or letters that students have not learned yet; in the cumulative vocabulary transliteration is not used. Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language is merely one component of the Ahlan wa Sahlan educational package, which presents the learner with multiple avenues to explore Arabic: this workbook, the textbook, the video and audio programs, and an online interactive exercise program. To access the video and audio programs, go to yalebooks.com/ahlan We provide the instructor with an Annotated Instructor’s Edition of the textbook and online resources that include lesson plans, handouts, exercises, texts, and examinations to facilitate the use of the textbook and its supplementary materials. To the Student What is the key to learning a foreign language well? Before you embark on your journey in learning Arabic using this instructional package, you may wish to take some time to reflect on this question. Over the past decade, students have offered nearly every conceivable answer after I pose it on the first day of my Arabic classes. The answer that I have become convinced is “correct” is: to think in the language. No matter what your original answer may have been, thinking in the language is central to learning a language well by practicing it on a minute-by-minute basis. This is possible even at the very beginning of your Arabic studies by containing your thoughts in Arabic, using an internal banter as practice, and gradually widening the scope of language use by introducing new words into your repertoire. Make this language your own by actively seeking out those vocabulary words that you use in your mother tongue. These are the words with which you will be expressing yourself and that, in turn, will create an Arabic persona. The more you practice, the more permanent your learning becomes and the stronger your individuality will become in Arabic. We encourage you to actively surround yourself with the language as much as possible, and we have made this quite easy for you in fact. Simply by visiting our website at yalebooks.com/ahlan, you can access all of Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language’s video and audio materials on your smartphone, tablet, or computer so that you may listen to or watch them wherever you are and whenever you wish. Much has been said about the difficulty of learning Arabic. In fact, the United States government lists Arabic as a Category 4 language—among the most difficult for an American to learn. You may view the notion of difficulty in one of two ways: as an obstacle or as a challenge. We tend to think that Arabic is not so much difficult for the Western learner as it is different. According to studies completed in 2006 in which Arabic grammar was

Introduction

x

compared to other world languages, it was found that verb conjugation in Arabic is logical (less complex than Spanish), its tense system is easier than English, and given that Arabic is a root-derivational language, it is quite mathematical and elegant in its dexterity—meaning that it is able to accommodate new concepts using its derivational qualities. What this means for you is that you can not only learn Arabic, but learn it well. We designed the Ahlan wa Sahlan educational package and the Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language workbook to guide you on the most direct learning path to achieve functional language goals and proficiency. It is our hope that this workbook will serve not only to anticipate pitfalls, but also to allow you to experience the joy of learning one of the oldest living languages on the planet and the riches that it has to offer. To the Instructor Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language introduces learners of Arabic to the language’s sound and writing systems and provides them with basic structural and lexical knowledge that will enable them to communicate in Arabic and maintain interest in the study of the language. As with the Second Edition of Ahlan wa Sahlan, the workbook is separate from the textbook in order to make learning the Arabic sounds and letters more manageable and to focus more on the mechanics of reading and writing in addition to introducing language functions. Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language, used in conjunction with Ahlan wa Sahlan, Third Edition, and the accompanying supplementary material, attempts to provide a learning environment conducive to effective acquisition of specific language abilities. These abilities, in their totality, create a measure of proficiency in Arabic. Upon completing this course, the average learner may achieve a proficiency level within the Intermediate Mid range established by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). Naturally, results vary with respect to individual learner differences and may range between higher or lower proficiency levels. Mahdi Alosh Professor of Arabic and Applied Linguistics [email protected]

xi

Allen Clark Associate Professor of Arabic Co-Director Arabic Flagship Program The University of Mississippi University, MS 38677

Introduction

Acknowledgments I am indebted to so many individuals whose contributions improved the quality of this work, including students of Arabic at various institutions inside and outside the United States as well as colleagues who used the first edition and took time out of their busy schedules to provide me with feedback. I am especially indebted to my wife, Ibtissam, for putting up with the endless hours I spent on developing the material and for designing and programming the computer-assisted program that accompanied the first edition. I would like to acknowledge the opportunity to work initially on the project and the administrative support provided by Professor Frederick Cadora, Chair of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures at The Ohio State University. I am indebted to the extraordinary assistance and input by Allen Clark, who serves as a co-author of the third edition. He brings with him extensive experience in teaching the first two editions as well as the perspectives of learner and specialist. I also appreciate the expert assistance of Fayez Al-Ghalayini, whose meticulous editing of the Arabic portion of this textbook and assiduous input and profuse comments on the grammatical aspect improved the quality of this work and made it more accurate. I thank Lalainya Goldsberry, Hiba Abdallah, and Nevine Demian for providing factual and cultural information about Egypt. The ancillary materials associated with the textbook have received much assistance from several individuals. The online program has gone through several phases to which Abdulkafi Albirini, Allen Clark, Hanan Kashou, Rick Trinkle, Farah Combs, and J. C. Raymond contributed, each one in his or her area of expertise. I am also indebted to Khaled Huthaily, whose meticulous work on the program has made it more user friendly and effective. I thank Nonie Williams and Lana Khodary for the many hours they devoted to the recording of the audio material. I recognize the quality work by Dima Barakat and Maya Pastalides in designing, scripting, shooting, and producing the video program. Finally, I thank the outside reviewers, whose comments on the manuscript and suggestions for improvements are gratefully appreciated: Shukri Abed, Middle East Institute Ghazi Abu-Hakema, Middlebury College Abdulkafi Albirini, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Roger Allen, University of Pennsylvania Muhammad Aziz, Yale University Elizabeth Bergman, Georgetown University Mirena Christoff, Brown University Liljana Elverskog, University of North Texas Fadia Hamid, Chagrin Falls Schools, Ohio Eric Lewis Summer Loomis, University of Washington, Seattle Oraib Mango, Arizona State University Ellen McLarney, Stanford University David J. Mehall, University of Maryland Harry Neale, University of California, Berkeley The late Waheed Samy, University of Michigan Carl Sharif El-Tobgui, Brandeis University Introduction

xii

‫الوحد ُة األولى‬ َ Unit One Objectives • • • • •

Learning two common greetings Introducing oneself Taking leave Introduction to the one-way connectors ‫ا و د ذ ر ز‬ Introduction to the Arabic numbers 1–10

1. Common Greetings 

.ً‫أهال‬ ْ

.‫َم ْر َحب ًا‬

There are several common greetings used in Arabic, and here we have chosen to introduce two of the most frequent. The greeting represented above is roughly equivalent to the English greeting-response “hi–hello.” The woman on the right says marḥaban and the woman on the left responds ahlan. As in English, the response may repeat the greeting (“hi–hi” or in Arabic marḥaban–marḥaban) or use a different word (“hi–hello” or in Arabic marḥaban– ahlan), as is the case here. „„ Cultural Note: This greeting can be said to anyone at any time of the day.

1

Unit One

.‫السالم‬ َ ‫َو َع َل ْيك ُُم‬

.‫السال ُم َع َل ْيكُم‬ َ

The greeting above is one of the most common in the Arab and Islamic worlds. The young man on the right initiates the greeting with as-salāmu ‘alaykum, which means “peace be upon you” but functions as “hello.” It can be addressed to a single person or a group of people in any situation, formal or informal. The response to this greeting is wa ‘alaykumu s-salām meaning “and upon you peace.”

Cultural Note One of this greeting’s functions is to announce one’s presence when entering a home or a room. It is the obligation of one or more of the people present to respond audibly. Further, you may use it even if its use would interrupt some activity that is going on, such as a conversation. Many people, when greeting or upon responding to a greeting, place the right hand on the chest. You will notice that the response has the reverse word order of the greeting.

Greetings

22

2. Introducing Oneself 

ِ ‫ أنا‬-1 .‫ياسر‬

.‫ َت َش َّر ْفنا‬-2

.‫ َت َش َّر ْفنا‬-4

.‫ أنا َرنا‬-3

When meeting someone for the first time, you may introduce yourself by saying anā ‫“( أنا‬I am . . .”) and then add your name, or you can say ismī ‫“( اِ ْسمي‬my name is . . .”) and then your name. The other person responds by saying tašarrafnā ‫ت ََش َّر ْفنا‬, which is roughly equivalent to “pleased to meet you” (literally: “we’ve been honored”). The exchange is repeated with the other person saying their name.

3. Leave-Taking 

.‫السال َمة‬ َ ‫َم َع‬

ِ ‫إلى‬ .‫اللقاء‬

Just like other greetings, leave-taking involves two different phrases. The phrase ilā lliqā’ ‫اللِقاء‬ ‫ إلى‬is roughly equivalent to “I’ll see you later.” The response phrase ma‘a s-salāma  ‫المة‬ َ ‫الس‬  َ ‫ َم َع‬literally means “[go] with safety.” Normally, the phrase ma‘a s-salāma  ‫المة‬ َ ‫الس‬  َ ‫ َم َع‬is said by the person(s) staying behind, but it can also be used by the one leaving, as is the case in many regions, including the Gulf.

3

Unit One

Exercise 1

1 ‫ تمرين‬

Video: Watch Unit 1: When you are watching the video, become an active participant by repeating what you hear, trying to imitate the sounds and inflections used in the scenes. Dialogue 1: Circle the best choice: 1. What are the names of the two speakers? a.

Name of Speaker 1 Samir Adnan Saeed Ayman

b.

Name of Speaker 2 Nadim Sharif Nabil Shukry

2. How did Speaker 1 say “pleased to meet you”? a. tašarrafnā b. furṣa sa‘īda c. ismī sāmir Dialogue 2: Circle the best choice: 1. What are the names of the two speakers? a. Name of the young woman Muna Kristine Hala Manal

b. Name of the young man Nadim Abd Allah Ahmad Salim

2. How did the young woman say “hello” to the young man? a. wa anā ayḍan b. as-salāmu ‘alaykum c. ma‘a s-salāma d. furṣa sa‘īda

Greetings

44

Exercise 2

2 ‫تمرين‬

Conversation: Try to hold your first conversation in Arabic with a classmate. To complete this task you must remember (1) to greet your classmate; (2) to introduce yourself; and (3) to say good-bye. Try to use both of the introductions that you learned in this lesson. Endeavor to meet as many of your classmates as you can. Notice that the more you practice, the more fluent you become. • This is a culturally authentic conversation, so why not try it out with some speakers of Arabic that you know outside the class? Practice not only makes perfect, it makes permanent.

4. A Quick Look at Numbers Until the Arabic numerals are covered, the following numeral conversion chart will help you recognize the numbers in exercise items.

0

1

2

Numeral Conversion Chart 3 4 5 6

7

8

9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Exercise 3

3 ‫تمرين‬

Identify the numbers on the Jordanian coins below and write your answers on the lines below the coins.

______ -6

5

_____ -5

____ -4

____ -3

____ -2

____ -1

Unit One

5. The Arabic Alphabet Read right to left tā’

‫ث‬

tā’

‫ت‬

bā’

‫ب‬

alif

dāl

‫د‬

ḳā’

‫خ‬

ḥā’

‫ح‬

jīm

‫ج‬

sīn

‫س‬

zāy

‫ز‬

rā’

‫ر‬

dāl

ṭā’

ḍād

ṣād

šīn

‫ذ‬

‫ط‬

‫ض‬

‫ص‬

‫ش‬

fā’

‫ف‬

ġayn

ʿayn

‫ع‬

ẓā’

‫ظ‬

mīm

‫م‬

lām

‫ل‬

kāf

‫ك‬

qāf

‫ق‬

yā’

wāw

hā’

nūn

‫ي‬ Greetings

‫أ‬

‫غ‬

‫و‬

‫ه‬

‫ن‬

66

6. The Arabic Alphabet: One-Way Connectors

‫ز‬

‫ر‬

‫ذ‬

‫د‬

‫و‬

‫ا‬

The Arabic phonetic system is easy to learn and master because the Arabic alphabet has a high correspondence between sound and symbol. This means that a letter is pronounced almost the same regardless of its position in a word. The Arabic alphabet contains twenty-eight letters in addition to the hamza and two variants of existing letters (see the alphabet chart on page 6). A number of diacritical marks complement the alphabet. Diacritical marks are signs written above or below the letters. Words are written and read from right to left. Arabic is written cursively in that the letters connect to one another. However, some letters only connect to preceding letters, or from the right side. These are known as one-way connectors. The table on the following page lists them along with their pronunciations.

Exercise 4

4 ‫تمرين‬

Just for fun: See how many of these new letters you can identify in this road sign and circle them.

7

Unit One

One-Way Connectors Sound Example

Symbol

Name

Letter

dad, far

ā

alif

‫ألِف‬

‫ا‬

boot, wet

ū, w

wāw

‫واو‬

‫و‬

dim

d

dāl

‫دال‬

‫د‬

then

d

dāl

‫ذال‬

‫ذ‬

trilled r

r

rā’

‫راء‬

‫ر‬

busy

z

zāy

‫زاي‬

‫ز‬

Look at how each of the letters below is written. Start from the right and move to left. All strokes are made from right to left and from top to bottom. If there is a dot, it is placed after the letter is drawn. Note that the letters wāw ( ), rā’ ( ), and zāy ( ) are curved and descend slightly below the line, whereas dāl ( ) and dāl ( ) are angled and do not go below the line.

‫د‬

Greetings

‫و‬

‫ذ‬

‫ر‬

‫ز‬

88

The Letter alif

A.

‫ا‬

The alif is written from top to bottom in the independent position, but if it is connected to a preceding letter, it is drawn from bottom up. Remember that it is a one-way connector; the letter following it will always be in the initial position. The alif is considered a long vowel, meaning long in duration in that when you pronounce it, it will feel like you are saying it too long. But, if you don’t say it long enough, it turns into a short vowel. The alif is represented in this book by the letter ā. • Note that the alif can make two sounds: a “light” ā as in “dad” and a “dark” ā as in “far.”

Drawing the alif Connected from the right

Exercise 5

Independent

5 ‫تمرين‬

Trace over the gray letters: The alif appears in its independent and connected forms.

‫ِكتاب‬ 9

‫َغزال‬ Unit One

6 ‫تمرين‬

Exercise 6

Tracing: Trace over the gray letters and copy them several times on a ruled sheet of paper. Remember to make letters right to left and move from top to bottom.

‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬

‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬

‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬

‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬

‫ ا ا‬ ‫ ا ا‬ ‫ ا ا‬

The Letter wāw

B.

‫و‬

‫و‬

Like the English w, the letter wāw ( ) is both a vowel (as in “boot”) and a semivowel which has a consonantal value (as in “wet”). It is easy to distinguish between the two because an Arabic syllable does not start with a vowel, nor does it allow two vowels consecutively. Thus, any followed or preceded by a vowel is certainly a semivowel. Consider the following examples of wāw:

‫و‬

1. 2. 3.

‫ واد‬ ‫ دود‬ ‫ داوود‬

consonant (followed by a vowel) vowel (preceded and followed by consonants) consonant (preceded and followed by vowels)  

‫و‬ ‫د‬

‫ا‬

Example 1 is made up of a consonant and a vowel (CV); example 2 contains a consonant , a vowel , and another consonant (CVC); while example 3 contains two syllables, ‫دا‬ and ‫وود‬. When the two syllables of example 3 are joined, they produce the typical Arabic word structure (CVCVC), where consonants and vowels alternate. Two general rules follow:

‫د‬

‫و‬

„„ Rule 1: An Arabic syllable always starts with a consonant, never with a vowel. „„ Rule 2: Two vowels do not occur consecutively in a syllable.

Greetings

1010

Drawing a wāw Finish under the line

Go around

Exercise 7

Start on the line

7 ‫تمرين‬

Trace over the gray letters:

‫سور‬

‫َو َرقة‬ Exercise 8

8 ‫تمرين‬

Circle all instances of the alif and the ‫ واو‬in the following sign:

11

Unit One

C.

The Letter rā’

‫ر‬

The Arabic r is tapped or trilled depending on its position in the word and can resemble the r sound in both Spanish words pero and perro, where the tip of the tongue flaps against the alveolar ridge behind the upper front teeth. Connected from the right

Independent

Place your pencil above the line starting at the top of the letter and draw a curved line downwards and slightly to the left in one stroke. The bottom of the and the go below the line. The is written in precisely the same manner as the , with the exception of the dot placed directly over it. Remember that the dots in Arabic are written after the word has been finished, just like dotting an i in English when writing in cursive.

‫ز‬

‫ر‬

‫ر‬

‫ز‬

__________________________________________ __________________________________________ Exercise 9

9 ‫تمرين‬

‫ ر‬ ‫ ز‬

Trace over the gray letters: These letters appear in their independent and connected forms.

‫َسرير‬ Greetings

‫َث ْور‬ 1212

‫َج َزر‬

D. The Letters dāl

‫د‬

Connected from the right

and

‫َم ْوز‬

dāl

‫ذ‬ Independent

Place your pencil above the line starting at the top of the letter and draw a roughly 45-degree angle to create both the dāl and the dāl. The only difference between the two letters is the dot above the dāl.

__________________________________________ __________________________________________

‫د‬ ‫ذ‬

Algerian market circa 1899

13

Unit One

Exercise 10

10 ‫تمرين‬

Trace over the gray letters: These letters appear in their independent and connected forms.

‫َبدو‬

‫َدجاج‬

‫ُمذيع‬

‫ُذ َرة‬ Exercise 11

11 ‫تمرين‬

Trace over the gray letters: Remember to write from right to left. Your strokes should go from top to bottom.

‫ز‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ز‬ Greetings

‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬

‫ذ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ذ‬

‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬

‫ا و‬ ‫ا و‬ ‫ا و‬ 1414

Exercise 12

12 ‫تمرين‬

Drawing letters: See how many times you can write the same letter on each line.

‫ا‬ __________________________________________ ‫و‬ __________________________________________ ‫د‬ __________________________________________ ‫ذ‬ __________________________________________ ‫ر‬ __________________________________________ ‫ز‬ __________________________________________

E. Combining Sounds/Letters into Syllables and Words

‫د‬

‫ا‬

‫ز‬

‫ا‬

‫ ا دا‬+ ‫د‬. Add another ‫ د‬to the end of the

The combination of and is pronounced dā: = syllable and you get a word: ‫داد‬. Try to sound it out.

Likewise, the letters and make the syllable ‫زا‬. What is the syllable made by combining the letters and ? Write it down in this blank ___________, moving from right to left. Now combine the first and second syllables into one word and write it down in this blank ___________.

‫ر‬

‫و‬

F. Distinguishing among Similar Letters

‫ذ‬

‫د‬

‫ذ‬

The letter dāl (d) differs from dāl (d) only by a dot placed above it ( ). The letter rā’ (r) differs from dāl in the way it is drawn. Instead of the angled shape of , it has a slanting, curved shape and it descends slightly below the line ( ). The letter zāy (z) is written like but with a dot above it. As you can see, it is important to attend to the placement and number of dots of particular letters.

‫ر‬

‫ر‬

‫د‬

‫ر‬

‫د‬

‫ز‬

• Note that one-way connectors do not connect to each other.

15

Unit One

Exercise 13

13 ‫ تمرين‬

Listen and write: Listen to each word and repeat during the pause, then trace over the gray words. Pronounce each word as you copy it. Note that the letters descend slightly below the line, whereas and do not.

‫دذ‬

‫زود‬

‫ذاد‬

‫زود‬

‫ذاد‬

‫زود‬

‫ذاد‬

‫ا‬

‫ر‬  ‫ز‬  ‫و‬

‫زار‬

‫واز‬

‫راد‬

‫دود‬

‫زار‬

‫واز‬

‫راد‬

‫دود‬

‫زار‬

‫واز‬ 14 ‫تمرين‬

Exercise 14

‫راد‬

‫دود‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

__________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Exercise 15

15 ‫ تمرين‬

‫دود‬ ‫راد‬ ‫واز‬ ‫زار‬ ‫ذاد‬ ‫زود‬

Listen and repeat: Listen to each word and repeat during the pause. Remember to read from right to left. There are two items on each line:

‫زور‬ ‫دارو‬ ‫دوراد‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫رادود‬ ‫وازو‬

Greetings

- 2 - 4 - 6 - 8 - 10 - 12

‫زاد‬ ‫ذود‬ ‫زادو‬ ‫داوود‬ ‫واد‬ ‫زورو‬

-1 -3 -5 -7 -9 - 11 1616

Exercise 16

16 ‫ تمرين‬

Listen and recognize: Listen as one word from each pair is read to you and check the box next to the appropriate word. Remember to read from right to left.

        Exercise 17

‫رادو‬ ‫راز‬ ‫راوا‬ ‫ذاد‬ ‫رود‬ ‫زارو‬ ‫داوو‬ ‫داذ‬



      

‫دارو‬ ‫زار‬ ‫وار‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫زود‬ ‫رازو‬ ‫وادو‬ ‫ذاد‬

- 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

17 ‫تمرين‬

Spelling: Join the letters in each set to form words, as in the example. Then indicate whether the letter wāw ( ) represents a consonant or a vowel and explain why. Note that one-way connectors do not connect to each other. Refer to section 6B for an explanation of when the wāw acts as a consonant or a vowel.

‫و‬

Vowel



Consonant





‫داذود‬

Explanation: Preceded and followed by consonants

    

17

    



_________ _________ _________ _________ _________

= ‫ د‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ذ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬: ‫ِمثال‬

= = = = =

‫ و‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ز‬ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ذ‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫د‬

‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ر‬ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫و‬ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ز‬

–1 –2 –3 –4 –5

Unit One

18 ‫ تمرين‬

Exercise 18

Dictation: Listen to the words and syllables dictated to you and write them down in the blank spaces next to item numbers. ______________________

–2

______________________ –1

______________________

–4

______________________ –3

______________________

–6

______________________ –5

______________________

–8

______________________ –7

______________________

–10

______________________ –9

Exercise 19

19 ‫تمرين‬

Spelling: Add the letters together to make a word, and then spell the word out phonetically in the second blank space. For phonetic spelling, consult the table titled One-Way Connectors on page 8. Follow the example:



dāwūd

__________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

Greetings

‫داوو د‬

_ _________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________



= ‫ د‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬: ‫ِم ثال‬

= ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ز‬- 1 = ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬-2 = ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬- 3 = ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬- 4 = ‫ ذ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ذ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬-5 = ‫ و‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬- 6 = ‫ د‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ د‬-7 = ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ز‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬-8 = ‫ ز‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ذ‬- 9 = ‫ ر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ذ‬- 10

1818

Exercise 20

20 ‫تمرين‬

Recognition: Examine these images and circle the letters ‫ز‬  ‫ر‬  ‫ذ‬  ‫د‬  ‫و‬  ‫ا‬. Check the answer key to confirm your answers.

–1

–2

–3

19

Unit One

Vocabulary ‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ   Vocabulary items are listed in alphabetical order. Nouns are followed by their plurals after the letter for ‫“ َج ْمع‬plural,” and verbs are listed in the past-tense third-person masculine singular form, followed by the present-tense form in parentheses and the verbal noun after the parentheses. Nouns starting with the definite article are listed according to the first letter of the word. Transliteration is given for those words containing letters with which you are currently unfamiliar. Listen to the vocabulary items on the audio and practice their pronunciation.

‫ج‬

proper noun (man’s name) . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أديب‬

ِ

name ism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . (n., m.) ‫أسماء‬   ‫ج‬   ‫م‬ ‫ا ْس‬ ْ

ِ

good-bye (ilā lliqā’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫اللقاء‬ ‫إلى‬

ِ

name of the letter alif . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ألف‬ may God keep you safe . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ‫ُي َس ِّل ُمك‬

‫اهلل‬

I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron.) ‫أنا‬

ً ‫أه‬ hello, welcome (‘ahlan) (response to a greeting). . . . .  ‫ال‬ ْ

also (ayḍan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

‫أ ْيض ًا‬

pleased to meet you (tašarrafnā). . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫ت ََش َّر ْفنا‬ (literally: “we’ve been honored”) name of the letter dāl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫دال‬

name of the letter dāl. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . .. . (n., f.) ‫ذال‬

name of the letter rā’ . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫راء‬

name of the letter zāy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫زاي‬ peace be upon you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (as-salāmu ‘alaykum) (greeting)

 ‫ َع َل ْيك ُْم‬ ‫السال ُم‬ َ

furṣa sa‘īda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ُف ْرصة َسعيدة‬ (literally: happy opportunity = pleased to meet you) hello (marḥaban) (greeting) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫رحب ًا‬ َ ‫َم‬

Greetings

2020

َ ‫َمساء‬ good evening (masā’ al-khayr) (greeting). . . . . ‫الخ ْير‬

good evening (masā’ al-nūr) (response). . . . . . . ‫َمساء النور‬ good-bye (ma‘a s-salāma) . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

 ‫السال َمة‬  َ ‫َم َع‬

name of the letter wāw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫واو‬

wa ‘alaykum as-salām . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫السالم‬  َ ‫َو َع َل ْيك ُُم‬ (response to as-salāmu ‘alaykum)

Below is a bronze sculpture in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia representing the phrase

ِ

ِ  ‫الرحيم‬  ‫الله‬ ‫بِس ِم‬ َ ‫الرحمن‬ 

“In the Name of God the Compassionate the Merciful”

21

Unit One

‫حد ُة الثانِي ُة‬ َ ‫الو‬ َ Unit Two Objectives • Identifying yourself and others • Introduction to separate personal pronouns

• Introduction to the two-way connectors ‫ب ت ث ن ي‬ • Introduction to the long and short vowels

1. Identifying Yourself and Others 

‫أ ْن َت نِزار؟‬ .‫ أنا أديب‬،‫ال‬

Exchange 1 In Unit 1 we learned how to introduce ourselves by saying anā ‫“ َأنا‬I ” plus our name. As you can see in Exchange 1, we can identify the person we are talking to by using anta ‫ْت‬ َ ‫“ َأن‬you” ِ (masculine) or, as in Exchange 2 on the following page, anti ‫“ َأنْت‬you” (feminine) and that person’s name. Note that we can introduce or identify a person not present (third person) by using huwa ‫“ ُه َو‬he” and hiya ‫“ ِه َي‬she” plus that person’s name.

Introductions

2222

Bear in mind that the exchanges in the pictures above and below proceed from right to left.

ِ ‫أ ْن‬ ‫ت ها َلة؟‬

.‫َن َعم‬

Exchange 2 In Exchange 1, the man responds using the word ‫ ال‬lā. Can you guess its meaning from context? In Exchange 2, the woman indeed is Hala, hence she replies using the word ‫َن َعم‬ na‘am. Again, try to figure out the meaning from the context. Inquiring about Someone’s Name  When we want to ask about someone’s name, we use the question particle ‫ ما‬mā (= what) followed by the word ‫ اسم‬ism (= name), and when said together they elide to form masm; not ma ism. To this word, we have to add an attached pronoun, which differs with gender. We are going to limit our questions for right now to just the feminine singular and masculine singular forms of “you.” Listen and repeat during the pause: When asking a man his name, use When asking a woman her name, use

‫اس ُم َك؟‬ ْ ‫ما‬ ‫اس ُم ِك؟‬ ْ ‫ما‬

Now listen to the conversation that takes place between a man and a woman at a cafe:

‫اس ُم ِك؟‬ ْ ‫ما‬

.‫اسمي نجوى‬

.‫اسمي خالد‬

‫اس ُم َك؟‬ ْ ‫ما‬ Exchange 3

23

Unit Two

1 ‫تمرين‬ Conversation: In groups of three, greet your fellow classmates either by guessing their name (as in Exchanges 1 and 2) or by asking them their name as in Exchange 3. The person responding must answer appropriately in either situation. After that, say good-bye. At the end of this exercise, groups should report their findings in third person by introducing their group to the class (e.g., “he is John; she is Mary”).

