Agro-Product Processing Technology: Principles and Practice 113859668X, 9781138596689

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Agro-Product Processing Technology: Principles and Practice
 113859668X, 9781138596689

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Author
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Impotence of Postharvest Technology
1.3 Importance of Postharvest Losses
1.4 Postharvest Technology
References
Chapter 2: Physical, Thermal, and Chemical Properties of Food and Biological Materials
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Physical Properties
2.2.1 Physical Dimensions
2.2.2 1000-Grain Weight
2.2.3 Bulk Density
2.2.4 Shrinkage
2.2.5 Friction
2.2.5.1 Angle of Internal Friction and Angle of Repose
2.2.5.2 Coefficient of Friction
2.3 Thermal Properties
2.3.1 Specific Heat
2.3.2 Thermal Conductivity
2.3.2.1 Theory
2.3.2.2 Apparatus and Measurement
2.3.3 Latent Heat of Vaporization
2.3.3.1 Determination of Latent Heat of Vaporization
2.3.4 Heat Transfer Coefficient of Product Bed
2.3.4.1 Dimensional Analysis
2.3.4.2 Comparison of Theory and Experiment
2.3.4.3 Theory
2.3.4.4 Determination of Volumetric Heat Transfer Coefficient
2.4 Chemical Properties
2.4.1 Starch
2.4.2 Protein
2.4.3 Fat
2.4.4 Vitamin
Key to Symbols
Exercises
References
Chapter 3: Cleaning, Grading, and Sorting
3.1 Grade Factor
3.2 Washing
3.3 Sorting Fruits and Vegetables
3.4 Sorting Grain
3.5 Spiral Separator
3.6 Indent Cylinder Separator
3.7 Color Separator
3.8 Centrifugal Separation
3.8.1 Stokes’ Equation
3.9 The Centrifuge
3.10 The Cream Separator
3.11 Cyclone Separator
3.12 Machine Vision
3.12.1 Image Acquisition
3.12.1.1 Computer Vision System
3.12.1.2 Ultrasound and Infrared
3.12.1.3 Tomographic Imaging
3.12.2 Preprocessing
3.12.3 Segmentation
3.12.4 Feature Extraction
3.12.4.1 Color Features
3.12.4.2 Morphological Features
3.12.4.3 Texture Features
3.12.5 Classification
Bibliography
Chapter 4: Psychrometry
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Psychrometric Terms
4.2.1 Humidity Ratio
4.2.2 Relative Humidity
4.2.3 Specific Volume
4.2.4 Vapor Pressure
4.2.5 Dry-Bulb Temperature
4.2.6 Dew Point Temperature
4.2.7 Wet-Bulb Temperature
4.2.8 Enthalpy
4.2.9 Adiabatic Wet-Bulb Temperature
4.2.10 Psychrometric Wet-Bulb Temperature
4.3 Construction of Psychrometric Chart
4.4 Use of Psychrometric Chart
4.4.1 Sensible Heating and Cooling
4.4.2 Heating with Humidification
4.4.3 Cooling with Humidification
4.4.4 Cooling with Dehumidification
4.4.5 Drying
4.4.6 Mixing of Airstreams
4.4.7 Heat Addition with Air Mixing
4.4.8 Drying with Recirculation
Key to Symbols
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 5: Drying of Agro Products
5.1 Principles of Drying
5.2 Importance of Drying
5.3 Moisture Content
5.3.1 Moisture Content Representation
5.3.2 Determination of Moisture Content
5.3.2.1 Direct Methods
5.3.2.2 Indirect Methods
5.4 Equilibrium Moisture Content
5.4.1 Determination of Static Equilibrium Moisture Content
5.4.2 Static Equilibrium Moisture Content Models
5.5 Mechanism of Drying
5.6 Thin-Layer Drying
5.6.1 Thin-Layer Drying Equations
5.6.1.1 Empirical Drying Equations
5.6.1.2 Theoretical Drying Equations
5.6.1.3 Semi-Theoretical Drying Equations
5.6.2 Drying Rate
5.6.3 Drying Parameters
5.6.4 Drying Rate Constant and Diffusion Coefficient
5.6.4.1 Drying Rate Constant
