African Designs from Traditional Sources 0486227529, 9780486227528

A selection of African designs that can be used in advertising, book designs, textiles, or inspiration for original desi

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African Designs from Traditional Sources
 0486227529, 9780486227528

Table of contents :
Symbolic and Simple Geometric Motifs
Repetitive Designs and Textural Patterns
Animals and Mythical Figures
Human Beings
Masks
Artifacts and Objects with Figural Components
Abstract and Complex Geometric Motifs
Map of Africa

Citation preview

AFRICAN D{s1,rus

FROM TRADITIONAL SOURCES GEO FFREY WILLIAMS

378 ILLUSTRATIONS

DOVER PICTORIAL ARCHIVE SERIES ART OECo JEWELRY IlE.sIGNS IN Fuu, CoLOR, ldees-Paris. (27694-5) $7 .95 381 Ow-F ASlnONED HOLIDAY VImwrras IN Fuu, CoLOR, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (27686-4) $5.95 1,001 ADVERTISING CUTS FROM THE 'I'wENTIES AND 'I'HnmEs, Leslie Cabarga et al. (ed.) (25490-9) $6.95 'I'RADmoNALJAPANESE DESIGN MarIFs, Joseph D'Addetta. (24629-9) $6.95 BoROERS, FRAMES AND DECORATIVE MarIFS FROM THE 1862 DERRIEY TYPoGRAPH!C CATALOG, Charles Derriey. (25322-8) $8.95 THE ENSCHEDE CATALOG OF TYPoGRAPH!C BoROERS AND ORNAMENTS: AN UNABRIDGEDREi'ruNTOFTHECLASSIC 1891 EomoN, John Enschede and Sons. (25172-1) $9.95 ART NOUVEAU: AN ANrHOLOGY OF DESIGN AND ILLUSTRATION FROM ''THE: STUDIO", selected by Edmund V. Gillon, Jr. (22388-4) $5.95 PICTURE SoURCEBOOK FOR CoLLAGE AND DECOUPAGE, Edmund V. Gillon, Jr. (ed.) (23095-3) $8.95 DECORATIVE Tn.E DESIGNS IN Fuu, CoLOR, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (26952-3) $15.95 MoRE SUJ10UETrES, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (24256-0) $6.95 Ow-'i'IME VIGNETTES INF'uLLCoLOR, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (27269-9) $5.95 OPl'!CAL DESIGNS IN MOTION WITH MoIRE 0VERLAYS, Carol Belanger Grafton. (23284-0) $6.95 PICTORIAL ARclnVE OF DECORATIVE AND ILLUSTRATIVE MORTISED CUTS: 551 DESIGNS FOR ADVERTISING AND OTHER USES, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (24540-3) $6.95 300 ART NOUVEAU DESIGNS AND MarIFs IN Fuu, CoLOR, Carol Belanger Grafton. (24354-0) $7.95 TRADES AND 0ccUPATIONS: A PICTORIAL ARcHIVE FROM EARLY SOURCES,

Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (26362-2) $10.95 TREASURY OF ART NoUVEAu DESIGN AND ORNAMENT, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (24001 -0) $7.95 'I'REAsURY OF IRONWORK DESIGNS: 469 EXAMPlES FROM HISTORICAL SoURCES, Carol Belanger Grafton. (27126-9) $8.95 2,001 DECORATIVE CUTS AND ORNAMENTS, Carol Belanger Grafton. (25612-X) $5.95 VICTORIAN PICTORIALBoRDERS: 124 Fuu,-PAGE DESIGNS, Carol Belanger Grafton (ed.) (24693-0) $7.95 HANDS: A PICTORIAL ARcHIVE FROM NINETEENTH-CENTURY SOURCES, Jim Harter (ed.) (24959-X) $6.95 liARTER's PICTURE ARcHIVE FOR CoLLAGE AND IILUSTRATION, Jim Harter. (23659-5) $8.95 MEN: A PICTORIALARcHIVE FROM NINETEENTH-CENTURY SoURCES, Jim Harter {ed.) (23952-7) $7.95

(continued on back flap)

AFRICAN DESIGNS

FROM TRADITIONAL SOURCES

AFRICAN DESIGNS FROM TRADITIONAL SOURCES by Geoffrey Willian1s Dover Publications, Inc., New York

Copyright © 1971 by D ove r Publi catio ns, In c. All rights reserved under Pan American and In ternati onal Copyright Conventi ons. Published in Canada by Ge neral Publishing Company, Ltd. , 30 Lesmi ll Road , Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Publi shed in the Un ited Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd.

African Designs from Traditional Sources is a new work, firs t published by Dover Publications, Inc., in 1971.

oovea

Pi[for,a/ eArchive sea,es

This book belongs to the Dover Pictorial Archive Series. You may use the designs and illustrations for graphics and crafts appl icatio ns, free and without special permi ssion, provided that you include no more than ten in the same publi cation or project. (For perm ission for additional use, please write to Dover Publications, Inc., 31 East 2nd Street, Mi neola, N.Y. 11501.l H owever, republication or reproduction of any illustration by any other graphic service w hether it be in a book or in any other design resource is strictly prohibited.