2 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and respond: Listen to the prompts and respond appropriately during the pauses. After listening to the exercise, fill in the blanks with your responses in transliteration (i.e., Latin script). 1–

as-salāmu ‘alaykum.

2– 1–

māsmuka / māsmuki?

2– 1–

.‫السال ُم عليكُم‬ َ

-1

‫اس ُم ِك؟‬ ْ ‫ ما‬/ ‫اس ُم َك؟‬ ْ ‫ما‬

-1

.‫َت َش َّر ْفنا‬

tašarrafnā.

2– 1–

ِ ‫إلى‬ .‫اللقاء‬

ilā lliqā’.

2–

-2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2

2. Separate Personal Pronouns The words you have used to introduce and identify yourself and others are called personal pronouns. So far, we have covered five singular pronouns (as illustrated in the table on the following page). You will notice that Arabic distinguishes between masculine (m.) and feminine (f.) in second-person pronouns (you).

Introductions

2424

Separate Singular Personal Pronouns Pronunciation

Meaning

Pronoun

anā

I

‫أنا‬

anta

you (m.)

anti

you (f.)

huwa

he

hiya

she

‫أ ْن َت‬ ِ ‫أ ْن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُه َو‬ ‫ِه َي‬

3 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Listen to the utterances and determine whom the speaker is identifying. Mark your choice by checking the appropriate box, as in the example. Third person (m.)

Third person (f.)

Addressee (m.)

Addressee (f.)











:‫مثال‬









١











٢











٣











٤











٥











٦



25

Self

ِ

Unit Two

4 ‫ تمرين‬ Video: Watch Unit 2: When you are watching the video, become an active participant by repeating what you hear, trying to imitate the sounds and inflections used in the scenes. Dialogue 1: Circle the best choice: 1. What is the name of Speaker 2? a. b. c. d.

Ayman Sami Nour Ahmad

2. How did Speaker 1 say “excuse me”? a. b. c. d.

masā’ al-khayr ‘afwan furṣa sa‘īda masā’ al-nūr

Dialogue 2: Circle the best choice: 1. What are the names of the two speakers? a.

Name of Speaker 1 Hala Rana Muna Manal

b.

Name of Speaker 2 Manal Shukran Rafiqa Hala

2. How did Speaker 1 say “thank you” to Speaker 2? a. na‘am b. šukran c. tašarrafnā

Introductions

2626

3. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors

‫ي‬

‫ن‬

‫ث‬

‫ت‬

‫ب‬

In Unit 1, we covered the letters of the alphabet that only connect to preceding letters, known as one-way connectors. The remaining letters of the Arabic alphabet are two-way connectors; that is, they can connect both to preceding and following letters. Because of this feature, each letter may have up to four different forms (i.e., initial, medial, final, and independent) depending on its position in the word. The five letters selected for this section are grouped together because in the initial and medial positions they look the same and differ in only the number and placement of dots, as you can see in the table directly below. Forms of Some Two-Way Connectors Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

b

bā’

‫ب‬

‫ـب‬

‫ـبـ‬

‫بـ‬

t

tā’

t

tā’

‫ث‬

‫ـث‬

‫ـثـ‬

n

nūn

ī/y

yā’

‫ت‬ ‫ن‬

‫ي‬

‫ـت‬ ‫ـن‬

‫ـي‬

‫ـتـ‬

‫تـ‬

‫ـنـ‬

‫نـ‬

‫ـيـ‬

‫ثـ‬ ‫يـ‬

Mnemonic Devices for Remembering the Letters •

The ‫ ب‬has the dot below its shell and the word “below” starts with the sound b.



The letter ‫ ت‬has two dots above its shell and the word “two” starts with the



sound t. •

The letter ‫ ث‬has three dots above its shell and the word “three” starts with the sound t.

27

Unit Two

A. The Letters bā’

‫ب‬

tā’

and

‫ت‬

and

tā’

‫ث‬

Note that these letters share one basic shell, but differ in terms of the number and placement of their dots. Drawing the Shell of the Independent bā’ Add the dot below the shell Go around Start above the line

‫ب‬ ­­ 5 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫باب‬

‫توت‬ Introductions

‫ُد ّب‬

‫َب ْيت‬

‫َج َبل‬

‫بِنْت‬

‫ِكتاب‬

‫تاج‬ 2828

ِ ‫م ْحراث‬

3 ‫ثال َثة‬

‫َكثيب‬

‫َث ْلج‬

6 ‫تمرين‬ Drawing letters: Write the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions by writing the letter in groups of three, as in the example. Write as many groups as will fit on the line. Example:

‫ببب‬

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Circle all the letters that you recognize:

29

‫ب‬

‫ت‬ ‫ث‬

Unit Two

7 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫َت ْرتيب‬

‫ُتراث‬

‫َت ْرتيب‬

‫ُتراث‬

‫َت ْرتيب‬

‫ثابِت‬ ‫ثابِت‬

‫ُتراث‬

‫ثابِت‬

8 ‫تمرين‬

‫ُذباب‬

‫َت ْذويب‬

‫ُذباب‬

‫َت ْذويب‬

‫ُذباب‬

‫َت ْذويب‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

_______________________________________________________‫َت ْذويب‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ُذباب‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ت‬ ِ‫ثاب‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ُتراث‬

________________________________________________________‫َترتيب‬ Circle all the letters that you recognize:

Introductions

3030

B.

The Letters nūn

‫ن‬

yā’

and

‫ي‬

As you can see in the table titled Forms of Some Two-Way Connectors on page 27 of this unit, the shapes of the letters and differ from the others in this group in that their shells descend below the line in the independent and final positions.

‫ي‬

‫ن‬

Drawing the Shell of the Independent nūn Add the dot Go around Start above the line

‫ن‬

Add the dots

‫ي‬

31

Drawing the Shell of the Independent yā’ Loop back just above the line

Go around

Start above the line

Unit Two

9 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫ُل ْبنان‬

‫ُق ْطن‬

‫َفنّان‬

‫َن ّظارة‬

‫َق ِو ّي‬

‫رياضي‬ ّ

‫َب ْيت‬

‫ياسمين‬ َ

Writing tip: The yā’ often gives beginning learners problems because they tend to write it in its independent form in the initial and medial positions.

Introductions

3232

10 ‫تمرين‬ Drawing letters: Write the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions by writing the letter in groups of three. Write as many groups as will fit on the line. Example:

‫ببب‬

‫ن‬

________________________________________________________

‫ي‬

________________________________________________________

11 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫ناوي‬

‫ناوي‬ ‫ناوي‬

ِ ‫نادر‬ ِ ‫نادر‬ ِ ‫نادر‬

‫وادي‬

‫ُديون‬

‫ُبنيان‬

‫وادي‬

‫ُديون‬

‫ُبنيان‬

‫وادي‬

12 ‫تمرين‬

‫ُديون‬

‫ُبنيان‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫ن‬ ‫ُبنيا‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ن‬ ‫ُديو‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫وادي‬

ِ

________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫ناد‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ناوي‬ 33

Unit Two

13 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set to form words, as in the example. Do not forget to copy the short vowels. Remember that one-way connectors connect to two-way connectors only from the right side.

‫َثريد‬

=

َ : ‫ِمثال‬ ‫د‬+‫ي‬+‫ر‬+‫ث‬

____________________________

=

-1

____________________________

=

‫د‬+‫ي‬+‫ر‬+ُ‫ن‬

____________________________

=

-3

____________________________

=

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ت‬+ َ ‫ر‬

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=

____________________________

=



Introductions

‫ ي‬+ ‫ د‬+ْ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ب‬ َ +ُ‫ز‬

‫ ن‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ي‬ ‫ر‬+‫و‬+‫د‬+ُ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬+ِ‫ب‬+‫ا‬+‫ث‬ ‫ ر‬+ ِ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+َ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬+‫ا‬+‫ب‬+َ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬+‫ي‬+‫ز‬+َ‫و‬ ‫ر‬+ِ‫د‬+‫ا‬+‫ن‬ ‫ ث‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ُ ‫ت‬ ‫ ذ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ذ‬+َ ‫ر‬ ‫ي‬+‫د‬+‫ا‬+‫و‬

‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ب‬

-2 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 – 10 – ١١ – ١٢ – ١٣ – ١٤

3434

C.

‫و‬

The Letter yā’

‫ي‬

As you recall, the letter wāw has two values: a long vowel (ū, as in “boot”) and a semivowel (w, as in “water”). The same thing is true of the letter yā’ : it functions as a long vowel (ī, as in “feel”) and as a semivowel (y, as in “yet”). In terms of drawing the yā’, think of it as the letter y in English tilted sideways to the right.

‫ي‬

D. Different Handwriting Styles The letters you have been copying are those used in the print media, much like “Times New Roman.” There is a special style called ruq‘a, used for writing notes and letters. Although handwriting varies widely in any language, Arabic script, whether handwritten or printed, follows certain conventions shared by both varieties. Notice, like in the postcard example below, that in handwriting the two dots above the and below the are usually replaced with a short horizontal stroke (a dash), and the three dots above the are replaced with a caret, which is a small angle facing downwards (^). Other than that, only slight variations exist.

‫ت‬

35

‫يـ‬ ‫ث‬

Unit Two

4. Long and Short Vowels

‫ا‬

‫و‬

The Arabic alphabet has three long vowels. We covered two of them in Unit 1 (  and  ). The third one is the vowel yā’ ( ), which is equivalent to the vowel sound in “deed.” For each of these three long vowels, there are short vowel counterparts, which are pronounced roughly half as long. Short vowels, however, are not represented by letters like long vowels. Rather, they are represented by diacritics, or signs, placed above or below the consonants they follow.

‫ي‬

A. Vowel Length On occasion, the only difference in the pronunciation of two words in Arabic is vowel length. An example in English is “deed” and “did.” The verbs for “he wrote” ‫َب‬ َ ‫ َكت‬kataba and “he corresponded” ‫َب‬ َ ‫ كات‬kātaba are distinguished by the length of the first vowel:

kataba

‫ب‬ َ ‫ َك َت‬

kātaba

‫ب‬ َ ‫كا َت‬

B. The Short Vowel fatḥa ( َ‫) ـ‬ The first short vowel we introduce here is called fatḥa. It is represented by a short slanting stroke placed above the letter it follows (e.g., ). The difference between a fatḥa and an alif ( ) is that the alif is pronounced roughly twice as long. Listen to these three consonants followed by a short then long vowel:

‫َد‬

‫ا‬



‫زا‬

‫َز‬ za

‫را‬ rā

‫َر‬ ra

C. The Short Vowel ḍamma ( ُ‫) ـ‬

‫دا‬ dā

‫َد‬ da

The second short vowel is called ḍamma, which is the short counterpart of the long vowel wāw ū and is written above the consonant it follows. It looks like a tiny raised wāw (see below). The difference between ḍamma and wāw is roughly similar to the difference between “foot” and “food” or “sun” and “soon.”

‫و‬



Introductions

‫زو‬

‫ُز‬ zu

‫رو‬ rū

‫دو ُر‬ ru



‫ُد‬ du

3636

D. The Short Vowel kasra ( ِ‫) ـ‬

‫ِد‬

The third short vowel is called kasra. It is represented by a short slanting stroke placed below the letter it follows (e.g., ). Its long counterpart is the vowel yā’ . The difference between the two is similar to that between the vowels in “dip” and “deep.” Try to pronounce the three pairs of syllables. zī

‫زي‬

‫ي‬

‫ري ِز‬ zi



‫دي ِر‬ ri

14 ‫ تمرين‬



‫ِد‬ di

Listen and repeat: Read the following words as you listen to them and repeat them during the pauses. Move from right to left.

‫ُنذور‬ ‫َثرو‬ ‫ثِياب‬ ‫َبنان‬

- 2

‫َرتيب‬

-1

- 6

‫ِز ْرياب‬

- 5

- 4 - 8

‫ثابِت‬ ‫َيدان‬

- 3 - 7

15 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Listen to each word and indicate whether it contains a long or a short vowel by checking the appropriate box, as in the example.

Long Vowel

Short Vowel





:‫ِمثال‬





- 2

      

37

      

-1 - 3 - 4 - 5

- 6 - 7 - 8 Unit Two

16 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Listen to the words and check the appropriate box next to the word you hear:

 ‫داني‬

 ‫َدني‬

-1

 ‫ُربي‬

 ‫روبي‬

- 3

 ‫بارود‬

 ‫َدري‬

 ‫ثوبور‬

ِ

 ‫نادر‬

 ‫َبريد‬  ‫را َبب‬

 ‫َبرود‬  ‫داري‬

 ‫ُثبور‬  ‫َندير‬

ِ  ‫بارد‬  ‫َرباب‬

- 2 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8

17 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen carefully to the words and write them down in the blank spaces below. Each word will be read twice.

Introductions

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

__________________

-8

__________________

-7

__________________

-10

__________________

-9

__________________

-12

__________________

-11

__________________

-14

__________________

-13

3838

18 ‫تمرين‬ Letter identification: Circle the letters ‫ي‬  ‫ن‬  ‫ث‬  ‫ت‬  ‫ ب‬.

39

Unit Two

Vocabulary ‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ   Listen to the vocabulary items on the audio and practice their pronunciation. Transliteration is given for those words containing letters with which you are currently unfamiliar. proper noun (man’s name) . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫أديب‬ you (m. sg.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m.) ‫ْت‬ َ ‫َأن‬

ِ

you (f. sg.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f.) ‫َأنْت‬ proper noun (man’s name) (ayman). . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أ ْي َمن‬

name of the letter bā’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫باء‬

name of the letter tā’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫تاء‬ name of the letter tā’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ثاء‬ proper noun (woman’s name) . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َرنا‬

proper noun (man’s name) (sāmī). . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫سامي‬ thank you (šukran). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ُشكْر ًا‬

excuse me; pardon; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫َع ْفو ًا‬ you’re welcome (as a response to ‫) ُشكْر ًا‬

no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (negative particle) ‫ال‬

proper noun (woman’s name) (manāl) . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َمنال‬

ِ

proper noun (man’s name) . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫نزار‬

yes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (particle) ‫َن َعم‬

name of the letter nūn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫نون‬ proper noun (woman’s name) (hāla) . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫هالة‬

‫ُه َو‬ ِ she. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f.) ‫ي‬ َ‫ه‬

he. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m.)

name of the letter yā’. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ياء‬

Introductions

4040

‫حد ُة الثالِث ُة‬ َ ‫الو‬ َ Unit Three Objectives • Greeting someone in the morning • Asking about well-being

• Introduction to the two-way connectors ‫س ش ج ح خ ف ق ة‬

1. The Morning Greeting 

.‫باح النور‬ ُ ‫َص‬

َ ‫باح‬ .‫الخ ْير‬ ُ ‫َص‬

You may respond to the morning greeting ṣabāḥu l-ḳayr using the same phrase = ṣabāḥu l-ḳayr or ṣabāḥu n-nūr, just as the man does in the picture above. Notice that these two phrases use the same first word ṣabāh (= morning), but a different second word. al-ḳayr can be translated as “good,” while an-nūr means “light.” As always when listening to the recorded material, repeat phrases and try to mimic intonation and inflection.

41

Unit Three

2. Asking about Well-Being 

.‫مد ل ّله بِ َخير‬ ُ ‫الح‬ َ

‫ف الحال؟‬ َ ‫َك ْي‬

Cultural Note Usually, when two people greet each other, they also ask how each is doing by saying kayfa l-ḥāl? Arabs usually follow that question up by asking how the family and even the extended family is doing. It is culturally appropriate to respond in the positive. That is, one is not expected to complain even if one is not faring well. The initial response ‫بِخَ ْير‬ ‫لِ ّله‬  ُ‫الح ْمد‬ َ al-ḥamdu li-llāh biḳayr means “Thank God, I’m well.” Later in the conversation, it is all right to complain. Many people, however, hedge their complaints with the phrase َ aš-šakwā li-llāh, which loosely translated means “I complain to ‫لِ ّله‬ ‫الشكْوى‬ God.”

Morning Greeting

4242

َ ‫َك ْي‬ Possible Responses to ‫ف الحال‬

Meaning

Transliteration

perfect

tamām

well, thank God

bi-ḳayr wal-ḥamdu li-llāh

good

jayyid

not bad

lā ba’s

tired/under the weather

ta‘bān

Responses

‫تَمام‬

‫والح ْم ُد لِ ّل ِه‬ َ ‫بِ َخ ْير‬ ‫َج ِّيد‬ ‫ال ْبأس‬

Question

َ ‫َك ْي‬ ‫ف الحال؟‬

‫ت َْعبان‬

1 ‫ تمرين‬ Video: Watch Unit 3: When you are watching the video, become an active participant by repeating what you hear, trying to imitate the sounds and inflections used in the scenes. Circle the best choice: Dialogue 1: 1. How is Speaker 1 doing? a. good b. not bad c. thank God, well d. happy

2. How is Speaker 2 doing? a. tired b. perfect c. not bad d. good

43

3.

4.

Dialogue 2: How did Speaker 1 say “what’s your news?” a. al-ḥamdu li-llāh b. akhbārī jayyida c. mā akhbāruki d. ahlan wa sahlan Dialogue 3: How is Speaker 2 doing? a. tamām b. ta‘bān c. lā ba’s d. jayyid

Unit Three

2 ‫  تمرين‬

Listen and respond: Listen to the prompts and respond appropriately during the pauses. After listening to the exercise, fill in the blanks with your responses in transliteration (= Latin script). Remember to be creative by varying the answer to “how are you?” 1–

ṣabāḥu l-ḳayr.

َ ‫باح‬ .‫الخ ْير‬ ُ ‫َص‬

-2

2– 1–

kayfa l-ḥāl?

َ ‫َك ْي‬ ‫ف الحال؟‬

2– 1–

mā smuka? (masc. = mudakkar) / mā smuki? (fem. = mu’annat)

/ )masculine = ‫(م َذ َّكر‬ ُ ‫اس ُم َك؟‬ ْ ‫ما‬ ِ ‫ما اسم‬ )feminine = ‫ك؟ (مؤنَّث‬ ُ ْ

2– 1–

tašarrafnā.

.‫تَشَ َّرفْنا‬

-1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2

2– 1–

-1

ilal-liqā’.

2–

Morning Greeting

ِ ‫إلى‬ .‫اللقاء‬

-1 -2

4444

3. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors

‫ة‬

‫ق‬

‫ف‬

‫خ‬

A. The Letters sīn

‫ح‬ and

‫س‬

‫ج‬

‫س ش‬

šīn

‫ش‬

As you may have noticed, letters are grouped by the shapes in the Arabic alphabet. Each group shares a basic form or shell. For example, the letters sīn (s) and šīn (š) have the same shell, but are differentiated by the three dots placed above the šīn . The final curved portion of both shells descends below the line.

‫س‬

‫ش‬ ‫ش‬

These letters pose no pronunciation problems, as their sounds are found in English as well; is pronounced s, as in “Sam,” and is pronounced š as in “shine.”

‫س‬

‫ش‬

Forms of the Letters ‫ س‬and ‫ش‬ Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

s

sīn

‫س‬

‫ـس‬

‫ـسـ‬

‫سـ‬

š

šīn

Add the dots

‫ش‬

45

‫ش‬

‫ـش‬

‫ـشـ‬

Drawing the Independent šīn Loop back just above the line Make three teeth

‫شـ‬ Start on the line

Unit Three

3 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

ٍ ‫َك‬ ‫راس‬

‫َش ْمس‬

ِ ِ ‫ا ْبتسام‬

‫َس ّيارة‬

‫ُعش‬

ِ ْ ‫مش َبك‬

ِ ‫شارع‬

ِ ‫ق ْرش‬

4 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫ريش‬

‫ريش‬

‫ريش‬

Morning Greeting

‫ُيشير‬

‫ُيشير‬

‫ُيشير‬

‫ياسين‬

‫ياسين‬

‫ياسين‬

‫َسرير‬

‫َسرير‬ ‫َسرير‬

‫َشرار‬

‫َشرار‬ ‫َشرار‬ 4646

5 ‫تمرين‬ Write multiple groups of the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions. Example:

‫ببب‬

‫س‬

________________________________________________________

‫ش‬

________________________________________________________

6 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

َ ________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫­­شرا‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫َسري‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ياسين‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ُيشير‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ش‬ ‫ري‬

‫س‬

‫ش‬

‫ش‬

The and in Handwriting: Usually, in handwriting the three dots above are written as a caret ^ that is placed above the basic form after writing it. Also, the three “teeth” of these letters disappear, leaving an elongated horizontal stroke, as in this example:

See how many times you can find these two letters in the following handwritten address:

47

Unit Three

7 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words, as in the example:

‫نِ ْبراس‬

=



___________________

=

‫ن‬ + ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+‫ ْش‬+ ‫ت‬

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=



___________________

=



___________________

=



Morning Greeting

ِ

‫ س‬+ ‫ ا‬+‫ ر‬+‫ب‬ ْ + ‫ ن‬:‫ِمثال‬

ِ

‫ د‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َش‬

‫ ن‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫س‬ َ

+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ش‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َش‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ ش‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ْش‬+ ‫َت‬ ‫س‬+‫و‬+‫ب‬+‫ا‬+‫ي‬

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫س‬ َ

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ِر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫َش‬

‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ش‬+ ‫ُي‬

- 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ َش‬- 10

‫ ر‬+ ‫ا‬

+ ‫ س‬+ ‫َي‬

- 11

4848

8 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

‫َيشيب‬



‫َسراب‬



‫َت ْسديد‬

‫سوري‬ ّ ‫راش‬

‫َس َبب‬ ِ ‫ناشز‬

‫َشراب‬

‫روسي‬ ّ ‫راس‬

 

‫َشنَب‬



‫َنشاز‬

 

‫َشرايين‬



‫َس ْير‬

‫َت ْشريد‬



‫َيسار‬

‫ياسين‬

‫َنسيب‬

‫ساري‬

‫سودان‬ ‫ِش ْريان‬ ‫سار‬





 :‫ِمثال‬ 

-1



-2



-3



-4



-5



-6



-7



-8



-9



-10

9 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Write the words you hear in the space provided.

49

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

__________________

-8

__________________

-7

__________________ -10

__________________

-9 Unit Three

‫ج‬

B. The Letters jīm

and

‫ح‬ ḥā’

‫خ‬ ḳā’

and

As you can see, these letters share one basic shell and are differentiated by the dot and its placement.

The Four Forms of the Letters ‫خ ح ج‬ Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

j

jīm

‫ج‬

‫ـج‬

‫ـجـ‬

‫جـ‬



ḥā’



ḳā’

‫خ‬

‫ـخ‬

‫ـخـ‬

‫خـ‬

Add the dot

‫ج‬

Morning Greeting

‫ح‬

‫ـح‬

‫ـحـ‬

Drawing the Independent jīm Loop around Go back around

‫حـ‬

Start above the line

5050

‫تمرين ‪10‬‬

‫‪Unit Three‬‬

‫‪Trace over the gray letters:‬‬

‫ِ‬ ‫جامع‬

‫َن ّجار‬

‫َث ْلج‬

‫َت َخ ُّرج‬

‫حوت‬

‫َل ّحام‬

‫َب َلح‬

‫َف ّ‬ ‫الح‬

‫خا َتم‬

‫َم ْخ َبز‬

‫بِ ّطيخ‬

‫صاروخ‬

‫‪51‬‬

11 ‫تمرين‬ Write multiple groups of the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions. Example:

‫ببب‬

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

12 ‫ تمرين‬

‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬

Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words. Remember to proceed from right to left.

ِ ‫ساخن َرباح‬ ‫ِجدا ر َت ْخدي ر َجريح ُزحا ر‬ ِ ‫ساخن َرباح‬ ‫ِجدار َت ْخدير َجريح ُزحار‬ ِ ‫ساخن َرباح‬ ‫ح ُزحار‬ ‫ِجدار َت ْخدير َجري‬

Circle the letters ‫ ج ح خ‬in the signs below:

Morning Greeting

5252

13 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

_________________________________________________ ‫َرباح‬ ِ _________________________________________________‫ساخن‬ _________________________________________________ ‫ُزحا ر‬ _________________________________________________ ‫َجريح‬ ْ ‫َت‬ _________________________________________________‫خدير‬ ِ _________________________________________________ ‫جدا ر‬

14 ‫تمرين‬

Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words, as in the example:



‫جارور‬



=



___________________

=



‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ح‬+ ‫ِر‬

- 1

=

‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ خ‬+ ‫َش‬

- 3

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 53

‫ ر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ج‬:‫ِمثال‬



= =

= =



‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ج‬+ ‫ ْن‬+ ‫س‬



‫ س‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ س‬+ ‫َخ‬

-4

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ج‬

- 6

‫ ح‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫َر‬

=

‫ ن‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ر‬+

=



= =



ِ‫ خ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫س‬

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ح‬+ ‫َس‬

‫ ن‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ج‬

ِ

- 2

-5 - 7 - 8 - 9

‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ِح‬+ ‫ ْن‬+ ‫ ا‬- 10 Unit Three

‫ج‬

1. The Sound of the Letter jīm ( ): This letter is usually pronounced just like the s in “pleasure.” Note, however, that in formal recitations (e.g., recitation of the Holy Qur’ān), it may be pronounced like the j in “judge.” In parts of Egypt and Yemen it is pronounced g as in “gap.” In colloquial speech in the Gulf area, it is pronounced y as in “yet.” Despite these variations, the spelling remains unchanged.

‫ح‬

‫ح‬

‫خ‬

‫ خ‬is

2. The Sound of the Letter ḥā’ ( ): The sound represented by the letter ḥā’ is called by some learners of Arabic the “hard h,” meaning that it is produced like an h, but with accompanying friction in the throat. Think of making this sound as if you are blowing on your glasses in order to clean them. Or, try to mimic the hiss of an angry crocodile or alligator, if you have ever heard one. 3. The Sound of the Letter ḳā’ ( ): The sound represented by the letter ḳā’ similar to the final consonants in German “Bach” and Scottish “loch.”

15 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

           Morning Greeting

‫َجري‬ ‫َح ْرب‬ ‫َحرير‬ ‫ُحدوث‬ ‫َح َرش‬ ‫َحديد‬ ‫َت ْحرير‬ ‫روخ‬ ‫َشجير‬ ِ ‫خاسر‬ ‫َس َحر‬

          

‫جاري‬ ‫َخراب‬ ‫َجرير‬ ‫َحديث‬ ‫َج َرش‬ ‫َجديد‬ ‫َت ْحذير‬ ‫روح‬ ‫َشخير‬ ِ ‫حاسر‬ ِ ‫ساحر‬

:‫ِمثال‬

-1

-2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

-10 5454

16 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen carefully to the words you hear and write them down in the blank spaces below. Each word will be read twice.