5.6.5 Half Response Time
5.7 Deep-Bed Drying
5.7.1 Logarithmic Model
5.7.2 Partial Differential Equation Model
5.7.2.1 Method of Solution
5.7.2.2 Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Results
5.8 Fluidized Bed Drying Model
5.8.1 Heat Balance Equation
5.8.2 Drying Rate Equation
5.8.3 Mass Balance Equation
5.9 Agro-Product Drying Systems
5.9.1 Solar Drying Systems
5.9.1.1 Solar Dryers
5.9.2 Batch Drying Systems
5.9.2.1 Flatbed Dryer
5.9.3 Continuous Flow Drying Systems
5.9.3.1 Cross-Flow Dryer
5.9.3.2 Cross-Flow Batch Dryer
5.9.3.3 Concurrent Flow Dryer
5.9.3.4 Counterflow Dryer
5.9.3.5 Mixed-Flow Dryer
5.10 Safe Temperature for Drying Grain
5.11 Selection of Dryers
Key to Symbols
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 6: Parboiling of Rice
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Principles of Parboiling
6.3 Soaking
6.3.1 Kinetics of Soaking
6.3.2 Finite Element Modeling of Soaking of Water by Paddy
6.3.3 Half Response Time
6.3.4 Kinetics of Water Diffusion and Starch Gelatinization
6.4 Steaming
6.5 Drying
6.6 Effect of Parboiling on Milling, Nutritional, and Cooking Qualities of Rice
6.7 Parboiling Methods
6.7.1 Traditional Methods
6.7.1.1 Single Stage Parboiling
6.7.1.2 Double Stage Parboiling
6.7.2 Modern Methods
6.7.2.1 CFTRI (Central Food Technological Research Industries) Method
6.7.2.2 Jadavpur University Method
6.7.2.3 Malek Process
6.7.2.4 Schule Process
6.7.2.5 Crystal Rice Process
6.7.2.6 Rice Conversion Process
6.7.2.7 Avorio Process
6.7.3 Estimation of Heat Required for Parboiling
6.7.3.1 Soaking Operation
6.7.3.2 Steaming Operation
6.7.3.3 Drying Operation
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 7: Milling of Rice and Wheat
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Rice Milling
7.3 Traditional Methods
7.3.1 Home Pounding
7.3.2 Huller Mills
7.3.3 Sheller Mills
7.3.4 Rubber Roll Sheller Mills
7.4 The Modern Rice Milling Process
7.5 Modern Rice Milling Machinery
7.5.1 Paddy Cleaner
7.5.2 Stoner
7.5.3 Rubber Roll Sheller
7.5.4 Paddy Separator
7.5.5 Whitening or Polishing
7.5.5.1 Cone-Type Polisher
7.5.5.2 Horizontal Abrasive-Type Polisher
7.5.5.3 Friction-Type Polisher
7.5.6 Bran and Polished Rice Separator
7.5.7 Rice Grader
7.5.8 Rice Mixing
7.6 Wheat Milling
7.6.1 Conditioning/Hydrothermal Treatment
7.6.2 Milling
7.6.3 Storage of Finished Products
7.7 Size Characteristics
7.7.1 Sieve
7.7.2 Fineness Modulus
7.7.3 Energy Requirements
Bibliography
Chapter 8: By-Product Utilization
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Fuels and Combustion
8.2.1 Furnaces
8.3 Pyrolysis and Gasification
8.3.1 Pyrolysis (Destructive Distillation) and Gasification
8.3.2 Types of Gasifiers
8.3.2.1 Countercurrent Moving Bed Gasifiers
8.3.2.2 Concurrent Moving Bed Gasifiers
8.3.2.3 Crosscurrent Moving Bed Gasifiers
8.3.2.4 Fluidized Bed Gasifiers
8.3.3 Gasification Process
8.3.3.1 Oxidation
8.3.3.2 Reduction
8.3.3.3 Drying
8.3.4 Gasifier Units
8.4 Liquefaction
8.5 Hydrolysis Followed by Fermentation
8.6 Biochar Production and Utilization
8.6.1 Biochar Carbonizer
8.6.2 Types of Carbonizers
8.6.2.1 Application
8.7 Rice Husk Pelletizing and Briquetting
8.7.1 Need for Briquetting
8.7.2 Principle and Technology
8.7.3 Types of Briquetting Machines
8.7.3.1 High- and Medium-Pressure Compaction
8.7.3.2 Screw Press
8.7.3.3 Piston Press
8.7.3.4 Low-Pressure Compaction
8.7.3.5 Hand-Molded Briquettes