International Standard Book Number: 0-486-22752-9 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 76-162027

Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 31 East 2n d Street Mineola, N.Y. 11501

Preface The aim of thi s boo k is to prese nt a sa mp ling o f th e best in African art and des ign o n the leve l at w hi ch it is finally judged- its own v igo r and life. Such a work can neve r full y document all that the Dark Continent has produced , but it is hoped that a glimpse w ill be had, and a reco rd w ill be mai ntained , of an art th at ca n be both frig hteningly barbari c and elo qu ently beaut iful. After suffering the success ive rape by slave trad ers and empire build ers, trad itional Afr ica n culture and th e art it produced is fa st d isappea rin g throu gh th e fo rce of eco nomi c necessi ty. It is hoped , th erefo re, that thi s boo k w ill p rod uce an awa reness, and stimu late a reac ti o n, that wil l give ri se to a new Afr ica n art based on its own precedent. Th e o ri gin al pl ates fo r thi s book have in th e main been produ ced by lin ocut pr in ts, thi s being th e most obvio us tec hnique for reprod uci ng w hat is large ly a ca rved art fo rm. For myse lf, to retrace the exact lin es of the o riginal arti st wo rking in woo d or sto ne has prov ided a new d imension of und ersta ndin g. Pen and ink drawin gs have been used for the remainder of the plates. The reader see king th e three-dimen siona l view of ,-\fri ca n art is refer red to th e all too few books o n th e subject, man y of w hich are co ntai ned in my own list o f references. I am ind eb ted to all those peopl e who have given enco ura gem ent and co mm ent o n th e wo rk , in particular to Wopko Jensma, w ho was so invo lved in th e o ri gi nal id ea, and to my wife for her un wave rin g help and in sp irati on. GEO FFREY W ILLI AMS Ap ril 1971

V

A map of Africa showing the tribes and sites mentioned in this book will be found following the plates.

List of Illustrations SYMBOLIC AND SIMPLE GEOMETRIC MOTIFS Carved motif on Pende wooden sculpture, Congo-Kinshasa. Two Bushman rock engravings from Driekops Eiland, Republic of South Africa. 2

Three Bushman rock engravings from lower Riet Rive r, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa.

3

Three Bushman rock engravi ngs from lower Riet River, Cape Province, Rep ublic of South Africa.

4

Ashanti bronze go ld weight, Ghana. Mud wa ll relief at Bida, Ni ge ri a. Carved wood motif on Tswana spoon handle, Botswana.

5

Th ree mud wa ll reliefs at Bida, Nigeri a.

6

Sund i woven mat design from th e lower Congo area . Two woven cloth motifs from the upper Senegal area.

7

Carved wood motif on Vaka comb, Congo-Kinshasa. Ban gba painted wall motif, Co ngo-Ki nshasa. Tswa na beadwork belt motif, Botswana.

8

Ibo painted wall motif, Ni geria. Carved wood motif on Yaka comb, Congo-Ki nshasa. Carved wood motif on Kuba comb, Co ngo-K inshasa.

9

Carved wood motif on Kuba urn base, Co ngo- Kinshasa. Mud wall relief designs at Kano, northern Nigeria.

10

Carved wood motif on Djokwe comb, Congo-Kinshasa. Ashanti bronze gold weight, Ghana. Carved wood motif on Lunda comb, Congo-Ki nshasa.

vii

l

11

Carved design on Basa wooden figure, Liberia. Mbun woven raffia design , Con go-Kin shasa. Carved motif on Bembe wooden mask from the lower Congo area.

12

Mbun woven raffia design , Congo-Kinshasa. Segment of Yoruba carved calaba sh bowl, Nigeria. Yombe torso cicatrization, Congo-Kinshasa.

13

Design on coil ed basket from Barotseland, Zambia. Mud wa ll re li ef at Bida, Nigeria.

14

Mud wa ll relief at Kano, northern Nigeria. Bushongo raffia ve lour design , Congo-K inshasa.

15

Zu lu woven mat, Republic of South Africa. Design from plaited prayer mat from Zanzibar, Tanzania.

16

Woven cloth design from the upper Senegal area . Design from plaited prayer mat from Zanz ibar, Tanzania.

17

Ivory carving on Yoruba sword handle, Nigeria. Bushongo embroidered raffia motif, Congo-Kins hasa. Carved motif on Yoruba wooden door, Nigeria.

18

Three symbolic mud wal l reliefs from Uganda, the upper two representing the disposition of opposing armies in war.

19

Carved relief on side of Venda wooden drum , Republic of South Africa/ Rhodesia. Carved motifs o n Bemba wooden sculpture, Congo-K in shasa .

20

Benin chased bronze plaque motif, Nigeria. Mud wa ll relief at Kano, northern Nige ria . Hau sa stucco relief designs, Nigeria/Niger.

21

Carved motif on Kuba wooden sculptu re, Congo-Kinshasa. Senufo earth-dyed cloth, Ivory Coast/ Mali/ Upper Vo lta . Carved motif from Bu shongo wooden vessel, Congo-Kinshasa.

22

Two Ashanti cast bronze gold weights, Ghana.

23

Three Ashanti cast bronze gold we ights, Ghana.

24

Motif on Tsonga bead headdress, Republic of South Africa/Mozamb iqu e/ Swaziland . Ashanti "Adinkira" printing stamp, Ghana. Ashanti cast bronze go ld weight, Ghana. Motif on Ndebele bead bracelet, Republic of South Africa.

List of Illustrations

viii

25

Woven cloth motif (from southern Nigeria?). Ca rved wood mo tif o n Yoruba doo r, Nigeria. Zulu bead brace let design, Repub li c of South Africa.

26

Two Ashan ti "Adinkira" printi ng stamp s, Gha na. Motif o n Benin cas t bronze plaque, Nige ria. Motif on Benin hide app lique fan, Nigeria.

27

Segment of carved ca labas h bowl, so uthern N igeria. Ca rved motif on Senu fo woode n door, Ivory Coast/Ma li / Upper Vo lta. Fa n in hid e app li que, southern Nige ri a.

28

Ashanti cast bro nze gold weight, Ghana. Two painted cloth designs from Ghana.

REPETITIV E DE SIGNS AND TEXTURAL PATTERNS

29

Two Asha nti "Ad inkira" printi ng stamps, Ghana.

30

Two Ashanti "Adinkira" printing stamp patterns, Ghana.

31

Two Ashanti "Adi nkira" printing stamp patterns, Ghana.