-2

_______________

-4

_______________

-6

_______________

-8

_______________

_______________ -10 C. The Letters fā’

‫ف‬

-1

_______________

-3

_______________

-5

_______________

-7

_______________

-9

_______________ qāf

and

‫ق‬

Although the independent shapes of these two letters are different, their shapes in the initial and medial positions resemble each other. The qāf (q) can be thought of as a rounder version of the letter fā’ ( f ) in all positions. Possibly the most notable difference is in the independent and final positions wherein the fā’ ( f ) is written flush on the line, unlike the letter qāf (q), which has a bowl-like shape and descends below the line.

‫ف‬

‫ق‬

‫ف‬

Forms of the

‫ق‬

‫ ق‬and ‫ف‬

Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

f

fā’

‫ف‬

‫ـف‬

‫ـفـ‬

‫فـ‬

q

qāf

55

‫ق‬

‫ـق‬

‫ـقـ‬

‫قـ‬ Unit Three

Add the dot

The Independent fā’ Make a tip Go back around

Start above the line

‫ف‬ Add the dots

The Independent qāf Go below the line Make a loop

Start above the line

‫ق‬ 17 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫َخروف‬

‫ِسباق‬ Morning Greeting

‫ف‬ ّ ‫َص‬

ِ ْ ‫مفتاح‬

‫َف َرس‬

‫َح َل َق‬

‫َب َقرة‬

‫َق َمر‬ 5656

18 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫َقريب َفريد ُفن ُْدق ُشروق َرقيق َخفيف‬ ‫َقريب َفريد ُفن ُْدق ُشروق َرقيق َخفيف‬ ‫َقريب َفريد ُفن ُْدق ُشروق َرقيق َخفيف‬ 19 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________



57

‫ق‬

‫َخفيف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫َرقي‬ ‫ُشروق‬ ‫ُفن ُْدق‬ ‫َفري د‬ ‫ب‬ ‫َقري‬ ‫ق‬

Phonetic Description of the qāf ( ): The sound represented by the letter qāf is slightly similar to the k sound in “cot.” Its point of articulation is further back in the throat than that of the letter k in English. Note the difference between the two places of articulation when pronouncing “cot” and “cat.” After the qāf, the vowel ā is pronounced like the vowel in “far,” whereas following k, it is pronounced like the vowel in “dad.”

Unit Three

20 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words.

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

=

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ق‬+ ‫َر‬

- 1

=

‫ن‬+‫و‬+‫ن‬+‫ف‬ ُ

- 3

=

‫ت‬+‫ا‬+‫ر‬+‫ف‬ ُ

= ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ق‬+ ‫ت‬ َ = = = = = = =

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ِق‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ث‬

‫ د‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ق‬+ ‫ُن‬ ‫ ق‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫َش‬ ‫ ق‬+ ‫ ِر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫س‬

‫ب‬+‫ي‬+‫ر‬+َ‫ق‬

- 2 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9

‫ ق‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ُش‬- 10 ‫ ش‬+ ْ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ِق‬- 11

ِ

= ‫س‬ + ْ ‫ و‬+ ‫ َد‬+ ْ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ف‬- 12

Circle the letters ‫ ف‬and ‫ ق‬in the following signs:

Morning Greeting

5858

‫ ‪ 21‬تمرين‬ ‫‪Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.‬‬

‫ِمثال‪:‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫‪-6‬‬ ‫‪-7‬‬ ‫‪-8‬‬ ‫‪-9‬‬ ‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪Unit Three‬‬

‫َرفيق‬

‫َسخيف‬ ‫ُث ْقب‬ ‫َف ِ‬ ‫نادق‬ ‫أ ْفراح‬ ‫رافِق‬

‫ُف ْس ُتق‬ ‫فِر َد ْوس‬ ‫اِ ْختِراف‬ ‫َس َفر‬ ‫ُشروخ‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫َفريق‬

‫َسحيق‬ ‫ثِقاب‬

‫َقذايف‬ ‫أ ْفراخ‬ ‫ِرفاق‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫فاسق‬

‫َفراديس‬ ‫اِ ْختِراق‬

‫َس َقر‬

‫ُشروح‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪59‬‬

The Letter tā’ marbūṭa

D.

‫ت‬

‫ة‬

If you think that the letter tā’ looks like a smiley face, then pretend to grab its “ears” (its two ends) and bring them together. This creates the letter tā’ marbūṭa ( ), which is a tied version of the regular tā’. It functions as the feminine noun marker—in that when this letter is attached to most masculine nouns and adjectives, it makes them feminine.

‫ة‬

Interestingly, the tā’ marbūṭa is not always pronounced. When is it pronounced? • When the word is said by itself or is followed by an adjective, then the tā’ marbūṭa is not pronounced. a big car

sayyārah kabira

‫َس ّيارة كبرية‬

1

• When a suffix is attached to a word that ends with a tā’ marbūṭa (see example 1), or when the word is in an iḍāfa structure, which is a possessive construct much like the ‘s in English (see example 2), then it must be pronounced just like a regular tā’ .

‫ت‬

his car

sayyāratuhu

the professor’s car

sayyāratu al-ustād

‫َس ّيارتُه‬

‫َس ّيار ُة األستاذ‬

2 3

The tā’ marbūṭa can only occur at the end of a word. There are only two forms: (1) connected and (2) independent.

‫ـة‬

Add the dots

Morning Greeting

The Connected tā’ marbūṭa Tuck it in Make a peak

Start on the line

6060

‫ة‬

Add the dots

The Independent tā’ marbūṭa Bring it up

Make a pear shape

22 ‫تمرين‬ Trace the gray letters: The tā’ marbūṭa appears in its connected and independent forms.

‫َصالة‬

‫َم ْد َرسة‬ 23 ‫ تمرين‬

Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫َر ْب َوة‬

‫َف ْر َحة‬

‫َر ْب َوة‬

‫َف ْر َحة‬

‫َر ْب َوة‬

61

‫َف ْر َحة‬

‫ِقيا َدة‬ ‫ِقيا َدة‬ ‫ِقيا َدة‬

‫سورية‬

‫سورية‬ ِ ‫سور ّية‬

‫ُن َس ْي َبة‬

‫سارة‬ َ

‫ُن َس ْي َبة‬

‫سارة‬ َ

‫ُن َس ْي َبة‬

‫سارة‬ َ

Unit Three

24 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

_________________________________________________ ‫سار ة‬ َ _________________________________________________ ‫ُن َس ْي َبة‬

ِ _________________________________________________‫سور ّية‬ ِ

_________________________________________________ ‫قيا َد ة‬ _________________________________________________ ‫َف ْر َح ة‬

_________________________________________________ ‫َر ْبو ة‬ When we want to say “my car” or “my anything” we add a ‫ ي‬yā’ just like we did with the word ismī (“my name,” ism + ī = ismī). But when the second word is feminine, the tā’ marbūṭa reverts back to its original shape of a regular tā’, as in the two examples below. Example 1 is the tā’ marbūṭa in its connected form and example 2 has the tā’ marbūṭa in its independent form. my university

jāmictī

my car

sayyāratī

ِ ‫وهذه‬ ِ ‫جامعتي‬

Morning Greeting

ِ = ‫ ي‬+ ‫جامعة‬ ِ ‫جامعتي‬

1

‫ ي = َس ّياريت‬+ ‫َس ّيارة‬

2

ِ ‫هذه َس ّيارتي‬

6262

25 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words. Remember to change into a regular if a suffix follows, as in the example:

‫ة‬

‫ت‬

‫ُش ْر َبتي‬



___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

=

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ب‬ َ + ‫ ْر‬+ ‫ ُش‬: ‫ِمثال‬

=

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ي‬ َ + ‫ ْش‬+ ‫َخ‬

- 1

=

‫ ة‬+ ‫ َن‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫َد‬

- 3

= = =

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َد‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َج‬

‫ة‬+‫ف‬ َ + ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َش‬ ‫ ة‬+ ‫س‬ َ + ‫ ِر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ح‬

=

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ق‬

=

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ب‬ َ + ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ق‬+ ‫َح‬

=

‫ي‬ + ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َن‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫س‬ َ

= =

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ز‬

‫ ة‬+ ‫ َر‬+ ‫ ْخ‬+ ‫ف‬ َ

- 2 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9

- 10

26 ‫ تمرين‬

Dictation: Write down the six words dictated to you. Each word will be read twice. Note that words ending in tā’ marbūṭa not followed by a suffix or another noun are pronounced simply with a final short a (fatḥa) with a silent t. The word ‫بيرة‬ َ ‫ َخ‬, for example, is pronounced ḳabīra with no t sound on the end.

__________________ __________________ __________________

63

-2

__________________

‑6

__________________

-4

__________________

-1 -3 -5 Unit Three

27 ‫تمرين‬ Identification: Circle the letters

‫ة‬  ‫ق‬  ‫ف‬  ‫خ‬  ‫ح‬  ‫ج‬  ‫ش‬  ‫ س‬in this excerpt from a

famous Arabic poem by Antarah bin Shaddad (see two illustrations of him below). Look at the game cover (on the following page) and circle the same letters.

Morning Greeting

6464

Quraish Game® is a registered trademark of AfkarMedia Ltd. Created by Radwan Kasmiya. All rights reserved. www.afkarmedia.com

65

Unit Three

‫ الم ْف َردات‬ ُ Listen to the vocabulary items on the audio and practice their pronunciation. Transliteration is given for those words containing letters with which you are currently unfamiliar.

َ ِ‫ب‬ fine, well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .‫خ ْير‬ tired (ta‘ban). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

‫َت ْعبان‬

perfect; great (tamām) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .‫تَمام‬ good . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ج ِّيد‬ َ

name of the letter jīm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫جيم‬

name of the letter ḥā’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫حاء‬ condition, circumstance. . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫أحوال‬ ْ

‫حال ج‬ ِ thank God, praise be to God. . . . . . . . . . . . .‫ل ّله‬  ُ‫الحمد‬ َ (al-ḥamdu li-llāh bi-ḳayr)

name of the letter ḳā’. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫خاء‬ news . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ْ ‫َخ َبر ج‬ ‫أخبار‬

name of the letter sīn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫سين‬ name of the letter šīn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫شين‬

َ ‫باح‬ good morning (ṣabāḥu l-ḳayr) . . . . . . . . . . ‫الخ ْير‬  ُ ‫َص‬ good morning (response = ṣabāḥu n-nūr) . . . .

‫النور‬ ‫باح‬ ُ ‫َص‬

name of the letter fā’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫فاء‬

name of the letter qāf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫قاف‬

ً ‫َقلي‬ a little bit; slightly (qalīlan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .‫ال‬ how (kayfa). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

‫َيف‬ َ ‫ك‬

how are you? (kayfa l-ḥāl?) . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫الحال؟‬ ‫َيف‬ َ ‫ك‬ not bad (lā ba’s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

‫ال ْبأس‬

ْ ‫ما‬ what’s new? what’s going on? (mā akhbāruk) . . . .‫بارك‬ ُ ‫أخ‬

Morning Greeting

6666

‫شارع ومسجد الغور َّية في القاهرة‬

‫‪Unit Three‬‬

‫‪67‬‬

‫حد ُة الرابِ َع ُة‬ َ ‫الو‬ َ Unit Four Objectives • Inquiring about and identifying place of origin • Introduction to nominal sentences • Introduction to separate pronouns • Introduction to colloquial Arabic

• Introduction to the two-way connectors ‫غ‬  ‫ع‬  ‫ظ‬  ‫ط‬  ‫ض‬  ‫ص‬ • Inquiring about and identifying Arab cities and countries

• Introduction to Arab states, political systems, and capitals

1. Inquiring about and Identifying Place of Origin 

ِ .‫المغرب‬ َ ‫أنا م ْن‬

Exchange 2

‫ِمن َأي َن َأ ْن َت؟‬

.‫أنا ِم ْن فاس‬

ِ ‫ِمن َأين َأ ْن‬ ‫ت؟‬ َ

Exchange 1

When you want to ask “Where are you from?” we begin with the preposition min ‫ ِم ْن‬ (from), ِ or ‫أنت‬ followed by the question word ayna ‫( َأ ْي َن‬where), and a personal pronoun, ‫أنت‬ َ (see ِ exchanges 1 and 2 above). Can you figure out when to use ‫ أنت‬or ‫أنت‬ َ ?

Place of Origin

6868

When asking where a person (not in present company) comes from, simply replace ‫أنت‬ with the correct third-person pronoun, either huwa ‫( ُه َو‬he) or hiya ‫( ِه َي‬she) (see ex. 1). Where is she/he from?

min ayna huwa/hiya?

ِ ‫هو‬ ُ ‫أين‬ ‫ ِمن‬  ‫ه َي؟‬/ َ َ

1

ً ‫أص‬ Often the response includes the word, ‫ال‬ ْ , (aṣlan = originally), like in example 2:

ِ

ِ ً ‫أص‬ ._____ ‫ال من‬ ُ ‫ أنا‬2 ْ )‫ ه َي‬/ ‫(ه َو‬

I’m originally from _____.

A follow-up question may involve where a town, a region, or a country is located, as in Exchange 3 below.

.‫الم ْغ ِرب‬ َ ‫فاس في‬

‫َأي َن فاس؟‬

Exchange 3

1 ‫ تمرين‬

Conversation: You can start using the question word ‫أين‬ َ ‘where’ plus any noun that you know to create the “where is” game. Here, use qalam (pencil) and kitāb (book) for the nouns and one of the following three prepositions to answer.

bi-jānib ‫بِجانِب‬

69

ʿalā ‫َعلى‬

Where’s the pencil?

ayna al-qalam?

The pencil is (_) the book.

al-qalam (_)al-kitāb.

fī ‫في‬

3 ‫أين ال َق َلم؟‬ َ .‫ ال َق َلم (_) الكتاب‬4 Unit Four

2. Nominal Sentences You may have noticed from the previous exchanges that there is no verb “to be” (e.g., is, are) in these structures. Let’s examine the sentences more closely. • To inquire about where a woman is from, you can say: Where are you from?

min ayna anti?

ِ ‫ َأ‬ ‫ َأين‬ ‫ِمن‬ ‫نت؟‬ َ ْ ْ

5

ِ ‫َأ‬ .‫فاس‬ ‫م ْن‬ ‫نا‬

6

‫فاس؟‬ ‫َأ ْي َن‬

7

• In order to identify where you’re from, you might say: Literally: I from Fez

anā min fās.

• When asking about where a town is, you could ask: Literally: where Fez?

ayna fās?

• The answer to such a question is made up of the name of that town, the preposition ‫“ في‬in,” and the name of the wider region: Literally: Fez in Morocco

Fās f ī al-maġrib.

. ‫الم ْغ ِرب‬ ‫في‬  ‫فاس‬ ُ َ

8

Clearly, there is no verb “to be” in the above sentences. Unlike English, “be” is usually not used in the present tense in Arabic. Sentences that start with a noun (as in the examples above) are known as nominal sentences—the term “nominal” refers to the word “noun.”

Place of Origin

7070

2 ‫ تمرين‬ Video: Watch Unit 4: When you are watching the dialogues, become an active participant by repeating what you hear, trying to imitate the sounds and inflections used in the scenes. Dialogue 1: Circle the best choice: 1. Where is Nabil from? a. b. c. d.

Tripoli Damascus Baghdad Riyadh

2. Where is John from? a. b. c. d.

New York Columbus Wichita Dallas

Dialogue 2: Circle the best choice: 1. Where is Rasha from? a. b. c. d.

Mauritania Damascus Baghdad Fez

2. What is the name of the girl from Egypt? a. b. c. d.

71

Danya Misr Alexandria Fas

Unit Four

3 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and respond: After listening to the exercise, fill in the blanks with your responses in transliteration (= Latin script).

.‫السال ُم ع َليكُم‬ َ

-1

‫ف الحال؟‬ َ ‫َك ْي‬

-1

.______________________ .______________________

‫اس ُم ِك (مؤ َّنث)؟‬ ْ ‫ ما‬/ )‫اس ُم َك ( ُم َذكَّر‬ ْ ‫ما‬ .______________________

.‫َت َش َّر ْفنا‬

.______________________

ِ .‫أنت‬/ ‫أنت‬ َ ‫ِمن أي َن‬

.______________________

‫أي َن __________؟‬

.______________________

ِ ‫إلى‬ .‫اللقاء‬

.______________________

-2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2

4 ‫تمرين‬ Conversation: Hold a conversation in Arabic with a classmate, much like you did in Unit 2, but this time you are going to find out where your partner is from. To complete this task you must remember to (1) greet your classmate; (2) introduce yourself; (3) ask where your partner is from; (4) ask where that place is; and (5) say good-bye. Try to incorporate as many as possible of the greetings and questions that you have learned thus far. Endeavor to meet as many of your classmates as you can. Remember that the more you practice, the more fluent you become.

Place of Origin

7272

3. Separate Pronouns  The pronouns we have covered thus far include only those that refer to one person (singular). There are, however, some pronouns that we have not covered, such as dual form (which refers to two people) and plural (more than two people). Independent plural pronouns are gender-specific in Arabic. That is to say, we use a certain pronoun when referring to a group of women and a different pronoun when referring to a group of men. The table below titled Separate Pronouns lists all separate pronouns arranged according to person. Listen to the audio and repeat the pronoun during the pause. Transliteration is given for those words containing letters with which you are currently unfamiliar.

Person First Person

Separate Pronouns Pronoun Meaning

‫أنا‬

‫َنح ُن‬ ‫أنت‬ َ ِ ‫أنت‬

Second Person

‫أن ُتما‬ ‫أن ُتم‬

‫أن ُت َّن‬

Third Person

‫ُه َو‬ ‫ِه َي‬

‫ُهما‬ ‫ُهم‬

‫ُه َّن‬ 73

Transliteration

I we you (m. sg.) you (f. sg.) you (f./m., dual)

antumā

you (m. pl.)

antum

you (f. pl.) he she they (f./m., dual)

humā

they (m. pl.)

hum

they (f. pl.)

Unit Four

4. Colloquial Arabic The type of Arabic presented in this textbook is the standard language used in education, the media, and formal situations. The difference between Standard Arabic and any local colloquial Arabic is found in the pronunciation of certain letters and in certain syntactic structures. For example, the word ‫أين‬ َ in this lesson is ‫( وين‬wēn) or ‫فين‬ (fēn) in colloquial speech. Thus, one would ask ‫فين ِد َمشق؟‬/‫ وين‬instead of ‫دمشق؟‬ ‫أين‬ َ . In Syrian Arabic, for ِ ِ ِ ِ َ example, the question ‫أنت؟‬ ‫أين‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ م‬is formed as follows: ‫إنت؟‬ ‫منين‬. َ ْ Note that ‫أين‬ ‫( من‬min ayna) changes into ‫( ْمنين‬mnēn), where the two words are collapsed into one; the first word loses the short vowel i, and the diphthong ay in the second changes to the long vowel ē.

5. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors

‫غ‬

‫ع‬ A.

‫ظ‬

‫ص‬

The Letters ṣād

‫ط‬ and

‫ض‬

‫ص‬

‫ض‬ ḍād

These two letters share one basic shape. The only difference between the two is the dot placed above the ḍād ‫ض‬. Examine these letters below. They are written in one stroke, moving clockwise. The dot is placed above the letter ‫ ض‬after its stem is written.



Forms of the Letters ‫ ص‬and ‫ض‬ Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial



ṣād

‫ص‬

‫ـص‬

‫ـصـ‬

‫صـ‬



ḍād

Place of Origin

‫ض‬

‫ـض‬

‫ـضـ‬

‫ضـ‬ 7474

The Independent ḍād Add the dot

‫ض‬

Loop down and then back above the line

Wrap around and slightly above

Start just below the line

5 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫ُق ْرص‬

ِ‫ل‬ ‫ص‬ ّ

‫َب َصل‬

‫َصباح‬

ِ ‫الرياض‬

‫َن َهض‬

‫َح َضن‬

‫ِض ْف َدع‬

75

Unit Four

6 ‫تمرين‬ Drawing letters: Write the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions by writing the same letter in groups of three. Write as many groups as will fit on the line. Example:

‫ببب‬

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

‫ص‬ ‫ض‬

7 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words and copy them several times on a ruled sheet of paper.

‫ض َضرير ُنضوب‬ ‫َصبور َبصي ر ُف ْر َص ة َب ْي‬ ‫َصبور َبصير ُف ْر َصة َب ْيض َضرير ُنضوب‬ ‫َصبو ر َبصير ُف ْر َصة َب ْيض َضرير ُنضوب‬ 8 ‫تمرين‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫صبور‬ َ

________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫َبصي‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ص ة‬ َ ‫ُف ْر‬

________________________________________________________ ‫َب ْيض‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ضرير‬ َ

_______________________________________________________‫ُنضوب‬

Place of Origin

7676

9 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words, as in the example:

‫صاروخ‬



=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

_________________________

=

77

‫ خ‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ص‬:‫ِمثال‬

‫ر‬+‫ي‬+‫ر‬+‫ص‬ َ

- 1

‫ ة‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫ض‬ َ

- 3



‫ ص‬+ ‫ َر‬+ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫ر‬+‫و‬+‫د‬+‫ص‬ ُ ِ

‫ ُر‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ْ ‫ ص‬+ ‫ي‬ َ

‫ ض‬+ ‫ ِر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫َق‬ ‫ ن‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ص‬+ ‫َر‬ ِ ‫ ص‬+ ‫ ن‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫َق‬ ِ +‫ا‬+‫ح‬ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ض‬ ‫ض‬ + ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ِ‫ خ‬+ ‫ ْن‬+ ِ‫ا‬ ‫ ف‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ص‬+ ‫ر‬ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ف‬ َّ + ‫ص‬ َ ‫ ن‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ض‬ ْ + ‫ُق‬ ِ ْ + ِ‫ا‬ ‫ ص‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ص‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ‫خ‬



‫ ض‬+ ‫ي‬ َ +ْ‫ب‬+‫أ‬

- 2 -4 -5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 -12 - 13 - 14 - 15

Unit Four

‫ص‬

‫ص‬ ‫س‬

1. The Sound of the Letter ṣād ( ): The sound of the letter ṣād (ṣ) is similar to the s in “sod,” whereas the sound represented by the letter sīn is more like the s in “seen.” Notice the difference in sound of the short and long vowels preceding and following all emphatic letters.

‫ض‬

2. The Sound of the Letter ḍād ( ): The sound of the letter ḍād d in “dark,” whereas sounds like the d in “dad.”

‫د‬

‫( ض‬ḍ) is like the

10 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

          

Place of Origin

‫سيرة‬

‫َفضيحة‬

 

‫َرسين‬



‫ُردود‬



‫ساد‬



‫َدجيج‬ ‫َفريدة‬

‫َرسيف‬ ‫داري‬

‫صاري‬ ‫ُي ْس ِرف‬





   

‫صورة‬

:‫ِمثال‬

‫َرصين‬

-2

‫ُرضوض‬

-4

‫صاد‬

-6

‫ضاري‬

-8

‫َفصيحة‬

-1

‫َضجيج‬

-3

‫َفريضة‬

-5

‫َرصيف‬

-7

‫ساري‬ ‫َي ْص ِرف‬

-9 -10

7878

11 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen carefully to each word dictated to you and write it down in the space provided below. Each word will be read twice.

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

__________________

-8

__________________

-7

__________________

-10

__________________

-9

B.

The Letters ṭā’

‫ط‬

and

ẓā’

‫ظ‬

These two letters also share one basic form. They are distinguished by a dot placed above the loop in ẓā’ . Note that they are written flush on the line.

‫ظ‬

­­­Forms of the Letters

‫ ط‬and ‫ظ‬

Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial



ṭā’

‫ط‬

‫ـط‬

‫ـطـ‬

‫طـ‬



ẓā’

79

‫ظ‬

‫ـظ‬

‫ـظـ‬

‫ظـ‬ Unit Four

The Independent ẓā’ Add the dot

‫ظ‬

Draw a stem from the top

Start on the line and wrap around

12 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫َو ْطواط‬ ‫اِ ْكتِظاظ‬

‫َشريط‬ ‫الحظ‬ َ

ِ ‫خطاب‬

ّ ‫ُط‬ ‫الب‬

‫ِم َظ ّلة‬

‫ظِ ّل‬

13 ‫تمرين‬ Drawing letters: Write the following letters in groups of three. Example:

‫ببب‬

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Place of Origin

‫ط‬ ‫ظ‬

8080

14 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words and copy them several times on a ruled sheet of paper. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫َق ْيظ ُخطوط َحظيرة َخطير َظريف َطروب‬ ‫َق ْيظ ُخطوط َحظيرة َخطير َظريف َطروب‬ ‫َق ْيظ ُخطوط َحظيرة َخطير َظريف َطروب‬ 15 ‫تمرين‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

َ _______________________________________________________‫طروب‬

َ ________________________________________________________‫ظريف‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫َخطي‬

________________________________________________________‫حظيرة‬ َ _______________________________________________________‫ُخطوط‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ظ‬ ‫َق ْي‬ Circle all the letters that you recognize:

81

Unit Four

16 ‫ تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words, as in the example:

‫ضابِط‬

=

ِ + ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ض‬:‫ِمثال‬ ‫ ط‬+ ‫ب‬

_________________________

=

- 1

_________________________

=

َ ‫ش‬ + ‫ و‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ ْر‬+ ‫ط‬



_________________________

=



‫ ة‬+ ‫ ظ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ظ‬+ ‫ف‬

- 3

_________________________

=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=



_________________________

=



‫ط‬



‫ظ‬

ِ

‫ر‬+‫ا‬+‫ط‬+‫ق‬



- 2

‫ ب‬+ ‫ َط‬+ ‫ُر‬

-4

‫ ص‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ب‬

-5

‫ ق‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َط‬

- 6

‫ ف‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َظ‬

- 7

‫ ة‬+ ‫ ط‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ س‬+ ‫ب‬ َ

- 8

‫ ة‬+ ‫ ط‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫َخ‬

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ط‬+ ‫ ْش‬+ ‫ت‬ َ

- 9 - 10

‫ت‬

Pronunciation of and : Let’s take a look at the difference between tā’ and ṭā’ We can liken the difference in Arabic to its English counterpart in “Tim” and “Tom.” The difference between the ẓā’ and dāl is similar to the difference between the th sounds in “thine” and “this,” respectively.

Place of Origin

‫ط‬.

8282

17 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

          

‫َتباشير‬ ‫َرطيب‬ ‫َطريف‬ ‫ظافِر‬ ِ ‫طارق‬ ‫تين‬ ‫َظ ْرف‬ ‫أطراب‬ ‫َب َطر‬ ‫َنظير‬ ‫َح َذر‬

          

‫َطباشير‬ ‫َرتيب‬ ‫َظريف‬ ‫ذافِر‬ ِ ‫تارك‬ ‫طين‬ ‫َذ ْرف‬ ‫أتراب‬ ‫َب َتر‬ ‫َنذير‬ ‫َح َظر‬

:‫ِمثال‬

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

-10

18 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen carefully to each word dictated to you and write it down below or on a ruled sheet of paper. Each word will be read twice.