8.7.4 Applications
8.7.5 Limitations
8.7.6 Future Prospective
8.8 Biogas Digesters
8.8.1 Anaerobic Digestion Process
8.8.2 Indian-Type Biogas Digester
8.8.3 The Chinese Biogas Digester
8.8.4 Digester Sizing
8.9 Composting
8.9.1 Process of Composting
8.9.2 Mixing of Materials in the Compost
8.9.3 Starting a Composter
8.9.4 Operating a Compost
8.9.5 Simple Thermophile Composting Procedure
8.9.6 Types of Composters
8.10 Utilization of Rice Bran – Stabilizer Design and Oil Extraction
8.11 Bran – Stabilizer Design
8.12 Oil Extraction
8.12.1 Batch Extraction Method
Bibliography
Chapter 9: Storage of Agro Products
9.1 Principles of Storage
9.2 Interactions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Variables in the Deterioration of Stored Grains
9.3 Computer Simulation Modeling for Stored Grain Pest Management
9.4 Grain Storage Systems
9.4.1 Traditional Storage Systems
9.4.2 Modern Storage Systems
9.4.2.1 Bagged Storage System
9.4.2.2 Silo Storage System
9.4.2.3 Airtight Grain Storage
9.4.2.4 Aerated Storage System
9.4.2.5 Low-Temperature Storage System (Grain Chilling by Refrigeration)
9.4.2.6 Controlled Atmosphere Storage Systems
9.4.2.7 Damp Grain Storage System with Chemicals
9.5 Design of Grain Storages
9.5.1 Structural Requirements
9.5.2 Janssen’s Equation
9.5.3 Rankine’s Equation
9.5.4 Airy’s Equation
9.5.5 Construction Materials
Key to Symbols
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 10: Heating and Cooling of Agro Products
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Heat Conduction
10.2.1 The Differential Equation of Heat Conduction in Cartesian and Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
10.2.1.1 The Differential Equation of Heat Conduction in Cartesian Coordinate System
10.2.1.2 The Differential Equation of Heat Conduction in Cylindrical Coordinate System
10.2.2 The Composite Wall
10.2.3 Cylinder and Sphere
10.3 Convection
10.3.1 Forced Convection
10.3.2 Natural or Free Convection
10.3.3 Heat Exchangers
10.4 Radiation
10.4.1 Radiation Intensity and Shape Factor
10.4.2 Radiation Exchange between Black Surfaces
10.4.3 Heat Exchange by Radiation between Gray Surfaces
10.5 Cooling
10.5.1 Cooling Rate
10.6 Freezing
10.6.1 Freezing Point Depression
10.7 Heating
10.7.1 Boiling-Point Elevation
Key to Symbols
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 11: Refrigeration and Cold Storage
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle
11.3 Pressure–Enthalpy (p-h) Chart
11.3.1 Unit of Refrigeration
11.4 Refrigerants
11.4.1 Desirable Characteristics of Refrigerants
11.5 Construction of Psychrometric Chart
11.6 Moisture Control and Storage of Vegetables Crops
11.6.1 Potatoes
11.6.1.1 Adequate Volume
11.6.1.2 Adequate Strength
11.6.1.3 Storage Environment
11.6.1.4 Suberization Period
11.6.1.5 Short-Term Storage
11.6.1.6 Long-Term Storage
11.7 Cooling Requirement
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 12: Separation
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Contact Equilibrium Process
12.2.1 Absorption
12.2.2 Extraction
12.2.2.1 Rate of Extraction
12.2.2.2 Leaching
12.2.3 Distillation
12.2.3.1 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
12.2.3.2 Flash Vaporization
12.2.3.3 Batch Distillation
12.2.3.4 Fractionation
12.2.3.5 Steam Distillation
12.3 Mechanical Separation Process
12.3.1 Filtration
12.3.2 Sedimentation