32

Scraped ca labash design on bowl, Dahomey. Repetitive design o n sewn grass mat of the Hima (the Hamitic pastora l people), Uganda. Painted design o n cow dung pot, Kordofan area, Sudan.

33

In cised pattern on wooden mi lk pot from French Soma lil and . Repetitive design on inside face of Tswana woven basket, Botswana . Carved pattern o n Bushongo wooden vessel, Congo-Kinshasa.

34

Carved pattern on base of Kuba wooden cup, Congo-K inshasa. Pattern o n Bushongo sewn mat, Congo-Kinshasa. Carved pattern on Djokwe wooden "b ush piano," Congo-K inshasa.

35

Benin carved wood pattern , Nigeria. Ibo painted wa ll pattern, Nigeria.

36

Bambara dyed cloth pattern , Mali. Pattern on Djokwe carved wooden panel, Congo-Kinshasa.

37

Carved pattern on Kongo wooden sculpture, Congo-Ki nshasa/Congo-Brazzavi lie/ Angola.

List of Illustrations

ix

Carved pattern on Yoruba ivory jug, Nigeria. Carved pattern on Bushongo wooden drum , Congo-Ki nshasa. 38

Common Zulu wood-carvin g motif, Republic of South Afri ca. Common Tsonga pottery motif, Republic o f So uth Africa/ Mozambiqu e/ Swazi land. Bushongo raffia pile cloth pattern, Congo-Kinshasa.

39

Carved pattern on Luba wooden scu lpture, Co ngo-Ki nshasa. Carved pattern on Dogon wooden sculpture, Mali. Busho ngo emb roidered cloth pattern, Congo-Kinshasa.

40

Two Bushongo emb ro idered cloth patterns, Co ngo-Kinshasa. Woven basketry pattern from the lowe r Congo area.

41

Carved design on Yoruba wooden divination vessel, Nigeria. Plaited mat pattern from Zanzibar, Tanzania. Carved design on wooden milk pot from French So malil and.

42

Bamba ra printed cloth pattern, Mali. Bushongo woven wal l matting design, Congo-Kinshasa. Bushongo emb roidered cloth, Congo-Kinshasa.

43

Bushongo embroi dered cl oth patterns, Co ngo- Ki nshasa. Kuba raffia velour pattern, Congo-K inshasa.

44

Carved design on Kuba wooden cup, Congo-Kinshasa. Bushongo emb roidered cloth design, Congo-K in shasa.

45

Pattern on woven cloth ru g from the upper Senegal area. Mbun woven basketry relief, Co ngo-Kinshasa. Kuba pattern in raffia velour, Congo-Kinshasa.

46

Woven mat pattern from the lowe r Congo area. Carved motif on Bushongo wooden box, Congo-Kinshasa.

47

Carved design on Bushongo wooden box, Congo-Kinshasa. Pattern on woven casi ng for casket from the lower Congo area. Carved design on Kuba wooden cup, Congo-Kinshasa.

48

Pattern on Hausa embroidered cloth , Nigeria/ Nige r. Ashanti cast bronze pattern on box. Ghana. Kiga des ign scorched into ca labash ju g, Uganda.

49

Scraped calabash motif on drinking vessel, Dahomey. Sotho wall mosaic pattern, South Africa. Blackened wood relief on basket, Congo-Kinshasa.

List of Illustrations X

50

Bushongo carved wood pattern, Congo-Kinshasa. Carved pattern on Kuba wooden sculpture, Congo-Kinshasa. Nupe decorated calabash pattern, Nigeria.

51

Beaten brass design on Ashanti vases, Ghana. Blackened wood relief on basket, Congo-Kinshasa.

52

Mbala incised earthenware decoration, Congo-Kinshasa. Beaten decoration on Ashanti bronze vase, Ghana.

53

Two carved patterns on Kuyu wooden scu lpture, Congo-Brazzaville.

54

Mbala discharge-printed cloth pattern, Congo-Kinshasa. Bushongo embroidered cloth pattern , Congo-Ki nshasa.

55

Continuous design applied o n Benin bronze sculpture, Nigeria.

56

Wood carving on side of Bushongo drum, Congo-Kinshasa. Moulded design on Ibo clay pot, Nigeria.

57

Carved relief on Bushongo wooden drinking vessel, Congo-Kinshasa. Beaten pattern on brass sculpture, Dahomey.

58

Ashanti "Adinkira" stamp printed cloth pattern, Ghana. Beaten pattern on Ashanti bronze urn, Ghana.

59

Beadwork design on Bali calabash cover, Cameroon. Benin carved wood pattern, Nigeria.

60

Bushongo carved wood pattern, Congo-K inshasa. Carving on wooden keg from the lower Congo area.

61

Beadwork design on Okavango apron , Botswana. Basketweave pattern on Nyor0 pot stand, Uganda.

62

Coiled basketwork design from Barotseland, Zambia. Basketweave design on casket casing from the lower Congo area.

63

Two Bushongo raffia pile cloth pattern s, Congo-Kinshasa.

64

Tu fted cloth pattern, Congo. Bushongo sewn raffia mat pattern , Congo-Kin shasa.

65

Kuba raffia velour pattern, Congo-Kinshasa. Huana raffia pile cloth pattern , Congo-Kinshasa.

66

Beadwork pattern on seat of stool from Cameroon . Kuba raffia velour pattern, Congo-Kinshasa.

List of Illustrations

xi

AN IMALS AND MYT HICAL FIG URES

67

Two scra ped calabas h bird designs on drinking vessel, Dahomey.

68

Ca rved bird design on Dogon wooden door, Ma li. Ashanti gold we ights in form of birds, Ghana.

69

Woven mat bird design from the lowe r Congo area. Brass repousse bird design o n Ashanti um, Ghana.