83

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

__________________

-8

__________________

-7

__________________ -10

__________________

-9

Unit Four

19 ‫ تمرين‬ Recognizing the emphatic letters: Listen to the two words read to you. Check the box next to the word that most closely resembles the word’s English counterpart. Notice how the emphatic letters change the sound of the alif. On the line next to the words, write the English cognate, as in the example. water





 ‫ضاد‬



 ‫فا َذر‬

_________________ _________________



_________________

‫قار‬

 ‫جرين‬ َ ‫طا ْن‬

_________________

 ‫ضا َدر‬

_________________

 ‫ْج ر‬ َ ‫ضاين‬

_________________

‫ع‬

The Letters ‘ayn

and



َ ‫فا‬ ‫ظر‬

-1



‫كار‬

- 3



‫سيسا‬

- 5



‫شا َتر‬



َ ‫شا‬  ‫طر‬

_________________

‫ وا َتر‬:‫ِمثال‬ ‫داد‬

 ‫جرين‬ َ ‫تا ْن‬

 ‫سيص ا‬

_________________

C.

َ ‫وا‬  ‫طر‬



‫دا َتر‬

‫ْجر‬ َ ‫داين‬

-2

- 4 - 6 - 7 - 8

‫غ‬

ġayn

These two letters share the same basic shape, but they make two different sounds. As you can see above, the basic shape in the independent position is made up of two semicircles on top of each other facing right. They are written in one uninterrupted stroke. The lower, larger segment descends below the line. The medial shape is written as an open loop flush on the line (see the following page).

Place of Origin

8484

Forms of the Two-Way Connectors ‫ ع‬and ‫غ‬ Symbol

Name

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial



‘ayn

‫ع‬

‫ـع‬

‫ـعـ‬

‫عـ‬

ġ 

ġayn 

‫غ‬

‫ـغ‬

‫ـغـ‬

‫غـ‬

Drawing these shells: The Independent ġayn Add the dot

‫غ‬

Complete the second loop

Retrace and start a second loop that is larger than the first

Make a loop going slightly past your starting point

The Medial ‘ayn Final form

‫ـعـ‬ 85

Continue on your way

Complete the loop

Make the top of the triangle

From the line start making an upside-down triangle

Unit Four

20 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

ِ ‫شارع‬

‫الربيع‬

‫َبعير‬

‫عالِم‬

ِ ‫فارغ‬

‫َت ْبغ‬

‫َتغريد‬

‫ُغراب‬

Circle all instances of the ‫ ع‬and the ‫ غ‬in the sign below:

Place of Origin

8686

21 ‫تمرين‬ Drawing letters: Write the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions by writing the same letter in groups of three. Write as many groups as will fit on the line. Example:

‫ببب‬

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

‫ ع‬ ‫ غ‬

22 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words and copy them several times on a ruled sheet of paper. Remember to proceed from right to left.

‫َفراغ‬

‫َفراغ‬

‫َفراغ‬

‫َسريع‬

‫َسريع‬

‫َسريع‬

‫َبعير‬

‫َبعير‬

‫َبعير‬

‫ُشغور‬

‫ُشغور‬

‫ُشغور‬

23 ‫تمرين‬

‫َغدير‬

‫َغدير‬

‫َغدير‬

‫َعزيز‬

‫َعزيز‬

‫َعزيز‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫ز‬ ‫َعزي‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫َغدير‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ُشغور‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫َبعي‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ع‬ ‫َسري‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫غ‬ ‫َفرا‬ 87

Unit Four

24 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words, as in the example:

‫َعجيب‬



‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ج‬+ ‫ َع‬:‫ِمثال‬

=



___________________

=



___________________

=



___________________

=



___________________

=



___________________

=



___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

___________________

=

1. The Sound of the Letter ‘ayn that of

‫ ت‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ف‬ ْ + ‫ِع‬

- 1

‫ د‬+ ‫ ْع‬+ ‫َد‬

- 3

‫ ر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ غ‬+ ‫ُش‬

‫ ع‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫َب‬ ‫ غ‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ُت‬

- 2 -4 -5

‫ ع‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ظ‬+ ‫ف‬ َ

- 6

‫ ع‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ط‬+ ‫ت‬ َ + ‫ ْس‬+ ِ ‫ا‬

- 8

‫ غ‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ْ ‫ ف‬+ ‫ت‬ َ

‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫غ‬

ِ ‫غ‬+‫ا‬+‫ب‬+‫ص‬

- 7 - 9 - 10

‫ع‬: The ‘ayn ‫ ع‬has the same place of articulation as

‫( ح‬i.e., in the throat), but it is voiced; that is, the vocal cords vibrate. To check

to see if a letter is voiced, place your hand on your throat and make a z sound, then make an s sound. Do you feel how the z makes a vibration which the s doesn’t? The

‫ ع‬sounds sort of like the beginning of an English r, but you don’t finish the sound. ‫غ‬

2. The Sound of the Letter ġayn ( ): The ġayn sound of the

‫ غ‬is the voiced counterpart of the

‫خ‬. It roughly resembles the Parisian r. The place of articulation is

between the back of the tongue and the soft palate. The sound is similar to that of gargling. Make sure your vocal cords are vibrating by placing your hand on your throat.

Place of Origin

8888

25 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

          

‫َتخريب‬ ‫َعديد‬ ِ ‫َي‬ ‫غرف‬ ‫ُيزيغ‬ ‫َص َبغ‬ ‫َغريق‬ ‫َبعيد‬ ‫َف َرغ‬ ‫َع َرب‬ ‫َت َبع‬ ‫َخراب‬

          

26 ‫ تمرين‬

‫َتغريب‬ ‫َغدير‬ ِ ‫َي‬ ‫عرف‬ ‫ُيذيع‬ ‫َص َبع‬ ‫َعريف‬ ‫َبغيض‬ ‫َف َرع‬ ‫َغرب‬ ‫َت ْبغ‬ ‫ُغراب‬

:‫ِمثال‬

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

-10

Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear.

        89

‫َصديد‬ ‫َط ْربان‬ ‫َغديد‬ ‫َسريع‬ ‫َس َبر‬ ‫ُعضو‬ ‫طاب‬ ‫َفصيح‬

       

‫َسديد‬ ‫َظ ْربان‬ ‫َرديد‬ ‫َصريع‬ ‫َص َبر‬ ‫دو‬ ّ ‫َع‬ ‫تاب‬ ‫َفسيح‬

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 Unit Four

27 ‫تمرين‬ Transliteration: Listed in this exercise are ten names of Arab and American towns and states. Decode each one and write its English equivalent in the space provided.

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

ِ ‫سور ّي ة‬ -2 ‫ بويزي‬- 4 ‫ تونِس‬- 6 ‫ َب ْغداد‬- 8 ِ ‫ويتشط ا‬ - 10

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

‫ َب ْيروت‬-1

‫ يوط ا‬- 3 ‫ أريزونا‬- 5 ِ ‫ باتن روج‬- 7 ‫ إنديانا‬- 9

6. Inquiring about and Identifying Arab Cities and Countries The map below illustrates the countries of the Arab world. Try to add the names of the countries and their capitals or major cities on the map.

‫بي‬ َ ّ ‫الو َطن ال َع َر‬

Map of the Arab World

Place of Origin

9090

28 ‫تمرين‬ Conversation: For practice, form questions about locations of cities and then ask your neighbor in class. You may wish to practice at home by posing questions and answering them to yourself out loud. Answer the question using the name of that city and the country, as in the example below:

ِ Baghdad is in Iraq. .‫العراق‬ ‫في‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ َب ْغ‬ Where is Baghdad? ‫ َب ْغداد؟‬ ‫أي َن‬ 7. Arab States, Political Systems, and Capitals

Cultural Note There are currently 22 Arab states that are members of the Arab League. Their combined population is about 350 million. Arab states vary in their political systems. There are republics, monarchies, and emirates. Republics are ruled by presidents, some of whom are democratically elected. Monarchies are ruled by kings who come from families that have ruled the country for centuries (e.g., Morocco) or that came to power relatively recently (e.g., Jordan). An emirate (e.g., Kuwait) is ruled by an emir “leader, prince.” An emir is usually a leader of a powerful tribe or clan. He assumes the regular responsibilities of a head of state. Arab states are developing countries. Some of them, however, have become fairly wealthy and have modernized their economies and their lifestyles. A few countries are still rather poor and underdeveloped (e.g., Somalia, Mauritania). The table in exercise 29 lists the member countries of the Arab League along with their capitals.

91

Unit Four

29 ‫تمرين‬ Identifying cities and countries: Look over the names of the countries and their capitals below and then circle the letters that are unfamiliar to you. Now, working with a partner and relying on the map of the Arab world on page 90, try to see how many of these countries and their capitals you can identify on a separate sheet of paper. Arab Countries and Their Capital Cities Capital

Country

Capital

Country

‫َم ْس َقط‬

‫ُعمان‬

-12

‫َع ّمان‬

‫األُ ْر ُدن‬

‫َق َطر‬

-13

‫َأبو َظبي‬

‫اإلمارات‬

-2

-14

‫المنامة‬ َ

‫حرين‬ َ ‫ال َب‬

-3

ِ ‫الج‬ ‫زائر‬ َ

ِ ‫الج‬ ‫زائر‬ َ

-5

-1

‫ال ُقدْ س‬

‫فِ َلسطين‬

‫الك َُو ْيت‬

‫الك َُو ْيت‬

-15

‫َطرا ُب ْلس ال َغ ْرب‬

‫ليبيا‬

-17

‫جيبوتي‬

‫جيبوتي‬

-6

-18

‫الرياض‬

‫السعود ّية‬ ُ

-7

‫السودان‬

-8

‫سور َّية‬

-9

‫الدَ ْو َحة‬

‫َب ْيروت‬

ِ ‫القاهرة‬ ِ ‫الرباط‬

‫ِم ْصر‬

-16

-19

‫نُواكْشوط‬

ِ ‫الم‬ ‫غرب‬ َ

‫موريتانيا‬

-20

‫َصنْعاء‬

‫ال َي َمن‬

-21

‫موقاديشو‬

-22

‫َبغداد‬

‫موروني‬

Place of Origin

‫ُل ْبنان‬

‫تونِس‬

‫ُج ُزر ال َق َمر‬

ُ ‫الخرطوم‬ ‫ِد َم ْشق‬

‫تونِس‬

‫الصومال‬ ِ ‫العراق‬

-4

-10 -11

9292

30 ‫تمرين‬ Identify the letters: Examine the roadsigns in the picture below and circle the letters ‫غ‬  ‫ع‬  ‫ظ‬  ‫ط‬  ‫ض‬  ‫ص‬.

93

Unit Four

‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ   Listen to the vocabulary items on the audio and practice their pronunciation. Transliteration is given for those words containing letters with which you are currently unfamiliar.

َ  ‫أبو‬ Abu Dhabi (abū ẓabī) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫ظبي‬

Jordan (al-urdun) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫األر ُدن‬ Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫أريزونا‬ United Arab Emirates (al-imārāt) . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫اإلمارات‬

ِ

Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫إنديانا‬

‫َأ ْي َن‬ ِ Baton Rouge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .  (n., f.) ‫روج‬ ‫باتن‬ where (question particle) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

 Bahrain (al-baḥrayn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫حرين‬ َ ‫ال َب‬

Baghdad (baġdād) (capital of Iraq) . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫َب ْغداد‬ Boise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫بويزي‬ Beirut (capital of Lebanon) . . . .. . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫َب ْيروت‬

ِ

Tunis, Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫تونس‬ (same word for capital city and country)

ِ

Algiers (al-jazā’ir), Algeria (al-jazā’ir) . . . .  (n., f.) ‫الجزائر‬ َ (same word for capital city and country) Djibouti (jībūtī) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫جيبوتي‬

ُ Khartoum (al-ḳurṭūm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫الخرطوم‬ (capital of the Sudan) ِ

Damascus (dimašq) (capital of Syria) . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫د َم ْشق‬

Doha (ad-dawḥa) (capital of Qatar) . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫الدَ وحة‬

ِ Rabat (ar-ribāṭ) (capital of Morocco). . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫الرباط‬

ِ Riyadh (ar-riyāḍ) (capital of Saudi Arabia) . .  (n., f.) ‫الرياض‬ Place of Origin

9494

Saudi Arabia (as-su‘ūdiyya) . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫السعودية‬ ُ the Sudan (as-sūdān). . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫السودان‬

Syria (sūriyya) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫سور َية‬ another name for Damascus; . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫الشام‬ historically Natural or Greater Syria (al-šām) Sanaa (ṣan‘ā’) (capital of Yemen). . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫صنْعاء‬ َ

Somalia (aṣ-ṣōmāl). . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫الصومال‬ Tripoli (ṭarābulus al-ġarb) . . . . . . (n., f.) (capital of Libya)

‫ال َغرب‬ ‫َطرا ُب ُلس‬

ِ

ِ

capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫عواصم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫عاصمة‬

ِ

Iraq (al-‘irāq) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫العراق‬

Arab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫ َع َرب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫بي‬ ّ ‫َع َر‬

Amman (‘ammān) (capital of Jordan). . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫َع ّمان‬ Oman (‘umān) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫ُعمان‬ Fez (fās) (town in Morocco) . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫فاس‬

ِ

Palestine (filasṭīn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫ف َلسطين‬

in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (prep.) ‫في‬ Cairo (al-qāhira) (capital of Egypt) . . . . . .  (n., f.)

ِ ‫القاه َرة‬

Jerusalem (al-quds) (capital of Palestine) . . .  (n., f.) ‫ال ُقدْ س‬

َ ‫َق‬ Qatar (qaṭar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.)‫طر‬

Kuwait (al-kuwayt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫الك َُويت‬

Lebanon (lubnān) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫ُلبنان‬ Libya (lībyā) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.)

‫ليبيا‬

city. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ ُمدُ ن‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َمدينة‬

95

Unit Four

‫َم ْس َقط‬ ِ Egypt (miṣr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫صر‬ ْ ‫م‬ ِ ‫الم‬ Morocco (al-maġrib). . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫غرب‬ َ Muscat (masqaṭ) (capital of Oman). . . . . . . (n., f.)

ِ

from, of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (prep.)‫من‬ Manama (al-manāma) (capital of Bahrain) . .  (n., f.)

‫المنامة‬ َ

Mauritania (mōritānyā) . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫موريتانيا‬

Mogadishu (muqadīšō) . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.)‫موقاديشو‬ (capital of Somalia) Nouakchott (nwakšot) . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) (capital of Mauritania)

‫نواكشوط‬

َ ‫َو‬ homeland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫أوطان‬   ‫ج‬   ‫طن‬ ِ

Wichita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫ويتشطا‬

Yemen (al-yaman). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫ال َي َمن‬

Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫يوطا‬

Where is the Arab World?

Place of Origin

9696

ِ ‫الخامس ُة‬  ‫حد ُة‬ َ ‫الو‬ َ Unit Five Objectives • Introduction to the two-way connectors ‫ ه‬،‫ م‬،‫ ك‬،‫ل‬ • Familiar Objects around the House

• Describing national and regional affiliation

ِ

ِ

• Introduction to the relative noun nisba ‫ا ْس ُم النسبة‬ • Introduction to gender in Arabic nouns

1. Arabic Alphabet: Two-Way Connectors

‫ه‬

‫م‬

‫ك‬

‫ل‬

A. The Letter lām

‫ل‬

The sound of the letter l in Arabic is mostly light. By contrast, in American English, the l sound is usually dark. The word “little” has two occurrences of l, the first one light and the second one dark. If you can perceive the difference, it will be easy for you to pronounce the mostly light Arabic l. There are, however, instances of dark l in Arabic. The best-known one occurs in the word Allah ‫“ اﷲ‬God.” Also, the dark l occurs when it precedes or follows the emphatic consonants (e.g., ).

‫ظ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬

97

Unit Five

• Make sure not to confuse the lām with an alif in the initial and medial positions. The lām has a different shape in its final and independent positions. The difference between the two letters is that an alif is a one-way connector, whereas the lām is a two-way connector. Note the direction of writing the different shapes of lām.

‫ل‬

‫ـل‬

‫ـلـ‬

‫لـ‬



Forms of the Two-Way Connector ‫ل‬ Symbol

Name

l

lām

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

1 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫ِس ْروال‬ Nationality

‫َع َسل‬

‫ُف َل ْي ِفلة‬

‫َل ْيمون‬ 98

98

Important Note for the lām-alif Combination: When an alif follows a lām, the alif is written embedded inside lām, slanting to the left. In print, it looks like when the lām is not connected to a preceding letter and like when it is connected to a preceding letter. In handwriting, however, the lām-alif combination resembles the latter shape, as illustrated below.

‫ال‬

‫ـال‬

2 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words and copy them several times on a ruled sheet of paper.

‫َلبيب‬ ‫َلبيب‬ ‫َلبيب‬

99

‫َبليد‬ ‫َبليد‬ ‫َبليد‬

‫نِيل‬ ‫نِيل‬ ‫نِيل‬

‫نِبال‬ ‫نِبال‬ ‫نِبال‬

‫َش َلبي‬ ‫َش َلبي‬ ‫َش َلبي‬

‫اإلسالم‬ ْ ‫اإلسالم‬ ْ ‫اإلسالم‬ ْ

Unit Five

3 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

‫ب‬ ‫َلبي‬ ‫َبلي د‬ ِ ‫ل‬ ‫ني‬ ِ ‫نبال‬ ‫ي‬ ‫َش َلب‬ ‫اإلسالم‬ ْ

4 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words.

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

Nationality

‫ي‬ + ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ َل‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ا‬ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ب‬ ُ + ‫ ْل‬+ ‫ُب‬ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ َس‬+ ‫َع‬ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫س‬ ْ +‫إ‬+‫ل‬+‫ا‬ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫َج‬ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ص‬ َ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫َن‬ ِ +‫ا‬+‫ط‬ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ل‬ ِ ‫ ز‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫ ْل‬+ ‫ت‬

‫ د‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ْق‬+ ‫ت‬ َ

ْ +‫إ‬ ‫ ق‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫غ‬ 100

-1 - 2 - 3 - 4 -5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11

100

5 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

        

‫ِش ْبل‬



‫َنبيل‬



‫َو ْيلي‬ ‫بِالل‬ ‫َل ِدن‬

  

‫َلباب‬ ‫َب َلدي‬

 

‫َو َلدي‬ ِ ‫الزق‬

 

‫َسبيل‬ ‫بِالل‬ ‫والي‬

‫ُبل ُبل‬ ِ ‫الدن‬

‫َلبيب‬ ‫بِالدي‬ ‫والِدي‬ ِ ‫الصق‬

:‫ِمثال‬ -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

6 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen to each word dictated to you and write it down below or on a ruled sheet of paper. Each word will be read twice.

101

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

Unit Five

B.

The Letter kāf

‫ك‬

The sound represented by this letter is pronounced just like the k in “kit.”

Forms of the Two-Way Connector ‫ك‬ Symbol

Name

k

kāf

Final connected

Independent

Medial

Initial

In the independent position, it is written much like the letter lām, but with a flat base rather than a bowl-shaped one. Compare the letters lām and kāf in their independent position:

‫ل‬

‫ك ل‬

‫ك‬

As you have noticed, there is a diacritical mark embedded within the kāf. Its function is to distinguish the kāf from the lām in the final connected and independent forms. As you can see, the diacritical mark is similar in shape to a hamza (see Unit 6, section 4B), but it has no phonological value.

‫ء‬

Nationality



‫ك‬



102

102

7 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫ُش َّباك‬

‫ِس ْلك‬ 8 ‫ تمرين‬

‫ُسكَّر‬

‫ِكتاب‬

Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words below and copy them several times.

‫ُسلوك‬

‫ُسلوك‬

‫ُسلوك‬

‫َف َلك‬

‫َف َلك‬

‫َف َلك‬

‫َتكْبير‬

‫َتكْبير‬

‫تكْبير‬

9 ‫تمرين‬

ِ ‫باكر‬ ِ ‫باكر‬

ِ ‫باكر‬

‫ِك ْبريت‬ ‫ِك ْبريت‬ ‫ِك ْبريت‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

ِ

________________________________________________________‫ك ْبريت‬

ِ

________________________________________________________ ‫باكر‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫َتكْبير‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ك‬ ‫َف َل‬

________________________________________________________‫ُسلوك‬ 103

Unit Five

10 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words.

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

=

=

= = = =

=

= = =

11 ‫ تمرين‬



ُ ‫ س‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ْر‬+ ‫ك‬

-1



‫ ك‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ك‬+ ‫ُش‬

- 3

ُ ‫ ف‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ س‬+ ‫ك‬



‫ ن‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ك‬+‫ ْر‬+ ‫ُب‬ ِ ِ ‫ ك‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ك‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ْح‬+ ‫ا‬ َ + ‫ ْب‬+ ‫َك‬ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ك‬ ِ َ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ ك‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ك‬ ْ + ‫َت‬ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ك‬ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ك‬+ ‫ ْش‬+ ‫ت‬ َ َ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ك‬

- 2 - 4 - 5

- 6 - 7 - 8 - 9

- 10

Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

           Nationality

‫ُقبور‬ ‫كُو َيت‬ ‫َشكَر‬ ‫َفريق‬ ‫فِكاك‬ ‫قاسي‬ ِ ‫كاسب‬ ‫َد َلق‬ ‫َرقيق‬ ‫ُش َقق‬ ‫َك ْلب‬

          

‫كَبير‬ ‫كوت‬ ِ ‫شاكر‬ ‫َفريك‬ ‫ُفكوك‬ ‫كاسي‬ ‫ك ََسب‬ ‫َد َلك‬ ‫َركيك‬ ‫ُشكوك‬ ‫َق ْلب‬

:‫ِمثال‬

-1

-2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

-10 104

104

12 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen to each word and write it down below. Each word will be read twice.

__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

-2

__________________

-4

__________________

-6

-1 -3

-5

__________________

-8

-7

__________________

-10

-9

__________________

C. The Letter mīm

‫م‬

Forms of the Letter ‫م‬ Symbol

Name

m

mīm

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

Circle all of the mīms that you find on the sign below:

105

Unit Five

13 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

‫َن ْوم‬

‫َق َلم‬ 14 ‫ تمرين‬

‫َج َمل‬

‫ُم َد ِّرسة‬

Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned ones and copy them several times.

‫َق َلم‬

‫َق َلم‬

‫َق َلم‬

‫روم‬

‫روم‬

‫روم‬

‫َكريم‬

‫َكريم‬

‫َكريم‬

ِ ‫جامعة‬ ِ ‫جامعة‬

ِ ‫جامعة‬

‫َسمير‬

‫َم ْر َيم‬

‫َسمير‬

‫َم ْر َيم‬

‫َسمير‬

‫َم ْر َيم‬

Circle all of the mīms in the following road sign:

Nationality

106

106

15 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫م‬ ‫َم ْر َي‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫َسمي‬

ِ

________________________________________________________‫جامعة‬

________________________________________________________ ‫م‬ ‫كَري‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫م‬ ‫رو‬ ________________________________________________________

‫َق َلم‬

16 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words.

107

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=



‫ م‬+ ‫س‬ َ + ْ ‫ ل‬+ ‫َب‬

‫ ن‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ِل‬+ ‫ ْس‬+ ‫ُم‬ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ِك‬ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ق‬+ ‫ُم‬ ‫ س‬+ ‫ ِم‬+ ‫ ْش‬+ ‫ُم‬ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ُم‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ا‬ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ْش‬+ ‫َم‬ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ع‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ْج‬+ ‫َم‬ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫م‬

‫ ز‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ْم‬+ ‫ُم‬

-1 -2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10

Unit Five

17 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear.

       

‫ُمريد‬ ‫َمسار‬ ‫َد َمس‬ ‫َص َمم‬ ِ ‫مارد‬ ِ ‫المس‬ ‫َسالم‬ ‫ِذمام‬

       

‫ُمدير‬ ‫َم ْيسان‬ ‫ديماس‬ ‫َصميم‬ ‫ُمراد‬ ‫َلميس‬ ‫َسليم‬ ‫ِذ َمم‬

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

18 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen carefully to each word dictated to you and write it down below. Each word will be read twice.

Nationality

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

__________________

-8

__________________

-7

__________________

-10

__________________

-9

108

108

D. The Letter hā’

‫ه‬

The sound of this letter resembles the h in the word “house.” The difference between the English and Arabic h sound is that in English it is found mainly at the beginning of a syllable, whereas in Arabic it can be at the beginning or the end (e.g., “hen” in English; ‫ َهاب‬and ‫تا َه‬ in Arabic). The initial form of the hā’ is written with two loops, one within the other using only one stroke. One way to think about drawing the hā’ is to simply draw an initial dāl and then form a loop where the lower tooth of the dāl is found. As for the medial shape, when handwritten the hā’ is somewhat different from the printed shape . The final connected and independent forms of the hā’ are similar to the tā’ marbūṭa minus the dots.

‫ـهـ‬

Forms of the Letter ‫ه‬ Symbol

Name

h

hā’

Independent

Final connected

Medial

Initial

19 ‫تمرين‬ Trace over the gray letters: The letters appear in their initial, medial, final, and independent positions:

ٍ ‫ماله‬ 109

ِ ‫تائه‬

‫َس ْهل‬

‫ِهالل‬ Unit Five

20 ‫تمرين‬

Drawing letters: Write the following letters in their initial, medial, and final positions by writing the same letter in groups of three. Write as many groups as will fit on the line. Example:

‫ببب‬

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

‫ل‬

‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬

21 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned ones and copy them several times.

‫َتها ُفت‬

‫تيه‬

‫شاه‬

‫َم ْهدي‬

‫هادي‬

‫َتها ُفت‬

‫تيه‬

‫شاه‬

‫َم ْهدي‬

‫هادي‬

‫َتها ُفت‬

‫تيه‬

‫شاه‬ 22 ‫تمرين‬

‫َم ْهدي‬

‫هادي‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫ي‬ ‫هاد‬

________________________________________________________‫َمهدي‬ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

‫شاه‬ ‫تيه‬

________________________________________________________ ‫تها ُفت‬

Nationality

110

110

23 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words.

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

_____________________

=

‫ ل‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ه‬+ ‫ب‬ َ

-1

‫ ي‬+ ‫ ه‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ َم‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ا‬

- 3

‫ ت‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ت‬ َ + ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ه‬+ ‫ُم‬ ‫ ه‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫س‬ َ

ِ

‫ ُه‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ف‬

‫ ة‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ه‬+ ‫َم‬

َ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ َر‬+ ‫ ْه‬+ ‫ك‬ ِ

ِ

‫ م‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ه‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ْل‬+ ‫ا‬

‫ ة‬+ ‫ ن‬+ ‫ ْه‬+ ‫ِم‬ ِ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ز‬+ ‫ ه‬+ ‫ ْج‬+ ‫أ‬

- 2 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10

Circle the letter hā’ in the following cafe menu:

111

Unit Five

24 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

          

‫َرفاة‬ ‫ُحسام‬ ‫َمهروم‬ ‫َحماس‬ ‫ُسحام‬ ‫َحالل‬ ‫َف ْهم‬ ِ ‫ساحل‬ ‫َل ْحم‬ ‫اِ ْمتِهان‬ ‫َن ْحر‬

          

‫َرفاه‬ ‫ِهشام‬ ‫َمحروم‬ ِ ‫هامس‬ ‫ِسهام‬ ‫ِهالل‬ ‫َف ْحم‬ ِ ‫ساهل‬ ‫َل ِهم‬ ‫اِ ْمتِحان‬ ‫َن ْهر‬

:‫ِمثال‬ -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10

25 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen to each word dictated to you and write it down below. Each word is read twice.