12.3.2.1 Sedimentation for Low Concentration Suspensions
12.3.2.2 Sedimentation for High Concentration Suspensions
12.3.3 Centrifugation
12.3.3.1 Rate Separation
12.3.3.2 Liquid-Liquid Separation
12.3.3.3 Particle Gas Separation
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 13: Materials Handling and Conveying
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Principles of Materials Handling
13.3 Classification of Materials Handling Equipment
13.4 Belt Conveyors
13.4.1 The Capacity of the Conveyor Belt Needed
13.4.2 Belt Width
13.4.3 Belt Speed
13.4.4 Belt Tension
13.4.5 Selection of Belt Carcass
13.4.6 Selection of Driving and Other Pulleys
13.4.7 Motor Power
13.4.8 Selection of Idlers
13.5 Chain Conveyors
13.5.1 Trolley Chain Conveyor
13.5.2 Scraper Chain Conveyor
13.5.3 Apron Chain Conveyor
13.6 Screw Conveyors
13.6.1 Power Requirement for Screw Conveyors
13.7 Bucket Conveyors
13.8 Pneumatic Conveyors
13.9 Hydraulic Conveyors
13.10 Gravity Conveyors
13.11 Cranes
13.12 Lift and Carrying Trucks and Cart
13.13 Robotic Handling System
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 14: Process Dynamics and Control
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Feedback Control Systems
14.3 Block Diagrams
14.4 Dynamic Behavior of First- and Second-Order Systems
14.4.1 First-Order System
14.4.2 Step Input
14.4.3 Ramp Input
14.4.4 Sinusoidal Input
14.4.5 Second-Order System
14.5 The Laplace Transform
14.6 Transfer Function
14.6.1 Routh–Hurwitz Stability Criterion
14.7 Transient Response
14.7.1 Performance of Second-Order System
14.7.2 Performance Indices
14.8 Frequency Response
14.8.1 Bode Plot
14.8.1.1 First-Order Process K (ts+1)
14.8.1.2 Integrating Process G(s) Ks =
14.8.1.3 Second-Order Process G(s) K 2s2 =
14.8.1.4 Process Zero s +1
14.8.1.5 Time Delay e-j
14.8.1.6 Bode Stability Criterion
14.8.1.7 Gain Margin and Phase Margin
14.8.2 Nyquist Criterion
14.8.2.1 Gain Margin and Phase Margin
14.9 Frequency Response of Controllers
14.9.1 Proportional Controller
14.9.2 Proportional–Integral Controller
14.9.3 Ideal Proportional–Derivative Controller
14.9.4 Proportional–Derivative Controller with Filter
14.9.5 Parallel PID Controller
14.9.6 Series PID Controller
14.9.7 Series PID Controller with a Derivative Filter
Exercises
Bibliography
Chapter 15: Emerging Technologies
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Neural Network Modeling
15.2.1 Structure of ANN Model of a Dryer
15.2.2 Training of ANN Model
15.3 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Drying Process
15.3.1 Drying Efficiency
15.3.2 Exergy Analysis through the Analysis of Second Law of Thermodynamics
15.3.3 Exergy Calculation for Dryer
15.4 Finite Element Modeling of Single Kernel
15.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling
15.5.1 CFD Model Formulation
15.5.1.1 Continuity Equation
15.5.1.2 Momentum Conservation Equations
15.5.1.3 Energy Conservation Equation
15.5.1.4 User-Defined Function
15.5.2 CFD Analysis
15.5.2.1 Preprocessing
15.5.2.2 Processing
15.5.2.3 Post-processing
15.6 Optimal Design Using Genetic Algorithm
15.6.1 Optimal Design of Agro-Product Processing Systems
15.6.2 Genetic Algorithm
15.6.2.1 Basic Principles of Genetic Algorithm
15.6.2.2 Fitness Function
15.6.2.3 Genetic Algorithm Procedure for Optimal Drying Parameters
Key to Symbols
Bibliography
Index

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