70

Three bird designs on Senufo earth-dyed cloth , Ivory Coast/Ma li/ Upper Vo lta.

71

Ca rved bird design on Yo rub a wooden door, Nigeria. Ashanti gold weight in form of bird , Ghana.

72

Bushman rock painting of double-headed snake, South Africa. Scraped calabash snake design, Dahomey.

73

Asha nti scraped calabash snake and lizard design, Ghana. Scraped calabash li zard des ign, Dahomey.

74

Carved turtle design on Senufo wooden door, Ivory Coast/Ma li /Uppe r Vo lta. Carved li zard design on Senufo wooden door, Ivory Coast/ Ma li/ Upper Vo lta.

75

Carved wooden liza rd on Yoruba door, Nigeria. Carved wooden headrest on Senu fo sculpture, Ivory Coast/Ma li/ Upper Vo lta. Scraped lizard design on calabash li d, Dahomey.

76

Carved li zard on Dogon wooden door, Mali. Ashanti "Adinkira" stamp in form of doubl e crocodile with common sto mach , Ghana. Lizard carved on Dan wooden effigy, Liberia.

77

Stylized scorpion design on scraped ca labash, Dahomey. Ashanti go ld weight in form of scorpion , Ghana. Ashanti gold weight in form of styl ized lizard, Ghana.

78

Frog relief carved onto Bushongo wooden goblet, Congo-Kinshasa. Scraped calabash frog design, Dahomey. Stylized frog design carved onto Bagam wooden sheath, Cameroon.

79

Scraped calabash goat design, Dahomey. Bariba (Ba rba) scrap ed calabash antelope design, Dahomey.

80

Woven mat antelope design from the lower Co ngo area. Nupe decorated horse profile, Nigeria.

81

Carved soapstone zebra from Zimbabwe, Rhodesia. Small mammalian design carved OP Fang bone counter, Gabon. Fanti scraped calabash dog design , Ghana.

List of Illust rations

xii

82

Scraped calabash li on design, Dahomey. Carved soapstone monkey design from Zimbabwe, Rhodesia.

83

Two scraped ca labash cattle designs, Dahomey.

84

Rock graffito rhinoceros from the Fezzan, Libya. Profile of Rotse wood headrest in form of wate r buffalo, Zambia.

85

Benin elep hant design on hide fan, Nigeria. Elep hant ca rved onto Senufo wooden door, Ivo ry Coast/Mali/Upper Vo lta.

86

Benin stylized design of feeding elephant in ca rv ed ivory, Nigeria.

87

Ashanti go ld weight in form of chame leo n, Ghana. Rock painting of mythi ca l elep hant, Mashonaland, Rhodesia .

88

Benin ca tfish design in carved ivory, Nigeria. Ashanti gold weigh t in form of fish , Ghana.

89

Incised gourd hunting scene, Sudan area . Pelica n and turtle design carved on Senufo wooden door, Ivory Coast/ Mali/ Upper Volta.

90

Bushman rock painting from the Tsibab ravine depicting two mythical creatures, South-West Africa.

91

Bushman rock painting of mythical creature from Mashonaland , Rhodesia.

HU MAN BEINGS

92

Carved bone design on Yaunde counter, Cameroon. Bu shman rock painting from the Tsibab ravine, South-West Africa.

93

Mangbetu inci sed and burnt wood design, Con go-Kinshasa. Dagon painted figure on ston e, M ali . Raffi a tapestry design, Cameroon .

94

Two Bu shman rock paintings, Republic of South Africa.

95

Kamba engraved calabash figure, Kenya. W oven mat figure, from the lower Co ngo area.

96

Bu shm an rock painting from the Tsibab ravine, Sou th-West Africa. Bushman rock painting from Ladybrand, Republic of South Africa.

97

Bushman rock painting from the Tsibab ravine, South-West Africa.

98

Two carved groups on Yoruba wooden door, Nigeria.

List o f Illustratio ns

xiii

99

Senufo carved wooden figure, Ivory Coast/Mali/Upper Volta. Zulu carved wooden figure, Republic of South Africa.

100

Profile of Dogon wooden sculpture, Mali.

101

Carved wooden fig ure from the northern Congo.

102

Kongo soapstone stele relief, Angola.

103

Carved wooden fetish figure from the Congo.

104

Baga carved wooden guardian figure, Guinea.

105

Fang wooden guardian figure, Gabon. Huana carved bone amulet, Congo-Kinshasa.

106

Suku double figure in wood, Congo-Kinshasa.

107

Dogon wooden "Nommo" figure, Mali. Dogon wooden cult figure, Mali.

108

Hand design on Songo-Meno wooden bell, Congo-Kinshasa. Kota wood and brass reliquary figure, Gabon.

109

Huana carved ivory pendant, Congo-Kinshasa.

110

lega six-faced pigmented wooden ritual figure, Congo-Kinshasa.

111

Fanti wooden fertility doll, Ghana. Ashanti wooden fertility figure, Ghana.

112

Kola wooden figure on stool, Gabon. Kola wood, brass and coppe r reliquary, Gabon.

113

Two Kola hammered bronze and wood funerary fig ures, Gabon.

114

Kota wood, brass and copper reliquary figure, Gabon.

MASKS

115

Lega painted wooden mask, Congo-Kinshasa. Shilluk dung-covered calabash mask, Sudan .

116

Kwele wooden mask, Congo-Brazzaville.

117

Landuman wooden helmet mask, Guinea.

118

Dogon wooden mask, Mali. Ogoni society wooden mask of the Yoruba, Nigeria.

119

Wooden mask from Mali.

List of Illustration;

xiv

120

Baule wooden mask, lvo,y Coast. Eastern Pende painted wood mask, Congo-Kinshasa.

121

Bobo wooden dance mask, Upper Volta.

122

Sen ufo wooden mask, lvo,y Coast/Mali/ Upper Volta.