Nationality

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

__________________

-8

__________________

-7

__________________

-10

__________________

-9

112

112

26 ‫تمرين‬

Identify the letters ‫ل‬  ،‫ك‬ ، ‫ م‬،‫ ه‬in different word positions in these excerpts:

2. Familiar Objects around the House

113

‫ريدة‬ َ ‫َج‬

‫ِكتاب‬

‫َق َلم‬

‫َد ْف َتر‬

‫هاتِف‬

‫تِ ْلفاز‬

‫َن ّظ َارة‬

‫ِم ْفتاح‬

‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬

‫َس ّيارة‬

‫ساعة‬

‫حاسوب‬ Unit Five

27 ‫تمرين‬ Underline the word that does not belong in each set of words and explain your choice in English.

‫ريدة‬ َ ‫َج‬ ‫حافِلة‬ ‫حاسوب‬

‫هاتِف‬ ‫َس َّي َارة‬ ‫ِم ْفتاح‬

‫َد ْف َتر‬ ‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد َّر‬ ‫ساعة‬

‫ِكتاب‬ ‫َن َّظ َارة‬ ‫تِ ْلفاز‬

-1 - 2 - 3

3. Describing National and Regional Affiliation In this section we will learn how to take a noun and make it what we consider in English to be an adjective to describe our nationality (e.g., America > American; France > French, etc.). Describing one’s national or regional affiliation involves providing information about one’s place of origin or residence. This function requires the use of a noun called “noun of nisba” in Arabic. Read the following descriptions and try to figure out the nationalities of the people in the images.

ِ .‫ري‬ ّ ‫ُه َو م ْص‬

ِ .‫ري‬ ّ ‫أنا م ْص‬

ِ ‫هو ِمن م‬ ِ ‫دينة‬ .‫القاهرة‬ َ ُ َ

ِ ِ ِ .‫ريكي‬ ّ ‫مارتن لو َثر كنغ أم‬ .‫ُه َو ِمن َمدين َِة أتالنتا في ِوال َي ِة جورجيا‬

Nationality

114

114

ِ

ِ

4. The Relative Noun nisba ‫النسبة‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫ا ْس‬ The nisba is used to create an adjective from a noun (i.e., American from America, or Egyptian from Egypt). It can also be used to form an adjective from just about any noun (i.e., international from nation, or orange the color from orange the fruit). You can derive the nisba from a noun that refers to a city, country, region, ethnic group, etc., by adding a doubled consonantal yā’ (-iyy) to the end of the noun.

‫ّي‬

Tunisian •

‫تونِ ِس ّي‬

= ‫ي‬  ّ + ‫ة‬

‫ا‬

‫تونِس‬



If a noun ends with a tā’ marbūṭa  or alif , drop them and add

‫راسي‬ ‫ِد‬ ّ

academic

ِ ‫َفر‬ ‫نس ّي‬ َ

French

‫ ّي‬:

‫تونِس‬

1

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫ِدراس‬



‫ِدراسة‬

2

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫َف َر ْنس‬



‫َف َر ْنسا‬

3

• If a noun ends with yā’ and tā’ marbūṭa ‫ ية‬or yā’ and alif ‫يا‬, simply drop the tā’ marbūṭa or alif and attach yā’ , which will make a doubled yā’:

‫ة‬

Syrian Libyan

‫ا‬

ِ ‫سور ّي‬ ‫ليبِ ّي‬

‫ي‬

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

ِ ‫سوري‬ ‫ليبي‬

 

‫سورية‬ ‫ليبيا‬

• If a noun has the definite article ‫‘ ال‬the’ prefixed to it, drop it and attach the suffix Sudanese

‫سوداني‬ ّ

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫سودان‬



4

‫السودان‬

5

‫ ّي‬: 6

• Forming nisba nouns from some nouns having a long vowel requires dropping this long vowel (e.g., ‫“ مدينة‬city”): civilian

115

‫َم َدنِ ّي‬

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫َمدن‬



‫َمدينة‬

7

Unit Five

• A small class of nouns, where an original letter of this letter before adding the suffix .

‫ّي‬

‫ و‬is deleted, requires the restoration

paternal

‫أ َب ِو ّي‬

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫و‬+

‫أب‬



‫أب‬

8

brotherly

َ ‫أخ ِو ّي‬

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫و‬+

‫أخ‬



‫أخ‬

9

• Some nouns end with alif and hamza, such as ‫“ َسماء‬sky.” A relative noun may be ِ ‫ ) َس‬or by keeping it (‫) َسمائِ ّي‬. formed by replacing the hamza with wāw (‫ي‬ ّ ‫ماو‬ heavenly

ِ ‫َس‬ ‫ماو ّي‬

= ‫ي‬  ّ +

‫و‬+

‫َسماء‬



‫َسماء‬

10

5. Gender in Arabic Nouns All Arabic nouns, even those denoting abstract notions, are either masculine or feminine. Many, but not all, feminine nouns are marked by a tā’ marbūṭa ( ). If you wish to make a masculine nisba feminine, simply add a tā’ marbūṭa to it.

‫ة‬

Tunisian f. sg. academic f. sg. American f. sg.

‫تونِ ِس ّية‬ ‫ِدراس ّية‬ ‫أ ْمريك ّية‬

= ‫ة‬  + = ‫ة‬  + = ‫ة‬  +

Tunisian m. sg. academic m. sg. American m. sg.

ِ‫تون‬ ‫سي‬ ّ ‫راسي‬ ‫ِد‬ ّ ‫ريكي‬ ّ ‫أ ْم‬

11 12 13

• Note, however, that a few nouns that do not end in a tā’ marbūṭa are feminine (e.g., ‫“ َأرض‬floor, ground”).

• The names of all cities and towns are feminine. • Country names may be masculine or feminine.

Nationality

116

116

28 ‫تمرين‬ Creating the nisba: Derive the masculine form of relative nouns (nisba) from the following nouns and then derive the feminine, as in the example. Feminine

Masculine

Country

‫ُلبنان ّية‬

‫بناني‬ ّ ‫ُل‬

‫ُلبنان‬

ِ ‫الهنْد‬ ‫َق َطر‬

ِ ‫الس‬ ‫عود َّية‬ ُ ‫سورية‬

‫الم ْغ ِرب‬ َ ‫أمريكا‬ ‫َف َرنسا‬

:‫ِمثال‬ -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7

29 ‫تمرين‬ Fill in the blanks with the correct nationality:

‫ و«أوبرا ونفري» ِمن أ ْمريكا ِه َي‬.________ )1( ‫ُم َح َّمد َسالمة ِمن ِم ْص َر ُه َو‬ ،__________ )3( ‫«روسل كرو» من أستراليا ُه َو‬ .__________ )2( َ ‫ «فال َدمير بو َتن» من‬._________ )4( ‫و«سيلين ديون» ِمن َكنَدا ِه َي‬ .__________ )5( ‫روسيا ُه َو‬

117

Unit Five

30 ‫ تمرين‬ Video: Watch Unit 5: While you are watching the dialogues, become an active participant by repeating what you hear, trying to imitate the sounds and inflections used in the ِ through context and write your guess here: scenes. Try to deduce the meaning of ‫جنْس ّية‬ _______________________. Circle the best choice:

‫ِمن أ ْي َن كرستين؟‬ ‫ نيويورك‬-‫ ا‬ ‫بوس َطن‬ ْ -‫ ب‬ ِ ‫واشنْ َطن‬ -‫ ج‬ ‫ بِ ْت ْسبرغ‬-‫ د‬ 31 ‫تمرين‬ Conversation: Hold a conversation in Arabic with a classmate, but this time add questions about your partner’s nationality. To complete this task you must remember to (1) greet your classmate; (2) introduce yourself; (3) ask where they are from; (4) ask where that place is (next to this place, above this place); (5) ask what nationality they are; (6) and say good-bye. Endeavor to meet as many of your classmates as you can and be creative with the language.

Nationality

118

118

‫الم ْف َردات‬ ُ   Listen to the vocabulary items on the audio and practice their pronunciation. you (m. pl.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .  (pron., m., pl.) ‫أنت ُْم‬

you (m./f. dual) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (pron., m./f., dual) ‫أ ْنتُما‬ you (f. pl.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .  (pron., f., pl.) ‫ن‬ َّ ‫أن ُت‬

ِ

ِ

television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., m.) ‫تلفازات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫تلفاز‬

ِ

newspaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., f.) ‫جرائد‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ة‬ َ‫َجريد‬ َ computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., m.) ‫حواسيب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫حاسوب‬ َ bicycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., f.) ‫ َد ّراجات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬

ِ

notebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., m.) ‫ َدفاتر‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َدفتَر‬ watch, clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫ساعات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫سا َعة‬

car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., f.) ‫س ّيارات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ة‬ ‫َس ّي َار‬ َ

َ‫عند‬ ِ pen, pencil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫أقالم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َق َلم‬ ِ book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., m.) ‫ ُكتُب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫كتاب‬ at (expresses possession) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . (adv.)

town, city . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., f.) ‫ ُمدُ ن‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َمدينَة‬

tape recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., f.) ‫جالت‬ ِّ ‫ ُم َس‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ُم َس ِّجلة‬

ِ

key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., m.) ‫ َمفاتيح‬   ‫ج‬   ‫م ْفتاح‬

we . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .  (pron., pl.) ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ن َْح‬

ِ

relative noun . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ن ْس َبة‬

ّ ‫ َن‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َن ّظارة‬ eyeglasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., f.) ‫ظارات‬ ِ

ِ

telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  (n., m.) ‫هواتف‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ف‬ ‫هات‬ َ

119

Unit Five

they (m. pl.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (pron., m., pl.) ‫ُه ْم‬

they (m./f. dual) . . . . . . . . . . .  (pron., m./f., dual) ‫ُهما‬ they (f. pl.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f., pl.) ‫ن‬ َّ ‫ُه‬

ِ state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫واليات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ة‬ ‫ِوال َي‬

ٍ ِ‫ن‬ ‫من‬ ‫ُم‬ ِ ‫بِك‬ ‫وما‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ َف ِم َن‬ ‫عمة‬

Decorative calligraphy of a Qur’anic phrase that reads “Whatever blessings you have, come from God”

Nationality

120

120

ِ ‫السادس ُة‬  ‫حد ُة‬ َ ‫الو‬ َ Unit Six Objectives • Identifying classroom objects • Expressing possession • Attached pronouns

• Introduction to the letters alif maqṣūra (‫ )ى‬and hamza (‫)ء‬

• Introduction to the diacritical marks šadda, madda, tanwīn, and sukūn • Introduction to the short alif

• Learning more about phonological variation in colloquial Arabic • Learning how foreign sounds are represented in Arabic script

1. Familiar Objects in the Classroom

121

‫سي‬ ّ ‫ك ُْر‬

ِ ‫طاو َل ة‬

‫باب‬

‫نافِ َذة‬

‫َحقي َبة‬

‫صورة‬ َ

‫حاسوب‬

‫َم ْك َتب‬ Unit Six

‫َأ ْرض‬

‫نور‬

‫َل ْوح‬

‫َس ّجاد‬

 this (f. sg.) is a . . .

ِ ‫هذ ِه َو َر َقة‬

this (m. sg.) is a . . .

‫هذا َق َلم‬

1 ‫تمرين‬

Conversation: Examine the picture below, and in groups of two, ask your classmate the names of new vocabulary items using ‫ ما هذا‬or ‫ما هذه‬. The person responding will use a structure like that of the two examples above.

Possession

122

122

2 ‫تمرين‬ Matching: Match words from the right-hand column with words in the left-hand column. Take the time to practice writing Arabic by writing both words in the middle column.

‫نافِ َذة‬

‫أمريكي‬ ّ

‫ِم ْمحاة‬

-1

‫سي‬ ّ ‫ك ُْر‬

-3

‫بي‬ ّ ‫َع َر‬

-5

‫باب‬

‫َحقي َبة‬ ‫ِم ْبراة‬ ِ ‫حاس َبة‬ ِ ‫طاو َلة‬

-2

‫حاسوب‬

-4

3 ‫ تمرين‬ Video: Watch Unit 6: While you are watching the dialogues, become an active participant by repeating what you hear, trying to imitate the sounds and inflections used in the scenes. 1. Circle the words that John learned today:

‫َق َلم‬

‫نافِذة‬

‫ِم ْمحاة‬

‫َل ْوح‬

‫باب‬

‫سي‬ ّ ‫ك ُْر‬

‫ُصورة‬

ِ ‫طاولة‬

‫ْأوراق‬

2. Circle the things that John mentions he has with him:

‫َق َلم‬

123

‫ْأوراق‬

‫ِم ْس َطرة‬

ِ ‫طاولة‬

‫ِم ْمحاة‬

‫ِم ْبراة‬

‫ُصورة‬

Unit Six

2. Expressing Possession

.‫ ِعندي حاسوب‬،‫ نعم‬،‫نعم‬ ‫وو َرقة؟‬ َ ‫َهل ِع‬ َ ‫ند َك َق َلم‬

Take the word َ‫ ِعنْد‬and attach a pronoun to the end of it to create the possessive construct such as: “I have” or “you have” or “we have”. Consider the following example: you (m. sg.) have you (f. sg.) have

‫ِعن َْد َك‬ ‫ِعن َْد ِك‬

= =

‫َك‬ ‫ِك‬

+ +

‫ِعن َْد‬ ‫ِعن َْد‬

‫ِكتاب‬

+

‫ِعن َْد َك‬

1 2

You can place any noun after that to create a sentence: you (m. sg.) have a book

‫ِعن َْد ِك ِكتاب‬

=

3

You are already familiar with another possessive suffix which you have used when introducing yourself, using “my name is . . .” (ismī ‫)اِسمي‬. The final long vowel yā’ (ī = ) of this word is an attached pronoun, meaning “my.” To say “I have,” use َ‫ ِعنْد‬plus the attached pronoun .

‫ي‬

you (f. sg.) have

‫ي‬

‫ِعنْدي‬

=

‫ي‬

+

‫حاسوبي‬ ‫هاتِفي‬

=

‫ي‬

+ ‫حاسوب‬

‫ )ي‬for any noun to attain “my ______.”

‫ِعنْد‬

4

You may use this formula (noun +  my computer my phone

Possession

=

‫ي‬

+

‫هاتف‬ 124

5 6

124

3. Attached Pronouns

ِ Every separate pronoun (e.g., ‫أنت‬ ،‫أنا‬ “I, you”) has an attached counterpart that is suffixed to the end of nouns, prepositions, and verbs. When suffixed to nouns, they serve as possessive َ pronouns (e.g., ‫ك‬ ،‫ي‬ “my, your”).

Separate and Attached Personal Pronouns Meaning First Person

my (book) our your (m. sg.) your (f. sg.)

Second Person

your (m./f. dual) your (m. pl.) your (f. pl.) his her

Third Person

their (m./f. dual) their (m. pl.) their (f. pl.)

125

Example

‫ِكتابي‬ ‫ِكتا ُبنا‬ ‫ِكتا ُب َك‬ ‫ِكتا ُب ِك‬ ‫ِكتا ُبكما‬ ِ ‫كم‬ ْ ‫كتا ُب‬ ‫ِكتا ُب ُك َّن‬ ‫ِكتا ُب ُه‬ ‫ِكتا ُبها‬ ‫ِكتا ُبهما‬ ِ ‫هم‬ ْ ‫كتا ُب‬ ‫ِكتا ُب ُه َّن‬

Attached

Separate

‫ي‬

‫أنا‬

‫نا‬

‫َك‬ ‫ِك‬

‫كُما‬ ‫ك ُْم‬ ‫ُك َّن‬ ‫ُه‬ ‫ها‬

‫ُهما‬ ‫ُه ْم‬ ‫ُه َّن‬

‫َن ْح ُن‬ ‫أ ْن َت‬ ِ ‫أ ْن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ ْن ُتما‬ ‫أ ْن ُتم‬

‫أ ْن ُت َّن‬ ‫ُه َو‬ ‫ِه َي‬ ‫ُهما‬ ‫ُه ْم‬ ‫ُه َّن‬

Unit Six

4 ‫تمرين‬ Scavenger Hunt: Find out from your classmate who in class has the following: a book

______________________________________________________

a car

______________________________________________________

a computer _____________________________________________________ a watch ______________________________________________________ a bike

______________________________________________________

. . . and now report this information to your instructor.

Feminine Words and the Attached Pronoun Almost all words that end with a tā’ marbūṭa are feminine, which is why it is called the “feminine noun marker.” The tā’ marbūṭa itself does not make a sound unless it is in a possessive construct (e.g., my car, his car, our car.). It is the fatḥa that always precedes the tā’ marbūṭa that makes the characteristic ah sound at the end of most feminine words. By attaching a pronoun to the tā’ marbūṭa, we create the possessive construct previously mentioned. The name tā’ marbūṭa means “tied tā’,” but when it comes into contact with the pronoun, it opens up, becoming the regular tā’ that we learned in Unit 2. Examine the following:

‫ت‬

your (m. sg.) car

sayyāratuka

my newspaper

jarīdatī

‫َس ّي َار ُت َك‬

‫ريدتي‬ َ ‫َج‬

=

=

‫َك‬

‫ي‬

+

‫َس ّي َارة‬

َ ‫َج‬ + ‫ريدة‬

7 8

• Most of the time the fatḥa that always precedes the tā’ marbūṭa is not written because it is understood to be there.

Possession

126

126

SUMMARY 1. Possession may be expressed by using َ‫ ِعند‬plus one of the attached pronouns, e.g., ‫ َب ْيت‬ ‫ ِعنْدي‬. 2. A relative noun (nisba) is derived by adding the suffix ‫ي‬ ّ to a noun, e.g.,

ِ ‫سي تونِس‬ ّ ‫تون‬.

3. Arabic nouns are either feminine or masculine. Many, but not all, feminine nouns have tā’ marbūṭa (‫ )ة‬as a suffix. A few masculine nouns end with tā’ marbūṭa as well.

5 ‫تمرين‬ Attaching pronouns: Attach the pronoun to the noun and then give the meaning, as in the example. his book





‫ِكتا ُبه‬

________________ _______________

________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________ ________________ _______________

127

=

= = = = = = = =

=

ِ = ‫ ُه َو‬+ ‫ كتاب‬:‫ِمثال‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫ أ ْن‬+ ‫ساعة‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ َن ْح‬+ ‫َد ْف َتر‬

ِ

‫ي‬ َ ‫ ه‬+ ‫َن ّظ َارة‬

‫ أنا‬+ ‫حاسوب‬

‫ت‬ َ ‫ أ ْن‬+ ‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬ ‫ أنا‬+ ‫سا َعة‬ ِ ‫ أ ْنت‬+ ‫ريدة‬ َ ‫َج‬ ‫ ُه َو‬+ ‫ارة‬ َ ‫َس ّي‬ ِ ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ َن‬+ ‫كتاب‬ ِ ‫ أ ْنت‬+ ‫َدف َتر‬

- 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9

-10

Unit Six

4. The Letters alif maqṣūra (‫ )ى‬and hamza (‫)ء‬

‫ء ى‬ A.

‫ى‬

The Letter alif maqṣūra

This letter is a variant of the regular alif. It is pronounced the same as alif , but it is restricted to the final position in a word. It is written with one uninterrupted stroke, just like a yā’ minus the two dots below it. Sometimes a tiny regular alif is written above it to distinguish it from yā’ in regions where the two dots are not used below the final form of yā’ (e.g., Egypt). Note that if a suffix is attached to a word that ends in alif maqṣūra, it automatically changes to either a regular alif or to a medial yā’:

ِ‫ َفتاك‬ = ‫ك‬ + ‫تى‬ ِ ‫َف‬ ‫ َك = َع َل ْي َك‬+ ‫َعلى‬ ‫ـى ى‬

Independent

Possession

Connected

128

128

6 ‫تمرين‬

Trace over the gray letters: This letter appears in its independent and connected positions:

‫أ ْفعى‬

‫َجرى‬

7 ‫ تمرين‬

Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words below and copy them several times.

‫َرمى‬

‫موسى‬

‫ُهدى‬

‫َعلى‬

‫َس ْلوى‬

‫ َل ْيلى‬ 

‫َرمى‬

‫موسى‬

‫ُهدى‬

‫َعلى‬

‫َس ْلوى‬

‫َل ْيلى‬

‫َرمى‬

‫موسى‬

‫ُهدى‬

‫َعلى‬

8 ‫تمرين‬

‫َس ْلوى‬

‫َل ْيلى‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫ى‬ ‫َل ْيل‬

________________________________________________________‫َس ْلوى‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ى‬ ‫َعل‬

‫ُهد‬ ‫ى‬ ________________________________________________________‫موسى‬ ________________________________________________________ ‫ى‬ ‫َرم‬ ________________________________________________________

129

Unit Six

9 ‫تمرين‬

Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words, as in the example:

‫نِ ْبراس‬

ِ ‫ س‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ب‬ ْ + ‫ ن‬:‫ِمثال‬

=

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

=

‫ ى‬+ ‫ ع‬+ ‫َر‬

- 1

‫ ى‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫َو‬

- 3



= ‫ ى‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ت‬ َ + ‫ ْش‬+ ‫ُي‬ =

‫ ى‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ ْد‬+ ‫ف‬ َ

=

- 2 - 4

10 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

     

‫لي‬ ّ ‫َع‬ ‫الما‬ ‫ُسدى‬ ‫َرمي‬ ‫ُل ْبنى‬ ‫وي‬ ّ ‫َد‬

     

‫َعلى‬ ‫َلمى‬ ‫سودي‬ ‫َرمى‬ ‫ني‬ ّ ‫َل َب‬ ‫َدوى‬

:‫ِمثال‬ -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

11 ‫ تمرين‬ Dictation: Listen to each word dictated to you and write it down below or on a ruled sheet of paper. Each word will be read twice.

__________________ __________________

Possession

-2 -4

__________________ __________________

130

-1 -3

130

B.

‫ء‬

The Letter hamza

The letter hamza represents a glottal stop like in the word “uh-oh,” or the sound one might make when lifting something heavy. One trick to producing the hamza in English is to take a word, “little” for instance, and then pronounce the word without the t’s, a naturally occurring phenomenon in Cockney English. The hamza can be placed above any one of the three long vowels, which serve only as seats for the hamza and have no phonetic value.

‫أ ؤ ئ‬

The basic form of the hamza illustrated below is disproportionately enlarged for you to see its shape. The hamza should be written in one uninterrupted stroke. It is written flush on the line in an independent position. The hamza Independent hamza

‫ء‬

Make the tail after making its tooth

Start just like making an ‘ayn

In the initial position, the hamza is written above an alif when followed by a fatḥa or ḍamma.

ُ ‫ أ‬ ‫َأ‬

When followed by a kasra, it is usually written below an alif.

ِ‫إ‬

131





Unit Six

Remember that the alif has no phonetic value at all: it only serves as a seat for the hamza. When the hamza is followed by a kasra, it is usually placed below an alif, and there is no need to indicate the kasra.

12 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words below and copy them several times.

‫ُأ َذ ْينَة‬

‫ُأ َذ ْينَة‬

‫ُأ َذ ْينَة‬

ِ‫أ ْنت‬ ِ ‫أ ْن‬ ‫ت‬

ِ ‫أ ْن‬ ‫ت‬

‫إزار‬

‫راء‬

‫ِرفاء‬

‫إذا‬

‫إزار‬

‫راء‬

‫إذا‬

‫إزار‬

‫راء‬

‫إذا‬

‫ِرفاء‬

‫ِرفاء‬

13 ‫تمرين‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫ِرفا ء‬

‫إذ ا‬

________________________________________________________

‫راء‬

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________ ‫ر‬ ‫إزا‬

ِ

________________________________________________________ ‫أ ْنت‬

________________________________________________________ ‫ُأ َذ ْينَ ة‬ Possession

132

132

14 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels, to form words.

________________

=

________________

=

________________

=

________________

=

________________

=

‫ ذ‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ‫س‬ ْ + ‫ُأ‬

- 1

‫ك‬+‫و‬+‫ب‬+‫أ‬

- 3

‫ َء‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ز‬+ ِ‫إ‬

‫ ء‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ِر‬ ‫ ُل‬+ ‫ أ‬+ ‫ ْس‬+ ‫َأ‬

- 2 - 4 - 5

15 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box next to the word you hear, as in the example.

      

133

‫َبلى‬

‫َعريض‬

‫َبقاء‬

‫َنشاء‬ ‫إ ْذن‬

‫ُأ َب ّي‬ ‫إِناء‬

      

‫َبالء‬

‫ُأريد‬

‫َنقاء‬ ‫َثناء‬

‫ُأ ُذن‬

‫َأبي‬ ‫أي َن‬

:‫ِمثال‬ -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6

Unit Six

5. Diacritical Marks A.

The šadda (‫)ـّـ‬

ّ

The šadda indicates a doubled consonant like the k in “bookkeeping” and the n in “nonnative.” A šadda (‫ )ـّـ‬is placed above a consonant to double it and changes the meaning, just as in English ‘desert’ and ‘dessert’.

The šadda  The šadda above ‫د‬

Make a backwards w slightly canted

‫ّد‬ Important note about the šadda: The short vowel following a doubled consonant marked by a šadda is indicated above or below the šadda. The short vowels fatḥa and ḍamma are placed above the šadda, and the kasra below it, as in these examples:

 

Possession

‫ف‬ َّ ‫ الص‬ ُّ ‫ الص‬ ِّ ‫الص‬ َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ف‬ َ

134

134

16 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words below and copy them several times.

‫اجة َب ّسام َس ّي َارة َب ّراد َن ّظ َارة ُم َس ِّج َلة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬ ‫اجة َب ّسام َس ّي َارة َب ّراد ن ّظ َارة ُم َس ِّج َلة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬ ‫َد ّراجة َب ّسام َس ّيارة َب ّراد َن ّظارة ُم َس ِّجلة‬ 17 ‫تمرين‬ Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

135

‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬ ‫َب ّسام‬

‫ارة‬ َ ‫َس ّي‬ ‫َب ّراد‬ ‫ارة‬ َ ‫َن ّظ‬

‫ج َلة‬ ِّ ‫ُم َس‬

Unit Six

18 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including short vowels and other diacritical marks, to form words.

_________________

=



_________________

=



_________________

=



_________________

=



_________________

=



_________________

=

_________________

=

‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ش‬+ ‫ ْش‬+ ‫َب‬ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ د‬+ ‫ ْد‬+ ‫َح‬ ‫ ز‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ َب‬+ ‫ ْب‬+ ‫َخ‬ ‫ م‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ َس‬+ ‫ ْس‬+ ‫َر‬ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َد‬+ ‫ ْد‬+ ‫َش‬

‫ ة‬+ ‫ي‬ َ + ‫ ْي‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ص‬ ْ + ِ‫م‬ ‫ ة‬+ ‫ َد‬+ ‫ ْد‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫م‬



19 ‫ تمرين‬

-1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 -6 - 7

Listen and recognize: Check the box under “Doubled” if the word you hear contains a doubled consonant (i.e., with a šadda); check the box under “Not doubled” if the consonant is not doubled, as in the example.

Doubled

           Possession

‫َبراد‬

Not doubled

          

‫َب ّراد‬

:‫ِمثال‬ –١ –٢ –٣ –٤ –٥ –٦ –٧ –٨ –٩ –١٠ 136

136

B.

The madda

‫آ‬

The madda ‫ َمدّ ة‬is a mark written above the letter alif to indicate a hamza followed by the long vowel alif.



‫ء‬ +  ‫ا‬ =  ‫آ‬

20 ‫ تمرين‬

Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words below and copy them several times.