123

Senufo wooden mask, lvo,y Coast/Mali/ Upper Vo lta.

124

Boa wooden mask, Congo-Kinshasa.

125

Kwele painted wooden dance mask, Congo-Brazzaville.

126

Bena-Kanioka wooden mask, Congo-Kinshasa .

127

Polychrome wooden mask from the Congo.

128

Tetela painted wooden mask, Congo-Kinshasa.

129

Luba painted wooden and china-clay mask, Congo-Kinshasa.

130

Polychrome wooden mask from the Congo.

131

Bembe wooden mask from the lower Congo area.

132

Senufo li ght bronze doubl e-faced mask, lvo,y Coast/Mali/ Upper Volta.

133

ljo wooden mask, southern Nigeria.

134

Nupe wooden mask, Nigeria.

135

Baule ivo,y bracelet, lvo,y Coast.

136

Dogon wooden mask, Mali .

137

Toma wooden mask, Liberia/ Guinea.

138

Dogon wooden "mask of the black monkey," Mali.

139

Wooden mask from lvo,y Coast.

140

Ibo wooden mask of the water spirit, Nigeria.

141

Fang wood and china-clay mask, Gabon .

142

Bafo painted wooden mask, Cameroon .

143

Djokwe wooden mask, Congo-Kinshasa.

144

Fang wooden sculpture, Gabon.

List of Illustrations

xv

A RTIFACTS AN D OBJECTS W ITH FI GU RA L COMPON ENTS

145

Ganda terraco tta w ater ju g, Uga nda.

146

Djokwe decora ted woode n comb, Congo-Kinshasa.

147

Profil e of Du ala wood en stoo l, Ca meroon. Sho na wooden headrest in fo rm o f buffalo, Rh odes ia/M ozambiqu e.

148

Ashanti wooden stoo l, Ghana. Carved wooden headrest fro m East Africa.

149

Maka langa ca rved wooden head rest, Mas ho naland, Rhodes ia . Carved wooden headrest fro m Masho naland, Rhodesia.

150

Two Tsonga wooden headrests, Rep ubli c of South Afri ca /M oza mb iqu e/ Swaz il and.

151

Ashanti ce remo nial ivory spoon, Ghana. Ro tse ce remo ni al wooden spoo n, Zambi a.

152

Profile of q uartz ritual stoo l from lfe. Pl an view of ceremo ni al wooden stoo l fro m Senegal.

153

Pro fil e of O vambo wooden bell ows, An go la/ So uth-West Africa .

154

Tw o Tswa na axe heads, Bo tswa na. Do ubl e huntin g knife and w ooden shea th fro m Ngamil and , Bo tswana.

155

M angbetu ivory hairpin , Congo-Ki nshasa . Zande th rowing kn ife, Co ngo-Ki nshasa/ Cen tral African Republic. Swo rd from hammered coppe r sculpture, Daho mey.

156

So nge cas t iro n axe, Co ngo- Ki ns hasa. Jekri w oode n paddle profil e, Nige ri a.

157

Two Bambara wooden headdresses in fo rm of antelope, M ali .

158

Ashanti wooden hedd le pull ey, Ghana.

159

Profile of Ba nda wooden co mb, Central A fri ca n Repu b li c. Profile o f Djo kwe wooden comb head, Congo- Ki nshasa.

160

Dago n woode n rit ua l axe shaft head, M ali .

161

Profil e of Ba mbara wooden effigy doo r latch, M ali . Profil e of Dagon woode n doo r latch, M ali .

162

Sy mbo lic wooden crest to human figure grave post trom so uthe rn Madagasca r (Ma lagasy Rep ubli c).

List of Ill us trations

xvi

163

Bau le carved wooden door pane l, Ivo ry Coast.

164

Ceremo ni al staff from Dahomey. Ivory ritual axe head from Abomey, Dahomey.

165

Two ra ffia allego ri ca l tapestry designs, Cameroo n.

166

Bariba engraved ca labash design, Dahomey.

167

As hanti ca rved wooden door pan el, Ghana.

168

Ibo carved fun era ry stone, Nigeria.

169

Fo n carved altar slab, Da homey.

170

Design o n Kub a carved wooden cosmeti c box, Co ngo-Kinshasa.

171

Suku painted wooden spandrel panel ove r doorway, Co ngo-K in shasa. Baga m ca rved design o n wooden sheath , Cameroon.

172

Carved wooden panel on Dj okwe "b ush piano, " Co ngo-Kinshasa.

ABSTRACT AN D COMPLE X GEOMETRIC MOT IFS

173

Schematic Bushman wa ll painting at Nachikufu, Rhodesia.

174

Luo abstract wall paintin g, Kenya.

175

Bangba symbolic wa ll paintin g, Co ngo-Kin shasa.

176

Ndebele beadwork design o n ap ron, Republic of South Africa.

177

Nde bele pa inted wal l design, Republic of South Af rica. Ndebele beadwork design on lo in ap ron, Republic of So uth Africa. Tu si sewn matting screen, Rwa nda, etc.

178

Carved design on Kub a woode n spoo n, Congo- Kin shasa. Ndebele painted wall design , Republic of So uth Africa.

179

Ndebele painted wal l fa~ade, Republic of Sou th Africa.

180

As hanti cast bronze go ld weight, Ghana.

181

Tu si sewn matting screen, Rwa nda, etc.

182

Kiku yu engraved wood da ncin g board, Kenya.

183

Common Zul u hide shie ld design , Republic of Sou th Africa.

List of Illustrations

xvii

184

Kikuyu painted wooden shield, Kenya. Masai painted hide shield, Kenya.

185

Songye grooved and painted wooden shie ld, Congo-Kinshasa.

186

Two Masa i painted hide shields, Kenya.

187

Masai painted hide shield, Kenya.