‫َشـآم‬

‫َشـآم‬

‫َشـآم‬

‫َمآثِر‬ ‫َمآثِر‬ ‫َمآثِر‬

‫َق َرآ‬

‫آالت‬

‫آداب‬

‫َق َرآ‬

‫آالت‬

‫آداب‬

‫َق َرآ‬

21 ‫تمرين‬

‫آالت‬

‫آداب‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

________________________________________________________ ‫آداب‬

________________________________________________________ ‫آالت‬ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

137

‫َقر آ‬ ِ ‫مآثر‬ ‫َشآ م‬ Unit Six

22 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including diacritics, to form words.

__________________

=

__________________

=

__________________

=

__________________

=

__________________

=

‫ ء‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ر‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ء‬

-1

‫ ة‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ء‬+ ‫ ْر‬+ ‫ِم‬

- 2

‫ة‬+‫ف‬ َ +‫ا‬+‫ء‬

- 4

‫ ف‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ل‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ء‬

‫ ن‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ء‬+ ‫ ْر‬+ ‫ُق‬

- 3 - 5

23 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Check the box under “Madda” if the word read to you contains a hamza plus a long alif; check the box under “No madda” if a long alif only or a hamza only is pronounced, as in the example.

No madda

     

Possession

ِ ‫مادر‬

madda

     

‫مآبِر‬

:‫ِمثال‬

–١ –٢ –٣ –٤ –٥

138

138

The tanwīn

C.

‫ال َتنوين‬

fatḥa

ً

ḍamma

ٌ

ٍ

kasra

The phonological process that gives a nūn-like sound to three different endings is known as tanwīn. In the examples above the double fatḥa ( ً ) is pronounced -an, the double ḍamma ( ٌ ) -un, and the double kasra ( ٍ ) -in.





Grammatically speaking, tanwīn indicates case and an indefinite status (e.g., “a man” as opposed to “the man”). It appears only on the last letter of a word; like short vowels, it is written above and below the letters it follows. Note: A double fatḥa most often requires a silent alif as a seat (e.g., ‫)كتاب ًا‬, but if a word ends in a hamza preceded by a long alif, an alif maqṣūra, or a tā’ marbūṭa, the double fatḥa may be placed directly above these three letters:

‫هى جريد ًة‬ ً ‫ َمسا ًء َمـ ْل‬ ‫ َعص ًا‬ Note: Words ending in a hamza but preceded by a consonant require an alif as a seat for tanwīn (e.g., ‫) َبدْ ء ًا‬. A double ḍamma and a double kasra require no added seat. They are placed above and below the final letters, respectively:

ِ ِ ٍ ‫ ك‬ ‫تاب‬ ‫تاب‬ ‫ك‬ ٌ

139

َ ‫ ج ْزء ًا‬  ‫ ش ْيئ ًا‬ ُ

Unit Six

The tanwīn after a hamza following a one-way connector following a two-way connector

‫ُج ْزء ًا‬ ‫َش ْيئ ًا‬

A double ḍamma may be written as two ḍammas next to each other or as a diacritical mark that resembles a ḍamma with a little hook attached to it, as illustrated below.

ٌ 24 ‫ تمرين‬ Tracing: Listen to the following words as you read them and repeat each one during the pause. Then trace over the light-toned words below and copy them several times.

‫ُغ ْر َف ٌة‬

‫ُغ ْر َف ٌة‬ ‫ُغ ْر َف ٌة‬

ٍ ‫حاسوب‬ ٍ ‫حاسوب‬ ٍ ‫حاسوب‬

‫َمسا ًء‬ ‫َمسا ًء‬ ‫َمسا ًء‬

25 ‫تمرين‬

ً ‫َأ ْه‬ ‫ال‬ ً ‫َأ ْه‬ ‫ال‬

‫َس ّي َار ًة‬ ‫َس ّي َار ًة‬

ً ‫َأ ْه‬ ‫ال‬

‫َس ّي َار ًة‬

Forming words: See how many times you can write the same word on each line.

ً ‫َأ ْه‬ ‫ال‬ ٍ ‫هاتف‬ ‫َمسا ً ء‬ ‫َس ّيار ً ة‬ ‫ُغ ْر َف ٌة‬

____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Possession

140

140

26 ‫تمرين‬ Spelling: Combine the letters in each set, including diacritics, to form a word and then give its meaning in the second blank:

ً + ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ذ‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ن‬

___________ ____________

=

___________ ____________

=

___________ ____________

=

___________ ____________

=

ً + ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ق‬+ َ + ‫ ر‬+ َ + ‫و‬

___________ ____________

=



___________ ____________

=

ٌ + ‫ ب‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ت‬+ ِ + ‫ك‬

___________ ____________

=



ٍ + ‫ ة‬+ ‫ ب‬+ ‫ ي‬+ ‫ ق‬+ َ ‫ح‬

ٌ + ‫ ر‬+ َ ‫ ت‬+ ْ ‫ ف‬+ َ ‫د‬

ٍ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ ف‬+ ِ ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ا‬+ ‫ه‬

ً + ‫ ة‬+ َ + ‫ ر‬+ ‫ و‬+ ‫ص‬

-1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7

27 ‫ تمرين‬ Listen and recognize: Listen to each word and mark the box under the appropriate tanwīn:

141

‫ــٍـ‬

‫ــٌـ‬

‫ــًـ‬









-1







-2







-3







-4







-5







-6

Unit Six

D.

The sukūn

ْ

‫السكون‬ ُ

The diacritical mark sukūn is represented by a tiny circle placed above a letter to indicate that there is no short vowel between consonants. If English used sukūns, where would they occur in a word such as “class”? In fact, there would be two sukūns—one between the c and l, and the other between the final two s’s. Why? Because there are no short vowels between those letters, and by extension these two consonant clusters cannot form a syllable. Notice no short vowel between

Pronounced

the k and the t

maktab

the r and the f

ġurfa

the s and the m

ismī

28 ‫تمرين‬

Arabic word with a sukūn

‫َم ْك َتب‬ ‫ُغ ْرفة‬ ‫اِ ْسمي‬



Dictation: Write down the words dictated to you and indicate all the short vowels and other diacritical marks, including the sukūn.

Possession

__________________

-2

__________________

-1

__________________

-4

__________________

-3

__________________

-6

__________________

-5

142

142

6. The Short alif There are a few words in Arabic that contain a regular long alif but are spelled without one. You may have wondered why the word ‫هذا‬, for example, is pronounced ‫هاذا‬, but spelled ‫هذا‬, and why ‫لكِ ْن‬ is thus spelled, but pronounced ‫الكِ ْن‬.

In fact, the long alif may be indicated by a special marker that resembles a tiny alif placed above the consonant it follows (indicated over the word ‫)اهلل‬. This is referred to as the dagger alif, which is usually not written in practice. Only a limited number of words exist that contain a long alif but are spelled without one, some of which we have already learned:

Arabic word written with dagger alif

Pronounced

‫ٰه َذا‬ ‫ٰه ِذه‬ ِ ‫هؤ‬ ‫الء‬ ُ ٰ ‫ٰذلِ َك‬

‫هاذا‬ ِ ‫هاذه‬

ِ ‫هاؤ‬ ‫الء‬ ُ ‫ذالِ َك‬

‫ٰل ِكن‬

ِ ‫الكن‬

Arabic word written conventionally

‫هذا‬ ِ ‫هذه‬

ِ ‫هؤ‬ ‫الء‬ ُ ‫ذلِ َك‬ ِ ‫لكن‬

Only in certain manuscripts, such as the Qur’ān (the holy book of Islam), do you find this diacritical mark actually written. The short alif follows the first letter in all these words except ‫اهلل‬, where it follows the second lām.

‫اهلل‬ 143

Unit Six

7. Colloquial Arabic: Phonological Variation One difference between colloquial speech and Modern Standard Arabic exists at the phonological level. For example, the word ‫“ َق َلم‬pen” is pronounced ’alam in most of Syria and َ “nice” is pronounced ẓarīf, ‫“ َن ّظ َارة‬eyeglasses” as naddāra, urban areas in Egypt, while ‫ظريف‬ ‫“ َذ َهب‬gold” as dahab, ‫“ َلذيذ‬tasty” as lazīz, ‫“ ثوم‬garlic” as tūm, and ‫َوي‬ ّ ‫“ ثان‬secondary” as sānawī. As you can see, one sound may have up to two variants in colloquial speech in the Levantine area (i.e., Greater Syria). Note that these variants are not interchangeable. Below is a list of some sounds and their cognates in the colloquial Arabic spoken in the Levant. Sound

Example

Standard

Colloquial

‫ق‬

‫َق َلم‬

qalam

’alam (urban)

qalam

galam (rural)

nazzāra

naddāra

zarīf

ẓarīf

tūm

tūm

tānawiyy

sānawī

dahab

dahab

ladīd

lazīz

‫ظ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ذ‬

‫َق َلم‬

‫َن ّظ َارة‬

‫َظريف‬ ‫ثوم‬

‫وي‬ ّ ‫ثا َن‬ ‫َذ َهب‬ ‫َلذيذ‬

8. Representation of Foreign Sounds There are a few sounds that exist in other languages but are not found in the Arabic sound system. Of these sounds, the following three are most commonly used because they are part of the sound systems of most European languages with which Arabic has close contact. Certain conventions in Arabic spelling address this deficiency.

Possession

144

144

Foreign Sound

Representation in Arabic

p

‫ﭖ‬

v

‫ﭪ‬

g

‫غ‬ ‫ج‬

‫ج‬

The sound g, however, is represented by in Egypt because the letter is pronounced g in most parts of Egypt. It is represented by in the eastern part of the Arab world (the Levant) and in other regions where the is pronounced j. Some publications in the eastern part also use to represent g.

‫ج‬

‫غ‬

‫ج‬

A Traditional Family Room in a Small Arab Town or Village Notice the kerosene lamp on the wall along with the electric lightbulb. A diesel oil space heater is used to heat and boil water in a kettle for tea. The cushions are placed against the walls where there is a wood floor. The floor is covered with wool rugs and carpets. People usually take their shoes off before stepping into the sitting area. —Courtesy of the Arab Culture Notebook

145

Unit Six

29 ‫تمرين‬ Capitals of the United States in Arabic: Test your ability to identify at least ten American cities that appear on the map of the United States below and then write them down in Arabic. Use complete sentences as in the example provided below. This will allow you to apply the skills you have developed in using the Arabic script. Be sure to provide short vowels and other diacritical marks. Use the special conventions we learned in section 8 of this unit to represent non-Arabic sounds where necessary. Example:

‫إلينوي‬ ‫ ِوال َي ِة‬ ‫في‬ ‫شيكاغو‬ ‫َمدينَ ُة‬

• Can you guess what the word ‫ ِوال َية‬means from context?

Possession

146

146

30 ‫تمرين‬ ‫ء‬

Letter identification: Identify the letter hamza ( ) in different word positions and the letter alif maqṣūra ( ) in these excerpts from print media.

‫ى‬

Read and copy: Read and copy these examples of handwritten words:

147

Unit Six

‫ الم ْف َردات‬ ُ Listen to the vocabulary items on the audio and practice their pronunciation. door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫أ ْبواب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫باب‬

tanwīn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫تنْوين‬ َ (diacritical mark, grammatical marker)

ِ

ِ

calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., f.) ‫حاسبات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫حاسبة‬

ِ

bag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., f.) ‫حقائب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫قيبة‬ ‫َح‬ َ

sukūn.   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., m.)

‫ُسكون‬

šadda (diacritical mark that signifies . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫شدَّ ة‬  َ a doubled consonant)

picture .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ص َور‬   ‫ج‬   ‫صورة‬ ُ

ِ ِ table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫طاوالت‬   ‫ج‬   ‫لة‬ ‫طاو‬ ِ

ٍ ‫ك‬   ‫ج‬   ‫كُرس ّي‬ chair .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (n., m.) ‫َراس‬ blackboard .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., m.) ‫ألواح‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َل ْوح‬

ِ /‫بار‬ ٍ ‫ َم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ِمبراة‬

pencil sharpener.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫م ْب َريات‬

madda.   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ َمدّ ات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َمدّ ة‬ (a diacritical mark that signifies a hamza followed by alif) city, town .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ ُمدُ ن‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َمدينة‬

ِ

ِ

َ ‫م ْس‬ ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ َمساطر‬   ‫ج‬   ‫طرة‬ ِ

ِ

ٍ ‫ َم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫م ْمحاة‬ eraser .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫حيات‬ َ ‫م ْم‬/‫ماح‬ ِ

ِ

window .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)  ‫نَوافذ‬   ‫ج‬   ‫نافذة‬

sheet of paper.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫و َرقات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫قة‬ ‫َو َر‬ َ

ِ state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫واليات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫الية‬ ‫ِو‬

Possession

148

148

‫‪Appendix A‬‬ ‫‪Arabic Alphabet and Diacritical Marks‬‬

‫حروف‪ ‬اهلجاء‪ ‬العربية‬ ‫ ‬

‫الحرف‬

‫اسم الحرف‬

‫وعالمات‪ ‬التشكيل‬

‫أشكال الحرف في مواضع الكلمة‬

‫الرمز‬

‫‪Letter‬‬

‫‪Name‬‬

‫‪Initial‬‬

‫‪Medial‬‬

‫‪Final‬‬

‫‪Symbol‬‬

‫ا‬

‫ألف‬

‫ا‬

‫ـا‬

‫ـا‬

‫‪ā‬‬

‫ب‬

‫باء‬

‫بـ‬

‫ـبـ‬

‫ـب‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫ت‬

‫تاء‬

‫تـ‬

‫ـتـ‬

‫ـت‬

‫‪t‬‬

‫ث‬

‫ثاء‬

‫ثـ‬

‫ـثـ‬

‫ـث‬

‫‪ṯ‬‬

‫ج‬

‫جيم‬

‫جـ‬

‫ـجـ‬

‫ـج‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫ح‬

‫حاء‬

‫حـ‬

‫ـحـ‬

‫ـح‬

‫‪ḥ‬‬

‫خ‬

‫خاء‬

‫خـ‬

‫ـخـ‬

‫ـخ‬

‫‪ḳ‬‬

‫د‬

‫دال‬

‫د‬

‫ـد‬

‫ـد‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫ذ‬

‫ذال‬

‫ذ‬

‫ـذ‬

‫ـذ‬

‫‪ḏ‬‬

‫ر‬

‫راء‬

‫ر‬

‫ـر‬

‫ـر‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫ز‬

‫زاي‬

‫ز‬

‫ـز‬

‫ـز‬

‫‪z‬‬

‫س‬

‫سين‬

‫سـ‬

‫ـسـ‬

‫ـس‬

‫‪s‬‬

‫‪149‬‬

‫‪150‬‬

‫ش‬

‫شين‬

‫شـ‬

‫ـشـ‬

‫ـش‬

‫‪š‬‬

‫ص‬

‫صاد‬

‫صـ‬

‫ـصـ‬

‫ـص‬

‫‪ṣ‬‬

‫ض‬

‫ضاد‬

‫ضـ‬

‫ـضـ‬

‫ـض‬

‫‪ḍ‬‬

‫ط‬

‫طاء‬

‫طـ‬

‫ـطـ‬

‫ـط‬

‫‪ṭ‬‬

‫ظ‬

‫ظاء‬

‫ظـ‬

‫ـظـ‬

‫ـظ‬

‫̣‪z‬‬

‫ع‬

‫عين‬

‫عـ‬

‫ـعـ‬

‫ـع‬

‫‪ʿ‬‬

‫غ‬

‫غين‬

‫غـ‬

‫ـغـ‬

‫ـغ‬

‫‪ġ‬‬

‫ف‬

‫فاء‬

‫فـ‬

‫ـفـ‬

‫ـف‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫ق‬

‫قاف‬

‫قـ‬

‫ـقـ‬

‫ـق‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫ك‬

‫كاف‬

‫كـ‬

‫ـكـ‬

‫ـك‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫ل‬

‫الم‬

‫لـ‬

‫ـلـ‬

‫ـل‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫م‬

‫ميم‬

‫مـ‬

‫ـمـ‬

‫ـم‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫ن‬

‫نون‬

‫نـ‬

‫ـنـ‬

‫ـن‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫ه‬

‫هاء‬

‫هـ‬

‫ـهـ‬

‫ـه‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫و‬

‫واو‬

‫و‬

‫ـو‬

‫ـو‬

‫‪w/ū‬‬

‫ي‬

‫ياء‬

‫يـ‬

‫ـيـ‬

‫ـي‬

‫‪y/ī‬‬

‫ى‬

‫ألِف َمقصورة‬

‫ـى‬

‫‪ā‬‬

‫ة‬

‫تاء مربوطة‬

‫ـة‬

‫‪t‬‬

ʾ

‫ـأ ـؤ ـئ‬

‫ـأ ـؤ ـئـ‬

‫أإ‬

‫َهمزة‬

‫ء‬ َ

a

fatḥa

‫َفتحة‬

u

ḍamma

‫َض ّمة‬

i

kasra

‫كَسرة‬

-an

tanwīn

‫تَنوين بال َفتح‬

-un

tanwīn

‫بالض ّم‬ َ ‫تَنوين‬

-in

tanwīn

‫تَنوين بالك َْسر‬

ُ ِ ً ٌ ٍ

sukūn signifies the absence of a short vowel

‫ُسكون‬

šadda indicates a doubled consonant

‫َشدّ ة‬ ّ

madda denotes a hamza followed by the long vowel alif

‫َمدّ ة‬

‫آ‬

151

ْ

Appendix B A Key to the Arabic Sound System and the Transliteration System Used in the Workbook ‫الحرف‬

‫الرمز‬

Arabic Letter

Roman Symbol

Example/Description

‫ا‬

ā

a as in far and bad

‫ب‬

b

b as in bet

‫ت‬

t

t as in two

‫ث‬



th as in three

‫ج‬

j

j as in judge

‫ح‬



h-like sound produced with constriction

‫خ‬



ch as in Scottish loch or German Bach

‫د‬

d

d as in dip

‫ذ‬



th as in then

‫ر‬

r

r as in Spanish perro (trilled r)

‫ز‬

z

z as in zip

‫س‬

s

s as in sad

‫ش‬

š

sh as in show

‫ص‬



s as in sod

‫ض‬



d as in dark

‫ط‬



t as in tar

152

153

‫ظ‬



th as in thine

‫ع‬

ʿ

a fricative sound produced in the throat

‫غ‬

ġ

roughly similar to the German r; a gargling sound

‫ف‬

f

f as in fit

‫ق‬

q

roughly similar to the c in cot, but further back

‫ك‬

k

k as in kit

‫ل‬

l

l as in leak

‫م‬

m

m as in mint

‫ن‬

n

n as in nil

‫ه‬

h

h as in hat

‫و‬

ū

oo as in pool

‫و‬

w

w as in wet

‫ي‬

ī

ee as in feel

‫ي‬

y

y as in yet

‫ى‬

ā

a as in dad (a form of alif in the final position)

‫ة‬

t

see the discussion on tā’ marbūṭa in Unit 3 (Workbook)

‫ء‬

ʾ

glottal stop; the stop before a in above

َ

a

roughly similar to u as in but

ُ

u

u as in pull

ِ

i

i as in bill

Appendix C Answer Key The answer key provides answers to exercises in the Letters and Sounds of the Arabic Language workbook, including listening and comprehension exercises.

Unit One ‫الوحد ُة األولى‬ َ

Exercise 1: Dialogue 1: 1. a. sāmir Dialogue 2: 1. a. kristīn

b. nabīl b. aḥmad

2. a. tašarrafnā 2. b. as-salāmu ‘alaykum

Exercise 3: 1. (1); 2. (5); 3. (10); 4. (20); 5. (50); 6. (100) Exercise 4:

‫ حي البغدادية الشرقية‬-1 ‫ شارع البصرة‬-1

Exercise 8:

Exercise 16:

‫ ذاد‬-4 ‫ داذ‬-8

Exercise 17:

‫ راو ا‬-3 ‫ وادو‬-7 Consonant -‫ راواد‬-3 Vowel - ‫ زادور‬-5

Exercise 18:

‫ رازو‬-4

‫ ذور‬-3

‫ زا ر‬-2 ‫ زارو‬-6

‫ دارو‬-1 ‫ زود‬-5

Vowel – ‫ دوذا‬-2 Vowel – ‫ زارو‬-1 Consonant – ‫ واداد‬-4 ‫ زاد‬-2

‫ واد‬-1 154

‫‪ -5‬راذاذ ‬ ‫‪ -9‬راد ‬

‫‪ -6‬زادو ر‬ ‫‪ -10‬روزا‬

‫‪ -1‬زاد‪z ād-‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬راد–‪r ād‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬راذاذ–‪ rādād‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬دود–‪d ūd‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ذوداز–‪ dūdāz‬‬

‫‪ -2‬داد–‪dād‬‬

‫‪ -8‬دود‬

‫‪ -7‬داوود ‬

‫‪Exercise 19:‬‬

‫‪ -4‬واد–‪wād‬‬

‫‪ -6‬واو–‪wāū‬‬

‫‪ -8‬وازار–‪wāzār‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ذاور–‪dāūr‬‬

‫‪Exercise 20:‬‬

‫‪ –1‬ستاربكس كافيه‬ ‫‪ –2‬حذاري عبور الحيوانات البرية‬ ‫‪–3‬كوكا كوال‬ ‫الوحدَ ُة الثانِي ُة ‪Unit Two‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫تمرين ‪3‬‬ ‫‪ Self -1‬‬ ‫‪ ddressee (f.) -5‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫تمرين ‪4‬‬

‫‪ Addressee (m.) -3 Third person (m.) -2‬‬ ‫‪Addressee (m.) -6‬‬ ‫‪2. b. šukran‬‬

‫‪2. b. ‘afwan‬‬ ‫ ‪b. manāl‬‬

‫‪Third person (f.) -4‬‬

‫ ‪Dialogue 1: 1. d. aḥmad‬‬ ‫ ‪Dialogue 2: 1. a. ranā‬‬

‫تمرين ‪ 6‬‬

‫الـإمارات أبو ظبي‬ ‫تمرين ‪ 8‬‬

‫متحف آثار البتراء‬ ‫تمرين ‪13‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬نُريد ‬ ‫‪ُ -5‬بدور ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬وزير ‬ ‫‪ -13‬وادي ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬ز َب ْيدي ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ثابِت ‬ ‫‪ِ -10‬‬ ‫نادر ‬ ‫‪ -14‬باتوا‬

‫‪َ -3‬رتي ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫‪ -7‬ب ِ‬ ‫وادر ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪ -11‬تُراث ‬

‫‪ -4‬يابان‬ ‫‪ -8‬نَبات‬ ‫‪َ -12‬رذاذ‬

‫‪155‬‬

‫تمرين ‪15‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬دب ‪ short‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬يار ‪ long‬‬ ‫تمرين ‪16‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬داني ‬ ‫‪ُ -5‬ثبور ‬

‫تمرين ‪17‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ربيب ‬ ‫‪ -5‬نابي ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬برود ‬ ‫‪َ -13‬وتير ‬

‫تمرين ‪18‬‬

‫‪ -2‬زور ‪ long‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬يوب ‪l ong‬‬

‫‪ -7‬دار ‪ long‬‬

‫‪ -2‬بارود ‬ ‫‪ِ -6‬‬ ‫نادر ‬

‫‪ -3‬روبي ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬بريد ‬

‫‪ -4‬داري‬ ‫‪َ -8‬رباب‬

‫‪ -2‬ثابِ ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫‪ -6‬بوران ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ب ِ‬ ‫وادر ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪َ -14‬رتيب‬

‫‪ -3‬نوري ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬رذاذ ‬ ‫‪َ -11‬وزير ‬

‫‪ -4‬باري‬ ‫‪ُ -8‬دب‬ ‫‪ -12‬داوود‬

‫(‪)dark font for circled letters‬‬

‫حي المدينة العتيقة‬ ‫نهج سيدي بالخيرية‬

‫المجمع التونسي‬ ‫للعلوم واآلداب والفنون‬ ‫بيت الحكمة‬

‫‪156‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ديب ‪l ong‬‬

‫‪ُ -4‬بن ‪short‬‬ ‫‪َ -8‬ب ْرد ‪short‬‬

‫الوحدَ ُة الثالِث ُة ‪Unit Three‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫تمرين ‪1‬‬

‫‪Dialogue 1: 1. c. thank God, well 2. c. not bad‬‬ ‫‪Dialogue 2: c. mā akhbāruki‬‬ ‫‪Dialogue 3: b. ta‘bān‬‬

‫تمرين ‪6‬‬

‫السيد ياسر مارتيني المحترم ‪ 115 /‬شارع البحتري طابق ‪3‬‬ ‫تمرين ‪7‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬تِشرين ‬ ‫‪ -5‬تَشويش ‬ ‫‪ُ -9‬يشير ‬

‫تمرين ‪8‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬تَسديد ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬شنَب ‬ ‫‪ِ -9‬ش ْريان ‬

‫‪َ -2‬شري د‬ ‫‪ -6‬يابوس ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬شباب ‬

‫‪َ -3‬سيارين ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬سراب ‬ ‫‪َ -11‬يسار‬

‫‪َ -2‬شراب ‬ ‫‪ِ -6‬‬ ‫ناشز ‬ ‫‪ -10‬سار‬

‫روسي‬ ‫ّ ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫‪َ -7‬يسار ‬

‫تمرين ‪9‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬داسو ‬ ‫‪ -5‬شادور ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬شراشيب ‬

‫‪َ -2‬سردي ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫‪َ -6‬رشاش ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬س َبب‬

‫ ‬ ‫الحصار‬

‫ ‬ ‫نزل النخلة‬

‫تمرين ‪12‬‬

‫‪ -3‬شي ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫‪ِ –7‬‬ ‫ناشز ‬

‫ ‬ ‫سيدي فرج‬

‫تمرين ‪14‬‬ ‫‪ِ -1‬رحاب ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬ربيح ‬ ‫‪ -9‬جيران ‬

‫‪َ -3‬شخي ر‬ ‫‪ِ -7‬‬ ‫ساخرون ‬

‫‪ِ -2‬سنْجاب ‬ ‫‪ -6‬جوري ‬ ‫‪ -10‬اِن ِ‬ ‫ْحدار‬

‫‪ -4‬راش‬ ‫‪ -8‬سودان‬

‫‪ -4‬ديدان‬ ‫‪ -8‬ياسين‬

‫نزل دار قرقنة‬

‫دار قرقنة‬

‫المنطقة السياحية ‬

‫‪َ -4‬شراشيب‬ ‫‪َ -8‬ش ِ‬ ‫وارب‬

‫ترحب بكم‬ ‫‪َ -4‬خسيس‬ ‫‪َ -8‬سحاب‬

‫‪157‬‬

‫تمرين ‪15‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬خراب ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬حديد ‬ ‫‪ِ -9‬‬ ‫خاسر ‬

‫تمرين ‪16‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬حراج ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬حشيش ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬شخير ‬

‫‪َ -2‬حري ر‬ ‫َحذير ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ت ْ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ساحر‬

‫تمرين ‪20‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬رقيب ‬ ‫‪ُ -5‬فرات ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬قريب ‬

‫‪َ -2‬جبا ن‬ ‫‪ِ -6‬‬ ‫خاسر ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬خراب‬ ‫‪ -2‬تَقارير ‬ ‫‪ -6‬نُقود ‬ ‫‪ُ -10‬شرو ‬ ‫ق‬

‫ ‬ ‫حارة‬ ‫المدرسة الجقمقية ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫تمرين ‪21‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬سحيق ‬ ‫‪ِ -5‬رفاق ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬س َقر ‬

‫تمرين ‪25‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬خ ْش َيتي ‬ ‫‪ِ -5‬‬ ‫حار َسة ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬ف ْخ َرة ‬ ‫تمرين ‪26‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬فريدة ‬ ‫‪ -5‬خسارة ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬ث ْق ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫‪ُ -6‬ف ْس ُتق ‬ ‫‪ُ -10‬شروخ‬ ‫‪َ -2‬جريدت ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫قارورتي ‬ ‫‪-6‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬سفينَتي‬ ‫‪ُ -2‬سفر ة‬ ‫‪ -6‬حقيبتي‬

‫‪َ -3‬حديث ‬ ‫‪ -7‬روح ‬

‫‪َ -3‬خروف ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬حرير ‬

‫‪َ -4‬ج َرش‬ ‫‪َ -8‬شخير‬

‫‪َ -4‬حبيبي‬ ‫َحذير‬ ‫‪ -8‬ت ْ‬

‫‪ُ -3‬فنو ن‬ ‫‪َ -7‬شفيق ‬ ‫‪ِ -11‬ق ْرش ‬

‫‪ِ -4‬‬ ‫ثاقب‬ ‫‪ِ -8‬‬ ‫سارق‬ ‫‪ -12‬فِ ْر َد ْوس‬

‫منطقة ‬ ‫دمشق القديمة ‬ ‫حي‬ ‫الحميدية‬

‫قف‬

‫‪َ -3‬ف ِ‬ ‫نادق ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬فراديس ‬

‫‪ -4‬أ ْفراح‬ ‫‪ -8‬اِ ْحتِراق‬

‫‪ -3‬دفين ة‬ ‫زيارتي ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬حياتي ‬

‫‪َ -4‬شري َفة‬ ‫‪َ -8‬حقي َبتي‬

‫‪ -4‬سفينتي‬

‫تمرين ‪27‬‬ ‫عنترة بن شداد أشعر العرب والحضر وكان أسبقهم إلى لطائف الشعر كما كان أسبقهم إلى حومة الطراد‬ ‫رقة ألفاظه تسحر العقول ودقة معانيه تخلب األلباب‪.‬‬ ‫‪158‬‬

‫طبع هذا الديوان تكرار ًا إال أن النسخ كلها قد نفدت تمام ًا فأثرنا إعادة طبعه تسهي ً‬ ‫ال لزيادة انتشاره‪.‬‬ ‫قريش قريب ًا جد ًا‬ ‫هل لديك ما يلزم لتصنع التاريخ‬ ‫لعبة استراتيجية عربية‬ ‫فهل تملك ما يلزم لتقود األمة وتصنع التاريخ!‬ ‫الوحدَ ُة الرابِ َع ُة ‪Unit Four‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫تمرين ‪2‬‬ ‫تمرين ‪9‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬صرير ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬ي ْص ِف ُ ر‬ ‫‪ِ -9‬‬ ‫حاضر ‬ ‫‪ُ -13‬ق ْضبا ن‬ ‫تمرين ‪10‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬فصيحة ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬فريدة ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ساري ‬

‫تمرين ‪11‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬صرصور ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬صرير ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬ضفيرة ‬ ‫تمرين ‪15‬‬

‫‪2. a. New York‬‬ ‫‪2. a. dānya‬‬

‫ ‪Dialogue 1: 1. b. Damascus‬‬ ‫ ‪Dialogue 2: 1. d. Fez‬‬ ‫ ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬ف َر ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫‪َ -6‬ق ِ‬ ‫وارض ‬ ‫‪ -10‬اِن ِ‬ ‫ْخفاض ‬ ‫‪ -14‬اِ ْختِصاص ‬

‫‪َ -3‬ضفير ة‬ ‫‪َ -7‬رصين ‬ ‫‪َ -11‬رصيف ‬ ‫‪ -15‬أ ْب َيض‬

‫‪َ -2‬رصين ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ساد ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬ي ْص ِرف‬

‫‪َ -3‬ضجي ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫‪َ -7‬رصيف ‬

‫‪َ -2‬صفي ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫‪َ -6‬حصير ‬ ‫‪ُ -10‬صدور‬

‫‪َ -3‬ضروري ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬ضرير ‬

‫‪ُ -4‬صدور‬ ‫‪َ -8‬قوانِص‬ ‫‪َ -12‬ص َّف َارة‬ ‫‪ُ -4‬ردود‬ ‫‪ -8‬ضاري‬

‫‪َ -4‬وصفة‬ ‫‪َ -8‬رصيب‬

‫مطار الناظور العروي‬

‫تمرين ‪16‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ط ْربوش ‬ ‫‪ -5‬بوص ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬خريطة ‬

‫‪ِ -2‬قطا ر‬ ‫‪َ -6‬طريق ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ت َْشطيب‬

‫‪َ -3‬فظاظ ة‬ ‫‪َ -7‬ظريف ‬

‫‪ُ -4‬ر َطب‬ ‫‪َ -8‬بساطة‬

‫‪159‬‬

‫تمرين ‪17‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬رتيب ‬ ‫‪ -5‬تين ‬

‫‪َ -2‬ظريف ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬ظ ْرف ‬

‫تمرين ‪18‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ط ْيش ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬فظاظة ‬ ‫‪ِ -9‬قطار ‬

‫‪َ -2‬ظبي ة‬ ‫‪ُ -6‬شباط ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬حظيرة‬

‫تمرين ‪24‬‬ ‫‪ِ -1‬ع ْفريت ‬ ‫‪ -5‬تُبوغ ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬غريب ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬شغور ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬فظيع ‬ ‫‪ِ -10‬صباغ‬

‫‪ -9‬نَذير ‬

‫‪َ -10‬ح َظر‬

‫تمرين ‪19‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬داد ‪ dad -‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬فا َظر ‪ father -‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬تان َْحرين ‪ tangerine -‬‬ ‫‪ -7 d‬شاتَر ‪s hatter -‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ضاتَر ‪ aughter -‬‬

‫تمرين ‪25‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬غدير ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬غريق ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬ت ْبغ ‬

‫تمرين ‪26‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬صديد ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬ص َبر ‬

‫تمرين ‪27‬‬ ‫‪ Beirut -1‬‬ ‫‪ Arizona -5‬‬ ‫‪ Indiana -9‬‬

‫‪َ -2‬ي ِ‬ ‫عر ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫‪ -6‬تَغيض ‬ ‫‪ُ -10‬غراب‬

‫‪َ -3‬طريف ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬شظايا ‬

‫‪ِ -4‬‬ ‫طارق‬ ‫‪َ -8‬بتَر‬

‫‪َ -4‬شوط‬ ‫‪َ -8‬طربوش‬

‫‪ -3‬قار ‪car -‬‬

‫‪ -5‬سيصا – ‪seesaw‬‬

‫ْجر‪danger -‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬داين َ‬

‫‪َ -3‬د ْع د‬ ‫‪َ -7‬ت ْفريغ ‬

‫‪ُ -3‬يذيع ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬ف َر َ غ‬

‫‪َ -4‬بديع‬ ‫‪ -8‬اِ ْستَطاع‬ ‫‪َ -4‬ص َب َغ‬ ‫‪َ -8‬ع َرب‬

‫‪َ -2‬ظ ْربان ‬ ‫‪ُ -6‬عضو ‬

‫‪َ -3‬ردي د‬ ‫‪ -7‬تاب ‬

‫‪َ -4‬سريع‬ ‫‪ -8‬فصيح‬

‫‪ Syria -2‬‬ ‫‪ Tunisia -6‬‬ ‫‪Wichita -10‬‬

‫‪ Utah -3‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪ aton Rouge -7‬‬

‫‪Boise -4‬‬

‫تمرين ‪30‬‬ ‫سيدي أبو الحسن علي الشاذلي‬ ‫روضة الرعماء‬ ‫سيدي البشير‬ ‫‪160‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ظافِ ر‬ ‫‪ -7‬أطراب ‬

‫‪Baghdad -8‬‬

‫سيدي محمد الزالج‬ ‫إدارة المقبرة‬ ‫سيدي ماضي بن سلطان‬

‫ِ‬

‫الوحدَ ةُ‪ ‬الخامس ُة ‪Unit Five‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫تمرين ‪4‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ال َليالي ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬جالل ‬ ‫‪ -9‬تِ ْلفاز ‬ ‫تمرين ‪5‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬بِالل ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬لبيب ‬ ‫تمرين ‪6‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ل ْسنا ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬ب َلل ‬

‫تمرين ‪10‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ك ُْردوس ‬ ‫‪ -5‬اِ ْحتِكاك ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ت َْشكيل ‬ ‫تمرين ‪11‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬كُو َيت ‬ ‫‪ -5‬قاسي ‬ ‫‪ُ -9‬شكوك ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬ب ْل ُب ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪َ -6‬صليب ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬ت ْقليد ‬

‫‪َ -3‬ع َسل ‬ ‫‪ -7‬نَوال ‬ ‫‪ -11‬إ ْغالق‬

‫‪ -2‬وال ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫‪َ -6‬ب َلدي ‬

‫‪ُ -3‬ب ْل ُب ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪َ -7‬و َلدي ‬

‫‪ِ -4‬‬ ‫الدن‬ ‫‪ِ -8‬‬ ‫الزق‬

‫‪َ -2‬خليل ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬لذيذ‬

‫‪ِ -3‬رسالة ‬

‫‪ -4‬دال‬

‫‪ -2‬كُسوف ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬ك ْب َكب ‬ ‫‪ -10‬كَبير‬

‫‪ُ -3‬شكو ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫‪ -7‬ك ِ‬ ‫َواكب ‬

‫‪ِ -2‬‬ ‫شاكر ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ك ََسب ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬ك ْلب‬

‫‪َ -3‬فري ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫‪َ -7‬د َلك ‬

‫تمرين ‪12‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬كان ‬ ‫‪ -1‬كَليلة ‬ ‫‪ -6‬شاك ‬ ‫‪ -5‬كاري ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ك ِ‬ ‫‪ُ -10‬ركّاب‬ ‫َواكب ‬ ‫خطر! من أجل سالمتكم ممنوع لغير المتزحلقين‬

‫‪ُ -3‬صكوك ‬ ‫‪ُ -7‬سلوك ‬

‫اإلسالم‬ ‫‪ْ -4‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬طالِبة‬

‫‪ُ -4‬ب ْركان‬ ‫‪َ -8‬تكْرير‬

‫‪ُ -4‬فكوك‬ ‫‪َ -8‬رقيق‬ ‫‪ -4‬كُفوف‬ ‫‪ِ -8‬كبريت‬

‫تمرين ‪14‬‬

‫بوادي مول ‪ /‬متحف العين الوطني ‪ /‬قلعة المربعة ‪ /‬مواقع سياحية أخرى‬ ‫‪161‬‬

‫تمرين ‪16‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ب ْل َسم ‬ ‫‪ُ -5‬م ْش ِمس ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ميالدي ‬

‫تمرين ‪17‬‬ ‫‪ُ -1‬مدير ‬ ‫‪ُ -5‬مراد ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬م ْس ِلمون ‬ ‫المدير ‬ ‫‪ُ -6‬‬ ‫‪ُ 10‬م ْمتاز‬

‫‪ِ -3‬كرام ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬م ْشمول ‬

‫‪ُ -4‬مقيم‬ ‫‪َ -8‬م ْجموعة‬

‫تمرين ‪18‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ماليين ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬صميم ‬ ‫‪ُ -9‬قمامة ‬

‫‪َ -2‬مسا ر‬ ‫‪ِ -6‬‬ ‫المس ‬

‫‪َ -3‬د َم ‬ ‫س‬ ‫‪َ -7‬سالم ‬

‫‪َ -4‬صميم‬ ‫‪ِ -8‬ذ َمم‬

‫‪ُ -2‬سمو م‬ ‫‪ -6‬تَمرين ‬ ‫‪َ -10‬ق َلم‬

‫‪ُ -3‬أ َم م‬ ‫‪ -7‬تَمام ‬

‫‪ِ -4‬مرحاض‬ ‫‪ِ -8‬‬ ‫جامعة‬

‫تمرين ‪24‬‬ ‫‪ِ -1‬هشام ‬ ‫‪ِ -5‬هالل ‬ ‫‪ -9‬اِ ْمتِحان ‬

‫‪َ -2‬محروم ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬ف ْهم ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ن َْهر‬

‫تمرين ‪23‬‬ ‫‪َ -4‬سفيه‬ ‫المالهي ‬ ‫‪ُ -2‬مهاتَرات ‬ ‫‪َ -1‬بهلول ‬ ‫‪َ -3‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ا ْلتهام‬ ‫‪ -7‬ك َْه َربة ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬مهارة ‬ ‫‪ -5‬فِدا ُ ه‬ ‫أج ِهزة‬ ‫‪ِ -9‬م ْهنة ‬ ‫‪ْ -10‬‬ ‫كافيه التيه مثلجة ‪ /‬كافيه موكا مثلجة ‪ /‬كافيه أمريكانو مثلجة ‪ /‬قهوة موكا مثلجة بالشوكوالتة البيضاء‬ ‫ستاربكس «دوبل شوت» اسبريسو الممزوج بالثلج «‪ 190‬مل» ‪ /‬مشروبات مختلفة‬

‫تمرين ‪25‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬هاروون ‬ ‫‪ -5‬تاه ‬ ‫‪َ -9‬ف ِهم ‬

‫‪َ -2‬مهزوم ‬ ‫‪ِ -6‬ه َمم ‬ ‫‪ِ -10‬جهاز‬

‫‪َ -3‬حماس ‬ ‫‪ِ -7‬‬ ‫ساحل ‬

‫‪َ -3‬ت ْي ه‬ ‫‪َ -7‬س َهل ‬

‫تمرين ‪26‬‬ ‫فرج اله ‪ /‬فرجللو مانجو نكتار طبيعي ‪ /‬فرجللو كوكتيل نكتار طبيعي‬ ‫مانجو ‪ /‬كوكا كولـا لـايت‬

‫‪162‬‬

‫‪ِ -4‬سهام‬ ‫‪َ -8‬ل ْحم‬ ‫‪ِ -4‬‬ ‫هامش‬ ‫‪ِ -8‬هالل‬

‫تمرين ‪27‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬هاتِف – ‪the other words are related to reading‬‬ ‫ارة ‪the other words deal with transportation -‬‬ ‫‪َ -2‬ن َّظ َ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ساعة ‪the other words are masculine -‬‬

‫تمرين ‪28‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْدي – هنْد ّية ‬ ‫‪ -1‬هن ّ‬ ‫بي – َم ْغ ِرب ّية ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬م ْغ ِر ّ‬

‫تمرين ‪29‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ري ‬ ‫‪ -1‬م ْص ّ‬ ‫روسي‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫ري – َق َطر ّي ة‬ ‫‪َ -2‬ق َط ّ‬ ‫أمريكي – أمريك ّية ‬ ‫‪-6‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫عودي – ُسعود ّية ‬ ‫‪ُ -3‬س‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫نسي – َف َرنس ّية‬ ‫‪َ -7‬ف َر ّ‬

‫‪ -2‬أمريك ّية ‬

‫َرالي ‬ ‫أوست ّ‬ ‫‪ْ -3‬‬

‫سوري ‪ -‬سور ّية‬ ‫‪-4‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫‪َ -4‬كنَد ّية‬

‫تمرين ‪30‬‬ ‫)ج( ِ‬ ‫واش ْن َطن‬

‫ِ‬

‫الوحدَ ةُ‪ ‬الخامس ُة ‪Unit Six‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫تمرين ‪2‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪ِ -1‬م ْمحاة – م ْبراة ‬ ‫‪ -4‬حاسوب – ِ‬ ‫حاسبة ‬

‫‪ -2‬باب – نافِذة ‬ ‫أمريكي‬ ‫بي –‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬ع َر ّ‬

‫سي – ِ‬ ‫طاولة‬ ‫‪ -3‬ك ُْر ّ‬

‫تمرين ‪3‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪ِ -1‬‬ ‫سي‪ ،‬باب‪َ ،‬ل ْوح‪ ،‬نافذة‪َ ،‬ق َلم‬ ‫طاولة‪ ،‬صورة‪ ،‬ك ُْر ّ‬ ‫‪ِ -2‬م ْبراة‪ِ ،‬م ْمحاة‪ِ ،‬م ْس َطرة‪ْ ،‬أوراق‪َ ،‬ق َلم‬

‫تمرين ‪5‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ساعت َ‬ ‫ُك ‪y our (m. sg.) watch -‬‬ ‫‪َ -3‬ن ّظ َارتُها ‪ her glasses -‬‬ ‫اجت َ‬ ‫ُك ‪y our (m. sg.) bike -‬‬ ‫‪َ -5‬د ّر َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪َ -7‬جريدَ تُك ‪y our (f. sg.) newpaper -‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬كَتا ُبنا ‪ o ur book -‬‬

‫تمرين ‪9‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬رعى ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬ي ْشتَرى ‬

‫‪َ -2‬د ْفت َُرنا ‪our notebook -‬‬

‫‪ -4‬حاسوبي ‪my computer -‬‬

‫‪ -6‬سا َعتي ‪my watch -‬‬

‫‪َ -8‬س ّيارتُه ‪his car -‬‬

‫‪ -10‬د ْفتَر ِ‬ ‫ك ‪your (f. sg.) notebook -‬‬ ‫َ ُ‬

‫‪َ -3‬وفى ‬

‫‪َ -4‬فدْ وى‬

‫‪163‬‬

‫تمرين ‪10‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬الما ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬دوى‬

‫تمرين ‪11‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬همى ‬

‫تمرين ‪14‬‬ ‫‪ُ -1‬أ ْستاذ ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬أ ْس ُأل‬

‫تمرين ‪15‬‬ ‫‪ُ -1‬أريد ‬ ‫‪ -5‬أبي ‬

‫تمرين ‪18‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ب ّشار ‬ ‫‪َ -5‬شدَّ ة ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬سدى ‬

‫‪َ -3‬رمى ‬

‫‪ُ -2‬ذرى ‬

‫‪ُ -3‬سدى ‬

‫‪ُ -4‬هدى‬

‫‪ -2‬إِزا َء ‬

‫‪َ -3‬أ َبوك ‬

‫‪ِ -4‬رياء‬

‫‪َ -2‬بقا ء‬ ‫‪ -6‬إناء‬ ‫‪َ -2‬حدّ ا د‬ ‫‪ِ -6‬م ْصر َّية ‬

‫تمرين ‪19‬‬ ‫‪ُ -1‬ش ّباك ‪ d oubled -‬‬ ‫‪َ -3‬س ّحار – ‪ d oubled‬‬ ‫‪َ -5‬ه ّجان ‪ doubled -‬‬ ‫‪ِ -7‬‬ ‫طاولة – ‪ not doubled‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫أمريكي ‪doubled -‬‬ ‫‪-9‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫تمرين ‪22‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬آراء ‬ ‫‪ُ -5‬قرآن ‬

‫‪ِ -2‬م ْرآة ‬

‫‪ -3‬نَشاء ‬

‫‪َ -3‬خ ّباز ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ما َّدة‬

‫تمرين ‪26‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬نافِذ ًة – ‪ a window‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫‪َ -3‬د ْفت ٌَر – ‪a notebook‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬هاتِ ٍ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ف – ‪a telephone‬‬ ‫صور ًة ‪a picture -‬‬ ‫‪-7‬‬ ‫َ‬

‫‪ُ -4‬أ ُذن‬

‫‪َ -4‬ر َّسام‬

‫‪َ -2‬ثمان – ‪not doubled‬‬

‫‪ِ -4‬‬ ‫ساحر – ‪not doubled‬‬ ‫‪َ -6‬م ّرة ‪doubled -‬‬

‫‪ -8‬ما ّدة – ‪doubled‬‬

‫‪ -10‬نافِذة – ‪not doubled‬‬

‫‪ -3‬آالف ‬

‫تمرين ‪23‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬أ َثر ‪ِ -2 n o madda -‬‬ ‫مأرب – ‪ -3 no madda‬مرآب ‪ madda -‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬أ َدب – ‪no madda‬‬

‫‪164‬‬

‫‪ُ -4‬ل ْبنى‬

‫‪ -4‬آفة‬

‫‪ -4‬آثار ‪madda -‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ح ٍ‬ ‫قيبة – ‪a bookbag‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪َ -4‬و َرق ًة – ‪a piece of paper‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫تاب – ‪a book‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ك ٌ‬

‫تمرين ‪27‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬عفو ًا ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫‪ -5‬دي ٌ ‬

‫تمرين ‪28‬‬ ‫‪َ -1‬ب ْحر ‬ ‫‪ِ -5‬م ْصر ‬ ‫تمرين ‪30‬‬

‫بيت‬ ‫‪ ٍ -2‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬جي ٍم‬

‫‪ٌ -3‬‬ ‫أهل ‬

‫‪ِ -2‬م ْلح ‬ ‫‪َ -6‬ت ْفكير‬

‫‪ُ -3‬غ ْرفة ‬

‫‪ -4‬مسا ًء‬ ‫‪ِ -4‬سنْجاب‬

‫اليوم بتاريخ ‪ 2010-11-14‬سوف يتم مقابلة كل من‬

‫محمد العطار ‪ -‬رئيس مركز الكويت للتدريب‬

‫عبد العزيز جوهر حيات ‪ -‬مسوؤل فريق عمل بمجلة اليقظة‬ ‫محمد خليل قمير ‪ -‬صاحب ترخيص عضوية القياب‬

‫العالمية بالكويب‬

‫‪165‬‬

‫‪Appendix D‬‬ ‫‪Video Scripts‬‬

‫أهال وسهال‬ ‫حروف اللغة العربية وأصواتها‬

‫سـيناريو وحوار‬ ‫ديما بركات‬

‫إشراف ومتابعة لغوية‬ ‫د‪ .‬مهدي العش‬ ‫د‪ .‬ديما بركا‬ ‫د‪ .‬ألن كالرك‬

‫‪166‬‬

‫الوحدة األولى‬ ‫الحوار األول‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬مرحبا‪.‬‬

‫ال وسه ً‬ ‫ أه ً‬‫ال‪.‬‬

‫ أنا اسمي سامر‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا نبيل‪.‬‬

‫ تشرفنا نبيل‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا أيض ًا‪.‬‬

‫الحوار الثاني‪:‬‬

‫‪ -‬السالم عليكم‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬وعليكم السالم‪.‬‬

‫ أنا كرستين‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا أحمد‪.‬‬

‫ فرصة سعيدة أحمد‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا أيض ًا‪.‬‬

‫استمعوا وكرروا‪:‬‬

‫مرحب ًا‬

‫أه ً‬ ‫ال وسه ً‬ ‫ال‬

‫السالم عليكم‬

‫وعليكم السالم‬

‫صباح الخير‬

‫صباح النور‬

‫مساء الخير‬

‫مع السالمة‬

‫مساء النور‬

‫الله يسلمك‬

‫‪167‬‬

‫الوحدة الثانية‬ ‫الحوار األول‪:‬‬ ‫ مساء الخير‪.‬‬‫ مساء النور‪.‬‬‫ عفو ًا‪ ،‬هل أنت سامي‪.‬‬‫ ال‪ ،‬أنا لست سامي‪ ،‬أنا أحمد‪.‬‬‫ أنا آسف‪.‬‬‫ ال مشكلة‪.‬‬‫الحوار الثاني‪:‬‬ ‫ مرحب ًا‪.‬‬‫ أه ً‬‫ال وسهالً‪.‬‬ ‫ هل ِ‬‫أنت منال؟‬ ‫ نعم‪ ،‬أنا منال‪.‬‬‫ أنا رنا رفيقة هالة‪.‬‬‫ال وسه ً‬ ‫ أه ً‬‫ال رنا‪ ،‬تشرفنا‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬شكر ًا‬

‫الوحدة الثالثة‬ ‫الحوار األول‪:‬‬ ‫ صباح الخير‪.‬‬‫ صباح النور‪.‬‬‫ كيف حالك؟‬‫ِ‬ ‫وأنت؟‬ ‫ الحمد لله بخير‬‫ ال بأس‪.‬‬‫الحوار الثاني‪:‬‬ ‫ مرحب ًا‪.‬‬‫‪168‬‬

‫ أه ً‬‫ال وسهالً‪.‬‬ ‫ وما أخبارك؟‬‫ أخباري جيدة والحمد لله‪.‬‬‫الحوار الثالث‪:‬‬ ‫ مرحب ًا‪.‬‬‫ أه ً‬‫ال وسهالً‪.‬‬ ‫ كيف حالك؟‬‫ تعبان قليالً‪.‬‬‫ سالمتك‪.‬‬‫ الله يسلمك‪.‬‬‫اسمعوا وكرروا‪:‬‬

‫تمام‪.‬‬

‫كيف حالك؟‬

‫بخير والحمد لله‪.‬‬ ‫جيد‬

‫ال بأس‬ ‫تعبان‪.‬‬

‫الوحدة الرابعة‬ ‫الحوار األول‪:‬‬ ‫ السالم عليكم‪.‬‬‫ وعليكم السالم‪.‬‬‫ أنا نبيل من الشام وأنت؟‬‫ وأنا جون من أمريكا‪ ،‬من والية نيويورك‪ .‬أين الشام؟‬‫ الشام هي عاصمة سورية‪.‬‬‫ تشرفنا‪.‬‬‫‪169‬‬

‫ تشرفنا‪.‬‬‫الحوار الثاني‪:‬‬ ‫ مرحب ًا‪.‬‬‫ أه ً‬‫ال وسهالً‪.‬‬ ‫ أنا اسمي رشا‪ ،‬أنا من المغرب‪ ،‬من مدينة فاس‪.‬‬‫ وأنا اسمي دانية‪ ،‬أنا من مصر‪ ،‬من مدينة اإلسكندرية‪.‬‬‫ فرصة سعيدة‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا أيض ًا‪.‬‬

‫الوحدة الخامسة‬ ‫الحوار األول‪:‬‬ ‫ صباح الخير ‪.‬‬‫ صباح النور ‪.‬‬‫ ما اسمك؟‬‫ اسمي كريستين ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬من أين أنت؟‬

‫ أنا من واشنطن ‪.‬‬‫ ما جنسيتك؟‬‫ جنسيتي أمريكية‪.‬‬‫ تشرفنا‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا أيض ًا‪.‬‬

‫‪170‬‬

‫اسمعوا وكرروا‪:‬‬

‫سوري‪ ،‬جنسيتي سور ّية‪.‬‬ ‫أنا من حمص‪ ،‬أنا‬ ‫ّ‬

‫أنا من عمان‪ ،‬أنا أردنية‪ ،‬جنسيتي أردنية‪.‬‬

‫مصري‪ ،‬جنسيتي مصرية‪.‬‬ ‫أنا من القاهرة‪ ،‬أنا‬ ‫ّ‬

‫أنا من بيروت‪ ،‬أنا لبنانية‪ ،‬جنسيتي لبنانية‪.‬‬

‫أنا من أتالنتا‪ ،‬أنا أمريكي‪ ،‬جنسيتي أمريكية‪.‬‬

‫أنا من باريس‪ ،‬أنا فرنس ّية‪ ،‬جنسيتي فرنسية‪.‬‬

‫أنا من دبي‪ ،‬أنا إماراتي‪ ،‬جنسيتي إماراتية‪.‬‬

‫أنا من لندن‪ ،‬أنا بريطاني‪ ،‬جنسيتي بريطانية‪.‬‬

‫الوحدة السادسة‬ ‫الحوار األول‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬مرحب ًا أيمن‪.‬‬

‫ال وسه ً‬ ‫ أه ً‬‫ال جون‪ ،‬كيف حالك؟‬ ‫ أنا بخير والحمد لله‪.‬‬‫ ماذا تعلمت في الجامعة اليوم‪.‬‬‫ تعلمت أسماء األشياء الموجودة في الصف‪.‬‬‫ ما هي؟‬‫ لوح‪ ،‬كرسي‪ ،‬قلم‪ ،‬باب‪ ،‬نافذة‪ ،‬طاولة‪ ،‬وصورة‪.‬‬‫ وما هذه األشياء التي معك؟‬‫ هذه ممحاة‪ ،‬وهذا قلم‪ ،‬وهذه مبراة‪ ،‬وهذه مسطرة‪ ،‬وهذه أوراق‪.‬‬‫ ممتاز‪ ،‬أنت تعلمت أسماء كل هذه األشياء‪.‬‬‫ نعم وأنا سعيد جد ًا‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وأنا أيض ًا‪.‬‬

‫‪171‬‬

Cumulative Vocabulary ‫أ‬

َ  ‫أبو‬ Abu Dhabi [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ظبي‬ proper noun (man’s name) [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أديب‬

Jordan [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫األر ُدن‬ Arizona [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫أريزونا‬

ِ

name [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أسماء‬   ‫ج‬   ‫م‬ ‫ا ْس‬ ْ

ِ

good-bye [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫اللقاء‬ ‫إلى‬

ِ

name of the letter alif [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ألف‬ may God keep you safe [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ُي َس ِّل ُمك‬

‫اﷲ‬

I [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron.)