188

Tswana bead apron design, Botswa na.

189

Kgalagadi bead ap ron design, Botswana.

190

Carved design on Dogon wooden door latch, Mali.

191

Bushongo design of palm cloth strips app li ed onto plain palm cloth backing, Co ngo-Kinshasa.

192

Mangbetu raffia pile cloth design, Congo-Kinshasa.

193

Part of mud relief fa~ade of house at Kano, northern Nigeria. Ashanti cast bronze lid of gold dust box, Ghana.

194

Profile of ceremonia l wooden chair back from Ghana.

195

Bronze bracelet, possibly from the time of the Ghana Empire, Mali. Ashanti brass lid to gold dust box, Ghana.

196

Kamba wooden stoo l with hammered wire decoration, Kenya.

197

Mud relief on wa ll of hou se at Kano, northern Nigeria.

198

Kamba wooden stool with hammered wire decoration, Kenya.

199

Bambara design printed on cloth by the di scharge method, Mali.

200

Benin decorated hide fa n, Nigeria.

List of Illustrations

xviii

Source References MUSEUMS AND COLLECTIONS

1.

Africana Mu seum, Johannesburg ( Republic of South Africa).

2.

Mr. and Mrs. Allen Alperton , New York.

3.

American Muse um of Natural History, New York.

4.

Mr. and Mrs. Ernst Anspach, New York.

5.

Emil J. Arno ld , New York.

6.

Art Institute of Ch icago.

7.

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Bascom, Berkeley, California.

8.

British Museum, London .

9.

Brooklyn Museum.

10.

Buffalo Museum of Science.

11 .

Louis Carre Gallery, Paris.

12.

W . Claes, Antwe rp.

13.

Mr. and Mrs. A. Cohen, New York.

14.

Commercial Museum, Phil ade lphi a.

15.

Coray Collection, Agnuzzo, Lu gano (Swi tzerland).

16.

Former G. Dehondt Collection, Brussels.

17.

Eliot Eli sofon, New York.

18.

Field Mu seum of Natural Hi story, Chi cago.

19.

Capt. A. W. Fuller.

20.

Mrs. Edith Grego r Halpert, New Yo rk.

21.

Hamburgisches Museum fur Vi:ilkerkunde und Vorgeschichte, Hamburg.

xix

22.

M r. and Mrs. Gaston de Haveno n, New York.

23 .

Andre Held, Ecublen (Switze rl and).

24.

Ipswich Museum .

25.

Ju cker Co ll ection, M il an.

26.

Henri Kame r, Milan.

27.

Pierre Langlois, Paris.

28.

Former H. Lavachery Col lecti on, Brusse ls.

29.

H. V. Leemp uten, Antwerp.

30.

Ma nches ter University Museum.

31.

Forme r Henri Matisse Co ll ection, Nice.

32 .

Mrs. Katherine W. Merkel , Gates Mills, Ohio.

33.

Wil liam Moore, Los Angeles.

34.

Dr. and Mrs. Muenslerberger, New York.

35.

Mr. Josep h Muller.

36.

Musee des Arts Africains et O cea ni ens, Paris.

37.

Musee de l'Homme, Paris.

38.

Musee Roya l de l'Afriq ue Centra le, Tervuren (Be lgium ).

39.

Museum d 'Hi stoire Naturel le, La Rochel le.

40.

Mu se um fur Vi:i lkerkunde, Berl in .

41.

Mu seum fur Vi:ilkerku nde, Frankfurt.

42.

Museum fur Vi:i lkerkunde, Leipzig.

43 .

Museum of African Art, Washington.

44.

Mu se um of Primitive Art, New York.

45.

Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (Republic of South Africa).

46.

National Museum , Gaberones (Botswa na).

47.

Newbury Museum (England).

48.

Maurice Nicard, Paris.

49.

Nigerian Museum, Lagos (N igeria).

,0.

Peabody Museum , Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

:i1.

Peace Memorial Museum , Zanzibar (Tanzan ia).

52.

Pitt Rivers Museum , Oxford .

53.

Margaret Webster Plass, Philadelphia.

54.

Prempeh II Jubil ee Museum , Kuma si (G hana).

Source References

xx

55.

Mr. and M rs. Paul Rabut, W estport, Conn.

56 .

Charl es Ratio n, Paris.

57 .

Rijksmuseu m voo r Volkenkunde, Leiden (Netherlands).

58.

Mr. and Mrs. Haro ld Rom e, New York.

59.

Roya l Ontari o Museu m of A rchaeology, Toro nto.

60.

Samml.un g fur Vo lkerk unde der Unive rsitat Zu ri ch, Zurich (Switzerland). Schomberg Co llection, New Yo rk.

61. 62.

Mr. and Mrs. Clark Sti ll man, New York.

63.

James John son Sweeney, New York.

64.

Mrs. Edgar D. Taylo r, Los Ange les.

65.

Paul Ti shm an, New York.

66.

M arga ret Trowell , London.

67.

Former Tri stan Tza ra Collec tion, Pa ri s.

68 .

Uga nda Mu seum , Kampal a.

69.

Uni versite de Gand, Ghent (Belgium).

70.

Unive rsity Muse um of Archaeo logy and Ethno logy, Ca mbridge (England).

71.

Unive rsity o f Pennsylvania Museu m, Phi ladelphia .

72.

G. Va n de Kerken, Bru sse ls.

73.

Alex Van Opstall , St. Ge nese, Rhode s.

74.

Rene Van der Straete, Bru sse ls.

75.

Pi erre Verile, Paris.

PL.,S LI CATIONS

76. 77.

Breuil , Abbe Henri , The Tsibab Ravine, The Tria no n Press, Lo nd on, for the Ca lo uste Gulben ki an Fo undati o n, 1959. Du erd en, Denis, Afri can Art, in the se ri es The Co lou r Library of Art, Paul Hamlyn, London, 1968 (in U.S.: Interna ti ona l Publi ca ti o ns Serv ice, N.Y.).

78.

Goodall , Eli zabeth ; G. K. Cooke & Desmo nd Clarke, Prehistoric Rock Art of the Federation of Rh odesia and Nyasa /and, Nati onal Pub li ca ti ons Tru st of Rh odesia and Nyasa land , Rh odesia , 1959 (in U.S.: Hum aniti es Press, N.Y.).

79.

Junod, Hen ri P. ; Wa lter W. Battis s, G. H. Franz & J. W. Grosser!, The Art of Africa, Sh uter & Shooter, Pietermaritzb urg, 1958. Kye rematen , A. A. Y., Panoply of Ghana, Lo ngmans Green & Co. , Lo ndo n, 1964.

80.

Source References

xx i

81.

Lei ri s, Michel , & Jacqueline Delange, African Art, in the series The Arts of Mankind, Thames and Hudso n, London, 1967.

82.

Leuzi nger, El sy, Africa: the Art of the Negro Peoples, Methuen, 1960 (i n U.S.: Art of Africa, in the series Art of the World , Crown, N.Y.) .

83 .

O lbrechts, Frans M ., Les arts plastiques du Congo Be ige, Editio ns Erasme, Brussels, 1959.

84.

O lderogge, Dmitry, & Werner Fo rm an, A rt of Africa: Negro Art, Paul Hamlyn , Lo ndo n, 1969 (in U.S.: Internati o nal Publi ca ti o ns Service, N.Y.).

85 .

Paulme, Denise, African Scu lpture, Elek Books, London, 1962. Rachewiltz , Bo ri s de, Introduction to African Art, Joh n Murray, Lo ndon, 1966 (in U.S.: New American Library, N.Y.) .

86. 87. 88.

Segy, Ladi slas, African Scu lpture, Dover, N.Y., 1958. Slack, Lina M., Rock Engravings from Driekops Eiland, Centaur Press, Fo ntwell (Sussex), 1962 (i n U.S.: Albert Sa iler, West Orange, N.J.).

89.

Trowell, Marga ret, African Design , Faber and Faber, Lo ndo n, 1960 (in U. S.: revised ed ., Praeger, N.Y., 1965).

90.

Trowell, Margaret, & K. P. Wachsmann , Tribal Crafts of Uganda , O xfo rd University Press, Londo n, 1953.

91.

Tyrrell , Barbara, Tribal Peoples of Southern Africa, Tri-Ocean, San Francisco, 1968.

The fo llowing books are va lu able items of reference: Eli sofon, Elio t, Th e Sculpture of Africa, Thames and Hudson, Lo ndon, 1958. Fagg, Willi am, Trib es and Forms in African Art, Methuen, Lo ndo n, 1965 (in U.S.: Tudor, N.Y.). Meauze, Pierre, African Art: Scu lpture, Weidenfeld and Nico lso n, Lo ndon , 1968 (i n U.S.: W o rld , N.Y.). Plass, Margaret Webster, African Miniatures: the Goldweights of the Ashanti, Lund Humphri es, Londo n, 1967 (in U.S.: Praeger, N.Y.). Robbin s, Warren, African Art in American Co llections, Praeger, N.Y., 1966. Sweeney, James Joh nson, African Negro Art, W . W. Norton & Co. , N.Y., fo r The Museum of Modern Art, 1935 (rep rinted by A rn o, N.Y.). Wingert, Paul S. , The Scu lp ture of Negro Africa, Co lumbia University Press, N.Y. , 1950.

Source References

xxii

Syn1bolic and Sin1ple Geon1etric Motifs

The numbers in parentheses throughout th e plate section refer to the list of Source References on pages xix-xxii. The designs on the plates have been rendered either from objects or illustrations of objects in the corresponding museums and collections (sources 1-75) or from illustrations in the corresponding publication s (sources 76-91 ).

Top: Carved motif on Pe nde wooden scu lpture, Congo-Kinshasa. (43) Bottom: Two Bushman rock engravings from Driekops Eiland , Republi c of South Africa. (88)

• • • •

Three Bushman rock engravings from lower Riel River, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. (79)

2

Republic of Three Bushman rock engravi ngs from lower Riet River, Cape Province, South Africa. (79) 3

Top: Ashanti bronze gol d weight, Ghana. (53)

Middle: Mud wal l relief at Bida, Nigeria. (89) Bottom: Carved wood motif on Tswana spoon handle, Botswana. (46)

4

Three mud wa ll reliefs at Bi da, Nigeria. (89) 5

Top: Sundi woven mat design from the lower Congo area. (38) Bottom: Two woven cloth motifs from the upper Senegal area. (8) 6

Top : Carved wood motif on Yaka com b, Congo-Kinshasa. (29)

Middle: Bangba painted wall motif, Congo-Kinshasa. (89) Bottom : Tswana beadwork belt motif, Botswana. (46) 7

Top left: Ibo painted wall motif, Nigeria. (89) Top right : Carved wood moti f o n Vaka comb, Co ngo- Kin shasa. (83) Bottom: Carved wood mo tif on Kub a comb, Congo-Kinshasa. (83)

8

Top: Carved wood motif on Kuba urn base, Congo-Kinsha sa. (72) Middle and bottom: Mud wall relief designs at Kano, northern Nigeria. (89) 9

-

Top: Carved wood motif o n Djokwe comb, Congo-Kinshasa. (59) Middle: Ashanti bronze gold weight, Ghana. (53) Bottom: Carved wood motif o n Lunda comb, Congo-Ki nshasa. (28) 10

Top: Carved design on Basa wooden figure, Liberia. (50) Bottom left : Mbun woven raffia design , Congo-Kinshasa. (8) Bottom right: Carved motif on Bembe wooden mask from the lower Congo area. (81) 11