‫أنا‬

United Arab Emirates [4]  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫اإلمارات‬ you (m. sg.) [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m.) ‫ْت‬ َ ‫َأن‬

ِ

you (f. sg.) [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f.) ‫َأنْت‬ you (m. pl.) [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m., pl.) ‫أنت ُْم‬

you (m./f. dual) [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(pron., m/f., dual) ‫أ ْنتُما‬

‫أن ُت َّن‬ ِ Indiana [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫إنديانا‬

you (f. pl.) [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f., pl.)

ً ‫أه‬ hello, welcome (response to a greeting) [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫ال‬ ْ also [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫أ ْيض ًا‬

proper noun (man’s name) [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أ ْي َمن‬ where (question particle) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ن‬ َ ‫َأ ْي‬

172

‫ب‬

name of the letter bā’ [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫باء‬ door [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أ ْبواب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫باب‬

Baton Rouge [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫روج‬ ‫باتِن‬ Bahrain [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫حرين‬ َ ‫ال َب‬

َ ِ‫ب‬ fine, well [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .‫خ ْير‬

Baghdad (capital of Iraq) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َب ْغداد‬ Boise [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫بويزي‬ Beirut (capital of Lebanon) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َب ْيروت‬

‫ت‬

name of the letter tā’ [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫تاء‬ pleased to meet you (literally: we’ve been honored) [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫ت ََش َّر ْفنا‬

tired [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫َت ْعبان‬ perfect; great [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫تَمام‬

ِ

ِ

television [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫تلفازات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫تلفاز‬ tanwīn (diacritical mark, grammatical marker) [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫َتنْوين‬

ِ

Tunis, Tunisia [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫تونس‬

‫ث‬

name of the letter tā’ [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ثاء‬

‫ج‬

ِ

newspaper [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫جرائد‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ة‬ َ‫َجريد‬ َ

ِ

Algiers, Algeria [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫الجزائر‬ َ 173

Djibouti [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫جيبوتي‬

good [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ج ِّيد‬ َ

name of the letter jīm [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫جيم‬

‫ح‬

name of the letter ḥā’ [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫حاء‬

computer [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫حواسيب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫حاسوب‬ َ

ِ

ِ

calculator [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫حاسبات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫حاسبة‬ condition, circumstance [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫أحوال‬   ‫ج‬   ‫حال‬ ْ

ِ

bag [6]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫حقائب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫قيبة‬ ‫َح‬ َ

ِ

Thank God, praise be to God [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ل ّله‬  ُ‫الحمد‬ َ

‫خ‬

name of the letter ḳā’ [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫خاء‬

ْ news [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫أخبار‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ر‬ ‫َخ َب‬

ُ Khartoum (capital of the Sudan) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫الخرطوم‬

‫د‬

name of the letter dāl [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫دال‬

bicycle [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ َد ّراجات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد ّر‬

ِ

notebook [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ َدفاتر‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َدفتَر‬

ِ

Damascus (capital of Syria) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫د َم ْشق‬ Doha (capital of Qatar) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫الدَ وحة‬

‫ذ‬

name of the letter dāl [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ذال‬ 174

‫ر‬

name of the letter rā’ [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫راء‬

ِ Rabat (capital of Morocco) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫الرباط‬

proper noun (woman’s name) [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َرنا‬

ِ Riyadh (capital of Saudi Arabia) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫الرياض‬

‫ز‬

name of the letter zāy [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫س‬

‫زاي‬

watch, clock [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ساعات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫سا َعة‬

proper noun (man’s name) [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫سامي‬

sukūn [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ُسكون‬ Saudi Arabia [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)  ‫السعودية‬ ُ peace be upon you (greeting) [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫ُم‬ ْ ‫ َع َل ْيك‬ ‫السال ُم‬ َ the Sudan [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.)

‫السودان‬

Syria [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)  ‫سور َية‬ car [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫س ّيارات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ة‬ ‫َس ّي َار‬ َ

name of the letter sīn [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫سين‬

‫ش‬

another name for Damascus; historically Greater Syria [4]. . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫الشام‬ šadda (diacritical mark that signifies a doubled consonant) [6] . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َشدَّ ة‬

thank you [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫ُشكْر ًا‬

name of the letter šīn [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫شين‬

175

‫ص‬

name of the letter ṣād [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫صاد‬

َ ‫باح‬ good morning [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫الخ ْير‬  ُ ‫َص‬

good morning (response = ṣabāḥu n-nūr) [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫النور‬ ‫باح‬ ُ ‫َص‬ Sanaa (capital of Yemen) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫صنْعاء‬ َ picture [6]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫ص َور‬   ‫ج‬   ‫صورة‬ ُ Somalia [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫الصومال‬

‫ض‬

name of the letter ḍād [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ضاد‬

‫ط‬

ِ ِ table [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫طاوالت‬   ‫ج‬   ‫لة‬ ‫طاو‬

name of the letter ṭā’ [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.)  ‫طاء‬ Tripoli (capital of Libya) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫ظ‬

‫ال َغرب‬ ‫َطرا ُب ُلس‬

name of the letter ẓā’ [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫ظاء‬

‫ع‬

ِ

ِ

capital [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫عواصم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫عاصمة‬

ِ

Iraq [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫العراق‬

Arab [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ َع َرب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫بي‬ ّ ‫َع َر‬

excuse me; pardon; you’re welcome (as a response to ‫[ ) ُشكْر ًا‬2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫َع ْفو ًا‬ Amman (capital of Jordan) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫َع ّمان‬ 176

Oman [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ُعمان‬

َ‫ِعند‬

at (expresses possession with possessive pronouns) [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (adv.)

name of the letter ‘ayn [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫عين‬

‫غ‬

name of the letter ġayn [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫غين‬

‫ف‬

name of the letter fā’ [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫فاء‬ Fez (town in Morocco) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫فاس‬

‫ُف ْرصة‬ ِ Palestine [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ف َلسطين‬ furṣa sa‘īda (literally: happy opportunity = pleased to meet you) [1] . . . . . . ‫َسعيدة‬

in [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (prep.) ‫في‬

‫ق‬

name of the letter qāf [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫قاف‬ Cairo (capital of Egypt) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

ِ ‫القاه َرة‬

Jerusalem (capital of Palestine) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ال ُقدْ س‬

َ ‫َق‬ Qatar [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)‫طر‬ pen, pencil [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أقالم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َق َلم‬

ً ‫َقلي‬ a little bit; slightly [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .‫ال‬

‫ك‬

name of the letter kāf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫كاف‬

ِ

book [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ ُكتُب‬   ‫ج‬   ‫كتاب‬

ِ

ٍ ‫ك‬   ‫ج‬   ‫كُرس ّي‬ chair [6]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫َراس‬ 177

Kuwait [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫الك َُويت‬

how [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫َيف‬ َ ‫ك‬

How are you? [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫الحال؟‬ ‫َيف‬ َ ‫ك‬

‫ل‬

no [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (negative particle)

ْ not bad [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫بأس‬

‫ال‬

‫ال‬

name of the letter lām [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫الم‬

Lebanon [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ُلبنان‬ blackboard [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n. m.) ‫ألواح‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َل ْوح‬ Libya [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫م‬

‫ليبيا‬

ْ what’s new; what’s going on [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫بارك‬ ُ ‫أخ‬

‫ما‬ ِ ٍ ‫م‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ِمبراة‬ pencil sharpener [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ م ْب َريات‬/ ‫بار‬ َ

madda (a diacritical mark that signifies a hamza followed by alif ) [6].(n., f.) ‫ َمدّ ات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َمدّ ة‬

city [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ ُمدُ ن‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َمدينة‬ hello (greeting) [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫رحب ًا‬ َ ‫َم‬

َ good evening (greeting) [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫الخ ْير‬

good evening (response) [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‫النور‬

‫َمساء‬

‫َمساء‬

tape recorder [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫جالت‬ ِّ ‫ ُم َس‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ُم َس ِّجلة‬

ِ

ِ

َ ‫م ْس‬ ruler [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ َمساطر‬   ‫ج‬   ‫طرة‬

‫َم ْس َقط‬ ِ Egypt [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫صر‬ ْ ‫م‬ Muscat (capital of Oman) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

good-bye [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ‫السال َمة‬  َ ‫َم َع‬ 178

ِ ‫الم‬ Morocco [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫غرب‬ َ ِ

key [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ َمفاتيح‬   ‫ج‬   ‫م ْفتاح‬

ِ

ِ

ٍ ‫ َم‬   ‫ج‬   ‫م ْمحاة‬ eraser [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫حيات‬ َ ‫م ْم‬/‫ماح‬ ِ

from, of [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (prep.) ‫من‬

proper noun (woman’s name) [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫َمنال‬ Manama (capital of Bahrain) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.)

‫المنامة‬ َ

Mauritania [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫موريتانيا‬

Mogadishu (capital of Somalia) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)‫موقاديشو‬ name of the letter mīm [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ميم‬

‫ن‬

ِ

ِ

window [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)  ‫نَوافذ‬   ‫ج‬   ‫نافذة‬

ِ

proper noun (man’s name) [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫نزار‬ we [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., pl.)  ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ن َْح‬

ِ

relative noun [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)  ‫ن ْس َبة‬

ّ ‫ َن‬   ‫ج‬   ‫َن ّظارة‬ eyeglasses [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ظارات‬

yes [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (particle)‫َن َعم‬ Nouakchott (capital of Mauritania) [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫نواكشوط‬

name of the letter nūn [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫نون‬

‫ه‬

name of the letter hā’ [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (n., f.) ‫هاء‬

ِ

ِ

telephone [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫هواتف‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ف‬ ‫هات‬ َ

proper noun (woman’s name) [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(n., f.) ‫هالة‬ they (m. pl.) [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m., pl.) ‫ُه ْم‬ 179

they (m./f. dual) [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m/f., dual) ‫ُهما‬

they (f. pl.) [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f., pl.) ‫ن‬ َّ ‫ُه‬

‫ُه َو‬ ِ she [2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., f.) ‫ي‬ َ‫ه‬ he [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pron., m.)

‫و‬

name of the letter wāw [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫واو‬

sheet of paper [6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫و َرقات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫قة‬ ‫َو َر‬ َ wa ‘alaykumu s-salām (response to as-salāmu ‘alaykum) [1] . . . . . . . .  ‫السالم‬  َ ‫َو َع َل ْيك ُُم‬

َ ‫َو‬ homeland [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫أوطان‬   ‫ج‬   ‫طن‬

ِ state [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫واليات‬   ‫ج‬   ‫ة‬ ‫ِوال َي‬ ِ

Wichita [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.) ‫ويتشطا‬

‫ي‬

name of the letter yā’ [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)  ‫ياء‬ Utah [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., f.)

‫يوطا‬

Yemen [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (n., m.) ‫ال َي َمن‬

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Illustration Credits audio icon by The Oxygen Team www.kde.org/KDE/Wikimedia Commons/GNU LGPLv3 video icon by Frag from KDE-look.org/Wikimedia Commons/GNU LGPLv3 banners: (blue) pgs. 1, 14–15, 24–25, 36–37, 52–53, 62–63, 80–81, 96, 104–105, 108–109 © Azat1976/Shutterstock; (blue floral) pgs. 2–3, 22–23, 42–43, 92–93, 102–103, 121, 144–145 © Azat1976/Shutterstock; (green floral) pgs. 4–5, 20–21, 38–39, 54–55, 82–83, 88–89, 97, 106–107, 132–133, 146–147 © Kutlayev Dmitry/Shutterstock; (orange honeycomb) pgs. 6–7, 40, 58–59, 68–69, 98–99, 110–111, 124–125, 130–131 pxhere/Creative Commons/ CC0; (green) pgs. 8–9, 44–45, 70–71, 84–85, 128–129 pxhere/CC0; (elegant H blue) pgs. 10–11, 50–51, 76–77, 112–113, 138–139 © Azat1976/Shutterstock; (green Moroccan tiles) pgs. 12–13, 30–31, 48–49, 74–75, 100–101, 118–119, 140–141 © Mikołaj Pasiński/Flickr/ CC BY 2.0; (blue & brown) pgs. 16–17, 56–57, 90–91, 136–137 © New Line/Shutterstock; (orange & green) pgs. 18–19, 32–33, 64–65, 86–87, 114–115, 120, 122–123 Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament (London: B. Quaritch, 1910), Plate XLII, Moresque ornament from the Alhambra © MCAD Library, Minneapolis College of Art and Design /Flickr Commons/ CC BY 2.0; (Moroccan detail) pgs. 26–27, 28–29, 34–35, 41, 46–47, 60–61, 66–67, 72–73, 78–79, 116–117, 126–127, 134–135, 142–143, 148 © Benjamin Esham/Flickr Commons/ CC BY-SA 2.0; (aqua bottle) pgs. 94–95 © pxhere CC0 background art pgs. 2, 54, 57, 74, 78, 82, 88, 116, 126, 127, 134, 139, 140, 143 Ujulala/ Pixabay/CC0 (image has been cropped and modified); background art, letters pgs. 7, 27,44, 74, 97 pxhere/CC0 two women greeting 1 © ESB Professional/Shutterstock; two men greeting 2 © Zurijeta/ Shutterstock; background art, cultural note 2 Creative Commons (CC)/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; man and woman greeting 3 © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock; man saying goodbye 3 © Adam Gregor/Shutterstock; Jordanian coins 5 Abubiju/Wikimedia Commons; background art, alphabet 6 Wikimedia Commons/CC0; road sign Al-Basrah St. 7 Pexels/CC0; springbok 9 © Yathin S. Krishnappa/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; book, Persian edition of Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine 9 © Coffeetalkh/Wikimedia Commons/ CC BY SA 3.0; papyrus paper, 11, Arabic manuscript, 18th-century Sudanese amulet with the word Mohammed depicted in three sketches, folio 200, MS Arabic 21, Wellcome Collection, London/Creative Commons, courtesy the Wellcome Trust, wellcomecollection. org/works/cxdnackk/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 4.0; fence 11 © Varuna/Shutterstock; Arabic McDonald’s sign 11 Marco Bellucci/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 2.0; bull 12 © Charlesdrakew/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; bed 12 © Arthur Clark/Saudi Aramco World/ SAWDIA; bananas 13 Arpingstone/Wikimedia Commons; carrots 13 Kander/Wikimedia Commons; Arab market, 1899, Blidah, Algeria 13. This image is available from the U.S. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs division, digital ID ppmsc.05567/Wikimedia Commons; chicken 14 © Valentina_S/Shutterstock; Bedouin 14 © Tor Eigeland/ Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; corn 14 Pexels/CC0; announcer 14 © Melanie Friend/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; Arabic Starbucks sign 19 © Amada44/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; road sign 19 © Faris Knight/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0 (cropped); CocaCola 19 © lilivanili/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; Quranic saying 21 © Ali A. Khalifa/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; Two men in café 22 © Lorraine Chittock/Saudi Aramco World/ 181

SAWDIA; man and woman in café 23 © Lorraine Chittock/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; man and woman in café 23 © Lorraine Chittock/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; background art, The Arab Jeweller, c. 1882, Charles Sprague Pearce, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 26/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; girl painting 28 © Katrina Thomas/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; mountain 28 Mount Everest north face, Tibet © Luca Galuzzi/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0; bear 28 Xocolatl/Wikimedia Commons; door in Riyadh 28 © Peter Dowley/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 4.0; crown 28 Roquai/Wikimedia Commons; book 28 © Peter Keen/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; house 28 © Allen Clark; berries 28 C. E. Price/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; snow 29, 51 © Lee Dyer/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; sand dunes 29 © Yathin S. Krishnappa/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; plow 29 FlippyFlink/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; license plate 29 © Jerry “Woody”/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; Petra museum sign 30 © Jean Housen/Wikimedia Commons/ CC BY-SA 3.0; The Street and Mosque of al Ghouri in Cairo, 1875, John Frederick Lewis, Musée du Louvre, Paris 31 (detail, background), 67 Wikimedia Commons/CC0; glasses 32 © Batholith/Wikimedia Commons; artist 32 Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1659, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; cotton 32 U.S. Department of Agriculture/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; flag of Lebanon 32 Max Pixel/ CC0; jasmine 32 © Javier Martin/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; house 32 © Allen Clark; soccer player 32 © Celso Flores/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; weightlifter Adrian Zieliński 32 © Kari Kinnunen/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; background art, writing tip 32, Arabischer Maler um 1335, Al-Harith helps Abu Zayd to retrieve his stolen camel, from the Maqamat of Al-Hariri of Basra, illustration from a 14th-century manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford University, MS. Marsh 458, folio 45a, Bodleian Libraries. Yorck Project/Directmedia/Wikimedia Commons; background art, carpet 35 © Guillaume Piolle/ Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0; postcard 35 © Mahdi Alosh; street sign Tunisia 39 © Yamen/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0; Beit el-Hekma sign 39 © Emna Mizouni/ Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0; background art, camel caravan 40 © Sergey Pesterev/ Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0; saying good morning 41 © Africa Studio/Shutterstock; saying how are you, café 42 © LDprod/ShutterStock; background art 42 © Nik Wheeler/ Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; car 46 © Robert Paprstein/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; happy face 46 © Mistersmileyface.png: Otakuma/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; sun 46 NASA/SDO (AIA)/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; chairs 46 © CC0 Public Domain/ publicdomainpictures; road 46 © Piotr Malecki/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; paper clip 46 © Haragayato/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.5; nest 46 © Laslovarga/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; shark 46 © dconvertini/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; mosque 51 © Moonik/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; Carpenter 51 © Lynn Teo Simarski/ Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; snow 29, 51 © Lee Dyer/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; graduation 51 © Tulane Public Relations (2011 graduation)/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; humpback whale 51 U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Wikimedia Commons/CC0; butcher 51 © Vikiçizer/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; dates 51 © Dan Huntington/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; farmer 51 © Tor Eigeland/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; ring 51 © Bence Fördös. Wikimedia Commons/ CC BY-SA 2.0; baker 51 © Deke Gassett/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; watermelons 51 © Steve Evans/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0; rocket 51 NASA on the Commons/Flickr Commons/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; highway sign 52 © Visem/Wikimedia Commons/ 182

CC SA 3.0; Arabian stallion 56 © Trescastillos/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0; key 56 pxhere/CC0; classroom 56 © Allen Clark; young goat 56 © Jens K. Carl/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; moon 56 © NASA/Wikimedia Commons; cow 56 Keith Weller/U.S. Department of Agriculture/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; shaving 56 © Hendrik Dacquin/ Wikimedia Commons/CC0; race 56 © Twang_Dunga/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; street sign 58 © Bernard Gagnon/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; stop sign 58 pxhere/ CC0; school 61 Mahmoud Farrag/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0; man in prayer 61 © Katrina Thomas/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; AUC Library, American University in Cairo 62 © Ahmad El-Nemr/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0; young man in car 62 © budawood/Flickr Commons/CC BY 20; lines of text from Antarah ibn Shaddad 64 Wikimedia Commons/CC0; Antarah ibn Shaddad and Abla, 64, Centre for Egyptological Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (CESRAS), www.cesras.org/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; Antarah ibn Shaddad on horseback 64, Wikimedia Commons/CC0; Quraish game cover 65 © courtesy of AfkarMedia Ltd. Created by Radwan Kasmiya. Quraish Game® is a registered trademark of AfkarMedia Ltd. All rights reserved, www.afkarmedia. com ; The Street and Mosque of al Ghouri in Cairo, 1875, John Frederick Lewis, Musée du Louvre, Paris 67 Wikimedia Commons/CC0; four Moroccan men 68 pxhere/CC0; three Moroccan men 68 pxhere/CC0; two women reading a book 69 /Flickr Commons/CC0; pencil in book 69 © Deepak Adhikari/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 2.0; pencil on book 69 © Simon Carr/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; pencil beside book 69 © Quinn Dombrowski/ Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; background art, alley 70 pxhere/CC0; background art, hotel 71 pxhere/CC0; morning sun 75 © Tamugreg/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; onions 75 Mikhail Kirechko/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; thief 75 © Eastlake Times/Flickr Commons/ CC BY 2.0; disk 75 © Rob Davies/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; frog 75 © Danel Solabarrieta/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; hug 75 © Ted Eytan/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; waking up 75 © Lars Plougmann/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; Riyadh 75 pixabay/CC0; students 80 © European Commission Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid (DG ECHO)/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; Martin Luther King Jr. at University of Minnesota, 1967 80 Minnesota Historical Society/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; cassette 80 © Asim18/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; bat 80 © Kirsanov Valeriy Vladimirovich/Shutterstock; shadow 80 pxhere/CC0; umbrella 80 pixabay/CC0; zodiac 80 Sarah Loetscher/pixabay/CC0; crowd 80 Tahrir Square, Cairo © Ahmed Abd El-Fatah/ Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; airport sign, Nador, Morocco 81 © DarioGVF/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; scientist 86 U.S. Army RDECOM/Flickr Commons/CC0; camel 86 © www.twin-loc.fr/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; spring season 86 © lizbennington/Flickr Commons/CC BY-ND 2.0; road 86 © Jinx!/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; crow 86 © Tambako The Jaguar/Flickr Commons/CC BY-ND 2.0; song sparrow 86 © Derek Bakken/ Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; tobacco pipe 86 © UnknownNet Photography/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; empty theater 86 © Kevin Jaako/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; sign 86 © Halfalah/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0 (cropped); map of the Arab world 90 Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0; signs 93 © Yamen/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0; satellite view world map 96 pixabay/CC0; lemons 98 © Rob Bertholf/Flickr Commons/ CC By 2.0; peppers 98 © Ross Elliott/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; honey 98 © Nick Perla/ Flickr Commons/CC BY-ND 2.0; pants 98 © Doc sameer/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; background art, Arabic tablet 99, 116 © Brian Jeffery Beggerly/Flickr Commons/CC BY 183

2.0; book 103 © Peter Keen/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; sugar 103 © Uwe Hermann/ Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; wire 103 © Jordanhill School D&T Dept/Flickr Commons/ CC BY 2.0; window 103 © Kay Brennan/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; snow sign 105 © simon_music/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0 (cropped); teacher 106 Sgt. Steven King USMC/Wikimedia Commons/CC0; camel 106 © www.twin-loc.fr/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0 (cropped); pencil 106 © Andrew Taylor/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; sleeping 106 © sima dimitric/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; road sign 106 © Yamen/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0; moon 109 © Rosana Prada/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; plains 109 © Gabriel/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; man looking at map 109 © sethdickens/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; roller coaster 109 © Patrick McGarvey/Flickr Commons/CC BY-ND 2.0; café sign 111 © Jason Cartwright/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; coke and mango 113 © Denise Krebs/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; billboard 113 © David Evers/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; notebook 113 © Quinn Dombrowski/Flickr Commons/CC BYSA 2.0; pen 113 © J Wynia/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; book 113 © /Saudi Aramco World/ SAWDIA; newspapers 113 © Steven Damron/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; key 113 pxhere/ CC0; glasses 113 © Evgeny Karandaev/Shutterstock; TV 113 © Scanrail1/Shutterstock; phone 113 pixabay/CC0; watch 113 pxhere/CC0; car 113 © Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock; bicycle 113 pxhere/CC0; computer 113 © Pexels/CC0; background art, pyramid 114 © ephysimon/Flickr Commons/CC BY-ND 2.0; Egyptian man 114 © Laura Hale/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 3.0; young woman pointing 114 © Björn Bechstein/Flickr Commons/ CC BY-ND 2.0; Martin Luther King Jr 114 © U.S. National Archives and Records Administration NAID 542015/Wikimedia Commons/CC0 1.0; background art, Arabic tablet 99, 116 © Brian Jeffery Beggerly/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; background art, Arabic calligraphy in calendar 118 © Kamrul Islam Shahin/Wikimedia Commons/CC SA 4.0; Arabic calligraphy 120 Nationaal Museum van Wereldculturen/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3/0; window 121 © Kay Brennan/Saudi Aramco World/SAWDIA; door 121 © Peter Dowley/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0; table 121 © mia.judkins/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; chair 121 Petr Kratochvil/freestockphotos/CC0; desk 121 © Jordan Fischer/ Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; computer 121 Pexels/CC0; picture frame 121 © Glen Dahlman/ Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; backpack 121 © Mobile Edge Laptop Cases/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; chalkboard 122 © Quinn Dombrowski/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; carpet 122 © Allen Clark; light 122 © Rod Waddington/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; hardwood flooring 122 © Lars Lentz/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 1.0; pointing finger 122 pixabay/CC0; pencil 122 © Andrew Taylor/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; paper 122 © David Swart/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; school room 122 © Cali4beach/ Flickr Commons; woman working at desk 124 Bill Branson/National Cancer Institute/ freestockphotos/CC0; runner 129 © Mark Sadowski/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; snake 129 © Matt Reinbold/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; background art, coffee 138 © Michael Allen Smith/Flickr Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0; house interior background 145 pxhere CC0; traditional family room 145 © Mary Valencia; magazine excerpt 147 © Aziz J. Hayat/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0 (cropped); paragraph highlighted from a book 147 © selfthy/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0; map of U.S. capitals 146 © GNU/Wikimedia Commons/ CC BY-SA 3.0; background art, vocabulary 148 © Andrey Zeigarnik/Flickr Commons/CC BY 2.0

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