Top: Mbun woven raffia design, Congo-Kin shasa. (8)

Middle: Segment of Yoruba carved calabash bowl, Nigeria . (8) Boltom: Yombe torso cicatrization, Co ngo-K inshasa. (81)

12

Left : Design on coiled basket from Barotseland, Zambia. (8)

Right: Mud wa ll relief at Bida, 13

ige ria. (89)

p: Mud wall reli ef at Kano, no rth ern Nigeria. (89) ttom : Bushongo raffia velour design , Co ngo-Kinshasa. (65) 14

Top : Zulu woven mat, Republic of South Africa. (79) Bottom : Design from plaited prayer mat from Zanzibar, Tanzania. (51)

15

Top: Woven cloth design from the upper Senega l area. (8) Bo ll o m. Design from plaited pra yer mat from Zanz ibar, Tan zania. (51 )

16

Top : Ivory carvi ng o n Yo ruba sword handle, Nigeria. (8)

Bottom left: Bu shongo emb roi dered raffia motif, Congo-Ki nshasa. (8) Bottom right: Carved motif on Yoruba wooden door, Nigeria. (37)

17

' Three symbolic mud wall reliefs from Uganda, the uppe r two representing the disposition of opposing armies in war. (90)

18

Top : Carved relief on side of Venda woo d en d rum, Republic of South Africa/ Rhodesia. . on Bern ba wooden sculpture, Congo-Kinshasa. Middle and (1) bottom : Carved motifs (42)

19

Top felt: Benin chased bro nze plaqu e motif, Nigeria. (8) Top right : M ud wal l reli ef at Kano, no rthern Nigeria. (89) Bo ttom felt and right: Hausa stucco relief designs, Nigeria/N iger. (81)

20

. .- ••• ••

... •• •• ••• •• ~

~

-- 'Ill

••• .,• • ~

~

Top: Carved motif on Kuba wooden sculpture, Congo-Kinshasa. (73)

Middle: Sen ufo earth-dyed cloth , Ivory Coast/Ma li/U pper Vo lta. (37) Bottom: Carved motif from Bushongo wooden vessel, Congo-Kinshasa. (38)

21

Two Ashanti cast bronze gold weights, Ghana. (45) 22

Three Ashanti cast bronze gold weights, Ghana. (top and bottom , 54; middle, 8) 23









.. a ., Top left: Motif on Tsonga bead headdress, Republic of South Africa /Mozambique/ Swaz il and. (1)

Top right: Ashanti " Adinkira" printing stamp, Ghana. (8) Middle: As hanti cast bronze go ld weight, Ghana. (80)

Bottom: Motif on Ndebe le bead brace let, Republic of So uth Africa. (91) 24

Top: W ove n cloth motif (from so uthern Ni geria ?). (8)

Middle: Carved wood motif on Yo ruba doo r, Nigeria. (3 7) Bottom: Zulu bead brace let design, Republic o f South Africa. (1) 25

Top : Two Ashanti " Adinkira" printing stamps, Ghana. (8) Bottom left : Motil on Benin cast bronze plaque, Nigeria. (40) Bottom right: Motif on Benin hide applique fan, Nigeria. (8)

26

Top left : Segment of carved calabash bowl, southern Nigeria. (30) Top right: Carved motif on Senufo wooden door, Ivory Coast/Mali/ Upper Volta. (71) Bottom: Fan in hide applique, southern Nigeria. (8)

27

Top: Ashanti cast bronze gold weight, Ghana. (56) Middle and bottom: Two painted cloth designs from Ghana. (8)

28

Repetitive Designs and Textural Patterns

Two Ashanti " Adinkira" printing stamps, Ghana. (top, 8; bottom, 54) 29

Two Asha nti " Adinkira" printing stamp patterns, Ghana . (8) 30

mmmm mm,.,~~

Two Asha n ti "Adinkira " printing sta mp patterns, Ghana, (8) 31

----

-•-•

-•

Top: Scraped calabash design on bowl , Dahomey. (37)

Middle: Repetitive design o n sewn grass mat of the Him a (the Ham itic pastoral people), Uganda. (68)

Bottom: Painted design o n cow dung pot, Kordofan area, Su dan. (8) 32

Top left : Incised pattern on wooden milk pot from French Somaliland. (37) Top right : Repetitive design o n inside face of Tswana woven basket, Botswana. (46) Bottom: Carved pattern on Bushongo wooden vessel, Congo-Kinshasa. (38) 33

llJ Top: Carved pattern on base o f Kuba wooden cup, Congo-Kins hasa . (81)

Middle: Pattern on Bushongo sewn mat, Congo-K inshasa. (38) Bottom: Carved pattern on Djokwe wooden " bu sh piano," Co ngo-Kinshasa. (41)

34

'UIIIIIIIIA

~, ,,, ,,.

'Ul llll lln

Top : Benin carved wood pattern , N igeri a. (71) Botlom: Ibo painted wal l pattern , Ni ge ria. (89)

35

Top: Bambara dyed cloth pattern, Mali. (38) Bottom : Pattern on Djokwe carved wooden panel, Congo-Kinshasa. (59)

36

/Congo-Bra zzav ille/ Top: Carved pattern on Kongo wooden scu lpture, Congo-Kins hasa Ango la. (15) Middle: Carved pattern on Yoruba ivory jug, Nigeria. (8) a . (8) Bottom: Carved pattern o n Bu sho ngo woo d en drum , Con go-Kinshas

37

Top: Common Zulu wood-carving mo tif, Repu bli c of South Africa. (45)

Middle: Common Tso nga pottery motif, Republi c of South Africa/Mozambique/ Swaziland . (79) Bo ttom: Bushongo raffia pile clo th pattern , Congo-Kinshasa. (71)

38

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